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London : Printed bv W. Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street. 


Being a stranger to the English people, and 
their language one foreign to my own, it may 
be expected that I should give some account 
of myself, the source to which I am indebted 
for the little knowledge I possess, and the 
motives which have encouraged me to publish 
my Journal. 

I owe my education to the benevolence of 
the British Government in restoring, for the 
benefit of Indian youths in Delhi and the 
neighbouring provinces, the College founded 
in the time of the Mogul emperors, which had 
shared the fate of other public establishments 
in that city on the decline of their empire. 

On the 20th of October, 1832, Mr. J. H. 
Taylor, the secretary to the Committee which 
superintended the affairs of the college, sent 
for me, and said that an application had been 
received from Captain, now Sir C. M. Wade, 



and then political agent at Lodiana, for one of 
the students who understood both English and 
Persian; and that in consultation with Mr. 
C. E. Trevelyan, who was then secretary to 
the Resident at Delhi, and one of the greatest 
friends and patrons of the Institution,* I had 
been selected as a candidate for employment. 
As I was desirous, however, of prosecuting my 
English studies, I hesitated to accept the offer : 
but being assured by Mr. Taylor, who like a 
kind friend was deeply interested in our wel- 
fare, that the situation I was to fill would be 
highly beneficial to my worldly interests ; and 
at the same time, that if I were resolved to 
continue the study of English still further, I 
should find time tcf do so, and improve my 
mind by reading the most approved authors ; 
I willingly agreed, and have often gratefully 
remembered the advice of my respected patrons 
and the paternal kindness with which I was 
treated by them. I accordingly left the school 
on the 30th of the same month, to join the 

* Appointed on his return to England, in 1839, Joint 
Secretary to the Treasury. 


Captain at Lodiana, who was then preparing 
to proceed on a mission to the courts of Lahore 
and Bhawlpore to form treaties with those 
states for opening the navigation of the Sat- 
ledge and Indus, in pursuance of the Mission of 
Lieutenant-Colonel, now Sir Henry Pottinger, 
to Sindh, who had shortly before visited the 
Amirs for the same purpose. 

Before leaving school, I will briefly state 
the cause of its restoration and its progress 
since it became an English institution. 

The British government, which had long 
been anxious to extend the benefits of educa- 
tion to its subjects, resolved in 1823 to restore 
the Mahomedan College in its original form, 
which continued till the arrival of Mr. Tre- 
velyan, in 1827, who established in it an 
English class, which my friend Mohan Lai 
and myself were the first to join. Some 
months after his plan was enlarged, and to- 
wards the end of Earl Amherst's Government 
(the first Governor- General who visited the 
Imperial City and saw the state of the college), 
on the recommendation of the Committee, it 


was formed into a separate institution, now 
known as "The Delhi English College." The 
Committee was composed at that time of Mr., 
now Sir Thomas, Metcalfe, Dr. Rankin, and 
Mr. Trevelyan. Instruction in English was 
then confined to the schools in Calcutta and 
its vicinity. Assisted by the late Mr. Andrew 
Stirling, then Persian Secretary to Govern- 
ment, it is to these gentlemen that we owe the 
facilities of learning their language and the 
important privileges which it has conferred on 
our country. 

A selection of such of the Persian scholars 
as were desirous of learning English was then 
made from the Persian class : some boys from 
the city also applied and were admitted. Mr. 
Rennell, an East Indian, was appointed as 
teacher in the infancy of the school. No 
sooner had it commenced than the Molvies, or 
Mahomedan professors in the Persian and 
Arabic college, either from jealousy or from 
the excess of their prejudice, declared that, by 
beginning to receive an English education, we 
had lost our creed ; and all the Mussulmans re- 


garded us as infidels, and abstained from eating 
and drinking with us. The consequence was, 
that the Mahomedan boys, with the exception 
of a youth named Hadi Hussein, myself, and 
one or two others, left the English and re- 
turned to the Persian school, and were imme- 
diately readmitted into their caste, while we 
continued for some time to be considered in 
the light of Kafirs. At length, one day Mr. 
Trevelyan asked the Molvies the reason of the 
Mahomedan scholars having been excluded 
from their faith. They could give no good 
cause for it, and confessed that the study 
of English was not prohibited by the Maho- 
medan religion ; on which Mr. Trevelyan sug- 
gested that we should be readmitted, to which 
they agreed without any objection, and we were 
again made Mussulmans in the superstitious 
and self- founded opinion of the Molvies. This 
was the only obstacle the school met with. 
Afterwards the number of students was much 
increased, and instruction in English diffused 
on a more extensive scale than before. Mr. F. 
Taylor, the son of Mr. J. H. Taylor, a person of 


superior talents and learning, was appointed 
the head teacher, while the scholars of the first 
class acted as assistant teachers to instruct the 
junior classes, being then only ten in number 
altogether. There were six lads in the first 
class, and they stood in gradation as follows : — 

1st. Ram Kishan, a very clever and intelli- 
gent scholar. 

2nd. Myself. 

3rd. Sheoparshad. 

4th. Mohan Lai. 

5th. Jawahir Lai. 

6th. Hadi Hussein. 

In the year 1831 my friend Mohan Lai was 
taken away from the school by Lieutenant, 
the late Sir Alexander Burnes, to accom- 
pany him on his journey to Afghanistan, 
Bokhara, and Persia. He had left the school 
ten months before I quitted it in the manner I 
have mentioned. Our schoolfellows, seeing us 
depart to seek our fortunes in the world, were 
ambitious of following us; and the kind patrons 
whom I have named soon found opportunities 
of providing for them. 


Before I left the school I had — besides 
the rudimental books in ancient history, viz. 
the Histories of Greece and Rome, and the 
History of England, by Goldsmith — gone 
through four books of Euclid, an Abridgment 
of Arithmetic, Keith's Use of the Globes, 
and Guy's Geography. The above formed the 
whole stock of my instruction in the English 
language, and with it I departed from the 
school, with little confidence that I could be of 
much use in that branch of my duty to the 
officer who was about to employ me. On my 
arrival at Lodiana, I found Sir Claude Wade 
had already started, and I therefore hastened 
through the Panjab to join him at Pind Daden 
Khan, near the Salt Mines on the river Jehlam, 
where he was encamped with Ranjeet Singh. 
The first thing he ordered me to do was to 
keep a regular diary of every place we visited, 
and to note down events of importance. Thus 
I not only improved myself in English, but 
acquired a habit of writing a journal, and con- 
tinued the practice in the various Missions on 
which that officer was employed. 


In 1837-8 I was deputed on a special duty 
to Lahore, to convey some presents, and explain 
the settlement of some local cases in dispute 
between the two governments, on which occa- 
sion I had the honour of receiving the appro- 
bation of the Right Honourable the Governor- 
General, Lord Auckland, for the reports I 
submitted of my communications with the 
Maharaja, and their satisfactory result. 
, Shortly afterwards I accompanied my master 
in the military expedition on which he was 
sent to conduct Shah Zada Taimur, the eldest 
son of Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk, with the Sikh 
auxiliary force, by the Khaibar Pass to Kabul. 
On that occasion I also kept a journal, which 
I have been allowed to correct by comparing it 
with that of Lieutenant (now Captain) J. D. 
Cunningham, of the Bengal Engineers, who 
kindly lent me his for that purpose, and 
took much interest in encouraging me in my 
studies. It is necessary to remind the reader 
that the following pages having been mostly 
written before the death of Ranjeet Singh, the 
description of his court and its officers is no 


longer applicable ; but the mode in which 
he conducted his administration, and the 
increasing importance of passing events in 
that quarter, have suggested their publication. 
It is the misfortune of India, the conquest of 
which has been termed "the brightest jewel in 
the English crown/' that it should be so little 
known by the distant nation which governs 
its millions of fellow-subjects. I hope, for the 
sake of my country, that their interests may 
hereafter be better understood, and more truly 
estimated. After giving these personal de- 
tails, I can only express a hope that my imper- 
fections will be pardoned; and that, having 
long wished to visit England, I may venture 
to offer the humble tribute of my pen as a 
passport to the indulgence of the English, 
should I ever be permitted to visit their great 
country ; and as a token of gratitude to those 
who have enabled me to write in their lan- 
guage, and assisted me through life by their 
countenance and favour. 




The Satledge — The Governor-General visits Ranjeet 
Singh at Lahore — Makes a Convention with him — 
Reviews — Various Festivities — Shah ZadaTaimur 
takes leave of Lord Auckland — Sir Claude Wade's 
Preparations for Departure — His Mission takes 
leave — Ill-health of the Maharaja — His Avarice — 
The Shah Zada is joined by some Afghan Nobles 
from the service of Sultan Mahomed Khan, the ex- 
chief of Peshawr ...... 1 


The Government of Lahore — Mode of conducting 
business — System of Administration — Habits of the 
Maharaja — The Darbar — Disposition of the various 
Officers of the Maharaja's Court — Governors of 
Provinces — Revenue of the Maharaja's Dominions — 
Strength, Organization, and Expense of his Army 14 





The Ministers and other Officers of State, with a de- 
scription of them — Raja Dhian Singh — Jemadar 
Khoshal Singh — Bhaes Rham Singh, Govind Singh, 
and Gormukh Singh — Faqir Azizuddin and his 
brothers — Misser Beli Ram — Diwan Dinanath . 26 


The rise of Khoshal Singh — His humble position in 
early Life — He enters the Army— Embraces the 
Sikh Faith — Supplants Bastee Ram in the charge 
of the Deodkee — Quarrels with Misser Diwan 
Chand — His nephew, Teij Singh — His son, Ram 
Singh — Residences of the family — Places held by 
Khoshal Singh 38 


Passage of the Ravi — Nangal — Difficulties encoun- 
tered by the Mission- — Nanake — Gujranwala, the 
birthplace of Ranjeet Singh — Hari Singh — He is 
defeated and killed at Jamrud by Mahomed Akbar 
Khan — Ranjeet Singh resumes the whole of his 
Jaghir — Colony of Kashmirians — General Avitabile 
— His improvements at Vazirabad — Distant view 
of the Himmalaya . . . . .46 




A Panjabee Ferry — Gujrat— The adjacent country — 
Khawaspura — Kharian — Death of General Allard 
—Honours paid to his corpse by the troops at- 
tached to the Mission — His funeral — Delay of the 
Mission at Aurangabad — Order of march — Mr. 
Lord — Letters to Ranjeet Singh — Salt Mines . 60 


The Jammoo Family — Horrible treachery perpetrated 
by them — They found a town — They increase 
in wealth and power — Another dreadful tragedy — 
Various Chiefs of this family — Rise of the Sikhs 
— Youth of Ranjeet Singh — Anarchy — He an- 
nexes Jammoo to his Dominions — Rapid rise of 
Golab Singh — Raja Sultan Khan of Bhimber — 
Conquest of Kashmir — Jaghirs . . .75 


Crossing the River Jehlam — The town of that name 
— Its Revenue and Population — Cultivation of the 
adjacent country — Timber — Boats used on the River 
— Coins and other Antiquities discovered by Gene- , 
rals Ventura and Court — Application to Ranjeet 
Singh for expediting the progress of the Mission . 107 




Fort of Rohtas — Anecdotes— The people of Kamla- 
garh — A halt — News from Kabul — The Pass of 
Bakrala — Freebooters — The Festival of the Eed — 
Ruins — The Ghakars — Letter to Ranjeet Singh — 
Rawat Kee Sarae— Its Antiquities — Manakiala — 
Researches of General Ventura — The Sohan — 
Rawelpindee — Gardens of Jahanghir — Traditions 
— Afghans in the hills — The Indus — Plan of the 
Operations of Lieut. Mackeson and Mr. Lord . 116 


Akora — The Khataks — Firoz Khan — His battles with 
the Sikhs — Sayed Bahauddin seized by Akbar Khan 
—State of Kabul — Pabhi — The Momands — River 
Bara — Irrigation — Superstition of the people — 
Machni — A Flood — A Robbery — Retinue of the 
Shah Zada — Duplicity of the Court of Lahore 
—Ill-health of the Maharaja — The Khaibar Chiefs 
— Assistance afforded by General Avitabile — Pir 
Mahomed Khan — An overture from Nawab Jabbar 
Khan— Tura Baz Khan— State of Kabul . .187 


News from Herat — Remissness of the Sikh Authori- 
ties — A Darbar — Movements of Dost Mahomed — 
The Khaibaris— Delays of the Sikhs—The Kha- 
taks — Review of the Sikh Troops — Further Delays 
—Arrival of the Sikh Army — It halts at Attok — 
Force at Kabul — Excessive Heat— The Shah Zada 
at Peshawr ........ 227 




Description of Peshawr — Taken from the Afghans 
by the Sikhs — Its Climate — Productions — Popu- 
lation — The Usafzaes — The Khalils — Revenue — 
Administration of General Avitabile — Hatred of 
the Mussulman population to their Sikh Rulers — 
Manufactures ...... 258 


Distress of the Najibs — A Review — The Khaibaris — 
Sultan Mahomed Khan — A Skirmish — Measures 
of Akbar Khan — General Ventura — The Khaibar 
Pass — State of Kabul — Defeat of Tura Baz Khan 
— Kour Nao Nihal Singh — The Mahomedan Con- 
tingent — A Meeting — Proclamation of Akbar 
Khan — The Amir's Family removed from Kabul . 282 


Preparations for advancing — Supply of Water stopped 
— Stockades erected — General Sickness — Death of 
Ranjeet Singh — Skirmishing near the Pass — Ac- 
tion with Sadat Khan — An Affray between the 
Mussulmans and Sikhs near Jamrud — Return of 
Sir C. Wade — His Force — Ill-feeling of the 
Sikhs to the British Power — Enemies to be en- 
countered ....... 365 




March to Jubbagee — The Force is divided — View of 
Ali Masjid — Gallantry of Lieut. Mackeson — An 
Attack — Conduct of the Levies — Skirmishing — 
Ali Masjid captured — Illness of Lieut. Barr — 
Further Preparations for advancing — Dhaka — 
Order issued by Sir C. Wade . . . .387 


The Seven Wells — Shah Zada Jamhur rejoins the 
Mission — Sadat Khan refuses to submit — Lalpura 
is taken — Rewards to the Troops — Flight of Dost 
Mahomed and Akbar Khan — Arrangements for 
securing the Khaibar Pass — Official intelligence 
received of the capture of Ghazni . . . 415 


Hazarnao — Order of March — Pillaging of the Sikh 
troops — Jalalabad — Reception of the Prince there 
— Stores left behind by Akbar Khan — Intrigues of 
Raja Golab Singh — Chaharbagh — Tatang — Gan- 
damak — Guns and Camp Equipage of Akbar Khan 
taken — Jagdalak — Rash Measures of the Shah's 
Government — Pass of Khurd Kabul— Troops pa- 
raded previous to entering Kabul . . .431 




The Shah Zada arrives at Kabul— The City—State 
of the Country — Murder of Colonel Herring — 
Misconduct of the Shah — Order of Merit — An 
Execution — Sir C. Wade takes leave of the Shah 
and of the Prince ...... 473 


Departure from Kabul — Correspondence with the 
Ghilzae Chiefs — Adventures of Shah Zada Maho- 
med Saleh — Murder of Sirdar Cheit Singh — Com - 
munication with Sadat Khan — Ill-health of the 
troops at Ali Masjid — Return to Peshawr — Sir C. 
Wade takes leave of the Sikh troops — Outbreak of 
the Khaibaris ...... 504 


The Khaibaris attack Lala China — Imminent Peril of 
Captain Ferris— Supplies to Ali Masjid — The Sikhs 
attacked by the Afridis — Further operations against 
the Khaibaris — Little confidence to be placed in 
the Sikh troops — Skirmishing near Lala China — 
Baggage abandoned — Departure from Peshawr . 530 




Our arrival at Lahore — Miserable condition of the 
Maharaja Kharak Singh — He attempts to fly to the 
British Frontier, but is overtaken and forced to re- 
turn — Intrigues at the Court of Lahore — Tomb of 
Ranjeet Singh — The Sikh Escort dismissed — Order 
issued by the Governor-General relative to the 
Operations of the Mission — Conclusion . . 543 



Chapter I. 

The Satledge — The Governor-General visits Ranjeet 
Singh at Lahore — Makes a treaty with him— Reviews 
— Various festivities — The Shah Zada takes leave of 

- Lord Auckland — Preparations for departure — The 
Mission takes leave — Ill-health of the Maharaja — His 
avarice — The Shah Zada is joined by some Afghan 
Khawanin from the service of Sultan Mahomed Khan. 

The Governor- General of India (the Earl of 
Auckland), after meeting Maharaja Ranjeet 
Singh at Firozpore, where the army of the 
Indus had been assembled preparatory to its 
departure for Afghanistan, was specially in- 
vited by his Highness to accompany him on 
a visit to Lahore via Amritsir. His Lordship 
and suite, attended by a large escort,* accord- 

* Consisting of a European troop of horse artillery, 
one regiment of native cavalry, and two battalions of 
native infantry, 



ingly crossed the river below Firozpore, by a 
bridge of boats on the 16th of December, 1838. 
Before, however, I proceed with his Lordship 
on his tour to Amritsir and Lahore, a brief 
account of the ferries and the nature of the 
river Satledge will be desirable. 

The river Satledge is nowhere safely fordable 
between its confluence with the Bias and Fi- 
rozpore ; but last year a ford was found below 
Mamdot : it was used, however, with extreme 
difficulty and danger, on account of its quaggy 
bed. About forty-seven years ago it is related 
that a party of Kasoor troops, on an urgent 
occasion, forded the river near the village * of 
Nalcha, six kos below Firozpore. It is a com- 
mon opinion among the natives that the 
Satledge is never fordable ; but I learn from 
authentic sources that it is very erroneous, and 
that the river can be crossed by fords every 
year in many places above Harikee ; but it is 
difficult to ascertain them with accuracy, as 
their discovery would materially affect the 
interests of the boatmen, who, being the only 
persons having a knowledge of them, try their 


best to conceal the fact. I have been told by a 
native of Harikee that the Satledge becomes 
fordable at a place a little distance below that 
ferry ; but, as the river is liable to very great 
changes in its course, it is not probable that 
the ford can be always found in the same spot. 
The ferries between Harikee and Firozpore 
are as follows : — 

Harikee, Nagarka, 

Bhao, Bara, 

Asyake, Bareke. 

Above the confluence of the two rivers, as 
far as Roper, there are numerous ferries, of 
which Talwend, Filore, and Tihara, are the 
principal. The boats are of a peculiar con- 
struction, very flat and shallow, rising to a 
point at the stern, and quite square at the other 
end (forming in shape an acute angle), but they 
are well calculated for the use to which they 
are applied ; they are moved across the river 
by poles, and are not suited to any other 
kind of navigation. 

In his progress to Lahore, as well as during 



the Governor-General's presence at that place, 
the Maharaja showed him every attention 
due to the dignity of his exalted station. Lord 
Auckland was the first of the British Indian 
Governors who had stepped as a friend in the 
Panjab. After visiting Amritsir, where he 
was entertained in a style by the Maharaja 
worthy of the magnificence of the Sikh court, 
and amused by the sight of their holy temple, 
which was illuminated for the occasion, and saw 
the famous fortress of Govindgarh where his 
treasures are kept, his Lordship, accompanied 
by his host, went to Lahore. On encamping 
near the celebrated gardens of Shalamar he 
was again entertained by Ranjeet Singh, and 
conducted thither by his son Kour Kharak 
Singh about an hour before dusk. The gardens 
were illuminated in a grand style, and the 
fountains playing freely, and fireworks let off, 
which produced a very interesting scene, and 
highly gratified the party. 

The following morning, the 21st of Decem- 
ber, the camp moved to Lahore and pitched 
to the west of the city between the river and 


the fort, on a fine green plain across a 
branch of the Ravi, on one side of which are 
some hunting preserves, and on the other a 
succession of gardens belonging to the Ma- 
haraja or his courtiers, where he inspects his 
troops and passes much of his time when stay- 
ing at Lahore. Accompanying each other, the 
Governor-General and his Highness, on their 
way to the camp, passed through the city, and 
while his Lordship remained at Lahore his 
time was employed as follows : — 

On the evening of the 22nd of December 
was a review of the Sowars, composed of the 
Maharaja's own household, irregular cavalry, 
and the contingents of his relatives Sirdars 
Atr Singh and Ajit Singh, Sindhanwalia. In 
the course of the interview a reference was made 
to Sultan Mahomed Khan, who had been in- 
troduced to Lord Auckland the night before, 
regarding the force of his brother Dost Ma- 
homed Khan and the other members of the 
Barakzai family at Candahar. Ranjeet Singh 
then spoke of the anxiety of his people to have 
the conditions relative to the return of the 


army through the Panjab settled, that nothing 
might remain to be discussed or explained 
when the time came. These conditions were, 
First, not to permit the slaughter of kine. 
Second, not to allow the present to be a pre- 
cedent for the future passage of the British 
troops through the Sikh country. Third, that 
the usual marks of respect and consideration 
to his government should be observed on the 
part of the British army. 

23rd. — The Governor-General, in company 
with the Honourable the Misses Eden, in the 
afternoon, went to see the tombs of Jahangir 
and the famous Noor Mahal, across the Ravi. 
He was attended by Kour Sher Singh. Dur- 
ing the absence of his Lordship the gentlemen 
of his suite paid a visit of ceremony to Kour 
Kharak Singh. 

24th. — About 9 a.m. the contingents of Raja 
Hira Singh, Raja Golab Singh, and Raja 
Seocheit Singh, were paraded for inspection, 
and appeared a fine body of feudal cavalry. 
In the evening a review of Sultan Mahomed 
Khan's contingent took place, which, consisting 


of Afghans, formed a novel sight when con- 
trasted with the showy dresses and martial air of 
the others. Though he has dispossessed him 
of authority in Peshawr, the Maharaja has 
found it prudent to keep Sultan Mahomed 
Khan and his brothers in that territory, by 
conferring large jaghirs on them in lieu of 
military service. After these reviews Lord 
Auckland and his host conferred privately 

25th, — Christmas day, passed in camp. In 
the evening visited some of the gardens ad- 
joining the palace. 

26th. — Visit of his Lordship to the fort, and 
an entertainment in the evening, when it was 
brilliantly illuminated. The Maharaja took 
that opportunity of showing his palace and 
displaying his costly jewels to his guests. 
The ladies were invited to the party, and were 
delighted with the exhibition. 

27th. — A hunting party was arranged in one 
of the preserves near camp, but the game was 
scarce, and disappointed the sportsmen. 

28th. — In the morning the British troops 


were shown by his Lordship to Kour 
Kharak Singh and Naonihal Singh. Ranjeet 
Singh, owing to symptoms of a recurrence of 
his old illness,* not being able to attend in 
person, hearing of which the common people 
began to believe that his English guests had 
wrought some spell upon him. In the evening 
the parting interview took place, on which 
occasion his Lordship introduced to the Ma- 
haraja, Shah Zada Taimur, the eldest son of 
Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk, who was to proceed with 
Lieutenant-Colonel, now Sir Claude Martine, 
Wade, through the Khaibar Pass to Kabul. 
The plan of operations was explained, and the 
Governor-General expressed his assurance of 
the cordial support and co-operation of that 
part of them which had devolved by treaty on 
the Sikh government, to which his Highness 
willingly assented, after which the usual pre- 
sents were produced, and Lord Auckland took 
leave, accompanied by Kour Sher Singh, who 
is a polite and courteous person. He had been 
acting as Mehmandar to his Lordship during 
* Paralysis. 


his visit, and was directed to attend him on 
his return to the left bank of the Satledge. 

In the evening of the same day the Shah 
Zada visited his Lordship to take leave. He 
was received with the honour due to his rank, 
and after receiving some words of good advice 
for his future guidance, the prince was dis- 
missed with suitable presents He is a well 
disposed young man, and seems entirely at- 
tached to the English. # 

From the 1st to the 12th of January, 1839, 
the time was employed in collecting the per- 
sonal escort intended (agreeably to the treaty 
between the British Government, Shah Shuja- 
ul-Mulk, and Ranjeet Singh) to accompany 
the Shah Zada from the Sikh government* 
and in providing him with his marching 
equipage and other necessary establishments 
for his approaching journey. In the meantime 
the camp was removed to the ghat or ferry 
on the Ravi, and pitched in the order in which 
it was hereafter to encamp. 

* As has been proved by his conduct during the dis- 
asters in Afghanistan. Vide the despatches of the late Sir 
W. Nott and Major Rawlinson from Candahar. 

B 3 


Notwithstanding the sickness of the Maha- 
raja, minute attention was paid by him to 
every requisition. But the dilatory manner in 
which his orders were executed caused some 
delay. At length every preparation was com- 
pleted, owing to the strict and constant en- 
deavours of the Lieut.-Colonel, to whose care 
and guidance the whole of the expedition on 
the Peshawr frontier was entrusted by the 
British Government. 

N On the morning of the 12th inst., Sir 
Claude Wade, accompanied by the other offi- 
cers attached to his Mission,* proceeded to the 

* " Lieut.-Colonel Wade, political agent and chief of 
the Mission; Lieut. Cunningham, 1st assistant to ditto; 
P. B. Lord, Esq., Bombay Medical Service, an assistant 
in the political department to Mr. MacNaghten (doing 
duty) ; Lieut. Maule, artillery, assistant in the political 
department; Lieut. Dowson, 5th regt. Native infantry, 
ditto ; Lieut. Barr, H. A., ditto, and commanding detach- 
ment of horse artillery ; Lieut. Hillersdon, 53rd N. I., 
assistant in the political department ; A. Reid, Esq., 
Bengal Medical Service, in medical charge of the Mis- 
sion ; Capt. Farmer, 21st N. I., commanding British 
troops ; Lieut. Corfield, ditto ; Capt. Ferris, 20th N. I. ; 
Lieut. Rattray, ditto, adjutant to British troops." — Barr's 
Journal from Delhi to Peshawr to join Sir Claude 
Wade, published in 1844, pp. 219, 220. 


palace to take leave of his Highness. His 
health was now very declining ; he had almost 
entirely lost the faculty of speech, and could 
hardly stammer a few words. One of his 
oldest and best officers, named Bhae Mahu 
Singh, was appointed to attend us to Peshawr, 
and see our wants readily supplied. The 
Maharaja stated that he had ordered his 
army to assemble, and that it would follow 
after the Holi festival ; before which, with re- 
ference to the advance of the Shah with the 
British troops via Shikarpore to Candahar, 
and the necessity of a simultaneous eo -opera- 
tion between the two armies, the presence of 
his army was not required. He also ex- 
pressed his wish of proceeding with it himself, 
in which Sir Claude earnestly joined. As, 
from his feeble state, his Highness could not 
endure the fatigue of sitting with convenience 
any longer, the usual presents were brought 
and delivered to each officer of the party, 
including myself. I was astonished on this 
occasion to find that the pair of shawls which 
formed a part of my khilat, or dress of honour, 


was kept back, in lieu of a pair which the 
Maharaja was pleased to confer on me a few 
days before, when I waited on him with a mes- 
sage from Sir Claude Wade. Although on 
former visits he usually granted me some pre- 
sent or other, yet he never made any deduc- 
tion from the khilat which is formally given 
on the day of dismissal. It shows that his 
avarice increases with his age and the disap- 
pointments of his life ; for it is only of late 
that his Highness has shown such a covetous 
disposition. The Maharaja lastly requested 
that Sir Claude would constantly write and 
report to him our progress ; and then the 
Mission took leave of his Highness and his 
officers, and returned to the camp. 

It is worthy of remark that, soon after our 
arrival at Lahore, several Afghan Khawanin, 
or men of noble descent, in the service of 
Sultan Mahomed, being disaffected to their 
master, wished to desert him and join the 
Shah Zada. They made overtures on the 
subject ; but Sultan Mahomed Khan being 
one of the feudatory Barakzai chiefs of the 


Sikh government, it was thought that to 
encourage them would have been considered 
unbecoming the friendly relations of the three 
states ; but as, on the other hand, it would 
discourage other Afghans from joining the 
Shah Zada, the mutter was treated with in- 
difference, and they were allowed to follow 
their own inclinations. After a time, they 
almost every one of them joined the Shah 
Zada, and continued to serve him. Among 
others, Khan Mahomed Khan, the son of 
Yar Mahomed Khan, Popalzai, was the first 
who joined the Shah Zada. His father is at 
Herat, to which he and his son retired after 
the flight of the Shah from Candahar. They 
joined the Shah on his last expedition at 
Shikarpore. The son appeared at Lahore with 
twenty Sowars, accompanying Sultan Ma- 
homed Khan from Peshawr ; but encamped 
separately from him when they joined the 
Shah Zada. Sultan Mahomed Khan sent him 
many messages to come to his camp, but he 
declined the offer. 

( 14 ) 

Chapter II. 

The Government of Lahore — Mode of conducting busi- 
ness — The Governors — Habits of the Maharaja — The 
Darbar — Disposition of the various officers of the 
Maharaja's court — Governors of provinces — Revenue 
of the Maharaja's dominions — Strength, organization, 
and expense of his army.* 

The government of Lahore is a pure despotism, 
and the entire direction of its affairs, foreign 
or domestic, is, according to the Oriental 
saying, on the tongue of his Highness. Al- 
though some of the courtiers are men of wis- 
dom and intelligence, and the Maharaja has a 
share of that consideration and respect which 
every ruler must have for the prejudices and 
opinions of his countrymen, yet, possessed of a 
vigorous mind himself, and having a great re- 
liance on his own penetration and judgment, 
he is generally guided by his own opinions, 
though he may ask that of his courtiers. 

* Since this journal was written great changes have 
taken place in the court of Lahore ; almost all the prin- 
cipal persons mentioned have died of violent or natural 
deaths, and the army been destroyed. 


In affairs of importance he consults the 
Grunth, the religious book of the Sikhs, and 
often acts as he is guided by that oracle. His 
correspondence with foreign states, as well as 
with his own functionaries, is solely dictated 
by himself; and, though illiterate, he exercises 
a minute criticism in correcting the diction of 
his secretaries. An habitual reserve in matters 
of business forms a striking feature of his cha- 
racter. It is an invariable rule with him never 
to mention his object to any one until the time 
for execution has arrived. 

During the early part of his reign, he and the 
other Sikh chiefs had no system of official re- 
cords ; business was conducted by verbal orders, 
and continued so with Ranjeet Singh until Di- 
wan Bhowani Das, a clever native of Peshawr, 
was employed. When he came into his service 
he divided the transaction of the affairs of state 
into different offices or departments, keeping 
the accounts, farming of districts, and preserv- 
ing every record of importance, commenced 
only from that period. At present there are 
twelve Daftars or offices where the civil and 
military business of the government is arranged. 


Diwan Dinanath is at the head of them. For- 
merly, neither were there any forms for the 
Deodhee ; * they were introduced about the 
same time. Bhae Ram Singh, and Bhae Go- 
vind Ram, and Faqir Azizuddin, assist his 
Highness in civil affairs; the Faqir also 
acts the part of chief secretary for foreign 
affairs. The letters to functionaries are also 
frequently written by him. Misser Beli Ram, 
a respectable Brahmin, is in charge of the re- 
galia and the treasury. A separate account of 
these functionaries will be given, and no obser- 
vations need therefore be made on their merits 
or character here. 

The affairs of the country are conducted by 
means of Governors or Kardars, who are ap- 
pointed to each district. They manage the 
whole business connected with the administra- 
tion of the territory entrusted to them, and 
seldom report any case to the court unless it be 
of high importance, when his Highness's orders 
are communicated by issuing Parwanas.'f The 

* Corresponding with the Lord Chamberlain's office, 
literally the entrance to the court, 
t Official orders. 


settlement of the revenue, the audit of accounts, 
and their adjustment, both in the military and 
civil department, are done entirely by the 
Maharaja ; but in the last two or three years, 
owing to his bad state of health, he has 
sometimes delegated that duty to Raja Dhian 
Singh. He has news-writers in every quarter 
of his dominions, and the news of foreign 
courts is always read to his Highness in the 

His Highness disposes of his time in the fol- 
lowing manner : — In the morning and evening 
he always goes out either on horseback or in a 
litter to take the air; when in ill health he 
seldom denies himself that exercise, or even 
in rainy or stormy weather. After his ride in 
the morning fie takes a hasty breakfast, and 
then holds his Darbar* and sometimes on 
the plain under the shade of a tree or a camp, 
which continues till twelve o'clock. The whole 
business of the day is transacted by him with 
rapidity and despatch during that time. When 
the Darbar is over, the Maharaja takes a 
short repose of half an hour only, when he 
* Court of audience. 


resumes his seat, and hears the Grunth for 
about one hour and a half. After that cere- 
mony he again takes the air. In these ex- 
ercises he generally employs himself in in- 
specting his troops, or other military exercises, 
or receiving the petitions of his people. 

With the exception of the five functionaries 
already named, the annexed list contains the 
names of the other courtiers, chiefs, and mili- 
tary commanders who attend the Darbar. 
Nearly all the old Sikh Sirdars or chiefs are 
now extinct. Those only of them who survive 
are Sirdars Jawend Singh, Mowakil, Dhuna 
Singh, Malwai, and Sham Singh, Atariwala, 
but they possess very little influence in the 
court. The rest are either the descendants of 
old families or the creations of a few days, 
owing their rise to His Highness. 

Sirdar Atar Singh, \ Sindhanwalia the rela- 

Sirdar Ajit Singh, and I tions of the Maha- 

Sirdar Lehna Singh, J raja. 

Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia. 

Sirdar Sham Singh, the father-in-law , 

of Kour Naonihal Singh, 
Naonihal Singh and Sirdars Jei Singh V Atariwala. 

and Jagat Singh, 
Sher Singh and Karam Singh, 


Sirdar Dhuna Singh, Malwai. 

Sirdar Jawend Singh, Mowakil. 

Pertab Singh, the son of the late Jawala Singh, Bherania. 

European Military Officers of the Regular 

Army : — 
General Allard, lately dead. 
General Ventura. 
M. Avitabile. 

M. Court, besides several others, viz. : Messrs. Foulkes, 
Steinbach, &c., with inferior commands.* 

Native Officers of Rank : 
General Teij Singh. 

General Ram Singh, the son of Jemadar Khoshal Singh. 
General Misser Sukhraj, to each of whom the Maha- 
raja has given separate divisions of his army. 

All the other officers and functionaries at 
the time of Darbar wait in the outer yard 
next to the palace : when any one is required 
he is sent for to the presence. 

Besides the above Sirdars, Sirdar Cheit 

Singh and Sirdar Mangul Singh, who are 

called the ministers of Kour Kharak Singh 

and Diwan Hakim Rae and Sirdar Fateh 

Singh, those of Kour Naonihal Singh, attend 

the court in the company of their masters. 

* MM. Avitabile and Court are also styled generals by 


The Sirdars and officers of the Maharaja's 
court are for the most part well disposed towards 
Kour Kharak Singh and Naonihal Singh, and 
have respect for their authority, but they are 
not so well affected towards Kour Sher 
Singh. A bad feeling also prevails between 
the latter and Kour Kharak Singh and his 
son. The Jammoo family and Jemadar 
Khoshal Singh were not formerly on good 
terms ; but at the last great fair of the Komb 
held at Hard war, Raja Golab Singh and the 
Jemadar, who met there, exchanged turbans 
with each other standing in the water of the 
Ganges,* since which they have always re- 
mained intimately allied. All the other Sir- 
dars are generally on good terms with the 
Jammoo family, either from inclination or 
necessity. Sirdar Ajit Singh of the Sindhan- 
walia family has lately exchanged turbans 
with Raja Hera Singh, but Jemadar Khoshal 
Singh on the one hand and the Sindhanwalias, 
four Bhaes, and the Missers on the other, are 
not on good terms, and try to injure each 
* A solemn mode of reconciliation. 


other. The Missers and the Rajas have also 
had a difference, which is scarcely healed It 
took place between Raja Dhian Singh and 
Misser Ram Kishan, the brother of Beli Ram, 
on account of the latter having been stopped on 
his entrance at the Deodhee when he proceeded 
as usual to the " Darbar," and high words were 
exchanged on either side, which went so far 
that the Raja proposed to resign, but the officers 
of the court interposed, and brought about a 
partial reconciliation . 

The following is the list of the chief func- 
tionaries or Governors appointed to the several 
provinces within the Maharaja's dominions, 
showing their names and the amount of revenue 
derived from each province ; — ^ 

Amount in Rupees, 

Diwan Savvan Mai, the governor 

ofMultan . . . 38,98,550 

Misser Roop Lai, the governor of 

Doaba of Jalandar . . 18,72,902 

Eaja Gholab Singh, in charge of 

- the country lying between the 

Chinab and the Jehlum . 25,45,0&0 

Raja Socheit Singh, of the dis- 
trict of Vazirabad . 10,55,726 4 


Amount in Rupees. 

Sardar Lehna Singh Majithia of 

Manjha, and the territories in 

the hills between the Satledge 

and Ravi . . . 14,87,475 

Mian Singh, the governor of 

Kashmir .... 36,75,000 
M. Avitabile, the governor of 

Peshawr . . . 18,34,738 

Besides the above, there are other officers 
and Kardars, such as the sons and nephews of 
the Faqirs and the Missers, &c. who govern 
small districts. The remittances made by 
these officers are mostly by means of Hund- 
wis on Amritsir. No sum is received from 
Peshawr. The revenue of that province is 
consumed there, and large remittances made 
from court to pay the force employed in 
that quarter. The capture of Peshawr has 
been an expensive conquest to the Maha- 

The whole revenue derived from the country 
within the rule of his Highness is said to 
amount to three crores twenty-seven thousand 
seven hundred and sixty-two rupees, which 
is derived from the following sources : — 



Khalsa 1,96,57,172 

Jaghirs given to different people 87,54,590 

Khirajdars . . ' . . 12,66,000 

Transit duties between Akora and 

the Satledge . . . 5,50,000 

Total of Rupees . 3,00,27,762 

I shall now briefly touch on the strength, 
organization, and expenses of the Maharaja's 

Maharaja Ranjeet Singh has a large and 
well-disciplined army. It is better regulated 
than that of any native chief in India. He 
himself, being passionately fond of the military 
profession, has chiefly devoted his attention to 
the organization of his army. 

It consists of 31 regiments of infantry, 9 
regiments of cavalry, and 288 pieces of artil- 
lery of various calibre, of which 143 pieces 
are drawn by horses, 147 by bullocks, and 8 
howitzers, besides 11,800 irregular Sowars. 
Nearly one-half of his regular army is com- 
manded by the French and other European 
officers, and the rest by his native officers. 


Besides these troops the following are fur- 
nished by the Jaghirdars. 

Irregular Sowars, 6460. 

Regular infantry, 9 regiments. 

Ditto cavalry, 5 regiments. 

Horse and bullock artillery, 87 pieces. 

Of these regular troops three regiments of 
infantry and two regiments of cavalry are fur- 
nished by Kours Kharak Singh and Nao- 
nihal Singh, and four regiments of infantry 
and one regiment of cavalry by the Jam moo 
family, while two regiments of infantry are 
provided by Sirdar Lehna Singh, Majithia and 
Jemadar Khoshal Singh, and the two other re- 
giments of cavalry by the Sindhanwalia family 
and Sirdar Lehna Singh. 

The troops forming his garrisons in different 
forts, and the establishments maintained for 
police and other purposes, are not included in 
the above enumeration. The annexed is the 
statement of the annual expense incurred by 
the Maharaja in the payment of his regular 
army :— 



Infantry, 31 regiments 


Cavalry, 9 regiments . 


Horse artillery, 288 pieces . 


Irregular Sowars, 11,800 . 


Total rupees 


A great many deductions are made from the 
pay of the troops, which reduce the actual 
expenditure considerably. They are armed 
and clothed by the state, and, with the excep- 
tion of two or three battalions commanded by 
the English officers, are organised according to 
the French system. The men composing the 
army are almost entirely Sikhs, with whom 
the regular service of the Maharaja is popular. 
In enduring fatigue, absence from the pre- 
judices of caste, and patience of discipline, 
the Sikh is not easily surpassed. He only 
requires the skill of European officers and 
instructors to make him an excellent soldier.* 

* They have established their military fame by their 
gallant conduct in the late war. 

( 26 ) 

Chapter III. 

The Ministers and other Officers of State — Raja Dhian 
Singh — Jemadar Khoshal Singh — Bhaes Rham Singh, 
Govind Singh, and Gormukh Singh — Faqir Azizuddin 
— Nuruddin — Misser Beli Ram — Diwan Dinanath. 


Raja Dhian Singh, besides having charge 
of the Deodhee, may be called the prime mi- 
nister of his Highness, if that title be not mis- 
applied to a ruler who governs chiefly by him- 
self. The Raja is the channel of conveying 
the petitions and representations of the people, 
and carrying the Maharaja's orders regarding 
them into effect. At night, when he returns 
from the court, he is in the habit of holding a 
Darbar in his own house, which the officers 
of the army and some of the Sirdars also 
attend, to facilitate the transaction of their 
business with his Highness. The reports of 
such of the troops as may be present at court 
are likewise received at the same time, and the 


necessary orders issued regarding them with- 
out consulting the Maharaja, excepting in 
cases of an important nature. The recruits 
entertained are now also passed by Raja Dhian 
Singh, but the orders connected with the move- 
ment and despatch of troops, and with regard 
to their pay, clothing, and promotion, originate 
solely from his Highness himself. 

The Maharaja places great confidence in the 
Raja's good sense and fidelity, and considers 
him one of his sincerest friends. He entrusts 
him with the investigation and settlement of 
affairs of importance both in the financial and 
judicial departments of the state; and the 
mildness and propriety of conduct with which 
he transacts his business is not among the least 
of his good qualities and claims to approbation, 
since he has held his present high office at the 
court of Lahore. The power which the two 
elder Jammoo Rajas have of late years been 
acquiring is chiefly owing to the great in- 
fluence which the constant presence of Raja 
Dhian Singh at court enables him to exercise 
in the affairs of their family. 




The Deodhee was formerly in charge of Je- 
madar Khoshal Singh ; but on account of the 
arbitrary use he made of his power, he dis- 
gusted both the people and the officers of the 
state, and it was taken from him, and given to 
Raja Dhian Singh. At present no distinct 
duty is assigned to him, but he regularly at- 
tends the Maharaja as a matter of ceremony. 
When his Highness inspects the troops, the 
Jemadar is generally employed in the execu- 
tion of his orders, and in regulating their 
movements. He may be termed the aide-de- 
camp of the Maharaja. 

From the severity and badness of his temper 
he is not liked by the courtiers in general ; 
neither does Ranjeet Singh himself entertain a 
good opinion of him. The crimes and offences 
of which he and his family have been guilty 
would have long caused his disgrace ; but it is 
said that when the Maharaja gave him the 
Paliol,* and made him a convert to his religion, 

* The ceremony of initiating a Sikh in his faith is so called. 


the Jemadar exacted a promise from his High- 
ness that he would never degrade him from 
his situation ; he has, in consequence, hitherto 
escaped punishment and the resentment of his 
master on many occasions. 


These persons were admitted to the councils 
of the Maharaja in the year 1827; and in 
imitation of the system of the British Indian 
Government they were appointed his council- 
lors. Bhae Ram Singh and Bhae Govind Ram 
are the sons of Bhae Bastee Ram, a man for- 
merly possessed of some religious celebrity in 
the city of Lahore, and much respected by the 
people. The Maharaja himself used occa- 
sionally to visit him to invoke his holy bless- 
ings. His sons are also respected by his 
Highness, but he has no great confidence in 
their integrity. They serve him more in their 
spiritual than in their temporal capacity, and 
may be seen in daily attendance at the " Dar- 
bar* and from their holy character sit on 


chairs beside the Maharaja; but it has been 
an established rule with them never to enter 
the court until a man has been sent by his 
Highness to conduct them. 

Besides being Sanscrit scholars, they have a 
knowledge of Persian as well as of the medical 
art; but their sagacity is not equal to their 
learning. They sometimes act as interpreters 
to his Highness, and are closely connected 
with the Kours Kharak Singh and Naonihal 
Singh. The two Bhaes enjoy a Jaghir of forty 
thousand rupees, besides fees and benefits which 
they derive from their office of priests, and the 
patronage which their situation at court gives 
them the opportunity of exercising for their 

Gormukh Singh is the other Bhae who at- 
tends the court ; but his attendance is not 
regular, nor has he so much influence as the 
others. He is also allowed a seat, but is in- 
triguing, and not often consulted in the affairs 
of state. He is the son of the late Sant Singh, 
ghiani or chanter of the Grunth in the temple 
of Amritsir, of which city he is a native, 


where his father's name is still highly respected. 
The bias of his son seems to be in favour of 
Kour Sher Singh and Jemadar Khoshal Singh, 
but he is not on good terms with the other 
two Bhaes ; indeed they are always at variance 
with each other. The former is perhaps of 
opinion that the only way he has of maintain- 
ing his influence is by siding with a different 
party from them. In quickness of apprehen- 
sion, as well as in his address and manner, he 
is superior to the other two, but is deficient in 
their prudence and knowledge of the world. 


Faqir Azizuddin is the chief secretary of 
the Maharaja for foreign affairs, and also 
serves him as physician. In the latter ca- 
pacity he first entered his service, when the 
Maharaja took Lahore. Being a man of great 
abilities, and possessing a good judgment, he 
was soon admitted to a participation in the 
affairs of state. At the time of Sir Charles 
Metcalfe's mission, in 1809, the Faqir was 
employed as the means of communication be- 


tween him and the government, and having 
acquitted himself in the discharge of that duty 
to the satisfaction of the Maharaja, was put 
in charge of his correspondence with foreign 
states. His Highness generally employs him 
also as his interpreter, and places great con- 
fidence in him. The Faqir has a general 
knowledge of the sciences taught in the schools 
of Asia, and may therefore be regarded as a 
philosopher as well as a statesman and phy- 
sician. In his conversation he tries to please 
his auditors with great success, and is fond of 
quotations and proverbs to illustrate his re- 
marks. He and his whole family maintain 
great humility in their dress and manners, 
avoiding that ostentation which ex- 
pected from men of their rank and station; 
but it accords with their interest at court, 
where, being Mahomedans, their influence is 
an object of jealousy to others. 

He has two brothers, one named Nuruddin, 
the youngest, who has the charge of the city 
of Lahore, and the Golab khana or dispensary 
of the Maharaja ; and the other, named Imam- 


uddin, that of Govindgarh and the treasure 
there deposited. Faqir Azizuddin has two 
sons, named Shahdin and Cheraghuddin : the 
former is occasionally employed on business 
from the court. At present he is at Ferozpore, 
forwarding the wants of the British army as>- 
sembled for service in Afghanistan. In their 
manners they all imitate Azizuddin. Their 
discretion has enabled them to remain on 
good terms with every one; and from their 
prudent and cautious conduct, they have main- 
tained their position in a court where they 
have felt the necessity of acting with vigilance 
to conciliate all parties. 

They have a jaghir of about fifty thousand 
rupees, besides fees and grants assigned to them 
by different chiefs and others about the court 
to facilitate the transaction of their business. 


The next functionary is Misser Beli Ram. 
He is in charge of the regalia, treasury, 
robes, and other valuable articles. Docu- 
ments of importance, such as treaties with 



foreign states, are also kept by him in the 
regalia. The Maharaja places great confi- 
dence in him. 

He is a native of a village named Kahan, 
near Kitas. His uncle Bastee Ram was the 
treasurer of Maha Singh, the father of Ranjeet 
Singh. On the conquest of Amritsir and 
Lahore the Maharaja entrusted Bastee Ram 
with the charge of Amritsir, and desired him 
to appoint some one of his family to that of 
the Treasury. He recommended Beli Ram, 
his nephew, who was then about eleven years 
old. Since that time to the present period he 
has continued with his Highness. No one 
keeps any account of the Tosheh khana but 
the Misser and his family ; and such is the 
trust reposed in him that he has never been 
called to render an account of his charge. 

Beli Ram has three other brothers, Misser 
Roop Lai, Misser Ram Kishan, and Sukhraj. 
The former is governor of Jalendar, and Ram 
Kishan constantly remains in attendance at 
court, while the third is the commander of a 
division of infantry. 


Besides farming many districts yielding 
about two lakhs of rupees annually, they have 
jaghirs of sixty or seventy thousand rupees 
assigned to them. 

Of all his brothers Beli Ram is considered 
the most sensible. He is an intelligent and 
amiable man ; but from the high favour he 
enjoys, he is much envied about the court, 
and has many little differences with the Sir- 
dars, who try to injure him; but as the 
Maharaja is aware of his worth and devotion 
to his interests, their enmity is harmless.* 


Dinanath is the head person in charge of 
the civil and military accounts. He is a shrewd, 
sensible man, and possesses great statistical 
and financial information regarding every part 
of the Panjab. The whole business in that line 

* On the death of Eanjeet Singh and the conspiracy 
formed by Raja Dhian Singh to take the life of Cheit Singh, 
the favourite of Kharak Singh, Misser Beli Ram and his 
brothers were seized and tortured, and some of them 
cruelly put to death. 


is conducted through him, and the Maharaja 
places great reliance in his abilities as a good 
accountant. He is the nephew of the late 
Diwan Ganga Ram of Delhi, who arrived in 
the Panjab about twenty-five years ago, and 
entered the service of his Highness. At that 
time Dinanath acted under him as a Mutsuddee 
or writer, but after his death, the latter having 
made himself master of the business conducted 
by his uncle, he was appointed his successor, 
while the son of the late Diwan, named Ajud- 
dhianath, was promoted to the office of Diwan, 
or treasurer, with the troops commanded by 
Generals Allard and Ventura. Though Dina- 
nath has been employed in the Daftar since 
the death of his uncle, it is only lately that he 
has received the title of Diwan. His family 
came originally from Kashmir and settled at 
Delhi, but they have now emigrated to La- 
hore. In every corps and district Dinanath 
has some of his own men employed, and 
through them he acquires every information 
necessary to the discharge of his important 
office. He receives twenty rupees a-day, be- 


sides a jaghir of six thousand rupees, and 
enjoys assignments on Kashmir, Multan, &c, 
besides many other fees and emoluments which 
he readily derives from his official station. 
His brother is still employed in the French 

( 38 ) 

Chapter IV. 

The rise of Khoshal Singh — His humble position in early 
Life — He enters the Army — Embraces the Sikh Faith — 
Supplants Bastee Ram in the charge of the Deodhee — 
Quarrels with Misser Diwand Chand — His nephew, 
Teij Singh — His son, Ram Singh — Residences of the 
family — Places held by Khoshal Singh. 

Khoshal Singh is the son of a Brahmin, 
and a native of the village of Ikree, in the dis- 
trict of Sirdhana, near Meerut. At the age of 
eighteen, being in poor circumstances, and in 
want of a livelihood, he left his home and ar- 
rived at Lahore, where he was soon employed 
as a menial servant, at four rupees per month, 
by a person of the name of Ganga Singh, a 
sepoy in the body guard of the Maharaja. 

On the death of Ganga Singh, which oc- 
curred shortly afterwards, Khoshal Singh 
was thrown out of employment, and reduced to 
such extremity that he mortgaged his shield 
and sword to a Khatri named Motee, a shop- 
keeper in the Ham am Street. The money 


obtained by the mortgage was also soon ex- 
pended. He next applied for assistance to 
Misser Ganta, residing in the same street with 
himself, to whom he also pawned some things. 
The Misser, in consideration of his caste 
(Brahmin), offered to support him with bread 
and clothes if he liked to remain with him, 
stating that his occupation would be to assist 
him in performing his Brahminical offices. 
The Misser himself was the Parohit or priest 
to several families in the city of Lahore. It is 
customary among the Hindus, before they take 
their meals, to put some aside for their Parohits, 
which they collect every morning. Their sub- 
sistence depends chiefly on the food thus col- 
lected. Khoshal Singh was engaged in that 
duty, and continued so employed for six or 
seven months, looking out at the same time for 
some other employment. After a time Misser 
Ganta recommended him to a person named 
Lala Sajan Rae, who had him enlisted in the 
battalion commanded by Dhokal Singh. 

Khoshal Singh was smart in learning his 
exercise. He soon acquired a perfect know- 


ledge of it, and was promoted to the rank of 
Jemadar in the party of infantry forming the 
escort to his Highness, who was pleased with 
his activity, and ordered him to remain always 
in attendance at court. Soon afterwards Ran- 
jeet Singh gave him the Pahol, and con- 
verted him to the Sikh religion ; since which 
he has been called Khoshal Singh. 

At that period Bastee Ram was the cham- 
berlain in charge of the Deodhee. He absented 
himself one night from his duty, when the 
Maharaja sent for him ; on which occasion 
Khoshal Singh, who was actuated by some ill 
will towards Bastee Ram, reported that he was 
always absent at night. His Highness directed 
the Jemadar to be immediately seized and con- 
fined, and transferred the charge of his office 
to Khoshal Singh. Bastee Ram remained in 
confinement for some days ; he was then re- 
leased, and restored to employment on paying 
a fine of 2000 rupees. Khoshal Singh farmed 
out the Deodhee for 40,000 rupees, which sum 
was soon raised to 60,000 rupees. Afterwards, 
Devi Das, the Keeper of the Seals, and the Ac- 


countant-General, fixed the fees of the Deodhee 
on each district in proportion to its revenue. 
He settled that they should be collected by the 
Kardars as a part of the revenue, and paid 
to Government through Jemadar Khoshal 
Singh. Likewise a sum of one lakh and sixty 
thousand rupees was fixed as Moharana, or the 
fees of the Privy Seal, which are levied from 
every Sowar at the rate of two rupees a head. 
The Deodhee continued for twelve years in 
charge of the newly appointed Jemadar. 

One day, as Misser Diwan Chand was pro- 
ceeding to the court, he was stopped at the 
Deodhee by the Jemadar, which offended the 
Diwan, who was a man of high spirit, and he 
reviled him by saying, that if the Jemadar 
were not a Brahmin, he would have him dis- 
charged, while he lost no opportunity of abusing 
Khoshal Singh before the Maharaja. 

About the same time Raja Dhian Singh, 
who was then called Mian Dhian Singh, was 
rising into favour with his Highness, and at 
the recommendation of Diwan Chand he was 
vested with the charge of the Deodhee, when 


the Jemadar was removed, and refused admit- 
tance to the court. 

Having patiently submitted to the sentence 
of the Maharajah, Khoshal Singh was soon 
retaken into favour, and ordered to attend the 
court as usual, like the other Sirdars. He is 
now considered next in consequence to Raja 
Dhian Singh at the court of Lahore, and holds 
a Jaghir, yielding a revenue of four lakhs two 
thousand six hundred and sixty-seven rupees. 
Parts of his Jaghir lie on the left bank of the 
Satledge, and the other portions are scattered 
throughout the country on the right bank of 
that river. 

His relatives also hold high offices in the 
state. One of them is Teij Singh, his nephew, 
who is styled a Sirdar, and the general of a 
division, composed of four regiments of in- 
fantry, one regiment of cavalry, and ten pieces 
of artillery. 

Three regiments of infantry, two regiments 
of cavalry, and ten pieces of artillery, are like- 
wise commanded by Ram Singh, the son of 
Jemadar Khoshal Singh, on whom the Ma- 


haraja, about two years ago, conferred the 
rank of a brigadier-general. A year and a 
half ago, when the Jemadar was absent on duty 
at Peshawr, his son murdered a fine young 
man named Bishan Singh, a favourite of his 
Highness, from a feeling of shame and per- 
sonal resentment originating in a crime which 
Ram Singh wished to conceal. The murderer 
was at first forbid the presence of his High- 
ness, but was soon afterwards readmitted with- 
out any notice being taken of the infamy of 
his conduct. 

The Jemadar himself, who is an active 
officer, but cruel and depraved, also commands 
2000 Sowars, called the corps of orderlies. 
He has erected lofty and spacious houses both 
at Lahore and Amritsir. That at the former 
is close to the eastern gate of the palace, and 
the latter near the great temple of the Sikhs. 
These edifices are strongly built, and their sites 
have been well chosen to give their proprietor 
a commanding position in the event of any 
demise or revolution of the government. To 
each are attached extensive ranges for the ac- 


commodation of his immediate retainers, and 
that part of the fortifications which is opposite 
to his house at Lahore, has been included by 
Khoshal Singh within his own precincts, 
while a bazar has been established in the 
Rownee* for the exclusive use of his own 
people ; so that they may be said to form an in- 
dependent quarter of the city . The lines of the 
troops commanded by the nephew and son of 
the Jemadar are so situated as to command 
the principal roads leading to Lahore on the 
land side. It is only within the last year that 
they have thought of forming permanent can- 
tonments. That of the son is in the plain of 
Mian Mir, on the road to Kasur. The other 
is on the road to Harikee; but having been 
commenced without consulting the Maharaja, 
its progress has been stopped* 

* Fausse braie* 


Names of Places. 

Amount of 


Kalra . 

Bhopalwala and Sahnwala 

Villages near Amritsir . 
Kangde and Lakoa 

1 7 villages near Sealkot . 

25 ditto Kortal Gujra, &c. 

10 villages Khosalgarh 

near Dhopalwala. 
2 villages Bal, &c. • 

Handogiwala, near Nanor 

3 villages near Lahore . 
14 villages Ratya, &c. 

1 4 villages Jassi wali, in 11 1 
kos distant from Kajrns; 
Jastarwal ". 
5 villages, Fatehpur, &c. 

4 ditto Nanoke, near Siril 

7 villages, Komooke, &c 

7 ditto Phansian, &c. 
22 ditto Bajwat, &c. 

25 ditto Adamke, &c. 

8 ditto Fatehgarh, &c. 

Dharankot . 
17 villages, Chalia and) 
Kaleke, &c. &c. J 

Harigah , 

4 villages near Miam, &c. 

14 ditto Gangrava, &c. 

Total Rs. . 



















Taken from Sirdar Diwan 
Singh and given to Jema- 
dar Khoshal Singh in 1817. 

Taken from Sirdar Diwan 
Singh, Dodia. 

Taken from Mai Sadakour in 

1821, and given to Jemadar 

Khoshal Singh. 
Ditto from Baba Saheb Singh 

Bedi in 1834, and given to 

the Jemadar. 
Ditto from Jodh Singh, Vazir- 

abadia in 1814, and given 

to the Jemadar. 
Ditto from Nidhan Singh in 

Ditto from Sadha Singh Dodia 

in 1806, and given to the 

Ditto from Gujar Singh and 

Lehna Singh, and given to 

the Jemadar in 1810. 

Ditto ditto, to Maha Singh, 
the father of the Maharaja. 

f Taken from Sirdar Jodh. 
\ Singh in 181 1. 
Ditto from Golab Singh in 

Ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto from Saheb Singh Guj- 

Ditto from Dal Singh in 1818, 
Ditto from Dharm Singh in 

Ditto from Sadha Singh and 
Lehna Singh, in 1826. 

Ditto from Lehna Singh in 


( 46 ) 

Chapter V. 

Passage of the Ravi — Nangal-— Difficulties encountered 
by the Mission— Nanake— Gujranwala — Hari Singh — 
He is defeated and killed at Jamrud by Mahomed 
Akbar Khan— Ranjeet Singh resumes the whole of his 
Jaghir — Nath — General Avitabile — His improvements 
at Vazirabad — Distant view of the Himmalaya. 

12th January, 1839. — Leaving Lahore with 
Shah Zada Taimur, we crossed the river Ravi, 
which is the smallest and the narrowest river 
of the Panjab. We passed it by a ford as 
well as the ferry ; the baggage being brought 
over by the latter, while the camels and horses 
went by the former. The river is, however, 
not always fordable. We encamped on a level 
and extensive plain, between Shahdera and a 
water palace of the Maharaja, situated imme- 
diately on the right bank of the river, and 
called from the moistness of its situation 
Our party consists at present of five hundred 


Ghorcheras, one battalion of Najibs, and two 
pieces of artillery of the Sikh service ; the first 
commanded by Pir Dowlat Khan, one of the 
Afghans of the respectable family of Kasoor ; 
the second commanded by a son of the late 
George Thomas, escorting Shah Zada Taimur ; 
besides one hundred Sowars, and a com- 
pany of infantry, forming his personal guard ; 
as well as two companies of the British Native 
infantry, attending his Royal Highness as a 
guard of honour from that Government. 
Two companies of regular infantry, and fifty 
troopers of Ranjeet Singh, form an escort to 
Sir Claude Wade ; besides forty- three irre- 
gular Sowars, and fifty-three matchlockmen 
entertained by him for the same purpose on 
the part of the Indian Government. 

Some boats on the Ravi having been engaged 
to carry supplies of grain, which the Lieut.- 
Colonel had procured for the consumption of the 
army of the Indus, to Shikarpore, and there be- 
ing consequently but few boats left at the ferry, 
the whole of the baggage was not brought over 
till next day ; on which we were obliged to 


halt, and took advantage of it to bring to a 
conclusion every affair requiring to be arranged 
with the court of Lahore. We noticed the 
improved shape of the boats on the Ravi, from 
the mere rafts used on the Satledge. They 
do not carry so much, but are much better 
suited both for sailing and rowing. 

lAth. — Started at sunrise, and encamped at 
a village named Nangal, surrounded by an 
extensive low jungle, distant twelve kos, held 
in jaghir by Faqir Nuruddin, the brother of 
Azizuddin, his Persian secretary. It was a 
cloudy day, and before we arrived it began to 
drizzle. No trace of cultivation was seen on 
either side of the road. The soil is generally 
barren, and of a saline nature. Several sites 
of towns and villages were observed scattered 
here and there, which bespoke the prosperous 
state of the country in former days. There 
are several fine preserves for hunting in the 
vicinity, near one of which the Maharaja has 
built a Baradari, or pavilion. Raja Dhian 
Singh's fondness for the sports of the field is 
so eager, that he often passes whole nights in 


these preserves in an ambush to shoot hogs 
and tigers. 

The village of Nangal is small, and the 
ground about it becomes almost a swamp after 
heavy rains, and, in consequence, there is no 
good encamping ground near. No supplies 
procurable here, unless previously collected. 
Water good ; and road tolerable, but only 
a cart-track. We crossed a Nala, or small 
stream, called Baghbacha, fordable, a famous 
haunt for tigers. 

On reaching the camp, we had a heavy 
shower of rain, which collected round our tents 
and formed islands of them. We had great 
trouble and confusion ; and the tents being 
soaked through, we were obliged to halt there 
the following day to let them dry. Three of 
our camels sunk under their loads and died, 
and some of them were seriously injured. To 
add to our discomforts, we were compelled to 
send for our supplies to a considerable dis- 
tance, which determined Sir Claude to rely 
no longer on the Maharaja's officers, but to 
form a commissariat of his own. He found 


also that our progress was much impeded by 
some hackeries belonging to our party, which 
he ordered to be exchanged for camels, and the 
baggage of every one to be limited to the 
smallest possible quantity.* 

16^. — Marched at sunrise, and stopped at a 
village named Nanake, the jaghir of Jemadar 
Khoshal Singh, distant nine kos. The morn- 
ing was foggy and gloomy. The road lay 
over a low swampy tract of country, but 
better peopled and cultivated than that of the 
preceding day. The snowy range beyond 
Jammoo in sight. Encamping ground very 
broken, and soil sandy. Water good, but sup- 
plies scanty. 

On our arrival in camp, it was reported that 
the Shah Zada's tents in the rear could not be 
brought on from want of carriage, and three 
of the Sowaree, or riding elephants, were there- 
fore sent back to bring them. 

17th. — Started at the usual time, and halted 
at Gujranwala, north of the town, on an open 

* The baggage of an Indian army is a great en- 


and level spot close to the fort. The distance 
traversed was ten kos. The morning very 
chilly and clear. The thermometer at sunrise 
ranged at 45°. The view of the snowy moun- 
tains became more distinct. The road con- 
tinues the same as yesterday. Soil improves, 
and agriculture was observed in a better state 
than in the course of the two last stages. 

Gujranwala is the native place of Ranjeet 
Singh, and the seat of his ancestors. Their 
possessions did not extend beyond its limits. 
It was formerly a village, with some lands 
attached, but it was not a place of any fame. 
Since the charge of it was conferred by the 
Maharaja on his faithful servant the late 
Sirdar Hari Singh, it has been greatly im- 
proved. The Sirdar built a high mud wall 
round the town ; also a fort to the north of it, 
surrounded by a ditch. Inside the fort there 
is a fine Baradari* and a house after the Eng- 

* '* It consists of three stories, each containing a room 
about fifteen feet square, the lower ones being enclosed by 
broad verandahs ; and below ground there is an apartment 
to retreat to from the hot winds. A range of fountains 
extends close to the entrance front, and at the corners of 

D 2 


lish fashion, where the Sirdar used to live. 
The town is now very populous, and contains 

the 'chabootra,' on which the dwelling is erected, are 
circular ornamented seats, which, when- used, are covered 
with silk carpets or Kashmir shawls. At the top of the 
second and third stories similar conveniences are also con- 
structed ; those of the latter being made after the model of 
the lotus flower, and the exterior of the elevation is covered 
with the finest chunam, free from any of those tawdry em- 
bellishments natives are so apt to consider as ornamental 
to their abodes. We could only gain admittance to the 
lower apartments, as the individual who had charge of the 
keys had gone to the city ; and the circumstance was to be 
regretted, as we were told the second story is very beauti- 
fully fitted up, whilst that we entered had nothing par- 
ticularly attractive about it. The garden is laid out in 
rather a pretty manner, and, in addition to some very 
pretty cypress trees, can boast of two or three large 
vineries. We were shown the 'dota ka mukum,' or 
abode of the idol, which is situated at some distance from 
the house, and close to a reservoir by which the fountains 
are supplied with water. It is a small domed temple, 
built upon a chabootra (or terrace) in an enclosed area. 
A flight of three steps leads to it, and immediately on the 
right of the entrance is the image of a bull in a sitting 
posture, the hump of which our guide touched, and 
salaamed to with great reverence. On the door of the 
temple being thrown open, I could not help feeling dis- 
gusted at the idea of the glorious Deity being represented 
by nine oval stones, kept constantly moistened by means 


a good bazaar of about five hundred shops, 
where every thing may be had ; but it has no 
manufactories of its own. 

Some account of Hari Singh, who was one 
of Ranjeet Singh's most distinguished officers, 
will not be out of place here. Originally 
he was a common khidmatgar, or personal 
attendant. The Maharaja, always desirous 
of encouraging bravery and soldierlike con- 
duct, observing Hari Singh to be a very bold 
and active man, and that on many occasions 
he had evinced an enterprising disposition, 
began to raise him in his favour, till at last 
he was appointed governor of Kashmir, where 
he remained for a few years, and established a 
new rupee of base coinage, which still bears 
his name. He was afterwards put in charge 
of the important fort of Attok. But as he was 
a very bigoted Sikh, and owed a hearty 

of water dripping through an aperture in an earthen pot 
suspended above them, to which the sepoys who accom- 
panied us commenced praying. When will men cease to 
worship the works of their own hands ? " — Bart's Journal, 
pp. 134, 135. 


grudge to the Mussalman race, in the year 
1833, accompanied by Kour Naonihal Singh, 
he attacked Peshawr, and occupied it without 
any apparent resistance, while its chief, Sultan 
Mahomed Khan, retired to Kabul. Since 
that time Peshawr has remained in the pos- 
session of the Sikhs. It had frequently been 
invaded and plundered by them before, but 
restored to its former rulers. 

In the year 1837, Hari Singh advanced 
towards Khaibar, and repaired and occupied 
the fort of Jamrud, situated close to the en- 
trance of the pass ; which alarmed the Khai- 
barees so much, that they invited Dost Ma- 
homed Khan to join them in attacking Hari 
Singh, and expelling him from the fort. A 
great battle ensued between Mahomed Akbar 
and the Sirdar, in which the latter was killed, 
and the Balance of victory turned in favour of 
the Afghans. 

Hari Singh's loss was deeply deplored by 
Ranjeet Singh, who placed the greatest confi- 
dence in him. He was regretted also by his 
countrymen and those who knew him. 


His sons did not inherit the bravery or ability 
of their father ; and Ranjeet Singh, deeming 
them incapable of exercising so great a charge, 
resumed the whole of the Sirdar's jaghir, 
yielding about eight lakhs of rupees revenue 
annually, and divided it chiefly among the 
other Sirdars of his court, making but a small 
provision for the family of the deceased : they 
are now in very reduced circumstances. Hari 
Singh has left four sons, named Jowahir Singh 
and Goordat Singh, •from his first wife, and 
Arjun Singh and Panjab Singh, from his 
second wife. The two latter now hold a jaghir 
of 40,000 rupees ; in return for which they 
furnish his Highness with a party of sixty 
or seventy Sowars. 

