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i 



D5 
CZH- 



SIGNS AND PORTENTS 
IN THE FAR EAST 



SIGNS AND PORTENTS 
IN . THE FAR EAST 



•lY 

LVERARD COTES 



WITH THIRTY-FIVR I'.I USl KA TIONS 



METHUEN iv v' ■'». 
36 EbSEX STKI'.r: r H.C 
LONl)(V\ 



SIGNS AND PORTENTS 
IN THE FAR EAST 



BY 

EVERARD COTES 



WITH THIRTT-FIVB ILLUSTRATIONS 



METHUEN & CO. 

36 ESSEX STREET W.C. 

LONDON 



First Published in igof 



n 



;> 










TO 
MY WIFE 



'^ ctirzo' 




PREFACE 

EVENTS of to-day in the Far East are 
posters for to-morrow. No white man can 
wander, as the writer of these pages did last 
summer, through China, Manchuria, Korea, and 
Japan, without having forced upon his sight some 
of the inscriptions which these posters bear. 

The impressions here set down are those of an 
Anglo- Indian journalist who does not apologise for 
his point of view, since the potentialities of India 
as the coadjutor of Great Britain in the future of 
the Far East can hardly be over-estimated. That 
future is perhaps the most serious problem of the 
twentieth century. 

So immediate and dramatic, so big with possi- 
bilities and crowded with incident, is the new 
situation, that the writer publishes his report 
believing that the evidence of an eye-witness 
cannot fail to be of value where Anglo-Saxon 
interests are so closely concerned and so plainly 
threatened. 

London 

February. igo7 

vil 



CONTENTS 



PAOX 

PREFACE . . . . . . . vii 

CHAPTER 

I. THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY .... I 

II. CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY . II 

III. THE SITUATION IN CANTON . .21 

IV. THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT IN MIDDLE CHINA . 3 1 
V. THE MISSIONARY ..... 47 

VI. THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE . . .57 

Vll. HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

VIII. TO PEKING BY RAIL .... 

. IX. THE PEKING OF TO-DAY .... 

X. THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

XI. PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

XII. NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA . 

XIII. AT MUKDEN 



79 

. 91 

103 

. 117 

131 
. 145 

•• • -155 

XIV. ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA . 161 

XV. DIFFICXn^TIES IN KOREA .... 



U 



17 



X SIGNS AND PORTENTS 

CHAPTXS PAOB 

XVI. THE FUTURE OF KOREA . . . I9I 

XVII. THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT . . . . 203 

XVIII. CONTRADICTIONS IN THE JAPANESE CHARACTER . 217 

XIX. LIMITATIONS TO JAPANESE EFFICIENCY . . 227 

XX. THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO .237 

XXI. INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 2$3 

XXn. THE OX7TLOOK • • . . .263 

XXIIL APPENDICES :— 

a. THE ANGLO- JAPANESE TREATY 285 

d. THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY .288 

C, THE JAPANESE-KOREAN PROTOCOL 295 

d. THE PEKING TREATY . . . .297 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



THE BLACK -HATTED STATUE IN THE HEART OF 

CANTON, ..••.•.. FranHsfiiece 

FAOMO 
PAOB 

YELLOW COLLEAGUES ; AND THE MAINLAND OF JOHORE . 1 8 

THE JETTIES, FACTORIES, AND DOCKS OF THE CITY HAVE 

NEVER BEEN MORE ACTIVE . . 32 

A HOT MORNING SPENT IN INTERVIEWING SMILING CHINESE 

OFFICIALS ....... 42 

From a Photograph by Mr. S. Yamamoto, Peking 

A HIGHER MORALITY THAN THAT WHICH EXISTS AROUND 

A MORE HARMLESS-LOOKING SET OF PEOPLE WOULD BE 

DIFFICX7LT TO IMAGINE . . . . .64 

A CENTRE OF INDUSTRIES WHICH PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE 

ENTIRE COUNTRY ...... 80 

IRON AND STEEL WORKS IN MIDDLE CHINA . .84 

WHERE GREY KEEPS AND BATTLEMENTS TOWERED I02 

From a Photograph by Mr. S. Yamamoto, Peldng 

THE BROAD THOROUGHFARE WHICH TARTAR CONQUERORS 

DROVE THROUGH THE PACKED CAPITAL THEY FOUND . I04 
from a Photoi^ph by Mr. S. Yamamoto, Peldag 



SIGNS AND PORTENTS 



PAaNG 
PAGR 



WAS IN TIME TO INSPECT ONE OF THE LAST OF THE 
GANGS OF COOLIES TO BE DESPATCHED TO SOUTH 
AFRICA . . . . .118 

THE SWAMPY HARBOUR OF NEUCHWANG . . . I28 

IN PORT ARTHUR TO-DAY .... 140 

OUTSIDE THE CITY ; A LOAD OF MANCHURIAN MILLET . 1 50 

IN THE STREETS OF MUKDEN . . . 156 

LOCOMOTION IN MUKDEN . . . 158 

SUDDENLY THE WAY WAS PAVED WITH BIG SQUARE BLOCKS 160 

DAYLIGHT SAW US AGAIN IN THE TRAIN . . . 168 

IN HOMELY VOLUMINOUS WHITE PETTICOAT . . . 180 

YELLOW CARDBOARD ROOMS OF THE DEAD QUEEN'S 

QUARTERS . . . . . . 186 

BENEATH THE WALLS OF AN OLD KOREAN CITY . . 202 

DOCKYARDS IN KOBE AND OSAKA WHERE GUNBOATS WERE 

BEING MANUFACTURED FOR THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT 2o6 

TO SEE THE LACQUER AND GILT TEMPLES . . . 228 
From a Photograph by Mr. Taniamuro, Kobe 

AN EMERALD AND SAPPHIRE TRAINING GROUND FOR 

JAPANESE SEAMEN . . , -2^2 

From a Photograph by Mr. Tamamuro, Kob« 







SIGNS AND PORTENTS 
IN THE FAR EAST 



CHAPTER I 

THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 

i 

► O UFFICIENT time has now elapsed since the 
1^ conclusion of the war in Manchuria to permit 
some opinion to be formed of the nature of the 
changes in the Far East which began when Russia 
was defeated by an Oriental power. Even earlier 
than that it had become hard to realise that it was 

' ever possible to dismiss Japan with a fan and a 
tea-cup. About the same time, for most people, the 
wooden bullets and sand-filled shells of another 
campaign began to retreat into Chinese mythology. 
Those of us who saw that happy fantasy, " The 
Mikado/' upon the stage of twenty years ago have 
in the memory an inimitable and quite unique pos- 
session. Its gaiety and charm have vanished in the 
clash of arms, and nobody can altogether feel them 
now. Indeed the days of comic opera for the 
presentation of these peoples are over. We look 



2 THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 

rather for their alien appearance in the Concert of 
Europe, and hope that it will not be an interruption. 

Four years ago Russia was in firm possession of 
the rich Chinese province of Manchuria ; Germany 
was pushing westwards from her base at Tsingtao, 
and threatened to absorb the entire Chinese penin- 
sula of Shangtung ; France was creeping northwards 
in Tonking ; Belgium was engaged in Middle China 
in railway enterprises designed to link the French 
in the south with their allies, the Russians, in the 
north. England and America, the only European 
powers whose policy appeared to be to mark time 
in China, saw their influence and their markets 
ever)n¥here threatened by their more aggressive 
neighbours. To-day, aggression on the part of 
all white nations is in abeyance. Everybody is 
marking time. 

The dismemberment of China which the world 
had thought so imminent has been arrested. Russia 
has been driven, snarling, from one lacerated limb. 
France and Germany are slackening their grip 
upon two other members. The mandarin is upon 
his feet He understands the mortal danger he has 
escaped so narrowly, and by no virtue of his own, and 
apparently begins to realise the bulk and vast brute 
strength that render him formidable to the world. 
He regards Japan, Great Britain, and America, who 
have been his preservers, with only one degree less 
suspicion and hostility than he has for the enemies 
from whom they have saved him. He is cramming 
revolvers and cartridges into his waistbelt. His 



THE CASE FOR, ENQUIRY 3 

factories at Hanyang are busy making mausers and 
modern field-pieces. His viceroys are drilling and 
arming a hundred thousand followers. He is rudely 
refusing to grant more concessions to European 
exploiters, and makes no secret of his determination 
to manage his own affairs, and to assimilate just so 
much of the white man's science and civilisation as 
shall enable him to bid defiance to the white man 
himself. 

Japan has turned from the brilliant demonstration 
of her capacities before the world to the less con- 
spicuous task of their consolidation. She is 
developing her conquests, turning to new purposes 
the powers of organisation and attention to detail 
which enabled her to defeat Russia. She is by no 
means resting upon her laurels, but having measured 
her strength by a severe standard, is now taking 
steps to maintain and increase it. With admirable 
self-denial Japan is labouring to place her finances 
in a position of stability. It is now plain that she 
proposes to win commercial supremacy in the Far 
East Her military preponderance is enabling her 
to foster the industrial enterprises of her own people 
in Manchuria and Korea. She is exercising 
ingenuity to lessen European, American, and 
Chinese competition in these countries while still 
respecting, as far as may be compulsory, the letter 
of the treaties she has signed. Her agents are 
penetrating into every part of China, as military 
experts, as professors, and as traders. 

Manchuria, sullen in the misery of newly stained 



4 THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 

battlefields, watches others exploit the marvellous 
riches of her grain-fields and coal-measures. Korea 
is in disorder, but it is the disorder of an awakening. 
The little vassal empire is moving, clumsily and 
painfully, but surely, out of her humiliating past, as 
an appendage of China, into a more hopeful future 
of incorporation with Japan. The potential energy 
of Manchuria is still bound and inert in the pro- 
tection of international jealousies and uncertain 
claims; but that of Korea is now at the disposal, 
manhood and markets, of one of the principals in 
the situation, a considerable increase of power and 
resources. 

Attention centres upon the principals. Already 
the cotton mills of Osaka and Wuchang rattle 
defiance at those of Manchester and Lowell, and 
the blast furnaces of the Yangtse and Kiusiu are 
depriving those of Sheffield and Pittsburg of many 
profitable contracts. The shipbuilding yards of the 
Inland Sea and of the Shanghai estuary now appro- 
priate a share in work that London and Glasgow 
once monopolised. Togo and Kuroki have proved 
that naval skill and military science are confined no 
longer to European nations ; and across the Yellow 
Sea, Yuan-Shih-Kai and Chan-Chi-Tung are demon- 
strating that Chinese can be armed and drilled to 
emulate Japanese troops. The recent boycott of 
American goods in the Nanking and Kwantung 
provinces has made it impossible to deny that the 
Chinese share the Japanese capacity for concerted 
action. As to the direction of that action, the 



THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY s 

indications seem clear. No one can read the 
translations from the Shanghai and Canton native 
papers, which appear in the Anglo-Chinese press, 
or even walk amongst the sullen faces of the Peking 
slums, without realising that anti-foreign feeling is 
as widespread and aggressive as ever, with hints of 
power to turn words to deeds. 

The menace of all this is not confined to the 
Far East. It looks over the Szechuen passes into 
British India. It fills the minds of imaginative 
Bengali Hindus in plains of the Hooghly, and of 
polished Mahratta Brahmins in Deccan uplands, 
with what Anglo-Indians name sedition. Its shadow 
overtops the snows of the Sofaid-Kdt and stretches 
to Kabul. Its voice has stirred up a new spirit of 
unrest as far as Persia. 

The situation is aggravated by the action of the 
white labour parties in the principal British colonies 
and in the United States. Canada imposes a pro* 
hibitive Chinese poll-tax, and, but for respect for 
English treaties, would have extended it to 
Japanese. The United States have gone further. 
California excludes Chinese workers and ostracises 
Japanese school-children. A South African 
hostility to Chinese labour competition has been 
advertised in China by party misrepresentation in 
England. Australian legislation against yellow 
immigration has become widely known. Resent- 
ment and matter for more resentment is accumu- 
lating in Peking and Tokyo. Every individual 
incident, no matter how remote, where Chinese or 



6 THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 

Japanese receive unfriendly treatment at the white 
man's hands, is remembered to be returned some 
day with increment. 

There was a time when the problem of the Far 
East was a question of quarrels amongst European 
powers over the apportionment of rights to exploit 
the inheritance of the yellow race. It wears a 
very different aspect now. The existence, not the 
apportionment, of such rights is in dispute ; for it 
is clear that the yellow race will no longer submit 
willingly to exploitation of any kind. Many things 
are said and shouted, but the purport of them all is 
" Hands off." A mob may occupy the foreground, 
but ordered battalions stand in the middle distance. 
The white merchants of the ports, the white mis- 
sionaries of the hinterland and the white officials 
of the diplomatic centres are compelled to adjust 
themselves to a new set of conditions. 

Present developments have their roots in the 
immediate past. In 1894 Japan and China were at 
war to decide whose influence should predominate in 
Korea. Yuan-Shih-Kai, who represented Chinese 
interests at the court of Seoul, returned to Tientsin, 
after the close of the struggle, full of the necessity 
of adopting the methods which had made Japan 
victorious. Subsequently, as Governor in Shantung, 
and afterwards Viceroy in Chihli, Yuan-Shih-Kai 
carried his beliefs into action. He has been the 
organiser of an immense modernising movement in 
Northern China. He has founded schools, built 
roads, raised seventy thousand troops, introduced 



THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 7 

European and Japanese military instructors, and 
imported and manufactured modern weapons. He 
was a member of the reform party in Peking which 
had the ear of the Chinese Emperor before the 
Boxer rising ; but he went over to the reactionaries 
under the Dowager Empress, when trouble began, 
and was thus instrumental in reducing the Emperor 
to a stepmother's shadow. When the subsequent 
wave of anti-foreign agitation swept over China and 
Boxers besieged the Peking Legations, he kept aloof 
in his own province. He avoided embroiling 
himself through the years when Russia was annex- 
ing Manchuria, and afterwards when Japan was 
turning her out; and he has obtained the reward 
of his caution in becoming the most powerful 
man in China 

This stout-bodied, energetic, pleasant-mannered 
mandarin is now in the prime of life, not trusted 
completely by either reformers or conservatives, and 
with many bitter enemies in southern and central 
China. The wave of reaction which is tidal in 
China, periodically threatens but never submerges 
him, and he continues to control the one efficient 
organisation which exists for imposing the will of 
an individual upon the country. Yuan-Shih-Kai 
cannot altogether escape the reproach of being 
a time-server; but he dominates Northern China, 
and no survey of the situation in the Far East 
could be made without consideration of his person- 
ality, and reference to the sequence of events that 
has made him what he is. The imperious old 



8 THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 

Dowager Empress and her weak-minded stepson 
are impotent figureheads beside this virile adminis- 
trator. The time-worn Viceroy Chan-Chi-Tung, 
who rules the central river provinces, carries far 
less weight. Chan-Chi-Tung is to Middle China 
very much what Yuan-Shih-Kai is in the north ; 
but he belongs to an older and less efficient 
generation. This ruler established the cotton-mills, 
ironworks, and rifle factories which have made 
Hankow famous. He has raised fifty thousand 
men and armed and drilled them in modern fashion ; 
but they are vastly less efficient than the force 
controlled by Yuan-Shih-Kai. Manoeuvres were in 
progress in Honan last autumn, in which the troops 
of both Yuan-Shih-Kai and Chan-Chi-Tung took 
part Yuan-Shih-Kai sent batteries of quick-firing 
guns with his men, as a matter of course. Chan- 
Chi-Tung discovered, at the last moment, that he 
had only comparatively old-fashioned slow-firers to 
set against the brand-new Krupps of the north. 
His agents were busy in Shanghai last summer, 
endeavouring to buy quick-firers from anywhere or 
anybody, at no matter what cost, provided they 
could be delivered immediately. Whether they 
would shoot straight mattered little. They were 
wanted to save Chan-Chi-Tung from being publicly 
outdone, and for no other purpose. Yuan-Shih-Kai 
means his guns for use ; and herein lies the diffe- 
rence between his methods and those of most of 
his predecessors. Yuan-Shih-Kai fills in the China 
of to-day a place comparable, allowing for the 



THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 9 

difference in the men, to that which Marquis I to 
occupied in the Japan of twenty years ago. The 
movement he is associated with is the leading fact 
in the present Far Eastern awakening. 

What is the significance of this new activity.^ 
Will it grow and strengthen until it raises the 
Mongolian into an overbalancing factor in the 
equipoise of the world, or has it limits that will 
restrain its development and keep it from going 
beyond local and temporary bounds ? Industrially 
and commercially the yellow race is entering into 
competition with the white. It is obvious that the 
markets of the Far East are now in dispute. Is 
British trade in danger in China and Japan alone, 
or does competition threaten seriously over a yet 
wider area ? The infection of the boycott has 
shown itself mildly in Bengal. Is it to take hold 
like the plague ? Japan has leapt suddenly into the 
arena of the big military powers. Is China about 
to follow her example ? Are the armies of Yuan- 
Shih-Kai and Chan-Chi-Tung destined to sink back 
into impotence, or to become the parents of efficient 
forces exceeding those of the Mikado as the people 
of China outnumber those of Japan ? In material 
resources and in men there are the makings of nine 
Japans in China. Are the nine units, or any of 
them, capable of the organisation and development 
which have enabled Japan to take a place beside 
France and Germany in the politics of the world ? 
And what is the real presage of Japan ? Are her 
victories in war over Russia, her successes in peace 



lo THE CASE FOR ENQUIRY 

over Manchester and Pittsburg, preludes to still 
wider conquests and more general commercial ad- 
vance ? Japan has been the apt pupil of Western 
races. Is she about to become their teacher? In 
China she neighbours a race related to herself but 
of g^ant growth. How far can this strange pair go ? 

Japan has imported many of the ideas of modem 
civilisation which make for stability and power. 
Will she be able to reject those which tend towards 
disintegration at home and weakness abroad ? She 
has proved the efficiency of bureaucratic control of 
her national energies; but will her proletariat be 
contented to keep permanently in the background ? 
What will become of her national policy if her 
imitative faculty gives her a labour party organised 
as in Australia and England? 

The answers to all these questions depend, of 
course, not only upon resources and odds of circum- 
stance, but upon the temperament, the capacity, 
and the character of the various yellow peoples 
concerned. The problem of the Far East is im- 
manent in the peoples of the Far East, more than 
in the material facts which appear to equip them; 
and Mongolians are so different from Europeans that 
but few of the solving standards of the West apply. 



CHAPTER 11 

CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 

IN every British port in the Indian seas, from 
the coast of Bengal to that of the Straits Settle- 
ments, the Chinese element is becoming increasingly 
prominent. In Calcutta it is chiefly represented by 
industrious artisans, including shoemakers and car- 
penters, who find ready employment on the merits 
of their work, though skilled native labour competes 
at rates of pay which average about half what the 
Chinese will accept in the same handicrafts. In the 
year 1900, when a contingent of thirty thousand 
troops was under urgent despatch from India to 
represent Great Britain in the allied operations for 
the relief of the Peking Legations, a strike amongst 
the Chinese fitters in the Calcutta dockyard proved 
sufiicient to delay the transports by at least a day. 
As far as is known the strikers cared nothing for 
the situation at Peking. I am here concerned only 
with their importance in the labour market of the 
capital of India. They appear rather unexpectedly 
in other fields. In the annual race for the Viceroy's 
Cup at Calcutta, which is the Derby of Asia, valu- 



II 



12 CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 

able horses owned by Chinese from Burma and the 
Straits Settlements not rarely compete. None of 
them have ever won the premier event, but they 
have carried off minor honours. 

In Rangoon the Chinese merchant controls much 
of the inland trade. He imports pickled tea from 
the Shan States, and sells the Burman the pink silk 
loanghi, often woven in China and dyed in Man- 
chester, which is the national wear. He competes 
seriously in the rice and timber trades, and has more 
than a hand in the silver and jade mines on the 
frontier. He is a respected and considered, if not 
always permanent, citizen of the British Empire, 
and when asked about his Emperor in Peking has 
been known to protest with warmth that he has no 
emperor but His Majesty King Edward. Matri- 
monially he is more than an eligible among the 
Burmese, whose women know how to value a 
husband who can be relied upon to support them. 

The extraordinary prosperity which has followed 
British rule in the Straits Settlements would have 
been impossible without Chinese industry and atten- 
tion to detail, to supplement English, Scotch, and 
Irish enterprise and administrative ability, in a 
climate which is too enervating to allow white men 
to do manual work. The Federated Malay States, 
which represent an annual trade of thirteen million 
sterling, depend for their revenue upon tin ore, for 
which Chinese are the principal miners. As india- 
rubber planters, as sugar growers and as general 
dealers the Chinese fulfil essential functions. 



CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 13 

There is no more favourable centre in which 
to observe the part which the Chinese is capable 
of playing under British rule than Singapore, 
where he finds what he probably considers the 
most ideal conditions the world has to offer 
him. 

The town is the apex of a green promontory 
which runs southwards from Siam and Burma, so 
that ships bound for China from London and 
Calcutta must sail within eighty miles of the 
equator to round the furthest headland. The 
long islands of Java and Sumatra compel vessels 
sailing from Madagascar and South Africa to 
take the same route as those from northern ports. 
Rozhdestvenski s fleet, trailing eastwards to its fate, 
passed within range of the powerful defence batteries 
of the port. The officers of French and German 
men-of-war, sailing to and from Saigon and Kiaochau, 
are familiar figures in the luxurious Singapore Club ; 
and a bo'sun s whistle on the bund would summon 
able-bodied seamen of all colours. The almost daily 
showers, which the grey skies of the tropics vouch- 
safe to the settlement, prevent the heat from 
becoming at any time fierce. A soft, hot-house 
atmosphere plays through the rigging of a con- 
gregation of steamers which can be matched in but 
six other ports in the world, since the place, already 
the gate for through traffic to the Far East, has 
now become the principal distributing centre for 
the trade of the Dutch East Indies and Northern 
Australia. 



14 CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 

The wide wooden wharves, the grey stone graving 
basins, and the clanging repairing shops of the 
Tangong-Pagar Docks, the luxurious electric tram 
service in the city, and the business-like railway 
which runs to Johore, are all directed by Englishmen 
and manned by Chinese. The broad thoroughfares 
and substantial houses compare favourably with 
those of the biggest Indian cities. Even the 
poorest quarters have an air of comfort which 
strikes those who are familiar with the wretchedness 
of Calcutta bustees and Bombay slums. The bulk 
of the quarter of a million inhabitants of the city 
are Chinese. Chinese coolies, decorated, I cannot 
say clothed, with blue Eton jackets and bathing 
drawers, whisk fragile jinrickshaws through the 
crowded traffic The men's brick-red limbs display 
proportions that Greek sculptors might have copied. 
Their dish-cover hats, which rise and fall rhythmi- 
cally with the long, easy trot at which the vehicles 
are propelled, add to the picturesqueness of the 
conveyance. The passengers may be Europeans. 
More often they are impervious Chinese ladies or 
stout mandarin folk ; for the jinrickshaw maintains 
its popularity as a means of locomotion against that 
packing-box on wheels, the Indian cab. Even the 
electric trams have failed to strike any fatal blow at 
the business of the jinrickshaw coolies, though the 
latter at one time thought themselves so seriously 
threatened that they took to the dangerous expedient 
of wedging stones into the rails — a. form of humour 
which was not deprived of popularity until some 



CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY ij 

severe sentences had been passed in the local police 
court. 

A group of chimney-stacks on one side of the 
harbour reminds the visitor that the Straits Settle- 
ments smelt more than half the total tin ore 
produced in the world. Palatial buildings in the 
business quarter are eloquent of the boom which 
just now is making fortunes for both Chinese and 
British india-rubber planters in the interior. Cart- 
loads of luscious pineapples block the lanes outside 
the city, on their way from the Chinese market- 
garden to the European canning factory. Pros- 
perity beams from corpulent Chinamen and smardy 
turned out sahibs. Even that scantily clad problem 
of the country, the gendemanly Malay, who sees no 
merit in work, shares in the general well-being, 
since the demands of the Chinese community for 
fish provide him with profitable employment which 
he can regard as sport 

The settlement is not only thriving at the present, 
but has entered upon developments which must 
increase its importance in the future. More than a 
million sterling, from the current revenue of the 
Government, is being laid out in improving the 
already splendid harbour-works. A site has been 
found and Chinese labour is being employed to 
dredge a graving-dock capable of accommodating 
the biggest man-of-war afloat Chinese platelayers 
are pushing a metre-gauge railway nor^wards, to 
connect eventually with the Burma system. Already 
it links Penang with Port Swettenham and carries 



i6 CHINESE IN .BRITISH TERRITORY 

sightseers from Singapore to the pseudo- Parisian 
palace of the Rajah of Johore. At present the 
narrow arm of the sea, which separates the island 
of Singapore from the mainland of Johore, is 
crossed only by a passenger boat; but a ferry 
steamer is shortly to carry the train bodily across. 
A small basin is to be cut on either bank as a 
mooring dock ; and there will soon be no breaking 
of bulk in the conveyance of produce from the 
furthest inland plantation to the port 

The Chinese, through whose industry all this has 
been accomplished, pay their own way backwards 
and forwards to their homes about Canton, and are 
both thrifty and open-handed. Indentured Chinese 
labour is a factor in Singapore ; but it is brought in 
by the Chinese themselves. The British adminis- 
tration provides only security for person and pro- 
perty, and freedom to develop the rich resources of 
the peninsula. Friendly give-and-take between the 
British and Chinese communities is apparent upon 
every side. Quarantine is strictly enforced against 
Hongkong and Canton, by British doctors who 
attribute the immunity of their island from such 
diseases as plague and small-pox, to the ten days of 
isolation they impose upon all deck passengers who 
land from the unclean cities of the Further East. 
The Chinese submits good-humouredly to what he 
regards as a troublesome British fad. His sub- 
scription to the clock, which the new town hall 
tower has been built to conspicuously lack, will be as 
liberal as if no such restriction had been imposed. 



CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 17 

The European puts up with an unsavoury fish- 
market, and works cheerfully alongside more or less 
unwashed yellow colleagues, knowing that there is 
a rich harvest in tolerance. The Anglo-Indian 
visitor notices absence of noise and wrangling in 
the bazars. The jinrickshaw coolie accepts his legal 
fare with comparatively little grumbling. A ship is 
loaded by swarming pig-tailed dock-hands at the 
jetties, with scarcely more shouting than would be 
involved in putting the luggage of a single passenger 
upon a cab in Calcutta. The Chinese of Singapore, 
though obviously Asiatic in his limitations as well 
as in his origin, is more self-reliant than the majority 
of the inhabitants of India. In theory he considers 
himself the white man's equal, though in practice he 
bows to the more imperious virility of the West. A 
dispute amongst the Chinese passengers, who fill 
the decks of vessels plying between Singapore and 
Hongkong, is unusual ; but when it occurs it is 
sometimes lively, an affronted Chinaman not being 
particular as to either instrument or method so long 
as retaliation be swift and efiicacious. Such a 
thing as a serious disturbance is almost unknown, 
the respect commanded by British ship's ofiicers 
being such that order can be restored with ease in 
all ordinary qua,rrels among coolies. 

The success of the combination of the two races 
can only be described as phenomenal. A country 
already containing half a million people, doing a 
trade that attracts ten million tons of shipping 
annually, and yielding a Government revenue of 



i8 CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 

twenty million dollars, is being developed at a rate 
that promises enormous advance In the immediate 
future upon these already remarkable figures. The 
situation has a significance which makes it worth 
considering in relation to the kind of progress the 
Chinese have hitherto been able to make, with 
infinitely greater possibilities, in their own country. 
The deduction is obvious in Singapore, as in 
Calcutta, Rangoon, Penang, and Ceylon, that the 
efficiency as an industrial unit of which the Chinese 
is capable under European rule is considerably 
greater than that which he is likely to attain under 
his own mandarins. But it is too soon for 
deductions. 

Twelve lead coffins have been safely stowed 
aboard, for no Singapore Chinaman will trust him- 
self to a ship that does not undertake to carry him 
dead, as well as alive, into port A dozen is a good 
many ; but it is well to be on the safe side, since 
even one deceased Chinaman in excess of the 
accommodation provided may be embarrassing in 
the tropics. The volume of wire-stringed lute- 
twanging that finds its way up from the hold shows 
there is a full cargo of prosperous gentry who are 
going to finish their days in Kwangtung, as the 
Anglo-Indian seeks Devonshire, or the South 
African Park Lane. Singapore and its empty 
clock-tower have dwindled into daisies and dande- 
lions in the hedge of a green field of harbour. In 
front the headlands of the wide gate into the China 



VKLI.OW COI.l.K.MJl'K 



►1 •• 



• • • 



••• 



CHINESE IN BRITISH TERRITORY 19 

Sea stand open to us as they stood to Marco Polo. 
There are no explorers among us ; their day is 
over. They sailed to China ; we sail with China on 
board. To the humbler observer there is all the 
difference of five hundred years. 



CHAPTER III 

THE SITUATION IN CAJjITON 

CERTAIN things are going on in Canton 
which have direct bearing upon the change 
that is coming over the outlook in China. A dozen 
miles from the clamorous city, in the midst of the 
swamps of rice cultivators and fishermen, may be 
descried an institution which means much and is 
typical of a great deal more. On the left, as the 
steamer strains against the flood of the Canton 
river, emerges what looks at first like a mass of red 
and white poppies upon the brown mud bank. The 
poppy-heads are tied to withered sticks. They grow, 
as the steamer approaches, into Chinese banners on 
the masts of a fleet of wooden guard-boats : the 
hulls do not become visible at. once, since they are 
almost exactly the same colour as the mud upon 
which they have been beached. These guard-boats 
are propelled by sails stiffened like gigantic Japanese 
fans, with frequent ribs of split bamboo. They can 
run down a river pirate junk, and might even pour 
a volley of buckshot upon its crew ; but they belong 
to the China which has already passed away. Out 



31 



22 THE SITUATION IN CANTON 

in the dun-coloured stream, where the water from 
the far hills of Yunnan goes swirling down to the 
China Sea, a couple of lemon-coloured torpedo- 
boats sulk in the grey midday light of a K wangtung 
fog. These torpedo-boats, like the badly-kept Krupp 
guns of the forts at the river mouth, belong to the 
formidable but still inefficient China of to-day. 

Upon the shore beyond the poppy-bed, strolling 
about after a lecture given by smart Japanese 
officers, are a number of well turned out Chinese 
cadets in black uniforms, with queues curled up inside 
their forage-caps. A boatload came aboard the 
steamer, for it was the eve of the Ching-Ming 
festival of ancestors, and g^eat - grand - parents' 
graves, upon the hillsides further up the river, must 
be honourably decorated, though descendants may 
be engaged upon modern tactics and strategy that 
may change the map of Asia. The lads are inde- 
pendent little fellows, who are confident that they 
will be the Kurokis and the Togos of the China of 
to-morrow. I met nobody who could tell me how 
many of them there are ; but the Wampu training 
college by the poppy- bed is evidendy ^extensive ; 
and it is but one of many of its kind in different 
parts of the country. The training colleges are 
connected with the modern arsenals, rifle factories, 
and gun foundries which Chinese viceroys are 
industriously erecting. They are turning out 
officers as different from the mandarins of the 
past as the modern mauser rifles and cartridges, 
which the factories are producing by the hundred 



THE SITUATION IN CANTON 23 

thousand and the million, are different from the 
ancient blunderbusses with which the Chinese 
forces of yesterday were armed. 

The guards of the pagoda gates in Canton are 
still the effete mannikins of the past. They have 
antiquated rifles, which they handed me readily 
to examine as I passed on a tourist round of the 
sights. The barrels were clean, but the cartridge 
chambers were empty, and no ammunition could 
be found to show me. The weapons have no 
military significance, though they are about as 
useful as most of those with which the corre- 
sponding police in India are provided, and have 
kiyonets which might be of service in the com- 
paratively peaceful duty of controlling a Chinese 
crowd. 

The ancient battle-axes and muskets of a yet 
older belligerence are also in use. They are to be 
seen at the iron gates, which separate the spacious 
foreigners' settlement from the herded Chinese city, 
where policemen in scarlet stomachers and tarpaulin 
hats g^rd night and day, as they have guarded for 
decades, the unwelcome strangers from the West, 
who are allowed to do their present business freely, 
because the armament which is proceeding is 
not yet sufficient to enable China effectively to 
discourage them. 

Evidence of this feeling was to be seen in every 
local newspaper, oddly reminiscent of the spirit and 
phrasing of the rampant Bengali press in Calcutta. 
Extracts published in the Anglo-Chinese papers of 



24 THE SITUATION IN CANTON 

the south, during my stay in Canton, gave promi- 
nence to allegations centreing round three particular 
Chinese viceroys. The Chinese public was naively 
told that Viceroy Yuan-Shih- Kai was moving in 
connection with preparations for the establishment 
of constitutional government in Peking, and that 
he had selected representatives to study the manu- 
facture of arms in Europe. Viceroy Chan-Chi- 
Tung was described, in less masterful language, as 
asking for and obtaining the permission of the 
throne to establish an exclusively Chinese railway 
engineering school at Wuchang. Viceroy Shum 
Huen himself published the text of a long resolution 
in which he made over the control of the whole 
of the immensely important railways about Canton 
to a company composed of Chinese gentry and 
merchants. Other extracts gave the Chinese 
public to understand that the grip of the foreigner 
upon the country was being everywhere loosened, 
that the fortifications upon the Yangtse were to be 
increased ; and that fresh enterprise for the future, 
and especially fresh enterprise in railways, was to 
be kept entirely in Chinese hands. There is no 
doubt about the energy with which this paper 
agitation is being carried on. The movement has 
a patriotic basis; but its more immediate motive 
power appears to lie in a firm belief, upon the part 
of the mandarins, that railway enterprise in China 
will be fabulously profitable, and that its spoils must 
not be allowed to pass into pockets other than their 
own. 



THE SITUATION IN CANTON 25 

Rumour and speculation are predominant, but 
there is no lack of accomplished fact. It was 
unnecessary to go further than the railways at the 
gates of Canton to observe an example, in the shape 
of an immensely important undertaking begun by 
Europeans and now in the hands of Chinese. 

I give the particulars as I gleaned them from 
men upon the spot, some told in the litde yellow 
American cars that are plying upon the Canton- 
Fatshan-Samshui line, others in Canton and Hong- 
kong offices. The Canton-Samshui railway was 
built by the American-China Development Com- 
pany, who were the original holders of a concession 
from the Chinese Government for the much-dis- 
cussed grand trunk railway from Canton to 
Hankow. The section that has been constructed 
is a branch about thirty miles long. It carries 
passengers backwards and forwards across the delta 
between Canton and Samshui, the latter place being 
a port upon the main stream, whereas Canton is 
upon a tributary. Any day affords an opportunity 
of seeing the enormous demand which is greeting 
the introduction of this still novel facility from the 
West. The river feeds the rail. On the day of my 
visit I noted a big, flat-bottomed steamboat, with 
four immense open decks, towering one above 
another, each loaded with a black mass of Chinese 
humanity, which was forcing her way up the river 
through an almost solid collection of the rickety 
sampan boats plying for hire about the port The 
flat lurched heavily in spite of her enormous beam, 



26 THE SITUATION IN CANTON 

when a partial movement to see the approaching 
shore took place on board, and might have capsized 
with less stolidly fatalistic passengers, who would 
have made a more general rush. 

Other vessels, with two and three equally over- 
crowded decks, were arriving from both up and 
down stream ; and sampans besieged them all. The 
ferry-women touting for fares gabbled like ten 
thousand geese. The city drowsed upon one bank, 
the electric lights barely extinguished in its gambling 
dens, and wrapped us in the odour which emerges 
from every gathering of Chinese dwellings — an 
odour suggestive of freshly lacquered coffins, fried 
grease, and badly constructed drains. Upon the 
other bank stood the iron sheds of the railway 
station, into which broad streams of people were 
pouring from the boats. Industrious little trains 
trotted up one after another and carried off the 
contents of passenger pens, which were refilled 
as fast as the people vacated them to get into the 
carriages. The process continued until my own 
steamer left, and is presumably going on now. I 
was not surprised to hear that the railway was 
taking an annual thirty per cent, upon its capital 
cost, although it confined itself to the passenger 
traffic, and did not attempt to cope with goods. 

The permanent way is on the standard four-feet 
eight-inches gauge, and is laid with substantial 
seventy-five pound rails. The track is double and 
stone-ballasted for a dozen miles to Fatshan, after 
which it is single and ballasted only with sand. 



THE SITUATION IN CANTON 27 

The section upon the northern bank of the river, of 
what Continental optimists once hoped would become 
the connecting link in an all-Gallic railway, through 
the very centre of China, to join Annam with the 
Siberian system, lies neglected and unused. The 
Samshui branch points southwards towards French 
territory. The northern embankment beckons 
towards Hankow ; but that is all that has yet been 
accomplished. The Russo-Japanese war has changed 
the ownership of the Manchurian connection. The 
Hankow-Peking portion alone remains as it was 
originally designed. 

The Samshui branch is worked by a Chinese 
staff, presided over by two capable Americans, who 
are in the service of the Chinese Government. 
Negotiations are going on for the construction, as a 
purely Chinese undertaking, of the Canton- Hankow 
line ; and the Viceroy of the Cantonese province 
has been endeavouring to get the work begun. He 
appears to have failed to raise the necessary money 
direct, so has handed over the whole concern to an 
association which calls itself the General Chamber 
of Commerce of China Merchants. The official 
proclamation announcing the transfer indicates 
''nine large charitable institutions and seventy- 
two guilds " to hold the property, as a temporary 
measure, while the China Merchants are arranging 
to increase the capital of the two million dollars they 
have actually collected, to the twenty million re- 
quired to finance the building of the line to Hankow. 
The undertaking is capable of paying exceedingly 



28 THE SITUATION IN CANTON 

handsome interest on the capital that would be 
required if the work were under economical 
European management I heard in Hongkong 
that the China Merchants can command the money 
that is wanted. It has now to be seen to what 
extent the endeavour to keep the company exclu- 
sively Chinese will succeed, and whether, in that 
case, construction will proceed as it should. 

In the meantime, yet another important railway 
project, and this time a British one, has come into 
existence — the Hongkong- Canton Railway. This 
line is to connect the mainland side of the Hong- 
kong harbour with Canton. The country to be 
traversed is easy ; and the linking up of a British 
port, which now claims to handle more shipping 
than London, with the biggest Chinese city in the 
world, is certain to be profitable. The permanent 
way for the section through British territory, about 
thirty miles long, has been aligned by the British 
Administration of Hongkong under Sir Matthew 
Nathan. The portion through Chinese territory, 
which is not so very much longer, is to be built 
by Chinese agency when and if the money is forth- 
coming. A beginning has been made upon the 
British side ; and a track, which now serves as a 
road, has been laid out for a few miles from the sea. 
Confident announcements have lately been published 
that the indigenous section is arranged for ; but the 
traveller is not long in China before he learns to 
believe only in what he sees, and no beginning had 
been made when I was upon the spot. 



THE SITUATION IN CANTON 29 

The city of Canton is the focus of the life of 
Southern China. The Portuguese recognised this 
centuries ago when they built, at the mouth of its 
shallow river, their harbour of Macao, which pros- 
pered exceedingly until ocean-going ships outgrew 
the depth of its anchorage and transferred their 
patronage to its successful British rival, Hongkong, 
leaving Macao to decay into a refuge for insolvent 
debtors and a nest of gambling-houses. Hongkong 
may justify all its pretensions, but its prosperity is 
dependent upon the fact that it possesses the 
nearest deep-water harbour to Canton, and is the 
point where Cantonese river craft transfer their 
produce to modern liners. 

The Cantonese are agitators as well as traders, 
and nurse many schemes besides that of doing 
without the European. There is no doubt that a 
movement has long flourished amongst them, 
directed to no less a purpose than the overthrow 
of the present dynasty and the restoration of pure 
Chinese rule. This is aimed in part against Yuan- 
Shih-Kai, but is also a manifestation of the feeling 
which is at the root of the anti-foreign movement 
that affects the European. To this sentiment the 
Manchu is only less an outsider than the English- 
man. The Cantonese is the same intractable to-day 
that he has been for ages. He hates to be interfered 
with even by a race so long and so closely related 
to him as are his fellow-Mongolians from further 
north. He is the Bengali of China, quicker witted 
than the more manly races of the northern provinces, 



30 THE SITUATION IN CANTON 

but also less to be relied upon. Intrigue and 
finesse, not swords or guns, are his national weapons 
for both offence and defence. He will leave any 
physical fighting that may have to be done to his 
countrymen of the north, though he will figure as 
prominendy, when it comes tc^ a division of the 
spoil that may be won, as if he had taken his full 
share of hardship and danger. When the Peking 
Government was at war with Japan, the Cantonese 
looked on while the armies of Chihli marched against 
the invading forces of the Mikado. Nevertheless, 
when Yuan-Shih-Kai was setting to work after 
peace had been restored to lay the foundation of 
that modernising movement which makes such 
lavish promises for the future, his unpopularity in 
South China did not prevent him from turning to 
Canton for some of his best-qualified and best-paid 
lieutenants. 

The military academy and torpedo-boats outside 
Canton may be less important, as items in the 
military preparations of China, than corresponding 
arrangements at such a place as Tientsin. The 
southern provinces are no doubt rather noisy and 
truculent than possessed of present fighting effi- 
ciency ; but they are animated by as strong a 
determination as any of their fellows to become 
possessed of the power of offence which modern 
armaments afford; and in the meantime, like 
Bengal, they are not less conspicuous for being 
more articulate. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT IN MIDDLE CHINA 

NOBODY can be many days in Shanghai 
without hearing rumours of vaguely antici- 
pated trouble. The European exploring the native 
city may walk from one dark end of the narrow 
alleys to the other, through groves of illuminated 
name-boards, armies of chair-coolies, and hordes 
of pariahs, without more embarrassment than is 
occasioned by hurrying masses of busy humanity 
intent solely upon their own affairs. Coolies, 
laden with hides, kerosine oil-tins, or yet more 
unsavoury burdens, hustle their way through the 
crowd with warning shouts that are as strident 
and aggressive when a white man is in the way 
as when only their own countryfolk have to be 
thrust against the wall. Jinrickshaw runners, when 
inadvertently overpaid, do not hesitate to add a 
detaining hand to arguments to prove they 
should receive yet more. London cab-drivers and 
Marseilles luggage-porters no doubt behave to 
the stranger, under corresponding circumstances, 
in ways that are at least as offensive ; but better 

manners are so largely the rule to the east of Suez, 

31 



32 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

that European Shanghai may well suspect what 
looks like a change for the worse. The revolver, 
unusual in China, has been added to the equip- 
ment of some of the men employed in connection 
with the electric tramway that is to be laid down in 
the Shanghai streets, in consequence of persistent 
stories that an attempt will be made to interfere 
with construction. 

Signs of racial friction are much less marked 
than was the case in Calcutta at the time of the 
anti-partition agitation; but their existence is re- 
cognised by merchants whose long experience of 
China excludes the supposition that there is any 
mistake. The jetties, factories, and docks of the 
city have never been more active. Money is 
being made and business transacted upon a scale 
that fully maintains the claim of Shanghai to be 
considered the Manchester of the Far East. On 
the splendid wharves and jetties that astonish the 
visitor by their extent and activity, and in the 
spacious streets and palatial offices that stand for 
a prosperity which enriches a million Chinese in- 
habitants, exists nevertheless a feeling of insecurity 
which is not the less real because it is indefinite, 
nor lacking in significance because there are those 
who deny the reasonableness of the grounds on 
which it is based. 

I found the possibility of another rising common 
talk at every dinner- table. ''I've had to hide, before 
now, for two days in a cellar to escape a riot, and 
I see signs of another coming," was said to me 



THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 33 

by the head of an important concern who thought 
the general outlook threatening. The traveller 
might have heard similar prophecies any time 
within the last fifteen years in India, where half 
a century of peace may have made the European 
imaginative. But people who have lived in China 
for ten years are usually experts in riots, of one 
dimension or another, and are better acquainted, 
like my friend, with the indications. 

I have endeavoured to ascertain how this feeling 
has arisen in so far as it is new ; and I gather that 
several incidents have been contributing causes. 
First and foremost is the Shanghai riot of 
December, 1905. This was a very small afifair 
of itself. A mob collected ; a Sikh policeman 
was rough-handled and killed ; a few Europeans 
were damaged and some shops were looted. The 
streets were cleared by bluejackets and volunteers ; 
a few volleys were fired, a score of rioters were 
wounded, and the thing was over. The trouble 
arose from an inter-racial dispute in which the 
Chinese took the side of their own officials. The 
widow of an unimportant up-country mandarin 
arrived in the settlement with a number of slave- 
girls, and was arrested by the European authorities 
on the charge of having kidnapped her companions. 
The Chinese officials claimed that their own jail, 
and not the settlement jail, was the proper place 
for her incarceration. The native newspapers 
published exaggerated stories directed to showing 
that the Europeans were encroaching upon Chinese 



34 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

prerogatives. Although the question was entirely 
technical, race feeling was aroused ; and the matter 
was complicated by a natural impression amongst 
the Europeans that the Chinese officials were 
egging it on. It is alleged that the bringing of 
the roughs who made the disturbance into the 
settlement was connived at, that the Chinese troops 
and police were not used as they should have 
been to suppress the trouble, and that sufficiently 
prompt and vigorous measures were not subse- 
quently adopted to arrest the ringleaders. 

The Taotai, or Chinese Governor of Shanghai, 
was especially blamed, and complaint was so in- 
sistent that he was eventually removed from his 
office by the Peking Government, as a concession 
to the Europeans. Immediately afterwards, how- 
ever, he was given the signal honour of promotion 
to the Governorship of Peking, which produced the 
impression that his sympathy with the rioters was 
shared by the supreme authority in the country. 
The subsequent disturbance at Nanchang, of which 
I shall have more to say hereafter, where a number 
of missionsu-ies were murdered by a Chinese mob, 
added to the tension of the situation. Rumours of 
large fresh importations of modem weapons and 
ammunition upon the part of the Chinese Govern- 
ment, and undeniable activity in the arsenals and 
cantonments in different parts of the country, are 
pointed to as further evidence of the existence of a 
definite movement hostile to the foreign element in 
China. 



THE ANTI.FOREIGN MOVEMENT 35 

Every kind of exaggeration has resulted from 
this state of affairs. I heard of Europeans who 
had packed up their possessions in order to 
facilitate escape when the rising should begin. The 
more phlegmatic looked upon disturbances only as 
a possible and not as an unavoidable contingency. 
The British official view in Shanghai was also re- 
assuring; though the fact could not be got over 
that negotiations with the Chinese Government 
were at a standstill in connection with most of the 
pending concessions to Europeans for railways and 
other commercial enterprises. It must be added 
that I met both Englishmen and Americans^ espe- 
cially amongst the missionaries, whose views are 
entided to weight on account of their close asso- 
ciation with the Chinese, who did not consider that 
the general attitude of the people had become more 
hostile of late. One of them, indeed, a missionary 
of experience, whom I interviewed in the village in 
which he is working within a hundred miles of 
Nanchang, assured me that the only alteration he 
had observed was the very marked one which took 
place after the relief of the Legations in 1900, when 
some respect for foreigners was introduced for the 
first time in his experience. He maintained that 
there had been since then no change for the worse. 
This missionary was able to speak with candour of 
the objectionable as well as of the admirable 
qualities of the Chinese. He is one of the very 
few white men in the country possessed of any 
profound knowledge of their extraordinarily difficult 



36 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

language, and I found scholars in Shanghai who 
confirmed what he told me. Their view was that 
the alarm is confined to those engaged in business, 
who are not, as a rule, acquainted with Chinese, 
the majority of the British merchants in Shanghai 
being contented, they alleged, to work through 
compradors, and being thus in a position to obtain 
their information only at second-hand. They ex- 
plained the fact that roughs were allowed to enter 
Shanghai on the occasion of the riot, by the some- 
what unconvincing statement that the city has an 
open frontage five miles long which cannot be 
guarded easily. The extent of the area concerned 
and the imperfection of the Chinese official organi- 
sation were cited in answer to the charge of supine- 
ness in the matter of suppressing the disturbance 
and arresting the ringleaders. 

The nature of the calling of the missionary 
inclines him to view his relations with the people 
in a hopeful spirit, here as elsewhere. Such hope- 
fulness may sometimes err on the side of charity, 
and should not fail to be discounted to that extent 
A reply given by the Taotai of Shanghai, when 
he was approached by the United States Consular 
authorities with a view to inducing him to prohibit 
the boycott of American goods in Middle China, 
throws a good deal of light upon the situation. It 
was pointed out to him that Yuan-Shih-Kai had 
stopped the boycott movement in Peking by the 
simple expedient of issuing an official proclamation 
against it. His answer was to the effect that what 



THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 37 

was practicable in the north was utterly impossible 
in Middle China. 

