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Full text of "The silk question settled ... Report of the proceedings of the National convention ... held in New York, Oct. 13th and 14th, 1843 .."

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A, KOFOID AND 

MRS. PRUDENCE W, KOFOID 






I" i\, 






• v 



y.ih\ 



(4^ 



•-r'i 



yr '■'''<'■''■: Hit \^ 

THE SILK QUESTION SETTLED. 



THB 



TESTIMONY OF ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY WITNESSES. 



REPOKT 



OF THE 



PBOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION 

'I 



or 



Silk Growers and Silk Mann&cturers, 



HEXiO IN NEW YORK, OCT. VS/tm aud 14th, 1843. 



nJlUSIED UNDER TIE DIIEGTION OF TIE AIESICAN USTITUTEi 



8XCOin> EDITION, WITH ADDITIONS. 



BOSTON: 

FEINTED BY T. R. MARVIN, 
No. S4 CoKQMss Stbut. 

1844. 



' ;•> 






DEDICATED 



TO THE 



FARMERS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



!■ ^' ; . ' ■ ' " '' ' ' ' > ' > ' ' i ■ ' ! . i jyys 



The friends of the Silk Cause acknowledge their indebtedness to the 
Massachusetts Agricultural Society^ and to a few public-spirited individuals 
in Boston and vicinity, for funds to stereotype this Report, that it may be 
sold at low prices, for a general and wide distribution over the country. 
The Report has, therefore, been corrected, some parts abridged, new ^patter 
added, as an Appendix, and an Index of Subjects prepared. In this new 
and greatly-improved form, the publisher presents this edition to the public, 
and will fill orders, with cash accompanying, as follows : — 

60 copies for $ 5.00 

130 " '* : . 10.00 

1000 " « . . . .• 70.00 

Any number less than 60 copies at 10 cents %Lch, if the order comes free 
of expense. 



EEPOET. 






REPOSITORY OF THE AMERICAN 
INSTITUTE. 
New York, Oa. 12, 1843. 
A LARfiE number of gentlemen, inter- 
ested in the Culture and Manu&cture of 
Silk in this country, assembled this day, 
at half past 10 o'clock, A. At, by virtue of 
the following Circular Letter, issued by 
the Trustees of the American Institute : — 

SILK CIRCULAR. 

American Institute, ) 
New York, August 28, 1843. ) 

Sir; The American Institute of the 
City of New York, a State institution for 

eromoting Agriculture and tlie Arts in the 
uited States, is desirous, for beneficial 
public purposes, of obtaining information 
respecting the progress and condition of 
the culture and manufacture of Silk, and 
the growth, quality, &c., of the Mulberry 
in t^ United States. For tliis purpose 
we have invited a General Convention of 
Silk-Groteers and Manufadtarersj from all 
parts of the United States, to nneetin New 
York on the 12th and 13th of October 
next, during the sixteenth Annual Fair 
of tlie Institute. A conspicuous place 
will be provided for a full display of 
American silks, and extraordinary efforts 
made to procure such a display. The 
statistical returns of increasing quantities 
the last few years, together with very fa- 
vorable results in f^erling, the present sea- 
son, bring ns inevitably to the conclusion 
that this precious commodity is destined 
soon to rank with cotton and wool, in its 
importance as «n American staple. For 
the purpose of accurately ascertaining 
the present condition and &e future pros- 
pects of this branch of domestic industi% 
every silk-culturist and manufacturer in 
the Union is invited to attend, and bring 
their best specimens, with all the correct 
data at their command; fnnn which a 
Report will be compiled, and distributed 



through the country, that will, we trusty 
forever settle the question in favor of the 
cultivation of silk in the United States. 
We call upon all silk-culturists and man* 
ufacturers to aid in this laudable object 

In the erowth of silk we have an arti- 
cle providentially adapted to all our varied 
soils and latitudes, well calculated to 
counteract sectionsJ selfishness, and to 
produce^ a harmonious moral influence ; 
and the vent for it in the markets of the 
world will exceed our ability to produce 
for centuries to come. Let us, if the silk 
culture and manufacture are feasible, and 
can be made to remunerate, advance at 
once to the point required. And how 
can this be better ascertained than by a 
collection of facts, by means of the com- 
ing exhibition and convention ? 

We are bB|Mpy to know that the New 
England Silk Convention is appointed to 
meet at Northampton, Massachusetts, Oc- 
tober 4th ; and we would respectfully sOg- 
gest to the friends of this cause in Ohio, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and other States, 
that they hold cotmhf and other load con- 
ventions, at the same time, or previously ; 
and collect all the facts possible, and for- 
ward them, to be imbodied in the General 
Report, 

We earnestly urge, that every Silk- 
Grower and Manufacturer furnish a writ- 
ten statement, as desired. If you cannot 
attend the Convention, send by mail. Do 
not decline because your operations are 
STnaUy or because you may not be. accus- 
tomed to writing; STnall expaiTnents, as 
weU as large ones, rightly conducted, settle 
general principles ; and any errors in writ- 
ing, which we may discover, the Con- 
vention will correct ; only give the facts. 

To aid our correspondents, we present 
two series of questions to be answered. 
If you are a Silk-Grower, we ask as fol- 
lows: — 

1. How long have you fed worms, and 
what have been the gwerml rssvMs eaelt 
year? 



1^375333 



BEPORT. 



. What kind of a building do yoa ase, 
and how is the temperatuie related, if reg- 
ulated at all ? 

3. Have you ever fed in an open shed or 
ieiUf If to, lUte the resulu. 

4. What variety of silk-worm do you pre- 
fer? 

5. What kind of trees do you use, and how 
do you manage them P 

0. Have you tested, and found any differ- 
ence between, early and late feeding ? 

7. Can you state the cause or causes of 
bad success in feeding, in any case or cases, 
among your acquaintances engaged in the 
business ? 

8. Have jou tested the use of the mul- 
berry leaf, m its green or dr^ state, for pa- 
per ? If not, will you do it this season, and 
eoramunicate to us the results ? 

9. Haiw you tried any process, by water- 
or dew-rotting, to separate the bark of the 
young mulberry-shoots from the woody fibres, 
so as to convert it into paper or silk fabrics ? 
If not, will you do it the present season, and 
communicate as above ? 

10. Any other information, on any part of 
the silk-culture, or any suggestions on the 
general subject, will be thankfully received. 

If you are a Manufhcturer, please an- 
swer as follows : — 

1. How long have you been engaged in 
manufacturing silk ? 

2. What varieties of silk goods do you 
manufacture ^ 

3. What amount of raw silk do you work 
up annually ? 

4. What amount of capital have you in- 
Tested in the business ? 

6. What number of hands — male, female, 
and children — do you employ ? 

6. As a manufacturer, what is your opin- 
ion in regard to the quality of American raw 
•ilk, properly reeled, compared with the for- 
eign article.' 

7. As a manufacturer, what is your opin- 
ion as to the comparative Quality of the silk 
made from the different Kinds of trees in 
common use — the Multicaulis, Cantons, 
Asiatics, Brooeas, Alpines, Italian Whites, 
and the native American Mulberry ? 

8. In the present tariff on silks, are any 
modifications needed in order to make it an- 
swer the designs contemplated in establish- 
ing it ? 

9. What are your views in regard to the 
whole silk business as a permanent branch 
of American industry.' Is the enterprise 
feasible ? 

In coDclusioD, we earnestly press this 
whole subject upon your attention. Come* 
to the Convention. At least, send us spe- 
cimens of your labors, and the FACTS 
which we ask. To every person who wil 1 
give a written statement, as desired, and 
to every editor who will publish thi.s Cir- 
cular, sending us a paper containing it. 



we will send a copy of the eontmnpteled 
Report 

By order, 

Jamss Tallmadgk, President. 

Adomiram Chandler,^ 

William Inolis, > Viee-Presid*ts, 

SHZPHsaD Knap, ) 

T. B. Wakeman, Corresponding See'y. 

G. J. Leeds, Recording Sec'y. 

£. T. Backhouse, Treasurer, 



N 
H 



In pursuance of this call, a highly re- 
spectable Convention assembled. Dr. 
Daniel Stebbins, of Northampton, 
Mass., was called to the Chair, and James 
HARRisoif, Esq«, of New Haven, ConOi^r 
appointed Secretary, and the following 
Roll of Delegates made out : — 

Charles Henry Hall, HaHem, JV. F. 
S. Church, BetUem, Conn. 
Charles B. Crafts, Woodbury, Conn, 
Horace Pitkin, Manchester, P. O., ConH. 
Return J. Meigs, Augusta, Geo. 
G. W. Murray, Paterson, JV. J. 
Timothy Smith, Amherst, Mass. 
Oliver Pierce, Elizabethtown, JV. J. 
Oliver Mitchell, South Britain, Conn. 
Robert Wentworth, Centre Buxton, Mains. 
James A. Stetson, Jiorthampton, Mass. 
Joseph Conant, Northampton, Mass. 
Enhraim Montague, BtlcherUnon, Mass. 
William Robert Prince, Flushing, L. L 
Jacob Pratt, Sherbunu, Mass. 
J. Danforth, JVeir York. 
Holly Bell, Darien, Conn. 
Aaron Dean, Stamford, Conn. 
James C. Church, Poughkeepsie, JV. Y. 
Benjamin W. North, Poughkeepsie, JV. Y. 
Fr. Ehrenfels, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dr. Daniel Stebbins, Jforthampton, Mass, 
James Harrison, Jfew Hacen, Conn. 
I. R. Barbour, Oxford, Mass. 
Gren. James Tallmadge, JVeis York. 
Henry Meigs, JVeto York. 
Gideon B. Smith, Baltimore, Md. 
Thaddeos B. Wakeman, JVew York. 
J. R. Walter, JVew York. 
Edward Clark, JVew York. 
John O. Choules, J{ew York. 

F. Trowbridge, Flushing, L. J. 
C. Colt, Jr. Dedham, Mass. 
Samuel M. McKay, Jfew York. 
A. P. Waite, Troy, Jfew York. 
£. Cornell, Ithaea, Jfew York. 

Nathan Rixford, Mansfield Centre^ Cotm, 
J. Dimock, . ** ** ** 

Hugh Maxwell, Rockland Co,, JV. Y. 
Comelio D. Sebring, JVeto York. 
Alfred S. Prince, Flushing, L. I. 
Dr. Smith Cutter, Shrewsbury, Jf, J. 
L. Provost, Jforth Hempstead, L. I. 
S. F. Norton, Jfew York. 
Thomas Dale, MansfiM, Conn. 
John Denmead, JVeio York. 

G. M. Haywood, " »» 
Edward F. Woodwaid, JVsto York. 

P. D. Mandeker, Schmutmdy Co.,Jf. Y. 



EBPOBT. 



N. J. Cb«eh, MikiMk, OrMfs C^., A*. F. 

George Bacon, JVeio York. 

Cornelma Bergen, JW;to Utrecht^ L. /. 

George Sullivan, JV*«i0 KorA. 

H. Lockwood, " " 

Samuel Stephens, ^ <* 

G. C. De Kav, " " 

John W. GUI, Mt. PUatani, Jejferton Co.^ O. 

Ab. Clark, Ntm York, 

Messrs. Meigs, Bmitb, and Barbour were 
appointed as a nominating committee, to 
present a list of officers for the permanent 
organization of the Convention. 

On motion of a member, convenient 
fioats were provided at the table for re- 
porters of the public press. And the re- 
porters of the Tribune, Express, Herald, 
cusd Commercial Advertiser, availed them- 
selves o£ the courtesy. 

The nominating committee reported as 
follows : — 

For President — Gen. James Tall- 
MADOE, of New York. 

For Vice-Presidents — John W. Gill, 
Esq., of Ohio ; Dr. D. Stebbins, Massa- 
chusetts; H. Pitkin, Esq., Connecticut; 
G. W. Murray, Esq., New Jersey. 

For Secretaries — ^James Harrison, Esq., 
of Connecticut ; Jacob C. Parsons, New 
Yoi*. 

The feltovnng gentlemen were appoint- 
ed the Business Committee of the Con- 
vention : Messr& Barbour, of Massachu- 
setts, Smith, of Maryland, Gill, of Ohio, 
Conant, <^ Massachusetts, and Danforth, 
of New York. 

GsmsiLAi. Tajxmados ^upon the elec- 
tibn of the above officers) took the chair, 
and made some very interesting remarks. 

This, said he, is the first National Silk Con- 
vention ever called in this country, and its 
lArjeet was to take into consideration the ex- 
pediency, as wen as the possibility, of mak- 
ing silk one of the staples of the country; to 
ascertain whether its culture be or be not 
congenial to the soil, and then to advise those 
engaged in the -matter to go on with it; if 
no^ to cease their labors. And, in these 
ways, the Convention, in hb opinion, would 
be able to do a great deal of good. 

Gen. T. then went on to express the opin- 
ion that, not only in one part, but in all pkrts 
of the United States, the climate and the soil 
of the country were most admirably adapted 
to the caltuie of the silk-worm. And he de- 
scribed the climates of England and the Uni- 
ted States, in contrast, as adapted to this cul- 
ture, and showed to what dt^rent uses the 
mulberry was put in the two countries. This 
fruit, in England, grew to a large size, as 
lar^ as a shell-bark, and was a rich, luscious 
fruit for the table. It never, grew to such 
luxuriance here ; the climate was less favor- 
abte to the raising of the fruit ; but, from the 



eau iwi, nuat &ToitUe to th» oaHow 

of thesilk-i 



The speaker gave a very interartiiiff ikitiM 
of the mode of raising the worms, — Sat way 
in which the process of hatching goes oa» 
He explained the mode, adopted byaome, of 
hatching on paper, by Uie aid of the warmth 
of manure, or by contact with the bodv, Ae. 
He alluded to the statements, in the bookfli 
as to the way in which the process of hateli- 
ing goes on all over the world. It wouki 
seem that every where, excepting in this 
country, artificial means are uniformly m» 
sorted to. in this country we need no took 
means. All that is needed is the enterprise 
and industry of the people of the ooontry to 
bring silk into the list of American staple*. 
The end and aim of this Convention, tilt 
speaker insisted ^ are of a kind which ought 
to recommend it to the favor of all Araeriean 
citizens. Instead of sending money out of 
the country, and for the purchase of what we 
can so easily make ourselves, and then si^ 
ting down, wondering where our circulatiiig 
medium has gone, the general would adviM 
his countrymen to enter into this enterprise 
with vigor, to go to work like patriots, and 
to improve the advantages which God and 
nature had put into their hands for the pr^ 
duetion of a new stajjde, and one that, it was 
fully demonstrable, must i^ventnally turn out 
a rich source of national wealth. 

The Business Committee then preset* 
ed a great number of letters from persons 
engaged in the silk business, from a large 
majority of the States in the Union, con- 
taining instructive and valuable fiicts^ 
based on the experience and observation 
of the writers in the prosecution of the 
work. 

A communication from the New Eng* 
land Convention, recently held at North* 
ampton, in Massachusetts, was also read 
by the first Vice-President, and was or- 
dered to go upon the files, and to be pub- 
lished with the doings of this body, and 
is as follows : — 

The seeond Annual Meeting of the New 
England Silk Convention, convened at 
Northampton, October 4, 1843. 

The Convention was duly orffaniied b^ 
choosing the ofiicers designated by a nomL 
nating committee. Hon. Edward Dickin- 
son, of Amherst, Mass., was elected Presi- 
dent; Dr. Daniel Stebbins, of North- 
ampton, and Rev. Joseph Field, of Charle- 
mont, Vice-Presidents ; Henry Kirkland, W. 
A. Hawley, and A. W. Thayer, of North- 
ampton, Secretaries; Dr. Daniel Stebbins, 
Treasurer. 

The letters which had been received fnm 
persons residing in widely-distant parts of 
New England, and beyond the limits of New 
England, all express one opinion in regard 
to uie importance and fisasioility of the silk 
culture. These letters were numerous and 



in^ full confidence in the nystem oiiorly and 
kmtm fudmgy ind the most firm conviction 
wat the B& cause will be crowned with 
complete success. 

: Sttvenl gentlemen addressed the meeting'^ 
detailing their own experience since our last 
maetrng, and fiilly sustained the hading op- 
mratians of the year*--^0ra and ecurly feeding. 
-. Dr. Daniel Stebbins, Samuel Wells, and 
A. W. Thayer, having been appointed to 
preseat resolutionB for the consideration of 
tiK Conyention, made the foUowinj^ report, 
which was read, discussed, and unanimously 
tdopted:-^ 

'. ' 1,. Retolvedy That the general and widely- 
MBtended distribution of the last year's Re- 
port has awakened an interest in favor of 
the silk canse exceeding our most sanguine 
expectations. 

2. Resoleed^ That this Convention highly 
appreciate the fiLvorable notice which the 
Ameriain institute has taken of the silk 
e«nse,and that we rega^ the efforts they are 
BOW using as signalP^ auspicious of happy 
lestths. 

' 3. JRttolvedj That, in view of the experi* 
inents already made, w« feel assured that our 
■oil and climate will produce silk in abun- 
dance, of the very best quality, and equal to 
iay imported ; and that the United States 
have all the facilities for becoming a great 
•ilk-growing country. 

> : 4, Resolved, That the people of this ootm- 
ftnr caxK raise and manufacture all their own 
^ilks as easily as their own cottons and wool- 
lens, and as rapidly as mulberry-trees can be 
multiplied. 

' 5. Resolved^ That, with a view to encour- 
a:ge the culture of silk more extensively, a 
kvasonable State bounty on cocoons and 
reeled silk is desirable. We therefore rec* 
ominend that nleaimres be adopted to procure 
the pafMMfe of laws for that purpose, m those 
Blates Whepe such laws do not already exist. 

6. Rf0olv94, That this Convention appoint 
dele^rates to attend the National Silk Con- 
vention, to be holden in the city of New 
York, on the 12th and 13th days of this 
month, and present to the trustees of the 
Aioerioan Institute the returns which have 
been received by this body, from silk-grow- 
ers, to be at their disposal ; and also to repre- 
sent our views and melings on the silk sub- 
JecL 

7. R$8olvedy That the silk-growing enter- 
prise i$ deserving the patronage of every 
State in the Union, and that the cause would 
be essentially promoted by the formation of 
3tate and County Silk Associations through- 
out the Union. 

. 8. J2sse/e642, That the next annual meeting 
of this Convention be held at Northampton, 
Maes., on the first Wednesday of October, 
1«44. 

The following persons were appointed del- 
egates id the National Silk Convention, pur- 
Mant to the sixth resolution : — 

I. R. Barbour, O^erd, JMocs. 

JHtuel Stebbins, Jforthampitmf JMfW9. 



. Joseph Comat, J^miUmfiont Mtm* . 

J. A. Stetson, " « 

Ephraim Monta^rue, BeUhertawn^ Mds9» . 
Timothy Smith, JhrUurat^ Mobm. 
Leonard Martin, GUI, Mats. 

D. W. Dexter, Claremoni, JV. H, 

E. M. HoUister, BratHtboro\ Vi. 
Horace Pitkin, Mameksster, Ot. 
James Harrison, JVeto HavsH^ Ct. 

Adjourned, sine die. 

Joseph Fiklo, Vice-President 
Harvey Kirkland, ^ 
A. Thayer, > Secretaries. 

W. A. Hawley, J 

The Business Committee proposed to 
introduce a series of resolutions in the 
afternoon session. 

Gen. Tallmadge, the President, in the 
name of the Institute, invited the Conven- 
tion to visit the Fair, and inspect the spe- 
cimens of silk, and silk goods, which 
were there ; with all the other numerous 
and varied exhibitions of American skill 
and genius. 

The Convention then adjourned until 
four o'clock, P. M., and went in a body to 
Niblo's, in pursuance of the invitation of 
the American Institute. 

ArTEiuvooir Seshon* 

Gen. Tallmadge, the President, dklled 
^e Convention to order at the hour ap- 
pointed, (four o'clock.) 

Judge Meigs, of New York, presented 
a paper on the silk business in FVance, 
which was ordered to be printed with the 
minutes ; and is as follows : -* 

^ I have noticed the late movements in 
France on the silk culture. ' . 

In 1836 La SocUU Siri€ole (Silk Culture 
Society) was founded. At the General As- 
sembly in December, 1840, reports were 
made on the progress of silk industry. 

It appeared that ladies had assumed im? 
portant stations in the new enterprise., 

Madcmoiseile PeUzer was at Uie head of 
one of the most imnortant societies, that of 
Lavaur. That Maaame Delaforest had made 
one of the most valuable experiments. She 
had prpduced 30 lbs. of silk for 300 lbs. of 
cocoons. (We have, in this country, done 
more than that. H. M.) Linch de Latour 
had founded a cocoonery for 200 ounces of 

Eugene Robert was decorated with the 
Legion of Honor for his silk works ! 

FraiM^e has discovered that the worms 
must be fed on leaves from the first bud to 
the old leaf. Young worms do not prosper on 
old leaves, nor vice I7«r«d. France has. dis« 
covered that ventUadan is a sine qudnonf 
that Multicaulis is best A general ardof 
in the pursuit of the silk business is felt in 
France. 

Medals are given to cultivators, &c. 

Emile Bewvais raised 72 lbs. of cosoon^ 
from 1000 lbs of leaves. 



RfiPOBfE 



for seal and taate in silk woru. 

H. MEIGS, 
Mtmhtr ef tk* AmarieiBn, Jiutit»U§. 
OeL mk^ ld43." 

Mr. Barbotir, of the BiisiDess Commit- 
tee, reported from that committee a se- 
lies of resolutions. 

Id the discussions which followed, many 
members made remarks upon the feasi 
bility of the silk business. It was not, as 
had been alleged, «all moonshine.** The 
President made a lew remarks in favor 
of an amendment offered by himself, to 
the effect that the disrepute and distrust 
into which the business fell, some three 
or four years ago, was the work of brokers 
and speculators, who had engaged in the 
purchase and sale of mulbeny- trees, cut- 
tings, &c, with no intention of growing 
or manuificturing. 

A debate also arose in reference to the 
fiujt that, under one clause of the Tariff 
Act, frauds had been committed. The 
committee were instructed to report on 
this subject to-morrow. Convention ad- 
journed until to-morrow, at 10, A. M. 

Etenino. 

The Saloon in the Garden, in the even- 
ins, was thronged with visitors ; and, at 
hcuf-past seven, agreeablv to previous ar- 
mngement. General Tullmadge intro- 
duced the weaker of the evening, Mr. 
Barbour, of Massachusetts, a practical 
silk-grower. 

The assemblage were deeply interested 
in the remarks made by the speaker, and 
IrequentW interrupted him with warm 
shouts of applause. 

His speech, as given l)y the city report- 
ers, was substantially as follows: — 

Mr. Barbour said be would address him- 
•elf to the task uBBt^ned hhn, without any 
•polei^ or iiitrodttction. 

The plain Saxon words can and eam'i had 
applieabilit^ to thia subject. The first ques- 
tioB^then, is, Can toe raise silk in tkis eoun- 
tnff He would say that there were the most 
abondant proofii that we can do so. He ad- 
verted to the ftct that, in the early history 
of theeountry, this had been demonstrated. 
The euiture of silk was well known in the 
eoiontes before the Revolution. Georgia, 
Virginia, and Pennsylvania had folly demon- 
strated its foasibility. New England, also, 
had even then done the same ; and far-seeing 
nen of that time, sueh as Dr. Franklin, Dr. 
Stiles, President of Tale College, and others 
lofterested paCriotieaUy in tiie subject, had 
done moeli towards the pfomotion of the 
busittess. 

JVom 1740 to 1790, hundreds of pounds of 
Meellent silk were grown in the Sooth- 
0nL Middle, and New JSngland Stales ; and 
m^ oliitoWB of Mawiald, Cettv.,<h6b«il. 



permanently esWWithed» —d 
has eontinoed to the present day. 

Bat the question very natorallv and very 
properly here comes up, How did it happen 
that it was generally^ abandoned i My an- 
swer is, that the population of theoouoUry 
was sparse ; the Kerolution coming on, o* 
course, broke up the business for tbe.time; 
and the people of the South becan^ supreme- 
ly absorbed in the cotton culture. But the 
onA, the grwt^ the aH-controUing obstacle, was 
the want of a homt cask marktl for coooons 
and raw silk. Such a market was not crea^ 
ted, because the popular sentiment of the 
country was opposed to home manufaictures 
of every kind. The received doctrine of the 
country, even down to 1816, was, that we 
were to be an acrtcukural and a ooouDercial« 
but not a manuiacturing people. 

But the Tariff of IdlbsetUed the policy of 
the country in favor of domestic manufae* 
tures. A new order of things oasae up. The 
cotton business soon became established. 
Then the woollen business, under subsor 
qaent modifications of the tariff, became ear 
tablished. And thus a manufucturinif spirit^ 
as the spirit of the country, was generated. 
We no loneer heard the old story, that agri- 
culture and trade were the only pursuits ber 
fitting our circumstances and our genius^ ai 
a people. 

In this way, the whole silk question, grow- 
ing and mannfiusturing, waa again called up^ 
as a permanent branch of American industry-. 
As early as 1826, Congress began to call 
public attention to the subject; and between 
that date .and 183H, several documents oC 
great value were issued by that body. Sev- 
eral of the States issued similar documents, 
and offered, also, liberal bounties, upon co- 
coons and raw silk. 

But the cause has had peculiar difficulties 
to surmount ; some growing out of the nar 
ture of the business itself, as a new business 
— some out of the prejudices of the ignorant 
— some out of the indiscretions and mistakes 
of its firiends^ still mere out of the opera- 
tions of ui^nncipkd speculators in mulbeiryv 
trees. 

Tet the progress of the business has beeu 
onward, especially for the past two or three 
years. To prove this, he would send the 
auditory to that part of the gardens in which 
the raw mlks and silk manufactures of oujr 
country were exhibited. He would send 
them also to the returns of our Siat^.treasf 
urers, showing the increasing bounties paid 
out from year to year — each year iust about 
doubling on the preceding year. With still 
higher measures of satisfaction, he would rPr 
ferthemto the documents lying .o|» th^ ta- 
bles of the Convention now in session — doc» 
nments detailing the experiments of one to _ 
two hundred men from about all the States 
in this Union ; and showing that, with occar 
sional disasters, hundreds of bushels of e^ 
cellent coooons have been grown the* present 
season upon our own soils, «Ad under our 
own suns and showers. 

Cau w*, then* make silk? .^fa» bf ^ 



fi£FQm 



imUinoay of tht vaat, by the testimony of 
the preaentf the lact b established beyond 
eavii or dispute, that we can raise silk, and 
manufacture it^ too. (Cheers.) 

My second remark, said Mr. B., is that our 
■ilk, ta the state in which the worm leaves it, 
or when properly reeled, is a decidedly supe- 
rior article. 

Dr. Franklin first proclaimed the 8uperic»r 
quality of silk of American growth, and sub- 
sequent experiments have fmly corroborated 
the assertions of that noble man. This fact 
is proved from the high value which well- 
reeled American silk enjoys in the market 
over foreign silk. You have it, also, in the 
testimony of American and foreign silk man- 
ufacturers, as imbodied in the First Report of 
tiie New England Silk Convention. You will 
see the same fiict abundantly attested in the 
returns to this Convention, now lying in 
that pile upon our table, and which will soon 
be given to the public in our Report. 

But what does this fact prove P Why, 
surely, it proves the superiority of the climate 
and soil of our country for tne «ilk culture. 

In open field culture, you cannot get a 
product of first-raU quality, only where soil 
and climate are congenial. Try it in regard 
to all our grains, wheat, com, rice, oats, &c., 
in regard to vegetables, flowers, fruits, and 
grasses ; in fine, in regard to every thing that 
ffrows on the fiice of the earth ; and you will 
find it an immutable law of the physical 
world, that soil and climate determine the 
quality of the product. Where these are un- 
propitious, no measure of science ot skill can 
supply the want. 

In this connection, I remark, also, that the 
climate of our country is essentially the same 
as that of China, in the same parallels of 
latitude — our geographical position is simi- 
lar to that great country — the boundaries 
of our sea and land are like theirs — and our 
pievailing winds in the summer are, like 
theirs, land winds. The dry, waarm atmos- 
phere of that country and this render them 
t»oth eminentljr fitted for this business. In 
£urope, artificial means can only give to the 
eggs the forwardness which the natural at- 
mosphere here gives. Throughout Europe 
the question is. How shall the effgs be 
hatched ? Here it is. How shall they be kept 
back until we are ready for them ? (Cheers.) 
I reier to these general facts to show you 
on what the guanmty of the silk-grower is 
based, in this country. 

My third general remark, said Mr. B., is 
that, under a wise arrangement of impost 
duties, we ean make our own silk goods 
cheaper than we can import them. 

I draw this inference firom the history of 
the past. It has been found to be true in re- 
gard to every thin^ else — cottons, woollens, 
iron, and every thmg to which American in- 
genuity has been directed ; and, pray tell me, 
why not in regard to silk ?• 

But I hear, forever, the old story, the sto- 
ry that we cannot compete with the cheap 
labor of India, and China, and Europe, in the 
iOklMiaiiiets. There, it b said, laberaw ean 



be had for a few oentsa day > and IT is ofVio 
use to try to compete with them. In reply) 
I would say, 1st, that labor is always to oe 
estimatedj not by what^ it costs, but by what ii 
can be made to produce ; and 2d, that the 
cheap labor of China and India is just as 
available for the cotton business, ana other 
branches of industry, as for the silk business ; 
and if we can compete with them in cotton^ 
&Ai.y why not in silk ? 

Can we not compete with that cheap la« 
bor P It is already done. Under the foster* 
ing care of our own government, in the in- 
fancy of our manufactures, we have already 
done it, and done it triumphantly. What a 
triumph has America achieved! Do we 
want proofs P Go, move within the small 
space protected by this sheltering roof, and 
there examine for yourselves the product of 
the loom, the forge, the workshop, and the 
bench. (Cheers.) My heart swells while 1 
point you to those noble efforts of our . com* 
mon countrymen. I was bom, sir, under the 
morning shadows of the Green Mountajns : 
but I am an American ; and never did I feel 
the proud boast of an American citizen as at 
this moment, while I point my fellow-cili* 
zens to these visible demonstrations of the 
onward progress of our glorious republic. 
(Loud and continued cheers.) Yes, those 
cheers delight my New England heart. 1 
glory in the enthusiasm which bursts around 
me to-night, and ascribe its sincerity to the 
great topic of the day — our couwtrIt^s 01.0- 
Rious ELEVATION ! (Loud cries, cheersi and 
shouts of, Go on. New England, go on.) In 
my recollection, our countrywomen had to 
pay from 25 to 40 cents per yard for coarse 
sleezy cottons, which now you coul4. not 
palm on them even as a gift. No, they would 
rather consign them to the paper mill, aad 
go to the shops and buy an article worth 
something. (Loud cheers.) 

How has all this change been brought 
about P American skill, and enterprise, and 
perseverance, have done it — have driven 
these sleeay hum hums of olden times and 
foreign lands from our markets, and supplied 
a better article, at one fourth the expense^ 
And not only tiiis ; we are now shipping to 
India and China cotton goods to supply their 
markets ; carrying our cottons right home-to 
the very birthplace of the cotton culture 
and the cotton business, all their cheap labea 
to the contrary notwithstanding. To other 
countries, beyond the ocean, we are shipping 
goods. In England, France, China, and in 
Asia, the products of our looms and our shops 
are found. (Yes, and our dairies, too;) True, 
the cheese of New England is found on tha 
table of the old Enghsh squire; but this ia 
not the time to dweU en such matters. Hafa 
we overcome the alleged difficulties, in re* 
ffard to our iron, and cott<N:i, and trooUeas ? 
We have, and ean now add to them the euU 
ture of silk. For this business we haye ei^ 
ery focility. Our sail is VQ>gm, our sky is 
blue, and our people are Prot^tant. (LaaA 
cheers.) Labor is valuable, ai bslbia istsAs^ 
not from whatit coals, bat fiom what iivivf 



REPORT: 



duces. Oar countrymen are' intelligent, 
thinking, working people ; and who are our 
competitors? Go to European and Asiatic 
countries for jour answer. A free Protes- 
tant community will ever be an active, im- 
provingr, elevating community. England 
may compete with us in the manufacture of 
silk, but she can never ffrow a pound. We ! 
We! are the only free i*ro<cj^a7if nation on 
the face of the globe, which can be at the 
same time a silk-growing, and a silk-manu- 
facturing people. 1 refer here to our nation- 
al Protestantism, merely as one of the essen- 
tial elements of our national enterprise, with- 
tfut goiRs at all into any theological discus- 
sions. (Loud cheers.) But I find I have 
gone beyond my allotted time. (No, no ! go 
'on, go on !) 

I nave one or two observations, and then 
i have finished. The silk business has had 
much more to contend with than is general- 
ly imagined. We require the growtE of the 
foliage, and it takes two or three years to 
bring this to perfection. Silk culture re- 
■emSles fruit-growing — we must plant the 
tree, and await its budding time. It was a 
difierent case from that of corn, and grain, 
and so on. It was a gradual business, and 
required patience, and the fostering care of 
the States and Nation. It was recollected 
that the first implantation of the silk culture 
in Italy, France, &c., took longer than it 
had done here. And so had there been ad- 
ventitious difficulties in the way — the over- 
zeal of friends in pressing the enterprise too 
rapidly, and without reflection and judg- 
ment. These things had, however, he was 
happy to say, been all met and essentially 
overcome. The friends of this cause now 
breathed more freely. (Applause.) Public 
opinion, instead of opposing it, was fast set- 
tmg in its favor. No longer were " Multi- 
camts speculations " the tneme of general 
ridicule, (a laugh,^ and the newspapers no 
longer amused themselves with cracking 
their jokes at our Utopian schemes. All oiu* 
i^pricultural papers in the country treated it 
with approval; and, indeed, the Press, gener- 
ally, were either in favor of it, or were fair, 
and open to the consideration of its merits. 

The speaker (who was listened to with 
sreat interest throughout) then adverted to 
die fkct which American silk-growers had 
fully demonstrated — that aLI that was es- 
sential to produce the article in perfection 
was, the simplest kind of shelter for the 
worms, the open shed, or tent, and the pure, 
free, unadulterated air of heaven. 

Mr. B. then alluded to the great number 
of letters, corroborating these statements, 
which the Convention had received from all 
parts of the country ; and named them in 
the following order: Arkansas, Mississippi, 
North Carolina, Maryland, " The Far West,'' 
Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, and Maine. Tes, — '* down-east." 
with all its chilling breesBes, can grow silk, 



said he: I have here the fullest and most 
satisfactory documentary evidence to prove 
it. I do not mean to sav that Maine can 
compete with the Middle and Southern 
States in the culture of the article. He 
would make no such comparisons ; but this 
he would say, silk could be successfully cul- 
tivated any where. East, West, North, or 
South, wherever corn could be cultivated ! — 
(Protracted applause.) 

Mr. B. then expressed the thanks of the 
Convention to the American Institute for 
the vigorous measures thev had adopted to 
promote the interests of the silk business ', 
and expressed the hope, that the silk speci- 
mens, in the horticultural room, would be 
carefully examined bv all. He then adverted 
(in a strain of quiet humor) to the fact, that 
he wore a velvet vest and cravat, grown 
and manufactured among the green stumps 
of Ohio ; that he should be happy to tell his 
audience something about them, only his 
good mother always taught htm never to 
talk about his own clothes — especially when 
he happened to have something rather nice, " 

— rather above the common run of things. 
(Lauorhter and cheers.) But if his audience 
would come and shake hands with him, he 
should be very happy to show them his 
jacket ! (Roars of laughter, and cries of 
go on !) He then bespoke the kind regards 
of the auditory for the cause of silk culture, 

— an enterprise that was yet, in his opinion, 
to feed and clothe, and educate Unborn mil- 
lions in this land. A word before we part. 
Here I present to your inspection a manu- 
script copy of a work on silk, written by the ' 
pen of tnat good man, Dr. Stiles, of Yale • 
College. It IS a full, detailed accoimt of the V 
culture of silk from 1763 to 1790, during ^^ 
which interval he was zealously engaged in 
philosophical experiments in feeding the silk- 
worm. All the great facts which ue doctor 
here records are now found to be true ; for 
the same sun shines, and the same winds 
blow. The volume is prepared with the ut- 
most care, and belongs, as a bequest, to the 
Library of Tale College. It is exactly in 
the state in which the worthy doctor left it, 
bound with the very string which his own 
hands had tied, and surrounded with all the 
veneration with which respect for the hon- 
ored dead can invest it. Here it is, (holding 
up an old, thick, marble-covered volume, of 
letter-paper size, bound with a great silk 
cord) — a relic of days gone by. The au- 
dience evinced their respect in a general, 
but suppressed buzz of welcome greeting. 
My friends, I would pass it round, but it has 
been left in my charge, with sacred orders 

to preserve it safe and sound, and I cannot 
run any risks with a volume so precious; 
but if any of you desire to see it, come to 
my rooms, and there you shall have a fuH 
and sufficient examination of its contents. 
(Cheers, amid which the si>eaker took his 
seat, the applause continuing for seTeral 
minutes.) 

B 



p 



MVOXX 



ScconD Day, OeMer 13A. 

The Convention was called to order 
this morning at 11 o'clock, when the 
minutes were read and accepted.* Gen- 
eral Tatlmadge, the President of the Con- 
vention, in the Chair. The unfinished 
business of yesterday, being the adop- 
tion or rejection of the resolutions, was 
brought forward for action, but before 
they were all disposed ofj the Convention 
odjourned, and proceeded to Niblo's, to 
hear the address of Dr. Smith, of Balti- 
more, befoi-e tlie American Institute. 