The district of Gujranwala is at present 
farmed for a little more than a lakh of rupees 
to Misser Ram Kishan, the younger brother 
of Misser Beli Ram. The country about 
Gujranwala is fertile and productive : there 
are some gardens also to be seen outside the 
place, in one of which, near the road from 
Lahore, rest the remains of Maha Singh, the 


father of Ranjeet Singh, and of his mother and 
grandfather, over whose ashes some fine tombs 
have been erected. On account of rainy and 
cloudy weather we halted here three days, re- 
ceiving every attention from the local autho- 
rities. Numerous Kashmirians are settled here 
who were driven from that province in the 
late famine. 

We renewed our march on the 21st inst., 
and encamped at Nath, a village nine kos dis- 
tant : road good ; supplies scarce ; encamping 
ground, which is south of the village, low and 
swampy from rain ; water good. 

22nd. — Started early in the morning and 
proceeded to Vazirabad: two kos from it 
comes in view a large gateway leading into 
the town. In the year 1832, when on our 
way to the Maharaja at Pind Dadan Khan, 
we passetl by this place : the gate was then 
being built by General Avitabile, who was the 
governor of the district, and has a fine resi- 
dence here, in which we were hospitably enter- 
tained. It is a large town, and abounds with 
supplies of every description : the streets are 


well arranged, and cut each other in right 
angles, many buildings which stood in the way 
having been levelled to the ground. General 
Avitabile is an Italian officer in the service of 
Ranjeet Singh. He established a good system 
of police and revenue throughout the territory, 
and made a great many improvements in the 
town. It was formerly, like others in the Panjab, 
a dirty and irregularly peopled place. There 
is a large straight bazar through which you 
may see without interruption from one gate- 
way of the city to the other. It is intersected 
by another small bazar, and the regularity 
of both adds greatly to the appearance of the 
place. A mud wall surrounds the town, which 
is prettily situated on the left bank of the 
Chinab. The streets and buildings raised by 
the General afford a good idea of his architec- 
tural taste : at present that officer is the gover- 
nor of Peshawr. 

At the northern end of the town is a garden 
containing a fine house called Sheshmahl, 
where the Maharaja on his visits to Vazira- 
bad resides. It is an old building, but has 



been repaired and beautified with mirrors by 
General Avitabile. The whole territory is 
now farmed to Raja Seocheit Singh, one of 
the Jammoo family, for twelve lakhs of rupees : 
Diwan Bheemsen, his servant, is also his 
deputy ; and appears to be a sensible and clever 

We encamped on the bed of the river Chinab, 
between the main stream and a Nala passing 
close by the town, a small and confined spot. 

The population of Vazirabad consists of 
about forty thousand inhabitants, who are gene- 
rally Khatris. There are other tribes, but the 
former predominate. Large quantities of coarse 
cloth are manufactured here and exported to 
the neighbouring places. Small tents and 
Sholdaris or marquees are also made here : 
though cheap, they are not very durable. 

The salt range to the west, and the lofty 
Pir Panjal, one of the highest peaks of the 
Himmalaya on the south of Kashmir, were 
visible, and formed a magnificent spectacle. 
Faiztalab Khan, the son of Jahandad Khan, 
who in breach of his faith delivered over to the 


Sikhs the fort of Attok, which he governed on the 
part of Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk, joined the Shah 
Zada here with twenty-four of his mounted 
retainers. He and his family have been living 
at Vazirabad on the bounty of Ranjeet Singh, 
for the great service which he had performed 
for him. 

( 60 ) 

Chapter VI. 

A Panjabee ferry — Gujrat — The adjacent country — Kha- 
waspura — Kharian — Death of General Allard — Honours 
paid to his corpse by the troops attached to the Mission— 
His funeral — Delay of the Mission at Aurangabad — 
Order of march — Mr. Lord — Letters to Ranjeet Singh 
— Salt mines. 

Halted three days at Vazirabad, and on the 
morning of the 26th, proceeded to Gujrat, dis- 
tant six kos : rode over a bed of sand for three- 
quarters of a mile till we reached the main 
stream of the river Chinab : ferry across and 
road good from the right bank to the town, a 
distance of five kos. There is a ford, how- 
ever, about thirty miles farther up, not a safe 
one, the river being full of quicksands, though 
it is said troops have passed over at a particular 
season of the year. The boats continue to im- 
prove in size and shape. 

In crossing, as usual, a quarrel took place 
between a Sikh and an Afghan of the Shah 
Zada's party in attempting to take possession 


of a boat. The latter gave a sabre-cut on the 
head of the Sikh, who, to avenge the offence, 
was going to attack his antagonist, when some 
person standing by having interfered between 
them appeased the quarrel. On reaching the 
camp the circumstance was reported to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Wade, who, after inquiries, 
caused proper notice to be taken of the guilty, 
and made a regulation to prevent a repetition 
of such disputes in crossing the river : they are 
of common occurrence in the Sikh army, and 
are often attended with loss of life.* 

* " At the Ravi we had a specimen of the manner in 
which a Panjabee ferry is conducted, and where anything 
but order and regularity was observed. As soon as the 
artillery had finished with the boats, a regular scuffle en- 
sued for them, and, of course, strength and might won the 
day ; those who had gained possession of them retaining 
it, by thrashing unmercifully any individual who attempted 
to enter the boat, except of their own party. One little 
fellow I observed making dexterous use of a short thick 
stick, with which he belaboured the heads and legs of those 
who, being no acquaintances of his, endeavoured to secure 
a seat ; and the gentler sex, I am ashamed to say, were 
treated in no better mariner ; for those who got on board 
(and many did) had, after receiving their portion of thumps 
with the rest, to tumble in head foremost, or were dragged 


We encamped to the north of the town about 
half a kos distant, near a Baradari and a garden 
formed by the Maharaja. 

Gujrat is an old town containing about eight 
thousand houses. The inhabitants are gene- 
rally Khatris and Gujars, who are notorious 
thieves. Its original ruler was Saheb Singh, 
but it was afterwards usurped by Ranjeet Singh. 
At present it is leased to Rajah Golab Singh, 
the elder brother of the Jammoo family. 

The country round is open and flat, and the 
soil is exceedingly rich and productive. Gujrat 

in by the feet or hands, whichever limb was nearest to 
their friends, who had previously obtained a footing. 
Children, too, were in danger of being crushed ; and I 
understood it is not a rare occurrence for two parties to 
draw swords, and have a regular set to for the prece- 
dence ; indeed, Foulkes mentioned that not long ago, a 
man deliberately levelled his matchlock and shot another 
who had disputed his right to a passage. As it was 
not our wish to enter into squabbles with the Panjabees, 
Ferris halted and sent a message to the Governor of La- 
hore to say he should remain where he was until the boats 
were cleared for our use. In about an hour, Noorood- 
deen, accompanied by General Tezie Singh, came down 
and directed that they should be immediately made over to 
us." — Barr's Journal, pp. 121, 122. 


is noted for the manufacture of the common 
swords of the country, matchlocks, daggers, &c. 
Here is the tomb of Dowla Shah, a saint who 
is highly respected in the Panjab. It is super- 
stitiously visited by barren women, who, if 
they afterwards bear children, bring their first- 
born to the shrine of the saint, who are called 
chuhas. I saw some of them thus presented. 
The principal road to Kashmir branches off 
from this place. 

Halted three days also at Gujrat, and started 
on the 29th, and stopped at the Sarae of Kha- 
waspura, distant ten kos : road fair but rather 
heavy when passing over the beds of two or 
three mountainous streams. No mark of cul- 
tivation was observed on either side of the 
road, but bushes and Dakh jungle were only to 
be seen. Numbers of cows and buffaloes were 
grazing about, from which it appears that there 
is abundance of pasturage for cattle. From 
this place there are three roads to Jehlam ; one 
of these goes via Kharian over a low range of 
sand-hills which is impracticable for hackeries 
and guns, but might be made otherwise by a 


64 DINGA. 

little labour. The other two lie along the sides 
of the ridge, one by Dheri on the right, and 
the other by Dinga on the left : the difference 
in these two routes and the other is ten miles. 
The guns and wheel-carriages accompanying 
the mission separating here, started by Dinga, 
while the whole party passed on by Kharian.* 

* "The direct road to Peshawr being impracticable for 
guns, on account of the steepness of some ghats that cross 
a low range of mountains, extending through the country, 
almost parallel with, and not very far distant from, the 
river Jhelum ; we were obliged to take a more circuitous 
route, which will eventually bring us to a lower ridge, 
where the hills are more undulating and less precipitous. 
Midway we came to a ' baoli/ t or covered well — one of 
those constructions that do honour to the pious feelings of 
individuals who have been thus led to bestow their wealth 
for the general benefit of their fellow creatures : the weary 
find repose under its arches and refreshment in its waters. 
In a few minutes we resumed our journey, and after a 
march of twenty- three miles eventually reached the long- 
wished for town of Dinga. 

" As we approached it, our attention was called to a small 
crowd, principally of women and children ; and on riding 
up to see the cause of their assembling, perceived in the 
midst of them a man stretched on the ground at full length, 
who had, half an hour before, been deprived of both his 
hands, as a punishment for the crime of stealing. A few 
quiverings about the muscles of his legs were all that 


Kliawaspura is a small village inhabited 
within the Sarae, after which name it is 
called : the wall round it is Pucka, or uf burnt 
bricks, but is now going to decay. The en- 
camping ground was north-west, on a broken 
and confined spot ; good shooting in a low and 
stunted jungle close by. There is only one well 
at the place : the water used was from a spring. 

During the reign of Akbar these great Saraes 
were built at a distance of six or seven kos 
from each other between Agra and the Indus for 
the accommodation of travellers : Saraes were 
likewise erected at the same time on the road 
to Kashmir ; they are now declining to ruin. 

Started early on the 30th and encamped 
at Kharian, a small village. The road tole- 
rable, encamping ground irregular. There 
are two large wells, and the deepest Baolee I 

betokened he still existed ; but he was insensible, and no 
wonder, as he had bled profusely, and he was thus being 
inhumanly left to perish, as no one dared to assist him. 
The block, a rude piece of wood, was lying by his side ; 
but the hands had been carried off for the purpose of being 
exposed near the spot where he had committed the depre- 
dation." — Barr y s Journal, pp. 148, 150, 151. 


ever saw, the water of which is brackish. They 
are in good repair ; one of them is descended 
by a flight of 114 steps : they appear of very 
old standing, and perhaps were sunk at the 
time when the Sarae of Kharian, of which no 
mark is to be traced at present, was built. 
Water was obtained from a dirty muddy pond 
at hand, but drunk in preference to that of the 
Baolee. Supplies were procured with difficulty. 
3 1st. — Marched at the usual time. At about 
one and a-half kos we ascended the ridge to 
which I have alluded. The ascent was not diffi- 
cult, the horses and camels easily passed over it ; 
but the road is in some parts very narrow and 
rugged. The ridge extends four kos in breadth, 
and about fourteen kos in length. Midway 
there is a pool of water, where kqfilas* used to 
assemble and then to proceed together ; other- 
wise travellers, especially the Sikhs, were plun- 
dered and killed by the neighbouring highway 
robbers : the road is now quite safe. On the 
bank of this pool there is a Hindu Sheowala, 
where such eatables as parched grain, &c, can 

* Caravans. 


be had. Proceeding four or five miles farther 
we encamped to-day at Aurangabad, a village 
surrounded by a high wall. No supplies pro- 
curable at the place itself, but being situated 
about two miles from Jehlam, they can always 
be obtained from thence. Water near, but 
though sweet to the taste, it is very unwhole- 
some. It should be brought from the river 
Jehlam, though some distance off. 

On the way to camp we heard the sad news 
of General Allard's death a few days ago at 
Peshawr, and that his body had been em- 
balmed, and was to be conveyed for burial to 
Lahore. He is deeply regretted, particularly 
by the troops under his command, with whom 
he was very popular, and a favourite also with 
the Maharaja. His manners were mild and 
courteous, and gained on every one who asso- 
ciated with him. It is said that he died of an 
affection of the heart, and was seven days con- 
fined to his bed. 

We halted eighteen days in this vicinity, 
ten at Aurangabad, and seven at the ferry. 
While at the former, the arrival of the late 


General Allard's corpse having been an- 
nounced, Sir Claude Wade directed a street to 
be formed by the troops in camp, along which 
the bier was conducted. It was received and 
saluted with great ceremony. On the coffin 
were placed the decorations of honour worn bv 
the General. Every heart throbbed with sincere 
grief as his remains, escorted b} r a party of the 
French Legion, passed through our camp.* 

Our delay here was owing to two reasons : 
one was that the grand army was delayed in 
Sindh, and no correct information was yet 
received of the settlement of affairs in that 
country : the other was, the vague reports 

* " The salute we heard as we approached Lahore were 
minute guns firing in honour of General Allard, who 
lately died at Peshawr, and whose body had been brought 
to the capital for interment ; it had this morning been 
removed from his house at Anarcolly to his country resi- 
dence in the neighbourhood, where it will remain until a 
suitable grave can be prepared for its reception. On the 
occasion six regiments of the Maharaja's were paraded for 
the purpose of paying respect to the memory of the de- 
ceased, who was beloved both by Natives and Europeans, 
and whose death has cast a gloom over the city." — Barrs 
Journal, pp. 72, 73. 


which were spread regarding the dangerous 
state of Ranjeet Singh's health, which was 
a subject of much anxiety to us, as on the 
exercise of his own exertions and authority 
the success of our part of the enterprise greatly 

Our time was employed in introducing order 
among the various parties in camp, that each 
might know its place in marching and halting, 
and we might maintain our credit for disci- 
pline. The different bands of Afghans on foot 
who had joined the Shah Zada being now about 
three hundred men, were divided by the Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel into two parties, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenants (now Captains) Dowson 
and Hillersdon, two young British officers who 
were attached to the Mission, and ordered to 
proceed in advance to Peshawr, and complete 
their levies to eight Tomans or companies, from 
the Afghans who had joined Mr. Lord* at that 

* Mr. Lord had been the medical officer with Sir Alex- 
ander Burnes in his mission to Kabul ; and the following 
memoir, which appeared in the ' Athenaeum ' of the 10th 


Shah Zada Yehya, one of the Saddozai 
family, who was settled at Kabul, having been 

of April, 1844, gives an interesting account of his services 
and death : — 

" Asiatic Society. 

"March 20. 
" Professor Wilson in the Chair. 

' * The honorary Secretary read a Memoir of the late Dr. 
Lord, whose early death in the late Afghan struggle has 
been equally lamented by his friends, and regretted by the 
service to which he belonged, and where his talents were 
so beneficially exerted. The writer of the Memoir, Dr. 
Taylor, a member of the Society, who was an early and 
intimate friend of Dr. Lord, states that that gentleman, 
during his journeys in Central Asia, had made a regular 
series of valuable observations, which it was his intention 
to send to the Royal Asiatic Society for publication at the 
close of the war ; and it is hoped that they may yet be 
recovered. The particulars of Dr. Lord's early life, and 
his connexion with the ' Athenaeum,' were given in our 
hasty tribute to his memory (No. 689). In the latter part 
of the year 1836, Dr. Lord sailed for India as assistant 
surgeon in the service of the East India Company, and 
arrived at Bombay in June, 1837. He was soon after ap- 
pointed to the Native cavalry in Gujrat ; and, when 
there, was selected to proceed to a district beyond the 
British frontier, where the plague was raging, in order to 
report on the disease. He had actually departed on his 
mission when he was recalled, in order to go to Kabul, as 
surgeon to the embassy, which was about to set out under 
Sir Alexander Burnes. At Kabul he won the friendship 


turned out of that place by Dost Mahomed 
Khan, joined Shah Zada Taimur to-day with 

of Dost Mahomed Khan, and other Afghan chiefs ; and 
his fame reached the ears of the too well known Murad 
Beg, the dreaded Amir of Kunduz, who sent a mission to 
request his attendance on his brother, then threatened with 
blindness. Such an opportunity of gaining information 
respecting the political condition of the Uzbeks was not 
neglected ; and Dr. Lord, about the end of November, 
1837, penetrated into Tartary through the mountains of 
Hindu Kush. He found the case of Murad Beg's brother 
hopeless ; and soon after prepared to return, but not 
before he had found time to make a number of valuable 
observations, which he embodied in a report to the Govern- 
ment. The report met with the highest approbation ; and 
the writer was in consequence named Political Assistant to 
the Envoy sent to the king of Kabul ; and was intrusted to 
raise all the well affected subjects of Shah Shuja, near 
Peshawr. He was there, as he says in a letter to his 
mother, ' busied in casting cannon, forging muskets, 
raising troops, horse and foot, talking, persuading, threat- 
ening, bullying, and bribing.' In the three days' fighting 
at the Khaibar Pass, Dr. Lord acted as aide-de-camp to 
Colonel Wade, and received the public thanks of the 
Governor-General for his conduct on the occasion. Soon 
after this Dr. Lord was sent to Bamian to superintend the 
negotiations with the states of Turkestan ; his energy and 
prudence were crowned with success ; and the result of 
the mission was, that he got in the whole family of the 
ex-chief of Kabul, and conciliated all the Uzbek states as 
far as the Oxus. The personal acquaintance of Dr. Lord 


his family. Other Afghans are also arriving 
daily, and joining the camp. The Khawanin, 
who had quitted Sultan Mahomed Khan and 
joined the Shah Zada's camp at Lahore, re- 
ported that the Sirdar, to retaliate on them, 
had seized their property, and put their fami- 
lies within his jurisdiction into confinement. 
As such a circumstance was likely to discourage 
other Afghans from joining the Shah Zada, 
and to defeat the object in view, prompt 
notice was taken of the subject by Sir Claude 
in an expostulatory letter to Ranjeet Singh, 

with Dost Mahomed Khan led to his accompanying the 
military division which was sent to intercept that chief, as it 
was probable that his surrender might be facilitated through 
his agency ; but it was, unhappily, the circumstance which 
led to his own death, which, with that of nearly all the 
officers of the troop, ensued upon the disgraceful flight of 
our cavalry. The subject has been already too often before 
the public to need repetition. Dr. Lord was spurring 
across the field to join a party which seemed to evince a 
better spirit, when he fell, pierced by more than a dozen 
balls. His death was instantaneous. The reading of the 
Memoir was followed by an extract of a letter from Sir 
Alexander Burnes, declaring the regret of the Indian 
Government at the loss of so zealous and able a servant ; 
and expressing his own sorrow at the deprivation of so 
dear a friend." 


suggesting the expediency of immediate re- 
dress being given to the complainants, and 
some security being taken for the future good 
and faithful conduct of his Barakzai feudatories 
towards the Shah in the present expedition. 

In the meantime letters were addressed to 
all the Khaibar and other chiefs, intimating 
the approach of the Shah Zada, and inviting 
them to join him on his arrival at Peshawr. 

A letter was also addressed to Ranjeet Singh, 
informing him of the receipt of intelligence 
that Dost Mahomed Khan was highly dis- 
tracted on hearing the news of the armies of 
the two states being on their way against him 
in opposite directions, and that he was regret- 
ting the opportunity he had lost, of securing 
the friendship of the British Government 
through Sir Alexander Burnes. In the same 
letter his Highness was requested to furnish a 
copy of the Tripartite Treaty to his officers at 
Peshawr, that they might be aware of its 
terms, and co-operate with Sir Claude Wade 
accordingly. Another letter was written to 
the Maharaja on the 15th instant, request- 


ing him to issue orders to his officers at 
Peshawr, to place a battalion of his regular 
infantry, with two pieces of artillery, at our 
disposal on the Shah Zada's arrival at Pesh- 
awr, as the escort now accompanying him 
would not be sufficient for the protection of 
the encampment in that advanced position near 
the enemy's frontier, and when it would be 
increased by many new followers. 

Mr. Reid, our medical officer, started from 
camp to examine the salt mines which are 
visible from this place. I had seen them in our 
mission to his Highness in 1832. They are very 
curious, and yield a large revenue to Ranjeet 
Singh, which is managed by Raja Golab Singh. 

( 75 ) 

Chapter VII. 

The Jammoo family — Horrible treachery perpetrated by 
them — They found a town — They increase in wealth 
and power — Another dreadful tragedy — Various chiefs 
of this family — Rise of the Sikhs — Youth of Ranjeet 
Singh — Anarchy— Ranjeet annexes Jammoo to his do- 
minions — Rapid rise of Golab Singh — Raja Sultan Khan 
— Conquest of Kashmir — Jaghirs. 

The tradition is that there were two brothers 
of the Surajbansi tribe of Rajputs. They 
having been actuated by a desire to travel and 
to lay the foundation of a town, and thus to 
raise their name in the world, left the Dekhan, 
their native country, in the disguise of Ka- 
landers, a kind of monk ; and having tra- 
velled throughout the country, acquired some 
knowledge of its affairs. When they reached 
the spot where the town of Jammoo now 
stands, they fixed their dwelling there. In 
the mean time a person of the Brahman caste 
also happened to be there, and inquired after 
the strangers. As a long experience of the 
world had matured their minds, they did not 

e 2 


let him into their secret, but, on the contrary, 
asked him the reason of his coming. The 
Brahman simply stated that this spot (at that 
time called Chak), being very inaccessible, 
populous, and well fortified, had attracted 
the notice of an individual of the tribe of 
Mukta; that, having assembled his relatives 
and family, he occupied the place and en- 
closed their houses ; that in a short time 
they grew rich and powerful by plundering 
the neighbouring people ; that although they 
were bravely chased and pursued by large 
parties, yet, owing to the inaccessibility of their 
station, none of them could overcome them, 
and were put to flight or killed in the attempt ; 
that in this manner the prosperity of these 
bandits had greatly arisen, and the Brahman 
continued to live among them. 

One day the above two brothers observed 
that a lion, a wolf, and a goat were drinking 
water together at the same spot, from which 
circumstance they augured it to be an auspi- 
cious ground. In consequence they were re- 
solved to build a town there, and with this 


view promoted their friendly relations with the 
Brahman. Night and day they used to sit to- 
gether in company of each other. A rumour 
of their pious and religious character was 
spread among the people of every rank, low 
and high. Every one used to assemble at 
their place night and day to listen to their 
lectures and to receive their blessings. A long 
time elapsed in this way. The people placed 
great confidence in them, and none swerved 
from their command. One day the two bro- 
thers held a council with the nobles of the 
country, and asked them, as they had long 
remained under their protection, that they 
would accept their invitation to dine with 
them at night, which was accepted without 
objection ; the two brothers prepared every 
kind of eatables and drinkables, and mixed 
poison in everything. At the appointed time 
the whole party assembled, and voraciously set 
to eat, while the hosts only attended to the wants 
of the party. No sooner had they done with 
their dinner than every one of them expired. 
When the two Rajputs had established them- 


selves on the spot, they set about building a 
town (the town of Jammoo), and adopted the 
predatory habits of the people. In a few days 
the fame of their bravery and courage was 
spread throughout the country. At length 
one of the brothers settled in the fort of Mahu 
and the other that of Jammoo. They had 
five sons, the elder one of whom was married 
in the family of Kirthu, the head Zamindar of 
Samba. The second was married at Jasrota, 
the third at Mankot, the fourth at Aknur, and 
the fifth at Shujanpore. As avarice generally 
follows on the heels of riches, no sooner, there- 
fore, had they found, themselves in affluent cir- 
cumstances, than they aspired to deprive their 
neighbours of their property. With that view 
one day the brother who lived at Jasrota called 
on his brother settled at Samba. The wife of 
the latter brother, out of modesty, shrunk 
under the cot of her husband. As soon as the 
two brothers joined together, they concerted 
measures to exterminate the principal persons 
of the village of Samba. The wife having 
heard all that had transpired on the occasion, 


her husband, out of fear of the discovery of 
their plot, killed her on the spot by running 
a knife through her belly, and immediately 
transported the corpse of the deceased to 
Jammoo. One day they invited all the prin- 
cipal individuals of Samba to an entertainment, 
and with the usual treachery practised by their 
forefathers, destroyed them all the same day 
by means of poison, and took possession of 
everything they had. In the same manner 
every one of the five brothers, by means of 
gross intrigues, exterminated the chief persons 
of their respective villages and possessed their 
property. They continued to exercise similar 
tricks for a long time, and generation after 
generation, in order to raise their influence, 
till at last Raja Hari Das was born in their 
family. He was a very ambitious and enter- 
prising individual. His first object was to ex- 
tend the territory which he inherited from his 
forefathers, and he executed his design without 
any apparent resistance. He occupied the 
whole country belonging to his neighbours. 
As he became a man of consequence, he pre- 


sented himself before the Mogul Emperor at 
Delhi, where he was treated with considera- 
tion and distinction. He assisted the Em- 
peror in his expedition against the Dekhan, on 
which occasion he was killed by a sabre-cut. 

Hari Das was succeeded by Raja Kaji Singh, 
his son. This Raja was famed for his justice 
and equity. No event worthy of mention in 
his life is on record. After his demise he 
was followed by Raja Dharabdeo, who soon 
added Jammoo and other places in its neigh- 
bourhood to his territory, and raised his 
name by making wars with distant and neigh- 
bouring chiefs. He is known for his attach- 
ment and obedience to the Mogul Emperor. 
He had four well qualified sons, named Ranjeet 
Deo, Ghansam Deo, Surat Singh, and Bal- 
want Singh. 

On his death he was succeeded by his elder 
son Ranjeet Deo. He was an ambitious and 
fortunate chief. He succeeded in 1730, and 
ruled for fifty-four years. He first directed 
his attention to the extension of his territory. 
Four great neighbouring chiefs were entirely 


reduced to subjection, and several others made 
tributary to his authority, viz., Amrit Pal of 
Basoli, Dia Pal of Bhadarwal, Azmet Deo of 
Mankot, Saved ulla Singh and Karm-ulla Singh 
of Kishtwar,* The daily rising power of Ran- 
jeet Deo alarmed the Mogul Emperor. In 
consequence, Khan Bahadar Khan, the Suba 
of Lahore, was ordered to proceed against him, 
and to seize and to remove him to the court. 
Accordingly Khan Bahadar Khan, with a con- 
siderable army, proceeded to Jammoo, and 
succeeded, without opposition, in apprehending 
the Raja, and transported him to Lahore, 
where he was confined for twelve years. 
Afterwards, on the payment of a ransom of 
two lakhs of rupees, he was released on the 
recommendation of Adina Beg Khan, the 
Governor of Jalendar, and was sent back to 
Jammoo, accompanied by Hakeem Khodabaksh 
Khan, the ancestor of Faqir Azizuddin. The 

* The chiefs of Kishtwar and other petty states in that 
quarter were Hindus converted to Mahomedanism by 
Aurangzeb, and indiscriminately retain the names and 
titles of both sects. 

E 3 


Hakeem, after realizing one-half of the tribute 
settled on Ranjeet Deo, went to Lahore. 

Soon after the release of Ranjeet Deo, Ahmed 
Shah Durrani invaded India, when the former, 
who had resisted the invader, fell into the 
hands of the Afghans, and was again sent to 
Lahore, and confined there. During his con- 
finement, Ratan Deo, one of the Jammoo family, 
who had gone for service to the Dekhan, having 
given some offence to his employer, took flight, 
and availed himself of the absence of Ranjeet 
Deo to declare Ghana Deo, his younger bro- 
ther, the nominal ruler of Jammoo, on the con- 
dition that he would not make use of his claim 
to govern the country. Shahwali Khan, the 
Prime Minister of Ahmed Shah, reported the 
affair to His Majesty, and recommended that, as 
the territory of Ranjeet Deo had been usurped, 
there was no use in keeping him any longer 
confined. The Shah ordered the prisoner not 
only to be set at liberty, but to be honoured 
with a Khilat, and to be restored to authority. 

A large army was despatched to assist Ran- 
jeet Deo in that object. When he appeared on 


the frontier of his country, he was attacked at 
night by the enemy at the head of a large 
party of Rajputs, whom Ratan Deo had col- 
lected from the neighbouring hills ; but not 
being able to maintain a contest with the royal 
troops, he was repulsed with severe loss, and 
obliged to submit. Ranjeet Deo was reinstated 
in the chiefship of Jammoo, in return for which 
he paid a Nazarana of three lakhs of rupees 
to Shahwali Khan, who withdrew to Lahore. 

On the return of Ahmed Shah to Kabul, 
revolts and insurrections broke out in nearly 
every part of the Panjab, and almost each town 
and district owned a separate and independent 
chief, who defied the power of the Durrani mo- 
narchy, and thought only of ruling for him- 
self. Every one began to aspire to his neigh- 
bour's possessions : among others, Ranjeet Deo 
sent a large force, headed by Ratan Deo, to 
attack the territory of Raja Karm Chand, 
the grandfather of Rajah Sansar Chand Ka- 
toch. Many of the petty chiefs on the road by 
which the army advanced acknowledged his 
authority without offering any obstacle to the 


progress of the expedition. On its approach to 
Nadon it was bravely opposed by Raja Karm 
Chand, and a battle ensued between the two 
parties, in which the Katoch chief was defeated 
with great loss, and obliged to sue for peace. 
He agreed that his son, Mian Teij Singh, 
should remain a hostage with Ranjeet Deo, and 
that he would pay the latter an annual contri- 
bution of one lakh and ninety thousand rupees. 
Ranjeet Deo died after a long reign, and in 
addition to his original territory, acquired pos- 
session of the following places: — 

Shakargarh, formerly called Dialgarh, 
Kabula, Parwal, 

Shahpore, Chanda Majra, 

Bura Dulla, Andarwah, 

Dousal, Chakana, 

Aknur, Balwath, 

Kot Bhalowal, Jankawan. 

It was during the lifetime of Ranjeet Deo 
that the Sikhs, particularly those of the Bhangi 
confederacy, were daily rising to importance, 
and became an object of alarm to their neigh- 


bours. Fearful of their power, the Jammoo 
chief sought the means of securing his ter- 
ritory from their constant inroads, and con- 
sented to pay them a Nazarana. The fate of 
Jammoo from that date has been dependent on 
the dominion of the Sikhs. 

After effecting a settlement of their demands 
with Ranjeet Deo, the Bhangis directed their 
attention chiefly to the conquest of the country 
about Lahore ; while Mahan Singh, the father 
of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh, whose possessions 
were contiguous to Jammoo, commenced 
making depredations on that territory, and com- 
pelled its chief to give him a contribution also. 

In the year 1794 Ranjeet Deo died, and was 
succeeded by his son Birjraj Deo. He reigned 
twenty years, the greater part of which he 
spent in fighting with the Sikhs, and is repre- 
sented to have been a brave and enterprising 
leader. In the beginning of his reign he was 
harassed and annoyed, not only by Maha 
Singh's incursions, but by Haqiqat Singh, 
who attacked him on the side of Zafarwal and 
Chapral, near Sialkot, and where Ranjeet Deo 


had built a fort called after his own name, 
Ranjeet Garh ; but he soon secured the alliance 
of both parties, by paying a Nazarana of 60,000 
rupees to one, and by exchanging turbans 
with the other. The above two chiefs a«;ain 
combined, however, to ravage the Jammoo ter- 
ritory, and Birjraj Deo adopted every means 
in his power to thwart their design. A battle 
was fought between them, in which the Jammoo 
chief was discomfited, and the city fell into the 
hands of the Sikhs. The victors occupied and 
abandoned it to the fury and rapacity of their 
followers ; and the booty which was captured 
by the Sikhs on that occasion is said to have 
been immense. 

The city of Amritsir had not then attained 
an equally flourishing condition with that of 
Jammoo ; and its wealth, and a jealousy of its 
rising prosperity, had long been viewed with 
jealousy by the Sikhs, which induced them to 
remain there for some months, during which the 
place was completely plundered and ransacked. 

Haqiqat Singh was obliged to hasten back 
from Jammoo immediately to the relief of Amr 


Singh Bhaaga, who was besieged and reduced 
to the last extremity by his Sikh rivals, Jai 
Singh and Gorbakhsh Singh. He attacked 
the besiegers; and after compelling them to 
raise the siege and retire, and restoring order 
in the territory of Amr Singh, retraced his 
steps to Jam moo, where he soon afterwards died. 
The demise of Haqiqat Singh may be said to 
have left Maha Singh the sole master of 
Jammoo; but some time afterwards he restored 
it to Birjraj Deo, on the stipulation of an 
annual tribute. 

Birjraj Deo left a son named Sapuran Singh, 
then very young, who was declared the suc- 
cessor of his father at Jasrota, where all the 
neighbouring chiefs assembled to acknowledge 
his title. 

After the death of Maha Singh, a Sikh chief 
of note, named Dal Singh, who was in the ser- 
vice of the former, is said to have instigated the 
present ruler of the Panjab, then about the 
same age as Sapuran Singh, to take advantage 
of that youth's infancy and conquer his coun- 
try. The Maharaja proceeded to execute the 


design ; when Mian Mota, the regent or mi- 
nister of Sapuran Singh, proceeded to meet 
Ranjeet Singh with his master, and readily 
submitted to his authority. The two youths, 
viz., Ranjeet Singh and Sapuran Singh, 
no sooner met than they began to play with 
each other. During the sport, Ranjeet Singh 
is said to have pulled off the cap of the other, 
who retaliated the treatment of his young host 
by taking his turban off his head also, which 
caused a quarrel between them : but the pre- 
ceptors of each party interfered, and reconciled 
them to each other by an exchange of turbans ; 
after which they retired to their respective 

Sapuran Singh had but a very short reign : 
he was attacked by the small-pox about two 
years after his accession, and died of that 
disease. Having left no direct descendants to 
succeed him, on his death a contest for power 
ensued, which continued for a long time to 
distract and ruin the affairs of the principality. 
The officers of which, seeing that the country 
could not be preserved in their hands, thought 


it advisable to declare Cheit Singh, the son of 
Dalel Singh, and the nephew of Ranjeet Deo, 
the successor. In the anarchy that had pre- 
vailed, many of the conquests made by Ranjeet 
Deo were lost. 

The first act of Cheit Singh's government 
was to murder Teij Singh, who, during the 
reign of Birjraj Deo, had been incited by Mian 
Mota, the late regent of the family, to put to 
death Dalel Singh, the father of Cheit Singh, 
from a fear of whose vengeance the Mian him- 
self took refuge in the Chakanah, a strong 
country near Jammoo, from which he was 
in the habit of making irruptions, and using 
every effort in his power to devastate that 

In these domestic dissensions and disputes, 
Ranjeet Singh saw an opportunity of taking 
entire possession of Jammoo and of adding it to 
his own territory. Accordingly in the year 
1808, he sent a party of his troops and occu- 
pied the place, conferring a Jaghir, only ade- 
quate to his subsistence, on Cheit Singh, during 
his life. 


The late Ranjeet Deo had two brothers named 
Surat Singh and Balwant Singh, the former 
of whom had four sons, namely, Zorawar Singh, 
Mian Ditta, Mian Mota, and Mian Bhopa. 
From Zorowar Singh descended Kishora Singh, 
and from him Golab Singh, Dhian Singh, and 
Seocheit Singh, the three brothers now in the 
service of Maharajah Ranjeet Singh. 

On the death of Cheit Singh, he also left 
three sons, named Rakhar Deo, Devi Singh, and 
Bir Singh, who, when young, were taken by 
their mother to the left bank of the Satledge, 
on which side of the river they still reside near 
a place called Ganguwala, in the hills. One 
of them, Devi Singh, presented himself at one 
time before the Maharaja and entered his ser- 
vice ; but one day, in the presence of his 
Highness, he said something offensive to the 
other members of the family, on which ac- 
count, Raja Seocheit Singh treated him with 
such indignity, that, from a dread of losing his 
life, he recrossed the Satledge, and has never 
appeared at court since. 

The rise of the present possessors of Jammoo 


at the court of Lahore may be traced to the 
time of Mian Mota. During the lifetime of 
that chief, the Maharaja assigned in jaghir to 
Sirdar Hukma Singh Chimni the territory 
lying in the vicinity of Jammoo. Having pos- 
sessed himself of it, the Sirdar aspired to 
add Jammoo also to his acquisitions. With that 
view he collected a large force, and proceeded 
against the place. Mian Mota, who had been 
allowed to retain the country by the ruler of 
Lahore, prepared to oppose the invasion. A 
great part of his troops consisted of the native 
Rajputs. Mian Golab Singh and Dhian Singh, 
together with their father, Kishora Singh, were 
also among the number. These men with a 
trusty band of their own followers were ap- 
pointed to protect one of the gateways of the 
city named Goendwala. No sooner had 
Hukma Singh appeared before the place than 
he encountered a warm reception. Both par- 
ties fought desperately. At length the assail- 
ants were defeated and obliged to take flight. 
In the course of this action, Golab Singh was 
distinguished for his energy and bravery, and 


soon afterwards, Mian Mota being summoned 
to the court, Golab Singh accompanied him 
there. One day, in speaking of the battle, the 
courage displayed by Golab Singh was the 
universal theme of admiration. The Maha- 
raja immediately sent for Golab Singh to his 
presence ; and being as young and active as he 
was brave, he entertained him in his service 
among the Ghorcheras on a salary of two 
rupees a day, in which situation he remained 
for three years. 

In the meantime, a person named Sathru 
assassinated Mian Mota, the patron of Golab 
Singh. After the commission of the act, the 
assassin came to Lahore and entered the ser- 
vice of Kour Kharak Singh, which exasperated 
Golab Singh, who meeting with Sathru in one 
of his rides, resented the murder of his patron 
by shooting Sathru to death, and sought safety 
with Jemadar Khoshal Singh, who at that 
period stood very high in the favour of Ranjeet 
Singh. The case was reported to the Maha- 
raja ; who, after inquiring into the facts, sent 
for Golab Singh and pardoned him, without 


remorse for the crime which he had perpetrated. 
About the same time, his Highness placed 
Golab Singh in charge of a party of sixty 
Sowars, and gave him the district Nihal in 
jaghir, yielding a revenue of 1*2,000 rupees, in 
lieu of which he was bound to furnish fifty 
additional Sowars. His influence was rising, 
and he met with rapid promotion. Dhian 
Singh, his younger brother, who was also 
engaged in the immediate service of the Maha- 
raja, now began to attract the favour of his 
Highness. At the age of fifteen he was charged 
with the Deodhee, and in the same year Rajah 
Seocheit Singh, the youngest of the three bro- 
thers, who was then quite a boy, also attended 
the court, where his engaging qualities likewise 
met with particular favour from the Maha- 
raja, who became so fond of him that he 
would never allow him to be absent from 
his presence. Dhian Singh received a jaghir 
of 2000 rupees before he had been a year at 

At that period the three brothers were known 
by the title of Mians : but Golab Singh being 


constantly absent, either on duty with the 
troops of the Maharajah on their foreign ex- 
peditions or at his home, was little seen or 
known at court 

In the year 1816, Mian Kishora Singh, the 
father of Dhian Singh, was raised by the Sikh 
chieftain to the Raj of Jam moo when the ad- 
ministration of the place was conducted by 
Golab Singh, who, shortly after that event, re- 
ported to the Maharaja that he had attacked 
and killed Mian Didoo, one of the same family, 
who had for a long time past been leading a 
predatory and independent life, and exciting 
disturbances in the country near Jammoo. To 
mark his approbation of Golab Singh's conduct 
on that occasion, the Maharaja was pleased 
to confer on him another jaghir of 12,000 
rupees, besides other honorary distinctions ; 
but his attendance at court was merely con- 
fined to the festivals of the Bisakhi Maghi 
and the Desahira, when he received the usual 
Khilats and returned to Jammoo. 

Mian Kishora Singh, who though not con- 
sidered the rightful heir, was called by his 


subjects Raja, having died, Ranjeet Singh, 
at the request of his favourites, the sons of the 
deceased, proceeded towards Jammoo to per- 
form the rites of condolence. On that occasion 
he invested them with Khilats, in return for 
which proof of his consideration his Highness 
demanded a Nazarana from them ; and the 
three brothers exerted themselves to satisfy the 

While at Jammoo, Ranjeet Singh conferred 
the title of the Raja of Jammoo on Golab Singh, 
and that of Bhadarwal on Seocheit Singh, his 

In the year 1828, on the festival of the 
Bisakhi, Mian Dhian Singh, who now became 
a great favourite with the Maharaja, received 
the title of Raja of Bhimber, which place had 
been seized from Sultan Khan. 

The ceremony was performed with great 
state ; and to mark the estimation in which 
Ranjeet Singh held him, he added to it the title 
of Raja of Rajas, directed the officers of his 
court to present Nazars to him, and to regard 
the newly created Raja as his principal mi- 


nister; while a proclamation was issued, that 
if any one in future called him Mian he should 
be fined 1000 rupees, and that if not a public 
servant, he should lose his nose and ears. 

Raja Sultan Khan of Bhimber was a brave 
man and a good soldier. On the occasion when 
Ranjeet Singh occupied the territory of Saheb 
Singh, which consisted of Gujrat, &c, he 
summoned also the Bhimber chief to attend the 
court. As a close intimacy existed between him 
and the late ruler of Gujrat, he refused to com- 
ply with his Highness's order for fear of being 
taken prisoner ; the Maharaja was offended at 
the refusal, and despatched two battalions under 
the command of Faqir Azizuddin, against 
Mangladour. Sultan Khan attacked them un- 
awares, and cut down about six hundred men 
of the Faqir's party, the rest of whom sought 
safety in immediate retreat. This failure in- 
flamed the fury of Ranjeet Singh : Diwan Mho- 
kem Chand was then sent with a larger and 
fresh force : still Sultan Khan made prepara- 
tions to give a warm reception to his enemies. 
The Diwan, foreseeing that he would not be 


able to compel the hill chief by the force of 
arms, spread the net of intrigues ; and with 
this view made overtures of peace. The simple 
chief was deceived, and induced to accompany 
the Diwan to the court, where he was received 
at first with distinction. His Highness seated 
him on a chair, made him a Sirwarna* of hun- 
dreds of rupees ; besides which he granted 
him an elephant with a silver howda, and a 
horse with a golden saddle, and recalled the 
troops which were sent against his territory. 
When the safe return of his troops was re- 
ported, the Maharaja again called him to the 
Darbar ; and, considering him a dangerous 
character, ordered him to be apprehended and 
confined, where he remained six years. Rhia 
Ram Singh, a native of India, commanding the 
troops of Kour Kharak Singh, was sent to 
introduce his Highness's authority 'in his ter- 
ritory. No sooner had he accomplished this 
object than the Bhia began to make irruptions 
into the Rajouree territory. At this time, Ata 

* An offering of money to an honoured friend or relative 
to be distributed in alms. 


Mahomed Khan being the ruler of Kashmir 
sent his troops to assist Agar Khan the Raja 
of Rajouree on one hand, while Vazir Rohilla 
Khan, the Raja of Ponch, with all his available 
troops, proceeded to aid him on the other. A 
battle ensued between the two parties, in which 
the son of Rohilla was killed ; but victory re- 
mained undecided, and, in consequence, Ran- 
jeet Singh's troops returned to Lahore without 
success. Afterwards Agar Khan, foreseeing that 
he would at last fail, sent an agent to his 
Highness's court to acknowledge his obedience. 
The next year Bhia Ram Singh again attacked 
Rajouree. Agar Khan was unprepared to de- 
fend himself, and took flight. The Bhia set 
his seraglio on fire, and plundered and ravaged 
the city. Agar Khan sent back the treaty 
which was concluded last year between himself 
and his Highness, to say, that, by the conduct 
of the Bhia, it was annulled ; on which the 
Maharaja blamed his officer, and restored the 
chief to Rajouree, on condition that he would 
assist him to take Kashmir. 

His Highness now made preparation to 


conquer the valley of Kashmir ; and with this 
view sent a large army against that place. It 
was at that time governed by Azim Khan, who, 
on the approach of the Sikhs, by the advice of 
Agar Khan and Rohilla Khan, spread a rumour 
that Ranjeet Singh's advanced troops were 
defeated. This report raised the peasantry, 
who harassed the Sikh army so much that the 
Maharaja was obliged to return to Lahore. 
In their retreat they were attacked and 
plundered by Agar Khan and Rohilla Khan, 
through whose territories they passed. This 
treacherous conduct enraged the Maharaja to 
a high degree, and from the same moment he 
was determined to exterminate these two chiefs. 
Soon after he released Sultan Khan with this 
view ; and exacted a solemn engagement from 
him to assist the Maharaja in occupying 
Kashmir: and to remove the recollection of 
the distresses experienced by him during his 
confinement, he was now treated with the 
highest consideration and distinction. Ranjeet 
Singh then made preparations to renew his 
expedition against Kashmir. Misser Diwan 

f 2 


Chand, at the head of a large army, and in 
company of Sultan Khan, proceeded to his 
destination. During his progress towards 
Kashmir, the Diwan secured the alliance of 
all the hill chiefs, and among others that of 
Agar Khan, and held out to him assurances of 
pardon for his past conduct, and favour and 
consideration in future ; but Agar Khan, being 
sensible of the offence which he had given to 
the Sikhs in their last expedition, made his 
escape. At the recommendation of Diwan 
Chand, the Maharaja exalted RahmatullaKhan, 
his brother, to his musnad* on condition of 
aiding the Sikhs to conquer Kashmir. 

On the return of the army from the conquest 
of Kashmir, Sultan Khan was accordingly re- 
stored to a part of his territory ; while Rahmat- 
ulla Khan, the chief of Rajouree, who had been 
very useful to the Maharaja on that occasion, 
was assured by his Highness that, as long as 
he had a beard (holding it with his hand), he 
should continue in possession of his country 
without molestation. Hitherto Ranjeet Singh 
* Throne. 


adheres to his promise, notwithstanding that 
the Jam moo family have often proposed to 
assume his territory. 

Having failed in their object with the Ma- 
haraja, Raja Golab Singh tried to accom- 
plish it by other means. When he returned 
from the expedition against Sayed Ahmed, 
he brought Sultan Khan and Rahmatulla 
Khan, who had accompanied him to Jammoo, 
and detained them two months. During their 
detention they were treated with outward marks 
of consideration, while Golab Singh was se- 
cretly engaged in the design of seizing and 
confining them. He invited them to his house ; 
but Rahmatulla Khan, aware of the plot, went 
there without sitting down, and taking imme- 
diate leave of the Raja, returned to his camp, 
and escaped to Rajouree in safety. In the morn- 
ing, when Golab Singh went towards the tents 
of Rahmatulla Khan, he was vexed and disap- 
pointed that he had been foiled in his intention 
of seizing the chief. Sultan Khan was taken 
afterwards to the fort of Rhiasi, where he died 
last year. His property, and the little terri- 


tory which was left to him, were seized by the 
treacherous Raja, and his family removed to 

It has been stated that the Bhimber Raj 
was conferred on Dhian Singh ; and that 
the territory of Ponch is now in possession 
of Hira Singh. A jaghir of 2,000 rupees 
was afterwards settled on the late chief of 
that place, Sher Jung Khan, at the recom- 
mendation of Jemadar Khoshal Singh. But 
last year some of the servants of Raja Dhian 
Singh, on account of Sher Jung Khan running 
away with a woman of the district of Chapral, 
with whom he fell in love, having killed him, 
his jaghir was resumed by Dhian Singh. The 
murderer was also soon after killed by the ser- 
vants of Sher Jung Khan. No individual of any 
influence has been now left in the hills who can 
dispute the authority of the Jammoo family. 
One of the illegitimate sons of Sultan Khan is 
in the service of Ranjeet Singh, and is in the 
receipt of ten rupees a-day. He is under the 
command of Sirdar Lehna Singh, Majithia, 



Names of Places. 




Jummoo and fort of 


Taken from Rajah Cheit Singh 


in 1814. 



Ditto from Mian Anwer Singh, 
in 1814. 



Ditto from Dewan Singh in 1814. 

Bulwia Charia 


Ditto from Raja Cheit Singh, 
in 1814. 

Pooma . 


Ditto from Raja Soltan Khan, 
in 1823. 



Ditto from Raja Cheit Singh, in 

Yahdial . 


Ditto from Raja Cheit Singh, in 



Ditto from Dal Singh, in 1814. 

Hartal . 


Ditto from Mian Dewan Singh, 
in 1814. 

SeocheitGarh . 


Ditto by Golab Singh, from his 
brother, 1814. 



Ditto from Mian Alam Singh, in 

Ditto from Raja Tegh Chand, in 




Khera . 


Ditto from Mian Badun Singh, in 



Ditto from Mian Bahadur Chand, 
in 1824. 



Ditto from Namdar Khan, in 

Sad Garh 


Ditto from Fateh Singh, in 1815. 

Ram Garh 


Ditto from Raja of Kishtwar, in 

Ogaran . 


Ditto from Deo Chand, in 1824. 

Bahree . 


Ditto from Dial Singh China, in 



Ditto from Raja Cheit Singh, in 

Dehra Baba Nanak . 


Ditto from Baba Fateh Singh, in 

Lala Chobarah 


Ditto from Bhag Hulo-Singh 
Holsuwalia, 1824. 

Arz Garh • 


Ditto from Mian Dewan Singh, 
in 1824. 

Deo Lasia 


Ditto from Raten Deo, in 1824. 

Chetor Garh . 




Ditto from Deal Singh Chini- 
wala, in 1840. 

Total Rupees . 




List of Jaghirs held by Raja Dhian Singh, showing the Amount of 
each District. 


Names of Places. 



Jhapal .... 


Taken ! 

from Rajah Sultan 


in 1824. 

Kotli .... 





Mangla Deo 

28,681 14 









Noshehrah . 

15,304 7 





Khoma .... 

11,892 11 





Walabal. . . . 





Aman Garh 

18,923 1 




Jaghir Shahbaz 

9,965 1 




Hawaii .... 


Taken from Rohilla Khan 

in 1824. 

Mondi .... 

28,281 15 




Sobun .... 

21,442 2 




Bhairam Girda 

3,768 3 




TatDers . . . 

4,751 6 





Poneh .... 

7,642 8 










4,181 12 




Hira Garh . 





Pattan .... 





Mandahar . 

22,853 10 




Golab Garh . . 











Emnabad . 


Taken from the wife of Bhag 


in 1837. 

Mindki .... 





Euosuf Garh . 

3, 00 



















Makanpore . . 






Total Rupees . 

291,112 12 



Raja Socheit Singh. 


Names of Districts. 



Bandralta .... 


Taken from Raja Bhopdeo in 

Janganu .... 


Ditto from Raja Cheit Singh of 
Jammoo, and given to Seocheit 
Singh in 1830. 

Mankot .... 


Ditto from Raja Tori Singh, 
and given to Seocheit Singh 
in 1834. 

Phidoo .... 


Ditto from Raja Abhar Singh, 
and given to Seocheit Singh in 

Adhar Sabar . . 


Ditto ditto ditto. 

Khok . ... 


Ditto ditto ditto. 

Darekdul Kala . 


Ditto ditto ditto. 

Sandri Kot . . 


Ditto ditto ditto. 



Taken from Ram Singh,and given 
to Seocheit Singh in 1832. 

Samrath .... 


Ditto from Raja of Jammoo, and 
given to Seocheit Singh in 1832. 

Seocheit Garh . . 


Ditto from Gormukh Singh, and 
given to Seocheit Singh in 1 828. 

Atal Garh . . . 


Ditto ditto ditto. 

Manajeke .... 


Taken from Kalalwalia, and given 
to Seocheit Singh in 1836. 

Dera Din Puneh . 


Ditto from Abdul Mahomed 
Khan in 1834. 

Villages in the neigh- 


bourhood of Lahore. 

Nao Shehra . . . 


Taken from Rajkouran, and given 
to Seocheit Singh, formerly be- 
longed to Pind Dadan Khan in 

Kotli Sarae . . . 


Villages in the neigh- 


bourhood of Amrit- 

Kot Kana 


Pholalwalah . . . 


Taken from Saheb Singh Bhagee. 

Total Rupees . 


F 3 


Raja Hira Singh. 

Names of Districts. 



Chapral .... 


Taken from in 1834, 
given by Maharaja. 

Zahura .... 


Ditto ditto ditto. 

Chittore .... 


Ditto ditto ditto. 

Hambur .... 


Taken from Raja Sultan Khan 
in 1825. 

Mirowal .... 


Ditto from Sokha Singh Bhangee, 
and given to Hira Singh in 



Ditto from ditto in 1820. 

Villages in the neigh- 


Ditto from RajaSansar Chand in 

bourhood of Lahore. 


Kala Khatae . . . 


Mosumba Mamla 


Hagah Jasrota . . 


Total Rupees . 


( 107 ) 

Chapter VIII. 

Crossing the river — Jehlam — The town of that name — Its 
revenue and population — Cultivation of the adjacent 
country — Timber — Boats used on the river — Coins and 
other Antiquities discovered by Generals Ventura and 
Court — Application to Ranjeet Singh for expediting the 
progress of the Mission. 

Crossed the Jehlam on the 19th of February 
in five large boats built near Pind Dadan Khan. 
The river is about twelve hundred feet wide, 
and runs between well-defined banks, but both 
above and below, it is more wide and spreading. 
The depth of the stream is nowhere more than 
ten feet. It is occasionally fordable opposite 
the town, and almost always so for a few 
months in some part between it and Chowa- 
kan, and likewise below that place ; but higher 
fords are preferred, on account of the stony 
bottom, and the absence of quicksands. They 
are sometimes as shallow as two feet. Like the 
other rivers of the Panjab, the Jehlam usually 
begins to rise about the beginning of March. 

108 JEHLAM. 

There appears always to have been a town 
on the banks of the stream on or near the site 
of the present Jehlam. Close to it there is a 
considerable mound, in which very old coins 
and fragments of stone pillars have been found. 

Jehlam fell into the power of Ahmed Shah 
Abdali, and was subordinate to the government 
of the neighbouring fort of Rohtas. In 1767, 
when Charat Singh, Ranjeet Singh's grand- 
father, took Rohtas from the Afghans, Jehlam 
had a small but very weak brick fort, contain- 
ing about fifty houses, and there were besides 
some thirty houses outside the walls. Charat 
Singh took Jehlam at the same time as Rohtas. 
It was plundered and burnt by Shah Zaman, 
who remained forty days near the town on his 
first expedition to India. On his second expedi- 
tion he again destroyed the place, and it was on 
his return from Lahore that he was here obliged 
to leave his guns. The greater portion of his 
troops had crossed, and the guns had been 
brought to the banks of the river ready for 
embarkation, when the river suddenly swelled, 
and swept away the sand on which the guns 
stood : two or three of them were afterwards 

JEHLAM. 109 

recovered by Ranjeet Singh. Jehlam was a 
third time plundered by Abdullah Khan Shah- 
anchi about forty-two years ago. 

Charat Singh appointed Dada Ram Singh 
his manager, and afterwards Sulia Singh, 
Kathri, held the office for twelve or thirteen 
years singly, and for five or six years in con- 
junction with Kan Singh. They paid six 
hundred manees,* or about three thousand 
mands f of grain to Government. 

About forty years ago the town was given 
in jaghir to Mith Singh, Bherania, one of the 
old Sikh Sirdars, who held it for about thir- 
teen years, and after him his son, Jawala Singh, 
held it for about twenty-two years; but, in 
1836, after his death, the Maharaja added 
it to the numerous other jaghirs of Raja 
Golab Singh of Jammoo. 

The transit duties may amount to 10,000 
rupees, and the land revenue from the adjacent 
villages, and the place itself, may be as much 
more. The neighbouring jaghir of Sangooree 
yields about 18,000 rupees per annum. 

* A weight of about fifteen pounds, 
f A weight of about eighty pounds. 

110 JEHLAM. 

The town now contains, they say, about two 
thousand people, but apparently a thousand 
more. Timber is brought from Aen on the 
Jehlam, and bamboos from Chowakan, on a 
branch of that river. Grain is brought here 
from various places, and sent to the south and 

The bed of the Jehlam becomes rocky at 
Myee Mangul, about ten kos above Jehlam, 
on the left bank, where it is swept on three 
sides by the river, and has a fort, strong chiefly 
from its situation, held by Kharak Singh. 

The river Jehlam passes through Kashmir. 
Before it enters that valley it is a very small 
stream in breadth. Below Islamabad, about 
eighteen kos to the north-east of Kashmir, it is 
joined by several streams, and assumes the 
name of Behat, by which name it is known 
throughout the valley. Five kos farther it is 
joined by another stream, and from thence 
swells into a large river. On its appearance in 
the plains it takes the name of Jehlam. 

On the right bank to the south of the town 
stands the tomb of a Sikh Sirdar, who was 
killed by the men of Mr. Holmes's battalion in 


the Sikh service, when the former attempted to 
take away by force a boat in which the baggage 
of that officer was being crossed over. 

Rice has been cultivated for many years : 
two years ago the sugar-cane was introduced, 
for which the soil is found favourable. 

Boats can go as high up as Chowakan, six- 
teen kos ; the country beyond is very lovely ; 
Dhongah, twenty-nine kos. 

The best kind of wood used in building is 
that called Diar. It grows in the Himmalya, 
and when the snow melts in the months of 
March, April, and May, it is brought down the 
various streams into the river Jehlam, and is now 
collected by Government and sold to the pub- 
lic. The trees are not felled, and only such 
reach the river as are torn from their roots by 
the force of torrents. It is calculated that the 
average annual supply may amount to a thou- 
sand pieces : some of these are sixty feet and 
upwards in length, and two such will make a 
boat of eight hundred mands burthen. The 
people do not appear to care about the age of 
the timber, so long as it is of good size ; but 


for boats they prefer such as have been sea- 
soned for four or five years. At A en, the chief 
mart, a place about sixty miles above Jehlam, 
one of the finest logs costs sixty rupees : each 
timber pays a duty of two rupees at three 
places between A en and Jehlam, and at Jehlam 
itself a duty of 25 per cent, is levied if taken 
below the town for sale, but if sold in the town 
the duty is about 18 per cent, only, while none 
whatever is levied on wood used to construct 
the boats at the place. The timber is not 
usually taken below Pind Dadan Khan, though 
some are sold at Khushah, and once in two or 
three years a few are sent down to Multan, 
where large timber is very scarce ; but at Pind 
Dadan Khan three or four boats are annually 
built, and after being laden with grain, cotton, 
or salt, they are taken to the lower parts of 
the Panjab and sold ; but though rafts are 
seldom taken below Khoshab, yet many pieces 
of timber are carried by the violence of floods 
below that place. At night they pass by the 
towns and villages on the river without being 

BOATS. 113 

On the accession of Raja Golab Singh to 
the jaghirs of Aen and of the neighbouring 
districts, which he had long been wishing to 
possess, he monopolized the timber trade, and 
the price of the article is in consequence double 
what it formerly was. 

Other coarse kinds of deal are brought 
down, but they are not fit to be made into 
boats. At present there are no logs collected 
or purchased ; much depends on the supply of 
the present year. 

At Jehlam a boat of 200 mands will cost 
140 rupees, viz., wood 40, iron 40, and labour 
and sundries 60. A 400 mand boat will cost 
about 400 rupees, viz., wood 100, iron 100, 
and labour and sundries 200. 

A boat is usually made in five or six 
months, and will last good for eight or even 
twelve years, after which repairs will keep it 
together for two or three years longer ; but at 
the end of that time the wear and tear renders 
it useless and it is broken up. The boats are 
flat-bottomed, long, and capacious. 

Halted at Jehlam on the 20th inst. to 


enable the baggage to come across from the 
other side. Plenty of supplies procurable ; 
water from the river and the wells close by. 
Ground of encampment amidst ravines. It is 
near this spot the battle between Alexander 
the Great and the Hindu monarch Porus is 
said to have been fought. MM. Ventura and 
Court have excavated many coins in the 
vicinity bearing Greek legends. 

20th. — Halted. A letter was despatched to 
Ranjeet Singh acknowledging the receipt of 
two from his Highness, in which he informed 
Colonel Wade that, agreeably to his request, he 
had sent a copy of the tripartite treaty for the 
information and execution of his officers ; and 
that his agent, Rae Govindjus, who had re- 
mained behind, had been strictly ordered to join 
the Mission. It was announced in reply to the 
Maharaja that the Shah Zada had crossed the 
Jehlam, and would soon arrive at Peshawr, 
when it was intended to encamp at about two 
kos from the city, in order to prevent the 
chance of squabbles between the citizens and 
the camp followers. It was requested at the 


same time that his Highness would be pleased 
to send a general Parwana, or order, m the 
name of all his officers in authority there, that 
in case of any requisitions being made on them 
for their assistance, they would comply with 
them at once, without the delay of a reference 
to the Maharaja ; and that a prohibition 
should be issued to the inhabitants of Peshawr 
generally not to aid or hold any communica- 
tions with the enemy, on the acknowledged 
principle that the enemies of one state were 
the enemies of the other, and warning them 
that any one found guilty of breaking the 
order should be exemplarily punished ; and, 
lastly, begging that as Rae Govindjus was old, 
and had let the opportunity of coming with 
the two howitzers (on their way to join the 
Mission from India) pass, Lai a Kishan Chand, 
who was heard to have come over to the right 
bank of the Satledge, might be desired to join 
the Mission and remain with it, that the trans- 
action of business between the two states 
might not be delayed. 

( 116 ) 

Chapter IX. 

Rohtas — Anecdotes - The people of Kamlagarh — A halt 
— News from Kabul — Bakrala — Dhamuk — The Khilat 
— Kasi Nala — Ruins— The Ghakars — Jherar — Rawat 
Kee Sarae — Manakiala — Researches of General Ven- 
tura — The Sohan — Rawelpindee — Gardens of Jahanghir 
— Traditions — Afghans in the hills— The Indus — Ope- 
rations of Lieut. Mackeson and Mr. Lord. 

Started early in the morning of the 21st on 
the way to Rohtas. First part of the road good 
and level. About the fifth kos a ridge of low 
hills, where the route follows the course of the 
Bakrala Nala in all its windings through the 
hills, crossing the stream some five or six times, 
a heavy road for artillery from sand and stones, 
but practicable. The distance to Rohtas is said 
to be about nine miles. Just after leaving our 
encampment near Jehlam the site of the ancient 
town is conspicuous on the left hand. For a 
few kos the soil appears good and is well 
cultivated : there are but few trees and the 
hills look bare. 

At about two miles and a half there is a 


well, lined with masonry, and a short distance 
on the right a small village. Two kos further 
there is another small village, and then the 
site of a fort or Sarae, with a small village 
at the base of the hills, about a mile and a half 
to the north. About the sixth mile the ground 
is undulating, and though, as before stated, it 
appears to be generally good for crops, yet it is 
here and there stony : after which the sandy 
bed of a hill-stream is reached, and the road 
lies along it for about a mile and a half 
farther, when a sharp turn to the left is made, 
and the fort of Rohtas suddenly comes in view. 
The road continues to wind by it : wheel 
carriages proceeding along the same road for a 
short distance, turn to the right. About half 
a mile beyond the fort the road descends and 
again crosses the Bakrala, the bed of which is 
wide. Less than half a mile from its western 
bank stands a fine Sarae built by Shah Jahan, 
the Mogul Emperor. 

The hills through which the road runs so 
far do not appear to be above two hundred 
feet in height, and the Nala has formed its 
channel by continued reflections from point to 


point. The secondary bed may be a hundred 
feet wide, but when in flood it extends from 
rock to rock, and may vary from four hundred 
to eight hundred feet in width. During the 
cold season there appears to be only a few 
inches of water in the Nala, but when in flood 
it is three, four, or five feet deep, and the com- 
munication between the plains and these hills 
is cut off. The hills are composed of sandstone, 
while the flat tops are frequently covered with 
pebbles and stones of various kinds. The sand- 
stone is of a whitish or grey colour, very friable, 
and such as is generally found in all the streams 
of the Panjab. In many parts there is a layer 
of earth above the sandstone, as if the country 
had been the bed of a lake. One spot near the 
Nala looked like a volcanic irruption; the 
earth about it was red as if it had been burnt. 
I w r ent to see the fort of Rohtas, which is 
going to ruin. Within its walls is a mere 
village. In circumference it may be about 
two kos. It was built by Sher Shah, the 
usurper of the government of the Emperor 
Hamyun, about three hundred and five years 
ago, to prevent any invasion from Afghanistan 


into India. It is stated that Sher Shah brought 
people from various parts who were acquainted 
with such constructions, and followed in some 
measure the plan of the fort of the same name 
in the province of Behar, which he had taken 
by stratagem. It took twelve years and one 
month in building, and, including the pay of 
the soldiery stationed in it, is said to have cost 
11,107,975. 6. 3. It was calculated to hold a 
garrison of three thousand cavalry and fifty 
thousand infantry, and to mount a hundred 
guns. It contains one tank, three wells, and 
two JBaolis. One of the wells is about ninety 
cubits (a hundred and thirty-five feet) : and one 
of the Baolis are about eighty cubits. 

Ahmed Shah took the place ; and towards 
the end of his reign, Baland Khan, who had 
been governor of Multan, held it on the part 
of the Afghans with a garrison of three thou- 
sand men, but no guns. Seventy-one years 
ago (1768) Charat Singh, with five hundred 
Sowars of his confederacy, Gujar Singh, with 
about four hundred Sowars, two thousand in- 
fantry, and a thousand people of the country, 
with a few guns, laid siege to it. 


The artillery played with some effect from 
the adjoining eminence of Govindgarh ; but 
after an investment of three months, the place 
fell chiefly through famine. Himmat Khan, 
the chief landed proprietor in the neighbour- 
hood, together with others of consequence, had 
been killed by Baland Khan, who appears to 
have been disliked. He was taken prisoner by 
the Sikhs, and sent to Ramnagar. Raja 
Ghiasuddin, the son of Himmat Khan, was left 
governor. His cousin, Nur Khan, succeeded 
him, and held the office for thirty years. He 
was succeeded by Faizdad Khan. In 1808 the 
Sikhs placed their own Thana or garrison in 
the fort, and gave Himmat Khan's family a 
fourth share of the revenues; but five years 
ago, in lieu of it, a jaghir in villages, worth 
about five thousand rupees a-year, was settled 
on them. Misser Jassa, of the Toshekhana, was 
then made collector on the part of the Maharaja, 
but two years and a half ago Raja Golab Singh 
succeeded in getting charge of the district him- 
self. It consists of sixty-seven small villages, 
and extends six kos to the south, seven to the 
west, and about eight to the north ; to the east- 


ward it is scarcely beyond the fort, which con- 
tains about three hundred and fifty houses and 
twelve hundred people, chiefly Mahomedans. 
Artificial irrigation is little known : sugar- 
cane has been lately brought to cultivation, and 
has been much encouraged by Golab Singh. 

We encamped here on a fine open piece of 
ground to the south-west of the Sarae and 
opposite to the fort : supplies scarce ; water 
good from the wells and streams. During the 
Maharaja's journey he occupies the same 
ground in a mud building, with a small gar- 
den erected by his order. 

There is a person here named Rahmat AH 
Khan, a zemindar or landholder of the district, 
who is a living history of it, and amused us by 
relating some stories. One of them was, that in 
the neighbourhood of Rohtas there are two mi- 
neral springs which possess a purgative quality. 
He gave us the following strange anecdotes : — 

It is superstitiously stated and generally be- 
lieved by people in this quarter that Sultan 
Mahmud of Ghazni, on his expedition against 
India, was accompanied by some saints, who 



always assisted him in his operations, and in 
consequence of their presence he generally 
gained many victories without any personal 
exertions on his part. Among others Imam 
Walihaq also attended him. 

Mahmud laid siege to the fort of Sialkot ; 
but the place was well defended, and the siege 
was prolonged for a long time, and the Sultan 
became much distracted. One night the 
Imam professed that he had dreamt a dream ; 
that if Pir Kilk, one of his disciples, would cut 
off his own head and strike it against the door 
of the fort, the shutters would be battered in 
pieces and the fort would be captured. No 
sooner was the dream explained than the dis- 
ciple cut off his head with his own hand and 
furiously struck it against the shutters of the 
fort ; and it had the effect the Imam had told 
him ! the place was captured, and the chief and 
the people in it voluntarily turned Mussulmans. 

The people are under the impression that 
ancient monarchs not only ruled the world, 
but had some share in the Divine power also ; 
as several stories regarding them are foolishly 


related and believed, and their noble and illus- 
trious actions are ascribed rather to their mira- 
culous power than to their wisdom and personal 
valour. It is also worthy of remark that one of 
them whose shrine is at Sialkot, being sent 
against the old town of Aknur, in the district 
of the same name, invited the people to sub- 
mit at once to him, which they declined. Being 
irritated he invoked some curses on the place, 
and prayed that its inhabitants might be con- 
verted into stone. God accepted the prayer of 
the Pir, and the people were petrified as they 
were sleeping, walking, or standing, and in 
that state were to be seen at the present day ! 