"The people of Shanghai," he said, "are no 
longer subservient to authority. They have learnt 
from the foreigner to think and to act for them- 
selves. They have become independent, and guard 
so jealously free liberty to buy or to refuse to buy 
from whom they will, that any attempt upon my part 
to interfere in the matter would have exactly the 
opposite effect to what is intended. It would itself 
create further disturbance and set the people more 
strongly than before upon the course they have 
determined to adopt." 

This attitude upon the part of the Chinese official 
is characteristic, and it accounts for a very great 
deal. British merchants read into it that the 
Chinese officials are actively hostile. A()ologists 
consider that they are well-meaning but helpless. 
With reg^d to the promotion of the Taotai after 
the riot, I can only report the explanation I found 
current The conservatism of China is a proverb. 
Although Shanghai is one of the biggest and most 
prosperous cities in China, it is only sixty years old. 
Its Taotai is therefore a mere magistrate, subor- 
dinate to the Viceroy of ancient Nanking, important 
only in decay. Under ordinary circumstances, pro- 
motion from the Shanghai Taotaiship to the gover- 
norship of Peking would merit the interpretation 
which members of the mercantile community have 
placed upon it ; but in this particular case the cir- 
cumstances were special. The Taotai of the 



38 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

moment was related by marriage to several high 
officials at Peking, including Yuan-Shih-Kai him- 
self. Some months prior to the riot he had been 
given the honorary title of Provincial Treasurer, 
which qualified him to look for elevation to a 
governorship. The outcry raised against him by 
the foreign element is sufficient to account for a 
not necessarily premeditated movement upon the 
part of his own people in his favour. His selection 
for the governorship of Peking was the outcome of 
such movement These explanations leave un- 
touched the fact that though inter-racial relations 
may or may not be worse, they are undeniably bad. 
The official concerned may not impossibly play a 
more prominent part in the future than in the 
past. His own estimate of himself, given to a 
distinguished American missionary in Shanghai 
some time prior to the riot, may be quoted. " I 
am one," he said, ''who can always be led easily 
but never driven." The Shanghai merchants may 
have failed to discern this feature of his character. 

The armament question in Shanghai is less difficult 
to understand, as both the city itself and the lower 
reaches of the Yangtse river afford abundant evidence 
of what is going on. By the courtesy of the officials 
I was permitted to go over the Kiang - Nan 
arsenal and gun factory, which stands upon the 
river bank three miles above the city of Shanghai. 
Here I found the manufacture of 1888 pattern 
mauser rifles, of about '302 bore, in full operation. 
The plant is complete though not very modern, and 



THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 39 

is working up to its full capacity. Some three 
hundred Chinese workmen are employed, and the 
out-turn is from twelve to thirteen finished rifles 
daily, the total number made in a month being 
about three hundred. To arm a hundred thousand 
men from this factory would thus take a quarter of 
a century; but it must be remembered that the 
works are but one out of many sources of supply. 
The rifles are rough but serviceable, and are claimed 
to have an average deviation of not more than about 
three feet at five hundred yards* range. The barrels 
are turned upon the lathe, and the details of 
mechanism are cut out by machines, each devoted 
to some one part The stocks are shaped mechani- 
cally, from yellow wood imported from Korea. All 
the machines are driven by steam power. The 
steel is smelted upon the premises, the ingredients 
being scrap-iron purchased locally and hematite ore 
imported from the Hupeh province. The furnaces 
comprise two up-to-date installations of the Siemens 
open-hearth pattern, one being of fifteen tons' 
capacity and the other of three tons. There are 
also two air-blast furnaces, one of five tons' capacity 
and the other somewhat smaller, which are used for 
cast-iron work. The plant includes steam-driven 
rolling-mills for both steel bars and sheets, also 
hydraulic steel-pressing plant, lathes, planing, boring, 
cutting, and rifling machinery big enough to admit 
of the handling of guns up to twelve-inch calibre. 
I saw in the shops two 9*2 guns, two six-inch guns, 
and one 47 gun of modern design with Armstrong 



40 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

pattern breech action, which I was told had been 
built upon the premises from rough castings im- 
ported from Europe. A disappearing carriage for 
one of the 9*2 guns was being made in the 
shops, but I saw no big guns actually under 
manufacture. 

A beautiful naval twelve-pounder with Armstrong 
breech action, a couple of eleven-pounder mountain 
guns, and one twelve-pounder field gun with Nor- 
denfeldt breech-blocks were standing ready for 
delivery, also a twelve-pounder field gun on low 
carriage with Japanese-pattern recoil fork attached 
to the wheels. A couple of ()ompoms, two 9*2 guns, 
and several six-inch guns were also upon the pre- 
mises for repair, but these were said to have been 
imported. They were from a Chinese cruiser which 
had run aground upon the coast. The guns appeared 
to be in excellent order ; the barrels were absolutely 
free from marks of corrosion. The six-inch and 47 
weapons were fitted with spring and oil-cylinder 
recoil absorbers, some of which were under repair. 
The biggest guns which the factory has built were 
four twelve-inch weapons used at Wei-hai-wei in 
the Chino- Japanese war, of which two were subse- 
quently carried off to Japan for use by the Mikado's 
forces. The guns have outer steel sheaths shrunk 
over inner steel cores, but no wire-winding plant 
could be shown to me. The story of the building of 
the twelve-inch guns seemed to me incredible, when 
first I heard it, though at least one lathe capable of 
taking such monsters was upon the premises; but 



THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 41 

confirmation has since reached me. The work must 
have taken a long time to execute. There is no 
doubt about the capacity of the shops to manufacture 
smaller ordnance. The possible out-turn of twelve- 
pounder field guns is about fifty per annum, in addi- 
tion to other work. The latest addition to the plant 
is a fine hydraulic steel tension testing machine, but 
no laboratory for proving the chemical composition 
is upon the premises. Cast-iron shells up to the 
9*2 size, with percussion fuses, were to be seen in 
small numbers, and the introduction of plant for 
making time-fuses and forged steel shell is being 
talked about. 

The works are staffed by Chinese artisans under 
Chinese foremen, with two English engineers — 
Messrs. Cornish and Atkinson — who supervise the 
getting out of new plant and are responsible for 
the surprisingly high standard of the work. A 
courteous Chinese gentleman acts as secretary to 
the concern. 

Connected with the arsenal is a graving-dock 
capable of taking a second-class cruiser. Attached 
are extensive repairing shops. The fuse shop in 
the factory is now being dismantled, with a view, 
I understand, to erection in some more isolated 
locality up-country. At Loong-Hwa, a couple of 
miles further up the river and some five miles from 
Shanghai, is a Chinese powder and small-arms 
ammunition factory under Japanese management. 
It produces a modified cordite with such high 
explosive qualities as to have given some trouble 



42 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

in the rifles. It is here that the mauser cartridges 
are turned out. 

I was desirous of seeing the Chinese forts which 
guard the mouth of the river at Wusung a dozen 
miles below Shanghai. These are said to be 
capable of shutting off from communication with 
the outside world the whole city of Shanghai with 
all its cotton-mills, docks, and sixteen thousand 
foreigners, as a cork shuts a bottle. A hot morning 
spent in interviewing smiling Chinese officials in 
the gaily-papered booths in the heart of the native 
city, which do duty as the yamen of the present 
Taotai of Shanghai, though backed by an intro- 
duction of authority, resulted only in the reference 
by telegraph to the Viceroy of Nanking of the 
weighty question whether I might go inside the 
fortifications. I therefore contented myself with an 
examination from without the walls. I ran out 
from Shanghai, by a well-appointed all- British 
railway, which is part of the British and Chinese 
corporation's line to Nanking. The permanent 
way was open only for a few miles on both sides 
of Shanghai, but was shortly to be completed to 
Suchau, and to Nanking by September, 1907. 
The original concession from the Chinese Govern- 
ment contemplated future extensions to the rich 
cities of Hangchau and Ningpo, on some of the 
wonderful old canals that once connected the 
Yangtse with Canton; but the China-for-the- 
Chinese movement has intervened, and there is 
a typical hitch. The Chinese Government allege 



THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 43 

that they granted the concession upon the supposi- 
tion that they could not raise the capital for them- 
selves, and that it now lapses as this state of 
things has changed with the growing confidence 
of the local gentry in the profitiibleness of railway 
enterprise. An appeal lies to the British Govern- 
ment Meanwhile I passed a number of engines, 
in all stages of construction from imported parts, 
and was told by a friendly Sikh policeman, in un- 
expected English, that I had reached the terminus 
at Wusung forts. 

The line ended abruptly a quarter of a mile from 
the fortifications, and a tumble-down jinrickshaw 
was soon trundling me to the spot. There proved 
to be an earthen rampart twenty feet high upon the 
low river-bank, close to the water at a point where 
the navigable channel contracts into a narrow gut 
On the top of the wall, without cover of any sort, 
beyond what was afforded by shrapnel-proof steel 
shields, were half a dozen six-inch and 47-inch guns. 
There was nothing wrong with the weapons. The 
waterway was completely commanded ; but behind 
the guns was nothing but a low mud wall which 
enclosed a strip of ground a few yards broad. The 
country around is a low alluvial flat without obstacle 
of any kind to interfere with a landing, either above 
or below the fortifications. An enterprising enemy 
would know what to do under these circumstances, 
if his own guns proved insufficient to silence those 
of the fort 

Chinese sentries, armed with mauser rifles from 



44 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

the factory, were on duty in blue canvas uniforms 
at the gates, and a typical Chinese travesty of a 
modern manoeuvre was in progress in a field near 
by. A squad of some forty Chinese had been 
arranged on a line in close order. An instructor 
stood in front. At the first word of command the 
men all lay down with deliberation. At the second, 
they got up slowly. At the third, they marched 
funereally forward in step for exactly ten paces. 
At the fourth, they all lay down again and the 
process recommenced. The only disquieting feature 
vras revealed inside one of the gates, where some 
bell-shaped metal receptacles, chained to others 
that were like enormous drums, suggested that the 
expedient of mining the navigable channel had not 
been overlooked. Whether the mines would go 
off in case of need would depend upon those doubts 
of honesty and efficiency which dominate everything 
else in China. 

I left Shanghai at night by one of the sumptuous 
British-owned river boats which ply to Hankow, 
six hundred miles up the mud-laden Yangtse river. 
The following day at Kiangyin, a little below the 
treaty port of Chiukiang, a sight presented itself 
which points to the Chinese Government's having 
done to the main central waterway of their marvel- 
lous country exactly what the Wusung forts en- 
deavour to effect in connection with the Shanghai 
river. At Kiangyin a hilly promontory juts out 
from a line of neighbouring heights and squeezes 
the waterway, which was previously like the Bristol 



THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 45 

Channel, into a river which appears to be scarcely 
a mile across. Glasses enabled me to make out 
upon the hillside two modern "longtoms," which 
were either nine-inch or twelve-inch Krupp guns. 
There were also half a dozen smaller weapons 
which appeared to be of about six-inch and 47-inch 
calibre. 

The Nanking Viceroy has now in all some thirty 
thousand men with whom to hold these and other 
positions. The tumble-down city of Nanking, at 
which the boat stopped next morning in cold, 
driving rain to put out cargo and some of the two 
thousand Chinese it carried on its lower decks, 
was full of these warriors, and drilling was going 
on industriously. The men were armed with 
mausers. 

A further day's journey up the river to Kiukiang 
were further forts g^uarding the narrow entrance to 
the Poyang lake. In these the guns were hidden ; 
but local information, which I believe to be trust- 
worthy, had it that they were both heavy and 
modem. 

The river teems with laden junks, and is stirred 
to its muddy bottom by frequent flats. Even ocean- 
going steamers are sometimes to be met. Upon 
the low banks were cultivators in the eternal blue, 
labouring night and day at the pumps with which 
they irrigate thousands of square miles of some of 
the richest crops in the world. Always at the treaty 
ports where I went ashore were well-built stone 
houses and prosperous Europeans, also swarming 



46 THE ANTI-FOREIGN MOVEMENT 

Chinese cities. Everywhere were signs of the 
enormous traffic which the Chinese guns profess 
to protect, but everywhere also was the belief 
that this protection does not bode well for the 
interests of the foreigner. 



CHAPTER V 



THE MISSIONARY 



A LUXURIOUSLY fitted steam flat conveys 
travellers for six hundred miles up the 
Yangtse river, from the seaport of Shanghai 
to the hardly less busy river-port of Hankow. 
Creaking junks slip downstream, conveying raw 
cotton, green tea, country-made paper, hides, and 
oil seeds, to be placed on board ocean-going 
steamers for Europe. Others toil up by oar, sail, 
and wonderful hand paddle-wheels, full of Man- 
chester piece-goods, Sheffield cutlery, and American 
kerosine oil, for stations on branch rivers in the 
far interior. Neglected pagodas, muddy rice-fields, 
swampy reed-beds and creeks suffocating with 
anchored junks and poisoned with the emanations 
of humanity, inarch monotonously past on either 
bank, as the powerful steam-engines strain and 
throb against the swirling ochre flood. 

More noticeable than junks, crops, and native 
cities are the nine-inch Krupp guns which again 
and again poke menacing noses out of modern 
fortifications upon the hills, and the imposing mis- 



47 



48 THE MISSIONARY 

sionary houses and churches that occupy as com- 
manding and even more frequent locations. I 
place the churches and the guns in juxtaposition, 
here as on the shore, for there is more than 
physical propinquity to connect them. The mis- 
sionaries become a factor in the situation before 
Shanghai has dropped fifty miles into the rear, 
and they grow steadily in importance further on. 
For each European layman who joins the vessel 
at the smaller intermediate ports, about two 
clerics may be expected. At wayside stations 
where I landed I always met missionaries, and 
often no other white people. The tenacity of 
purpose with which the missionaries work, in the 
face of opposition from the Chinese and discourage- 
ment from their own fellow-countrymen, must strike 
every visitor. A typical propagandist in Middle 
China said to me frankly — 

'' I preach to empty benches ; but that is the 
look-out of the Chinese. I give them my best. 
If they will not hear I am not responsible." 

He was living with his wife and children in a 
solitary mission-house overlooking a native city. 
All the members of his household wore Chinese 
dress, to facilitate their intercourse with their 
neighbours, and lived plain lives of industry and 
daily self-denial. The missionary had acquired 
some reputation for medical skill, and the Chinese 
availed themselves freely of it. Amongst his 
patients, at the time of my visit, was a feeble 
individual, who had travelled a long distance for 



THE MISSIONARY 49 

physic for that common Chinese ailment which I 
can describe only as opium poisoning. The man 
was ill from over-indulgence» and went to the 
missionary, as a matter of course, for help and 
encouragement in making the effort necessary to 
break himself of the habit. The missionary told 
me he had many cases of the kind, and that he 
was often successful with them. 

It has been my good fortune to make the ac- 
quaintance of keen American Methodists, solid 
Canadian Presbyterians, British Anglicans, and 
French Catholics, all engaged in the uphill work 
of carrying Christianity to the Chinese, and most 
of them prepared to speak frankly of their labours. 
As a class, the missionaries command respect. 
Many are good Chinese scholars. Most have 
travelled widely in remote regions of the interior. 
Their touch with the people is very much closer 
than is that of the mercantile community, and 
they play a part of a political importance that is 
recognised by every one in China. Their detrac- 
tors, and I am sorry to say these are many, 
especially in mercantile and shipping circles, tacitly 
admit this when they declare that eighty per cent 
of the trouble that has arisen between Europeans 
and Chinese has been connected with the missionary 
movement. Consular officers deplore the lack of 
acquaintance and consequent absence of sympathy 
which exists between the missionary and mercantile 
classes. This becomes significant when one re- 
members that at least throughout the greater part 

E 



so THE MISSIONARY 

of South and Central China, the merchants and 
the missionaries comprise between them practically 
the entire permanently resident European element 

The merchant does business at the ports, his 
transactions being large enough to affect the 
welfare of millions of the manufacturing classes 
in England and India ; but he goes little into 
the interior and seldom speaks the Chinese lan- 
guage! The missionary penetrates everywhere. 
In many cases he assimilates himself with the 
Chinese in every possible way. Generally, he 
speaks the difficult language of the country with 
fluency. Upon the whole, he lives comfortably 
and is upon friendly terms with the inhabitants 
around him. So far as he stands upon his own 
merits and upon those of the religion with which 
he is concerned, his position is admirable. Unfor- 
tunately, gunboats and political intrigue are ever 
behind him. If he gets into trouble with the 
populace, fines out of proportion to what the 
Chinese regard as the equivalent of the damage 
done to him and to his property may be exacted. 
If he be killed, however great may have been 
the provocation given unknowingly in a country 
where it is extraordinarily easy to offend popular 
susceptibilities, his death is liable to be made an 
excuse for pressing political demands which some- 
times have little connection with him. 

The merchant has difficulties with the Chinese, 

' very similar to those with which the missionary 

becomes occasionally familiar; but he is more 



THE MISSIONARY Si 

easily protected. The riot in secular Shanghai, in 
t)ecember last year, was not unlike that which 
occurred in ecclesiastical Nanchang in February. 
Only in the one case volunteers, police, and blue- 
jackets were at hand, and the disturbance was 
quelled without very seriously aggravating the 
ever-present race question, whereas in the other the 
mob was unchecked. Six French priests and two 
English missionaries were massacred, and a wide 
wave of anti-foreign excitement arose which will 
bring yet more nine-inch Chinese guns into 
position. 

Individuals may not be greatly to blame. The 
various missionary bodies are pursuing their calling 
to the best of their ability. They are bringing 
medical aid to the sick, and are preaching a higher 
morality than that which exists around them. The 
Chinese officials are also doing what they can, 
according to their lights. They are endeavouring 
to avoid friction and to govern the country with as 
little embarrassment as possible to themselves and 
their people. But a situation exists that is always 
potential for active trouble. The matter for wonder 
is only that this trouble so seldom becomes grave. 

The importance of the missionary question is so 
considerable that I thought it worth while to go 
some hundreds of miles out of my road in order to 
visit Nanchang, a place which had acquired, by the 
riot I have referred to, a claim to be considered 
the fighting front of the church militant in China. 
On my way up the Yangtse and Kan rivers and 



52 THE MISSIONARY 

across the Poyang lake to reach Nanchang, I called 
at mission stations at Wulu, Kiukiang, Taku-Tang, 
and Wochen. I also met numerous missionaries 
connected with Shanghai, Nanking, and other 
stations. The Protestants who talked with me 
were unanimous in holding that there are few 
countries in the world in which an unarmed stranger 
can wander with greater personal safety than in 
China, provided he does not interfere with the 
people. Mr. L. Day, Agent of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, whom I met at Kiukiang, was 
itinerating within thirty miles of Nanchang when 
the riot was going on. He received no incivility 
and was unaware that anything unusual was happen- 
ing, until he arrived within the city walls three days 
after the disturbance. Both Protestant missionaries 
and Chinese officials consider that the riot was 
directed solely against the Roman Catholics and 
that the Protestants who perished were killed by 
mistake. The Catholics do not deny this, though 
they hold, quite properly, that the Chinese 
authorities could and ought to have afforded pro- 
tection. 

The Chinese discriminate between Catholics and 
Protestants because the French fathers, who repre- 
sent Catholicism throughout the greater part of the 
country, have made themselves an active power and 
have thus come into collision with the mandarins ; 
whereas this is not generally the case with the 
Protestants. The French have unwisely insisted 
upon the granting of mandarin's precedence to 



THE MISSIONARY 53 

their missionaries. For example, a French bishop 
ranks not far from a Chinese governor. The 
French missions are long established and have 
become extraordinarily well-to-do and influential. 
They pursue a consistent policy of backing up the 
members of their congregations in secular as well 
as in spiritual matters. 

This has had exceedingly serious consequences. 
The Chinese is possessed of a curious indifference 
to death, which has won for him a not altogether 
deserved reputation for courage. He is liable to 
paroxysms of ungovernable excitement as brief as 
they are furious while they last, during which he 
may do almost anything. He is self-assertive and 
touchy, but timorous and suspicious at heart, to an 
extent which Europeans find difficulty in realising. 
His normal state is that of a leaf blown about by 
gusty alarms. He is for ever seeking something 
behind which to shelter himself He sees in the 
Catholic organisation in China, with its European 
mandarins, its wealth and prestige, something 
similar to but infinitely more powerful than the 
secret societies which he has created in the hope 
that they may help him. He has neither senti- 
mental nor religious objection to adding another 
ritual to the affairs of his daily life ; and he finds 
in Christian baptism a means of strengthening his 
position in regard to his enemies. In consequence 
a Chinese with a lawsuit pending seeks out and 
joins, if he can, whichever faith seems likely to 
promise him the most influential support. 



54 THE MISSIONARY 

The Catholic Church was in his midst long before 
the Protestants appeared. It has opened its arms 
wide to receive him, believing, no doubt, that 
regeneration would follow conversion ; and once it 
has embraced him, it has made his interests its own 
in a manner which has sometimes been more whole- 
hearted than discriminating. The apparent success 
of the system has been enormous. Chinese acknow- 
ledging a spiritual overlord in the Pope are 
numerous. Stately churches and extensive monas- 
teries on commanding sites testify to the wealth 
that has been acquired, not wholly by means of the 
collection-plate. Business acumen and political 
influence are valuable factors in the imposing result 
I have been told that this Church owns land even 
on the bund at Shanghai, on which important busi- 
ness houses are located. A fine line of French 
river steamers which started last April, running 
between Shanghai and Hankow, is said to be 
to some extent an ecclesiastical venture. The 
Protestant denominations are much poorer. 

The system has the grave drawback of creating 
friction both with Chinese officials and with the 
non-Catholic populace. The mandarins have tried 
to play off the Protestants against the Catholics. 
I have heard of one instance where they succeeded 
temporarily, with results more startling than edify- 
ing ; but the scandal ceased when the Protestant 
missionary specially concerned was recalled by the 
directors of the body to which he belonged. All 
important negotiations between British missionaries 



THE MISSIONARY 55 

and Chinese officials have now to pass through the 
hands of the consuls ; and I have been struck with 
the creditable determination I have found amongst 
missionaries of various Protestant denominations 
to avoid external assistance in pushing their tenets. 
Protestant progress is slow in consequence ; but 
the best of the representatives of this faith are on 
cordial terms with the Chinese officials, and are 
thus in a position to narrow the gulf of mutual 
suspicion which lies between themselves and their 
neighbours. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

I ARRIVED at Nanchang late one afternoon, 
on the first British-owned trading steamer to 
visit the place after the riot. Blue-clad inhabitants 
crowded the river- bank, and thrust eager, half- 
shaven heads out of every visible door and window, 
A steamer was evidently an event Following 
experienced advice, I stepped, uninvited, into a 
dinghy manned by Chinese soldiers in black 
uniforms embroidered with red characters, which 
lay amongst a mass of native craft besieging 
the steamer. I was sculled promptly to the 
nearest guard-house upon the bank. Here I found 
myself in the embarrassing position of a fragile 
curiosity thrust into unwilling hands, which would 
be held answerable for any damage that might 
befall it A guard of soldiers was told off to follow 
me; and though there was no menace in the air 
the curiosity of the crowd was not wholly friendly. 
My guards tackled their troublesome responsibility 
with noisy officiousness ; and the people were 
shouted at and thrust out of the path with a com- 

57 



58 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

motion that brought comers and goers from distant 
thoroughfares to supplement the occasion. The 
city contains a million inhabitants. No doubt the 
number who assembled was but a microscopic 
fraction of the whole, but I found it quite big 
enough to be convincing. 

The place is of the characteristic Chinese type, 
which huddles together closely for protection 
within a high wall, crenellated and moated There 
is no room for streets. Dark, narrow passages 
serve for both highways and sewers, so my 
progress was not as fast as I should have liked 
to make it; but I reached the fine Methodist- 
Episcopal Mission building outside the city at 
last, where I was received with kindness and 
courtesy. Within its walls I learnt something of 
the quiet lives of unselfish devotion which mis- 
sionaries lead in out-of-the-way parts of China, 
and saw one of the hospitals in which sick and 
infirm Chinese are nursed. In due course I was 
given particulars of the catastrophe which had 
overwhelmed, only six weeks previously, all the 
branches of Christian endeavour inside the city, 
and narrowly missed those without. 

The Methodist-Episcopal missionaries live in 
three roomy houses in a big, open compound, close 
to the river. I found a wall in course of erection 
around this compound, and was surprised at the 
slightness of its structure. The entire mission had 
so recently emerged from urgent danger that I 
supposed the wall could be for no other purpose 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 59 

than to resist mob violence, for which, however, its 
proportions were totally insufficient. I remarked 
upon this to the Rev. Edward James, the head of 
the station, and was told that it was simply to keep 
sneak thieves from the garden. It was a comment 
upon the ordinary and the extraordinary risks of 
mission life. 

Late at night I returned to the steamer, my 
guardians splashing in front tl^ough an odorous 
ankle-deep mire, which became constantly more 
liquid as the rain added to its volume, though I 
stumbled occasionally over granite paving-blocks. 
The populace was then in bed, and the procession 
in front of me swayed weirdly in the feeble glow of 
two enormous square lanterns, covered with yellow 
oiled paper bearing red characters, which bobbed 
up and down at the ends of long, willowy sticks. 

At the river*bank we scrambled out of the mud, 
over a fleet of wobbly junks and dinghies to get to 
our boat. I was climbing, in the darkness, over an 
ancient muzzle-loading cannon, on the stern of a 
queer, square vessel, when two large pieces of red 
paper, mysterious with Chinese, were thrust into 
my hand. The lanterns were brought to assist, 
and I was bidden, in cheerful pigeon English, to 
" pay " two cards back. I demanded to be presented 
to my visitors, but was told they were asleep upon 
the Chinese guard-boat which, it appeared, I was 
crossing. So they were not my visitors but my 
hosts, and they had gone to bed ; but I was not 
to escape the due circumstance of the occasion. 



6o THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

Eventually I reached the ship, where my lantern- 
bearers lowered my self-conceit by declining, with 
good-humoured condescension, the payment I 
ventured to offer them. 

The following morning a tall Chinese g^rd-boat 
captain, Wu Mei Ting, presented himself, and proved 
to be a capital fellow. He had been told off by the 
foreign department of the local yamen, thanks to the 
kind offices of my friends of the previous evening, 
to conduct me over the city. Wu Mei Ting took 
me in hand conscientiously. The ship's compra- 
dor's mate was summoned to interpret what we had 
to say to each other. A posse of Chinese police 
was added to the party, and in a body we inspected 
the charred ruins of the monastery, the schools, and 
the mission-house, as the mob had left them, and 
traced the locations of the various fatal tragedies of 
the riot, about which my companion could speak 
with the authority of experience. 

At the time of the disturbances Wu Mei Ting was 
in command of a single wooden guard-boat on the 
river, the size of a London coal-lighter, which carried 
a muzzle-loading cannon of pre-Taiping date, and 
had a crew of five Chinese bluejackets armed with 
ancient Spandal repeating rifles. At no small risk 
to himself, but without firing a shot, Wu Mei Ting 
made his way through the mob, and rescued and 
brought into safety several European missionaries, 
including ladies and children, who were hiding pre- 
cariously in different parts of the city. The trouble 
had roots which went a long way back, but its 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 6i 

immediate cause was the ignorant but honest indig- 
nation on the part of the Chinese at what they 
believed to have been a crime committed by Roman 
Catholic hands. The well*known story is that a 
mandarin magistrate, who had a misunderstanding 
with the French fathers over some disputes he was 
responsible for adjusting, met his death as the sequel 
to self-inflicted injuries received after dinner in the 
monastery. Two distinct charges were brought by 
the Chinese against the French fathers. One was 
that of having put the mandarin into such a position 
that he saw no alternative to suicide as a means 
of escape from loss of "face," which respectable 
Chinese dread more than death. The other was 
the incredibly horrible one of having endeavoured 
to murder the self-wounded man after he had 
bungled in cutting his own throat. 

To Europeans these two charges seem totally 
distinct in nature and of very different degree. 
The mandarin undoubtedly attempted suicide within 
the walls of the monastery, and a further injury was 
afterwards done to him ; but it does not follow that 
the unfortunate French fathers who were massacred 
were to blame. A British naval doctor, who 
examined the corpse of the mandarin some time 
after death, considered that all the injuries were 
suicidal, but the examination could not be held soon 
enough to establish this opinion beyond dispute; 
and in view of the evidence of Dr. Charles, of the 
Methodist-Episcopal Mission, who also saw the 
remains, the Protestant missionary bodies have 



62 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

wisely refrained from depending upon it. Even if 
it be rejected altogether an alternative explanation 
remains, which is accepted in some of the best- 
informed European circles in Middle China. This 
explanation suggests that the second injury was 
inflicted by the Chinese, after the sufferer had been 
carried off from the monastery. The murder, if 
murder occurred, would then be attributable either 
to desire upon the part of Chinese political agitators 
to inflame the passions of the mob against Euro- 
peans, or else to the less diabolical intention of 
carrying out the wishes of the would-be suicide. 

The majority of the Chinese of Nanchang did 
not stop to consider any of these possibilities, but 
greedily swallowed the monstrous allegation that 
the French fathers had murdered the mandarin. A 
minority, who might otherwise have hesitated, seem 
to have been carried away by a typically mandarin 
argument that the owners of a house in which an 
ultimately fatal suicide occurs are responsible for 
the catastrophe, even although they may have had 
no direct connection with it 

The antecedents of the riot are likely to remain 
always a matter for surmise, but the events of the 
disturbance itself are well ascertained. A mob- 
meeting was held, and broke up with cries of 
''Dahl Dahl Dahszf" (Strike! Strike! Kill!), 
and then occurred an indiscriminate massacre of 
foreigners. The Chinese authorities had posted 
guards to protect the missionaries when the riot 
threatened, and from the Chinese point of view the 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 63 

men were true to their charge. They did not dare 
to take the responsibility upon themselves of firing 
upon the mob or of charging it with the bayonet, 
when such a course alone would have saved the 
situation; but they remonstrated with the rioters. 
One of them even threw his arms round the most 
unpopular of the priests and shouted, " Kill me, but 
do not hurt this foreigner," getting his own head 
laid open in consequence by a blow intended for 
the priest Another soldier hid a little European 
child under his coat, thereby saving its life. The 
Chinese have no Riot Act, and except when 
aroused, as the mob was on this occasion, are 
possessed by such fear of responsibility and such 
aversion to shedding blood that it is easy to picture 
the guards vacillating until it was too late. There 
may have been scarcity, or even entire absence of 
cartridges for the antiquated rifles with which they 
were provided ; but bayonets were available in any 
requisite quantity ; and there need have been no 
difficulty in calling in from outside troops armed 
with serviceable weapons. 

With these things in mind I stood upon a yellow 
chunk of slippery granite, in an evil-smelling slough 
of slimy filth, where were recovered the poor battered 
remains of Mr. and Mrs. Kingham, British mission* 
aries. Wu Mei Ting dripped cheerfully in the 
rain, under a black European umbrella on the bank 
above me, while I fumbled with cold, wet fingers 
over a combination of aperture and exposure in 
vain endeavour to photograph a black, closely- 



64 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

barred door under a grey brick arch, where the 
victims took temporary refuge before they were 
kflled. 

Alongside, balanced unsteadily on the nail-heads 
as big as marbles of their greasy brown leather 
boots, were a dozen Chinese soldiers, in black and 
blue undress uniform, illuminated with yard-long 
texts. Beyond, shambled a shabby, blue crowd of 
idlers, attracted by the unusual presence of a 
foreigner. The majority were stalwart coolies, 
armed with stout wooden staves used ordinarily 
to enable two men to share the weight in carrying 
packages of green tea, but capable also of less 
peaceful purpose, as the events of the riot had 
proved At the moment it would be difficult to 
imagine a more harmless-looking set of people ; yet 
it was but a few weeks after the events I have been 
describing. The crowd grew as we progressed. I 
manoeuvred to photograph it when we reached the 
open space where the massacre had been decided 
upon, and again when we were going over the wet 
heaps of fire-scarred bricks and tiles which are all 
that can now be seen of once large and imposing 
monastery and mission-houses; but the soldiers 
thrust the people aside so promptly, when they 
realised my movement, that the position I had 
designed to catch them in was lost. I became 
absorbed in the wall of the joss-house alongside 
while I rearranged the focus. Then I swung round 
suddenly for a snapshot, but the now practised 
stampede was too quick for me« 



C HAKMl.KSS-I.OOKIMi SKT Of I'EOl'I.K W.^I'LI' 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 65 

Wu Mei Ting's flowered silk cape and expensive 
pantaloons with sky-blue lining, were getting wet. 
The black turquoise-studded spectacle-case and 
cigarette satchel, chained to his brown leather belt, 
looked limp and depressed. Even his queue was 
draggled, and the state of his embroidered mandarin 
boots was shocking ; so I hurried him over his 
demonstration of the particular rubble-heaps which 
represented the monastery rooms where the Chinese 
magistrate dined and committed suicide. I excused 
myself from hunting up more than a few of the 
localities in the crowded thoroughfares and their 
wet surroundings where the six unfortunate French 
priests were severally overtaken by the mob and 
beaten to death. At last oyr round was over, and 
we backed politely into conveniently tilted Sedan 
chairs, and were lifted upon the shoulders of our 
respective quartettes of coolies in umbrella hats. 

We left what had now become a very creditable 
crowd, struggled through the name-boards and paper 
lanterns of a gloomy burrow, and climbed up a 
rickety wooden stair to the attic which is the public 
dining-room of the leading hotel. It was dubiously 
dark. At one end was a four-poster bed, with red 
cotton quilt thrown back as the last occupants had 
left it. At the other was a small square window 
looking out over wet, brown tiles. In the middle 
tottered a long trestle table, covered with a strip of 
Manchester piece-goods, grey with grime and pat- 
terned with stains. Tin-tipped chop-sticks, dinted 
and polished with use, were set out upon the table 



66 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

in pairs like school pens at an examination. Im- 
memorial brass cruets, covered with delicate green 
verdigris, further tempted the appetite. 

The illuminated military inscriptions arranged 
themselves sociably in the doorway, whence they 
beamed and steamed upon the proceedings. They 
were all wet and all warm. Wu Mei Ting waved 
me courteously to a chain The assistant ship's 
comprador, in long clerical coat, bright blue petti- 
coat, white stockings and blue slippers with white 
felt soles, seated himself in a friendly way between 
us, and proceeded to demonstrate upon his own 
person the method that is proper in Nanchang of 
polishing the insides of the nostrils and the outsides 
of the face and hands with a fiercely steaming dish- 
cloth. Hurriedly, I explained that ill-health inter- 
fered with my eating a midday meal. I was told 
cheerfully that the hour when my host and his two 
guests would dine had come. I will not dwell upon 
the bounteous dishes of hot gelatinous tooth-combs 
and child's puzzles which I took to be the sharks' 
fins and maws of Indian trade with China, and the 
recondite, round brown blobs which defied identifi- 
cation, nor on the heaped-up plenitude of rice and 
brown slippery things in boiling fluid that followed. 
I sipped some green tea and arrack. My host and 
the comprador's mate performed the necessary rites 
with their chop-sticks to good purpose, and made 
allowance for my foreign inability to consume my 
share of the delicacies that were offered me. 

While we were looking at the ruins it had not 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 67 

been easy to get any connected account of the dis- 
turbance from my companion. It was raining ; the 
crowd pressed ; the picture was too evident and too 
ghastly. Warmed and fed, in the comparative 
privacy of the hotel, Wu Mei Ting became more 
communicative, and between the courses gave me a 
complete account of the ''fighting " and its prelimi- 
naries from his own experience. 

The ship's comprador s mate translated slowly, so 
I enquired if there would be any objection to my 
taking down his words for purposes of publication. 
Permission was given with alacrity, and I present 
the result. It is perhaps barely intelligible, but 
it interested me not only as expressing the views 
of a Chinese gentleman of intelligence who was 
actually present at the riot, but also as being told 
in a style suited to the requirements of our inter- 
preter, and therefore not dissimilar to what one 
Chinese in the crowd would have used to another 
in describing the events. The narrative professed 
to give particulars of three separate incidents. The 
first two were disputes which led to the suicide of 
the mandarin in the French mission-house. The 
third related to the incidents immediately prior to 
and during the riot. 

TAe First Dispute. 

"One man, Sing Song Chi, have got one house ; 
Nanchang sixty miles far" (1.^., sixty miles from 
Nanchang). *' French Chinese mission-men " (i.e.^ 
Chinese Catholic converts) *' lent money to house- 



68 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

owner so house is belonging mission-men." (The 
sum lent was) '^ not enough one thousand taels " 
( i.e., le ss than one thousand taels). " Sing Song 
Chi give house to mission-man as security to be for 
three years — have got papers. Mission-men in one 
and half years write it down for the mission-men's 
house" {t.e., the Catholic converts claimed possession 
before the alleged date for repayment had arrived). 
" He put mission-men's letters over the door " {i.e., 
the converts took possession and had their names 
inscribed over the door as owners). " Some people 
saw the letters and unwilling " {i.e., disapproved) 
•*and talk" {t.e., say) *' mission-men no have got 
customs " {t.e., not acting according to custom) '* and 
never trust French missionellies. And the people 
they all together in one place. She wished to 
fighting with the mission-men. Then the mandarin 
hear them and send soldiers to catch two three men. 
The missionellies " {t.e., the Catholic fathers) '' said 
wish he catch all to prison " {i.e., complained that 
enough had not been arrested). "If not, you must 
pay my money one hundred thousand taels " {Le., 
claimed heavy damages for the threats against the 
converts). '' Mandarin said the men cannot pay the 
money." (This happened) *' three years ago." 

The Second Dispute. 

*' American Chinese mission-men fighting with 
French Chinese mission-men about the pass-river 
biddings " {i.e., a disturbance took place between 
Chinese converts of the Amelican Protestant Mission 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 69 

and Chinese converts of the French Catholic Mission 
over the payment of ferry money). "Amelican 
Chinese lose. Amelican mission Chinese man 
make one boat for pass that river. French mission- 
men pass river in boat and not pay passage money. 
Amelican mission-man was boatmen. He want 
two cash" {ue., fare demanded was less than one 
farthing). " Then make fighting, and Amelican 
mission Chinese have died five men. The man- 
darin Kiang know it and catch three men, French 
mission Chinese, put in the prison." 

" Mr. Wang " {t.e., the Chinese name of one of 
the French Catholic fathers) "wished tell the 
mandarin let off his three mission men " (i.e., to 
let off the Chinese Catholic converts accused of 
killing the five Chinese Protestant converts). " The 
mandarin said because that three men have killed the 
five men they cannot be let off." 

TAe Riot. 

** Because " (i.e., on account of) '* this two kinds 
of business Mr. Wang tell the mandarin Kiang to 
take dinner in French missionelly house " {t.e., the 
French father invited the mandarin in whose juris- 
diction these two cases lay to dine at the mission- 
house to discuss them). " The missionelly tell the 
mandarin finish that case and make square the house 
business too. Then the mandarin cannot promise 
he. Mandarin say : * I cannot make promise. If 
you want do as you talk I will die. I never 
promise you ' " {i.e.y the mandarin was angry with 



70 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

the Catholic father, and threatened to commit 
suicide upon his premises if he pressed him any 
more about these cases). ** Missionelly say, 
' Suppose you die I finish that case — I no want 
you do it' 

" Mandarin then go house ; have got plenty 
following. The missionelly get them away outside. 
Mandarin stop there. The mandarin think he very 
afraid and one boys come out and tell the people. 
He say mandarin was laid down in the house and 
tell the other mandarins" (ie., the mandarin was 
excited, and went into an inner room of the mission- 
house, and the father meanwhile dismissed the 
mandarin's followers. Then a Chinese came out of 
the house and told the people that something had 
happened to the mafidarin). 

** Mr. Wang " {i.e., the Catholic missionary) "said 
he" {t.e., the mandarin Kiang) " killed by himself" 
(i.e., had committed suicide). "The other man- 
darins cannot tell who has killed him. No have 
seen mandarin. No can talk. Then send men to 
carry majidarin to his house. Mandarin waiting 
two days long and then died " (i.e., the mandarin 
was found speechless with his throat cut and was 
carried off by his friends, and died after lingering for 
two days). "He write, but no savvy what he 
write. Afterwards the mandarins tell the missionelly 
we no have seen whose one killed that mandarin. 
We don't care, but this man was killed from here. 
Doctor got said cannot save he. Then she was 
died " (i.e.f the doctor could not save the wounded 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 71 

mandarin's life, and the other mandarins said the 
father was responsible for his death). 

''AH the people wished mandarins to catch 
missionelly to prison. The missionelly would not 
go. Then they " {ue., the people) " wished to make 
fighting. Some one gentleman tell the people don't 
trouble that case. Have got big mandarin : will do. 
The people then all together in the Pek-warju " (held 
a mob-meeting). ** Then all the people gone to 
missionelly house and make fire. Two missionellies 
run away. Mr. Wang is run out by the passage 
door and the public charge he. Mr. Wang passed 
the Kingham house, and Mr. Kingham stand at his 
own door" {i.e.y the mob fired the French mission- 
house, and hunted the unfortunate priests through 
the streets. One of them fled past a neighbouring 
Protestant mission-house, and the occupant, Mr. 
Kingham, went out to see what was happening, 
thereby involving himself and his family in the 
massacre that followed). '' The people did not care 
whose one is French. Then pull Mr. Kingham 
down and killed by stones. Soon Eulopeans all 
run away and beating all killed. Four missionellies, 
falling in the water, died. Mr. Wang died in the 
road." 

After the repast was over I persuaded Wu Mei 
Ting to take me to see the courageous French 
priest who, when the mob was close upon him in 
the riot, carried off upon his back, into safety in 
the city jail, a typhoid-stricken brother he was 



72 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

nursing. He was the only priest in Nanchang to 
escape unhurt, as the brother he rescued died from 
exhaustion and exposure the same night I found 
him alone with his books in a cellar-like chamber 
below the level of a quagmire which filled the con- 
fined yard in front of the building. Our talk was 
limited by some lack of facility on my part in his 
language; but this could not obscure the spirit 
which inhabited the frail body of the man — a spirit 
which sordid discomfort, solitude, and danger had 
been unable to break. We spoke of the actual riot 
only by implication, for its deeds of terror were too 
fresh to be lightly recalled to one so terribly stricken 
by it; but I learnt some additional particulars of 
the disputes with the Chinese which had been pre- 
liminary to it, and was impressed by the courageous 
attitude of my host. ** Moi, je suis Fran^ais" said 
this soldier of the Church who is holding alone the 
ground on which all his friends and comrades have 
suffered martyrdom. It was a pardonable boast. 
Outside the big wooden gate that separated the 
courtyard from a crowded slum Chinese sentries 
paced up and down. They guarded the representa- 
tive of a faith they feared but did not love. 

From the French priest we went on to the 
yamen, where the Chinese Governor, his Excel- 
lency Hu Ting Kai, a keen-featured elderly 
mandarin, was prepared to give his version of the 
trouble with much detail, a highly educated Chinese 
secretary acting as interpreter. The Governors 
eyes flashed through his black-rimmed spectacles. 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 73 

and his right hand went through a pantomime of 
stabbing, while his left sought a small white goatee 
beard as he pressed in rapid Chinese his reasons 
for maintaining that the death of his magistrate 
was not solely due to suicidal action, as the medical 
officer of the first British gunboat to reach Nan- 
chang after the outrage had held. He showed me 
the original of Dr. Charles' report, in English, of a 
post-mortem examination of the remains of the 
mandarin, held about a fortnight after death. This 
states that there were two injuries to the throat, 
one of a typically suicidal nature, done with a sharp 
instrument, the other caused with a blunt instru- 
ment at a later time and with greater force. The 
Governor also stated emphatically that he and his 
officers had had trouble previously with one in- 
dividual French priest and with one alone. Of 
all the other missionaries in the province, including 
American, British, and French, only good was said. 
The Governor admitted that the Chinese soldiers 
deputed to g^rd the missionaries did not fire upon 
the mob in defence of their charge, but declared 
that the mob was so large and the soldiers so few 
that firing would not have prevented the massacre, 
while it would have caused further loss of life. This 
explanation differed little in effect from the even 
more characteristically Chinese view taken by Wu 
Mei Ting, who argued that to have fired upon the 
mob would have been improper, as only a portion 
of the crowd was attacking the missionaries, the 
rest merely looking on! 



74 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

"Some very good men. Some very bad men. 
How shoot ? " was the interpreter's version of his 
statement. Wu Mei Ting has demonstrated his amity 
for the missionaries with action that cannot be mis- 
understood, and he evidently believed what he said. 

The Governor also argued, and I found his view 
shared by the Protestant missionaries in Nanchang 
and its neighbourhood, that there would have been 
no disturbance if there had been no interference 
with the course of Chinese justice where native 
converts were concerned. The subject is an ex- 
ceedingly delicate one, but I may venture again to 
mention the wise course adopted by the Methodist- 
Episcopal and some other missionaries, who have 
refused the offer of mandarin rank, made to them 
as a set-off against the exigence of the French 
Fathers, and resolutely set their faces against 
mixing themselves in any way whatever with the 
temporal affairs of their converts. It was a pleasure 
to notice the cordiality of the tone in which Gover- 
nor Hu Ting Kai spoke of the local representatives 
of the bodies I refer to. 

After leaving the Governor's yamen, Wu Mei 
Ting took me to see the five guard-boats, to the 
command of which he had been promoted, in fitting 
recognition of his courage and energy on behalf of 
the Europeans in the riot I have previously 
quoted the case of the Taotai of Shanghai, who 
obtained promotion after failing to stop a disturb- 
ance. The case of Wu Mei Ting shows that prefer- 
ment in China may also be earned by other action. 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 75 

Wu Mei Ting introduced me to an intelligent 
Chinese lieutenant and paraded his crew. We 
afterwards examined his muzzle-loading nine- 
pounders and ancient repeating rifles, and dis- 
cussed their possibilities ; but my polite curiosity 
about the ammunition could not be gratified upon 
the guard-boats any more than in the city, where 
several of the sentries consented to my examining 
their rifles, but could not show me a single cart- 
ridge. Ammunition, I gather, is not considered 
necessary in Central China for keeping up respect 
for the military arm. Even the soldier's rifle is 
often discarded. I asked some unarmed warriors, 
who insisted upon escorting me through Nanchang 
with lanterns, on the night of my arrival, what 
protection it was possible for them to afford without 
either guns or swords. 

" The lanterns " they told my interpreter cheer- 
fully, " are altogether sufficient." 

Can it have been that the Chinese officials 
thought the same when they set about protecting 
the threatened missionaries? 

Subsequent to the riot the inhabitants of Nang- 
chang showed they are as timid as they are excit- 
able. After rising in sudden fury, and massacring 
their European neighbours indiscriminately, word 
went round that British gunboats would arrive 
'' with bullets as big as pumpkins " to make an end 
of the city. Such a rush to escape then took place 
that a ferryboat was overcrowded and sank, drown- 
ing, I am credibly informed, no less than sixty 



76 THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 

people. Native junks leaving for up-country were 
able to demand and to obtain twenty taels for 
carrying a passenger to places to which they had 
been in the habit of taking him for just one tael. 
The explanation of the panic must be looked for in 
connection with the fact that the danger which threat- 
ened the city was unknown and indefinite ; for no 
one is more indifferent than the Chinese where 
mere ordinary loss of life is concerned. The action 
of the mandarin who brought on the riot by endea- 
vouring to kill himself within the French mission 
premises, is an illustration in point, for to kill one- 
self under the roof or on the doorstep of an enemy, 
for the express purpose of getting that enemy into 
trouble, is a form of revenge that is much patron- 
ised in China. The Governor assured me that the 
stories which have been published to the effect that 
this mandarin was in trouble at the time with his 
own people were untrue ; but his evidence upon this 
point must be received with caution. 

At the time of my visit the streets of Nang- 
chang were almost as safe for a European as are 
those of London. The surviving missionaries, in- 
cluding two ladies, had returned to their work. I 
found an imposing French cruiser and two small 
British gunboats which had been despatched to 
protect the foreigners, lying idle at distant stations 
upon the Yang^se river. The Nanchang incident, 
however, is very far from closed. Never before 
has a charge of murder, brought against Christian 
missionaries, been so influentially supported and 



THE NEMESIS OF THE MIXED MOTIVE 77 

so universally believed. The definite accusation 
levelled at the French fathers was very diffe* 
rent from the vague assertions of child-killing by 
which generations of Chinese agitators have stirred 
up race hatred against Europeans. Never, at a 
critical time, has a more unfortunate impression 
been produced in the bazars. The cry, already 
dangerously powerful, of ''China, at all costs, for 
the Chinese alone," has received a stimulus which 
has affected indigenous feeling from one end of the 
country to the other. 