The Bands of the North Carolina and 
of Governor's Island were in attendance, 
and played seveml national and select 
pieces, alternately, through the day. The 
Managers, together with the members of 
the Silk Convention, took their seats in 
the centre of the gallery, and the Presi- 
dent announced the speaker, introducing 
him as Dr. Smith, of Baltimore ; a sound, 

Eractical, working member, who read from 
is notes the following quaint, lucid, and 
interesting address on silk culture, which 
was received with repeated bursts of ap- 
plause on the part of the audience. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : I comply most 
cheerfully with the ^request of some over- 
partial iriends, in offering a few remarks on 
the very interesting subject that has called 
us this day together. Entirely unaccustomed 
to public speaking, I shall need, and feel as- 
sured I shall receive, the indulgence of this 
respectable audience for the many imperfec- 
tions I may exhibit. For seventeen years 
1 have watched, with intense interest, the 
progress of the cause we are now endeavoring 
to Hdvance. At the commencement of the 
term, the silk-worm was kept at a public ex- 
hibition at tlie place of my residence, as an 
object of curiosity, and excited great interest. 
I saw the five hundred worms of that exhi- 
bition increased, in the progress of years, to 
probably a hundred millions. I saw them 
leave the tables of the exhibition room for 
the shelves and hurdles of the numerous 
cocooneries of our country ; and I rejoiced 
in the increase and the change, because I 
saw in them the filaments of Uxe fabric that 
should one day form the banner of our 
country's independence. During that long 
interval of time, I have seen nothing that 
discouraged the idea that this country might 
become a silk-producing nation; on the con- 
trary, every circumstance that has come 
under my notice, has tended more and more 
to the conviction, that we are better qualified 
for this business than anv other people on 
earth. There is no natural qualification that 
we do not possess in a superior degree to any 
olh^r pt^ople; and who shall sav that the 
Americans are inferior to any others in in- 
dustry, ingenuity, energy, and jierseverance f 
Our snil and climate are admirably adapted 



to the growth of the mulbenr-txee, m hw 
been abundantly proyed by the late mulberry- 
tree excitement — there not being a single 
county, that has been settled by inhabitants, 
where the mulberry -tree may not now be 
found growing, and bearing testimony, l^ its 
thrifliness ana vigor, to the congeniality of 
our soil and climate to its nature. Durii^ 
the years 1838, '39, and '40, great numbers of 
trees were imported from France and Italy, 
and I had frequent opportunities for compar- 
ing them with those grown in various parts 
of our own country. The result wa«, that, 
upon a fair average, trees raised in this 
country, of one year's growth, were equal in 
size and productiveness to those of Europe, 
of tliree years' growth. And as to the silk- 
worm, I know there is no other climate in 
which it is more healtky, or where it thrives 
more vigorously. It is true we have met 
with many disasters from the diseases inci- 
dent to silk -worms; but in what country- 
do these disasters not happen ? The public 
statistics of Burope report that an average 
of one half of all the silk-worms that are 
hatched there, perish from disease. We have 
no such statistics from China) but I have no 
doubt they sufi«r equally there. I hazard 
little in saying that we do not suffer to this 
extent, liut the ingenuity of our country, 
men, aided by Uie liffhts obtained from other 
countries, will Booul)e able to furnish pre 
ventives, and we may encourage ourselves 
with the prospect of an entire removal of 
this evil. Already have we made improve* 
ments in this branch of the silk culture 
greater than had been made in Europe in 
fifty years previously. The system of open 
air feeding, that has been so well alluded to 
in this puuce, will accomplish much in this 
respect, if not entirely obviate the difficulty. 
Let us persevere, then, for we have every 
thing to encourage us ; and, I am almost 
ready to say, nothmg to fear. I have almost 
said, we have nothing to fear ; and we have 
not, except it be a singular feeling among 
fashionable people, which seems to preier 
any thing of foreign origin to American pro- 
ductions. Will it be credited that we have 
large quantities of American-made goods, 
in all our retail shops, which the retailers 
dare not call American .' Will it be credited 
that we have a large establishment that mat»> 
ufactures immense quantities of silk and 
worsted vestings, employing some fifteen or 
twenty Jacquard looms, and workiaff up 
large quantities of domestic silk? and yet 
they dare not let it be known that their 
goods are manufactured in this country! 
They even declined allowing me to exhibit 
specimens here on that account. We must, 
therefore, try to do away this feeling of fbr- 
eignism, and to excite a contrary feeling -*• 
we must try to make our people feel proud 
of American goods. And may we not hope 
to enlist the feelings of our fair sisters in this 
cause? They did not fail us when the 
troubles of the times tried men's souls — 
they will not fail us now. It is estimated 
that we coasnine, on an average, twehra 



UPORT. 



11 



mOUoh^ of dollm* worth of tilk ammally. 
For this we ha,we to pay in ipeoie, or its 
eqaJTalent. It there any adept in figures 
present, who can tell us what effect the 
•aying of this amount of specie annually will 
have upon the circulating medium, the ex- 
changes, the wealth, and welfare of our 
country in twenty years? I am one of 
those who zo for our country, our whole 
country, and nothmff but our country, on all 
•nch questions as this. I wish to see our 
own land produce every tbiaff that our pe<^ 
pie consume ; and I should oe glad to see 
our country so productive, that the wan and 
commotions of the world would not be able 
to affect us. I want to see our country in 
such a situation, that if a wall were built 
around it, " sky-hij^h, sir," we should not 
suffer privation of a single necessary, or 
comfort, or even luxury, of life. And that 
would be, truly, independence. It has been 
aaid,.if wetake nothing from other countries, 
other countries will toke nothing from us. 
in reply to this, 1 would remark, that other 
countries will, at all events, take nothing 
ftom us that they can do without — that they 
can make or produce themselves. They, at 
least, always uve acted upon this principle ; 
it is natunu they should do so, and it is high 
time that we do the same. It is a good 
maxim ibr any people, individually and col- 
lectively, to buy only that which they can- 
not themselves produce. The profits of the 
culture c^ silk are, at least, remunerations. 
He who enters upon this business with the 
expectation of realizing five hundred to 
fifteen hundred dollars fi>r every acre of 
grr0ttnd planted in mulberry-trees, and with 
ue supposition that he even occupy as many 
acres as he pleases in this way, and with this 
profit, will certainly be disappointed. But 
ne who shall commence it with a moderate 
portion of common sense, enlightened by 
|vroper information, exercisin|r due economy, 
moderate skill, and an ordmary degree of 
American perseverance, with the expectation 
of a good living profit, will be sure to suc- 
ceed to his entire satisfiiction. I am in- 
cUned to the belief that the culture of silk 
should be made one of the objects of atten- 
tion of every farmer's family, as is the pro- 
duction of butter, and other articles of domes- 
tie produce. Let every family rear twenty 
to nfly thousand silk-worms, more or less, 
•o their situation and arrangements justify. 
Let them reel the cocoons, make what sew- 
ing-silk, mits, and hosiery they may require, 
out of the produce, and sell the nicely-reeled 
and prepared overplus raw silk to the mer- 
chant or manufacturer. Is not the immense 
amount of butter consumed in the United 
States, produced in this way f Are not 
many otner articles, of imftiense magnitude 
in the aggregate, all accumulated from the 
collection together of small parcels, produced 
in this small way ? Despise not, tnerefore, 
these small things; but remember, that as 
mountains are composed of ultimate atoms, 
•o small as to be almost unappreciable, so 
ii til* a^giegite of the wealth of a peo- 



ple. What though we have exported to f^ 
eign countries forty-seven millions of dollars' 
worth of cotton during the year ending 'SOth 
of September, 184?; has not this mass of 
wealtn been collected together from the 
myriads of small bolls in which it grew, 
each in itself not worth intrinsically the tithe 
of the tenth of a cent ? And what though 
the silk-worm, individually, produces but 
a small filament of itself, and, by itself, al- 
most worthless; does not the comoination of 
these filaments compose the thread that 
forms the fabric that costs us annually 
twelve to twenty millions of hard-earned 
dollars.^ But 1 am by no means ready to 
admit that the silk culture can only be car- 
ried on profitably by farmers' families in a 
small way. When judiciously pursued, with 
such information, skill, and economy, as are 
at all times at command in all American 
communities, and as are necessary to success 
in any other business, it will oe found a 
profitable business on a large scale — on any 
scale. This has been proved satisfactorily 
by the success, to an eminent degree, of the 
people of the society at Economy, Pennsyl- 
vania, and by Mr. Grill, of Mount Pleasant, 
Ohio, and numerous others. On the score 
of profit, therefore, there is no reason for 
despondency, but every thing to encourage 
us to proceed in the silk culture. I am 
sorry I cannot say much of the success of 
the business in the Southern States. The 
people there seem to lack that individual 
energy and perseverance, and, especially, 
that appreciation of small things necessary 
to the success of such a business. But, in 
the North and East, where industry, energy, 
and ingenuity dwell ; and in the West, tiie 
great West, the young giant of the world, 
where enterprise progresses with a whirl- 
wind rush, where every seed that is planted 
is soon to produce fruit, either from the un- 
diluted richness of its soil, or the indomitable 
exertions and energy of its people — in both 
of these sections of our country will the silk 
business flourish profitably to individuals, 
and to our country, until the entries in our 
custom-house books shall be reversed ; until, 
instead of the importation of $20,000,000 
of silk, we shall see recorded there the ex- 
portation of $40,000,000 worth annually. 
A few practical remarks may be admissible 
here. Before we can hope for complete suc- 
cess in the silk culture, we must learn more 
of thfe minute details ; we want more pa^ 
tience in the tedious processes; and, above 
all, as before suggested, we must try to be 
satisfied with moderate, but still remunera- 
tive profits. We must not expect to make a 
thousand dollars where the same amount of 
capital and labor invested in any other 
business would only make a hundred. We 
must not expect to rear successfully a millioii 
of worms in a space calculated only for a 
tithe of that number. We must not treat 
the delicate silk-worms as we do our hogs, 
by throwing a basket of food among them, 
and then let them take care of themselves. 
The w«ry nice aad delicate eperstiott of on- 



REPORT. 



vindiog the fibre Irom tbe ooeoons mast 
receive more care aad attention. We are 
not spinning cotton, nor wool, nor hemp. 
The extremely attenuated and lustrous fibre 
must be gathered upon the aspel with all 
delicacy and care. The water of the basin 
must be kept pure, that the lustre of the 
■ilk may not be tarnished ; the tliread must 
be kept even, by careful attention to the 
number of cocoons running off. • I have 
wen very little raw silk for sale in the mar- 
ket prep9red as it should be, and as it must 
be, to compete successfully with that from 
Piedmont. But I have seen some, (and for 
•uch I refer you to specimens in the Hall,) 
and enough, even in the absence of any 
other proof of our capacity, to prove our 
ability to produce as good an article as can 
be made by any other people under the sun. 
Let reelers be mformed, and always bear in 
mind, that care and skill will make their 
pound of silk worth six or seven dollars ; 
whereas carelessness and inattention will 
make it worth no more than three or four 
dollars. Will it be believed, that two reelers 
■hall each take one bushel of the same par- 
cel of cocoons, — being a fair day's work for 
each,— and the one shall produce from her 
portion a pound of silk worth six dollars, 
while the other shall produce the same 
quantity worth only three dollars, the latter 
being not even the value ^f the cocoons be- 
fore she be^[an to reel them ? This is an im- 
portant pomt in the silk business. It has 
always formed the stumbling-block to our 
progress heretofore; but I trust it will no 
longer be permitted to remain so. The 
curing of cocoons is another subject of deep 
interest. In this we are already far ahead 
of our European competitors. The appli- 
cation of heat, either artificial or natural, 
in killing the chrysolid, should be avoided. 
It injures the fibre, and increases the diffi- 
culty of reeling. So, also, do the fumes of 
■ulphur, bv depositing sulphuric acid upon 
the fibre, the gum o£ which does not entirely 
protect it from its effects. Camphor, in 
tight boxes, ef^tually kills the insect, leav- 
ing the cocoons in a state for reeling eoual 
to that before curing. But the best or all 
is the vacuum box — an American sugges- 
tion. If this announcement depreciates its 
value, I csinnot help it. Placing the cocoons 
in an air-tight box, and exhausting the air 
by means of a simple pump, will kill the 
insects directly, or in a few hours.- By 
nlacine a small quantity of camphor in the 
box, me cocoons may be preserved in it 
from any bad e^cts for several weeks. 

The only suggestion I have to make in. 
furtherance of 3ie object of this Convention 
is, that facilities be offered, in all parts of 
our country, for the conversion of small 
parcels of cocoons into raw silk ; in other 
words, that agencies should be established, 
ibr the purchase of cocoons, in ail our prin- 
cipal cities, from such persons as cannot or 
will not reel them. I ao not pretend to be 
able to say how this can be done ; I am only 
•hie to point it out as the most efficient 



means for aocompHahiBg tlie gK«t object w» 
have in view. Three or four filatures might 
be established; one in New Ycnrk, one in 
Philadelphia, one in Hartfi>rd, one in doeton, 

— one more in Baltimore would do no harm, 

— and each of these should have agencies in 
the surrounding cities, towns, and villaces^ 
for the purchase of cocoons. This would at 
once create a market fi>r the small parcels 
of cocoons, and the profitable disposition of 
these small parcels would at onc-e, and of 
itself, place the raising of silk-worms am<mg 
the ordinary objects of domestic industry. 
The absence of such a market has, hereto- 
fore, had a very disheartening effect upon 
silk-growers. I am unable to suggest any 
of the detaib of such a plan, and only give 
it as my belief, that some such arrangement 
is necessary to the success of the silk cause. 
I have thought these practical hints might 
be acceptable to some here ; but 1 have al- 
ready occupied the time of the ConventicMi 
longer than I intended. Permit me, in con- 
clusion, to congratulate vou on the prospect 
of the early accomplishment of the grent 
object which we all nave at heart, and once 
more to recall to your attention the raag^ 
nitude of the interest we are advocating. 
Suppose, for example, that we had the pow- 
er to recall all the money that has been paid 
for silk during the last twenty years; we 
should then m able to pay the whole inr 
debtedness of our country. Look at it. Dur^ 
ing the last twenty years, we have imported 
and consumed two hundred and twen^ nul- 
lions of dollars' worth of silk. The whole !»• 
debtedness of our country amounts to about 
the same sum, and the whole has been ac- 
cumulated within the same time. Suppose 
we had consumed the same amount or silk, 
but that of American product; this vast 
amount would at this time be in our coders. 
But it is useless to reflect upon past negli- 
gence, except so far as the reflection throwi 
fight upon our future course of conduct; 
and it is for this purpose, that it is now re- 
ferred to. The question, then, is, and with 
it I now conclude, Shall we make our own 
silk? Or shall we continue to drain our 



my 



country of its pre<5ioos metals, to supply 
with it firom imroad? I think I know ] 
countrymen sufficiently to enable me to i 
swer for them the first branch of the ques- 
tion — We will; the- second — We will not. 
Mr. Smith closed, carrying off the uttered 
thanks and the hearty good-will of all pres- 
ent 

Afteenoon Session. 

Tbe Convention met according to ad- 
journment — President Tallmadge in the 
chair. The relolutions, as reported by 
the Business Committee, and amended 
by the Convention, were unanimously 
passed, and are given below. 

Specimens of silk handkerchiefs, which 
were pronounced by competent judges to 
be of a very ezceiient quality, spun and 



UBPoirr. 



wwe by giiis wbo, finir montfai before* 
had never seen a loom^ were exhibited 
by Mr. Merray, of Paterson, New Jersey. 
A vote of thanks to Messrs. Alien, of the 
American Agriculturist, and Fleet, of the 
United States Farmer, for copies of their 
respective journals sent in for distribu- 
tion amonff the members, was passed. 

Mr. Barbour ^ve notice that the pub- 
lishers of the Tribune have now in press, 
and will publish on the first day of No- 
vember next, a work on Silk ; containing 
a general history of its introduction and 
culture in Europe and the United States ; 
the natural history of the different spe- 
cies of Silk- Worm ; the Mulberry-Tree ; 
its varieties and peculiarities; a history 
of the Morus Multicaulis specuiafion in 
the United States ; progress *of the cul- 
ture of Silk, Machinery, &c. The prin- 
etpai documents, and much useful infor- 
mation OH many of the subjects embraced 
m the volume, were collected by Mr. B. 

Mr. B. said the work was designed to 
be, not a Silk Manual, although liiere is 
enough in it to guide any be^nner in his 
first essays. It is more scientific, and 
adapted to interest the general reader. 
It abounds with plates representing the 
fdlk-worm in all its changes, together 
with a silk reel and all the machinery 
employed in the silk manu&cture in £hi- 
rope. It has been got up by the enter- 
pnsing publishers at a great expense, as 
constituting the 6th Number of their 
Series of « Usefut Works for ihe PeopU,"* 
Any ingenious mechanic can take tnese 
plates, and make the reel, or the ma- 
chinery represented. 

The President read a note from Mr. 
Allen, saying that he would be happy .to 
publish the proceedings of the Conven- 
tion, or any communication the friends 
of the silk business might make on the 
subject, and^as far aii consistent with 
other great interests, to make his paper 
the orffan of the Silk interesL 

Mr. Tleet was present, and stated that 
he would most willingly lend his in- 
fluence to the noble cause. Short ad- 
dresses were made by Mr. Prince and 
others, in which they stated that silk, as 
well as cotton and woollen goods, and cut- 
lery, were labelled "English," *« French," 
and " Italian," in order to make them sell 
in our city markets. 

Mr. Smith said that there was a large 
silk manufacturing establishment in Bal- 
timore, Running from 15 to 20 Jacquard 
looms, and making the best of silk goods, 
but selling them all as foreign. They 
would not even permit him to bring 
flunples <^ their fOodB to the Conyention 
8 



to exhibit as American, and he deMr* 
mined to expose them.* 

The difficulty is, not that our fabrics are 
not equal to those of Europe, but the 
idea had gone abroad that nothing of 
American production could [lossibly . be 
as good as the imported article. General 
Tallmadge made some pointed reinariui 
in reference to this feeling. 

Mr. Barbour said he was sorry to be 
obliged to say, that this anti-American 
feeling was encouraged and strengthened 
by the example of men in high places. 
Even our Congress, (as an American he 
was ashamed to acknowledge it, but the 
truth must be told,) even our CongreeSi 
when they wanted a new C4irpet to set 
their republican feet upon, must needs 
send to England for jt — leaving unno- 
ticed and untouched a better and a 
cheaper article, grown on the backs of 
republican sheep, and manufiictured by 
republican hands. 

Mr. Gill, of Mt Pleasant, Jefferson Co^ 
Ohio, presented, for the examination of 
the Convention, a model of his Feniilaiing 
Cradle. The desi^ of this cradle is to 
save labor in cleaning the worms, and to 
give them, at the same time, the benefit 
of a local ciradaUim of the air. In the 
experience of Mr. G. and several othersi 
this cradle, with the ooen shed or feirf, 
curtails expenses neany one half^ and 
adds to the quantity and the quality of 
the crop. The Convention heard Mr. 
G.'s explanations with a great deal of 
satisfaction, having full confidence in the 
utility of the system, as a system for 
general adoption. 

Mr. Pratt, of Shelbume, Mass., laid ' 
on the table a very neat card of specimen 
silk goods, manufiietured by his daugh- 
ters, of the age of ten and thirteen, and 
knit by an invalid sister. He gave a suc- 
cinct history of his experience in rearing 
worms, and preparing the silk for the 
knitting-needle. He expressed the full- 
est confidence in the success of the silk- 
worm on this continent. 

A resolution was next passed that a 
subscription list be opened to defray the 
expense of printing the Report; that 
each delegate and member of the Con- 
vention be a committee to collect funds 
in his neighborhood; and that all sub- 
scribers be entitled to the fiill amount of 
their subscription in copies of the Report 
at cost 

The President here gave an interest- 



* Sinea the Convention cloved I bave iMrned that 
there are tan* of thouMuids of tabeU printed in this citf , 
by one individual, for Americaa sewing ailk, aa Mmt 
Italian Sewing SOk. Immense quaotaties ara laid 
under this deoeption. I. R. B. 



M 



BEFOitT. 



ing sketch of the rne, y ro g rea a , and pros- 
pects of the Americati Institute. He 
urged the subscription committee to pro- 
ceed boldly. The proprietors of the prin* 
cipal hotels in this city, the merchants, 
and others wlio derive a benefit from the 
influx of strangers to the exhibition, he 
thought would be liberal in aidinff the 
cause. The piincely proprietor of Uow- 
. ard's House bad ofl^red his name as 
g(»od for $ 50^ and others would follow 
this generous example, doubtless. For 
himself^ the general offered his cheerful 
aid to help on the work. — He was ready 
to share equally the expense and the de- 
mand on his personal services. Hither- 
to they had been given freely, and he 
was not yet drained in his good inten- 
tions. , 

. But before he put the motion to ad- 
journ, he tendered to ^e press of the 
city, which had so generously aided the 
cause of the Institute in their exertions 
for public favor, and in giving place in 
their columns to the reports of the Con- 
vention — he particularly tendered the 
thanks of the Convention to the Report- 
ers of tlie Herald and Express, for the 
correct and faithful reports of their pro- 
ceedings. The meeting was then de- 
clared adjounied. 

Dr. Stebhins, at the close, called the 
attention of all present to the subject of 
the manufacture of paper from the leaves 
of the multicaulis. He has had several 
reams already made, which satisfy him 
that, with some improvements, an excel- 
lent article can be produced. He has a 
ton of leaves prepared, ready for the man- 
ufacturer's hands, and hopes before the 
meeting of the next Convention to be 
able to write them a narrative of his ex- 
periments on a sheet of multicaulis letter- 
paper, which will be equal, if not superior, 
to the liest hot-pressed linen paper now 
used. He further adverted to the mat- 
ter of obtaining silk for coarse goods 
from the inside bark of the mulberry — 
already it had been tried with success, 
and the only thing wanted was some 
Gunning Yankee invention, wherewith to 
•trip the bark from the tree and separate 
the fibres. 

The following are the Resolutions 
adopted by the Convention, as giving 
their views on the several questions be- 
fore them : — 

1. Ruolved, That the fVill establishment 
rf the silk business^ as an integral part of 
the ordinary industry of this country, is an 
object daiming the early and high regard 
of every patriot and philanthropisL 



2. lUsehedj That in th« lustorf of part 
experiments in growing silk in the early 
settlements of Georffia, South Carolina, and 
Virginia, in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and 
Massachusetts, immediately preceding the 
Revolution, and subsequently, and especial- 
ly in the larger, more general, and more 
successful efforts of the past few years, we 
have amj^le grounds for augmented confi- 
dence in all the great principles on which 
the business is based. 

3. Resolved^ That, in regard to all agricul- 
tural products, there is a broad and well- 
defined distinction to be observed between 
transient and permanent causes of fiulure 
or success : — tnat the permanent causes are 
soil and climate; and that wherever these 
are known to be favorable to any such prod- 
uct, we should never be discouraged by 
transient causes operating against success — 
knowtn([[ that these causes operate in like 
manner in recard to all such products. 

4. Resolved!, That as American silk, in the 
state in which the worm leaves it, has lon^ 
been known to be of first-rate quality, it is 
adequate proof, that the soil and climate of 
our country are eminently congenial to its 
culture, inasmuch as these two things are 
the permanent causes that control the quali- 
ty of every agriculturtd product. 

- 5. Resolv^f That the silk culture de- 
mands, for its successful prosecution, essen- 
tially the same climate, and the same kind 
of seasons, and the same kinds of npiand 
soils, as are required for Indian oom ; and^ 
as this crop is successfully cultivated in ail 
the States and Territories of the UnioBy 
there is nothing to forbid, but every thii^ 
to encourage, the coextensive cultivation 
of the silk crop. 

6. Resolved, That inasmuch as, in Ameriea 
and China, the mulberry-tree is found in 
the native forest, it is a manifest indioatietf 
of Divine Providenoe, that this country, as 
well as China, was designed to be a great 
silk-growing country. 

7. Resolved, That in view of the ezperi* 
ments made in different parts of the coun- 
try, as reported to this Convention from 
most of the States of the Union, in feeding 
worms in a natural state of the atmosphere, 
we are happy to regard the question as 
tfiumvhantly settled. — That, in our supe- 
rior Climate, the open shed, or tent, secunng 
to worms ample shade, and Heaven's pure 
air essentially unobstructed, is, except in 
very early or very late feeding, not only all 
that is needed in the way of bnildiog, bnl 
intrinsically better than enclosed rooms: 
Therefore, 

8. Resolved, That 1843 will form a new 
era in the history of the silk culture in the 
United States. 

9. Resolved, That the introduction of the 
foreign varieties of the mulberry-tree, and 
the racility with which they have become 
acclimated, and the reasonable expense at 
which they may now be pioeured and prop* 
agated, give to the American pospb aifwiy 



JUSPOftT* 



•idvMite^ ht the Tigoroiu proiecutioii of 
the «ilk culture. 

Wkereas^ In the feverish excitements of 
the years 1^3H and '39, many ezag^rated 
statements were put forth, byniersons solely 
interested in trees as an article of specula- 
tion, in regrard to the profits to be expected 
from growing silk, and in regard to the 
intrinsic value of the mulberry-tree ; and 
whereas, in the prostration that came sub- 
sequently over this business, the public 
mind was thrown into a state of complete 
revulsion, the great body of our people for 
a time regarding the whole busmess as a 
delusion, and mulberry-trees as utterly 
worthless — fit only for the flames and the 
floods — therefore, 

10. Resolved, That we deem it due to our- 
selves, and to the public, in all candor to 
say, as we 1^ say, tnat the silk culture is, 
in our judgment, entirely feasible, and may 
easily become second to no other business 
in the country ; that when conducted with 
appropriate practical knowledge and skill, 
and with appropriate facilities, it is more 
profitable than othdr ordinary agricultural 
pursuits; and that mulberry-trees, for the 
purposes for which they were designed, are 
intrinsically valuable. 

11. Resolved, That the Convention deeply 
regret the loss which the country has sus- 
tained in the wanton and inconsiderate in- 
struction of mulberry-trees consequent upon 
the revulsion above referred to; and they 
earnestly recommend to the present owners 
of trees to preserve and multiplj^ them with 
all due care, knowing that tneir value for 
making silk will, in due time, be appre- 
ciated. 

12. Resolved, That we are much gratified 
in beholding the many manifestations of a 
growing public confidence in the essential 
merits of the silk business; and we are 
herein decidedly encoiyrsLged to go forward 
in the business ourselves, using, at the same 
time, all appropriate means to enlighten the 

Sablic mind, and confirm the public confi- 
enc€^ still more fully. For this purpose we 
will freely communicate to individuals, and 
to the Conductors of the Newspaper Press, 
the results of our own experience, and such 
other information as may be in our power 
to give; exercising all due care to keep 
within the limits or rigid truth. 

13. Rtsotved, That we rejoice in the lib- 
eral protection designed to be given to the 
silk business in the new tariff; and in the 
fact, that this section of the bill excited no 
opposition from any quarter of the country, 
we have a pledge that the policy now es- 
tablished will remain undisturbed, and that 
such amendments as experience has already 
shown, or shall hereafler show, to be neces- 
sary, will be readily secured ; and, further, 
inasmuch as our Congress has never im- 
posed discriminating duties except in favor 
of such products as may be brought forth 
from our own fields and workshops, this act 
is only the expressed opinion of the intelli- 
gent body thttt puaed it, thtt oar country 



can as well make its own silks as its eol* 

tons and woollens, its hats and its shoes, its 
ploughs, its nails, and its axes. 

Wkerens, The present .tariff preset bes a 
duty of fifty cents on the pound \>f raw silk, 
or silk in the gum, and a higher duty on 
sewings, and other manufactured silks ; and 
whereas we ave fully informed that sewings 
and other silks can be, and are imported 
nearly ready for the market, and yet retain- 
ing the gum, coming in under this low duty 
— therefore, 

14. Rtstdred, That we consider this a 
manifest and a gross invasion of the law 
designed to aid the American manufacturer. 

15. Resolved, That General James Tall- 
madge, I. R. Barbour, John W. Gill, Gideon 
B.4#mith, Horace Pitkin, and J. Danforth, 
be a Committee to claim of the Secretary 
of the Treasury the prompt correction of 
this abuse ; and, in case it should become 
neceasarj^ that they lay the subject before 
Congress at the early part of its appfoaching 
session. 

Whereas, From the returns made to ths 
Convention, it appears there has been a 
large increase in the quantity of cocoons 
raised in the country the present season, 
especially at the West and the South- West, 
so large as to give just grounds to fear thai 
many will be. lost for the want of bein|^ 
timely and suitably reeled — therefore, 

16 Resolved, That the early and earnest 
attention of the friends of the silk cause he 
directed to family reeling, and to the estab* 
lishment of filatures for purchasing and reel- 
ing cocoona, in different localities where 
they are now urgently needed; and that 
the Legislatures of the several States be 
requested to grant liberal bounties, to en- 
courage this important and essential part 
of the general business — reeling silk in a 
manner suitable for all the varieties of silk 
goods. 

17. Resolved, That this Convention are 
exceedingly gratified, in witnessing, as they 
do on this occasion, such a rich variety of 
cocoons, raw silks, sewings, twists, braids^ 
gimps, cords, ribbons, handkerchiefs, era* 
vats, hosiery, Taces, flowered tissues and 
brocades, in great variety, for vestings, plain 
and flowered lustringrs, and many other 
kinds of dress silks, velvets, satins, serges, 
armozines, and other silk goods, grown up- 
on our own soib, and under our own bril- 
liant skies, and mimufactured by the skill 
of our own citizens. 

18. Resolved, That our manufacturers, and 
other business men, have now every reason- 
able encouragement to invest, in a wise and 
careful manner, their funds in this new form 
of Domestic Labor — growing and manufac* 
turing silk. 

19. Resolved, That this Convention Teams 
with deep regret tlrat, as in other kinds of 
American manufactures, it has hitherto been 
deemed necessary to attach the foreign la- 
bels, English, French, and Italian, to the 
excellent sewings and fabrics of onr own 
silk manufactures, in order to command a 



REPORT. 



leuly tale in our eitr marketi, guperior as 
tlieae aewinga and ftbrics are known to be 
in strength, texture, and durability to the 
foreipi articles ; and that we earnestly rec- 
ommend t</our silk manufacturers, now in 
the infancy of our enterprise, to set a good 
example to their brethren in other manufac- 
tures, by attaching their own name to their 
own goods. 

90. Reaohedy That we recommend to our 
fellow-citizens to cherish, by their patron- 
age, our infant silk establishments. In this 
we appeal to those patriotic feelings which 
ever glow in the hearts of Americans, ask- 
ing of them all a mutual pled^, each to 
sustain the efforts of the other, in the pro- 
gressive development of our mighty re- 
sources, and the attainment of a peflbct 
National Independence. 

31. Resolved, That the thanks of this Con- 
vention be presented to the Am<yican In- 
stitute, for the appropriate and vigorous 
measures they are now taking to promote 
the interests of the silk business; for the 
ample accommodations they have provided 
for the sessions of this Convention ; and that 
they be respectfully requested to call anoth- 
er Convention, similar to the present, during 
the next Annual Fair of the institute. 

2*2. Resolved^ That those who are now en- 
gaged in the silk business, and others who 
may engage in it the coming reason, be re- 
quested to keep as full a record of all their 
operations as may be convenient ; that they 
be requested also to hold county or other 
local Conventions throughout the country, 
some time in the month of September next, 
and collect these records as extensively as 



may be, and fbrward t|iem to the Seerettrf 
of the Institute, in season for the next Con- 
vention. 

23. Resolved, That the Institute be alK> re- 
quested to take measures to procure, as soon 
as may be, a nev^ Silk Manual, adapted to 
the present state of the silk culture. 

24. Resolved, That the doings of this Con- 
vention, together with the numerous letters 
received from different parts of the countnr, 
be submitted to the American Institute for 
publication in the fbrm of a Report ; and 
that I. R. Barbour, of Oxford, Mass., be a 
Committee to aid the Secretary of the Insti- 
tute in arranging the documents for this 
purpose. 

Whereas, The facts to be imbodied in the 
Report, as above contemplated, are of a 
highly interesting and decisive character, 
and worthy of an extended distribution — 
therefore, 

25. Resolved, That every member of this 
Convention regard himself as a Committee 
to obtain subscriptions for the same as ex- 
tensively as may be, ij. being understood 
that eacn subecnoer will receive Reports at 
cost, to the amount of his subscription. 

26. Resolved, That the thanks of this Con- 
vention be presented to the Conductors of 
the Public Press of this city, and to the Re- 
pqiters at our tables, who have so promptly 
and so fully spread the proceedingB of this 
Convention before their readers, and the 
country. 



JAMES TALLMADGE, PresideiU. 
JAMES HARRISON, > o_^w.. 
JACOB C. PARSONS, 5 *«'«««^- 



17 



COKfiESPONDENCE. 



amCIAL LETTERS. 

Stats Dxfartmskt, Akvapolu, Mo., 
September 22, 1843. 
Dear Si^:— The circular communication 
of the •« Americaa Ingtitute," of the 16th 
ultimo^ which you addressed to his Excel- 
lency, the Governor of Maryland, .owing to 
his temporary absence from the seat of gov- 
ernment, did not reach him until to-day. 
This will account for the delay in answer- 
ing it. 

The Gkyremor requests me to inform you, 
that no bounty is given on tilk, and also 
that tiiere are no legislative enactments xe» 
spectinf it, which secure to the treasury any 
return Srom its cultivation. 
I am, sir, 
With high respeet, yours, 

Jno. C Ls Grahd. 
T. B. Wakeman, Esq., 
Cor. Sec. of American Institute, New York. 

NxwARx, N. /., Aug. 21, 1643. 
Dear Sir: — The Court of Chancery in 
this State sits on the very day fixed for the 
Fair of the American Institute, which must 
deprive me of the pleasure of being with vou. 
There was a bonus for one year, 1 think 
1838, on silk. The amount paid that year 
was nominal, not exceeding twenty doUars. 
I remember it well, for it was made a party 
Auestioil of, and repealed. ' With my thanks 
tor youy polite invitation, I remain, 
Vqij lespectfuUy, 

Tour ob't serv't, 

Wm. Pbnnington. 
T. B. Wakeman, Esq. 

Tbxasurs&'b Ovficb, Indianapolis, 
September 9, 1843. 

Sir : — ^ In reply to the questions contained 
in TOUT Circular, of date 15th August, I state, 

J. That our State gives no bounty out of 
the State treasury « but, by an act of fast win- 
ter, has authorized the Boards of County 
Commissioners of the respective counties to 
give a bounty of 15 cents per pound for 
oocoons, and of 25 cents per pound for reeled 
silk. 

2. The law above referred to is the only 
one that has been passed on the subject, and 
has no hmitation as to time of its continuance. 

I am not aware that any county has made 
provision for giving bounties as above con- 
templated. 

In this ner^bdrhood, and ifi ^veral olSter 

pai«» of thiiBufteyfilk has been ynd«ced«ir 

2» 



several years past-* Wayne county, I under- 
stand, produces the most At this place from 
fortjr to fifty bushels of coe<Mi^B have been 
obtained the present season. In this town 
and neighborhood there axe about fifty acres 
in Morus Multicaulis trees, from two to three 
years old. , 

More attention would be civen to the busi- 
ness was there some practical and experienced 
person at hand, firom whom information as ta 
feeding and reeling could be obtained. 

A ready marketfor cocoons is much want* 
ed. The Multicaulis seems to stand our 
winters very well. Others, who have bad 
some experience on this subject, vnU cor- 
respond with you, and give such "further 
information as may be in their power. 
Yours, &c., 
G. H. Dunn, Treasurer of State, 

T. B. Wakeman, Esq. 

Madison, Wisconsin, 
September 19, 1843. 
Sir : — I am favored with the circular letter 
of the American Institute, dated the 15th of 
August, and can only inform you in reply, 
that no encouragement is given by the laws 
of this Territory to the production of silk. 
Abbut six thousand dollars* worth of silk has 
been produced by one gentleman, who took 
his cocoons to Boston. I have several mul- 
berry-trees growing in my garden at this 
place, which thrive, and were not affected by 
the frosts of last winter. It is the opinjoi^ 
of many persons with whom I have con- 
versed, and who appear to be well-informed 
in regard to it, that the culture of silk may 
be prosecuted to great advantage in the 
country south of the Neenah and Wisconsin 
Rivers. 

With much respect, 

I am yonr obedient servant, 
J. D. Doty. 
Mr. T. B. Wakeman, Cor. Sec. 

Treasurer's Office, Moiitpelier, Vt., 
Auffust 30, 1843. 

Dear Sir : — I have the honor to acknowl- 
edge the receipt of your Circular of the 15th 
inst., addressed to his Excellency, the Gov- 
ernor of Vermont, and make the following 
reply to the interrogatories therein con- 
tained, viz. : — 

1. Our Legislature, at their session Oc- 
tober, 1835, granted a premium often cents 
per pound on cocoons. At their session 
October, 1838, they increased the premium 
to twenty cenu for cocoons^ Iwenlgp osa t i lbr 
C 



18 



usnmsMB. 



reeled silk, twentjr cents for all wove silk. 
This law still remains in force. The amount 
of premiums paid for the year 1835-6 I 
cannot now state, the Jiooks of this depart* 
ment of that year being in the hands ot the 
Auditor, at Woodstock ; the amount, how- 
ever, must have been small. 
There has been paid, for 1837-38, $36 52 
1838-39, 78 65 
1839-40, 360 71 
1840-41, 1830 39 
1841-42, 1891 17 
1843-43, 1756 69* 
Toor obedient aerraat, 

hm» SrAULDiisG, Treasurer. 

Trkaivrt OrricK, Boston, Mass., 
August 26, 1843. 
The following is given as the result of an 
examination oTdocuments in this Office, in 
reply to certain questions proposed by the 
Corresponding Secretary of the American 
Institute, in a letter acidressed to his £x- 
eeliency, the Governor, viz. : — 
'. 1. "Dpes your State give a bounty on 

2. "Is the bounty on cocoons, or on reeled 
•ilk, and how much on each ? " 

3. " In what year did the bounty law go 
into effect, and when does it expire ? " 

A law passed April 7, 1835, to continue in 
force for two years, fives a bountv to any 
person who shall reel, or cause to be reeled 
or thrown, in the Commonwealth, from co- 
coons produced irora silk- worms raised there- 
in, merchantable silk capable of beinjg manu- 
factured into the various, silk fabrics, fifty 
cents for every pound of silk so reeled or 
thrown. 

A law passed April 11, 1836, to contmne 
in force seven years, gives a bounty of one 
dollar for every ten pounds of cocoons, and a 
bounty of one dollar fo>p every pound of silk 
reeled and thrown, aoi^ fifly cents for every 
pound reeled, without beine thrown. 

A law passed March 31, 1839, gives a 
bounty of one dollar and fifly cents for every 
ten. pounds of cocoons, and repeals the laws 

S'vin^ a bounty of fifly cents per pound for 
rowing si)k. 
Amount paid in cash each year, viz : 

1836, $71 37 

1837, 198 

1838, 350 52 

1839, 434 62 

1840, 1233 59 

1841, 2111 42 

1842, 3374 11 

1843, 18S8 70t 

* The earront yr elosM 8(Hh Sept., wMek will 
fnhnHj inereate the miMMiat. 

t ^8 s resident of MaMaehmotta, I would say, that 
the Idat-na^ed kum, $1853 70, must have been paid 
npon the.-erop of .1842. The Trea»ttrer*ii books ehow 
the kmotnit paid each ealendar Tear, iVom January to 
Januafy. Tlie law expired, by tt» own limitatioa, kl 
March. 1843, aad thia aoin was paid between January 
lit and that time, and of course on the crop of 1849, 
But, for the same reasons, a part of the sum giren fbr 
Uli^lidasii.l0lM;,«»dte»a. I. K. B. 