Another story is that a tribe known by the 
name of Bhajnal, inhabiting the hills near 
Aknur, confidently believe that there are par- 
ticular clouds on the tops of their hills which 
never move from them to any other, but pour 
out their rain only on their own land. There 
is a party of Jogis or Hindu Faqirs living in 
that quarter, who are supposed to have these 
clouds in their power, and whenever water is re^ 
quired they can make the rain to fall. For this 



reason, these Jogis exact a share from the pro 
duce of every field. If any refuse, the next year 
the bounty of heaven is either kept from his cul- 
tivation or the crop destroyed by a heavy fall of 
hail ! Such is the extent of their superstition. 

I heard also a very curious story of the in- 
habitants of the fort of Kamlagarh, which 
ought not to be passed over in silence. This 
fort is situated on the top of a high hill in the 
Chamba territory, and appears to have been 
erected rather by the hand of nature than of 
art • It is reported to be impregnable. Ran- 
jeet Singh has often attempted to capture it, 
but in vain. There is no passage but through 
a narrow pass, which is strongly defended. 

The inhabitants hold no kind of communica- 
tion with any foreigners. They have posts all 
round the place. If any stranger approaches 
he is killed without hesitation. Once in a 
whole reign they take their ruler into the fort 
on his accession, and show him all the trea- 
sures and the public property inside, and then 
bring him back and send him to his capital. 
On this occasion none of the attendants of the 

A HALT. 125 

chief is allowed to accompany him ; they are 
all left at some distance from the place. The 
people inside grow and manufacture every- 
thing they require. The fortification is said to 
be about twelve kos in circuit. The inhabit- 
ants of it pay no revenue to their rulers, but 
put it aside, and only use the share of govern- 
ment on great emergencies. 

There are some other tribes also subject to 
the Chamba Raja, who never allow the officers 
of state to enter their territory, and only pay 
revenue at pleasure. When their crops are ripe 
and cut down they collect the government share 
in some appointed place, and leave the Raja's 
people to take it away without exchanging a 
word with them. From these accounts it will 
be observed how cautious these people are of 
their liberty, and what little authority their 
ruler possesses over them. 

22nd. — Halted at Rohtas on account of a 
heavy fall of rain the last evening. The tents 
got all wet. A letter was written to the Maha- 
raja in consequence of a report having been 
received from Captain (now Major) Ferris that 

126 ; A HALT. 

the two companies of Native infantry escorting 
two howitzers to the Shah Zada's camp had 
been detained at Harikee for some time, from 
no person belonging to his Highness, as had 
been requested, having been sent to conduct 
the party as was necessary through the Panjab. 
It was requested that some one might be 
deputed with the least possible delay.* 

* " In the evening Ferris and I rode down to the Ghat 
to see what facilities there were in readiness for crossing 
the Sutledge to-morrow ; but on our way we met with a 
sepoy, who had been despatched early in the morning to 
collect the boats, &c, and who was returning to inform 
us that the authorities on the other side of the river have 
refused us a passage, as no * purwannah' (a written ordei 1 ) 
from the Maharaja, directing our admittance into the 
Panjab, had been received by them. We, nevertheless, 
rode on, and on our reaching the banks we sent a message 
to the chief at Harikee, the village situated opposite to the 
Ghat, requesting him to cross and confer with us ; but 
after waiting an hour, our messenger came back, accom- 
panied by a common sowar, whom the insolent fellow had 
sent over in his stead, and to whom, beyond a question, 
F. would have nothing to say. We accordingly returned 
to Makhoo, and a letter was immediately despatched to the 
assistant political agent at Lodianah, informing him of the 
treatment we had met with, and the delay that was likely 
to ensue." — Bart's Journal, pp. 50, 51. 


The Maharaja was also reminded of the 
stipulation in the treaty which required the 
nomination of a Mahomedan officer of rank 
to command the contingent for the service of 
the Shah Zada, and requested to relieve our 
anxiety on that as well as with regard to other 
important points to which he had already been 
urged to give his earliest attention. 

News was received from Kabul stating that 
the alarm of Dost Mahomed Khan was in- 
creasing at the rapid progress of Shah Shuja, 
accompanied by the British army on one side, 
and Shah Zada Taimur, assisted by the Sikhs, 
on the other. Symptoms of disaffection on the 
part of his people are also announced, in conse- 
quence of which he is said to have sent mes- 
sengers to recall his son Akram Khan from 
Khulam. Strict orders were also sent by him 
to his son Mahomed Akbar Khan on no 
account to proceed beyond Jalalabad. The 
Candahar Sirdars are reported to have been 
engaged in removing their property and 
family to some secure place ; and that they 
were anxiously looking for assistance from 


Persia, on the arrival of which they would 
contend with the Shah, otherwise they would 
not make any resistance. Dost Mahomed 
is said to have sent a copy of the pro- 
clamation issued by the British Government 
against himself to the Persian monarch, urging 
him to send an army without delay to his 

A deputation has arrived in our camp from 
the Logar people, consisting of four respect- 
able persons, viz., Fateh Ullah Khan, Zohur- 
uddin Khan, Zainulabuddin Khan, and Kamal 
Khan. The Logaris are a numerous tribe, 
and occupy the hills about seven miles to the 
south-east of Kabul. They are the first who 
have declared their devotion to the cause of the 
Shah in that distant quarter. 

23rd. — Marched before sunrise, and en- 
camped at Bakrala, distant ten kos. The 
general direction is north-westerly. At about 
a mile passed a JBaoli: about two miles a 
small Nala, which has cut a track for itself in 
the valley, within which it winds. The road 
lies along the Nala for nearly two miles, and 


then ascends some hills about five hundred feet 
high, leaving the Nala on the right hand. 
Between the fifth and sixth mile there are two 
tanks, on the right hand ; the first is an old 
one, the second is now being dug by order 
of Raja Dhian Singh, the prime minister, 
for the accommodation of passengers. There 
are also a few shops close to these tanks. 
Between the sixth and seventh mile the Nala 
is again seen on the right hand, at the distance 
of less than half a mile. It joins the Rohtas 
Nala about a mile and a half above the fort. 
About the seventh mile there is another 
appearance of a volcano. At the ninth mile 
the road descends rapidly, and at the base of the 
hill runs the Rohtas Nala, about four hundred 
feet wide in sand, and in a ravine of very 
variable dimensions; the hills are covered with 
low bushes, and there is scarcely any cultiva- 
tion except close to the two tanks above men- 
tioned. Every spot available in the ravine of 
the Nala is, however, under cultivation. The 
road, as it is now, is quite impracticable for 
wheel carriages ; but they can reach the place 



by the bed of the Nala, which may be 
four or five miles longer than the straight 

Bakrala is a small village, and belongs to 
Misser Beli Ram, the Toshekhana ; no sup- 
plies, bad encamping-ground ; water is from 
the stream. The village is about half a mile 
from our encampment, and on the summit of a 

A part of the Bakrala road was made by 
General Ventura, but the Sikh Government 
is averse to such works, being of opinion 
that improving them only prepares the way 
for a foreign enemy from the west, who would 
thereby be able to enter their country without 
obstruction. Formerly the passage was very 
dangerous from freebooters, and travellers 
could not pass but by kqfilas. A single tra- 
veller cannot now pass with safety : the neigh- 
bouring hills are inhabited by a wild, predatory 
race of people. 

To the north-west of this place lie the dis- 
tricts of Dhani and Gheb, celebrated for a 
breed of good horses and mules. 

DHAMUK. 131 

Owing to the difficulty of the road the bag- 
gage had not entirely arrived late in the even- 
ing, and we therefore halted on the 24th 
at Bakrala. 

25th. — Started at sunrise, and encamped 
at Dhamuk, distance about eight miles. Route 
following the course of the Rohtas stream, 
which flows in a ravine with very steep sides. 
It is by no means an easy passage, from rocks 
and stones being strewed over the sandy bed. 
The strata are quite perpendicular, and run 
north-easterly and south-easterly. About the 
fifth mile the Nala bends to the left, and the road 
leads straight across the projection round which 
the stream winds : in one part of which the 
road is precipitous on both sides. Between the 
sixth and seventh mile the Rohtas Nala turns 
to the left, and the road, which is good though 
narrow, within a mile of the village, after a 
sudden and steep ascent along the side of a 
hill, leads to a fine table-land, on which the 
village is situated, but the land about it is cut 
into deep ravines. Excepting across the ridge 
at the ninth mile, the road is practicable for 

132 DHAMUK. 

wheel carriages, but the ridge may be avoided 
by following the course of the Nala. The 
summits of the hills are about three hundred 
feet above the Nala; there are no signs of 
population in these hills. 

Dhamuk is a small village ; its supplies are 
scarce. Water is obtained from a neighbour- 
ing stream, and is good. The place is held in 
jaghir by Chatar Singh, Atariwala, and was 
bestowed on his family by Ranjeet Singh's 
grandfather. Wheat is cultivated, and grows 
well. No irrigation from wells. At present 
it is subject to a good deal of oppression from 
the Sirdar's managers ; the Jaghirdar provides 
two hundred and fifty horsemen, but is liable 
to occasional exactions, which obliges him to 
oppress in his turn. Being on the high road 
to Attok, the Sikh troops frequently alight 
here, and destroy everything, like a flight of 
locusts. Old coins are found in the vicinity, of 
the time of Alexander the Great and his suc- 

To-day being the festival of the JEeduzzoha, 
the Shah Zada held a darbar. All the 


Khawanin who had joined his Royal Highness 
were admitted to his presence to make their 
salam, as customary on such occasions. They 
were presented with khilats, according to their 
respective rank. Goats were also distributed 
among them by Lieutenant-Colonel Wade for 
their dinners, a present which the Afghans are 
pleased to receive on the Eed. 

Every Khan, on joining the camp, expects 
the present of a khilat, or he considers himself 
disgraced. In consequence of the small supply 
of articles which we had in the TosheJchana, or 
treasury of the Mission (the Shah Zada having 
none of his own), and the few additions which 
had been made by purchase during our stay at 
Lahore, they began to fail. The Maharaja 
was therefore requested to send a supply' of 
various articles from his own Toshekhana, 
such things not being procurable in the country, 
on receipt of which his Government would be 
duly credited for their amount. On our arrival 
here a person was sent on to Peshawr, to pre- 
pare clothing for the new levies ; and General 
Avitabile, the governor of that territory, was 


addressed at the same time, to afford him every 
aid in executing his commission. 

A Qasid, who arrived with friendly letters on 
the part of Mir Alam Khan of Bajour, was 
dismissed with a reply, desiring that chief to 
depute his son to pay his respects to the Shah 
Zada on his arrival at Peshawr. By the same 
opportunity, and in consultation with the prince, 
a letter was likewise written to Sadat Khan, 
the chief of the Momand tribe, inviting him 
to tender his allegiance to the Shah Zada, 
either in person, or by deputing his son. 

It ought not to be omitted that a Qasid had 
arrived in our camp at Jehlam, who professed 
to have been sent by Hafizji, a person possess- 
ing great religious influence in Kabul and the 
Kohistan, where he was said to be engaged by 
Dost Mahomed Khan in exciting the people 
to a religious war against the Shah. He 
brought a message from Hafizji, stating tha 
although he and others were forced by circum- 
stances to appear hostile to the Shah, yet their 
real intentions towards his Majesty were as 
sincere as before. The man, having brought 


no letter, was disbelieved, and desired to leave 
the camp and return to Kabul from Dhamuk, 
with a verbal assurance to Hafizji of being 
treated with consideration and favour if he 
proved faithful to the Shah's cause. 

As a condition of entertaining them, a 
written pledge of fidelity was taken here 
by the Shah Zada from all the Khawanin ; 
on their execution of which a fixed allowance 
was assigned to each for the support of himself 
and party. Hitherto they had only been re- 
ceiving daily rations. 

26th. — Started early in the morning to Pa- 
kake Sarae, about twelve miles distant. At 
the fourth mile crossed the Kasi Nala, which 
has formed an immense ravine in the high 
land, which is undulating and broken. The 
ravine may be three hundred and fifty feet 
from height to height ; but innumerable small 
ones run into it, which bring the water of the 
plains on either side into the Nala below. 
There is not much cultivation, but a few 
small villages to the right and left of the 
road. Near the tenth mile is a Pucka well. 

136 RUINS. 

Encampment in the ravine of the Kasi Nala : 
we reached it at the end of the twelfth mile. 
Country intersected by ravines of the same 
character as those we had previously crossed. 
Encamping ground very indifferent, close, and 
confined ; supplies scarce ; water good, from 
a stream. 

The aspect of the surrounding country is 
very wild and bare. Near the camp the ruins 
of large Sarae of brick and stone, built by 
Aurangzeb, the Mogul Emperor. Here was 
an old city named Paka, some traces of which 
are still visible. The city was burnt by the 
Afghans ; afterwards by the Mahrattas, seventy 
years ago ; and then a second time by the 
Afghans. Neither Charat Singh nor Maha 
Singh, the ancestors of Ranjeet Singh, extended 
their conquests to Paka ; but Sirdar Gujar 
Singh of Gujrat took the place from Sultan 
Mukaram Khan, Ghakar, whose chief place was 
Perwala, twelve kos to the north. Shadman 
Khan, his son, is now a pensioner in Jammoo. 
He was seized by Raja Golab Singh, who 
suspected him of instigating Shamsuddin 

PAKA. 137 

Khan, a conquered dependant of Golab Singh, 
to rebellion. Shamsuddin owed the Raja 
17,000 rupees as arrears of tribute, which he 
refused to pay ; and, in the absence of Golab 
Singh at Peshawr, seized some places which 
had formerly belonged to him. On the Raja's 
return, Shamsuddin Khan fled, but was be- 
trayed by a Gujar, in whose house he had 
sought safety ; for which act the Gujar was 
rewarded with a horse, a pair of bangles, and 
a pension of two rupees a-day. 

Sugar-cane was formerly cultivated in this 
part of the country, and rice in large quantities ; 
now wheat and Indian corn only. There are 
no wells about the place. Golab Singh has held 
the village for twenty-four years. The frequent 
passage of troops has led many people to leave 
the place from the destruction which is caused 
to the cultivation. The soil is strong and 

The Kasi Nala rises near Megra, about ten 
kos distant. Two miles below Paka it is joined 
by the Gir Nala, and after passing within four 
miles of Dhamuk, and near to Bishandour, 


it finds its way into the Jehlam, at Sultanpore, 
near the hills. Kasi means any low place. 

The Ghakars are a very numerous and hardy 
tribe of high repute ; their sway extended from 
Gujrat, near the Chinab, to Attok and Muz- 
zaffarabad. Ahmad Shah Durani married a 
daughter of one of their chiefs. The hilly parts 
were taken from them only eight years ago. 
Saw a small cupola called the tope of Megra, 
about live kos north-east. 

Several villages round about Paka belong to 
different members of the Atariwala Sikhs, of 
whom Sham Singh is the present head. 

27th. — Jhirar, a distance of seven miles ; the 
first three miles northerly, the remaining four 
westerly. The surface of the country irre- 

The Gir Nala falls into the Kasi at Paka, 
and rises immediately to the north of Manak- 
iala. The water from the snowy range falls 
into the Sohan, which is rather a large river. 

There is a tradition that a king named 
Manak Rae possessed a city which extended 
from Manakiala to Dhamuk. Near the vil- 

RUINS. 139 

lages of Mandar, Dehar, Janala, &c, between 
Paka and Jherar, large square blocks of stone 
are found lying as in a wall. Janala, one kos 
from Jherar, left bank of the Nala ; similar 
stones are seen to those between Jherar and 

About Manakiala pipes of earthenware, 
three or four inches in diameter, lying hori- 
zontally, are also found. The tope is said to 
be near a spring of water. 

It is said that a nephew of Mahmud of 
Ghazni was taking horses for sale to India, 
and that the King of Manakiala demanded a 
tax from him, which he refused. The King 
took it by force. The Prince went and com- 
plained to his uncle, and Mahmud came 
and plundered the place. 

The story is that Ghakars came and settled 
here eight hundred years ago, from Canaan, in 
Egypt (the Scriptural Canaan). They were 
then called Maliks : their chief was Malik 
Ghula, whence Ghuliana, the place to which 
they first came. He had four sons, Malik 
Feiroz, Sultan Hatta, Sultan Adam, and 

140 JHERAR. 

Sultan Sarang. They then spoke Persian. 
Malik Ghula, from Ghuliana, came to Dhani 
Ghebi, and then to Perwala, and built a fort. 

Gujar Singh Gujratia took Jherar. It now 
belongs to Chatar Singh and Karam Singh 
Atariwala. They got possession of it thirty- 
two years ago. Raja Golab Singh's lands 

The usual kinds of grain grow at Jherar ; 
but for the last twelve years the people have 
not been able to rear grain : they say it be- 
comes scorched before arriving at maturity, 
but can give no reason for it. Cotton culti- 
vated, but no sugar-cane. 

Jherar is a small village. Supplies scanty. 
Water good, from a stream. Good encamping 

Here the Hindu festival of the Holee com- 
menced. The Hindus began to make merry, 
and have Natches to-night. 

A letter was addressed by Sir Claude 
to-day to Ranjeet Singh, informing him 
of the receipt of news in our camp, that his 
Highness had been pleased to order his legions 


to encamp at Shahdera, on their way to Pesh- 
awr, and expressing the satisfaction it gave ; 
but that no account had yet been received of 
the collection of the Mahomedan contingent 
of five thousand men, which he was to provide 
according to the treaty for the assistance of 
Shah Zada Taimur. It was intimated to his 
Highness that, as the time was short, and 
did not admit of new levies, it was advisable 
that he should make a selection of Maho- 
medans from the whole of his army, and that 
if the selected number fell short of the five 
thousand men, he might issue an order to 
his officers at Peshawr to complete the defi- 
ciency by enlisting people in that territory. 
His Highness was requested that he would 
send particular injunctions to his Mussulman 
vassals in that quarter (excluding the Barakzai, 
who were not perhaps to be implicitly trusted) 
to assemble at Peshawr, and to entitle them- 
selves to their rights and claims by serving the 
three Governments on the present occasion 
with zeal and fidelity. It was suggested also 
to the Maharaja to send an order for a part 


of his force now at Peshawr to proceed to 
Dera Ismael Khan, so as to co-operate on that 
side with the Shah Zada's troops, by which 
means the enemy would be alarmed and their 
attention divided. It was necessary that the 
Maharaja should be reminded of the necessity 
of producing his contingent, as we had heard 
with surprise that nothing had yet been done 
to collect it ; and the plan of creating a diver- 
sion by Dera Ismael Khan was one which it was 
expected that Ranjeet Singh would approve.* 

2§th. — Rawat Kee Sarae, distant about 
eight miles. Supplies scarce ; water good. 
West, inclining to the north between two and 
three miles, is the tope of Manakiala ; and 
about the seventh mile cross a small Nala, 
which joins the Sohan. Very little cultivation, 
but the country looks less bleak and dreary 
than that between Dhamuk and Pakaki Sarae. 
Layers of sandstone are frequent. Burnt red 
earth seen in the ravines. At Rawat itself a 
ridge of sandstone rises in upright blocks in 

* Both he and Shah Shuja had suggested the import- 
ance of such a movement. 


some places as high as twenty feet above the 
surface. These blocks are from four to teu 
feet square, and the ridge fifteen feet wide. 
Manakiala appears to be built of the same 
tough kind of stone as the blocks I have de- 

Jagutpore, a village built by the Ghakars, at 
the same time as Perwala and Dhangali, one 
kos to the south. Perwala is six kos north- 
ward towards the hills. In Perwala is a fort 
like that of Rohtas, built by the Ghakars about 
twenty-five years ago. Since the hills were 
completely subdued by the Sikhs about ten years 
ago, it has been deserted, and is ruinous. Gujar 
Singh Gujratia took Jagutpore and Perwala, 
and went as far as Khanpore, where the Ghakars 
drove him back. At Jagutpore is a tank in 
ruins, built by Sultan Mobarek Khan's wife, 
tone hundred and twenty years ago. 

Rawat Kee Sarae was built by Sher Shah. 
The tomb is that of Sultan Sarang Ghakar. 
He died about one hundred years ago, or more. 
Sultan Sarang was the chief of Perwala, and is 
buried to the boundary line of that district and 



Jagutpore, which belonged to the Edwal tribe 
of Ghakars, the largest of all their tribes. 

The Sohan river rises twenty kos distant at 
the Dewat hills on the left bank. 

Rawat is included within the jurisdiction of 
Rawelpindi : no sugar-cane cultivated Little 
rain falls here during the months of March, 
April, and May (as often happens in other 
parts of the Panjab), during which it is exceed- 
ingly hot. 

Before the country was conquered by the 
Sikhs, there was a prolonged famine, from the 
effects of which it greatly recovered under the 
good administration of Malka Singh, who was 
left in charge by Gujar Singh. 

On looking at Manakiala it appears to be 
a hemisphere, perhaps fifty feet in diameter, 
with a neck of about six feet in height, and 
springing from a circular base, ornamented 
with pilasters; one of which, on the east 
side, is something, it is said, in the Grecian 
style. The basement, however, as it stands 
now, is not the lowest story of the building. 
It is said to rest upon another with a platform 


of about twenty feet, ornamented with pilasters, 
&c, in the same manner as the upper one. These 
pilasters are plain, but well proportioned, and 
appear only to have been brought to light since 
General Ventura dug to the bottom, in order to 
reach the vault in the centre of the building. 
He likewise cleared away the ruinous parts 
on the top of the tope, and discovered a well 
of about ten feet square, which is regularly 
built of squared stones, and looks now about 
fifteen or eighteen feet deep. General Ventura 
penetrated through the bottom of the shaft to 
satisfy himself that no further relics than those 
which he had found there were forthcoming.* 
The tradition at Rawat is, that on the out- 
side of the hemisphere there was a flight of 
steps leading to the top, and that on it Manak 
the king used to review his troops. The out- 
side wall of masonry has nearly all fallen off or 
been torn away, and much of the upper portion 
has been removed, which has destroyed the 

* They were afterwards offered to Sir Claude Wade, 
who forwarded them, in the General's name, to the Secre- 
tary to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, the late lamented 
J. Prinsep, Esq. 



regularity of the dome. Most of the stones of 
which the tope is built were brought from 
the neighbouring Hills, though several of the 
blocks are of the sandstone common on the 

A little to the south of the tope and between 
it and the village there is a large square 
well of masonry which has existed from time 
immemorial ; the water in it is good and abun- 
dant, and capable of supplying a large encamp- 
ment for days together. It is ten feet square, 
and is said to have been built in that shape, in 
order that each of Manak's four tribes might 
have a separate place to draw water. The vil- 
lagers say that the neighbouring ravine exposes 
every now and then the foundations of build- 
ings. The road passes immediately to the 
south of the tope ; it serves as a haunt for 
robbers who lie in ambush for a single or two 
or three travellers, there being no village 
near it. 

Eawelpindee, March ls£.— M arched before 
sunrise, distance twelve miles, the road wind- 
ing westerly as far as the right bank of 


the Sohan, and afterwards north-westerly. 
The general direction about west-north-west, 
and the direct distance may be eight miles ; 
the ground gradually falls until, the second or 
third mile, a range of low hills is reached. 

These hills consist of pebbles cemented 
together ; the road over them is passable for 
wheel carriages, but with great difficulty, it 
being a high and steep ghat. Above the 
fourth mile from Rawat, we came to the valley 
or bed of the Sohan river, which is very 
picturesque after the bleak plains through 
which we had been passing. It was bounded 
by sloping hills sprinkled with green bushes 
which grew luxuriantly in the ravines ; its 
sides were bounded by precipices more than a 
hundred feet high. The stream itself spreads 
over the valley when flooded, and now rolls 
along over pebbles. Shortly after ascending, 
we quitted the hilly or broken ground. On 
the left, a small tower or dome is to be noticed 
on a hillock which was opened by General 
Ventura in search of antiquities. 

On leaving the banks of the river the town of 

h 2 



Rawelpindee appears in sight, situated on a cul- 
tivated plain stretching to the hills, which may 
be four miles off. There is a higher range of 
hills about seven miles distant to the north, and 
one hill with a patch of snow about ten miles. 
The country is broken here and there by the 
small Nalas which lead in to the Sohan. 

The valley of the Sohan may be six hundred 
feet where narrowest ; the stream was about 
two feet deep, and about two hundred feet 
broad. In the broken ground between the 
plain of Rawelpindee and the river, the sand- 
stone again appeared in ridges and perpen- 
dicular strata. 

Rawelpindee is a small town, and an abun- 
dance of supplies procurable ; dry Kabul fruits 
are to be had in plenty. It is surrounded by a 
mud wall about a mile in circumference : the 
buildings are generally of mud. Shah Shujah, 
after his flight from Peshawr, took refuge here, 
and remained for several years. The house 
erected by him is still extant, and serves as a 
residence to the governor of the district, named 
Bhae Dal Singh, the elder brother of Bhae 


Maha Singh, the Sikh officer who attends the 

I may here enumerate that there are about 
five hundred shops in Rawelpindee ; — fifteen 
blacksmiths, ten goldsmiths, twenty confec- 
tioners, ten shops for iron and brass, pots, &c. ; 
twenty shoemakers, fifteen shops of besatis, 
that is, sellers of combs, scissors, thread, &c. ; 
four hundred shops of cloth merchants, grain 
merchants, ghee dealers, &c. The entire 
revenue of the town is 150,000 rupees per 
annum, including land-tax, transit duties, 
&c. The town is known for its manufacture 
of ornamented shoes : there are somewhat 
more than four thousand people in the town. 
Bhae Dal Singh is liked by the people, and 
has had charge of the town for six years. 

To the west of the town, five kos distant 
towards the hills, there is a shrine of a Saint 
Latif Shah, where a fair is held every year in 
the month of May or June, where numbers 
of people are collected from the neighbouring 
villages and towns, even as far as Peshawr. 

2nd. — Halted at Rawelpindee. A vague re- 


port was received from Kabul of the intention 
of the Persians to renew the siege of Herat, to 
make a diversion in favour of Dost Mahomed 
Khan. It was further reported that Mahomed 
Akram Khan, the son of Dost Mahomed Khan, 
who had been sent towards Kunduz, had con- 
cluded a treaty of amity and alliance with Mir 
Morad Beg, and that Dost Mahomed had 
illuminated the citv of Kabul in honour of the 
event. It is said that the Amir has failed in 
his attempt to obtain support from the king of 
Bokhara, unless one of his sons be allowed to 
share in the government of Kabul ! His troops 
are reported to have become disaffected to- 
wards the Amir, on account of being kept in 
long arrears of pay, and the citizens to be much 
alarmed on hearing of the advance of the in- 
vading armies. Nightly meetings are held to 
concert measures the most favourable for their 

Letters were received from the Khaibar 
chiefs declaring their attachment to the Shah. 
Among others there was a letter from Alam 
Khan of Bajour, expressing a wish to form a 


separate alliance with the British government ; 
but as it was not its policy to enter into 
alliances with the several chiefs of Afghanistan 
for its own benefit, the proposal was of course 
declined. The offer of his service was, how- 
ever, accepted, and he was assured of the con- 
firmation of his existing authority from his 
Majesty, if he would display his fidelity and 
adherence to his cause by joining the Shah 
Zada opportunely. 

Lately the brother of Sadat Khan Mo- 
mand, named Nawab Khan, has joined the 
camp ; but he has not been formally received 
either by the Shah Zada or Sir Claude, nor 
distinguished by any marked consideration, 
as he is known not to be on good terms 
with his brother, and a letter having been 
addressed to the latter chief inviting his alle- 
giance, pending the receipt of his reply, it was 
not considered just to give his brother the 
usual reception. 

Jani Ka Sang, 3rd. — About twelve or thir- 
teen miles distant, direction westerly, slightly 
inclining to the north. Outside of Rawelpindee 


cross a Nala, with water running rapidly. 
About seven miles, cross a smaller Nala, and 
at the twelfth mile cross another stream, 
country undulating, the latter half stony. Cul- 
tivation near Rawelpindee, elsewhere scanty. 
A few villages here and there. The soil very 
barren, but in the last few miles large bushes 
are frequent, among which the olive may be 
noticed, of the wood of which the natives make 
beads. The hills are about two miles north 
of Jani Ka Sang. Between nine and ten miles 
a Mahomedan tomb. Close to the Nala, which 
runs by Jani Ka Sang, there is a quantity 
of the hard stone similar to some seen at 

Sheikh Jam, a rich and pious Darweish, is 
buried in the village ; but his grave is only 
marked by the earth, according to his own 
desire. He died about two hundred years ago. 

Bahnadra Nala rises at Shahditta three kos 

Jani Ka Sang is a small village, containing 
about twelve houses of Khatris and twelve 
houses of Mussulmans. The supplies very 


scarce. Ground for encamping indifferent ; 
water good. 

The Kajri hills about twelve kos to the 

4th. — To Hasan Abdal. At about three 
miles came to the Pass of Margalla, which 
is now a paved roadway about twenty feet 
wide. It was cut through by Akbar the 
Great, as an inscription on the side of the 
pass shows. No water near the pass except 
what is collected from rain in small pools. 
On the summit of a hill to the right is a tower 
where a party of ten or twelve matchlockmen 
is stationed to guard the pass. Formerly the 
road hereabouts was much infested by robbers; 
but since the establishment of the above party 
their depredations have been partly prevented. 
From hence a road branches off to the Hazara 
country, about twenty-five kos distant. Another 
road goes off to Burhan, leaving Hasan Abdal 
to the right. 

The ascent is now slight, and appears never 
to have been great. The hills are bare, except 
in the dells to the right and left, where the 


154 RUINS. 

trees attain to some size. About the sixth 
mile is a small stream, running between high 
broken banks, and with a single-arched brick 
bridge across it. Between seven or eight miles 
on the left hand is a brick Sarae in tolerable 
repair, and of a good size. Here the country 
opens out with hills on all sides : to the north- 
east the view is very fine, as the valleys and 
hills appear more wooded on that side. To 
the north, at the foot of a hill about three or 
four kos off, there is a small tope in ruin, 
called the tope of Burhan, which is also said 
to have been opened by General Ventura. To 
the west the hills are dry, and rise at once 
abruptly from the plain. 

Formerly the Sarae of Kala formed the 
frontier post of the Sikhs to warn them of any 
invasion from the west. The Sarae was 
strengthened and repaired by Kala Singh, after 
whose name it goes. He wag a converted 
Sikh from the lowest caste, and was in the 
service of Sirdars Ganda Singh and Janda 
Singh, the former chiefs of Lahore, who after 
the conquest of Rawelpindee appointed Kala 


Singh their Thanehdar. Kala Singh, being a 
bold and desperate character, soon extended 
his authority all around, and carried his in- 
cursions as far as Hasan Abdal and Gandgarh, 
and harassed the Mahomedan tribes of that 
quarter. Many years ago, when the Daud 
Potras despatched a party of their troops to 
expel the Sikhs from this country, Ganda 
Singh carried war into Multan, met the in- 
vaders in their own country, gave them a 
desperate battle, and put them to flight. 

In the meantime Charat Singh took advan- 
tage of Ganda Singh's absence, and reconciled 
Kala Singh to his own interests, which origi- 
nated hostilities between Ganda Singh and 
Charat Singh, and led to a battle in which 
both the combatants lost their lives ; the one 
was killed by the enemy, and the other, Charat 
Singh (grandfather of Ranjeet Singh), died by 
the bursting of his own gun. Maha Singh 
was thus left the sole owner of the estates of 
both. Soon after, Maha Singh, being sus- 
picious of Kala Singh's conduct, took Kala 
Sarae from his charge, and put it under 


the superintendence of Jiwan Singh, whom he 
soon after also appointed the Governor of Ra- 
welpindee : but Ranjeet Singh was not so kind 
to Jiwan Singh as his father. The latter was 
accused of having combined secretly with the 
Afghans, on which plea he was deprived of his 
possessions, and since that period Rawelpindee 
and Kala Sarae have been governed by officers 
under the Maharaja's own special selection. 

I believe I have made an intrusive digression, 
and must now return and resume my path. 
About the twelfth mile cross a Nala, named 
Jabat, a clear stream running between two 
hills and close to the foot of both. Shortly 
after crossing it the ruins of a garden built by 
Jahanghir, a little way down the Nala, come in 
sight. These ruins are extensive, and the plan 
of the gardens, even in their present state, was 
much admired by some of the party, who visited 
them, from the natural scenery of the situation 
as much as from the work of art. So pleasing, 
indeed, is the scene around that Jahanghir is 
reported to have exclaimed " Wah! Wah!" 
(an expression of admiration) on first beholding 


it, whence the name of the present village near 
the gardens. 

The story is, that the climate of Kashmir and 
Kabul being highly agreeable to Jahanghir, he 
frequently visited those places and proceeded 
by Hasan Abdal. There also resided a Faqir 
named Hyat ul Mir, who was held in great 
reverence by Jahanghir ; which, besides the 
shady beauty of the spot, induced his Majesty 
to pass many days at Hasan Abdal. After 
a time he erected a pavilion and a garden, 
and likewise had dug a large tank in his 
Shikarjah or hunting-preserve, which still 
exists in a ruinous state. This monarch has 
erected many other buildings on the road to 
Kabul and Kashmir ; en route to the latter 
place Saraes and seraglios were built by him 
at each stage. 

At fifteen miles Hasan Abdal, a small town, 
overlooked by the hills, especially by one which 
was the residence of the pious Faqir men- 
tioned above; there is a clear pretty stream 
running between the village or town and the 
hills. Close to the stream there is the tomb 


of the Faqir, ornamented with two large cy- 

Hasan Abdal has a fine bazaar where plenty 
of supplies can be procured. Water good. 

To the eastward of the place is a large spring 
situated in a grove of shady trees. Just above 
the spring is the impression of a hand which the 
Sikhs say is that of Baba Nanak, their first 
Guru, and hence Hasan Abdal is called Panja 
Saheb by the Sikhs. This is another instance 
of the truth of the observation, that people ap- 
propriate traditions and legends to their own 

They say that Nanak, when proceeding 
about the country, being wearied one day, 
asked the Faqir on the hill to give him a cup of 
water and some food. The Faqir was surly, 
and an altercation ensued between them, when 
the Faqir told him that if Nanak was a man of 
any miracles he would supply his wants with- 
out any assistance, and would even move the 
hills. Nanak put out his hand and stamped 
his fingers on the rock, where the mark still 
remains; and in commemoration of the Baba, 


the late Sirdar Hari Singh built a small 
temple, which he named Panja Saheb, from 
the five fingers. 

The Mussulman story is that one Hasan, 
a Gujar, had many buffaloes ; that a Faqir 
named Abdal came and asked him for a draught 
of milk. Hasan said, '! I would gladly give 
you some, but my buffaloes are at present dry." 
Abdal laid his hand on one of them and said, 
" Now milk it." He did so, and soon gave him 
a copious draught. Abdal expressed his gra- 
titude to Hasan, and asked what he could do 
for him. Hasan replied that they were much 
straitened for want of water, on which Abdal 
struck the neighbouring hills in two places, 
from which the two streams of Hasan Abdal 
have come forth. On the departure of the 
Faqir, Hasan said the spot should hereafter be 
called after them jointly. 

Another story about the impression of the 
five fingers is that the Akalis of the fraternity 
of Sobah Singh Nehang, who held a jaghir 
near Hasan Abdal, being desirous of promoting 
their own interests, one of them engraved the 


five fingers on a piece of stone. It was soon 
given out by these artful fanatics to be the stamp 
of Nanak's fingers, from whence the springs 
issue. At present, all the Hindu and Sikh pil- 
grims make many offerings at the spot, which 
are taken by the Akalis. In a small tank which 
has been built round the spring are kept a 
number of fish which are fed daily by the 

The Nala in Jahangir's garden, named Jabat, 
joins the stream which comes from Khanpore — 
the Kalapani, so called from the blackness of 
its waters, having previously joined the Jabat 
close to the bridge. The Nala, which comes 
from Khanpore, rises sixteen kos beyond that 
place, which is ten kos from Hasan Abdal. 
All these fall into the Indus at Jasua, about 
eighteen or nineteen kos distant. 

There are some tribes of Afghans in the hills 
immediately to the north of Hasan Abdal. 
The Ghakars, in Khanpore and its immediate 
vicinity, are some of the Shia sect. The dis- 
trict of Khanpore is managed for the Maharaja 
by a son of Dal Singh. Bhae Maha Singh 


has had the management of Hasan Abdal four 
years. Before him it was held in jaghir by 
Lehna Singh, Sindhanwalia. 

Ran Singh Pada, a Sikh, held the plains 
between Margalla and the hills west of it, 
about one hundred years ago, independent of 
others, and it descended to his sons, nephews, 
and their heirs till 1811, when Ranjeet Singh 
took Attok. 

There are said to be twelve Tappas or can- 
tons on the left bank of the Indus near Attok, 
viz., Chach, Sathgarh, Haru, Panjghatta Kha- 
tar, Panjghatta Khanpore, Khatar, Gandgarh, 
Sirikot (inhabited by Halalkhors), Hasanza, 
Salar, Mansur, Namlot. These cantons are 
chiefly peopled by Afghans, who are generally 
in a rebellious state ; they pay very little re- 
venue to the Sikhs, and that not without the 
assistance of troops. Among others the Gand- 
garhias, the head of whom is Khanzeman 
Khan and the Tanoul people, another district 
held by Paendeh Khan, are the most noted. 
They are very brave but turbulent characters. 
Occasionally they attack the villages in the 


plains of Hasan Abdal, and retreating with all 
they can find lay the country waste : the 
presence of troops alone can keep them within 
their limits, or otherwise they would infest the 
roads night and day. They hate the authority 
of the Sikhs, and do not like to submit 
to their rule. The late Sirdar Hari Singh 
was always at war with them. The inha- 
bitants of the villages situated in the plains 
are rather more obedient than their brethren, 
and are more favourable to the English than 
the Sikhs. Several letters have been received 
from them, offering their services in the en- 
suing campaign, but they being nominally 
subject to the Sikhs their offers have been re- 
jected.* The Hazara territory, consisting of 
seven Tappas, lies to the north-east of Husan 
Abdal twenty-five kos distant. It is managed 
by Sirdar Lehna Singh, Sindhanwalia, and ap- 
pears rather peaceful. 

The territory of Khatar is also managed by 
Mahu Singh. He is of a very respectable 

* Some who were afterwards entertained made excellent 


Sikh family, and is a good, frank, and plain- 
spoken person. The following are some of the 
extraordinary legends of the place. Near the 
shrine of Hyatul Mir every Thursday a lamp 
containing about a seer and a half of oil is 
lighted, and remains so the whole night in the 
open air : it has never been known to be ex- 
tinguished during the highest storms. I sus-- 
pect the miraculous power of the lamp is 
owing to the thick wick inserted in it, which 
I hear is made of five chittaks of cotton.* 

There are some small white stones to be 
found at the shrine, which are considered 
highly beneficial for the eyes, and pilgrims 
generally carry away some of them for their 
own and their families' use. There is also a 
block of stone measuring three or four yards 
in height, which when struck with another 
stone sounds like a bell. Visitors generally 
amuse themselves by ringing the stone, which 
is called the Shah's gliarial or bell, I did not 
myself try the experiment, nor did I visit the 

* Chittak, an Indian weight, the eighth of a pound. 


Near another height, named Gup, there is 
said to be a bottomless pit, which has existed 
from time immemorial. It is stated that in 
the Bhimber territory, near a fort named Ma- 
kanpura, there is a solid mass of rock, ten or 
twelve bighas, or two acres, in extent, and about 
a hundred yards high, on the top of which is 
an old and deep well, having no sign of being 

The Hindu mythology says that when the 
Karwans were victorious over the Panel wans, 
the latter were transported to the above place, 
where they were condemned to pass a solitary 
life for twelve years. There was no water in 
the place ; and from the want of it the poor 
exiles suffered much. One of them, Bhim, at 
last struck an arrow with all his might into 
the rock, and then took it out. No sooner did 
he do so than a spring of pure water issued 
from the hole, and they all quenched their 
thirst; ever since which the water has con- 
tinued to flow. 

To return to my narrative. The Afghan 
chiefs, who had lately joined the Shah Zada, 


began to advance high claims on the liberality 
of the Shah. They demanded an extravagant 
personal allowance, and urged that it might 
be soon settled, as the time for operations was 
approaching. Their demand was denied, and 
a moderate sum oftered to each for himself and 
retainers ; on which they applied to retire from 
the service. As the rapacity of the Afghans is 
well known, and it would have been difficult 
to satisfy their expectations, they were in- 
formed that they might depart if they liked. 
Accordingly they left the camp, and went about 
a kos on their way to Peshawr ; when finding 
that they had thwarted their own object, to 
save their credit the Shah Zada sent a message 
to them, telling them that if they agreed to 
accept the rates which had been fixed, they 
might return. They assented to them without 
objection, and were readmitted to camp. 

9th. — Baoli; distance fourteen miles; ge- 
neral direction north-west. About the third 
mile cross a stream running from left to right, 
that is, to the north-west. It is the united 
stream of the Hasan Abdal Nala, which after- 

166 « ' BURHAN. 

wards falls into the Haru. At about six miles 
is the town of IJurhan, within a kos of which 
there are three or four other small villages. 
Nahib Khan, the late chief of Burhan, fought 
many bloody battles with the Sikhs. He was 
at length killed, and the Sikhs introduced their 
authority in the place. At Burhan the people 
assume a change in their aspect and dresses. 
They are almost all Mahomedans of the 
Alizae tribe. Immediately after passing through 
the town, I was surprised to find one of my 
schoolfellows, named Ahmedgul, had been 
waiting for me on the road. It was highly 
gratifying to my feelings to meet a friend in a 
foreign land. He is a native of Islampore, 
near Burhan, and had gone to Delhi for his 
education. As we had still some distance to 
travel, and the sun was getting hot, I was 
obliged to leave my friend very unwillingly. 

About the ninth mile we crossed the Haru, 
which was running rapidly, and is here two 
feet deep : the water is bluish. To the left of 
the stream the ground is broken by the valley, 
or the broad beds of the little Nalas which fall 

THE HARU. 167 

into it. The Haru itself runs in a ravine 
thirty or forty feet deep, with the sides cut 
into smaller ones for three hundred yards 
inland. It is subject to very sudden inun- 

On leaving the Haru, the ground rises 
gradually for two or three miles, and then 
descends suddenly to the plains of Chach, which 
lie stretched before us. The ridge over which 
we passed is not fit for cultivation ; but the 
plain is vast, and is dotted with villages. Five 
or six miles from the Haru is situated the 
Baoli, near which we encamped. To the south- 
west is a long isolated hill, on the inferior 
slopes of which stands the fort of Attok (but not 
visible from the Baoli). To the north can be 
traced the course of the Indus, chiefly by the 
mist overhanging it ; and the hills are dis- 
cernible in that direction, as well as to the south, 
from fifteen to twenty miles distant. 

The usual encampment is between the Baoli 
and a village called Sydan. Supplies are 
scarce. Water is procured from the Baoli. 
On reaching the encamping ground, crowds 


of people came to see us, and several of them 
offered themselves for service. 

From Hasan there is another route leading 
direct to Attok, via Hydro, a large village about 
two miles to the right of the course we followed ; 
but it is said to be practicable only for horses. 
Hydro was some years ago attacked and burnt 
by the late Syed Ahmed. 

One of the principal men of the place, named 
Ashraf Ali Khan, was entertained in the ser- 
vice of the Shah Zada, with his followers. 
He has been ordered to raise a Toman from 
the people of his own town, who are a brave 

6th. — Started at the usual hour, and en- 
camped on the left bank of the celebrated Attok, 
or Indus, distant six kos. The road is good 
and smooth. It lies across the plain, leaving 
the long isolated hill noticed above, on the left. 
About the fifth mile the offshoots of the hill 
on which the fort is situated are reached, and 
the road then turns to the river. Two kos 
from the last ground we passed a Baoli, lately 
dug by Ranjeet Singh, which is a great blessing 


to passengers in the hot season, as there is no 
village nearer than four kos. At the fourth 
kos crossed the bed of a Nala. It is celebrated 
for the battle fought between Diwan Mohkam 
Chand, the famous Sikh general, and Vazir 
Fateh Khan, in which the latter was totally 
defeated and repulsed with great loss. From 
that time the Sikhs have been constantly vic- 
torious over the Afghans, and either taken 
their territory or invaded their tributaries. 

On approaching the camp, the Shah Zada 
and the Mission were met by the Thanehdar of 
Attok, and conducted by him to our tents, 
under a salute from the ramparts of the fort. 
After reaching our encampment, which was 
pitched about a kos and a half from it, we 
went to see the stream of the Indus, of which 
we had heard so much, and the roaring of 
which we heard at half a kos off ; but on our 
arrival at the banks, we found that it was 
merely a branch of that river, and that the 
main stream ran at some distance. The bank 
on which we stood was only six cubits high. 
It is said that on the rise of the river it is 


overflowed. The water appeared very clear 
and cold, and the progress of the stream 

While standing on the bank we amused 
ourselves by throwing stones across the stream, 
and observed several pieces of shining stone, 
which convineed us that there was a coal mine, 
or some beds of it, in the neighbourhood. If 
scientific researches were made, it is believed 
that they would meet with success. Letters 
arrived from the people in the Peshawr terri- 
tory, expressive of their anxiety for the arrival 
of the Shah Zada. Among others, a letter 
from Mir Afzal Khan, residing near Ganda* 
muk. He offered to excite his tribe, and to 
harass Mahomed Akbar Khan at Jalalabad, 
but that he was straiteued for want of means. 
A reply was sent by Colonel Wade, admiring 
Afzal Khan's devotion and zeal in the royal 
cause, and informing him that on the Shah 
Zada's arrival, measures would be taken to 
meet his wishes. 

Halted eleven days in the plain of Attok, 
to obtain some news of the army of the Indus 


before we arrived at Peshawr, and to open a 
communication with Lieutenant Mackeson, now 
Major, who was coming by the Derajat to raise 
the Afghans in that quarter, and to combine his 
movements with our own. Crossed the river 
Indus by a bridge of boats, and encamped on 
the opposite bank near the fort of Khairabad, 
three kos distant. Road good till within a 
mile of the fort of Attok, where it becomes 
narrow, and passes over a hard polished rock 
to the town : it then descends to the bridge of 
boats. The wheeled carriages proceeded round 
the rock. After leaving the carriage-way, we 
passed by the ruins of an old Sarae, where 
Kqfilasuse to put up. Shah Shujah, during his 
sojourn at Attok, occupied the same place. 
Two shrines to the left are also visible. They 
are dedicated to two Mussulman Darweishes 
Sultan Sudruddin and Hazratji. Close to 
them is the tomb of a celebrated courtezan. 
There are also a Baoli and a well within the 

On our way to camp we went to see the fort 
of Attok, within the walls of which is contained 

i 2 


the town. It is built, as I have said, on a 
spur of the hill, which rises behind it, and 
slopes towards the river, consequently the in- 
side of it is seen from the opposite bank. It is 
likewise commanded from one or two emi- 
nences on the left bank ; hut it is a well- 
constructed fortification for the time in which 
it was made, when the use of artillery was 
little known in these countries. The western 
side of it is formed by the outline of the 
rock, which is washed by the river. There 
are ravines on two sides and the river on 
the third ; hut such are the changes of the 
world, that Ranjeet Singh and his unlettered 
Sikhs are improving the works of Akbar the 
Great ! The dimensions of the fort and other 
details have, I believe, been accurately laid 
down by Major Leech of the Bombay engi- 
neers, who accompanied Sir Alexander Burnes 
to Kabul. The hills have been occupied by 
various tribes at different times, and I saw 
some ruins near the summit of one of the peaks 
which are said to belong to the Kafirs, and are 
from time immemorial. 

ATTOK. 173 

The hill of Attok may occupy with its spurs 
about two miles each way, or four square 
miles. It consists of several heights ; the 
lower portions are of slate rocks, and some of 
the highest peaks are likewise slate. Others 
again are limestone, of the spongy kind which 
we saw in several other places. At the base 
of the hills, but -at some length above the plain, 
there are quantities of pebbles of different sizes. 

There is no well inside the fort of Attok, 
but water is supplied from the river through 
a passage called Abduzd, which communicates 
with the river through a bastion about fifty feet 
high from the surface of the water. It is said 
the river once rose so high that it overflowed 
the walls of the Abduzd, and a boat ran into it. 
A story is that there was a Baradari or pavi- 
lion close to the Abduzd, but lately pulled down. 
Nadir Shah, the Persian Emperor, on his re- 
turn from India, stayed a night in this fort, 
during which a notorious thief came into it 
through the Abduzd from the other side of the 
river, and, climbing up the walls by means of 
striking nails into it, slowly glided into the 


room where the king was sleeping, and, find- 
ing him in a sound sleep, carried away his 
crown. In the morning the conqueror of 
India was astonished not to find his crown. 
Every search was made for it in vain. At last 
his Majesty proclaimed that if the robber 
would appear in person before him with the 
crown, he would not only be pardoned, but 
amply rewarded ; and the thief actually came 
and delivered the crown. Nadir Shah was 
highly pleased with his bold conduct, gave 
him a large reward, and exalted him to a high 
rank in his own service. 

The stream of the river is very rapid, deep, 
and narrow below the fort. It is very dan- 
gerous to be crossed in floods. If the boat is 
carried down between the two ledges of rock 
named Kamalia and Jamalia, there is little pro- 
bability of its safety from the fury of the waves 
which throw it against one or other of them 
and it is dashed to pieces. Scarcely a year 
passes that one or two boats are not wrecked on 
them. The Indus, four or five kos above Attok 
before it receives the waters of the Kabul river, 


is divided into three or four branches, and is 
full of islands and dry banks. There the river 
is a ford. Ranjeet Singh forded it twice or 
thrice at the same point ; but the Sikhs have an 
idea that it never becomes fordable, and the 
fording of Ranjeet Singh is ascribed by them 
to a miracle wrought by the favour of their 
Guru, or patron saint. The Indus, after leaving 
its rocky channel below Attok, and entering the 
plains of the Derajat, becomes very calm and 
gentle. Its banks above Attok are not above 
twelve feet high, and it evidently overflows 
annually the plains of Chach. The stream, in 
each of the many channels it has there, is 
rapid, and flows over a pebbly bottom with the 
noise of a cataract.* 

* " We watched this deeply interesting picture from some 
overhanging rocks, which bear on their surface such a 
high state of polish, that they have the appearance of being 
perfectly wet j but it arises, I conjecture, from the con- 
stant trituration of the sand, washed upon them during 
the rainy seasons. From the sharpness of their angles and 
the darkness of their hue, I concluded they were composed 
of an extremely hard stone ; but a few blows from a stick 
easily separated a portion, the fractures assuming regular 
shapes of a slaty substance."— Barr's Journal, p. 199. 


It is obvious that the plain of Chach was 
formerly a large lake, the outlet from which 
was through the chasm formed by the hills 
east and west of the fort of Attok, which have 
been gradually worn away, and the present 
deep and narrow channel of the Indus formed. 
The river washes the hills on both sides, and 
becomes very confined immediately above the 
fort, yet the stream is there two hundred and 
fifty feet across, with precipitous banks. 

There are traditions connected with the 
place about some ancient kings, which it 
might be worth while to gather together. 

In the reign of Akbar, and during the wars of 
the Great Mogul general, Man Singh Rahtore, 
with the Afghans, there being no boats, Akbar 
caused them to be built, and induced some 
of the people with him, soldiers, and others, to 
become boatmen, on whom he settled a piece 
of ground near at hand yielding five hundred 
rupees per annum, and agreed with them that 
they should maintain the ferry with six boats. 
This land is still the property of the boatmen ; 
but the Maharaja has built many other boats, 

BftlDGE OF BOATS. 177 

and every year has a bridge formed of them to 
keep open his communication with Peshawr. 
The bridge lasts from seven to eight months in 
twelve ; but from the violence of the torrent in 
the rainy months it is frequently broken and 
again put together. During the cold weather 
it is constructed just above the fort ; but in the 
spring and summer it is removed to a spot 
rather lower down, where it lasts till the stream 
becomes too strong for it. The banks of the 
river are inconvenient of ascent and descent; 
the boats are small ; the anchors are dropped 
at a great distance — perhaps four hundred or 
five hundred feet above where the bridge is to 
be formed — on account of the depth and ra- 
pidity of the current, to allow them to settle at 
a considerable angle. A boat will cost 300 
rupees, viz. wood 150, iron 60, labour 90. It 
is built in one and a half or two months, 
and will last seven or eight years, and then 
with repair four or five longer. The anchors 
are six cubits long, five broad, with eighty 
or one hundred mands' weight of stone en- 
closed in a basket. The cables are made of 

I 3 


a tough smooth bark like that of the palm 
in texture, procured from a tree which grows 
wild about the neighbouring hills. They wear 
away, however, on the rocky bottom in twenty- 
five or thirty days, and fresh anchors are then 

The river generally rises forty cubits; the 
extraordinary rise talked of as having happened 
about the year 1800, was forty-six cubits.* A 
boat, during the cold weather, will reach Kala- 
bagh (seventy-two kos) in three days, and in 
the rains in six hours ! The boatmen are re- 
quired to be very expert, and are better skilled 
in their profession than those of any other river 

* Another great rise took place, 1840, which over- 
flowed the country to a considerable extent. These inun- 
dations are common to the rivers of the Panjab from their 
beds within the mountains being frequently closed by a 
sudden avalanche of the precipice adjacent to them, which 
chokes the channel for many days ; and when the water has 
formed a passage for itself it rushes into the plains with 
awful force, and, sweeping everything before it, spreads to 
a great distance over the country. Dr. Jameson, who visited 
the Attok a short time after the last great rise, has pub- 
lished the result of his observations in an interesting paper 
in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society ' in Calcutta. 


of the Panjab. The fort of Khairabad, which 
is situated opposite to Attok, is of long stand- 
ing, but was destroyed and subsequently re- 
paired by Firoz Khan, Khatak, of Akorah. Its 
construction is of mud, and may be about a 
quarter of a mile in circumference. On sum- 
mits close to it are three watch-towers, which 
entirely command the fort of Attok. Ja- 
handad Khan, the Afghan governor of Attok, 
betrayed his master and delivered it over for a 
bribe to Ranjeet Singh. Since that time it has 
remained in the unmolested possession of the 

The neighbourhood of Attok is the scene of 
several bloody battles between the Afghans and 
the Sikhs, before the latter had taken final pos- 
session of Peshawr. 

Our encamping ground was spread over with 
stones, and confined ; supplies abundant, and 
procurable from the town in the fort. The 
right bank of the river is within the jurisdic- 
tion of Peshawr. 

While here we received news from Sindh of 
the rulers of that country having accepted the 


terms offered to them by the British Govern- 
ment, and that the army of the Indus would 
now advance onCandahar without further delay. 
Ranjeet Singh was informed of the event, and 
urgently requested by Lieutenant-Colonel Wade 
not to defer answering the letters which had 
already been addressed to him on several im- 
portant points, and also to despatch the Maho- 
medan contingent of his troops, commanded by 
a good and wise officer, either European or Ma- 
homedan, and to give him particular injunc- 
tions to adhere strictly to the conditions of the 
tripartite treaty. In the same letter Ganda 
Singh, the Thanehdar or commandant of Attok, 
was praised foi 4 his good behaviour towards the 
Mission and the Shah Zada; but Peshawra 
Singh, one of the supposed sons of his Highness, 
who is the governor of the place, was blamed 
for his inattention.* The Maharaja was likewise 
informed of the intention of her Britannic 
Majesty to despatch for his Highness some 

* He afterwards behaved in the same manner to Major 
Ferris's detachment ; and on the further representation of 
Colonel Wade was removed from his situation. 


presents from England ; and that among other 
things expected were a number of guns. The 
Maharaja was further requested to issue the 
necessary orders to his officers towards Derah 
Ismael Khan to facilitate the progress of Lieu- 
tenant Mackeson, who was on his way from 
Bhaualpur to join the Mission. 

Intelligence was received that Mahomed 
Afzal Khan, who was sent to Kuram by his 
father at the same time that Mahomed 
Akbar Khan was despatched to Jalalabad, had 
returned to the latter place and joined his 
brother, and that the chiefs of Kuram were 
more favourable to the royal cause than that of 
Dost Mahomed Khan, and would do their best 
to throw off the authority of the latter. 

News was likewise received from Peshawr 
to the effect that the merchants of Kabul, for 
fear of the arbitrary exactions of Dost Maho- 
med Khan to meet the expenses of the war, 
were removing the whole of their valuable pro- 
perty to some secure place, and had written to 
their agents in foreign towns and cities to stop 
the despatch of any merchandise to Kabul. It 


was further stated that in Turkistan, as well as 
in Kabul, there was such a heavy fall of snow 
on the 9th of February that the oldest persons 
had never witnessed any like it, — an event 
which had further alarmed Dost Mahomed Khan, 
as it would delay the return of his troops from 
Balkh, who had to cross the Hindu Koosh. 

We learn that General Avitabile has issued a 
proclamation to the effect that if any traveller 
from Kabul should put up in the house of an 
inhabitant in Peshawr, and go away without 
the General being previously informed, the 
host would be liable to a severe penalty. 

During the time that we were halted near 
Attok, instructions were sent off to Lieutenant 
Mackeson, to join the Mission, informing him 
of the intended plan of operations, and direct- 
ing him to proceed, via Dereh Ismael Khan, to 
Kohat, and to await there for further orders. 
By advancing along the hills in that direction, 
it was thought that he might create a diversion 
in favour of our own advance from Peshawr, 
when the time came to act in concert with 
Shah Shujah and the army of the Indus to lay 


open the road to Kabul. It was expected that 
the best mode of promoting that object would 
be for Lieutenant Mackeson to open communi- 
cations with the Afghan chiefs inhabiting the 
country lying directly south of Khaibar, for the 
purpose of conciliating and inviting them to 
co-operate with us in destroying the influence 
of the existing government of Kabul. 

In order to produce the desired impression 
on the minds of the people, Lieutenant Mac- 
keson was recommended, before leaving Derah 
Ismael Khan, to engage the service of four or 
five hundred matchlockmen, and about half 
that number of horse, composed chiefly of the 
natives of that town, who were known to be a 
brave and well-aftected race of men. The 
chiefs themselves were to be invited to join 
him either in person or by the deputation of 
some influential member of their families, and 
such of them as accepted the invitation would 
receive an allowance for their daily support 
with reference to their rank and importance ; 
holding out to them, besides pecuniary benefits, 
a confirmation of their established rights and 


privileges in the event of their services proving 
of real utility in securing the restoration of the 
Shah. The principal object of recommending 
Lieutenant Mackeson to follow the plan pro- 
posed, was to show ourselves in a part of the 
country where active operations were not 
likely to be expected by the enemy, and to 
relieve, by the presence of a British officer, 
the power which Mahomed Akbar Khan at 
Jalalabad, and Mahomed Afzal in Kuram, 
partly possessed by their position, of control- 
ling the actions of the chiefs, who were well 
affected to the royal cause in that quarter. 
Although it was not yet certain on what plan 
we might be obliged to act with a view of 
making our co-operation on the side of Pe- 
shawr as effective as possible with reference 
to the advance of the Shah and our troops from 
Shikarpore, to which we were told that every 
other plan was to be subsidiary, yet, from the 
present state of our information, the following 
is the mode which was explained as most likely 
to be carried out with the head-quarters of the 
Shah Zada. 


1. After our arrival at Peshawr, Sir Claude 
was to proceed to the reduction of Ali Masjid, 
either by the agency of the Khaibaris or that 
of the Sikhs, to secure the entrance of the pass 
of Khaibar. 

2. While engaged in effecting that object, 
with a view of distracting the attention of the 
enemy, and of keeping the Khaibaris in check, 
Mr. Lord and Lieutenant Mackeson were to be 
employed in the country on either side of the 
pass ; Mr. Lord proceeding ultimately towards 
Bajour, and the other to Kohat, and each 
regulating his advance according to the intelli- 
gence he might receive of our movements. 
To insure as much as possible the success of 
these diversions, and to pay for the levies 
ordered to be made, it was proposed to send 
with each party a sum of fifty thousand rupees, 
the expenditure of which was to be left to the 
discretion of the officers in charge to engage 
the services of the chiefs and tribes lying in 
their respective routes. 

With each party, exclusive of the peasantry 
of the country, were to be detached two com- 


panies of the Maharaja's Najibs, who are old 
and generally trustworthy soldiers, and a corps 
of matchlockmen, then being raised by Lieu- 
tenant Dowson and Ensign Hillersdon. 

From the assurances which had been received 
by the Lieutenant-Colonel and Mr. Lord from 
the various chiefs on the Peshawr frontier, there 
was every reason to believe that both diver- 
sions, especially the one towards Kohat, would 
be cordially supported. 

( 187 ) 

Chapter X. 

Akora — The Khataks — Firoz Khan — Sayed Baha-uddin 
seized by Akbar Khan— State of Kabul — Pabhi — The 
Momands — Chamkani — Irrigation — Shukhan — Machni 
— A flood — A' robbery — Retinue of Shah Zada — Du- 
plicity of the Court of Lahore — Ill-health of the Maha- 
raja — The Khaibari Chiefs — Assistance afforded by 
General Avitabile — Pir Mahomed Khan — Nawab Jab- 
bar Khan — Tura Baz Khan — State of Kabul. 

On the 9th of March we arrived at Akora ; 
distance, ten kos ; direction, north-westerly. 
Immediately on leaving the encamping ground 
near Khairabad, we passed through Gidargalli, 
or Jackal's Path, a narrow defile through a 
low rocky range of hills, and nearly two 
miles in length.* It is not very difficult, 

* " Its whole extent may be from one and a half to two 
miles ; and in the more exposed parts, Ranjeet Singh has 
erected a few castles, which are garrisoned by troops sta- 
tioned there for the purpose of securing the pass, as well 
as for the protection of travellers. The scene was one of 
great wildness, and fraught with excitement ; whilst the 
guards, armed with long matchlocks, and perched on the 


since it has been used and improved by General 
Avitabile, the present governor of Peshawr, who, 
having no further occasion for the pioneers 
whom he had been employing there and at At- 
tok, allowed Lieutenant-Colonel Wade to take 
them from him ; and they proved of the greatest 
service to us in erecting stockades and clearing 
the way through Khaibar for artillery. They 
were afterwards increased to two hundred and 
fifty men, and put in charge of an officer. 
About the middle of the pass is situated a Burj, 
or tower, on a height to the left. A party of 
sepoys is always established here to protect 
the road, which formerly was infested by the 
Khatak people who occupy the neighbouring 
hills; but they are apparently now on good 
terms with the Sikhs. The rest of the road 
was good, but here and there spread over with 
stones. About three and a half kos from the 
last encamping ground we passed the dry bed 
of a Nala. During the floods it swells very 

extremity of a jutting crag, paced to and fro on their ele- 
vated and confined posts, and added much to the pic- 
turesqueness of the effect." — Barr's Journal, p. 200. 


high, and stops the communication for some 
time. Midway passed by Jahangira, about half 
a mile off to the right. It was raining very 
hard, and I stayed for a few minutes with my 
friend, named Haidar Ali Khan, commanding 
a party of four hundred Sowars, and one piece 
of cannon, belonging to Sirdar Nihal Singh 
Aluwalia, who is stationed here, and has a 
small katcha fort, near which the Sowars are 
pitched for the protection of the road, and to 
overawe the neighbouring tribes. 

When the rain had ceased, we proceeded to 
the camp at Akora. The celebrated battle be- 
tween Saved Ahmad and the Sikhs was fought 
on the plains of Jahangira and Akora, on 
which occasion the Sayed was totally defeated, 
and retired to the Eusafzai country. The Sikhs 
had not much reason to be proud of the victory 
which they had gained, as they lost a great 
many men, and their general, Budh Singh, one 
of the finest Sirdars of the Sindhanwalia family, 
and a great favourite of the Maharaja. 

We are now in the Khatak territory, which 
begins at Khairabad, and ends at the village 


of Zarah, near Naoshera, as far as Haran, on 
the Eusafzai frontier ; and on the south is 
bounded by Lachi and Dherian, the frontier 
of Dour Banoo. It is a large tribe, consisting 
of many thousand families. They were long 
in enmity with the Sikhs, and fought many 
battles with them. The ground is covered 
with graves.* 

* " After quitting it (Gidargalli) we emerged on to a 
fine champagne country, which, however, bears but few 
marks of cultivation — a measure soon explained to us by 
the thousands of tombs spread on every side. These are 
constructed with much care, and particular attention seems 
to have been paid to preserve their individuality, each grave 
being marked out by a row of white pebbles encircling the 
mound, and crossed in its breadth by two or three bands of 
the same ; beneath them lie the bodies of countless num- 
bers who have fallen in battle, and the vastness of the col- 
lection displays the bold spirit with which the Afghans 
opposed the encroachments of the Sikhs. Although several 
years have elapsed since these engagements occurred, the 
same spirit of animosity still exists between the two na- 
tions ; but from the circumstance of the Maharaja having 
obtained the entire ascendancy of the country, nothing 
beyond a solitary assassination is now heard of unless when 
the hill-tribes of the Khataks descend from their fastnesses 
for the purpose of plundering an escort, and then a partial 
affray is sometimes brought about." — Barr's Journal, p. 201. 


As long as Firoz Khan, their enterprising 
chief (a native of Akora), was alive, they did 
not allow the Sikhs to gain a permanent foot- 
ing on the right bank of the Indus on the 
Peshawr side ; but after his death they were 
able to establish themselves across the river. 
The sons of Firoz Khan, who were formerly 
with Sultan Mahomed Khan, the ex-chief of 
Peshawr, were among those who joined the 
Shah Zada at Lahore, and are now serving 

The Khataks now pay a certain annual re- 
venue to the Sikhs, and their chief is Najaf 
Khan, the cousin of Firoz Khan. At heart 
the Khataks do not like the Sikh authority, 
but they are subdued. On the approach of 
the Shah Zada, they expressed their readiness 
to join him and to shake off the yoke which 
has been imposed on them by the Sikhs ; 
but, agreeably to the existing treaty, they 
were prevented by Sir Claude Wade from 
doing so. The Khatak hills produce nothing 
remarkable, with the exception of a grass 
called Haran-latia, which is used by the na- 

192 AKORA. 

tives to improve the sight of their eyes. There 
is abundance of fuel also in this quarter, and 
Peshawr is much dependent on these hills for 
supplies of it. 

We encamped on the right bank of the 
Kabul river close to Akora, which is rather a 
small and confined town chiefly inhabited by 
Mussulmans, there being only a few Hindu 
shopkeepers in the towns west of the Indus. 
The tract of country along the bank of the 
river is called Tari, or a morass, and irrigation 
generally is by wells. The district is farmed 
to a Hindu named Piara Mai : his rule is not 
said to be very oppressive, like the other Sikh 

I have hitherto omitted to mention that 
lately Sayed Baha-uddin, the ruler of Kunar, 
has been seized by Mahomed Akbar Khan 
on the charge of holding a secret correspond- 
ence with the Shah Zada. 

It appears on further inquiry that he was 
apprehended by a stratagem when he was on 
a visit to Mahomed Akbar Khan at Jalalabad. 
The Sayed, being suspicious of the young 


Sirdar's want of faith, did not, however, go 
to him without previously exchanging solemn 
pledges on the Koran, viz., that he would 
not be molested either in his person or terri- 
tory ; but these were merely idle words, for, as 
soon as the Sayed fell into the hands of Ma- 
homed Akbar, he was treacherously seized, 
and troops sent to take possession of his 
territory. Such acts of treachery are com- 
monly followed throughout the whole of Af- 
ghanistan, especially among persons of high 
rank. The Sayed is said to have been sent to 
Kabul, where he remains in confinement in 
the fort of Bala Hisar ; but the circumstance 
of his being a Sayed will most probably secure 
him the safety of his life.* The territory of 
Kunar has been subsequently occupied by the 
troops sent by Mahomed Akbar Khan, and 
the family of the Sayed, after a bold resistance, 
expelled. It lies on the eastern frontier of 
the Kafir Siahposh, and has now been farmed 
to Sayed Hashim, a rival of the ex-ruler. So 
gross a breach of faith in the Amir and his son 
* A descendant of the Prophet. 


194 DELAYS, 

has offended all his vassals: among others, 
Sadat Khan Momand, who is allied to Sayed 
Baha-uddin by some family connexion, appears 
highly displeased. 

News was received here of Lieut.-Col. Stod- 
dart's arrival at Bokhara, and of the refusal of 
Mir Morad Beg of Koonduz to abide by the 
treaty which he had lately concluded with 
Akram Khan, which is gratifying intelligence. 