Some time after my visit to Nanchang the 
Chinese Governor whom I saw there was removed 
from his post by the Peking Government in defer- 
ence to representations made by the British and 
French Legations. A necessary admission was 
thus obtained as to the duties of mandarins in 
the matter of protecting the lives of Europeans 
from mob violence. This concession by the 
Chinese did not prevent the holding at Peking, a 
few days before I reached that centre, of a public 
meeting at which representatives from different 
parts of China were present, to show respect to the 
memory of the Chinese magistrate whose suicide 
was the cause of the riot The meeting was 
orderly and attracted little attention. The Han- 
yang rifle factory clicks even faster than it 
clicked before, turning out mausers and Krupp 
guns which are some day to prevent all inter- 
ference, secular or clerical, in the affairs of the 
country; but externally quiet reigns. 



CHAPTER VII 

HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

/^NE man say he smoke opeem. I think 
V-x not true," observed my factotum conversa- 
tionally, as he gazed at a gorgeously-coloured 
portrait in the paper and wood shanty that serves 
as a hall of reception at the Chinese Government 
arsenal in Hanyang. The portrait as a work of art 
was negligible ; but it interested me almost as much 
as it interested Ah Wun. It was that of a simply- 
dressed Chinese gentleman of seventy, with big 
forehead, dreamy eyes, and nervous mouth, curi- 
ously unlike what one would imagine to belong 
to so material a personage as its original, the 
Viceroy Chan-Chi-Tung, founder of the factories 
that clanged on either side of us and blackened 
the city across the river in front. Chan-Chi- 
Tung is abused and belauded until one does not 
know on which side the balance lies. He has 
built cotton-mills, a mint, a military academy, 
the best rifle factory in China, and the biggest 
steel and iron works in Asia. He has got his 
province into financial difficulty by his lavish 

79 



8o HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

expenditure ; but Hankow with its annexe the 
crowded Chinese city of Hanyang, and its vis-d-vis 
across the Yangtse, that human hive Wuchang, 
is becoming a centre of industries which profoundly 
affect the entire country. Hankow is six hundred 
miles from the sea, yet ocean steamers cast anchor 
opposite its fine esplanade and busy wharves. 
It is the terminus of a railway by which already one 
may travel through the heart of China to Peking, 
and thence through Siberia to Moscow and Calais. 
Its air is thick with factory coal -smoke, yet the 
fresh aroma that crushed green tea alone produces, 
pervades whole streets in the European quarter, 
and makes one imagine oneself back in a garden in 
Assam. 

At Hankow the river rises and falls by forty feet, 
with the alternate melting and freezing of snow 
two thousand miles off in the highlands of Central 
Asia. Hundreds of coolies are constantly engaged 
in consequence, adding to the strength of the wide 
granite-faced bund that already extends five miles 
along the river face. Their shouts, as they hurry 
with swinging baskets of river mud across the 
principal thoroughfare, are a characteristic sound of 
the place. It is upon the bund that the English, 
Russian, German, French, and Japanese conces- 
sions are arranged one after the other, so that each 
nation owns a strip of river frontage. One finds 
English and Russian merchants in big three-storied 
'' hongs " which lounge complacently, with wide 
verandahs open to catch every breeze. The 



HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 8i 

Germans live differently. In their concession 
red-brick villas, with gables and gilt official eagles 
just unpacked from Berlin, stand to attention in 
self-conscious discomfort The Belgians have 
dumped themselves down anyhow, with the odds 
and ends of their railway. The Japanese have 
staked out a claim on a bit of neglected fore* 
shore ; but a fine line of steamers flying their 
flag to the port is the principal evidence of their 
occupation. Two British lines of flat-bottomed, 
three-storied arks, with room for two thousand 
Chinese coolies upon deck, and sumptuous accom- 
modation for first-class passengers above, stump 
the river by the aid of the best engines that 
Scotland can build. A Chinese line imitates them 
and a French one outdoes them in electric- lighted 
top-heaviness. The Russians, the Germans, and 
the Americans send sea-going craft to share in 
the traffic. 

Raw Yangtse cotton stares blanch-faced out 
of coffin-shaped craft, which . dip their varnished 
gunwales under water as they buffet their way with 
pleated mainsails !o Wuchang, where steam-driven 
looms and spinning-jennies whirr in the factories. 
Gunny-covered bales, bursting with Bombay yarn, 
still lumber heavily ashore from the river steamers ; 
but Chan-Chi-Tung's mills know that their day is 
coming. 

The brick-tea industry is divided between 
mandarin and Russian factories. The tea is 
fired at the gardens up-country, and is brought 



82 HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

down to Hankow to be compressed into smooth 
black blocks. The extent and machinery of 
the factories where the compressing is done is a 
revelation to those who are familiar only with 
the simple appliances which the Assam tea-trade 
uses. At least a dozen establishments employ 
steam power. Viewed from the river, the smoking 
chimney-shafts are almost as imposing as those 
of the industrial front of Calcutta. Electrically- 
lighted premises emit the roar of machinery far into 
the night Some of the processes are kept confi- 
dential ; but the main operation, of squeezing 
damped tea-leaves into solid masses, appears to 
be simplicity itself. Both Russians and Chinese 
employ Sikhs to guard their premises. The 
labourers are all Chinese, who work behind closely 
locked doors. 

The brick-tea industry is not the only enterprise 
in which Hankow sets India an example. At 
Hanyang, three miles above the European settle- 
ment, are iron and steel works, also rifle, cordite 
and cartridge factories, which in point of time are 
five years ahead of anything in India. They are 
under Chinese managers who employ German, 
British, and Japanese experts in various depart- 
ments. In the early years of the undertaking 
German engineers were in charge of the ironworks 
only ; and British mechanics directed the rifle 
factory. Characteristic dilBTerences with the British 
employees resulted in the sending for more Germans. 
The pay offered, of six hundred pounds sterling per 



HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 83 

annum, from the time of joining, with bonus, must 
have been enough to attract some talent ; and the 
men themselves say that the money was paid regu- 
larly, and that the Chinese were liberal and con- 
siderate masters. The difficulty, of course, was 
just the fact that they were the masters. The 
Britisher does best when he is on the top. So the 
Germans came. For reasons of economy Japanese 
are now displacing the Germans. I found twenty- 
two Japanese assistants, of whom two were majors 
in the Mikado's forces. 

The manager of the rifle factory, a business-like 
Chinese gentleman, educated at Tientsin, showed 
me courteously over his establishment. His secre- 
tary, another Chinese, acted as our interpreter. 
Teutonic influence in the enterprise was shown 
in our having to talk in German, that being the 
only European language into which the secretary 
could translate the Chinese of my host. 

The manager of the iron and steel works was a 
Chinese of another type. He was educated at 
Hastings and London, and studied iron and steel 
manufacture in both England and America. So far 
as talk and behaviour were concerned, he would 
pass anywhere as a remarkably keen, simple- 
mannered, intelligent and cultivated Englishman. 
He had recently returned to China from Europe, 
where he had been supervising the purchase of 
very extensive new plant. His secretary was a 
young gentleman, also Chinese, also educated at 
an English public school, and possessed of the 



84 HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

manners that appertain thereto. If further testi- 
mony were needed to the indelible stamp of these 
institutions it was surely afforded by this young 
Chinese. He had all the marks, and they went 
oddly with his blue silk dressing-gown and em- 
broidered felt boots. He was good-humouredly 
bored at having to show me round ; but he 
took me in the day's work, and on the whole 
he was kind. 

" I don't know a thing about these machines," 
he stated candidly, and checked my flow of inter- 
rogation. 

•* The fellows," he explained — about the Euro- 
pean employees — "don't get at all bad pay." 
He patronised me infinitely ; and I liked him 
very much. 

The shipping business, which is of considerable 
magnitude, is in the capable hands of a British ex- 
sea captain. The blast-furnaces are controlled by 
Germans. The whole establishment is well organ- 
ised. The rifle factory is not anything like so up 
to date as the Indian one at Ishapore; but it was in 
full working a good many years before the Govern- 
ment of India brought themselves to the point of 
undertaking anything of the kind. The blast- 
furnaces, steel-making plant, and rolling mills have 
long been turning out pig-iron, rails, and girders for 
every kind of purpose, while the Tata scheme in 
India is still only hoping to do the same. I 
travelled by train for three hundred miles, from 
Hankow to the Yellow River, the whole way over 



INKS JN >[]I>II1.I-; 



HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 8$ 

eighty-five lb. railway rails manufactured from the 
ore in the Hanyang works ; and I have Sheffield 
expert authority for the statement that there is not 
much wrong with the quality. 

Just now, the Hanyang steel factory is in a stage 
of transition, as the Bessemer process, hitherto in 
use, is being discarded, and the Siemens open-hearth 
system introduced. The yards are piled high with 
newly imported plant for rolling mills, furnaces, and 
electric installation, to the value of ;^ 1 20,000, which 
will take nearly two years to erect. When the 
whole is in working the total output of steel is to be 
about one hundred thousand tons per annum. 

Two blast-furnaces, with modern steam blowers 
and pumping plant, are still in operation, turning 
out from one hundred and fifty to one hundred and 
eighty tons of excellent pig-iron daily. This is to 
be increased to four hundred tons when the new 
steel plant is ready. The iron-ore and limestone 
for the furnaces are brought up to the works in 
substantial flats, towed by steamers, from the 
Laishan mines, which are situated seventy-five 
miles down the Yangtse. A railway twenty miles 
long connects the iron mines with Shihuiyan, the 
station upon the river where the flats pick up the 
mineral. Most of the coal and coke travel by river- 
steamer from Nganuen, near Ping Lsiang, three 
hundred miles south of Hankow, on the Kangsi 
border of the Hunan province. They are supple- 
mented by Japanese coal brought in as ballast by 
Japanese steamers that fetch pig-iron and ore. The 



86 HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

iron ore claims to contain sixty per cent, of metal, 
and to compare with the boasted Swedish article 
in freedom from undesirable constituents. The 
Nganuen coal does fairly well, though inferior to 
the Japanese article. The railway, the flats, and 
steamers all belong to the works. 

The output of thirty-foot rolled rails has hitherto 
been about one hundred and fifty per diem. It is 
hoped to roll four times that quantity before long. 
It is unlikely that there will be any difficulty about 
a market Last year a consignment of pig-iron 
was taken to San Francisco by an enterprising 
company of shipowners in search of return freight 
for vessels engaged in carrying American lumber to 
China. The cargo sold at a large profit ; and the 
trade may be expected to grow, as cheap freight by 
steamers which would otherwise be travelling empty 
can be relied upon. The Japanese Government is 
another large buyer of the pig-iron, besides being 
under contract to take annually one hundred 
thousand tons of unsmelted ore from the mines. 
The principal customer, however, is and always will 
be China itself. The Hankow- Peking railway took 
all the rails the factory could produce at the time 
the line was being built ; but the section from the 
Yellow River to Peking had to be constructed with 
foreign rails, owing to the extent to which the out- 
put of the factory was already booked for delivery 
elsewhere. At present the steel used in the rifle- 
making works at Hanyang is all imported from 
Sheffield. Crucible steel for the purpose, made 



HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 87 

upon the spot, is to be one of the next develop- 
ments. 

The position of the iron and steel works in regard 
to the Chinese Government is somewhat complicated. 
Viceroy Chan-Chi-Tung initiated the enterprise 
from provincial funds, spending in all some five 
million taels (half a million sterling). For some 
time an annual loss was made upon the working. 
While this was still the case pressure to take over 
the concern was put upon Shengkung Pao, the 
fabulously rich ex*Taotai of Tientsin, who is now 
one of the members of the Board of Public Affairs 
in Shanghai. Shengkung Pao has since become the 
principal owner, and has increased by ten million taels 
the amount of the capital employed. The Chinese 
Government has retained a share in the concern, 
and shows the proprietary nature of its interest by 
exempting supplies imported for the use of the 
undertaking from the payment of customs duty. 

The rifle factory is a purely Government venture. 
It is equipped with extensive, steam-driven machine 
shops containing plant far larger and of better 
type than that employed in Shanghai. I found 
the works in full operation, and was told that 
they were turning out daily fifty completed rifles 
and twenty thousand smokeless cartridges to match, 
an estimate which I have reason to believe is 
under rather than above the actuals. The rifles 
are serviceable mausers, of the 1888 pattern, with 
exposed breech action, tested up to a deviation of 
five feet at five hundred metres range. The stocks 



88 HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

are of locally grown walnut. The rifles are better 
finished than those made at Shanghai. A European 
who had done a good deal of shooting with them, 
using the cartridges to match, told me that the 
principal defect he found was some liability, on 
the part of the exploded cartridge-case, to stick 
on the breech after the barrel gets hot. This does 
not entirely disable the weapon, but makes it neces- 
sary to have a ramrod ready to facilitate extraction. 
The cap of the cartridge is sometimes loose and 
liable to fall out 

The cartridges are sheathed with brass which is 
rolled upon the premises. The bullets are encased 
in nickel. The filling is done by automatic 
machinery, which weighs the bullets and the 
completed cartridges separately, and thus subjects 
the measurement of the powder to a double 
check. A percentage of the cartridges is proved 
by firing. Each process of manufacture of both 
rifles and cartridges is done by a series of spe- 
cialised machines so arranged that it is possible to 
follow the parts round the shops and see them 
grow, step by step, from shapeless steel bars, brass 
and nickel ingots, and walnut logs into the com- 
pleted weapon. 

The factory also makes quantities of a light 
field-gun with Nordenfeldt-block breech action, 
and short barrel mounted upon low field-carriage, 
with fork recoil attachment to the wheels. The 
gun is of 57 mm. bore. It carries a cast-iron 
shell, with brass percussion fuse weighing about 



HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 89 

six pounds. It is a somewhat out-of-date but by 
no means useless weapon. I saw a shed full of 
the completed article which the factory claims to be 
producing at the rate of about twelve per month. 
The capacity of the shell factory was given me as 
three hundred per diem ; but the quantity now 
being turned out was not placed higher than three 
thousand per month, and I should doubt its being 
so much. The guns are intended so much more 
for show than use, that a large ammunition supply 
is not considered essential ; but this does not 
apply to the rifles. 

A small mountain gun, of 37 mm. bore, with 
cast-iron shell to match ; the whole mounted upon 
a mule pack-saddle, is also manufactured, but in 
lesser quantity. I saw a modern quick-firing gun, 
with shrapnel-proof shield, and was told that some 
of its pattern had been made in the works ; but 
none were under construction when I passed 
through. Both the field and the mountain gun 
are shaped upon the lathe out of solid steel 
blocks imported from Europe. The planing and 
rifling plant is very similar to that in use at the 
Cossipore works of the Government of India ; but 
there is this important difference, that the guns 
have no separately-shrunk-on outer case, and no 
wire-winding is attempted. A brass time-fuse was 
shown to me as one of the articles manufactured in 
the works ; but I saw none being made. 

When I was at Hanyang some of the staff were 
starting upon a four weeks' journey to Cheng-tu-fu, 



90 HANKOW AND ITS FACTORIES 

where the Chinese propose to found a big arsenal 
and factory, which shall be so far from the sea and in 
so ungetatable a location that it shall defy capture 
in case of war. The idea is one that has long been 
floating about in China. It contemplates that future 
to which all Chinese look forward, when a struggle 
with powers having command of the sea shall take 
place. I do not pretend to be able to say whether 
it will materialise. The difficulties that are to be 
offered to the invading army apply also to the 
transport of machinery and materials, and are very 
considerable. 

Hankow stands for Chinese enterprise. Its fac- 
tories are in a transitional stage. Europeans and 
Japanese own some of them and are employed as 
experts in others, but the part taken by the Chinese 
themselves increases continually. 



CHAPTER VIII 



TO PEKING BY RAIL 



UP to quite recently the traveller who would 
reach Peking overland from the valley of the 
Upper Yangtse had to resign himself to five hundred 
miles of weary stage driving, through country lanes 
which are dust-heaps in fine weather, and often im- 
possible bogs in wet. He was compelled to spend 
night after night, for weeks together, in the miser- 
able hovels with torn paper window-panes, which do 
duty for inns in China, with filth and disease for 
bedfellows, and discomfort and incivility in continual 
attendance. The capital of China was as inacces- 
sible by land as springless mule carts and absence 
of macadam could render it. Now the journey can 
be made without change from Hankow to Peking 
by rail. 

Up to last April one train started every day from 
each end ; but it went forward only during daylight 
hours, and took four days to traverse the line. The 
carriages were the ordinary day coaches in use upon 
lines in Continental Europe, and there were no 

arrangements for sleeping. Each night the traveller 

91 



92 TO PEKING BY RAIL 

had to turn out and seek shelter and food, as best 
he could, in some Chinese city. I was one of the 
first to travel by a very much faster and more 
luxurious train, which started when I was at 
Hankow to run once a week to Peking and back, 
making the journey each way in thirty-six hours, 
without stopping at night. It was probably the 
only thing of its kind in China. It had bogie 
carriages with sleeping arrangements upon the 
wagon-lit principle, and boasted a comfortable 
dining-saloon in which European food was .served 
by Chinese waiters under a Belgian chef. The 
language spoken upon the line was exclusively 
French, but both Hankow and Peking money was 
accepted. 

I found my way ih a creaking jinrickshaw in 
the dark to the gusty Hankow railway station, 
where a civil French-speaking Chinese station- 
master was in charge. All luggage was weighed, 
but the excess charges were by no means un- 
reasonable, and the usual Continental receipt was 
given for it My fellow-passengers included Ger- 
mans, Frenchmen, Chinese, Japanese, and British. 
We stowed ourselves into comfortable berths, and 
the train moved smoothly off to an accompaniment 
of loud banzais from Japanese who were upon the 
platform with their women-folk to say goodbye to 
a compatriot. 

Chinese newspapers were reporting at the 
moment the existence of a rebellion in the pro- 
vince of Honan, through which we were to pass. 



TO PEKING BY RAIL 93 

One of them went so far as to allege that four 
hundred people had been killed ; but we knew 
nothing of the story at the time, and J am afraid 
I cannot describe our journey as even adventurous 
in fancy. We found out afterwards that such dis- 
turbance as had occurred had been put down 
weeks before by some of the Nanking Viceroy's 
troops. The published repyorts were both exag- 
gerated and belated. Rebellion in China, one may 
add in passing, is a large word for a comparatively 
harmless affair as a rule. The people inform the 
Governor that his exactions are in excess of custom 
and that he must reduce them. If he agrees, the 
matter ends. If not, there is a demonstration, and 
perhaps some shooting; but this is only pre- 
liminary to a compromise, for the Peking 
Government never backs up its officials when 
force has to be resorted to ; and the people seem 
temperamentally averse to pushing any successes 
they may obtain to extremes. The troops 
boast of the numbers of the enemy they have 
killed; but the fighting does not often amount to 
very much. A typical story was told me of the 
Taotai of a city through which I passed, who 
claimed to have put down a rebellion, but ex- 
plained, when pressed for particulars, that it had 
not been necessary to fight, since by happy in- 
spiration he had taken out a tiger skin, which 
had so frightened the insurgents that they had 
all run away. 

The train travelled, during the night, northwards 



94 TO PEKING BY RAIL 

from Hankow through the flat valley of the Yangtse 
river. Wooded hills came down on either side 
pf us at dawn when we crossed the watershed 
into the Yellow River basin. All the rest of the 
five hundred miles to Peking the line stretched 
through level country. The only big natural 
obstacle was the Yellow River itself. The railway 
traverses the middle of China. It has been built 
by a company of enterprising Belgians, of whom so 
many hard things have been said that I feel almost 
apologetic in having failed to recognise any 
iniquities. If the engineering work cost more 
than the projectors expected, and if it be not as 
solid as on some other railways, I can say only 
that the train travelled remarkably steadily and 
fast, t^at the food in the restaurant car was 
good, tjie sheets in the wagon-lit clean, the 
officials invariably civil, and the fare reasonable. 
If the undertaking be, as has been alleged, an 
integral ^rt of a Russo-French scheme to rule 
an iron line across China from Tongking to 
Siberia, and to squeeze Englishmen out of the 
country, I must still admit that I found it a con- 
venient link between the British ship which 
landed me at Hankow and the British bank 
which cashed my note of credit in Peking. 

The line is immensely important. For patriotic 
reasons I sympathise with the wish that my own 
fellow-countrymen had had the building of it. 
I admire the more the enterprise of the men who 
secured the undertaking. The robber in me 



TO PEKING BY RAIL 95 

swelled with covetousness as the richness of the 
country through which we travelled unfolded 
itself. I found myself asking, again and again, 
what could not Indian civilians have made of such 
a land and its millions of industrious, peace-loving, 
law-abiding inhabitants? For six hundred miles 
from Shanghai to Hankow, as I sailed up the 
Yangtse river, rice crops had stretched on either 
bank as far as my eyes would carry. As the 
railway brought me north I passed into the 
temperate zone. The rice gave place to wheat 
Carefully tilled fields bearing promise of heavy 
harvest extended for five hundred miles at right 
angles to my former route. I was tracing out the 
bounds of plot of thirty thousand square miles of 
rich agricultural land, heavily populated and in- 
dustriously cultivated throughout Peasants at 
wayside railway stations were in coats of padded 
bed-quilt, with long months of wear inscribed upon 
the seams. The houses grew substantial. A 
winged stone screen, in blue brick frame, balanced 
in front of every door to keep bad spirits out ; for 
hobgoblins, as every child in China knows, cannot 
get round a comer. Purple masses of pendulous, 
tree-wisteria flower and white pear-blossom told 
of spring returning to a northern land. It was the 
last week in April, yet reasons of warmth made 
me seek out a car step, in an angle where the full 
heat of the sun could strike me and where the 
bitter, dusty wind was fended off by the car in 
front It is exhilarating to fly through Middle 



96 TO PEKING BY RAIL 

China on the Hankow-Peking wagon-lit's train- 
step, and ridiculously safe where one has a stout 
brass handle conveniently placed on either side» 
as I had, to hold on to whenever a bridge beneath 
was deep or the willow-shoots on the embankment 
were swung suddenly away by an unexpected 
siding. 

At breakfast the Belgian conductor reported that 
we were approaching the Yellow River bridge ; and 
we at once sought the train windows for the 
embankments that the school primers talk about 
as protecting the country from flood. Presently 
we thought that we had discovered what we were 
looking for. The height climbed a hundred feet 
in the distance upon the left, and was covered 
with scrub-jungle, out of which rose joss-houses and 
Chinese dwellings. But it, was rather too big and 
too much like a natural line of hills to satisfy our 
expectations. Another objection was that it was 
not continued on the right of the track, where the 
country stretched away indefinitely upon precisely 
the same level as ourselves. Doubts about the 
school primers' information began to gather in our 
minds, and were confirmed when a gleam of water 
flashed out of a yellow desert of sand at the point 
where what we imagined to be the embankment 
left off. The train stopped at tl>e foot of the hill. 
A short tunnel through an outlying spur lay in 
front. On the left was a flat-bottomed gully, 
which ran into the range longitudinally, and 
afforded a vista of irregularly piled-up loam 



TO PEKING BY RAIL 97 

covered with a framework of bushy trees. The 
branches were thickening with budding leaves, 
too small to throw any appreciable shadow upon 
the glaring dust. 

On the right a giant millipede strode on long 
thin legs into- the distance across a waste of sand 
and waters. The bridge was there indeed. The 
spur, through which the railway tunnelled, alone 
concealed its head. There was no embankment. 
The line where the green crops ended and the 
yellow parterre of sand and water began, stretched 
away to the horizon without break in level. There 
was nothing visible to prevent the pea-soup stream 
from extending when in flood to any extent over 
the cultivation. A schoolroom tradition was de- 
stroyed which the hills on the left could not restore* 
however like embankments they might seem. It 
is possible that the Yellow River may live, else- 
where in its long course, up to its old reputation 
of a stream embanked upon either side until it is 
high above the surrounding country. It does 
nothing of the kind, so far as I could see, at the 
point where the Belgian railway crosses it 

There was barely time to take a photograph of 
the gorge before the train plunged into the tunnel 
through the spur, and the roar of reverberating 
steel girders announced that we were upon the 
bridge. Behind us, lining the channel upon the 
left, was now the range of hills which ended 
abruptly at the railway. In front the cobweb of 
girders stretched out over what seemed to be 



98 TO PEKING BY RAIL 

some miles of a desert streaked with winding 
streams. Cautiously we rumbled forward and 
looked down through the open framework upon 
alternating dusty stretches and rushing water far 
below. In places the streams were grubbing, like 
terrier after rat, at the base of the perilously slender 
columns which supported the track. I wondered 
how much of the foundations had been undermined 
since the last train had crossed. Some of the dusty 
stretches were dotted with hundreds of blue human 
ants toiling to build up, at the more seriously 
threatened points, breastworks of sand which the 
water may or may not respect when it rises. 
Down-stream, a hundred junks floated placidly 
upon an expansion of the river, their sails gleaming 
swan-like in the strong midday light. 

The prolonged reverberation of vibrating girders 
gave place at length to the substantial hum of 
metalled permanent-way. We had reached the 
further bank, where the train took heart and 
quickened its pace. We sped through low-lying 
country, across a flimsy embankment a few feet 
high, which gives the river-bed on the northern 
shore some slight hint as to the course intended 
for it — a hint which is omitted altogether to the east 
of the hills on the southern bank. Miserable huts, 
where once were thriving villages, reminded us that 
the population have not yet recovered from the 
floods in which millions of human beings perished, 
barely a generation ago ; but no sign appeared of 
the famine which must even then have begun to 



TO PEKING BY RAIL 99 

pinch the people. The river still flows in the 
channel which it carved in summer fury, when 
it changed its course from the south to the north of 
the Shantung Peninsula and adopted the Pechihli 
Gulf, in place of the Yellow Sea, for its outfall. It 
is an obstacle which must always cause much anxiety 
to the railway. 

At almost every station where the train stopped 
we found a crowd of countrymen prepared to take 
intelligent interest in our affairs. Of local traffic 
there was little, for few but foreigners travel by 
express in China, the man of the country preferring 
cheaper means of conveyance. The people had 
come from near and far to look at us. In only rare 
instances did they either beg or endeavour to 
dispose of inferior Chinese bronzes or more pre- 
tentious curios from Birmingham. At every stop- 
ping-place was a soldier in black coat and red 
inscription, carrying an 1888 pattern mauser rifle 
from the Hanyang arsenal, and proud to show us 
how smartly he could come to attention at the word 
of command. There was no ammunition in his 
pouch ; but we felt we were being taken care of by 
the Government, immanent somewhere as usual to 
watch over the safety of the troublesome stranger. 
We were received at a surprising number of 
apparently insignificant halting-places by comfort- 
able Belgian station-masters. 

A pair of steel rails, glistening on a stone-ballasted 
side-track which branched away upon the left, soon 
reminded us that a British company, calling itself 



ICO TO PEKING B7 RAIL 

the Peking Syndicate, is developing a coal-field 
in the middle of North- Western China, and will 
supply mineral of good quality some day to both 
Peking and Hankow. 

Eruptions of rough earth, amongst smoodi green 
crops, with a cypress-tree or two alongside, and a 
substantial stone table in front, where ghosts can 
sit conveniendy to read inscriptions engraved upon 
stone pillars by pious descendants, became more 
and more frequent features of the landscape, as the 
second morning wore on. Presendy we entered a 
region which was little else than a vast graveyard. 
The horizon bristled with sharp-pointed earth heaps, 
each representing a tomb. Not a single neglected 
mound or protruding board was visible, though the 
Chinese place the coffin merely upon the open 
ground, and pile up earth on the top of it with- 
out any attempt at sinking it below the sur&ce. 
The heaps were in groups, each representing a 
family, and sheltered by a mound to keep evil spirits 
away and preserve the ^'fanshui" (good luck) of 
the location. These mounds are generally upon the 
north. It is on them that good spirits rest, with 
one elbow upon the mythical tiger and the other on 
the dragon that guard the resting-place of the dead. 
Cultivation goes on around the graves. Well-fed 
ox and corpulent donkey, yoked as a pair, drew 
substantial carts past the train. Blue poke-bonnets 
on wheels, with fine mules between the strings, 
pottered along the hi^ways, the famous Peking 
carts that even a Chinese country quagmire does 






TO PEKING BY RAIL loi 

not appal. Houses grew frequent Fruit-trees 
covered with masses of pink blossom appeared on 
every side. We passed through a stone archway 
in an ancient wall, where grey keeps and battle- 
ments towered upon the left, found ourselves in the 
middle of an enormous Chinese city, and realised 
Peking. 



.«H 



CHAPTER IX 



THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 



TO see the Peking of to-day the traveller should 
climb out of the poisonous atmosphere of the 
narrow streets, up the steep ramp of the Tartar wall. 
There the wind blows keen and the air is com- 
paratively pure. The straight thoroughfare, fifty 
feet wide, covered with broken paving-stones, which 
is the top of the wall, extends in front. On either 
side are ruins of breast-high battlements. The 
thoroughfare opens into a succession of squares 
over the bastions. Enormous pagoda towers, with 
crude pictures of g^n-muzzles painted upon the 
shutters of the emplacements, strut at intervals 
along the way. Southward, beyond the arched 
Watergate where the Indian contingent scrambled 
into the city when the Allies relieved the Legations 
in 1 900, ripple the myriad roofs of the Chinese city, 
sharply divided, beneath one's eyes, by the broad 
thoroughfare which Tartar conquerors drove through 
the packed capital they found. To the north, the 
yellow porcelain tops of the Forbidden City and its 
imperial palaces differentiate themselves in the pall 



103 



104 THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 

of smoke, dust, and vapour that hangs over the 
hived dwellings of lesser folk. On the horizon 
to the left, the cathedral, where six years ago a 
stout-hearted French priest and a few converts and 
helpers denied entrance to besieging Boxer mobs, 
raises a Christian pinnacle. Nearer in is the fine 
American Methodist hospital, which helps the 
missionary cause by filling a real want in the 
city. Immediately below, a stone clock-tower 
stands on guard over a prosperous British bank, 
a lasting memento of fifty soon-spent millions fur- 
nished to the Chinese Government A few well- 
paved roads are visible in the neighbourhood of 
the foreign Legations ; but they do not materially 
alter the character of the place. 

Mule carts still jolt silk-coated mandarins before 
dawn to daylight audiences in the palace. Black, 
powdery dust rises in the same clouds, to spread over 
the tinned foods and bottled drinks which the globe- 
trotter survives as hardily as ever. The dim curio- 
shops in the evil-smelling lanes of the Chinese city 
have restocked their looted shelves with ivories and 
embroideries, and beg^n again their profitable trade. 
The coolies who drag ramshackle jinrickshaws over 
slimy refuse heaps, have dropped no note of aggres- 
sion in their argumentative claims for more pay 
than they are entitled to receive. The six years 
which have passed since the relief of the Legations 
have made no difference in the relative positions of 
the middle-aged puppet Emperor and the imperious 
Dowager he obeys. The old international jealousies 



•»^ 



THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 105 

still bristle bebind the ostentatiously concealed 
emplacements of the herded Legations. But the 
white man is no longer where he was. His repre- 
sentatives continue to hold, with armed guards, 
ground they seized at a time of war in the capital 
of a people with whom they have since made peace ; 
but this is merely one of the anomalies common 
in the Far East. Great Britain and Japan have 
accepted China as an independent power like them- 
selves. The Americans are helping to keep up the 
impression. France and Germany are trying to 
look as if they had not got any Chinese property 
about their persons, whether in Tongking, Shantung 
or elsewhere. Small fry like Portugal, Spain, Italy, 
Belgium, and Austria, which also hold semi-fortified 
positions in Peking, are watching their bigger 
neighbours uncomfortably. Defeated but still 
magnificent Russia only is unconcerned ; and now 
that one portal into China has been wrested from 
her by Japan, is pushing hard at every other. The 
Chinese are never tired of advertising that they 
can do without the European. In Peking, one is 
tempted, almost, to believe that the European is of 
the same opinion, and that he is endeavouring to 
behave in his battlemented Legation stronghold as 
if he were upon sufferance or invitation. 

A battered corner of the wall of the British 
portion of the entrenchment has been left unre- 
paired to show the marks of the cannon which 
played upon it from the Imperial enclosure in 1900. 
It bears in large, naive black letters the quotation, 



io6 THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 

" Lest we forget," but is inconspicuous in the 
policy of forgetting which is in operation. 

The Legation fortifications in Peking are neces- 
sary. If they were removed the Europeans would 
be unable to protect themselves and their women 
and children from the periodical mob violence which 
the Chinese Government has proved itself too weak 
to control. The Anglo- Japanese- American policy 
of preserving the autonomy and integrity of the 
country, adopted for international reasons far re- 
moved from Peking, has resulted in the compulsory 
assumption by the white man of an attitude which 
is foreign to his relations with every other alien race 
in the world. In India, a vast Empire has been 
built upon prestige. In China, prestige has been 
allowed to disappear, and the European has to put 
up in consequence with barely concealed contempt 
and hostility, which are liable to develop at any 
time into insult and injury. 

China has taken, in her own slow way, the advice 
continually proffered her from the West, to employ 
foreigners to furnish her with armament and to 
drill her soldiers. She has got together a great 
deal of more or less modern material of war, and a 
large force of men not altogether despicable, from 
a fighting point of view, in spite of the essentially 
peaceful character of her people. With Russia 
defeated by a nation that China holds to be her 
own inferior, and with France and Germany — the 
only other nations likely to interfere with her 
autonomy — in effectual check, she is forming the 



THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 107 

inflated opinions of her own position natural to 
the Eastern mind. She has not forgotten the 
catastrophe which befell her efforts in 1 900 to expel 
the foreigner. She acquiesces in his presence as 
an unavoidable evil, and protects his person with a 
solicitude that is sometimes pathetic, in order to 
avoid subsequent trouble ; but she has no respect 
or liking for himself. 

The progress in certain branches of Western 
civilisation which China is making, is real and un- 
mistakeable. What is even more apparent than 
this progress, however, is backwardness in other 
branches. With a soil far richer than that of 
India and a population larger, more intelligent and 
more industrious, China is utterly distanced by that 
country in everything that public enterprise confers. 
In isolated industries initiated for her by Europeans, 
such as the iron and steel works at Hanyang and 
the brick tea factories at Hankow, she holds her 
own. In almost everything where her own people 
have been long in charge, she lags lamentably 
behind. The taxes levied by her officials are at 
least as heavy, /^r capita^ as those raised in India, 
yet the corruption in her public services is so great 
that the total sum which finds its way into the 
Imperial Treasury is only about one-tenth of what 
the Government of India is able to spend upon 
administration. China is burdened with a relatively 
large national debt, yet she has practically no repro- 
ductive public works to lighten the burden of the 
interest. She does not own a tenth of the railway 



io8 THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 



mileage of India. The splendid canals, which cen- 
turies ago doubled the present fertility of enormous 
areas of territory, have fallen into ruin. The country 
is almost innocent of metalled roads. Possessed of 
a people amongst whom learning is a passion, her 
educational institutions have but one advanced 
student in the modern sense where those of India 
have scores. The Calcutta University alone 
possesses two thousand undergraduates. The Im- 
perial University of Peking, which represents 
modern learning in the capital, contained exactly 
two hundred and forty students at the time of my 
visit This university is one of the most deserving 
and valuable institutions in China. Its foreign 
professors are able and sympathetic, and, with 
proper support, would make its future distinguished, 
since finer raw material for intellectual development 
than the Chinese student is not to be found in 
Asia ; but it is fifty years behind the University 
of Calcutta; and even the small amount of en- 
couragement it receives from the mandarins is in- 
secure. It was founded only three years ago, as a 
sequel to the abolition of the Confucian examina* 
tions; but the Peking reactionaries are already 
undermining the basis on which it stands, and the 
edict issued in January, 1907, which reintroduces 
the Confucian standards, threatens to complete its 
destruction. Other branches of Chinese official 
enterprise are in an equally unsatisfactory position. 
A postal system on European lines has been intro- 
duced and has succeeded up to a certain point, 



THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 109 

thanks to its initiation having been placed in the 
capable hands of Sir Robert Hart ; but here also 
Chinese interference has prevented the development 
which would have occurred in any better governed 
country. I saw in Tientsin men who had travelled 
long distances from the interior to collect at the 
head office of the Transvaal Immigration Agency, 
in person, sums as small as five Chinese dollars, 
remitted to them from Johannesburg. They could 
not get the money sent to their homes by postal 
order, as would be done, as a matter of course, 
in India, because the Chinese Post Office cannot 
be depended upon to perform such service with 
reliability. 

The state of medical science may be judged by 
the fact that when, in Nanchang, international com- 
plications hung upon the curing of the magistrate 
who cut his throat in the precincts of the French 
mission, the man died because not a Chinese 
doctor could be found, in a city of a million inhabi- 
tants, capable of performing so elementary a 
surgical operation as that of sewing up a by no 
means considerable wound. In Canton a temple 
flourishes as a dispensary ; but it affords no medical 
treatment The patient gets what benefit he may 
from kowtowing to the individual image, out of 
sixty, which happens to be numbered to correspond 
with the years of his age. The high-class Chinese 
of Peking claim to be civilised, yet the Imperial 
Palace in the Forbidden City has all the insanitary 
and draughty discomfort of an ill-built shanty. 



no THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 

The Emperor ploughs with his own hands an 
annual furrow in the grounds of the Temple of 
Agriculture at Peking, to propitiate the wegtther ; 
but he is helpless to save millions of the inhabi- 
tants of the Yellow River valley who die when 
the floods are excessive. His Imperial Majesty 
mounts the carved marble platform of the Temple 
of Heaven, and reads, for the information of the 
deity, a periodical summary of the acts of his 
administration ; but his officials still employ torture 
in the ordinary course of their dispensation of 
justice, and the rack, the thumbscrew, and the 
dragon's stool are a much-used portion of the 
equipment of every yamen. 

*' I strung him up by the thumbs with my own 
hands," remarked a mild-faced Taotai to a European 
missionary ; "I was determined he should confess." 
Yet the malefactor in this case was merely an 
ordinary prisoner, accused of some purely domestic 
crime, who had annoyed the officer of the law by 
protesting that he was innocent. 

The people of China are the most law-abiding 
in the world ; but public opinion overrides the law, 
being so strong that it is the ultimate court of 
political appeal. The Government is one of in- 
action exacerbated by tax-gathering. The officials 
maintain their position, not by force, but because 
of the respect which constituted authority com- 
mands. They keep up soldiers and police to 
enhance the dignity of their own positions, and, 
incidentally, to suppress rebellions and catch, casti- 



THE PEKING OF TO-DAY iii 

gate, torture, or behead such persons as they con- 
sider to be malefactors ; but all their actions are 
limited by what public opinion will allow. Local 
governors are appointed from Peking because the 
people would not otherwise recognise the validity 
of their authority ; but the imperial throne does not 
interfere in the ordinary administration. The head 
telegraph office at Peking, which handles the official 
despatches of the capital, is about as large as would 
be required in an up-country station in India. The 
Court demands of its viceroys and governors, first, 
that they shall remit it enough money to pay its 
expenses, and, second, that they shall keep out 
of trouble with the populace. Provided these two 
conditions be fulfilled the officials may do very 
much what they please. The towns are cesspools 
of insanitation, with dark tortuous passages in place 
of streets, and are devoid of the most elementary 
conveniences. This state of things is not due to 
ignorance. Close beside some of the worst of the 
Chinese towns are European - managed foreign 
settlements. Here everything is different The 
streets are broad and well-lighted; electric trams, 
waterworks and sewers are maintained efficiently. 
Sanitation^ order and convenience are attended to, 
because white men, and not Chinese, are responsible. 
But Peking is full of illustrations of the great 
possibilities of the Chinese. The massive walls 
are monuments of industry. The carved temples 
testify to a long plundered national art. I spent a 
dusty afternoon looking for a magazine and powder 



112 THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 

factory which a German map indicated as existing 
in the south-west corner of the Chinese city. I 
discovered the buildings at length, but they were 
deserted and in ruins. Alongside was something 
at least as interesting. It was a Chinese paper 
factory without appliances, other than a few vats, 
sticks, and mats, yet turning out a product which 
competes successfully, throughout China, with the 
machine-made paper of Indian and German steam 
factories. Pallid creatures stood up to their waists 
in holes in the earthen floor of the hovel in which 
die principal process was conducted, toiling early 
and late, under conditions of incredible insanitation 
and discomfort, each having to complete, as his 
daily task, the manufacture of six hundred sheets 
of coarse brown paper. I saw men handling the 
mats that did duty for screens, with skill that would 
have made them leading hands in any European- 
run steam mill. Yet they are content to labour in 
Peking for the remuneration of the meanest coolie. 
Such sights must continue until an administration 
arises capable of directing the great industrial 
abilities of the people into more profitable channels. 
There is no lack of intelligence in the ruling 
classes. Only honesty of endeavour in the interest 
of the public is required. At present the canker of 
dishonesty destroys confidence in everything that 
is official. Taotais of cities like Shanghai and 
Tientsin, who are the presidents of the local 
municipalities, make fortunes which are believed in 
China to run into hundreds of thousands of pounds. 



THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 113 

When this is the case with superiors it i^ easy 
to picture what goes on with subordinates. The 
people are so extraordinarily honest in their private 
dealings, and the officials rule them so largely by 
sufferance, that it is reasonable to hope, with the 
best informed foreign residents, for some efficient 
endeavour from within to end the eternal official 
squeezes that exist Honesty of administration is 
of comparatively late growth, even in England. 
America has attained it but partially, and Turkey 
not at all. China is only in the position from which 
Europe is emerging. Her ultimate regeneration 
is in the line of natural probability ; but the be- 
ginning so far made is small. 

Progress, where it can be made out, is still 
local and partial. Yuan - Shih - Kai, the Chinese 
administrator oftenest quoted for efficiency, has 
done much in his own province in training and 
arming troops, founding schools, and building roads ; 
but he is so solitary among his contemporaries as 
to force the conviction that, as a class, Europeans 
at present alone possess the qualifications required 
for the government of the country. Europeans, 
however, are being forced more and more into the 
background. As exploiters of the produce and 
suppliers of the markets they still prosper exceed- 
ingly in co-operation with their Chinese partners, 
though the recent boycott of American goods in 
Shanghai and Canton has given them a foretaste 
of what they may have to experience upon a larger 
scale. They manage a certain number of mines 



114 THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 

and railways, but find increasing difficulty in en- 
larging their borders in these directions. Their 
influence has not been enhanced by the policy, now 
in the ascendant, of relieving the Chinese Govern- 
ment from fears of aggression upon the part of the 
European powers. Dreams of administering China 
as Great Britain administers India and France 
Tongking no longer visit the pillows of political 
attache in the Foreign Legations. Consul-Generals 
and their satellite secretaries find their immediate 
duties of obtaining concessions out of the Chinese 
authorities quite onerous enough. If Chinese 
officialdom were less occupied in accumulating 
riches for its individual members it might preface 
reform by buying so many modem guns and em- 
ploying so large a staff of foreign military instructors 
as to create a crisis ; for power only, not will, is 
lacking for the complete expulsion of the European ; 
but the financial aspect of the situation has proved 
deterrent up to the present So far as the nationali- 
sation of the Chinese army, announced in December, 
1906, is real, it does not alter the situation. The 
bringing of the whole or of any portion of the 
forces raised by the viceroys of the various provinces 
under the direction of the Peking War Office, would 
be important only if the central administration 
controlled the funds requisite to pay the soldiers. 
This is not the case at present, since the viceroys 
collect the bulk of the taxation with the exception 
of the customs revenue, which is pledged for the 
repayment of foreign loans. Intrigue and counter- 



THE PEKING OF TODAY 115 

intrigue go on to*day in Peking as they have gone 
cm for centuries. A month ago the influence of 
Yuan-Shih-Kai was increasing. To-day it has 
received a check* Should it prevail eventually, 
and Yuan*Shih-Kai establish himself as mentor to 
the throne, and maintain his position when the 
present Empress dies, it does not follow that he 
will be supported in the southern provinces. Even 
in the north the policy for which he stands will not 
necessarily continue beyond his life. 

The one factor in the situation which can be 
counted upon to endure is the loyalty to existing 
institutions of the Chinese people. I was shown 
notices in Chinese character, pasted on the walls of 
Peking, inviting subscriptions to a fund for paying 
off the foreign debt. This fund was started 
privately by a Chinese newspaper and is supported 
by voluntary subscriptions only, yet it already totals 
thirty thousand pounds — a sum which means in 
China a very great deal more than in Europe. It 
appeals to private endeavour to enable the dynasty 
to abstain from levying new taxes to pay European 
claims for Boxer outrages ; and the spirit which is 
behind it is the strongest that exists in China. The 
country is used to misgovemment, or rather to 
absence of government ; but innovation, and par- 
ticularly foreign innovation, is so resented that any 
scheme, no matter how preposterous, which claims 
to operate in the direction of ending it finds ready 
support. The new Peking bids fair to be sur- 
prisingly like the old. 



ii6 THE PEKING OF TO-DAY 

The point of assimilation in methods, and even 
in morals, will no doubt some day come, and when 
it does we may look for a tremendous accompani- 
ment At present Western ideas seem little more 
than boats upon the old ocean of the Chinese con- 
sciousness. The mind of Kuang Hsu's four hun- 
dred million subjects still sways to its own laws, 
and pays little permanent heed to the disturbing 
splash of alien oarsmen. 



CHAPTER X 

THE COOLIS TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

A WIND-SWEPT sand-spit, jutting out into 
the Pichihii Gulf, with a few corrugated iron 
sheds, some rough stone bungalows, a pile pier and 
an open log-built railway platform, complete the 
equipment of Chen-wang-tao, the ice-free winter 
port of Peking and Tientsin, and the place of ship- 
ment of the fifty thousand Chinese coolies whose 
presence on the Rand has produced such heart- 
searchings in political England. One reaches the 
place in four or five hours from Tientsin by one oi 
the many north-bound trains carrying cattle and 
farm supplies to restock devastated areas in Man- 
churia. Chen-wang-taos hotel accommodation is 
designed for the coolies only. I went commended, 
however, to the Protector of Emigrants for the 
Transvaal, who very kindly put me up and showed 
me all there was to see of the recruit|pent at this 
point. 

The coolie depdt stands back under the lee of 
the ridge, where there is some slight shelter. We 
ploughed through soft, heavy sand to the courtyard 
where the ground was gravelled. The coolies are 

117 



ii8 THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

housed in spacious quarters with walls of stone and 
roofs of red iron. The accessories, from the police 
guard supplied by the Chinese Government, to the 
tank of hot water in which the coolies attain much- 
needed cleanliness, are upon a business-like and 
liberal scale. I was in time to inspect one of the 
last of the gangs of coolies to be despatched to 
South Africa. It was soon after dawn when I 
reached the depdt and the morning was chilly. 
From the dormitories, as I approached, came 
cheerful sounds of loud talk and lusty laughter, 
which suggested anything but the low spirits of a 
downtrodden people, or dissatisfaction with the 
contract that was being completed. I went inside 
in company with my host. We were at once sur- 
rounded by a crowd of coolies, all immensely 
interested in examining myself and my garments, 
for a new foreigner is a whole variety entertain- 
ment to persons waiting for a ship at Chen-wang- 
tao. The coolies had decided that they wanted a 
fire to beguile their leisure, and they did not hesi- 
tate to assail my companion with voluble demands 
to give it to them. 

They insisted like spoilt children. 

" Look at this foreigner's clothes," said one of 
them, in illustration of his argument, as he took 
hold familiarly of my coat, and felt the texture of 
the cloth. ''It is thicker than ours." 

Their own clothes were of substantial blue cotton 
cloth, in some cases single, in others padded with 
cotton- wool, and at least as warm as anything they 



THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 119 

would have worn under similar circumstances at 
home, where fuel would have been far too expensive 
to play with. The noisiest of the crew was a youth 
of some eighteen or twenty years of age, with 
the copper-coloured skin, angular cheekbones, and 
argumentative voice of the Tientsin street arab. 
He pushed his companions in the ribs to prevent 
their interrupting his own strident vociferation. 
Close to him in the group was a coolie of a very 
different type, with wheat-coloured oval countenance 
moulded to the round outlines of a contemplative 
Mongolian Buddha. The rest varied between these 
widely separated extremes. 