SBcmsTAKT'i OrriGX, Bostoit, 

August 29, 1843. 
Sir : — By direction of his £zcellency , Gov- 
ernor Morton, I forward to you the foregoing 
memorandum, in ^ffy to your Circular of 
August 15tb, 

And am very respectfully, yours, 
John A. jBollzs, Secretary of State. 
T. B. Wakeman, £a^.. 
Cor. Sec. American Institute, New York. 



LETTERS RECEIVED BT THE CON- 
VENTION FROM SILK-GROWBRS 
AND MANUFACTURERS. 

Ik presenting these Letters, the Publishing 
Committee offer a few remarks ; » 

1. The letters, we are happy to say, are 
so numerous and fuU^ that it has been found 
necessacy to throw oat dates, introduotimis, 
apologies, conelusions, &e., only preserving 
the substance of each letter; allowing, how- 
ever, each correspondent to tell his own 
story, in his own way, and, aa ftr as possible, 
in his own words. But those received from 
State Treasurers in regard to bounty laws on 
silk are given entire ; and our only regret ia, 
that we could not hear from all the States 
on the subject, in the same official way. 

2. In the arrangement, we give the official 
letters first, then those relating to silk-grow^ 
ing, and throw those reoeived from mann- 
facturers together at the close. 

3. A part of these letters were addressed 
to the Trustees of the Amenean Institute, « 
part to the New England Silk Convention, 
and a very few to individuahi. But they are 
all thrown into a common lot. 

4. The reader will peroeive ^uite oppcilte 
sentiments expressed in these letters, in re- 
gard to some points. It would be just so, if 
150 or 200 farmers should undertake to give 
similar statements respectmg their com crops. 
Considering how new the silk business is, and 
how experimental all our operations hitherto 
have been, it is to me a matter of wonder and 
delight to see such a measture of agreement 
on all essential points. It shows the close 
attention, and the careful discrimination, that 
have bepn employed in the business. 

6. The letters were too nmnemni to be 
read, in the brief time the Convention were 
in session, and quite a number have been 
reoeived aiooa ita adjoamiwiit Bom» «f 



USTtEMi. 



designed for the exhibitions of the Fair; and 
a« they did not reach the city in time for this 
paTpoM, they have all iaUen, I am happy to i 
say, into my hands. I have careAilly put 
them all into a book, suitable for the pocket, 
provided for the purpose, with the manu£ic- 
tuier*8 name attached to each speeimiBn. 
Hundreds of eyes will see and admira them. 

6. The questions propounded by the Trus- 
tees of the Institute are given in full in the 
Circular on the first pages of this Report. 
8ome of the letters will be unintelligible 
without referring to these questions. 

7. Every silk-grower will be greatly mter- 
eated and benefited by carefully readhig and 
studying these letters. He will get many 
aew ideas. The beginner should read them 
in like manner, and then sdect one of the beat 
emteg^mMdfoUnDkwtear^fuUyamdfiiUif. I 
veeomnend thk ^ the safest course in all 
such eases. Too many teachers wUl spoil 
any experiment. 

& From these letters one thing is very 
manifest, and that is, that the silk business is 
extending throughout all ovtt States — that it 
is assuming — has already assumed — the 
chancter of a regular business in this country. 
All the elementsry questions upon which it 
is based appear to be settled, and there now 
remains nothing to fbrbid its wide extension 
aa rapidly as cocxect information respecting 
it««n be diffused. 

9. Jhutther thought will strike the casual 
reader of these letters. It is that almost 
every body has invented a reel, oi a twister, 
or something c4se eonneeted with the silk 
business. Some, of course, must be disap- 
pointed, for all cannot be best. But the case 
flb0ws that there has been, in connection with 
this bosinMs, a tast amonnt of thought and 
invention brought into activity — the same 
•a in aU other departments of American labor. 
LiLBARBOUtl. 



LETTERS, 

TiMOTHV Whbblrioht, WtUs, Mmne. — 
Wishing to learn how to manage the worm, 
I began to feed as soon as 1 set my trees, and 
have fbA five seasons with this result : — first 
year, 1 lb. cocoons ; second year, 6 lbs. ; third 
year, 27 lbs. ; fourth year, 34 lbs. ; cocoons 
of the first crop, 240 to the lb. ; second, 312 
to the lb. ; this year, not yet through. I es- 
timate ibe expense at ten eents a pound. 



Ti«M!t ttotMored by the wmlir aAMr the fint 
year. The buttding I use for* a coeodnery is 
about 18 by 24 feet, posts 8 feet, and as open 
as our common barns, the floor very open, no* 
floor overhead, but well shingled, with win- 
dows at the sides and ends that were always 
kept partly open. I conclude it to be about 
as open a shelter as the tent of Mr. Gill, of 
Ohio. I make no use of artificial heat or lime 
in any age of the worms, but rely on clean* 
liness ; never feed with wet leaves, and ray 
worms an always healthy. My shelves for 
feeding are of the most simple constructioii -^ 
rough boards placed on hanging ladders, se- 
cured from anU, and covered with newspa^ 
pers. I have just gotheied one crop of cocoons^ 
and find them tobe very nice. 1 saved soma 
for seed which I counted : they were 2G0 tft 
the pound. I reeled one, singly, to ascertain 
the length of thread one warm spins. • I reel- 
ed off 680 yards before the thread broke. 1 
should judge there were 150 yards left. The 
crop of worms I have gathered were hatched 
the 28th of June, and it was 36 days before 
they began to rise to spin, which I attribute 
to tne coldness of the season. Perhaps artifi- 
cial heat for the coldest of the weather would 
have quickened them five or mx days, but 
there could have been no naore gain, except 
there was more silk from the saane quantity 
of leaves. 1 have two other crops (Aug. 20) 
yet to spin, which appear to be very healthy. 
To conclude, it is my opinion that a tent 
which will ke^ the worms dry, in our cliniats, 
is a sufficient shelter for the worms, and if 
our cheap factory cottons will answer for such 
tents, the saving, in comparisoii to buikhng , 
will be very great indeed. 

Mr. Smith, Gwamsey Co,, Ohio, has mad*, 
tiie past season, 70 bushels good caeoons. He 
decidedly px«fers Mr. Giff» system of shed 
or tent, and cradle feeding. 

John Zane, MMriinmlU, Ohio, has fed, this 
season, 97 bushels of oocoonsyall pea^nttts; 
thinks very highly of Mr. GiWU shod and 
cradle,— is confident that this system reduces 
expenses one half, and increases the quantity 
and the quality of the crop. 



JoHW McSummv, Manheim, LamcoMor Osw, 
P«ftfi., says: — Your Conrention was un- 
known to me until this day, too kte for me 
to attend. I am sorry, as I hareover"100 
lbs. of well-reeled sUk (firom 10 to 20 fibras) 
of this year's crop, which I should like to 
take on to New York to sell, besides attend 
the Convention. I have mdre yet to reel. 
There is much silk raised in this comitv. We 
have suffered for want of good reelers. I 
have now surmounted this difficulty, as well 
as other difficulties in raising silk, and expe- 
rience both pleasure and profit in the busi- 
ness. I should be very glad to receive orden 
^m manufacturers for my silk now reeledi 
or I will reel to order. 

I began in the silk business m 1839, and 
have increased as follows: — 



UBTT£B8- 



1889^ mde 48>Ibf.o<ioo<mB. 

1840, " 165 " w 

1841, " 534 " " 
' 1842, " 856 " " 

184a, ♦' nearly 1800 " ♦* 
I havfi uaed diffident kinds of leaves, but 
never loond any difference where the trees 
were cultivated alike. They most be eulti- 
vated and kept clean, otherwise it is useless 
to try to make silk. It is also useless to try 
to feed aAer harvest, where the old leaves 
have not been taken off the early part of the 



I have fed for two seasons out of doors, in 
«»0» skutUifs^ after the worms had parsed the 
third mottlting, and fed altogether on branch- 
es. It is a very great saving of expense and 
labor. 

James Hamiltoh, 2d, Bridp^rty Addison 
Co,j Vt. — Sir : — It is four years since I com* 
menced feeding worms^ The first year had 
but few, fed tMm in a tiffht ohamwr before 
an open window, did well. The next year 
fed many more in the same chamber, but not 
with as good success. The third and fourth 
■easons 1 fed in my corn-house, with a door 
€>pen at each end, which gave a free circular 
tion of air, closing them only in cool weathra, 
or in case of hi(|^h winds. 

At one time, m a very heavy shower, with 
high wind, the doors and windows were open, 
•nd the shelf of pea-nuts near the windows 
was completely drenched in the torrent, and 
I thought lost. As the water drained off, 
however, they revived, fresh leaves were 
given them, and they came forth with renew- 
ed vigor. We have not had any trouble with 
diseased worms since we commenced feeding 
in the ooirnohouse. 

As to thp variety of worms, I should prefer 
the peanuts and sulphur for beauty and tex- 
ture, but the orange fer weight. «I feed on 
the white mulberry and the multicaulis. 

Dr. Jobl Rick, Bridport^ Addison Co^ Vt. 
^—- Sir : -—In the spring of 1839 several indi- 
Tiduals of us in tnis town were induced to 
engage moderately in the mulberry specula- 
tion, and as in most other cases, our expecta- 
tions of profit from the sale of trees were cut 
.off', btstwe did not therefore come to the 
oonolvsion that the trees were worthless, but 
have contimied to propagate them to some 
exfent, with- the expectation that silk would 
ere long beepme an important staple of our 
country, vrith an. adequate proteetion by our 
government. . 

We have fed worms four years, mostly on 
a small scale,— two individitals have made 
about 50 lbs. cocoons the past season, — have 
generally fed in rooms too confined, — two or 
three persons have used buildings for feeding 
that were well ventilated, and have succeeded 
better; worms more healthy and cocoons 
larger. We use mostly the multicaulis ; those 
that we design to plant the next season we 
take up in fiill, put them in sand in the cellar, 
or burv them in the field ; those that we wish 
to saake permanent tarees we let stand. I 



have nuiUioMlkMrees whkh have ft^od tfaee 
winters, have greatly increased in their foli- 
age every season, and appeat to endure the 
frosts as well hs the Alpme or Italian. 

We have fed early and late^ and have 000- 
ceeded much better with the former. 

We have had no experience in the manu- 
facture of silk, except sewing silk; in this we 
have succeeded tolerably well. We have as 
yet had no apparatus hut that in common 
domestic use. 

The names of those who are cultivating 
the mulberry in this town are — Rev. Dana 
Lamb, Messrs. Luther Ferre, Royal Gay, Asa 
Rice, Henry Jones, Jonas Rice, Josiah Bar- 
rows, James Hamilton, 2d, Gordon Searl, and 
George Gale, and we hope soon to enlist 
many others in an enterprise which we con- 
sider feasible, and one that will result in a 
profitable and permanent branch of Amwicm 
mdttstry. 

A. C. Van Epps, Auburn, JV. Y.^I en- 
gaged a cocoonery in 1842. A gentleman 
here had a quantity of em, saved by himself 
in 1841, from eg^ sent mm by his son. Rev. 
Mr. Pease, missionary to Cyprus, consisting 
of the following varieties, namely : — Broosa, 
Lapithas,and Paphos — considered among the 
best ever introduced in this country. I knew 
them to be from healthy stock, and supposed 
my prospect good. I called on him early in 
June — and found them in a close box in his 
cellar, and on opening found all hatched or 
nearly so. In my ignorance I considered this 
a fevorable commencement I took over 30 
ounces, and proceeded at once to the business 
of feeding. The result any novice can guess. 
Disease raged from Uie "beginninff ; and in 
the end, I had no silk.' I visited a sim-grower 
in the country, and ffot from him a few choice 
cocoons, from whioi I saved, perhaps, one 
sixth of an ounce of eggs. These I fed dur- 
ing the present season with perfect success, 
and have saved over two pounds of eggs — no 
appearance of sickness, was visible. The 
worms j[rew very large, and the cocoons ex- 
ceeded, m beauty and quality, any I have 
ever seen. The first year was attended with 
several hundred dollars' 0x»enff«,and this with 
none. The first seasa» I fed in a large two- 
story cocoonery. This year I fed in a small 
barn — sawed off the boards part of the way 
roupd, and with the doors open most of tlie 
time. The worms were as well supplied with 
air, as they would have been on the tree. I 
placed a quantity of eggs on the trees, which 
hatched and grewjindy until the third moult- 
ing, when the birds took them all. 

I shall use multicaulis in my fntute feeding 
— shflJl plant them in the best soil^ about five 
feet apart — and cultivate them with as much 
care as a crop of corn* I should commence 
feeding in April, if leaves could be jfrocured 
so early — for I should be very unwUHng to 
retard the hatching process of the egg. A 
friend of ndne has been feediuj^ a few worms 
for three or four years past with entire fuU' 
ures — or results similar to my frst tfcar. 
This Beason,he extended an awning in feont of 



uerrfiKs: 



« «hed In whioll h«'frd, ftiid' placed in it one 
of Mr. CfiWs Cradies; but he wna so afttiid 
the ^poor eretUures*' would be "too much 
exposed/' he boarded the gides up to the 
awning, and thus completely destroyed the 
ezperimient. Personal experience, in this 
buBiness, teaches a dear school ; but it seems 
that some of us will profit by no other. 

Hon. Wm. Woodbridgk, Detroit^ Mieki- 
gan. — I am honored by the printed commu- 
nication you were pleased to transmit to me, 
on the part of the managers of the American 
Institute, relative especially to the culture 
and nianu&cture of silk. I am sorry that it 
is not in my power, individually, to add any 
thing to the general fund of information 
which, so greatly to the benefit of the coun- 
try, the Institute is collecting relatively to 
Uiis subject I do not hesitate, howev<», in 
expressmg the opinion, — imperfect as may 
be the data upon which that opinion rests, — 
that complete success will ultimately crown 
the efforts of those who are now so patrioti- 
cally seeking to introduce amonfus the cul- 
ture and manufacture of silk, xhe almost 
infinite variety of soil, climate, and aspect, 
which the broad surface of our immense and 
fertile eountryexhibits, cannot, I think, leave 
a doubt upon the mmds of our intelligent 
citiiens, but that, with a steady and reasona* 
ble protection on the part of government, 
tiiese efforts taust succeed-^ and to the im- 
measurable benefit, ultimately, of the nation. 
The peninsula of Michigan is hardly yet suf- 
ficiently reclaimed from its wilderness state 
to have fomished any experiments of a con^ 
olttsive character; and yet I have understood 
that some individuals among our fiirmin^ 
citizens have turned their attention and e^ 
forts to this object, with very flattering re- 
sults, so ieat\ and, with a view to encourage 
and fix still more the attention of our agri- 
culturists here to the subject, I this day send 
your printed communication, together with 
the beautiful st>ecimen of sewfng>silk which 
was conf atned in it, to the ** Washtenaw Ag- 
ricultura) Society," of which the place of 
meeting is at ^ Ann Arbor," some forty miles 
in the interior ; near which place one of our 
enterprising fellow-citizens has already pro- 
duced some beautiful specimens of silk, 
which he has himself grown. 

rWith great pleasure, we give room for the 
following neat little case, from a young girl, 
18 to 14 years old. I. R. B.] 

Miss AiroELA A. Bryant, Mangfidd^ Mass. 
— My fiither, who had the pleasure of con- 
versing With you on board the Cleopatra, in- 
forms me that you wish to collect as full an 
account of the silk culture as possible, in- 
cluding the smallest essays, and mine is 
such. 

Sumnaer before last I had given to me 40 
jroung silk-w<mns. From the eggs procured 
m this way I had, last summer, between 5 
and 600 worms, which I fed mostly on the 
white mulberry. I lost bat fow by disease. 
They «en fed five timeBA day, and the Utter 



was Temoved efwry other day by t«kiB|f 

them in the hand and placing them on fresh 
leaves. At 30 days of age they began to 
spin. There was much irregularity in the 
time of winding. From my 600 worms I 
raised 5 pints of cocoons, <which 1 sent to Mr. 
Hewins, of Foxborough, Mass. The prod- 
uct was 18 skeins of sewing-silk. Of the 
expenses 1 can say nothing, but 1 derived a 
great deal of pleasure firom the care of ray 
beautiful spinners. 

Dr. Joki. Barber, Onoell, Rutland Couif 
ty^ Vt. — 1 have fed a few worms, each year, 
lor the last five years. 1 have kept my worms 
in my chamber, without any attention to tem- 
perature, except closing the windows in damp 
and cold weather. My worms have been in- 
variably healthy. I think the bounty in this 
State will pay the expense of feeding. We 
have manufactured our coeoons into sewing- 
silk and twist. With a common reel and 
wheel. The silk, for beauty and strength^ ni 
equal to Italian. 

Last spring I laid down several thousand 
trees, with a view of doing business on a 
larger scale. The Alpine, Broosa, and Ital- 
ian varieties flourish in this State. The mul- 
ticaulis cannot be got forward in season to 
get a crop so early. I put out my eggs to 
hatch as soon as the trees begin to leave out. 
The business is increasing in this vicinity. 
Israel Smith, Esq., of this town, has seven 
acres covered with beautiful trees. He has 
commenced feeding, this season, with good 
success. Others have raised from 5 to 100 
lbs. cocoons. Confidence in the success of 
the business is increasing from year to year. 

Clinton S. Fat, (late of the N. Y. Deaf 
and Dumb Institute,) Salem Cross jRoadSj 
Chat. Co., JV. F. — 1 thank you for the An- 
nual Report o£ the New England Silk Con- 
vention that you sent me last spring. I have^ 
been engaged for eight years in the business 
of growing silk. I commence feeding worms 
in the early purt of the season. I have used 
no artificial heat ; kept them in an out-home, 
where they had plenty of fresh air, and they 
were healthy. I fed a few thousand worms 
on the multicaulis, and some on the white 
mulberry at the same time. Those fod on 
the white mulberry were large and healthv, 
measuring most ofihem 21^ inches in lengtn, 
when full grown, and make good cocoons ; 
while those fed on the multicaulis were of an 
inferior size, making lighter cocoons than 
those fed on the white mulberry ; weighed 2| 
pounds, while the same number made by 
those fed on the multicaulis only S pounds. 
I think that the white mulberry is the best ; 
there is more substance in the leaves than in 
the multicaulis. [Our friend does not tell ua 
whether the multicaulis leaves, in the above 
experiment, were equally ripe. — I. R. B.] 

F. Leonard, Watertoitm, JiT. F.— 1 hatched 
a crop of pea- nut silk- worms the 1st of 
July, which were kept till afler their second 
moulting in an airy room, and then put into 



LB^BBS. 



ft bam which had been ranoved from iu old 

location. In ihis bam they had a free circii- 
hition of air either with or without the doora 
beinf shut The worms did well till afler 
IbttrUi moulting, when some turned yellow 
and died — Iom at least SO per cent. A lot 
of worms, fed by a lady, (Mrs. Fairbanks, of 
ht Roy J near me, from the same eggs, are 
the finest I ever saw. Yet she too sustained 
a small loss from same disease. She states 
that a few worms, looking so bad that she 
considered them lost, she threw them into 
the gmrden, and there fed them ; and a great 
portion of them recovered and made cocoons 
m the grass. 

Datid W. Dkxter, CUarmumty J^.H.-^l 
regret much that I am not able to meet my 
friends, the silk-growers of the country, in 
Convention ; but unforeseen circumstances 
have rendered mj absence unavoidable. I 
confidently believe that these two Conven- 
tions, at Northampton and New York, will 
spread before the public so much practical 
experience, and such profitable results, that 
the last lingering doubts of the most preju- 
<Ueed and disappointed multicaulis specula- 
tor must be removed ; and that they, and all 
others who have looked upon the persever- 
ing silk-grower with contempt, will be com- 
pelled to admit that we have not been chasing 
shadows ; that the culture and manufacture 
of silk 14 altogether feasible, and will be a 
source of wealm to this nation. In regard to 
the results of my own experience, am una^ 
Ue to give any statistical statements. 

From five years' experience, I have come 
to the full conclusion that open or tent-feed- 
ing is the only way that we can raise silk 
Boccessfully. My cocoonery is 106 feet by 
25, with 20 windows, 3 yentilators in tlie 
Toof, and a number' in the floor. This sea- 
son I have taken out the windows, and left 
open the ventilators day and night, and with 
admirable success. It is the pure air of 
heaven that is needed, and the more the bet- 
ter ; and I think, sir, that we had better turn 
our whole attention to the raising of one 
crop, which in our latitude should be secured 
np by the 1st of Sept 

Sahl. C. Moors, . Georgetown, Mass. — I 
send you a sample of the silk I raised this 
year, reeled on a common silk-reel, and 
spun on a common spinning-wheel. I re- 
ceived for my silk and cocoons, at the Essex 
Co. cattle show at Andover, $8.00, as a gra- 
tuity ; by mistake printed as for Amos P. 
Dodge. The quantity I shall have cannot 
yet tell, as it is not all reeled. My worms 
did very well. 

I think the friends of the cause have great 
reaton to congratulate themselves on the 
mesent aspects of the silk business. New 
England can grow silk. We can easily be- 
come, in a few years, exporters of this rich 
ind beautiful article. I am glad our people 
axe beginning to see that it is bad policy to 
•end our money abroad for an article which 
wt eui juit u well grow and manufacture 



oorselves. Anoyier thiilf : tlw w asK i a Mil- 
road now <^ns all the great markets of New 
England to the agricultural products of the 
rich and boundless West, so that all our 
products are now low, and likely to remain 
so. New England farmers, therefore, must 
take up something new; something with 
which the market cannot be glutted. That 
silk is that thing, there is not, in my mind, a 
question. 

Hon. Levi Woodbort, PartBmmUk, A*. H. 
— I am not a silk-grower, and therefore am 
not able to answer the inquiries put by you *, 
neither do I manufacture any, but 1 have 
taken some interest in both, and have some 
mulberry-trees grown, with a view, when 
leisure may permit, to attempt rearing the 
silk-worm on a small scale, requiring no great 
outlay of capital, and emptying the aged, 
infirm, and youth chiefly in the work. 1 
have for some yeftrs believed the business 
would prove profitable. 

My thanks for the specimen of sewing'* 
silk sent me, and your polite invitation to at- 
tend the anniversary or the Institnte, which 
previous engagements must prevent. 

D. B. BLAXXSLKT,JVeiMr&, WmvM Co., 
A*. F.—- 1 am a *ilk-grower, and feel a deep 
interest in the enterprise. 1 send you a brief 
statement of my experience in the business. 
(1.) I have fed silk- worms three years; the 
first year I failed for want of sufficient ven* 
tilation ; from two ounces eggs well batched, 
(pea-nut variety,) 4^ bushek cocoons. Sec- 
ond year, summer of 1842, my success was 
triumphant ; from four ounces eggs (common 
sulphur) the product was 33 bu&els superior 
cocoons. The third year^ vis., the past sum- 
mer, I have feiled almost entirely — from six 
ounces eggs (both pea-nUt and sulphur) the 
product was 15| bushels very poor cocoons. 
(2.) My cocoonery is in ajn upper room, in a 
building 163 feet Jong and 40 feet wide ; the 
lower [wrt is used for horses to stand under 
durinr church service on Sunday. liOst spring 
a kenilumse (which I could not prevent) was 
built in one end of the lower part of the build- 
ing and directly under my cocoonery ; the 
hen-house is SJO by 40 feet ; hens to the 
amount of two to three hundred have been 
kept there all summer, and I have oonse* 
quently not had a breath of pure air in my 
cocoonery during the season ; the stench 
arising from the £n-roost, at particular times, 
was almost suffocating. My worms were 
managed this year precisely the same as last, 
by the same persons, and fed fromthe same 
trees. Several of my neiffhbors . have en- 
gaged in feeding wonns this year, and all 
have been very successful, and had their 
e^ffs of me. I am unable to acoottnt fer my 
fiiilore in any other way than by the infected 
air from the hen-houee. My last parcel of 
worms, at the age of two weeks, which were 
very unhealthy and dying rapidly, I gave to 
a neighbor, who removed them into his own 
laboratory, and in 48 hours they had gbopped 
dying, levived, and have done vrit ever 



LETTB18. 



•inee^ mad mm now windiB^ . I h»te e<Hn« 

moh ttovet^ but have not resorted to artifi- 
oial heat but very little at any time ; when- 
ever I h&ve, I have endeavored to keep the 
temperature up to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. 
(3.) . ave never fed in open aheds or tent, 
v-t.) I prefer the orange pearnut to an^ I am 
acquainted with. (5.) I use the multicaulis, 
an<l no other ; I care not how they are pUnt- 
ed, whether in cuttings or whole trees ; out 
oA' the tops close to t£e ground in the fiUl, if 
they are to be preserved for planting ; if not, 
1 do it early in the spring. .The same quan- 
tity of ground wUl prwloce more foliage, 
managed in that way, than to let the trees 
stand. (O.) I have nad as good success in 
late feeding as early; my experience has 
taught me no diiSeience. (7.) The failures 
in feeding that have come under my observa- 
tion, in a proportion of 99 to 100, have been 
for want of sufficient ventilation. 1 have 
used the mulberry-leaf for no other purpose 
than feeding worms and milch cows, and 
neither have I tried any experiments to get 
the bark off the tree. From all my expe- 
rience and observation, I think we have 
abundant encouragement in this most noble 
of all American enterprises. 

TiTVS Biiowir, FrametfUntm^ A*. H. — I 
want your Aeport. I cannot truly call my- 
self a silk-grower, except it be in anticipation. 
It is my intention, at a future, and not a dis- 
tant day, to engage in the business. I am, 
for that purpose, cultivating a considerable 
quantity of the multicaulis mulberry, and 
shall next year increase the number of my 
trees aa much as possible. Some of my 
neighbors laugh at me, but I am not discour- 
aged. I brieve the business, when fairly 
established, will afford as rich a return for 
the capital and labor emj^oyed as any of the 
ordinary branches of business in which men 
engage. With such a result, those who go* 
into it should be satis^d. 

Roa£iiTSi9ci.AiR, ClairmantJ^urtery^near 
B^Uimare, — I have not been engaged in 
manufacturing silk, but, having a large stock 
of multicaulis and other mulberry-treeft, 1 
built a house, 42 by 30 feet, two stories high, 
both stories and garret well shelved, with a 
suitable cellar to preserve and cut the leaves 
in. In 1841, 1 had 83 bushels of cocoons 
raised in it — sulphur and pea-nut, mostly 
the former. In 1843, 1 let the house and 
trees to a person on shares, who made about 
16 pounds of reeled silk, and upwards of 100 
ounces of pea-nut eggs. The present season 
I managed it moeUy myself, but, owing to 
■fiany oUier engagements, I made only one 
crop, amounting to 34 buuiela of pea^nut co- 
coons, which was as many aa the house would 
hold at one time. To regulate the tempera- 
ture, I have a small ti^ht room in the cellar, 
with a stove in it, which enables the mana- 
ger to warm the house, by means of suitable 
conductors to convey the heated air inta the 
di&rent parts ; but I find, in our climate, 
thia. tcMkhW and expenat. may be avoided, by 



oommeneing about theHrst of Um Gth laontf^ 
afler the chilly, damp weather is past. My 
glass windows are in one frame, and hingea 
so as to open or shot aa the weather requires ; 
and also Venetian shutters, so constructed 
that each slat, working on its own pivot, can 
instantly be changed from the broad side to 
its edge only to the light, admitting or ex<* 
eluding light, and air, and heat -^ which I 
find very convenient. « I prefer the pea^nut, 
and the multicaulis to leed with; 1 think 
the white Italian equally good, but the tedi- 
ons gathering is a serious objection. 1 think 
it best to cut the leaves very fine until after 
their second moulting, then, to save time and 
expense, feed with branches. When ready 
to spin, it is best to remove them to elean 
shelves, and feed them plentifully witli 
leaves. If cut, it will be better, all which 
will prevent their .becoming sickly^ and spin- 
ning in their own dirt ; this is tfai* period in 
which most failures occur, and may be easi* 
ly prenented by a little extra attention for 
about a week, and the profit and success 
much depends upon it At the second 
moulting I have observed that only one 
half, or two thirds, moult the first day, and 
the balance the next day. I find it much 
best, and saves trouble ailerwards, to keep 
these separate. My other engagements arc 
such, together with advanced age, as will 
prevent me pursuing it farther. I would 
rent the house, fixtures, and trees, on mod- 
erate terms. 

P. B. I found but iiule difficulty in rais- 
ing good silk- the first season, without any 
previous experience ; and it may be raised 
to good profit, if manufacturers wdl continue 
to give four dollars per bushel for good 
cocoons; and it is well suited for families 
consisting of some women and children. 1 
^prehend much wealth will ultimately come 
out of raising silk. 

Gardner Furness, P. .¥., Grten F. O^ 
LancagUr Co^ Pa. ^ In 1839, planted 20O 
mulberry-trees > in 1840, fed 700 worms for 
eggs ; in 1841 » made 5 lbs. reeled silk ; 1843^ 
hatched a larffe lot, but they were not so well 
attended, ana did not do as well ; in 1843, 
hatched 200,000, did well until ready to spin, 
had then two or three days of excessive beat, 
and they all sickened and died ; made only 
5 lbs. reeled silk. 

I use the spare rooms in my dwellings- 
house. [200,000 silk-worms jammed into 
the spare rooms of a common dwelling 1 No 
wonder they all *' sickened and died.' The 
wonder is that any lived a fortnight.'^ 
I. R. B.] 

I have tried the two-crop worm, bnt prefor 
the other kinds. 

Prefer early feeding; it is the dictate of 
nature. [We trust our friend will hereader 
follow nature in the matter of ventilation al- 
so. — LR. B.] I have bad my silk mnnu- 
factured, and have a full suit for my own 
wear. 



LETTBR8. 



tinr^tty reevrred, through some unknown 
friend, your Silk Circular, I hasten to de- 
ipatob a brief answer to your queries. 

In 1832, '33, and '34, small lots of worms 
were fed by us on leaves of the native mui* 
berryi by way of experiment and amuse- 
ment — good eocoons, and no disease. In 
1840, 4(M) worms, pea-nut and sulphur — 
flood cocoons, and no disease. In 1841, 
SOCMKM) worms fed partly on multicaulis, 
white Italian, and native — > three fourths de- 
stroyed by disease, and but 20 bushels of 
cocoons. In 1843, 50,000 fed on multicaulis 
— three fourths lost by disease — 8 bushels 
of cocoons. In 1843, 50,000 worms — no 
disease — 15 bushels remarkably fine co^ 
coons. 

I prefer the pea-nut, as being more hardy, 
and maturing in a shorter time, and it reels 
more easily. 

We have the small-leaved white Ital^ 
ian, multicaulis, and native mulberry. We 
ahould preftT the Italian, but for the greater 
labor in gathering leaves. The mulberry 
ground is ploughed and harrowed in the 
spring, and the. trees should be close trimmed 
before they sprout. 

Worms kept back from hatching until 
mild weather becomes settled, and the leaves 
fully grown, are attended with much less 
labor, and make better cocoons. The best 
we ev^r made were spun up when the ther- 
mometer ranged between 70^ and 90^. 

1 consider the diseases of Jiilk-worms 
strictly miasmatic, produced by vicissitudes 
in the weather operating upon the moist 
effluvia from the worms and the litter. The 
remedy is the free circulation of air, and the 
free use of lime. Lime operates by absorb- 
ing the moisture, and neutralizing, by chem- 
ical aiiinitv, the matter from which the nox- 
ious exhalations arise — thus purifying the 
atmosphere. 

What silk we make is entirely done by 
tnf wife and daughters, and the younger 
children, without nindering my sons who 
are able to plough. We use the Piedmoii- 
tese reel, and the twisting is done on the 
old-feshioned flax-wheel. The raw silk, en- 
closed, is a specimen of ten pounds reeled 
this season, and the cloth was woven on 
the common loom, and dyed with red oak 
bark* — my daughters are clothed in it. 
They have another piece of 40 yards in the 
loom, of a finer thread, intended for pocket- 
handkerchiefs. 

Were we to judge from our own experi- 
ence of the culture and manufacture of 
silk, we should think it entirely feao^ible; 
and that, even in a domestic way, as a 
branch of family industry, industrious fe- 
males, accustomed to manufacturing home- 
made clothing, can work with silk as easily 
and profitably as with wool, cotton, or fiax. 
The raw «ilk can also be produced with as 
much ease and profit as wool, cotton, or 
flax. 

I should like to receive your Aeport, 

< Afltte ipsdiitea of IwiushoUl Uidiittry.— 1. &. B. 



whether ti&is be eontaitied JA it t/r'mft ; n^ 
be assured, that if I live, the silk culture 
will not be abandoned by my family| unless 
we meet with greater discouragements than 
we have hitherto met. 

Charcxs L. Wardsworth, HsraiA, Me. 
— ^ Some of my family have fed a very few 
worms for three or four years — use the 
white mulberry^— have a few niulticaulis, 
and mean to increase them. This year have 
fed 60 lbs. good cocoons, large pea-nut va- 
riety — egrgs obtained of Mr. Morris, Bur- 
lington, N. J. ^- hatched Jun6 30th < — began 
to spin in thirty-two days — a very few died 
aHer they beglin to spin, but m general 
they were very healthy. 

I use an out-building 30 by 15 feet, cov- 
ered originally with -green boards, and tho 
cracks would now average one inch in width 
— a loose ground floor, and none above. 
One large ooor at one end, and a window at 
the other — use no artificial heat-*- and -no 
lime — feed on branches alto^tber. The 
door and window were kept closed in high 
winds, and cold spells ; at other times fauy 
open. 

During our feeding, the thermometer va- 
ried very much. One day it ran from 55** 
to85o. One day from 609 to 9»o. One day 
from 50^ to 80^, and one fh*m 50^ to 88^. 
One thing I wish to mention particularly. 
Afler they began to spin, 1 found the ther- 
mometer one morning -down to 44^, and the 
next morning down to 46^. The worms, 
of course, were torpid, dormant, and stiff; 
I thought it was a gone case with them, but 
they revived- with returning warmth, and 
went on with their wonderral labors, to all 
appearance not essentially injured by their 
temporary interruption, and brought out the 
restilts as above stated. The expenae of 
cutting the bushes, and feeding this lot of 
60 lbs. cocoons, 1 ara sure did not exceed 10 
cents a lb., though I hired cheap. 

There are a few others in this re^on that 
have made similar experiments wite myself 
m growing silk, ana with similar results. 
Auiong the number is Mr. (Jeorge Fitch, 
South ^ridgeton ; Mr. James Walker, Frye- 
burg; Mr. James McArthur, Livingston; 
Mr. Dillingham, Hebron. 

From this you will see, that we can grow 
silk, even in Maine. I fully believe that 
this precious and invaluable product may 
be cultivated any where and every where, in 
our extended country and eontiiti^nt, wher- 
ever our favorite crop, Indian com, can be 
grown. 

David J. Oodxn, Rosendale, JV. Y. — 1 
feel deeply interested in the silk businesa, 
but since I have attempted it, I have met 
with manv discouragements. At the sug- 
gestion of^Mr. Silas Smith, of Sprin^ld, I 
entered on the business in the ipring of 
1843. I purchased trees sufiicient to plant 
five acres, but a cold, dry spell of weather 
followed immediately aftor planting, which 
killed Ifaiee uiea eltirely, aadl abeut htOf 



LfiTTERa 



ff the lemwniiy two Aoret. From m late 
frost, I fell shoit of leayes, and had eight or 
nine buahela of imperf<»ct cocoons. This year 
I commenced feeding about 20i,000, which 
appeared to do very well until about winding 
time, when all died, with the exception of 
enough to make about thne peeks of co- 
coons. 

My infonnation was very liiftited prior to 
my engaging in the business. I subscribed 
to the Silk Record, and had Mr. Roberts's 
work on the Culture of Silk, as my guide. 
1 have observed the' habits of the worm yerr 
closely, and I can safely say / have seen all 
the diseases that it is subject to, and 1 believe 
the nearer we can get them to a state of 
nature the greater the success. I feel conn- 
dent that no plan that I have yet seen can 
compare with Mr. Gill's, although I have 
not tried it. When I commenced feeding 
my last crop, I put some on the trees, and 
they grew four times as fast as those fed m 
the house ; and I believe, fiom that experi- 
ment, that many diseases originate in the 
early stages of me worm, that do not show 
their fiUal consequences until the last age. 
If, therefore, some plan can be pursued that 
will give them the same amount of free air 
that Mr. G.'s plan gives them afWr the sec- 
ond moulting, I thmk our success will be 
certain. Tou will please send me one of the 
Reports of the Convention, and whatever the 
cost may be I will get it to you. 

My ill success has prevented others in this 
ficiniW from entering into the business. 

P. S. I am requested to mention, by Levi 
McKeon, that he has fed from 2 to 3000 
worms fox the last five years, on a flat sur- 
face, and has not lost over two per cent a 
}rear, and he thinks the business is prac- 
ticable. 

LiNcoLK Jacob, Hin^Aam, Mass, — About 
the middle of June I hatched two or three 
thousand worms. They spun well. About 
the first of July I hatched a large lot — they 
did well until they began to spin ; at this time 
the weather was very not and dry, the worms 
began to be very feeble and die — in one 
w^k they nearly all died. I then hatched 
six or eight thousand — they spun well -« 
about the middle of September used artificial 
heat one week at the close. 

I am more convinced than ever that water 
does not hurt the worms. I believe if I had 
sprinkled my leaves with water this season, 
when the weather was so very dry and hot, 
I should have saved my worms. 

Enoch Bacon, Southbridge, Mass. — In 
the fall of 1841, a brother of mme at the West 
recommended the silk-growing business to 
be suitable employment mr invuids and aged 
people. Being broken down by infirmities 
of age, I listened to the recommendation. I 
therefore procured 2000 trees — multicaulis 
and Canton ^~ which I laid down in the 
fpring of 1842, and from them, with the help 
of some white mulberry-treei in the neigh- 
bwlMod^ I xiused 51 pounds 3 ounoes co- 



eoont— saved a p^rt fi»r seed, end reaM 4 
pounds 2 ounces first-rate silk. 