10th. — Halted at Akora on account of the 
heavy rain yesterday having made the roads 

Numbers of people are now joining the Shah 
Zada. If the chief of any party now arrives, 
he comes with some state. A party of native 
musicians plays before him, and he proceeds 
very slowly, surrounded by a large party of 
followers, to show that he is a man of some 

A letter was again despatched to the Maha- 
raja, informing him that the escort which was 
promised by his Highness for the Shah Zada 
was not yet complete ; that among others, 
Jamaluddin Khan, ofMamdot, who was ordered 


to join him at Hasan Abdal with a party of 
one hundred Sowars, had failed to do so, and 
had only arrived at Attok, and with a party of 
fifteen or sixteen Sowars ; that these delays 
at such a critical time were highly detrimental 
to the object in view ; that neither had any 
account yet been received about the Maho- 
medan contingent ; that it was advisable to 
instruct the officers at Peshawr to make a 
selection from the various corps under their 
command of all the Mahomedans in each, and 
on the arrival of the Shah Zada to place them 
at the disposal of the Lieut. -Colonel, for the pro- 
tection of the Shah Zada, now that the prince 
was about to arrive on the enemy's frontier. He 
was further informed that a letter to the same 
effect had been lately addressed to General 
Avitabile, apprizing him of the Shah Zada's 
near approach, and requesting him, agreeably 
to the treaty and the paper of conditions 
exchanged between Lord Auckland and the 
Maharaja at Lahore, to receive the Shah 
Zada and the Mission on their arrival with 
proper consideration. It was also intimated 



to his Highness that no information had yet 
reached of the nomination of a Mahomedan 
commander, and he was urgently requested to 
appoint one. 

Wth. — Naoshehera. # Distance nine kos ; 
road good ; lying on level ground. The 
country open, and better cultivated than the 
last march. The town of Naoshehera is 
situated on the left bank of the Lundi or 
Kabul river, but our encamping ground is close 
to a small fort opposite Naoshehera, and on 
the right bank. Supplies easily procurable. 
Water from the river. Near this spot was 
fought the great battle which took place be- 
tween Ranjeet Singh and Sirdar Mahomed 
Azim Khan, Barakzai. The main army of the 
Sikhs was situated on the left, and the Afghan 
chief with his. troop on the right bank ; but the 
brunt of the action was sustained by the Eusaf- 

* " As we neared the town of Nao Shehera, the scene 
became almost English ; the sloping banks on either side 
of the stream being covered with verdant grass, and fringed 
with mulberry and other trees, and the distant views 
bounded by ranges of hills enclosing the expanding valley. " 
— Barr's Journal, p. 208. 


zais, and other neighbouring tribes, the pea- 
santry of the country, who came down in masses 
to oppose the Sikhs, and attacked them with 
such boldness that for a time they were vic- 
torious, and the Sikhs were seen retreating 
before them ; but Ranjeet Singh rallied his 
troops, and sent General Ventura with a large 
party of infantry to their support ; which led to 
the enemy being defeated with great slaughter. 
The French officers had not at that time been 
long in the Maharaja's service. General 
Allard was watching Azim Khan with the 
cavalry on the right bank, who retreated before 
him almost without fighting.* 

To-day we received news from Jalalabad 
that near Soorkhab the snow was so heavy 
that a party of merchants who were on their 
way from Peshawr to Kabul, and took shelter 
under a loose ledge of rock, were buried under 

* " One mound in particular was the subject of severe 
fighting. Three times did the Sikhs gain its vantage 
ground, and three times were they driven back. The 
Maharaja at length advanced in person at the head of his 
guards, and drove the Afghans from their position ; the 
day was then his own." — Barr's Journal, p. 209. 


it, the projection having sunk down under the 
weight of the snow with which it was covered. 
Only an infant of a year old was saved out of 
ten or twelve lives. 

Dost Mahomed Khan now distrusts all 
the Kabul people, except Hafizji, to whom he 
has lately married one of his daughters. He 
intends to send him with the peasantry of the 
Kohistan to defend the Khaibar pass. Dost 
Mahomed has lately received an explicit 
reply from the agent deputed to Persia that 
Mahomed Shah would not comply with the 
Amir's request, as the Shah could not assist him 
till he had made himself master of Hirat. 

Letters were also received by Dost Maho- 
med Khan from the Candahar chiefs, asking 
his advice how to proceed in the present exi- 
gency. The Amir replied that he could not 
go to their assistance, but that they had better 
make preparations for a protracted siege. 

News was likewise received from Lahore to 
the effect that the province of Kashmir had 
been lately farmed out to Kharak Singh ; a 
circumstance which convinced us that Ranjeet 

PABHI. 199 

Singh considered his end very nigh. Golab 
Singh, taking advantage of the Maharaja's 
declining health, had been actively exerting 
himself of late to prepare the way for the esta- 
blishment of his own authority in that quarter; 
which having come to the ears of Ranjeet 
Singh, he thought it prudent to confer it at 
once on his son, which gave great offence to 
the Jammoo family, and they began to intrigue 
with Nao Nibal Singh for the subversion of 
Kharak Singh's power, whom they knew to be 
popular with the Sikhs, as the only legitimate 
heir to the throne.* 

\2th. — Pabhi, a small village, situated on 
a rising and sloping ground ; supplies pro- 
curable, and the encamping ground exten- 
sive, and abundance of good water. The de- 
scription of the road the same as yesterday.f 

* Golab Singh's ambition has at length been gratified 
by the almost total destruction of the family of his bene- 
factor and the ruin of the Sikh government to secure his 
own power. 

\ " The country, during the latter portion of our morn- 
ing's march, exhibited many more traces of cultivation 
than we have hitherto seen in the valley, but the graves 


We are now in the territory of the Momands. 
Their possessions commence at the village of 
Badarshi, five kos from Akora, on the road to 

The Momands are a large and very influen- 
tial tribe, and occupy two distinct tracts of 
country. One portion, the head of which is 
Sadat Khan of Lalpura, inhabits the hills to 
the north of the Khaibar Pass ; while the other 
occupies the country which is now the subject 
of our observation. The last possess five 
tappas, or cantons, viz., Badarshi, Musazai, 
Badaheir, Musa Khail, and Musrazae. With 
the exception of Badarshi, the other four are 
situated on the banks of the Bara stream, which 

were still sufficiently numerous to remind us of the severe 
contests that had been fought in it at no very distant 
period ; they were, however, as nothing compared with 
those of the two preceding journeys. In some parts, where 
the plain had been left undisturbed, and was covered with 
a thick green sward, it was delightful to observe the pro- 
fusion of wild and sweet-smelling flowers with which it 
was bedecked, and many of which forcibly reminded us of 
the fields of England, the most common being the dande- 
lion, which, however, does not attain to the size of that at 
home." — Barr's Journal, pp. 212, 213. 


chiefly supplies water both for drinking and 
irrigation. The head of the Momands, who 
are estimated to amount to many thousand 
families, is Karim Khan, of the Kela of Mohsou 
Khan. He is said to be a good man. This 
tribe and the Khalils, who lie between it and 
the other Momands under Lalpura, are gene- 
rally in difference with each other, and the one 
secretly tries to baffle the interest of the other. 
The tribe of Karim Khan has an extensive 
range of territory, commencing from Badarshi. 

There is a story at Pabhi that a saint who is 
buried here is well known to have cured many 
persons afflicted with leprosy, and canine con- 
vulsions ; and that at present also many are 
known to have recovered from distempers of 
that nature, merely by resorting to the tomb 
of the Saint. 

On the 13th of March we came to Cham 
Kani, distance seven kos — road good. Crossed 
several small canals cut from the Bar a for the 
purpose of irrigation. To the north of Cham- 
kani crossed the Bara by a bridge, and en- 
camped on a fine level spot of ground. About 

k 3 

202 THE BARA. 

two kos off from Chamkani the Shah Zada 
and the Mission were met by a deputation 
from Peshawr, at the head of which was Ge- 
neral Avitabile, which conducted them with 
due honour to the camp, and a salute was 
fired from the city in honour of his arrival. 

No sooner had we arrived, than numbers of 
people came to visit us from Peshawr, four 
kos distant, and several from the neighbouring 
villages voluntarily came and entered the ser- 
vice of the Shah Zada. Among the former 
were the Shah Zadas Jamhur, and Mahomed 
Saleh, the sons of Shah Zada Mahomed Ha- 
shim, who joined the camp with a view to 
serve their relative the Shah in the present 
expedition for the recovery of the Sadozai 

The Bara takes its rise in the Tirah country, 
in a hill named Rajzal ; immediately after 
issuing from which it is divided into three 
branches : one of them, called the Bodsoorkh, 
or the red stream, from the colour of its water, 
passes through the Ishpin country, and joins 
the Kabul river near Sultanpore, seven kos 


above Jalalabad. The second branch is the 
Bara, which name, I am told, it takes on its 
entrance into the Peshawr territory. After 
many windings it falls into the Kabul river at 
Zakhi, five kos below Chamkani. The culti- 
vation of Peshawr entirely depends on the 
irrigation of Bara. Several artificial canals 
are cut from it by the zamindars and villagers 
for the purpose of irrigating their cultivation. 
The water is also red in colour, and exceed- 
ingly good and digestive. On a particular 
piece of ground in the village of Sanja, just 
within the three tappas occupied by the 
Khalil people, the best rice and remarkably 
fine, called Bara, is produced. In a season of 
drought the water of the Bara is sometimes 
exhausted altogether, and then the people of 
Peshawr and its vicinity are very much dis- 
tressed. The only course to which they resort 
on such occasions is to assemble in large 
crowds near a temple dedicated to a Maho- 
medan Saint in the village of Sheikhan, seven 
kos off, to the south of Peshawr, and sacrifice 
several oxen in the bed of the Bara. The tra- 

204 MACHNI. 

dition is that no sooner is their offering made 
than it rains in torrents, and the bed of the 
river is again filled with water, and even over- 
flows its banks. I do not credit the story, but 
it is superstitiously believed and related to be 
so, by the natives. In the village of Sheikhan, 
on the banks of the Bara, there is another 
temple belonging to the Hindus, where a large 
fair takes place on the festival of the Bisakhi. 
There are many caves which have been dug 
for the use of the Joghis, many of whom reside 
there. The third stream, the name of which 
I forget, takes its course into the Kohat and 
the Bangish country, and falls into the Indus, 
twelve or thirteen kos below the fort of 

These three streams are said to be nearly 
equal in their breadth, and to possess equally 
good water, and of the same colour ; but it is 
not until it has been kept in a pot for some time 
that it turns out clear. 

Machni is a thriving town of the Momands. 
Loads of Kabul fruits are brought to it. The 
merchants, either from the Panjab or Kabul, 


alight there. The latter generally come in the 
cold weather, as they are not able to brook 
the hot climate of Peshawr in summer. The 
transit duties levied in Machni amount alto- 
gether to twenty-one thousand rupees per 
annum. Rice, wheat, and barley, are abun- 
dantly produced ; also jawari* and the sugar- 
cane are cultivated. 

A report was received from Mir Alam Khan 
announcing the intention of Mahomed Akbar 
to proceed against him, and requesting our 
assistance ; he stated that the troubles in his 
territory were owing principally to the family 
divisions between himself and Mir Khan, Nao- 
waghi; that it was never supposed Mahomed 
Akbar would engage in another quarter, when 
the Shah Zada arrived at Peshawr with the 
avowed object to open the pass of Khaibar. 
Mir Alam Khan's application was not complied 
with, but he was desired, in case the enemy 
should advance against him, to collect the 
people of his tribe and make a vigorous de- 
fence, and that on receiving intimation of the 
* An Indian corn. 

206 A FLOOD. 

event means would be taken to make a diver- 
sion in his favour. 

14th. — Remain at Chamkani. Last night 
it rained very severely, and continued so du- 
ring the day from time to time. Our camp 
being pitched on a tilled ground, we could 
hardly move out of the tents on account of the 
deep mud about them. The Bara rose very 
high, and its current was exceeding rapid and 
noisy. One of the arches of the bridge before 
mentioned gave way, and was carried down by 
the fury of the flood. The communication 
between the town and the camp was cut off, 
and we were much straitened for want of sup- 
plies until the swelling of the river was lowered 
and the people could ford it. 

We heard that last night a gang of Dacoits, 
or thieves, broke into the city of Peshawr, and 
carried away some valuable property belonging 
to a wealthy Hindu merchant, one of whose 
men was killed, and one severely wounded. 
General Avitabile prevented the deceased from 
being burnt, on the plea that his family de- 
served to be punished for not repairing the 


wall, through which the party of Dacoits came. 
After much discussion, a fine of 2000 rupees 
was exacted from the family before the de- 
ceased was allowed to be burnt. Such fines 
are set apart to improve the fortifications of the 
city. Some idea of the manner in which jus- 
tice is here administered may be formed from 
the above anecdote ; but the people require to 
be governed by very severe laws. 

A reply was received to-day from Ranjeet 
Singh to the letter regarding the detention of 
the detachment, with the two howitzers, at 
Harikee for two days, in which it was attempted 
to lay the blame on the officer commanding it 
by those who had now begun to interfere with 
the just views of the Maharaja, when the delay 
was known to have proceeded from the neglect 
of the Sikh authorities, of whom reports were 
now received from every quarter that they 
were trying secretly to thwart us, and throw 
every possible obstacle in the way of our pro- 

15th. — Still at Chamkani. The day was 
employed in preparing some necessary equip- 


merits, and completing the household of the 
Shah Zada. Four officers were added to his 
personal retinue, viz., a Zabtbegi, an Amla- 
bashi, an Arzbegi, and a Nasakhchibashi.* 
They were directed to employ twenty-five 
Sowars each of those who had offered, and to 
accompany the Shah Zada, whenever he went 
out, as his body guard. Proper dresses were 
provided for these, as well as his other re 
spectable servants in attendance, so that his 
Highness might assume a becoming import- 
ance in the eyes of the people of Peshawr 
when he entered that city as the representative 
of his father. 

\6th. — Camp, as before, at Chamkani. Wa- 
hab Malik, accompanied by some influential 
persons of the Kukikhail tribe, arrived in 
camp. He offered his services in opening the 
pass, with the assistance of a part of the Shah 
Zada's troops. Wahab and his companions 
occupy the lands immediately to the right of 
the pass between Jamrud and Ali Masjid. 
They are in enmity with Abdurrahman and 
* Offices of state. 


some others, the chief persons of the tribe, 
from not being allowed to share the allowance 
settled by Dost Mahomed Khan on their tribe. 
Wahab further proposed that he and his 
men would go and bring back to the camp 
one hundred and fifty Jazailchis stationed in 
the fort of Ali Masjid, whom he had previously 
consulted ; and at the same time desire the 
rest to join him ; and that, if they refused, he 
would attack the fort, which contained a very 
small garrison, and take it. He also begged 
that, if he were successful, all the Afridis who 
had joined Mr. Lord might be sent to assist 
him in maintaining his ground ; and requested 
an advance of three hundred rupees for dis- 
tribution among his partisans. 

As the time for operations had not yet 
arrived, though the opportunity was favourable, 
Wahab was only desired to return to his place, 
and quietly gain others of his tribe to his side, 
and also to try and induce the garrison to de- 
liver over the fort to the Shah Zada, for which 
they would be liberally rewarded. The man 
was accordingly dismissed, and presented with 


the money he demanded, besides being ho- 
noured by a khilat from the Shah Zada. 

Another circumstance which prevented us 
from profiting by the present opportunity was 
the information which we were surprised to 
receive from General Avitabile, on our arrival 
at Chamkani, that neither he nor any of the 
Sirdars at Peshawr had yet received the in- 
structions of their master to co-operate in the 
present expedition, although deceitful assu- 
rances to the contrary had been given. This 
news was, of course, very vexatious, especially 
as but slight aid was then required from the 
Sikhs at Peshawr to effect the object of seizing 
the fort of Ali Masjid before its garrison was 
increased, there being then only about fifty Ja- 
zailchis all together in it, and they could not have 
long held out against a large and disciplined 
force ; but the Sikhs, as I have stated above, 
seem resolutely determined to defeat rather 
than assist us in our operations. The Maha- 
raja alone appears somewhat sincere to his 
pledges and engagements in the tripartite 
treaty. We hear, however, that he is too sick 


and feeble to do any business, and is said to 
have entirely lost his speech. Public affairs are 
consequently managed by Raja Dhian Singh 
and his other courtiers, who are strongly op- 
posed to the scheme, and know that we are too 
far off to counteract their opposition in per- 
son ; and they have succeeded in bribing the 
news- writers of our government at court, on 
whose reports no further dependence can now 
be placed. The Governor- General has been 
requested, therefore, to adopt the only course 
left, viz., of deputing an officer to Lahore, to 
give full effect to our requisitions.* 

Letters were received from the Khaibar 
chiefs, in reply to those which were addressed 
to them from the Jehlam to join the Shah 
Zada. They expressed their sincere devotion 
to the cause of the Shah, but begged to be 
excused from attending his son, as their host- 
ages were still in the hands of Mahomed 

* In consequence of which Mr. G. R. Clerk, who had 
been appointed to act for Sir C. M. Wade on the frontier 
of the Sutledge, in the absence of the latter with the 
Shah Zada, was sent to Lahore. 


Akbar Khan. They were informed in reply, 
that if they could not attend in person, they 
should depute their sons or relations, or testify 
their fidelity in other ways by serving him se- 
cretly, by which they could be in no risk from 
the other side. They were further encouraged 
to persuade the garrison of Ali Masjid to join 
the Shah Zada, who would take them into his 
own service at ten rupees per mensem, besides 
rewarding them with khilats and a bounty of 
twenty-five rupees each on their arrival ; and 
were told also that the person who exerted him- 
self most in bringing them over should receive 
in addition a present of five rupees per head. 

It appears that the Khaibaris were alarmed 
on being misinformed that the pass would be 
forced and Ali Masjid garrisoned by the Sikh 
force. To remove these impressions from their 
minds, an explanatory letter was written to 
Abdurrahman Khan, the head of the Kuki- 
khail tribe occupying the pass near its en- 
trance between Ali Masjid and Jamrud, (the 
only people considered of importance in open- 
ing the way,) who was assured that, agreeably 


to the tripartite treaty, the Sikhs could not in- 
terfere in any affairs beyond their boundary ; 
that, if surrendered, Ali Masjid would only be 
occupied by a garrison of Mahomedans from 
the Shah Zada's force ; that if the Sikhs, con- 
trary to treaty, ever attempted to enter Khai- 
bar, it would be resented by the British Go- 
vernment as well as by his Majesty the Shah. 
In case of Abdurrahman himself joining the 
Shah Zada, he was assured of the settlement 
on him and his tribe of the allowance which 
they enjoyed from Dost Mahomed Khan, be- 
sides other royal favours with which he would 
be distinguished for his services. On the 
other hand, if he held out, he was threatened 
with every misery which the invasion of a 
formidable army could inflict. 

A letter was also received by an agent from 
Inyet Ulla Khan, the chief of Sawat, expres- 
sive also of his sentiments of devotion to Shah 
Shuja. He was requested in reply to wait 
on the Prince, and informed that if he could 
not attend himself he should depute his son 
to the camp. 


\lih. — Chamkani. General Avitabile, 
though yet without any instructions from La- 
hore, being well informed of the articles of the 
tripartite treaty and his master's will, professed 
his own readiness to assist the Mission in for- 
warding its objects, but of course without in- 
curring any responsibility which might exceed 
the ordinary exercise of his authority. In 
compliance with the request of Sir Claude 
Wade, he issued a proclamation to the people 
of the Peshawr territory, declaring the terms 
of the tripartite treaty, with an assurance that 
there was no objection on the part of the Sikh 
Government to any Mussulman joining the 
Shah Zada ; in short, that the interests of 
the two states in the present enterprise were 
identical. Such a manifesto was much re- 
quired to remove suspicions from the minds of 
the Mahomedans about Peshawr, who feared 
incurring the displeasure of the Sikh Govern- 
ment from joining the Shah Zada — to such 
a degree had the opinion got abroad that it 
was averse to the measure. 

An agent on the part of the Prince was at 


the same time sent into Khaibar to inform the 
people there of the real views and intentions 
of the Shah assisted by the British Govern- 
ment, and also to induce if possible the garri- 
son of Ali Masjid to desert and come over to 
the Shah Zada. 

Letters were received from several people 
of the Afridi and other tribes that they wished 
to join the Shah Zada, on condition of not being 
molested by the Sikhs. Such of them as were 
thought worthy of consideration were desired to 
come, and the rest directed to await further 

It is customary with these people, when they 
offer their services in camp, to advance extra- 
vagant claims, and " Kharechbadeh " (Give 
money) or " Gursana-am" (I am hungry) is 
the exclamation in every mouth. Being so 
avaricious, no present is sufficient to satisfy 
them. We are exceedingly plagued by their 
greedy demands. Many of them come with 
no other view than to make money. It is 
difficult to draw a distinction between the 
good and bad. They all solemnly declare their 


fidelity by oaths, yet think nothing of betraying 
their masters. Some of the Afridis who joined 
ns at Rawelpindee lately deserted the camp 
after they had filled their pockets. 

The Barakzai family of Peshawr is still 
suspected of treachery, though they have been 
trying to cleanse themselves of the reproach. 
A letter was received from Pir Mahomed 
Khan, the brother of Sultan Mahomed Khan, 
who expressed in strong terms his good will. 
In consequence, however, of his connexion with 
Dost Mahomed, no implicit faith was placed 
in his word, and no answer has been returned. 

News also came to-day from Kuram that 
Mahomed Afzal Khan, in his retreat from 
that country, was attacked by the natives, and 
a large booty carried off from his party ; a 
proof of the inclination of the people towards 
the Shah, and of the hope of assistance enter- 
tained from them. 

Dost Mahomed Khan seems to be much 
alarmed. He is said to have taken away his 
artillery from the natives of India in his ser- 
vice, and to have put his guns in charge of the 


Ghilzais, the only people in whom he places 
much confidence. Mahomed Akbar Khan is 
stated to have ordered a collection of supplies 
to be made in Dhaka, but the report requires 
further confirmation, as he is said, by good 
authorities, to have no intention of proceeding 
so far towards Khaibar. 

A very important letter was received to-day 
from Nawab Jabbar Khan, brought by one of 
his own trustworthy men, viz., after acknow- 
ledging the receipt of a letter which had been 
addressed to him, the Nawab stated that, on 
the occasion of Captain Burnes's visit to Kabul, 
that officer had at first adopted a conciliatory 
line of policy, but in the end had changed his 
tone, which had not given satisfaction; that 
the Nawab had then offered his humble advice, 
which was not, however, accepted ; that now 
when matters had come to their present crisis, 
lakhs of rupees would be expended to carry 
out the enterprise, and it had been learned from 
the Akhbars* that Sultan Mahomed Khan had 
been excluded from the scheme. He was of 
* The Persian term for newspapers. 



opinion that the plan was not a right one ; that 
although his country and the Afghans were 
not remarkable for their power of discrimina- 
tion, while the English were a very acute race, 
and eminent for wisdom, and had probably 
come to a just conclusion, yet the accuracy of 
their decision had eluded the penetration of 
the Afghans ; but from a regard to the welfare 
of every party it had occurred to him that 
before an actual collision took place, negotia- 
tions should be re-opened with the Amir, that 
he would engage to conclude them, and, please 
God, peace might yet be satisfactorily esta- 
blished ; that an intimation to that effect was 
alone wanting, and it would be to the credit of 
all parties ; whereas, if the dispute continued, 
it was impossible to foresee the consequences 
to which it might lead. 

Right or wrong, these sentiments accorded 
neither with the policy of the British Govern- 
ment nor that of Shah Shuja. The settle- 
ment of the affair on the expected terms ap- 
peared very improbable ; as nothing short of 
the continuance of the government of Kabul 


in Dost Mahomed's possession was likely to 
satisfy him ; but as the Nawab had previously 
professed a desire to come over to Peshawr, 
and it was supposed that he could not effect 
his escape without hindrance, the present 
seemed a favourable opportunity to aid him 
in his project. He was therefore requested, in 
reply, to come to Peshawr, as the time for 
correspondence had passed ; and that, on his 
arrival, the subject of his letter could be ver- 
bally discussed better than by writing. It was 
thought that such a letter would give the 
Nawab a good excuse to effect his escape if 
that were his object. 

18th, Chamkani. — Continued here for the 
arrival of Captain Ferris's detachment of two 
companies of infantry, and the howitzers under 
Lieutenant Barr. The enemy have been trying 
to incite the Khaibaris to make night attacks 
on our camp as well as that of the Sikhs. 

Some of the Nihangs or Akalis, who were 
returning in the evening from some water- 
mills, were attacked by these freebooters, who 
were lying on the road in ambush for them ; 

l 2 


one of them was killed, and two or three 
wounded, and the rest had a narrow escape, 
throwing down, of course, the burthens of flour 
which they had with them. 

19th, Chamkani. — We had copious showers, 
during the last few days, which made a great 
havoc in the city of Peshawr, and a part of the 
Bala Hisar or Sameirgarh, as it is now called 
by the Sikhs, also fell down. 

20th, Chamkani. — Tura Baz Khan, the tar- 
bur or cousin of Sadat Khan Momand, wrote, 
requesting permission to join the Shah Zada. 
As the security of the Abkhana route (so called 
from lying along the heights on the left bank 
of the Kabul river) to Jalalabad, through the 
Momand territory, was considered of high im- 
portance in case the Khaibar people should 
refuse to open their pass ; and Tura Baz was 
an influential man of the same tribe, and in 
enmity with Sadat Khan, it was deemed ad- 
visable to accept his overture, as the latter was 
the only chief on the Peshawr side who had 
not yet given any proofs of attachment to the 
Shah's cause : and it was believed that if, as 


was feared, he persevered in his adherence to 
the enemy, Tura Baz Khan, together with his 
cousin and brother, who had already joined, 
would be the best tools to open the Abkhana 
route, and to harass their kinsman. 

As usual in such situations, reports became 
frequent that our camp would be attacked by a 
party of Mahomed Akbar's troops. In conse- 
quence, as we were only within a few miles of 
the enemy's frontier, the necessity of a well 
ordered camp, and a strict system of vigi- 
lance, became indispensable to our protection. 
Additional measures were therefore taken, and 
pickets so posted every night round the camp 
as to prevent surprise. To the present day no 
instance of theft has happened in our camp, 
though they have been of frequent occurrence 
in that of the Sikhs, who are not always 
vigilant, and encamp in a loose way. Our 
encampment is a compact square, divided in 
half, with the Shah Zada and his establish- 
ments on one side, and the British Mission 
with the Sikh escort on the other, the Rha- 
wanin, with their irregular retainers, being 


pitched outside. Captain Ferris, being on his 
way to join with treasure, was warned at the 
same time to be careful.* 

21 st, Chamkani. — General Avitabile enter- 
tained the members of the Mission to-day at 
breakfast. On his own part he is very atten- 
tive, and has been providing the whole camp 
gratis, since we entered his jurisdiction, with 
every necessary, such as fuel, forage, &c, 
though he has been repeatedly requested to 
discontinue these supplies. 

Some of the Qasids or hired messengers have 
been lately in the habit of forging letters in the 
name of any one whom they think most likely 
to have some interest with the Shah Zada or 

* " Colonel Wade had sent us word that once in Af- 
ghanistan it would be necessary to keep stricter guard than 
usual over the treasure, as the hills around swarm with a 
population who act upon 

' The simple plan 

That they should take who have the power, 
And they should keep who can.' 

Almost every individual whom we have seen has been 
armed with sword and shield, or in some other manner j and 
all around bespeaks the unsettled state of the country and 
its population." — Barfs Journal, pp. 196-198. 


the Mission, with a view of exacting presents 
from us; a trick which, I believe, has been 
greatly owing to the liberality with which they 
had been treated before our arrival. Besides 
rations while they remain in camp, which is 
a custom of the country, a sum of money is 
presented to them on their dismissal. Some 
forged letters were received to-day from the 
Khaibar chief Khan Bahadar Khan, and his 
son, by a Khaibari, who called himself one of 
his relatives. No sooner were the letters deli- 
vered, than his wickedness was discovered 
merely by a perusal of them. They were 
written in a different style to that which is 
generally used by the Khaibaris, whose letters 
are usually expressed in very rude and un- 
grammatical Persian. The man was disgraced 
and turned out of the camp. 

A letter was received from Ranjeet Singh 
enclosing a detailed list of the five thousand 
Mahomedans who were to form the contingent, 
which he said he had ordered to assemble at 
Peshawr ; but it appears theft these troops, with 
the exception of a party of about four hundred 


Sowars, were to come from a long distance. A 
portion was ordered from Multan, and another 
from the Doaba of Jahlandar, and some places 
not less than two hundred and fifty kos distant 
from Peshawr! This dilatory and evasive 
mode of producing the force, on the part of the 
officers who now ruled Ranjeet Singh's dar- 
bar, gave much vexation. It had months 
before been stipulated in the treaty that these 
troops were to be collected in Peshawr before 
our arrival. In consequence a reply was re- 
turned in very strong terms to his Highness, 
requiring the particular attention of his officers 
to the immediate fulfilment of his pledges. He 
was urged to send the troops without delay ; 
but as their early arrival was now quite im- 
possible, it was again intimated to the Ma- 
haraja that a portion of his troops forming the 
usual garrison of Peshawr should at once be 
transferred to us ; that General Avitabile and 
General Court had engaged to give us a 
Gorkha battalion, with two pieces of artillery 
and a howitzer and mortar, if his Highness 
had no objection 


Had General Avitabile, like the Sikh offi- 
cers of the Lahore Government in general, 
been averse to aid us, our camp would have 
been entirely exposed to the incursions of the 
Khaibaris, and our other predatory neighbours. 
The helpless state in which we had reached the 
frontier had been reported by our enemies to 
Dost Mahomed Khan, which had shaken the 
confidence of the Shah's friends in our power 
to support their demonstrations in his favour. 

22nd, Chamkani. — Intelligence was re- 
ceived from our agent, to whom I alluded 
above as having been sent into Khaibar, stating 
that the Khaibaris of the Kukikhail tribe, 
whom he had only just seen, were willing to 
adopt the cause of royalty, provided their old 
rights were previously confirmed to them. 
They also recommended that some sepoys of 
the enemy in Ali Masjid should be invited to 
join the Shah Zada, on an assurance of getting 
a higher rate of pay than they drew at present. 
A reply offering to confirm them in their 
actual rights was immediately returned. It 
ought not to be omitted here that these 

l 3 


people, as well as all rude nations, place great 
faith in their Pirs or religious patrons, and are 
guided or deceived by them according to their 
views and wishes ; but the Khaibaris are noto- 
riously a wicked race, and will mind their Pir 
only as long as their own interest is concerned. 
On the other hand, their Pirs are not less 
treacherous than themselves, and, to use a na- 
tive adage, " are bricks of the same kiln." 
The person whom we have employed as an 
agent to go amongst them is also a Pir, and 
we were inclined to place more confidence in 
his influence than in that of his disciples. 
The reason why he has been sent is that no 
one else could be found to communicate with 
them in safety. 

News was received from Kabul that Dost 
Mahomed, finding himself incapable of coping 
with the English, appeals to God, as people 
generally do in time of despair, to save him 
from impending destruction, and that he had 
employed a number of Mullas in the temple 
of Ashqaniarf to pray to the Almighty in his 

( 227 ) 

Chapter XL 

News from Herat — Remissness of the Sikh Authorities — 
A Darbar — Movements of Dost Mahomed — The Khai- 
baris — Delays of the Sikhs — The Khataks — Review of 
the Sikh Troops — Further Delays— Arrival of the Sikh 
Army — It halts at Attok— Force at Kabul — Excessive 
Heat — The Shah Zada at Peshawr. 

Changed ground on the 23rd of March to 
Shah Dand, within half a mile east of the 
city of Peshawr, for the convenience of drawing 
supplies and facilitating the equipment of the 
Shah Zada's personal guards, in which Lieut.- 
Col. Wade, aided by Mr. Lord, was engaged, 
to enable the Prince to enter the city, and pass 
through it with that pomp and state which it 
is thought desirable to give him for the sake of 

* " The prince's personal guards consist of a rissala of 
horse, composed of one rissaldar, four duffodars, one nis- 
sanchie, or standard-bearer, one nikarchie, or trumpeter, 
and ninety-eight troopers, and two companies of Rohillas, 
each having one jemadar, four naibs, or corporals, one 


Lieutenant Dowson and Ensign Hillersdon, 
with their two levies, the battalion of Jazael- 
chis, and two guns, besides the Maharaja's 
escort of irregular cavalry, were directed to-day 
to encamp on the other side of the city in ad- 
vance of our party. These officers had been 
very busy since their arrival in equipping their 
men with uniform sets of clothing and accou- 
trements to make them look respectable. 

On the 25th intelligence was received from 
Herat, stating that a personal dispute had 
occurred between the British officers at that 
place, and Shah Zada Kamram and his mi- 
nister, the receipt of which excited some sus- 
picion of the fidelity of Kamram, and that he 

nissanchie, and ninety- nine sepoys. These are under 
Maule's superintendence and command, and he also per- 
forms the duties of what may be termed the Shah Zada's 
principal assistant. The other regiments and detachments 
(except the British) belong to Ranjeet Singh, and have 
been placed at Colonel Wade's disposal. Two guns (six- 
pounders) are respectively attached to the Ghoorka and 
Nujeeb regiments, who, with the Poorabees, are dressed in 
red ; but the Aligols wear white jackets and blue trousers, 
and the Goorcherras retain their native costume." — Barr's 
Journal, p. 222. 


had been influenced by the Persians. We are 
anxious to advance as soon as we can ; as we 
have an impression, and not without strong 
reasons, that if the Persians renew the siege of 
Herat before the Shah's arrival at Candahar, 
there would be a vast change in the aspect of 
affairs favourable to the views and interests of 
the enemy. 

21th, — Much to our satisfaction, Captain Fer- 
ris's detachment, which had been long expected 
to join the Shah Zada, arrived in camp to- 
day. It appears that on their arrival at Attok 
(where, owing to the late heavy rains and con- 
sequent swell of the river, they found the 
bridge of boats broken), the authorities there 
had given them no assistance in crossing the 
Indus, although repeatedly pressed to do so by 
the officer who had been detached by the Ma- 
haraja to accompany the detachment. They 
at last effected the passage by their own exer- 
tions without any accidents. # The conduct of 

* " The governor of Attok, on being applied to for 
assistance, refused to give us any ; but he was bound to 
facilitate our transit across the ferry, which, instead of 


the Sikhs at Attok was immediately reported 
in a letter to Ranjeet Singh, and is another 
proof of their systematic opposition. Generals 
Avitabile and Court are the only exceptions 
we have hitherto found. They have since 
our arrival been giving us the readiest aid in 

doing, he appeared to throw every obstacle in our way, 
and declined to issue an order that the boats should be 
collected for our use. There were but three boats to pass 
the guns across the river, and these were small, and so 
much out of water as to render them but little adapted for 
the transportation of artillery. Nothing in the shape of a 
plank to run the wheels upon was to be procured, and the 
men had to lift the pieces a perpendicular height of from 
two and a half to three feet, ere they were lowered on 
board, each boat taking a gun or waggon and its lumber. 
Two trips were made, and I embarked in the last boat. 
We pushed off from the ghat formed on the edge of a 
narrow channel of the river, and separated by a stony 
bank from the main stream, which was flowing like a 
sluice ; and once within its influence we were carried down 
with great rapidity, in spite of every exertion made by 
the united efforts of six rowers and two steersmen, who 
struggled hard with their oars, and displayed much dex- 
terity in avoiding the huge rocks on either side, and on 
which, had the boat once struck, nothing would have 
saved it from being dashed to pieces.' ' — Bart's Journal, 
pp. 192-194. 

A DARBAR. 231 

their power. The former had, before our arrival, 
had the families of the Afghan chiefs, who had 
been seized, together with their property, by 
order of Sultan Mahomed Khan, released ; 
but one of them, Jafir Khan, the son of the 
late Firoz Khan, Khatak, being found still in 
confinement, on a representation of the case to 
the General, he has been equally prompt in 
supporting the credit of the British Govern- 
ment, and in ordering the release of that in- 
dividual also, who has since joined the Shah 
Zada with his retainers. 

2Stk. — Lieut. Maule busily engaged in pre- 
paring for the darbar which is to be held to- 

On the 29th of March the public darbar,* 
on which occasion the Durranis and heads of 
tribes who had either joined the camp or Mr. 

* It was to have taken place on the 25th instant, but 
owing to the Moharram, which is a season of mourning 
with the Mahomedans in memory of their martyrs, Hussan 
and Hussein, after consulting the Peshawr Mullahs, who 
did not approve of offending the prejudices of the common 
people, the Shah Zada decided on postponing it till the 
expiration of that festival. 


Lord, and those from Khaibar, and the neigh- 
bouring mountains, before the Prince's arrival, 
were presented to him. The Sikh officers 
then at Peshawr, headed by Sham Singh, 
Atariwala, were likewise introduced on the 
same occasion, including the civil functionaries 
and citizens of Peshawr, who were presented 
by General Avitabile. Every one received 
a khilat according to his rank and merit. 
Distributing them to the Afghan chiefs was 
a difficult task, as some of them advanced 
claims to consideration beyond their due. At 
length the matter was settled by serving them 
out as they had been previously arranged by 
the Shah Zada's own officers, without yielding 
to their groundless pretensions. 

Among others who came to the darbar on 
that occasion was Shah Zada Mahomed Ha- 
shim, one of the Saddozai family, and a half- 
brother of Shah Shuja, who has been living for 
a long time at Peshawr on the Sikh bounty. 
Formerly he was the governor of Candahar ; 
but after the fall of the monarchy he went to 
Bombay, where he was very respectably re- 


ceived by the Honourable Mr. Elphinstone, 
then the Governor of that Presidency. Since 
his return from Bombay, he has settled at 
Peshawr. He is about sixty years old, and 
looks in good health. He has three sons, by 
whom he was accompanied, as well as by Shah 
Zada Jarnhur, his nephew, a very unassuming 
and intelligent person. Lieut. Maule, who 
was personally attached to the Shah Zada's 
household and in charge of his various^ esta- 
blishments, was sent to conduct these distin- 
guished visitors into camp, who, as well as 
General Avitabile and the Sikh officers, were 
received with the salutes due to their respective 
ranks by the Prince, seated on his Guddee* 

* " His Guddee or throne consisted of a large square 
ottoman covered with khim khwab (or silk worked with 
gold and silver flowers), in the centre of which and ap- 
proaching to the front were three pillows enveloped in a 
beautifully delicate-coloured silk to support his head and 
arms. Cashmir shawls were spread in front for us to walk 
on, and, as we did not take off our boots, seemed out of 
place on the ground. On either side of the guddee were 
arranged chairs, on which we sat, and, conformably with 
Eastern manners, did not uncover the head. In front of 
the Prince stood the old Vazir (Mulla Shakur), habited in 


The son of Mir Alam Khan, the chief of 
Bajour, who arrived last night, was also pre- 
sented. He was treated with distinction, as 
Alam Khan was the first chief who had openly 
declared his attachment to the royal cause ; but 
he afterwards proved a faithless character and 
of a weak mind, as his conduct will amply show. 

bright khim khwab with gold ornaments, and behind on 
his right and left were two attendants. The two French 
generals having been presented with all due form, we 
three, who had lately joined, passed through the same 
ceremony, making a salaam with our right hands as we 
were named to his Highness. A period was at last put 
to these proceedings by a few menials entering with the 
khilats or honorary dresses, and presents intended for the 
French generals. These consisted of chogahs or robes, 
some trays of shawls and American rifles. We shortly 
after took leave, a relief both to ourselves and to our host, 
who, although he looked a prince in every respect, yet 
being but lately drawn from comparative obscurity, seemed 
but ill at ease with this public exhibition of his greatness, 
and I have no doubt was glad when the ceremony con- 
cluded. We all salaamed to him, which he returned, and 
we then backed out, passing beneath a semiana or awning 
under which trays of flowers were spread out, and thence 
through the range of ranauts or screens that enclosed a 
large area in front of the darbar tent." — Barr's Journal, 
pp. 233-5. 


Sayed Reza is another person of note who 
appeared on that occasion. He is a Sayed 
living* on his own estate in Tirah, and is one 
of the old friends of the Shah. He came to 
Mr. Lord to prove his sincerity on hearing of 
the intended restoration of his Majesty. He 
says that he is the man in whose house the 
king remained when he sought an asylum 
from his pursuers in the Khaibar hills. Several 
of his relatives have been killed in defending 
his cause. Sayed Reza has ninety followers 
with him, who have been duly entertained. 

It should here be remarked that the chief 
cause of holding a grand darbar was that it 
had been rumoured, nay, believed by the na- 
tives, that the Shah as well as his son were 
merely puppets in the hands of the British 
Government ; and that they were produced 
merely to prevent the Mussulman population 
from declaring a religious war ; and that 
as soon as the country was conquered, his 
Majesty would be sent back to Lodianah, to 
remain there as heretofore, while the British 
officers would be the sole rulers of the country. 


The circumstances under which the present 
expedition was undertaken — the restoration of 
the Shah, after remaining so long unnoticed 
by the British Government; the liberal manner 
in which he was supported; the fact that he 
was entirely guided in his counsels by the 
British officers; and that his troops were almost 
altogether officered by them, naturally gave 
rise to these suspicions among the natives. To 
remove them was considered an object of the 
highest importance. In consequence a public 
darbar was held, to show the people that the 
Shah Zada had a court of his own, and could 
receive with honour and distinction those who 
flocked to his standard. At the same time 
proclamations were successively issued both 
by him and Colonel Wade, declaring that 
the Shah would be the sole master of the 
country ; that the British Government would 
have no interference in his affairs ; and that its 
object was only to see his Majesty restored 
and confirmed in the kingdom which had 
descended to him from his forefathers, and to 
which he was considered the rightful heir, 


although it had of late been usurped by his 
rebellious and disloyal servants. These decla- 
rations partly assured the Afghans, and pre- 
vented them from joining in a religious war, 
which Dost Mahomed was industriously pro- 
claiming against the English. The Shah was 
called a Kafir by the Amir's partizans, by 
reason of being supported by Kafirs or infidels. 

In the afternoon, when the darbar was over, 
the Shah Zada went out in state to inspect and 
show himself to the followers of the Khawanin 
and other chiefs who had joined his camp, 
reserving the inspection of his regular levies to 
another opportunity. 

A Qasid, who arrived to-day from Kabul in 
eight days, stated that Dost Mahomed was 
engaged in collecting the Kohistanis, or people 
of the mountains north of Kabul ; and that to 
the heads of each party he gave a present of 
five or six rupees and a nanha chogha ; while to 
their followers he only made fair promises of 
reward; and that Hafizji was preaching the 
necessity of making the present a religious war, 
to carry on which every one was expected to 


depend on his own resources. The communi- 
cations between our camp and Kabul, and the 
latter place and the Shah's camp, are almost 
stopped. All foreign messengers are being 
seized at Kabul ; and if any papers against the 
ruling family are found in their possession, 
it is proclaimed that they shall be immediately 
sent to eternity. Dost Mahomed Khan is said 
often to observe that he was only the master 
of a sword, while the three united powers 
advancing against him were armed with wealth, 
and had many other advantages over him, but 
time would show in whose favour fortune 
would turn the scale of victory. 

By intelligence received from another au- 
thentic source it appears that the Amir lately 
proposed to levy a contribution from the 
citizens of Kabul ; but was prevented by his 
advisers, as it would give rise to discontent 
among his people. In lieu of it, he then 
proposed to demand the services of three 
men from each family ; but this step also did 
not appear to meet with approval. It was 
said that Dost Mahomed was becoming very 


suspicious of the fidelity of his people, and 
that a number of spies were employed to watch 
their motions and inform him regularly of their 
conduct. Two Hindustanis had been seized and 
confined, on the plea that they had attempted 
to explode the magazine of the Amir. Some 
troops, consisting of the Arbabs of the city, 
had been ordered to proceed to Jalalabad : 
supplies were also to be collected at that place, 
and the roads had become very dangerous. 
Such is the state of affairs at Kabul at present ; 
and its rider, like a sinking person, is laying 
hold of everything within his reach to save 

30^ : Shahdand. — Sir Claude Wade re- 
ceived the native officers of the Sikh escort 
who had accompanied Major Ferris from 
Lahore, and after acknowledging their services 
with his detachment in the usual mode, and 
promising to make a favourable report of it to 
the Maharaja, informed them that they would 
be dismissed the next day. 

Several letters were received from the 
Khaibaris and others residing in the Khaibar 


mountains and its neighbourhood, in reply 
to those which had been previously written 
both by the Shah Zada and the Colonel. The 
letters which were addressed to the Khaibaris 
were written with a view to make them sen- 
sible of the situation in which they would be 
placed by continuing to serve the opposite 
party, after the arrival of the Shah Zada on 
their frontier. A constant correspondence had 
been kept up with them. It had been better 
if such an earnest desire for their conciliation 
had not at first been shown, as one of them, 
Bahadar Khan, returned Mr. Lord the khilat 
which that gentleman sent to him before our 
arrival ; but his son Alladad Khan, who ma- 
nages the affairs of the family, wrote at the 
same time to say that he had highly disap- 
proved of the conduct of his father, and that 
they were now both ready to join Prince 
Taimur, when circumstances rendered it prac- 
ticable for them to do so. 

The other letters from the Khaibar chiefs 
were also written in the strongest terms, 
declaring their devotion to the Shah, and 


that they would not be found wanting when 
their presence was required ; but strongly 
condemned precipitation and an indiscriminate 
expenditure of money until matters were in 
proper train for action, with every chance of 

I was told by a confidential native that the 
chief object of the Khaibaris was to secure the 
good will of both parties until they knew the fate 
of Candahar, and then, like the bat of the fable, 
to join that party which might prove successful; 
and it was with reference to that policy that 
they had given the above advice. 

Some of the Khaibaris, we heard, had already 
written to Dost Mahomed Khan to say that 
in consequence of the arrival of the Shah Zada 
at Peshawr, and the number of their tribes who 
had gone over to him, they would not be able 
to hold their ground unless reinforced by some 
of the Amir's troops. Without the support 
of their tribes it is evident that the chiefs 
have no real power ; and although Dost Ma- 
homed commands the passes to their territory, 
his troops could not protect them from their 



attacks if they chose to rise, but a common 
sense of danger would of course prevent them 
from running the risk of being ruined and per- 
secuted, which had made the chiefs temporize 
and send messages to Sir Claude Wade by their 
secret agents to the effect, that, when the Shah 
Zada advanced to the entrance of the pass, they 
would countenance the desertion of their tribes 
and declare their inability to control them. 
Great confidence was not, however, placed 
in their promises, and it was determined that, 
if they did not fulfil them when they might 
safely venture to do so, they should be consi- 
dered unworthy of further consideration, and 
the money which had been promised to them 
individually by Mr. Lord be employed in 
raising levies to be disciplined as well as time 
would allow. 

It was believed by some persons that our 
delayed arrival at Peshawr had encouraged 
Dost Mahomed Khan to demand hostages 
from the Khaibaris ; which seems a very 
groundless opinion, because when he has not 
exempted any chief of note in his country 

DELAYS. 243 

from giving them, it is not to be supposed 
that those who have been in open commu- 
nication with us, and occupied the most 
important pass to Kabul, would be relieved 
from that exaction ; but it is a demand which 
may be evaded in their case, though it will 
be difficult for those in the vicinity of Kabul, 
whose familes the Amir took the precaution 
of confining within the precincts of the Bala 
Hisar some time ago. It requires no force 
of argument, however, to show that any sway 
that he may thus acquire over the minds of 
the people cannot be preserved for any length 
of time, with a powerful enemy on two sides 
of his country. The Shah Zada's approach 
might have tended to confirm the measure of 
taking hostages ; but Dost Mahomed had con- 
sidered it good policy to do so as far back as 
December last. 

As Ranjeet Singh has not yet authorized his 
officers at Peshawr to co-operate with the Mis- 
sion in making any forward movement, which 
was much to be desired at the present moment, 
it has excited much vexation in camp. We 



must now sit inactive before Peshawr, until it 
pleases his Highness's officers to fulfil pledges 
the execution of which we have not ourselves 
the means of enforcing. Could the operations 
have commenced now, it would have shown 
the Shah's friends towards Sawat Buneir and 
in the Kohistan of Kabul that we were pre- 
pared to accept their services without delay. 

The Amir is said to have expostulated very 
strongly with his son Akbar Khan for his 
treatment of Sayed Babajan of Kuner. He 
directed the Sayed to be released and dismissed 
with every honour and respect. The sagacity 
of Dost Mahomed had shown him that his repu- 
tation was likely to suffer seriously by the insult 
offered to a person of so sacred character, at 
a time when the hopes of the former of en- 
grossing his countrymen on his side mainly 
depended on exciting their religious feelings : 
but the report afterwards proved groundless. 
Babajan was not released ; he remained in 
arrest until the fall of Kabul. 

In order to be kept regularly informed of 
the state of affairs at Ali Masjid, a daily com- 


munication was secretly established with that 
place. The garrison did not yet appear to 
have been augmented to any extent. Some of 
the people inside sent word to say that they 
were ready to enter the service of the Shah 
Zada. Liberal terms were offered to such as 
might like to come with their Jazaels, an arm 
which was much wanted by Shah Zada : but 
no immediate effect was anticipated from these 

S\st. — Shah Dand. News was received 
that Dost Mahomed Khan intended to send 
one of his sons with a part of his troops to- 
wards Candahar, to make a diversion in his 
brothers' favour ; but the report was not trusted, 
as the serious troubles which had already 
broken out in his own territory would occupy 
them at home. He was every day threat- 
ened by the advance of the Shah Zada ; and 
the active preparations which were made by 
Colonel Wade with that view kept him fixed 
in his position, and showed him he could not 
move. Had he been at liberty to proceed to 
Ghazni, the Shah and the army of the Indus, 


it will be affirmed on all hands, would have 
met with more opposition. The Kohistan 
people, and other tribes about Kabul, who had 
been secured by the early exertions of the 
Colonel, had already revolted against him. 
Among others, the Logar people were the 
first who set the Amir's authority at defiance : 
they retired to their mountains, and refused to 
pay the revenue. A party of Jazaelchis was 
ordered by the Amir to march to Jalalabad. 
On the same day we heard that the road 
between Attok and Peshawr was infested by 
the Khataks ; and that three sepoys, in the 
Sikh service, were killed on the other side at 
Margalla. General Avitabile took the neces- 
sary steps to prevent these outrages. 

Numbers of letters were addressed to the 
Bangish people, deputing Mian Budruddin 
Musazae (the nephew of the holy man of the 
same name in whose house the late Mr. More- 
croft lived for some days, and through whose 
influence for sanctity he was enabled to visit 
the Vaziri country, who had joined the camp 
on our arrival at Machni) to confer with them. 


This individual is also a religious character, 
and his family has several disciples in that 
quarter. The object of his deputation was 
to excite the people of that country, and to 
hold a communication with Lieutenant Mac- 
keson, who was now on his way from Baha- 
walpore via Dera Ismael Khan, and Kohat, to 
the camp, that, should that officer require the 
services of those people, the Mian was to pro- 
cure them readily. 

1st April, 1839.— Shah Dand. Early in 
the morning the Shah Zada proceeded to the 
Sikh encampment south of the city, where 
General Avitabile had invited him to a review 
of his own battalions and the cavalry and in- 
fantry of Generals Allard and Ventura; the 
latter we heard was on his way to join us.* 

* " On the arrival of the Shah Zada the artillery fired 
a salute of twenty-one guns, the infantry presented arms, 
and the drummers and trumpeters vied with each other to 
produce the loudest sound in honour of the event. This 
concluded, we rode to the left of the line, and commenced 
the inspection. Here was a small battery of foot artillery, 
consisting of a large howitzer and two small mortars 
mounted on field carriages, and drawn by bullocks ; the 


After the review the Shah Zada and his suite 
returned to camp, and the members of the 
Mission went to the Gor Katra to breakfast 
with General Avitabile. Several arrangements 
were made regarding the medical establish- 
ment, the labour of which was much increased 
owing to the augmentation of our camp. Re- 
spective duties were assigned at the same time 

men attached to them being badly dressed in old coats of 
divers colours, and the ordnance not having even clean- 
liness to recommend it. Two or three regiments of in- 
fantry came next, the soldiers being accoutred in red 
jackets and white trowsers, black cross-belts, and pink silk 
turbans. Adjoining them ranged some more foot artillery, 
bad in every respect ; about as many more regiments of 
infantry, and three guns again to their right. We then 
reached the cavalry, the dragoons occupying the left. 
These were well mounted, and form a fine body of men 
and horses; their dress I have already described. On 
their right were two regiments of Allard's cuirassiers, the 
most noble-looking troops on parade. The men and 
horses were all picked, and amongst the former are to be 
seen many stalwart fellows, who appear to advantage 
under their cuirasses and steel casques. Many of the 
officers wear brass cuirasses ; and their commandant is 
perhaps the finest man of the whole body, and looked 
extremely well in front of his superb regiment." — Barr's 
Journal, pp. 245—6. 


to each officer attached to the Mission, so 
that everything might go on with regularity. 
Captain Farmer, who was in command of the 
detachment of British troops, was now also 
charged with the drill and general superinten- 
dence of the levies and the guards and pickets 
of the camp. 

The Sikh Government having delayed to 
have in readiness the Mahomedan force to 
enable us to seize the opportunity of taking 
Ali Masjid, and as any preparations which the 
Maharaja had now begun to make were too 
late to be of use in the contemplated event 
of Dost Mahomed Khan leaving Kabul to 
oppose the Shah, Colonel Wade was obliged to 
apply to General Avitabile for his assistance 
in raising a battalion of Mahomedans, such a 
one as he had already promised from his own 
force, called by the name of Aligol by the 
Mussulmans and Ram Ghaul by the Sikhs. 
The General readily complied with his appli- 
cation, and soon engaged a number of men. 

It will not be out of place to observe that 
General Avitabile, in reply to his report that 

m 3 


he had placed the Ghorkha battalion and two 
guns at our disposal, had received a letter from 
his court, in which he was blamed for doing so, 
and directed not to allow the corps to pass the 
Sikh frontier. The Maharaja assigned as the 
reason for such an order that the men, who 
were partly Ghorkhas and partly Hindustanis, 
were murmuring and saying among them- 
selves that they would only fight along with 
the Sikh army. No expression of the kind 
was used by these men ; but it is very likely 
that some of the courtiers might have invented 
the story from an idea that it was calculated 
to gain not only the belief of their chief, but 
to deprive us of the services of an efficient 
body of men (intended only to be employed 
in the protection of the camp itself, and not 
on any detached duty), and to throw blame 
on one of the Maharaja's European officers 
exercising the chief authority at Peshawr, 
whose prompt attention to the views and 
interests of the British Government seemed 
not to be consonant with their wishes. It will 
be recollected that application had been made 


to Ranjeet Singh when we were on the banks 
of the Jehlam to place the Ghorkha battalion 
and a couple of guns on our arrival at Pe- 
shawr at the Colonel's disposal ; and he wrote 
in reply that Nao Nihal Singh would furnish 
him with that force. His present disapproval 
of the measure did not therefore appear to be 
very consistent either with his previous com- 
munication, or his sincerity of purpose to assist 
the Shah Zada at the time when the aid 
of his troops and officers was chiefly re- 
quired. The Sikhs had the same time to 
complete the provisions of the tripartite com- 
pact that we had, and repeated letters had 
been addressed by Sir Claude Wade to his 
Highness since our departure from Lahore, 
reminding him of the necessity of these pre- 
parations, and urging him to hasten their 
completion, without, as it has been seen, pro- 
ducing any other result than the assurance 
of orders having been issued which were not 
obeyed by his officers, while studious care was 
taken to inform the Mission that the Sikh 
forces were advancing, and might soon be 


expected to arrive at Peshawr ! * Had the Ma- 
haraja himself been able to accompany us as 
he wished and intended, these vexatious delays 
and evasions would not have been tried ; but 
as he remained at Lahore, his officers were 
aware that Colonel Wade had not the power 
of exerting his personal influence ; who knew, 
from his intimate knowledge of their court, 
that it was only by repeating his applications 
that they were ever likely to attend to them. 
. We now heard of the near approach to 
Attok of the Sikh army, amounting to at least 

* " Lieutenant-Colonel Wade arrived at Peshawr with 
the Shah Zada about the middle of March, 1839. His 
first object was, of course, to ascertain whether the Maho- 
medan contingent which the Sikhs were to provide was 
forthcoming; but, although nearly nine months had 
elapsed since the Sikhs were made aware of their obliga- 
tion to fulfil that article of the treaty, and Lord Auckland 
in his conference with Ranjeet Singh had particularly 
pressed the matter on his attention, and repeated represen- 
tations had been made by the Lieutenant- Colonel to obtain 
the production of these — the only organized troops on 
which he had to rely — yet he had the mortification to 
find that not only had nothing been done, but that no 
orders had been issued to assemble them." — From the 
United Service Magazine for 1842, pp. 477, 478. 


15,000. The Colonel suggested to his High- 
ness that it should be halted on the left bank 
of the river, and there remain until its ser- 
vices might be wanted. There was already a 
considerable Sikh force at Peshawr, perhaps 
10,000 men ; but the officers present with it, 
from a fear of acting contrary to the supposed 
views of their own court, declared their in- 
ability to join the Shah Zada in any separate 

In compliance with the Colonel's suggestion, 
Ranjeet Singh directed his army to halt at 
Attok, where it soon afterwards arrived. The 
reason for recommending that measure was 
to guard against an apprehended scarcity of 
supplies, as well as to prevent an outbreak of 
that religious feeling which might result from 
the continued presence of the Sikh army on 
the Afghan frontier ; and as the Maharaja had 
made the arrival of Kour Nao Nihal Singh, of 
prior importance to the production of his 
Mahomedan force, and by treaty that force 
should have preceded and not followed the 
other, he gave a just plea for detaining his 


army at Attok until the Mahomedan force 
was actually produced. 

2nd.— To-day we received a report in camp 
that there were about 3000 Sowars at Jalala- 
bad, and that they were stationed along the 
road between Khasa Maidan and Dhaka, and 
that the protection of the passes of Tatara and 
Abkhana was assigned to the care of Sadat 
Khan and Khalu Khan, Khosta of the Momand 
tribe ; and that their first object was to stop 
the communication between Jalalabad and 
Peshawr. It was also reported that Aziz Khan 
and other Ghilzai chiefs were about to be sent 
to Khaibar to oppose the Shah Zada's advance. 
Four Sikh Sowars are said to have gone to 
Jalalabad, and to have been converted to Ma- 
homedanism, and taken into service by Akbar 

The strength of the Kabul force was esti- 
mated at 10,000 Sowars, 5000 Jazaelchis, 
and 100 pieces of artillery and swivels. 

Sadat Khan being now strongly suspected 
of his intentions, and hitherto having made no 
satisfactory professions of his loyalty to the 


Shah, his brother Nawab Khan, present in the 
camp, was treated with increased favour, and 
desired to collect other people of his tribe, and 
to send for his elder brother Sadiq Mahomed 
Khan. At the same time letters were written 
to Tura Baz Khan, the rightful claimant to the 
chiefship of the Momands, as well as to Nawab 
Khan of Pindiali, another enemy of Sadat 
Khan, desiring them to join the camp without 
the least delay. It was known that Sadat 
Khan meditated an incursion towards Machni 
in the Doaba, and in case he or any other of 
his tribe should attempt to descend into the 
plains, we were preparing to repel them. From 
the excessive heat, the Afghans who had joined 
the camp applied for tents. As they were not 
allowed to take shelter in the town or villages, 
as is usual with them in the field, their request 
was complied with ; and a large number of 
small tents of various sizes were accordingly 
ordered to be forthwith manufactured, as we 
had no British magazines to supply them. 

On the morning of the 3rd of April we 
assembled in front of the tents of the prince, 


and moved to the other side of the city about a 
mile to the westward of it, and joined the new 
levies which were encamped in advance of us 
as already mentioned. The Shah Zada passed 
in procession through the city, on which occa- 
sion he was accompanied by the British Mission 
and the Sikh, European, and native officers, 
.besides a number of the Afghan Khans or 
nobles, who had lately joined his Royal High- 
ness. The crowds of men and women who 
were collected on the tops and balconies of 
their houses to have a sight of their old prince 
(Peshawr is his birth-place) expressed their 
pleasure by making exclamations of " Long 
live the Shah Zada."* 

* "As our route lay through the main street of Peshawr, 
Colonel Wade directed our march should assume the form 
of a procession, in order that the situation of the Shah Zada, 
surrounded by British, Sikh, and Mahomedan troops, should 
be more fully displayed to the public, as a means of in- 
ducing some to blazon forth the irresistible grandeur of his 
position, and others to enrol themselves under the Durranee 
banner. A company of British troops, and likewise one 
from each of the Maharaja's regiments, under Lieutenant 
Corfield, were sent in advance to the new ground, there to 
be in readiness to salute the prince on his arrival. Twenty- 


After passing the city we saw a number of 
the Khaibaris, who had been entertained by 
Mr. Lord, standing in line on the side of the 
road, who expressed their joy by firing their 
matchlocks and playing their rude music, 
which they continued till we reached the camp. 
Most of these people were collected by a person 
named Rahmat Khan Orakzae, a rather for- 
ward and loose character, who seemed alike 
rash and boastful. He is a pensioner in the 
Sikh service, and resides at Peshawr. 

one guns announced the moment when his Royal Highness 
mounted his horse. A line of Sikh troops, stationed on 
either side of the road rising from the bottom of the hill 
on which Avitabile's mansion is situated, up to the gate- 
way, formed a street, for the procession to pass through, 
both the French generals being present to receive the 
prince, and conduct him to the city. The eminence being 
steep, the horse artillery galloped up, and winding beneath 
the walls of the caravanserai, entered the main street of 
the town, which was just broad enough to allow a passage 
for the guns, and no more. Crowds were assembled to 
witness the scene, and the people in the distance eagerly 
stretched forward to catch a glimpse of the cavalcade as it 
appeared in sight." 

( 258 ) 

Chapter XII. 

Description of Peshawr — Taken from the Afghans by the 
Sikhs — Its Climate — Productions — Population — The 
Usafzaes — The Khalils — Revenue — Administration of 
General Avitabile — Hatred of the Mussulman popula- 
tion to their Sikh Rulers — Manufactures. 

The city of Peshawr is well known, and has 
been described by many travellers, Mr. Elphin- 
stone, Mr. Morecroft, Sir Alexander Burnes, 
&c, and does not require a further description 
than of the changes which have taken place 
since it has been occupied by the Sikhs. 

Some of the streets have been lately made 
much wider, and a high mud wall has been 
erected by General Avitabile round the city, 
which he has finished by levying a tax on the 
people for that purpose. He has also improved 
the city in other respects. A building called 
Gor Katra, which was formerly a sarae, has 
been converted by him into a lofty and mag- 
nificent dwelling-house which overlooks the 
city and commands a fine view of it and the 


suburbs. It is fortified and situated at the 
eastern extremity of the principal street which 
leads through the city. On the top of the 
gateway the General has erected a splendid 
pavilion, which he assigns to his European 

There is a temple still existing within the 
enclosure of the square dedicated to Goraknath. 
Some time ago there was a great dispute among 
the Mussulmans and the Hindus about the 
place. Each of them claimed the spot as 
belonging to their respective saints, which led 
to much bloodshed and frequent quarrels be- 
tween the two parties. At last General Avi- 
tabile, to prevent future disturbances, caused a 
mosque also to be built for the Mussulmans 
close to the Hindu temple ; and now the two 
parties resort to their respective places of 
worship without interfering with each other. 
The Hindu tradition about the place is that 
Goraknath, who resided on the holy spot and 
plunged into the earth, came out on the other 
side of the city near our present ground of en- 
campment, and from that time a spring issued 


from it, which still continues flowing. A 
temple is also dedicated to Goraknath at that 
place, where a Mela or fair takes place every 

According to the Memoirs of the Emperor 
Baber there were several caves near the spot 
where the Gor Katra now stands, and that a 
large quantity of hair was visible near their 
entrance, from which it is said that the Hin- 
dus considered it very meritorious, on parti- 
cular occasions, to be shaved there, but at 
present there are no traces of these caves to 
be found. 

The palace of Shah Shuja, which is said to 
have been situated within the Bala Hissar, 
where the British Embassy, under Mr. El- 
phinstone in 1809, was received, is extinct. 
On the second expedition of Ranjeet Singh 
against Peshawr, one of the fanatic Akalis set 
that noble building on fire without his sanc- 
tion. An exertion was made in vain to ex- 
tinguish the flames. As the buildings in this 
part of the country are chiefly composed of 
wood, it is difficult to allay the fury of that 


destructive element. The fire continued burn- 
ing for many days, and thus was destroyed the 
palace of Shah Shuja. Owing to the frequent 
incursions of the Sikhs, and the want of re- 
pairs, the walls of the Bala Hissar were also 
decayed and became level with the ground in 
the course of time. The Sikhs rebuilt the 
citadel on taking possession of Peshawr, and 
called it Sumeirgarh. It has been enlarged 
and much strengthened by General Avitabile, 
and is in complete order, with a clear space 
all round. State prisoners are confined here, 
and it also contains the arsenal, from which we 
were abundantly supplied by the Maharaja's 
sanction with powder, ball, and other articles, 
the Mission being provided with no stores of 
its own to equip the levies. In a military 
point of view the place is superior to any forts 
in the vicinity. The treasure with our Mis- 
sion was removed there as the only place of 
security, and, with the General's permission, 
measures were also taken to form within it a 
depot of grain for our future use.* 

* " The governor having volunteered to show us the 


The valley of Peshawr has natural boun- 
daries on every side. On the west it is bounded 
by the Khaibar range, and the east by the 
river Indus ; on the north by the high lands 
of Kashghar, and on the south by Bangish. 
It is a very fertile, productive territory, and 
hence has been called by all historians the 

fort of Peshawr, four or five of us rode there in the after- 
noon, and found him in readiness to receive us. After 
proceeding through a street, formed by a squadron or two 
of dragoons, and passing beneath a lofty and castellated 
gateway in the northern face, we turned sharply to the 
left, and cantered up a paved camp that leads to the 
highest of the three stories, of which the fort may be said 
to consist — the causeway being of breadth sufficient to 
admit of the governor driving his carriage-and-four to the 
summit. Troops were stationed at the different angles, 
who turned out and presented arms as we rode by. In the 
second tier are ranges of very comfortable barracks ; and 
wells to supply the garrison with water during a siege are 
to be met with every here and there. On the top com- 
partment, in addition to an incompleted citadel, are build- 
ings for magazines and store-rooms ; the latter he threw 
open for our examination, and a vast number of ten-inch 
shells at one end of a gallery, and a complete hill of bul- 
lets at the other, besides lead and other requisites to make 
up material, plainly prove that a warm reception would be 
given to an attacking party." — Barr's Journal, pp. 266, 


Sheher-i-Sabz, or the green city. The exuberant 
crops which we observed on entering the plains 
of Peshawr, notwithstanding the unsettled 
state of the country, and the repeated inva- 
sions to which it has been exposed, were very 
striking, and showed the agricultural habits of 
the natives. 

It is said that formerly there were many 
gardens and groves of trees about the town and 
in the villages, but since the establishment of 
the Sikh authority they have been cut down. 
The chief motive which led the Sikhs to com- 
mit such havoc in the garden of nature was 
that their settlement in Peshawr was regarded 
by the Mahomedans with the utmost jealousy, 
who took every opportunity of killing the 
Sikhs when they left their homes, it being 
customary for the most bigoted of them to 
hide themselves behind these trees, and when 
they saw a Sikh passing by, they used to attack 
and kill him. A want of fuel and wood for 
building was another motive with the Sikhs for 
destroying these groves; but a few gardens 
near the south-west of the town are still visible. 