The coolie-lines are within a walled enclosure, 
which also contains kitchen, offices, and a long series 
of rooms through which the coolies pass on their 
way to the railway-siding, whence a train carries 
them to their ship. Within these rooms the 
coolies are stripped, washed, medically examined, 
arrayed in new clothes, supplied with necessaries, 
and subjected to magisterial interrogation by 
Chinese officials appointed to look after their 
interests, and to secure that they shall understand 
the nature of the contracts that they sign. Each 
man receives an advance of thirty Chinese dollars 
(;^3) before he leaves the yard. He then inter- 
views through a grille any relations who may be 
there to see him off, and goes on board not only 
clean and comfortably attired, but also triumphant, 
for the service is so sought after that only a portion 
of those who apply for it can be selected. 



120 THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

The resident staff includes a European doctor, a 
mandarin protector of emigrants appointed by the 
Peking Government, my friend the representative 
of the Transvaal Government, and a manager 
appointed by the Johannesburg Chamber of Mines, 
who happened to be a Canadian. The coolies are 
thus under official protection of both the country 
from which they start and that to which they go. 
They make the fullest use of all the facilities that 
are afforded to them. 

In Tientsin resides a European recruiting-agent 
appointed by the Johannesburg Chamber of Mines, 
who supervises a number of Chinese sub-agents in 
the various districts of North China from which the 
coolies are drawn. I visited the main office in 
Tientsin city, where a small Chinese staff is main- 
tained under European direction for the special 
purpose of paying to families in China the allow- 
ances sent by coolies upon the Rand. Some eight 
thousand out of the fifty thousand shipped to South 
Africa send such remittances to their homes. The 
total paid out monthly in Tientsin amounts to about 
forty thousand Chinese dollars (;^4,ooo). The 
average individual remittance is five dollars — a sum 
sufficient for the maintenance for that time of a 
workman's family on the scale of comfort usual in 
the country. A coolie on the Rand receives a 
minimum of fifteen dollars monthly. He may 
double his earnings by doing piece-work, and can 
count in any case upon receiving the minimum, so 
long as he lives and behaves himself. His contract 



THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 121 

is for three years. At the end of that period he 
receives a free passage back to China, and must 
either avail himself of it or sign on for a further 
period of indentured service. A good many bad 
characters managed to get shipped at first and have 
since had to be sent back to China. In a few cases 
the words "Once repatriated" appear upon the 
history sheet of a coolie. They mean that the man 
has got out again, after having been sent back as 
undesirable. This occurred in the early days of the 
undertaking, before the present system of super- 
vision had been perfected. It is now but very 
seldom that a man who has once been rejected 
succeeds in getting diccepted in a fresh outgoing 
batch ; but some Tientsin bad characters boast that 
they have done so, and thereby twice secured the 
thirty-dollar advance, besides four passages forwards 
and backwards between Chen-wang-tao and Johan- 
nesburg, at the expense of the mines. When the 
system of finger-print identification, which is under 
introduction, is in full working, such incidents will 
become impossible. That they should have occurred 
in the past shows how popular is emigration amongst 
the people concerned. The " two-times- 1 -go " men 
have had their day. 

I watched a gang of countrymen passing through 
the office to receive remittances sent to them by 
relatives on the Rand; for, as I have explained, 
neither the Chinese post-office nor the native 
bankers are trusted with any large portion of the 
remitting. Of the coolies I talked to through an 



122 THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

interpreter, one was a weather-worn fanner, who 
had come in seventy miles by boat to collect money 
from his son at the mines. His eye softened as five 
solid silver dollars were counted into his hand. He 
said no word ; but now he knew for certain that the 
son who had stolen away from home in hasty quarrel 
was alive, for had not the clerks searched throug^h 
the register and not found against his name any of 
those red-ink entries of " deceased," " deserted," or 
'•repatriated," which would have meant sorrow or 
disgrace or both ? The old man was in no great 
want of the money. His blue cotton coat and leg- 
clothes and parti-coloured felt boots were warm and 
in good repair. He carried a substantial umbrella 
of yellow bamboo and black-painted paper, that had 
cost forty cents quite recently. His crops this year 
were heavy. The remittance would be added to 
previous hoardings for buying land, and two seasons 
hence, when " Hu of the Great Happiness " (Hu 
Tu Fu) should come home after his three years' 
venture, there would be no more running away to 
Africa. 

A small, crooked-eyed man in grey had walked in 
twenty miles by road to cash an allowance which had 
been sent by his cousin. This cousin, he explained, 
had lived in his house when times had been hard, 
and was now faithfully discharging his debt for the 
kindness he had received. A poor, blear-eyed 
creature, with contracted putty-coloured face, and 
tiny brass opium pipe dangling by a chain from a 
shaky wrist, was there to cash a remittance sent 



THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 123 

him by a brother. He would spend the money no 
doubt on the drug he could no longer do without 

A middle-aged peasant had brought a straw-paper 
envelope covered with black hieroglyphics upon a 
red address-slip, which contained a letter of home 
news and shrewd advice to be posted to an absent 
son. In a rack above the door were a dozen similar 
missives^ frayed and soiled from the handling they 
had received on their journey from the Rand, but 
safe and ready for delivery to whoever should 
identify his own name in the addresses they 
displayed. 

Inside the office were leather-bound books with 
long columns of entries which told how dutiful '' Li 
of the Everlasting Harmony '* (Li Yung Ho) had 
paid to his old father " Li the Forest Ranger " (Li 
Tso Liu), every month regularly for more than a 
year, what woidd keep the whole family in comfort 
at home. I learnt that the *' Prince of the Old 
Hostel " (Wang Lao Tin) had not been to collect 
the remittance sent by his nephew, the ** Prince of 
the Sea Gate " (Wang Hai Men) for three months, 
though the money was lying there waiting for him. 
I ascertained that '* Fang's" wife, whose family 
name as a maiden had been " Li *' (Fang Li Shih), 
for women in China have no first names, had col- 
lected two months' remittance from her loving son, 
" Fang the Pillar " (Fang Chu). 

A drawer full of small black bank-books in neat 
leather cases represented the accounts of coolies 
who had remitted for a time and then decided to 



124 THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

send no more. Long columns on thin, yellow note- 
paper told to him who could decipher them of 
complicated disputes about the ownership of money. 

'' I came away to Africa and trusted to Kao San 
to draw my wages for my family ; and I think that, 
owing to the fact that I do not know where this 
man lives in China, or whether Kao San is his 
rightful name, I am afraid I shall lose the money 
I am working for here," wrote confiding Pao Wu 
Yuan, who had handed over his signed remittance 
sheets to a casual acquaintance upon the road, and 
now besought the European general manager to 
recover the documents. 

" I ran away from home. My mother's name is 
Chao Chung, and she is not a widow," began a 
complicated letter in which Chu Ho explained that 
the lady he had nominated to receive his remittances 
was not what he had represented her to be, and 
asked that the money should now be applied 
elsewhere. 

I learnt from a neat Chinese clerk, whom I found 
painting his language into a book, that a picture of a 
windmill stands for the name of the province Chihli, 
and that two black hooks hanging precariously to 
two upright strokes signify the hinged gate which 
they roughly portray. I was reminded besides that 
writing in Chinese still requires artistic talent, and 
that the accomplished work is of a kind to make the 
author justly proud. I know no country but China 
where even the hasty scribbling of a pencil note 
attracts respectful curiosity, nor shall I forget the 



THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 125 

comfortable assurance of a highly educated English- 
speaking secretary, in a Governor's yamen, who, 
when bidden by the Governor to translate what I 
had taken down, disregarded my well-intentioned 
promptings and said with superiority, after ex- 
amining my notebook, that my writing was in 
'* the running hand," and therefore undecipherable. 

Tientsin is one of the many dusty cities of China. 
One is tempted to wonder how long would elapse 
before one's own eyes would screw themselves into 
the crookedness of those of its Mongolian inhabitants 
if one were compelled to stay there. Notwithstand- 
ing the dust, Tientsin is a healthy place of residence 
even for Europeans. In the matter of material 
prosperity the city promises eventually to rival such 
busy centres as Hong Kong and Shanghai. Its 
foreign settlement already possesses broad streets 
and substantial houses, and is becoming an example 
of the immensity of the possibilities of commercial 
development in China wherever trade is encouraged. 
This is the more significant as nothing bigger than 
a coasting steamer can get up the narrow river to 
the wharves, and the port is closed by ice for 
several months each year. The trade during the 
winter finds an outlet at Chen-wang-tao, where 
vessels lie in an open roadstead of the Pichili 
Gulf. 

The Chen-wang-tao harbour is the property of 
the Chinese Engineering and Mining Company, 
which of recent years has had as managers two 



136 THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

Anglo-Indians, Mr. Wynne, now a member of the 
Indian Railway Board, and Major Nathan, who, I 
understand, began his Eastern career in the Indian 
Public Works Department. This is a flourishing 
concern, in spite of a serious dispute in which it 
is engaged with the Chinese Government as to the 
ownership of the extensive properties it controls. 
Its mines are situated between Chen-wang-tao and 
Tientsin, and are turning out anything from two 
hundred thousand to a million tons of coal per 
annum, of very fair quality, which is in use through- 
out the whole of Northern China. The demand 
for this coal so far exceeds the supply that I found 
Tientsin merchants groaning almost as loudly as 
those of Calcutta upon the subject of their difficul- 
ties; but this state of things appears to have been 
only temporary. Recendy the company has won 
one lawsuit brought by the Chinese Government to 
secure a determining voice in its direction ; but an 
appeal has yet to be heard. Meanwhile one may 
recognise the competence of the present manage- 
ment in the excellent thirty-ton coal-wagons of 
uniform bogie pattern fitted with automatic coup- 
lings, which are in use for carrying the coal to 
Chen-wang-tao for shipment to ports along the coast. 
These wagons compare favourably not only with 
such trucks as I have seen elsewhere in China, but 
also with the heterogeneous collection of miscel- 
laneous-pattern rolling-stock to be seen in India 
plying to the docks of Calcutta. Both Tientsin 
and Chen-wang-tao make an enormous demand upon 



THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 12; 

the countfy for labour ; but the supply appears to be 
inexhaustible. 

From Chen-wang-tao I went by rail along the 
coast to Shan-hai-kwan {** Between the Mountain 
and the Sea "), the queer old fortified city where the 
three thousand miles of grey brick towers and earth- 
backed battlements, which are the Great Wall of 
China, end upon the shore of the Pichihli Gulf. A 
springless mule cart, with gowned Manchu driver, 
rendered possible but penible the crossing of the 
stony gravel-heaped plain upon which the city is 
built Thence I scrambled on foot some hundreds 
of feet up steep, grassy rocks amidst clumps of 
scendess violets and dwarf oak-trees. Personal 
comments from unsympathetic local riffraff, who are 
the foreigfner's bane in China, punctuated my exer- 
tions. The summit had its village and a cheap, 
gaudy joss-house. Upon one side the loneliness 
of a dark, wooded gorge was broken by a white 
mountain stream in a setting of yellow sand ; and 
on the other stretched the cheerful humanity of a 
wide rolling plain, where the ochre earth glistened 
through seedling crops to end sharply in the blue 
expanse of the Pichihli Gulf. 

The city of Shan-hai-kwan, with its grey castel- 
lated walls and gateways, is an irregular patch 
where the plain is cut in two by a long, sharp 
line of earthwork which connects the square 
keeps upon the mountain with the shore of the 
gulf. A shallow, winding river breaks through 
a narrow gap in the ruined fortifications at the 



128 THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 

foot of the mountaiiL Behind the slopes rise 
steeply ; and height beyond height is crowned 
with grey stone towers that stand out against 
the sunset On the green earth-banked side 
of the wall lies multitudinous China. On its 
steep, crenulated side stretches spacious Manchuria. 
The broken parapets have no modem use. The 
virile northern barbarian they so long held at bay 
rules the softer and more industrious southerner 
who built them. The mail train draws up for the 
night under the ruined masonry ; but that is only 
because hurry is unknown in leisurely Northern 
China. Shan-hai-kwan is a frontier post no 
longer. 

Another twelve hours* journey along the sea- 
coastt through a country which cold rain had sud- 
denly converted into a slough of slippery mud, 
brought me to the terminus on the western bank 
of the Liao-ho. Here I was deposited upon a 
bare spit of mud, with leaden-coloured water 
lashing itself into anger upon either side. A leaky 
dinghy with Manchu boatmen ferried me pre- 
cariously across to the wharves of Neuchwang. 

The province of Chihli through which I had 
thus passed was selected by the Johannesburg 
Chamber of Mines as the recruiting ground for 
coolies for the Rand with excellent reason. It 
teems with hardy labour. Upon the platforms 
of wayside stations where the train drew up were 
crowds of immensely powerful countrymen standing 
about in the rain in rough yellow oilskins, presum- 



««>♦ 



THE COOLIE TRAFFIC IN CHIHLI 129 

ably to guard the line. The train was full of their 
friends and brothers going backwards and forwards 
between their work and their villages. The streets 
of Tientsin were black with stalwart workmen 
busily following their respective trades, who gave 
an impression of numbers and of hardihood that 
I formed in no other city. Yuan-Shih-Kai has 
raised the bulk of his seventy thousand soldiers 
in the province without materially reducing the 
supply of men available. The fifty thousand 
coolies shipped to South Africa have been but 
a fraction of the balance. There remains a source 
of rough and ill-mannered, but also industrious and 
capable labour, which is available for transportation 
to any field, no matter how distant, that can ofifer 
good wages. Unlike the Indian coolie, the Chinese 
has no fear of the sea, no caste to break by crossing 
it, and no levitical penalties to face when he returns. 
He is also content to leave his women at home, 
and thus the problem of dealing with him in ex- 
patriation is simplified. He is the true industrial 
adventurer. Political danger may lurk in too 
greedy an appreciation of him ; but there is no 
doubt that he stores in his stout body much of the 
energy which is needed to furnish the industries of 
the modem world. 



CHAPTER XI 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 



IN traversing China from Shanghai to the Great 
Wall my passport was not once asked for. I 
was free with all the world to go or come as I would. 
On reaching the confines of Manchuria this was 
no longer the case. Manchuria was closed to all 
foreigners except Japanese, who were pouring in and 
out freely. A prompt exception was made in favour 
of accredited British officers, who were admitted as 
honoured guests, guided over the battlefields, and 
passed on from one hospitable military headquarters 
to another. A civilian had first, upon one or two 
points, to establish his character. I was closely ex- 
amined by the Japanese Administration at Neuch- 
wang as to the objects of my journey. I was 
suspected of trade samples and observed for invoices. 
I might have had piece-goods in my pocket, a com- 
prador in my kit-bag, a street railway up my sleeve. 
Never was the fourth estate more diligently sworn 
to or more difficult to establish. Official telegrams 
flew between the Administrator of Neuchwang and 
the Governor of Port Arthur. I was beginning to 



131 



132 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

feel what it is to be an undesirable alien, when the 
reply from Port Arthur arrived, and I found myself 
suddenly transformed into a friend. I was called 
upon and entertained, and not allowed to pay my 
own way upon the railway. I found myself shep- 
herded wherever I went. A launch, courteously 
furnished by the Japanese Administrator, conveyed 
me to the terminus of the railway which is a couple 
of miles outside Neuchwang. A Japanese officer 
who spoke excellent English saw me off. 

The railway station of Neuchwang exemplifies 
what I found afterwards throughout both Manchuria 
and Korea. It is located away from the existing 
city, to enable the land around it to be taken up for a 
Japanese settlement, the Administration recognising, 
with careful foresight, that such land is certain to 
become valuable. The city, in fact, is to move to 
the railway, not the railway to the city. Regular 
traffic — for Japanese only — ^had been resumed upon 
the line. The train was full of Japanese, including 
military men, coolies, and traders. We changed to 
the main line from Harbin in the night. After that 
the train ran through to the junction for Dalny, 
whence a branch carried us to our destination, the 
entire journey taking only about sixteen hours. 

The line traverses the Liaotung peninsula from 
one end to the other. The fields are stony, the crops 
on the ground poor. Bare, round-topped kopjes, 
from which every tree has disappeared, give narrow 
horizon to the landscape. The country grows 
wilder and more rugged as the train moves south. 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 133 

The ruins of grey brick houses, with big Russian 
windows, and broken, pagoda-tiled roofs, shiver 
naked, in the cold rain, about the railway stations. 
This grey brick is one of the most characteristic 
urban features of China, and it does not add to the 
cheerfulness of a damaged town. Holes, torn in 
the walls by shell-fire, expose the debris of enormous 
Russian stoves, of iron or glazed earthenware. The 
names of the stations are still in the Russian 
character. Smart Japanese, in uniforms borrowed 
from Germany and France, inquire pleasantly for 
one's passport, usually with at least an English 
" Thank you," to go with the bow. The document 
is so often asked for that one feels inclined to put it 
where the American traveller puts his railway ticket, 
in one's hat. 

The Chinese inhabitant of the country is curiously 
scarce. Occasionally he hawks a big basket of 
excellent boiled eggs upon the platform, but even 
hawking is done more often by a Japanese coolie. 
Now and again the train passes the wretched mud 
hovels of a Chinese village. The fields are culti- 
vated along the railway, but the long, blue coat 
which proclaims the Chinese villager, is seen but 
little upon the line. The Chinese women have 
crept back out of their hiding-places ; the men 
never entirely deserted their fields. The slaughter 
and license of the long campaign have left the 
survivors numb. If the British were in the place of 
the Japanese they would have large gangs of the 
inhabitants at work at every station, restoring the 



134 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

houses, building feeder-roads into the interior, and 
incidentally earning money that would bring back 
prosperity. Unlike the Japanese, we might forget 
that we were under contract to quit ; but the country 
would present a less depressing spectacle than at 
present. 

The kopjes link themselves together as the 
train approaches the narrow neck of the Port 
Arthur peninsula. The steep, pale-green slopes 
are scarred with red where the drainage has cut 
vertically into the soil, making channels which are 
natural shelter-trenches. Grey rocks, behind each 
of which a defender might crouch in comparative 
safety from rifle fire, jostle each other in crowded 
masses. One traverses the isthmus in the middle 
of the day, and may obtain an excellent view of 
the positions held by both the Russians and the 
Japanese in the big fight which preceded the Port 
Arthur siege. The isthmus is so completely com- 
manded by the kopjes which General Stoessel 
fortified, that the feat of the Japanese in capturing 
it seems as incredible as any other performance of 
the war. I passed twice over the spot, once on 
my way to Port Arthur, and once, afterwards, 
going north into Manchuria. The route is a 
good one to take on the way to Port Arthur ; for 
a view of this preliminary battlefield prepares one 
for the further proofs of disparity in fighting 
efficiency, between attackers and defenders, which 
stare from the shell-torn defences of what in other 
hands might have proved an impregnable citadel. 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 135 

Before entering Port Arthur the train picks its 
way round the exposed, stony slopes of 203 Metre 
Hill The traveller has but to put his head out 
of the train window to obtain an idea of the over- 
whelming difficulty of the task performed by 
General Nogi's devoted army. The height which 
cost ten thousand men to capture has nothing to 
shelter its occupants from the pitiless fire of well- 
built Russian forts. The ridge is torn to pieces 
on the top, and burrowed into at the sides, until it 
has become a mere stony rubbish-heap. Later on, 
when I had quitted the train and obtained the 
necessary permission of the authorities to go over 
the defences, I had opportunity of seeing that the 
position of the Japanese, after they had captured 
the height, must have been very similar to that 
of the British upon Spion Kop. The trenches of 
the Russian defenders are obscured by the super- 
imposed Japanese works, facing in the opposite 
direction. The whole has since been demolished 
to remove the bodies, for the parapets were con- 
structed of more than stones and earth, wounded, 
as well as dead, getting built into them in the 
frantic haste of men endeavouring to shelter 
themselves from overwhelming shell-fire. Even 
now the entire surface is strewn with distorted 
shrapnel-bullets, and rusty shell-fragments; and 
every shower washes additional mementos out of 
the ground. 

From the summit of the hill one sees the whole 
of the harbour of Port Arthur spread out below. 



136 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

in wide green expanse. No glasses are requisite 
to make out the two Russian war-vessels, still 
awash upon a mud-flat» where they sank under 
Japanese howitzer-fire directed from the captured 
height The grey city and its numerous suburbs 
stretch out into the distance, beside and beyond 
the broad, white quays. It is easy to recognise 
the decisive nature of the position for which the 
Japanese deliberately paid so terrible a price. 

Purple violets, white-flowered Siberian edelweiss, 
green thyme and grey-leafed wormwood are aiding 
sparse grass, dark dwarf pines and brown-leafed 
Chinese oaks to cover up what has been. The 
curious must also be careful, for at his feet, amid 
the stones, are green, corroded buttons still attached 
to the matted fur of a grey Russian overcoat, and 
from the collar protrudes a column of dry, yellow 
cartilage and bone. That brown, mouldy, Japanese 
jack-boot, too, cast out so carelessly amongst 
weather-worn rags of what once were Calcutta- 
made jute sand-bags, lies more heavily upon its 
side than an empty boot should lie. A piece of 
a human jawbone, showing white where the young 
sound molars are smashed, rolls down the bare, 
steep incline with a loosened stone. 

Throughout the long line of eastern forts, where 
the fierce attack of August, 1904, failed to break 
the defence, the ground is equally eloquent of the 
struggle. The green turf of the steep hillsides 
is splashed with brown holes where gun-shots 
have struck. The wrecks of guns of position 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 137 

are strewn along the crest. The stony slopes 
below are burrowed in all directions by mines, 
counter-mines, and trenches. A stick of yellow 
dynamite, still ready to explode, lies between two 
pebbles in a whitey-brown paper wrapper on which 
the name of its German maker stands out in bold, 
black type. Rusty hand-grenade tins, dented, but 
in many cases unexploded^ lie where they were 
hurled at approaching Japanese. Live shells, also 
too liable to go off unexpectedly for the casual 
visitor to annex, may still be picked up in quantity, 
including baby pompom projectiles and the missiles 
of the heavier guns ; for many percussion fuses 
did not strike fair on impact, shells often alight- 
ing with the wrong end foremost and failing, in 
consequence, to explode at first Enormous 
masses of pebbly concrete, with the debris of 
six-inch guns, smashed and hurled hundreds of 
feet from the forts which the Russians blew up, 
are still scattered amidst the ruins. One may 
look down a dark, underground passage, dug 
by the Japanese into the heart of one of the 
Russian works, and terminating there in the 
gaping hole of an exploded mine, and wander 
along miles of tangled barbed-wire, and bristling 
stake-pits. Sunken spots and patches of green 
weeds and grass, in otherwise sterile ground, tell 
a continual tale of what lies in shallow graves 
beneath the surface. The authorities have endea- 
voured to burn with kerosine oil whatever was 
incapable of interment ; but the Japanese officers 



138 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

and men who are pouring into Port Arthur, on 
their way home from Manchuria, will long find 
only too graphic evidence for all their senses, of 
the fighting. Coolies are sifting out of exposed 
banks along the Russian works, incredible quantities 
of pencil -shaped bullets marked with the spiral that 
tells of their having been fired from Japanese rifles. 

Port Arthur is holy ground for all Japan, but the 
old Samurai families have left there so many of their 
best and bravest that they can claim it especially 
their own. Officers on duty, in far Manchurian 
stations, still speak with simple philosophy of the 
friends they have lost I have seen flowers, picked 
from the battlefields, treasured in litde pocket-books 
by sunburnt veterans who would have seemed the 
last to indulge in sentiment. The long, white name- 
flags of the slain no longer hang beneath the red 
and white Japanese national banner in the villages 
of gallant Kiusiu ; but every straw-roofed maisonette 
will treasure some memento of the fields where 
husbands and sons gave their lives freely and gladly 
for their country. 

Within the defences, the city of Port Arthur is 
depressingly desolate. Whole terraces of fine Russian 
houses stand empty and dilapidated. Japanese coolies 
have been imported in large numbers, in connection 
with such works as the raising of the sunken battle- 
ships and the building of the new Japanese forts 
upon Golden Hill ; and they now ply with jinrick- 
shaws for hire in the streets. Japanese shopkeepers 
have opened stores of all kinds for the use of the 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 139 

garrison ; but there is no demand for good accom* 
modation. The buildings struck by shells during 
the siege are generally in ruins. No attempt has 
been made to alter the fire-scorched heap which is 
all that remains of the theatre which roystering 
Russians made famous throughout the East The 
beer-gardens are empty, and their once well-kept 
shrubs are growing into jungle. The wreck of a 
Russian cruiser, blown up inside the substantial 
stone graving basin, blocks the dockyard. Com- 
fortable droshkies, with good Russian horses 
between the shafts, rattle briskly over well-mac- 
adamised roads. The names of makers in Odessa 
are engraved upon neat gun-metal plates upon the 
coach-boxes ; but the drivers are blue-coated Man- 
churians and the occupants Japanese in uniform. 

The principal hotel is run by a manager from 
Tokyo. Russian tea, knives and forks stamped 
in Moscow, a big stove and roomy windows, 
recall a different past; but a shell-rent in the 
door and a comfortable kimono beside one's bed, 
to wear on the way to a copious hot Japanese bath, 
bring back the present reality. Once I saw one 
of the red-faced, bearded Russians who are asso- 
ciated with the place. I rubbed my eyes, but he 
was real, a solitary specimen admitted under some 
special circumstances, to close up his affairs. His 
presence emphasised the desolation of the change 
which has occurred. The chateaux, with double 
windows and spacious halls, built by extravagant 
Muscovites with ideas of Empire in their minds, are 



I40 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

too big for the small Japanese administration staffs. 
From the pavement along the esplanade, which is 
formed of granite slabs so long that each reaches 
from one side to the other, down to electric lighting 
plant, of which use is still being made, everything is 
in excess of present requirements. The Port Arthur 
of the Russians is totally different from the Port 
Arthur of the Japanese. 

No European, however he may admire the 
achievements of the present owners and sympathise 
with the objects they have had in view, can see this 
place as it now is, without some sore thought for the 
men who staked and lost so much there. The claim 
of race, made oftener than one cares to count in any 
progress through Manchuria, obscures, with a pulse 
that is almost physical, the dictates of reason. 
The traveller admires, but cannot entirely admire, 
and applauds, but not wholly. He learns many 
things upon these battlefields, but the thing of which 
he is surest is that Russians are not aliens. 

Not only as a city, but also as a naval base, Port 
Arthur has seen its day. The Japanese have wisely 
decided to content themselves with making the 
harbour secure from any sudden dash of a hostile 
fleet, and to trust to command of the sea to do the 
rest The haven and its dockyard will become a 
useful coaling and repair station for the Japanese 
fleet upon the North China coast ; and money will 
not be wasted upon keeping up the enormously 
extensive defences which weakened the resources of 
the Russian garrison. Japan has no need for more. 



RTHL'K TO-DA 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 141 

Her own fine harbours in the Inland Sea are her 
proper strategic base. She will dispose to the best 
advantage of effects collected at the cost of millions 
by others and now surplus to her requirements. 

The precise part which military Port Arthur and 
its commercial brother, Dalny (re-christened Tairen 
by the Japanese) are to play, in relation with the 
other Manchurian ports of Neuchwang and Antung, 
will now gradually be determined. Manchuria is a 
treasure-house which has Neuchwang and Antung 
as wide-open windows on either side, communi- 
cating direct with the central chamber, and Port 
Arthur and Dalny as narrow doors, set at the end 
of a long and contracted passage. The windows 
are far more convenient than the doors for purposes 
of both entrance and exit, but are barred in the 
winter, while the doors are not. 

Strategically, Port Arthur and Dalny gave Russia 
the warm-water harbours in the Far East which she 
needed for her fleet ; but commercially neither of 
them prospered very notably in her hands. Their 
future is now further contracted. The natural 
wealth of Manchuria is great, but it is situated far 
from the Liaotung peninsula in which Port Arthur 
and Dalny stand. The stupendously rich coal-fields 
and grain lands in the north have distant Mukden 
as their centre, and the Liao river, with Neuchwang 
at its mouth, as their natural oudet. The timber 
forests in the East are capable of competing success- 
fully with the American lumber upon which China 
now depends for much of its supply ; but they also 



142 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

have an outlet of their own. They are located 
about the upper reaches of the Yalu river, and can 
float their produce by water to Antung far more 
cheaply than a railway could carry it to any other 
port Dalny is suitable as a distributing centre for 
the [Hece-goods and other manufactured articles, 
which are imported into Manchuria to pay for 
beans, coal, and timber exported. It may be 
capable, as well, of attracting a portion of the 
exports. 

The annual freezing of the Neuchwang harbour 
locks up the greater part of the bean produce of 
the Mukden plain. Capital is not turned over, 
nor is the crop got to market as quickly as would 
be the case were a constantly open port employed. 
On the other hand, money is saved on freight 
Flat-bottomed junks may often stick upon mud- 
banks, and wait weeks for water in the shallow 
Liao-ho; but eventually they reach Neuchwang, 
where they put their produce direct upon the small 
but efficient coasting steamers that do the whole 
of the trade of the North China coasts. The 
sand*blocked Yalu river is also far from an ideal 
highway. Its port is a miserable place, but pos- 
sesses distinct advantages. It is the terminus of 
the standard-gauge railway to Seoul, which taps 
the produce of North Korea. It is also the 
terminus of the narrow field-railway to Mukden, 
which is to be converted eventually to the standard 
gauge. Pine and cedar logs, from the interior, are 
floated in rafts alongside its wharves. Its waters 



PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 143 

are frozen for only a few weeks each year, so no 
very serious locking up of traders' capital occurs. 
It has a commercial future which is bound to affect 
that of Dalny and Port Arthur adversely. 

Port Arthur may become a rendezvous for the 
profitable globe-trotting traffic which the Japanese, 
with his infinite capacity for detail, knows well how 
to exploit Dalny is already a port of call for 
Japanese steamers. Japanese traders have estab- 
lished themselves there in some numbers, thus 
getting the start of other foreigners, whom I found 
in Chinese and Korean ports complaining loudly of 
being excluded Japanese piece-goods and nick- 
nacks may select this entrance to Manchuria, but 
only a portion of the exports can be expected to 
leave it by the same door. 

A striking contrast to the empty warehouses and 
lonely wharves of splendid Port Arthur and Dalny is 
afforded by the busy traffic of squalid Neuchwang. 
Here no millions have been expended by would- 
be empire builders, but the muddy banks of the 
winding river are lined with junks. Steam- winches 
ratde merrily upon vessels loading Mukden bean- 
cake and discharging American piece-goods. A 
sand-bar shuts out all boats drawing more than 
nineteen feet of water. The river winds so much 
that the cutting through of a neck of mud, only 
1,650 feet across, would divert the stream altogether 
from the main esplanade of the port. From the 
windows of the principal hotel upon the quay one 
sees, across the anchorage, beyond the mean 



144 PORT ARTHUR AS IT IS 

corrugated iron roofs of the terminus of the rail- 
way to Tientsin, junks which have already travelled 
by water sixteen miles on their tortuous journey 
from the port, only to sight it again. The wharves 
are built of little that is more substantial than 
dried yellow millet-stalks and rickety wooden 
stakes ; but a foreign trade of ten million sterling 
annually is being done in the port, and a boom in 
land values was going on, at the time of my visit, 
which afforded tangible proof of the confidence felt 
by the residents in the future of the place. 

Port Arthur and Dalny are in a very different 
position. They have been famous, but are now 
only the monument of a gigantic failure. Japan 
is obviously doing what enterprise can suggest and 
careful industry effect to exploit their possibilities ; 
but the task is difficult and the oudook far from 
bright 



CHAPTER XII 

NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 

A CROWD of Japanese officers, in black 
uniforms, voluminous service cloaks, Bliicher 
boots, and smart German staff caps, was assembled 
on the Port Arthur railway platform, in front of a 
corrugated-iron ticket office, at seven o'clock one 
morning, when the train by which I was to travel 
was starting. The reason of so early a gathering 
was to give a send-off to a Japanese general officer 
who was leaving for up-country to rejoin his brigade. 
The ceremony of the leave-taking was one that I 
was subsequently to see repeated many times over 
in Manchuria, Korea, and Japan. The general 
stood in a regulation attitude upon the footboard of 
the carriage, and had something friendly to say to 
every individual present, not excluding the landlord 
of the little Port Arthur inn where he had put up, 
or the coolie in blue tights who had carried his 
luggage, and now waited, hat in hand, his patient 
Japanese countenance illuminated with the smile of 
adoration that only the condescension of a popular 
general officer of his own nationality can evoke. 



146 NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 

The occasion was official, so there was much 
German saluting. It was also social, as was testi- 
fied by the cheerful peals of laughter from every- 
body present, which followed as boisterously upon 
the sallies of the youngest subaltern as upon those 
of bemedalled colonels and majors. The last salute 
was made and the last joke registered as the train 
moved off. I had made the general's acquaintance 
previously, and he asked me into his special carriage, 
luckily for me, as he was the only person upon the 
train whose speech I could understand. With the 
courtesy of his class he made me welcome all day 
upon his leopard skin. The adjutant and half-dozen 
subalterns who composed his staff travelled in a 
partially separated compartment, whence pleasant 
sounds of restrained laughter and talk floated to us 
continuously. German is the European language 
most often known by Japanese officers; and my 
companion spoke it with fluency. It was of course 
the experience most desired by every traveller — ^the 
realisation for himself, by actual contact, of the long- 
accepted theory of the Japanese military character. 
It was delightful to obtain this and to find, over the 
wide field of subjects we discussed, that sound sense, 
modesty, keenness, kindliness, and sureness of self, 
with which one had clothed the type so freely in 
imagination. 

When we parted in the evening I had obtained 
a glimmering, which subsequent experiences con- 
firmed, of the spirit that pervades the entire 
Japanese army in the field. It has been my good 



NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 14; 

fortune since to meet and to discuss the current 
political situation in the Far East with many 
Japanese leading men, from Marquis I to down- 
wards. No one can do this and fail to comprehend, 
at least in part, the enthusiasm which made the 
victories of Metre Hill and Liaoyang possible. 
Sir Ernest Satow referred, in a-recent speech at 
Tokyo, to the self - sacrificing loyalty of the 
Samurai towards his feudal chief as a base of 
Japan's great successes. One cannot travel long 
in Manchuria without recognising that there is a 
converse to this statement. It is that the Japanese 
leader is a man to inspire the devotion he 
commands. 

The superior mixes with the subordinate upon 
a footing of something oddly like equality. I have 
seen a sergeant interpose a remark in a conver- 
sation between two captains in the train, and be 
responded to, as a matter of course, with geniality 
equal to his own. The food and warmth of his 
men is of more importance to the officer than 
his personal comfort. Good fellowship is universal. 
It permeates the Japanese army, from the top to 
the bottom. The general can count upon every 
man in his command. Selfishness seems to be 
almost an unknown factor, at all events in its 
obvious and familiar forms. Every soldier has 
confidence in his fellows. The cost to himself of 
what he may be called upon to do is the last 
thing to which he directs his thoughts. 

The country opens as the Port Arthur train 



148 NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 

proceeds northwards into Manchuria. The kopjes 
separate from one another ; the stony fields become 
brown and loamy. Dingy mud homesteads, stunted 
oaks» dark pines, and vivid green pear-trees come 
into the picture at intervals. Streams appear, 
though very occasionally, flowing briskly through 
wide stretches of yellow sand, at the bottoms of 
valleys they have scooped for themselves below 
the general level of the country. The skeleton 
of a wrecked train lies at the bottom of one of 
the railway embankments. The whole of the 
iron-work, including wheels, springs, and frames, 
rusts in tangled confusion where it fell off the 
track ; but not a particle of the woodwork 
remains. White paint hangs to the stanchions in 
places, and is quite unsinged. The absence of 
wood is not due to accidental fire, but is because 
the Manchurian villagers are so badly off for 
fuel that they have picked the iron bones clean of 
everything capable of being converted into warmth 
in the long winter months. 

This scarcity of fuel is reducing Central Man- 
churia to a treeless land. The gigantic coal 
deposits in the Mukden plain will no doubt supply 
the deficiency some day: meanwhile reeds and 
millet-stalks are used to an astonishing extent for 
both fuel and building. I have it from a Japanese 
mining engineer of experience, who has inspected 
the Mukden coal-field, that one of the seams is 
one hundred and twenty feet thick, and that the 
quality of the mineral compares with that of the 



NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 149 

Welsh product There were no means of checking 
this statement, but every one upon the spot with 
whom I have discussed the matter, is agreed that 
the value of the deposits is enormous. The mines 
are amongst the concessions transferred to Japanese 
ownership by the Portsmouth Treaty ; but I am 
told that only about five hundred tons per diem 
are being raised at present, and that the whole of 
this amount is absorbed by the local railways 
and steamers. The Manchurians, meanwhile, are 
cutting down every tree that is unguarded The 
Japanese in consequence have found the praise- 
worthy endeavour they have been making to re- 
afforest the Port Arthur peninsula almost as difficult 
as has been the corresponding task of the Germans 
at Tsing-tao. In each case young trees have been 
torn down ruthlessly, and much of the work has 
had to be done twice over. 

It was the middle of the night when the train 
pulled up at the bleak Liaoyang station, a place 
which seems, to the belated visitor, a thousand 
miles from anywhere. A Japanese subaltern 
stepped out of chaos with a paper lantern to 
meet me ; and I was glad to see him. We were 
soon tramping together through mud and rain, 
in what, but for the paper lantern, would have 
been utter darkness, to find the military rest-house. 
My luggage followed upon the shoulders of two 
sturdy litde soldiers in uniform. My hospitable 
conductor told me in broken German that he 
had been warned by telegram, by my fellow- 



ISO NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 

passenger of the morning, to efxpect me, which 
accounted for my reception. We were soon in 
the rest-house, which has been constructed out 
of a one-storied Russian building. I was regaled 
upon refreshing green tea and lighted to a 
comfortable bed with the bedclothes of Europe, 
no doubt a Russian legacy. 

A familiar bugle woke me in the morning. A 
polite litde soldier conducted me to a tub and 
gave me Japanese breakfast with many bows, and a 
smiling solicitude for my comfort that added another 
flavour of the country to every dish. My subaltern 
friend turned up with an orderly afterwards; and 
the three of us were quickly mounted upon tough 
little Central Asian ponies, and scrambling cheer- 
fully in and out of dykes and Russian trenches in 
the open country beyond the town. 

Sharp rain, with cold wind behind it, beat in our 
faces, numbing our hands, and finding chilly way 
into boots and garments till we were wet to the 
skin. The ground was a slippery quagmire of 
sodden clay. The watercourses were swollen and 
the trenches treacherous, but the clever little ponies 
struggled gamely across them. The millet of the 
country, which grows to be ten feet high, was only 
showing above the ground, so every fold and crease 
in the expanse could be seen clearly. The main 
defences of the Russian position consisted of 
elaborate star-shaped forts, with heavily timbered 
shelter-trenches, surrounded by wire entangle- 
ments and stake-pits. These forts aire set in a 



NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 151 

wide circle around Liaoyang. They are about 
a mile apart from each other and a mile in advance 
of the old city wall Most of the fighting took 
place, however, much further afield, General 
Kuroki pressing in upon the Russian left, while 
Nodzu hammered at the centre, and Oku on the 
right ; the Japanese advancing from the east and 
south in a semicircle of fifty miles radius. 

Some four miles out we rode round a high 
bare kopje of grey rock showing through the gfrass, 
which overlooks the rich brown plain on which 
Liaoyang stands. On the summit is now a rough 
stone memorial tower. 

At the foot, where the cultivation ends and the 
steep grassy slope begins, is a straggling Manchu 
village of brown mud huts, which was captured 
and recaptured again and again in the long-drawn- 
out fight. Beyond the village, a red scar, amidst 
grey rocks on the green expanse, indicates a line 
of hastily built Russian trenches, extending for 
miles through the hills, with frequent g^n-emplace- 
ments at lower elevations in the rear behind the 
crests. Many of the advanced bastions, whence 
the Russians directed the fire of their men, are 
still intact The main line is broken in numerous 
places. From the Russian positions one looks 
towards the lines from which the Japanese ad- 
vanced. The view is of bare hills, which are 
high on the east and sink into rich cultivated 
plain to the south and west. The entrenchments 
were noticeably mainly Russian. Japanese officers 



152 NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 

I have talked with recognise that their men had 
to learn in this respect from the enemy. They 
are characteristically mo4est about the obviously 
superior morale which enabled them to attack, in 
the open, lines long prepared and strongly held. 
They make the reasonable claim, however, that 
in individual initiative they had a superiority 
which was often of decisive value. They found 
the Russians entirely dependent upon their officers 
and completely disorganised without them. When 
it became necessary to retreat, the Russian soldier 
flung away rifle, clothes, and transport and gave 
no thought to the future. The Japanese could 
act upon his own initiative ; he had resources and 
confidence in himself and stuck always tenaciously 
to his rifle. 

My pony slipped heavily, once in the course of 
the day, on a wet skull, half-buried in one of the 
trenches. The effect of shell-fire was evident 
upon some of the earthworks, but the soft loam 
of the country had absorbed most of the more 
obvious marks of the fighting. Graves are plen- 
tiful, but they are not conspicuous. Yellow cow- 
slips and blue irises are poking gende faces through 
the long, wet grass above them. Village huts have 
been rebuilt with the materials of ruined neigh- 
bours, whose owners have disappeared. The rain 
has washed ashes and roofless mud walls into the 
spongy soil. Every stick of unclaimed timber has 
been carried away. The village dogs are no longer 
sated. They attacked us so hungrily, as our ponies 



NORTHWARDS IN MANCHURIA 153 

waded through the filthy quagmire, which is the 
road between the huts, that the orderly was tempted 
into drawing his sword upon them. Big-boned 
Manchurians and their listless women and ragged 
children peered out of doorways as we passed. 
There was litde else to indicate that we were 
in what, two years ago, was a hotly contested 
comer of one of the biggest batdefields in the 
world. 

Our route, on the return journey, took us by 
the Antung trunk-road, which figures upon the 
maps as having been the main channel of supplies 
for Kuroki's army. It is a mere track through 
a vast plain of cultivation, without metalling of 
any kind. We found mules ridden by well-dressed, 
dripping Chinese, and heavy two-wheeled carts with 
rough, and equally wet Manchu drivers, struggling 
through freshly ploughed land to avoid the even 
deeper quagmires of the road. Big stone slabs, 
which once formed part of bridges, encumbered 
spots where the mud track plunged through water- 
courses. No vehicle except a Manchurian mule- 
cart would attempt to go forward at all, and even 
the mule-cart is often bogged. There is no other 
road in the country. 



CHAPTER XIII 



AT MUKDEN 



BETWEEN Liaoyang and Mukden the plain 
of rich cultivation grows wider and more 
open. The rugged hills recede to a horizon which 
becomes continually more distant upon either side, 
as one journeys northward. The houses about the 
railway stations are a little more systematically 
shattered than further south. Earthen mounds are 
piled high round the buildings which remain, to keep 
out stray Hunchus bullets. The fields are more 
thickly furrowed with shelter-trenches and more 
honeycombed with stake-pits. Drawing near to 
Mukden, one sees Russian forts with covered 
timbered-ways and barbed-wire entanglements, 
similar to those about Liaoyang. White, sail- 
covered stacks of military provisions make giant 
encampments about the railway stations of both 
Liaoyang and Mukden, but are being gradually 
depleted as the Japanese evacuation proceeds. 
Heaps of empty meat-tins mark the sites of 
deserted encampments. From time to time one 
sees recruits at drill ; for the Japanese Government 



155 



IS6 AT MUKDEN 

is infusing the spirit of its veterans into the rising 
generation by withdrawing the men who went 
through the campaign and replacing them, for 
garrison purposes, with youngsters who enthusias- 
tically study the sites of the battles. 

The military staff officers at Mukden are in 
occupation of Russian-built bungalows near the 
railway station ; but the administrative offices are in 
the heart of the city, A two-foot tramway with 
wooden packing-cases upon wheels for passenger 
cars, and big blue-coated Manchu coolies for motive 
power, connect the two. Each car takes one 
passenger, and the coolie, applying a sturdy 
shoulder, pushes behind — a leisurely and inex- 
pensive form of transit which I saw nowhere else. 

Mukden is a typical, walled Tartar city, with high 
stone-batdemented bastions, wide-arched gateways 
and steep-roofed watch-towers. Broad -hipped 
Manchu women, with dyed cheeks, and scores of 
small looking-glasses flashing in carefully braided 
hair, walk freely about the crowded streets upon 
natural-sized feet, which are a relief to the eye after 
the deformed misery of the Chinese women who 
tottered about the cities I had come from. Coarse- 
featured men, in wadded coats, crack cane whips 
over six-in-hand teams of fine mules which have 
to strain to pull rough country-carts out of the 
quagmires of the principal thoroughfare of the 
city. Loungers of various Mongolian types are 
to be seen in the crowd. Booths along the pave- 
ment are doing a thriving trade in every imaginable 



S OK MUKriKN 



AT MUKDEN I57 

article of necessity and adornment, from stout 
leather harness and iron cooking-pots to red 
umbrellas and long, black hair-queues. 

I was indebted to the Japanese Administrator for 
a comfortable droshky with a fine Russian horse. 
My cab arrived with a broken spring from its 
s^i^gglc through the ruts. A second was found and 
conveyed me half-way across the city, only to be left 
bogged in the Piccadilly of the place. Eventually 
the inevitable, springless, blue-hooded Pekin mule- 
cart turned up, which proved able to negotiate 
even the Mukden roads. The appropriate official 
visits were duly paid, and a start effected towards 
the ancient tombs of the Ming dynasty of China. 
We toiled through a mile of moist, black dough, 
where the shopkeepers were busy filling up new- 
made ruts. We bumped with spine-dislocating 
crash from one big paving-stone to another, under 
the dark city gateway, and emerged outside on a 
Golgotha beset with odorous refuse and mangy 
country dogs. The road then climbed to a grassy 
down, where a bracing wind chased swaying 
masses of golden buttercups under a sky of blue 
broken by white masses of cloud. One filled 
one's lungs and stretched cramped muscles in 
the delicious warmth of direct sunbeams. Soon 
the downs gave place to sheltered coppice, where 
soft green newly-emerged hawthorn foliage was 
tinted with the swelling promise of white May-buds. 
Mistletoe hung nestlike in dark clusters from gnarled 
branches of frequent trees. Oak-leaves which had 



15« AT MUKDEN 

not put off the brown tint of recent birth threw 
mottled shadows upon the way. Wild apricot and 
pear-trees nodded in the background. Bees busied 
themselves noisily over dandelions which had un- 
accustomed white, as well as familiar yellow flowers. 
Carved pillars and grotesque stone dragons, 
memorials of a dynasty departed, waited at 
regular intervals in the shade. Suddenly the 
way was paved with big square blocks. A stone 
balustrade stood on either side. In front, two 
Chinese lions grinned in sandstone, at the top of 
wide, paved steps which led through an elaborately 
carved stone gateway into the courtyard of the 
tombs themselves. A white cloud of wild carrot- 
flower obscured the lower steps, and clematis 
climbed over the side.' Dry dandelion-heads 
scattered gossamer seedlets over fresh dock-leaves. 
Irises made purple spots between the stones and 
violets bloomed upon mossy banks, beneath Indian- 
red walls. The sun shone warm through in- 
vigorating air. The hum of bees, close at hand, 
mingled with the soft distant drone of cooing 
pigeons in the pine-trees and the deep grunt of 
frogs in fish-ponds not far off. The stiff litde 
Japanese interpreter, who had guided me, re- 
marked, sentimentally, that the place reminded 
him of his native land. 

We entered through an elaborate archway, roofed 
with the glazed, yellow tiles I had seen before in the 
Forbidden City of Peking, and decorated in bas-reUef 
with imperial, five-clawed dragons of rough brown 



ITTON IN MUKDKN 



AT MUKDEN IS9 

and green porcelain, which shaded into .more 
precious blue. Within, a broad, straight, paved 
way was flecked with sunlight which fell through 
the matted branches of stunted pines. Beyond 
were the yellow pagoda-roofs of the tombs. The 
pines ended abrupdy in an open space. On 
either side was a well-drilled company of giant 
lions, camels, and elephants in stone. An enormous 
"Stone cart-horse, with thick, hairy fetlocks, helped 
to keep guard. A gaily decorated, tiled pagoda 
held the first of the graves. Within its walls an 
immense stone tablet stood to attention upon a 
stone tortoise, the size of a hay-stack, and bore, 
in deep-cut Chinese hieroglyphics, the history of 
majesty buried below. 

Chinese carpenters were sawing up timber a 
little further on. An old Chinese custodian 
tottered up from amongst them and demanded 
our passes. I surprised him, shortly afterwards, 
surreptitiously holding a measuring-rod against my 
back. To him I was a Russian, returned from the 
north. I felt a throb of perfecdy unjustifiable 
gratification. 