In May, 1843, 1 set out something mere 
than 5000 roots on 60 rods of land, and laid 
down some cuttings. So I have now 7 er 
8000 trees, and have raised this year 3pounde 
11 ounces of reeled silk. I had 48 pounds 
4 ounces of ooooons. I saved 3 pounds 12 
ounces for seed, and reeled 44 pounds 8 
ounoes. I was disappointed about having 
eggs to hatch late. I had fohage enough to 
feed many more. I find there is much to be 
learnt in growing silk. I have had three sorts 
of worms — sulphur, mammoth white, and 

Eea-nut; the two former kinds were venr 
ealthy, fed well, wound and yielded welL 
The pea-nut, 1 think, according to the ezpe* 
hence I have had, are more unhealthy ttiaA 
the others. Used no lime, except for white* 
washing, and on the floor. 

I think the silk culture is much on the 
l^in, and will be a business of importance to 
Uie United States. I advise every.man en- 

giged in it to hold out with gooa courage. 
imculties always attend a new business. 
We shall soon surmount them all-* have 
already done this in regard to many. I am 
confident, that there will be more done 'm 
our town the coming season than ever. 

H. P. BvRAM, BranderAurg, JKy.— Witk 
pleasure I respond to the questions contained 
in the «* Silk Circular " of the American Iik> 
stituie. ' 

1. I have fed silk- worms to a greater or 
less extent in the State of Kentucky, every 
season except one, since the year 1837 in^ 
elusive, and generally with good success; 
lose by disease in no crop to exceed 15 per 
cent., and often not over 3 per cent. 

2. I have fed in enclosed buildings, venti- 
lated by doors, windows, and openings under 
the latter, &c., and healed by a stove when 
necessary. 

3. The present season I fed in an open 
shed, with decidedly ffood success, >-worme. 
healthy, and wound large, fair cocoons. 

4. I have fed every variety of worms that 
1 could procure, ana give the preference to 
those called the Chinese Imperial, and a va* 
riety represented to me as pea-nut, superior 
to sdl other varieties of that name that I have 
seen, still resembling some of them in color, 
&c., which is (the worms^ white —-and the 
cocoons white and nankm, but large, firm 
and heavy, and reels fireely. 

5. I feed from the multicaulis in the first 

Xs, and in the last stage use all the morus 
L (larffe leaf) and Canton that I can pro- 
cure — the latter kinds yielding the most 
silk, but the multicaulis produemg a finer 
fibre, and which reels more freely, and in 
feeding in this way secures both advantagee 
in some degree. 

The multicaulis should be cut off near the 
ground every three years, one third of the 
field each year. The other varieties 1 head 
down every year. I feed branches in the laet 
stages. 

6. I have hatched and fed worms in.^retf 



LETT£fi& 



immtii from April to Aoetut, the earliest 
fed always pr€>ducmg the HeayieBt cocoons. 
The latter eqaally healthy, when the egga 
have been properly kept and managed. Bat 
few persons have succeeded in late feeding, 
from the want of proper care of the eggs. 

7. The cauiBes of bad success that have 
come to my knowledge have been owing 
either to bad eggs, or badly kept, or the 
want of firee circmation of air in the apart- 
ment* 

8 and 9. 

10. The hatching of eggs can be per- 
ficUy retarded by being placed in a tin box, 
enclosed in a wood one, and suspended in the 
body of the ice, near the bottom of the ice- 
house. This is done by placing a Ions box, 
cut in three lengths and stooa on end, and 
placed in soon after the filling of the ice is 
commenced. The top joints can be removed 
as the ice settles. Th^ eggs at no time to be 
above the body of the ice. They shojuld be 
^aced in the ice in February or early in 

So far as mv observation extends, (and I 
have examined the subject with much care,) 
I am led to the conclusion that early feeding 
ifi open sheds that can be closed on eUher side 
at pleasure, will be the most successful meth- 
od for general adoption. Yet, from experi- 
ence, I believe that feeding can be carried on 
successfully from May to October, on an ex- 
tensive scale, upon an artificial plan, when 
art is applied in aid of nature ; that is, to aid 
ventilation by j£re, in warm, sultry weather, 
and in cold weather, to furnish a constant 
supply of fresh, warm air.t 

P. S. Doct. Charles Stuart of this* State, 
by mere accident, three years since, was in- 
duced to try the plan of open or shed feed- 
ing, and has continued it for the last two 
seasons with every desired success. 

Martin Phelps, Preble, Cortland Co., 
A*. Y. — Have fed worms two seasons — 
business entirely new — every thing to learn 
by experience. The first season hatched 12 
to 15,000 worms — much trouble about leaves, 
but after all carried them through in thirty- 
eight days — had ^ood cocoons, and 4 pounds 
ffood raw silk, wmch my daughter has made 
nito sewings. 

. This season, had some trouble about eggs, 
but finally got and hatched three fourths of 
an ounce. They were very healthy, and 
brought out good results again — how much 
silk f shall have cannot yet say. 

We have this year the pea-nut variety. 
The cocoons are very large and' handsome, 
more so than they were lasit year, when we 
fed two months earlier. We fed in a low 
one-storv building, 24 feet long by 14 wide, 
i^nclosea tight, but no ceiling, with 4 win- 
dows and 2 doors — we use a box-stove. 

* Sm the detafli of my experiment Bhowing the 
tMoeMity of thoroufh ventilation, as published in 
AM Borliagton Silk Record, in ^841. Abo, in the 
First Anunal Report of the N. E. S. Convention, 1842. 

t See statements respecting Mr. Sanders, in Ap- 



We use the mnltioaiiUs— ^have one^^dl 
of an acre that was planted a year ago last 
spring, in rows about two and a half feet 
apart — hoed them well three times; they 
^ew finely and yielded well. We cut themf 
m the fall, and left the roots in the ground 
over winter. Almost all lived and came 
forward at least ten days earlier than those* 
planted out this spring, and yielded nearly 
double the leaves through the season. The 
tops that I cut off, I put in boxes, and filled 
them with dry sand, and kept them in the 
cellar. They came out this spring fresh and 
ffood. I planted tiiem in furrows about three 
feet apart — I took a good dea\ of pains in 
covering them, and showd think almost every 
bud erew. Some I took up roots and top» 
togeUier, and buried in a dry place. They 
keptwell. I set them out standing. They 
have done well, but do not think it is thie 
best way. I shall leave all my roo\» in the 
ground this winter. I have now about half 
an acre, and if they grow as thrifW as they 
have this season, I can feed 50,000 or more. 

Thomas Mellxn, Madison, Madison Co.^ 
J{. Y. — It would ^ive me much pleasure to 
attend the Fair and Silk Convention, but the 
state of my health forbids. I attended the 
late Fair of the State Agricultural Society, 
at Rochester, as one of the Committee of • 
Judges on silk and silk fiibrics ; the weather 
being warm and favorable. The exhibition' 
of cocoons, raw silk, sewing-silk, and twist,- 
and various silk fabrics, was, upon the whole/ 
large and encouraging, and the exhibiters 
quite numerous, and the most of them quite 
satisfied with their experiments, and en- 
couraged to process in the culture of silk. 
The greatest defect I noticed was a want of 
skiU in reeling. But to proceed to answer' 
the interrogatories contained in your Circu- 
lar. And first. I have fed silk- worms six 
successive years besides the present. In 1837,' 
a cold year, I fed a small crop ; they were' 
a longer time in maturing than usual, but 
healthy, and made good cocoons. In 1838, I- 
fed two small crops ; the summer was hot 
and dry, or mostly so; the worms were 
healthy, matured and wound in six weeks. 
The results good. In 1839, a very cool sea- 
son, I fed two crops, and different kinds of 
worms. They were generally eight weeks 
before they spun, but very healthy, and spun 
good cocoons. 1840 — 1 fed three crops, 
of different hatchings ; the season was wamv 
and the worms did well, generally, but one 
brood, that was in its last age about the 
middle of August, when we had a week of 
excessive hot weather — the thermometer 
ranffing from 85 to 96 degrees, with hot 
nights ; and on the second day of this hot 
weather, for the first time, I observed the 
appearance of the yellows. Believing it to 
arise from too excessive a degree of neat, I 
ventilated the room, so as to give them the 
whole atmosphere, night and day, removed 
the diseased and dead worms, kept them 
clean, and arrested the* disease, until the 
weather became cooler, and lost but ariHiiaU 



LETTERa 



^pttt ef the brood. They prodaeed ezeeOent 
eoeoons. I was the more confident that the 
constitution of the silk-worm, in or near its 
iast age, eould not lonjr endure a heat of 85 to 
do degrees, from the met that I had on forms 
in the same room, at the time, a brood of some 
30,000 between the 2d and 3d moulting, 
and they passed the 3d moulting during this 
•ame hot weather with perfect safety, al- 
though not more than ten feet from the 
hurdles on which were the diseased worms. 
Kot one of this crop was affected with the 
yellows, or other disease. And I will here 
•obsenre, that I have never seen or known 
«his disease to attack the silk-worm except 
in or near its last age ; and not then, except 
there is a continued heat, of several succes- 
sive days, of 80 degrees and over. I will also 
here observe, that at the time above men- 
tioned, 1 had a neighbor that had a crop that 
had done finely until this hot weather com- 
menced; some had begun to spin, but he 
could not increase the ventilation of his room, 
and he literally lost his whole crop, and this 
"was the case of all, as far as I could learn, 
who had silk-worms in their last age at that 
time ; which discouraged many new begin- 
ners. In 1841, % and 3, 1 have fed with gen- 
eral good results ; and whenever any thing 
has taken place unfavorable, I could trace it 
to a satisfactory cause. 

1 have never fed in an open shed or tent, 
nor has any one in this region, but I have no 
doubt that it is a safe method where there 
is a mild and equable climate ; but in this 
YegipB I doubt its practicability, being situ- 
ate ih nearly 43 degrees north latitude, and 
between eleven and twelve hundred feet 
above the level o£ tide-water at Albany. We 
have in every year, during the time of feed- 
ing, some very cool weamer, both days and 
nights, when it would be necessary to regu- 
late the temperature of the cocoonery by the 
heat of a stove. 

I have a preference for the pea-nut vari- 
eties of the suk-worm, and particularly of the 
Sm^pore Nankin-coloied kind ; and a ffood 
opinion of the mammoth sulphur, and white. 

The trees 1 use are the multicaulis, or I 
began with them, but in this location they 
cannot be relied upon. The tops kill in 
winter, and sprout too late in the spring for 
early feeding, and the leaves are too succu- 
lent for safe and successful feeding in this 
location. I only use them to feed young 
worms on for a few weeks, and then change 
their feed to some other hard-wooded kind, 
viz. : tiie moms alba of the Florence variety, 
which is harder than the common Italian; 
and on the Canton, the Broosa, and on my 
• new kind, that I obtained as the Oregon 
mulberry. My trees are mostly planted in 
hedge-rows, and cultivated with plough and 
hoe, or should be. I have satii£ustorily 
tested, and found a difference between, the 
multicaulis and the alba, the Canton, Broosa, 
and my new plant, and find all of the latter 
fu superibr, in this region, to the multicaulis, 
as regaids the health of the worm, sad the 



fineness of the escooa, and the qaantMy «atf 
quality of the silk. 

Among my acquaintance where bad suo* 
oess has attended their feeding, my opinion 
is, that they were not sufficienUv ventrlated, 
nor kept sufficiently clean, and by feeding 
too succulent leaves during the last ages en 
the worm. 

I have generally found earlv feeding the 
best and suest, though I have nad gooa suc- 
cess with some broods fed late. 

My new plant has as yet withstood the 
severity of our winters, (except the unm^ 
tured parts,) but I have suffered much by 
having them broken down by heavy snows, 
and snow-drifts, and particularly so the last 
winter, when snow accumulated to an un- 
precedented depth, and lay until nearly the 
middle of April, thawing and becoming satu- 
rated with water, and then freezing at night 
to the branches and main stock, while thaw- 
ing continued at the bottom, which caused 
the mass of snow to settle, and this broke the 
branches and main stem badlv. I had some 
200 of my new kiAd, which were set fi>r 
standard trees, from two to four years' growth, 
from layers which had withstood the pre- 
vious winters, which were entirelv broken 
down in this way, but I had suffered them tc 
branch out within three and four feet from 
the ground with heavy tops, which exposed 
them to the heavy snow-drifts. Those that 
stood out of the drifts were not broken, and 
were not killed by the winter. I can raise' 
them into standard trees here, by trimming 
them so that their branches shall be above 
the accumulation of the snow. Their leaves 
are large and heavy, and the worms feed on 
them with as much avidity as on any other 
kind known to me, and grow as well, and 
have, in all cases, bton more healthy than 
worms fed on any other kind that 1 have, 
and pr€>duce firm, heavy cocoons, and the 
quality of the silk has in all cases been far 
Superior in lustre to any I can produce from 
any other kind of mulberry. In proof of 
which, I refer to the enclosed sample, which 
was produced by feeding silk-worms on the 
leaves of the tree above referred to, and such 
as I have produced from it every year that X 
have used it, which is five.* To whatever 
class of mulberry this belong, it possesses 
rare <|ualities for the production of silk of a 
superior quality. 

Mrs. Harriet H. A. Diirssroax, Ripley^ 
Ohio. — In compliance with your request 
that all silk-growers, however small their 
operations, should reply to your Silk Circu- 
lar, I would inform you that I have fed silk- 
worms three summers, with very different 
success each summer. The first year I fed 
two lots of worms, the first of which (fed 
upon a mixture of multicaulis and white 
mulberry) wound up in four weeks, produ- 
cing very large firm, cocoons. The next lot 

* We are lony to say that this lampla waa not 
reeeivei, or haa been mislaid. J, R. B. 



LETTERS. 



to do well ustil the fourth moult- 
ing, after which many of them became dis- 
«ft8ed and died. The residue spun thin 
leocoons. The failure attributed, at the time, 
Id bod egfs. 

The next aummer's feeding was almost an 
entire failure. The produce from 40,000 or 
50,000 worms, fed at different times, was less 
than -one bushel of cocoons, and those of an 
jfidifTereBt quality. Attributed principally to 
the unfavorableness of the season. While 
fteding the largest lot of worms, I was 
necessarily absent from home a few days, 
daring which they first. showed symptoms 
of disease. On ray return, I immediately 
removed them to clean shelves -^ savt them 
more room, and sifted lime over them every 
morning, until they were quite white. They 
ied weU and appeared healthy until time of 
winding, and, 1 have no doubt, would have 
•pun well, had the weather been dry as well 
AS warm. Jt was rainy and very toarm. 
Great numbers of my worms became yellow,. 
the skin would break upon the slightest 
tcmch, and a yellow liquid flow out. Others 
exhibited a flabby appearance, and soon died. 
The cocoonery was very offensive, and I 
flhould have been entirely discouraffed and 
abandoned the business altogether, nad not 
my neighbors been equally unsuccessful. 
I consider unslacked lime a powerful disin- 
^ter of disease amoHff silk-worms, and 
•rery, 1 would say, absolutely necessary, to 
be used in w^m, wet weather. 

The past season has been very favorable 
£qt feedmg, and, so far as I -know, the labor 
of those engaged in it has been crowned 
with success. My late crops of worms were 
not as healthy, and did not produce as many 
•oeoons by one third, as those fed early in 
Ike season. I am of opinion, that, in all 
oases, where the hatching of the egg is re- 
tarded much beyond the natural time, (the 
expanding <^ the mulberry foliage,) it affects 
the health of the worm. 

The buildinff used as a cocoonery was for- 
merly a dairy -house, twenty-feur by eighteen 
feet, lathed and plastered, with four win- 
dows, and a door opening to the north. 
Have fed the sulphur and salmon-colored 
poi-nut worms — prefer the last variety. 
Have about a quarter of an acre of multi- 
C9iaii» of three -years' growth. The first 
autumn, a part of the trees were taken up 
and buried in the ^und, and a part left 
standing, ^ince which, they have all been 
left durmg the winter. And the trees which 
' were not taken up the first winter, are now 
lar^r, and produce more foliage, than those 
which were. 

The corn cultivator and hoe are used in 
cultivating them. I am inclined to think 
the cause of failure in many, perhaps most 
cases where the multicaulis is used for 
feedinff, arises from using leaves that have 
not sufficient growth or thickness, and are 
not ripe. The young and under leaves hffve 
not sufficient nutriment, or, in other words, 
not suMcUnt material to produce silk. The 
worm Ted on such leaves passes through its 



vaiioiM and wondromi changes, livM fkm 
time prescribed by nature for its existenoey 
then, either stretcnes itself out and dies, or 
winds a thin, indifferent cocoon, heeattn it hat 
not silk enough to wind a better. This, also, 
is the opinion of many others with whom I 
have conversed on the subject. 

I was induced to commence feeding nlk- 
worms, air an employment better suited to 
my strength, than taking care of a dairy. It 
also afforded a prospect of future useful and 
profitable employment for a fiunily of small 
children. 

Should the information I have communi- 
cated, assist in any degree the important ob- 
ject you have in view, I shall feel very much 
gratified in having written it 

Wm . DooLiTTLx, PerryviUe^ Madison Co,^ 
JV. y. — I have fed worms for three years. 
The first year fed some for a neighbor, ob 
what we call the lowlands, where the fo^ 
firom Oneida Lake continues in the momin|f 
till seven or eight o'clock. Raised about 
two bushels of cocoons — ought to have had 
many more — attribute the failure to the 
eggs commencing hatching in the cellar^ and 
to cold, damp mornings, occasioned by the 
foff, &c. From these cocoons, I saved some 
of^the best for seed, and succeeded, the sec- 
ond year, in raising seventy-five pounds of 
very good cocoons of the Nankin pea-nut 
variety. Saved for seed, such as perfect 
cocoons, but not the hardest and best, (having 
been informed that they were equally good^ 
and the result has been this yeu an inferior 
quality of cocoons. My first lot this* year 
was small ; the second were killed, mostly, 
by chi(nffing the feed from multicaulis to 
black mulberry. Our multicaulis was much 
injured by a storm of hail, (literally torn itt 
pieces,) and I was compelled to use the 
black mulberry leaves, end they were so 
coarse and tough, that most of the wonmi 
died, and I raised only seventy-five pounds 
of coooons this year, i have fed prtnoipally 
on multicaulis, but, for experiment, have fed 
two or three thousand each, after tiie fourth 
moulting, on branches of the multicaulis and 
white mulberry, and could see no jMuticular 
difference in the quantity or ouality of the 
cocoons. I have ted a few or the sulphur 
variety of worms, but mostly pea-nut, and 
prefer, as far as iny experience j^oes, the 
Nankin pea-nut Think the business will 
yield a fair compensation for labor. 

P. S. I have a cocoonery with a stove, 
and regulate the temperature, according to 
judgment, by fire, ventilation, &c. 

Clark Avert, PerryvHU^ Madison Cs., 
JV. F. — I shall make my report by replying 
to your questions in order, and as they are in 
the Sil lb Circular. 

1. I have fed worms four years. The first 
year fed a few only. The second year raised 
ninety-eight pounds of cocoons — good sue- 
cess. Third year, raised fifty-six pounds of 
cocoons — did poorly; my egfgs were ael 
properly taken care of>comsienced >»»^tofcing 



LETTER& 



pienuttnrely, in March, and hence my crop 
of worms was small, and of an inferior qual- 
itj. 

S. I feed in a cocoonery, and reffalate the 
temperature by a stoye and Tentiiation, ac- 
cordine to the dictates of judgment 

3. I iMLTe not fed in an open shed or tent 

4. I have ^nerally fed the sulphur, but, 
from a little experience this year, I piefer 
the pea-nut. 

5. Multioanlis chiefly. I cut them off 
some five or six inches from the ground, in 
the fall annually, and plough and hoe them 
as farmers usually do corn. 

6. Early feeding, according to my experi- 
ence, is much better than late. 

7. As to " bad success in feeding," I can 
say nothing but what is found in the accom- 
panying reports. 

8. I have not tested the use of mulberry 
for pwer, and cannot this year. 

9. Have not tried any process of rotting 
in order to separate the bark of the young 
mulberry from the woody fibre, so as to 
convert it into paper or silk febric, and can- 
not do so this season. 

Most certainly there are difficulties to be 
met in the cultivation of silk, but care and 
experience will enable us to overcome them, 
and silk will, by and by, become one of the 
staple productions of our country, and the 
culture and manufacture of it amply repay 
the industrious for their investments and 
labor. 

David Irish, PsrryviUs, Madigtn Co., If. Y. 

1. Have fed worms three years with nni- 
lorm good success. First ^ar a few — sec- 
ond year fifty pounds— this year one hun- 
dred and thirty pounds of cocoons. 

2 and 3. I use a wagon-house, and also 
tn open shed, and the worms do equally well 
in both. Use no artificial heat — temperature 
is not regulated at all. 

4. Have raised the pea-nnt worm, and two 
kinds of sulphur, one much better than the 
other. 1 prefer the best kind oi sulphur; 
(the mammoth sulphur, I suppose thev are ;) 
they are a more heialthy worm than the pea- 
nut, and make a good and large cocoon. 

5. I use multicaolis trees — hoe them in 
the early part of summer, or spring, as 
ftrniers do corn, and cut them down near 
the ground in the fall, and plough a furrow 
on each side of the rows, turning the earth 
upon the plants to preserve the roots of the 
trees alive through the winter. 

6. I have, and find early feeding much the 
most certain and profitable in its results. 

7. Some have injured their worms by 
feeding tender and succulent leaves after the 
fourth moulting, and some by changing fh>m 
the finer varieties of mulberry to the coarser 
and more juicy, after the fourth moulting. 
One man destroyed a crop of worms by 
earing cocoons with camphor in the co- 
coonery, and I have heard of one who 
poisoned a crop to death by smoking tobacco 
u the cocoonery. 

8. 1 have not 

3» 



9. I have not 

[The three last-named gentlemen unite in 
presenting the following very just and sensi* 
ble remarks. — I. R. B.J 

We beg leave to subjoin a few general re« 
marks applicable to the several foregoing 
reports, and expressive of our united expe» 
rience and practice. We have heretofore 
made the raw material into sewing-silk of a 
very superior quality. We find no difficulty 
in competing with the Italian in our home 
market. Mr. Irish presented some at the 
State Fair, last month, and took the second 
premium on manufactured silk, or, in other 
words, the highest price on ^ Sewings,'* in 
the State. As to management of worms, 
^^•1 ®irS" should be saved from the best 
cocoons of the first crop ; they may be kept 
in any cool, dry celUr, or in a chamber with- 
out fere till spring, and then should be buried 
till wanted. A cocoonery should always be 
kept perfectly sweet, and well ventilated. 
None but mature leaves should be given to 
worms afler the fourth moulting ; and, if the 
leaves are changed, it should always be done 
gradually, and from the coarser to the finer 
varieties of mulberry. All dead womui 
should be removed at once — the cocoonery 
should be kept as quiet as possible— can 
and experience are requisite in order to gea* 
erallv succeed in the business. We do not 
think the culture and manufecture of silk 
will be a giant speculation, pouring wealth 
in mighty floods upon the careless and indo* 
lent, but we do thmk silk is destined to be- 
come a great staple, and the business will 
be as profitable as other departments of in* 
dustry. 

* Whenever we have feiled, we think we 
can trace it to some mbmanagement on our 
part, and believe experience will enable ne 
to prosecute the business successfully and 
profitably. 

Mosxs Ann AsEiTATH GbuoE, Ifartkaia^ 
ton, Mass. — We present the following state* 
ment, as the result of our experience in the 
silk culture : — 

We have assisted feeding worms feur or 
five years, but not till the present year have 
we taken the whole charge and responsibility 
on ourselves. 

This year we took the whole charse of 
one of Dr. Stebbins's feeding estiOtlish- 
ments, in this town; for which he paid ne 
a stipulated and satisfactory price by the 
pound (eighteen cents) for all the cocoon* 
we should raise for him. We and two bojs 
were in the business, and were well paid, 
and should be willing to engage to him again 
on the same terms, as it has given us a better 
return than we could have realised from any 
other employment. Had the late crops sue* 
ceeded as well as the first, we should have 
made moneviast enough. 

We fed the worms on tables of boards and 
on hurdles in two lon^ rooms well lighted 
by windows on each side ; but, at the sog* 
gestion of Dr. Stebbins, the glass windows 
were removed, and a firee eirenlation of m^ 



80 



LETTEBa 



day and nighty admitted to every part of the 
rooms, from the sides and doors at the ends. 

Our worms were fed whenever they would 
eat, — from early morning to the close of the 
day, in consequence of which we had a lot 
of large and heavy cocoons, the admiration 
of all who saw them, and visitors were not a 
few, purposely to see the sight. 

Bad success in ieedin? may result from 
bad eggs, oflen made such by bad manage- 
ment, in or out of the ice-house, but more 
frequently from careless, inattentive feeding, 
and want of air. 

Having so good luck with our first crop, 
and wishing to make as much as possible by 
the underti^Ling, we were supplied with eggs 
kept back from hatching, and the whole of 
ten or twelve ounces of eggs proved a failure. 

From the experience of the past and the 
present year, we can recommend the feeding 
of only one crop, and that an early crop. 

James C. Church, Poughkeepsie, Dutchess 
Co., JV. F. — In 1841, 1 fed about 150 worms. 
With the exception of a few, they all wound 
up, and produced good cocoons. The follow- 
ing winter I built a cocoonery, 32 feet by 20 
feet, two and a half stories high, ventilated 
by sliding wind6ws ; I have used no artificial 
hieat. 

The next spring I planted one acre of 
branches of the multicaulis, by laying them 
in drills eight feet apart. They came up very 
leffularly, and grew finely. 

1 that season raised forty-nine pounds co- 
coons, producing four pounds ten ounces silk, 
including the pierced cocoons that were spun 
into coarse silk. 

' I have never fed in open sheds. I prefer 
the pea-nut kinds. I use chiefly the multi- 
caulis. 1 have fed early and late. I have 
been the most successful in early feeding. 

Wm. a. Flippin, Cumherland County, Va. 
"^ As you have requested that all silk-grow- 
ers should inform you of their success on the 
)dan of open feeding, I thought I would in- 
form you of the success I had with a small 
lot of worms, fed in an open shed, the last 
luring. 1 had commencea tlie experiment 
before I saw your views on the subject of 
open feeding, believing it to be the only suc- 
cessful mode, if they could be protected from 
birds, insects, &c. My worms were vesy 
liealthyf although there were several frosts 
during the time of feeding. I have no doubt 
they would have made a first-rate crop of silk 
had they not been destroyed by the toasps. 
Had they been fixed on Mr. John W. Gill's 
plan, with cradles and fans, I think that would 
nave been a sufficient protection ; the fens, no 
doubt, would be first-rate to drive off the 
wasps. I should have been more particular 
with the crop, had I seen your proposals 
sooner. 1 fed three ounces of eggs in a house 
that I built fer the purpose two years ago. 
They made about twenty -one bushels of good 
cocoons. If it is convenient, I would be glad 
to receive one of your pamphlets, and if open 
feeding praves to be the most succeMful, I 



shall adopt that plan the next yeaif and en^ 
large my operations. 

Ctrus Thompson, Highgate Spa, Franklin 
Co., Vt. — I have fed silk-worms in a snaall 
way for the last six years, and am satisfied 
from my own experience that with proper 
management it may be made a profitable 
branch of business, even as far north as here. 
I have about three acres of mulberry-trees, 
two of white Italian and one of multicaulis. 
1 never lost many trees by our cold winters, 
although the multicaulis kills near to the 
ground. I have always fed two crops of 
worms in a season, and have always lost some 
in the last crop, and always succeeded well 
with the first. I have come to the conclu- 
sion that I will feed but one crop, and hatch 
them about the first of July. 

1 have a building on purpose to feed in, 
well ventilated, and no floor to it. This year 
I hatched one third my eggs about the first 
of July, and made eighty pounds of cocoons 
of the first quality, and from the remaining 
two thirds, with the same treatment, I got 
but sixty-three pounds, and those were not 
so good. I used no fires in the cocoonery 
this season, but last season 1 kept a fire night 
and day. My worms, however, did not do 
well, and bad it not been for the state boun- 
ty, 1 should have lost on the last crops. Each 
year's last crops hatched first of August. 

I should be highly pleased could I attend 
the Convention, which 1 think will be very 
beneficial to the silk cause, by diffusing use- 
ful knowledge in the report of the various 
experiments and results m different parts of 
our country. Proper information on this 
subject, distributed and brought within reach 
of all who are inquiring, must tend to advance 
the business, ana lead to results, not only of 
individual benefit, but of general good to thi« 
country. 

There are a number of my neighbors en- 
gaged in this business, and their success has 
been generally about the same as mine. We 
have always reeled and made our cocoons 
into sewings, and sold it to the country mer- 
chants in exchange for goods. We have this 
year reeled our silk for sale, and think we are 
making an article that will sell for cash in 
market. If so, it will be very encouraging 
to us, as it is very tedious to make sewmgs 
by hand. 
. In 1840, we made ^ lbs. cocoons. 

1841, « 51 " 

1842, «» 130 «* 

1843, «« 143 « 

And, from my experience in the business, I 
am satisfied tnat it must, when there is prop- . 
er information acquired on the subject, be- 
come a profitable branch of industry, and 
tend to general good, by giving suitable em- 
ployment to thousands of destitute, but mex^ 
itorious inhabitants. 

With these views^ I feel deeply interested 
in the Convention, and have no doubts but 
your investigations and Report will happily 
result in advancing, the silk cause in this our 
country. 



LETTERS. 



'4k 



. -Rbt. D. Bbitsdict, Pawtudcet^ R. J.-^I 
nave been anable to pay much attention to 
this business this year, so wholly engrossed 
is my tune, my thoughts, and ail my powers, 
with my historical pursuits. 

I have done nothing in feeding this season, 
only to raise enough for eggs for another 
year. I gave away all my eggs but a few for 
this purpose. I am fond of the business, if 1 
could attend to it. My trees lived well the 
last winter, and I have left them without any 
car^ this summer, and now have leaves in 
abundance. 

My silk weaver made a failure of it. I 
kept him on hand a good while, at some sac- 
rifice. His skill was sufficient as to weaving, 
but he had not the preparations for getting 
eut his webs, and knew not how to make 
them. He made some good plush out of a 
short web he had on hand, and then he was 
up a tree. 

I have heretofore united with much satis- 
faction in the experiments in the silk busi- 
ness, and am fully convinced, so far as the 
j^racticability of the thing is concerned, that 
the growing of silk will in time become an 
extensive and profitable business in this 
country. 

Cleanliness, air, and regular and full feed- 
ing, are the grand secrets. My small crop, 
this year, was attended to in my scientific 
way, like fatting pigs. I kept them with a 
full supply, and none could do better. If I 
could have my way, however large the crop, 
I would have the leaves always fresh, and 
ffive them oflen and plenty, and never leave 
Jhem on thick, mouldy beds. 

I do not know the fact, but I suspect that 
the finest and most costly silk in France is 
made from the small two-crop worms. 

. J. L. Woodward, MUbury, Mas^. — My 
operations have been so limited, they are 
lordly worth communicating ; yet they may 
serve to establish general principles in regard 
to this enterprise. 

In 183i^ I purchased a lot of multicaulis. 
Canton, and Alpine trees. I planted the two 
former in cuttings ; one half of them did not 
come up ; took them up in the fall, and put 
them in the cellar. Next spring planted 
them, laying the tree, root and all, in fur- 
rows, four feet apart, covering light. They 
came up first-rate, and are now flourishing 
trees ; have not taken them up for two years 
past ; they have kept well during the winter 
seasons. The soil is of a loamy texture. I 
have fed worms four years j have generally 
had ^ood success ; have fed early and late ; 
consider early feeding decidedly best ; haue 
fed in an inclosed building, well ventilated. 
I find a free circulation of air indispetisably 
neeesenry. Fed the pea-nut and sulphur; 
think the sulphur more healthy. I see noth- 
ing to prevent growing silk in this country, 
and to profit, if managed judiciously. 

James W. Chappell, Lima, Livingston 
Mo^ Jf, F. — I am highly gratified in observ- 



ing the praiseworthy efforta of the Amerioan 
Institute in regard to the growth and rnanu* 
facture of silk. Successful experiments have 
now become so numerous that no doubt ought 
to exist as to the feasibility of the enterprise. 
Five years' experience has fully satisfied me 
that the silk culture is not only practicable, 
but can be made amply to remunerate the 
culturist for his labor. During those five 
years I have produced about forty bushels of 
cocoons, and the result of each year's operas 
tions has been complete success. 

In 184*2 I built a cocoonery 20 feet by 60, 
two stories high. It has twenty-six winaow0| 
furnished wiUi blinds, and six doors. The 
building is plastered throughout, which tends 
to prevent sudden changes in temperature, 
and also is more easily kept free from in- 
sects and mice, the great enemies of the silk- 
worm. 

In regard to open feeding, I would say that 
I have always fed with windows consianUy 
oven both day and night, and the doors duriujg 
tne day ; and am fuUy convinced that this is 
the true system for successfully carrying oB 
the business. 

I have never used artificial heat; have 
used air-slacked lime, and have found the 
early part of the season better than the last 
for feeding. Of the different varieties of silk- 
worm, I consider the large Nankin pea-nut 
preferable to any other with which I am ac* 
quainted. 

I use the leaves of the multicaulis exclu- 
sively for feeding, of which I have about 
three acres. The trees are cut down within 
about two inches of the ground in the spring, 
have received no material injury from the 
winter, and many of them have grown the 
past season to the height of seven and a half 
feet, 

Samuel Wagner, York, Pa. — I have, for 
two or three ^ears, been engaged, in a small 
way, in testing the practicability of intro«' 
ducing the silk culture in this country. I 
have a growing interest and an increased 
confidence in the business. I should esteem 
it a great favor to receive a copy of the pro- 
ceed mgs of the SUk Convention. The small 
number of persons who engaged in the silk 
culture, in tnis State, without any reference 
to a mulberry-tree speculation are, I believe^ 
very generally persevering in their enter- 
prise, though the withdrawal of the Stale 
bounty operates unfavorably in some cases. 

O. G. Cathcart, WUliamfiburgh, Mass, — 
Have fed worms six years, and have been 
so far successful that 1 have been induced 
to increase my stock of trees and worms 
yearly. 

Am satisfied that the cultivation of silk, as 
a branch of family industry, is profitable, and 
might be made more profitable to a family of 
children and youth than most business that 
they now follow. Children and youth can 
pick leaves and feed worms; the mother 
and daughters can convert the cocoons iat^ 



LETTER& 



raw fUk, ■ewini^-Bilk, hcwe, gloyes, laces, 
Ae. ; pierced cocoons and floss into various 
articles. 

Four years 1 fed in a tightly finished room 
that was well aired in good weather, and 
closed in bad, and the two years past in an 
oat>house, singly boarded, with a loose floor, 
and standing nigh from the ground, exposed 
to a free circulation of air in all weath- 
ers; and the worms havei been decidedly 
more healthy these last seasons than they 
were before. 

Think the pea-nut variety is to be pre- 
ferred. 

Have tried a number of kinds of trees ; like 
the Canton best, and consider large-leaved 
Alpines good, especially to feed in the last 
age. 

P. S. Two of my neighbors have lost al- 
most their whole crop of worms, which, I 
am convinced, was caused by heat and pent 
■ir. ^__^ ■ 

James Morgan, Freedom^ Carroll County ^ 
Md. — I have fed a few worms each of the 
last four years, but have had but indiflerent 
success in consequence of having my feeding 
house situated too low, it being a saw-mill, 
36 hy 12 feet, surrounded with water, being 
also in a very large valley. Have never fed 
in an open shed or tent, but intend doing so 
next year. Have fed pea-nut and sulphur, 
but prefer the pea-nut. Have none but mul- 
ticaulis trees; about 6000, standing about 5 
feet by 2 ; intend planting one acre more of 
new land in the spring. I let them stand as 
they grow, plough them twice during the 
summer. Have raised eight bushels of co- 
coons this season, the first crop much the 
healthiest, though I lost all my first leaves by 
the frost on the jst of June. I am confident 
that my bad success is in consequence of the 
situation of my cocoonery, as stated above. 
Have not tested either the 8th or 9th ques- 
tions of your first series, and it is now too 
late to do so in time for your Convention. I 
shall try the 8th, as I am a paper manufac- 
turer. 

From what I have done in the business, I 
am satisfied that it will be a profitable busi- 
ness, and am making preparations for build- 
ing a cocoonery on a high and airy situation, 
fbr feeding, next summer. 

1 have one acre of new ground, which 1 
intend to plant with multicaulis roots next 
/spring. You request me, in your letter, to 
send you alt the facts I can get relating to 
feseding. I know of none, in mis county, out 
of the many who entered into the tree spec- 
ulation, who are feeding worms ; but they 
are ffone off, as . you said in your letter, in 
smoke. There were many of'^them in this 
county, not one of whom is doing any thing 
in the silk business. I am alone in Carroll 
county. In Frederick county, Mr. Jenks 
and Mr. Ramsburgh are feeding in the State 
barracks. 1 was there, this spring, at the 
commencement of the feeding season. I 
lukTe not seen them since, but have heard 



that they made superior cocoons this 
better than they ever made before. 



James Walker, Fryeburg Island^ JVe. — 
Am much pleased with your plan fer collect* 
ing facts in regard to the silk culture. I 
have had many difficulties to overcome, there 
being no one near me to give any practical 
information. I have fed worms eight sea- 
sons ; have the multicaulis and the white ; 
made 12 lbs. of silk ; last year, 34 lbs. Af- 
ter all my difficulties, I am not discouraged. 
I shall pursue the business, as I believe it 
can be made as profitable, even here, as any 
farming business we can pursue. 

I prefer the pea-nut worm, as yielding 
much the most silk. 

I was much pleased, last summer, to see 
Mr. GiH's plan of tent and cradle feeding. 
Let me tell my experience as to ventilation. 
When I first began feeding, I used a com- 
mon room in. my house. My worms were 
oflen diseased, but I supposed it to be a ne- 
cessary incident of the business. 

At length, as a matter of convenience, I 
took my worms into an out-buildinff, origi- 
nally used for curing hops, boarded open, 
like an old-fashioned barn. There were 
large cracks, so that the air could pass fireely 
through on all sides. Since then we have 
had very little loss by disease. My feeding, 
therefore, must be styled open feeding, for it 
is not so confined as a tent would be ; and I 
know I have been successful in what I have 
attempted to do since I have used the above 
building. 