Among others, that of the Vazir Fateh Khan, 
which is the largest and best, and contains 
some old extensive buildings erected by the late 
Vazir of that name. It was now the Kar- 
kliana, or workshop, where cannons, rifles, and 
every kind of warlike implement was being 
made to arm and equip the Shah Zada's levies 
under the general superintendence of Mr. 
Lord; who resided there himself with the Khai- 
baris, whom he had been entertaining before 
we arrived.* The garden of Ali Mardan 

* " Years have rolled by since the locality was first used 
as a retreat from the bustle and turmoils of the day ; but 
its hours of repose and quiet have also long passed, and 
the clang of the hammer on the anvil, the vociferations of 
the workmen, and the ribald talk of mercenary soldiers, 
are now heard where formerly the joyous mirth of some 
lighthearted inmates of the harem was re-echoed, before 
* grim-visaged war ' drove their masters from home and 
country. Those from among the Khaibaris are quartered 
in this agreeable spot, and groups of them were to be seen 
sauntering along the terraces, their thick hobnail shoes 
jarring the ear as they scraped the smooth surface of the 
pavement ; whilst their rough-looking features, and tall, 
gaunt, but athletic figures, armed with the jazail and long 
knife, or sword and shield, harmonized with the warlike 
preparations and the existing state of the gardens, in other 


Khan, the famous maker of canals, is much 
neglected, and its buildings hastening to ruin 
A part of it has been converted by General 
Court into a dwelling-house. The Shahi Bagh 
(royal garden) is situated to the north of the 
Bala Hissar, and seems in a somewhat better 

I need scarcely remind the reader that before 
the Sikhs established their government in it, 
the territory of Peshawr was possessed by 
Sultan Mahomed Khan and his full bro- 
thers, Pir Mahomed Khan and Sayed Ma- 
homed Khan. On the arrival of the Sikhs, 
and after a short skirmish, the Sirdars retired 
to Jalalabad and Kabul, where they were sup- 
ported by Dost Mahomed Khan, their half- 
brother, who shortly afterwards, having de- 
feated Shah Shuja before Candahar, defied the 
authority of the Sikhs. Instead of offering 
terms of negotiation, — which would probably 

days, would have been ill-suited to appear in a place evi- 
dently dedicated to peace, and where all ought to have 
been lovely, soft, and beautiful." — Bart's Journal, pp. 



have been very favourably received by Ranjeet 
Singh, who was at that time averse to con- 
tinuing his authority in Peshawr, where many 
lives were lost among his people by the ran- 
corous spirit of the Mussulmans, — Dost Ma- 
homed appeared in the field to drive the Sikhs 
from Peshawr. He was soon met by Ranjeet 
Singh, who hastened from Lahore to give him 
battle at the head of his army ; but before the 
two armies came to blows, the wily Maharaja 
secretly induced Sultan Mahomed to come over 
to him ; when Dost Mahomed Khan, feeling 
his utter inability to contend successfully with 
the Sikhs, was obliged to hasten his retreat 
as quickly as he had advanced. 

Ranjeet Singh, in fulfilment of the terms 
offered to Sultan Mahomed, settled on him 
the district of Kohat, yielding a revenue of 
three lakhs of rupees annually, in lieu of mi- 
litary service. The Doaba and the district of 
Hashtnagar were some time afterwards settled 
on Pir Mahomed and Sayed Mahomed, and 
the three brothers are now in the full enjoy- 
ment of their several jaghirs, while Dost 


Mahomed is threatened with ruin. Whatever 
judgment may be formed of his wisdom and 
foresight in the despatch of ordinary affairs, 
the Amir has shown that want of prudence and 
discernment which only enlighten high minds 
in critical junctures. 

Had he accepted the offer of the British Go- 
vernment to make terms of reconciliation for 
him with the Sikhs, and not have been de- 
ceived and misled by his self-interested coun- 
cillors to rely on Persian aid, he would have 
now been safe in the actual possession of his 
power, and not have been compelled to throw 
himself on the mercy of others. 

The climate of Peshawr is exceedingly hot, 
and very oppressive. There is a saying, that 
" the heat, the scorpions, and the flies of 
Peshawr are so bad, that it may be likened 
to the eye of hell." While we were there, the 
people said that the weather was milder than 
in the last year ; but, in truth, we felt it more 
severely than at Lodianah, and were obliged to 
dig holes in our tents, where we generally 
passed the day, as it was almost impossible, 

n 2 


from the extreme heat of the sun, to remain in 
them without such a contrivance, though well 
provided with Jawasa tatties* Qchas Mas, or the 
scented grass roots, is very scarce in Peshawr, 
and people send for it from the Panjab). But, 
notwithstanding the affirmed mildness of the 
season, we heard of two or three instances of 
travellers being scorched to death in the dry 
stony plain between Jumrud and Takal, on 
this side of Khaibar. We were told that a 
Simoom, or hot wind, prevails for several days 
in midsummer between Dhaka and Bhati Kot, 
which quite stops the communication, and 
many persons are said to have fallen a sacrifice 
to it. The excess of heat at Peshawr is to be 
ascribed to its situation in the midst of low 
and dry hills. In the summer, the natives ge- 
nerally pass the day in the zerzamins, or cells, 
which every one has in his house for the con- 
venience of his family ; and the nights are 
passed on the roofs of their houses, which are 
flat. The winter of Peshawr is said to be no 

* A thorny bush growing in deserts, on which camels 
feed, and remarkable for its verdure. 

KAINS. 269 

less severe than its summer. The hamams or 
baths are a great luxury to the inhabitants 
during that season.* The snow, however, 
seldom falls here; but the hills to the south- 
west are always covered with it in winter. In 
the month of June we received plenty of ice in 
the camp from the Tirah mountains. Kohat, 
the southern part of the Peshawr territory, is 
not so hot. On the whole, the climate is said 
to be salubrious. Several men in our camp 
were attacked with brain fever, from which 
they suffered much, and some died. 

The rains are very scanty at Peshawr ; but 
storms sometimes happen in the summer, which 
cool the air for a day or two. In rainy weather, 
which is severe in Hindustan, very few showers 
fall here. The cultivation rather depends on 
the Barah and the Kabul streams than the 
bounty of heaven ; and those who inhabit their 
banks consider themselves very fortunate. The 
rains appear to be frequent in Tirah, from the 

* It is customary in the winter for the natives of those 
countries to occupy the heated rooms adjoining their 


mountains of which the Barah takes its rise. 
Almost every day we heard peals of thunder, 
and saw flashes of lightning, and black 
clouds covering their summits. The more we 
go to the west, the less rains we find. In July, 
August, and September there is scarcely any 
rain, as we afterwards experienced in Khaibar, 
Dhaka, and Jalalabad, which in those months 
are dreadfully hot and sickly, and during 
which the winds are very strong and hot in 
the Peshawr territory, especially in the stony 
plain between Khaibar and the city. Towards 
evening, there are sometimes severe storms 
from the west and north-west. 

The productions of Peshawr are such as be- 
long to hot climates. The spring harvest chiefly 
consists of wheat, barley, Indian corn, and 
other inferior grains. The autumnal crops 
are rice, sugar-cane, cotton, and kunjad or 
sesame seed. San, or flax, which is used in 
making ropes, is also produced. There are 
fruits of every kind, but very inferior to those 
of Kabul, and neither transportable to foreign 
climates. The mulberry, peach, fig, naranj, 


and lemon, are of the best sort, and the two 
last are exported largely to Kabul, where they 
are much used. Naranj, a kind of orange, is 
generally used in seasoning a pilaw called na- 
ranji. Among the fruits peculiar to Peshawr 
is the alcha, or plum ; it is double the size of 
a grape, and generally of a red yellowish 
colour, and very delicious; but eating too 
many of them causes dysentery or fever. 

Tairnur Shah tried his best to cultivate the 
mangoe ; but all his exertions failed, and the 
plant did not take root. The Afghans, who 
have not seen India, have no idea of the 
mangoe. The tree ceased to be seen after we 
left Vazirabad. 

The olive, shisham, and blut, or oak, &c, are 
the principal trees here, but they are not nu- 
merous. The diar, or cedar, is brought down 
by the Kabul river from Jalalabad, and by 
land from the Safeid Koh, or white hills, so 
called from being covered with snow. The 
people generally roof their houses with the 
diar, which is considered long-lasting. The 
neem, kikar, babul, jandh, khar, sal, and several 


other trees, which grow in India, are not to be 
found in Peshawr. 

The population of the Peshawr territory 
consists of several tribes, and as I shall have 
occasion to use their names frequently, I will 
enlist them here. 

The Usafzae is the largest of the Peshawr 
tribes, and, I dare say, of the Afghans gene- 
rally; they occupy both banks of the river 
Indus to the north-east of Peshawr. Their 
possessions in the plains are partly included 
in that territory, but extend much farther, 
as far as Kashgar, Sawat, and Buneir. 

The Usafzaes are a warlike and indepen- 
dent people. It was a long time, and after 
much bloodshed, that the Sikhs succeeded in 
establishing their authority over them, and 
then only in a few cantons, yielding an 
annual revenue of 45,000 rupees. During 
the monarchy the tribe had certain allowances 
settled on them for keeping the peace of their 
country, and the safety of the roads. They, 
like the Khaibaris, never paid any revenue to 
their nominal rulers. They were always in a 


state of war with the late Hari Singh, and 
harassed him very much. Fateh Khan, of 
Panjtar, Arsaleh Khan, of Zeida, and Paendeh 
Khan, of Derband, are the most distinguished 
leaders of their tribe. Paendeh Khan and 
Fateh Khan are very desperate characters. 
They never let slip any opportunity by which 
they can annoy the Sikhs. They are an ex- 
ceedingly rude and ignorant people, but very 
strict in their national prejudices. An Usafzae 
will not marry his daughter to any one of a 
different tribe, or, without receiving some 
dowry, with a person of his own tribe. The 
late Sayed Ahmed, whom the Usafzaes at first 
revered highly, observed to them that many 
of their daughters, though advanced in age, 
could not be married without difficulty; he 
therefore preached to them to resign the usual 
custom, and even had one or two of their 
daughters married by force to some of his own 
followers. The Usafzaes were greatly incensed 
at the conduct of the fanatic, and made a 
conspiracy against him, killing nearly the 
whole of his party in one day in every village 

N 3 


where they were living or had taken shelter. 
This incident will fully illustrate how jealous 
the Afghans are of their old customs and 
habits. Education can only eradicate them, 
but there is no chance of its light extending 
to them at present. 

The Usafzaes in the plains are divided into 
nine tappas. Their villages are generally of 
large size, some containing no less than eight 
or nine thousand souls. It is said that in time 
of war they can produce nine lakhs of men in 
the field. How far this assertion may be true 
it is difficult to decide; but it is stated by 
every one that the Usafzae country is very 

The second tribe which is settled in the 
valleys and hills of Peshawr is the Khatak ; 
and the third, the Mom and, situated to the 
south-west and north of that place. They 
have been already described. Kugiani is the 
fourth tribe : they occupy the Daoba to the 
north, and are divided into six tappas. The 
Mahomedzaes inhabit the Hashtnagar district, 
which is to the north-east of Peshawr : they 


have eight tappas. The most influential and 
respectable of the tribes is the Khalil, who are 
divided into six tappas, three situated on the 
Bara to the west, and three on the left bank 
of the Kabul river to the north-west. They 
are a brave and warlike tribe, and have pro- 
duced many good characters. Bahram Khan, 
one of the Arbabs of Takal, the principal 
town of the Khalils (whose son, named 
Gholam Khan, a very quiet young man, is 
present in our camp), distinguished himself 
highly in many battles against the Sikhs. 
He was one of the chief supporters of Sayed 
Ahmed in his religious war against them. It 
was a regulation, while the monarchy lasted, 
to assign to the Khalils the control of the 
Khaibar chiefs, for which duty they enjoyed a 
liberal jaghir. The Khaibaris cannot with 
impunity molest any of this tribe, as their 
wrongs could be soon avenged ; the former 
being very dependent on the latter for pro- 
curing their livelihood from the plains, having 
generally to pass by Takal, which is on the 
roadside. Juma Khan, the brother of Bahram 


Khan, who fled from Takal on the occupa- 
tion of Peshawr by the Sikhs, and entered 
the service of the Kabul ruler, sent secret 
messages to Sir Claude Wade of devotion to 
the royal family ; but did not join us until 
the flight of Dost Mahomed Khan. The pre- 
sent Arbabs of Takal are Mahomed Amir 
Khan, Gujar Khan, and Hamid Khan, who 
enjoy a handsome jaghir from the Sikh go- 
vernment. They were introduced to the 
Mission by General Avitabile, and from their 
knowledge of the country proved themselves 
very useful in our operations to gain and keep 
the entrance of the pass, and after the capture 
of Ali Masjid. Mahomed Amir Khan is a 
sensible and clever fellow, and appears to 
possess more influence over his tribe than the 
other two. 

The eighth tribe is Daudzae, inhabiting 
the country between the Khali Is and the 
Doaba. They are divided into five tappas, 
but have little influence, being the least of 
the tribes which inhabit the Peshawr ter- 


To the north, about five kos distant, lie five 
tappas called Khalsa.* They do not belong 
to any particular tribe, but are occupied by 
various people, and farmed to the Khatris and 
others the natives of Peshawr. 

Great enmity exists between the Khalils 
and the Momands of the plain. Their dis- 
putes chiefly originate in claiming the waters 
of Bara in the irrigation of their lands. Should 
a watercourse belonging to one be used by the 
other, a dispute is certain ; and the matter is 
seldom brought to a settlement without a good 
deal of bloodshed on either side. An Afghan 
considers it highly honourable to fall in the 
field and distinguish himself by bold exploits. 
Old age does not command much respect 
among them ; and to be killed in full manhood 
is considered a distinction. When an Afghan 
goes out in the field he is advised by his wife 
to behave bravely, and not to fly. Notwith- 
standing this high spirit, I have never heard of 
their fighting in a pitched battle against the 

* A term signifying lands belonging specially to Go- 


Sikhs, but on the contrary, that they have 
sought safety in flight ; which is, perhaps, owing 
to want of discipline and proper leaders. 

During the time of the Mahomedan rule 
Peshawr yielded a revenue of about nine 
lakhs : but since the administration of General 
Avitabile it has been much increased. It is said 
that it has been raised to about eighteen lakhs, 
including the jaghirs held by the late rulers. 
Formerly several grants of land were allotted 
to the Mullas and Sayeds ; but since the in- 
troduction of the Sikh rule many of them 
have been resumed, which has added much to 
the revenue. 

Among others, Mulla Najib, a pensioner of 
the British Government, has suffered great loss 
in the resumption of his lands. Poor man ! in 
his old age, and with a large family, he deserved 
rather to be relieved than distressed ; but the 
Sikhs, I believe, appear more willing to in- 
jure the Mullas than any other Mahomedans, 
because they are considered the only persons 
who inculcate war against the Sikhs. Mulla 
Najib, however, is not of these ; and enjoys a 


small pension from the British Government for 
services performed to Mr. Elphinstone. 

The Sikhs met with many difficulties in 
establishing their authority in Peshawr. 
Much bloodshed was occasioned, and Ranjeet 
Singh was against its permanent occupation ; 
but the honour of his nation made him main- 
tain it, though many lives were annually sacri- 
ficed. Since General Avitabile's appointment 
much tranquillity has been restored, but he has 
been exceedingly severe in exercising his au- 
thority by hanging many Afghans for small 
crimes. A thief can hardly ever escape with 
life; he is almost certain of being hanged. 
Both in approaching and leaving the city we 
observed a row of four or five gibbets on a 
height to the right, with corpses hanging from 

* Notwithstanding Avitabile administers justice with a 
strong hand, murders are still committed in the neighbour- 
hood of Peshawr ; and the other night, within a few yards 
of our camp, a poor grass-cutter was cruelly cut off. Such 
occurrences are, however, far too common in the district 
to create surprise, and the bloodthirsty disposition of the 
Afghan is but too manifest in the number of gallows that 


The Mussulmans hate the Sikh rule, and 
every one of them who came to our camp in- 
quired whether Peshawr would not also be re- 
stored to Shah Shuja. They seemed to wish 
for the restoration of the Shah or to come 
under the British rule. They prefer the 
English to the Sikhs, and entertain less re- 
it has been deemed necessary to erect in the environs of 
the city. These are constructed of sufficient size to 
accommodate some five or six malefactors at a time ; and 
after they have suffered the extreme penalty of the law, 
their bodies, instead of being cut down or removed, are 
allowed to remain on the gibbets until they either drop to 
pieces or are ransomed by their friends. The number of 
corpses, stiffened into the attitudes they assumed when 
convulsed with the last agonies of death, or suspended (as 
some are) by the feet, that are thus presented to the gaze 
of a stranger, renders a visit to the suburbs of Peshawr 
far from agreeable: but disgusting as these exhibitions are, 
it is to be feared that, without them, there would be safety 
neither for life nor property. Indeed, the benefit of this 
terrible severity is already being felt, as the unruly tribes 
under the governor's control are becoming sensible of the 
necessity of either subduing their evil passions, or of suf- 
fering the punishment that they now see will certainly 
follow the commission of crime ; and the monthly average 
number of murdered victims, though still numerous, is no- 
thing to what it was a few years back. 


ligious animosity against the former than the 

Peshawr is not celebrated for any particu- 
lar manufactory, nor is it a great mart of 
trade ; but being situated on the high way to 
Kabul, the shawl-merchants from Kashmir 
and fruit-dealers from the latter place to 
India pass through it. Woollen namads or 
felts of a coarse kind, used for carpets, are 
made here, but they are of an inferior sort to 
that produced in Persia. A Persian namad 
or felt will last for several years, while those 
of Peshawr wear away in a year and a half. 

( 282 ) 

Chapter XIII. 

Distress of the Na jibs — A Review — The Khaibaris — 
Sultan Mahomed Khan — A Skirmish — Measures of 
Akbar Khan — General Ventura — The Khaibar Pass — 
State of Kabul — Defeat of Tura Baz Khan — Kour Nao 
Nihal Singh — The Mahomedan Contingent — A Meeting 
— Proclamation of Akbar Khan — The Amir's Family 
removed from Kabul. 

I think I have wandered astray from the 
road on which I was treading, and must now 
resume my journal. 

Nothing of importance transpired on our 
arrival at the new ground. The day was spent 
in taking precautions to protect the camp, and 
in selecting advantageous spots for the pickets. 
Exclusive of camp followers we now mustered 
about five thousand men, which were pitched 
within the square of a ruined garden, and 
occupied the smallest possible space.* 

* " The Colonel's camp may well be termed a miscel- 
laneous depot, so various are the materials, and so incon- 
gruous is the mass of which it is composed, and its strength, 
exclusive of some Durranie horsemen under Mr. Lord, 
and the levies under Dowson and Hillersdon (about 1200), 



The escort which Ranjeet Singh had pro- 
vided for the protection of the Shah Zada being 
reviewed, was found to fall far short of the 
strength which was reported by the Maha- 
raja's officers at Lahore to have been pro- 
vided ; and the battalion of Najibs, who were 
now upwards of three months in arrears of 
pay, began to complain of distress. It ap- 
peared on inquiry that the people at court had 
taken no measures nor provided any means for 

is under 4000 men, and may be classed under the fol- 
lowing heads, which will give their numbers as near as 
possible — 

British troops: — Detachment of 4th 
troop, 2d battalion horse artillery ; two 
companies of 20th N. I., and two com- 
panies of 21st N. I., about 

Shah Zada's guards, one troop of horse, 

No. of Men. 


two companies of foot 

. 300 

Ghoorka regiment 

. 840 

Najib ditto . • , 

. 840 

Aligols (infantry) 

. 840 

Purabis ditto . 

. 200 

Gorcheras (cavalry) . 

. 500 

A party of lancers 


Grand tote 

J . . 3950 

— B art's Journal ', p. 221. 

284 A REVIEW. 

their future payment. A letter was therefore 
written to supply the deficiency in the number 
of the escort, and to take immediate steps to 
defray the arrears of pay ; and that in case of 
delay they would be paid from our treasury, 
and the amount charged to the debit of the 
Maharaja's government in the account between 
his Highness and the British Government, as 
the troops might otherwise mutiny or desert 
the camp. 

A few days after our arrival at Ali Mardan's 
garden, General Court paraded his troops, con- 
sisting of some fine pieces of artillery and 
three battalions of infantry, for the inspection 
of the gentlemen of the Mission, who were 
much pleased with their high state of dis- 

* " The two guns on the right of the battery were six- 
pounders, and were the same that Lord William Bentinck 
had presented to Ranjeet Singh at Ropur. The rest were 
cast by himself from their model, and appear almost 
equally good. The precise number of pieces we saw I 
forget, but I think nine, including two small mortars for 
hill service. We then tried some of his fuzees, which are 
very good, and burn true; and his portfires are also tole- 


As it will be necessary to mention the names 
of the Khaibaris and their tribes very often, I 
will give a brief account of them here, that the 
reader may be able to recognise every one 
without confusion. The extent of the pass of 
Khaibar is inhabited by five tribes, having* the 
general name of Afridi. They have each their 
separate chiefs or superiors, and are named as 
follows: — 

Names of the Tribe. Names of the Chief. 

Khuki Khail Abdurrahman Khan 

Malikdin Khail Khan Bahadar Khan 

Sipa Salim Khan 

Zaka Khail 

Alladad Khan 
Feiztalab Khan 

rable, but when compared with those in use with every 
other part of the Sikh army, admirable ; as with the latter, 
they are nothing but cases filled with pounded brimstone 
indifferently rammed down. All the shot was formed of 
beaten iron, and cost a rupee each ; and the majority of 
the shells were composed of pewter, which he told us an- 
swered uncommonly well. When it is considered that all 
we saw was the work of the General's own knowledge, 
and we reflect on the difficulties he has had to surmount, 
it is a matter almost of wonder to behold the perfection to 
which he has brought his artillery." — Barr's Journal, pp. 
259, 260. 


Names of the Tribe. Names of the Chief. 

Sangar Khan 


Ghalib Khan 
Mohallak Khan 

These tribes occupy the pass in the order in 
which I have placed them, viz., the Kuki 
Khail lie between Jamrud and Ali Masjid, and 
have much influence in the pass from their 
position at its entrance. Next comes the Ma- 
likdin Khail, on whose ground the fort stands. 
Khan Bahadar, an old man at the head of it, 
is considered the principal chief in Khaibar. 
Shah Shuja, during his refuge in these hills, 
remained several days in his house. Next to 
the Malikdin Khail come the Sipas and 
Zaka Khail, and then the Shinwaris. The 
last people are generally traders, while the 
four other tribes are noted for living by plunder 
and the allowance they enjoy from the go- 
vernment of the country for keeping the pass 
open. In the cold weather the Khaibaris in 
the valley live in caves, which are dug on the 
face of the hills along the line of the road, and 
towards their summits, while in the hot season 
they retire with their families towards Tirah, 


where they remain during the summer. There 
is another tribe of the Afridis, called Orakzae ; 
but they inhabit the mountains to the south, 
and have no place in the pass. Alam Khan is 
the head of the tribe, and a personal friend of 
Dost Mahomed Khan, who placed great con- 
fidence in him. 

I must now proceed to give some account 
of our transactions with them. 

I have mentioned that, before our arrival, 
a large party of the Khaibaris, with several 
Maliks* from almost all the tribes, had been 
collected at Peshawr by Mr. Lord, and hand- 
somely paid, some at six and seven rupees a 
day, besides an allowance to their followers, 
amounting to about one thousand men of two 
rupees each. Besides these Khaibaris, persons 
from Tirah and other places had joined him, 
and been feeding on us for the last two months, 
which appeared a mere waste of money, as 
none of these people were of any influence, or 
engaged to perform any particular service. 

* A Malik is inferior from the head of the tribe, and 
has only control over a village or a few families. 


With the exception of some Maliks, almost all 
the rest were chob farosh, or dealers in fire- 
wood. Rahmat Khan Orakzae, the Sikh pen- 
sioner, alone had about eight hundred men, 
exclusive of the above number. He was not 
paid regularly, but only by occasional presents. 
4th. — To pay these Khaibaris for doing no- 
thing was absurd and impolitic ; the Maliks 
were therefore invited by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wade, in the early part of the morning after 
our arrival at Ali Mardan Khan, to wait on 
him. These Maliks, between forty and fifty in 
number, were some brothers, and others near 
relatives, of their chiefs, who had brought 
secret messages to Mr. Lord, on the part of 
the latter, that when the Shah Zada arrived 
they would support the cause of his father, and 
exert themselves in opening the pass. In 
consequence khilats had been sent to all of 
them by Mr. Lord, and they, with the ex- 
ception, as I have already mentioned, of Khan 
Bahadar, readily accepted them. The time 
had now come to try their faith ; and the present 
Maliks were therefore desired to adopt some 


course by which they would be able to prove 
their professions of fidelity and devotion, as they 
had previously often professed, and were in- 
formed that these of course were the terms on 
which they would or could be employed. Be- 
fore they answered the question, they begged 
permission to hold a Jirga or consultation 
among themselves, to discuss the matter. Their 
request was granted ; and, accordingly, they 
retired to hold a council. These people, though 
rude, yet understand politics so far that they 
will never undertake any important affair with- 
out deliberation, either in their own respective 
tribes, or with the Maliks of all the tribes col- 
lectively, as the nature of the occasion may 
require. After a long discussion they came to 
a conclusion, and one of them, Abdurrahim, 
Khan Sipa, the brother of Salim Khan, ad- 
dressed Sir Claude as follows : — 

" It is well known that the present Khans 
or chiefs of Khaibar are in the enjoyment 
of liberal grants from Dost Mahomed Khan, 
and possess considerable force and wealth ; 
that he, seeing the Shah Zada and the 


English before him, and dreading their de- 
signs, will not spare lakhs of rupees to secure 
their fidelity. We who enjoy none of these 
advantages, how can we compel them to act 
with us without a superior force ? Now, you 
desire us to expel the enemy from the pass, and 
to secure it for the passage of the Shah Zada. 
You should send one of your confidential men 
along with us, with a large sum of money to 
expend among our brethren-, as the occasion 
may demand ; or, should you not trust to our 
sincerity, keep some of us as hostages in your 
camp, and order the rest with your assent to 
proceed to Khaibar to effect the object in view ; 
otherwise, what can we alone do against Dost 
Mahomed, who is powerful, and has yet two- 
thirds of the Khaibaris on his side ?" 

The Colonel replied to them in the follow- 
ing terms : — " If the Khaibaris are faithful and 
willing to serve the Shah Zada, he will supply 
the five chiefs of Khaibar with sufficient means 
to enable each of them to employ one thousand 
men of his own tribe during the war, provided 
they send approved hostages to our camp ; 


while I, on my own part, pledge myself to 
apply to Shah Shuja, on his restoration, to 
continue to them the same allowances they at 
present receive. You know as well as I do in 
what the troops and wealth of Dost Mahomed 
Khan consist, and may rest assured that neither 
he nor his son will ever attempt to enter the 
pass ; should they do so, we are ready to sup- 
port you. If your chiefs decline my propo- 
sition, you cannot of course expect the same 
favours to be conferred on you." 

The Khaibaris said : — " We are convinced 
that, if you offer even ten thousand rupees 
to each of our chiefs, they will never come 
while Dost Mahomed is in possession of the 
country. We, on our part, however, are ready 
to perform the service you require ; but victory 
or defeat is in the hand of the Almighty." 

After these discussions the assembly was 
dissolved, and desired to meet the next day. 
Accordingly the Maliks again assembled, when 
a long argument ensued. At length the 
Khaibaris came to the resolution of sending a 
deputation to their chiefs, to say that if they 



would not engage to expel the garrison of Ali 
Masjid, and to conduct the Shah Zada at once 
through the pass, they would undertake that 
service themselves. They sent their deputies, 
and a few days afterwards they returned. The 
result was the failure of their mission ; and after 
further consultation the Maliks expressed also 
their own inability to act offensively. It now 
became perfectly evident that they had joined 
Mr. Lord with no other end than to gain 
money. They were therefore desired to leave 
the camp and return to Khaibar, and that, 
when their services were required, they would 
be recalled. Thus we got rid of these idle 
hands. They had been entertained in the idea 
that we should prosecute our operations from 
Peshawr without delay, when they might have 
been made of use ; but the Sikhs took care that 
we should be disappointed in that object. The 
Khaibaris and other rude Afghans of the hills 
believed that we had a countless treasure, and 
that they had only to ask to be sure of receiving 
innumerable presents. Some of the Afridis 
who visited me, seeing a few tin cases contain- 


ing records, supposed that I had a great deal 
of money in them. I unlocked the cases and 
showed them the contents, on which they ex- 
claimed with astonishment that they had been 
grossly deceived. These faithless marauders 
and robbers do not spare even to rob those who 
feed them. 

A letter was received from the Maharaja on 
the oth of April, enclosing the copy of a bond 
delivered by Sultan Mahomed Khan to his 
Highness, renewing his declaration of allegi- 
ance to the Sikh Government, and pledging 
himself and his brothers at Peshawr to hold 
no correspondence with Dost Mahomed Khan, 
his sons, or dependants, or any other person, 
the enemy of the Sikh or British Governments. 
It was very satisfactory to receive such a do- 
cument from a party which had been labour- 
ing under suspicions of favouring the enemy 
by secretly collecting troops and raising diffi- 
culties to impede or prevent the advance of the 
Shah Zada, and was regarded as a strong 
pledge of their forbearance from intrigues ; and 
whatever may have been Sultan Mahomed's 


secret wishes, it is proper to state that we did 
not find him afterwards guilty of any breach 
of faith. Soon after the delivery of the paper 
the Sirdar returned to Peshawr, where he re- 
mained during the whole of our operations. 
His reassurance on the part of the British 
Government was considered by Sir Claude 
Wade an expedient course of policy, and he 
was treated liberally by him throughout ; in 
consequence of which Sultan Mahomed spared 
no means in his power of conciliating that 
officer. He offered to co-operate in any way ; 
but although his personal services were de- 
clined, his fidelity was tried by asking him for 
some camel swivels, &c, which he readily 
placed at our disposal; while Pir Mahomed 
Khan and Sayed Mahomed Khan visited the 
Mission in succession, and vied with their elder 
brother in offers of service. They were treated 
with every consideration, and Pir Mahomed 
Khan proved his good will by furnishing about 
fifty jazails, which he had in his stores, to arm 
a corps of jazailchis the Colonel wished to 
raise. It was considered prudent, however, not 


to rely altogether on these proofs of adherence 
to our side, as the natural ties of affection be- 
tween the Sirdars and their half-brother at 
Kabul might perhaps, on some occasions, lead 
them to change. News-writers were conse- 
quently stationed in each of their jaghirs to 
watch their conduct and report current events 
regularly. The reports of these people, how- 
ever, did not show any disposition on the part 
of these Sirdars to league with the enemy. 

About the same time a deputation, consisting 
of Nawab Khan and Gul Mahomed Khan, re- 
spectable natives of Kalabagh, had been sent 
on the part of the Prince Taimur with some 
presents to the chief of Bajour, as a mark of 
distinction and favour, and in order to confirm 
him in his early declaration of attachment to 
the Shah. On their way they were molested 
and insulted by Amir Khan of Naowaghi, a 
chief in favour of Dost Mahomed, and in 
great enmity with the Bajour chief. Some 
notice of his misconduct was thought necessary, 
especially as the security of the three routes 
lying in that direction, viz., Kharappa, Ab- 


khana, and Tatara, by which alone our friends 
beyond Khaibar could communicate with us 
while the pass was closed, was of importance 
to our success. Mir Alam Khan was, there- 
fore, requested to collect his allies or tribes, and 
await further instructions. Inaetulla Khan of 
Sawat and Ghazan Khan of Dir, and Saheb 
Zada Murid Ahmed, as well as other people 
who had previously professed their loyalty to 
the Shah Zada, were at the same time re- 
quired to join the Bajour chief, and conjointly 
with him to carry into effect the instructions 
which they would receive ; and they were also 
informed that they would be rewarded here- 
after according to their conduct in the pending 
affair. Soon after some of these persons arrived 
at Bajour, and Alam Khan having also re- 
ported the collection of his allies, Nawab Khan 
and Mahomed Sadiq Khan, the half brothers 
of Sadat Khan, were directed to proceed to 
Machni, and by the assistance of their re- 
tainers and a party of our jazailchis to secure 
the Kharappa and Abkhana routes. They 
were at the same time supplied with the 


means of collecting more troops, and a good 
number of khilats were sent with them also 
for distribution among the Momand Maliks, 
and such as might distinguish themselves in 
supporting them. The money and khilats 
were of course put in custody of an agent 
attached to the Mission, as it was impossible 
to trust entirely to the Khans themselves; 
and the sequel will show how. ill they did their 

The 6th and 7th were passed in making 
these preparations, and the force marched from 
camp for Machni on the 8th of April, about 
seven kos distant, on the other side of the 
Kabul river. On the 9th we heard that they 
had been met in the field by the son of Sadat 
Khan ; a skirmish ensued between the two 
parties. Nawab Khan and his brother re- 
treated with a loss of some lives ; and the 
enemy, having treacherously been joined by 
Dilasa Khan, who had accompanied our force 
from camp, defeated Nawab Khan, and then 
retired to their own high mountains, while our 
party remained at Machni and exerted them- 



selves in collecting the wounded, and rallying 
their men. 

10th — When the state of affairs in the 
Doaba came to the knowledge of Mahomed 
Akbar Khan, he, supposing that the force 
sent to Machni was a diversion to deceive 
him and enable the Shah Zada to turn the 
Khaibar pass by taking a route to the left by 
Chora, invited the Maliks of the Sangukhail 
tribe, residing at Beshbolak, on the other side 
of that place, to wait on him, and desired them 
to guard that road. They pleaded their in- 
ability, without the aid of the Khaibaris : and 
so the young Sirdar failed in his design ; but 
he wrote to his father, urging him strongly to 
remove the families of his uncles and others 
in Kabul, who were suspected of their fidelity, 
as he soon expected operations to commence in 
his quarter. He also recommended the host- 
ages of the Khaibaris, &c, to be released, as it 
would encourage them to make a religious 
war ; and said that he had sent his own family 
to Kabul. 

The last accounts at Kabul, from Candahar, 


are stated to be that the people of that quarter 
were every day going to join the Shah ; that 
Mahomed Akram Khan, the son of the Amir, 
who had been employed at Qundooz, had re- 
turned with three thousand men on the 31st of 
March; but as they were fatigued by long- 
marches, they would not be fit for service for 
some time. The return of these troops had re- 
vived a little the drooping spirit of Dost Ma- 
homed Khan. 

News was received from Ali Masjid that 
Yaqub Khan and Suleman Khan were soon 
expected there with one hundred jazailchis ; 
while Rasul Khan, the uncle of the young- 
Sirdar, who had arrived at Dhaka with some 
troops, would follow him ; but another party 
of the Lamghan people, who had been col- 
lected from that country for the purpose of 
being employed in Khaibar, were said to 
have deserted from want of subsistence. The 
camels and carriages belonging to the mer- 
chants were being seized by Mahomed Ak- 
bar's people, in order to transport supplies 
to Ali Masjid from Jalalabad. From all ac- 


counts it appeared that he began to be 
alarmed, and to employ himself very actively 
to oppose our invasion. 

ll^A. — A report was received that Azam 
Khan, the brother of Afzal Khan, who had 
been sent by his elder brother to punish some 
rebels in Kuram, had been defeated by them, 
and was wounded in the head. Another 
tribe, named Kadu Khail, in the vicinity of 
Jalalabad, had also revolted and infested the 
road, to the great annoyance of Mahomed 
Akbar Khan. 

Since our arrival at Peshawr, Colonel Wade 
had, among others of the Shah's friends, been 
engaged in close correspondence with the 
Tirah people, who had declared their devo- 
tion from the beginning. Lately, Sayed 
Ahmed Shah, the son of Sayed Madad Shah, 
who possesses great spiritual influence with the 
tribes in that quarter, arrived in our camp in 
company with Mirza Hasan Ali, the son of 
Mirza Ghirami, who had before been sent to 
that country by the Sayed to secure the co- 
operation of these people. The Sayed also 


came accompanied by Sirfaraz Khan of Hingo, 
Nijabat Khan of Nariab, and Mir Alam Khan, 
Kakar ; the latter a deserter from Afzal Khan's 
camp in Kuram, and the nephew of Haji Khan, 
Kakar, the man who deserted the Sirdars of 
Candahar and joined the Shah on his ap- 
proach to that city. Sayed Ahmed and his 
companions were received with marked atten- 
tion ; but in consequence of the extreme heat 
of the weather, the Sayed, who lived in a cold 
climate, was dismissed to return to his country, 
leaving his son, a fine young man, in camp. 
On taking leave, he and the whole of his party 
engaged that they would join Lieutenant 
Mackeson with five hundred retainers, in his 
intended diversion, when he arrived at Kohat. 
A note was therefore delivered to the Sayed 
for transmission to that officer who would in- 
form him of his approach. From the reputa- 
tion which the Sayed enjoys, and the high 
respect in which he is held by his disciples, 
every confidence was placed in his promises ; 
He soon after wrote that he was employed 
in collecting his followers and preparing to 


forward the views of the British Government 
and the Shah. The relatives of Madad Shah, 
named Hasan Rezaand Mahomed Reza, besides 
Sayed Reza, whose arrival has been already 
noticed, also joined the Shah Zada's camp. 
They likewise reside in Tirah, and are equally 
pleased to co-operate. 

These Sayeds appeared more enlightened 
and civilized in their manners than their neigh- 
bours. They were a fine -looking and polite 
people. Madad Shah and his relations, and a 
considerable portion of the population about 
Tirah, are of the Shiah persuasion, particularly 
the Turis, while the Afghans are of the Sunni 
sect ; and constant quarrels exist between them. 
Their religious enmity is so high that they 
each consider a person of any other faith much 
preferable to the other in point of good prin- 
ciples and morality. 

12th. — Nawab Khan, of Pindiali, and Tura 
Baz Khan, were recalled from Machni, and 
joined the camp. The former is a very brave 
man, and has a high character in his tribe 
for liberality. The Kharappa route lies by 


Pindiali, his native place, and of which he 
is the nominal ruler, as the people pay him 
nothing in the form of revenue. He and his 
retainers chiefly subsist on the income of the 
taxes which they levy on the merchants pass- 
ing that way. It is considered by them a safer 
road than the Khaibar one, where, besides 
paying the established tolls, they run the risk 
of being plundered. 

Tura Baz Khan is the son of MazuHa 
Khan, the late chief of the Momand tribe. 
He was killed by his cousin Sadat Khan, 
who usurped his territory, and his family 
became fugitives in the hills. Hence the 
claim of Tura Baz as the heir to the chiefship 
of the Momand tribe, and the condition on 
which he joined the Shah Zada was, that, if 
he distinguished himself in his zeal and de- 
votion to the royal cause, he would be restored 
to his father's rights and possessions on the 
re-establishment of the monarchy, as his cousin 
had already evinced a determined opposition 
to the Shah's cause, notwithstanding the fre- 
quent overtures and letters which had been 


addressed to him both by the Shah Zada, 
Colonel Wade, and General Avitabile. Tura 
Baz Khan's proposal was accepted, and an 
assurance given to him of favourable treat- 
ment by the Shah. These partizans acquitted 
themselves satisfactorily, as will soon appear. 

The latest accounts received from Candahar 
were that the Shah had advanced as far as 
Shal Mustang, and that the chiefs of that place 
were engaged in sending off their families for 
protection to Salu Khan at Lash, who was said 
to have been reconciled by them. Mahomed 
Akbar is reported to have sent three pieces 
of artillery back to Kabul from Jalalabad. 
The Amir had been trying as much as possible 
to strengthen his power, and to depend more 
on his own troops than the peasantry of the 
country ; but he spared at the same time no 
exertions to excite a religious war. Letters 
were addressed by him to the Usafzae people 
to join his son at Jalalabad ; but they treated 
them coldly, and appeared more anxious to join 
the Shah Zada. A proclamation was likewise 
issued by Dost Mahomed Khan, in concert with 


the Mullas of Kabul, contradicting the one 
issued by the Shah and the Governor-General of 
India, and on our side by the Shah Zada and 
Sir Claude, and alleging that the Shah was a 
Kafir, and calling on the Mussulmans to rally 
around his standard and commence a religious 
war against the infidels. A proclamation was 
also drawn out and issued on our part by the 
Mullas of Peshawr, refuting, on the precepts of 
the Koran, the tenor of Dost Mahomed's mani- 
festo, and impressing on the minds of the 
people the obligations of loyalty to their law- 
ful monarch. These diplomatic demonstra- 
tions, to the great vexation of the Amir, kept 
the people from being deceived ; and to their 
effect, as well as to the exertions of some of the 
Shah's old friends in Kabul, which I am about 
to mention, the excitement against Dost Ma- 
homed Khan was ascribed. 

Gholam Khan, Popalzae, who was the first 
of those at Kabul to declare in the Shah's 
favour, was in close correspondence with us. 
He had induced several persons in Kabul, and 
the Kohistan, and towards the Logar country, 


to adopt the cause of the Shah. Emissaries 
were also sent to secure the fidelity of those 
people, and to tell them that they were to 
wait a little longer, when they should at once 
revolt in the Shah's favour. One of these 
emissaries was Shah Zada Yehia, of the Sad- 
dozae family. He is an intelligent young 
man, and who, with his family, had, as I have 
noticed, lately effected his escape from Kabul 
and joined Prince Taimur, his cousin, on our 
way, at Jehlam. Gholam Khan proposed that 
he should be sent to the Kohistan, where the 
deputation of a Shah Zada would in his 
opinion be considered an honour done to them 
by the Kohistanis and excite a rebellion among 
them. He was sent to them in disguise, and, 
having to pass through a hostile country, was 
exposed to many hardships and dangers to 
avoid discovery. On his arrival he became 
the guest of Shadad, the son of Mazulla Khan, 
a powerful chief in that quarter, who had been 
well affected to the interests of the Shah, and 
some years ago murdered by Dost Mahomed. 
It was owing to these direct measures and the 


exertions of our emissaries that the Kohistanis 
revolted and advanced to meet the Shah on 
his approach to Kabul. 

On the 13th inst. General Ventura arrived 
from Lahore by express. He was requested 
by Ranjeet Singh to assist in arranging mat- 
ters between the Mission and Nao Nihal 
Singh for the fulfilment of the tripartite 
treaty; and his arrival gave us every hope of 
the Mahomedan contingent being soon col- 
lected, in which we were not disappointed. 
His intimate knowledge of the friendship ex- 
isting between the two Governments, and the 
character and disposition of the different par- 
ties on whose co-operation we were dependent, 
enabled him to fulfil his master's injunctions 
to produce that force better than any one else 
who could have been employed ; and Lis con- 
trol over the troops, as well as influence with 
the Sirdars, made his presence valuable to us 
as long as he remained. Jemadar Khoshal 
Singh, Raja Golab Singh, and Lehna Singh, 
were said to have arrived at Naoshehera, and 
Nao Nihal Singh was also soon expected. 


General Ventura promised to visit the latter to 
expedite the production of the contingent. 

14^. — The news from Kabul announced the 
arrival at that place of an express Qasid from 
Candahar, bringing a letter for the Amir from 
his brothers, who are reported to have informed 
him by that opportunity that he was to con- 
sider that letter as their last, as they had 
heard of the near approach of the Shah, and 
urged the Amir to send them a reinforcement 
with the least possible delay, otherwise their 
destruction was certain. Dost Mahomed ex- 
pressed his inability to comply with their re- 
quest, on the plea that his subjects were 
already in arms against him ; and recom- 
mended them to meet the Shah once in the 
field, and if they suffered a reverse, to confine 
themselves in the fort and make a resolute de- 
fence. Mr. Harland, an American, in the ser- 
vice of the Amir, and lately absent at Qoon- 
duz, was said to have been seized and confined 
in Kabul on suspicion of being a spy of Shah 
Shuja. Abdal Sami Khan, the secretary of 
the Amir, for whose return he had been ex- 


ceedingly anxious, to secure the fidelity of the 
Gholam Khana people, had soon followed 
Akram Khan with the rear of the Qoonduz 
troops. Hafizji was still engaged in deceiving 
the people to give a loan to the Amir to sup- 
port the expenses of the war, but without 

It was also reported that some days before 
Dost Mahomed had collected all the Mullas 
and religious men of the city, and told them, 
by a solemn oath on the Koran, that he would 
not prevent any person from joining the Shah, 
who wished to go, as he was .not a tyrant ; but 
that, if any one deserted him or his son in the 
time of battle, his family were to be seized and 
his property forfeited ; and then he w r ould 
be exempt from blame, as he informed them 
beforehand. The Amir had no other object 
in view by addressing the Mullas so solemnly, 
than to impress on the minds of his people a 
good intention and love of justice on his part, 
and thereby to excite them to Jehad, or a 
religious war; but his endeavours were still of 
no use. 


On the 15th one of the sentries of the 
Ghoorka battalion on duty in our camp 
stopped two chupars, or mounted messengers, 
belonging to the Mission, which created a 
great disturbance, but was fortunately quelled 
without any serious consequences.* 

16^. — Sir Claude Wade, accompanied by 
General Ventura, went again to the tope on 
the other side of Takal, which he had before 
visited with General Avitabile, to take a view 
of the entrance of the Khaibar pass; as the 
Sikh officers were impressed with a belief that 
the occupation of Khaibar would be attended 
with impassable difficulties; while Colonel 
Wade from the beginning had been of the 

* " The persons whom Colonel Wade usually employs 
as spies are his choopars, or mounted messengers, who dis- 
guise themselves inimitably; and it was only the other 
day that two returned from a successful visit to Jalalabad, 
whither they had gone dressed, or rather undressed, as 
faqirs; for I believe they were not encumbered with 
many clothes. Most of these men are wild and daring 
fellows, apt to quarrel, and by no means slow at drawing 
their weapons, especially when their opponents are either 
Sikhs or Hindus." — Barr's Journal, p. 281. 

LEVIES. 311 

opposite opinion, and wished to explain his 
plans to General Ventura. Had he only had 
an efficient force on which he could have 
depended, he felt assured that he could have 
taken Ali Masjid at first ; but the misfortune 
was there were then no regular troops. 

The 17th and 18th were employed in in- 
specting the levies raised for the service of the 
Shah Zada and completing them with separate 
establishments of camp equipage, ammunition, 
&c. The cause of our delay at Ali Mardan 
Khan was chiefly on account of the formation 
and equipment of these levies. They were 
formed into two battalions of eight companies 
each, and Lieutenant Dowson and Ensign Hil- 
lersdon were incessantly employed in com- 
pleting them. The formation of another party 
of cavalry and infantry, to form a part of the 
Shah Zada's guard, was assigned to Lieu- 
tenant Maule, who had besides charge of a 
small mortar and howitzer sent by General 
Court, and also of the camel-swivels, &c. 
aided by Lieutenant Barr. 

The enrolment, payment, and organisation 

312 LEVIES. 

of the Durrani Sowars into something like an 
efficient body of cavalry was managed by 
Mr. Lord, who had previously raised a rissala 
of irregular horse, well armed and clothed 
alike in uniform. These preparations were 
indeed attended with constant labour and vex- 
ation, and it was some time before they were 
brought to completion. The party of the 
Durrani Sowars amounted altogether to about 
a thousand men, who, from their independent 
habits and pride, gave more trouble than any 
one else. Many more offered, but it was ne- 
cessary to fix a limit and pick out the best, as 
they were very expensive. 

Besides these levies there were about two 
hundred Khaibaris, the residue of those who 
had been discharged the other day, who were 
placed in charge of Wahab and Slimo, the 
Kaki Khail Maliks living near Jamrud for a 
particular service. There were also about four 
hundred Terah people. These constituted the 
whole amount of our levies. # 

* " Most of the mornings and evenings were now occupied 
in admitting volunteers into the service of the Shah Zada ; 


Some time was employed in collecting suf- 
ficient supplies also for the consumption of the 
camp : though nothing was wanted at present, 
as the bazar, now consisting of no less than a 
hundred shopkeepers, supplied all our wants ; 
yet, in case of emergency, we could not depend 
solely on them. The difficult and tedious task 
of collecting these supplies, of keeping the 
accounts, and of performing every duty of the 

and so many Durrani horsemen presented themselves to be 
enrolled, that it became necessary to select only those 
whose steeds and arms were better than of ordinary de- 
scription. Several chiefs who came for this purpose, 
attended by their clansmen, formed fine specimens of the 
rude and predatory soldier ; their manly and tall figures 
being generally enveloped in the folds of a crimson chogah 
embroidered with gold, which, opening in front, display a 
crimson band studded with pistols and knives, or an arm 
protected by a steel gauntlet which reached to the elbow, 
and was terminated at the hand by a flexible glove of chain 
rings. To Maule and myself fell the lot of instructing 
some dozen and a half of individuals in the British method 
of gunnery ; and our crew consisted of a most motley 
group, enlisted by twos and threes, as we could collect 
them, the basis of the set being formed by three deserters 
from Dost Mahomed Khan, to each of whom the Colonel 
gave dresses of honour as an inducement for others to 
follow their example." — Barr's Journal, pages 268, 269. 



Commissariat, was managed by Lieutenant 
Cunningham ; and the active and regular way 
in which he performed it deserves the greatest 
praise. Every one in camp had plenty to do 
from morning to night. 

On the 19th inst. further accounts were 
received of desertions and distractions from the 
enemy. The Kabul merchants, fearing that 
the Amir, having failed in procuring money 
by peaceable means, would now employ force, 
were said to have retired to the hills, where 
they could find themselves and their wealth 
safe and out of the reach of Dost Mahomed 
Khan. He was left now to depend entirely on 
his own resources. 

Letters were again received from Gholam 
Khan Popalzae, &c, urging the expediency of 
despatching agents to other parts of the Ko- 
histan and Zurmut for the purpose of raising 
the people. He stated that they were already 
in a state of disaffection towards the actual 
ruler, and required only the presence of 
the Shah's agents to excite them further 
and to make decisive efforts in his favour. 


Gholam Khan's wish had been in part anti- 

Mulla Jabbar, the bearer of Gholam Khan's 
letter, a native of Kohistan, and in full confi- 
dence with some of its chiefs, was soon re- 
manded to that quarter with letters from the 
Shah Zada and Sir Claude. A sign was also 
given to the emissaries, both there and in 
Logar, by which the leading men were to act 
in communication with Gholam Khan, who 
left Kabul and joined Shah Zada Yehia in the 

20th. — The repeated applications which had 
been made to the Maharaja for the production 
of his Mahomedan force were followed by 
successive orders to the Sikh officers with his 
army on the Indus, directing each of them to 
draft every Mahomedan from their corps, with 
the exception of the infantry which had already 
been furnished by the French officers and a 
party of their cavalry ; yet no increase had 
been made. Kour Nao Nihal Singh had, 
however, arrived at Naoshehera, where a con- 
fidential servant attached to the Mission was 

p 2 


deputed to meet him, and to remind him 
of the suggestion for the continuance of the 
Sikh army on the left bank of the Indus ; that 
we were waiting with anxiety for the com- 
pletion of the contingent to the requisite 
number, and trusting that he himself would 
come to Peshawr. 

General Ventura, who went out yesterday to 
meet the Kour, had returned with every assur- 
ance that the remaining part of the force 
would be provided without delay ; but he could 
not tell how long we might yet have to wait 
for them, as they had to be drafted from so 
many regiments. 

2lst. — To-day Colonel Wade received a visit 
from Raja Golab Singh, accompanied by Di- 
wan Hakim Rae, the principal functionary of 
the Kour. They had been sent by him to 
consult Sir Claude as to his intentions, and 
their wish for the advance of the Sikh army to 
an intermediate position between Attok and 
Peshawr, to which the Colonel would not yet 

From the fourteen Sikh regiments encamped 


on the Indus we were led to expect that there 
would be about two thousand Mahomedans, 
and being well disciplined were considered of 
much more value than double the number of 

The arrival of Lieutenant Mackeson was now 
looked for with great anxiety. He had been 
desired to come to Peshawr, in order that Sir 
Claude Wade might have the advantage of 
communicating personally with him before he 
proceeded to the execution of the duty assigned 
to him. 

22nd. — A letter was received from Mir 
Morad Beg, the Kundooz chief, in reply to one 
addressed to him lately by Mr. Lord. A reply 
was also received by the same opportunity to 
the letter of the Governor-General, sent through 
the same channel. The Uzbeck chief regarded 
the destruction of Dost Mahomed Khan's 
power with satisfaction, as with it he hoped the 
conquest made by his son in that quarter 
would cease. 

Intelligence was also received from Bokhara, 
giving information of the arrival of Colonel 


Stoddart at that place ; but that owing to some 
disagreement between him and the King of 
Bokhara, the Colonel had been put in con- 
finement, since which it was not known what 
had become of him. We became very de- 
sirous to learn something farther regarding 
that officers fate. It was stated that the 
ruler of Bokhara had lately despatched a mis- 
sion to Russia, and that the Colonel was se- 
verely treated. 

Our accounts from Ali Masjid are that there 
are now about a hundred Jazaelchis inside the 
fort, while four or five hundred are encamped 
outside on the Nala below its walls, who were 
living in temporary tents. The camels which 
had transported supplies and some swivels from 
Jalalabad had been sent back there, were said 
to be only seven Sowars in the whole party — 
two or three hundred more Jazaelchis were 
soon expected. The commanders of the party 
were Mahomed Shah Ghilzae and Sharif Khan, 
two well-known Sirdars, officers in the Amir's 
service. Forty Jazaelchis were also stationed 
at Kafirtangi, the bye path to Ali Masjid ; but 


they remained there only during the day, and 
retired to the fort at night. 

On the 23rd news was received from Can- 
dahar that the chiefs of that place having 
failed in their hopes of getting reinforcements 
from Dost Mahomed Khan, had called on the 
Western Ghilzae chiefs, Abdurrahman Khan 
and Gul Mahomed Khan, the son of Shah- 
abuddin Khan, who are at the head of about 
twelve thousand families, residing near Makur, 
to join the Sirdar against Shah Shuja, who 
they said was coming with the avowed resolu- 
tion to conquer the country of Islam for the 
Kafirs. Besides these arguments the Candahar 
chiefs offered them also a sum of money to 
assist them in their preparations ; but they had 
not yet succeeded in obtaining their alliance. 

The alarm of Dost Mahomed Khan in- 
creased with the nearer approach of the Shah 
towards Candahar. He was said to have nearly 
discharged all the Popalzae Durranis from his 
service, because they were distrusted, and sup- 
posed would desert him when the time for 
action came ; but he scarcely anticipated any 


danger at such a juncture from Qazalbashes, 
or the Gholam Khana, in whom he had long 
confided as his friends. 

The chief Sirdars with Mahomed Akbar 
Khan were Sadat Khan, Mahomed Alam 
Khan, Orakzae, and the Arbabs of Peshawr. 
There were besides about two thousand Jazael- 
chis directly paid by the Sirdar, who were 
commanded by Nawaz Khan and Aziz Khan, 
the Ghilzae chiefs, as well as by the cousin of 
the late Ismael Khan, Wardak and Faqir Ma- 
homed Khan, Rahik. Each of these persons 
had five hundred men. The artillery con- 
sisted of seven horse and six foot pieces of 
ordnance, as well as two large rifles, which were 
drawn by horses and planted on a bastion. 
Two of these pieces were made of wrought 
iron, and the rest cast in brass. Shah Ma- 
homed, a native of Hindostan, was the com- 
mander of the artillery. The gunners were 
also natives of that country, and ten men were 
allowed to each gun. Besides the artillery the 
young Sirdar had twenty-five swivels ready 
for use. A party of two hundred and fifty 


Sowars formed his body-guard, which consisted 
chiefly of the people of the Gholam Khana. 

The above was the whole strength of Ma- 
homed Akbar's force, exclusive of the pea- 
santry, of which he could collect about three 
thousand fighting men. The news from Kabul 
was still favourable. Dost Mahomed Khan 
one day went to the blind old chief Ata Ma- 
homed Khan, Bamizae, to ask his sage advice, 
saying that he was in such perplexity that he 
had neither rest by day nor sleep by night. 
Ata Mahomed advised him to make peace, 
which the Amir said his honour prevented him 
from doing. Ata Mahomed then observed, 
" It is proper that you should remain in Kabul, 
as a stone remains firmer in its own bed ; but 
send your sons in every direction to meet the 

Since the return of the Qandaz troops, Dost 
Mahomed Khan has contemplated to send a 
reinforcement to support his brothers at Can- 
dahar; but his advisers opposed the scheme, 
and suggested the concentration of his troops 
at Kabul. 



April 24. — Lieutenant Mackeson had not 
yet arrived, and we were waiting for him. In 
consequence of our inactivity the friends of 
the Shah on the side of Bajour, having too 
early thrown off the mask, the state of affairs 
in that quarter has not been so satisfactory, 
as in the country south of Khaibar ; but 
every endeavour was made to counteract the 
designs of the enemy and establish that in- 
fluence on both sides of the pass without which 
the advance of the Shah Zada becomes verv 

We were earnestly engaged also in bringing 
the Khaibaris to terms, but we have not yet had 
the satisfaction of doing so. Abdurrahman, 
the head of the Kuki Khail tribe, as well as 
Alladad Khan and Faeztalab Khan, the head 
of the Zaka Khail tribe, were the first parties 
with whom the negotiations were renewed. 
They were once more offered a confirmation 
of their present rights and the continuance of 
the allowance which they enjoyed from Dost 
Mahomed Khan, besides a certain number of 
khilats to the Maliks and Reshsafeid (or white- 


bearded people who assist in Jirga or consulta- 
tion), if they would declare the authority of 
the Shah in their own tribes, and expel the 
garrison from Ali Masjid. At first they seemed 
to agree to the terms, but afterwards they 
gave reins to their avidity, and were likewise 
deceived by other Khaibar chiefs. As usual, 
they asked an exorbitant sum, which, of course, 
was refused ; first, on that account ; and, 
secondly, because it would reflect disgrace in 
these countries on the character of the British 
nation (which has so firmly established their 
name for military skill and bravery), to yield 
to a race of robbers. 

It should be mentioned that the Kuki Khail 
people were paid three thousand rupees by the 
Sikh Government for supplying water to the 
fort of Fatehgarh, and a jaghir of fourteen 
thousand rupees per annum was held by Sadat 
Khan in the Doaba of Peshawr on the part of 
the same government. As both parties had 
proved themselves so hostile to us, and ac- 
cording to the treaty the enemy of one state 
was to be considered as the enemy of the other, 


their stipends and allowance were requested to 
be stopped. Ranjeet Singh readily agreed to 
the measure, otherwise it would have been 
affording means to the enemy to fight his own 

* " Lieut. -Colonel Wade finding, from the rapacity of 
Abdur Rahman Khan and his party, who occupied the 
pass on the side of Peshawr, that it was difficult to come 
to terms with them, and that, while seeking to open a 
negotiation with him, he was sending agents to some of 
the officers in the Sikh service, principally to stipulate for 
the payment of the water supplied to the garrison of Fat- 
tehghur, as well as with a view of intrigue, that officer 
deemed it proper to inform him, that if he could not 
accept his terms with a certain time, his agents would be 
directed to withdraw. At the same time he spoke to the 
Maharaja's officers, who were aware of his desire to gain 
over Abdur Rahman, and stated to General Avitabile that 
the treaty with the Shah having left the provision of the 
water to the fortress, and the expenses attending it to 
his Majesty's Government, he would himself become 
responsible for the future regulation of that point. Find- 
ing that they could not carry on a separate negotiation 
with the Khaibaris, without risking the success of those 
which were confided to Lieut.-Colonel Wade, and that 
his injunction was promptly supported by a similar one 
from Ranjeet Singh himself, the officers then broke off 
their communication with Abdur Rahman." — United Ser- 
vice Magazine for 1842, p. 481. 


The son of Sadat Khan Momand, having 
retired from Machni, applied for the assist- 
ance of his father. That chief, however, did 
not join him readily, but assisted him in send- 
ing a party of his Oolus, with which the 
young man was now thinking to come down 
again to the plains, when Tura Baz Khan and 
Nawab Khan Pindiali were provided with 
means to secure the services of their Oolus, 
and despatched to defend that frontier. At 
the same time Nawab Khan and Mahomed 
Sadiq Khan, &c, who were encamped at 
Machni, and had now been joined by other 
partizans, were directed to form a junction 
with Tura Baz, while Mir Alam Khan of 
Bajour was informed of the despatch of these 
leaders, and requested to afford ready aid to 
them whenever required. Tura Baz Khan's 
instructions were that, after beating the enemy, 
he was to advance to Naowaghi, which he was 
to attack on the east, while the Bajour chief 
was to make a diversion in his favour on the 

On the approach of Tura Baz and his party, 


young Sadat Khan retreated, on which the 
former continued advancing, and stationed 
himself at a place called Garang, about seven 
kos distant from Naowaghi to the east. When 
information of the meditated attack on Nao- 
waghi reached Mahomed Akbar, he ordered 
Sadat Khan, the father, to proceed to that 
quarter. In the mean time Tura Baz Khan 
invited the Bajour chief to attack Naowaghi ; 
but he did not attend to his request, nor did 
he make any movement to join him, stating 
that his Oolus was not yet collected. Every 
exertion was made by Mr. Carron, a British 
agent, who had been employed by Mr. Lord 
with Mir Alam, to stir him from his lethargy, 
but in vain. 

He was, it is said, privately gained over by 
Sadat Khan, who, meanwhile, attacked Tura 
Baz, when a sharp skirmish took place be- 
tween them. At first the latter gained some 
advantage ; being overpowered, however, in the 
end, by the superior numbers of the enemy, 
who were about this time joined by the Nao- 
waghiman, and being deserted by Nawab 


Khan and Sadiq Mahomed Khan, Tura Baz 
was obliged to retire to Pindiali, where he 
halted a few days to collect and refresh his 
men, and endeavoured to get some succour 
from Bajour or Machni, but still without 
effect. His faithless brothers, no doubt, saw 
another pretender in Tura Baz to the rule of 
the Momand tribe, and had accordingly been 
persuaded by Sadat Khan that his rise would 
defeat their own interests. They had been 
well treated by the Shah Zada, but they 
wanted the spirit and firmness of their brother 
in the hour of trial. Deceived in them, and 
receiving no support on the side of Bajour, the 
latter defended himself as well as he could. A 
few days afterwards, however, Sadat Khan re- 
turned to the attack, and after firing a few shots 
and throwing stones from a height overlooking 
the camp (a mode of warfare generally used in 
these hills), he and his people rushed down and 
closed with Tura Baz, who, finding himself 
completely defeated, and his force diminished, 
partly by deserters and partly by the wounds 
which his men had received, retreated to a 


place of safety towards the outside of the pass, 
where he remained until he was reinforced 
from our camp.* Sadat Khan, after establish- 
ing his authority in Naowaghi, returned to 
Lalpura. These reverses may be entirely as- 
cribed to the pusillanimous behaviour of the 
Baj our chief, and the treachery of Nawab Khan 
and Sadiq Mahomed Khan, the half brothers of 
Sadat Khan, who, ashamed of their conduct, 
asked to be forgiven, and did not continue long 
with the enemy ; but they were not allowed to 
rejoin the camp. 

In the mean time Kour Nao Nihal Singh, 
accompanied by Raja Golab Singh, Sirdars 
Attar Singh Sindhanwalia and Lehna Singh 
Majithia, arrived at Peshawr, while Jemadar 
Khoshal Singh had been left at Naoshehera in 
charge of such of the Maharaja's troops as had 
crossed the Indus, while the main body of the 
army, consisting, besides three regiments of 

* " The chief brunt of the action fell upon fifty Jazael- 
chies from Dowson's levies ; but many of them met their 
deaths, and the wounded were a few days afterwards brought 
into our camp in a most pitiable state." — Barr's Journal, 
p. 297. 


cavalry and fourteen battalions of infantry, of 
about fifty pieces of artillery, remained halted 
on the left bank of the river by the order of 
his Highness. That part of the Sikh troops 
which had crossed consisted of some of the 
Maharaja's Ghorcheras; the personal troops of 
the Kour and of the Sirdars who attended him. 
These were estimated at about ten thousand 
men, viz. five battalions of infantry, and five 
thousand irregular horse, with about twenty- 
five pieces of artillery. 

On the 20th of April the Mission paid Nao 
Nihal Singh a visit of ceremony, in the course 
of which no conversation of any importance 
occurred. The place being crowded with 
people, Sir Claude Wade did not discuss any 
matters of business. Among those present 
was Sirdar Sultan Mahomed Khan, to whom 
Nao Nihal Singh turned and said that he had 
asked him to establish a communication with 
Candahar, to procure news from that quarter, 
but that the Sirdar had reminded the Kour of 
the pledge he had given the Maharaja to hold 
no correspondence with his brothers, either at 


Kabul or Candahar, and asked the Lieutenant- 
Colonel whether he should employ Sultan 
Mahomed to effect his object, or do it by 
his own means. That officer agreed in the 
force of the objection stated by the Sirdar, and 
recommended the Kour to employ his own 
agents, though there might be no harm in 
Sultan Mahomed Khan providing him, as the 
Kour said he had offered to do, with expe- 
rienced messengers, which his connexion with 
the intervening country would probably enable 
him to do better than others. The Kour, how- 
ever, was informed that he himself would be 
held responsible for the employment of the 
Sirdars agency in any way, to which he 
agreed, and said that he would station two 
moonshees on the road to Candahar, and hoped 
soon to be in the receipt of regular and rapid 
intelligence from that place about which both 
himself and the Sirdars began to betray some 
anxiety, which we also felt, having only once 
heard from Mr. (afterwards Sir William) Mac- 
naghten, the envoy and minister with the Shah 
since our departure from Lahore. No other 


point worthy of notice transpired, and the 
Colonel took leave.* 

On our return to camp the Kour sent word 
that he was not empowered to execute any im- 
portant affair without the Maharaja's permis- 
sion ; a discovery of his real views which, after 
all that had been done by the Governor-Gene- 

* " Colonel Wade having intimated that it was his desire 
to pay the Prince a visit* in the evening, the Sirdar Lehna 
Singh, with three elephants and a large train of horse- 
men, was sent to conduct him to the darbar tent, situated 
about four miles distant. At six p.m., attended by a large 
escort, and all his officers in full uniform, the Colonel left 
camp, our cortege forming no inconsiderable body, in- 
creased as it was by the presence of the Sikh Sowarree. 
On nearing the royal tents, where a large assemblage of 
troops, comprising artillery, cavalry, and infantry, was 
drawn up, the soldiers presented arms, and the batteries 
fired a salute. At the entrance to the darbar court a 
deputation, consisting of General Ventura and a party of 
nobles, received the Colonel, and conducted us to the 
chiefs, who advanced to the edge of a white cotton carpet, 
and shook hands with Wade, who afterwards introduced 
us. On extreme left sat Rajah Golab Singh, one of the 
best of Ranjeet's officers, and second in command. Next 
in order was Sultan Mahomed, brother to Dost Mahomed 
Khan, the Amir of Cabul, but at enmity with him, in- 
creased, I believe, by the latter having retained one of his 
favourite wives." — Barr's Journal, pp. 273-4. 


ral in the presence of Ranjeet Singh, at Lahore, 
and the letters which had from time to time 
been written to his Highness, on our way, 
and since we came to Peshawr, was very pro- 
voking. No time was lost, however, in de- 
spatching a letter to the Maharaja to remind 
him of the necessity of investing the Kour 
with full powers, as the terms of his engage- 
ment with his Lordship demanded, which he 
immediately granted ; and at length, after 
much vexation and delay, these letters and 
remonstrances had the desired effect. The 
Mahomedan contingent was produced, the best 
portion of which was that selected from the 
French legion, amounting to six companies, 
and formed into a separate battalion, besides a 
selection of about fifteen hundred men, which 
was made from the army of reserve encamped 
on the left bank of the Indus, under General 
Teij Singh ; of these, two more battalions 
were formed. A party of matchlockmen was 
provided also by Sirdar Lehna Singh, Majithia, 
and some Kohistanis were sent in addition 
from Lahore, by Ranjeet Singh, from an idea 


that they would prove useful in our hilly 
warfare. The only thing now wanting to 
complete the force was artillery, a proper 
quantity of ammunition and stores, and an 
officer to command the whole ; which caused 
further delay. Including two battalions of 
Najibs, and the one of Ramgol, there were 
now altogether six battalions. The whole of 
the infantry, regular and irregular, amounted 
to five thousand two hundred and eight men, 
the cavalry to one thousand and sixty-seven, 
and gunners and swivelmen to one hundred ; 
making a total, including the escort, of six 
thousand two hundred and seventy-five men 
from the Sikh Government. The Lieutenant- 
Colonel applied to have each battalion fur- 
nished with two pieces of horse artillery, and 
ten swivels for the irregular horse, which might 
be of use where guns could not be taken. His 
Highness now promptly gave orders for the 
provision of everything, and M. La Font, one 
of General Ventura's subordinate officers, was 
appointed specially to command their infantry. 
When these preparations were completed, it 


was reported that Dost Mahomed Khan in- 
tended to detach a part of his force, under the 
command of one of his sons, towards Canda- 
har. As it had been stipulated that, in case 
such a movement should be made, the Sikhs 
were to support the Shah Zada, and to lay siege 
forthwith to the fort of Ali Masjid, the Kour 
was asked to hold his force in readiness for 
such an event. General Ventura, being also 
consulted, readily offered his services, and said 
that, agreeably to his masters order, his own 
corps was the first to be employed, but that 
the views of the darbar and the Sirdars were 
not strictly the same as his own. He was 
assured that by the agreement made with the 
Maharaja, the Sikhs were undoubtedly bound 
to aid us when we advanced beyond their 
frontier, and to act in cordial concert with the 
Shah Zada in the capture of Ali Masjid. The 
General replied that he would look at the 
tre s aty, and prepare his own corps, if author- 
ized, to proceed with the Prince. Mucli dis- 
cussion then took place with Kour Nihal Singh, 
as to the extent of assistance to be given by 


his Government, which ended in a promise 
from him to hold a part of the Sikh army in 
reserve to support our advance in case of any 

It was deemed necessary that every precau- 
tion should be taken before leaving the Pe- 
shawr frontier, to secure the execution, on the 
part of the Sikh Government, of the prelimi- 
naries required to be performed by them. 