A few hours later I was back in the cramped, 
dirty bazars of the city, where the courtyards of 
the imperial palace draw the stranger within their 
walls. The Mings must have sheltered themselves, 
when they were alive, much worse than when they 
were dead. After the large-minded spaciousness of 
the tombs, the palace seemed insignificant and poor. 
Its interest centred in the relics of past dignity it 



i6o AT MUKDEN 

housed. Richly jewelled weapons, quaint carved 
red lacquer-ware and polished brass which had 
miraculously escaped the covetousness of contend- 
ing armies, were brought out by brusque Chinese 
custodians, in prompt if ungracious obedience to the 
order I presented. I was shown weird coloured 
portraits of fierce, high-featured, Tsin emperors and 
mild, round*countenanced student Mings. I was 
taken over an inner library, where were long walls 
covered with shelves filled with enormous flexible 
books in yellow and red cloth binding, which con- 
tain the official history of the imperial dynasty. 
The volumes were in course of being removed to 
another part of the building, to make way for 
repairs. I met a procession of packets, each con- 
taining two books wrapped up carefully in Japanese 
piece-goods, staggering down the passage by which 
I entered. Each packet had four stalwart Chinese 
coolies toiling at it with thick bamboo carrying- 
pole. Each book would have covered a moderate 
sized dining-table when opened. Each, I was told, 
set forth the achievements of the reign of some one 
Ming or Tsin. 



CHAPTER XIV 

ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

THE traveller in Manchuria expects conditions 
which, in Europe, would seem anomalous. 
The railways and the Japanese cantonments, for 
example, all make use of Tokyo time. The inhabi- 
tants of Mukden, in consequence, who go by the 
clocks, begin the day an hour earlier than the sun 
does. This luminary may not have set when they 
prepare to turn in for the night ; the dawn may be 
still sleepy-eyed when they get up ; but the arrange- 
ment has its advantages in a country where the 
needs of a man's life are summed up in obtaining 
food and warmth, and arriving at the end of the 
day's journey by daylight 

The first train in the day, on the field railway 
which the Japanese have hurried into existence 
across the mountain ranges separating Mukden 
from the western boundary of Korea, nominally 
starts soon after six o'clock. In consequence of the 
peculiarities of the time system, and the dispropor- 
tion between the number of the passengers and the 
space available in the toy goods- trucks which do 

If I6l 



i62 ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

duty for carriages, he must arise betimes who would 
travel to Antung otherwise than upon a goods 
wagon already filled with coal. I reached the point 
upon the muddy plain, which is the Mukden railway 
station, in what seemed to me the middle of the 
night ; but a crowd was already besieging the train. 
I found four Japanese officers, a baby, five women, 
two soldiers, and twelve private gentlemen, all 
endeavouring to pack themselves and their not 
inconsiderable baggage into one luggage-van, which 
represented the first-class accommodation of the 
mail train that was about to start. When I added 
myself to the total we were twenty-six. The third- 
class passengers spread their wraps upon the top of 
the loose Mukden coal in the three open trucks 
behind us. A little engine was harnessed at one 
end and a guard's brake at the other, and we 
started gaily for Korea. 

It is cold between night and morning in the May 
of Manchuria, and a tight squeeze was not an 
unpleasantly warm one, at least at first Later on 
it was different, when the sun got up and the limita- 
tions of the two-foot six-inch gauge had had time 
to impress themselves. Rice sausages, loaded with 
sticky flavouring, bottles of Kerin beer, and steaming 
kettles of aromatic Japanese tea were handed in, 
over good-humoured heads, at the first wayside 
station ; and I found myself in cheerful and hospitable 
comradeship. The officers immediately produced 
their visiting cards — ^have the Japanese borrowed 

this custom from the Americans, or did Commodore 



ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 163 

Perry bring it back from Japan ? — ^and we exchanged 
these tributes with due ceremony. The twelve 
private gentlemen were more shy of introducing 
themselves in the presence of the ever-impressive 
military caste ; but our company was permeated by 
a thoroughly good understanding. How impossible 
would have been such sociability in a railway 
carriage of India, where half of a parallel gathering 
would have resented sausages as unclean and the 
other half would have made the air unbearable with 
hubble-bubble smoke ! 

The line we were traversing is of the portable 
type which claims, as its main attraction, that it can 
be laid down quickly. It makes no pretence to be 
permanent. The bridges are of rough pine logs 
spiked together crazily. The embankments are of 
hastily thrown up and not yet consolidated sand and 
mud. The springs of the trucks are of a kind that 
the passenger remembers tenderly. The line was 
intended to feed General Kuroki's army in the long 
campaign that preceded the battle of Mukden ; 
and well it fulfilled its purpose. It now serves as 
an alternative route between Japan and Northern 
Manchuria. The Tokyo authorities propose to 
convert it to the standard four-foot eight-inch 
gauge. In this case it will complete the main line 
connection between Korea and China, and fill up 
an important gap in the railway route that will 
eventually connect Fusan, in the south of Korea, 
with the Trans-Siberian line, and thus with Europe. 

A few miles outside Mukden we crossed a narrow- 



i64 ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

gauge feeder railway, which connects the Port 
Arthur track with the coal-mines of Middle 
Manchuria. Thence the route took us across the 
level plain towards the distant hills of the south- 
east. On the way we passed more entrenchments 
and wire-entanglements, part of the Russian 
lines around the city. The first thirty miles 
were through flat, open cultivation. Steep, grassy 
hills, with grey rocks in patches, then closed 
gradually in upon either side. For twenty miles 
thereafter the train travelled up a level valley of 
rich, ploughed land, averaging perhaps a dozen 
miles in breadth. This valley separates positions 
occupied by the Russians and the Japanese respec- 
tively throughout the whole of a long winter, 
when the contending armies lay opposite to one 
another in snow that was sometimes three feet 
deep. One of my fellow-travellers had served 
through the campaign with Kuroki's forces, and 
could point out ruined mud hovels in the plain, 
which he had seen taken and retaken, and tell how 
dear some of the Russian hilltops, which lined our 
horizon upon the left, had cost to obtain. 

"The Russians were great diggers, but our men 
learnt, gradually, how to dig as well," he remarked, 
as mile after mile of red patches upon the bare, 
green slopes indicated to us where the Russians 
had thrown the ferruginous subsoil out of their 
timbered, shell-proof trenches. There was one low, 
rounded hill in particular, with a monument upon 
its summit, which my companion considered to have 



ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 165 

been the centre of the fight that decided the fate of 
Mukden. Glasses and maps were brought out by 
all the officers, and eyes sparkled in the telling of 
how, after long days of costly failure, the guards 
stormed it in the night and made good their cap- 
ture. Apropos of this fight, the story was told me 
of certain newspaper correspondents with Kuroki's 
army whose coolness in the fighting had made an 
impression upon the Japanese. They were de- 
scribed to me as " tapfere Herren," who were upon 
captured heights with their note-books and pencils 
almost as soon as the Japanese got there with their 
rifles. My companion was unable to tell me their 
names, but described them as American. One felt 
an anonymous glow of satisfaction in these news- 
paper men for making themselves respected ; 
for the attitude of contempt for our race, which is 
unpleasantly universal amongst the Chinese, is also, 
I have found, not unknown in Japanese circles, 
though here it peeps forth but seldom from behind 
a smiling mask of careful politeness. 

As the morning broadened into day the hills on 
either side of us closed in and grew steeper and 
more rugged. A few oaks, wild-pear and ragged 
pine-trees appeared. The train climbed, jolting up- 
wards along sandy shelves, on steep, slippery slopes, 
and over top-heavy log bridges from which we looked 
down into boulder-strewn river-beds far below, 

** He should say his prayers who would travel 
by this line," said one of my cheery fellow-passen- 
gers ; and this was a great joke, good-humouredly 



i66 ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

translated into German for my benefit Another 
effort, much applauded, reminded my companions 
of the swords with which they were to tackle 
Hunchus highwaymen who might infest the line« 
They were still unpleasantly active, it seemed, 
wherever the strong hand of the Japanese was not 
upon them. 

The train stuck in a heavy cutting at the head of 
the valley, but eventually struggled, panting, over 
the watershed, and bumped with dangerous speed 
down the slope on the other side. The country 
now grew wilder. We found ourselves, presently, 
in a magnificent gorge with crags several hun- 
dred feet high. A trout-stream rippled amongst 
cream-coloured, marbled rocks and splashed over 
picturesque weirs to turn queer, horizontally-set 
wooden mill-wheels, with daylight showing between 
the spoke-like blades. A pagoda-roofed temple 
sat, complaisant, upon a peninsula of buff-coloured 
quartz. We saw weather-worn Manchu coffins, 
with sides of three-inch planks, set out upon the 
bare ground in cramped, sloped fields, in some 
cases entirely exposed, in others supporting a dome 
of earth, which covered only the lid and left sides 
and ends in view. Here the trees had multiplied 
into forest Felled pine-trunks were piled in con- 
fusion upon each other in the stream-bed, at the 
bottom of steep slides, down which they had been 
precipitated to await a flood to carry them to a 
market Green hawthorn-trees were bursting into 
snowy bloom. The call of a cuckoo gave the 



ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 167 

silence a sentiment when we pulled up at a wayside 
station to water the engine. Everything was rest- 
ful except the jarring train. 

The coal-trucks were here transferred to a siding. 
We took on, in their place, heaped-up loads of loose 
beams and scanding, which threatened to pour 
devastatingly into our truck whenever the grade 
was down-hill. The little engine smothered us 
with coal-smoke; and the sun became a furnace 
under which we roasted in tightly packed layers. 
The baby definitely declined our united blandish- 
ments, and yelled continuously, for even a Japanese 
baby is human. A stout gentleman in a kimono 
snored upon my shoulder, and the narrow board 
that did duty for a seat developed aggressive 
angles. The five Japanese ladies piled themselves 
into a heap of shapeless misery at the far end of the 
truck ; the five husbands held the baby by turns. 
Seven o'clock in the evening arrived at last, how- 
ever; and the tired little train bustled punctually 
into the station of Gibatto, where we were to spend 
the night, after a good thirteen hours' run. 

An iron-roofed shed with mat walls served as a 
Japanese inn. The charm of a capacious wooden 
boiler, with a hot stove-pipe running through it, 
was slightly impaired by the doubtless fully justified 
criticism of the twenty men, women, and children 
who turned up to watch my endeavours to tub in it 
without parboiling. The crowd got itself, after- 
wards, one by one, into the scalding interior, with 
apparent satisfaction and no false modesty what- 



i68 ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

ever. I felt it was merely the eccentricity of the 
foreigner to object to publicity. 

I was allowed to hire the best accommodation 
of the house. It consisted of a cupboard sepa- 
rated off by a partition of matting from the 
general apartment where the cooking of the 
establishment was done, and my fellow-passengers 
fed, smoked, and slept The excellent boiled 
rice which was brought to my cupboard was 
heaped high in steaming plenitude in a house- 
maid's bucket. I experimented, also, upon a 
whole trayful of delicacies in little lacquer-ware 
bowls, including Japanese soup, dried fish, and 
novelties in mouth-wrinkling pickles. A warm, 
black cotton quilt and a yellow sheet which had 
seen service since the wash, but was not aggressive 
on that account, made a snug sleeping-place upon 
the floor. 

Daylight saw us again in the train proceeding 
through broken country. Stools of Chinese oak, 
with young, yellow foliage, began to be prominent 
in the forest. In places there were sheer cliffs 
of rock a couple of hundred feet high. Twice 
the line crossed the watershed. " Bunsingling " 
was the name given by the Japanese officers to 
the principal pass. Trenches crept out upon the 
slopes ; and I was told of heavy fighting that had 
taken place to secure possession of the ranges. 
The line rose, further on, by a series of long curves 
and zigzags, over a spur. From the summit one 
looked back upon what seemed like five sets of 



ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 169 

separate railways, so much does the line double 
upon itself to obtain the necessary gradients in 
climbing up from below. A tunnel is to be con- 
structed in this place when the expected conversion 
of the system to standard gauge takes place. In 
the afternoon we were in an open valley bounded 
on the east by jagged blue peaks, where Manchu 
villagers found asylum for many of their women 
during the campaign. The line of the Russian 
retreat, after the battle of the Yalu, was up in 
this valley ; and we were able to trace the location 
of one of the lesser cavalry fights. 

The sun was low, in a cold, grey sky as the train 
made its way into an open plain swept by the chill 
sea air of the port of Antung. Shadows settled 
over the rugged peaks we had been amongst. On 
one side of the line a big Manchu was hoeing 
in his field. On the other a fine team of six 
mules, harnessed in three pairs to a country cart, 
was standing in startled disorder, the attention of 
the animals fixed upon the train, regardless of the 
whip wherewith their lusty driver endeavoured to 
get them back into the track. A large-limbed 
peasant woman, with unbound feet, had turned 
unabashed to stare. Close by was an open shed, 
in which one could see two little women in butterfly 
obis, retailing green tea to Japanese soldiers — a gay 
stage scene in diminutive. 

The train itself also repaid attention. Though 
on its way out of Manchuria, a land of oil- 
seeds and other produce that pay well to export, 



i;o ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

its trucks were empty of goods. On the other 
hand, it contained a queerly assorted set of pas- 
sengers. I stood upon the platform of a bogie truck. 
My refined litde captain, with a language of Europe 
upon his lips, was on one side of me. On the other 
was a typical sergeant of infantry with round, bucolic 
features, who addressed his official superior fami- 
liarly across me, in Japanese, in the intervals of our 
talk. On the open truck immediately in front of us 
were Japanese veterans, on their way home at last 
from the long campaign, clasping their rifles, as if 
they loved them, against their long, black overcoats. 
In the next truck but one sat stout and comfortable 
Japanese traders, travelling to Japan to buy a 
second or a third instalment of manidactured goods 
for sale in the still nominally unopened markets of 
Mukden. Further up squatted Manchu Chinese, 
one of them with pendulous lips wrapped around 
the ragged edges of a tin of sugared chestnuts, 
shared with him by his neighbour, a hospitable 
Japanese recruit 

The Japanese affects to despise the Manchurian 
because he thinks him a coward ; but in ordinary life 
the two races get on pleasantly together. The 
Manchurian holds his own. I have seen in his case 
none of the personal contempt with which low-class 
Japanese too often treat the Korean. 

The military rest-house at Antung, where I spent 
the night, was typical of its kind in Manchuria. It 
was a one-storied house, built originally to accom- 
modate a Chinese official. Its paper windows faced 



ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 171 

into the paved courtyard, which was guarded by 
a stout wooden gate. Fireplaces in the outside 
walls suggested possibility of warmth within. A 
yellow-capped Japanese soldier looked after me* 
He had been selected for this duty on the ground 
of knowing some English, which enabled him hos- 
pitably, but quite without reason, to lament his 
inability ''to welcome properly/* 

I learnt before the morning something of the 
etiquette of a Japanese officers' mess, and was 
initiated into the ceremonial of its rice and pickle 
dinner, served on lacquer-ware, eaten with chop- 
sticks, and washed down with tiny cups of green 
tea. We were travelling under field-service con- 
ditions, so I was able to study the neatness and 
efficiency of the officer's kit, which weighs, includ- 
ing bedding, only forty pounds. I was shown 
besides the capacious overcoat, and the platinum 
rice-boiler which make each individual Japanese 
soldier almost independent of transport, for at 
least three days at a time, wherever water and 
firewood can be procured. This equipment is not 
brought out upon stated occasions only, but is in 
everyday use by both officers and men. It is thus 
under continual test. Deficiencies and defects are 
not left to be discovered upon service, when they 
cannot be easily rectified. Economy and simple 
efficiency are kept up, which contrast sharply with 
the luxury in cantonments and elaboration upon the 
march which obtain amongst most white troops. 

Officers in uniform who had risen at dawn to 



172 ACROSS SOUTH-EAST MANCHURIA 

speed their parting comrades and g^uest, made 
formal salutes and shouted carefully framed sen- 
tences of kindly good wishes, in broken English, 
as we clattered out of the courtyard of the 
rest-house next morning. The route lay 
through sleeping shanties, to the low river-bank 
which bounds the harbour. The neighbourhood 
was not attractive. Shallow water a mile wide 
gleamed cold in the grey twilight. A small 
Japanese steamer was waking up in midstream. 
Along the bank slept a collection of native river 
craft, the broad sails lowered upon deck, the masts 
a forest of rough brown timber. Acres of ware- 
houses with grey corrugated iron roofs, sail-covered 
mounds of army stores, black heaps of coal from 
Chen-wang-tao, and disordered stacks of squared 
timber were dotted along the marshy shore ; for 
Antung has not forgotten that it was the principal 
base of the Japanese armies throughout the war. 
A ferry-boat, propelled with the broken-backed 
oars of the Inland Sea, carried us to Korean terri- 
tory across the river, where a grown-up train was 
busily shunting. Only five miles up-stream was the 
battlefield of the Yalu, where the Japanese fought 
their first serious engagement ; but I had not time 
to visit it. A sharp scramble over timber which 
had floated from the now confiscated Russian 
concession up-country, a race for the platform, 
and I had barely caught the train which plies 
along the brand-new Japanese railway to Seoul. 
Manchuria was behind and Korea before me. 



CHAPTER XV 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 



I BEGAN my first day's journey through Korea 
by falling soundly asleep in what, after two 
days in a truck on a half-built military railway in 
Manchuria, appeared to me exquisite luxury. This 
was the white-wood, American-built, third-class 
corridor car that I found waiting for passengers 
on the Korean side of the Yalu river. 

The Japanese built the Korean line hurriedly, 
during the war. They imported half of the labour 
from Japan, and forced the Koreans to supply the 
other half upon pay which seems to have been 
sometimes far from adequate. The track traverses 
the entire length of Korea, from Antung, on the 
Manchurian border, in the north, to Fusan. on the 
straits of Tsushima, in the south. Midway it 
passes through Seoul, where a short American-built 
line connects it with the port of Chemulpo. The 
southern section, between Fusan and Seoul, is in 
full working order. It has substantial girder- 
bridges and well-laid permanent-way. The 
northern half, between Seoul and Antung, is 



173 



174 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

being rapidly improved, but has reached at 
present only to the stage where trains must run 
slowly by day and not at all at night. Shaky 
log bridges are still in use, but are being replaced 
everywhere by steel and stone of modern pattern. 

The Japanese have good reason to be proud of the 
undertaking. They have had the courage to adopt 
the standard four-foot eight-inch gauge, thereby 
assimilating it with the Chinese lines which it will 
ultimately join, but rendering it altogether different 
from their own system in Japan, which is still upon 
the now inadequate metre gauge. Their action in 
this matter is the more enterprising since shortage 
of broad-gauge rolling stock at the time of the war 
compelled them to incur the enormous labour and 
expense of reducing to narrow gauge the Russian- 
built line between Port Arthur and Mukden. This 
they must now undo, for they have no intention of 
allowing any narrow-gauge section in Manchuria to 
interpose between the standard-gauge lines of China 
upon one side and those of Korea upon the other. 

Two formidable rivers, the Yalu and the Liao-ho, 
will have to be bridged before the long-dreamt-of 
through line from Peking to Fusan will become a 
reality. Japan's object is plain, and there can be 
no question either of her ability or her determina- 
tion to carry it into effect without much delay. It 
is to bring the South China market for Osaka piece- 
goods, and the Mid-China ore supply, which is 
required for the Kiusiu steel works, into connection 
with Fusan without break of bulk. Fusan is but 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 17S 

half a short day's sail from large harbours upon the 
Japanese coast Japan looks forward to sending 
her own manufactured goods by rail to Peking, and 
thence throughout the length and breadth of China 
as far south as Canton, for Canton is certain to be 
connected by rail with Hankow, and thus with 
Peking, some day. In this case she will succeed 
to a position in the markets of China even more 
commanding than that occupied there by Russia 
prior to the war. And railways which carry goods 
can be used, in case of need, for troops. 

Japan sees no reason why her commercial de- 
velopment in China should not be peaceful. She 
sees, also, that the stronger her strategical position 
there, the less likely are other nations to interfere 
with her plans. For the time being Japan is in 
league with Great Britain and the United States 
to maintain the integrity of Chinese territory, since 
the longer China can be kept intact the more firmly 
will Japan be able to establish herself in a position 
superior to that occupied by any other nation in 
the Far East She can afford to wait It is easy 
to understand, under these circumstances, the efforts 
which Russian diplomacy is making to further the 
pushing forward, from the Trans-Siberian Railway, 
of an independent branch line to connect with Peking 
by way of Kalgan. The weight of Germany's 
influence is with Russia in this matter, for Germany 
sees that at present her own schemes of develop- 
ment from her base at Tsingtao are in check, and 
that Russia can be used as a counterpoise to Japan, 



176 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

The Korean railway is a monument to the 
organising and constructive ability of the Japanese 
people. Unlike most of the trunk lines in Japan, 
it was both financed and built without the inter- 
vention of either a foreign board of directors or of 
foreign engineers. The engines and the cars which 
I saw upon it were of American make. The signals 
and the notices regarding them are English, but 
the engineering and traffic management are entirely 
Japanese. The trains run punctually and smoothly, 
and are attracting large Korean, as well as Japanese, 
traffic. The undertaking presents a concrete ex- 
ample of Japanese success in a class of enterprise 
in which, up to the present, the Chinese have failed 
signally. 

I enquired somewhat particularly into various 
branches of the organisation. My observations 
lead me to believe that the staffs of officials at 
the stations are distinctly larger and somewhat 
more cpstly, upon the whole, in spite of the low 
pay of individual employees, than would be the 
case on a line worked by Europeans or Americans. 
Mistakes have been made in taking Koreans from 
their fields, to compulsory labour upon the line at 
seasons of maximum agricultural activity, when the 
exercise of forethought, in giving out the railway 
contracts earlier, would have enabled the work to 
be accomplished more quickly and with less friction. 
The Japanese complain of the Korean labourer as 
lazy and inefficient The retort is made, on behalf 
of the Korean, that the Japanese have neither the 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 177 

temper nor the capacity to handle alien labour 
economically. It must be added that the organisa- 
tion of the railway services is efficient I was 
especially struck by the completeness of the police 
arrangements and the excellence of the working 
of such conveniences as telephone communication 
between the stations. A small constable pounced 
inevitably upon me and inquired concernedly after 
my permits if I allowed myself the relaxation of 
a stroll upon any wayside platform where the train 
drew up ; and my companions were able to arrange 
by telephone, from Anju, for the forwarding of 
luggage left behind upon the Yalu river. 

The indigenous passengers to be met with upon 
the Manchurian lines were few, and the trains were 
packed with Japanese ; but the car which I entered 
at Wiju, on the frontier, was crowded with Koreans ; 
the Japanese constituted only a small minority. 
The Korean is a fine, upstanding individual, who 
enhances the distinction of his appearance by some 
of the most wonderful conceivable clothes. From 
his feet to his neck his garments are white. His 
feet are covered by short, thick, snowy cotton socks 
with pointed, open-worked, straw slippers. The 
remainder of his ample person is enveloped in a 
long, loose flowing coat. His yellow hands and 
face and his black hats — for he wears two head- 
covers at the same time, one on the top of the 
other — ^make the only colour marks upon him. 

Korean hats are a study in themselves. The couple 
worn by the ordinary father of a family, when not 

N 



178 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

in mourning, are both constructed of open-worked 
horse-hair. The one that is put on first is dome- 
shaped, with a depression in the front of the top. 
It is not unlike what a Bombay Parsee's cap would 
be if it were made of gauze-netting and worn with 
the front behind, and is obviously the ancestor of 
the black head-dress of the Daimyo which is to be 
seen in many an old Japanese print The outer 
hat is a combination of a bird-cage and a Welsh- 
woman's national head-gear. It may, for aught 
I know, also have claims to be the original of 
the British top-hat It fits over the first, like a 
thimble on a finger, but both are so transparent 
that the top-knot of black hair, which indicates tliat 
a man is married, can be seen lying within them, 
like a chop in a meat-safe. The bachelor's locks 
are not done into a top-knot, but are allowed to 
flow. Until he is married, therefore, a man wears, 
instead of the dome-shaped underhat, only a broad 
band of black, plaited horse hair, intended to re- 
strain his tresses from getting into his eyes and to 
prevent the outside structure from galling his 
forehead. My fellow-passengers included Korean 
officials, whose national hats were adorned with 
black gauze flaps and peaks, which turned them 
into miniature pagodas. In one corner of the car 
sat an individual whose father had died less than 
a year previously. He wore a white cottage-thatch, 
a yard across, his eyes looking out of a gable in 
front The Korean, it seems, believes that Heaven 
must be displeased with the man who suffers be- 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 179 

reavement, else why, he asks, should it deprive 
him of a relative ? He hides himself, therefore, for 
twelve months, from the sky, beneath an enormous 
hat, which is white, to indicate his sorrow. A 
second mourner was of older standing. He wore 
a white topee which approached in shape to that of 
ordinary Korean life. The wearer, in this case, was 
supposed to be approaching readmission to celestial 
favour. 

On the seat in front of me, was a Korean 
woman, in homely voluminous white petticoat, the 
first of its kind I had seen worn by any Eastern 
female. Her head was bound not unbecomingly in a 
large white handkerchief. A short, white jacket, with 
long, close-fitting sleeves, covered up precisely that 
portion of her person which a European lady thinks 
fit to expose in a ballroom, but left bare some inches 
of smooth, yellow anatomy immediately below. 
Slung in cramped sitting posture upon her back, 
in a clean sheet knotted over her sturdy shoulders, 
was a fine, black-haired, tawny-skinned baby, which 
purred good-temperedly so long as the mother 
thumped it rhythmically behind; for the blows, 
though seemingly severe, meant that it was not 
forgotten. The father, like every other Korean in 
the car, including the woman but excluding the 
baby, smoked a long tobacco-pipe. An assortment 
of white packages hung from his waistbelt 

The Korean differs from the Japanese in washing 
his clothes rather than his person. He is a 
pleasant-tempered, easy-going fellow. His courtesy. 



i8o DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

the petticoats of his women, and his own top-hats 
all seemed to me originals, beside which the 
corresponding articles of the European were but 
pretentious derivations. A smart little English- 
speaking Japanese gentleman, who had discovered 
and befriended me upon the train insisted, for my 
edification, upon exchanging his own black frock- 
coat and bowler-hat for the flowing white robes of a 
Korean lad alongside. The temporary barter 
having been effected and the garments donned, he 
demanded of me whether I found him a Japanese 
or a Korean. There was but one answer possible. 
The big Korean and the little Japanese had 
changed themselves effectually into one another. 
Had I not seen the transformation I should never 
have suspected its possibility, for nothing could 
have been more unlike than the two individuals in 
their respective national costumes. The resemblance 
in features and expression is real enough to justify 
the well-worn statement that one must hit a Korean 
before one can be sure he is not a Japanese. The 
Korean apologises; the Japanese hits back. My 
Japanese friend, in this instance, was an enlightened 
member of his race. His friendly playfulness 
towards his Korean fellow-traveller made pleasant 
contrast to what I saw later on; for it is un- 
fortunately true that patience and self-restraint, in 
dealing with a subject people, is not characteristic 
of the Japanese who are now in Korea. 

The wide plains and rugged gorges of Manchuria 
change, almost as soon as the border is passed, into 



WHITK PF.TTICO 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA i8i 

scenery which might be that of a Japan under 
misfortune. Green velvet patches of seedling rice 
are dotted over a brown, watery swamp, on either 
side of the raised railway embankment. Strong, 
straight-backed cattle take the place of Chinese 
mules. Green kopjes hem in the view, and differ 
from those of the northern shore of the Inland 
Sea, chiefly in being neglected and bare instead of 
covered, as in Japan, with carefully planted trees. 
Frequent villages of squalid shanties flit past the 
windows. One is constantly tempted to consider 
how easily, given national security and public con- 
fidence, these structures would grow into the 
pleasant homesteads with their Noah's-ark gardens, 
that are one of the happiest features of Hondo. 

Chinese influence upon the architecture presented 
itself in the shape of chimneys connecting with the 
flues beneath the floors, which had somewhat in- 
effectually warmed my slumbers at Antung. These 
chimneys are sufficiently remarkable. They look 
as if they were constructed of packing-case boards, 
bound round with hay-bands. I was told that this 
seemingly dangerous arrangement is less liable to 
produce conflagrations than it appears, since the 
chimney is the direct outlet, not of the fireplace 
itself, but only of a series of horizontal brick 
passages which conduct the smoke beneath the 
dwelling-rooms, from a fireplace at the other side of 
the building. The system makes the Korean shanty 
one of the warmest places imaginable upon a cold 
winter's night The rooms are ovens, capable of 



i82 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

being heated to any temperature that the fuel- 
supply will allow. The reason my oven at Antung 
was disappointing was because the fire was out ! 
The Russians took advantage of the inflammable 
nature of the roofs to destroy the villages upon the 
line of their retreat. I have heard this measure 
criticised by Japanese officers on the ground that 
it inflicted unnecessary hardship upon the people, 
since the houses held little or nothing that was of 
assistance to the pursuing Japanese troops. 

Now and again we passed crowds of the inhabi- 
tants, assembled apparently with no other object 
than to see the train go by. A large proportion 
were women, the balance equally idle men. All 
looked clean and well-fed. All were attired in 
white, sharply punctuated by the black hats of the 
men. Along the rivers that we crossed clothes- 
washing could be seen in active operation. The 
industry takes up so much of the energies of the 
people that the Japanese are bringing pressure to 
bear to restrict the wearing of white, for they 
imagine that the Korean might do more work if 
he were not engaged so perpetually in washing his 
garments. 

The Peking road, the one track in the country 
which can claim to be a highway, was visible 
occasionally. It runs, more or less parallel to the 
railway, from one end of Korea to the other. The 
Japanese improved it at the time of the war, to 
enable artillery to proceed along it ; but its present 
condition is poor. I was told by men who have 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 183 

used it recently that many of its bridges are still 
of the Korean type, which means that they are 
dismantled every rainy season and piled upon the 
banks to remain unutilised until the floods subside. 
Loaded carts are left stuck in it for months waiting 
for the surface of the soil to dry sufficiently to 
enable them to be extricated. In the summer the 
road is sometimes a foot deep in dust. 

Half-way to Seoul, beneath the battlemented 
walls of an old Korean city, I saw the location of 
the first fight of the war. The engagement was 
between Japanese infantry and raiding Russian 
cavalry. It was these Russians who burnt the 
Korean villages so ruthlessly as they retreated. 
To-day, however, the Korean hates the Japanese 
far more bitterly than ever he hated the other 
invaden 

The train pulled up for the night outside the city 
of Pingyang. The land on which the railway station 
is situated is of considerable value, and the taking of 
it up has been quoted to me by members of the anti- 
Japanese party in Korea as a typical example of the 
high-handedness of their new masters. A number 
of Koreans were evicted 'from their houses with 
little ceremony and less compensation. Much hard- 
ship was caused and friction was increased by the 
action of individual Japanese immigrants, who were 
allowed to add to the confusion by confiscating 
property upon their own account. In the disorder 
that arose, the Koreans complain that neither 
justice nor protection was extended to them. It 



i84 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

was only reasonable that the Japanese should take 
up the land The railway is the single reliable 
means of locomotion in the country, and the sur- 
roundings of its stations are certain to become 
valuable^ It is not unfair that the increment 
should be appropriated by those who had the 
enterprise to build the line. As to the methods 
adopted, much may be forgiven of a people 
engaged, as the Japanese were, in a life-and- 
death struggle with a great Power ; but it cannot 
be denied that mismanagement occurred, and that 
steps which might have been taken later on to 
restore confidence were unduly postponed. 

Pingryang is a typical Korean city. Its streets, 
though narrow, are far wider and cleaner than 
those of native Canton and Shanghai. It has fine 
old stone gateways and bastions which recall the 
architecture of China; but its one-storied houses 
and its inhabitants remind one at every step, of 
Japan. It is located upon high ground, on the 
bank of one of the numerous rivers of clear, rip- 
pling water, which are as noticeable a feature of 
Korea as of Japan. I found the barley crop which, 
three days earlier at Mukden, had been but just 
above the ground, already in Korea ripe for the 
harvest. The cold wind of the north had given 
place to warm, balmy breezes. The people lack 
the stimulating atmosphere which has fostered the 
hardy Manchu. 

The train reaches Seoul on the evening of the 
second day after leaving the Yalu. It halts at the 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 185 

capital for the night The following daylight hours 
carry it right through to Fusan. On the way it 
traverses some difficult country. The Diamond 
Mountains, which shut off the people of the south 
of the peninsula from those of the north, are passed 
in the afternoon of the final day. Here are a 
number of troublesome tunnels which afford a 
good example of Japanese engineering skill. The 
mountain range, until the railway came, was so 
hard of passage that it created an ethnological 
parting which is apparent to-day in the fact that 
the inhabitants, on one side, approximate to those 
of Japan, and on the other have closer relations 
with Central Asia and China. The range is a 
dividing line no longer. 

At the moment, Korea is in a critical position. In 
everylocality that I halted at, traversing the country 
from the north to the south, I heard similar testi- 
mony. All of it tended to show that the Japanese 
have made a most unfortunate start with their 
administration of the country. In Seoul I looked 
into carved wooden chambers in the deserted North 
Palace, where the queen of the present Emperor 
of Korea was murdered, one night fourteen years 
^go, by members of the Japanese party, including 
police. Purple irises have blossomed, season after 
season, since then, in the shadow of the royal seven- 
clawed dragons of the pagoda-roofed structure. 
Seedling pines in the shrubbery behind, have 
pushed up into trees, as the Emperor's sons have 
grown into manhood ; but the pillared dancing-hall 



i86 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

has stood deserted, the royal fish-ponds are choked 
with weeds, and the cane-bucket of the old stone 
well in the garden has hung unused. The Emperor 
has refused to return to his violated house. The 
hundred yellow cardboard rooms of the dead Queen's 
quarters are still in the disorder in which they were 
left on the night of the murder. The brown stain 
of royal blood upon the floor has not been washed 
out 

It might have been supposed that, in fourteen 
years, the Japanese would have lived down or 
worked out the memory of this unfortunate incident : 
but they have not. The Korean considers that 
what has since happened is entirely in keeping with 
the beginning. The European in Korea is only 
one degree less despondent, though, unlike the 
Korean, he is prepared to make allowance. The 
Japanese soldier in the field has proved himself 
considerate and merciful as well as brave and 
efficient; but the same cannot be said of the 
Japanese proletariat in Korea. Assaults by 
Japanese upon both Koreans and Europeans have 
been unfortunately frequent In such cases as the 
one which occurred the day before I reached Seoul, 
where the Catholic bishop was mishandled in his 
own cathedral by Japanese soldiers in uniform, the 
offenders were identified and redress has been 
obtained ; but this seems to have been the exception 
rather than the rule. I do not attach importance to 
isolated instances of the cuffing of Koreans by 
Japanese which I myself witnessed, though the 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 187 

spirit thus accidentally betrayed made a very un- 
favourable impression upon me at the time. What 
I saw was confined to the lower orders of each 
people; and I had no means of ascertaining the 
nature of the provocation given. It would be 
foolish, however, to overlook the opinion which I 
found general amongst merchants, missionaries, and 
other Europeans resident in the country, and which 
was expressed to me with varying degree of reser- 
vation, according as the sympathies of the individual 
were for or against the Japanese. The few 
Koreans I talked with were unable to restrain the 
violence of their antipathy to the ruling racei 

A story was told me by a European resident of 
Tokyo, who happened to be visiting Korea at the 
same time as myself, which illustrates the natvetd of 
the Korean's attitude of disapproval. At an official 
dinner party in Seoul the European found himself 
seated next to a highly educated Korean official, 
who spoke English fluently. The Korean conversed 
freely and pleasantly upon every topic that came up 
until the fact emerged that his neighbour spent 
most of his time in Japan. His tone then changed 
abruptly. He said stifily that he could not under- 
stand how any one could live in the country belong- 
ing to such a people, and then, to further show his 
displeasure, turned his back upon the European and 
did not say another word to him throughout the 
remainder of the evening. 

Japan is accused of breaking faith in this 
country and in Manchuria with the European 



I88 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

Powers. By treaty, she is bound to respect local 
autonomy, and to give foreigners the same oppor- 
tunity in conducting trade and in exploiting the 
mineral resources as her own subjects enjoy. I 
have been told by men whose honesty cannot be 
doubted that this is not being done. European 
and American merchants and mining engineers find 
their operations hampered in many ways. The 
popular party in Japan, who hold that the con- 
quered territory, having been won by Japanese 
blood, should be administrated to Japanese advan- 
tage alone, have enthusiastic supporters in the 
military element upon the spot Systematic at- 
tempts, of an official nature, have been made to 
push on Japanese enterprise of every kind to the 
detriment of the foreigner. The Japanese control 
practically the whole of the railways throughout 
Korea and Manchuria. They threw these open to 
their own people months before they allowed 
foreigners to make use of them. Godowns in 
Shanghai are overflowing with British and American 
manufactured articles awaiting access to the region 
under Japanese influence. European prospectors 
have been denied access to the interior, while a 
shipload of mining engineers, in the employ of the 
Japanese authorities, has been allowed to proceed 
inland. New mining rules unfavourable to outsiders 
are being drafted. The provisions of the customs, 
which guarantee equality of treatment to all alike, 
are being respected; but their spirit is alleged to 
have suffered violence since the Japanese relieved 



DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 189 

Mr. McLeavy Brown, the member of Sir Robert 
Hart's capable staff, who was previously in charge. 

There is something to be said in palliation of the 
view taken by the Japanese popular party. It is 
impossible to deny that a nation, which has made 
the great sacrifices of Japan, has acquired moral, if 
not treaty, rights of a very far-reaching kind in the 
territories concerned. The existence of a campaign 
of calumny against Japan, organised by corrupt 
Korean officialdom which sees itself superseded, 
must also be taken into account When all allow- 
ances have been made, however, there remains a 
situation which is certainly open to criticism. 

It is necessary to add that since the arrival of 
Marquis I to, as administrator at Seoul, the Japanese 
attitude in Korea has been modified. Marquis I to, 
veteran as he is, is still the ablest man that Japan 
possesses, and he recognises that his countrymen 
have gone too far. He professes the absolute and, I 
believe, entirely sincere determination to hold Japan 
to the spirit as well as to the letter of the treaties 
by which she is bound ; but he is committed to no 
simple task. His view is in opposition to popular 
sentiment, alike in the army of occupation in 
Korea and amongst the general public in Japan. 
Already there has been some friction with the 
military authorities in Seoul, who are being 
superseded by civilians. The Japanese Govern- 
ment have decided, however, to support Marquis 
I to, whose policy is to govern Korea by and through 
the existing Korean Government, and to retain in 



190 DIFFICULTIES IN KOREA 

Manchuria only that control of the railways, coal- 
mines, and lumber concessions which belongs to 
Japan by treaty. Marquis Ito insists upon two 
things : first, that the Korean Government shall act 
honestly and obey him in all things ; and second, 
that the Chinese administration in Manchuria shall 
afford adequate protection to life and property. This 
leaves Japan a wide margin for action. It may 
be anticipated that the attitude of the official on 
the spot will be scrupulously correct; but one is 
forced to the cynical conclusion that foreign traders 
would be unwise to suppose, on this account, that 
their own prospects will change, without external 
pressure, very materially for the better. 



CHAPTER XVI 



THE FUTURE OF KOREA 



ALMOST any experienced Anglo-Indian ad- 
ministrator, who had not been a conspicuous 
failure in his own province, could make Korea into 
a fairly prosperous and contented country in ten 
years, if he were placed in charge and given a free 
hand. Japanese statesmen may take thirty years 
and some fighting to do the same thing ; but they 
will succeed in the end. 

The land, though not so rich as in many parts of 
China, is able to support a very much larger popu- 
lation than is now upon it. Wide areas are capable 
of profitable irrigation. Gold and other valuable 
minerals exist in paying quantity. The bare hills, 
so often described as worthless, are no more sterile 
than are the almost exactly identical formations in 
Japan, where the energy of the administration has 
covered them with profitable forests. The Korean 
is improvident and lazy only because he has been 
systematically robbed, for many generations, of all 
margin over bare sustenance that he may scrape 
together. His manly qualities have disappeared 



191 



192 THE FUTURE OF KOREA 

under continued oppression. The white engineers 
who direct the large and profitable gold-mining 
industry, established by an American company to 
the north of Pingyang, have discovered that the 
Korean labourer makes one of the best miners in the 
world. Experts upon the spot have told me that, 
upon the average, taking a six-months' spell as a 
test, two ordinary Korean miners, upon a shilling 
a day apiece, are slighdy superior, in working 
efficiency, to one Cornish or Califomian pitman on 
eight times this pay. Korean labour mining thus 
costs, when tactfully handled, only a quarter of 
European. The Korean workman, however, re- 
quires to be humoured, and this the Japanese have 
not yet perceived to their profit 

A Japanese coal-mine owner in Kiusiu gave me 
particulars of an experiment tried two years ago in 
that island, of importing two hundred Koreans as 
miners. He declared that the trial had proved the 
Korean a failure. Only half a dozen of the batch re- 
main upon the mine ; and no more are being im- 
ported. The pay appears to have been reasonable, 
and the treatment not unkindly ; but the men would 
not stand the restrictions which were imposed upon 
their liberty. They deserted because the manage- 
ment insisted upon requiring them to work regularly 
for the full daily spell of eight hours which had been 
adopted in the mine to suit the Japanese pitman. 
Rather than change this arrangement, the Japanese 
directors gave up the experiment, and went back to 
an exclusively Japanese labour force. This rigidity 



THE FUTURE OF KOREA 193 

is characteristic of their experiment in more than 
one direction, and it will take time to induce them 
to abandon it Sympathy with other races is the 
slowest growth in the world, and the Japanese is 
peculiariy without it. 

- The experience of most European employers of 
labour in Korea and that of certain white planters 
in Hawaii, who have imported Korean labour to 
work upon their estates, is totally different It is 
significant, also, that in constructing the main 
railway through Korea, the Japanese themselves 
have employed a continually increasing proportion 
of Koreans, more Koreans and fewer Japanese 
being taken on as the work progressed. Europeans 
in Korea, who have utilised Koreans as watch- 
men, and inspired them with confidence that they 
would be supported in the discharge of their 
duties, have been able to tell me of Japanese 
and other marauders tackled and disarmed, though 
outnumbering the Korean custodians. 

Japanese officers, on the other hand, say that, in 
their experience, whenever Korean police are sent 
against Hunchuses they show the white feather, the 
Korean officers often setting the example to their 
men in running away from the enemy. The 
Japanese coolie thinks nothing of hitting a Korean 
to make him get out of the way in the street, being 
confident that there will be no retaliation. This 
state of things arises far more from past oppression 
than from present physical fear. The Korean is a 
coward, not because he is incapable of courage, but 



194 THE FUTURE OF KOREA 

because he has learnt, by bitter and long-extended 
experience, that no justice will be given him by his 
rulers. He accepts insult and injury lest a worse 
thing befall him. The laziness for which he is 
famous also admits of some explanation. Until the 
Japanese arrived in Korea no private rights in 
immovable property were recognised by the local 
officials. The possession of wealth had become 
undesirable, since all it could do for the owner 
was to subject him to the rapacity of the tax- 
gatherer. The system of forced labour taught the 
labourer to dawdle. The ordinary incentives to 
industry and thrift, obtaining elsewhere throughout 
the world, were absent The Korean became 
thriftless, idle, and cowardly because there was no 
reward for providence, industry, or courage. The 
present is but the natural sequel to the past ; but this 
does not show that nothing better is possible in the 
future. The easy-going Korean is as able to 
become manly as the once cowardly Egyptian culti- 
vator has proved capable of conversion into the 
soldier who stood firm before his former conqueror 
at Omdurman. 

There is no lack of material. Nothing struck me 
so much, in going through Korea, as the crowds 
of fine men and women I saw standing about in this 
inherited idleness. The Korean is strong-bodied, 
pleasant-mannered, and good-tempered. He wants 
but right handling to prosper. Missionaries who 
have lived long in the interior tell me they have 
found no sneak- thieving. Crimes of violence 



THE FUTURE OF KOREA 195 

are rare. European women and children can travel 
across country, attended only by their chair-coolies, 
without fear of violence or insult The Korean 
official is hopelessly corrupt and inefficient, but 
his rule has seldom been questioned seriously. 
Moreover, this mild-mannered people are loyally 
attached to their pathetic Emperor, and do not 
lay their misfortunes to the blame of his ridiculous 
Court. 

A new era has now commenced, though cautiously. 
Marquis Ito's official position is that merely of ad- 
viser to the Korean Government, and nominally the 
Korean Emperor and his Korean ministers continue 
to rule. Practically, the Japanese control everything 
and exercise all real authority. To get permission 
in Seoul even to collect turf for one's garden, one 
must obtain Japanese, not Korean, consent Not 
one penny of the revenue that filters into the public 
treasury can be spent without Japanese sanction. 
A Japanese financial officer has been appointed to 
see to this matter. He is getting together as- 
sistants, nominally to help the Korean officials to 
collect the taxes, really to control them absolutely. 
Japanese police officers have been lent to the 
Korean Government and are exercising influ- 
ence over the district administration. The Korean 
system that is being displaced is rotten from the 
top to the bottom, and now that opportunity to 
squeeze the people is taken away from the officials, 
the fact has become apparent that these latter have 
no sufficient means of support The ebbing of the 



196 THE FUTURE OF KOREA 

fiscal tide has left them high and dry, a new and 
embarrassing class of State paupers. 

Intrigue is afoot in Seoul with every foreign 
power that will condescend to lend its sympathies 
to the helpless Korean Court Local insurrections 
have become common throughout the country, and 
the Japanese accuse the Korean officials of foment- 
ing them. The evicted bureaucrat hates with a 
bitter hatred the people who are taking from him his 
cherished power and means of livelihood, and is no 
doubt rousing whatever is capable of being roused 
in the minds of his humbler fellow-countrymen, who 
have ^ also their own grievances against their new 
masters. Under Korean rule, the ordinary in- 
surrection was a very mild affair. It occurred on 
the frequent occasions when exactions exceeded 
what local opinion would tolerate, beginning with 
the assemblage of a noisy mob outside the yamen 
concerned, and ending, as a rule, with the hasty 
flight of the official whose squeezes had become 
unbearable. Ordinary people continued their avo- 
cations. I have heard of European ladies being 
carried in their chairs, without mishap, through the 
ranks of an insurgent gathering that blocked their 
way. These risings are now more formidable, and 
there has been some loss of life in putting them 
down ; but the Japanese power is overwhelming, and 
nothing in the country can challenge it seriously. 

The Japanese programme is definite. The 
Korean courts of justice are notoriously unsatis- 
factory. Bribery and corruption are rampant ; and 



THE FUTURE OF KOREA I97 

this is necessarily the first matter to be attended to. 
As an initial step Marquis I to proposes to set up 
a new High Court in Seoul for the trial of 
appeals from the Japanese consular courts. These 
consular courts are located in the principal com- 
mercial centres, having been established, when 
Korea was still independent, for the trial of cases 
in which Japanese subjects were concerned. An 
appeal from these lay to the Japanese court at 
Nagasaki. The new court at Seoul therefore 
replaces the Nagasaki tribunal, and will entertain, 
at first, only cases in which Japanese are concerned. 
Eventually, Marquis Ito hopes to extend its jurisdic- 
tion to all appeals, from the decisions of the local 
Korean courts, as well as from the consular courts, 
irrespective of whether the parties are Japanese or 
Koreans. The local Korean courts are to continue 
to exist beside the Japanese consular courts in the 
hope that this may teach them to emulate the im- 
ported probity. But Japanese expectation of improv- 
ing Korean justice by means of precept and example 
is not likely to be fulfilled until sufficient pay is 
given to the Korean judges to raise them above 
temptation to be corrupt This is a matter which 
the Japanese are considering, but on which they 
had taken no action up to the time I left Seoul. 
Subjects of the European powers, resident in 
Korea, will continue to be tried by their own 
consuls. 

In regard to education and police reform Japan 
is resorting to the expedient of lending Japanese 



198 THE FUTURE OF KOREA 

officers to the Korean Government In other 
words, Japanese are being put in to exercise control 
and to introduce Japanese methods. Long ago, 
the Korean Emperor ordered all his subjects to 
send their children to school under pain of his 
royal displeasure ; but little else was done. There 
were hardly any schools in existence, so compliance 
was impossible. The Japanese are endeavouring 
to remedy this by starting schools in the principal 
centres. Japanese schoolmasters, of a kind, are 
fairly cheap. They will teach the Japanese 
language, if nothing else. Their distribution over 
the country is desirable, even if their object be 
rather to Japanise the people than to instruct them 
in general knowledge. Everywhere they will stand 
for order. Everywhere they will represent Japanese 
interests, report sedition to headquarters and be 
points from which the influence of Tokyo will 
radiate. This is to the interest of the Koreans, 
for their fate is now bound up with that of Japan. 
Promises of autonomy are only misleading, and the 
sooner the people recognise that the old order has 
disappeared the more likely are they to settle down 
into good citizens under the new. 