As to enlisting others in the business, 
there is no one, within eight or ten miles of 
me, doing much. As I have been longer in 
it than any other, they are coming to me for 
information. Little can I do for them, ex- 
cept to tell them wherein I have done wrong. 

[That is the best kind of instruction, 
firiend Walker. — I. R. B.] ^ 

Dr. James Mease, PhUaddphut. — I re- 
joice to see, by the papers, that y%u are to 
have a Silk Convention in New York ; regret 
that the state of my health will deprive me 
of the pleasure I should have, could I be one 
of the number. But, although absent, I 
shall make a small effort to aid the great 
cause. 

I urge the exclusive use of the Piedmon* 
tese reel, as essential to the production of 
good raw silk, to the profits of the cultivator, 
and to the excellence of the fabrics made 
from it. The exclusive use of this reel has 
been established and provided for by law in 
Piedmont, for more than a hundred years ; 
and no attempts to improve it, in Europe, 
have succeeded. Substitutes, in the United 
States, have been feund inferior, or too ex- 
pensive. The original one which I import- 
ed, in 1828, cost $14 ; but much neater ones 
are now made for $10. 1 shall be happjr to 
put any gentleman in the way of obtaining 
one. I iQso imported a machine to work up 
the perforated cocoons, and deposited, il in 



LJBrrTBBa 



the Frm^lin Iiwtitttte, PMladdphia^in 1831, 
whcae it can be ezunined. Directioiu for 
vfling it acoompanied the apparatua. 



Elias Fej^eyslky, EUisburg^ Jefft 
County, J{. F. — Has fed three seasons ; uses 
the multioaulis and Italian whites; first 
crops §rood; late crops bad. Two seasons 
fed in a common room and corn-house. 
This year built a cocoonery 40 by 22 feet ; 
did not batten the joints ; left the floor 
loose. Increased his pounds with trees, 
with a view to a regular and permanent 
business. 

My experience, sars he, is just this. The 
worm must be toell vtntilaUdy as well as 
the cocoonery. I^me of my worms, this 
year, were ta!ken with vomiting. I took a 
part thus affected, and put them on the trees, 
and they soon recovered. The rest died im- 
mediately. 

[Mr. F.'s cocoonery is undoubtedly too 
dose. — I.R.B.] 

Michael Kline, ReamsUnon P. 0.^ IaM' 
easUr Co., Penn. — I commenced the silk- 
culture in the year 1841, on a small scale, 
without havins any knowledge of the busi- 
ness at all. My experience has brought me 
to believe that there is nothing wautmg but 
practical knowledge of the business to in- 
sure full and complete success. To get the 
Report of the Convention, and so get knowl- 
. edge, is the main object oS ray writing, for 
I am determined to go on in the business, 
any way, right or wrong. I wish to go 
right. 

In the year 1841 I raised 30 lbs. of co- 
coons; in 1842 I raised 228 lbs. ; and in 1843 
I raised. 350 lbs., although the frost we had 
in June last spoiled the leaf of my trees so 
much that I could not do any thmg in the 
business the greatest part of the best of the 
le^on this year. 

I fed two varieties of worms, which are 
with us called the small pea-nut, and the 
large pea-nut. It appears to me the large is 
the healthier worm, but I prefer the smaU 
pea-nut, because that kind gives from 20 to 
22 ounces of silk per bushel cocoons, and the 
larffe onlv 16 to 18 ounces per bushel. 

fuse tne multicaulis; planted 3i^ acres, in 
the same manner that corn is planted, two 
vears last spring, and they grow finely. I 
keep the grass out by working between the 
rows several times through the summer with 
a cultivator. 

Among my acquaintances engaged in the 
business, there is much complaint that they 
can raise the worms and keep them healthy 
until a few days before spinnmg ; then they 
turn yellow and die ; and that they can't find 
out the cause* [See Appendix. I. R. B.] 

Caleb Palmer, U Roy, J^. Y.^(l.) I 
have fed two years; first year Ij^ bushels; 
fecond year 2^. 

J 2.) Use a common room; temperature 
/segulated. 
($.} Never fisd in a ahed or tent. 



(6.) Moltieaulhi; lei them stand, aadoult^ 
vate them. 
(6.) Prefer early feeding. 

Rtlaicd E. Jones, Le Roy, JV. T. — {!.) 
I have fed two years ; first year 3 bushels of 
good cocoons ; second year Ij^ . 

(2.) Use a room in the attic ; temperature 
not regulated. 

'3.) Never fed in a shed or tent. 



^4.) The two-crop worm. 
(5.) Multicaulis and white ; let them stand 
out, and cultivate them. 

(6.) £arly feeding, about June. 

Nicholas McOartt, Indkma'pelis, Indi' 
dna. — I have fed worms two seasons. Last 
vear, from 1^ ounces of Piedmcmtese eggs, 
nad 8.^ bushels good cocoons. Same yeae 
sent to New Jersey for 10 ounces e^gs; 
hatched and hatchmg when they arrived, 
and lost the most of uem. Fi#m the Pied- 
montese saved 50 ounces ; placed them in 
ice at the proper time. In the spring, with- 
out my knowledge, they wer^ removed ; gol 
somehow out of the ice, upon the surface; 
and the first I knew they were all hatched 
in the ice-house. (I must be censured for 
great carelessness.) Took my •worms, June 
15, and, to make a short story of a bad case, 
maide only \^k bushels of indifferent co- 
coons; not 20 as good as first crop last year. 

(2.) The second floor of two-story houses 
was used to feed in. The temperature not 
regulated, but a free circulation of air from 
the windows. 

[No common dwelliAff-faouse lias windows 
enough,. by one half, if the rooms are filled 
with worms, as is usual. — I. R B.] 

(3.) Have not fed in a tent or open shed. 
A neighbor has fed in that way this year, 
and isliifirhiy pleased with it. 

(4.) My experience is limited; am not ac« 
quainted with different kinds of worms. 

(5.) Fed on multicaulis, of the second 
year's growth; cut leaves for a time, and 
then fed on branches. Cultivate the trees ; 
trees not essentially injured in the winter, 
except where the water .stood; head them 
down in the spring. *. 

The production of silk, in this country, is 
of the utmost importance ; and, from what, 
little I have done and seen, and firom what I 
have read, I entertain no doubt in regard to 
the feasibility of the matter. Wt eon do tt. 
Let practical information be disseminated ex- 
tensively, and it will be done. Hence I look 
with great interest for the Report of the Con- 
vention.. 

Rev. John L. Richmond, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, — I have fed worms ei^ht years, on 
a small scale; have fed on tctid muiberry 
most, Italian, and some muiiicaidis, two 
years. Have found them to live best on 
wUd, but grow slower. They died most on. 
multicaulis, other circumstances being equal. 
Have used tight and open rooms, warm and 
oold rooms, and now prefer open tmts. 09 
£ 



LETTERS 



IntildinM^ flo •» to let them ikure hfit^ dreu^ 
ioHan <3* air. We fed them this ytar under 
■n open shed^ which eyen leaked so that my 
worms got wet in two showers, and it did 
them little or no harm. 

I think worms may be led until second 
moulting on multicaulis, afler which they 
feed safer on the Italian, they being less suc- 
culent. The wild, I am conmlent, uiaites the 
Isrgest cocoons; but I think a coarser fibre. 
1 concur in the suggestions made by Mr. 
McCarty, in the above. 

Dkwt Collins, Le Roy^ Ji, K. — Jn an- 
swer to the questions proposed, I would 
my: — 

(1.) I have ied four years with good suc- 
cess ] first year l^ bushels cocoons ; second 
Tear 14i| bushels, third year 5^, and fourth 1 
bushel, bad success. 

(2.) Common room in a dwelling-house ; 
tempeiature not regulated. 

(3.) Have%iever fed in a shed or tent. 

(4.) The two-crop worm. 

(o.S Mnlticaulis j cultivate by letting them 
•tana out winters, and hdeing them. 

(6.) I prefer early feeding ; choose to hatch 
bytheaothof June. 

Sliphalb'A Murdock, Le Roy^ JV*. F. — I 
have fed worms : 

(1.) Four years, as follows: first year, 
4i bushels cocoons ; second year, no suc- 
cess ; third year, 5 bushels ; fourth year, 10 
bushels. , . 

(S2.) Common room in a house. 

(3.) No. 

(4.) Two-crop, and the pea-nut variety. 

(5.) Mukieaulis. 

Rxv. B. C. Bradford, Sunderland^ Mass. 
— I have had some experience in feeding 
worms for five or six years. My first efforts, 
made in the usual ways, convinced me that 
results must be unfiivorable, unlesa better 
methods could be devised, labor saved, and 
the health of the worm better promoted. I 
accordingly set myself to the task of study- 
mg the nature of the thing, and came speed- 
Sy to the same conclusions with Mr. Gill, of 
Ohio, yourself, and others, in regard to ven- 
tilation. The method I adopted was feeding 
on open work, or racks, with limbs loosely ar- 
ranged, to sec are all the circulation of air that 
could be procured consistently with shield- 
ing them from the sun. To save farther la 
bor, I never applied a hand to the removal of 
litter, unless I found it souring or moulding, 
in which case I applied one hand to raise the 
brush on which the worms lay, and the other 
to pull out the affected litter, and apply a 
handful of slacked Ume, hard salt, or plaster 
of Paris. They wind up in the same I 
find the result as stated by Mr. Gill. The 
artificial modes of circulation mentioned by 
him I have not applied, but doubt not the 
utility of them. 

I adopt the early and nataral season of 
hatching and feeding, from eggs tying up in 
t cool sitoa^n durmg the season. I do not 



choose to remove them at aH firom the stand 
on which they were first deposited by the 
miller. Nature provides ordinarily for the 
simultaneous reproduction of the insect, and 
the food which nourishes it. The first feed- 
ing, also, I supply from thick-sown nurseriet 
of the minor sorts of trees, aa whites, Asiatics, 
&c., by plucking indiscriminately the first 
shoots that start m the spring, reserving the 
larger trees and heavier foliage for the ad- 
vancing stages of the worm; advancing 
gradually through all the stn^s from shoots 
of an inch to three or four feet^ aa the case 
may be. I find the shoots as favorable to 
Uie small aa the large worm, and far less care 
and labor need be appli^ in the moulting 
than is necessarr on ieavA alone. Indeed, 1 
pay little regard to the moulting, except to 
take that occasion to spread them, at the 
same time to afford them, by that means, 
more air. 

A little now, on the subject of my success, 
must close my communication. My first 
success^ on the principles above stated, was 
decidedly favorable. The first crop, which 
was obuined in 1841, between the plantmg 
of my com and the commencement of my 
haying, from some few ounces of eggs, (I was 
not particular, as I am not in the. habit of 
weigning,) brought me, in reeled silk, to- 
gether with the bounty on cocoons and reel- 
mg, the sum of one hundred and twentt/ dot' 
fars in cash, after making liberal provisions 
for eggs, by applying at least two bushels 
of my best cocoons to the purpose. Myself 
and son made the cocoons, mv wife and 
daughter picked, and cured, and nossed them, 
with some help from an aged mother, who 
was on a visit with us, and the assistance of 
two days' work at picking from a neigh- 
boring woman. My daughter reeled them, 
as her first effort, on a reel, &«., costing 
about six dollars. On a rough estimate. I 
considered my profits on the labor of ine 
whole to be one hundred per cent. My soc- 
cess last year was not as^ood, ojfing to late 
firosts in the spring. This threw all my 
operations into tiie M«f of the season. Then 
by very close cutting my trees, I injured them 
for thi's year. This, together with another 
untimely frost, made me very late again this 
year, and the results, as they generally are 
in late feeding, not the best. Hereafter 1 
will feed early, or not at all. 

P. S.-t-I must just add, that I have the 
confidence to enlarge my silk business, be- 
lieving that once a year's early feeding and 
cropping will be found as profitable to the 
fanner as any other part of his business, and 
not diminish the amount of his foliage from 
year to year. 

£beneker Wood, Jefferson, Ashtabula 
Co., Ohio. — 1 have fed worms for five jears. 
Commenced with a few hundred, with no 
experience, no* knowledge but reading- 
gradual ly learning and increasing a little, till 
we have fed about fiftv thousand. Made 
many mistakes at first, Soth in feeding and 
feeling, but think we can manage the whole 



LETTERa 



btlsniien now aa well as mny (arm crop. First 
year, made a i^w good Cficoont, but lost the 
silk — *• bad reelingr. Second y ear, made some 
^ood eoeoons — reeled badly on a common 
reel — made into sewingr.8i{k — sold for ^. 
Third year, made what we sold for f 20 — a 
ffood article. Fourth year, did a little more. 
Last, or fifth year, made 7j^ pounds reeled 
silk. * Said by judges to be a very good 
article. 

Fed in an aut-hmldimgjWeU ventilated ; used 
no fire, but think the rooms should be warmed 
in cold mornings or days. Some of m^ chil- 
dren put a few worms on the mulberries out 
in the field — about ten days alter this called 
rae to see how they had grown. I was at- 
UmUked to see the difference between them 
and those in the building. I immediately 
put out some more ; they did well for a few 
days, till the birds took them. They were 
certainly three Hmes as large. We feed leaves, 
wet or dry, according to circumstances. In 
hr>t, dry weather, we wet our leayes to keep 
them from wilting and drying up, and feed 
them wet, of course. I haye given this hint 
about wet leaves, for I think it is a matter 
that should be understood. 

I cannot say much about the different 
kinds of silk- worms, haying fed only sulphur 
variety . Fed from the muUicaulis mulberry . 
Cultivate and keep them clean. Think they 
have passed the meridian of life at three or 
ibur years old, and will have to be replaced 
with new ones. ^ 

I will here just remark that, from what 
experience we have had, I have no doubt 
that, with good em, worms well fed, well 
ventilated, and well limed, we may be as sure 
of a good crop of cocoons, as we are of any 
good farm crop, well managed. 

It is not to oe expected that all will suc- 
ceed equally well ; that is not the case in 
any business. There are many causes of 
fkilure. Some will succeed, some will not. 
But I see I am giving opini<A and not facts, 
and I close. 

P. S. What I have done is merely an 
experiment to see if the thinff is practicable 
•—am well convinced it will he profitable to 
thnse who manage rightly. 

I have for several years read every thing I 
could set on the silk business, and picked 
up all the information I could get elsewhere. 
I mention this that yon may see I shall look 
with much anxiety for your Report— intend, 
if received, it shall do not only me but others, 
good. [Right, friend, lend it. I. R. B.] 

SiiCBoir PiERSOiTj^ Le JZoy, J\r. F. — It is 
thirty-seven years since I came into this 
country. I soon found the native mulberry 
growing spontaneously, which led me to be- 
lieve, as 1 now do, that silk- worms may be 
grown in any clime where the mulberry 
grows naturally ; but tlie want of e^ffs pre- 
vented my makine any ex|^riment till about 
nine years ago. I then obtained some eggs 
of the mammoth sulphur kind ; about the 
same time I obtained some of the white Ital- 
ian ■ralheny'tnei, tfa« ftad of which was 



from Middktown, Conn.; and p wv wui t» 
their growth I fed worms from the native 
mulberry; and afler my white mulberry-traet 
were grown I fed on both. And five or six 
years ago the multicaulis was introduced ia 
town, but I have not been able, to this time, 
to discover that the worms' manifsst any 
preference, or show any partiality, to any 
one kind. My wife and dauf hter, for amuse* 
ment and experiment, have fed a few thott* 
sand about every year since we obtained the 
eggs. We have manufactured eonsiderable 
sewing-silk, some of which we have dyed 
different colors, which, for strength and lus* 
tre, would not suffer in comnarison with the 
imported. We have never led but one crop 
in a season ; we have generally commenced 
feeding about the 20th of June, in an upper 
chamber, a tight room. After learning mora 
of their customs and habits, we have fed 
them in our wood-house chamber, where 
there was more air, and where we fonnd 
they did equally as well. We found they 
would retire from the light of a window, even 
in a cloudy day. We nave never used any 
artificial heat. I believe a snecession of 
crops may be fed during the season, by eom* 
mencinff, say about the SOth of May, and 
close 30th of September. We have never 
lost a crop fh>m any cause, hut I know of 
some who have. 

N. B. Being too old and feeble to attend 
the Convention, I have yielded to the request 
of several gentlemen by writing as I have. 



Joseph Stbkr, Ml Pheaaand^ Jefm 
Co.f Ohio, — Uses the shed and cradle — 
says he has produced his coeo<ms at less than 
one half -the expense of former modes of 
feedings— has made in this way, this year, 
upwards of 40 bushels of fixst-rate pea>nuts. 

Jso. K. NoRToif, Boim, Salem P. O., 
Ohio. — Writing to find a sale for cocoonsh 
says that there have been about one hundred 
bushels raised in his neighborhood tJ 
ent 



neighborhood the pres- 



J. Liirroir, P. M., Eatt Bsthlthtm, WaA- 
ingkm Co., Psnn. ^Has fed 10 to 12 bush- 
els — uses the white Italian, and multicaulis 
—< wants a market for coooons-— it trouble 
in many other places. 

JoHir BovDXN, BrooklfMy Cuyahtura C»., 
Ohio.-^l am a silk-grower on a smafi scale, 
connected with other iarming, and will en- 
deavor to answer the several questions pro- 
posed. 1st. Have fed worms for eight years, 
the first four years by way of experiment; 
since that on a larger scale. We have been 
successful every year exoepting the first, 
which was a total failure, dd. Our building 
is nothing more than a common bam, with the 
cracks lined with thin boards; the tempersp 
ture is regulated by stoves. 3d. Never ted in 
an open shed or tent. 4th. We prefer the pea^ 
nut variety to any other we are acquainted 
with. 5th. We use the multicaulia, planted 
in drills, enltivated, and kept eletr-of wMds. 



LETTERS. 



6kh. Eariy feedinc^ ii preferable to late, 
though we often feed as late as the 10th of 
September with g6od success. 7th. The 
' cause of bad success in feeding is, I believe, 
in not properly ventilating, ana inattention in 
feeding and cleaning. 8th. Cannot answer 
this question, it being out of my line of busi- 
ness. 9th. Have not tried the process of 
dew, or water-rotting, but will try it this sea- 
son, and communicate next. 

In conclusion, I would remark, that I feel 
no desire at present to discontinue growing 
•ilk; it is certainly a profitable branch of 
business to me. The avails of my silk ope- 
rations are about equal to those of the farm. 
It makes iemployment for my whole family. 

1 will now state my manner of feeding and 
treatment of the worm. We hatch them as 
early in the season as will answer, and feed 
them on the tender leaves till they have 
moulted the second or third time, wnen we 
eommence feeding with branches; that is, 
we cut the trees down to the ground — the 
trees haying been cut to the g^round the 
previous sprmg — then take them into a com- 
mon straw-cutter, and cut them three or four 
inches long, branches, leaves, and all. These 
we feed to the worms. Trees can he cut 
twice in the season, but once is about suffi- 
cient for the health of the tree. I should 
recommend, afler the first cutting, to pick 
the leaves the rest of the season. Two crops 
of worms can be raised with ease, and I have 
raised five. We have no feeding frames or 
hurdles ; we feed on the board shelf, and 
shift our worms by means of branches. 

1 likewise consider the silk crop a sure 
crop : in eight years I have failed but once^ 
ind that was easily accounted for-— inexpe- 
rience in feeding. Keep your shelves well 
cleansed, the cocoonery well regulated as to 
heat and air, and plenty of freui foliage on 
them, and I can saiely say^ a fkilure wiU not 
often occur. 

Silas C. Clark, Sharpshurgh, Alleghany 
Countyj Pa. — My experience in the silk 
business commenced the present season. 
The mulberries at my command consisted of 
about two and a half acres of multtcaulis. 
The lot of eggs designed for successive 
crops of worms during the summer had 
been deposited in an ice-bouse for preserva- 
tion. On opening the box on the 17th of 
June, in order to expose a portion of the 
«ggs, the whole were round to have hatched, 
«nd the little worms, apparently a day or 
two old, were generally in a state of great 
justivity. The \ox had been accidentally 
placed above and a little remote from the ice. 
Hence the misfortune. However, I imme- 
iliately eommenoed feeding. For a cocoonery, 
I ocenpied an open hwUdmgy in which there 
^MM a free circulation of air, corresponding 
«nd varying with the surrounding atmos- 
phere. bTo artificial heat was used, and no 
«ffort was made to regulate the state of the 
temperature, whieh ranged from fifty-six to 
ninety-two degrees. 

In th9 nrah, I h«Te little of wUch to 



boast, although nearly meeting my ezpeete« 
tions. That the manner of hatching engen« 
dered disease among a portion of the wormSf 
can hardly be doubted. Still, but a compar- 
atively small number of the worms was 
sickly, and a yield of about sixty pounds of 
cocoons to an ounce of eggs was realiied. 
However, another loss, chargeable to inexpe* 
rience, was subsequently sustained, through 
an unsuccessful attempt to stifle the chrysalis 
by the use of camphor. The eggs for the 
next crop — of a species called, I think, the 
Canton pea-nut — were procured in North* 
ampton, Massachusetts. These hatched on' 
the way; and, for the want of mulberry 
leaves, the worms were fed a day or two on 
lettuce. Subsequently, they were tended 
and treated in the same manner as the previa 
ous crop. During their fourth and fifth ages« 
a large portion of them became diseased 
with we yellows ; and this effort proved al* 
most a total feilure. The very few worms^ 
however, which came to maturity produced 
cocoons of an excellent quality. With an 
ardor stimulated by an unabated solicitude 
for the character or the business, i resolved 
on making another experiment 

I procured an ounce and a half of eggs of 
the common pea-nut variety, and commenced 
feeding on the 15th of August. By means 
of artificial heat in my open building, I 
strove to keep the temperature of the co» 
coonery above sixty-eight degrees ; in several 
instances, however, without success. Sev- 
eral times the thermometer fell to sixty. I 
fed regularly seven or eight times per dajr^ 
once in from two to three hours, and never 
permitting more than five or six hours at 
most to euLpse between feedings, even during 
the night. Through the first four ages the 
worms were fed with cut leaves, subse^Qeafe- 
ly with branches. 

With the assistance of my lady, I did the 
whole work of the cocoonery, and every 
thing appertaining to the feeding, excepting 
the gathering of leaves after the third moult- 
ing, the expense of which amounted to 
alwut five dollars. In twenty-four days firom 
the first hatching, the worms began to form 
their cocoons. At this juncture, the weather, 
which had been very favorable, became sud- 
denly cold — so much so, that I was unable to 
keep the temperature much above sixty, in 
parts of the cocoonery Yemoie from the 
stove, without doing injury to the worms in 



closer proximity. 



cold state of the 



temperature at this critical period, in my 
opinion, not only retarded the progress of 
their spinning, l^ut, in f, greater or less de- 
gree, tended to diminish the amount and 
value of their products. However, in this 
instance, the worms kept near the stove, in a 
high and more uniform temperature, evident 
ly produced the larger ana better cocoons 
Still, very few were sickly, and the product 
of this crop amojinted to ten bushels, or one 
hundred and thirty-three pounds of good 
cocoons. 

With good eggs and plenty of room, and 
other oo&venienoes, I ahould now '"*^^ikir 



LETTERS. 



to fand a hei^thj crop cf wonm , with as 
much confidence of suceeM as I should a cor- 
responding number of any animals whatever. 
Cltanlinegs seems to me indispensable to the 
liealthililness of worms. One thought more : 
Whoever engages in this business without 
experience, and makes the necessary ar- 
rangements for a single season^ with the ex- 
pectation of making, during that time, a 
fortune, or even of gaining a full remunera- 
tion for his time and expenditures, will be 
likeljT to be disappointed. Still, if it be per- 
fleveringly and judiciously prosecuted, I en- 
tertain an unshaken and settled confidence 
in the ultimate and triumphant success of 
the silk business in this country. I cannot 
doubt that the business is destined shortly to 
become a great and important ^branch of 
national industry, and a vast and inexhaust- 
ible source of national wealth. 

Fisivr Safford, P. M., WatmingUr^ Vt. 
— I have fed silk- worms in a very* small 
way for two or three years past. 1 have a 
few mulberry-trees, partly multacaulis and 
partly alpine. I feed about two weeks on 
multicautis, after which, or after the second 
moulting,- 1 put them on the alpine. My 
cocoonery is a part of my bam which I use 
for a carriage-house. 

On the SJ7th of last May, I took some eggs 
fmta the ice-house and placed them in a cool 
room. They hatched June 21st, 22d, and 
23d. 

On the 4th day of August, I took down 
eighteen pounds of cocoons, which yielded 
one and a half pounds of reeled silk. 

July Ist, I took some eggs from the ice, 
which came out on the 13th, 14th, and 15th. 
September 1st, I picked fifteen pounds of 
poor cocoons, which reeled half a pound of 
silk. 

My first crop were healthy, but the second 
were sickly. __^__ 

RoswELL Rics, CharUmontj Franklin Co.j 
Mass. — We consider the silk business a 
noble one ; theref«'e, if we can, by sending 
in our statement, small though it be, yield 
an}r assistance or encoura^ment, we gladly 
do it. In answer to questions : — 

1st. We have fed worms six seasons, and 
our labors, each year, have been crowned 
with success. 

2d. Feed in a close building, regulate the 
temperature by artificial heat, the mercury 
standing at seventy-five or eighty degrees. 

3d. Have never fed in an open tent or 
shed Did we live in a latitude where no 
chilly blasts were ever felt, but all were 
warm and pleasant as a sunny day in July, 
we might feed in tents, but we think the 
rigors of this our northern clime are too se- 
vere for the silk-worm to endure. 

4th. We prefer, above all other kinds, the 
pea-nut worm ; consider th^ texture finer, and 
the yield greater. 

5th. yTe use the multioaulis and white 
mulberry. The whiie in the early part of 
the aeaaon, before the otheis are grown. Cut 
4 



the tops ftotn the multicaaltfl^tiees in the ft]I| 
and leave the roots in the ground. 

6th. Have fed both in the early and lata 
part of the season, and our success in each 
is equally good. 

7th. As to the causes of bad success in 
feeding, we know no heed of having bad 
success. We always keep our room warm^ 
feed as often as the worms will take leaves^ 
and attend well to cleanliness; and, by so 
doing, the worms are all in the bushes to 
wind in four weeks from the time of hatch* 
ing. If this seems in any degree incrediblei 
please try it, and see. 

tith. Have not tested the use of the mul- 
berry-leaf for paper } our means are small and 
inadequate. 

9th. We have never tried to separate the 
bark from the young shoots, to convert it 
into paper or fabrics. 

Our only crop this season amounted to 
one hundred and eighty pounds of cocoons. 
1 consider the silk business one well worthy 
the attention of our New England fiurmers ; 
and I believe it is one which will yield a 
much better^rofit than ordinary agrioulta* 
ral producti49. 

FiiAircis D. Wait, CaniweU*s Bridge, Dd- 
aware. — I am a silk-grower, and will pro- 
ceed to answer the first series of your qoes* 
tions. I should be extremely happy, had I 
funds to spare, to come on to your city ; but 
am too poor — the fate, I am afraid, or many 
growers. I was induced, in 1838, by repre« 
sentations made on every side, of the ffreat 
profits resulting from the culture of silk, to 
enter upon it, and havy fed worms every 
year, from that time to this, in increasing 
quantities. The past season I raised nearly 
six hundred pounds of cgpoons. 

In answer to the second question, I will 
state, that, in 1838, I put up a building 
twenty-five by twenty-eight feet, two stories 
high, and a good cellar, which is absolutely 
indispensable. I fed two or three years at 
the natural temperature^ since then, I have 
used artificial heat, I think, to great ad- 
vantage. I have a ftimace in the cellari 
from which heated air rises through the 
building. 

A gradually increased temperature is par- 
ticularly necessary in hatching the eggs. In 
this way, eggs may be hatched in two, and 
not exceeding three days; whereas -at the 
natural temperature several days more will 
be required ; and one year, I recollect, the 
eggs ceased hatching in consequence of a 
cold north-east storm, when a great reduction 
of temperature took place. 

The last four years I have used only two 
varieties of worms — the sulphur and the 
pea-nut. The first year 1 raised some of the 
mammoth white and the two-crop, and re- 
jected them both. With regard to the first 
two varieties I have to state that' in 1842, 
when I first noted the difference, it took 4400 
pea-nut cocoons to make a bushel, and 2200 
of sulphur to make a bushel. From the first 
1 obtained 22 ounces of raw silk, and firom 



USTTEIS. 



the kit 14 oonees of raw silk. The pea-nut 
cocoons per bushel weigrhed 15 pounds, the 
sulphur per bushel weighed 9^ pounds. It 
took about 300 pea-nuts to weigh a pound, 
and about 240 sulphur to weigh a pound. 
From these facts you perceive that, worm for 
Worm, I obtained more silk from the sulphur 
than I did from the pea-nut. The 4400 pea- 
nut cocoons yielded 22 ounces of raw silk, 
and the 4400 sulphur yielded 28 ounces of 
raw silk. The past season the cocoons were 
about in the same ratio. With regard to the 
product in silk 1 cannot say, fori have not 
reeled them. 

I use the multicaulis nearly altogether. I 
have a hedge of white mulberry-trees upon 
which I feed the worms during the first age, 
eut very fine. The past season, as well as 
hefbre, I cut down the trees, took them to 
the cellar and there stripped them, when I fed 
with leaves, otherwise cut off the branches 
and fed with them, which is far preferable. 
in feedinir with leaves I use the paper net, 
which is fer superior to every other contriv- 
ance. Nearly all the worms will ascend 
through them the first feedinff. so that you 
change them every day at fart)i|t. Feeding 
on branches, however, is preferable on every 
account. Less expensive, less trouble, 
worms more healthy, and of course obtain 
more silk. 

The experience of silk-growers, so far as I 
have ascertained, is in favor of early feeding. 
I believe, however, that two gopd crops can 
be raised, particularly if you have artificial 
heat, which is more especially demanded at 
the beginning of the nrst crop. My first 
erop was hatched on^e 23d and 24th of May, 
and consisted of 5 ounces of eggs ; wound up 
in 32 days; obtained 413 pounds of cocoons; 
ought to have had^md should have had 500 
pounds, could I have fed at 9 o'clock, F. M., 
as I always had done, but was prevented, for 
fear that my boys would set the straw, which 
I used at a bed Sat the worms, on fire. On 
the 4th of July, on going to the ice-house to 
take out my ergs for the purpose of hatching, 
I found that they were already hatched, and 
pome of them had been hatched several days ; 
bat in this unfiivorable condition I took them 
out and fed them, and gathered 153 pounds 
of coooons. I received some eggs on the 
17th of August, which had been left in an 
ice-honae. On the 18th they began to hatch. 
I suppose that I had as many worms as I had 
at my second crop, but obtained only 10^ lbs. 
of cocoons. They nearly all died ; still, 1 had 
flome as iraod cocoons as 1 ever had. 

1 am uie only one feeding in this part of 
the country. 

1 have generally obtained 100 pounds of 
eocoons from an ounce of eggs. 

I believe that 50 or 60 dollars may be had, 
dear profit, for every acre of mulberries. 

I have on hand 30 or 40 pounds of raw silk, 
which 1 find great difficulty in disposing of. 
There is no market for it in Philadelphia that 
I know of. And to send it to Mew York is 
uncertain and inconvenient. 
• Our State gives a bounty of two doUara on 



the pound of leded silk— 15 cents per I1». 
on cocoons. I think 20 cents per pound 
would pay the expense of raising them. I 
anticipate a great deal of pleasure in reading 
the prooeedinffs of the Conventiou, and hope 
the result will be auspicious to the growth 
and manufacture of silk in this country. 

J oamTH Bmvcjf LEY, J^amort^Herkinur Co.,, 
Jfew York. — 1 havft fed silk- worms six years, 
generally in small numbera. This is the first 
year 1 have fed wholly from the multicaulia. 
My cocoons did better than the same kind 
did last year, fed on white mulberry. Nauie 
of the worm, Mirable Jaune, Nankin color, 
and Sina Mirable, white : the best success i 
ever had was with worms I got firom Mr. 
Bean, of Philadelphia, a small pea-nut-shaped 
cocoon. He called them Sina Nankin. Thia 

fear my worms did not do as well as last — 
hatched the middle of July ; last year the 
latter part of June. I fed In chambers, with 
no chiLnce of ventilating to my mind ; and 
about the time of winding, in August, we had 
one week of very warm and very wet weath- 
er, with no air stirring, and one half of joky 
worms died. 

1 have alwavs manufactured my cocoons 
into sewing-silk. I reel them myself, and 
my wife or hired girl twists, and doubles and 
twists it on a common spinning-wheel. 1 
send you a few threads which are no better 
than all I make. A lady of this place pur- 
chased of me silk for a pair of stockings; she 
took it to the stocking-weaver of Ulica, who 

E renounced it a superior article, as good as 
e ever saw, and he learned his trade in Eng- 
land. The stockings were as handsome as 1 
ever saw, and so said othen. 

In the spring of 1842, 1 planted 2000 mul- 
ticaulis-trees, which I brought from' Ohio, in 
rows six feet apart, and trees two feet apart 
in the row. I then took limbs from the same, 
and placed them so the ends touched, in drills 
the same distance apart, 6 feet. In the fall I 
had about ten thousand in all, on one and a 
half acres I let them stand as they were, 
without any protection. I believe every tree 
sprouted last spring, and the 10th of June 
the voung shoots were.killed,to the old wood, 
by frost. They recovered, grew rapidly, and 
have matured their wood nearly to the top, 
and are now shedding their leaves without 
frost. Many of them are six feet high. I 
know them to be as hardy as the white, and 
the finest cocoons I ever aaw were produced 
bv worms fed wholly on multicaulis, by Mr. 
dlapp. Dr. Matthews, and others, at Paines- 
ville, Ohio. 

With a cocoonery in the midst of my trees, 
I believe I can attend two hundred thousand 
worms from Uie middle of May to the middle 
of September, with children to pick and bring 
in the leaves. 

When we see multicaulis- trees, from limbs 
planted in May, (of course, do not strike root 
and begin to grow till June,) withstand such 
a winter as 1842-^, and this in the north of 
Herkimer Co., we may' ask. What part of our 
country cannot produce silk ? 



LETTEEa 



« 



Bamitsx. Bamiitt, Frmtk Crnk^ LewU 
Co.j Fa.— >I have fed worms, oc attempted 
to feed them, for three years. June, 1841, 1 
xeeeired by mail one ounce of errors from Gi- 
deon B. Smith, of Baltimore, editor of the 
American Silk Journal. Thej^ were of the 
Tariety which he called the Mirable Jaunes, 
and which he pronounced the beat kind. I 
fed in the lofl of a log building, with only 
one window, and a door on the Mine side of 
the room ; the room was otherwise tolerably 
tight. Underneath was a cooking-stove, daily 
used in cooking for the fomily. This, togeth- 
er with the extremely warm weather, or soaie 
other cause, produced unhealthiness in the 
worms, and I lost the most of them. The 
close manner in which thev were kept was 
sufficient, in my own mind, to account for 
this result, in 1842, 1 lost all my e|grgs in 
the aprinff by the rats unluckily gettmg at 
them, l^is year I wrote to G. B. Smith, of 
Baltimore, to send me a small quantity by 
mail ; on the first of August, they arrived at 
Clarkesburg, a distance of %0 miles, in ex- 
treme warm weather. They had just com- 
menced hatching when they arrived. They 
proved a healthy lot, and made me 36^ lbs. 
cocoons. They were c^ the Mirable Jaunes 
variety, or a cross breed of the pea-nut, and 
some other valuable kind. My cocoonery 
was a building erected by putting forks in 
the ground — laying poles in these forks to 
support the roof, covering the roof with boards 
and slabs, and the sides with rough boards 
loosely nailed on. It was 20 by 16 feet. 
During filing it was my obiect to keep a 
stream of pure air sweeping through the co- 
coonery, by opening all the windows and the 
doors. Beisides this, I knocked oif several 
boards from my building, in different places, 
that the air miffht have a free circulation in 
every part. This I could jieroeiye had a fine 
effect on the worms. 

I have principally fed on the Canton mul- 
berry, with a few of the multicaulis, and the 
Italian. I once fed a small lot on each of 
the three kinds: the multicaulis, the Canton, 
and the Italian. The lots were all equally 
healthy, and the worms had no preference 
for either. After the first year's growth from 
the cuttings or larger trees, I have let them 
run their chance through the winter. The 
tops have generally been killed with the 
frost ; 'but the most of the roots have lived, 
except on Imo, frosty grotfnds, where a con- 
siderable number have died. The Canton 
tree, so far as my experience has extended, 
has proved more hardy than the multicaulis ; 
the leaf is thicker and heavier, and they 
grow thicker on the stalk. On a given piece 
of ground, I have thought tlie greatest 
weight of leaves could be Stained feom the 
Canton. 

One of my neighbors fed a lot of worms 
this season, in June and July. He hatch«^d 
about two ounces of e^gs, producing firom 60 
to 100,000 worms. He had not foliage enough 
to feed one fourth of that number. His room 
for feeding was a small chamber m his dwell- 
mg-hoose, about 14 fiwt by 12, sod not capa- 



ble of oontainii^ mofe than 250 feeiof iMy* 
ing, which, at the most, ou^ht not to contain 
over 10,000 worms. 1 advised him to throw 
away 7-8ths of^ his worms, and warned him 
of the consequence, if he did not. Having 
ted a small lot last year with good success, 
and being one of those men who choose to 
have their own way, he determined to try 
his lock with the whole lot. He ransacked 
the neighborhood and the woods fur leaves, 
but all in vain ; at about two weeks* old they 
became diseased, and he lost the whole Ipt. 
His eggs were good, and his worms periecily 
healthy, till about the third age, wheh th^y 
became suffocaUd. I have found, on close 
observation, that nothing imparts such vigor 
to the worms as a good dry breeze of air. 
Even a damp breeze is far better than a sul- 
try, confined air. I intend to build a cocoon- 
ery another season, and locate it on a rising 
f round, where the air will circulate freely, 
n regard to the silk cause in generid, I have 
always had confidence in its success. About 
four years ago, 1 laid out about $160 for cutr 
tings to commence an orchard with. I . lost 
the greatest share of them. Since that ^ime 
1 have kept on increasing them, down to the 

r resent year. Some of my neighbors tell me 
had better grub them up. J tell them no > 
they may yet want to pmrchaae them of! me 
for orchards of their own. Feeding worms 
has been no new thing with me. When 1 
was a boy, nw sisters, several in number, fed 
silk' worms, uom my recollection, my father 
having planted an orchard of Italian trees on 
his first settlement in Hajnpden County, 
Mass. Several brothers of us used to pick 
leaves for our sisters. Thejr always had suc- 
cess. I never heard of their crop bein^ un- 
healthy, or losing it. They thought it no 
more difficulty to raise a crop of worms thao 
a crop of chickens. 