Being apprehensive, not only from the state 

of the Maharaja's health, which now began to 

be very precarious, but from the secret desire 

of some of his Sirdars to impede our progress 

in order that we might be left to ourselves, 

that the object of our expedition might be 

defeated, no means were omitted from the first 

to keep the Sikhs to their engagements. By 

those not present to judge of our difficulties it 

might be thought that Sir Claude Wade was 

more urgent than necessary in calling their 

attention to them : but the delay which had 

been experienced at Lahore, even in the trifling 

matter of completing the personal escort of 

the Shah Zada to the proposed strength ; and 


his experience of the inactivity and reluctance 
of the Sikhs in such matters; convinced the 
Colonel that it was only by a continued reiter- 
ation of his demands, and by letting the Ma- 
haraja see, in plain but conciliatory terms, 
that any omission might risk the benefits to be 
derived by him from the tripartite treaty, that 
there was any chance of moving him to an 
energetic support of our operations, or of re- 
straining his people from interfering to prevent 
the execution of his orders. 

At the same time it was desirable by such a 
decisive course to let his Sirdars also see the 
possible injury they might themselves do to 
their master's interests and credit with the 
British Government, and the result showed 
the correctness of these arguments ; for no 
sooner had Sir Claude been compelled to place 
the subject in its true light before the Maha- 
raja and his officers than he issued the most 
peremptory injunctions to them to complete 
the contingent, and give us every other aid 
in their power. 

Now everything was ready to commence 


operations. Had we proceeded without these 
preparations and the assurance of being sup- 
ported by the Sikh army held in reserve on 
the Attok, the Prince, as well as the British 
detachment, might have been exposed to that 
hazard which was directed above all things to 
be avoided, and we might at the same time 
have exhibited the singular spectacle of being 
powerless, either for attack or defence, with 
the army of a declared ally at hand. 

On the 3rd of May we received another 
letter from Gholam Khan, reporting the state 
of affairs at Kabul. The position of Dost 
Mahomed Khan was represented to be more 
dangerous than before; that the people had 
become impatient to declare their adherence 
to the Shah ; and that strong declarations of 
support had been received from the Kohistanis, 
on whose defection every reliance was to be 
placed. By the same letter a correspondence 
was also said to have passed between Ranjeet 
Singh and Dost Mahomed Khan, but there 
was no proof of its truth. 

The next day the arrival of the Shah at 



Candahar was confidently reported and gene- 
rally believed in Peshawr. A letter was also 
received from Nawab Jabbar Khan in reply to 
the one which had been written to him, invit- 
ing him to come to Peshawr. The Nawab 
appeared unwilling to come, but expressed the 
readiness of the Amir to acknowledge the su- 
premacy of the Shah, provided he would remain 
at Shikarpore, where one of his sons should 
be in perpetual attendance on His Majesty ! 
We were surprised to receive such overtures at 
a juncture when the Shah was supposed to 
have reached Candahar. The bearer of the 
Nawab's letter, Mahomed Qasim, was there- 
fore dismissed with a mere acknowledgment of 
its delivery. 

Further accounts had been received from 
Kabul announcing that great and active exer- 
tions were making by Dost Mahomed Khan to 
raise the population of Kabul to join him in 
resisting the Shah as a religious merit. Every 
report now bore concurrent testimony to the 
sense which he entertained of the desperate 
nature of his situation. Failing in his own 


resources, and his attempts to conciliate the 
affections of his people, it appeared that he 
was anxious to guard against the probability 
of a conspiracy to seize him, and be allowed to 
retire from the country in safety, as he dreaded 
an insurrection on the one hand, and was sen- 
sible of his inability on the other to resist the 
combined attack directed against him from 
without. He was well aware that he could 
not leave Kabul without the consent of the 
people, or he would expose himself and family 
to insult and injury ; and it was the general 
opinion that he wanted to make his escape in a 
quiet manner. It was said also that the people 
of Kabul, rather than subject themselves and 
their families to the horrors of a foreign in- 
vasion, would seize the Amir, and deliver him 
up to the Shah.* 

On the 7th of May, we were highly rejoiced 
by the receipt of information from Kabul and 
Jalalabad of the occupation of Candahar by 
Shah Shujah, assisted by the army of the 
Indus, on the llth of the Mahomedan month 
* These events actually came to pass. 



Saffer, corresponding with the 27th of April, 
1839 ; and that the Sirdars of that place had 
fled to Persia. 

Having every reason to trust to the accuracy 
of the report, the event was proclaimed by a 
salute from the British and Sikh artillery in 
our camp, and congratulations were poured 
from every one in the city of Peshawr to the 
Shah Zada. The news was likewise conveyed 
to Nao Nihal Singh, who declared his satis- 
faction by ordering a salute from the Sikh 
artillery under his command ; and the city of 
Peshawr was illuminated by his orders in the 
evening. A darbar was also held on the 
occasion by the Shah Zada to receive the con- 
gratulations of his adherents and of the mem- 
bers of the Mission. Studious endeavours 
were made by the enemy to conceal the fact, 
and, in consequence, the report reached us two 
days later than it ought to have done. Ma- 
homed Akbar Khan was said to have imme- 
diately engaged himself in selling his grain at 
a cheap rate, which circumstance was regarded 
as a proof of his intention to fly. It was sup- 


posed that Dost Mahomed intended to follow 
the steps of his brothers of Candahar, and to 
retire to Persia via Hazara or Kundooz. 

Letters were addressed to various quarters in 
Afghanistan, informing our friends of the fall 
of Candahar, mentioning the immediate inten- 
tion of the Shah Zada to advance, and inviting 
them to join him on his way. 

8th.-— We now began to prepare to move to 
Takal, a place four kos distant to the west ; but 
before we did so, the presence of a competent 
officer to command the Sikh force was sen- 
sibly felt, as Colonel Wade, who had hitherto 
looked after their troops alone, could hardly 
attend to them and his other important duties 
at the same time with satisfaction ; conse- 
quently when Nao Nihal Singh paid him a 
return visit, that measure was urgently pressed 
on his attention. The Kour proposed to refer 
to the Maharaja, but was told that, as we were 
about to move, there was no time for such a 
reference to Lahore ; that his Highness would 
no doubt sanction the Kour's nomination, who 
then said that he would send his answer in the 


morning. Accordingly, on the morning of the 
9th of May, I was directed to wait on the 
Kour, and express to him the desire of the 
Lieutenant-Colonel for his decision. The 
Kour at first declared that he had no power to 
appoint an officer; but proposed to direct 
General Ventura to join the force, pending the 
sanction of the Maharaja : but that in the mean 
time he could not proceed farther than Takal, 
to which place our camp had now moved. 
The Kour was informed that, in that event, 
the presence of a commanding officer with our 
camp was of little more use than if he re- 
mained at Peshawr ; that he ought to give us 
credit for requiring no more than we were 
entitled to ask by the terms of the treaty. 
These arguments changed the mind of the 
Kour ; and, after consulting his courtiers, he 
said that, although he could not take the re- 
sponsibility of nominating one solely on him- 
self, yet if Sir Claude Wade would give him 
a letter of assurance in the name of the Ma- 
haraja, he would comply with his wishes. I 
assured the Kour that the Colonel would 


make no objection to such a reasonable request, 
and reported the matter to that officer, who 
readily agreed to it, and a letter to the effect 
desired was given to the Kour. So this simple 
affair was at last settled after long discus- 
sions, and an officer joined the camp the 
following morning. The above will fully illus- 
trate the objections which the Sikh officers 
raised in every instance to accede to our requi- 

The occupation of Candahar by the Shah 
was not believed by the Sikhs until the fact 
was confirmed by reiterated proofs. They said 
that the public announcement of that event by 
the Shah Zada and the Mission was merely a 
political act to secure or raise the Afghans in 
favour of the Shah. Disgraceful rumours of the 
total defeat of his Majesty and the British 
army were studiously spread among the people. 
I heard several declare that the Shah had been 
killed, and that his remains had arrived in our 
camp, where they had prudently been con- 
cealed to prevent any defection. However? 
time cleared away all these gloomy clouds, and 


the people were soon convinced of their de- 

Before leaving our last ground, I omitted to 
mention a mutiny which broke out in the 
Najib corps* They ejected their commandant, 

* "A mutiny occurred in the Najib regiment, which 
but too plainly showed how slight was the discipline 
that existed among the Sikhs, and very forcibly exhibited 
to us the qualities of the allies who are to co-operate with 
us when required. I have already alluded to the little autho- 
rity possessed by Colonel Jacob over his men. They had 
now become altogether dissatisfied with him, and taking the 
law into their own hands, had turned him and his adjutant 
out of their camp, levelled their tents with the ground, 
and declared they would have nothing more to do with 
either of them. As a mark of respect for their Colonel 
they inverted his chair on the spot where he usually sat, 
and then, having shotted their guns, quietly awaited the 
results of their misconduct. Dislike to the officers they 
had thus summarily got rid of, want of pay, and the unfair 
manner in which they had been sent to Peshawr (their 
present appearance in this province being the third within 
a very short period), were amongst the alleged causes of 
grievance ; but, to show they had no ill-will towards us, 
they planted their sentries as usual at sunset ; and when 
directed to parade by Colonel Wade did so at once. He, 
however, told them they could no longer form a part of 
his camp ; and in a few days they removed from their 
ground, I believe, to the Sikh cantonment." — Barr's 
Journal, pp. 270, 271. 


a country-born European, Mr. Jacob Thomas, 
the son of the celebrated officer of the same 
name in Sindhia's service, and said that they 
would not serve under him, as he abused and 
ill-treated them. They stood to their arms 
and performed the duties of camp as usual, but 
would allow no one to enter their lines or 
interfere with their mutinous conduct. The 
Ghorchera Sowars also treated the kotwal of 
our bazar in an insulting manner, because he 
had prevented them, according to the regu- 
lations of the camp, from distilling spirituous 
liquors on the Afghan frontier, as it was con- 
sidered very offensive to these people. Their 
leaders, Pir Doulat Khan and Jalal Khan, 
Bhatti, the latter a very rude and boisterous 
fellow, were summoned to Sir Claude's tent 
to explain their conduct. They came in a 
large body, well armed and with their pieces 
or matchlocks loaded ; on seeing which, they 
were prevented by the sentry from entering the 
inclosure of the receiving tent. The poor 
sentry was knocked down, and they entered 
the tent, when, observing their excited state, 



the Colonel declined holding any conversation 
with them, and ordered them back to their 
quarters. These occurrences were brought to 
the notice of Nao Nihal Singh, and in two or 
three days peace was restored in both parties, 
viz., the Najibs and the Sowars, by putting the 
ringleaders into confinement; which was a 
great relief to us, as the former were encamped 
close to our tents, and we could not move out 
of them without passing their sentries.* 

10th, llth, and 12th. Camp, TakaL — On 
hearing of our further advance, Mahomed 
Akbar advanced also to Chahardeh, a village 

* " On the 9th of May our camp was moved to a spot 
of ground just beyond the deserted village of Takal, which 
is situated about eight miles to the west of Peshawr. The 
right front of our position was formed by the ruins of the 
Badshah's tope ; one of those singular constructions which, 
like that at Manikiala, are attributed to Alexander the 
Great, or his immediate successors. As it had been con- 
fidently asserted on all sides, that as soon as ever we took 
up a position at Takal the Khaibaris would attack us in 
force, every precaution that is necessary to guard against 
a surprise has been put into requisition, and it is now his 
orders that the subaltern officer of the day shall go the 
rounds twice during each night." — Bart's Journal, pp. 
290, 291. 


midway between Dhaka and Jalalabad, to 
encourage the Khaibaris, and had stationed 
his troops along the line of the road. Dost 
Mahomed Khan, on being informed of the 
diversions which were to be made by the 
troops with the Shah Zada in three different 
directions, resolved also to abandon his design 
of detaching any of his force towards Can- 

Our present ground of encampment, lying 
between the village of Takal and a ruined 
Grecian tope similar to that at Manikiala, 
was confined, and besides the two camps, 
the Sikh auxiliary force of Mahomedans and 
our own were intermixed, and caused much 
confusion ; in consequence of which, on the 
13th instant, the Shah Zada moved to Koulsir, 
about a mile off to the westward, while the 
Sikhs occupied the ground close by, their left 
flank resting on the village of Safeid Dheri.* 

* " On the 13th we marched to Koulsir, a mile and a 
half in advance of our position at Takal ; but the Sikhs 
remain on their old ground. In front of our new en- 
campment, an arid and stony plain, seemingly unspotted 


Our ground was very rugged and uneven, the 
crops having been only just cut down ; and it 
was divided by several aqueducts and mounds, 
which took some time before they were cleared 
off by our party of bildars or pioneers. Small 
wooden bridges were also made by them over 
these canals, to cause a free communication in 
the whole camp ; and as we were now in front 
of the pass, and likely to remain here a long 
time, some heights and an old tower near our 
camp were fortified, and parties of jazaelchis 
placed in them. 

On the day we reached the last ground we 
were joined by Lieutenant Mackeson, who 
arrived alone, leaving his levies and camp at 
Kohat ; but he was afterwards directed to send 
for them, and was retained with us to supply 
the place of Mr. Lord, who, on account of ill 
health, had been allowed to return to Peshawr. 

by a single patch of cultivation, extends to the base of the 
Khaibar range, whilst directly before us the white citadel 
of the Sikh fortress of Fatehgarh is occasionally to be 
seen through the thick haze, and marks the entrance to the 
celebrated pass." — Barr's Journal, pp. 293, 294. 


The diversions which were to have been con- 
ducted by these officers were therefore assigned 
to others. 

The want of a plan of the Khaibar Pass had 
been exceedingly felt, and we remained in ex- 
treme ignorance of the topography of it from 
any authentic source. It was therefore ar- 
ranged on the 15th of May, that General 
Ventura, accompanied by Lieutenant Macke- 
son, should reconnoitre its entrance, which, 
together with a native map kindly supplied by 
General Court, in a degree obviated the want 
of a plan. Colonel Wade was prevented by 
sickness from accompanying them. 

It has been already stated that Tura Baz 
Khan and Nawab Khan, Piudiali, having re- 
tired from that place and taken shelter in the 
Alamzae tribe, were about to be attacked there 
also by the sons of Sadat Khan and Khalid 
Khan Khosta ; but the latter were prevented 
from attempting such a measure by the 
Alamzae people, who, on the well-established 
rule of hospitality, would not allow their 
guests to be molested. When these altercations 


were pending between the two parties, Tura 
Baz and Nawab Khan applied for reinforce- 
ment ; and as to draw off the attention of the 
enemy from the side of Khaibar before we 
advanced was considered of great importance, 
Shah Zada Mahomed Saleh, one of the sons of 
Shah Zada Hashim, was sent on the part of 
Prince Taimur by the circuitous route of 
Gandab, with a detachment consisting of four 
hundred horse, twenty foot, ten swivels, and a 
party of jazaelchis from the corps of Lieutenant 
Dowson and Ensign Hillersdon, with orders 
to make the best of their way to Bajour and 
rejoin us on our advance to Jalalabad. The 
Shah Zada was also accompanied by the son 
of Mir Alam Khan of Bajour, Sayed Nizam 
Uddin, the elder son of Sayed Babajan of 
Kuner, who after the captivity of his father 
had taken refuge in the Bajour territory, and 
Gul Mahomed Khan, Mutti Khail, as well as 
some other Arbabs. The first three indivi- 
duals were likewise requested to collect about 
one hundred foot and fifty horse each from 
their respective oolus, for which they were to 


be paid by the Shah Zada. This party was to 
proceed via Shabqadar, situated near the hills 
opposite the entrance of the Gandab Pass, to 
support Tura Baz Khan and Nawab Khan in 
the execution of the enterprise on which they 
had been despatched. Mir Alam Khan had 
already proved himself unworthy of reliance 
by withholding his assistance ; but as he had 
excused himself for not doing his duty by 
ascribing his failure to the dilatory conduct of 
his oolus in assembling, a further trial of his 
fidelity was considered politic. Another letter 
was therefore addressed to him on the present 
occasion, intimating the approach of Shah 
Zada Mahomed Saleh, accompanied by his 
own son, and informing him of the strength of 
the party which he was required to maintain, 
and to support the prince either by his own 
presence or otherwise, as might be deemed 

Mr. Carron, the British agent at Bajour, was 
also desired to join Shah Zada Saleh on his 
approach to the frontier of that territory, and 
was to co-operate with him in any way that 


might be essential to secure the success of this 
expedition, both by the advice which his know- 
ledge of the affairs of that quarter would enable 
him to offer, and by the example of his personal 
energy and exertions in any military operations. 
Mr. Carron was also informed that his imme- 
diate duty on joining the camp would be to 
take charge of the two companies of infantry, 
which were to be soon after increased to two 
more; that he was also to superintend the 
Bazar, and to give the Shah Zada every in- 
formation and assistance in his power. 

With respect to the Naowaghi chief, the 
Shah Zada was 'instructed to require from him 
a restitution of the property seized from the 
envoys, as formerly stated, and a declaration 
of his allegiance to the Shah : at the same 
time a letter was written to Shah Zada Murid 
Ahmed of Sawat, who had already arrived at 
Bajour, to excite the people, desiring him to 
join Mahomed Saleh. This man proved him- 
self very zealous in supporting the Shah's 

On the arrival of Mahomed Saleh at Shab- 


qadar he was soon joined by Tura Baz Khan 
and Nawab Khan, Pindiali ; also by Dilasa 
Khan of Machni ; his brothers, Nawab Khan 
and Mahomed Sadiq Khan were at his request 
also permitted to join him, to prevent them, 
as he said, from joining the enemy and creating 
more disturbance ; and to encourage them they 
were desired to collect two hundred men each 
from their tribe, for whom they were to be 
paid. They soon set about the business, while 
Mahomed Saleh engaged himself in completing 
other arrangements connected with the expe- 

It had been originally designed, as mentioned 
before, to have deputed Mr. Lord with the 
Shah Zada on this duty, and his presence at 
Bajour at the present time was considered 
highly desirable; but his health prevented 
him from proceeding. Every reliance, how- 
ever, was put on the intelligence of Shah Zada 
Mahomed Saleh, and the personal exertions 
of Mr. Carron, lo effect the object entrusted 
to them. 

In these preparations we were occupied for 


several days, during which a mutiny broke out 
in the Goorkha battalion, which, together with 
the Najibs, were now encamped with the Sikh 
Mahomedan contingent. They were very in- 
solent to General Ventura, and left the camp, 
taking with them the two guns belonging to 
the Najibs.* 

* " We had not been established many days at Koulsir 
when we received intimation that the Goorkhas, who now 
formed part of General Ventura's camp, had mutinied. It 
appeared that the general had been compelled to place 
their adjutant in confinement for misconduct ; and as he 
was a favourite with the regiment, his imprisonment was 
regarded by the soldiers in anything but a favourable light. 
In the course of the day they unanimously resolved to 
release him by force ; and to effect their purpose proceeded 
in a large body to the quarter-guard of the Najeeb bat- 
talion, where the prisoner was lodged, and demanded his 
enlargement. This was refused ; and Ventura, happening 
to come to the spot at the time, determined to repel force 
by force, and ordered his Goorcherras and guards to load. 
The Goorkhas, perceiving him to be resolute in his inten- 
tions, abandoned their design, and returned to their tents, 
which they soon after struck, and, with colours flying and 
band playing, marched out of camp, taking along with 
them two guns that were attached to the Najeeb regiment. 
No attempt was made to molest them in this, nor were 
they prevented from moving to Peshawr, where they took 
up a position not far from the walls of the fort, and where 


25th May. — We heard that Shah Shuja had 
sent his tents in advance of Candahar to the 
fort of Azim Khan, and that it was intended 
to establish a post at Kelat-i-Ghilzae, a com- 
manding position on the Ghilzae and Durrani 
frontiers, between Ghazni and Candahar. It 
was supposed that the intended advance of the 
Persians against Herat had prevented the 
British army from advancing immediately on 
Kabul. Owing to these reports it was deter- 
mined to await the receipt of further advices 
from the camp of the Shah, thinking it pro- 
bable" that the whole British force might not 
be able to move at once on Kabul ; but a due 
regard for the support of our influence re- 
quired that we should without delay improve, 
as far as our imperfect means would admit, the 
efficiency of the Shah Zada's own force, in 
order that he might be better prepared to act 
either offensively or defensively, as circum- 

they were permitted to remain in a state of open mutiny, 
without any attempt being made to overawe them, whilst 
a report of their conduct was sent to the Maharaja at 
Lahore."— Bart's Journal, pp. 294, 295. 


stances might demand. Colonel Wade, there- 
fore, commenced raising another battalion of 
levies, the formation of which, from the scarcity 
of officers, he was obliged to commit to Captain 
Ferris, who, in addition to his numerous other 
duties, had been appointed Quarter-Master- 
General of our force. Lieutenant Mackeson 
and Mr. Lord, also, were directed to complete 
the levies of horse which they had raised to 
five hundred men each, besides two or three 
companies of jazaelchis. The increase of the 
levies was considered more advantageous than 
squandering away the public money on chiefs 
who could not yet separate themselves from 
Dost Mahomed Khan, whose power over 
them, in consequence of the long delay at 
Candahar, and of the Shah Zada at Peshawr, 
had not apparently been so much shaken as 
had been believed, by the capture of the former. 
Failing in his attempt to raise the people by 
preaching a religious war, he now began to 
announce to them the advance of the Persians 
and Russians against Herat, which kept his 
people still doubtful as to the course he in- 


tended to adopt. A few days after we had 
arrived at Koulsir a foraging party from the 
Sikh camp was attacked near the entrance of 
the pass by the Khaibaris, who carried off 
some of their camels and killed two or three 
grass-cutters ; in consequence of which the 
Colonel sent for Wahab Malik, and desired 
him to occupy with his party the old deserted 
fort of Jumrud in front of Shadi Bagiar, the 
path by which the Khaibaris used to come out. 
Finding the outlet closed against them, they 
came down one night to attack the post : 
several men were killed on both sides ; but 
Wahab, being reinforced by another friendly 
tribe, retained his position and did good service 
until we were prepared to advance. To keep 
the Khaibaris at a distance, the Durrani horse 
were directed to send a strong patrolling party 
along the hills every night, and pickets were 
thrown further out. On one occasion they 
came so near those of the Sikhs that they were 
mistaken for enemies ; and before they had 
time to answer the challenge a volley was fired 
at them from the Sikh picket, which wounded 


some men arid horses. To avoid the repetition 
of such accidents, the Sikh force moved to a 
position four or five miles off on the road to 

About this time a letter, which had been 
addressed by Mahomed Akbar to a chief 
named Duria Khan, in the Peshawr territory, 
was intercepted by one of the Arbabs of Takal, 
named Amir Khan, and delivered to Sir 
Claude. The translation of it which follows 
will give an idea of the arts adopted by the 
enemy to excite the people. Duria Khan is a 
rebellious chief, and much harasses the Sikhs. 

After compliments — 

" I have received your letter, and am aware 
of your valour and your devotion to our re- 
ligion. May the blessing of God be upon you ! 
The affairs of Candahar, about which you ask, 
are as follows : — when the execrable tribe (the 
English) had reached Candahar, Haji Kakar, 
proving himself a Kafir, and forgetting all his 
former duty and services, deserted to the enemy, 
which has caused extreme dismay ; and the 
Candahar Sirdars, having no alternative, were 


obliged to turn themselves towards Girishk 
and Nadir Ali (the ancient fortress of the 
Barakzae family), while they themselves with 
their followers have encamped on the banks of 
the Helmund river. The infidels have thus 
got possession of Candahar ; but the servants 
of the Amir are now collecting forces from all 
quarters, and stirring up the people around 
them for their entire extermination. The men 
also of Turkistan and the Ghilzaes are pre- 
paring to fight for the faith. From the men 
of Iran and Roos (Persia and Russia) also, 
certain intelligence of their approach has come ; 
and these Nazarenes (Christians) at Candahar 
are in a state of the greatest anxiety, and well 
nigh their wits' end, seeing they are about to 
be attacked from every quarter. At the same 
time Shah Zada Kamran has applied to this 
ill-omened tribe for aid to protect Herat against 
the Russians. When the Firangis at Can- 
dahar saw affairs taking this turn, they wrote 
off to their own country for reinforcements; 
but we trust in God that the heat will now 
prevent the arrival of any new troops, and that 


those who are here will be ruined and de- 
stroyed. With this object in view the Amir is 
now actively employed ; and whenever Ma- 
homed Shah (the King of Persia) approaches, 
he also will advance. The Firangis now in- 
tend to fortify themselves in Candahar. May 
God confound these enemies of his religion, 
and make their faces black ! The people of 
Islam on all sides are up in arms, and from 
the Hotki and Tokhi tribes (between Candahar 
and Ghazni) fifty or sixty thousand men have 
already assembled and addressed the Amir to 
send his army. He has accordingly ordered 
off Mahomed Afzal Khan with three thou- 
sand horse and ten guns, that he may speedily 
raise the country about Kelati Ghilzae, and 
Makhoor, and extirpate the infidels, and enrich 
himself by their spoils. To-day I also, with my 
victory-gaining troops and lightning-darting 
artillery, am here encamped at Chardeh. If 
all is well, be sure of an early arrival in your 
quarter, for which be prepared, and send me 
intelligence of what is going on there, and of 
your own welfare." 


I am not aware of any answer having 
been returned by Duria Khan ; but such was 
the course which the ruling family of Kabul 
adopted after the fall of Candahar. However, 
the people were now too wide awake to be 
hoodwinked and deceived by the Amir or his 
sons ; on the contrary, several overtures had 
been made to Lieut -Colonel Wade by the 
Durrani leaders with Mahomed Akbar to come 
over to the Shah Zada on receiving assurances 
that they would be employed by his father on 
the same terms on which they then served 
Dost Mahomed Khan ; but the roads between 
our camp and them were so strictly guarded, 
that it was difficult to carry their wishes into 
effect, and only one or two of them came over. 
Towards the end of May the heat in camp had 
become very severe, and many fell sick ; the 
thermometer in tents rose to 110°, and we all 
began to dig holes, and live in them like so 
many foxes.* 

* A variety of expedients were adopted to mitigate the 
effects of the desperately hot weather ; some of the officers 
excavating the earth beneath their marquees ; others 



On the 5th of June intelligence was received 
of Dost Mahomed's sending off his family on 
the road to Kholam. He delivered all his 

having only one half of the area dug out, by which means 
a change of temperature was to be obtained ; whilst a few 
constructed apartments under ground, at the depth of 
seven or eight feet. For myself, I preferred the simple 
canvas with a tatter (khus-khus, screen -wetted), although 
much warmer ; but there was a dampness in the Sard- 
hhanas (cool apartments) which in my opinion is not 
wholesome, and I also dislike the feeling of moisture that 
invariably clung to the dress after sitting in one for any 
length of time. F., whose tent was pitched opposite to 
mine, had built one of these " vaults for the living," on 
the most approved principles, and was sitting in it, on a 
certain sultry day, transacting the affairs of his company 
with his subahdar and havildar, when down came the 
whole fabric on the top of them, the beams, as they fell, 
fortunately taking such directions as completely saved 
them, if not from destruction, at least from broken limbs. 
I heard the crash, and immediately ran over to assist ; 
but on reaching the spot, I became convulsed with laugh- 
ter at the appearance of the gallant captain, who, being a 
stout man, had perspired freely, and dust from off the 
clay roof had stuck to his face and plastered it as if with 
a coating of mud : not a feature was to be distinguished ; 
and beside him stood the subahdar, a poor, withered- 
looking old man, who seemed as if he was just issued from 
a baker's shop. 


jewels and other valuables to the care of Ma- 
homed Akbar Khan's mother, his favourite 
wife. They separated with feelings of great 
grief and sorrow. This circumstance con- 
vinced us that the Amir was positively deter- 
mined on his flight, which proved to be true in 
the end. 

From the present time to the 6th of August 
Sir Claude Wade was engaged in establishing 
his posts at the mouth of the pass in advance 
of the Sikh frontier, and in keeping Sadat 
Khan, who had entered the plains near 
Machni, in check, while Shah Zada Mahomed 
Saleh was advancing with his force by Nao- 
wagi towards Bajour, and the Sayeds of Tirah 
were desired to create a diversion in that 
quarter. As I remained in camp with the 
Shah Zada while these operations were carried 
on, I am not able to describe them from my 
own observation ; and even had I been present 
I am sure that I could not do justice to them. 
I therefore hope that I shall be excused for 
supplying my own deficiency by inserting the 
description given of that important part of the 



expedition from the very interesting and ex- 
cellent journal published by Lieutenant Barr, 
which has been sent to me from England by 
my friend Mohan Lai, and from which it will 
be observed that I have taken many notes to 
illustrate my own imperfect diary, which I 
hope that good gentleman will excuse. 

( 365 ) 

Chapter XIV. 

Preparations for advancing — Supply of Water stopped — 
Stockades erected — General Sickness — Death of Ranjeet 
Singh— Skirmishing near the Pass — Action with Sadat 
Khan — Sir C. Wade obliged to go to Koulsir — An 
Affray between the Mussulmans and Sikhs near Jamrud 
— Return of Sir C. Wade — His Force — Ill-feeling of 
the Sikhs to the British Power — Enemies to be en- 

" Preparations were at length made that bore 
some indications of a speedy advance being 
contemplated. The levies under Lieutenant 
Dowson and Ensign Hillersdon were con- 
sidered sufficiently au fait at their exercise to 
admit of their joining with the British troops, 
and taking part in the general duties of the 
camp. The artillery were busy in constructing 
ammunition-boxes, to be carried on the backs 
of mules, and in practising the mounting and 
dismounting of ordnance from the backs of 
elephants; and, above all, an advanced camp 

366 SANGAS. 

was formed beneath the walls of Fattehgarh ; # 
and sangas, or rude breastworks of stones, were 
thrown up on the more commanding positions 
near the entrance of the pass. These rough 
pieces of fortification, so close to their own 
haunts, proved very offensive to the inimical 

* " Considering that with reference to the probable date 
of the departure of the Shah from Candahar, and the de- 
claration of the Khaibar chiefs that they would give hos- 
tages of their good faith when we appeared in the vicinity 
of Jamrud, and that it was desirable to endeavour to ascer- 
tain what the intentions of Mahomed Akbar Khan were, 
in the event of a demonstration to force the pass, it ap- 
peared to the Lieutenant-Colonel advisable that no further 
delay should take place in occupying the entrance to the 
pass in some strength. He proceeded therefore to the 
spot himself, and lost no time in erecting two stockades, 
supporting one another, commanding the principal en- 
trance to the pass, and securing at the same time a com- 
munication with the Sikh garrison in Fattehgarh, where 
he formed an encampment of the troops which had been 
placed at his disposal by the Maharaja specially for service. 
On the following day he erected two other stockades, 
which gave complete possession of the entrance, and left 
Lieutenant Mackeson, with his levies added to the force 
already there, in charge of the post, visiting the ground 
occasionally himself." — United Service Magazine for 
1842, p. 482. 

JAMRUD. 367 

Khaibaris, who soon evinced a disposition to 
get rid of them ; and, on the 9th, came down 
in some force with an apparent intention of 
making an attack. Maule, however, having 
sent a few shells from a 5J inch mortar, arrested 
their progress ; but the fellows fired well and 
true, one of their bullets passing between him 
and Mackeson, and knocking the turban off 
the head of the latters moonshee, who was 
standing close to them. 

" On the 10th I relieved Maule at Jamrud, 
and took there a 6-pounder gun of the Alowalia 
Raja's, in case an opportunity should occur of 
getting a few long shots. Ferris accompanied 
me. There was no appearance of the enemy 
when we arrived; but as the evening ad- 
vanced, first one head, and then another, and 
another,, became visible on the heights in 
front; until, at length, a small body of jazael- 
chis from Ali Musjid had collected there. 
The dread of the shells, however, kept them 
at a distance ; but they commenced firing at 
us with their long rifles, and one of their 
bullets passed over our heads without commit- 


ting any damage. Shortly after, as night was 
closing in, and our foes had decamped, we re- 
turned to the fort of Fattehgarh, where we 

" Early on the following morning Colonel 
Wade rejoined us from Koulsir, where he had 
been for a couple of days ; and, on his arrival, 
we rode to the mouth of the pass for the pur- 
pose of erecting another sanga on the right 
bank of the stream, or rather bed of the stream, 
as the Khaibaris had turned the water into 
another channel, because the Colonel had re- 
fused to pay some exorbitant tax they required 
for allowing it to flow. Ranjeet Singh is com- 
pelled to give 1200 rupees a month for the 
little of the 'pure element' that is required 
for the use of the garrison at Futtehgarh ; and 
if the money is delayed beyond the stipulated 
day of settlement, the stream is instantly 
stopped, which no doubt proves a certain re- 
medy for the cure of dilatory payment. At 
the new sanga we were occupied till past eleven 
o'clock, when the heat of the sun drove us to 
our camp. 


" Our fortifications in front of the pass now 
consisted of four redoubts, three on the left 
bank and one on the right, the latter of which 
commanded the entrance, and also afforded a 
good cross-fire to the most advanced of those 
on the opposite side. The largest and most 
elevated in situation was in the centre, and 
was occupied by a strong body of friendly 
Khaibaris. The other sangas were occupied 
by picked men from Dowson's and Hillersdon's 
regiments, with a few of Lieutenant Mackeson's 
Multanis. Amongst the neighbouring hills 
we saw some deserted villages, or rather apo- 
logies for such, of the Khaibaris, consisting 
merely of caves dug in the earth, in the most 
rude manner, or as would be seen in the most 
savage countries. The site of the battle- 
ground where the gallant Harri Singh lost 
his life was pointed out to us, as well as the 
remains of the fort of Jamrud, near to which 
the encounter took place. Little, however, 
beyond a confused-looking mound is to be seen 
of the latter, it having been demolished soon 
after the fatal action, and the stronger and 



more substantial castle of Fattehgarh erected 
in its stead. 

" We again slept within the walls of the for- 
tress, our beds being ranged side by side on the 
roof of a building in its interior, to which we 
climbed by an indifferently constructed ladder. 
We were joined here by the * Goroo,' or 
priest of the place, whose apartment was on 
a level with our quarters, and who, with the 
greatest coolness in the world, dragged his 
char-paee, or bedstead, close to ours, and 
stretching himself on the top of it, was soon 
in a snore. With nothing but the canopy of 
heaven for a curtain, we were as cool as it 
was possible to be at Jamrud, in the middle 
of summer, or, in other words, we found it 
unpleasantly warm ; and to add to our griev- 
ances, the fatigues which the Colonel had gone 
through at the sanga, brought on fever, from 
which he suffered considerably during the 
night. The next morning I accompanied him 
to Koulsir, where he had a smart attack : but 
the terrible heat to which we were exposed 
was already telling upon most of our constitu- 


tions. Captain Farmer had been laid up at 
Peshawr, and was seriously ill for some days ; 
Rattray followed, and was for weeks on the 
sick list. Corfield has been so extremely ill, 
that he is to return to the provinces with 
General Court, whenever that officer proceeds 
to Lahore with his brigade. Lord has suf- 
fered so much from fever and ague that he 
has been compelled to take up his quarters 
in General Avitabile's house at Peshawr, 
where he is not so much exposed to the 
weather. Lieutenant Cunningham, too, has 
had an attack of fever and been bled ; and 
some out of the few that remain have also 
been complaining. 

" On the 2nd of July, official information was 
received of the death of the Maharaja Ranjeet 
Singh, who, after a long struggle with life, 
quitted this world on the evening of the 27th 
ultimo, bequeathing his kingdom to his eldest 
son, Kharak Singh, and the famous diamond, 
the * Kohinoor,' or ' hill of light,' to the 
temple of Juggernath, besides distributing 
above forty lacs of rupees in charity, a few 


days before his death.* As soon as he had 
ceased to breathe, the chief sultana took the 
hand of Dhian Singh, the vizier, and inserting 
it into that of Kharak Singh, the new sove- 
reign, she placed them in that position on the 
breast of the corpse, and made them swear to 
be faithful to one another, and to the late 
Maharaja's wishes. I think it was on the day 
following his decease that the body was burned, 
and, melancholy to relate, no less than four of 

* Ranjeet Singh being the only person in the Sikh 
nation who was well disposed towards his allies in the ex- 
pedition, his death before that part of it was carried out 
which depended on their co-operation was a serious and 
embarrassing event, as it encouraged the hopes of the dis- 
affected, both among Afghans and Sikhs, of our failure. 
Its first effect was to create a desire on the part of Nao 
Nihal Singh, and the Sirdars and troops with him, to 
hasten back to Lahore, where parties struggling for 
ascendancy were beginning to form their intrigues. They 
hesitated for a time between their inclination and duty, 
but the latter prevailed. No sooner, however, had the 
Shah Zada advanced than the whole of the reserve broke , 
up their camp at Attok and marched in haste to Lahore ; 
but the contingent, the command of which had now de- 
volved on a Mahomedan officer, viz.. Sheikh Bassowan, a 
colonel and brigadier in the French legion, remained 
faithful to its post. 


his wives, and five or seven of his slave-girls, 
voluntarily sacrificed themselves on the same 
funeral pyre. 

" A day or two subsequent to this, Wade and 
Ferris proceeded to the neighbourhood of the 
Kabul river, as our inveterate foe Sadat Khan 
had been busily engaged in inciting the popu- 
lation on its left bank to arm against us. On 
the 6th, I joined them with a small Sikh 
howitzer, escorted by a detachment of the 
Shah Zada Taimur's body guard ; and as the 
Colonel intended to commence operations that 
day, and expected me at sunrise, I was obliged 
to leave Koulsir at 2 a.m. I arrived in the 
nick of time, as he had just assembled a 
number of horsemen who were to accompany 
us, and with whom we forthwith proceeded to 
occupy a height which overlooks the river, 
where it quits the Khaibar range, and enters 
the plain of Peshawr. This view was ex- 
tremely pretty, the stream, which was far below 
us, being concealed every here and there by 
the jutting points of projecting mountains, 
with a few straggling villages on its left bank, 


fringed, in one or two places, with mulberry- 
trees ; whilst in the middle of the channel a 
black rock or two upreared their heads, and 
broke the force of the current as it flowed 
swiftly by, causing the water to be lashed into 
a white foam, and which, as it receded from 
the obstructions, gradually resumed its un- 
ruffled appearance. The Momand country, 
a mere succession of barren and rocky hills, 
was to the north ; and to the south, and to the 
east, the valley of Peshawr, over which were 
spread tracts of cultivation, and clumps of 
trees, bounded our view ; the high range of 
the Khaibar mountains being to the west. 

" The largest of the villages was pointed out 
by Colonel Wade as that which he wished to be 
shelled ; but it appeared to me beyond the 
range of the small howitzer we had brought 
with us : however, T arranged matters to make 
a trial. Unwilling to commence hostilities, in 
the hope that the people might yet be induced 
to come in peaceably, the Colonel still deferred 
proceeding to extremities, notwithstanding some 
hours had passed by beyond that he had fixed 


as the limit of his forbearance. Presently ap- 
peared a couple of horsemen, who were hailed, 
and asked to join us. They replied only by 
hurling a torrent of abuse. Ball after ball 
was sent at them, and although I observed 
one or two plough up the ground in front 
of their horses' feet, they managed to escape 
unhurt; and I was glad of it, as they had 
displayed much coolness and daring. A party 
on foot now descended the- hills on the oppo- 
site bank, and commenced blazing away at 
us ; but without effect, as we were beyond 
the range of their matchlocks, though a few of 
our rifles reached one of the boldest of their 
set, who had crept to the water's edge, and 
who would have paid dearly for his temerity 
had he not been safely ensconced behind a 
huge rock, upon which the bullets told. 

" This desultory mode of skirmishing con- 
tinued for some time, and on its ceasing Wade 
ordered the remains of an old tower to be put 
into a state of defence, and lodged a guard 
there. He then proceeded with Ferris down a 
narrow cut, which brought them to the margin 


of the river, and opposite to a village, whose 
inhabitants he previously had warned (in order 
that the women and children might be sent 
out of the way) would be attacked unless they 
consented to acknowledge the Shah Zada. 
As this cut was no gun road, I was obliged to 
return by that we had come up, and which, 
being in many places rather steep, compelled 
us to have recourse to the drag-ropes, to pull 
the ordnance over them. Whilst occupied at 
one of these eminences, a few stray shots were 
fired at us from the heights above, but did 
no injury ; and in half an hour I rejoined 
Colonel Wade. It was now necessary that 
the gun should be advanced with much pre- 
caution, to conceal it from a party of horse- 
men, located beneath a tree contiguous to the 
village ; and this having been satisfactorily 
accomplished, the piece was laid and fired : 
the shell falling in front of them, and bounding 
onwards over their heads, exploded just beyond 
their position. ' Sauve qui peut !' was their 
cry, and away they scuttled to a place of safety 
as fast as their legs could carry them. Another 


shot, aimed at the largest house in the place, 
plumped into the midst of it, and raised a 
cloud of dust that took several minutes to 
settle. Our attention was then directed to a 
lofty tower, in which numbers of men had 
taken refuge ; and whilst firing at this, a stray 
shell happening to descend into a corner of 
the village, turned out a number of individuals, 
who proceeded at full tilt across a hill at its 
back, and behind which another fell, and burst- 
ing, drove out a number of women who had 
taken shelter there, and who now, not knowing 
where to hide themselves from the deadly 
missiles, again sought refuge in their houses. 

" The Colonel, unwilling to make an unne- 
cessary sacrifice of life, but determined to show 
his threats were not to be disregarded with 
impunity, now ordered the firing to cease, and 
we moved along the banks of the river until 
we reached a small village, in front of which 
the stream makes a considerable bend, thus 
leaving an open space of ground, which 
formed an eligible situation for an outwork. 
A ditch and mound were forthwith dug and 


thrown up, but as there was nothing more for 
me to do, I returned to camp, which was 
pitched near a fortified enclosure, and which I 
reached at five in the evening, having been in 
the saddle, with scarcely any intermission, for 
fifteen hours. I was, as may be supposed, con- 
siderably well fagged, and, having had nothing 
to taste since the preceding night, tolerably 
nigh being famished, and glad to lay hold of 
a biscuit wherewith to stay the cravings of my 
appetite. At eight o'clock, Captain Ferris and 
Colonel Wade having waited until the position 
was entirely enclosed by a parapet and thick 
brushwood, by way of an abattis where such was 
required, came back, and told me that about an 
hour after I had left, some marksmen had got 
on to an island within range of their situation, 
from which they blazed away, and killed one 
man and wounded two others before they could 
be dislodged. A strong guard was left to 
defend the village and ground we had oc- 

* From the raw levies and miscellaneous composition of 
the Shah Zada's force, it was the invariable practice of the 


" A day or two afterwards, Ferris having con- 
structed a very fair attempt at a battery in the 
enclosure, we rode there in the evening, taking 
with us the howitzer, and also a gun that had 
been sent from the camp at Koulsir on the 
Colonel's requisition. The left bank of the 
river was on this occasion crowded with the 
partizans of Sadat Khan, who was also said to 
be present ; but they were wary, and kept 
almost beyond the range of shot. A few 
shells were sent at a building close to a 
garden, which we saw with a telescope was 
filled with men, who soon evacuated it ; and 
a few shots from the six-pounder in the direc- 
tion of Sadat Khan caused him and his train 
to fall back and take up a more distant and 
respectful position. Several marksmen again 
crossed over to the island, and a few of their 
bullets buried themselves in the parapet of 

Colonel, in occupying a position, immediately to fortify it 
by a stockade, behind which the men might find a security 
the want of discipline could not supply. For that purpose 
a large party of Bildars or pioneers always accompanied 
every detachment, and the country being strewed with 
stones, these defences were easily and quickly erected. 


the battery. Night put a stop to our prac- 
tice, and we returned to our quarters. A 
trench had been sunk and a breastwork thrown 
up the previous day as a defence to the Shah 
Zada Jamhur's camp, situated a short dis- 
tance behind the enclosure with the battery, 
and about a mile and a quarter in advance of 
our own position. 

" Urgent business now requiring Wade's pre- 
sence at Koulsir, he left Ferris and myself in 
charge of the camp near Machni, and as we 
had the use of his khus khus tent, we contrived 
to make ourselves tolerably comfortable in 
spite of the intense heat. # 

" Of an evening we used to ride over to the 
Shah Zada Jamhur's camp, who was always 
glad to see us, and generally produced a colla- 
tion of fruit, which he partook of with us. We 
then commonly adjourned to the banks of the 

* The Sikhs had refused to despatch a reinforcement 
which had been requested ; and it being the first occasion 
on which their disposition to support the Colonel's opera- 
tions had been practically put to the test, it was essential 
that he should come to a definite understanding with Nao 
Nihal Singh on so important a point. 


Kabul river, where, collecting a few fishermen, 
we made them cast their nets into the water, 
and in this manner caught numbers of fine fish, 
chiefly of a species of trout. As we were re- 
turning from these visits, we would often 
amuse ourselves by trying the mettle of our 
steeds against the speed of our escort, which 
consisted of some thirty or forty horsemen ; and 
invariably the jemadar of the troop, who was 
mounted on a long gaunt racer, succeeded in 
heading us all. 

" During our sojourn near Machni we heard 
of a serious affray that had occurred at Jamrud 
between the Mussulmans and Sikhs. How the 
quarrel commenced is not exactly known, but 
the latter shut the gates of their fort ( Fatten - 
garh), and set to firing briskly on their anta- 
gonists.* Mackeson, who, in addition to the 
difficult task of conciliating the Khaibar chiefs 
in its neighbourhood, had charge of our camp 

* Some friendly Khaibaris in the neighbourhood had 
killed a bullock, a piece of which, it was supposed, had 
been brought into Lieutenant Mackeson's camp, which 
caused the outbreak. 


there, on hearing the disturbance endeavoured 
to put a stop to it, and for this purpose was 
advancing to a wicket, when a Chuprassie 
was shot dead by his side, the Sikhs being 
heard by his cousin (who had joined him from 
Lahore a short time ago) to shout out, ' Shoot 
the Faringhi Sahib,' or 'English gentleman.' 
In spite of the danger to which he was exposed, 
Lieutenant Mackeson boldly insisted on being 
admitted within the fort, where he found the 
commandant, Boodh Singh, doing everything 
in his power to quell the tumult. A report of 
the circumstance was immediately forwarded 
to Prince Nao Nihal Singh, at Peshawr, who 
sent Sirdar Lehna Singh to inquire into the 
matter, and ordered the garrison to be relieved 
forthwith. Several individuals besides the 
Chuprassie lost their lives in this ' untoward 

" About the 15th Colonel Wade returned to 
us ; and everything being now in readiness for 
an immediate advance on Afghanistan, we left 
Machni on the 18th, and rejoined our camp at 
Koulsir the same day. The 19th was a halt, 


as the Sikh contingent was not quite ready to 
move ; but on the 20th of July the whole of the 
force at last quitted Koulsir and marched to 
Jamrud, where we encamped between the fort 
of Fattehgarh and our sangas; the latter being 
still tenanted by the friendly Khaibaris and 
levies from Dowson and Hillersdon's regiments. 
The heights, too, that the jazaelchis had oc- 
cupied when firing upon us were now in our 
possession, and kept by a body of Ferris's irre- 
gulars under the personal command of that 
officer, who had struck across from Machni 
to Jamrud, instead of returning with us to 

" The force now at the Colonel's disposal to 
effect the passage of the Khaibar amounted, at 
a rough estimate, to some nine or ten thousand 
men, six thousand of whom form the Sikh con- 
tingent, and are all Mussulmans. The co- 
operation to be expected from these allies is 
not of the most cordial description ; for it is 
well known that the Sikhs, as a nation, are 
extremely jealous of the British power, and 
nothing would afford them greater pleasure 


than to see it meet with a reverse. Necessity 
alone compelled Ranjeet Singh to sign the tri- 
partite treaty ; but having done so, it is but 
justice to his memory to add, that as far as he 
was concerned, or when his health would allow 
him to attend to public business, the engage- 
ments entered into were observed. Strong, 
however, as the Khalsas 9 dislike is to us, I 
believe their hatred to the Khaibaris to be 
tenfold more bitter ; and therefore we have at 
least the passions to work on our side, if we 
have not their will. Of the Afghan levies it is 
more difficult to speak. Some amongst them 
have no doubt been led to espouse the Shah 
Zada's side out of love to his cause ; but the 
majority, it is to be feared, have done so purely 
from the desire of gain. Many also are secretly 
of Dost Mahomed's party, and these, in their 
quarrels with the Hindustanis, have, on more 
than one occasion, been heard to express their 
intentions of paying us off when once within 
the limits of the Khaibar Pass. Such indivi- 
duals can only be willing to serve us so long 
as we continue paramount in power, and they 


are well paid ; but were we once to meet with 
a reverse, it does not require much keen- 
sightedness to pronounce that their weapons 
would be turned against us. The British 
sepoys, the Hindustani irregulars, and a few 
of the Afghan levies, amounting all together to 
about two thousand men, are therefore the only 
troops that could be implicitly relied upon; 
but what is this small number to the host that 
can be brought against them ! A whole bri- 
gade of our troops ought to have been sent with 
the Sikhs, and no doubt would have been, but 
for the jealousy of Ranjeet Singh. The Com- 
pany's ikbal* had hitherto been great in the 
eyes of our opponents, and it is now more 
necessary than ever that it should continue to 
be so. 

" The foes we expect to encounter are the 
Khaibaris in general, and the Afredis in par- 
ticular, the most bloodthirsty and the most 
numerous of the three tribes that inhabit the 
country around the Pass. When united (which 
fortunately is not always the case), it is com- 
* Good fortune. 


puted that these lawless marauders can bring 
from twenty to twenty-five thousand men into 
the field ; but as some had joined the Shah 
Zada, and others, it is rumoured, are willing 
to be bought over, we cannot calculate upon 
meeting a third, or even a fourth of the num- 
ber. These would, of course, be supported by 
Akbar Khan, who is encamped near the west- 
ern extremity of the Pass, and can move up to 
their assistance whenever necessary. A por- 
tion of his men, it is also said, garrisons the 
fort of Ali Masjid. The possessions of the 
Afredis lie nearest to Peshawr ; those of the 
Shinwaris being in the neighbourhood of 
Dhaka, extending from the entrance there to 
the vicinity of Ali Masjid. The Orakzaes 
live more in the interior. 

( 387 ) 

Chapter XV. 

March to Jubbagee — The Force is divided — View of Ali 
Masjid — Gallantry of Lieut. Mackeson — An Attack 
— Conduct of the Levies — Skirmishing — Ali Masjid 
captured — Illness of Lieut. Barr — Preparations for 
advancing — Dhaka — Order issued by Sir C. Wade. 

" The commencement of active operations was 
hailed by us all with extreme satisfaction, for 
we were heartily tired of Peshawr and its vici- 
nity, and longed to see what was at the other 
side of those hills on which we had been gazing 
for so many tedious months. On the 21st we 
marched in the afternoon, under a burning sun, 
to Kuddum, a mile and a half in advance, 
where we halted and slept. The next morning 
a strong party, consisting of artillery, cavalry, 
and infantry, assembled at day-break, prepara- 
tory to progressing up the Pass, and seizing 
on some of the heights in front. The Colonel, 
with Rattray and myself, joined this force, 
taking with us a small mortar, suspended upon 



men's shoulders, for the purpose of being car- 
ried up the steeps where necessary ; the am- 
munition being conveyed in boxes slung over 
the backs of a couple of mules. Captain Ferris 
was, simultaneously, to keep moving with his 
regiment ' along the tops of the hills, and 
Mackeson to penetrate from Jamrud with his 
Multanis and part of the Sikh contingent, by 
a shorter and more confined pass, the Shadi 
Bagiar, only adapted for foot passengers and 
camels. At dawn of day our cortege was 
ready, and, as we mustered at the extremity of 
a lofty mountain, tinged by the grey of morn- 
ing, with a rippling stream running at its base, 
the scene was one of extreme beauty and ex- 
citement, crowded as it was with a multitude 
of troops, and the tribes of the various districts 
in the neighbourhood who were friendly to our 
cause, and whose infinity of costumes added 
greatly to the picturesqueness of the display. 

" After a short interval, everything being re- 
ported as ready, we commenced our march, 
having first sent forward a party of Lord's 
escort as an advanced guard, and who, 


dressed in long blue chupkuns with scarlet 
cummerbunds and trowsers, and the pointed 
kuzzilbash cap, looked extremely well as they 
appeared and disappeared from our sight round 
projecting rocks. We gradually ascended the 
Pass, and soon reached a spot so narrow, and 
confined on either side with cliffs so perpen- 
dicular, that a handful of resolute men might 
have stayed our progress for some time. 
Emerging from it, we presently came to 
Jubbagee, a Khaibari summer village, con- 
structed on a, low and somewhat level piece of 
ground, jutting from the hills on our right, 
and composed of rude huts thatched with 
leaves and branches of trees. It was deserted. 
On the opposite side was an opening in the 
mountains, from whence a small stream issued 
after passing through a very confined valley.* 
11 Here our party was divided : Lieutenant 
Rattray, with the guns and the Sikh contin- 
gent, continuing his route along the bed of the 
main stream, whilst the Colonel and myself, 
with an escort of horse and foot, and with the 
* Formed by the Choora range. 


mortar, ascended the hills on the right. As we 
climbed by degrees into loftier regions we felt 
the temperature becoming more agreeable and 
refreshing the higher we rose ; but the sun was 
still exceedingly powerful, and produced a good 
deal of thirst, which we were glad to slake at a 
diminutive spring that we fell in with two- 
thirds of the way up. We rested a short time 
beneath the shade of some trees that had grown 
up in its vicinity whilst our followers partook 
of the grateful element ; and then, dismounting 
from our horses to walk up a precipitous steep, 
we shortly afterwards gained the crest of the 
ridge, which must have been between two and 
three thousand feet in height. 

" From this eminence we had a beautiful view 
of the Pass, with the long-desired fort of Ali 
Masjid in front of us, about four miles distant, 
and which, situated on a rocky and almost 
isolated hill, appeared an exceedingly strong 
place. It is considered the key to the defile, 
and our present operations are only prepara- 
tory to our endeavours to obtain possession of 
it. We looked around in vain for Ferris, who 


was nowhere to be seen ; but in half an hour he 
joined us, the deep chasms in the hills having 
caused him to make several detours, which 
lengthened his journey considerably. Rattray, 
too, was descried winding along the bed of the 
stream, and a messenger was despatched with 
directions for him to halt and form the camp 
on a piece of level ground a little in advance, 
but far below where we stood. We could gain 
no tidings of Lieutenant Mackeson, and were 
wondering where he could be, when a man 
arrived and hastily requested that some assist- 
ance might be sent to him, as he had been 
driven back by a strong force of Khaibaris. 
This, from what we could learn, was consequent 
on the cowardice of a party of Nujeebs, who had 
accompanied his band of Multanis, and with 
whom he had at first succeeded in chasing the 
foe from one post to another, even to occupying 
a height on the opposite side of the Pass, when 
the Afredis, receiving reinforcements, made 
a bold sally, which struck such terror into the 
Sikh troops that they fled at once. Mackeson, 
however, retained his advantage as long as he 


possibly could with the Multanis alone, but 
increasing numbers having poured in, he had 
been compelled to fall back upon his present 
position, where, having thrown up a small 
breast-work of stones, which in some degree 
sheltered his men, he nobly maintained the 
unequal contest. 

"Captain Ferris was forthwith despatched 
with his regiment of irregulars to the Lieu- 
tenant's assistance ; and Rattray having been 
directed to secure the camp below, the Colonel 
and I proceeded along the heights by an exe- 
crable path that led us over some steep and 
rugged rocks, and eventually brought us to the 
summit of a hill, more level than usual, on 
which a sanga was immediately commenced, 
as it flanked the right side of our encampment. 
We had not been long here, when a note was 
received from Ferris, begging that the mortar 
might be at once sent forward, as the enemy's 
numbers had considerably increased, and our 
own men's ammunition was fast failing. Ac- 
cordingly, accompanied by a small guard, I 
pushed onwards without delay, and, at the 


distance of a mile and a half, reached our posi- 
tion, a rising ground in front of a village sur- 
rounded by a quantity of brushwood as an 
abattis, and to which our troops could fall back 
if necessary. The intervening ground was 
considerably exposed, and shot after shot was 
sent at our party as we crossed it, but happily 
without doing any injury. 

"The enemy, protected by some low stunted 
trees, were about 350 or 400 yards in advance 
of the rising ground on which Mackeson's 
embankment of stones had been thrown up, 
and also occupied the heights of a range of 
hills that nearly faced it ; but, being a long- 
distance off, their firing was not very destruc- 
tive, though occasionally some of their balls 
told, whilst that from the former was most 
deadly. Another of their parties, and most 
probably some of the garrison from Ali Masjid, 
as they were dressed in a red uniform, lined 
the crest of a ridge below our left flank and 
from thence annoyed our people a good deal. 
A shell was sent at these fellows, and luckily 
pitched and exploded amongst them ; the 



success being hailed by our party with a loud 
huzza, re-echoed again from the surrounding- 
hills ; but the enemy nevertheless stood fast 
and continued to blaze away at us, some of 
their bullets passing over our heads, and others 
falling short struck the ground and bounded 
onwards with a whizz like the twang of a bow- 
string. The next shell was not so happy, for 
it flew over the narrow ridge and burst harm- 
less in the hollow on the other side ; a huzza 
from the red coats in return being faintly borne 
to us on the wings of {he breeze, as a testimony 
of their gratification for its innoxious qualities. 
"This kind of warfare continued upwards of 
an hour, with more or less success, the balls 
from our foes in front every now and then 
passing through a small tree close to a hillock 
that partially sheltered us, and lopping off the 
more slender of its branches as clean as if cut 
with a knife. The heat had now become 
terrific, and the rays of the noon-day sun 
darted down with an intensity almost insup- 
portable. Meanwhile, the dead and wounded 
were being carried from the breastwork to the 


village in the rear, and amongst the former I 
observed a particularly fine looking man, whose 
long black hair swept the ground as his corpse 
was being dragged away. The nature of the 
dependence we might place on our raw levies 
was manifested when their ammunition began 
again to fail, and who one by one, as the indi- 
vidual fired off his last cartridge, left the en- 
closure on the rising ground in spite of ex- 
hortations, encouragements, and threats to re- 
main until Lieutenant Mackeson, who had gone 
for some, should return.* All was in vain, and 
it was with the utmost difficulty that either 
Ferris or I could prevail upon a few to wait 
until the mortar was dismounted and packed. 
On this being done, a new difficulty arose as 
to who should carry it, — for with the exception 
of one, all the bearers had made off whilst we 
were too busily engaged to observe their move- 
ments, — and some delay arose ere we could 
persuade half-a-dozen of the irregulars to take 
it as far as the village. Had the Khaibaris 
at this time been aware of the straits to which 
we were reduced, and had made a bold dash, 


there is little doubt but they might easily have 
secured the piece of ordnance, with ourselves, 
and the small party that staid with us. They 
were deceived, however, by a few hardy spirits 
who still plied their matchlocks from the 
enclosure with unabated vigour, and whose 
bold front portended that other troops must be 
at hand ready to support them and take their 

"These were at length called in, and our 
position was now of necessity being abandoned 
for want of ammunition. The cessation of our 
fire soon made our intentions known to the 
Khaibaris, who, preceded by a white banner, 
were rapidly advancing to occupy the ground 
we had quitted, when Mackeson happily 
arrived with reinforcements of men and mate- 
rial, and perceiving their object, gallantly 
rushed forward with an huzza, and succeeded 
in regaining the stockade before the Afredis, 
who returned to the clump of trees. As all 
the shells but one had been expended, it was 
not deemed expedient to unpack the mortar 
again, and as it was also thought hazardous to 


leave it at the village during the night, I was 
obliged to ride back to the Colonel's sanga for 
assistance to remove it to the camp. Hav- 
ing obtained an order from him for some 
coolies, and also received some fresh instruc- 
tions for Mackeson, I once more retraced mv 
steps to the scene of active operations, and on 
my way fortunately discovered a number of 
the deserters, who, in bands of twos and threes, 
had concealed themselves behind rocks and 
cliffs. By dint of persuasion, force, and no 
small proportion of coaxing, I succeeded in 
getting them to return with me, and having 
seen the mortar perched upon their shoulders, 
proceeded to give the Colonel's message to 
Lieutenant Mackeson. 

" As I crossed the exposed piece of ground 
alone, it was easily perceived from my dress 
that I was a Faringi, and the shots in conse- 
quence flew around me rather thick. I, how- 
ever, reached the stockade unhurt, where 
within I found Ferris and Mackeson comfort- 
ably reclining on the ground with their backs 
against the breastwork; and there I joined 


them, having first been cautioned to stoop 
when passing over the interior, as everything 
that appeared above the wall was immediately 
struck. Whilst seated here the balls occasion- 
ally rattled away at our backs, and yielded us 
the satisfaction of knowing the enemy was 
wasting his ammunition to no purpose. As it 
was getting late, I was not able to stay long, 
so after giving Lieutenant Mackeson his in- 
structions, I took my leave, re-crossed the 
stockade, and received another salute of bullets 
as I returned over the exposed spot, one of 
which struck the ground not a quarter of an 
inch from my foot. On reaching camp I felt 
so exhausted from heat and fatigue, that I 
threw myself at once on my couch and was 
soon asleep. 

" The next day was one of comparative rest 
to me, as my services were not required be- 
yond the precincts of the camp. Colonel 
Wade, however, returned about a mile down 
the Pass to establish a post (which was not 
effected without opposition) near to where the 
Afredis, on the previous evening, had been 


doing considerable damage to our people, be- 
sides plundering the baggage and purloining 
sundry camels. It was much about the same 
spot, too, that Rattray's and Colonel Sheikh 
Bussowan's troops were fired on when ascend- 
ing the Pass, by which they lost one man 
killed and two wounded. As soon as this 
encampment had been formed, a message was 
despatched to Captain Farmer, who, with the 
Shah Zada and the main column, immediately 
left Kuddum and marched to the new ground. 
A difficulty of furnishing provisions for the 
troops presented itself, and compelled Wade 
to order Ferris back to Peshawr to bring up 
fresh supplies. 

" On the 24th the Colonel, accompanied by 
Lord (who had rejoined the camp at Kuddum 
with renovated health), Dowson, and myself, 
ascended the range of hills on the left, and gra- 
dually crowned the heights as we advanced. 
But little opposition was offered to our pro- 
gress, for the enemy, who appeared in no 
great numbers, retreated as we neared, and at 
length fell back to a respectful distance. I 


obtained a few long shots at them with a six- 
pounder of the Sikh artillery, which had been 
brought to the summit of the ridge on an 
elephant, and a fire from it was kept up at 
intervals throughout the day. Mackeson, with 
Maule, had likewise been progressing on the 
opposite range, where they had some smart 
fighting, and the camp was moved forward to 
ground below the village of Lala Cheena, near 
to which our first day's operations took place. 
At night Lieutenant Dowson, with a party from 
his regiment, occupied the heights on the left, 
and Rattray, with a company of the 20th, those 
on the right. Mackeson secured his own 

" July 25th. — As the storming of the heights 
in front of Ali Masjid was to form the chief 
occupation of the day, a company of the 21st 
under Farmer, and a large body of Sikh troops 
under Sheikh Bussowan, were added to the 
irregulars. We again ascended the heights 
on the left, Dowson's levies and Farmers com- 
pany, with the Khalsas, gallantly driving be- 
fore them a party of Khaibaris, who retreated 


forthwith to the summit of a lofty and preci- 
pitous hill, on which they had erected a sanga, 
from whence they soon displayed a flag of de- 
fiance. Captain Farmer, with the Sikh troops, 
immediately took up a partially sheltered posi- 
tion directly below them, and commenced a 
rattling fire, which was returned with equal 
spirit by the Afredis. Colonel Wade, with 
Mr. Lord and myself, and one of the Maha- 
raja's howitzers, occupied a hill behind them, 
and an order was despatched to camp for one 
of the British guns to be sent up the Pass as 
far as the foot of our situation, to be escorted 
by the grenadiers of the 20th and a hundred 
of Kharak Singh's ghorcheras. The firing 
between Farmers troops and the Khaibaris 
was incessant, but every attempt to remove 
the latter from their impregnable stronghold 
proved unavailing. At last they became em- 
boldened, and were descending somewhat to 
the left to take Captain Farmer in flank, 
when a shell from the howitzer had the 
effect of driving them back to their original 
station, where they were beyond the range of 


such missiles. The British howitzer having 
by this time arrived, I received Wade's in- 
structions, and descending to the bed of the 
Pass, proceeded to put them into execution. 

"At this spot the rocks and cliffs on either 
side were extremely precipitous, especially those 
on our right, which indeed were almost perpen- 
dicular, and surmounted by a tower seized upon 
in the morning by Lieutenant Mackeson, who 
had discovered and captured several Afredis 
concealed in its interior. The gorge formed 
by these crags closing upon each other bounded 
the limits of my advance, and from thence I 
was to fire on a cantonment of Dost Maho- 
med's soldiers, situated at the base of the hill 
on which Ali Masjid stands, but concealed 
from my view by a low intervening ridge 
sloping from the right. The ghorcheras were 
then to gallop forward, plunder the place, and 
retreat with the spoil behind our position. On 
emerging from the defile, preparatory to wheel- 
ing into action, we were received by a shower 
of bullets, fired fortunately from too great a 
distance to cause any serious injury, though 


sufficiently close to be unpleasant and disagree- 
able. One hit me on the bridle arm, impress- 
ing me for the moment with the notion that 
some one had struck me severely with a stick, 
and angrily turning round to chastise the sup- 
posed offender, I was as instantaneously en- 
lightened as to the true cause of the contusion 
I had received. Soon after opening our fire, 
that of the enemy in front ceased, but a couple 
of jazaelchis, who had ensconced themselves 
in some hidden position overlooking our left 
flank, annoyed us a good deal ; and as they 
were beyond the range of our grenadiers' mus- 
kets, I was obliged to send to Mackeson for a 
few of his riflemen to dislodge them. The 
half dozen that he ordered for the purpose 
were, however, unable to effect this desirable 
object, and in spite of their new opponents, 
the fellows still kept blazing at us. 

" Nothing was now to be heard on all sides 
but the roar of musketry, momentarily drowned 
by the louder reports of a zumboor, a mortar, 
or a howitzer, the discharges from which were 
re-echoed from the narrow chasms of the Pass. 


Meanwhile, I had explained Colonel Wade's 
commands to the ghorcheras' officers, who re- 
plied ' that it was the custom of their troops, 
when once they made an advance, never to 
retreat ; that they were quite willing to seize 
upon the cantonments if it was the Colonel's 
wish, but they would also retain possession 
of it or fall to a man.' This intimation I 
conveyed in a pencilled note to Colonel 
Wade for his instruction, but he, either 
unwilling to risk so much when there was 
no actual necessity for it, or foreseeing no 
proportionate equivalent likely to result from 
the act, declined allowing them to proceed. 
After having expended several shells I ceased 
to fire, but to guard against contingencies, 
kept several in a state of readiness, to be used 
as occasions offered ; and half an hour had 
scarcely elapsed, when some ten or twelve in- 
dividuals were detected endeavouring to escape 
from their encampment by the left bank. A 
couple of rounds sent them back rather more 
precipitately than they had advanced, and sub- 
sequently others who attempted the same thing 


met with no better success. Affairs remained 
in this state till the evening, when the Colonel 
directed two guns of the Maharaja's horse 
artillery and two companies of his infantry, 
to relieve us, as we had been on duty the 
whole day; and on their arrival about half- 
past eight or nine o'clock, I sent the howitzer 
and British troops to camp ; and then placing 
the Sikh auxiliaries in a proper position to 
guard against surprise, I returned to my tent, 
which I reached at ten p.m. The firing had 
ceased on both sides when darkness came on, 
and all was now as still and quiet as it had 
before been noisy and turbulent. Between 
eleven and twelve the Colonel came back, to 
whom I reported the arrangements that I had 
made with respect to the Sikhs, and who was 
pleased to express his approbation of them. 