The Japanese police officers will be similarly 
useful. They are certain to be more honest than 
the Korean officials. They may not be altogether 
mild or always considerate in their methods ; but 
the Koreans will find that the protection they will 
afford is real, and that rogues have more reason to 
dread them than have respectable citizens. A 



THE FUTURE OF KOREA 199 

useful proclamation has been issued declaring that 
private ownership in immovable property is to be 
recognised. This no doubt will be taken to heart 
by predatory Japanese immigrants, as well as by 
Korean officials whose ideas of the rights of 
private property are also confused. 

Progress is being made, meanwhile, with the 
development of the material resources of the 
country. The Japanese have lent to Korea a 
considerable sum of money for public works, 
upon terms which I heard criticised in Seoul as 
more onerous than the state of the unofficial 
money market justifies, the security being the 
excellent one of the practically unmortgaged 
Korean customs. This money is being laid out 
by Japanese engineers upon improving the har- 
bours and other works. The primary object is to 
help the Japanese trader, but obviously and no less 
surely, it will benefit Korea. The money spent 
upon the fine Japanese military railway, from Fusan 
to Antung, which I have had occasion to refer to so 
often, is to be refunded to Japan out of the amount. 
Undoubtedly the line is one of the greatest boons 
that has ever been conferred upon the country. It 
would be cheap to the inhabitants at almost any 
cost ; and, as far as I could ascertain, after making 
allowances for Korean complaints against Japanese 
methods in connection with the taking up of land 
for its construction, the cost is by no means un- 
reasonable. The roads and irrigation works, that 
are so badly wanted to increase the prosperity of 



200 THE FUTURE OF KOREA 

the country, are certain to be supplied eventually 
under Japanese rule. The planting up of the 
barren hill-sides is another matter upon which the 
new administrators have an eye. 

This brief account of the situation which exists 
in Korea would not be c(Mn{dete without some 
further reference to Marquis I to, who stands for 
justice to the Korean. The Marquis had gone to 
Japan, to discuss the situation with the central 
Government, just before I reached Seoul. It was 
not until I arrived at Tokyo, therefore, that I had 
an opportunity of meeting him. I found him 
eventually in an unpretentious, two-storied villa 
on a small hill overlooking the capital of his country. 
I was shown into a cheerful room which was car- 
peted and furnished in ordinary European style, but 
relieved from banality by a single giant spray of 
pink and white peony arranged with dainty light- 
ness in the full cross-light of two big windows. 
A solidly built Japanese gentleman, in European 
frock-coat, with a small red and white-rayed 
button in the lappet, walked in briskly. At the 
moment I was chiefly aware of a pair of some- 
what dimmed brown eyes, with typical Japanese 
lids, beneath a wide, domed forehead surmounted 
with closely brushed grey hair. As we talked 
the external marks of personality faded and two 
very un-Oriental characteristics took their place — 
simplicity and straightness. I saw an I to grown 
old, but as full of energy and confidence as the 
boy he was when he smuggled himself aboard 



THE FUTURE OF KOREA aoi 

an outward-bound ship on the quest of what 
Europe could teach Japan. I saw a man, whose 
quiet voice and gentle manner inspired confidence 
in the rectitude of the resolve of the Japanese 
leaders to comply with the self-denying conditions 
to which they have agreed The discussion ranged 
over the whole field of Japanese policy in Man- 
churia and Korea. He outlined schemes for handing 
over Manchuria to the Chinese Government as soon 
as guarantees should be forthcoming for the pro- 
tection of life and property from brigands, and 
arrangements concluded for the disposal of public 
works executed by Japanese officers in Neuchwang 
and other ports. He went into the matters of the 
railways and coal-mining rights which Japan retains, 
and of the Yalu lumber concessions, taken over 
from the Russians, which are to be worked by joint 
Japanese and Chinese enterprise. We talked of 
Japanese reforms in Korea, the autonomy to be 
allowed to the Korean Government, the facilities to 
be given to Europeans in exploiting the commercial, 
industrial, and mining riches of the country, of 
Japanese adherence to treaties made with Korea 
by every European nation, except Russia, and the 
Japanese repudiation of Russian arrangements. 

Marquis Ito reminded me that Korea was the ally 
of Japan in the war with Russia, and that it was 
the intention of Japan to treat her as such. He 
dwelt upon the determination of the Government 
he represents to give equality of opportunity to all 
legitimate foreign enterprise in the peninsula. His 



202 THE FUTURE OF KOREA 

enthusiasm was contagious when he expressed his 
belief that honest and efficient administration and 
even-handed justice are capable of restoring pros- 
perity to the country, and of raising its unfortunate 
inhabitants from the abject condition into which 
they have fallen. In one respect he saw that the 
task which Japan has before her in Korea is easier 
than that which has confronted Great Britain in 
Egypt, since Korea is practically free from debt, 
whereas Egypt was not It is pleasant to remember 
that Marquis I to is still the most influential states- 
man in Japan. The humane and hopeful policy 
which he stands for in Korea has at least the 
impetus lent by a commanding and beloved 
personality. 



♦^ 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

IT is easily forgotten that the proportions of the 
share which Japan will take in the future of 
the Far East depend upon the peaceful as well 
as upon the warlike capabilities of her people and 
civilisation. 

Japanese have established themselves in all 
parts of the Far East. Every open port in China 
has a well-kept Japanese settlement inhabited by 
a prosperous community. Two thousand cheerful 
little traders, including men, women, and children, 
have crowded to Harbin on business since last 
September, when railway communication was first 
restored between that hitherto exclusively Russian 
centre and the Port Arthur that is now a Japanese 
city. Kimono-clad merchants have started shops 
and banking houses, and are hawking the wares of 
Kobe and Osaka in every considerable Chinese city 
from Canton to Mukden. Well-found Japanese 
steamers are to be seen wherever there is water 
to float in and cargo to carry at a profit The 
Japanese ironworks which are to be established 

203 



204 THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

upon the Yangtse will be one of the biggest 
concerns of the kind in Asia. Japanese competi- 
tion is felt by every European who does business 
in the Far East Indifferent reputation for com- 
mercial honesty may hamper some of his trans- 
actions, but the Japanese succeeds because he 
attends industriously to business, and for the com- 
mon oriental reason that he can live well upon 
profits on which a white man would starve. 

I have found Japanese in the heart of China 
employed by the Chinese as experts in making 
cartridges and rifles. I have seen Japanese at 
their duties as professors in the Peking University 
and as teachers in military academies which the 
Chinese Government is setting up. I have talked 
with Japanese who are mining engineers, dock 
superintendents, and mill managers. I have visited 
factories and places of education in Japan and have 
discussed the industrial and intellectual capacity 
of the race, with Europeans engaged in commerce, 
politics, and religion, in many parts of the Far East 
The estimates given me are various. Japanese 
professors in Chihese military academies have been 
described to me by expert authority as mere 
schoolboys in knowledge. On the other hand, I 
have become familiar with the view obtaining in 
one section of the British commercial community 
in China, which sees something almost superhuman 
in the efficiency of Japanese arrangements, and 
exalts Japanese foresight and attention to detail 
into gifts of organisation and initiative superior to 



THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 305 

those possessed by any European people. Nor is 
there any lack of intermediate opinions. The 
Japanese himself is never tired of flattering his 
European visitors by assuring them that his 
countrymen have learnt everything from Europe, 
that they have no originality, and that their 
civilisation, industries, and military organisation 
are mere slavish copies of Western models. The 
tourist soon learns that self-abasement of this kind 
is mere formal compliment, no more intended to be 
taken seriously than are such terms as *' miserable 
hovel" and ''honourable mansion" which polite 
people in the Far East apply to identically con- 
structed houses which differ from each other only 
in being inhabited, in the one case by the speaker, 
in the other by the person addressed. 

Japanese-built railways took me from one end 
of Korea to the other, and from the west to the 
extreme east of Manchuria. The smoking factory- 
chimneys of cotton-spinning Osaka inked the 
sky of a whole day of travel. I was shown by 
hard-headed Japanese managers over dockyards at 
Kobe where, at the time of my visit, half a dozen 
nickel-steel plated gunboats of modem pattern 
were being manufactured for the Chinese Govern- 
ment Alert, thick-set navvies swarmed over the 
works, at one time building a fifteen hundred ton 
steamer, at another busy in the midst of acres of 
whirling lathes and clanging hydraulic hammers, 
at a third sitting about in laughing groups dis- 
cussing, with chopsticks and tin pots of tea, the 



306 THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

universal midday meal of cold boiled rice and dried 
fish pickle. 

The Japanese copper mines near Nikko employ 
eight thousand horse-power electric plant, and turn 
out twenty-five tons of copper daily, besides enough 
sulphuric acid to make that industry-begetting pro- 
duct cheap and plentiful throughout the entire 
country. Mines in Kiusiu, Yesso, and Hondo 
yield amongst them annually ten million tons of 
coal, which finds its way along the coasts of the Far 
East to Singapore. This coal is inferior in quality 
to the Cardiff article, but superior to that of Bengal 
in the proportion that Bengal coal must sell at 
Hongkong at eight Chinese dollars per ton in order 
to underbid Japanese coal, in the same port, at 
ten dollars. The Kure naval yards are building 
sixteen-thousand ton cruisers. Extensive electric 
installations driven by water power are in operation 
in almost every city of any size in Japan. 

Even villages are beginning to employ electric 
plant Messrs. Siemens and Company are com- 
pleting a Japanese order for a sixteen thousand 
horse-power installation for electric tram-driving 
and manufacturing purposes in Tokyo, and have 
been applied to in connection with the setting up 
of a sixty thousand horse-power installation, to be 
driven by water from the Biwa lake, to supersede 
coal in Osaka cotton-mills. Electric tram lines are 
wandering in all directions along country roads 
where they serve as invaluable feeders to the main 
lines of railway. Blast-furnaces and rolling mills at 



MANL'tAClL'KKE) FOK THK CHINKSK (lOVRR! 



THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 207 

Yawata Mahi are turning out enormous quantities 
of useful steel, including inch-thick nickel plates for 
warship construction. 

Japan supplies practically the whole of the Far 
East demand for calcium carbide, which is manu- 
factured at electrically driven works at Kurjana and 
elsewhere. Cement works at Onoda, Moji, and 
Tokyo fill the needs of the country for this im- 
portant article. There is a gold-mine at Kagosuma, 
Kiusiu, where one thousand horse-power electric 
plant is used. Splendidly equipped, electrically 
driven factories at Osaka and Tokyo turn out 
rifles and heavy guns for the entire Japanese army. 
Modem, bogie-pattern railway rolling-stock is manu- 
factured at Nagoya and Tokyo. Railway locomo- 
tives have been constructed in Japan, though reasons 
of economy dictate the importation from Europe and 
America of most of this class of machinery. 

Ocean-going steamers, owned and manned by 
Japanese, maintain regular passenger services 
across the Pacific and trade along the Chinese 
coast and to India and Europe. Joint-stock con- 
cerns in Osaka boast paid-up Japanese capital 
amounting to over six million sterling. 

Traversing Southern Japan by rail, from Moji to 
Yokohama, one looks out upon a continual series of 
flat irrigated fields, cultivated like gardens, and 
shadowed by rocky hills, which are themselves 
covered with carefully tended forest The upper 
slopes are black with the foliage of stunted pines, 
only an occasional yellow scar telling of ever- 



208 THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

narrowing stretches where wastes of sand and 
stones protest against the industry of the Japanese 
forester. What was once desert is being surely 
conquered. Already all but a fraction of the total 
area has been turned to account The crooked 
pines give way, as one journeys eastwards, to the 
softer g^reen of carefully planted deciduous trees, 
and these shade into the straw-yellows of bamboo 
forest which covers the outskirts of the minutely 
cultivated plain. Every yard of level ground is 
irrigated. Out of shallow water emerge closely set 
earth-ridges upon which grow a rich yellow harvest 
of mustard plants with pods parturient for the oil- 
press. White masses of heavily laden barley and 
wheat, with brown, thick-set ears, are being reaped. 
Between the ridges deep green bean foliage pro- 
mises a second crop. At intervals are spread 
verdant carpets of recently sown rice which will 
supply hand-planted materials for yet later yield. 
Narrow macadamised roads meander amidst the 
cultivation. Piously guarded tombstones, mossy 
and grey, and the brighter tints of thriving villages 
flit by at intervals. Bandbox houses, with brown 
thatched roofs and grey-tiled verandahs, dodge the 
railway track upon both sides of the way. Beside 
the doorways are poised delicate sprays of big pink 
roses, each blossom so skilfully isolated against a 
background of carefully arranged foliage that its 
beauty invites individual attention. Plump cattle 
wade, belly deep, in the luscious tilth. The retain- 
ing walls of the railway embankments are mosaic 



THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT M9 

puzzles of irregular grey stones, so exactly fitted 
into each other that there is no room for mortar, the 
granite blocks clinging firmly together by dint of 
sheer accuracy of shaping. 

The whole of the wonderful richness of the region 
is induced artificially. Naturally the soil is poor. 
The fields would be sand-deserts for hundreds of 
miles but for irrigation channels which utilise every 
drop of water available from the mountain streams. 
These irrigation channels are upon a very large 
scale. One of them near Kyoto collects the drain- 
age of a whole countryside and carries it, by a 
tunnel some miles long, right through the rocky 
range which forms the watershed, to irrigate 
hundreds of thousands of acres on the other side, 
which would otherwise be barren. I am informed 
that this channel was both designed and constructed 
by Japanese engineers. It is an example of 
indigenous ingenuity and industry of very high 
order. I saw long embankments in course of 
erection along the northern shores of the Inland 
Sea, where immense areas of what has hitherto 
been useless beach and waste sea-bottom are being 
surely reclaimed. The soil where the embankments 
are new is mere yellow sand, but every stage of 
development can be seen ; for irrigation and 
fertilisers are being so applied that the entire 
process of the creation of fields of rich cultivation 
is visible. An unmistakable odour tells of town 
sewage that is utilised in quantity to assist; for 
nothing is wasted. 



210 THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

The process of converting thousands of square 
miles of bare ridges of rock and sand into profitable 
forest can also be seen in operation. Few sights 
are more striking than the bamboo copses between 
Kobe and Kyoto, which are so thick that the big 
feathery fronds have had to be tied back with fence- 
wire, bound like a girl's tresses, to prevent their 
straying unduly. More than half of the total area 
of Japan is forest ; and sixty-five per cent, of the 
forests belong to the State. The forest-land is 
generally so situated as to be out of reach of irriga- 
tion, and too poor to be cultivated dry. It affords, 
in the hands of the Government, however, an 
important source of national wealth which is 
increasing steadily, and is a good example of that 
self-denying foresight which is so characteristic 
of Japan. I had not time to proceed into the 
north of the central island, so was unable to gather 
any personal impression of the drought and con- 
sequent famine in progress there, nor of the 
measures taken by the authorities to relieve dis- 
tress; but in the south, where small holdings are 
the rule, the prosperity of the peasants is evident. 
The land-tax, I understand, averages only about 
fifteen per cent, of annual value, and is paid easily. 
A poor soil has been made capable of supporting a 
teeming population, and wealth is growing fast. 

The hand of the Japanese administration is 
visible everywhere, helping development to pro- 
ceed. The railways are in course of nationalisation ; 
and the rates for freight and passenger fares are 



THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 211 

kept low to encourage traffic. When big iron- 
works failed under private management the 
Japanese Government refused to allow them to 
be closed, but took them over itself and spent 
millions of yen in making them a partial success. 
Up to a comparatively recent period the man- 
hood of South Japan was cooped up upon the 
land. The holding of each individual family was 
split into patches, generally separated by other 
folk's fields and too small to admit of anything but 
spade cultivation. This has now changed. A law 
requiring every village community to readjust 
the distribution of the land so as to give to each 
family a compact plot, equivalent in value and area 
to the total of the separate patches it possessed 
previously, has been adopted with the cheerful 
obedience which is so characteristic of this remark- 
able people. Plough cultivation has become prac- 
ticable in consequence, and labour has been set free 
in very large quantity. The construction by the 
local authorities of roads, to replace the footpaths 
previously in use, has operated in a similar 
direction, since it has rendered practicable the 
introduction of draught animals to take the place 
of the weary carrying of agricultural produce upon 
the backs of the peasants. This explains the ease 
with which Japan has spared millions of its man- 
hood, first to fight Russia in Manchuria, and 
afterwards to pour, as traders and coolies, into the 
newly-acquired territory of Korea, without trenching 
seriously upon the supply available to meet the 



21^ THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

heavy demand for factory labour in Japan itself. 
Simultaneously with the creation of fresh sources 
of industrial wealth has come such notable economy 
in labour as to avoid any serious blow to the older 
and less profitable forms of enterprise. 

It is important to remember this in estimating 
the extent to which further industrial development 
is practicable, since there is room for yet additional 
economy in labour. Jinrickshaw-men, for example, 
still teem in every Japanese city, doing work which 
in almost all other countries is performed by draught 
animals or machinery. In Japan, cheap electric 
power promises to become before long so abundant 
and widely distributed as to set free a very large 
number of jinrickshaw-men. Already electric trams 
have done much in this direction. Great as have 
been the developments in Japan in the forty years 
which have elapsed since feudalism went out and 
European methods came in, there is yet prospect 
of further advance. A continuously increasing 
birth-rate contributes to the total manhood avail- 
able, and that manhood profits by better training 
than the race has ever had before. 

Meanwhile some other points must be considered. 
The annual value of the foreign trade of Japan has 
risen in the past decade from twenty-three million 
sterling to sixty-four million, and growth is still 
proceeding; but the imports considerably exceed 
the exports. The large amounts of rice, bean-cake, 
flour, sugar, and raw cotton brought in, show that 
the people have become dependent upon the 



THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 213 

foreigner for a serious fraction of their food, and 
that the greater portion of the principal raw pro- 
duct required for their mills is grown abroad. 
The imports of machinery, rails, and other iron 
goods are also significant The exports principally 
comprise such Japanese manufactured articles as 
cotton yarn and silk piece-goods, of which eight 
million sterling's worth are shipped annually. Tea, 
matches, matting, umbrellas, cigarettes, camphor, 
and porcelain are also important items, and raw 
products, like copper ore and coal, figure to the 
annual value of three million sterling. It follows 
that Japan is using machinery, but not yet making 
it herself to any very large extent; also that she 
still sends part of her raw products to be worked 
up by the foreigner. 

The custom duties are heavy, but they serve 
what every Japanese considers a useful purpose in 
encouraging home industries as opposed to foreign. 
They bring in at present from three to four million 
sterling annually, and are being raised to produce 
about five million. The new rates average some- 
thing like fifty per cent, ctd valorem on the goods, 
and are higher upon commodities needed by the 
European in Japan than on those which the 
Japanese themselves require. The principal sources 
of Japanese revenue, other than customs, are the 
land tax, the sak6 tax, and the salt, tobacco, and 
camphor monopolies. The national debt is by no 
means overwhelming, in spite of the great expense 
of the war with Russia. It amounts, at present, to 



214 THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 

less than two hundred million sterling, of which, 
roughly, a hundred million has been borrowed 
outside the country. The annual national income 
before the war was less than thirty million sterling. 
It has been increased since, by special taxation, to 
forty million, and will soon touch fifty million. The 
national debt is not entirely unproductive, for it 
includes the capital cost of a number of public 
works bringing in nearly four million sterling 
annually. With such relation between debt and 
income the financial position is not disheartening, 
though ten years of peace and careful economy 
are essential to enable expenditure upon the 
administration to keep pace with the material 
development of the country. 

The present standard of efficiency in the public 
services cannot be maintained without increased 
outlay. The pay of the officials is so low at present 
as to threaten the stability of the entire organisation 
of the Government Already the bench is fallen 
into such disfavour that many of the judges 
look upon it as a mere stepping - stone to 
the more adequately remunerated bar. High 
servants of the State are unable to mix upon 
equal terms with Europeans and other well-to-do 
strangers, and often hold themselves aloof in 
consequence, for fear of being put to shame by 
the poorness of the circumstances in which they 
are compelled to live. In any other nation grave 
deterioration would have resulted already ; and in 
Japan it threatens seriously. In every branch of 



THE JAPANESE COEFFICIENT 215 

Japanese development marvellous progress has 
been made ; but everywhere there is a sharply 
defined need of money. The country has entered 
upon vast schemes of national improvement ; 
scarcity of resources alone hampers their growth. 
The skill that has been shown in internal organisa- 
tion promises well for Japanese ability to deal with 
allied problems in Korea and China. Basic limita- 
tions, however, exist, and cannot fail to affect the 
issue. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

CONTRADICTIONS IN THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 

THE Japanese soldier, from the most senior 
general down to the last-joined private, is 
high-spirited, hospitable, and chivalrous, ready to 
sacrifice himself for his beloved country, obedient 
to authority, brave, resourceful, and democratic. 
The familiarity which I have noted as existing 
between the officer and the private is remark- 
able to those who are accustomed to the greater 
distance maintained between members of the 
corresponding ranks in European armies; but 
it does not interfere with discipline. The pride 
which animates every branch of the service is 
splendid. I have seen a thirsty Japanese soldier, 
after a hot day's tramp in the sun over a 
Manchurian battlefield, refuse a drink because, 
as he explained to the interpreter, he was on 
duty. I remember another, who had been given 
a smoke by a visitor for whom he had performed 
some trifling service, decline to consume it until 
satisfied that one of his own cigarettes was to be 
accepted in return. To tip a Japanese soldier- 

tl7 



2i8 THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 

servant would be an insult against which I re- 
ceived friendly warning at an early stage in my 
wanderings. 

The European finds intercourse with Japanese 
gentlemen more difficult than he is sometimes 
prepared to admit. This is because the Japanese, 
while hanging together themselves in the closest 
possible manner, regard the members of every other 
nationality with distrust It is distrust for which 
the past may afford ample justification ; but this 
does not prevent its inconvenience as a present 
condition. The Japanese tries hard to make an 
exception in favour of the Englishman. He reminds 
himself that he is dealing with an ally. He loads 
the English visitor with hospitality. He tolerates, 
with continual patience and admirable temper, what 
he considers the shockingly bad manners of the 
Occidental. He is for ever endeavouring to see 
this friendly barbarian from a favourable point of 
view, and to ignore his drawbacks. The English- 
man tries in return not to be irritated by the 
Oriental's attitude of secretiveness, self-conscious- 
ness, and suspicion, which flowery language, en- 
gaging manners, and exaggerated humility do but 
emphasise ; and he recognises to the full his good- 
fellowship, kindliness, and painstaking conscientious- 
ness. But neither feels wholly at ease in the 
presence of the other. The differences of race, 
tradition, and custom are so great as to constitute 
almost a physical diversity of species, and a physical 
discomfort in the best-intentioned attempt at inter- 



THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 219 

course. Both are conscious of a barrier^ swept 
away sometimes by community of interest and 
alliance, but inevitably restored, with results that 
affect the entire political situation in the Far East 

Japanese methods do not always commend them- 
selves to Europeans. One hears of officers who 
condescended to disguise themselves as coolies and 
pull the jinrickshaws of visitors belonging to a 
country with which Japan was at peace, in order 
to overhear talk that might possibly prove useful 
politically. Japanese combatants have taken service 
in different parts of the world as photographers, 
and even as porters and domestics, in order to 
surprise the naval and military secrets of their 
employers. The soldier is thorough in everything, 
not excluding the obtaining of information by what- 
ever means he can. The world has abundantly 
recognised Japanese self-denial, Japanese courage, 
and Japanese honour. It has yet to recognise 
the military side of Japanese taste. 

I have referred to the fact that the whole of the 
public services in Japan are underpaid. The Lord 
Chancellor, who presides over the highest court of 
appeal, gets a salary of ;^500 a year. A general 
officer in the field receives ^^35 monthly, a subaltern 
two shillings a day, and a private three-halfpence 
in addition to his keep. The poverty of the whole 
of the members of the civil services is pathetic, yet 
I have never heard a whisper of justice being sold, 
or of corruption, for selfish purposes, upon any really 
extensive scale amongst the officials. The traders, 



220 THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 

artisans, and labourers have notoriously a less 
favourable record. They are industrious and in- 
genious, but have won the very reverse of that 
reputation for honesty and fair-dealing which the 
Chinese have long possessed. 

The foreign traveller of independent means sees 
little of the national failing ; not so the foreign 
business man with a stake in the country. Japan 
is a tourist's paradise because the tourist is a 
source of profit to its people ; but it is no 
place for the European who has to make his 
living. I refer not so much to European experts 
in Japanese employ, who are rapidly disappearing, 
but to the European merchants who do business 
upon their own account These men see the 
Japanese at his worst. I have heard a level- 
headed Englishman amongst them compare the 
position which he and his fellows occupy to that 
of the outlander in Johannesburg before the Trans- 
vaal war. Ostensibly, they are protected by treaty 
and given absolute equality of opportunity with 
their Japanese competitors. Practically, they are 
hampered upon all sides. They find the Japanese 
official in league with the Japanese merchant to 
undersell them. Reg^ulations are rigidly enforced 
where they operate to the foreigner's disadvantage, 
but are read in an altogether different spirit where 
Japanese merchants are concerned. For one 
European merchant who has been able to say that 
he considers, upon the whole, that the particular 
operations he is concerned with are given a fair 



THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 221 

field, two have assured me that they find the con- 
trary to be the case. 

I do not quote the bitter things that are said 
by Belgians, Germans, and other Continentals who 
are struggling on in business in Japan under 
adverse circumstances, because these persons, as 
a class, are so hostile to the Japanese that it 
is only natural that they should meet with hostility 
in return. I refer rather to Englishmen and 
Americans, who are in sympathy upon other 
points with the Japanese, and are unlikely there- 
fore to exaggerate the differences which exist. 
It is perhaps natural that specific examples of 
obstruction should be hard to find. The cases 
quoted to me refer, for the most part, to what 
appear to the non* expert somewhat petty matters 
connected with facilities and rebates of freight upon 
Government-owned or officially subsidised railways, 
steamers and other services, also with the levying of 
local taxation and the framing and working of the 
Japanese customs tariff. Individually, they may 
be susceptible of easy explanation ; but collectively 
they indicate the existence in Japan of a state of 
feeling which has grown, when transplanted to 
Korea, into active friction between the foreign 
trader and the paramount authorities. 

The Japanese think the white man amongst them 
disproportionately well-to-do. They combine, in 
consequence, to relieve him of some of his super- 
fluous prosperity. At a Japanese show in Tokyo I 
was asked, as entrance fee, precisely double the 



222 THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 

sum which Japanese, in European attire, were 
paying for similar accommodation at the same 
time. A polite explanation was vouchsafed that 
the sum was double in my case because I was big^ 
and would take up space. The European mer- 
chant doing business in Japan may console himself 
for the moment with a somewhat similar reflection. 
He, too, no doubt is big, and takes up space ; but 
he will not be able to do so for long, since one class 
of business after another is being taken out of his 
hands. This is the more galling since the sufferers 
believe that if the field were open they could more 
than hold their own. 

The Chinese merchant is content to work with 
and through the foreigner. The Japanese will do 
nothing of the kind, but is determined to get 
business sooner or later into his own hands. The 
ambition of Japan is to drive all manufactures but 
her own out of Japanese markets, and out of those 
of China, Manchuria, and Korea, to absorb the 
carrying trade, and to employ none but Japanese 
in the handling and distributing of the goods. 
Looked at by itself, this ambition is honourable 
and legitimate. The foreigner who is being dis- 
placed, however, has cause for indignation, since 
not only does he find the State leagued with private 
enterprise against him, but Japanese Government 
contracts interpreted with a looseness which gives 
him cause for continual anxiety. 

The scheme for the nationalisation oi the 
principal railways in Japan may be quoted as a 



THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 223 

typical example of Japanese methods. No one who 
has lived in India, where the nationalisation of 
the railways has proved an unmixed boon to the 
taxpayer, can doubt the wisdom of the general 
intention underlying the measures taken by the 
Japanese Government towards a similar end. The 
same cannot be said of the method employed. 
The dangerous principle has been accepted that 
what government can give, government can take 
away. Concessions, with many years still to run, 
are being suddenly abrogated. A sense of in- 
security has been created which cannot fail to 
react unfavourably upon the credit of the country. 
It is true that the existing companies are to be 
bought out upon liberal terms. The shareholders are 
to receive five per cent, bonds to an amount which 
approximates to twenty per cent, above the market 
value of their property at the time of the transac- 
tion. They may profit in the end by this 
arrangement, though this was by no means certain 
at the beginning; but they have a legitimate 
grievance in being arbitrarily deprived of securities 
in which they felt confidence, by exchange for others 
of a different nature. Financiers at Tokyo ask 
themselves what guarantee exists that other 
national liabilities will not be juggled with 
similarly. 

I have referred to what the European in the 
Far East considers to be questionable methods 
upon the part of Japanese military and naval 
officers in the matter of obtaining intelligence. It 



224 THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 

is fair to add that these methods cannot be de- 
scribed as at all directly countenanced by the 
Japanese Government. The breach of neutrality 
committed by a Japanese naval conmiander in 
Korean waters at Chemulpo, at the beginning of 
the war with Russia, which resulted in the destruc- 
tion of two of the Russian war-vessels, received no 
open official recognition. Neither did the unsuccess- 
ful attempt, made shortly afterwards by Japanese 
officers in disguise, to blow up one of the big 
bridges in Central Asia in the rear of the Russians, 
whether justifiable or otherwise under the special 
circumstances of the case. On the contrary, the 
authorities held responsible for each occurrence 
were formally reprimanded. The story of a breach- 
of-neutrality incident in the Spanish-American war, 
where an over-zealous United States officer is said 
to have been solemnly court-martialled, condemned, 
and promoted^ may be recalled in this connection ; 
but I am assured there was no corresponding 
humour in the Japanese proceedings. Japanese 
recruits, sent to the front during the war, were 
carefully instructed before starting in what was 
supposed to be the European code of honour. I 
am told that both the railway in the Russian rear, 
and also the Neuchwang-Sinmintung line, which 
long continued to carry from China supplies for 
General Kuropatkin's forces, might have been cut 
had the Japanese resorted to really extensive 
alliance with brigand Hunchuses. The small scale 
upon which such alliance took place must be attri- 



THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 225 

buted quite as much to Japanese chivalry as to 
self-interested resolve to command the respect of 
the civilised world. 

It is possible to say that the Japanese fighting 
man of to-day is the lineal descendant of the gallant 
Samurai whose devotion to his feudal chief has 
inspired a national poetry and created a national 
cvlt, while the commercial Japanese belongs to 
another class of life and has been despised by his 
own fellow-countrymen until he has sunk accord- 
ingly. This, however, is but a rough discrimina- 
tion, and will not cover the acts of the people as a 
whole. To attribute to the spirit of the Samurai 
the self-denying promises of the Japanese Govern- 
ment to treat foreigners upon an industrial and 
commercial equality with Japanese in Manchuria 
and Korea, and to blame the commercialism of 
Japanese public opinion with the failure which 
has occurred to keep the spirit of these promises, 
is neither logical nor sufficient It is better to 
say that commercial dealing, even by the Govern- 
ment, is not yet quite recognised as an expression 
of national honour. We must take the Japanese 
nation as a whole, and remind ourselves that dis- 
tinguished qualities do not create perfect people. 
Polished manners, kindliness, courage, intense 
national as well as personal pride and sensitiveness 
to public opinion, are widely characteristic. The 
Japanese have been tactless and sometimes brutal 
masters of subject races in Formosa and Korea, only 
because they lack facility in recognising points of 






226 THE JAPANESE CHARACTER 

view other than their own. They have drunk the 
strong wine of victory over a European power with- 
out the intoxication that most other peoples would 
have shown. Their brave moderation in action, 
their generosity in victory, their dignity in reverse, 
their subordination of all lesser considerations to a 
common aim, and their proud refusal to boast or 
exaggerate, may well be held to outbalance the 
spirit of dishonest commercialism which is also 
abroad in their land. 



CHAPTER XIX 

LIMITATIONS TO JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 

TEN years ago English engineers were in 
charge of almost every cotton-mill in Osaka ; 
Belgians controlled the steel-works of Kiusiu; 
Germans and Americans were entrusted with the 
technical direction of the electric tram lines and 
lighting installations which have been set up in 
most of the bigger towns and even in some 
villages. British sea-captains commanded Japanese 
merchant ships. English was heard upon the 
quarter-deck and in the engine-room of every 
Japanese war-vessel. German military instructors 
were to be found in camp and barrack-square. 
Graduates of Oxford and London delivered the 
principal lectures in the Tokyo University. 
Japanese railways, dockyards, and irrigation works 
all leaned heavily on Europe. This is now wholly 
— I hesitate to say irrevocably — changed. 

The well-found steamer which conveyed me from 
Fusan to Moji, over the scene of Admiral Togo's 
final victory, was built, commanded, and manned 

by Japanese exclusively. The national naval 

937 



228 JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 

base upon that emerald and sapphire training- 
ground for Japanese bluejackets, tlie Inland Sea, 
employs no British officers beyond one highly paid 
naval constructor and a few draughtsmen and other 
assistants. Sixteen-thousand ton men-of-war are 
built at Kure, of materials partly of European 
origin, with but very little assistance from 
Westerners upon the spot. Japanese, not Germans, 
drill the troops at Hiroshima. The coal-mines, 
blast-furnaces, and steel-works are under Japanese 
engineers and Japanese masters. I did not see 
a single European in the dockyards of Kobe or 
Osaka. Hardly any of the Japanese cotton-mills 
now employ Europeans. At the Tokyo University 
I was shown round by a highly cultivated Japanese 
professor, who could introduce me to none but 
Japanese colleagues. The comfortable electric 
tram-lines, which carried me to see the lacquer 
and gilt temples in Kyoto and Tokyo, were run 
by indigenous experts. 

The European in Japanese employ has practically 
disappeared. Where he still exists he is a mere 
survival of a state of things which has gone. He 
resents his supersession, but has no just cause of 
grievance, for he was treated liberally as long as 
his contract lasted. Little visible change has 
followed his dismissal. The works go on very 
much as before and many of them continue to 
do well financially; but this does not prove that 
the European is not missed or that some loss of 
efficiency has not followed his elimination. There 



JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 229 

is a tale, pretty well ear-marked by now, but very 
illustrative, of Japanese engineers failing so com- 
pletely to learn the essentials of an exotic industry 
that European experts had to be recalled, after a 
costly attempt had been made to do without their 
services. This was in some big ironworks where 
the molten metal refused to flow from the principal 
blast-furnaces, soon after white supervision had been 
bowed out of the gate. The furnaces were ruined 
by the coagulation of the pig-iron within them, and 
dynamite had to be employed to clear away the 
debris. 

It is not always safe to turn to Peking for a 
parallel to anything Japanese, but the fate of the 
European methods introduced into China after the 
Taiping rebellion, nearly half a century ago, is not 
without a moral of very general application in the 
Far East. Gordon had stamped out a rebellion 
which had threatened to overwhelm the Manchu 
dynasty. He had employed for this purpose 
Chinese troops, which he had drilled and armed 
in the then modern fashion. The Peking mandarins 
were so badly frightened that they decided upon 
reform, and imported a number of British military 
and naval experts to improve the Chinese State 
forces. The experiment was not persisted in long 
enough to be of more than very temporary assist- 
ance to the army; but the naval officers bought 
some modern ironclads and trained their Chinese 
crews so efficiendy that the navy became by no 
means despicable, and remained so for a consider- 



230 JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 

able time. Had the China-Japanese war occurred 
in 1880, instead of fourteen years later, there 
would have been much more doubt of the issue. 
The event turned out as it did because the 
reactionary party in China was able to reassert 
itself when the Taiping danger had passed away. 
The British officers were replaced by Chinese, 
and naval efficiency at once declined so steadily 
that no stand could be made against the Japanese 
in 1904. 

The Japanese have persisted far more doggedly 
than did the Chinese in adopting European methods. 
Their organisation in the war against Russia proved 
that they could not only profit by, but in some cases 
improve upon the teaching of their German drill- 
instructors and British naval experts. The same 
holds, but to a more limited extent, in regard to 
their industrial methods. Japanese inventiveness 
and attention to the minutiae of organisation have 
enabled mills and factories in Japan to maintain a 
considerable degree of efficiency long after the 
withdrawal of the Europeans who initiated the 
various industries ; but deterioration is by no means 
unknown. Competent authorities are to be found 
in Japan who hold that the falling off from 
European standards is far more serious and wide- 
spread than is generally supposed, though partly 
compensated by Japanese resourcefulness and in- 
dustry. The supply of trained Japanese mechanics 
and engineers is so limited that machinery is often 
injured by unskilled handling. When the original 



JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 231 

managers make money they occasionally lose interest 
in their undertakings, which pass to irresponsible 
underlings. The plant, which is often of the best, 
is not kept in as good order as would be the case in 
European workshops and factories. Nor are defects 
in one concern compensated, as in Europe, by 
increased excellence in another. 

Ship-building is one of the most highly developed 
industries in Japan. In the principal dockyards of 
Osaka and Kobe I saw a number of steel vessels 
under construction, including half a dozen torpedo- 
boats and two gunboats intended for the Chinese 
navy. The work struck me as of very fair quality 
and as proceeding at good speed, though the day's 
task performed by the individual workman was con- 
siderably less than a European would have got 
through. Deficiency in the unit of work, however, 
was fully compensated by numerical superiority in 
the workmen. N ickel-steel plates of excellent quality 
were in use ; but I observed that both these plates 
and also much of the shafting and other working 
parts of the engines were of European or American 
manufacture. The drawing of the plans, the bolting 
together of the framework and plates, the installing 
of the engines, and the manufacture and fitting of 
the woodwork must be credited to the Japanese. 
Those portions of the materials which are difficult 
to prepare, also the more complicated factors in the 
mechanism, which, in Europe, would be made at 
home, were imported. 

Similarly, in the case of the electric tram-lines 



232 JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 

at Tokyo and Kyoto, I found that the wood- 
work of the cars and the steel rails were 
Japanese, but the working parts, as a rule, 
were of foreign origin. The Japanese has learnt 
to use the white man's inventions and to operate 
his machinery, but has stopped short of inventing 
and making the machinery for himself. I am aware 
that this allegation is disputed. The Japanese claim 
to be large inventors, and quote their rifle, their 
high explosives, and their wireless telegraph as 
examples of their achievements in this field. The 
more closely, however, that intelligent foreigners in 
Japan have been associated with these inventions, 
the more sceptical one finds them upon the subject 
of the originality involved. The laws of Japan 
afford little protection to foreign patents. The 
Japanese is clever in borrowing the discoveries of 
others and in adding unimportant modifications 
which give an appearance of novelty. His critics 
regard the secrecy in which he wraps many of his 
manufacturing processes as confirmative of the 
common allegation that he is making illegitimate 
use of other men's discoveries. Evidence of clever 
imitation and adaptation is everywhere available 
in Japan, but examples of originality in practical 
matters are more difficult to obtain. 

The ordinary Japanese believes with some reason 
that, individually or collectively, he has learnt pretty 
well all that the average imported employee can 
teach him; but he recognises that processes and 
inventions are in use in Europe and America which 



JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 233 

are still worth his while to master. He travels 
assiduously to study them, and is remarkably suc- 
cessful in searching out what is of value. He then 
returns to Japan with the results, and organises the 
cheap labour which is there available in turning 
them to account The copy is astonishingly good, 
but the original still surpasses it. The Japanese 
has started, with the light-hearted self-confidence 
of a clever boy, to undertake anything and every- 
thing the European can accomplish ; and he has had 
such a large measure of success that a tendency has 
arisen to magnify his achievements unduly. He 
has passed beyond the inferior and the mediocre, 
but must pursue the road of progress a very great 
deal further before he can overtake the white man 
at his best. 

Japan has made her grand national effort, and 
must now rest to refit and recuperate. Education, 
high and low, technical and physical, as well as 
theoretical, is extending gradually amongst her 
people ; but progress is slow. Elementary teaching 
reaches a larger proportion of the children of 
school-going age than in any other country in the 
world. No one can see the large crowds of well- 
developed men and boys at physical drill in the 
free, open-air gymnasia of Tokyo, without compar- 
ing them, to their advantage, with the average 
manhood of Great Britain. The laboratories and 
workshops of the Tokyo University, where educa- 
tion is free, can challenge the costly corresponding 
institutions at Eton and Oxford without fear of 



234 JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 

being put to shame ; but there is one deficiency. 
The number of Japanese possessed of first-class 
training is still very small. The demand for trained 
men in every branch of enterprise has outstripped 
the supply so completely that individuals with only 
rudimentary acquirements have to be accepted and 
paid for as if they were the genuine article. 
Japanese engineers are especially scarce. Railway 
companies in China are beginning to find that it is 
cheaper to import Europeans than to employ the 
Japanese who are available ; and Chinese officials 
constantly complain of inefficiency upon the part of 
the so-called Japanese experts in their service. 

The Japanese no doubt needs every advantage 
he has in China, and the greatest is his natural 
power of assimilation with the Chinese. His 
elaborate manners commend themselves to Chinese 
notions of propriety, whereas the abruptness of 
European behaviour gives sore offence. In a 
set of papers published in Shanghai in 1901, 
Ku Hung-Ming, a Chinese gentleman with Euro- 
pean education, who was at the time secretary- 
interpreter to Viceroy Chang-Chih-Tung, quotes 
with approval the statement of Count Cassini that 
" The Chinese are a polite people, and the English 
and Germans are — well — as a rule, not very polite," 
and adds, **The fact is, the average foreigner in 
China is often very unreasonable and hasty; and 
the average Chinaman is polite and reserved. 
When you make an unreasonable request to a 
really educated Chinaman, it is impossible for him 



JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 23$ 

to say 'No.' His innate politeness will prompt him 
to use polite evasiveness by giving you a condi- 
tional 'Yes/ The late Marquis Tseng Kuo-Fan, 
in a letter to a friend in i860, says, 'When you 
meet with foreigners who make insolent and insult- 
ing remarks to your face, the best course to take 
is to smile blandly and look stupid, as if you did 
not understand them.' . . . Thus against foreign 
unreasonableness the educated Chinese are often 
prompted to use polite evasiveness, and against 
foreign unreasonable violence the Chinese some- 
times use a weapon which in Chinese is called 'Chi 
mi,' translated by Dr. Giles as ' to halter.' In fact 
when you meet a violent mad bull, it is of no use to 
reason with him ; the only thing you can do is to 
halter him." 

The ordinary European often comes to grief in 
China because he cannot communicate with those 
around him. The Japanese suffers from no such 
disability since he has only to write to be under- 
stood, the picture signs being practically identical 
in the two languages. Physically the races have 
so many points of resemblance that Chinese 
students in Japan who cut off their queues and 
dress in kimonos can often pass undiscovered 
as Japanese, and Japanese in China can make 
themselves similarly at home. The Japanese 
looks upon China as his natural field of enter- 
prise, and flocks there in large numbers. As an 
interpreter of Western science to the Chinese he 
has the important qualification, which the Euro- 



236 JAPANESE EFFICIENCY 

pean lacks, of having personally experienced the 
difficulties which present themselves to the 
Oriental. Nevertheless, his Chinese pupils are 
beginning to realise that it is more advantageous 
to learn first-hand from the Europeans than 
second-hand from the Japanese. The Japanisation 
of China is proceeding, in consequence, very much 
more slowly than is generally supposed. So long 
as Japanese professors, engineers, soldiers, and 
chemists were notably cheaper than Europeans and 
claimed equivalent qualifications, there was a 
definite incentive to the Chinese to turn to Japan 
for their requirements. Now that this is no longer 
the case, as the excess of demand over supply has 
sent up the price of the Japanese commodity, a 
reaction has commenced. 

Japan may yet arrive at the port where many of 
her admirers imagine her to be at anchor already. 
She has put out the Western pilot and weathered a 
storm since his departure; but some eccentricities 
in the course she is steering are already apparent, 
and a wide ocean has still to be crossed. 



CHAPTER XX 

THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

THE High Court at Tokyo is a typical insti- 
tution of the Japanese present It comprises 
three sets of tribunals, a Local Court of first 
instance, an Appeal Court to which reference 
can be made in almost all cases on both law and 
fact, and a Supreme Court which gives a second 
reference on points of law only, and corresponds 
to the appellate tribunal of our House of Lords. 
As Japan has borrowed its naval training from 
England and its military system from Germany, 
so it has introduced its judicial arrangements from 
France. No juries are employed, and long cross- 
questioning of prisoners and defendants by the 
bench are familiar features of the proceedings in 
court. The bar is exclusively Japanese, and its 
members enjoy much consideration and make large 
incomes. They represent clients, address the court, 
and suggest to the judges questions to put to the 
witnesses, but they do no examining. On the 
other hand, admissions which they make are held 
to have been made by their clients. The court 
consists always of several judges sitting as a 



238 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

bench. There is also in each court a public 
prosecutor who represents the Crown in criminal 
cases, and watches the public interest in civil 
ones. The accused is always expected to confess, 
and so much weight is attached to his doing so 
that, up to thirty years ago, torture was employed 
as a regular means to this end. Professor Basil 
Chamberlain tells in ** Things Japanese " how 
its abolition was brought about by the indignant 
protests of a distinguished French jurist, em- 
ployed by the Japanese Government to introduce 
the present system, who found his labours in the 
court interrupted by groans, and forced his way 
to their source to discover the existence of a 
torture chamber. He offered his employers the 
alternative of abolishing torture or of losing his 
services; and the threat prevailed. The change 
was a very necessary preliminary to the abandon- 
ment, so necessary to Japan's status among 
civilised powers, of extra-territoriality. 

Judges have been known to go out on strike 
in Japan for better pay; but their probity is un- 
questioned. I have heard some of their decisions 
in commercial cases, in which Europeans have 
been concerned, criticised as lacking in technical 
knowledge, but never as intentionally unjust. The 
judicial system has been transplanted to Japanese 
soil with little loss of vitality; but the French 
lawyers who introduced the exotic have now re- 
tired and its culture is in the hands of the 
indigenes* 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 239 

I visited the High Courts in Tokyo under the 
favourable auspices of a letter of introduction to the 
Minister of Justice. The Chief Justice of the Local 
Court, a solid gentleman in European morning dress, 
was good enough to conduct me over all the courts 
that happened to be sitting [ and the secretary to the 
Minister of Justice kindly accompanied us as inter- 
preter. We passed through a simply furnished 
ante-room to which the judges retire to discuss 
their decisions. The Chief Justice climbed up half 
a dozen steps at the far end and opened a small door 
in the wall at the top. He then turned and beckoned 
us to follow him. Upon the other side we found 
ourselves upon the rostrum of the bench in one of 
the smaller courts, and were accommodated with 
chairs, a little in the rear of those of three judges 
who were engaged in trying a case. 

The judges wore black gauze caps and plain 
black robes ; and the impression they gave me was 
the pleasant one of substantial capacity and quiet 
common sense. The man they were trying was a 
Japanese coolie, accused of selling sak^ without a 
licence. The senior judge was examining a defer- 
ential but self-possessed youth appearing as a witness 
on behalf of the accused, who sat stolidly alongside. 
The boy was questioned as to his connection with 
the principal in the case, and was told eventually 
that his evidence would be taken as that of a relative 
and not as of an ordinary witness, the latter being 
liable to penalties in case of perjury which the 
former escapes. In Japanese law you may lie for 



240 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

your relatives without committing perjury, but your 
tendency to do so is discounted in advance. Two 
women in black kimonos sat behind with troubled 
faces. A ferret-faced lawyer in cap and gown was 
with them. 

Our visit to this court was brief, for there was 
much to see. We passed into another, which was 
also subordinated to my kindly cicerone, and saw a 
case postponed in which the prisoner refused to 
confirm die statement taken down by the judge 
in the preliminary secret examination where the 
primd facie case is made out. 