Noah B. Hart, Batofcia, N. F., for him- 
self, and Elijah Herrick, Bethany; Wor- 
DKN Matison, Darien ; and Wm. TslosNi, 
Le Roy^ says : — 

At the State Fair, at Rochester, vre had: « 
hurried Convention of a part of the silk- 
growers present, and sent you some state- 
ments of our successes. [1 am sorry to say^ 
that the document here referred to has not 
been received. I. R. B.] There were fine- 
specimens of silk exhibited on that occasion* 

I am authorized to say that, amidst our 
successes and losses,, our good move» and 
bad moves, we are all determined to perse- 
vere, fully satisfied that the silk business has 
a solid basis to stand upon ; nseA all that is 
wanting to secure full success in feeding 
worms is practical knowledge, and appro- 
priate facilities : the same precisely as in any 
thing and every thing else. 

We have mostly fed in our dwelling- 
houses and out-housetr, and generally «n th« 
multicaulis. 

1 send you a sample of the raw silk that 
took the premium at the Fair at Rochester, 
and also a sample of sewing-silk made aiooo 
the Fair firom some of the pienuum ailk. 



LETTEBa 



Gliig nw.silk i» a fine article. I. R. B.] We 
▼e had a great deal to contend with, in our 
efforts in this business : want of experience, 
wrong information, prejudice, and ridicule, 
from the unbelieving multitude, whose busi- 
ness it is to laugh at what they have not 
Ibemselves the energy to attempt. But 
the tables ^re now turned and turning, and 
we are animated to see the manifestations 
•f the change, here as well as elsewhere. 

Rkt. Joseph Field, CkarlemofU, Mtiss. — 
My experience iu raising silk commenced in 
1833. For a number of years my worms 
were fed in rooms not adapted td good ven- 
tilation, nor for beinff artificially warmed. 
Small crops were ordinarily obtained with 
▼arious decrees of success. Five or six 
Tears since 1 erected a cocoonery, 40 feet by 
2S, a story from the grotmd, extending north 
and south ; three windows on the east side, 
and as many on the west directly opposite, 
and two with a door in the north end, a door 
at the other end opening into another apart-, 
ment somewhat open, and capable of being 
filled with breezes from the west. [This room 
is aUegetker too close. I. R. B.] In this room, 
preoared with shelves running from one end 
to tne other, and the walls made ti^ht by 
{faster, my worms have been reared tor sev- 
eral years, with little use of artificial heat. 
My daughters, who had the care of feeding 
the worms, became convinced, by a gradual- 
ly increased use of the stove, that such an 
article was very important in an expeditious 
and successful raising of cocoons. Accord- 
ingly, the present year we introduced a 
stove, by which . any degree of temperature 
could be raised and maintained, and care was 
taken to keep it up as high as 80. Sweet, 
fture air is necessary, and mpst be- obtained 
by ventilation, if necessary ; but dryness and 
heat are indispensable to secure healthiness, 

ridj growth, and desirable fruitfuiness to 
silk-worm. It is often necessary to ele- 
vate, but never to depress the temperature, 
while all impurities are carefully excluded 
from . the atmosphere. 

Francis Moor, Putney^ Vt., says : — I 
commenced growing silk, as a business, sev- 
eral years since, having^ a slender constitu- 
tion and poor health. The tree speculation 
came. T6 better my circumstances, I en- 
gaged in it, and lost what little I had. Still 
I have kept doing something at growing silk ; 
have about thre^ acres of trees, multicaulis, 
Cantons, Asiatics, and Alpines. I have fed 
early and late, lised the different kinds of 
worms, and kept eggs in all the different 
ways, and fed in close and open buildings. I 
prefer early feeding, though sometimes make 
good crops late. As a system for general 
adoption, open feeding is safest. Trees ought 
not to be so thick as to prevent the sun from 
reaching the leaves, and the air to circulate 
fieely among them. In 1840, 1 made 121 
Iba 6oz ; 1841, 494 lbs. : 1842, 161 lbs. 4 oz.; 
1843, 106 lbs. 5 oz. 



Moses E. Guild, &ml& Ih^tmit, Mui,-^ 

I received your Silk Circular per mail, datod 
Aug. 28, and am exceedingly nappy to learn 
that measures are to be taken in behalf of 
this important branch of agriculture. It not 
being possible for me to attend the Conven- 
tion, will communicate by mail what little 
information I may be master of. 

Have fed worms two ^ears; the results 
have been unfavorable, owmg to inexperience. 
This year lost most of my worms by over- 
stocking my trees. Fed in a perfectly open 
building, giving the worms a thorough ven- 
tilation in all sorts of weather. They did ex- 
traordinarily well until ray foliage railed. I 
prefer the large sulphur and pea^nut worms. 
Use the muUicaulis, Brusa, and Alpine > 
raised them from the slip ; have paid no par- 
ticular attention to them otherwise than hoe- 
ing. Winter kills the tops of the multicau- 
lis, but they sprout from the roots readily in 
the spring. ' 

Feed- on bundles and cut tiie branches, it 
being much more expeditious than plucking 
the leaves, and seems to be more in accent 
ance with the nature of the worms, as they 
invariably (when healthy) after eating, crawl 
to the stock of the branch to rest. Prefer 
early feeding, for a number of reasons : Ist. 
It is natural for the worms to hatch in June. 
2d. The weather and temperature in general 
is fine, and more conducive to the health of 
the worm. 3d. The second crop of leaves 
(which generally constitute the chief part of 
the fod^r for the last feeding) have not 
those good qualities requisite for the pros* 
perity of the worm that are possessed by the 
first growth of leaves. The cause of bad 
success in feeding, which has come under 
my observation among my acquaintances, is 
simply this. It being associated with every 
thing else oii farms, the attention which the 
business demands is grossly neglected; 
therefore the results (like every thing else in 
the agricultural way, which has not its due 
share of care) are unfavorable. And, in my 
opinion^ the business — that is, the growing 
part, will never arrive to a state of perfection, 
or yield the grower a handsome equivalent, 
until he gives his whole attention in the 
growing season. 

W. J. Caktelo. Weehawken HVl, Hobokm 
P. 0., JV. J. — Dear sir, the following is a 
brief account of my process of raising silk- 
worms. I had, this year, from 5 to Bounces 
of eggs. I divided tnem in three parts ; the 
1st commenced hatching the 7th June ; the 
2d on the 13th ; the 3d on the 20th. We 
feci them on the multicaulis of my own rais- 
ing for nearly three weeks, when, as my own 
trees were planted this spring, and not wish- 
ing to injure their growth, 1 had recourse to 
trees in the neighborhood, the leaves of 
which were very poor, the soil being not 
good, and not suitably cultivated. I found 
that, at the second moulting, the third hatch 
were as far advanced as the second, and they 
wound at the same tune ; which I attribute 



LBTTEBa 



16 the iaA fafteli hMfag had a 0te«df hMt 
horn the time of their leaTini^ the ehell, 
wheveaa the eeeond lot htd seyeral very 
eoM days. An able writer on the rahjeet 
has remarkecl, and my own experience eon- 
fktn^ it, that, if ezpoaed to a high decree of 
heat during the firat stages, they reeei Te an 
impetus that eontinues during their brief ex- 
istence. The last of the worms wound the 
first week in August. We were disappoint- 
ed in a part of the leares we had engaged, 
and were again obliged to change their food j 
the only leaves we Could procure at the time 
were growii on the edge of a marsh, and 
Tery much in the shade, and weie, in conse- 
euence, poor and watery, and all the worms 
that were near winding, which is their niost 
critical age, were immediately afiected by 
them with a disease resembling cholera mor- 
kusj and almost all died ; a few, that were 
probablv the strongest, recorered, by being 
fed witn leayes weu dried in the sun ; they 
formed cocoons, but they were very indiffer- 
ent I estimate my loss at 30,000. I men- 
tion this circumstance as a caution te persons 
foeding, not to change a strong leaf for a 
softer or more watery one, after the last 
moulting. Notwithstanding^ the disadvan- 
tages I labored under, I obtamed ftom the 5 
ounces of eggs 45 bushels of cocoons in the 
We have tried the various methods 



iMftiM nuMlwror p g H i ftt ieqiiwd to iMM 



"" of stifling the chrysalis : carbonic acid m, 
camphor, steaming, and baking, but find 
nothing equal to destroying them by the heat 
of the sun. During the feeding, the ther- 
mometer fell once to 64, and one day rose to 
100, but it ranged from 76 to 86. uur feed- 
ing firames were lath hurdles, 4 feet by 9, in 
tiers of 5, one above another, pulling out on 
either side, like drawers, into a three feet 
alley-way. 

. For the winding I tried the branches of 
various trees and shrubs, both with and with- 
6ut leaves; those without leaves were de- 
cidedly preferable, but each had its disad- 
vantage. From close observation of the 
worm in its choice of a place to wind, the 
idea of the rack exhibited at the fair struck 
me as being suitable, and, on trying it, I 
found it to equal my most sanguine expecta- 
tions. * * * It may be seen that 1 do 
not recommend these racks from interested 
motives, as the model has been sent to the 
Institute for the benefit of the silk-srowin^ 
community ; I should merely wish the privi- 
lege of namm? them CanidOi Winding Rack. 
The silk exhibited is part of this year's crop, 
and is reeled by my daughters on what is 
called the Piedmont reel, with some improve- 
ments. Relative to the cost of raising, my 
expenses this year were, 
for i)000 lbs. of leaves, _ $30 00 



what thai part of the ezpe»M woiild be. 

I have every oonfidence in silk bosmess. 
Under that hnpreasion I have tiria ytat 
' Qted 80,000 trees, bollt a coooancjry 900 
25, two stories high, well vetftilated l(f 
doom and windows. i r 



Dy TBk 



f^m 



Expense of picking, at 31 cts. 
per 100 lbs., 

' $5812j| 
1 cannot state the expense of attendance 
for feeding, as the worms were attended by 
way three aaughters during the feeding, wind- 
ings and gathering, with the addition of an 
extra person a^ the last moulting. Know- 



JoHV Babrxtt, A$hbifj Mass.— Alt t» tM 

questions, I can answer but a few, because I 
have kept no statistkss that are now at hand. 

(I.) nave fed worms, more or iMs, eight 
or ten years. The general result has been 
satisfectory, though in some of tha coM 
seasons did not do so well. 

(2.) I use an ttnfinished room ill wy 
house, which is finished outside, tempera^ 
ture regulated some seasons by a stove, and 
others by the winds and the sttn, but i^ 
ways, when I have used artificial heat| fa&v# 
succeeded the best. > 

(4.) The name of the varietr that I h«f# 
I ao not know ; it is a large kind of worm 

— have had others, but prefer this to any I 
have seen. 

(5.) My trees are chiefly Cantons, and a fe# 
common whites. I find the better they aM 
cultivated, the better for the grower, the beu 
ter for the picker, for tfaefeeder, and tne wonii» 

(6.) I prefer early feecRng. • 

iVe have manufhctnred all the silk w« 
have raised, into sewings. My wife' and t 
little girl of fourteen have done the work 
principally — I turn in a helping hand when* 
ever I can. The amount of pfOCeeds va* 
riesfixnn $20 to f 100 in a season, just aa 
I am able to give my attention to H -^ ha-VA 
from 6 to 8000 trees, and mean to enlargd 
my plantation. 

1 see nothing to prevent this- branch of 
business becoming equal to any other in thkl 
country, if it is properly managed. 

JoH!r Maxam, Colerain^ Mass. •-* We have 
fed all our mulberry-cleaves to worms thia 
season, with good success. The silk«worm*a 
cradle of Mr. Gill is worthy of notice. A 
few days prior to receiving your fhvor, d^* 
scribing the cradle, for the want of iDOm I 
had suspended a rack, made by framing nar- 
row strips of boards together, ten by three 
feet, by cords, which I could let down, and 
feed, then raise and pass under. I attached 
a thin board to tile under side; ^ with 
brush. When a suf^cient qnantity had beeik 
laid on to prevent the worms m>m, felling 
through, took off the board, taking care n(3 
to swing the rack more than we conld help. 
But upon receiving a description of Gilfa 
patent, I let down the rack, and set it itt 
motion. It swings nice, to me amuseml^nt 
of my neighbors, and the great comfort and 
joy of thelittle beings on the brush. I ant . 
satisfied the cradle will do well, yet ^oubt 
the propriety of feeding in tents. My worms 
do not eat well in wet, cold, and long storms 

— do the best in dry, warm weather, with 
pure air. In damp, foggy weather, I use 
the stove, by which means the worms will 

F 



J 



wTxsm 



ifuii A w«lte, <lry, pttze aur -^«tUlt test foed- 
ioff MitiaaiM to-M tested in this climvte. 
.r 1 ■ JbaT6 Ibd woroM live eeooons — use 4he 
amkioMllis-^liavd one third of an aere^ now 
ti^see yews, old —»heftd ihem down in, the 
fjpaing' -^trees' not ijijajred hy standing oat 
winters — haye never failed. iffisenluUly in 
any part of the bosinees, but have jet much 
tet learn.,' ■;•'. , . • . , 

: H. A. Tovfie, SUMyer^ Detroit^ Michigim, 
*^ I forward you the little knowledge I have 
wspeoting siUK-raising in this State. I tried 
the ; experiment three years ago; fed the 
worms with the white mulberryi and met 
my expeetations. . There are some ten or 
twelve families of mv acquaintance who 
have this season raised several bushels co- 
oioons from the multicaulis, and other va- 
tieikies, — > and £rom whati can li^ajn, it would 
become a source of wealth,, if extensively 
engaged in ; and, to secure this, all that is 
^nn^id, is a convenient market. There ar^ 
three s^k-weavers in this vicinity -^ they do 
noiiung at it, for want of encouragement. 
( have seen « eample of this season's reeled 
■ilk ^>fme of the above-mentioned weavers 
pronoiinoed it afirst-^iUe ardde ^-^ many fail 
in cleaning silk. All agree that it is stout, 
but deficient in lustre. Here lies the mys- 
tery* Most pepple clean the silk with sofl 
•oap r— destroying the native gloss, in free* 
log it oC its gum, owing to the vegetable 
lUEali the 0oap contains, the silk being ani- 
mal «vbstance; it will comf^etely dissolve 
peool, if. applied strong, enough, forming a 
«oap of itself. Many dyers use . nothing but 
the- best of white soap ; beiog made Trom 
mineral alkali, soda acts gently on animal 
mbstiA^fs; nor. does it ^ive. that yellow 
jbiilge the vegetable alkali juroduces. It is 
even necessaly to bleach silk for certain 



the silk looseljin their bags; boil, gently, 
pay 2| hours--* cool and wasn well, in a run- 
DJiag stream -r- beat occasionally, to free it 
(rqii^all impurity. This I kno^ by practice. 

. ,B,fy«.E. J. .BoARDMAN, Randolph Centre, 
Vt.^^l aqi the only one that bas done any 
thing of iconaequence, in silk, this side of 
Wopdst^k, that I know of I bought 4500 
^es two years ago, and put them on about 
a qoi^ffter 6f an acre. I commenced feeding 
iU>out 45,000 worms ; a ,part were unhealthy, 
a, .-part hatched late, and a frost cut off my 
IfiffVfifii so that I had but four bushels of 
epcqons. They were kept in two rooms in 
the.:(iecQnd story of my house, which were 
no^ very well ventilated, and the windows 
4pwa at. night. 

. Tiis year I procured eggs of Mr. Dexter, 
pf Olaremont, N. H., and fed about the 
jWWne number. I had 3 or 4000 eggs — 
white . mammoth, and a few sulphur — of 
my own,,. both of which kinds were very 
]io^yij,. 9^d wound well, vai four other 



ktadft «f Mc Dixterr^fJMit £ or. Mlf^of 
the Jfougymrmtr. ; l^QOO <^ tb$. li^aqkW ^m- 
nuts ; mMM) of the iwoiorf^, making .wiiite 
pocoons, and. in color like the .sulphur.; an4 
10 Ar 12,000 of what Mr. Dexter qalled the 
four weeks' sulphur,, but which were in rea^ 
ity the seven or eight weeks' sulphur. 

It took about ^, upon an average, of the 
IVougwiermer cocoons to mak^ a pound; 
460 of the two^rop, white mammoth, and 
sulphur; and . peanuts 300. I had feed 
enough for my worms both seasons, from my 
4500 trees, (multicaulis only.) I cut them 
off at the top of the ground . last y^ar, and 
sold the cuttings, and covered a part with 
the furrow, and a part were not covered^ 
and they generally lived ; though those not 
covered, me best. I have between, eight 
and nine bushels of cocoons. [The trees, vfk 
the above, alUfgelher too thick. They must 
have SUB and air. I. E. BJ. 

Charles G. Covm^^Y^Mortituburgt Lew- 
is Co., J{. y.--In 1842^ 1 hatched, about 
the middle of June, 100 esea of the suh>hur 
variety. • They grew weU,, were healthy, 
and wound up, in about five weeks, 96 per- 
fect cocoons,'— fed on the white and multi- 
caulis. Ader the third moulting, cleaned 
everv alternate day* About the list of July I 
hatched, as nearly as I could estimate, 1000 
sulphur. They grew well until about the 
third moulting, when my feed came short, 
and from that time they did poorly. 

About the 20th of June, 1843, I com- 
menced with 120 of the drab pea-nut, fed 
mostly on multicaulis — gave plenty of fresh 
air, cleaned them afler the ttiird moultiiig 
every other day. They wound 112 perfect 
cocoons, six imperfect, though not bad, and 
two died ailer going up. When these were 
about two weeks old, I hatched about 2000 
sulphur — they did well up to the third 
moulting, when I neglected them, and they 
became diseased, and began to die. I im- 
mediately cleaned them off, and sprinkled 
some new-slacked lime upon them, which 
almost entirely stopped the disease. I con- 
tinued that treatment until they wound up. 
They made about 700 first-rate cocoons, and 
about 100 poor ones. I hatched about 800 
or 1000 of the sulphur, at the same time I 
hatched the first, and gave them the same 
treatment, and they wound 750 perfect co- 
coons. , 

And now, from my two years* experience, 
I have come to the conclusion, that three 
things are indispensably necessary for the 
successful culture of silk. First, plentjr of 
feed — it matters not so much what kind, 
whether white or multicaulis. Second, plen- 
ty of fresh air ; and last, though not least, 
cleanliness and plenty of room, especially 
ailer the third moulting. And! with these, 
there is no more difficulty in raising silk* 
than there is in ^raising sl^ep ,or pigs. , 

Henry Chapin, CanaTutaigtia^ JV. T. — ' 
I liave fed, the last season, a sthaU lot 6t 
wormi, for experiment; upoi^ n^ulEMitttiii; 



ItBTEWMSL 



lUrt'tiMjr M^vTf #eU; Md aM of timij or 
iMMarlf mi^, womid u^. 1 begran this ieaaoa, 
«ti#ke]M the ef«s:lMck in an ioo-botuie vntil 
<tiitt it&th J^l^f. 1 then eommeneod with fi^ 
^onnCB^eggB^tmA they all hatched, and paand 
Idl tiifrir moalttn^ well, and' I did net loee 
fuiy until aHev the fburth moulting. About 
tiie let September a few of them began to 
ttpin. They all appealed healthy, bat we 
^ had «t thia time three very oold nifirhts and 
ftOBt, and a aold atorm, whieh lasted about a 
W6ek, and the final resxilt was, that I loat the 
ttoai'oftham: 

I have about two aciea of multisaulis, and 
Ihia ia-the teeond yiear's ffiowth. - 1 lied the 
worms in a ^eerefed bvdlding, but open at 
the aidea, acr that it was well ▼entilated. I 
shall try it again next season, but shaU begin 
Mfflier, sayatwiit the imi iX June. I think 
|>rohahly my mislbrtttne in this experiment 
I Urte Ibeding. I^m inexperienced 



hi' the bosiBesff— ^nevereawa ailk-worm, or 
uaw an/ ftd, until I fed them myself. I 
ahould be glad to get the Report of the Coa- 
ipention. - __^ 

Dr. M. W. Fhili4fs, Log^OaU^ Ed- 
ai«rds*# D^f^ Miss.-^l have planted the 
multioaulia, and fed a few silk-werraa for 
two- years. This trfee grows vtry fiaeiy, 
frequently to tiie he%ht of 12 to 18 feet 
#hm the htdyKod to a sixe of near 3 inches 
In diameter ', quality of land^ and care of 
«idtifation maKiag, of course, vast difier- 
ence. The tender ends of the twigs, from a 
I(0#iiiche9toa footer so^ bacoaM killed some 
aeasoos^ as it often happens that a killing 
frost falls when the leaves are tender and the 
twigs in iuil growth. Last year we had 
worms 'in' the gable of <our house,, the room 
not plasteted, with tluree window* of twelve 
lightreaeh, 10 by 12 gtaas, and one door, fire* 
qusntlT all of them open ;..we.was» eaieful 
to;Aed>aBdry leavas,-spi)in]ding: airwslacked 
lime over tern, and not Cleaning Ihe hurdles 
htita few 6mes. We lost very few by disease^ 
tta.aDt.Monng.onr only enemy. Thia. sea- 
son we fed enough to make about one bushel 
ef 4M>eoDni^ andrnd not lose in all probahihty 
100 worms, the meet of wluch were mashed, 
OTf dropping on- the floor, were destsoyed by 
th&ant.-.- 

We fed this season in a plastered room, 
three large windows of-18 lights each, and 
two doors,* afi of w^ch -wete ffenemi^ open 
ftuin eiipht to nine if clock, A./M. • We .were 
induced to mslcea. fire in the room About 
daylight for a few mdrnuigs, the aeaaonbemg 
tMet than 1 . ever before saw in the South, 
^w^gh a native. I fed partly on multicaulis 
knd jpartlvr on the red (wild) mulberry. I 
have: three. neigtiboTi that have fed more 
than we have. iThey feed on shelves, sua* 
Mded from- jtap- of th;^ house, in, ganeral- 
ly, a shed, weather-boarded with split^white* 
eik>c]apboacds;-4.^iie aaah, no fire. One of 
them red in an open log-house this year, 
with not even a door-shutter, or. the cracks 
<efth«^^h(ted» stopped., t This lady, Mrs. 
«Miay^£Wjilfa,lwifttii^ Mr.Wm^ M...WeUa, 



■nl-to o«r fiur « wfrnmrnm aC hirvilh, iad 
a purse knit of it« on both of which aheitodk 
a pnauom. She has been makinp^ silk tfamie 
years } uses the common reel and the aommoft 
spinning-wheel, and deserves gteat pcedift 
for her seal, industry, and public -spiriti <m 

None of the ezpenmenta I know of -in Ibis 
region, but have been very suaoessful ; apd^ 
except mv own, 1 do not thi^k a therilMiaie*> 
ter would vary one degree from the.a|^lf 
where the worms were, and ottt of .dooip^ 
except the blowing of wind would eau8e-« 
slight variation. I nave visited ihcaa fixtussa 
each .year, and.lumw what i aay. The loas 
is so trivial that neither could say. if theia 
i0«r«eny. 

This season I fed wonns with leaws^wail 
wetted with dew, so much so, that shaking 
thwn on.the floor would, prettv well.aprinkis 
it^ whieh we creneraily .did. lieveftofore, uria 

Sthered dry leavea in time, or even wiped 
^m dry, but it was so te<&mu wa xesolvad 
merely to shake the water oS, and our wfonai 
grew apparently more mpid than ever theji 
had before^ As a fept to psetve thia^ tbbf 
began to wind the 25th or '26th day. Thejy 
were never fed alter 9 o'clook qor before 16 
to 7, generally five or six timea adayi Wa 
had made up our mindy that>muoh."of thit 
feeding with cat leaves, aU day and all nighty 
cleaning fanrdlea, dry leaves, no molstnid| 
iko. &4»., was .too much trouble, and min#» 
cessary, and we iried the plan. > We would 
net hesitaiB to feed in the open air, if H wire 
not for birds, poultry, ants, and our heavj* 
rains. . t . r 

The great difficulty in all matters of im- 
provemeoft in the South is^ «' itia tbo small a 
bttsiness," too much trouble, or too long td 
get the- return. There. ase. but few in- this 
country who look upon the silk buBiness aa 
any business at all; but few who wovldhave 
ainy thing to. do with it, and those a]e,."th 
their praise be it said, entirely ladies. My 
own opinion is, that it is, to us of the Southi 
the -^greatest, business that has ever piissentec 
itseff. An old negro . competent to >fet(d 
young children or chickena,. with the^aid'Ofi 
a few sffliall chaps, from four to eight! yeam 
of age, can make as much.as;ffrown hand! 
can m the field, and this without any ex4 
pense of gin-house or machinery. . l.«ould« 
without any. buildings open a cocoonery six« 
tv-two feet long, and some twentv feet above 
the earth — the gable of my. gin-house'. Thq 
hurdles, &c., coiild be packed out of v the 
way in Slimmer time. [Gdrii tent and cradU 
better. I. R. B.J 

It seems to me to be a buidnese peculiarly 
appropriate for the South. We can ceai» 
mence feeding the 2Qth of April, (thv year 
16th, last year 24th.) 

D. A. Sabw, WaUingford, HMtlmni Co^i 
Vt —I am but little acquainted with zviaiiw 
or manufacturing silk^ having but just donC 
menced in the businsiM, and that on a'antall 
scale as yet ;. and m^r object in this oommtu* 
nieaticm is to obtaan infiirni^io% nqt that i 
think of giving it. .: vllv J 



LsmauL 



'■ 1 Jiw hM.^ abMrt ikxem seres of 
abotttfailf of which aie the whither iulia% 
the othon the alpine, one acre of which are 
set ill hedge form, the other for etasdard 
t»ec«, fipon which I have &d woriua the 
pieaent season that have preonred me 80 
posads coooona^ from which 1 have reeled 
D pounds raw silk, and have saved abettt 1 
pound -eggs, naostly of the pea-nut. The 
wocms were fed in an opembn&ding^ ■omuch 

ri that the wind would firequently blow 
leavea from the ehehrea, where the worma 
w«ve feeding, but still I do not tfamk i lost 
ens in a hundred of what moulted the first 
time. There was no disease among them. 

The leaves to fised them were all picked hy 
tw« childien, one eleven and the oth«r twelve 
yea«8 of aM, during the last stage belbre 
winding. 1 think Uie bounty paid by our 
0tate wen pays all ezpenaea, wiu those who 
manage it right. But here is the fikct. I 
am fttliy permaded (at least, so long as this 
boonty is continued) ti&at S^re^ aeies of trees, 
sf the>sge of mine, (four years firom the seed,) 
will prMUce nmre net piofit than can be now 
lealised from 200 sheep, or from a dairy 
of 90 eowii; and 1 trust the tune is not fiur 
distant whenthe raising of silk in the United 
States will be considered as profitable a busi* 
licasas that of raising wool, lamof opinion 
that all that is respired to insure a good crop 
ef worms is to give them feed enough, and 
havely protect i&m from the sun and rain. 

P. 8. I could have fed twice the number 
«f worms firom mv teees if I could have got 
the eggs 1 wanted — the pea-nuts. 

> Rnv. 8. 8. Aiucei.D, fFeststauCer, Vt 

My silk business this year- is hardly wmth 
aaming. The man who carried on my place, 

Snt out his eggs rather lale. The firal lot 
id toleraUy well, but firom some cause he 
lUd.aot put out more than half, or one third, 
•nough. The next lot were not healthy, so 
that we had only 44 pounds of reeled silk. 
We fed in the same ouildini as last year. 
Close huildinff, but well ventuiated. Fed en 
muhieaulis, ^iefty-*>last part of the time 
with hardier kinds, especially the first crop. 
It appears to me, we should have had three 
times as much silk if the eggs had all been 
|hit out together at first. Mr. Clark, of 
this town, had good success the first crop, 
and poor the second. Mr. Adams, of Wai- 
pole, N. H^ had one saaall erop only, but 
lery healthy and goc»d. I have lat^y seen 
Mr. Gleasoa, of Newport, N. H. He is on 
the place formerly owned by Mr. Messenger. 
Mr. Gbnson tells me that he has had very 

Kd auocees this year. He has fed none 
the ftiur- weeks sulphur-^ considers them 
altogether the moat healthy and profitable. 
He lias fed almost wholly on multicaulis, 
fmd piBsfiera tiiis to other kmds of trees. His 
TlnamM WUfe from eggs of his own keeping. 
As 1 understood, he has n<^ over four acres 
hCtiees^and those not Urge ; and he thought 
hn should make sewing^siUc, from his own 
tonasns^ eumgh to roaliia two * 
doU«rs. 



Ww. C. FmMMMAV, Vy t mmg^ WpuUng 
Co., JV. K.-*lst J have fed wecms few 
years: the first vear, 1840, fed but few*-* 
good success. Sn year, fed early* mpmm 
wound firstef July, cocoons goedfi&bfuabakk 
3d year, fed but few early for want eC )sg^ 
•«-good suoeess-^kte crop peor^ eold and 
rainy. 4th year, 1843, eggs hatelmd too 
early, bad sueccss ', 2d cfop^ worms, heallhy 
•^cocoons lifrht-— cannot. aoeounifiir tib. . ■ ^ 

2d. I feedin afirame.buildiag,mevaly en* 
dosed, mads for that use. The teanperttwis 
I regulate, keeping the room waim onougli 
for UMS worms to work. 

3d. I have never fed in aa op^i shed, btti 
I have soMk others dot it with good auooess. 

4th. I prefer the Nankin pf»-niit««r maalL* 
moth sulphur. 

5th. I use the multicaulis, principally^ 
Broooa and common while are vezy^goodt 
but the fiwulity with whiohi the isa«es'*rs 
gathered, higetber with the giaaler anmoi^ 
of foliage, renders the muttiesuiis fiur jyefe^ 
shie to any other tree, in my .ea6m«t«BA^ I 
have managed many different ways.> .Th* 
best with me is to let the trees stand, — cut 
the tops dose in the fl|M;iBg,mellsw Ae gnound 
with a cent drac or oHltiv«lorv.npidei£pef lag 
the note. In wis way ysu will mtkm bbbh 
ber ef shoots, and more tbamlw^ Sw amount 
of feaves, than to let the tops remain, on. 

6th. From my ezpeirienoe,.ahd thik of m 
aoquaintahos in the silk business^ I ahouH 
decide in fevorof early fiBeding,if Ml Iso 
early. 

7th. In some eases of bad nMtmm ths 
business, these has been too mush espenmoit 
in feeding. 

8th and 9th. Kot able to answer. 

10th. The greatest trouble with us m m 
keeping eggs ; they either hnlch too sariy, orv 
if kept )mSl by bemg pttt into aa ice4iOBss^ 
they are most dwuys lost^ or, what is wmss« 
hatch only to be sickly and amuaat to neth* 
ing. If we could keep our eggs gnodvws 
cfmld da the feir thing m western New Yoiki 
The nlk busmess is % good businsss, 8i|^iy^ 
conducted. . r • 

P. S. As this is tiie first thns thai I eves 
attempted to wrile upon this spbjnel^ uo« 
must take the fw^ and fill out as yoo^ihiBQ 
judge best. [No need of that, firienA Fni» 
man> all right as it is* L R. fi;] > 

Oliver MiTCHnE.L,. South Mbntam^ €t«^ 
i have been doing a litth> ^ ailk fiw feat 
years. Have raisMl four or five bushds per 
year of coeoons, and sold them. I have been 
increasing my trees, inlendh^ to make it a 
business, but my worms have often died* 
My building is not suffieieBtly ventilated. I 
am desirous next season of trying the plan of 
open shed feeding. What eonstituies aa 
open shed.' Is sirtiply a roof oieer the w u M n% 
all thsitis wanted P 

[We refer Mr. M.to Mr. OiU'sdeaeriptimfe. 
I.R.B.] 



Abui. 8. 8hart, iSjpriNg^d, Vt 
Iwittinferm yeuasagw asioMilba 



we quite a samber in thu place that u* tty* 
isgr to db MnwduMf , btit net all with rery 
gM4 raeeeM. I think thH wa hiwe not got 
upoB the rf|^ way of feediiif. 1 have eeen 
aome notice of Mr. Gill^ na&odt>f feediBf . 
I aliDiiiii liJke ta ^ a plan of it, or lone in- 
formatioa on thia iohjeol. We want a mar- 
ket isr cocoons— ^ have aomewhere fh»m fi% 
^^ eeveDtf-five httshele in this vicinity, in a 
number of haada. 'Riere me moie within 
Are^tit: mx mtfea of this pkee, bat 1 cannot 

' whether they will sell them or feel them. 

ere ia one man that hat raiaed five hon- 
dfed pounda. 

Jomr MAsnr, Svmtkkridgey Man, — In the 
apring tsf 1840, I planted about one quarter 
oiFaB acre of molbeiry-lieee, principaily mul* 
ticauKe, and have averafed ISrom them about 
three pounda of reeled ailk eaeh year einoe ; 
lledh * 



Mr wh 
There 



aithOa|i4i Ifaey have winter-killed badly two 

winten. I lave laieed this year enough for 

fouir |Kmndt of reeled attk, and could hMre 

at much more if I had had good egga. 



fouir uoua 
rtiaea at i 



I have used manjr kinds of worms, but can< 
not detevmine wbieh isthe best 1 have al' 
wiaya inl in a tight room, have not had any 
gOM conveniences, and have been somewhat 
troubled, in the hat stages of feeding, by their 
tun^g yellow and dying. I have come to 
the conclusion, that this ia attributable to 
keejihig thorn too thick and not giving them 
sufficient air. I have not kept any accfwnt 
of expenses, but am inclined ta believe, if we 
oottht have encouragement by a bounty irora 
the 9taie, untU we could have time tor ex- 
perience imd improvements, the business of 
raising silk would become both profitable 
and usefut. I ahaH, tfaMofore, multiply my 
tiees. 

JoK» D< Dix, AEtesih JV. Y.-^l luoeived 
your Silk Circular some days since, and take 
the first Of poKuaf^ upon recovering from a 
sftvofo imiess-to answer, briefly, your "- 
tiottt, or as many of them as I can sal 
rily to myself. 

To'Qaeationl, laaftwer, i have fed worms 
three yeafs, and the general lesolts have been 
fkvovablft. The second year better than the 
ilrst, and this year better than both together. 
I hare raiaed/orf^ huM* thia year, at an 
expense of $79, which is about the amount 
of premium 1 have d^^wn fiom the State, 
li^avittir me the amount received from the 
saleor eocoons as m much qnde. 

Quastiott a. The fifvt year, I used the up- 
per rooms of my heusO, badly ventilated, avid 
was very eareful to shut the windows nights, 
and build a fire cold days — mH tgromf. Sec- 



ond year^ third story of store, kmg room, 
dowsat ea<^ mid— » no artificial neat ^win- 
df^wS'Clofted in c«sol weather. Hkird ye«r,>aa 
<M ropewalk and bam, from which I took 
off boai^ all tound^ aa# let the ak cireulato 
freefy nfghl and dav In alt kinds of weather 
-*« vevy few diseased worms. Spun in thirty 
day«S' and^ made the beat eoeoons I «v«r saw. 
Kati^fti tUfr iMvaaaa thsff^oMtiaftoaa tha 



«l or dfy; titod thna IbNiy, tttf 

changed the litter but onoa durmgoaeh ag»; 

To Qu oali o n 3, 1 aaawar no, but thiariE it 
wouM do weU. 

Question 4. The Mirabel Jaune or mam* 
moth Nankin pea^nut. 

Queatioa^. Multicanhs, and hewtofoaa 
they have managed themaelves. HersaAsr 
1 intend to cut them down close to the ground 
in Novemberyand lurdovnathe topa attlto 
same time, instead of waiting till spring. 

Question 6. I h«ve : the difference ie 
greatly in favor of early feeding; for in* 
stance, from two ounces hatehed 17th June, 
I obtained 135 pounds of the very beat co* 
coona I ever saw. From 4| ounces hatehed 
June 9S, I obtained !U3 pounda, not quito 
equal to the first. From 4 ounces hatohed 
inly 10, 1 obtained US pounda, decidedly m- 
fenor to the first, though good. 

Question 7. The causes of bad success m 
feeding that have come under my observa- 
tion, are, 1st. Waoft of the pure air of heaveftr 
'M. Thsy. do not generally have sufficient 
room on the shelves. 3d. Their food is kept 
too loB^ in caUars or some other vile plaoe, 
whore it gets wilted -or dried up. G-ive silk- 
worms ptontf of feed freah from the traeSf 
plenty c^Troom on tha shelves, and plenty of - 
pure air, and then do not han<^ them too 
much, and there ia no difltouMy in raising' 
them suceessAilly. 

B. B. Bautov, €»K, JlfBss.^1 com- 
menced feeding 8ilk*wonns in the summer 
of 1840. Have continued in the busiaasa 
ever since. 

The first s e a so n I puiehased oneouaoe of 
eggs of the la^ge p ea nu t varietv, which 
were fed upon tte foliage of the woite mul- 
benr in the early part of the season, and 
profiueed between 80 and 90 poundaef eo- 
eoons, and, after selecting 8 or 10 pounds ftr 
eggs. Moled 7^ pounds of sinE. 

The seeond 'season I hatehed two and • 
half ounces of egga, whiofa prsdueed 189 
pounds of eoeoons. These were fed upon 
the leaves of the white oMiiberry, aMl hatohed 
about the middle of June. 1 also fed a sec- 
eond crop with the leaves of the white 
raulbenry and multieaulis, which wound QfP 
pounds of oecooQs. The two crops, aftev 
selecting one bushel for seed, reeled Igl 
pounds of silk. 