" Throughout the day, Captain Farmer and 
Colonel Sheikh Bussowan, with their troops, 
had been considerably exposed, the rugged 
height held by the Afredis almost entirely com- 
manding their position, and thus enabling them 
to fire with tolerably accurate precision into our 


stockade. Many casualties ensued, one or two 
men having been killed at the former officer's 
side and several others wounded ; but rein- 
forcements having been pushed forward, Far- 
mer was enabled to maintain his ground, 
notwithstanding the advantages possessed by 
his opponents. Mackeson and Maule, on the 
right, had been doing considerable execution, 
and one of the latter's shells was pitched with 
so true an aim, that it fell in the midst of a 
knot of Khaibaris, five of whom were either 
killed or wounded by the explosion. 

" Being excessively tired and worn out with 
much exertion, I was soon in a deep sleep ; but 
towards morning was roused by Colonel Wade, 
to tell me that Ali Masjid was in our posses- 
sion, a party from Captain Farmer's position 
having silently pushed forward, and, to their 
surprise, found it vacated, the first individual 
to enter it being the adjutant to Ferris's irre- 
gulars, a mere lad, though a very gallant little 
fellow. Unfortunately for me, the very day 
on which we had entered the Khaibar, febrile 
symptoms manifested themselves ; but unwill- 


ing to be absent from my duties at a time 
when every officer's services were most neces- 
sary, I had abstained from having recourse to 
those more violent remedies which most pro- 
bably would have cured me at once. The 
subsequent day's exposure to a burning sun, 
when the fever was on me, — at times so severe 
as to compel me to recline on the ground, and 
in this posture give directions for the proper 
serving of the ordnance, or when the fire had 
slackened altogether, to throw myself beneath 
the leafless branches of a stunted tree, there to 
seek for the little relief its slight shade was 
calculated to afford, — did not, as may be sup- 
posed, tend to alleviate my sufferings. Fifty 
leeches were immediately ordered to my tem- 
ples ; but though the best that could be pro- 
cured, they were very indifferent, and extracted 
but little blood. The consequence was, on 
the next morning I was obliged to be bled 
from the arm, as I was in a raging fever, 
greatly aggravated by the intense heat to 
which we were exposed ; and on the third day 
it arose to such a height that I again suffered 


depletion to a great extent, and was also 
cupped on the temples. I slightly improved 
after this, but the fever returned daily as the 
temperature increased, and I then, on the 
slightest excuse, used to send every individual 
out of my tent, as I had got some absurd no- 
tion into my head, that could I only fall into 
a swoon for a quarter of an hour, and thus 
forget my sufferings, I should awake compara- 
tively well. Every exertion, however, to effect 
this was in vain ; for although I was so weak 
that a dozen or two of strides were sufficient 
to prostrate me, I was unable to produce a 

" In some such state as this I continued, du- 
ring the week that our camp was pitched in 
the neighbourhood of Ali Masjid, whilst the 
Colonel was busy arranging affairs for keeping 
that part of the Khaibar open which we had 
just occupied, and in negotiating for a passage 
through the remainder, which is subject to the 
Shinwaris; tribes by no means so inimically 
disposed as the Afredis, and generally more 
peaceful in their habits. Meanwhile, Captain 


Ferris had returned from Peshawr, with the 
grain for which he had been sent, his march 
back through the Shadi Bagiar pass having 
been disputed by the enemy, who fired on his 
party, and succeeded in carrying off a number 
of women belonging to the Nujeeb regiment, 
who, I believe, formed the rear of his escort, 
and who could not be induced to attempt the 
rescue of these poor creatures, their servants 
and concubines.* The result was, that the 
Khaibaris mounted these unfortunate demoi- 
selles on their shoulders, and notwithstanding 
the scratching, kicking, and biting which they 
used in their defence, for want of better wea- 
pons, they bore them off in triumph, and car- 
ried them to their retreats. 

"On the 1st of August, preparations were 
made for our advance, and Ferris, with the 
grenadiers of the 20th, and a host of irregulars, 
was ordered to garrison the fort of Ali Masjid, 
a by no means enviable situation, as the heat 
was so oppressive. A depot for stores was 

* The Nujeebs almost always move with their families, 
who cook for and attend them. 


also formed in it, and all the spare - tents and 
unnecessary baggage were sent there. On the 
morning of the 2nd we resumed our march; 
Hillersdon, who, poor fellow, had been dan- 
gerously ill with fever some days before we 
quitted Koulsir, and myself, being conveyed in 
doolies ; and it was with no inconsiderable de- 
light we found ourselves jostling in the narrow 
pass with camels, horses, donkeys, mules, bul- 
locks, men, and women, bag and baggage, as 
all bespoke a removal from the dreadful hotbed 
into which we had been plunged so long. In 
a couple of hours we reached Sir-i-chusma, or 
the Fountain's-head, where our tents were 
pitched beneath the shade of a few straggling 
trees that afforded a slight relief from the sun. 
I at first felt better for the excitement, but as 
the afternoon drew on, I again suffered from 
fever. On the 3rd we moved to Lala-beg- 
gharri, a village of some size, situated in a 
more open part of the pass than we had yet 
seen, and indeed almost deserving the appella- 
tion of valley. Two tanks are in its neigh- 
bourhood, from whence the inhabitants obtain 


their chief supply of water ; and the quantity 
required for our camp must have sadly dimi- 
nished their store. Many other villages, in- 
variably protected by a lofty tower, were to be 
seen from our position, and when within a mile 
of Lala-beg-gharri, we passed a Grecian tomb, 
or tope, erected on the summit of a high cliff, 
and similar in appearance to, though somewhat 
smaller than, that of Manikiala. A rude 
Khaibari tower surmounts it, and, from its 
elevated site, forms a most excellent watch- 
tower, which no doubt is constantly used. On 
the 4th we marched to Landi Khana, the road 
for some distance being very good ; but after 
crossing the crest of the pass, terminating in a 
very precipitous and abrupt descent, cut for 
three miles on the side of a hill. The track 
here was villanously bad, and in some places 
nothing but the bare surface of a rock, down 
the centre of which a deep groove had been 
worn by the continued action of water, as age 
after age the superabundance of heavy showers 
had been carried off by this only channel of 
exit. To lower the guns down this rocky steep 

T 2 


proved an arduous task, and when night closed 
in they were still a mile from camp ; it was 
necessary therefore to halt the following day, 
to allow of their being rejoined to the force.* 
At Landi Khana are the remains of two forts, 
and tradition assigns them as the residences of 
two noble ranies or queens, who erected them 
at the extremity of their respective dominions, 
in order that they might enjoy each other's 
society ; and, strange to say, the harmony 
continued until death separated them. On 
the 6th we left for Dhaka, passing midway 
a ruined castle on the summit of an isolated 
hill, in a more open part of the defile than 
usual, which again becomes enclosed between 
rocky and precipitous cliffs, before it termi- 
nates in the small and confined valley of the 
above name : two partially fortified villages 
are at one end of the latter. Having now 
got through the notorious Khaibar Pass, the 
following order was issued by Colonel Wade : — 

* Dost Mahomed Khan used to pay the Khaibaris 
one hundred rupees a gun for carrying his artillery by 
manual force over this steep and rugged pass. 


" * August 6th. — Camp Dhaka. The Mission 
with the Shah Zada having now effected the 
passage through Khaibar, and the fall of the 
fort of AH Masjid having been the chief means 
of removing every opposition to its advance 
from that place, Lieutenant-Colonel Wade 
(although the heads of the Governments, whose 
officers and troops were engaged in the reduc- 
tion of that fort, are the proper persons to ap- 
preciate the services performed by them on 
that occasion) cannot deny himself the per- 
sonal gratification of expressing his own thanks 
and acknowledgments to every officer of the 
British Government for the able and zealous 
services, rendered by them individually in the 
operations which led to the attainment of an 
object which, after a tedious detention at Pe- 
shawr, has mainly contributed to facilitate the 
progress of the Shah Zada to Kabul. 

" ' It fell to the lot of Captains Farmer and 
Ferris, and of Lieutenants Mackeson, Maule, 
and Barr, in following the directions of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Wade, to bear the most con- 
spicuous part in the late military operations ; 


and the gallantry and perseverance with which 
these officers and the troops in general ac- 
quitted themselves of their respective duties 
claim the Lieutenant-Colonel's especial notice : 
but where every officer, whether immediately 
engaged in these operations, or in other duties 
which were allotted to them (of equal import- 
ance with those which devolved on others), 
vied with each other in a zealous discharge of 
them, Lieutenant-Colonel Wade is conscious 
that, while particularizing some, his obliga- 
tions are alike due to all ; and in his report to 
Government he has endeavoured to express 
his sense of the services of each/ " 

( 415 ) 

Chapter XVI. 

The Seven Wells — Shah Zada Jamhur rejoins the Mission 
— Sadat Khan refuses to submit — Lalpura is taken — 
Rewards to the Troops — Flight of Dost Mahomed and 
Akbar Khan — Arrangements for securing the Khaibar 
Pass — Official intelligence received of the capture of 

I now resume my own journal. On the 6th 
August, after marching seven miles in a rather 
open valley, we cleared the Khaibar Pass and 
encamped at Dhaka, a small village on the 
right bank of the Kabul river, opposite to the 
town of Lalpura. The road strong all the 
way, but widens towards the end; no water 
the whole distance. 

There are some dry wells midway, known 
by the name of Haft-chah, or the Seven Wells. 
It is a dangerous spot, as highway robbers 
generally lurk there, and fall unawares on 
poor travellers. I have since learnt that Cap- 
tain Ferris has cleared one of these wells, but 


having to cut through rock, not without great 
labour and expense. 

On reaching the encampment we were visited 
by several people of the Jalalabad territory 
who came forward to .greet the Shah Zada and 
the British Mission. They brought abundance 
of fruit with them, and many gosfands (sheep) 
as presents. Among others, there were one of 
the younger sons of Sayed Baba Jan and Ma- 
homed Zaman Khan, Barakzae, together with 
the Peshawr Arbabs who were in the late 
ruler's service. They had been waiting here 
for our arrival since the flight of Mahomed 
Akbar. After being assured of good treat- 
ment and proper consideration on the part 
of the Shah's Government, they were desired 
to remain in attendance on the Prince until 
his arrival at Kabul, when they would be in- 
troduced to his Majesty. 

We were also joined here by the party of 
troops which had been detached, on our 
advance into the Pass, with Shah Zada 
Jamhur, by the Tatara route. He had met 
with no resistance during his passage from the 


Momand people, to whom he had been op- 
posed, but gave a long account of the great 
difficulty of the mountains over which they 
had to come, and considered himself fortunate 
in having joined us in safety. For the greater 
part of the way he said that he and his people 
were obliged to walk, leading their horses over 
the rocks and ledges by the reins. All the 
routes from the Peshawr territory, through the 
Khaibar and Momand hills to Kabul, meet at 
Dhaka, and that by Tatara is the most diffi- 
cult. Travellers going to Peshawr generally 
drop down the river on Jalas, or rafts sup- 
ported by inflated skins. Owing to the vio- 
lence of the stream, which rolls through rugged 
mountains, no boat can be used. 

Our first object on reaching Dhaka was to 
bring Sadat Khan, the Momand chief, to some 
terms, and to make him acknowledge the su- 
premacy of his rightful sovereign, Shah Shuja. 
A letter was in consequence addressed to him, 
informing him of the arrival of the Shah Zada, 
and inviting him to wait on his Royal 
Highness, and that he would be generously 



pardoned for his late misconduct; but if he 
refused, Lalpura was threatened to be carried 
by force. Lieutenant Mackeson, who had 
proceeded a day in advance of us, had written 
to him to the same effect. We received no 
answer until next morning, when Sadat Khan 
declined to appear in person, but offered to 
depute his son. Another admonitory letter 
was addressed to him, requiring his submission 
to the terms prescribed ; but two days passed 
in silence, without any settlement. At last 
Sadat Khan was told that if he still continued 
hostile and obstinate, he would be attacked the 
next morning ; yet every persuasion failed to 
restore him to his senses. Colonel Wade pro- 
ceeded accordingly with a party to assault 
Lalpura ; and with that view, some rafts were 
prepared for the passage of the troops across 
the river; but just as the troops were about to 
embark, a report was brought of the flight of 
Sadat Khan to the hills, over which we saw 
them passing. The fort was therefore occupied 
and garrisoned by the Shah Zada's troops 
without any bloodshed, while the town of Lai- 


pura was placed in charge of Tura Baz Khan, 
who was at the time absent on duty towards 
Bajour with Shah Zada Saleh, but arrived 
soon after the occupation of the place. 

It afterwards came out that Sadat Khan, 
feeling afraid, as Lieutenant Barr truly ob- 
serves, that " the unceasing enmity which he 
had evinced towards the Shah Zada since our 
arrival in Peshawr" had deprived him of 
every just claim to consideration ; and judging 
of the policy and generosity of others by the 
secret treachery of his own countrymen, had 
no sooner heard of the flight of Dost Ma- 
homed than he hastily despatched Nawab 
Khan of Pindiali, the half-brother of Tura 
Baz, whom it will be recollected that Sadat 
Khan had previously seduced, with letters to 
some of his friends, European and Native, 
about the court, full of expressions of loyalty 
and devotion, for which he had erroneously 
been receiving credit. These letters were ac- 
companied by an earnest request for a. firman, 
or royal mandate, addressed to himself, which 
he foolishly thought he had only to show the 


Prince and Sir Claude Wade to be reinstated 
in his chiefship. Without hearing the other 
side of the story, as is too often the case with 
those who act with haste, and led by the 
advice of others, the Shah gave the messenger 
the mandates for which he had petitioned, who 
brought and delivered them ; but the conduct 
of Sadat Khan to the last had shown how 
unworthy he was of the confidence which had 
been placed in him, and how heedlessly the 
authorities at Kabul had acted in listening 
to the one-sided statements of a persevering 

It has been said that the late chief did not 
possess any legitimate claim to the Momand 
chiefship, and that he seized the place, and 
took the life of Nur Mahomed Khan, the 
father of Tura Baz and son of Moizullah Khan, 
who had been confirmed as chief by Taimur 
Shah, the father of Shah Shuja, had continued 
in it during the reign of his successors, Shah 
Zaman and Shah Shuja, and been deprived of 
it only during the supremacy of the Barakzais. 
It has been shown that Sadat Khan had pur- 


sued a system of open hostility which proved 
extremely embarrassing to the progress of the 
Shah Zada, as well as to the friendly disposi- 
tion of his adherents ; and even went the length 
of expressing himself contemptuously of him 
for his connexion with Firangis as infidels. All 
these circumstances showed Sadat Khan unfit 
for the enjoyment of his ill-gotten acquisition; 
besides, from the dependence of the passage by 
the Khaibar Pass on the Momand territory, it 
was thought essential for its safety that the 
chiefs at either end of the Pass should be 
completely in the interest of the Shah. With 
regard to the popularity of the two chiefs, it 
was stated, that on a late occasion, when Amir 
Khan, the chief of Naowaghi, found it neces- 
sary to seek the aid of Sadat Khan, the latter 
was not able to join him with more than sixty 
men of his tribe, nor did any inquiries among 
the peasantry of the country show that he 
possessed any hold on their affections ; more- 
over the circumstance of several men who had 
deserted Lalpura in consequence of the oppres- 
sions exercised by the late chief having has- 


tened to return to the place after an absence of 
several years, proved that his rule was not 
altogether popular.* 

1th. — Camp, Dhaka. The force with the 
Shah Zada having now forced the Pass, Sir 
Claude Wade expressed his thanks and ac- 
knowledgments to every European and native 
officer commanding the Sikh as well as the 
Shah Zada's levies, and the detachment of the 
British troops, for the able and zealous ser- 
vices rendered by them individually in the 
operations which had led to the attainment of 
our object after a tedious detention at Peshawr. 
A donation of five thousand rupees, lately 

* The measure and choice of Sir Claude Wade in de- 
throning one chief of suspicious character and elevating 
another, appeared judicious in the time of the disasters 
in 1841-2; for it was Tura Baz Khan who stood by the 
British when all the Afghan chiefs had deserted them. 
It was the new chief of Lalpura who became the medium 
of communication between our heroic garrison of Jalalabad 
and the Peshawr authorities ; and, above all, it was he who 
escorted the supplies of ammunition, grain, and money to 
them when they were in great need. (Mohan Lai's Life 
of Dost Mahomed Khan, p. 272.) On the evacuation of 
Afghanistan he was abandoned to his fate. 


made by Nao Nihal Singh on the part of the 
Sikh Government to the British troops and 
those of the Shah Zada, was ordered to be dis- 
tributed ; and on the same occasion a present 
of an equal sum was made to the Sikh troops 
by Colonel Wade in the name of the British 

A report was received to-day of the arrival 
of Shah Shuja with the British army at Kila 
Qazi, about five kos from Kabul, and that he 
would soon enter that city. It was further 
stated that Ghazni had been stormed and taken 
by the British army, when Gholam Haidar, 
the son of Dost Mahomed Khan, had been 
captured. We also heard, that on the capture 
of Ghazni the latter had deputed Nawab Jabbar 
Khan to make terms, if possible, for himself, 
and the release of his captive son ; but the 
negociation not being so favourable as he 
wished the Amir had fled to Bamian, and from 
thence to Bokhara, leaving his guns and camp 
equipage behind ; and that he was chased by 
a party of the Shah's troops, but was not over- 
taken. It was likewise stated that he would 


have boldly resisted the British army had he 
not been betrayed by his people. The very 
Gholam Khana of Kabul, in whom he had 
placed his chief reliance, refused to try the 
issue of a battle ; and, on the contrary, had 
produced to him letters of assurance from the 
Shah, whose authority they declared their 
readiness to acknowledge : seeing which, the 
unfortunate Dost Mahomed had no other 
alternative than to seek safety in flight. 

It was reported that Mahomed Akbar Khan, 
from the effects of sickness brought on by the 
fatigues endured by him in his retreat, had 
not been able to overtake his father; but it 
proved to be incorrect. After our arrival at 
Dhaka, we heard that Mahomed Akbar had 
proceeded as far as Lowaragi, within nine 
miles of Ali Masjid, in order to encourage the 
Khaibaris and the garrison to resist us, and 
that he was actually at the place on the day 
we arrived at Lala China, opposite that fort. 
It had, we found out, been agreed between 
Khan Bahadur Khan and Akbar Khan, that 
the former should ask the Mission a further 


delay of three days ; but his application made 
when entering the Pass had prudently been 
rejected by the Colonel. His object in asking 
this time was to collect his whole Oolus 
in the interim; but he soon discovered that 
he could no longer play his tricks, which 
obliged Akbar Khan to leave the Pass and to 
return to Kabul precipitately. At that time 
some of the Maliks of the Kuki Khail tribe 
were the only Khaibaris in our favour. 

9th. — Camp, Dhaka. Since our arrival here 
we had several proofs of the satisfaction of 
the people in the change of masters. The 
chiefs and the Maliks of the neighbouring- 
country came from every quarter to declare 
their adherence to the Shah. Among others, 
those of Kama, Khosta, Beshbolak, Hazarnao, 
Basoul, &c, besides many officers of the late 
Government, who were immediately attached 
to Mahomed Akbar, joined our camp. The 
people of the country also resorted freely to it, 
and supplies became abundant. 

It is worthy of remark, that only such of the 
Khaibar chiefs and Sadat Khan, who were 


connected with the Sikhs, should have been 
the foremost in declining our overtures and 
opposing the advance of the Prince; from 
which it might reasonably be supposed that 
they were secretly acting in concert with the 
Sikh officers, who were professing to corre- 
spond with them to forward our cause : but to 
counteract the mischievous effects of a double 
communication, Sir Claude Wade, some time 
before leaving Peshawr, had required the Sikh 
authorities to desist, a measure which the Ma- 
haraja confirmed. 

To preserve the safety of our communication 
through the Khaibar Pass by some permanent 
system of control, was considered essential 
before we advanced farther. Arrangements 
were made, therefore, to leave a strong detach- 
ment near the western extremity of the Pass, 
besides the troops which had been left at Ali 
Masjid, and in different parts of Khaibar. Ac- 
cordingly the following portion of the force 
then present with us was ordered to remain at 
Dhaka under Lieutenant Dowson, with out- 
posts at Landi Khana, and the Haft-chah, and 


in a stockade on the top of the Pass, between 
the latter place and Lalabeg Gharee, viz. : 

Dowson's levy; the two disciplined batta- 
lions of infantry, formed of Mahomedans from 
the Campoo, and commanded by Zorawar 
Singh ; the whole of the Sikh artillery, with 
the exception of the howitzers and mortar be- 
longing to General Court's corps, and the two 
six-pounders attached to the Najeeb battalions. 

A party of Ghorcheras, with a company 
from the Prince's own personal guard, was 
left to form the garrison on the part of Shah 
Shuja in the fort of Lalpura, and a party of 
sappers and miners, or Bildars, was placed at 
the disposal of Mr. Mackeson,* to make the 
road of Landi Khana and Ali Masjid practi- 
cable for artillery, as it was by manual labour 
that our guns were brought over the former, 
and there was an obstructing rock below the 
fort of Ali Masjid which was ordered to be 

* A cousin of Major Mackeson, employed to assist him 
in his duties, and to take charge of the works in Khaibar. 


Without establishing these posts it would 
have been impossible to overawe the Khaibaris 
or preserve a safe communication through the 
Pass, as afterwards proved to be the case. 
Engagements were at the same time entered 
into with the Shinwari people, by which they 
were to protect it within their precincts, re- 
serving to the Shah, as in the time of the 
monarchy, the right of levying duties on the 
passing merchandise, which, during the late 
Government, was solely enjoyed by the Khai- 

Before leaving Dhaka, the troops which had 
been organised for Shah Zada Jamhur's ex- 
pedition were discharged ; and, though against 
his inclination, he was desired to return to 
Peshawr. A similar order was issued to 
Mirza Hasan Ali, the person who had been 
employed towards Tirah. Recruiting to sup- 
ply vacancies was at the same time prohibited, 
a measure which caused some murmurs among 
the people who expected their services also 
would soon be dispensed with ; but a strict 


regard to the interests of his Majesty predo- 
minated, and every superfluous expense was 

The town and the fort of Lalpura stand in a 
commanding position on the left bank of the 
Kabul river, and present a fine and interesting 
view to the eyes of a traveller, after passing 
through the bare and burnt hills of Khaibar. 
The presence of a force on the other side of 
the river is considered rather a favourable 
situation to secure the safety of the route by 
it, and act as a salutary check on the Momand 
and other tribes in the hills across the stream. 

Mr. Mackeson was directed to clear out the 
fort of Lalpura, and to erect some barracks 
inside, which rendered it both safe and com- 
fortable for the troops. 

On the 12th, official intelligence having 
been received of the capture of Ghazni, which 
we had only heard before as a report, and of 
the flight of Dost Mahomed Khan, a salute of 
twenty-one guns was fired from the different 
batteries in camp in honour of these important 
events to the British Government and its illus- 


trious allies. There was a great profession of 
rejoicing at the end of our hostile operations. 
Congratulations upon congratulations were 
poured upon us by the Afghans, who, although 
they felt somewhat twisted in their hearts by 
the conquest of their country by those whom 
they had been calling Kafirs, yet now joined 
in every way in hurling curses on the heads 
of the disloyal family of the late ruler. 

( 431 ) 

Chapter XVII. 

Hazarnao — Order of March — Pillaging of the Sikh Troops 
— Jalalabad — Reception of the Prince there — Stores 
left behind by Akbar Khan — Intrigues of Raja Golab 
Singh — Chaharbagh — Tatang — Gandamak — Guns and 
Camp Equipage of Akbar Khan taken— Jagdalok — 
Rash Measures of the Shah's Government — Khurd 
Kabul — Troops paraded previous to entering Kabul. 

We now grew exceedingly anxious to advance 
on Kabul, of which we had so long heard. 
Having completely established our authority 
in Khaibar and Dhaka, and being fully assured 
of the security of the Pass to travellers and 
merchants, as well as our own daks (post), 
on the morning of the 13th August we quitted 
Dhaka. The people who were left behind 
appeared rather disappointed that they were 
not to have the pleasure of seeing Kabul ; but 
they patiently submitted to the maxim, that 
" necessity has no law." 

Encamped at Hazarnao, distant nine miles. 


Close to the encampment commenced the 
Khurd or Little Khaibar Pass, being a mile 
and a-half in length over slate rock, and in 
one or two places narrow and awkward, and 
our progress was in consequence very slow ; 
Lieutenant Mackeson with his own party and 
Hillersdon's levy formed the advanced guard, 
marching half an hour after daybreak. We 
now moved in the following order : — the de- 
tachment of British horse artillery and remain- 
ing companies of native infantry ; the Shah 
Zada's personal guard, horse and foot ; the 
four pieces of artillery in charge of Lieutenant 
Maule; Lord's Risala, the Colonel's escort from 
the Sikh Government, arid the French batta- 
lions of Sikh infantry, with two guns, which 
accompanied the Prince to Kabul. The Na- 
jeebs and the detachment of Ghorcheras, with 
two guns, formed the rear- guard, and did not 
leave the ground until the baggage was cleared ; 
every other precaution was taken to guard it, 
and a party of Bildars was ordered to accom- 
pany the artillery on the line of march to re- 
move such obstacles to the progress of the 


guns as there might be on the road. Not- 
withstanding its narrowness, we met with no 
accident in this little pass, everything having 
safely reached the next camp, though our guns 
did not arrive till noon; those belonging to 
the Sikhs got sooner over the bad ground from 
their guns being lighter, and their horses, of a 
more hardy kind, were always accustomed to 
drag them over rough and hilly countries. 
Those who followed us could form no idea 
of this pass or of the Landi Khan a, or the 
Shadi Bagiar, in the great one. We ourselves 
were surprised to see them six weeks after- 
wards, so much had they been levelled and 
improved by the officers left ill Khaibar on 
our advance for that and other purposes.* 

* " Our first march through the celebrated Khaibar 
Pass, which is in fact the northern gate of India. From 
our camp on the river bank we moved across a barren 
shingly plain for a couple of miles, when we entered the 
pass, two mountains rising on either side to a height of 
2000 feet, leaving a space between their feet of about 100 
yards in width. Beyond this the passage opens out' to 
about a quarter of a mile, which continues with slight va- 
riation for about eight miles over a tolerably good road, 
and then begins the work. At this spot, where a strong 



About mid-way to camp our notice was at- 
tracted by an extensive burying-ground. Each 

piquet of ours is posted, you begin to ascend up the very 
steep side of the mountain, on a road cut out of the solid 
rock. This continues about twelve feet wide for three 
quarters of a mile, during which you ascend nearly 2000 
feet. It is very much the same as one of the hill roads of 
the Himalayah, only worse from being all loose, and till 
lately was almost impracticable ; but we have had 200 men 
at work on it for some weeks, and it is now comparatively 

" After getting up this worst part, the road still continues 
much the same, though now not ascending, for another 
three quarters of a mile, in which are two short but very 
steep ascents, which bring one to another stockade and 
strong party of our irregulars, posted so as to defend this 
end of the pass. Beyond this we had about another mile 
of indifferent road, and three more tolerably good, which 
brought us to a small mountain valley and fort called 
Gurrhee Lala Beg ; distance in all about thirteen miles. 
To say this pass is bad is far too mild a word. I never 
contemplated anything at all to be compared to its strength ; 
and I can only say that, if a position is wanted to defend 
India on, this spot would be totally impregnable if pro- 
perly defended by Europeans. From this we travelled 
seven miles along the pass over a tolerable road, except 
one or two bad spots, to Ali Masjid. This place, which 
commands the whole Khaibar, was the place at which the 
chiefs levied their passage-money on all travellers, for 
which its situation absolutely prevents their having a hope 


grave was marked by a piece of stone between 
three and four feet high erected at the head of 
it. These stones, placed close to each other, 
presented a curious sight, and verified the 
saying that every nation has its own manners 
and customs, as such graves are not found in 
India, and those we had seen on crossing the 

of escape. It is very strongly situated on the top of a 
solitary mountain, rising direct from the mountain -stream 
below, which here runs through a passage of certainly not 
more than twelve feet wide. Though the place is in fact 
commanded by the heights around, so cragged and steep 
are they, that no hope of a gun being taken up them could 
be held out. 

" Marched to Jamrud. Instead of keeping down the 
banks of the stream, as we ought to have done, we must 
needs go a short cut, and anything like the road or moun- 
tain footpath (for it was nothing else) I never saw. It 
was, for some three miles, at first up and down the rocky 
mountains, and then along a pathway on the side of one 
about three feet wide, which at length led down to a dry 
Nala, leading out into the plain of Peshawr, near the new 
fort of Jamrud ; so that we have at last got into the plains, 
and away from those cursed mountains." — Fane's Five 
Years in India, pp. 211-215. 

Captain Fane, who had entered Afghanistan with the 
army of the Indus by the Bolan Pass, returned with Sir 
Claude Wade's mission from Kabul. 



Indus were rudely heaped together as of those 
who fell in battle. 

Our encamping ground at Hazarnao was 
good and open, and water in abundance. In 
a small pool near the village, we observed 
numbers of tame fish. No one catches them ; 
if any one do so, it is superstitiously believed 
that he is liable to be affected with leprosy. 
Good policy, and not fear of the supposed con- 
sequence, I dare say, prevented our camp- 
followers from preparing a palatable dish of 
these sacred fish. 

Hazarnao is a small village containing about 
two hundred houses. Supplies were abundant 
and cheap. The proprietors of the place are 
respectable Afghans, and came out to meet the 
Shah Zada with baskets of fruits and vege- 
tables as he approached. Mir Abul Hasan 
Khan and Mulla Shakur, the Shah Zada's 
officers who had been sent in advance to 
Jalalabad from Dhaka to conciliate the people 
on their way, had been cordially received, and 
made every arrangement for our reception. 

15th. — Chahardeh, distant nine miles, the 


place where Mahomed Akbar had formed his 
cantonment on our arrival at Peshawr, the 
road tolerable all the way, winding* through a 
rocky ridge of hills about midway. Another 
road lies along the river Lundy, through 
Basoul, a large village, and is shorter but not 
so good, there being a marsh to pass; suffi- 
cient water on the way as well as in the camp. 
Across the river, on the steep face of a high 
hill, near the top, we saw several rows of caves 
inhabited by thieves and shepherds. There is 
a more direct route to Chahardeh through 
Batticot, but as that place is in the midst of a 
stony desert, water was very scarce. Small 
parties only can conveniently pass that way. 

The Sikh troops, being in the habit, within 
their own territory, of destroying the culti- 
vation and carrying away anything they like, 
commenced the same practice here, and pil- 
laged some of the Bhoosa (fodder for cattle), 
and fuel belonging to the people of the village. 
The matter was brought to the notice of the 
Colonel, and officers commanding corps and 
detachments were reminded of the necessity 01 


placing sentries to protect the crops wherever 
the camp was pitched, and strictly to caution 
their men against committing these depre- 

The village of Chahardeh is large, and 
situated on the right bank of the Lundy or 
Kabul river. The Khosta country on the 
other side, studded with green fields and 
orchards, looked very beautiful, and presented 
an interesting and refreshing scene after the 
barren and rocky country we had lately seen. 
It is inhabitated by the Momand people ; the 
head of whom is Khalu Khan, then present in 
our cam pi We, at least myself, had a high 
notion of the places we now saw, as they were 
much extolled by the Afghans ; but on a near 
view of them we were disappointed, for they 
looked mere small villages, with tattered sheds 
and ugly mud huts. Mahomed Akbar, during 
our detention at Peshawr, amused himself in 
building a temporary residence for coolness on 
the banks of the river near Chahardeh. The 
climate of the country between Jalalabad and 
Peshawr is exceedingly hot. What the late 


Captain Burnes mentions of the pestilential 
wind in the Batticot desert and its fatal effect 
is too true ; we heard of one or two instances 
during our sojourn at Takal ; but I will not 
mention any fact traced by that or any other 
distinguished traveller, unless I find any differ- 
ence between their observations and mine. 

Our ground of encampment was on either 
side of a small Nala, a mile west of the village, 
covered with reeds ; until the tents were pitched 
most of us took shelter from the sun under 
some trees in a Faqir.s shrine close to the 
village. Marching in a hostile country is very 
inconvenient; we could not send our tents 
ahead, and they were obliged to be struck and 
moved in the morning at once. 

16th. — Alibaghan, twelve miles. The road 
was in some parts over strong ground, and no 
water met with till within half a mile of the 
camp, which was on an open plain close to the 
river. Passed through a defile called Soorkh 
Diwar, a dreary-looking place, where Sir 
Alexander Burnes seems to have been falsely 


alarmed by his Persian guide, although the 
spot is a famous haunt for banditti. 

On arriving at our encampment some of 
the citizens of Jalalabad came out to greet the 
prince. Some of them brought a quantity of 
fine water-melons and plenty of grapes, which 
supplied us with delicious refreshment after a 
long march. They were well received and 
kindly treated, and then believed their change 
of masters a propitious event, as they expected 
it would lead to a prosperous and settled reign. 
Near the camp we passed a Kahrez, or the sub- 
terraneous canals used in Persia and parts of 
Afghanistan for supplying water to irrigate 
their fields. The Shah's authority was intro- 
duced and readily admitted in every district as 
we passed along, on the assurance of a recog- 
nition of their rights by the Shah, before whom 
they were desired to present themselves. 

17th. — Jalalabad, six miles; road good all 
the way, though much intersected by cuts and 
canals ; spacious ground for encampment out- 
side the gateway, west of the town, but soil very 


sandy ; a watercourse supplied the camp with 

The population of the town seemed much 
more numerous than is mentioned by Captain 
Burnes in his travels, but still the place looked 
in a ruinous state. It is enclosed by a high 
mud wall pierced with loopholes, which had 
fallen down in some parts, particularly towards 
the river where the ground was very rugged 
and broken. On the southern or opposite face 
of the fort was the residence of the Governor 
with a small garden of limes and cypresses, a 
part of which had been used by Mahomed 
Akbar as a magazine, and where we found 
cannon balls, &c. strewed about. Near the 
western gate is the tomb of a Mahomedan 
saint, and at one of the angles to the south 
a shady grove of trees occupied by a Hindoo 
Faqir, who is allowed to follow his religion 
without hindrance in the midst of the Afghans. 
There are many Hindoo shopkeepers in the 
town, by whom their Hindoo shrine is sup- 

It was very gratifying to see the manner in 



which the Prince was greeted on his ap- 
proach to Jalalabad by the inhabitants of the 
city, who assembled in crowds to receive him. 
We remained there three days, during which 
the Maliks and the leading men of the country 
came to profess their allegiance to the new 
government with alacrity. From 1 the repre- 
sentations of the people, it would appear that 
Akbar Khan, in his endeavours to support an 
army disproportionate in extent to the terri- 
tory subject to his rule, was obliged to make 
exactions and to levy contributions on them, 
which had rendered his rule oppressive, and 
made them hail with satisfaction the prospect 
of amelioration which the new order of things 
seemed to promise. 

The only chief who yet remained openly 
rebellious was Sayed Hashim, the new ruler of 
Kunar. A conciliatory letter was addressed to 
him and also to the Ghilzae chief, Mahomed 
Shah Khan, who, on the flight of his son-in-law 
Mahomed Akbar, had retired to his own place, 
desiring them to make their appearance, when 
their case would be taken into consideration. 


The former sent his cousin, and the latter his 
brother named Dost Mahomed ; and from the 
reports we heard of their intentions, they would 
most likely have come and waited on the Shah 
but the precipitous measures taken at Kabul 
for the restoration of Sayed Bahauddin to 
Kunar (forgetting that great projects are often 
ruined by precipitation), as will soon appear, 
alarmed that chief and others, and prevented 
them from trusting in the sincerity of our 

Had the Shah's government consulted those 
who were then on the spot and acquainted with 
the subject, and avoided haste, the lives and 
property which were subsequently lost in the 
recovery of Kunar, and asserting his power in 
that quarter, might have been saved. 

The royal authority was established through- 
out the Jalalabad territory, and Mir Abul 
Hasan Khan, the Sandukbardar, or keeper of 
the King's wardrobe, was appointed the go- 
vernor of it, pending the orders of his Majesty. 
A quantity of powder and about five hundred 
rounds of ball which had been left by the 
young Sirdar, together with some unwrought 


materials for making gun-carriages and saddles 
for swivels, were found and handed over to the 
Shah's officers. People were also sent in dif- 
ferent directions to recover other property of 
which we had heard belonging to the late 
ruler. Such is the frail nature of mankind, 
that the very same men to whom they had 
bowed and obeyed most humbly the other 
day were now detested and treated as an 

The climate of Jalalabad is highly admired 
by the natives as producing extreme cold and 
heat within twelve kos. # The Safeid Koh, or 
Snowy Mountain, is visible, and presents an 
imposing view. The Kajja district, which is 
well known for its fine pomegranates sent to 
India, is also situated towards the hills within 
this province. The town of Jalalabad is of 

* " Afghanistan generally presents more changes in 
scenery and climate than any country in the world ; and a 
striking instance of both occurs at this place : in the first, 
in the immediate change from the barren and stony track 
we have so lately been travelling through, to the rich 
valley of Jalalabad ; and again from the extreme cold of 
the highlands of Kabul to the heat of the country around 
us." — Fane's Five Years in India, pp. 207, 208. 


itself very hot, and subject to high winds in 
the summer weather. 

While we were here repeated reports were 
received from Peshawr that the Sikhs, although 
precluded by the tripartite treaty from holding 
any intercourse of a political nature with the 
Afghan states beyond their own frontier, yet 
finding us out of their way, were attempting 
to establish an influence of their own with 
the tribes in Khaibar. They also employed 
the agency of Sirdar Pir Mahomed Khan to 
incline the people of Sawat and Buner to 
acknowledge their government, and attempted 
at the same time, through his elder brother, 
Sultan Mahomed Khan, to extend their in- 
fluence in other directions beyond Kohat. A 
correspondence was also said to have been 
carried on between Raja Golab Singh and the 
Malikdin Khail and the Kuki Khail people. 
These attempts, which were premature in some 
instances and altogether unwarranted in others, 
were encouraged by the new clarbar, and con- 
firmed the report we had previously heard of 
the intrigues between the Sikhs and the Af- 


ghans on their frontier. One of the Raja's 
objects was to exact from Sultan Mahomed 
the cessation of the trade in salt carried on 
through Kohat and the territory of the Sayeds 
in Tirah. The Raja was said to have even 
gone so far as to station his own people in that 
quarter with the view of working out his design 
and embarrassing the government of Shah 
Shuja. Experience of the character and policy 
of the Sikhs, and especially of the deep and 
artful ways of Golab Singh, assured us of the 
truth of these reports. They looked with 
great jealousy on the success which the British 
arms had lately met with in Afghanistan, and 
were ready, as has been seen from the begin- 
ning, to create obstacles ; and a strict watch 
on their actions was constantly necessary to 
keep them within their proper bounds. Hav- 
ing now no fear of the presence of Colonel 
Wade nor his Mission near Peshawr, they re- 
turned to their old machinations, and were, 
it is believed, in a great measure, the cause of 
the commotions which broke out in Khaibar 
while we were in Kabul. A letter was ad- 


dressed to Kour Nao Nihal Singh, drawing 
his attention to the proclamation which had 
been issued on the reduction of Ali Masjid, 
indicating the leading persons in Khaibar, 
who, by their late conduct, had proved them- 
selves hostile to the interests of the Shah, 
and requesting that the Kour would require 
his officers to desist from carrying on the 
communications in which they were engaged, 
without a due regard either to the obliga- 
tions of their duty to the British Govern- 
ment or to that of his Majesty. At the 
same time Shah Zada Taimur was advised to 
address letters in the name of his father to all 
the chiefs of the places not inserted in the 
tripartite treaty as belonging to the Sikh Go- 
vernment, informing them of the restoration 
of the Shah to the throne of Kabul, and claim- 
ing their allegiance to him as their rightful 
Sovereign. The object of these letters was to 
put the people on their guard against the 
deceptive plan of the Sikhs ; but the disaf- 
fected had hesitated not to yield a ready ear 
to their proposals, as the course of events and 


the subsequent outbreak, not only in Khaibar, 
but the Ghilzae country, led us partly to be- 

It being considered necessary to leave a part 
of the troops at Jalalabad, Hillersdon's levy, 
the Najeeb battalion under Captain Jacob, 
one hundred Sowars, together with that por- 
tion of Mackeson's levies still with him, were 
ordered to remain stationed here until further 
orders. The two guns attached to the Najeeb 
battalion, the howitzer and mortar received 
from General Court, and the piece of artillery 
and ten swivels attached to the Shah Zada's 
guard, were likewise left with the force above 
detailed. A company of the 21st regiment 
N. I., of the British detachment, was also 
ordered to remain at the place, under the com- 
mand of a Subehdar, there being no European 
officer present with it. 

Lieut. Mackeson was also to remain for the 
purpose of aiding the officers of the King in 
establishing his authority, and likewise for the 
protection of his Majesty's interests, in that 
important district, and the safety of the road 


between Peshawr and Kabul. He was also 
invested with the general control, both po- 
litical and military, of the force left behind. 
In consequence of the number of the sick in 
hospital, they were also left at Jalalabad.* 

Having arranged affairs there, we quitted 
that place on the 21st inst., and moved to 
Chaharbagh ; distance, four and a half miles ; 
road sandy, and rather heavy. Encamping 
ground to the left of the stream, with a water- 
course running through it 

Owing to the force left at Jalalabad, there 
was a change in the order of march. The 

* " At noon the thermometer never stood lower than 
102°, and a hot wind blew all the day ; but at night it 
became so cold that counterpanes and blankets were abso- 
lutely necessary to defend us from its influence. In addi- 
tion to one-third of the several regiments and detachments 
being on the sick report, numbers were daily swelling the 
list, and amongst others the surgeon, who about this time 
was laid up with fever, brought on by exposure and atten- 
tion to his arduous duties. Amongst the levies deaths 
were frequent ; and to such a height did the sickness at 
last attain that it became necessary to make arrangements 
for the reception of the invalids at Jalalabad, as there was 
no carriage to convey them further." —Barr's Journal, 
pp. 359, 360. 


advanced guard was formed by the Rissala of 
the Prince's personal guard ; while the British 
detachment was paraded in front. Mr. Lord 
having received permission to proceed to 
Kabul in advance of the Mission, the Rissala 
raised by him was ordered to escort him to 
that place. He was also accompanied by 
Mulla Shakur, the Shah's minister, who pro- 
ceeded in advance to give a detail of the 
expedition in person. 

Chaharbagh is a royal garden, but since the 
fall of the monarchy it has been much ne- 
glected. It has a dilapidated summer-house, 
and is amply watered by artificial canals, cut 
from the Soorkhab river not very far oft*. 

22nd. — Marched at daybreak, and encamped 
at Balabagh, eight miles distant; road over 
strong ground, and heavy the whole way. 
Encamped a mile from the village of Balabagh, 
on a broken and confined spot ; a water-course 
close by, of good water. 

Balabagh is a small village, situated near an 
old garden of the same name on the banks of 
the Soorhkab, and off the main road. Fatiabad 

TATANG. 45 1 

is the more direct course, which we were 
obliged to leave through the mistake of our 

During this day's march, I rambled into the 
country to the right of the road ; and passing 
the villages of Sultan pur paen and Sultanpur 
bala* to Balabagh, saw them to great advan- 
tage. I was delighted to see the artificial canals, 
and the waterfalls and gardens, along their 
course. Nature seemed to take pains in 
adding to the verdure of the scene ; and the 
sight was highly refreshed by the display of 
various thriving trees. The land appeared very 
rich and productive, and the climate most 
agreeable. We had been gradually ascending 
since we left Jalalabad. On the right was the 
Kabul river, with a high rocky range running 
parallel to it ; on the other side of which is 
the valley of Lughman, and on our left was 
an extensive plain stretching to the foot of 
the Raja and Hissarak ridges. The fort of 
Tatang, which belongs to Nawab Jabbar Khan, 

* Paen means the lower ; bala, the upper. , 


and is much extolled for its fine healthy situa- 
tion, is about a mile from Sultanpurbala, 
below the range to the right, and is a very 
retired and enchanting place. The Nawab 
himself is the founder of the village, and has 
laid out two gardens, which have not yet 
reached to maturity. It is the winter retreat 
of the Nawab and his family, and contains a 
convenient mansion for their accommodation. 
Notwithstanding its beauty, the place looked 
very gloomy from the want of tenants, and the 
absence of its master. The subjects of the 
Nawab, both Hindoo and Mussulmans, who 
remain, have much respect for him. He is not 
a prejudiced man or a bigot, but regards alike 
with benevolence the infidel and the faithful. 
A Hindoo shrine, which he has built at Tatang 
besides a mosjed, is sufficient proof of his im- 
partiality. It was not without grievous dis- 
appointment that we saw this place abandoned 
by the self-exile of its good master, and wished 
him an immediate return to it with the enjoy- 
ment of the work of his own hands. After the 
above was written, I learned that the Nawab 


returned to Kabul with the family of Dost 
Mahomed Khan. He is the friend of every- 
one, and the first and best the English ever had 
in Afghanistan.* 

23rd. — Gandamak ; distance, thirteen miles. 
Road over strong ground, gradual ascents and 
descent, formed by hills of loose sandstone, till 
a place called Nimla is reached, famous for its 
beautiful garden, which abounds with flowers 
and trees of great size ; but it is now in a very 
neglected condition. Nimla is also known as 
the place where Shah Shuja was defeated, and 
lost his throne. A turn to the right leads to a 
steep and stony ascent half a mile in length ; 

* " Instead of keeping along the line of march, we turned 
off towards the river and passed through some very fine 
country to the house and estate of Jabbar Khan, an elder 
brother of Dost Mahomed, whom neglect has driven away, 
although he has always been notoriously our best friend in 
Afghanistan. He was much respected in the country, and 
never interfered in any way in its political squabbles. His 
house was a very extensive one, situated in the midst of 
splendid cultivation, and his people had prepared a break- 
fast of a lamb stuffed with nuts for our benefit. His de- 
parture is universally regretted, both by Europeans and 
natives."— Fane's Five Years in India, pp. 205, 206. 


after which the road runs along the ridges of 
the hills, with a very gradual ascent for two 
and a half miles, till another long descent 
shows the plain. Two more miles of good road 
brings to the bridge of Gandamak, which being 
in ruins, we had to cross the stream, the left 
bank being rather steep and stony though 
short. On approaching the bridge is observed 
a large piece of white stone, which is celebrated 
for its beneficial quality in strengthening or 
curing defects of sight : native travellers who 
pass break off a piece from it for that purpose. 
1 found, however, on trial, that it is merely a 
popular prejudice, and the stone is quite desti- 
tute of the quality which is ascribed to it. Close 
to the bridge is a spring under a willow tree : 
the water of it is very pure, transparent, and 
cold ; people generally stop here to drink. 

Leaving the bridge we soon after came to 
another stream of the same description, from 
which the road continued good to camp. En- 
camping ground on a fine open plain near the 
garden, and water-courses on all sides. 

Gandamak is a small village, with a garden 


a short distance off. It is peopled by the 
Mama Khail people, the head of whom is Mir 
Afzal Khan, the son of the Amin-ul-mulk, the 
person who lately distinguished himself in 
supporting the cause of the Shah, and harass- 
ing Mahomed Akbar by raising disturbances 
to cut off his communications between Jalala- 
bad and Kabul. As already mentioned, he 
joined us when we entered Khaibar, and had 
been in friendly correspondence with us all 
along. He brought us plenty of fresh grapes 
from his garden, and abundantly supplied the 
camp with everything requisite. Gandamak 
is in a beautiful valley, where we had a good 
view of the Safeid Koh. Some of the party 
returned with Mir Afzal to visit his castle, and 
returned much pleased with their visit. He 
was very anxious to give us every proof in 
his power of his hospitality and devotion. We 
found the climate of Gandamak very cool 
and refreshing. 

The road as above stated being very difficult 
and rough, the guns did not reach the camp 
till very late, and some pieces arrived the next 


morning. We were in consequence obliged to 
halt on the 24th inst. It also appeared that a 
party of Bildars which were to have come with 
us had by mistake been left at Dhaka, and the 
nature of the road in advance was stated to be 
equally bad. Some were therefore hired from 
the villages with such tools as are used by 
them, and sent ahead in charge of a non- 
commissioned officer, and some of Mir Af- 
zal's people, with instructions to remove 
such obstacles as might impede the progress 
of the guns. I must not forget to mention 
that, during Mahomed Akbar's retreat, it 
appeared that he had been compelled to 
abandon the whole of his artillery and bag- 
gage, and that after leaving Gandamak, so 
hard pressed had he been, that he had with 
difficulty effected his escape with only a few 
followers. Seventeen of his swivels with 
ammunition and equipments, which had been 
left at Khosta, were, on the requisition of the 
Colonel, made over to us before we quitted 
Jalalabad. A large brass gun called the Qazee 
had been abandoned by the young Sirdar on 


the road near Balabagh,* and on his arrival at 
Gandamak, where it appears he first received 
the news of the fall of Ghazni, he determined 
to abandon the remainder of his guns, consist- 
ing of twelve very good pieces of artillery, two 
of which had been captured from Shah Shuja 
on his defeat at Candahar in 1833, and two 
from the Sikhs in the battle of Jamrud in 1837. 
Most of these were traced out and taken pos- 
session of by people who were sent ahead to 
secure them. From the latter a salute was 
fired in honour of the Shah's restoration, and 
they were all ordered to Jalalabad to be dis- 
posed of according to the Shah's orders.f 

* This gun was afterwards one of the trophies of 
General Pollock's army, which he wished to convey to 
India; but it was burst and abandoned in Khaibar, in 
consequence of the rapidity of our retirement from Kabul. 

t " Notwithstanding I had suffered from an attack of 
ague in the morning, I was able to walk (my first essay 
for a long time) a short distance to inspect some ordnance 
that had been abandoned by Mahomed Akbar Khan during 
his flight from the Khaibar, and which fell into our hands 
here. It consisted of ten or twelve brass cannons, mostly 
of small calibre ; and I omitted to mention that between 
Jalalabad and Chaharbagh we passed a very large brass 



Some parts of Akbar Khan's camp equipage, 
a few horses, draft bullocks, and jazails, con- 
stituted the other property which fell into our 
hands on the occasion, but we did not claim 
them as prize.* 

26th. — Marched from Gandamak at day- 
break, and encamped on the bank of the Soor- 
khab, of the stream so called from the red 
colour of its water. Road up and down hills 
the whole way, over stony and uneven ground. 
Some of the ascents and descents rather long 
and steep ; crossed the stream by a dilapidated 
stone bridge built by Ali Mardan Khan. This 
stream, of which I have already spoken, forms 
the natural boundary between the Jalalabad 
and Kabul territories. The Afghans say that 
the hot climate ceases on this side of the bridge, 
and the cold begins to be felt on the other ; 

gun, mounted on a most rudely-constructed carriage, the 
naves of the wheels being about two feet and a half in 
diameter, and the felloes thick in proportion, which he had 
also been unable to carry away in his retreat." — Bart's 
Journal, pp. 362-3. 

* The Sikhs afterwards claimed their guns, and they 
were restored to them. 


but no such exact difference was experienced 
by us. As we proceeded farther on towards 
Kabul the climate became much cooler and 
more agreeable. 

From Soorkhab commences the Ghilzae 
country, and Jhoke, the capital of their terri- 
tory, is situated about ten kos off to the left 
hand. Aziz Khan is the principal chief of 
these Ghilzaes, and Mahomed Shah Khan of 
those in Lughman. The land is said to be 
fertile, but very little cultivation is to be seen. 
The people are given to predatory habits. 
Our ground of encampment was very limited, 
and the tents were crowded together ; supplies 
are scarce. The guns not having again 
reached the camp till very late, the order for 
the march was countermanded, and on the 
27th we halted ; but an officer with the ad- 
vanced guard proceeded at daybreak for the 
purpose of improving the roads, and making 
it as practicable as time would admit. Our 
guns had now to be dragged almost the whole 
way by main force. 

28th. — Jagdalok, twelve miles. A grove of 


460 THE FORT. 

mulberry trees denotes this place. Formerly 
there was a fort, and the Afghan monarchs on 
their way from and to Kabul used to encamp 
here. It is also the place where Shah Zaman, 
one of them, was blinded, by his eyes being 
pierced with a needle by order of Shah Mah- 
mud, his half brother. Close to the last ground 
is a steep and difficult ascent, then a gentle 
slope along the side of a hill, then in the bed 
of a stream for a long distance, then another 
long and steep ascent, on the top of which is 
an old ruined fort, where in the time of the 
Moguls a strong garrison was posted to keep 
the road. They did not trust as we did to 
the neighbouring tribes for that important 
measure, but their own military force; down 
a stream for three miles, and then into camp. 
A most tedious march for the artillery ; stony 
ground the whole way, very bad encamping 
ground except for a few tents amongst the 
trees: a part of the camp was pitched under 
them, and a part opposite the grove of trees. 

There is no village on the roadside but one 
at some distance to the left of it. On reaching 

BARIKAB. 46 1 

the ground, the Malik of the place brought a 
small quantity of grapes which were very ac- 
ceptable, and received with many thanks from 
people whose profession is to live only by rob- 
bing others. 

29th. — Barikab, ten miles distant. 

The road passed down a stream for about 
three miles, narrow in many places, with high 
and steep rocks on both sides, up a steep 
ascent, over ridges of hills with further descents 
and ascents then to the bed of a stream to 
camp. The road covered with round stones 
and rough the whole way, without a vestige 
of cultivation. Barikab, or the " Thin Water," 
so called from being a very narrow stream, 
is the site of an old fortification by the side of 
the streamlet. It was likewise originally built 
for the protection of the road. No encamping- 
ground but for a small party just about the 
bed of the stream : the camp was scattered over 
its bed and on the adjoining ridges. Supplies 
and forage very scarce ; water abundant. The 
guns had to go round by the Peridarra, or 
Faiery's Pass, following the course of a stream 


to the right. In the narrowest part of it the 
precipices on each side almost meet, leaving 
barely room for the carriage to pass. It is a 
wild and picturesque spot, with a spring trick- 
ling from the rocks. 

A letter was received from the Secretary to 
the Government of India in reply to the report 
made by Sir Claude Wade of the operations 
which led to the capture of the fort of Ali 
Masjid, and the following extract of it was 
published by him in his orderly-book for the 
information of the officers serving with his 

1. "I am directed to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of your despatches under date of the 27th 
and 29th ultimo, reporting the fall of Ali 
Masjid, and in reply to state the Governor- 
General has much satisfaction in acknow- 
ledging the energy and determination evinced 
by officers and men in the approach to the fort 
and the previous operations. 

2. " It is particularly creditable, I am de- 
sired to remark, to troops so raised and consti- 
tuted as those with the Shah Zada, that they 


remained for several hours exposed to the fire 
of the enemy without evincing impatience or 

3. " The conduct of the Maharaja's Mussul- 
man contingent is also highly creditable ; and 
it is the intention of the Governor- General to 
request that Colonel Sheikh Bussowan may be 
permitted to accept a sword from him in testi- 
mony of his high satisfaction. 

4. " You will not fail to apprise Captain 
Farmer, Lieutenants Mackeson and Maule. Mr. 
Lord, and the other officers with you, of his 
Lordship's gratification at their zeal, prompti- 
tude, and gallantry." 

30^. — Teizeen, distant eight miles.* Close 
to the last ground a short but steep ascent, 
then along the sides of the hills by a suc- 
cession of gradual ascents and descents up a 
stream, over the most rough and stony ground 
that we had ever seen, for three or four miles, 
till we came to the mud wall of another Mogul 

* There is a shorter road between Gandamak and 
Teizeen, across the mountains called Karkatcha. It 
comes out at Seh Baba, in the Teizeen valley. 


fortification. Turned off the bed of the stream 
by a path to the left, and then reached the 
camp, which was on good ground, but not 
capacious. Supplies abundant; water from 
the stream. On the road we met numbers of 
wandering people, with their families and pro- 
perty, going down to the warm regions of Ja- 
lalabad and Peshawr to pass the winter. 
Several flocks of sheep were also seen being 
driven by the Ghilzaes in the same direction. 
They remain absent from their cold mountains 
during the winter, and as soon as summer 
returns they also return to their own haunts. 
Such a free and rural life is very agreeable to 
these independent people. A good quantity of 
fruits was received from my friend Mohan Lai, 
as well as some other of our acquaintances at 
Kabul. Several persons also came out to 
meet the Shah Zada. Among others was 
Ghous Mahomed Khan, with some of his re- 
latives and friends, the chiefs of the Logar 
tribe. As already mentioned, these people 
were the first to throw off the authority of 
Dost Mahomed ; to excite disturbances, and 


to distract the enemy, confiding in our as- 
surances that they would be approved and 
rewarded for their conduct, and Logar being 
nearer on the road to the Shah than the route 
by which his son Taimur was advancing, by 
our advice they joined his Majesty before his 
entrance into Kabul ; but their services were 
not appreciated. They had not been performed 
before himself nor any of the British officers 
with him ; and being no longer thought of any 
use, the men retired to their homes disgusted. 
We were also informed of another rash and 
questionable measure of the Shah's Govern- 
ment, which caused a general suspicion of his 
designs. Haji Khan, Kakar, the first to desert 
from the enemy and join the King near Can- 
dahar, who had been sent with some European 
officers and a party of cavalry to pursue Dost 
Mahomed, was, on a charge of conniving at 
the escape of the Amir, put in confinement 
along with Aminulla Khan Logari, one of the 
principal chiefs of that tribe.* This sudden 

* The man who incited the insurrection in Nov. 1841, 
by proclaiming the intention of the British Government 



act of the English, however pleasing to some, 
naturally alarmed the Afghan nobles; and 
those who had come to Kabul to offer their 
homage instantly fled, from a dread of sharing 
the same fate, which prevented others also from 
coming to court. Among the fugitives were 
Aziz Khan and some other Ghilzae chiefs who 
had adhered to the late ruler to the last : and 
yet at the time we entered his territory he was 

" to banish every suspected Afghan to London." Read 
Lieutenant Eyre and Mohan Lai. The former says, " The 
two great leaders of the rebellion were Aminulla Khan, 
the chief of Logar, and Abdulla Khan Achakzae, a chief 
of great influence, and possessing a large portion of the 
Pisheen valley. Aminulla Khan had hitherto been con- 
sidered one of the staunchest friends of the existing 
government, and such was the confidence placed in him 
by the Vazir that he had selected him to take charge of 
Himza Khan, the lately superseded governor of the Ghil- 
zaes, as a prisoner to Ghazni. This man now distin- 
guished himself as one of our most inveterate enemies. 
The immediate cause of the outbreak in the capital was a 
seditious letter addressed by Abdulla Khan to several 
chiefs of influence at Kabul, stating that it was the design 
of the Envoy to seize and send them all to London !" — 
Eyre's Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan, pp. 


working hard to endanger the road; for on 
our arrival at Teizeen we heard that it was 
beginning to be infested by the Ghilzaes, in 
consequence of which the Colonel took the 
necessary precautions to guard against sur- 
prise or accident. The Afghans now appeared 
to lose their confidence in the new Government. 
Had the Shah and his advisers acted with pru- 
dence, and not at once have put Haji Khan in 
arrest, the commotions which followed would 
not probably have occurred. Every one now 
began to be fearful of appearing at court, and 
every assurance failed to dispel their alarm.* 

* When the ministers and a good many followers of the 
Amir returned from Turkistan, they told us that he, the 
Amir, instead of having the slightest hope or thought of 
the good offices of Haji Khan in delaying the march of the 
English, not only threw loads of abuse on his head when- 
ever his name was mentioned, but concluded that he would 
do all to facilitate the means of his being overtaken. 
Whatever the faults of Haji Khan Kakar were, it was very 
impolitic to punish him. He was three months ago nomi- 
nated Nasir-ul-daulah, with a considerable salary; and 
now we made him a prisoner, and banished him to India. 
We gained no good by this, but rather shook the con- 
fidence of many other chiefs. Immediately his fate was 
known in the capital of Afghanistan, Aziz Khan, the 


31 st. — Khurd Kabul, thirteen miles. A 
tedious march. Close to the last encampment 
another steep ascent; then up a stream for 
three miles in a narrow defile called the Tung- 
i-Tarikee to the Haft Kotal, or " Seven 
Heights," a steep pass, the first part over stony, 
the latter over good ground ; then two miles 
of good road to Qabar-i-Jabbar. Here also, to 
the left of the road, a ruined fort is to be seen. 
It was built by some of the Mogul governors 

principal chief of the eastern Ghilzaes, fled from Kabul, 
fearing that he might be forced to share the fate of Haji 
Khan ; and Yar Mahomed Khan, the Vazir of Herat (as 
it will be observed by the official extracts), called us the 
" faithless dogs" in the presence of Major Todd, the 
British Envoy, alluding to the case of Haji Khan. Sir 
Claude Wade was in the meantime directed to conciliate 
Aziz Khan, the Ghilzae chief, and endeavour to restore 
confidence enough to induce him to wait upon the Shah 
and the Envoy. He had great difficulty to efface from his 
mind the suspicion and fear which had been already im- 
planted in his heart by the example of our treatment of 
Haji Khan ; yet at length he succeeded in persuading him 
to meet the expectations of the Kabul Government. He 
gave him letters of recommendation, pledging his word for 
honourable treatment, in addition to the reward he was 
promised ; but very little attention was paid by us to his 


of Kabul, and now only serves as a haunt for 
highway robbers. Jabbar, whose remains lie 
beneath the above tomb, is said to have been 
one of the principal men of the Ghilzae tribe, 
and his memory is held by them in great 
reverence. The Ghilzae robbers generally 
hide themselves in the tomb, and if they suc- 
ceed in their predatory excursion, make an 
offering to their departed forefather for assist- 
ing them in their success. Thus this great 
robber has still high command over the minds 
of his posterity. 

The rest of the road was good. Encamping 
ground just off the stream ; water abundant, 
but few supplies. Saved Bahauddin, the ejected 
chief of Kanar, arrived in camp on his way 
to Jalalabad. It will be remembered that he 
had been sent to Kabul, and there confined; 
but on the flight of the Amir he obtained his 
liberty. He told us that Shah Shuja had 
issued a letter patent to him to resume the 
territory then held by Sayed Hashim, and a 
mandate was also precipitately issued by his 
Majesty to the latter to evacuate it, without 


awaiting, as has been said, the result of the 
negotiations in which we were engaged for the 
recovery of the territory, and the submission of 
its actual possessor. Such a strange measure 
surprised every one much, and the disastrous 
consequences which issued from them were 
easily foretold. The Sayed, without any as- 
sistance in men or money, now proceeded to 
procure the evacuation of his territory, believ- 
ing that he could effect it by the mere aid of 
the royal mandate, which was very absurd, and 
he afterwards learned to repent his folly. 

1st Sept, — Butkhak, nine miles. Road enters 
another narrow defile, called the pass of Khurd 
Kabul, with high perpendicular sides ; a stream 
flows down it, which is crossed many times, for 
four or five miles. The road then turns off to 
the left over a good level piece of ground, and 
opens into a very fine extensive valley, at the 
extremity of which the city of Kabul is situ- 
ated. We heard that the road was infested by 
the Ghilzaes after we had passed it, and that 
two or three travellers, going to Jalalabad, had 
a very narrow escape, and we saw these rob- 


bers in passing, perched on the tops of the hills, 
with their matchlocks in hand ; but our party, 
owing to good care and vigilance, came through 
without meeting with any accident.* 

Butkhak, so named by Mahmoud of Ghazni, 
having buried the idols of Somnath at this place, 
is a small village surrounded by a high wall. 
After passing through bare hills, and a rocky 

* " On the 1st of September we moved to Butkhak, our 
road for the first five miles being confined to the Khoord 
Kabul pass, a narrow defile bounded on either side by 
precipitous and lofty mountains, whose frowning summits 
darkened the chasm, as in the early morning we crossed 
and recrossed a small rivulet that rapidly sped down its 
shingly bed. We then entered on an open valley, bounded 
on the west by a low range of hills, which concealed the 
long-desired city of Kabul from our sight, and in half an 
hour arrived at our encampment. Some stragglers having 
lagged in the pass, were attacked by the Ghilzaes, who 
killed one or two, and wounded the remainder before they 
could effect their escape. In the evening we were re- 
joined by the guns that last night had remained near the 
Haft Kotal, the men having with the greatest difficulty 
succeeded in dragging them up the stupendous ascent of 
the pass under the superintendence of Maule, who has had 
charge of them ever since leaving Gundamuk, and to 
whom, therefore, much credit is due." — JBarr^s Journal, 
p. 367. 


and most dreary looking country, our eyes 
were refreshed by seeing some verdure here 
and there about the village. With the assist- 
ance of a telescope, we had a fine view of the 
scattered camps of the Indus army, pitched on 
the slopes and summits of low hills ; and had 
also a partial glimpse of the town. The en- 
camping ground spacious, and water and sup- 
plies abundant. As the Prince was to be 
received in' state by his father at Kabul, the 
troops forming his personal escort, or otherwise 
attached to the Mission, which were now re- 
duced to about one thousand men, were ordered 
to clean their arms and accoutrements, and 
prepare for the ceremony. We consequently 
halted on the 2nd instant against our inclina- 
tion, as every one was anxious to see Kabul. 
In the evening of that day, the troops in camp 
were paraded and inspected minutely by the 
Colonel, who also explained to the officers the 
intended order of march. 

( 473 ) 

Chapter XVIII. 

The Shah Zada arrives at Kabul — The City— State of the 
Country — Murder of Colonel Herring — Misconduct of 
the Shah — Order of Merit — An Execution — Sir Claude 
Wade takes leave of the Shah and of the Prince. 

On the 3rd of September the Prince proceeded 
towards Kabul, distant nine miles. All the 
officers and troops appeared in full dress, and 
the cavalcade moved in grand style; the de- 
tachments of cavalry consisting of one hundred 
picked Ghorcheras in their gorgeous dresses of 
shawls and silks ; a troop of Lancers from the 
French Legion, and the Rissala of his High- 
ness' s personal guard ; formed lines on the left 
and right of the road, and attended him in that 
ofder with a band playing before them. About 
two miles from the encampment of Lord Keane's 
army, the Shah Zada was met by the British 
detachments of artillery and infantry, with us 
his two companies of irregular infantry, the 
two pieces of the Sikh artillery, and the French 


auxiliary battalion, together with two compa- 
nies of Colonel Wade's own escort, who had, 
agreeably to instructions, gone in advance to 
await the arrival of the Prince and received 
him here in two lines forming a street.* 
The approach to Lord Keane's camp was very, 
imposing; numerous lines of tents were scat- 
tered about the heights, and the people crowded 
on all sides to see the sight, and recognise 
their friends in our party. As the Prince 
passed by the camp he was received with an 
honorary salute from the British artillery, and 
a distinction becoming his rank by a deputa- 
tion from his Majesty and the Envoy and 

* "At length the day arrived on which we were to 
reach the long-desired goal, and as my health had con- 
siderably improved, I resolved, with the doctor's per- 
mission, to take part in the procession. Accordingly, 
on the morning of the 3rd of September, I stepped into 
my litter, and having been carried half way, mounted my 
charger, and drew up my detachment on the right of the 
road. On the Shah Zada's appearing in sight, we saluted 
him with twenty-one guns, also a signal for the troops at 
Kabul to get under arms ; and as he neared us we wheeled 
into column, and headed the procession." — Barr's Journal, 
pp. 367-8. 


Minister at his court, and by his Excellency 
the Commander-in-Chief of the grand army 
in person. The procession was now much in- 
creased in numbers, but no confusion occurred, 
everything went on as at first. As we entered 
the seat of empire the crowd increased more 
and more ; the balconies and terraces of the 
houses were filled with women wrapped in 
barqas or long veils to see their Prince. A 
man on the part of the Shah preceded him 
and cleared the way, which was necessary, as 
the streets were very narrow, and we advanced 
very slowly. The bustle was great ; the spec- 
tators stood admiring the procession ; they ob- 
served that his Majesty himself even did not 
make his entry in such majestic style. At 
length we entered the Bala Hissar and the 
palace, where his Royal Highness was received 
by the King his father, who welcomed him on 
his arrival, and seated him by his side among 
the other princes. After a while the Mission 
retired to the camp, which was pitched to the 
north-east of the city, close to the walls of the 
fort in a meadow with a small garden in the 


rear. The Prince now no longer formed a part 
of our camp ; he withdrew to the residence 
assigned to him within the fort by his Majesty. 

The road was good all the way ; about half- 
way came to a stone bridge made by Dost 
Mahomed Khan through a marsh formed by 
the Logar river. The city did not present any 
striking view from without, nor has it any con- 
spicuous building to distinguish it at a distance. 