Then we went on to a third and sat upon the 
bench, as strangers in the wake of a Chief Justice 
may, in a very much more important case. The 
lai^e hall below us was crowded. Seventeen 
Japanese in robes, with the look of keenness and 
assurance upon their faces which stands for 
practising barristers in all parts of the world, 
lounged upon seats in the middle, since deference 
to the bench is not exacted from the bar in Japan 
as strictly as in England. In front of the barristers 
were huddled some fifty accused who were under the 
charge of a number of court officials. On one side 
half a dozen newspaper reporters painted in pictorial 
shorthand. A crowd filled the body of the building. 
We were assisting at the trial of some of the rioters 
who had made a demonstration against the accept- 
ance by their country of the self-denying conditions 
of the peace treaty with Russia. The best counsel 
in Japan were engaged in the defence, and the 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 241 

sympathy of the spectators was all upon one side. 
The state of feeling was not so much apparent in 
the attitude of the silent and respectful crowd as 
implied in the faces of the accused, who were grave 
but by no means disquieted, though several people 
had lost their lives in the disturbance. They 
believed still in the righteousness of their action, 
and relied confidently upon the patriotism which had 
prompted their offence to extract them from serious 
consequence. They were dressed, like the crowd 
at the back, in the blue kimonos of the working 
classes, whereas all the officials of the court wore 
European dress beneath their robes of office. The 
judicial desks were piled high with paper books 
containing the records of the evidence. 

As we arrived, the senior judge, who occupied the 
central seat upon the bench, was reading out state- 
ments made by the prisoners in their preliminary 
secret examination. The men concerned stood up 
as their names were called ; and I saw no endeavour 
made, either by themselves or their counsel, to 
dispute the accuracy of the record. The public 
prosecutor, who sat to the right of the bench, 
had an assistant beside him, but neither 
of the pair spoke. Their responsibilities were 
heavy, since the side they represented was un- 
popular and at a disadvantage as regards legal 
talent, but their faces wore the look of men unlikely 
to be turned from their duty by either eloquence 
or sentiment. 

The case proceeded slowly, and the senior judge 



242 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

was still reading out the notes when my companions 
took me away. Our destination was now the 
Appeal Court, outside the jurisdiction of the Local 
Court Chief Justice, so a seat upon the bench was 
no longer available ; and we made our way to an 
enclosure open to the public. This faced the 
judicial rostrum, on which five judges sat in a 
row, flanked by the public prosecutor upon the 
right and the clerk of the court upon the left 
Five barristers occupied positions at a row of 
small tables immediately in front of us. We 
were the only spectators present, and neither of 
the parties to the case that was under appeal 
appeared. Two of the barristers were upon their 
feet, one of them silent, the other rasping out 
the defence. The Chief Judge, who sat in the 
centre of the rostrum, afterwards said a few grave 
words, and the case was over. The two counsel 
for the defence, also a barrister who had been 
for the plaintiff, walked out, after bowing slightly 
to the bench. They left the door open behind 
them, and their tramp and voices echoed loudly 
through the empty stone corridor outside. A 
marshal, who sat below the bench, in white duck 
uniform with brass buttons, opened his eyes sud- 
denly and climbed carefully down from his chair, 
his legs not being long enough to reach the ground 
as he sat He walked stiffly across the court and 
shut the door with precision, thereafter returning to 
his seat and reclosing his eyes. The court clerk 
shut up his note-book and put away a paint-brush. 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 243 

One of the remaining barristers rose, turned over 
a packet of tissue paper covered with neat black 
writing, and cleared his throat loudly. He then 
muttered a few words and hunted about for the 
place. Judge number two on the right sighed 
softly. Judge number one on the left changed a 
cramped position. Stout counsel for the defendant 
sat squarely to attention. Counsel for the petitioner 
found the place at last and got into his subject. He 
was appealing against the decision of a Local Court 
which had thrown out a petition to have a son disquali- 
fied on grounds of misbehaviour from succeeding to 
family property. The case must have been a forlorn 
one, for counsel kept his nose in his notes and sawed 
away at the points with an " I don't care what you 
may say " intonation that arrayed all my sympathies 
in favour of the peccant son. I was waiting to see 
the Chief Justice glance round his colleagues and 
dismiss the appeal when my conductors arose and 
led the way out of the court We had seen the 
appellate machine at work, and there was something 
else to be done. We went out as quietly as we 
could, and closed the door carefully behind, byt the 
corridor echoed badly. The court seemed impervious 
to interruption. The judges on the bench were all 
watching their barrister, and I feel confident that 
they dealt with him firmly. 

Outside we met an under-trial prisoner in an 
enormous basket mask, since such is the kind- 
heartedness of the Japanese that they will not hurt 
even a criminal's feelings by exposing him as such to 



244 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

the public gaze until they are quite sure no mistake 
has been made about his guilt. He was on his 
way to his cell in the basement, from the secret 
examination before the recording judge, A closely 
barred door to this secret tribunal was shown to me. 
It led out of a dusky passage and seemed more 
appropriate to the past than to the present Below 
were the cells where cheerful Japanese policemen 
kept watch over disconsolate under-trial prisoners, 
who turned their faces away as we approached 

The Supreme Court was not in session, but my 
conductors carried me to its rostrum, where stood 
the seven empty chairs of the ordinary bench, with 
space around them for twenty-three more, since the 
whole of the thirty judges sit together whenever 
an appeal which involves any previous decision of 
any of their number is brought before them. They 
also took me to call upon the President of the 
Supreme Court, a courteous elderly gentleman in 
European dress, who gave us tea in his simply 
furnished office and inquired politely, in Japanese, 
about my travels, suggesting that I should visit the 
Singamo prison to obtain a further impression of 
the system of Japanese justice. 

To the Singamo prison I accordingly went the next 
day. It is at the other end of Tokyo, and confines 
eighteen hundred long-term prisoners. The wards 
are well-built structures, radiating from a centre and 
elaborately fitted up. The prisoners were engaged, 
under the supervision of a surprisingly large number 
of paid warders, in such industries as weaving, boot- 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 245 

making, tailoring, grain-grinding, and smithy work. 
The system largely utilised in India, of employing 
the better-behaved convicts to look after their 
more troublesome fellows, was not adopted. I saw 
attractive kitchens where savoury rice and vege- 
tables were being cooked for the convicts, and was 
shown the varying measures of food g^ven to each 
individual to accord with his behaviour; for the 
Japanese hold quite wisely that violence and mis- 
behaviour are best met by reducing the rice supply. 
This means of discipline, I gathered, was held 
rather in terrorem than practised habitually, since 
most of the prisoners looked well fed and cheerful. 
The arrangements were so complicated that I was 
not surprised to learn that the cost of each prisoner 
is a hundred per cent, more than in Indian jails, 
though this did not seem to imply any noticeably 
higher standard of health or reformation. 

The whole organisation, from the secret chambers 
of preliminary judicial investigation, where the 
accused is tried by every test but that of the opinion 
of his peers, to the glazed hospital wards of the 
prison, where the consumptive criminal is given every 
luxury except fresh air, struck me as over-elaborated 
in faithful imitation of not always perfect European 
models. It represents, however, a surprisingly 
high standard, considering the shortness of the 
time which has elapsed since its introduction from 
the West ; and its limitations are typical of the stage 
which Japan has now reached as a state civilised 
upon Western pattern. 



246 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

I 

To step back into the Japan of the past it is 
necessary to go no further than the immense pandal 
in the heart of the city in which the national wrest- 
ling competition is still held The road passes the 
palace garden, where a space as big as Trafalgar 
Square is hedged with closely set rows of guns of 
every calibre, captured from the Russians and 
hauled to this central location, without regard to 
cost or labour, to be a perpetual reminder to the 
Japanese people of danger they must ever stand 
ready to face. 

A jinrickshaw whirled me to the Ekoin temple 
and on through an arch thirty feet high, which in 
itself constitutes one of the prizes given to the 
master wrestler. The arch was built of nothing 
but straw-bound pots, the size of coal-scuttles, each 
filled to its earthen brim with the strongest sak^. 
Beyond was the wresding booth, an immense struc- 
ture, into the dark interior of which sunbeams slanted 
distractingly through holes in the torn mat roof. 
Only slowly could a way be made through the 
crowd to a tottering grand-stand, where seats 
were obtainable. A dado of yellow faces, white 
straw hats, and dingy kimonos lined the walls of 
the thronged amphitheatre. In the middle was a 
raised mud platform containing a small ring marked 
off by a hayrope sunk in the floor. The platform 
was shaded by an erection like that which covers a 
four-poster bed. 

An umpire squatted gravely upon his heels at the 
foot of each of the bed-posts. On benches around 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 247 

were half a dozen of the biggest and fattest Japanese 
I have ever seen. They were innocent of clothes 
except for a blue belt with stiff tassels, which stuck 
out round them like the frill on a ham-bone. The 
flesh hung from their sides in pendulous masses. 
It was the most lamentable spectacle of strong 
men made gross and what we should think out 
of condition, I had ever seen. 

Presently there appeared in the ring a grey 
kimono with white socks below, a large fan at one 
side, and a round head of closely cropped black 
hair on top. It was the master of the ceremonies 
with his back towards us, in the act of making an 
announcement to the assembly. With no desire to 
be flippant, I can only say that the words, which 
were of course incomprehensible, sounded like the 
prolonged lamentations of a deserted cat. The 
interpreter explained that they signified the post- 
ponement of the finals by a day for the reason that 
one of the champions had cut his lip. 

The situation thus cleared, two of the fat men 
lumbered up, one from either side, to plant them- 
selves opposite to one another in the ring, where 
they stood with feet wide apart and looked at each 
other. Then one of them lifted up a huge leg 
sideways, until the knee was almost as high as the 
shoulder, and brought it down again with a stamp. 
He repeated the performance first with one foot 
and then with the other a number of times over. 
His vts-d-vis copied him exactly. 

The two great men were stretching themselves 



348 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

before their admirers, and we all waited respect- 
fully ; but nothing happened. Suddenly both 
squatted down on their heels. The grey kimono 
did the same, and extended a yellow hand to set 
great man number one back an inch exactly, after 
which he flapped his fan violently and caterwauled 
more briefly. A homeric battle was surely about 
to begin, but not so. Number one champion 
suddenly stood up and went off the platform for a 
drink, which he took with much ceremony. Number 
two champion followed his example, and rubbed 
himself all over with a small piece of thin paper. 
The first round was over, and neither had touched 
the other ; but both took a good rest before they 
reappeared in the ring. Then the process was 
repeated. The second round was exactly like the 
first, except that hero number one danced on his 
heels, and hero number two took exercise by 
standing up straight and then suddenly getting 
down upon his hands and knees — manoeuvres which 
required hero number one to do the same. Neither 
touched the other, but this did not interfere with the 
necessity of another adjournment for drinks and 
massage. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth rounds 
were equally preliminary. 

The audience grew impatient, and an individual 
in the dress circle barked out some comment at 
which there was a roar. ** He say first-class 
wrestlers not so slow," interpreted the hotel guide. 
There was another shout, and ** He say so long 
time must pay forfeit," was the translation. 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 249 

Then something happened. Number two made 
a spring and clutched at number one, but number 
one did not approve. He folded his arms and 
backed out of the ring without being collared. 
That finished round the seventh, and there was 
another interval for rest and refreshments. The 
eighth round was no more exciting; but in the 
ninth number one took the offensive. Number 
two refused, but was too late in doing so, and 
received as he retired a heavy push and an open- 
handed smack in the eye which sent him flying off 
the stage. He sat down and nursed his eye with a 
paper pocket-handkerchief, getting up now and then 
to rinse his mouth with water. Number one stood 
proudly to attention in the ring while various 
officials in old willow-pattern petticoats crowded 
round number two to suggest he should return to 
the contest ; but number two had had enough and 
would not The grey kimono went to the umpires 
and had a lengthy confabulation with each apart 
Then all four umpires rose stiffly to their feet and 
discussed the matter together in the middle of the 
ring. One of them was deputed to examine the 
eye, which showed no signs of injury visible from 
the grand stand. He returned, and a further 
council was held. ' 

At length the senior willow-pattern made an 
announcement, which we all received with relief. 
The interpreter explained that the match was 
drawn, but not with honour. Number one re- 
tired with head erect. Niunber two shuffled off 
dejectedly, and two fresh champions appeared. 



250 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

This time there was to be no fiasco. The 
stamping and leg-stretching lasted not more than a 
minute. Then both got down upon their hands and 
knees. The umpire tapped them apart, and both 
went off for a drink. Then they faced each other 
again, and in a flash were boxing like two cats on a 
housetop. The struggle lasted ten seconds, and 
the one who was bald-headed received a punch on 
the throat which sent him out of the ring. That 
finished the event, and the man who was still in the 
ring was clapped as victorious. 

Other pairs succeeded. Two men like bladders 
gripped each other suddenly, with hardly any pre- 
liminaries, and fell heavily together. The wrestler 
who was uppermost was declared the victor. It 
was almost impossible to believe that the man 
underneath had not burst with the shock, so 
extraordinarily inflated was his person and so 
violent the concussion, but he picked himself up 
cheerfully, none the worse for the encounter, which 
had at least been honourable. 

Presently a well-matched couple set to work and 
struggled violently about the ring for half a minute 
in tight embrace. Then they leant up against each 
other heavily to recover breath. The real thing 
had surely come at last But no; the master of 
the ceremonies interfered. He touched each man 
on the shoulder, whereupon the embrace was ended 
and die meek combatants retired for the indis- 
pensable refreshments. 

The proceedings had become wearisome, and 



THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 251 

the prospect of another long set of preliminaries 
was not exhilarating. It was an agreeable surprise, 
therefore, to see that the match was to be con- 
tinued where it had left off. The champions 
reappeared, and the umpires took hold of their 
long arms and arranged them round each other, 
exactly as they had been before. Another well- 
matched tussle ensued. Neither went down, and 
in a few seconds the umpire again interfered. 
This time it was to announce that a draw with 
honour had occurred. The champions unlocked, 
and retired with equal pride to the cheerful accom- 
paniment of clapping. 

The last round of the day followed. A lithe 
man in hard condition but small of stature tackled 
a fat giant vigorously and well. The giant threw 
his assailant at last and fell heavily beside him; 
but the smaller man's pluck was excellent, and the 
assembly cheered him lustily. The guide explained 
that the winner in this case was the second favourite. 

The proceedings terminated and the crowd 
trooped out in orderly fashion. The fat men 
strutted up and down the road with self-satisfied 
smiles, their long black hair done up in chignons on 
the tops of their heads. One of them sailed past 
at dangerous pace through the crowd, in a jinrick- 
shaw with two gaily dressed coolies harnessed 
tandem-fashion in front Everybody made way 
respectfully. Heads looked out from all the 
windows. The dignity of the profession of the 
wrestler was unmistakable. 



252 THE NEW AND THE OLD IN TOKYO 

Between the High Court and the wrestling booth 
is a gulf of a thousand years, which the breaking 
down of the barrier against the European has 
enabled the Japanese to bridge in one generation. 
Nominally that barrier is still down; but the 
European who has taught Japan the sciences and 
arts by which she has profited so magnificently no 
longer finds the opening as practicable as it was. A 
new phase has begun in which the Japanese people 
have commenced once more to rely upon themselves 
alone. They are turning more and more to their 
ancient wrestling booths. Their borrowed Euro- 
pean lawyers have retired, and the amendment of 
the code of their High Court is left to indigenous 
hands. If the movement be general, as I believe 
to be the case, it cannot fail of effect upon the 
future, for the wrestling is typical of what the race 
has thought well to evolve when left to its unaided 
resources. The enormous momentum, which has 
been borrowed from Europe, will no doubt long 
continue; but momentum tends to decrease when 
not continually reinforced. Upon the extent and 
the frequency with which Japan will consider it 
necessary to import this reinforcement probably 
depends her future among the powers that stand 
for modern civilisation. 



«»* 



CHAPTER XXI 

INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 

IN the year 1900, when urgent necessity arose to 
send troops to the relief of Peking, the South 
African War was still in progress, and Great Britain 
was not in a position to undertake an additional 
campaign in a field so remote as China. The task 
of relieving the endangered Legation was therefore 
handed over to the Government of India. Simla 
responded with a promptitude and efficiency which 
argued well for her ability to meet Imperial demands 
of greater scope. Not once, while the lights burned 
late in the departmental offices under the deodars, 
did she turn to Pall Mall for help in her prepara- 
tions. Not once was it even hinted, at all events 
publicly, that any but an Indian officer should take 
command of the contingent Delicate situations 
arising out of the international character of the 
undertaking were handled with a tact that had little 
to learn from the British Foreign Office. Cawn- 
pore and Calcutta factories furnished tents, clothes, 
boots, saddlery, and ammunition. To-day they 
could furnish rifles and field guns as well. In the 
thronged harbours of Calcutta and Bombay the 



254 INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 

Indian Marine Department took its pick of Indian 
merchant steamers for transport. Thirty thousand 
troops were told off and despatched with all field 
equipment, and reached the scene of the operations 
in China at least a month sooner than would have 
been the case if they had embarked in the English 
Channel. 

The bulk of the force was native, and the regi- 
ments were drawn chiefly from the Bombay and 
Madras commands, in order to give those corps a 
chance of distinguishing themselves which seldomest 
see fighting on the Indian frontiers. The regiments 
of the Punjab command, which are inured to 
extremes of climate and hardened by border war- 
fare, were scarcely represented. The contingent 
went from enervating stations in the hot plains of 
Southern and Western India to the snow and frost 
of a Chihli winter, yet the white troops of Germany, 
France and Italy failed to outstay our force upon 
the march or to surpass it in action. The Indian 
troops took more than their full share of hardship, 
and were first inside Peking in the attack in which 
the operations culminated — an honour attributable 
to campaigning quality as well as to luck. The 
health of the Indians was vastly better than that 
of the Germans. Their discipline was superior 
to that of any of the Allies, the Japanese alone 
excepted. Their strength was that which the 
British Government considered necessary. Had 
a force three times as large been wanted the 
demand could have been met. Far from exhaust- 



INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 2$$ 

ing the resources of India the expedition laid only 
small and light toll upon them. 

Great Britain paid the cost of the contingent 
because the Legation which had to be rescued 
was her own. India would have been fully able 
to find the money. The gross revenues of its 
Government exceed eighty million sterling annually. 
There is litde burden of debt for other than such 
reproductive public works as railways and canals ; 
and surpluses have been so much the rule of late 
years, in spite of two recent reductions in the 
rate of taxation, that large military enterprises can 
be conducted vrithout upsetting the financial 
equilibrium. It must also be remembered that 
fighting is the hereditary employment of large 
sections of the races of the northern provinces. 
The trade of arms is understood and followed as 
a profitable calling by men whose ancestors were 
seldom at peace. 

The ability of India to assist Great Britain in 
the Far East rests upon the sound basis of 
military preparedness buttressed by financial 
strength ; but the question naturally arises as to 
how far the British Government is justified in 
employing that ability. If India were here a 
mere tool of empire, with no considerable interests 
of her own to serve, she might be considered to 
be hardly used by a policy which made her an 
active participant in Far East affairs; but the 
contrary is the case. India is affected by Far 
Eastern conditions almost as closely as Great 



256 INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 

BritaiiL Calcutta and Bombay do a larger trade 
with China than with any other country except 
the United Kingdom. The Indian taxpayer is 
relieved of an annual burden of some three 
million sterling by the taste of the Chinese for 
the opium of Patna and Benares. China and 
Japan are the principal foreign buyers of Deccan 
cotton goods and Bengal jute. They also take the 
major portion of Indian fish exports, and afford the 
principal market for the indigo of Behar. Fleets of 
steamers owned in Calcutta and Bombay trade 
between India and the Far East Indians are 
employed as police in all the treaty ports of China. 
An Indian regiment guards British interests at 
Shan-hai-kwan. Anglo-Indians are engaged in 
the development of mining, trade, and railway 
enterprises from Canton to Peking. Members 
of the Indian Staff Corps and the Indian Medical, 
Public Works and Survey Departments have been 
pioneers in exploration throughout the Chinese 
Empire. 

The western border of China marches, for 
several hundred miles, with the eastern boundary 
of the Indian Empire ; and the establishment of 
direct railway communication between Rangoon and 
Shanghai is only a question of time. A well-found 
British railway, with many feeders, has been built 
from one end of Burma to the other to connect the 
principal port on the eastern side of the Bay of 
Bengal with Mandalay and Myitkyina. At Man- 
dalay a branch has been constructed a hundred 



INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 257 

miles in a north-easterly direction to Lashio, near 
the Chinese border. Another branch is creeping 
forward further north from Bhamo to Tangyueh ; 
and both are designed to admit of ultimate extension 
into Chinese territory. The original plans for the 
Mandalay-Lashio section included an extension to 
the Kunlan ferry upon the Salween river ; but 
construction was stopped, three years ago, when 
Lashio had been reached, as the prospects of local 
trade by this route did not then justify the heavy 
demand upon the revenues of India involved in 
further eastern progress. The country between the 
Burmese frontier and the Yangtse basin is cut up 
by an almost continuous series of deep gorges which 
run at right angles to the general direction of the 
route. This makes railway construction costly but 
not impossible. The undertaking has been aban- 
doned as a local venture, but could be put through 
with certainty if it became an Imperial concern. 

Military affairs and commercial, shipping, and 
railway interests do not exhaust the potentialities 
of India were opportunity available in the Far East. 
The system pursued in India of giving large powers 
and much freedom of action to officials has created 
a body of men prompt of action, skilled in Eastern 
affairs, and ready to accept responsibility, such as 
no other country in the world possesses. Admini- 
strators, engineers, and judicial, medical, educational, 
police and scientific officers are available in very 
large numbers. Enough highly trained servants of 
the Government of India are upon leave and in 

s 



258 INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 

retirement at the present moment to man, if need 
arose, a Chinese province. 

The problems of the Far East of to-day are but 
new versions of those which India has already 
solved for herself since she left the stage of not 
altogether dissimilar political chaos. The men 
who have been active agents in the one case might 
be of equal value in the other. Great Britain pos- 
sesses in India a skilful interpreter, a large partner, 
and a strong coadjutor in Far Eastern affairs. Her 
own ability to shape these affairs to advantage 
depends to a great extent upon her Indian re- 
sources, and not only upon those resources, but 
upon the extent to which she is willing to make 
use of them. The East is best dealt with by the 
East, and Great Britain is alone amongst the 
nations of Europe in owning the means to turn this 
fact to account. 

Intricate political questions involving those 
Eastern prejudices, bred of diversity of race and 
conflict of faith, which are so baffling to the Western 
mind, are handled at Simla with knowledge and 
experience. The Indian Foreign Office affords 
efficient help in the conduct of the political relations 
of Great Britain with Afghanistan, Muscat, and 
Southern Persia. An arrangement which has 
proved successful when applied to the Western 
neighbours of India is not to be neglected so far as 
it is applicable to the Eastern. It facilitates, within 
the scope at present prescribed to it, the employ- 
ment by a democracy of patriarchal methods with 



INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 259 

races that most appreciate them. 4t utilises tried 
Eastern experience for the solution of Eastern 
problems and identifies the men upon whom Great 
Britain must largely rely in trouble with her 
councillors in peace. The Indian army, a quarter 
of a million strong, keeps watch upon the road to 
China. A signal flashed from Simla will change 
the solitary tramp of sentries into the hum of march- 
ing hosts. We have already proved the effective- 
ness of this striking force. The men who have 
organised it, who have inspired it with loyalty to 
Great Britain and made it independent of the 
British taxpayer, can also be trusted to be respon- 
sible and enlightened advisers of the home Govern- 
ment in affairs in which that army must always be 
the first support. 

The trend of political thought in England is 
gradually but surely unfitting the mother country 
for direct relations with races unresponsive to the 
ideals of modern Anglo-Saxondom. The British 
workman may prove himself in the future a shrewd 
administrator of his own municipal affairs ; but by 
the time his imperial education is completed he may 
have lost his valuable Far East markets, if he fails 
to make use of the expert agency, backed by armed 
force of its own and removed from party politics, 
which is available to assist him. Peking is no 
longer a bear garden of European Legations where 
the scramble of Continental Powers for Far East 
concessions had to be frustrated if Great Britain was 
to hold her own. It has become a mart where the 



26o INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 

yellow man in confirmed possession meets the white 
with every Eastern wile. If Great Britain is to 
avoid finding herself displaced under these new 
conditions, she must not neglect the Eastern 
resources in her control 

No friction has resulted in Southern Persia from 
co-operation between political officers appointed by 
the British Foreign Office and others selected by 
the Government of India and supported by suitable 
escorts from the Indian army. Similar co-ordination 
of British and Indian resources, with modification to 
suit each case, is possible in other parts of the world 
as well as Persia, and there is no doubt that, if 
applied in the Far East as opportunity offered, it 
would tend to augment Anglo-Saxon influence. 

No dramatic change in the existing system is 
suggested, but occasion for such co-ordination should 
be taken as it might arise. At the moment, Great 
Britain needs additional agents to represent her 
interests in Manchurian and other centres that 
are in course of being thrown open to international 
commerce. She could well ask the Government 
of India to supply them. Indian trade upon the 
Yang^e river, again, is sufficiently extensive to 
justify the appointment of Anglo-Indians to foster 
it in stations where consular officers are not already 
located. 

The Oriental pays little attention to what he does 
not see. At present the only representatives of 
Great Britain, known in hundreds of stations in 
China, are missionaries, who are neither intended 



INDIA AS A LEVER IN THE FAR EAST 261 

nor equipped to support the political interests of 
their fellow-countrymen. The more numerous and 
widely distributed the accredited agents of a nation 
the greater will be its prestige. British prestige 
may stand higher than that of any other European 
Power in the Far East and yet be the better for 
even small additional support ; and that which India 
is able to lend is very far from inconsiderable. 

The lending of consular officers is not the only 
service which India is capable of performing. Com- 
paratively recently a former head of the Indian 
Foreign Office was given diplomatic charge in 
Teheran, and later on in Washington. It would 
be more to the purpose if such promotion were to 
lead to Shanghai and Peking. 

It is no new thing for the Far East to lean upon 
India. A religion which Chinese and Japanese 
alike profess was imported from Western Bengal, 
where Buddha lived and preached two thousand 
years ago. In the ages since Sanskrit was the 
learned language of Asia, the Mongolian has 
borrowed from the Indian in literature, in philo- 
sophy, and in art The worship of ancestors, the 
race diet of rice and fish, the fire drill used in 
Shinto temples, and fables current in both China 
and Japan, are said to be traceable to the teaching 
of Indian sutras. If influence exercised from India 
should hereafter become prominent in Far Eastern 
affairs, it will be but the restoration of a connection 
suggested by history, approved by existing tradi- 
tion, and supported by the sentiment of the past. 



CHAPTER XXII 



THE OUTLOOK 



THE new tact from which all inference must 
proceed, is that the situation in the Far East 
has resolved itself, since the Russo-Japanese War, 
into a question of difficulties and dangers arising 
from the peoples of the Far East and from no one 
else. These difficulties and dangers can be asso- 
ciated only with Japan and China, which are now 
masters of the fate of the Mongolian race. So 
much stands clear. 

Japan has become one of the Great Powers, 
though still poor, and not possessed of that vast 
population which renders the potentialities of China 
so overwhelming. The unaided martial energy of 
the forty-five million subjects of the Mikado, how- 
ever well directed, need never upset the equilibrium 
of the world. Japan must exercise rigid economy 
for another ten years to wipe off the burden of 
financial indebtedness imposed upon her by war 
with Russia. She has undertaken a heavy and 
protracted task in the government of Korea. Her 
administration of Formosa, though successful after 



264 THE OUTLOOK 

a long period of costly friction and rebuff, puts a 
serious drain upon her manhood The Japanese 
entertain an entirely legpltimate ambition to become 
the England of the Far East, and to beat European 
nations in their own arts of industry and commerce. 
They are pressing forward in this direction per- 
sistently. Their achievements are great and their 
possibilities are greater, though limited in many 
ways. Their aims are not altruistic, and their 
commercial methods are open to objection; but 
they remain capable of combining efficiently with 
Great Britain and America in the one thing essen- 
tial, which is the maintenance of open markets 
in China. 

Japan has attained uneasy eminence. Her suc- 
cess in curbing the aggression of Russia in Man- 
churia is resented by the whole of Continental 
Europe with a bitterness of race feeling which is 
shared by the Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians, and 
Russians, who collectively outnumber the. British in 
most of the treaty ports of China. Twelve years 
ago Germany and France combined with Russia to 
rob Japan of the fruits of her victories over China. 
They would do the same now if opportunity offered. 
They watch Japan with a jealousy which allows 
no slip, however trifling, to escape attention, and 
the attitude of Great Britain alone prevents active 
manifestation of hostility. The Japanese fully 
realise the nature of the situation. They have 
shattered, after prolonged efforts which have strained 
the capabilities of their country to the utmost, that 



THE OUTLOOK 265 

portion of the might of Russia which the rolling- 
stock of a single line of rails was able to carry to 
the Far East across the wilds of Siberia ; but their 
leaders recognise, with characteristic directness, 
both the small extent of Japanese resources and the 
special nature of the circumstances which enabled 
them to prevail 

The single mistake fairly chargeable to the 
Japanese is, as we have seen, a serious one. 
They have allowed themselves to be carried 
away by popular exaltation, in the hour of vic- 
tory, into disregarding the spirit of their treaty 
engagements in Manchuria and Korea. It has 
been shown in an earlier chapter that European 
merchants, including those of Great Britain and 
America, find their transactions hampered and 
those of their Japanese competitors unduly favoured 
in Seoul and Mukden. Complaints are loud-voiced. 
Japanese tra[ders have been allowed to import their 
goods into Manchuria vid Dalny, where they have 
paid no duty, for a full year, during which Europeans 
could enter only vid Neuchwang, where import 
duties had to be paid. This appears to be now 
under rectification ; but the rates upon the railways 
in the new territory, which are all in Japanese 
hands, are still complained of as designed to favour 
the Japanese at the expense of the foreigner. 
The silk-cocoon trade between China and Antung, 
which was once done by Europeans, has passed to 
the Japanese ; and other traffic is threatened The 
grievance is real, and is not the less deserving of 



266 THE OUTLOOK 

notice because natural of occurrence and easy to 
make allowance for atter the events of the war. 
Grave complications are liable to result if the 
attitude adopted by Japan in act, though not in 
profession, be persisted in ; but it is not too late for 
the trouble to be dealt with adequately by friendly 
diplomatic action. The Japanese profess that they 
have no intention of breaking their engagements, 
and they realise clearly that their need to avoid 
national isolation outweighs altogether such mate- 
rial advantage as is to be derived from displacing 
Anglo-Saxon and other European trade. 

The Japanese are not exclusively to blame in 
the matter. Great Britain has helped to bring the 
difficulty upon herself, by failure to appoint sufficient 
consuls to look after the interests of her subjects in 
the outlying cities of the vast mainland territories 
which are now under Japanese influence. This is 
especially the case in the rich plains of Northern 
Manchuria, which have possibilities of agricultural 
and mining development second only to those of 
the new provinces of North- Western Canada. The 
United States have been somewhat more alive to 
their interests in this respect; but both countries 
may direct attention to the matter with advantage. 
Both are well represented in Neuchwang and 
Seoul ; but both should possess additional agents of 
ability inland, and should support them vigorously. 

Difficulty is not confined to Manchuria and 
Korea. The European resents the position to 
which he finds himself relegated in Japan, where he 



THE OUTLOOK 267 

is welcome only if he be a tourist with money to 
spend in the country, and is hampered at every 
point if he tries to make a living for himself; but he 
has no sustainable grievance here. Japan has won 
the right to dispose absolutely of her own pos- 
sessions ; and European influence is amply sufficient 
to insure reasonable definition of what those 
possessions include. 

It is easy to threaten Great Britain with ghosts 
of Hengist and Horsa because her ally, Japan, 
has won, in her own interests, a series of splendid 
victories which are of great utility to the Empire. 
Such ghosts will take to themselves bones and 
flesh with absolute certainty the day that British 
naval efficiency is neglected or the army of India 
is allowed to fall into decay ; but they are com- 
paratively harmless vapours so long as no such 
national suicide be committed. Hengist and 
Horsa would never have turned upon their allies 
had those allies been of fighting stock and equiva- 
lently armed. Whatever our Oriental friendships, 
the fate of the ancient Briton is not yet written on 
the forehead of the Anglo-Saxon. 

The Government of Japan is still upon an aristo- 
cratic basis, and the representatives of the fighting 
Samurai remain in practical, though no longer pro- 
fessed authority. Should the democracy prevail, 
hereafter, and an influential labour party become a 
permanent feature of the Tokyo Parliament, the 
situation would tend to become less and not more 
acute, since the proportion of the national income 



268 THE OUTLOOK 

voted for the furtherance of an aggressive foreign 
policy would be reduced. In any case, however, 
minor sources of friction between the Anglo-Saxon 
and the Japanese will continue to exist There is 
no smoothing away the racial antipathies of indepen- 
dent and intensely self-reliant peoples belonging to 
totally different branches of the human family long 
isolated from each other. Even those white men 
who have spent the greater part of their lives in 
Japan, who have studied the language and the 
customs of the country, and allied themselves with 
it, in the closest personal manner, by contracting 
permanent and fully recognised marriages with 
Japanese ladies belonging to cultivated and influ- 
ential families, find themselves often aloof from the 
point of view of the Japanese amongst whom they 
live. The difficulties which they encounter upon a 
small scale are not unlike those which confront the 
British and American Governments upon a large 
scale, in relations with Tokyo. 

Unfortunate incidents, such as have arisen 
during the past autumn, between Americans and 
Japanese in the PribylofTs and in California, are 
certain to recur and to increase the strain ; but 
«ach side is capable of making sufficient allowance 
for the idiosyncrasies of the other to enable 
effectual co-operation to continue in the main lines 
of policy that govern the affairs of the Far East 
Community of interest makes ever a reliable bond. 
The much-advertised theory that Japan is supplying 
nerves and brain to the inert corpus of China, with 



THE OUTLOOK 269 

a view to arraying it against the white man« can 
easily be pushed further than the situation justifies. 

The Chinese are borrowing European sciences 
and arts second-hand from Japan* but they are 
also borrowing them first-hand from Europe. The 
source adopted is largely determined by considera- 
tions of price. A Japanese vogue was created in 
China by the success of Japan over Russia, but 
this is already decreasing, the Japanese article 
proving deficient in both quantity and quality, yet 
asking scarcity rates. The Japanese has an advan- 
tage over the European in understanding the 
Chinese, because of his racial relationship; but I 
have found no indication that he is anywhere ac- 
quiring any special ascendency on this account On 
the contrary, his failure to hand back Korea to 
China is confirming his old unpopularity. Neither 
individually nor nationally is he in a position to 
play the injurious part that has been suggested for 
him. He will do in China the best he can for 
himself ; but this need not cause alarm at present 
to anybody else. There is every reason to suppose 
that Japan will remain the valued ally of Great 
Britain, and her splendid achievements in the life- 
and-death struggle, from which she has emerged so 
magnificendy, will probably not be obscured by 
sustainable charges of subsequent broken faith. 

The Chinese factor is more complex. If racial 
characteristics, hitherto potent in keeping the 
yellow man in subordination to the white, were 
no longer operative, the future would cause well- 



270 THE OUTLOOK 

founded anxiety for the world in general as well 
as for the Far East; but the changes which are 
in progress do not go so deep. Western virility 
cannot be assumed with clothes and learning. 
Moral qualities have to be inherited to stand the 
test of trial. The imitation does not wear like the 
original. Modern Chinese civilisation and progress 
have all the inherent weaknesses of exotics. 
Growth may be vigorous, but the yield will not be 
in proportion to the standing size of the crop. 

The gravest feature of the situation is that China 
is arming ; and that she means to become a world- 
power equivalently equipped and vastly larger than 
Japan. The menace of the outlook centres upon 
the seventy thousand mauser-armed troops, which 
Yuan-Shih-Kai has brought into being in Northern 
China. This large force is far more efficient than 
anything Chinese of its kind that has ever existed 
before ; and it is liable to increase in size indefinitely, 
if nothing be done to check its growth ; but it has 
certain features which limit its capabilities. It may 
be drilled, organised, and armed as well as European 
troops, though some of the incidents of the recent 
manoeuvres in the Honan province, in which twenty- 
four thousand men, including some of the best corps 
from Paotingfu, Tientsin, Shantung, and Peking took 
part, do not indicate that this is yet the case. 

The following are extracts from a telegram, dated 
October 23, 1906, published by the London Times, 
from its correspondent in Peking, who is one of 
the closest students of military affairs in China : — 



THE OUTLOOK 271 

'•The general opinion formed at the manoeuvres 
by the military attaches was not unfavourable, 
though many years' work towards uniformity 
without official jobbery will be needed before the 
troops can claim equality with those of more 
advanced nations. The inefficiency of the officers 
is still conspicuous, and the field training of men is 
still inadequate, but the material is good. There 
was little confusion, discipline was satisfactory^ and 
the men showed improved military bearing. Inci- 
dents occurred which, if repeated in war, would be 
disastrous. The spectacle of two contending forces 
blazing at each other while standing in close forma- 
tion at sixty yards' distance suggested methods of 
warfare more suitable to the bow-and-arrow period 
than to that of the modern rifle, though the noise of 
the fusillade was highly gratifying to the Chinese 
spectators. 



'' Practically all the forces engaged had been 
instructed by Japanese officers, of whom twelve 
on each side, dressed in Chinese uniform with 
queues, took a prominent part. Colonel Ugata 
acting as chief of the staff to Chang-piao» com- 
manding the Southern Army, and Colonel Banzai 
being chief military adviser to Tuan Chi-jui, com- 
manding the Northern Army. What would have 
happened had the Japanese been absent is a 
question easily answered. What will happen to 
this newly-formed army, whose early stages we are 



272 THE OUTLOOK 

witnessing, when the strong arm of Yuan-Shih*Kai 
ceases to control them is not so easy to conjecture." 

The Chinese soldier may be prepared to meet 
death at his post, provided it comes to him in the 
precise guise in which he has been trained to await 
it, and not in some unexpected form ; but he remains 
Chinese in enterprise, in resourcefulness, and in 
spirit Travellers in the interior of China are 
familiar with a condition of abject terror of the 
unknown, upon the part of their Chinese servants, 
which no amount of military training can eradicate. 
The European is able to understand the low esteem 
in which the Japanese hold the Chinese when he 
sees for himself grown Chinese men refusing to 
leave the inside of a mule-cart for days together 
because the route taken happens to lie through a 
region where highway robbery is liable to occur. 

The Manchurians were despised by both the 
Russians and the Japanese during the late war 
for their lack of fighting quality, yet I have heard 
of two hundred and fifty Manchurian Hunchuses 
repulsing, with seventy casualties, a thousand 
modem-armed Chinese troops in the province 
where the bulk of Yuan-Shih-Kai's much vaunted 
army is recruited. The Manchurians, on their 
way to attack the Chinese on this occasion, pai^sed 
through a village in which some British and Ger- 
man travellers were resting. They announced, on 
their arrival, that they had no particular quarrel 
with the white man, and they advised the British 



THE OUTLOOK 273 

to stop with them, on the ground that this would 
be the safest course, but said they would not make 
themselves responsible for the Germans. The 
British accordingly stopped and were well treated. 
The Germans moved on. Little doubt seems to 
have been felt beforehand, by those who were 
present, that the Chinese would get the worst of 
the fight that was to follow, and the expected 
happened. Yet the Chinese troops were fair samples 
of the force for which such extensive achievement 
has been prophesied. 

An incident, described to me by an eye-witness, 
at a large military station in North China is also 
dpropos. A force of modern Chinese troops de- 
trained on the railway platform for the night, 
intending to resume their journey on the following 
day. Orders had been issued that the men should 
not go into the bazars. The Chinese officer in 
charge had barely reminded his men of this pro- 
hibition when he saw one of them sneaking away 
round the comer, in direct defiance of his authority. 
He ran after the delinquent, seized him by the 
hair, dragged him back and kicked him soundly 
from one end of the platform to the other, in 
the sight of all his comrades. The soldier re- 
ceived his chastisement with howls of pain, and 
nothing further was heard of the incident. It 
struck no Chinese present that there was anything 
improper in the occurrence. Yet this soldier re- 
mains in the ranks, and is expected hereafter to 
possess the respect for his officers and himself which 



274 THE OUTLOOK 

shall enable him to bear himself courageously in the 
face of the enemies of his country. 

The now disbanded Chinese regiment, which was 
raised by British officers at Wei-hai- Wei, has shown 
another weak point in the Chinese soldier. The 
men who could be induced to remain in the corps 
proved reliable enough in the operations in 1 900 for 
the relief of Peking, in which they were employed ; 
but the difficulty of preventing their deserting was 
always very considerable. A soldier would learn 
his drill conscientiously, but would be found some 
morning to have disappeared, leaving in many cases 
his uniform, rifle, and arrears of pay behind. It 
was supposed at first that the deserters had been 
attracted by promises of better remuneration in the 
national Chinese army, but this proves not to have 
been at all generally the case. Indeed, those who 
slipped away from the British corps in order to join 
the Chinese forces rarely remained long in their new 
employment As a rule the reason of their deser- 
tion was nothing more than the caprice, superstition 
or prejudice of relatives in the interior, who would 
send a sudden summons, appealing to filial or family 
piety, which no sense of military obligation could 
withstand. Deserters could not be arrested in their 
homes in distant provinces ; and the evil grew to 
such magnitude as to necessitate the training of a 
disproportionate number of men in order, to keep 
the corps up to the strength prescribed. This 
source of weakness has not been confined to the 
British service or to times of disturbance. It is 



THE OUTLOOK i;S 

equally if not more prevalent in the armies of the 
Chinese Government which are recruited from 
similar classes to those employed in the Wei-hai- 
Wei corps, but with smaller pay, slacker discipline, 
and less tactful handling. 

The Chinese is a man of peace. As a trader 
and a manufacturer he is certain to become an 
increasingly serious competitor of the European. 
As a soldier he possesses many merits, including 
that of passive fatalism, which makes him a difficult 
adversary to dislodge from a position ; but he lacks 
altogether the ^lan which makes his fellow-Mon- 
golians, the Gurkha and the Japanese, formidable 
on the offensive. 

No opinion on the subject of the efficiency of the 
twentieth-century army of China carries greater 
weight than that of Colonel A. W. S. Wingate, 
who was intelligence officer with General Gaselee's 
force at the relief of Peking in 1900, and has since 
been engaged in survey and exploration in Northern 
China. In the course of a lecture delivered before 
the Royal Geographical Society in London, last 
December, Colonel Wingate said of the Chinese 
soldiers of to-day : "At learning drill, manoeuvres, 
military exercises, and all about modern warfare 
they are adepts. Under favourable conditions, they 
quickly acquire the proficiency and accuracy of the 
German Imperial Guard on the parade ground; 
while at examinations for fitness for command, or 
at military sketching, reconnaissance, &c., they 
soon learn to excel. What they lack individually 



276 THE OUTLOOK 

b the will to fight for what, hitherto, has been to 
them an incomprehensible object As an army 
their fighting value is still inconsiderable, because 
of divided interests and the corrupt and inefiScient 
way in which an excellent system is worked/' 

The present Chinese army is useless for the pro- 
tection of the country from outside aggression. 
The real strength, which has put an end to the 
predatory enterprises of Continental Europe upon 
Chinese territory, is to be found solely in the forces 
of the British Empire and Japan. The Chinese 
troops have been organised to bolster up the ambi- 
tions of particular Chinese viceroys. They are not 
even suitable for police work. On the other hand, 
they constitute a real and ever-present menace to 
the Europeans resident in China. They are liable 
to be used at any time, at the bidding of petty spite 
or imagined grievance, to indulge the strong and- 
foreign feeling which is always close below the 
surface in an excitable populace. 

The mandarin armed, even to the not very ad- 
vanced point of efficiency requisite to convince his 
easily satisfied vanity that he is invincible, is highly 
dangerous. The severe lesson which the Allies 
taught the Peking Administration in 1900, as to the 
ability of the white man to avenge unprovoked and 
murderous attack upon himself and his Legations, is 
becoming effaced by the blustering self-confidence 
of the modern-drilled Chinese soldiery. The boy- 
cott of American goods in Canton, the Shanghai 
riot, the attempt made by the Chinese Foreign 



THE OUTLOOK 277 

Office during the past autumn to obtain the control 
of the Chinese customs, the more astute and more 
recent campaign against British- Indian trade, under 
the guise of a crusade to abolish the undoubted 
evils of the Chinese opium habit, and the determi- 
nation that is growing in the minds of the officials 
of every yamen in China to supplant European 
enterprise in local railway, mining, commercial, and 
industrial undertakings, all possess a background in 
which the patriotic Chinese is taught to imagine 
conquering hosts of his own fellow-countrymen 
stamping upon the white man with hob-nailed 
boots. The European does profitable business in 
China only because the Chinese do not possess 
rifles and men to turn him out. The armies which 
are growing up threaten, sooner or later, to remove 
this inability. 

Again and again in the past the armaments of 
China have been turned against the European. 
Nothing has occurred to render the future immune 
from repetition of the events of the years 1899- 
1 900 when white men were murdered by Chinese 
soldiers in the streets of Peking, and Chinese artil- 
lery was turned upon white women and children in 
Mukden. The larger and more efficient the arma- 
ments the sooner may trouble be expected to recur, 
and the more serious will it be. China cannot 
absorb too much of European sciences, learning, 
and art; but quick-firing guns are not necessary 
for this purpose, and are as undesirable pla3rthings 
for the mandarin, in the present imperfect stage 



278 THE OUTLOOK 

of his national development, as loaded revolvers 
would be in a kindergarten. Only he who would 
abstain from taking the revolver from the baby 
need hesitate as to the proper course to be followed 
in regard to guns in China. 

There is nothing new in this statement. The 
agreement between the Allies and the Peking 
Government, signed September 7, 1901, after the 
Boxer rising, contains the following formal stipu- 
lation : — 

"China has agreed to prohibit the importation 
into its territory of arms and ammunition, as 
well as of materials exclusively used for the manu- 
facture of arms and ammunition. An Imperial 
Edict has been issued on August 25, 1901 (Annex 
No. II.), forbidding the said importation for a 
term of two years. New edicts may be issued 
subsequently extending this by other successive 
terms of two years in case of necessity recognised 
by the Powers." 

It seems to me impossible to deny that the 
contingency contemplated in this stipulation has 
arisen, though it may not be technically accurate, 
as yet, to claim " necessity recognised by the 
Powers " as one of its attributes. I am aware that 
to press for the carrying out of any arrangement 
agreed to by the Chinese Government, at present, 
is to rouse opposition, and that to press in this 
particular matter is to provoke the retort that it is 
the accepted policy of Great Britain to support and 
not to weaken the forces available for resisting the 



THE OUTLOOK 279 

aggression of Continental Europe upon Chinese 
territory. The difficulties found in enforcing the 
prohibition of gun-running after the Boxer rising 
will be quoted as a further objection. The con- 
troversy is an old one ; but the fact that a decision 
was arrived at in 1902 to allow Chinese armament 
to go on unchecked, does not prove that it is either 
safe or desirable to persist in this attitude, under the 
entirely changed conditions which have since arisen. 

Great Britain and her ally Japan succeeded in 
putting a stop to the process of dismemberment at 
a time when the armed strength of the Chinese 
Government was still a negligible quantity, and 
they need no help from China to keep up this 
desirable state of things. The difficulty of enforcing 
the prohibition against the arms trade may be even 
greater at this stage than in 1 902 ; but something 
appreciable can still be done. 

Fortunately, the control of the Chinese customs, 
though threatened, has not yet been completely 
wrested from the capable hands of Sir Robert Hart 
and his European assistants. The Chinese customs 
officials can do a great deal in the desired direction 
if they receive the necessary authority to act. Even 
if they fail, there need be no insurmountable obstacle 
in the way of making gun-running as penal in 
Chinese waters as it is already on the Arabian 
side of the Persian Gulf, where patrol by European 
war-vessels is no more complete than off the 
Chinese coast. The arms trade in China is con- 
ducted, almost entirely, by European firms in 



28o THE OUTLOOK 

Tientsin, Shanghai, and Hongkong. I believe that 
the traffic has only to be declared contraband in 
Treaty and British ports to effect an a{^reciable 
lessening of its present large dimensions. Importa- 
tions would continue clandestinely, as they continued 
during the short period, subsequent to the Boxer 
disturbances, when prohibition was in operation; 
but the supply would become cosdy to an extent 
that would appreciably reduce the demand. The 
existing gun factories in China would continue 
to turn out enormous quantities of poorly made 
and increasingly obsolete mausers and Krupp guns. 
The requirements of all the troops which the 
Chinese maintain would be amply met, so far as 
quantity was concerned; but the standard of 
capability for evil would be kept down, since 
up-to-date factories in Europe and America would 
find it no longer profitable to vie with each odier in 
pouring into China, at dumping rates, not only rifles 
and quick-firing guns of far greater efiiciency than 
the Chinese arsenals can produce, but also steel 
castings to be worked up, in China, into yet more 
rifles and g^ns, and machinery to enable still further 
Chinese factories to be started. The intention, 
which I found openly professed in the Chinese 
rifle factories at Shanghai and Hanyang, to intro- 
duce electric plant to manufacture the 1899 niodel 
mauser, in place of the less efficient mauser of 1 888, 
and shells with time instead of percussion fuses, 
is an example in point. No doubt complications 
and friction would arise in carrying out any scheme 



THE OUTLOOK 281 

of prohibition, but these could be kept within 
bounds; and even a low degree of efficiency in 
prevention, combined with some political friction, 
would be better than avoidance of friction combined 
with no prevention at all. 