The third season, 1 fed about as mtesy 
worma as the seeand, with neatfy the same 



My success the present aesson has bee» 
good, though taken as a whcde not quite as 
fevmable as heretofore. My first crc^ ih& 
early part of the season were healthy and 
did extremely well, producing 190 pounda 
of good cocoons. I did not succeed as well 
with the second crop, of about 30,000, beb^ 
bu^ attending the first cvop, that wt/m win£ 
ing. They were neglected and fed very ir*» 
regularly in the first stages, and the dtibfeni 
days' hatohin^ became UMsed, whieb eamied 
them to be uneven. The*f commenced Wind^ 
iuf the aiat of Augusts Tha woMlhcy mm 



Ipofy t^ymadlkey tM not 4aA!rife-i«le» Imt 
wiMind 80 pounds <3i eocoont; I alio fed 
aaotber lot of about theaasae niiBiber^ which 
did extremely well until they eommenced 
winding, whieh wu the llih of September ; 
the weather, at that time, had beeome quite 
oetri, with eome frost. The buildiBgr was 
closed, and by means of artificial. heat the 
temperature kept between 70 and tiO degrees. 
Nearly two thirds went up and wound good 
cocoons, far superior to those of the second 
erop. The remamder did not appear io be 
afi'ected with any sweeping disease^ but most 
of Ihem turned to chrysalis, without forming 
any cocoon. This crop wound only fifty lbs. 
of cocoons. The two last crops were fed ex- 
elttstvely upon the roulticaulis. From the 
cocoons raised the present season, 1 have se- 
leetad two bushels for eggs, reeled 17 pounds 
of silk, and have cocoons enough to produce 
four or five pounds more. 

The buU<hng in which I have fed is about 
]@ feet in length, by 14 in width, and 7 feet 
between the posts. There are four windows, 
one upon each side of the buildinff, which 
enables me to ventilate it freely. Unless the 
weather is cold,' I allow the windows and 
doocsto i^main open during the day, and some/ 
of the windows. during the night. 

■1 have not paid much attention«to regulat- 
ing the temperature. When it was cool and 
damn, I have generally used artificial heat. 

I nave never fed in an open shed or tent, 
but have no dotidbt bbt the plan would prove 
Buooessful in the^esrly part of the season. 1 
ahould have trjesd the experiment the present 
season, had it been convenient. 

1 have fed two kinds df worms, the large 
p6a*nut and the sulphur variety; though 
principally of the pea-nut, which I consi<fer 
mow hardy, and less liable to disease, than 
the sulphur -^though my sulphur worms 
Itave geoerally done well. 

The trees used are tl|e. white mulberry and 
mttltioaulis. The multicaulis have never 
winter-killed to any extent, and I usually 
let them remain, during the winter, as they 
grew durixv the summer. 

I have ahvavs been more suocestrfiil with 
ewly crops of wcums than with late. My 
cocQoiWtmade by. early crops have invariably 
yielded more silk than those produced by late 
ovopiu 

From my own experience, I am cod- 
Tiaoed, thaty in order to insure good success, 
the cocoonery should be les^i ventiiAtedf the 
worms obtained from a healtliy stock, and 
&d as much as they will eat. 

I am sanguine in the belief^ that, as people 
become experienced in the rearing of suk- 
W<wnBi it will be a profitable branch of 
business. 

Jo0ErH McHannan, Macks HiU Cocoem&ry^ 
fU0r .'Mdodin^i HamiU^n Co,. (Mto.<— In an* 
■wer.to the lufuiries you m4ke in your Silk 
Ciroular, I give you the foUowing : 
• I have fed worms the four last seasons, on 
t9» small ascale toteam the habksof the 
did bat little thisjeatoa^galbeied 



hatjtfirar 0M 



My buiidiDg-iS' a fitame^ bowrds matehedt 
floor abovie and below ->-eaa be-elosed |per* 
fectly tight — ' have a stove m. the b«iMiiig» to- 
regiuaie the temperature. 

1 have not fed in tents or openbuildings. * 

The orange cocoobs aie the easiest toieel^ 
the fibre b«ng the strongest. - The pea^nut 
produces the most silk to the bushM, but it ^ 
takes more worms to tnake a bushel. >The- 
white pea-nut, 4000 make a bushel, weigh 
fourteen pounds when first gathered. The 
Nankin pea>not, i%00 malse a bushel^ weigli 
thirteen pounds. The mammsAhfSolpbMi*- 
3000 make a bushel, weigh ten pounds 
nine ounces, when first gathered. i-I pfsfer^ ^ 
the pea-nut for my own reeling y a bushel/^ 
makes move raw silk; but the mammoth- 
sulphur, to sell by the bushel. The peB<4iu| 
has nine hundred, yards of fibre, the main*: 
moth-sulphur six hundred yftrde, a little, 
coarser. r 

X use the multjcaulis; tMcwthat ftsf 4»>* 
signed for i^bmting, takie up in the lall« l*/ s 
tl^m in layers, cover with earth, keeptheAi) 
from touching much, eovet (he heap witJ» 
boards to turn the water off. In the j^rivg^ 
cut off the limbs and roots, lay 4heaisn iax^: 
rows, cover with a plough. They ale mom* 
sure to come, than if they, stand eut<4>vcfi 
the winter. If any nnss coming, bend dowa 
the limbs of the next to it,'QoveF it with 
earth, and it will take root, then cut it offf 
and it is a tree. Cultivate them the same -a* 
corn. In the spring, cut all the dead woodr 
off. Be sure to cut to the ^ick. They do 
better to do it aller the buds show them-i 
^Ives. I have cut the limbs thiee -times • 
from a part ^f my trees thiii ssssqa; .They : 
are now full of leaves again. The more thsfi 
are cut, the more branches will shoot out, 
and produce moie foliagst).if<'<thci lend. lis 
strong. > '. . 

I have found no differ^tiee ia early- and ' 
late feeding, .myself, though my last worms 
were a feiiure. One sf my neighbomy 
Mr. Rogers, has been feeding aU axuamet, . 
His last worms wound up $^ptembei ^; he 
says, they did as well as. the fimt* They- 
were the mammoth-sulphmp, fed in an.epsiC; 
bam^ on boturd shelves; took the wei4iher tm | 
it came ; were heiOthyf and wound: up well. 

I believe 1 can give the cau9e.ojr th« lom. 
of my last wormsi My firit t^o ev^ts ^i4 
well, the third were kept in tLclpM,ir09m till, 
past their third moulting ; . many had .died 
when< they were taken , to. thev qqQwmfW* 
My fourth crop were then «omi<lg 0A,in.tbe 
cocoonery ', it rained, and turned toool. Tim. 
third crop would not wind, but iwmd«m<i. 
about. I darkened the. room, bvut tit t did no. 
good> IbuUt a fire in the, : stoves jtbey did 
belter; but the building had.tp be (d^aei $& 
wmrm it. My yomog worms F^ra than 
twelve days old, had pmm4 ^beii thiid 
moulting. I never saw any thing t» eeual. 
them. They all came out of theii moulting 
within three hours of each other.mmh timi^ 
on th» IbiKth, mgbthf and tiveUUi ^pjea; oa 






the fifibeentli, they oommeooed dying by 
thoiMMinrii ) At finty I oauld not account for 
it, but sooA found tJie cause was tJie wahI 
9f fretk mr; tliraw part of them away 
put ihe rest 0mL and let it ruin oik them i» 



two 



4af^ amd nigktt; put them back|J|t them 
dry, Govexed them with lime, and wy oom- 
menoed eating ; a part wound up. The dia- 



^ e&se they had was the yellows. The worais 
tbey came from had no yellows ainoikg them 
lor three years beibie. • 

To retard the eggs, roll the papers in 
cotton-batting, place it in a tio box, not air- 
ti^t, put batting around it, put it in a 
wooden box, close the box, put it in an ice* 
houne, in among the ice, e?en with the top 
of tbe boCt <^ cover it eighteen inches with 
sir^v. Mt eggs, kept in that way, came out 
perfectly dry, and did not hatch for twenty 
4in.y;s, the b»it sign of being well kept. 

I think the post-office department might 
nwke some arrangement to carry silk-worm 
eggs at, say twenty-five cents per ounce, at 
most, while they carrv mammoth news- 
pai^eiB for one and a han cents. The same 
w)Mht of silk-worm eggs, would coat three 
or four dellan. It is a severe drawback on 
the business, and, I think, it might be rem- 



' I have not known an instance where 
worms were fod in any quantity in a close 
rooip, that they did well. It wiU not do to 
fted worms with tough, yellow leaves; it 



hinds them up, and, instead bf spinning, they 
turn to grubs, and waste their silk. Farmers, 
that two years ago laughed at tlie silk- 
humbug, as they (Milled it, are beginning to 
make same in<|uiry op the subject. Tney 
are getting their eyes open. We have no 
bounty on silk in this State now, and there 
is no way to come at the amount produced 
this vevj but it must be large, from what I 
can team from di£S»rent parts of Ohio. 

P«. Danisl Stkbbivs, J^trthamptonjMma- 
stK hu tet U , — I give the following answers 
to your several questions : 

I have fed worms for seven or eight years, 
.with the sole view of showing that it cptdd 
be done. , This year made twenty-five to 
.thirty pounds of silk. 

This season I erteted a new cocoonery, 
in the midst of a mulberry patch, forty-two 
hy twenty — posts eight feet out of ground. 
Koof covered with boards and battel, the 
aides and ends, covered with slats three inches 
wide, and half an inch apart, extending firora 
the iCi^ves to^.the ground. Floor of earth. 
.{Not air enough. I. R, B.) 
. Adjoining the above is a tent tohofly 
^vered with bass matting ; through which 
the rains, had & free passage. The success 
of the tent was superior even to the co- 

. ', j^ve fed for several years in an open 
.shied, in the {barn-yard, but nothing to ex- 
.diide birds apd fowls ; in other usspeo^, the 
.fneriment waa successful. 
Foi^ili^lnPC 'itlki jthe pe«rn«4 t*^^ hae 



bainglMi 
gum, mo«e length, . lustre, and 
stren^h or fibre, than other varieties, as 
testihed by a skilful silk-dyer, at a Court 
appointed for taking depositions to be used 
in a trial pending in Nantucket, Mass. 

Having the Slaek^ yAite^ Cantom^ Ariatie^ 
Btoosa^ fm</(i'<Ym/i#- and #ftflte other varietiea, 
I have not found any to excel the Ctmtom 
for its foliage, and tlie Asiatic for its abun- 
dant branches. The foliage of the Canton 
continues to the latest season in greater per- 
foct'ion than any other. 

That our soil and climate are peculiarlv 
adapted to the growth of the Canton mul- 
berry, was suggested by Dr. Parker, when 
recently in the United States, on being 
shown, at my office, the foliage from my 
plantation, tlie stock of which was sent me 
from China, as the verv Uti used in China 
for making their best silk. 

The tree grows more rapidly in this conti- 
nent than in China. In Jamaica, where it 
was taken by Mr. Whitmarsh, it attains the 
height of fifteen to twenty feet in one season, 
unless headed down every three months, as 
is there the practice. But in China it ia 
represented to attain only about four feet in 
the season ; with us, some have grown six 
to eight feet in a season, after being headed 
down in the spring, and growing in dry soil, 
enriched by the decomposition of the rohage 
on its suruce. I do not know of any com- 
post so enriching, as the foliage of tlie mul- 
berry. 

An early crop of worms is preferable to a 
late crop. The foliage becomes abundant 
the latter part of the season, but is very 
unfit for tbe worms, being too rancid or de* 
prived of its richness by drenching or long- 
continued rains. 

It was my expectation and intention, to 
test the use of the mulberry foliage, both in 
its green and dry state, for making paper ; 
and for that purpose had seat a Quantity to 
the paper-mill, but cannot have the experi- 
ment fully tried at present. 

It is hoped that onoikur year will enable 
silk-growers to render a good account of 
inul^rry foliage for making paper -^-and of 
the hark of the young branches for the same 
purpose, or for making silk fabrics. 
. These objects being accomplished, togeMi- 
er with the well-established improvements 
for heding worms, and the multiplimliiim 
of the gUkAreef to meet the present destilM- 
tion of the country, — * then shall we be pre^ 
pared to push vigorously for tbe mark of 
$50,000,000 worth of silk yearly —the mark 
set up by the American Institfite. 

P. S. To show the excellence of the Can- 
ton mulberry, I eubjoin the following re- 
cords of an experiment! made three yean 
since, by my wife and daughters^ 

One of my daughters asked me one day 
if she mifht not feed exclusively with the 
Canton; 1 asked the reason; she said, that 
she found that the silk-worma would leave 
the foliage of the muUicauUs .andsother va- 
netiea to j, feed .upon itbi X:«iitoe« If. thai 



LsnmsMA 



Miig* trti on tbe ti^le. I nOiibd if it wtm 

rttU^ to. The answer was affirmative. I 
then asked the others, if thej had noticed 
a similar prdference; each replied in the 
aArmatire; not having so many Cantons 
then as of the other varieties, I permitted 
the ^dest to have her request, and she took 
one shelf from that time, to feed ezelusivelj 
with the Canton, and the change was per- 
eepttble very soon; these worms evidently 
increased in sise more than any others 
whk^h were fed on different foliage; so 
much so that visitors noticed the difference, 
and said it ought to be published in the 
papers. In these early days of feeding, we 
had daily visitors iVom distant parts of the 
country ; and when the cocoons were finish- 
ed, 1 invited seven gentlemen to examine 
them ; at which time there happened to be 
present two gentlemen from the South, (silk- 

Sowers,) — Kev. L. D. Hatch, of Green 
>., Alabama, and Dr. B. Hill, of North 
Carolina, — who, with other gentlemen of 
town, were invited to examme the case. 
The scales were produced, and S. Wells, 
£sq., clerk of Cjonrt, was appointed to try 
them by the scales; all of the gentlemen 
were of unexceptionable character, and dis- 
interested. 

But Mr. Wells tried various weighinss, 
and selected the largest of each kind, fed 
on promiscuous varieties — the result was, 
that five cocoons of the Canton feed were 
as heavy as eight cocoons fed upon foliage 
of the other varieties. 

Jacob Pratt, &iarhume^ Massachusetts. 
«— I was not able to keep as many worms 
this summer as I had intended to do, in 
ooBsequenee of the June ftost ; and as my 
hall which I feed in is well ventilated, 1 
liave not tried the experiment of open feed- 
ing. But my experience has taught me 
that a free circulation of air, night and day^ 
is indispensable for the health of the worms. 
My hall is about 30 feet by 18 in the second 
story, over my wood-shed, having nine win- 
dows, which let down at the top, and raise 
nt the bottom ; also an opening on the sides, 
one foot wide, with blinds, which may be 
tepened or shut at pleasure — thus securing 
any quantity of air desired; Thus, you wiU 
perceive, that I have fed my worms almost 
«s open as tent feeding, as I kdep the hall 
open night and day. The lot of worms 
which 1 kept this season were fed by my 
two daughters, with the exception of a few 
of the last days, (the oldest fineen years of 
ageO which they did, besides helping do the 
work in the house, in the same time. The 
worms were of the sulphur kind, and come 
<«ff ahont the first of August, making be- 
tween 80 and 90 pounds of cocoons of the 
first qunlity. 

It nas been my object, from the first, to 
make the silk business a part of my farming 
business, in order to prove, if possible, that 
'«very fermer that has a femily of children, 

r raise silk without Interfering essentially 

\ tiuir «ilMr eMioefiu, after a litOa ex- 



*inay r 



perieneein Ibedbig. I Hl^ eoiiflSe^thiit: 
if farmen would devote one or two acres' or 
land to raising trees and feeding from thetn, 
they would get more profit than fW>m ratsio^ 
com or potatoes, and with less labor. 
My answers, therefore, toe t 

always goodT when fed the fore part of the 



[ imp fed worms, more or lets, fer 7 
, -^Km good suecess the last years, and 



2. Bntlding as above stated. 

3. I prefer the sulphur kind, on account 
of their being more hardy. 

4. I use the white and the multicanlis. 

5. I have proved to my satisfaetton dmt 
every thing depends on early feeding, in this 
part of the country. 

6. There have been quite a number of 
persons in this vicinity, who have tri«ld to 
raise worms, but haife failed on account of 
keeping them too cloae, and not having sid^ 
ficientreed. 

I have not manufactured much except 
what I have raised myself, which I make in- 
to sewing-silk. ....^ 

JoHir Matbh, AIomm, Miami Co., fnM- 
ana. — We raised, in Wayne Co., Ohio, and 
manufactured into sewing-silk, something 
over $200 worth, the last Uiiee years. We 
also reeled some, and had it wove for ladies' 
dresses, at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, by Mr. 
Gill, a sample of which I enclose^ [A su- 
perior article. I. R. B.l In answer to the 
last intjuiry, I reply that I am'fvtlly con- 
firmed in the opinion that silk-growing and 
manufacturin|r are worthy the attention of 
American citizens, and that silk will soon 
be a staple product. There are several others 
in Wayne Co. engaged in this business. 



JowAS N. Sitrrn, Mdison, (near Chimney 
Point,) Vt. — We stand alone, in our toWn, 
experimenting a little in nowing silk for 
our own curiosity and benrat, as wpH as the 
benefit of the community, if, through oiir 
small experiments, they may in any way be 
benefited. 

Fed, this season, six thousand Worms, sul- 
phur color, firom white and multicanlis pro- 
miscuously ; weight 18 pounds. Some sick- 
ened and died, owing to want of proper ven- 
tilation, and crowded too thick on the she] veil ; 
fed in a small room with one door and one 
window; [six hundred enough for such a 
room. I. R. B. ;] weather warm, door 
closed, window but few inches raised. One 
morning found worms sick and vomiting ; 
took up two hundred for dead ; placed them 
on a board in an open wood-shed; next day 
showed signs of recovering; ordered tiiem 
fed ; most of them recovered, and made ^gooii 
cocoons almost in Ms open air. 

Inclosed I send you one dollar, as niy inlle 
to help on your efforts to establish the |^w 
ing or silk m New England. The nmlticau- 
lis bubble has burst : the path to perseverance 
is clear ; and Yankee enterprise will not ini^ 
ftr tbd ailk-grower to letnoe hk itepa; 



uffpoauk 



Ami, (hmt PiquBk,) Mumi Co.^ Okio. — 
Your Circular has just httn pat into bit 
band ; and 1 hasten to lay before you such 
ftcis as have conw under my observation. 

I have been feeding three years, but on a 
irery tiaaited seale, simply for making exper^ 
knents. I kavse §kd ia my own dwellmg- 
lioiise, ill aa spsii stMe wiin a ground teor, 
«Bd succeeded well in both eases; but the 
worms arrived at maturity one week sooner 
wken in the house, the apartment being kept 
much warmer; but the worms were not 
healthier than in the stable; they did ex- 
ceedingly well, except this season. One crop 
WAS injured by the children's heating the 
apartment too much; and the consequence 
was tJ^t they were taken sick and i^iout 
balf died. I used mir^^lMcked Unu profusely 
onee a dav, which completely stayed tlw 
disease with a pait, and I never saw health- 
ier and larger worms, and they spun the 
largest ooooons. I prefer the mammoth sol- 
|>har. I use the multicaulis ; cut the leaves 
while the worm is in its first stage; then 
whole leaves on a shelf, and during the two 
last moulti]i|« me them the whme tree on 
a frame, and uey turn down and spin in 
the brush. 

I have alwajri fimnd July feeding to be the 
most successful. I have now six acres of 
nultieaiilis, planted last spring, and intend 
increasing to fourteen acres in 4 year or 
two. I intend planting in squares two feet 
sad half apart, that they may easily cultivate 
both ways. [Altogether too thick, as the 
mulberry-leaf requires sun and aw* to be fit 
f<ifod for worms. I. R. B.] 

I have just letamed from a visit to Rich- 
mond, Indiana, where they have been feed- 
ing a (evr years, and have commenced man- 
imeturing. You will hear from them. 
They have some beautiful specimens of 
shawls, vesting, dress patterns, thread, &c.. 

In looking over thepresent Tariff bill, I find 
Ibatraw silk is but 50 cents per pound. 1 
think that quite too low, and Congress should 
be memorialised on the subject. 

From what experience and informatton I 
have on the sikbjeet of the silk business, I 
believe that silk wiH soon become a staple 
commodity of American industry. I have 
some silk thread, maaafoctured by Mr. Til- 
inghaste, of Dayton, Ohio, which is pro- 
nounced by good judges to be a first-rate ar- 
ticle. He has a very simple- spinning and 
reelinj^ machine, msMle in &at place, and 
bids fair to do a good business, it is moved 
by water-power. 

' A number of people in tke$e digging have 
iMen bruelly bit by the multioaidis specula- 
tion, and all cry out kumhug at me fat 9X- 
tempting to raise silk. I know of no person 
eagageu in the business within thirty-five 
miles of ^is place. But, notwithstanding 
tinsir jeers and sneeftf, I am determined to 
/MTssvers, ttntil I astonish some of the no- 

I an haw ^nfif^ hi fbtaoBg^ tad itttMd 




the mwhig of tifllL for the pVMfeiii w ill aa^ 
pondage; but I expeetsoon to make it the 
prineipal busmess, and just raise stock ttdd 
grain enough for fbmily purposes. 

I will be anxiously looking for your Report 
at the proper time. 

Jarvacv HtrTOBmooa, Broeki-m, JV< Y.*^ 
I use the Singapore, or large Nankin, peasant 
worm. The eggs are larpier, «nd of oonrse 
produce stronger and hoatthier worms, thtft 
the other kinds. I think this worm will pro<- 
duee twice as much silk as any other kind I 
have over used. 

Answers to the Cireular. 

1. Four years. Not snecessfal until 1 jrot 
the right kmd of worms. First year 30 IMk 
ooooons. Second year 90 lbs. lliird yeat 
190 lbs. Fodrth year 3U lbs. 

3. Building two stories, 15 by M feet. I 
warm it by furnaces, &c., while the jrormi 
are winding. 

3. No. 

4. Singapore, or Nankin, pearuut; lafg* 
sise. 

5. Moms multicaulis. .No other it worth 
the trouble, in oomparisoai. 

6. Succeeded best b^eariv leading, mitil I 
got the Singapore. Smoe than, I have doni 
well in late fcssdiog. 

7. Yes. Loss by neglect hi Ibeding, oletB* 
ing, dbs. 

8. No. 

9. No. 

10. We make all into sewings ; n^ it for 
fi>iir cents a skein. It is preferred by mmy 
to Italian. 

Question : What do you think of the aiUh 
culture for the United States ? 

Answer : I think that, as a natloiial busi* 
ness, there is none more profitable. 

P. S. To hatch the eggs, I take the rolls 
of paper containing them to bed with me 
tea or fourteen times, and it does the tluag. 

HoRAca JAfTKs, Cornwall, Vu -^ It ii 
about ten yearn sinoe we oommeaaed iked* 
ing worms. The most we have fed ia any 
on^ year is about thirty thousand ; the pres* 
ent year about twelve thousand. The re- 
sults, since the first year or two, have been 
uniformly successful. 

We use a wood-house chamb^, whieh is 
so open that we cannot do much to regnlata 
the temperature, and have attempted noth* 
ing more than to close the windows in oold, 
damp weather ; think that is aU that is n»> 
cessary. 

I prefer a kind of worm we have led soma 
two or three y«a»s, whieh waa bvougbt from 
Springfield, in this State, without any disi> 
tinctive name. The;^ are superior to those 
that have been sold in this vicinity. They 
are a large, grey worm, making a s«lphQ9>> 
colored cocoon. Their ago I have not uflM' 
ticed particularly, but think the windiag 
mostly completed in six weeks. 

I use the Italian white. They were ssd 
out m rows six fieet apart, and three feel 
apart iA the Yowsi aad ei^tivatod at \»Bt m 



hETTEMB. 



4h»y woM wimaH tf it 8i»oeIitappedc«l* 
tivftting, the J have gradually declined^ and I 
have been taitiniii|[ them out with a view to 
commence cultiTating them again. 

I have a few of the Alpine, which I like 
weU. 

I have fed early. As far as my knowledge 
extends, late feeoing, in this region, has not 
been successful. 

We have, from the commencement, 
WKOught.all our cocoons into sewing-silk ; a 
few of the first year's on a common wheel, 
since then on a machine I had of John T. 
Truman, Esq., of Cornish, N. H., and we 
make a good article and fair profit 

I have never used the multicaulis, as I 
have always supposed it would not an* 
swer in our latitude, but hope I may yet be 
mistaken. If it can be made to endure our 
winters, and come forward in season to carry 
through a crop of worms by the middle of 
August, it will do : I doubt whether here we 
shaB find it profitable feeding much after that 
lime. 

I hope that, in the promised Report^ the 
4k>mpiiers will be careful to designate the 
place or latitude in which any experiment 
has been made, when that will be likely to 
have any influence, that silk culturists in 
different parts of the country may have an 
<mportunity to iudge whether it would be 
likely to succeed in their particular location. 

Harvxt Loo wis, Otiseo, JV. Y. — X have 
this year fed a few worms, the hatching of 
what I procured from two thirds of an ounce 
of eggs, laid on paper, and taken from an ice- 
haiue the 2Qth of June. My eggs all hatched 



the first week of July. I feu them on the 
Italian and multicaulis together, without cut- 
ting the leaves, for about three weeks. I 
fed mostly wet leaves when I fed multicau- 
lis, as my trees were small, and the leaves 
would get dirty by the beating of' the rains, 
so that 1 washed them before feeding. Af- 
ter that time I fed from the Italian trees, 
by cutting the sprigs and sprouts, and lay- 
ing them on for about two weeks, and then 
fed.mostly the multicaulis until they wound. 
. My place of feeding was a ball-room in a 
pubhc house, and dn tables covered with pap 
pers. The windows were provided with 
nlinds^ so that 1 could shut the blinds and 
open the windows at pleasure. 
. . ^hen they indicated a desire to wind, 1 

Provided them with bushes of various kinds ; 
used cedar, chestnut, oak, walnut, beech, 
maple, and bass-wood, and I think the bass- 
wood the best of the whole : the leaves are 
Urge, and do not curl much, and, by setting 
ihm up close, the worms will crawl in be- 
tween the leaves and deposit their cocoons 
frequently four or five on a leaf, so that it is 
very.easy gathering them. The floss comes 
off very dean, and, there being plenty of 
|«om, very few double ones. 

The earlier the worms are fed after the 
leaves start, 1 think, the better. It has 
proved invariably the case; the latest-fed 
vocKis in this vicinity have been nearly or 



qwtea&fliune. lialtadtoMitmyillkiaad 

have provided myself with the Piedmont 
reel for the purpose. 

Ira HoyvhAvv, PUoHoa Valiey^ Dutduit 
Co.y JV. F. — I have had but little iexperieace 
before the present year. I had cakul^ed on 
feeding several crops, but the firost we had 
in June injured my multicaulis to such a de- 
pee that I was under the necessity of cut* 
ting them down and hoeing them out, which 
prevented me from hatching my worms be- 
fore 26th June. I then hatched about 40 or 
45 thousand. I fed them the first thre« 
weeks on the Italian, the remainder of the 
time on multicaulis. When about three 
weeks old, they were too much crowded, in 
consequence of not having my feeding frames 
finished in season to separate them, which 
produced disease among them before I was 
aware of it; by the free use of lime I soon 
checked it. I had about 35 thousand, which 
wound very well; commenced winding in 
four weeks from the time they hatched, and 
produced 101 lbs. of cocoons. 

The building used was a carriage-house, 
20 by 24 feet ; it was ventilated by three lat- 
tice window-blinds, two at the north and one 
at the south. I use no thermometer. 1 
never have fed in an open shed. I fed the 
mammoth pea-nut ; that k'md, I believe, is 
generally preferred. I have a nursery of 
Italian mulberry-trees about seven years old ; 
they are planted in drills about six feet apaxt 
I have two acres of multicaulis, which con- 
tain about 20,000 trees. 

David S. Hott, Deetjieldy Franlfiin Co^ 
Mass. — 1st. I have assisted in feeding worms 
nearly every year since 1828. 

The general results were favorable; our 
worms being usually healthy, and j[ttoduciiig 
good cocoons. 

1 however recollect one very hot season^ 
when the worms, being kept in a close cham- 
ber, were unhealthy ; and the cocoons that 
were made, although they appeared well, 
would not produce a single miller. 

Another season, a heuthy crop of worms 
were just ready to wind, when a violent 
thunder-shower came on, one night, with 
more vivid liffhtning and louder thunder 
than usual. The next morning at least n'me 
tenths of the worms lay entirely motionless, 
from which state they never recovered. AVe 
supposed this effect was caused by electrici- 
ty, but never have heard of a similar case. 
[Was the room closed ?— I. R. B.J 

The 20th of July, this season, I hatched 
half an ounce of eggs, of the pea-nut kincl. 

Kept them in the house for the first eight 
or ten days, and then removed them to the 
penary or corn-house, a building boarded 
tight on three sides, and quite open on the 
west, with a large door in the soutb* The 
temperature was not regulated at alL 

The half ounce of effgs produced two and 
a half bushels of excel^t cocoons. 

I never have fed in an open shed or tent; 
buti aiAMtisfied that a tent,, with the iidea 



LKTTEia 



flutvUf dntisff cold, nrfny ^J** tLiid cold 
lights, wonkibe stifficjent protection for the 
worms. 

The s«!phiin uid the pearnatt are the 
<m\f kinds of worms I hsTe fed. I am sat^ 
isfied that the large pea^nuts and h^ge sol- 
pbmn are the two beet varieties ; and that 
there is little difference between them as to 
profits. 

I we the white mulberry, principally ; haye 
« few Cantons, from which 1 cut nearly all 
the Younjg twigs and shoots. 

The winter uequenthr kills all the young 
wood that has grown toe preceding season, 
and occasionally some more. M^ trees are 
large, and my method of ffathenng foliage 
Is as follows : With a large knife I commence 
mt the lower branches and trim off the 
leaves and shoots, leaving onljr enough to 
keep the tree alive. The trimming is enect* 
«d by striking with the knife instead of cut- 
ting. 

ihave not noticed any diA^rence between 
^ly and late feeding. I am told, how- 
ever, by men of experience, that there is a 
difierence. 

1 did not lose three per cent, of my late 
erop the last season, and am satisfied that 
those worms that have attained their full 
siie, when attacked by the yellows, should 
not be destroyed. Let them be taken out 
of the cocoonery as soon as the disease ap- 
pears, and be placed on winding shelves. 
Tbey will seldom eat after the disease ap- 
pears ; therefore the only thing that can be 
done with them is to plaice them in a iifer^ 
enst atTf and where tney can easily wmd. 
With this treatment, about tkirty-ihrte per 
€€id. of my yellow worms produced tolera- 
bly fiood cocoons. 

I hiive ascertained hj experiment that one 
-hour's immermon in hQiling ley will produce 
such an effect on the young shoots of the 
•Canton mulberry, that the bark may be 
ptLsked off with the hand. 

Water, as fer as 1 have observed, has no 
effiset of this kind. I also ascertained that 
hoiiing ley, poured on to the smaller shoots 
in a cold vessel, and alh>wed to remain six- 
teen or eighteen hours, would |»oduce the 
same effect. 

But, notwithstanding the ease, rapidity, 
and certainty of this operation, I do not think 
it worth much, for it does not separate the 
green bark from the white substance that we 
want, neither does it seefn to be easily sepa- 
rated in any way. 

Silk may be raised in New England by 
every person who owns, or can hire, land. 
The experiments in feeding, and indeed in 
every part of the business, within two or 
three years past, have established facts enough 
with regard to the proper management of 
worms to enable any person of moderate in- 
genuity to become, with a little attention, a 
successful silk-grower. 
- ' If cloth tents or sheds prove to be sufficient 
jHrotection for worms, and Mr. QtWV^ feeding < 
<r0d^ ir what he thinks it is, the silk bun- j 



ness must speedily beeome at extmiiye ti 
any business in the United States. 

Lkosard AMD Hkpsy Faroo, PitUf^Td\ 
Vt. -^ I will state a few feots resfteeting the 
silk business, from our own experience. We 
were the first that brought silk-worms «ni 
mulberry-trees into this section of the coun- 
try. My native place is Connecticut, and 
my employment, when Tounip, was to makfe 
silk. My father moved to Vermont, where 
there was not a mulberry-tree or a silk-womk 
scarcely ever seen. I brought some sUk wiik 
me, of'^ my own manufecturing, which l^e 
people rather disputed that I made it by 
worms. 1 still bad the same anxiety to 
feed silk-worms. I was confident I could 
make silk in Vermont as well as in Con- 
necticut, if I could get the leaves. Accord* 
ingly, I sent to Boston and obtained two 
ounces of white mulberry-seed, and sent to 
Connecticut and obtamea one hundred eggs, 
of which I saved only forty. The second 
year I fed five hundred, the third year niam 
thousand, the fourth year thnty thousand, 
and had leaves enough to feed as many moie, 
but not house-room. We have to manage 
difierently here from what they do at the 
South. Our springs are backward -, it malees 
our second crop late. I am now reeling. 
This is the fifth day. I have reeled fifty 
runs. 1 have twenty thousand more to reel 
this week. I will send you a specimen of my 
silk, and should be highly gratified to attend 
the Convention, but the distance, and multi- 
plicity of business, forbid. 

We believe the silk business to be good^ 
and that it will prosper. 

Madame Bald wtir, AeiD Aisiwn, Ct^^[ttLm 
somewhat at a loss whether I am at liberty to 
give the following extract feom a letter ro* 
ceived from Dr. Stebbins a day or two after 
he returned from the Convention. But, on 
the whole, I risk it. The exhibition which I 
made of the silk journal of Dr. Stiles at the 
Convention, the mterest which this old mon* 
ument of his industry and philanthropy awa* 
kened, the fket that ^ere were then son* 
fifty families in New Haven engaged in the 
business, and now the fact that we have dis* 
covered a connecting link between that gtn* 
entio^Mi silk-growers and the present-^ 
more Hpicially, to preserve and lH:infl|Uo 
use the good lady's plan of winding plU 
this must be my apology, if the case needs 
one. I. R. B.l 

*' At New Haven, I called on the lady of 
Judge Baldwin, who fed worms at the time 
of President Stiles, who daily visited her and 
them. She had good success, and was at 
enthusiastic as i& Prpsident himself.' She 
was the daughter of the great Roger Sher*> 
man. She is (as the Judge said) in fey<»r of 
shelf>feeding ; but, on explaining to her the 
cradle-system of Mr. Gill, she acceded to ite 
superiority. She was greatly in favor of her 
own plan of a winding apparatus, viz., to fold 
paper like a fiw. She said the worms would 



J 



UBTTCKai. 



wttMf a iia n d' aad f&na ooewms elose to 
each other, from top to bottom, in each &Ad. 
This fim must be suspended over the worms 
— the wide-iqpread part within their reach — 
ft good ca&tnvance. I was delighted with 
the good lady's description of olden time," 



JoH9 W. Atbbt, MornmjiiU^ Madistm 
C9.,JV*. F.— I have been engaged, in a small 
way, in the silk business for about four years ; 
the first two years ezp^mentmg on the cul- 
trrmtion of the mulberry, the dmerent vari- 
eties, being doubtful at first whether the soil 
and climate where I reside would suit that 
shrub, and at the same time we fed a few 
worms. The results satisfied me that the 
nlk culture is practicable in this region ; and 
aeecHraUnglv I made my calculations to go 
ahead in the business. Last year, we (that 
is, my fiimily) started with what we esti- 
Mted to be about 20,000 worms, of the grey 
sulphur variety : fed them on ah^ves in tbie 
ehamfaer of our dwelling-honse. The worms 
were healthy and made good cocoons ; sixty- 
two and a lialf pounds was the weight, from 
which was reeled six and one fourth pounds. 
We fed from the white mulberry at first, and 
elossd up with the multicaulis, used no lime. 
Maaufactured the silk into sewings. It was 
•aid to be equal to the imported ; the manu- 
^tuier obtained the first premium at the 
Couaty Fair. We had to go two miles for 
moat ef our leaves. 

- Thia season we concluded to feed what we 
could from our own stock of mulberry, which 
p^B small. We Uitfrefore commenced with 
about eight or ten thousand worms, which 
were hatched about the 18th of July. 

The worms soon discovered signs of dis- 
ease, and we daily lost some of them, not- 
withstaadinff we made a free use of lime, and 
ether. remedies, each as vinegar and water, 
with tansy and wormwood soaked therein, 
•prinkled upon the worms, and the herbs 
laid about upon the shelves, until after the 
fourth moulting. From that time they had a 
better appearance, and made good cocoons, 
which weiffhed eighteen and a half pounda, 
from which was reeled two pounds, besides 
■ome saved for seed. These were fed in the 
chamber, and moeUy on the muhicauHs. I 
bate enlarged my stock of mulhM^ this 
aoHa, so that I shall have aMV three 
fiqPfBs of an acre to use next year, and a few 
ef the white mulberry. I intend to in- 
crease my stock of multicaulis, and erect a 
■nitaUe building for a cocoonery. 

The soil of land where my trees grow is 
not the best. It is a reddish loam, inclining 
lo olay, which holds the water too long ; but 
it is the best I have. Some of the roots 
winter-kill. I cut the tops off in the fall, 
'tad save them to plant. There is no other 
^rson doing any thing at the silk busitiess 
m this town, though there are some making 
»nall preparations for the business, through 
■ay influence. Others are waiting to see 
mse get rich, aa they say, before they go 
into it. 



Skepticism and clettbts ave Tanishing,' $siA 
many axe incHned to consider it a practioabte, 
if not a profitable, branch of business. 

By sending me any publications relating 
to the siik Imsiness, you will greatly oblige 
one who washes information on the subject, 
and who believes it to be a great national 
enterprise. 

£. L. NswTOir, jStkmu, O$orgw, -^ I have 
been engaged only two years in the Silk buss- 
ness. 1 have a very fine orchard of the nrai- 
ticauhs, of about 7 acres ; the trees are lour 
years old. I have a cocoonery 96 by 40, two 
stories, and well fiOUed with shaves; sad, 
under every shelf, lattice-work for the worms 
to wind in. Last year I made about tea 
bushels of first-rate cocoons, but, not beiac 
acquainted with the process of reeling, I did 
but little with them. Mv main obiect, how- 
ever, was to aseert^n wnat could be done ia 
raising silk- worms, so as to have a successioa 
of crops : which was satisfactory, and which 
I deemed of great importance to the ultimata 
success of the business. As our seasons in 
this climate are much longer than thev are 
in your State, it gives us a decided advan- 
tage in the number of crops we can raise ia 
the season. Our clunate, I }»eauaie, alAa 
suits the multicaulis better; as our winter* 
are more mild and not so long, our trees are 
not injured at all except the tifBf which asa 
not matured. Our first crop batched about 
the 1st of April ; as thev commenced wind- 
ing, I exposed the second crop of eggs, which 
I had kept in an ice-house ; and so also irif^ 
the third ; and I believe a fourth crop might 
be made in a seasoi, as we seldom have a 
frost before the 10th of October. Thus the 
hands may be employed durin? most of the 
year in feeding and reeling. And while on 
this subject, I will express my strong cea» 
viction of the wonderful adaptation of the 
multicaulis to the business. I had not a suffi- 
cient number of worms to consume aUi the 
foliage ; I thereupon required the hands to 
feed from a Mrtiouhu* part, so as to make it 
very bare. This would put out a new set of 
foliage, which would be in time to supply 
the next crop with young and tender leaves, 
suitable to the age of the worm. . This I con- 
sider an important discovery, as the .^oung 
worm would scarcely be able to subsist on 
the old, tough leaf. 