The first object on our arrival at the place 
was to see the city, which I did the same day 
in the company of my friend Mohan Lai. The 
bazars were so crowded that we did not pass 
through them easily. Kabul is certainly a 
very busy and noisy place, and was made more 
so at present by the presence of our armies in 
its vicinity. Numbers of the camp followers, 
European soldiers and Indians, were seen 
mixed with the natives making their respective 
bargains, or satisfying their curiosity. The 
shops appeared to be well supplied with every- 
thing ; the fruit in particular was arranged 
with great taste, and presented a fine sight ; 
the shops of the bakers, confectioners, drapers, 


&c, also looked very well, decorated with the 
different articles which they professed to sell. 
" If you want to purchase victual for any or- 
dinary number of guests, you can get them 
ready prepared in one shop ; or if you want to 
organize an army of ten thousand men you 
can procure everything to equip it in one day." 
These are the remarks which a Kabuli would 
make in favour of his native place, and they 
certainly do not partake of much exaggeration. 
Of all the bazars of Kabul the Chaharchata 
is the best and finest I have ever seen. It was 
commenced by the celebrated Ali Mardan 
Khan, but not finished by him. A part of it 
was said to have been repaired by the late 
ruler. The roof, which is vaulted, appears to 
be much damaged, and has many large cracks. 
The people expected that Shah Shuja would 
take early notice of the tottering state of this 
noble building.* The city does not contain any 
good houses, which are mostly made of sun- 
dried bricks, two stories high. It seemed, 


* It was destroyed by the army on our return to Kabul 
in 1842. 

478 TRADE. 

however, to be well-peopled, and its bazars 
always crowded from early morning till even- 
ing. It is supposed that if well managed, and 
with proper attention to commerce, the pros- 
perity of Kabul is capable of being doubly or 
trebly increased within a few years. 

The common people and the merchants 
seemed much delighted at the change of 
government ; trade has been greatly promoted, 
and every one is said to have made a good 
fortune during the short stay of the army. 
Almost all the people, Europeans and Indians, 
purchased something, and no doubt were 
highly charged for every thing by the natives. 
The approaching return of the army made the 
purchasers very brisk, as every one wished to 
take some presents from Afghanistan for his 
family or friends in India ; but soon afterwards 
an order arrived from Government, which pre- 
vented the whole of the troops from returning, 
to the great regret of the Kabulis, as it partly 
stopped the sale of their goods ; however, they 
had filled their purses with their exorbi- 
tant profits. It was said that since Ahmed 


Shah's time,* they had never made so much 

The nobility of the country did not, how- 
ever, consider themselves as well off as the 
lower classes of the people. By the late ruler 
they were treated very attentively, almost on 
equal terms, and enjoyed much influence, 
while now they were obliged to undergo many 
hard ceremonies. In the first place, they found 
it very difficult to obtain an admittance to the 
royal presence ; and those who by flattering 
the darbars or ushers could do so, were made 
for hours to stand at a respectful distance 
before his Majesty with their hands folded in 
a most humble manner, and often compelled 
to retire from the darbar without being allowed 
to say a word to the King. Exclusive of this 
degradation of their dignity, they were de- 
prived of the many benefits which they enjoyed 
during the late Government, and saw that they 
had now no voice in its councils. f 

* The first Durrani king of the Afghans, and the 
grandfather of Shah Shuja. 

*f " The more we found the people quiet, the more steps 


All these circumstances offended the Dur- 
rani and Kasalbash nobility to a high degree, 
and they appeared quite disgusted with the 
Shah and his allies even at the time of our 
arrival at Kabul, when he had not been a 
month there. They often remarked that they 
had believed that the Shah would enjoy the 
same absolute power that he possessed before 
his dethronement, but that they were altogether 
deceived, and now found him merely a puppet 
in the hands of the English. I heard some of 
them often scolding each other for favouring 
the Shah's cause and deserting Dost Mahomed, 
who they said was like one of their own 
brethren. They also used to say that if they 
had but resisted his Majesty's advance with 
the British army, they would have been vic- 

we took in shaking off their confidence. We neither took 
the reins of government in our own hands, nor did we give 
them in full powers into the hands of the Shah. Inwardly 
or secretly we interfered in all transactions, contrary to 
the terms of our own engagement with the Shah ; and 
outwardly we wore the mask of neutrality. In this manner 
we gave annoyance to the King on the one hand, and dis- 
appointment to the people on the other." — Mohan Lai's 
Life of Dost Mahomed Khan, p. 313. 


torious; for they now saw that the British 
troops were only looking formidable from 
having a horde of camels and numberless tents 
which they carried with them, that they were 
not so in reality or in numerical strength.* 

Such were at that time the opinions and sen- 
timents of the nobles of Kabul ; and to these cir- 
cumstances, as well as to two or three other 
rash measures to which I have alluded, may be 
ascribed the origin of the disaffection which 

* " The Amir Dost Mahomed would have certainly 
given us one or two battles before his flight to Bamian, 
had he had to oppose us only on one side. We, however, 
threatened him at once in three different directions : be- 
sides that, we had to a considerable degree caused him to 
mistrust the chiefs and people around him. From the 
south, the army of the Indus, after obtaining possession of 
Candahar, and taking the fortress of Ghazni, had reached 
within a few marches of his capital ; and on the north, or 
in Kohdamam, it was only about twenty miles from the 
city, we had succeeded in inducing his own subjects, the 
Kohistanis, to stand up against him ; and from the east 
side we had sent the Shah Zada Taimur, the eldest son of 
the king, with about 10,000 foot and horse, through the 
Panjab, to divert the attention of the Amir towards Jalala- 
bad and Khaibar ; and we thus prevented his son Mahomed 
Akbar from joining his father in Kabul/' — Mohan Lai's 
Life of Dost Mahomed Khan, pp. 248, 249. 



destroyed the merit of the policy of restoring 
Shah Shuja to that country. 

During our stay in Kabul I often received 
invitations, especially from the Kazalbash 
people, with whom I became acquainted 
through my friend Mohan Lai, and had many 
opportunities of examining and observing 
their habits and manners. They are a very 
social and familiar race of people, very fond 
of good living and good clothing, and every 
other luxury within their reach; and really 
they seem to live from hand to mouth, and 
have nothing to spare. Their parties are very 
pleasant and agreeable, and on the whole I 
was highly delighted with their society. They 
appear much more polished in their man- 
ners than their neighbours, the Afghans, who 
are considered by them a very headstrong race. 
It is proverbial when they happen to make any 
mistake or to go wrong, to say that it was 
" Afghani," or like an Afghan. When they 
sit down in a mahjil, or assembly of guests, 
they will make you laugh excessively by tell- 
ing their tales and anecdotes in a mimic way. 


Among others, I was often very much amused 
by the gay Naeb Mahomed Sharif, who is cer- 
tainly a very odd and ingenious man. 

The head of the Jawan Sher people, one of 
the branches of the Kazalbashes, is Khan 
Shirin Khan. He is a very fine, courteous- 
looking person, and possesses great influence 
in his tribe. During the late Government he 
was considered a chief of great weight: the 
Shah has also employed him in his service 
with six thousand Sowars of his own tribe, 
and treats him more kindly than any other of 
his race.* 

Notwithstanding these favours Shirin Khan 
also appeared to be disaffected, and did not 
like his situation ; saying that he was not so 
respectfully treated as before the restoration. 
He also added, that on the approach of his 
Majesty to Kabul, when he went out to greet 
him, as he passed, the Hindustani people on the 
way called out to him, $t That is a Nawak- 
haram, or disloyal ;" and uttered some other 

* He used to correspond with the Shah in his exile at 



terms of abuse ; and that this was the taunting 
manner in which they were all regarded by 
the conquerors. In fact, these slight circum- 
stances tended to increase the dislike of his 
people to the Shah, even among his old friends. 
Great dissatisfaction began generally to pre- 
vail, and some satiric couplets also were in 
circulation among them, which they took a 
pleasure in repeating. Such beginnings were 
a sign of a bad ending. 

The country was already in a disturbed 
state; the communication between Jalalabad 
and Kabul became daily more difficult, the 
Dawk runners were being plundered and mo- 
lested by the Ghilzaes. Lieutenant Conolly 
and an envoy on the part of Shah Shuja, 
going to Lahore with some horses, as a present 
for Kharak Singh, and to escort Lady Mac- 
naghten to Kabul, were stopped even so close 
by as the pass of Khurd Kabul ; and although 
they were escorted by a large party of horse 
and foot, were only able to effect their pas- 
sage with great difficulty. The Kohistan of 
Kabul was likewise in rebellion ; to quell which 



Gholam Khan, the Popalzae chief, who had 
before been employed in inciting them against 
Dost Mahomed, was hastily despatched.* 
In the opposite direction Lieut.- Colonel Her- 
ring, who was coming with his regiment 
from Candahar, had been murdered between 
Ghazni and Kabul ; and a force was sent to trace 
out and punish his murderers. The country 
towards Bamian was likewise reported to be 
disaffected ; a detachment, along with Mr. 
Lord, was despatched to that quarter to pre- 
serve tranquillity, and watch the movements 
of Dost Mahomed Khan and his son Akbar. 
The communication through Khaibar was still 
kept open, but only by tjie presence of the 
numerous troops we had left there and at 
Dhaka and Jalalabad ; as in consequence of 

* It is strange that Mir Masjidee, who is mentioned by 
Lieutenant Eyre as " putting himself at the head of a 
powerful and well organised party in 1840, with the 
avowed intention of expelling the Feringees and over- 
turning the existing government," so soon after should be 
also of the number of those who was the foremost to fight 
for the Shah, and to receive for that purpose a Shah Zada 
in disguise in their country ! 



the chiefs, who came with the Shah Zada 
to Kabul (to be presented to the King for 
the purpose of having their respective claims 
and relations to the new government settled), 
being treated ill, the chiefs were disgusted. If 
they went to the Shah they were referred to 
the Envoy, and so from the one to the other ; 
and the result was that nothing was done for 
them by either during the month we remained 
at Kabul. 

A few days after our arrival General Wilt- 
shire quitted with his division, to return to 
Bombay, and punish Mehrab Khan, Birohi, 
the chief of Belochistan ; in which they suc- 
ceeded. Such was the state of affairs in the 
country which, instead of reducing, required 
the active employment of the whole army. 

Shah Shuja seemed to take very little notice 
of what was passing. He did not act like a 
person who was responsible for the conse- 
quences, but submitted in everything to his 
supporters. He only cared about holding his 
darbar, and in speaking in a very haughty 
way to the people. The Durranis, who had 


joined Prince Taimur on his expedition, were 
received as coldly as the other chiefs. Al- 
though they had been recommended very 
strongly for their loyalty by both the Shah 
Zada and Colonel Wade, they complained that 
no consideration was shown to them, and many 
of them, wearied out and tired of waiting, 
returned in disgust to their homes. Europeans 
and natives even then observed the change, 
which clearly foreboded some misfortune, yet it 
did not appear to make any serious impression 
on those in authority.* 

I am sorry to say, that owing to the un- 
settled state of the country, we had not an 
opportunity of making any distant excursions, 
and seeing the* celebrated gardens of Astalif, 
in the kohdaman, or skirts of the hills, which 
are spoken of in high terms of praise by the 
natives. Kabul mostly depends for its supplies 
of fruit on these gardens. I had, however, the 
satisfaction of making some rambles into the 
gardens to the north-west of the city. They 

* The account of every writer on the subject has 
sadly confirmed the truth of these early observations. 


appeared well laid out, and watered by the 
canals cut from the Kabul stream. The fruit 
was ripe, and we had the pleasure of pulling 
them off with our own hands, and eating them 
fresh. The grapes and sarda* are produced 
in profusion here ; but the Kabul bazars are 
supplied with them only from Astalif. There 
were such quantities of grapes sent to us as 
presents that we used to make our horses 
feed on them. The natives do not eat them 
in this month ; they consider them yet in 
a raw state, but they enjoy them in the 
winter season. I think this was the chief 
cause of the illness of the Indians. They cer- 
tainly ate too much fruit, and became ill with 
dysentery, but it was seldom attended with any 
fatal effects. 

We also visited the tomb of the Emperor 
Baber, which is in a perfect state of ruin, and 
were sorry to find the remains of that noble 
emperor lying so neglected. If Shah Shuja 
would restore the tomb to its former splendour, 
it might be done without much expense, as 
* The delicious melon of Kabul. 


the slabs of marble which formed it are lying 
scattered here and there ; and such a work 
would redound to his good name and popu- 
larity. The garden in which the tomb stands 
lately served as a stabling to Dost Mahomed 
Khan's horses, which were tied under its fine 
grove of trees. The pickets of the horses were 
still visible. It was said that the late ruler had 
little or no regard for tombs or such like places. 

From the summit of the hill behind Baber's 
tomb we had a magnificent view of the valley 
of Kabul, which is extremely rich and beau- 
tiful on that side of the city. Seating ourselves 
on a dilapidated baradari, built there by Shah 
Zaman, we observed the interesting valley to 
great advantage. The face of nature appeared 
fully animated, and perfect verdure refreshed 
the sight in every direction within a circum- 
ference of twelve miles. 

Passing a barren and hilly country from 
Peshawr to Butkhak, I had considered it quite 
unworthy of conquest by the British arms; but 
on seeing the valley of Kabul, I thought its 
labours were well compensated. 



The climate of Kabul is very delightful and 
healthy, but the cold predominates. In the 
month of September, at night, we could not 
sleep in tents without quilts or blankets, but 
the days were not so cool. At noon the sun 
did not feel agreeable. The winter of Kabul is 
said to be very severe ; but it is a time of great 
enjoyment to the rich, who collect sufficient 
supplies for the consumption of their families 
during that season, and never step out of their 
houses when it snows. It is then called the 
Gandab'ahar, or the dirty weather, and the 
communication becomes very scarce and diffi- 
cult throughout the country. The poorer 
classes of the people generally go to pass the 
winter in warmer climates, and business almost 
remains at a stand in the city. 

Two or three days after our arrival, the 
Sikh officers who had accompanied the Prince 
were introduced to his Majesty, on which 
occasion they were presented with khilats. 
Their troops were likewise inspected by the 
Shah, who was joined on that occasion by the 
Commander-in-Chief and the Envoy and mi- 


nister at his court. The party seemed well 
pleased with the discipline and exercise of the 
Sikhs, and his Majesty made a present of 5000 
rupees to be distributed among the sepoys. The 
Afghans seemed much surprised at the able 
manner in which the Sikh troops acquitted 

When we had been encamped a few days, the 
thieves began to annoy us. Scarcely a night 
passed that they did not attack stragglers from 
the British encampment, and cut to pieces 
those they caught. Sheikh Bussowan, the Sikh 
Sikhs, commander, reported the occurrence to 
Sir Claude, and proposed that he should place 
a picket of his men in ambuscade on the road 
from Beymaroo by the Siah Sang heights 
which were in the rear of our camp, stating 
that, in their warfare with the Afghans, the 
Sikhs had found this the only way of dealing 
with them. The Colonel gave his consent; 
and the following night, these villains, who 
were bold enough to come in a party of eight 
or ten, were intercepted by a volley from our 
picket which killed and wounded four or five 


of them, who proved to be notorious thieves ; 
and such was the effect it produced, that not 
only our own camp, but those in our neigh- 
bourhood for many days, were quite free from 
molestation. No one had dared to fire a shot 
into our camp until we came to Kabul. 

On the 17th of September, the European 
officers who were attached to the Mission 
attended the court of the Shah for the purpose 
of being present on the occasion of his Majesty 
conferring on the principal officers of the 
British Government an order of merit which 
he had newly instituted. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wade, Major Mackeson, and Mr. Lord 
were among those who had accompanied the 
Shah Zada on whom his Majesty conferred 
the order ; and they felt highly gratified by 
these marks of his royal distinction : but they 
were not justly bestowed on some, and with- 
held from others who deserved them. Captain 
Farmer, the officer who to his command of 
the British detachment had added the general 
control of Dowson's and Hillersdon's levies, 
amounting to 1500 men, well merited the same 

MEDALS. 493 

consideration for his gallant and worthy con- 
duct in the late operations ; but that officer was 
neglected, and so was our excellent Sikh com- 
mander, Colonel Sheikh Bussowan. The latter, 
considering his rank and that he was in the 
service of an old ally of the British Govern- 
ment, fully deserved to be distinguished by the 
Shah, along with the European British officers 
of equal rank with him. # 

We heard that his Majesty contemplated 
also conferring a medal on the whole of the 
officers and troops, whether of the British Go- 
vernment, or his own commanded by British 
officers, present at Ghazni ; but no similar 
mark of distinction was thought of for the 
Sikh troops, &c. employed towards Peshawr, 
and in the reduction of Ali Masjid. This 
measure was supposed by the people to have 
proceeded from the unjust partiality of the Shah 
and his advisers to the British troops under his 
own eye. Every one who has seen or is likely 

* However great their deeds of gallantry or devotion, 
the natives of India are seldom named or thought of on 
these occasions. 


to see the Khaibar Pass will easily conceive 
the difficulties which the troops with the Shah 
Zada must have undergone in forcing it, well 
protected and defended as it is by a race of 
independent men who had hitherto never 
yielded to the arms of any nation ; and at the 
same time judge whether these troops did not 
deserve to be honoured equally with their 
brother officers of Ghazni* 

During our stay, a man was executed. He 
was a native of Kabul, and hanged for murder- 
ing his own wife, on the plea of her being a 
loose woman, and having prostituted her chas- 
tity to a stranger. The murderer was seized 
and tried by the officers of the Shah, and sen- 
tenced to be hanged. 

On the evening of his execution, a mob, as 
usual ori such occasions, assembled in pro- 
digious numbers, filling the whole plain in 
front of the palace, adjoining the western face 

* " The small fort of Ali Masjid has from its situation 
long held the Sikhs in check ; and it is not upon record 
that the celebrated Khaibar Pass has ever previously been 
forced." — Extract Jrom Lord Auckland's Letter to the 
Secret Committee, Simla, Aug. 29, 1839, 


of the Bala Hisar, where the execution took 
place. As the miserable creature was being 
conducted by a party of the troops from the 
jail to the scaffold, the people generally ex- 
pressed their displeasure at the sentence. 
They remarked that the prisoner, according to 
the usages of the country, was quite right in 
taking the life of his wife, who, they said, 
justly deserved death for her conduct; and 
that the present measure would only en- 
courage the women to prostitution with im- 
punity ; which some of the bystanders disputed 
by contrary arguments, and spoke of the 
oppressions to which the female sex were sub- 
jected by their cruel husbands. However, the 
majority were of the former opinion, and the 
people loudly cried out against the injustice of 
the Government. The prisoner did not appear 
to feel any compunction or remorse, but 
seemed quite resigned to his fate. The mob 
which had surrounded the gallows was dis- 
persed by the military, and on another order 
having been received from the Shah (who was 
then passing the place to take the air) to carry 


the sentence into effect, the hangman has- 
tened to throw the halter round the prisoner's 
neck, and he was instantaneously launched into 
eternity. He soon died, and the body, which 
remained hanging for some time, was afterwards 
removed and buried. Although the justice of 
the sentence may not be doubted, yet it was 
very impolitic in the actual state of affairs. 
The Kabul women are notorious for their 
intrigues, and the punishment inflicted on the 
man gave them full liberty to act as they 
pleased; and hence the indignation of the 
people, a result which was considered very 
detrimental to the interests of the Government 
in its infancy.* 

The time of our short sojourn at Kabul was 
chiefly employed by the Mission in communi- 
cation with the Envoy and minister at the 
court, — in settling such matters as required 
immediate attention, the principal of which was 
the final disposal of the levies and establish- 
ments which were entertained in the service of 

* Vide Mohan Lai's Life of Dost Mahomed Khan for 
the causes which led to the insurrection in Kabul. 


the Shah Zada, and of the officers who accom- 
panied the Mission ; besides the consideration of 
the most eligible plan for the settlement of the 
Khaibaris, and the permanent security of the 
passage through their territory, which was an 
object of the first importance : yet we had been 
nearly a month at Kabul without anything 
being asked on the subject ; and the chiefs, in 
despair, had, in the meantime, returned to 
Khaibar without giving any one notice of their 

These points having been arranged, and the 
Shah having promised to provide the necessary 
parwanas or orders to reassure the Khaibaris 
and confirm them in their rights and privi- 
leges, Sir Claude Wade prepared to return with 
the Sikh auxiliary troops to India. The 
British detachment was made over to the 
Commander-in-Chief, as well as such of the 
British officers as were not transferred to the 
Shah. Lieutenants Maule and Rattray were 
among the latter. The former of these officers 
was appointed to raise a corps of Kohistanis 
for service in that quarter. His departure was 


regretted by every one, more especially by the 
officers and men of the Shah Zada's household 
and personal guard, with whom he had become 
a favourite by his mildness of temper, and 
for kind manners towards them. Lieutenant 
Rattray was nominated an assistant in the 
political department, to accompany Mr. Lord 
to Bamian.* Lieutenant Cunningham was 

* Of these three excellent men not one survives. The 
fate of Mr. Lord has already been given ; that of Lieu- 
tenants Maule and Rattray is subjoined : — " On this day 
(3rd Nov. 1841) Lieutenant Richard Maule, commanding 
the Kohistanee regiment, which on its return from Zoor- 
mut had been stationed at Kahdarra in Kohistan, about 
twenty miles north-west of Kabul, with the object of 
keeping down disaffection in that quarter, being deserted 
by his men, was, together with local Lieutenant Wheeler, 
his adjutant, barbarously murdered by a band of rebels. 
They defended themselves resolutely for several minutes, 
but at length fell under the fire of some jazails. Lieu- 
tenant Maule had been previously informed of his danger 
by a friendly native, but chose rather to run the risk of 
being sacrificed than desert the post assigned him. Thus 
fell a noble-hearted soldier and a devout Christian. The 
following is an outline of what had taken place in Ko- 
histan from the commencement of the insurrection up to 
the present date. ***** 

In the course of the forenoon of the 3rd of November 


the only one who still remained in our camp ; 

but we were afterwards joined by Lieutenant 

J. Anderson as an acting assistant. At first it 

was intended that Sir Claude should conduct 

the return of the returning portion of the army 

through the Panjab; but an order having 

arrived from Government countermanding the 

departure of the whole army from Afghanistan, 

it was determined that the Mission should 

retire, leaving Lieutenant Mackeson, who had 

come to Kabul, to conduct Sir John Keane with 

his escort as far as Peshawr, where he was to 

make over his charge to another officer, who 

would be appointed to relieve him. 

On the 4th of October, Colonel Wade, with 

the remaining members of the Mission, went to 

Major Pottinger had an interview with a number of the 
more influential chiefs in his house or fort, and about noon 
went into the garden to receive those of inferior rank, 
accompanied by his visitors ; here they were joined by 
Lieutenant Charles Rattray, Major Pottinger's assistant 
(the Major had succeeded Mr. Lord). While thus en- 
gaged, this most promising and brave young officer appa- 
rently became aware of intended foul play, and turned to 
leave the place, when he was immediately shot down." — 
Eyre's Journal, pp. 38, 68, and 70. 


court to take leave of the Shah, who was sit- 
ting in private on a chair in his palace. It was 
a large and extensive square, open, with a 
garden in the centre, and surrounded by build- 
ings made of beautifully carved wood, but it 
had fallen into decay and required much repair. 
It was built by some of the Mogul emperors. 

Shah Shuja expressed his regret to part 
with us so soon, and especially with the 
Colonel, whom he had known, and been so 
long intimately associated with at Lodianah. 
He made a long speech ; and amongst other 
topics spoke of the scantiness of his resources, 
and many wants, observing that he was very 
economical in his expenditure, and tried to 
keep it within his income, which was said, 
no doubt, to reach the ear of the Governor- 
General. He added that, besides his army 
and other public expenses, he had a large 
family to provide for ; that the number of the 
Shah Zadas alone amounted to upwards of a 
hundred persons ; and that each of them re- 
quired a handsome allowance. He was com- 
plimented on his desire to economise, and 


every wish was offered for the prosperity of 
his government. His Majesty next desired the 
Colonel to endeavour to reconcile the parties 
on the side of Jalalabad and Peshawr, who 
had fled from Kabul, and alienated themselves, 
as he said, from him ; requesting that every 
exertion might be made to reclaim them ; and 
repeating his intention of addressing letters on 
his own part to each of the rebellious chiefs, 
directing them to negotiate their terms of 
allegiance through that officer* The Shah 
then desired Sir Claude Wade to convey his 
acknowledgments to his Lordship the Go- 
vernor-General, and dismissed the Mission 
without any honorary marks of favour. We 
were all surprised at the omission, as it was 
contrary to the custom of every court on 
similar occasions. He afterwards, however, 
sent a sword, with a few pieces of cloth, 
and ahorse, to the Colonel, but nothing to any 
one else. 

After leaving the Shah, we went to take 

* These letters, though promised next day, were never 


leave of Prince Taimur, who was living in a 
confined place in the outer court of the palace. 
As we had long been together, the parting- 
scene with him was very painful ; both parties 
could not suppress a deep sigh as they sepa- 
rated, and heartily wished well to each other. 
The Shah Zada is a very good man, and 
popular ; but he is thought to be too good and 
inexperienced in the ways of the world to 
make a statesman. Spectator as he is of the 
passing events, it is hoped that his mind may 

* " The prince is kind in the extreme, and has on 
several occasions sent me lumps of hardened snow to 
apply to my temples when throbbing with pain. His 
attentions to Maule, for whom he has taken a fancy, are 
unbounded, and day after day large trays of fruit and ice 
are brought to him with the prince's salaam. It is a pity 
he is so deficient in energy, as his whole nature is replete 
with the milk of human kindness ; and without it he will 
never be able to control the tumultuous passions of the 
turbulent Afghans, should it ever be his lot to rule over 
them. Consequent on the events that have lately oc- 
curred in Afghanistan, the prince is again a pensioner of 
the British Government in India." — Barr*s Journal ', 
pp. 358-59. 


Having been constantly kept within his 
father's haram from his childhood to the pre- 
sent time, it is not surprising that he should 
know so little of the world. 

( 504 ) 

Chapter XIX. 

Departure from Kabul — Correspondence with the Ghil- 
zae Chiefs — Adventures of Shah Zada Mahomed Saleh 
— Murder of Sirdar Cheit Singh — Communication with 
Sadat Khan — Ill-health of the Troops at Ali Masjid 
— Colonel Wade takes leave of the Sikh Troops — Out- 
break of the Khaibaris. 

Early on the morning of the 5th inst. we 
quitted Kabul on our return to Lodianah, and 
the separation from our Afghan and Kabul 
friends was one mingled with joy as well as 
sorrow ; the former because we were glad to 
find that we were again proceeding to our 
native land and our friends and relatives ; and 
the latter, because we were sorry to leave Kabul 
without seeing its winter and spring .* 

* The feeling of delight that pervaded the army when, 
after so many hardships, it once more turned its face 
towards Hindostan, was universal ; and I may say, the 
regret that filled the breasts of those who were destined to 
remain in Afghanistan was as unanimous. Many appoint- 
ments in the Shah's service had been offered to officers, 


For the sake of protection several parties, 
both European and Native, availed themselves 
of our escort to return to India. Among the 
former were Colonel Sandwith of the Bombay 
cavalry, and Captain Fane whom we had 
known at Lahore during the visit of Sir Henry 
Fane to celebrate the marriage of Kour Nao 
Nihal Singh in 1837. 

The weather was now getting cold ; so 
much so that on re-entering the pass of Khurd 
Kabul our fingers were almost benumbed, and 
we could hardly keep hold of the reins of our 

and declined by them ; and even soldiers who could have 
got salaries of 100 or 200 rupees per mensem, in lieu of 
their comparatively trifling pay, refused to remain behind 
on even these (to them) splendid terms. The paradise 
that all expected to see in the beauties of Afghanistan had 
faded as we advanced, and a dreary spectacle of barren 
mountains and swampy valleys occupied its place. True 
it is, a few bright gleams of scenery do occasionally meet 
the eye, but they are scarce, and travellers in their hasty 
journeys have allowed their thoughts to dwell on these 
lovely spots, rendered more beautiful by the contrast of 
the surrounding country ; and in their descriptions have 
forgotten to mention the more marked features of the 
province, which consist of desolation and barrenness." — 
Barr's Journal, pp. 380-81. 


horses. A sharp wind blew in our faces, and 
the water on the sides of the Nah which 
flowed down the pass was completely frozen.* 
There is a footpath over the hills to the left, 
which people generally prefer in winter. 

The Ghilzaes, observing how things were 
going on at Kabul, had now become very bold. 
At night, while encamped at Khurd Kabul, we 
could hardly sleep, the thieves being very 
troublesome in their excursions. The 3rd Ca- 

* " On the 17th we moved to Khurd Kabul, the ascent 
of the narrow defile leading to it being accomplished in a 
cold wind that cut us to the skin, whilst the splashings 
from the water, as we crossed the stream, froze before it 
could drop from the skirts of our cloaks or the tips of our 
steel scabbards. The next day we marched to Tezeen, and 
as we neared the summit of the lofty Haft-Kotal, we 
passed the dead body of a native who had evidently died 
from the severity of the weather, and who with out- 
stretched arms was lying flat on his face, apparently having 
fallen in that position while making a last struggle to gain 
the top. He had been stripped of every rag. Not far 
distant the corpse of another was seen in the cleft of a 
ravine, which the poor fellow had entered with the vain 
hope of screening himself from the keen blast that hurried 
up the pass, and where, instead of the repose of sleep, he 
had found a more lasting rest in death !" — Barr's Journal, 
pp. 383, 384. 


valry with a quantity of treasure was encamped 
here on its way to Kabul, and the thieves were 
probably encouraged to annoy us in conse- 
quence of the tempting prize before them. 

On our way to Jalalabad Sir Claude Wade 
opened a communication with Aziz Khan and 
the Ghilzae chiefs, by inviting them to join him, 
with a view to effecting a reconciliation between 
the Shah and themselves. At first, such was 
their alarm from the arrests which had taken 
place at Kabul, that they hesitated to come. 
Some of them, as already stated, were amongst 
those who had joined the Shah Zada in our way 
to that city, but had retired to their homes from 
the same cause. At length, on our arrival at 
Soorkhab, after some negotiation, and many 
assurances of good faith and protection, Aziz 
Khan promised to come ; but when the time 
came he still showed a distrust of our in- 
tentions, proposing that the Colonel should 
visit him first in his own fort, attended by a 
few followers, which Sir Claude declined ; but 
offered instead to send a Reesh Safeid and con- 
fidential agent of his own, as well as a Saved, 

z 2 


who was a highly respectable native of Loo- 
diana, named Bheka Shah, to inspire his con- 
fidence ; which had the intended effect. Aziz 
Khan agreed to hold a conference with the 
Colonel in the garden of Nimla, on encamping 
near which the next day, Sir Claude went 
himself to the place, and ordered it to be pre- 
pared for the reception of the Ghilzae chief, 
whom we soon afterwards saw approaching 
from the hills with about a thousand of his 
armed retainers, with drums beating and 
colours flying. After they had alighted, the 
Colonel sent some supplies of fruit and forage 
to them, with a friendly message, that agree- 
ably to appointment, he would now be happy 
to visit the Khan whenever he liked. His 
reply was very gratifying. He said he would, 
if allowed, come himself to the Colonel's tent, 
where he arrived, accompanied by Khodabaksh 
Khan, Sadatmand Khan, Mirza Khan, and 
Himmat Khan, the Ghilzae chiefs, without a 
single armed follower ! They said that their 
hesitation in coming arose chiefly from their 
dread of the machinations of their enemies at 


Kabul. They frankly observed that they had 
no other desire than that of proving their alle- 
giance to the Shah, and performing his service, 
as they had done that of Dost Mahomed while 
he was in power ; that their principle was to 
acknowledge the supremacy, and to serve the 
Government of the reigning chief; and that 
though allied by marriage with the late Ruler 
of the country, they had no interests in com- 
mon with him ; that Aziz Khan himself, it was 
well known, seldom attended his court, and 
that his only anxiety was to preserve his 
honour. On the strength of the Shah's re- 
quest, they were assured of his favour and 
consideration if they would appear in his pre- 
sence. They expressed their readiness to do so 
on the arrival of his Majesty at Jalalabad, 
where he was soon expected to pass the winter. 
A letter of introduction was accordingly de- 
livered to them for the Envoy and Minister, 
explaining the interview which had taken 
place with these chiefs, and the principal 
object of their solicitude; after which they 


took their leave, with mutual pledges of satis- 

Mahomed Shah Khan, another great Ghilzae 
chief, did not make his appearance ; but he 
proposed to depute, and actually did, his 
brother, who had joined the Shah Zada on our 
advance to Kabul, but quitted us before we 
arrived there, in consequence of the arrests at 
that place. A letter of introduction and as- 
surance was also sent to him, and he was 
desired to wait on the Shah, or send his brother 
to make terms for him. 

On our return to Jalalabad we found Shah 
Zada Mahomed Saleh and his party, together 
with Mr. Carron and Sayed Bahauddin, en- 
camped there. Since I took leave of him at 
Peshawr, I recollect that I have made no allu- 
sion to him. I shall therefore give a brief 
account of his adventures. It appears that 

* The manner in which these pledges and assurances 
were treated by the authorities at Kabul has been already 
stated in a preceding note from Mohan Lai's * Life of 
Dost Mahomed Khan.' 


on receiving authentic intelligence of the fall 
of Ali Masjid, Mahomed Saleh with his party 
advanced to Pindiali, then occupied by Sadat 
Khan's people, which he captured without 
much resistance, at the period of our arrival at 
Dhaka, on our way to Kabul. Further opera- 
tions in that quarter being considered useless, 
a letter had been written to him from that 
place to disband his newly levied troops, to 
send the Durrani Sowars to camp, and to 
return himself to Peshawr, and there to wait 
the orders of his Majesty, who in fact did not 
wish to be at the expense of retaining him, 
although one of his own family. The pro- 
posal did not please the young Prince, who 
unfortunately determined not to lay down his 
arms without trying to signalize himself by the 
performance of some important military action. 
Instead of obeying the order which he had 
received, he proceeded to punish Nawab Khan 
of Naowaghi, and besieged his fort. Mahomed 
Saleh had now been joined by Mr. Carron 
from Bajour, the chief of which territory still 
avoided acting in concert with him. In his 


new companion the Prince found one as war- 
like as himself. Soon after an engagement 
took place between the parties, and the battle 
was well sustained by both for some time. At 
last the besiegers were repulsed, and obliged 
to retreat, partly on account of the misconduct 
of their people, and partly owing to the scar- 
city of supplies, for which they were much 
straitened. Their loss was, however, not be- 
yond a few lives, among whom was Khan 
Mahomed Khan, a Popalzae chief, who had 
joined us at Lahore, and one of the best of 
the Khawanin. He was of a very respectable 
family, a gallant soldier, and is said bravely 
to have led the assault against the enemy : his 
fall chiefly occasioned the disaster. The most 
surprising part of the story is, that a few days 
before his death the Khan came to our camp 
when at Dhaka on some private business; 
and when leaving us told me in a very 
grave manner that he took leave of me for 
ever, as he was sure that he would never 
return alive, if, as he expected, Mahomed 
Saleh attacked Naowaghi : and ultimately his 


prediction was literally verified, as if he had 
seen his death before his eyes. His loss was 
much felt and lamented in our camp. The 
defeated party afterwards thought of no other 
plan than of advancing across the hills to 
Jalalabad, where they hoped to be comforted 
in their distress. Just as it was on its way, 
Sayed Babujan or Bahauddin, accredited by 
the royal mandate to recover his lost terri- 
tory, was proceeding towards Kuner. On 
coming in contact with the above party, he 
induced its commander to support his cause, 
assuring him of being provided by himself 
with the means of maintaining his levies. 
Notwithstanding that the young Prince had 
been repeatedly and strictly enjoined to desist 
from hostilities, he accepted the Sayed's offer, 
thinking it gave a hope of retrieving his 

The combined troops then proceeded against 
Kuner by the Nurgal route, where they 
met with a shameful defeat from Sayed 
Hashim, and were compelled to retire to Jala- 
labad, after enduring many hardships and pri- 

z 3 


vations on the way. I should mention that 
they had arrived there before we quitted Kabul. 
Sayed Bahauddin now entirely threw himself 
on the support and favour of his Majesty for 
the recovery of his territory, urging that he 
had suffered for his ill-timed declaration in his 
favour, as has already been mentioned, and 
for giving shelter to Mr. Carron, the British 
news writer, who had been left in Kabul by 
Sir Alexander Burnes on the failure of his 
negotiations ; that he had now neither credit 
nor money to effect his object ; and that, all 
his own exertions having failed, he relied 
now only for assistance on the Shah's troops, 
and offered to pay for them rather than employ 
the peasantry of the country, on whom he could 
not depend. The Sayed's application was, it 
appears, granted ; but a conciliatory course was 
recommended to be tried in the first instance, 
and Sir Claude Wade was authorised by the 
Shah to open a communication with the rival 
chief in actual possession of Kuner. 

On our arrival at Jalalabad, a letter was 
accordingly addressed to Sayed Hashim, and 


forwarded to him by a person in the confidence 
of both parties. The Sayed, in reply, offered 
to accept any reasonable terms ; and by the 
advice of the Shah's officers at Jalalabad, it 
was settled that each party should be limited 
to the territory possessed by him before the 
expulsion of Sayed Babujan, a proposal with 
the justice of which every one was satisfied and 
contented, excepting the foolish Babujan, who, 
still relying on his influence at court, expressed 
some hesitation to it on his part, wishing to 
have the whole of a territory, which, in conse- 
quence of their former disputes, had been 
divided between him and his rival. The 
Colonel would not, however, admit his ob- 
jection, and entrusted the settlement of the 
case, on the proposed terms, to Aghajan, the 
Government renter of Jalalabad, and a clever 
man, who was well acquainted with the local 
affairs from having been for some time its go- 
vernor in the late reign. But I do not know 
how the matter ended, further than that the 
plan was not executed, and that after the 


arrival of the Shah at Jalalabad, Sayed Ba- 
hauddin succeeded in procuring the services 
of a part of the British army to enforce his 
own claim, which led to the siege of Pashut, 
from which the troops were driven back, but 
during the night Sayed Hashim quitted the 
place, and became a fugitive; he and Sadat 
Khan joining each other in disturbing the 
peace of the country. After a time we heard 
that they had both been persuaded to pay their 
respects to the Shah, when it was found politic 
to restore Sayed Hashim to his share of Kuner ; 
but Sadat Khan was not so easily gained over, 
and continued refractory to the end. 

Had the course proposed by Colonel Wade 
been followed with the Kuner Sayeds, as well 
as the other disaffected chiefs in the Jalalabad 
territory, much bloodshed and disorder, it is 
the general belief, might have been avoided. 
We afterwards heard with extreme grief that 
in presenting themselves, as they had been 
directed, to the Shah at Jalalabad, the chiefs 
whom he had conciliated a second time were 


not well treated, which entirely destroyed their 
faith in our words and promises.* 

On leaving Jalalabad, our fighting friend 
Mahomed Saleh was desired to disband his 
party with the exception of the Durrani horse, 
who were to join the Khawanin at Kabul, and 
to return to Peshawr ; but he was permitted to 

* " Whatever we might boast of our diplomatic successes 
during the campaign of Afghanistan, we were certainly 
very wrong in not keeping up our adherence, even for a 
short time, to those engagements and promises which we 
had so solemnly and faithfully made to the various chiefs, 
in return for their taking up our cause and abandoning 
their long-known and established masters. Our letters, 
pledging our honour and Government to reward and ap- 
preciate their services for our good, were in their hands ; 
and as soon as we found that the chiefs of Candahar were 
fled, and there was no necessity for wearing longer the airy 
garb of political civilities and promises, we commenced to 
fail in fulfilling them. There are, in fact, such numerous 
instances of violating our engagements and deceiving the 
people in our political proceedings, within what I am ac- 
quainted with, that it would be hard to assemble them in 
one series. I shall, however, mention them in their proper 
places, and the time in which they were made, in order to 
show how soon they were forgotten, through our vain 
pride of power, and of our tact shown in the temporary 
and speedy gaining of the people." — Mohan LaVs Life of 
Dost Mahomed Khan, pp. 208, 209. 


await the arrival of his Majesty at Jalalabad, 
for the purpose of being presented to him. 
Here we took leave of the Shah Zada and his 
party. Mr. Carron was placed at the disposal 
of the Envoy and Minister at the court of Shah 
Shuja, but did not long survive, having died of 
fever, brought on by the hardships which he 
had encountered in Kuner and Bajour. 

We received a report from Lahore on our 
way to Dhaka of the horrible murder of Sirdar 
Cheit Singh, the favourite of Kharak Singh, 
then Maharaja of Lahore. It was stated that 
he was assassinated in the palace on the 8th of 
October, by Raja Dhian Singh and Kour Nao 
Nihal Singh, accompanied by their wicked 
associates. They had demanded the removal 
of Cheit Singh, which his master having boldly 
refused, they were determined to carry their 
point, and having formed a conspiracy to take 
his life, the Kour proceeded on the morning of 
that day to the palace, on pretence of paying 
his duty to his father, preparatory to his pre- 
tended departure to bathe in the holy pool of 
Amritsir. The door of the palace was at once 


opened to him without suspicion, and the 
Kour and the Rajas, viz., Golab Singh and 
Dhian Singh, with others of their party, ap- 
proached his Highness, and by the assistance 
of candles (for it was before daybreak) sought 
out and seized Cheit Singh ; one of them, 
Atr Singh, Sindhanwalia, laid hold of the 
Maharaja by the hair and dragged him outside 
the palace, lest he should have recourse to some 
violence on observing the murder of his 
favourite ; when those who were inside bar- 
barously fell on their victim and put him to 
death in a very cruel manner. His body was 
chopped in pieces ; three or four other persons 
shared the same fate. The remains of the 
favourite were buried inside the palace, and the 
Maharaja was said to be in a state of stupidity, 
brought on by fear, from which he did not 
recover for some days. We now saw the motive 
of Nao Nihal Singh in wishing to leave us 
when he heard of the death of his grandfather. 
The object of his ambition was to usurp the 
throne of his father, and in the Rajas of Jam- 
moo and their partisans he found ready means 


to assist him. Some days before this event 
took place, a mission had been dispatched by 
the Kour and his party, as if from Kharak 
Singh, to the Governor-General in return for 
one which it appeared had just left Lahore 
from his Lordship ; the presence of which, at 
that particular time when each was intriguing 
against the other, is believed to have encou- 
raged Raja Dhian Singh, Bhae Ram Singh, 
and others, to carry out their project. 

In the opinion of impartial people it was 
certainly thought the Mission of the Governor- 
General had been sent too soon ; that he should 
have waited a little longer to see the course of 
events, as the Sikhs were labouring in great 
suspense, since the death of Ranjeet Singh, and 
might at that time have been made to do any- 
thing agreeable to the wishes of the British 
Government to confirm the succession, as it 
had been desired and left by the Maharaja, 
who had for many years been the faithful 
friend and ally of the English, and on whose 
good advice and guidance his son Kharak 
Singh had depended. 


On our return to Dhaka a letter was re- 
ceived from Sadat Khan, expressive of his 
willingness to meet Lieutenant- Colonel Wade ; 
and we heard that he arrived at Goshta after 
we had passed that place. He was recom- 
mended to wait there the expected arrival of the 
Shah, who he was told would no doubt take 
his case into consideration. A communication 
was also held with Khalid Khan, Khosta, who 
again waited on us at Chahardeh to renew 
his pledges of loyalty. A letter of introduc- 
tion was delivered to him for the King and Sir 
W. Macnaghten, of similar import to those 
which had been given to others, with which he 
was likewise desired to wait on his Majesty on 
his arrival at Jalalabad, when a permanent 
arrangement respecting his jaghir would be 
made with him. On our way a settlement was 
also effected with the Maliks of Basoul and 
Hazarnao, confirming to them their villages 
on the terms on which they had enjoyed them 
before ; but they were prevented from levying 
duties on passing merchandise, the right of 
which the sovereign of the country was only 


entitled to exercise. Among other negotia- 
tions for the same object, our friend Tura Baz 
Khan, as present ruler of the Momand tribe, 
agreed to take the rents of seven and a half 
villages which had formerly belonged to his 
family, instead of the collections made by him 
on the transit trade. 

Reports of these interviews and their results 
were transmitted as they occurred to the au- 
thorities at Kabul ; but we neither heard any- 
thing further about them nor of the promised 
parwanas from the Shah for the Khaibaris, 
though urged to be sent, as they were known 
to be in a restless state when we left the court. 

We were not therefore surprised to learn on 
our arrival at Dhaka that Khan Bahadar Khan 
and his son Abdul Rahman, the chiefs of the 
Malikdin Khail, were collecting their men in 
the vicinity of AH Masjid. Abdul Rahman 
was one of those who had attended us to 
Kabul, in the hope of settling his business 
with the Shah ; but it appeared that he had 
been sadly disappointed in the manner of 
his reception at Kabul after the assurances 


which he had received from the Shah Zada 
and Colonel Wade, and the whole tribe 
having lost their confidence, were resolved to 
show their independence. The Sikhs were 
also reported to have encouraged them to at- 
tack that fort ; but failing in their endeavours 
to obtain support from the other chiefs in 
Khaibar, those of the Malikdin Khail had, 
for the time, abandoned their design. To 
prevent however any surprise, the troops at 
Dhaka and Jalalabad were ordered by the 
Colonel to concentrate immediately in the 
valley of Lala Beg, near Ali Masjid ; and 
further measures were taken at the same time 
to occupy the pass with other troops. 

Besides these causes of disaffection, the 
Khaibarees saw the critical condition to which 
the troops at Ali Masjid, Dhaka, and Jalalabad 
had been reduced by sickness and mortality 
from the pestilential climate of those places. 
The reports we received exhibited an extra- 
ordinary number of deaths among the troops 
generally, but especially at Ali Masjid. A 
company of the 20th Native Infantry, consist- 


ing of sixty men, had lost no less than twenty- 
three since the month of September; while 
the rest were in too sickly a state to perform 
any duty; Captain Ferris himself being also 
a severe sufferer. In fact, on our arrival at 
Ali Masjid we found almost every sepoy in a 
wretched state, and reduced to a mere skeleton. 
We could not but sympathise with them, but 
they were enjoined to continue at their post 
until the arrival of Lieutenant Mackeson with 
the portion of the army 'returning to India, 
when they would be relieved. Captain Ferris 
was also informed of the precautions which 
had been taken to reinforce his garrison and 
the outposts in Khaibar, and the necessity of 
relieving them every month from the new 
cantonment at Lala Beg. 

I ought to mention that on our way from 
Kabul letters were repeatedly sent to all the 
Khaibar chiefs, informing them of the day on 
which Sir Claude Wade would be at Ali Masjid, 
and inviting them to meet him there, which 
they failed to do, although we waited for them a 
day beyond the appointed time, which con- 


vinced us that the treatment they had ex- 
perienced from the Court had filled them 
with rage and distrust; yet, that every- 
thing might be done to reassure and en- 
courage them to return, a proclamation was 
issued by the Colonel to the whole of them, 
not to be disheartened ; that Lieutenant Mack- 
eson would be there in a few days with full 
powers on the part of the Shah's Government 
to attend to their claims and see them right- 
fully settled. 

We halted a day also at Peshawr, which was 
employed in settling the accounts of the Mis- 
sion with General Avitabile, and in taking 
leave of the disciplined battalions of Sikh in- 
fantry and the Ghorcheras, forming the Ma- 
homedan contingent which had returned with 
us. The ceremony was a melancholy one. 
They paraded and formed a square, to receive 
Sir Claude, who made a speech to them, 
acknowledging the bravery and perseverance 
with which they had performed their duty. 
While we were engaged in encouraging the 
Sikh troops to remain at their post, the Darbar 


was urgently requesting their withdrawal alto- 
gether from Afghanistan; and although no 
troops had been raised to supply their place, 
yet, in the absence of the Colonel from Lahore, 
it will be seen that Raja Dhian Singh and 
the Kour either took, or were very impro- 
perly allowed to have, their own way in this as 
well as in other matters, without regard to 
the probable consequences. 

The Najib and Aligol battalions had been 
left at Ali Masjid and Jalalabad ; that belong- 
ing to the French legion being the only portion 
of the troops which accompanied us to Lahore. 
I have mentioned in former parts of my journal 
the delays and difficulties we had to contend 
with before the Mahomedan contingent was 
formed. The occasion now seemed to have 
arrived for deciding whether the Sikhs were to 
maintain it. By the tripartite treaty they were 
required always to have such a force in readi- 
ness at Peshawr ; and it is much to be regretted 
that instead of being made to observe this 
important article of the treaty, they should at 
once have been permitted to urge the return 


of their force. Referring to the state of 
Khaibar before we left Peshawr, the attention 
of General Avitabile was seriously drawn to 
the necessity, notwithstanding the orders 
of his court, of detaining the contingent. A 
report of the circumstance was at the same 
time made to Lahore, and the Sikh Darbar 
reminded of their obligation; but the troops 
hearing that their Government wished them 
to be withdrawn, marched off; and we heard 
that on the outbreak in Khaibar, which 
afterwards occurred, when ordered by General 
Avitabile to halt and return, they would not 
obey him, although they had not then re- 
crossed the Indus. Such was the change which 
the death of Ranjeet Singh had produced ! 

On the 24th of October we quitted Peshawr 
and hastened on our return to India. We had 
scarcely passed the Tope of Manakiala, when 
we received intelligence of an outbreak in 
Khaibar. It was reported that on the night of 
our departure from Peshawr, the Khaibaris, 
headed by Khan Bahadar Khan, &c, had 
attacked the troops in Ali Masjid, but were re- 


pulsed ; that they repeated their attack on the 
following night also without any success, 
having previously attacked the positions occu- 
pied by the Najibs on the heights of Lala 
China, who were so much reduced by death 
and sickness that they do not appear to have 
resisted the attack. The Khaibaris rushed 
sword in hand into their stockade or sanga, 
and compelled them to fly, with the loss of 
many killed and wounded, including those 
who were too sick and helpless to move. 
During the prevailing sickness in September 
they had lost their old commandant, Praem 
Singh, who had joined Ranjeet Singh from 
Holkar's service after the battle of Mahedpore 
in 1819 with his corps, and been in command 
of these men for fifty years ; which likewise 
dispirited them and destroyed their discipline. 
The chief instigator of these disturbances was 
Khan Bahadar Khan. We were happy, how- 
ever, to learn that the troops which had been or- 
dered into the Pass from Dhaka and Jalalabad 
on our arrival at the former of these places, had 
opportunely arrived at Ali Masjid, and pre- 


vented any serious injury being done to the gar- 
rison ; but the defeat of the Najibs emboldened 
the Khaibaris to renew their attacks, and harass 
the portion of the army which was returning 
with Sir John Keane ; and they were not put 
down without much bloodshed. 

2 a 

( 530 ) 

Chapter XX. 

The Khaibaris attack Lala China — Imminent peril of 
Captain Ferris — Supplies to Ali Masjid — The Sikhs 
attacked by the Afridis — Further operations against the 
Khaibaris —Little confidence to be placed in the Sikh 
troops— Skirmishing near Lala China— Baggage aban- 
doned — Departure from Peshawr. 

For a description of the military operations 
which ensued, I must again refer the reader to 
the journal of Lieutenant Barr, who was 
then returning with Lord Keane. It was, I 
think, a great mistake to withdraw any of the 
British or Sikh troops from the country, as it 
had not been conquered, although they had 
marched to Kabul.* 

* In speaking of the causes of the triumph of the 
British army in Afghanistan, on the entrance of the Shah 
in the first instance, and of the subsequent discontent of 
the people, Mohan Lai, in his Life of Dost Mahomed 
Khan, says : " Undoubtedly we held possession of Kabul ; 
but its late ruler was not in our hands, and there was 
therefore sufficient reason for apprehension that as long as 
he or any of his sons were at liberty and fugitives on our 


" From Ferris I received the particulars of 
the late assaults of the Khaibaris, who com- 
menced them by attacking a post at Lala 
China, garrisoned by 500 Najeeb soldiers, 
the majority of whom they succeeded in 
slaughtering : the rest with difficulty made 
their escape to Jamrud. Having committed 
this terrible massacre, they proceeded to attack 
Ferris's position, at the fort of Ali Masjid, but 
were repulsed with some loss ; and night draw- 
ing on, compelled them to desist. The next 
day, F. went to Lala China, and interred no 
less than 300 bodies of the Najeebs ; and when 
it is considered that many of those who reached 
Jumrood jnust have been severely wounded, it 
is very probable no more than 150 survived 

northern frontiers, there would be no difficulty for the 
people of Kabul to invite him whenever we gave them any 
annoyance. Yet notwithstanding these points of grave 
concern, we sent a large portion of the army back with 
Lord Keane to India, and interfered in the administration 
of the country, and introduced such reforms just on our 
arrival as, even in India, the quietest part of the world, 
Lords Clive and Wellesley had hesitated to do but slowly, 
and to extend over many years." 



that terrible onset. Another attack on the 
part of the Khaibaris was expected, and, as 
the sequel proved, was not long in being made. 
F. had, however, prepared a warm reception 
for them, and he described the appearance of 
the pass, as they advanced, to be nothing but a 
sea of heads. Onwards they came till within 
thirty or forty yards of a low wall, behind 
which a party of picked men had been re- 
clining with their matchlocks in readiness, and 
who, starting up at the word of command, 
poured a deadly and unexpected volley into 
the midst of the foe, which caused them to 
send forth an unearthly and terrific yell, 
heightened by the shrieks and groans of the 
wounded. Ferris then, at the head of a party 
of horsemen, at hand for the purpose, boldly 
galloped forward, and was in the act of turn- 
ing round to give a shout of encouragement to 
his followers, preparatory to charging, when 
he discovered he was, with one exception, 
alone ; the cowardly sowars having hung back. 
He was, by this time, close to, and partly in- 
termixed with, the Khaibaris, who could have 


killed him in an instant ; and how they al- 
lowed him to escape he knows not to this day. 
They, however, had suffered enough, and only 
thought of making off with their dead and 
wounded ; and thus affairs remained when the 
returning army reached Ali Masjid. As F. 
had only irregulars to depend on for the 
defence of the Khaibar, he applied to Sir John 
Keane for two companies of infantry, which 
were granted to him ,• and those of the 27th 
Native Infantry, under Lieutenant Laing, that 
had escorted the treasure to Kabul, were or- 
dered on the duty. 

" On the 6th we moved to Kuddum, a few 
stray shots having been fired at the guards in 
charge of the baggage ; and on the 7th we 
halted at Koulsir, close to the ground so long 
occupied by the Mission, and which was now 
covered with fields of grain. The next morn- 
ing we marched to Peshawr, and encamped on 
the eastern side of the city, where we were 
only to have remained a couple of days ; but a 
longer sojourn was rendered necessary, as the 
Sikh troops could not be prevailed upon to con- 


vey grain to the garrison at Ali Masjid, who 
had but a day or two's provisions left. To 
effect this desirable object, it therefore became 
necessary, on the 10th, to send two companies 
of the 21st Native Infantry under Farmer, and 
one of the Sappers and Miners under Lieu- 
tenant Macleod, of the Engineers, on that 
duty, accompanied by 500 Sikh soldiers, and 
escorted by a squadron of cavalry and two 
guns to the entrance of the Pass. They suc- 
ceeded in making over their charge in safety ; 
but on their return were opposed by the Khai- 
baris in force, who boldly attacked them as 
they were threading the hills. The Najibs, 
without attempting resistance, immediately 
took to flight, hamstringing such camels as 
obstructed their progress : and, at last, our own 
sepoys, having expended all their ammunition, 
were obliged to follow the example thus set 
them of showing a quick pair of heels. The 
Afridis, perceiving the dismay they had 
created, threw down their matchlocks, and ad- 
vanced to close quarters, with their deadly 
knives ; and the ferocity with which they used 


these murderous weapons was spoken of as 
being quite fiendish. A large booty and a 
vast number of camels fell into the enemy's 
hands, and were forthwith transferred to their 
strongholds. The conduct of the Sikh troops 
on this occasion gave so much offence to 
General Avitabile, that he, in his capacity of 
Governor, denied them admittance into the 
town of Peshawr, and ordered any of them 
that should be seen in it to be severely beaten 
with a slipper, the most derogatory punish- 
ment that can be inflicted on a native.* 

" After this defeat, it was necessary for the 
returning army to remain at Peshawr until 
Colonel Wheeler, who, with the 48th Native 
Infantry, had been sent for from Jalalabad, 

* The Sikhs, whose dread of the Khaibaris was always 
great, were terrified at the slaughter of the Najibs ; no 
less than 10,000 of the regular Sikh troops were employed 
to occupy the heights between Ali Masjid and Jamrud, 
a distance of only five miles, to keep open the Pass during 
the advance of Sir G. Pollock, in 1842. The Najibs were 
principally Hindoos, and both they and the Sikhs wanted 
the fitness of the Mahomedan contingent, which, as had 
been anticipated, was not now forthcoming for such service. 


should arrive to the succour of the garrison of 
Ali Masjid, as that fort was now sure of being 
attacked by the Khaibaris. Meanwhile balled 
ammunition was being made up in our camp 
as fast as possible, and all the available in- 
fantry, including the drafts for the 2nd Eu- 
ropean regiment, were sent to Jamrud on the 
14th, to proceed from thence to the assistance 
of our troops in the Pass, whenever such a step 
might be necessary. At twelve o'clock the 
same night, I was ordered off with a couple of 
6-pounders and a Risallah (troop) of Local 
Cavalry, to escort a quantity of ammunition 
to the troops at Jamrud, who were to take it 
on to Ali Masjid. We reached the camp at 
Jamrud at nine a.m., and immediately on ar- 
rival made the ammunition over to Captain 
Prole, 37th Native Infantry, who commanded. 
"My tent was once more pitched amidst 
scenery with which I was familiar; but the 
landscape, though the same, had been changed 
in some of its accompaniments. It is true, the 
Sangas still existed, and were even occupied by 
the friendly Khaibaris, who, to show their zeal 


for our service, had kept up an incessant fire 
(whether necessary or not is unknown) during 
the previous night; but the immediate camp 
was altered, and in lieu of Durrani horsemen 
and raw Afghan levies, it was filled with 
British sepoys and European soldiers. 

" It was at noon, the day after I joined Prole's 
camp, that the political agent (Mackeson), 
having received no tidings from Dowson (who 
commanded at Ali Masjid, consequent on 
Ferris's departure for Peshawr, again very ill), 
and being anxious about his safety, ordered us 
to move forward ; but a letter from D., in 
which he stated that he thought he could yet 
hold out without assistance, having reached us 
after we had advanced about a mile and a half, 
we returned to our old position. Mackeson 
had on this occasion directed the Sikh troops 
to enter tJte Pass 'by the main route, to create a 
diversion; but in spite of his arguments, and 
those of Colonel Courtlandt, an officer in the 
Maharaja's service, who was to have gone 
with them, they refused to do so, shielding 
themselves under the excuse, that their orders 

2 a 3 


were to accompany the British troops, and that, 
therefore, whichever way they went, the Khalsas 
would follow. 

" Negotiations were now set on foot with the 
Khaibaris, and it was hoped some amicable 
arrangement would have been entered into, 
when a communication from Dowson informed 
us that they had appeared in considerable 
numbers, and had hoisted a black flag close to 
the tower above the gorge near Lala China. 
Mackeson, fearing that Colonel Wheeler had, 
at his requisition, taken a more circuitous route 
by Choora, and would not therefore be in time 
to succour Dowson, ordered an advance to take 
place the following morning. Accordingly, at 
daybreak we commenced our march, my own 
duty being merely to accompany the troops to 
the entrance of the Pass (the Shadee Bagiar, 
where there is no gun road), as it was thought 
a small sanga which commanded the gorge 
might be in the Khaibaris* possession ; and if 
so, they were to have been dislodged by a few 
shrapnels. Before reaching this defile, a sort 
of council was held to consider whether it 


would be most advisable to trust the baggage 
to the care of the Sikh regiments, or to a small 
party of peasants who lived in the neighbour- 
hood of Peshawr, as the British troops were 
only sufficient to guard the long line of camels 
that carried the ammunition. So meanly was 
the courage of the former thought of that it 
was unanimously resolved to commit it to the 
charge of the villagers ; and this disposition 
having been completed, the column again 
moved on. As we neared the entrance, it 
became evident that the sanga was unoc- 
cupied, and a party under Farmer having 
been pushed forward to secure it, I wished 
them all a successful expedition, and, agree- 
ably to instructions, commenced my return 
march to Peshawr, accompanied by the Ri- 
sallah of Local Cavalry. 

" At 4 p.m. I rejoined the camp at Peshawr, 
and in the course of a day or two we received 
accounts of Prole's detachment, who had safely 
convoyed the ammunition to Ali Masjid. For 
the first three quarters of the distance our 
troops were allowed to pursue their way un- 


molested, but on approaching the heights near 
Lala China (a favourite spot of the Khai- 
baris) they were fired on, and met with con- 
siderable opposition. The majority of the 
officers being in blue surtouts, were very con- 
spicuous amongst the soldiers, and the Afri- 
dis took good care to select them for their 
marks, and with such true aim, that Prole and 
Macmullen fell almost at the same moment, 
both severely wounded in the thigh. A party 
of sappers, under M'Leod, immediately rushed 
up the hills, and gallantly drove the enemy 
from their position ; and the convoy eventually 
arrived at its destination, with the loss of 
several men killed and wounded. Colonel 
Wheeler, with the 48th, having been obliged 
to abandon the Choora route, on account of 
the road being impracticable for guns, reached 
Ali Masjid the next morning, and the follow- 
ing day, after having strengthened the garrison, 
marched from Jamrud by the main Pass. 
Negotiations of an amicable nature having 
been made with the chiefs, it was thought 
there would be no opposition. Still, the 


crowds of Khaibaris that occupied the heights, 
and the known treachery of the tribes, ren- 
dered it necessary to move with caution. The 
Colonel had not advanced very far, when the 
true intentions of the Khaibaris were manifest, 
for they made a desperate attack on the bag- 
gage, and such camels as could not be carried 
off they hamstrung, by which means the loads 
eventually came into their hands.* Colonel 

* The fidelity of the Khaibaris and the safety of the Pass 
itself were attainable only while they could see that we really 
possessed the power of punishing them for any breach of the 
former, and of securing the latter by the presence of our 
own or the Shah's troops, on the system which had been 
adopted in the time of the Mogul emperors. They were 
never to be restrained by the mere force of engagements ; 
Lieutenant Mackeson's presence only led to a partial truce, 
as the promised parwanas had not even yet been issued ; 
and it was not until nearly a month afterwards, when Sir W. 
MacNaghten himself came through the Pass and saw its 
formidable difficulties, that any settlement of terms was 
made with them, which they broke no less than three times 
afterwards : in the first place on account of some dispute 
among themselves regarding a fair distribution of the allow- 
ance settled on them ; secondly, from some complaint of a 
real or imaginary grievance in our conduct to them ; and 
lastly, after the insurrection in November, 1841 — thus 
showing that they were not to be bound by any obligations 
of good faith beyond the scope of their convenience. 


grievances to that officer, whom he considered 
in the light of a brother, and who was a sincere 
friend of his late father ; which put his son on 
his guard, and they were determined that he 
should have no opportunity of communicating 
with him in person. He was now strictly 
watched and kept in a state of arrest, being 
merely a puppet in the hands of his son, and 
surrounded by his creatures, his own old and 
confidential servants being removed from about 

The Maharaja was said to have been bewil- 
dered by the savage and cruel treatment of his 
son. We learnt from good authority that he 
used sometimes to burst into tears, and was 
heard to say that he would never be satisfied 
until he had fully revenged the death of his 
favourite. He also expressed his surprise that 
the British Government should have received 
the Mission of his son without inquiry, and 
encouraged these outrages by its silence. 

The Maharaja once attempted to fly from 
his persecutors to the British frontier, but was 
overtaken and carried back to his house, or 


more properly to his dunge< 
highly mortifying to every 
vernments to see the successor ot so ceic_. 
a ruler as Ranjeet Singh so miserably treated ; 
and that the British Government, which had 
made so many pledges of friendship and pro- 
fessed such a sincere and lasting regard for the 
government of his father, should have remained 
a passive spectator of the bloody deeds of his 
grandson to destroy the rightful authority of his 
own son. What is the world to think of such 
a policy ? # 

Every dread of the displeasure of the British 
Government or its officers being removed, the 
Court of Lahore now became a scene of in- 

* The motive was non-interference ; but its undoubted 
effect was anarchy and confusion, brought about by a 
succession of personal struggles for power, which, having 
caused the extermination, by the assassination of each other 
of the principal actors, destroyed the vital principle of the 
State, and led to an assumption of its authority by a 
mutinous soldiery, productive of a state of disorganization 
in its aifairs, on which we have ultimately justified a 
military interference in them, which a timely exercise of 
our political influence would have averted. 



trigues which I leave others to describe, as there 
are subjects connected with it which I am afraid 
would not be agreeable to some of the parties 
concerned, and perhaps neither safe nor becom- 
ing in me to disclose.* Such was the state of 
affairs at Lahore on our arrival. The town 
looked dull and melancholy, as if its pros- 
perity had died with Ranjeet Singh. The 
ashes of that renowned chief have been depo- 
sited within the walls near the Saman Burj, 
where we took leave of him on our departure 
for Peshawr. A magnificent tomb was being 
built over him, the plan of which was pre- 
sented to Lieutenant-Colonel Wade. 

We halted there one day ; and on the evening 
of the 11th of November, 1839, the Colonel 
proceeded by Dak, or express, to wait on Lord 
Auckland, by his desire, at Karnal, and our 
Sikh escort was dismissed, while the rest of the 
Mission proceeded to Lodianah, which we 
reached on the 19th, and were glad to find 

* An account of the progress of these intrigues, as given 
by the author, is left out. 


ourselves at the end of our journey after an 
absence of exactly one year. On the same 
date an order was published by the Governor- 
General relating to the operations of the army 
across the Indus, of which the following is a 
paragraph : — 

"His Lordship has also much satisfaction 
in adding that the best acknowledgments of 
the Government are due to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wade, who was employed on the Peshawr 
frontier, and who, gallantly supported by the 
officers and men of all ranks under him, and 
seconded by the cordial* aid of the Sikh go- 
vernment, an aid the more honourable because 
rendered at a painful crisis of its affairs, opened 
the Khaibar Pass, and overthrew the authority 
of the enemy in that quarter, at the moment 

* Inasmuch as Ranjeet Singh himself 'personally repre- 
sented the Sikh government, the term is quite applicable, 
but no further, as has been shown in the narrative of the 
expedition ; and to show how long their co-operation 
lasted, their Mahomedan contingent, which would have 
proved of the greatest aid to meet those sudden exigencies 
which occurred, was never efficiently maintained after the 
Mission returned to Lodiana. 


when the advance of the forces of Shah Zada 
Taimur could most conduce to the success of 
the general operations." 

Here my journal ends ; and in bringing it 
to a conclusion, it may be expected that I 
should make some observations on the course 
of policy which led to the events I have related, 
and their disastrous result ; but in so humble 
an individual as myself, anything that might 
be said on that subject can be of little import- 
ance. I cannot however refrain from observing 
that the failure of the scheme was not a 
necessary consequence of its adoption. 

If the intrigues and designs of Russia were 
such as to demand a decisive interference on 
the part of the British Government in the 
affairs of Afghanistan, it is remarkable that the 
means of counteracting them, by the restora- 
tion of Shah Shuja, should not only have 
been pointed out to the Governor- General by 
every authority on the spot, including Sir 
Alexander Burnes and the gentlemen of his 
mission, but that it should have occurred, 
without concert, at the same time to the 


authorities in England ; a coincidence which 
marks a weight of testimony in favour of the 
decision of Lord Auckland, and a concurrence 
of opinion as to the expediency of the measure, 
to which future historians will, I am confident, 
do full justice, when the prejudice of parties 
has subsided ; and which was borne out in an 
extraordinary degree, as my readers will have 
perceived, in the almost unanimous consent 
with which the Afghans hailed the return of 
their lawful sovereign, and deserted Dost 
Mahomed Khan and his brothers. It was not 
until they were deceived in the promises which 
had been held out to them, and they found that 
the Shah was made a puppet in the hands of 
his supporters, that they began to distrust the 
intentions of the English, and set the authority 
of both the one and the other at defiance. 
Even then the Afghans could not but observe, 
that in the determined resolution and bravery 
with which Sir William Nott at Candahar and 
Sir Robert Sale in Jalalabad defended and 
maintained their isolated positions, they had 


to deal with a power over which they would 
never have been able to acquire the fatal 
ascendancy they did at Kabul, if affairs had 
been managed there with equal skill and deter- 


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Letters from the Shores of the Baltic. 

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MAY 119S8 

iflPSf&K** 3 2 
OCT 17 1966 

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