Every European Power which trades, or hopes to 
trade, in the Far East, is interested in discouraging 
Chinese armament. If Great Britain leads the way 
in pressing for reduction, there will be no lack of 
a following. The United States have interests 
similar to those of this country, and should 
co-operate cordially. It is reasonable to feel con- 
fidence that Japan will support her ally. Once the 
accord of the three Powers which have guaranteed 
the integrity of China were secured, action would 
be possible. Chinese objection to such action 
need not be regarded too seriously The Oriental 
ever respects strength ; and a temperate but firm 
policy has only to be pursued steadfastly to be 
tolerated, if not approved. Procrastination is inter- 
preted as weakness, and does only harm. 

Apart from dangers connected with armament, 
the Chinese outlook is not discouraging. Germans, 
Japanese, and Belgians are capturing an ever- 
growing share in the trade ; but Great Britain still 
does a larger proportion than any other power. 
Japan has succeeded, by means of a high tariff 
against the foreigner, in closing her own markets, 
and those of her dependency, Formosa, against 
most of the manufactures of £ urope ; but the vast 
markets of China absorb more goods than ever 



282 THE OUTLOOK 

before. It has become customary for the English- 
man in the Far East to lament over the lagging 
enterprise of his fellow-countrymen as compared 
with that of their competitors in energy and 
adaptability ; but this need not cause anxiety while 
British steamers equipped like those of Messrs. 
Jardine, Matheson and Company and Messrs. 
Butterfield and Swire» continue to do the bulk of 
the coasting trade of the treaty ports, and so long 
as the Peninsula and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Company still takes first place in the ocean-carrying 
trade between China and Europe, while a British 
house — the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank — nego- 
tiates the Chinese Government loans, and British 
cable companies transmit the intelligence of every- 
thing of importance in the Far East to the world 
at large. The Chinese trader continues to learn 
pigeon-English, and not pigeon-German or pigeon- 
Japanese, to be his means of communication with 
non - Chinese - speaking British, Germans, and 
Japanese alike. German and Japanese traders 
may be apter than their British competitors at 
acquiring a smattering of the difficult Chinese 
tongue ; but it is possible to lay too much stress 
upon this qualification, since the test of success is 
not the language spoken but the amount of business 
done ; and in this both Germans and Japanese are 
behind. Competition is increasing in every branch 
of Chinese trade, but substantial profits can still be 
made. British prestige still stands higher than that 
of any other nation. 



THE OUTLOOK 283 

China is undoubtedly following in the footsteps 
of Japan, and her development may be the world- 
achievement of the present century. For the time 
being, her administration is corrupt and inefficient, 
though there are already some notable exceptions ; 
and real patriotism is behind the movement of 
reform. The Chinese trader is honest, and the 
Chinese official is capable of becoming so. Pro- 
gress will be slow or fast according to the accident 
of the views which prevail in the Forbidden City ; 
but it is certain. 

In the discernible future the white man is likely 
to find that a high tariff hedge, with many prickles, 
has sprung up between his trade and the Chinese 
market, as has already occurred in the case of 
Japan ; but such catastrophe can be postponed 
long, and perhaps indefinitely, by energetic action. 
The pan-Mongolian dragon, which now snorts 
threateningly, can be harnessed to the chariot of 
peaceful progress, but will do grave damage if 
left at large. 

The possession of India confers upon Great 
Britain a position of unique advantage in regard 
to the Far East. I have shown how closely the 
interests of the Indian subjects of His Majesty 
King Edward are concerned with those of China 
and Japan, and how useful to the Empire the 
services which Simla and Calcutta are both able 
and willing to render in this sphere. Great Britain 
has but to encourage these services, while herself 
acting with ordinary tact and resolution in the 



284 THE OUTLOOK 

support of her own vast trade, and she may regard 
the outlook with serenity. The dangers which 
threaten are no worse than those which English- 
men have met and overcome before. 

Friendliness and respect for one another are not 
impossible between European and Mongrolian 
peoples. Canton has the worst reputation of any 
city of the Far East for antipathy to the occidental, 
yet in the temple of the five hundred Genii, in the 
heart of Canton, within easy reach of mob violence 
at any time, may be seen to-day the life-sized 
statue of an elderly European in gilt clothes and 
black hat, which the Chinese have cared for and 
preserved from generation to generation because 
the original, Marco Polo, was a friend to their 
kind. This thirteenth- century wanderer had no 
monopoly of ability to make himself loved and 
reverenced. A position similar to that which he 
won as an individual is open to-day to the Anglo- 
Saxon as a race. But the Mongolian was not 
afraid of Marco Polo, and he is afraid of us to the 
point of hostility and defiance. It can be attained, 
therefore, only by fair dealing and sympathy, 
protected by an overwhelming preponderance of 
fighting strength. 



APPENDIX 

THE ANGLO-JAPANESE TREATY 

The following is the text of the Agreement between the 
United Kingdom and Japan, signed at London, August I3 
1905:— 

Preamble. — The Governments of Great Britain and 
Japan, being desirous of replacing the Agreement con- 
cluded between them on January 30, 1902, by fresh 
stipulations, have agreed upon the following Articles 
which have for their object — 

(^i) The consolidation and maintenance of the general 
peace in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India ; 

(d) The preservation of the common interests of all 
Powers in China by insuring the independence and 
int^rity of the Chinese Empire and the principle of 
equal opportunities for the commerce and industry of all 
nations in China ; 

(^) The maintenance of the territorial rights of the 
High Contracting Parties in the r^ons of Eastern Asia 
and of India, and the defence of their special interests in 
the said regions : — 

Article I. — It is agreed that whenever, in the opinion 
of either Great Britain or Japan, any of the rights and 
interests referred to in the preamble of this Agreement 
are in jeopardy, the two Governments will communicate 
with one another fully and frankly, and will consider in 



286 THE ANGLO-JAPANESE TREATY 

common the measures which should be taken to saf<^^uard 
those menaced rights or interests. 

Article II. — If by reason of unprovoked attack or 
aggressive action, wherever arising, on the part of any 
other Power or Powers either Contracting Party should be 
involved in war in defence of its territorial rights or special 
interests mentioned in the preamble of this Agreement, 
the other Contracting Party will at once come to the 
assistance of its ally, and will conduct the war in common, 
and make peace in mutual agreement with it 

Article III. — ^Japan possessing paramount political, 
military, and economic interests in Corea, Great Britain 
rec(^nises the right of Japan to take such measures of 
guidance, control, and protection in Corea as she may 
deem proper and necessary to saf<^uard and advance 
those interests, provided always that such measures are 
not contrary to the principle of equal opportunities for 
the commerce and industry of all nations. 

Article IV. — Great Britain having a special interest 
in all that concerns the security of the Indian frontier, 
Japan recognises her right to take such measures in the 
proximity of that frontier as she may find necessary for 
safeguarding her Indian possessions. 

Article V. — The High Contracting Parties agree that 
neither of them will, without consulting the other, enter 
into separate arrangements with another Power to the 
prejudice of the objects described in the preamble of this 
Agreement. 

Article VI. — As regards the present war between 
Japan and Russia, Great Britain will continue to maintain 
strict neutrality unless some other Power or Powers should 
join in hostilities against Japan, in which case Great 
Britain will come to the assistance of Japan, and will 
conduct the war in common, and make peace in mutual 
agreement with Japan. 



THE ANGLO-JAPANESE TREATY 287 

Article VII. — The conditions under which armed 
assistance shall be afforded by either Power to the other 
in the circumstances mentioned in the present Agreement, 
and the means by which such assistance is to be made 
available, will be arranged by the Naval and Military 
authorities of the Contracting Parties, who will from time 
to time consult one another fully and freely upon all 
questions of mutual interest 

Article VIII. — The present Agreement shall, subject 
to the provisions of Article VI., come into effect immedi- 
ately after the date of its signature, and remain in force for 
ten years from that date. 

In case neither of the High Contracting Parties should 
have notified twelve months before the expiration of the 
said ten years the intention of terminating it, it shall 
remain binding until the expiration of one year from the 
day on which either of the High Contracting Parties shall 
have denounced it But if, when the date fixed for its 
expiration arrives, either ally is actually engaged in war, 
the alliance shall, ipso factOy continue until peace is con- 
cluded. 

In faith whereof the Undersigned, duly authorised by 
their respective Governments, have signed this Agreement 
and have affixed thereto their Seals. 

Done in duplicate at London, the 12th day of August, 
1905. (L.S) Lansdowne, His Britannic Majest^s 
Prinqipal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. (L.S.) 
Tadasu Hayashi, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan at the 
Court of St. James. 



THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 

The following is the text of the treaty between Japan 
and Russia which terminated the war of 1904-5 ' — 

The Emperor of Japan on one part and the Emperor 
of All the Russias on the other part, animated by a desire 
to restore the blessings of peace to their countries, have 
resolved to conclude a treaty of peace and have for this 
purpose named their plenipotentiaries, that is to say, for 
his Majesty the Emperor of Japan, Baron Komura Jutaro 
Jusami, Grand Cordon of the Imperial Order of the Rising 
Sun, his minister of foreign affairs, and his Excellency 
Takahira, Kogoro, Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure^ 
his minister to the United States, and, for his Majesty the 
Emperor of All the Russias, his Excellency Serge Witte, 
his secretary of state and president of the Committee of 
Ministers of the Empire of Russia, and his Excellency 
Baron Roman Rosen, Master of the Imperial Court of 
Russia, his Majesty's ambassador to the United States, 
who, after having exchanged their full powers, which were 
found to be in good and due form, have concluded the 
following articles : 

Article I. — There shall henceforth be peace and amity 
between their Majesties the Emperor of Japan and the 
Emperor of All the Russias and between their respective 
States and subjects. 

Article 1 1. — The Imperial Russian Government 
acknowledging that Japan possesses in Korea paramount 



THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 289 

political, military, and economical interests, engages 
neither to obstruct nor interfere with measures for 
guidance, protection, and control which the Imperial 
Government of Japan may find necessary to take in 
Korea. It is understood that Russian subjects in Korea 
shall be treated in exactly the same manner as the subjects 
and citizens of other foreign Powers, that is to say they 
shall be placed on the same footing as the subjects and 
citizens of the most favoured nation. It is also agreed, in 
order to avoid causes of misunderstanding, that the two 
high contracting parties will abstain on the Russian- 
Korean frontier from taking any military measure which 
may menace the security of Russian or Korean territory. 

Article III. — ^Japan and Russia mutually engage. 

First. — To evacuate completely and simultaneously 
Manchuria, except the territory affected by the lease of 
the Liaotung Peninsula, in conformity with the provisions 
of the additional Article I. annexed to this treaty ; and 

Second. — To restore entirely and completely to the 
exclusive administration of China all the portions of 
Manchuria now in occupation or under the control of the 
Japanese or Russian Troops, with the exception of the 
territory above mentioned. 

The Imperial Government of Russia declare that they 
have not in Manchuria any territorial advantages or 
preferential or exclusive concessions in the impairment 
of Chinese sovereignty, or inconsistent with the principle 
of equal opportunity. . 

Article IV. — ^Japan and Russia reciprocally engage 
not to obstruct any general measures common to all 
countries which China may take for the development of 
the commerce or industry of Manchuria. 

Article V. — ^The Imperial Russian Grovemment trans- 
fers and assigns to the Imperial Government of Japan, 

with the consent of the Government of China, the lease 

u 



290 THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 

of Port Arthur, Talien, and the adjacent territory and 
territorial waters, and all rights, privil^[es, and con- 
cessions connected with or forming part of such lease, 
and they also transfer and assign to the Imperial Govern- 
ment of Japan all public works and properties in the 
territory affected by the above-mentioned lease. The 
two contracting parties mutually engage to obtain the 
consent of the Chinese Grovemment mentioned in the 
foregoing stipulation. The Imperial Government of 
Japan on their part undertake that the proprietary 
rights of Russian subjects in the territory above referred 
to shall be perfectly respected. 

Article VI. — ^The Imperial Russian Government 
engage to transfer and assign to the Imperial Government 
of Japan without compensation and with the consent of 
the Chinese Government the railway between Chang- 
chun-fu and Kuan-chang-tsu and Port Arthur and all 
the branches, together with all the rights, privileges, and 
properties appertaining thereto in that region, as well 
as all the coal-mines in the said region belonging to or 
worked for the benefit of the railway. The two high 
contracting parties mutually engage to obtain the consent 
of the Government of China mentioned in the foregoing 
stipulation. 

Article VII. — ^Japan and Russia engage to exploit 
their respective railways in Manchuria exclusively for 
commercial and industrial purposes, and in no wise for 
strat^c purposes. It is understood that this restriction 
does not apply to the railway in the territory affected by 
the lease of the Liaotung Peninsula. 

Article VIII. — The Imperial Governments of Japan 
and Russia, with the view to promote and facilitate 
intercourse and traffic, will, as soon as possible, conclude 
separate convention for the r^;ulation of their connecting 
railway services in Manchuria. 



THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 291 

Article IX. — The Imperial Russian Government cedes 
to the Imperial Government of Japan in perpetuity and 
full sovereignty the southern portion of the Island of 
Saghalien, and all the islands adjacent thereto, and the 
public works and properties thereon. The fiftieth d^pree 
of north latitude is adopted as the northern boundary of 
the ceded territory. The exact alignment of such territory 
shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of 
the additional Article XI. annexed to this treaty. Japan 
and Russia mutually agree not to construct in their respec- 
tive possessions on the Island of Saghalien, or the adjacent 
islands, any fortifications or other similar military works. 
They also respectively engage not to take any military 
measures which may impede the free navigation of the 
Strait of La Perouse and the Strait of Tartary. 

Article X. — It is reserved to Russian subjects, inhabi- 
tants of the territory ceded to Japan, to sell their real 
property and retire to their country, but if they prefer to 
remain in the ceded territory they will be maintained and 
protected in the full exercise of their industries and rights 
of property, on condition of submitting to the Japanese 
laws and jurisdiction. Japan shall have full liberty to 
withdraw the right of residence in, or to deport from such 
territory any inhabitants who labour under political or 
administrative disability. She engages, however, that the 
proprietary rights of such inhabitants shall be fully 
respected. 

Article XI.-^Russia engages to arrange with Japan 
for granting to Japanese subjects rights of fishery along 
the coasts of the Russian possessions in the Japan, Okhotsk, 
and Behring Seas. It is agreed that the for^[oing engage- 
ment shall not affect rights already belonging to Russian 
or foreign subjects in those r^ons. 

Article XII. — The treaty of commerce and navigation 
between Japan and Russia having been annulled by the 



292 THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 

war, the Imperial Governments of Japan and Russia 
engage to adopt as a basis for their commercial relations, 
pending the conclusion of a new treaty of commerce and 
navigation, the basis of the treaty which was in force pre- 
vious to the present war, the system of reciprocal treat- 
ment on the footing of the most favoured nation, in whidi 
are included import and export duties, customs, formali- 
ties, transit, and tonnage dues, and the admission and 
treatment of agents, subjects, and vessels of one country 
in the territories of the other. 

Article XHI. — So soon as possible after the present 
treaty comes in force all prisoners of war shall be reci- 
procally restored. The Imperial Governments of Japan 
and Russia shall each appoint a special commissioner to 
take charge of the prisoners. All prisoners in the hands 
of one Government shall be delivered to and received by 
the commissioner of the other Government or by his duly 
authorised representative in such convenient numbers and 
such convenient ports of the delivering State as such 
delivering State shall notify in advance to the commis* 
sioner of the receiving State. The Governments of Japan 
and Russia shall present each other so soon as possible 
after the delivery of the prisoners is completed with a 
statement of the direct expenditures respectively incurred 
by them for the care and maintenance of the prisoners 
from the date of capture or surrender and up to the time 
of death or delivery. Russia engages to repay to Japan 
so soon as possible after the exchange of statements as 
above provided the difference between the actual amount 
so expended by Japan and the actual amount similarly 
disbursed by Russia. 

Article XI V.— The present treaty shall be ratified by 
their Majesties the Emperor of Japan and the Emperor of 
All the Russias. Such ratification shall be with as little 
delay as possible and in any case no later than fifty 



THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 293 

dasrs from the date of the signature of the treaty, to be 
announced to the Imperial Governments of Japan and 
Russia respectively through the French Minister at Tokyo 
and the Ambassador of the United States at St Peters- 
burg, and from the date of the later of such announice- 
ments this treaty shall in all its parts come into full force. 
The formal exchange of ratifications shall take place at 
Washington so soon as possible. 

Article XV. — The present treaty shall be signed in 
duplicate in both the English and French languages. The 
texts are in absolute conformity, but in case of a discre- 
pancy in the interpretation the French text shall prevail. 

In conformity with the provisions of Articles III. and 
IX. of the treaty of peace between Japan and Russia of 
this date, the undersigned plenipotentiaries have concluded 
the following additional articles : 

Sub- Article to Article III. — The Imperial Grovernments 
of Japan and Russia mutually engage to commence the 
withdrawal of their military forces from the territory of 
Manchuria simultaneously and immediately after the 
treaty of peace comes into operation, and within a period 
of eighteen months after that date the armies of the two 
countries shall be completely withdrawn from Manchuria, 
except from the leased territory of the Liaotung Peninsula. 
The forces of the two countries occup)ring the front posi- 
tions shall first be withdrawn. 

The high contracting parties reserve to themselves the 
right to maintain guards to protect their respective railway 
lines in Manchuria. The number of such guards shall not 
exceed fifteen per kilometre, and within that maximum 
number the commanders of the Japanese and Russian 
armies shall by common accord fix the number of such 
gruards to be employed as small as possible while having 
in view the actual requirements. 

The commanders of the Japanese and Russian forces in 



394 THE PORTSMOUTH TREATY 

Manchuria shall agree upon the details of the evacuation 
in conformity with the above principles, and shall take by 
common accord the measures necessary to carry out the 
evacuation so soon as possible, and in any case no later 
than the period of eighteen months. 

Sub- Article to Article IX. — So soon as possible after 
the present treaty comes into force, a commission of 
delimitation composed of an equal number of members is 
to be appointed respectively by the two high contracting 
parties, which shall on the spot mark in a permanent 
manner the exact boundary between the Japanese and 
Russian possessions on the island of Saghalien. The 
commission shall be bound so far as topogp'aphical con- 
siderations permit to follow the fiftieth parallel of North 
latitude as the boundary line, and, in case any deflections 
from that line at any points are found to be necessary, 
compensation will be made by correlative deflections at 
other points. It shall also be the duty of said commission 
to prepare a list and a description of the adjacent islands 
included in the cession, and finally the commission shall 
prepare and sign maps showing the boundaries of the 
ceded territory. The work of the commission shall be 
subject to the approval of the high contracting parties. 

The foregoing additional articles are to be considered 
ratified with the ratification of the treaty of peace to which 
they are annexed. 

Portsmouth, the Fifth Day of the Ninth Month of the 
Thirty-eighth year of Mejei, corresponding to the Twenty- 
third of August, 1905. (September 5, 1905.) 

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have 
signed and affixed seals to the present treaty of peace. 

Done at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, this Fifth Day 
of the Ninth Month of the Thirty-eighth Year of the 
Mejei, corresponding to the twenty-third day of August, 
One Thousand Nine Hundred and Five. 



THE JAPANESE-KOREAN SUZERAINTY 

PROTOCOL 

The following is the text of the Agreement signed 
November 17, 1905, by plenipotentiaries of Japan and 
Korea, whereby Japan becomes the medium for conducting 
the foreign relations of Korea : — 

The Governments of Japan and Korea, desiring to 
strengthen the principle of solidarity which unites the 
two Empires, have with that object in view agreed upon 
and concluded the following stipulations to serve until 
the moment arrives when it is recognised that Korea has 
attained national strength* 

Article I. — The Government of Japan, through the 
Department of Foreign Affairs in Tokyo, will hereafter 
have control and direction of the external relations and 
affairs of Korea, and the Diplomatic and Consular 
Representatives of Japan will have the charge of the 
subjects and interests of Korea in foreign countries. 

Article 1 1. — The Government of Japan undertake to 
see to the execution of the treaties actually existing 
between Korea and other Powers, and the Government 
of Korea engage not to conclude hereafter any act or 
engagement having an international character, except 
through the medium of the Government of Japan. 

Article III. — The Government of Japan shall be 
represented at the Court of His Majesty the Emperor 
of Korea by a Resident General who shall reside at Seoul, 
primarily for the purpose of taking charge of and directing 

a95 



296 JAPANESE-KOREAN SUZERAINTY 

the matters relating to diplomatic affairs. He shall have 
the right of private and personal audiences of His Majesty 
the Emperor of Korea. The Japanese Government shall 
have the right to station residents at the several open 
ports and such other places in Korea as they may deem 
necessary. 

Such residents shall, under the direction of the Resident 
General, exercise the powers and functions hitherto 
appertaining to Japanese Consuls in Korea, and shall 
perform such duties as may be necessary in order to carry 
into full effect the provisions of this Agreement 

Article IV. — The stipulations of all treaties and 
agreements existing between Japan and Korea, not in- 
consistent with the provisions of this Agreement, shall 
continue in force. 

Article V. — The Government of Japan undertake to 
maintain the welfare and dignity of the Imperal House 
of Korea. 

In faith whereof the undersigned, duly authorised by 
their Governments, have signed this Agreement and 
affixed their Seals. 



THE PEKING TREATY 

The following is the text of the final Protocal between 
the Powers and China, for the resumption of friendly 
relations after the Boxer outbreak, signed at Peking on 
the 7th of September, 1901 : — 

The Plenipotentiaries of Germany, M. A. Mumm von 
Schwarzenstein ; of Austria*Hungary, Baron M. Czikann ; 
of Belgium, M. Joostens; of Spain, M. B. J. de Cologan; 
of the United States, Mr. W. W. Rockhill ; of France, 
M. Beau ; of Great Britain^ Sir Ernest Satow ; of Italy, 
Marquis Salvago Raggi ; of Japan, M. Jutaro Komura ; 
of the Netherlands, M. F. M. Knobel ; of Russia, M. 
Michael de Giers; and the Plenipotentiaries of China, 
His Highness Yi-K'uang, Prince of the First Rank ; 
Ching, President of the Board of Foreign Affairs ; and 
his Excellency Li Hung-chang, Count of the First Rank ; 
Su-Yi, Tutor of the Heir Apparent ; Grand Secretary 
of the W6n-Hua Throne Hall, Minister of Commerce, 
Superintendent of Trade for the North, Governor-General 
of Chihli, have met for the purpose of declaring that China 
has complied with the conditions laid down in the Note 
of the 22nd of December, 1900, and which were accepted 
in their entirety by His Majesty the Emperor of China in 
a Decree dated the 27th of December, 1900 (Annex No. i). 

Article I. — (a) By an Imperial Edict of the 9th of June 
last (Annex No. 2), Tsai-Feng, Prince of the First Rank, 
Chlin, was appointed Ambassador of His Majesty the 



298 THE PEKING TREATY 

Emperor of China, and directed in that capacity to convey 
to His Majesty the German Emperor the expression of 
the r^^ets of His Majesty the Emperor of China and 
of the Chinese Government at the assassination of his 
Excellency the late Baron von Ketteler, German Minister. 

Prince Chiin left Peking on the 1 2th of July last to carry 
out the orders which had been given him. 

(d) The Chinese Government has stated that it will 
erect on the spot of the assassination of his Excellency 
the late Baron von Ketteler a commemorative monument 
worthy of the rank of the deceased, and bearing an in- 
scription in the Latin, German, and Chinese languages 
which shall express the regrets of His Majesty the 
Emperor of China for the murder committed. 

The Chinese Plenipotentiaries have informed his Ex- 
cellency the German Plenipotentiary, in a letter dated 
the 22nd of July last (Annex No. 3), that an arch of the 
whole width of the street would be erected on the said 
spot, and that work on it was begun on the 25th of June last 

Article H. — (a) Imperial Edicts of the 13th and 21st 
of February, 1901 (Annexes Nos. 4, 5, and 6), inflicted the 
following punishments on the principal authors of the 
attempts and of the crimes committed against the foreign 
Governments and their nationals : — 

Tsa-Ii, Prince Tuan, and Tsai-Lan, Duke Fu-kuo, were 
sentenced to be brought before the Autumnal Court of 
Assize for execution, and it was agreed that if the 
Emperor saw fit to grant them their lives, they should be 
exiled to Turkestan, and there imprisoned for life, without 
the possibility of commutation of these punishments. 

Tsai Hsiin, Prince Chuang, Ying-Nien, President of 
the Court of Censors, and Chao Shu-chiao, President 
of the Board of Punishments^ were condemned to commit 
suicide. 

Yii Hsien, Governor of Shansi, Chi Hsiu, President of 



THE PEKING TREATY 299 

the Board of Rites, and Hsii Cheng-3ai, formerly Senior 
Vice-President of the Board of Punishments, were con- 
demned to death. 

Posthumous degradation was inflicted on Kang Yi, 
Assistant Grand Secretary, President of the Board of 
Works, HsU Tung, Grand Secretary, and Li Ping-heng, 
former Governor-General of Szu-chuan. 

Imperial Edict of the 13th of February last (Annex 
No. 7) rehabilitated the memories of Hsii Yung-yi, Presi- 
dent of the Board of War ; Li Shan, President of the 
Board of Works; Hsii Ching Cheng, Senior Vice- 
President of the Board of Civil Office ; Lien Yuan, Vice- 
Chancellor of the Grand Council ; and Yuan Chang, 
Vice-President of the Court of Sacrifices, who had been 
put to death for having protested against ^the outrageous 
breaches of international law of last year. 

Prince Chuang committed suicide on the 21st of 
February last; Ying Nien and Chao Shu-chiao on the 
24th of February ; Yu Hsien was executed on the 22nd of 
February; Chi Hsiu and Hsii Cheng-yu on the 26th of 
February ; Tung Fu-hsiang, General in Kan-su, has been 
deprived of his office by Imperial Edict of the 13th of 
February last, pending the determination of the final 
punishment to be inflicted on him. 

Imperial Edicts, dated the 29th of April and 19th of 
August, 1901, have inflicted various punishments on the 
provincial officials convicted of the crimes and outrages of 
last summer. 

(Jb) An Imperial Edict, promulgated the 19th of 
August, 1901 (An. ex No. 8), ordered the suspension of 
official examinations for five years in all cities where 
foreigpiers were massacred or submitted to cruel treatment. 

Article III. — So as to make honourable reparation for 
the assassination of Mr. Sugiyama, Chancellor of the Japanese 
Legation, His Majesty the Emperor of China, by an Im- 



300 THE PEKING TREATY 

penal Edict of the 1 8th of June, 1901 (Annex No. 9), appointed 
Na T'ung, Vice-President of the Board of Finances, to be 
his Envoy Extraordinary, and specially directed him to 
convey to His Majesty the Emperor of Japan the expression 
of the regrets of His Majesty the Emperor of China and 
of his Government at the assassination of Mr. Sugiyama. 

Article IV. — The Chinese Government has agreed to 
erect an expiatory monument in each of the foreign or 
international cemeteries which were desecrated, and in 
which the tombs were destroyed. 

It has been agreed with the Representatives of the 
Powers that the Legations interested shall settle the 
details for the erection of these monuments, China bearing 
all the expenses thereof, estimated at 10,000 taels, for the 
cemeteries at Peking and in its neighbourhood, and at 
5,000 taels for the cemeteries in the provinces. The 
amounts have been paid, and the list of these cemeteries 
is inclosed herewith (Annex No. 10). 

Article V. — China has agreed to prohibit the importa- 
tion into its territory of arms and ammunition, as well as 
of materials exclusively used for the manufacture of arms 
and ammunition. 

An Imperial Edict has been issued on the 25th of August 
(Annex No. 11), forbidding said importation for a term of 
two years. New Edicts may be issued subsequently ex- 
tending this by other successive terms of two years in case 
of necessity recognised by the Powers. 

Article VI. — By an Imperial Edict dated the 29th of 
May, 1901 (Annex No. 12), His Majesty the Emperor of 
China agreed to pay the Powers an indemnity of 450,000,000 
of Haikwan taels. 

This sum represents the total amount of the indemnities 
for States, Companies, or Societies, private individuals 
and Chinese, referred to in Article 6 of the note of the 
22nd of December, 1900. 



THE PEKING TREATY 301 

(a) These 450,000,000 constitute a gold debt calculated 
at the rate of the Haikwan tael to the gold currency of 
each country, as indicated below : — 



/Marks .., 3X>5S 

Austro-Hungary crown ... 3'S9S 

Gold dollar 0743 

TT •! ^1 , Francs ... ... ... ... 3740 

Haikwan tael = </.,,. ^ '^^ 

^ A sterling 3s. 

Yen 1*407 

Netherlands florin 1796 

Gold rouble (17*434 dolias fine) 1*412 

This sum in gold shall bear interest at 4 per cent per 
annum, and the capital shall be reimbursed by China in 
thirty-nine years in the manner indicated in the annexed 
plan of amortisation (Annex No. 13). Capital and interest 
shall be payable in gold or at the rates of exchange corre- 
sponding to the dates at which the different payments fall 
due. 

The amortization shall commence the ist of January, 1902, 
and shall finish at the end of the year 1940. The amorti- 
zations are payable annually, the first payment being fixed 
on the 1st of January, 1903. 

Interest shall run from the ist of July, 1901, but the 
Chinese Government shall have the right to pay off 
within a term of three years, beginning Januaiy, 1902, 
the arrears of the first six months ending the 31st of 
December, 1901, on condition, however, that it pays 
compound interest at the rate of 4 per cent a year on 
the sums the payment of which shall have been thus 
deferred. 

Interest shall be payable semi-annually, the first pay- 
ment being fixed on the ist of July, 1902. 



302 THE PEKING TREATY 

(6) The service of the debt shall take place in Shanghai 
in the following manner : — 

Each Power shall be represented by a Del^ate on a 
Commission of bankers authorised to receive the amount 
of interest and amortization which shall be paid to it by 
the Chinese authorities designated for that purpose, to 
divide it among the interested parties, and to give a 
receipt for the same. 

(c) The Chinese Government shall deliver to the Doyen 
of the Diplomatic Corps at Peking a bond for the lump 
sum, which shall subsequently be converted into fractional 
bonds bearing the signature of the Delegates of the Chinese 
Government designated for that purpose. This operation 
and all those relating to issuing of the bonds shall be 
performed by the above-mentioned Commission, in ac- 
cordance with the instructions which the Powers shall 
send their Delegates. 

(d) The proceeds of the revenues assigned to the 
payment of the bonds shall be paid monthly to the 
Commission. 

(e) The revenues assigned as security for the bonds are 
the following : — 

1. The balance of the revenues of the Imperial Maritime 
Customs, after payment of the interest and amortization of 
preceding loans secured on these revenues, plus the pro- 
ceeds of the raising to 5 per cent effective of the present 
tariff of maritime imports, including articles until now on 
the free list, but exempting rice, foreign cereals, and flour, 
gold and silver bullion and coin. 

2. The revenues of the native Customs, administered in 
the open ports by the Imperial Maritime Customs. 

3. The total revenues of the salt gabelle, exclusive of 
the fraction previously set aside for other foreign loans. 

The raising of the present tariff on imports to 5 per 
cent effective is agreed to on the conditions mentioned 



THE PEKING TREATY 303 

below. It shall be put in force two months after the 
signing of the present Protocol, and no exceptions shall 
be made except for merchandise in transit not more than 
ten days after the said signing. 

1. All duties levied on imports ad valorem shall be con- 
verted as far as possible and as soon as may be into specific 
duties. 

This conversion shall be made in the following 
manner : — 

The average value of merchandise at the time of their 
landing during the three years 1897, 1898, and 1899, that 
is to say, the market price less the amount of import 
duties and incidental expenses, shall be taken as the basis 
for the valuation of merchandise. 

Pending the result of the work of conversion, duties 
shall be levied ad valorem. 

2. The beds of the Rivers Whangpoo and Peiho shall 
be improved with the financial participation of China. 

Article VII. — ^The Chinese Government has agreed 
that the quarter occupied by the Legations shall be con- 
sidered as one specially reserved for their use and placed 
under their exclusive control, in which Chinese shall not 
have the right to reside, and which may be made 
defensible. The limits of this quarter have been fixed as 
follows on the annexed plan (Annex No. 14). 

On the east, Ketteler Street (10, 11, 12). 

On the north, the line, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, la 

On the west, the line, i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

On the south, the line 12 — i, drawn along the exterior 
base of the Tartar wall, and following the line of the 
bastions. 

In the Protocol annexed to the letter of the i6th of 
January, 1901, China recognised the right of each Power 
to maintain a permanent guard in the said quarter for the 
defence of its Legation. 



304 THE PEKING TREATY 

Article VIII.— The Chinese Government has con- 
sented to raze the forts of Taku, and those which might 
impede free communication between Peking and the sea. 
Steps have been taken for carrying this out 

Article IX.— The Chinese Government conceded 
the right to the Powers in the Protocol annexed to the 
letter of the i6th of January, 1901, to occupy certain 
points, to be determined by an Agreement between 
them for the maintenance of open communication be- 
tween the capital and the sea. The points occupied by 
the Powers are: — 

Huang-tsun, Lang-fang, Yang-tsun, Tien-tsin, Chun- 
liang-Cheng, Tong-ku, Lu-tai, Tong-shan, Lan-chou, 
Chang-li, Chin-wang Tao, Shan-hai Kuan. 

Article X. — The Chinese Government has agreed to 
post and to have published during two years in all district 
cities the following Imperial Edicts : — 

(a) Edict of the ist of February, 1901 (Annex No. 15) 
prohibiting for ever, under pain of death, membership in 
any anti-fore^ society. 

(6) Edicts of the 13th and 21st February, 29th April 
and 19th August, 1901, enumerating the punishments 
inflicted on the guilty. 

(c) Edict of the 19th August, 1901, prohibiting examina- 
tions in all cities where foreigners were massacred or 
subjected to cruel treatment 

(d) Edicts of the ist February, 1901 (Annex No. 16), 
declaring all Governors-General, Governors, and provincial 
or local officials responsible for order in their respective 
districts, and that in case of new anti-foreign troubles or 
other infractions of the Treaties which shall not be imme- 
diately repressed and the authors of which shall not have 
been punished, these officials shall be immediately dismissed 
without posaibility of being given new functions or new 
honours. 



THE PEKING TREATY 30S 

The posting of these Edicts is being carried on throughout 
the Empire. 

Article XL — The Chinese Government has agreed to 
negotiate the amendments deemed necessary by the 
foreign Governments to the Treaties of Commerce and 
Navigation and the other subjects concerning commercial 
relations with the object of facilitating them. 

At present, and as a result of the stipulation contained 
in Article 6 concerning the indemnity, the Chinese Govern- 
ment agrees to assist in the improvement of the courses of 
the Rivers Peiho and Whangpoo, as stated below : — 

(a) The works for the improvement of the navigability 
of the Peiho, begun in 1898 with the co-operation of the 
Chinese Government, have been resumed under the direc- 
tion of an International Commission. As soon as the 
Administration of Tien-tsin shall have been handed back 
to the Chinese Government it will be in a position to be 
represented on this Commission, and will pay each year a 
sum of 60,000 Haikwan taels for maintaining the works. 

(6) A Conservancy Board, charged with the management 
and control of the works for straightening the Whangpoo 
and the improvement of the course of that river, is hereby 
created. 

The Board shall consist of members representing the 
interests of the Chinese Government and those of foreigners 
in the shipping trade of Shanghae. 

The expenses incurred for the works and the general 
management of the undertaking are estimated at the 
annual sum of 460,000 Haikwan taels for the first twenty 
years. This sum shall be supplied in equal portions by 
the Chinese Government and the foreign interests con- 
cerned. Detailed stipulations concerning the composi- 
tion, duties, and revenues of the Conservancy Board are 
embodied in Annex No. 17. 

Article XII. — An Imperial Edict of the 24th July, 1901 



3o6 THE PEKING TREATY 

(Annex No. i8), reformed the Office of Fordgn Affiurs, 
Tsung-li Yamtn, on the lines indicated by the Powers, 
that is to say, transformed it into a Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, Wai Wu Pu, which takes precedence over the six 
other Ministries of State ; the same Edict appointed the 
principal Members of this Minbtry. 

An agreement has also been reached concerning the 
modification of Court ceremonial as regards the reception 
of foreign Representatives, and has been the subject of 
several notes from the Chinese Plenipotentiaries, the 
substance of which is embodied in a Memorandum 
herewith annexed (Annex No. 19). 

Finally, it is expressly understood that as regards the 
declarations specified above and the annexed documents 
originating with the foreign Plenipotentiaries, the French 
text only is authoritative. 

The Chinese Government having thus complied to the 
satisfaction of the Powers with the conditions laid down 
in the above-mentioned note of the 22nd December, 1900, 
the Powers have agreed to accede to the wish of China to 
terminate the situation created by the disorders of the 
summer of 1900. In consequence thereof, the foreign 
Plenipotentiaries are authorised to declare in the names of 
their Governments that, with the exception of the L^^ation 
guards mentioned in Article 7, the international troops 
will completely evacuate the city of Peking on the 17th 
September, 1901, and, with the exception of the localities 
mentioned in Article 9, will withdraw from the Province of 
Chihli on the 22nd September, 1901. 

The present final Protocol has been drawn up in twelve 
identic copies, and signed by all the Plenipotentiaries of 
the contracting countries. One copy shall be given to 
each of the foreign Plenipotentiaries, and one copy shall 
be given to the Chinese Plenipotentiaries. 



INDEX 



Agitation in South China, 29 
American boycott, 9, 36 
Anglo-Japanese Treaty, 285 
Anti-Foreign movement, 9, 23, 31, 36, 

77, 106, 277 
Antung, 141 
Armaments in China, 23, 38, 85, 106, 

270, 276 

Boxer rising, 7, 104 
Brick tea industry, 81 
Brown, Mr. McLeavy, 189 

Canton, 16, 21 

Chan-Chi-Tung, 4, 14, 79 

Chen-wang-tao, 117 

Chinese arms trade, 278 

Chinese character, 12, 16, 29, 38, 75, 

107, "5, 272, 275 
Chinese customs, 279 
Chinese graves, 100 
Chinese in British Territory, 11 
Chinese outlook, 281 
Chinese possibilities, 269 
Chinese troops, 8, 114, 270 
Coal mining in the Par East, 85, 126, 

164,192 
Coolie traffic, 16, 117, 192 
Cordite factories in China, 41, 82 
Cotton industry 42, 81, 205 
Customs duties, 213 

Dalny, 141 



Education in China and Japan, 22, 

108, 228 
Efficiency of Chinese troops, 270 
Electric installations, 82, 140, 231 
Engineering and Mining Co., 125 

Famine in China and Japan, 99 210 
Finance in China, 107, 114 
Finance in Japan, 213 

Great Wall, the, 127 

Gun foundries in China, 39, 89 

Hankow factories, 79 
Hankow-Peking Railway, 91 
Hanyang arsenal, 83 
Hart, Sir Robert, 109, 279 
Hongkong development, 29 
Hunchus highwaymen, 166 

India as a factor, 253, 283 
Industrial competition, 4, 81, 112, 126 
Industries in Japan, 206 
Iron and steel works in China and 
Japan, 39, 83, 203, 206 

ITO, Marquis, in Korea, 189, 195, 200 

Japanese character, 145, 203, 217, 

236, 268 
Johore, palace of, 61 
Justice in China, no 
Justice in Japan, 227 



307 



3o8 



INDEX 



Kiamo-Nan gun factory, 3 
Korea, future of, 191 
Korean character, 192 

Labour in the Far East, 117, 128, 

192, 211 
Le^ittons in Peking, 105 
Ijaotung peninsula, 132 
Liaoyang battle&dd, 150 
Library in the Ming Palace, 160 

Manchurian battlefields, 124, 137, 

150, 155 
Manchurian character, 170^ 272 
Manchurian people, 133, 151, 156 
Manchurian products, 141 
Manchurian trade, 143, 265 
Marco Polo, 284 
Medical science in China, 109 
Military academy near Canton, 22 
Ming tombs, 158 
Mining in China, 85, 100 
Missionary hopefulness, 36 
Missionary troubles, 47, 56 
Mukden, city of, 155 

Nanchanq massacre, 34, 57 

Nanking, 37 

Nationalisation of Japanese railways, 

222 
Neuchwang port, 128, 141 

Osaka factories, 4, 207 

Peking dty, 104 
Peking Syndicate, 100 
Peking Treaty, 297 
Pingyang dty, 184 



Policy of forgetting, 106 
Port Arthur to-day, 131, 140 
Portsmouth Treaty, 288 
Post Office in China, 108 

Railway gauges in the Far East, 36, 

142, 162 
Railways in China, 25, 42, 91, 117, 126 
Railways in Ja^umese hands, 132, 205 
Railways in Korea, 173 
Rest houses, 139, 150, 167, 170 
Rifle factories, 38, 83, 207 
Riot in Nanchang, 57 
Riot in Shanghai, 34 
River transport in Manchuria, 142 

Satow, Sir Ernest, 147 

Shan-hai-kwan, 127 

Shipbuilding in the Far East, 4, 41 

231 
Singapore, 13, 17 

Tba industry, 81 

Timber trade, 86, 142, 166, 190, 201 

Time in Manchuria, 161 

Tientsin progress, 125 

Torture in China and Japan, iio^ 238 

Univbrsity of Peking, 108 

WucHANO mills, 4, 24, 81 
Wusung forts, 42 

Yanotsb travelling, 42 
Yellow River bridge, 96 
Yellow River floods, 98 
Yuan-Shih-Kai, 6, 24, 115, 270 



OMWUI BROTHBB^ UMITIO^ TBB GRBSHAM PKBOB, WOKIMO AMD LOMDOK 



J 



1 

i 



I • • 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 

■ » 

PUBLISHED BY METHUEN 

AND COMPANY: LONDON 

36 ESSEX STREET 

W.C 



CONTENTS 



General Literature, . 
Ancient Cities, 
Antiquary's Books, 
Beginner's Books, . . 
Business Books, . 
Bsrsantiiie Texts, •' . . 
Churchman's Blhle, 
Churchman's Library, . 
Classical Translations, 
Commercial Series, 
Connoisseur's Library, 
Library of Devotion, . 
Standard Library, 
Half-Crowa Library, • 
Illustrated Pocket Library of 
Plain and Coloured Books, 
Junior Examination Series, 
Junior School-Books, . 

. Leaders of Religioo, . 



rAGB 

a-ig 

19 
so 

90 
90 
•t 

az 
9k 

9Z 
99 
99 
93 
93 

>4 

H 
96 

96 
97 



PAGB 

Little Blue Books, 97 

Little Books on Art, . 97 

Little Galleries, . . . a8 

Little Guides, .... 98 

Little Library, 98 

Miniature Library, • fo 

Oxford Biographies, . 30 

School Bxamination Series, 30 

Social Questions of To-day, 3s 

Textbooks of Science, ; 31 

Textbooks of Technology . 31 

Handbooks of Theology, 31 

Westminster Commentaries, 31 

Fiction^ . • . . , 89^ 

The Shilling Novels, • 37 

Books for Boys and Girls 38 

Novels of Alexandre Dumas, 38 

Methuen's Sixpenny Books, 39 



NOVEMBER 1906 



A CATALOGUE OF 

Messrs. Methuen's 

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I. P. In represents Illustrated Pocket library. 

S.Q.S. represents Social Questioiis Series. 



Part I. — General Literature 



Abbot (Jacob). See Little Blue Books. 

Abbott (J. H. M.). Author of * Tommy 
Cornstalk.' AN OUTLANDER IN 
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Adooey (W. P.), M.A. See Bennett and 
Adeney. 

iCacbyios. See CUsskal Translations. 

iCsop. See I.P.L. 

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Alderson (J. P.). MR. ASQUITH. With 
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AldU (Janet). MADAME GEOFFRIN, 

HIBR SALON. AND HER TIMES. 

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Amherat (Lady). A SKETCH OF 
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26 



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28 



Messrs. Mbthuen's Catalogue 



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Aosten (Jane). PRIDE AND PREJU- Bacon (Pnuids). THE ESSAYS OF 

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Cnait(Mn.). JOHN HALIFAX, 

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DANTE. TiuiUttd by H. F. C 

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Tomua, H.A.. D.Liit. 
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■ ■ D. Goi - ■■ ■ * --' 



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30 



Messrs. Methuen's Catalogue 



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Poumius: or Wise Saws and Modon In- 
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36 



Messrs. Methuen's Catalogue 



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A CREEL 6F IRISH STORIES. 
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Barr (Robcrti. THE VICTORS. 
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-"'°»--_-- ■ ■ ..rD.i.;THE 

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__^itU 

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CHftardfMiW. W. IC). A FLASH OF 
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Dnuiy (C. B.). THE ROMANCE OF 

UPFOLD MANOR, 
DUkHn (Karrif). THE BLACK WOLF'S 

BREED. 
Ucfcliuoii (Bvdya). THE SIM OF 

ANGELS. 



Doncu (Sara J.). "THE POOL IN THE 

DESERT. 
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EobTM (C. P.). A HEART OF flame; 
Pmb fa. MaavUla). AN BLBCfRIC 



"■a;,?- 



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OPTHE HILLS. Illusitaied. 
HiHlMrfl.). THESINGEROFMARLY. 
HMurfa maannol. THE MISSISSIPPI 

' Iota' Mr*. CaHyn). ANNE HAULE- 

J*Hoa IBdtar). KEEPERS OF THE 

UMa tn^MCa Plocbl, WITH HOOFS 

Lawl«u IHoo. Bmllv), MAELCHO. 
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LoriBBT (Noma). JOSIAH'S WIFE. 
Uub (Cbartei K.|, THE AUTOCRAT& 
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M^anBft (HaraUX THE PUPPET 



38 



Messrs. Methuen's Catalogue 



THBVOIGB 

IN THE DESERT. 

llUrsh (RldHtf^). THE SEEN AND 
THE UNSEEN. 

GARNERED. 

A METAMORPHOSIS. 

MARVELS AND MYSTERIES. 

BOTH SIDES OF THE VEIL. 

MnyidKJ. W.). THE CYNIC AND THE 
SYREN. 

MonktMOM (AOw). LOVE IN A UFE. 

Moor* (ArtlMir^ THE KNIGHT PUNC- 
TILIOUS. 

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SENSE. 

NorrU (W. B.). AN OCTAVE. 

Ollpluuit(Mrs.). THE LADrS WALK. 

SIRROBERrS FORTUNE. 

THE TWO MARY'S. 

PMMir (Mn. PnuikK A MIXED MAR. 

PUilpotts (BdM), THB STRIKING 

HOURS. 

FANCY FREE. 

Pnrco (Riehu^ TIME AND THB 
WOMAN. 

RaodiUI (J. \, AUNT BBTHIA'S BUTTON. 

RnrwMd (Walter). FORTUNE'S DAR- 
LING. 

Raynor <Ollvo PnrtIK ROSALBA. 

Rhys (OracsK THE DIVERTED VILL- 
AGE. 



SW, 



affi*^ 



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LITTE. 
SerMant (Adaliae). ACCUSED AND 

ACCUSER. 
BARBARA'S MONEY. 
THE ENTHUSIAST. 
A GREAT LADY. 
THE LOVE THAT OVERCAME. 
THE MASTER OF BBECHWOOD. 
UNDER SUSPICION. 
THE YELLOW DIAMOND. 
Shannon (W. PA JIM TWELVES. 
Strain <B.H.). BLMSLIB'S DRAG NET. 
Stringer (Arthur). THE SILVER POPPY. 
Staart(Bsnill). CHRISTALLA. 
SuthorlHid JDndMss aO. ONE HOUR 

AND THE NEXT. 
SwaniAnnlo). LOVE GROWN COLD. 
Swift (Bonjanrin). SORDON. 
Tanqnoray (Mrs. B. M.). THB ROYAL 

QUAKER. 
Trafford.TaaatMi(Mrs.B.W.). SILENT 

DOMINION. 
UpwarJ(AllonX ATHELSTANE FORD. 
WalaonMin (Panl). A HEROINE FROM 

FINLAND. 
Watson (H. B. Marrlattl THB SKIRTS 

OF HAPPY CHANCE. 

' TALES OF DUNSTABLE WEIR. 



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ACT«.