I have the black and the white worm, 
which produce variously-colored cocoons, 
viz., sulphur, orange, white, green, and Nan- 
kin. I nave also the pea-nut, but, not being 
able to reel, I am not prepared to say which 
variety is tise best. I plant my trees about 
five feet apart, in rows, and cut every other 
row down, each year, within about six or 
eight inches of the ground. Early feeding 
has been with me the best. 

A decided and growing interest is felt in 
our State on this subject,''and partienlarly in 
our village. I have many friends and neigh- 
bon who are looking to me to get informs^ 
tion, desirous to know my success. And 
one object I have in this communicatkm ii 



Ljmnws^ 



WiDli^t 3P0W lijWi in pztKninng a toHaUe per- 
son, who may be relied on, to come to this 
place and undertake the busineM. I would 
prefer a youn^ man, if such can be procured, 
who is acquamted with the process of reel- 
ing as well as of feeding. Several hundred 
bushels of cocoons might, and would be 
made, in this neighborhood, if they could be 
disposed of. One family, within seven miles 
of this, has made thirty jards of beautiful 
silk, and have made it up mto ladies* dresses, 
and it is not inferior to the best French or 
English in appearance. Many others have 
niAde considerable sewing-silk, which is said 
to be superior to the imported article. All 
we lack is a person who understands reelin^r. 
Send us a reel, and a person who can use it, 
and we will succeed. 

1 know great prejudices exist in the North- 
ern States agaiDst the health of our Southern 
States. But our village is healthy. We are 
at the head of one ^ the branches of the 
Georgia rail-road ; our place is destined soon 
to be a place of great business, and has for 
many years been the resort of those seeking 
hoalth, so that undoubted evidence may be 
obtained of the health of the place. 

I would be pleased to receive a copy of 
yonr contemplated Report. 

[I give the above interesting letter almost 
entire. I give it as an ezpresKon of ^e 
feelings cherished extensively at the South, 
and Southwest, and West — confidence in 
the merits of the silk business, and A ardent 
desire to get pracHemL reders from the East, 
and reds. To all which Mr. N., I know, will 
allow me to say two things: — (1.) Good 
reelers are hard to be got, even here, and ask 
high wages — l»gher than the business will 
fiurly justify — still higher, to go five hundred 
or a thousand miles. (^.) We will, any of 
us, cheerfully buy and send you a good reel : 
price from ||5 to $10, aeeording to kind pur- 
chased. But I can point out to you, and 
others similarly situated, a better way. It is, 
to take a drawing of a reel and make one 
yourself, or set any mechanic 0f ordinary 
ingenuity at it Then take any active, per- 
severing female, (white or colored,) and offer 
her a suitable reward, to awaken and fix an 
interest: say, if you please, offer her the 
avails of the first pound of silk that she will 
reel so as to be worth $5, and y&u Aaes done 
the thing. Tou have got four red and your 
reder. What though she may waste or in- 
iure a bushel or two of cocoons in the pro- 
cess ? That is nothing. Any girl of quick 
perceptions, interested in the matter, can do 
this thing, and do it well in three to six days, 
and in three to six weeks do a day's work. 
la this connectiosi I would say, that Messrs. 



Greely 4k Me£lnith« of NewT<NHk, hav« jvl 

published a work on »lk, (I send Mr. N. a 
copy,) admirably suited to just such cases. 
Chapter on Keeling, p. 53; Drawing of a 
Reel, p. 58.-- 1. R. B.] 

Dr. Dver Stokt, Windeor, Vu — I send 
you a brief statement of what two of the 
younger members of my fiunily have done iar 
the silk business the present season. 

The eggs from whieh the worms wero 
hatched were laid upon papers, which wera 
folded up, and hwifj^ upon a beam in tha 
cellar, until the openmg of the spring, when 
they were removed to a hofedug in mj 
cellar, large enough to receive a box four 
feet square, made of inch boards, and soff* 
rounded with spent bark from the tanneiiea, 
on the sidea and beneath, about six incbsa 
thick. The top of the box, whieh is even 
with the bottom of the cellar, w furnished 
with folding doors. Here they remained till 
about the foth of July, when those for tfaa 
first crop were brought up and exposed, and 
in due time produced their worms, the pro- 
cess of incubation not having oomawnced 
till thus exposed. And here f will take ee* 
caaion to remark, that what remained wave 
taken out on the d5th September, aad a|H 
peared in its good condition as when put in. 
This crop was fed upon the leaves of th* 
white mulberry, were tm healthy, and pro* 
duced forty-one and a half pounds of oocoona.- 
A part of these worms were fed in an out> 
building, 16 feet square, boarded with roufh 
boards, and the orevioee battened with hu& 
inch stuff, to render it somewhat warmer, 
and to prevent the rays of the sun from fell- 
ing upon them. This room was ventikted 
by openin|r a window, fbur feet square, on 
the west side, and by a lar^ door which waa 
open when any one went in ; but, when no 
one was present, it was kept shut to keep 
hens out. Alter the third moulting, the 
worms were fed upon frames, covered with 
straw, first with branches and aflerwarda 
with leaves ; and although not ckanaed afte 
this time, they were perfectly healthy,' not 
one per cent, oying mvk disease cor sioknesa 
of any kind. The rest of this crop were fed 
in the chamber of my wood and carnage* 
house, one window in each end, and the floor 
made of loose boards. They were fed <m 
solid board shelves, and although not cleaiia« 
ed afler the third moulting, they wete atf 
healthy as the others. They spun tlietr com 
coons in three different kinds of fixtures : -« 
.1st. In roofs, suspended over the feeding* 
frames, made of very thin laths, eut by a 
circular saw, having mounting ladders, made 
of the same materials, an eighth of an inch 
thick and one and a half inch wide. These 
they readily climb, and theieby rater the 
roofs. 2dl^. In shelves, made of half-ineh 
boards, six inches wide, long enouj^ to crosa 
the feeding-frames, and a ledge nailed aero«» 
each end, about an inch thick ; so, by plaeiag> 
a sufiicient number on the top of each tAh»i 
they form a convenient retreat fer the wmnMi 



LETTfiRfik 



^AActh likey &1 wHh their eoooons, and 
which are easily gathered. Theae ahelyes, 
however, sboulcT he divided lengthwise by a 
thin lath; which, rendering the aperture 
moie dark, and presenting more angles to 
attach their floss to, they would be less dis- 
posed to wander about, before commencing 
their cocoons. 3dly. In straw. Small bun- 



dles about as large as the wrist, and long 
enough to stand upright between the feed- 
ing-frames, being tied near the lower end. 



and the top spread out, and the straw crum- 
pled and bent in various directions, afford 
them great facilities for attaching their co- 
coons, and which they seem to prefer to any 
other. An hundred and twenty I picked 
out of one of theae small bundles. A second 
erop have now nearly completed their spin- 
ning, and have been about as healthy as 
the first : although, from their having been 
crowded too thickly upon the shelves, some 
of them were . not of course full fed, and, in 
consequence, lagged behind till disease and 
death overtook Siem. These errors must 
be avoided next year. 

I have thought proper to give this brief 
account ; for, afthough the operation is small 
and unimportant, yet it shows what may be 
done on a more extended scale. I haye 
read, and thought, much upon this business 
for the last ten years, and have been fully 
convinced that it will ultimately become an 
object of great national importance, and that 
our silk product will one day be second to 
no other ; and, had it not been for a con- 
tinual press of professional business, I should 
at this time have been fully engaged in the 
business. 

CvRKNiuB Hait, Somersety Ptdaski Co.^ 
Ky, — 1st. I have been feeding silk- worms 
for three years in a small way, m a common 
building, without any way to regulate the 
temperature at all. 

iM. Tlie first year I fed the greater part 
of our worms on the black, or native, mul- 
berry. The silk was strong, but not as 
glossy and fine as the two last years. While 
we haye fed on the multioaulis, our worms 
have done far better than I had reason to 
expect, as the only knowledge I had was 
drained from the Silk JoumaT. 3d. I have 
never fed in an open shed. 4th. I think the 
pea-nut variety preferable to any I have 
tried. 5th. I am now cultivating the mul- 
tieaulis, and am well pleased with that 
variety : haye about 15 acres well set, and 
they stand the winters well. I intend top- 
Dtng to what we call low-branch, as the 
leaves are larger and more convenient to 
rather. 6th. Our early feeding has general- 
ly done the best. 7th. The only difficulty, 
with our neighbors, seems to have originated 
from want of cleanliness and room ; say in 
4Ui age, sometimes a room shut tight oyer 
night. 8th. Have no knowled^ of the use 
•f malberry for paper. 9th. 1 neyer have 
■een apy thing like water-rotting mulberry 
ifor mny purpose. 
^ I porchoaed a Piedmontese reel in Phila^ 



delphia three years tincd, and re^l all Hut 
own silk, some of which I send east to find 
a market. I suppose fifty pounds will be 
something like the amount 1 shall reel this' 
season, besides what we use for sewings in 
this neighborhood. 

I shJl be able, afler the legislature con- 
venes, to give an entire account of all silks 
grown in our State, as the receipts will' 
show, through the Auditor of Public Ac- 
counts. I have no hesitation in saying, that 
silk is to give employment to multitudes in 
the United SUtes. 

Jamcs Underhili, Constantia, Orange 
Co.^ N. Y. — I am a silk-grower. In 1840, 
I fed about 500 worms with good success. 
In 1841, 1 succeeded in raising 39 pounds co- 
coons. Did middling well. I had no place 
for keeping them but the chamber of my 
log-house. Some died ; but my inexperience, 
and want of a suitable place, explains the 
whole. Convinced that the silk business 
would be a permanent basiness in this coun- 
try, I entered into partnership, in 1842, with 
Curtis R. Cable, for four years. The fiAt 
year the building was new and green, and 
very damp. My worms died very much. I 
succeeded in raising 159 pounds. Our co- 
coonery is eighteen feet wide, eighty-eight 
feet long, one and a half stories high; a 
ground-fioor, well ventilated at the top and 
bottom, by means of a swing-board, so as to 
open a space nine inches wide from one epd 
to the qfcer, top and bottom. But 1 did not 

§ive frlwi air enough, kept the ventilators 
lut nights, and when the weather was cool ; 
but I have learned that one cold night, un- 
less it is cold enough to freeze the worntS| 
will not hurt them, it only renders them 
torpid and stops the growth ; but worms 
will not be as likely to be sickly in a tem- 
perature of 65° as 75° ; but will spin much 
sooner in a temperature of 75° than 65°. 
In 1843, 1 have already gathered 390 pounds 
cocoons, although I have had some losses. 
My first crop did well, 1 had 249 pounds 
cocoons. My second, although I hatched 
twice as many eggs, made but 131 pounds 
cocoons. My third was as large as my 
second, but I shall not have more than Sio 
pounds cQiipons. But I have a large crop 
of worms, my fourth crop ; they moulted 
the second time, September 16tn, and are 
doing first-rate. I think I shall make a 
living this year, and that is about all. But 
I am not discouraged. We sent to Connec- 
ticut and got a young woman to come and 
learn us to reel ; my wife and daughter are 
reeling daily. They reel three-quarters of a 
pound per day, and it looks yery well. We 
have reeled already 38 pounds of silk. I 
prefer the Sina mirabel worms ; they are, 1 
think, much hardier than the pea-nut. 

There are several persons in the business 
within a mile of this village, and several 
more that intend to do something at feeding 
next season. Lyman Sperry has raised ris 
ing of 40 pounds of cocoons this season • 
, hA some bad luck ; fell short of leaves ; had 



urmsia 



km wonos eravdid. Mm CMd M. two 

crops with good vucoew; had 70 pounds 
cocoons, principally the Sina mirabels, and a 
few oi' the Nankin mirabels. Sareno Clark, 
£dq., has fed a tew as his first crop, and had 
14 pounds cocoons; his second crop has 
done first-rate, lost scarcely a worm, and had 
21 pounds cocoons. Sina mirabels, or white 
aairabels. William Wright has raised a few 
cocoons last year and uum year with good 
success. 

I find, by experience, that sifling a coat 
of quicklime on the shelf before putting the 
worms on, will prevent the latter from get- 
ting damp and sticking to the shelf. I have 
used some lime on my worms, and think it 
good. It absorbs the moisture, and keeps 
the skin of the worm dry. X have used 
chloride of lime, standing about in dishes, 
this season. 1 think it is very good. I feed 
on multicaulis exclusively, about eight acres 
of trees ; two or three acres have been stand- 
ing three years, the rest were planted in 
the spring of 1642. They are planted in 
rows, «i^ feet apart by 2 feet. They were 
all cut off to the ground last spring. Tbey 
are now from 3 to 6 feet hish. Our trees 
killed down in the winter ; but if they did 
not, I should cut them off every spring. 
The ground was in good order when they 
were planted. It has not been manured 
since, but has been well tilled. 

M. P. H. Jones, Carthagena, Mercer Co., 
Ohio. — I am one of the colored settlement 
in this place. We have forsaken the cities, 
and the employments in which we were 
formerly engaged, and in which so many of 
our brethren are still engaged, and have 
taken up lands, believing this to be the best 
course for ourselves and our race. We 
wish to be something, and therefore we 
must do something. 

We are engaged in general farming. 
Some of us have thought a good deal about 
silk. Some silk publications have fallen in 
our way. Some iriend at the East has sent 
ns two or three copies of the Report of the 
New England Silk Convention. We ac- 
knowledge the receipt of them with glad- 
ness. We have also seen some of Mr. Giirs 
letters, published in the Cross and Journal. 
I read some of these silk documents before 
a portion of our settlement. They are in- 
terested. How miAch they will do I cannot 
say. Our friend A. W. is in the business, 
in a small way. I intend to see what 1 can 
do in the matter, and give the business all 
the encouragement in my power. We want 
infbrmation on the subject — shall be thank- 
ful for any thing of the kind, or any thing 
else that tends to our elevation. 

JiHxs Laitobrs, Lee, Mass. — I have fed 
silk-worms, oi^ a limited scale, for four years 
past. The first year, I fed the two-crop 
variety ; and, as it was the first effort, they 
did, as we thought, remarkably well. I had 
t». go abroad so much after feed, that there 
was no honor or profit in the business, ex- 



cept to leant how fo tfoid beiug mdd m 

such a scrape again. The bailding 1 used 
is a chamber under the roof, and a very bud 
place it is, 1 assure you. 1 had no way oi 
regulating the heat or cold, but by opening 
or closing two or three windows; and ii 
silk-worms were not as sure a crop, unaei 
unfavorable circumstances, as an^ other, 1 
am sure I should liave lost all ot mme. J 
have this year fed a part of my worms in 
an open shed ; and all the trouble 1 expt - 
rienced from it was, that it was too open, 
having but little more than a temp^ira/^ 
roof for a covering. My worms did well «4i 
this shed; but I think they were a week 
or ten days longer coming to maturity, ow- 
ing to the colaoess of many nights, aud 
some days, which prevented their feeding 
as fast as they would with a more even 
temperature. Here I would state my opin* 
ion. on this part of the subject, and it is 
probably the sentiment of ail who have had 
four or five years' e&perience in feedmg. It 
is, that plenty of room, plenty of good firesb 
leaves, and plenty of pure air, wiin an even 
temperature, will almost invariably produce 
a rich crop of silk. I think Mr. Gill's Feed- 
ing Cradle is a labor-saving machine in this 
part of the business, a decided imfNroveiiient 
over efrery other plan of feeding. I would 
suggest, in regard to a building Tor feeding, 
a room similar to a drying-Ion in a paper- 
mill. They are peculiarly adapted to letting 
in and shutting out fresh air at pleasure. I 
prefer the larffe Nankin pea-nut. 

The kind of trees that 1 use, are the mul* 
ticaulia, alpine, and Italian. As to the man* 
aging of them, I keep the jpround tilled be- 
tween the rows, and take off leaves, and cut 
off branches, to feed, as occasion requires. 
I let them stand out through the winter, 
and the tops that are killed by the frost are 
headed down in the spring, and an abun- 
dance of fresh stock comes up, looking like 
a swamp. The multicaulis kilb no worse, 
with me, than tlie other kinds ; and I think 
that if the ground is frozen hard they would 
not be injured at all. I find that fi-uit and 
other trees are injured the most, when there 
is the least frost m the ground. In conclu- 
sion, I would state, that it is my firm be- 
lief that the raising of silk, in this country, 
is destined to be one of the most honorable 
and profitable employments that we can en- 
gage in. ^^ ^ 

I. R. Barbour, Oxfttrd, ^o**.— Itis fif- 
teen years since I began to examine the silk 
business as a permanent branch of American 



labor, and seven or eiffht that I have been 
enga^d in it more or less. The whole re- 
sult IS, an unshaken confidence in all the 
mat principles on which the business is 

My business has not been large. I began 
with a $5 investment, and have grown co- 
coons enough to make from three to thirty- 
seven pounds of reeled silk in a year. 

The results of my own labors are decided- 
ly in favor of early feeding. Oat of all tho 



LETTEaa 



mom tint I htwB mnicd tlooogh by the 
middle of August, 1 have never lost, by dis- 
cmse, five per cent, in any case. Not bo with 
later crops, generally, although this year my 
later crops were healthy, and made first-rate 
oocooDs. My healthy crops have always 
given me a better profit than any thing else 
•n the &rm. 

As to buildings, I have fed in a large open 
garret, in a com^house, and a carpenter's 
shop. In 1840, built a regular cocoonery, 
thirty by twenty feet, two stories high, with 
ten windows in each story, and warmed by 
a hot-air chamber in the cellar. In 1842, fed 
a lot also in an open shed^ and this year in a 
tonf, with cradles, on Mr. Gill's plan. The 
result of the whole is, in my judgment, the 
wtore air the better; only guarding against 
sudden gusts of wind, that will disturb your 
leaves or bushes. 

As to ordinary turns of cold weather, in 
our summer months, their effect is to render 
the worms torpid. Of course, they will not, 
in this state, eat and grow, and there is a 
loss of time in getting them through ; and 
this is the only loss to be apprehended. 
Upon returning warmth, they revive, and go 
on with their wondrous labors, apparenUy 
uninjured by their temporary interruption ~> 
like the honey-bee, the house-fiy, and other 
insects subject to torpidity in a low tempera- 
ture. 

But, as I have given my vievirs to the pub- 
Kc in full on this whole subject, in a very 
I valuable collection of Silk Documents, just 
<-^ Dublished by Messrs. Greely and McElrath, 
/ '^ New York, 1 pass to another topic, on which 
your correspondents have said little, and on 
which my experience has been quite full 
and quite disastrous — I mean, in the man- 
agement of trees. I do this, because the 
design of the Institute is to collect facts, as 
they have occurred in the experience of 
individuals, for purposes of instruction to 
others, as the only way in which this or any 
new business ever became successfully es- 
tablished. To this end, it is essential that 
we give the whole, blunders and all. Some 
of our mistakes and blunders are chargeable 
upon the mis-statements of interested dealers 
in trees, seed, Slc.j and some to our own 
want of experience and due consideration. 

My first movement (1837) was wrong. — 
Bought a lot of mulberrv-seed as " Crenuine 
Chinese Mulberry Seed," which proved to 
be an inferior variety of the White — lost 
two seasons in getting started, and some 
patience withal. In 11^39, planted one hun- 
dred dollars worth alpine cuttings. Ac-, 
cording to the " books,*' I was not to lose one 
in fifty — in the result, did not get one in 
fifty — I should almost as' soon recommend 
the propa^tion of oak bushes by cuttings, 
as the alpme, or other hardy varieties of flie 
mulberry. Same year, planted Canton and 
maltieaulis. They vegetated very well, but 
made a small growth. I had been taught to 
believe, tiiat the mulberry-tree would flour- 
Idi wtee nothing else would grow — quite a 



mittako. 1 took my tree* «p %6o^plf « aft4 

lost man^ the ensuing winter. 

Thus far, I had been operating Hpeft hind 
lands. In 1840, began on the larm where I 
now live ^~- lands sdl sadly exhausted. Not 
an acre on the fig*m that would give half a 
ton of hay. I planted two acres, chiefly 
with multicaulis and Cantons^ by laying the 
trees whole length in the furrow, manuring 
them with a cheap compost, made principally 
of peat mud, properly prepared. They did 
well, and made an average grovirth <^ three 
feet. Let them stand as they grew, and 
they all wintered safely. In 1641, planted 
three acres more, in like manner — season 
dry, average growth two feet— left all out 
as before. 

But the winter of 1841 and '42 was very 
open — no snow, frequent and heavy rains, 
with constant fteezing and thawing. My 
ground is a plain, very level, and the water 
stood and froze in many places, — trees not 
rid^d up with the plough in summer culti- 
vation, as they should nave been, on such 
land, to guard against this danger. The le* 
suit was, that 1 lost the whole of the three- 
acre lot, and at least three fourths of tho 
other. 

To me, this was a sad disappointment ; 
and, for a few days in March, 1842, for the 
firM and the last tipie, I had feelings of uncon- 
querable discouragement creeping through 
my frame. True, the winter had been pe- 
culiar — nothing like it for twenty years. 
But just such wmters may come again. In 
this state, my first movement was, to des- 
patch some twenty-five to thirty letters of 
inquiry to silk-growers in New England. * 
The mails, in due time, brought me this re- 
turn, that the injuries of the winter, severe 
as it was, had been confined to trees planted 
as mine were, whole and horizontally, on flat 
ground, without being ridged up, and those 
of small growth. I was greatly relieved to 
learn, that, in all cases where they had been 
set deep, one root in a place, on dry, sloping 
land, (or ridged, if flat,) rich enough to 
make good extended roots the first season, 
they had gone through the winter safely, 
preeminently bad as it had been. 

Feeling, therefore, that I then knew the 
worst of the ease, (as we could not have a 
more unfavorable winter,) 1 went directly to 
work, with augmented confidence, to re])air 
my loss. I ploughed up all my lands, saving 
every live tree — sent thirty -five to forty 
miles and bought others, so as to plant seven 
to eight acres, and thus began the silk business 
anew in 1842, and began, right. 

As to trees, I prefer the multicaulis, the 
lar^-leaf Canton, and the Asiatic. Msnaged 
as mdicated in the above details, they are 
essentially safe from the perils of winter any 
where between Canada and the Gulf of 
Mexico. If not thus managed, they are in 
danger any where and every where, where 
it is cold enough for ice to form, and the 
ground to freeze. It is not the degree 6i 
cold that does the injury in this and siniilar 



LETTEB& 



kaowa that a piaek^ee is more mfe on the 
noft/k tkan on the goutk side of the' wall, 
and fot the reasons hete stated. I would 
not, theiefore, ^ive a dollar lor a fall in- 
sfuunce on all mjr trees, if the thermometer^ 
in December, will drop down tp twenty 
degrees below xero, and stay there, until the 
last of March. 

As to the feasibility of the silk business in 
this country, I have 'no doubt. I must un- 
learn all tKat I have learned upon the subject 
for fifteen years, undo all that I have done, 
nnd unsay all that I have said — unhinge 
and upset all the abidin? and fixed impres- 
nohs upon my own m1nd before I can begin 
to doubt. ^ ^_^ 

Dr. a. Spavldino, Zdionople, Pa. — My 
first feeding was in 1839, on a small scale, 
by way of experiment — success satisfactory. 

1840. — In Newport, Ohio, made three 
handred pounds of cocoons. Fed from the 
white Italian tree, by cutting off the entire- 
bmbs, which, I think, is the best way, as the 
limbs shoot out again with surprising rapidi- 
. ty. We fkiled in reeling our silk for want 
of experience and suitable apparatus ; and, 
although we were not satisfied with our sue* 
eesa that season, it was because our expecta* 
tions were raised too high by the wonderful 
stories in '^ Silk Culturists," '' Silk Fanners," 
•• Silk (Jrowrts," &c., &c., but can now see 
that our success was great, and should have 
been satis&ctory. Wef fed in an open shed. 
Worms, white and brown — mostly white — 
^ very healthy. Fed early. 

1841.— Had charge of the New Lisbon 
Cocoonery, Ohio. I^d about 1,000,000 of 
worms, in a large, close room, without fire 
— temperature variabie, from fifty to eighty 
degrees, Fahrenheit — sometimes a variation 
of more than twenty degrees in as many 
kours, and yet the worms grew rapidly until 
the fourth age, when they appeared to be 
less healthy. Did not wind well at the com- 
mencement, but when about half had wound 
up, my cocoonery was consumed by fire, — 
loss, $ 1000, — since which time, I haye had 
BO means to prosecute the business. I have 
been teaching school for a livelihood, but 
haye been a close observer of the experi- 
ments of others. In this place, the morus 
malticaulis ^ madness " has almost destroyed 
the silk business, and now, eyen to name the 
hated thing, is a reproach and a disgrace. 

In 184!^ some naif-dozen or more fed 
worms here, but failed, from their own inju- 
dicious management. They fed, mostly, in 
close, plasteiea rooms, and closed eyery ave- 
nue to fresh air ; and when the worms were 
about to wind, eyery worm that could be 
seen raising its head, was picked off with 
the hand, and removed from the feeding to 
the winding shelyes, and sometimes were 
thrown a oistance of some four or five feet, 
as a boy would toss a ball. Thus they failed, 
and then charged their feilure to msroctico- 

Bat I am fully persuaded that the ailk 



Open shed. Atmospher* 
Tea. Result suooeis- 
Probably the pea-nut it 
Moms Alba— cut olP 
Tes. Early fbeding is 
Answered in the body 



business is praeficd>]e, and I would W gM 
to enter into it with some one wlio hss the 
means, and would enter into it in the right 
¥ray, and be satisfied with a reasomuMs 
profit. We have a silk-weaver here, whs 
says our silk is better than silk be used to 
weave in London, wkere he Woye for twentf 
years. 

I will now prooeed to answer your ques* 
tions in the Circular, as fer as 1 can, and 
those I cannot I will leaye a blank. 

Ques. 1. — Ans. Three years. Batisfte** 
tory. 

Ques. 2. — Ans. 
ic temperature. 

Ques. 3. — Ans. 
ful. 

Ques. 4. — Ans. 
best. 

Ques. 5. — Ans. 
the limbs. 

Ques. 6. — Ans. 
best. 

Ques. 7. — Ans. 
of my communication. 

Ques. 8. — Ans. No. I will ask our man* 
ufacturer to do it. 

I should be glad to meet you at the Gen* 
vention, and exhibit a model of my silk* 
worm frame and hurdle, if I coula; but 
misfortunes haye pressed hard upon me, and 
I am not able to meet the expense. I should 
be ghid to receive a copy of the anticipated 
Report; and if any one at the Convention 
wishes an actiye partner in the silk besinesa^ 
I would be glaa that lie write me on the 
subject. ^___^ 

Joseph Bslchxr, &, Sons, Riehjord, TVs- 
ga Co^ JV*. F.— In the spring ^ 1839, ws 
procured three thousand multicaulis mulber* 
ry-trees, from .the State of Connecticut, and 
planted them in this town, from which we 
reared a few worms of the sulphur kind, and 
manufactured the silk into sewings, that sold 
well in market. We have steadify increas^ 
our stock of trees, and of silk. Last year, 
we raised about one thousand pounds of co- 
coons. This year, owing to some caose un- 
known to us, we haye not made quite so 
much, but have still found it moon mors 
profitable than other branches of fiurmiag. 
Our building is thirtv-six feet by fifljr, three 
stories high. We nave only occupied ths 
two lower stories. We are now using^ and 
are much pleased with, Morris's feeding 
and winding frames, particularly the latter. 
We regulate the temperature liy 8loyes< in 
the rooms, with pipe to conduct the heat 
through the apartments. We huve not fed 
in open tents. ** 

Afler three years of earefol eiqyerinent, in 
the same room and with the saaoe care, ws 
haye come to the conclusion that the pea-nut 
worm is altogether the best, and hays changed 
our entire stock for that yariety. 

We use the multioaulis altogether, and tiH 

the ground as we would for com ; then plant . 

in drills, by lajringacontinuauB Ibie of trsss^ 

root and body, until this year; and this ysar» 

Is . 



LETTBSa 



Hlft bddr raly/wfaiefa wss serered neaor the 
glouttd lul nU, mnd boried in the open field, 
my plaeiUff a layer of trees, and then a slight 
li^er of dirt, and so on until the heap was 
laised as higk as we wished ; and our crop 
«f young trees, this jrear, is as ^od as when 
we have planted root and body both. We 
find our accouiit in cultivating weU through 
the season, in the increased amount of leaf 
Und growth of the tree. 

VTe have fed worms early and late, and 
ue altogether in favor of early feeding, our 
early crops uniformly doing from 25 to 50 per 
cent, betted than tfae late ones. There are 
several persons in this county that have 
commeBced the silk culture on a small scale, 
and have had uniform success, except* in late 
fteding. 

Our experience is, that the silk culture is 
ttUch the most profitable of any branch of 
husbandry in tliis section of country ; and 
we feel confident that it will, ere long, 
spread through the Union, and become sec- 
9nd to none except the cotton-growing in- 
terest, even if it does not take the les^ of 
thatidso. 

It would give us great pleasure to attend 
fonr Convention, but poverty prevents, and 
we nust be contented with this method of 
casting our mite into the treasury of useful 
knowtedge and expenence, on tlus truly in- 
terealing subjecL 

Ephraim Montaovk, Bdehartoion, Maasa- 
fimniU,^-'! have received the Circular to 
■ilk-growers, and heartily approve of the pro- 
posea Convention. I hope to be able to 
meet with you. I feel a lively interest in the 
■ilk biasineas, and, fer a number of years past, 
I have had a good degree of confidence that 
it will uliimateljr succeed, and be a rich and 
permanent blessing to this country. I have 
Deen engaged in it, more or less, for nine 
years past. I commenced on a small scale, 
and, as my trees multiplied, I enlarged my 
operations. 

In the spring of 1840, the last week in 
Mav, I planted 300a roots, of the multieaulis 
ansT Canton varieties, on. one fourth of an 
acre of land ; and, althouffh the trees were 
very small and backward the fore part of the 
summer, still I was able, during the feeding 
season, to pick firom them upwards of 1300 
pounds of leaves, with which I feed 40,000 
worms, which made 126 Ibe. of cocoons, and 
upwards of ten nounds of raw silk, worth 
$oi 50. Cost or producing it $36, leaving 
more than ||60 net profit to the acre. With 
the Stale bounty, I realized more than this. 
in 1841, 1 produced in all over 600 pounds 
of cocoons, and had prettf^ good success, ex- 
cept losing some bushels of cocoons by curing 
them with camphor, the quantity used being 
teo small. In 1843, 1 produced but 245 lbs. 
mi eocoooa^ and reeled 13 lbs. of silk, al- 
though I hatched more worma, and be- 
jstowed npon them more labor, than I did the 
.year nrevious to get GOO pound* of cocoons ; 
Jhal tbe late Aosts ta the spring destroyed 



the early feed, and tlie mrnnially tMmghtm 
and heavy rains in August flKStvoyed cfOM 
last crop, so that the result of that 3rear*s e^ 
fort was, on the whole, rather unprofitable. 
Still I was not discouraged, although sadij 
disappointed ; and as my trees were a part 
of them growing on my neighbor's land, for 
which I had been paying ten to fifteen, and 
even twenty, dollars an acre veariy itnt, and 
as he wanted them removed, in the spring 
of 1843 I ploughed up about half of them, 
and sold tnem to individuals in a neighbor- 
ing county, who were commencing m the 
business. Of course I was cut short in my 
supply of feed, and concluded to feed a less 
number until I could increase my supply of 
leaves again. I commenced the 22d of June, 
hatched about 4^ good eggs and 1 J poor one* 
that did not pay their keeping. From the 
four and a half ounces I had about 250 Iba. 
of ffood cocoons. They were fed mostly <m 
multieaulis and Canton leaves. I had to 
buy about 1000 pounds of leaves. I found 
no bad effects produced by changing firom 
one kind of feed to another, neither could 1 
discover any difference in the silk. 

I thiiik 1 derived great advantage, this 
year, by adopting the open-feeding svatem, 
so far as I could, in my cocoonery, which i» 
in an airy place, and well supplied with 
large doors and windows on every side. I 
opened tkem oily and kept tJum open dap tmd 
rdght; except in a very few instances, in ex- 
treme weather, or high winds, they weib 
partly closed. I used no artificial heat, but 
let the worms take the weather as it came, 
the thermometer varying from below 50® to 
upwitrds of 80° ; still the worms were very 
healthy, and wound up well at last. Wo 
had 300 pounds of cocoons, and I think we 
shall have nearly 25 pounds of raw silk, be- 
sides saving 15 ounces of eggs. 

The expense of producing the silk this 
year has been comparatively small, the most 
of it being done in my own family. I paid 
about $13 for leaves and hired help. I fed 
but one crop this year, and I think, as a gem' 
eral things early jtediM is to be preferred % 
idthough, in l€i40, my last crop was the best. 
And now, in conclusion, I would say, that in 
view of the general results of my efforts in the 
business for several years past, it is my can- 
did opinion that tbe silk business, if wisely 
managed, can be prosecuted with as little 
risk, and as great and I think greaUr nro^ 
than the raising of corn, rye, butter or cneese, 
wool or flax, or any of the common prodac- 
tions of the faim. 

Charles B. Crafts, Woedburju Omn, -* 
1. I have fed in a small way for Uvee yeara« 
and my success not very good. 

2. I use a large machine-shop. It is well 
situated for a Tree circulation of the air* 
Temperature not regulated^ 

4. rrefer the pea-nut 

5. Use the multieaulis. 

6. Early feeding is best 

7. I attribute my own want of sneeeMi W 



UeiTEBd. 



J t0 «te mtees* of tbt mU en whioJi 
my trees stand. [More probably the close 
sliop. . I. R, B.] 

addressed to 



ma&ttftctiuers, I 



Questioiis 
IBswer thus : — 

1. Tvo years. 

3. Sewiiif 8 and twist 

3. My operations hare been small. I am 
BOW makinff arrangements to manu&cture 
one thousand pounds a year, with machinery 
of mv own invention. 

5. Two hands. 

6. American silk, well reeled, is best 

Mbs. HAniusT Mc-Lahahan, PhUadd' 
jtkuty Pa.-^lu 1841, the interest manifested 
m the silk eause was very great ; not only 
US raising the cocoons, but in finding a mar- 
ket for ucra when grown. Seeing the ne- 
cessity of a public fiuUure, to which all could 
lesort, and having the knowledge, (which 1 
kad obtained, many years before, from £u- 
^peans,) 1 was induced, for the good of the 
cause, (and with some persuasion,) to step 
oat of private life into public, and in July I 
opened my present establishment ; since 
which time i have kept three and four reels 
^out of siz^ constantly running, until the ex- 
piration oi the past year, with which the 
iouni^ met on sUk-ffroteing and reeling ceased 
in this State ; and I regret to say that the 
tum-remewal ef the act seems, as far as I can 
judge, to have struck a chill upon the silk 
culture in this part of Pennsylvania. I have, 
however, kept my filature open, ** hoping still 
in something onward." 

In answer to your questions on growing 
citk, I would say : — 

1st. In 1894, 1 fed, for amusement, 25,000 
cf the milphur variety of the silk-worm, with 
^ood success. I do not recollect a sick worm 
^unong them. 

dd. The building occupied was a frame, 
tcogh-boarded, to keep on the storm y board- 
jrwinging window-shutters, that were occa- 
jtomdly closed on the windward sides. Heat 
aot regulated. Time of feeding, May and 
June. 

dd. Have never fed in an open shed. 

4th. < I greatly prefer the pea-nut variety, 
«s producing most silk ; am also partial to 
the two-crop white. 

&th. In the above crop, I used the white 
Italian mulberry. 

6th. I think early feeding more congenial 
-with the nature of the worm Uian late. Dame 
Nature is our«best guide. 

7th. I believe that failures often arise from 
endeavoring to raise too many worms in the 
sMune building; and idsofrom not giving them 
froper food aiproper times. 

8th. I have never tested the mulberry-leaf 
Ibr paper. 

9tfa. Have had no experience. 
' 10th. As you invite suggestions on the 
cubjeet generally, you will excuse me if I 
dfer one on a practice, which strikes me as 
tcfaig pemicioius to the well-being and final 
coooeas of these intmesting little animals. 
^i fiftt ptttkoulazly to noiaes of any kind 



iathecoeoonei^i aadal wy tiiMyiNilJMM 
particularly at the time of moulting. Tlit 
sound of a hammer, a sudden burst or laughs 
ter, or even loud talking, disturbs them. 
Their food, also, is often tkrewn on them, iit* 
stead of being laid down gently by, theok 
Any thing which causes them to start, an4 
more particularly in theii torpid state^ most 
of course derange the order ayid process of 
nature, ^., &c. The minutin of their brief 
existence cannot be entered into here. | 
will only say, that I learned the feeding jwo^ 
cess firom Italians ; and that as much caution 
was observed in entering the building, and 
approaching the worms, as we use in visitiiur 
the cradle of a sick infant at the crisis oi 
some dangerous disease. 

In 1824, 1 spun on a flax wheel, from the 
pierced cocoons, a sufficient quantity to makt 
several pairs of stockings, gloves, &c. One 
pair of the Stoekings 1 yet have, which, at 
that time, created quite a sensation. I have 
been more or less engaged in it ever since, a« 
time or circumstances would permit, but only 
for amusement ; never as a business till the 
year 1841. In 1840, 1 was awarded a silver 
medal by the Franklin Institute in Philadel* 
phia, for reeled silk, with which I had amused 
myself in my private room, without the re- 
motest thouffht, at the <ims, that it would ever 
meet the jnilie eye. 

My manufacture has been confined, thus 
fiur, to sewings, saddler's floss, stockings, and 
broad silks. 

In Uie past two years and two owmths 1 
have reeled 483 pounds of raw silk, made 396 
pounds of sewings, &c., about two doses 
pairs of stockings, and 110 yards of Inoad 
silk, both plain and twilled, for dresses. I 
have clad myself in a suit of domestic silk| 
fi»m head to foot entire, every article of 
which has been reeled in my filature. I also 
received the award of a second silver medal 
firom the Franklin Institute, at their last ex- 
hibitiott, for my sewing-silk, which, together 
with a less quantity of raw silk, I fnrnishe4 
them, amountiiig to 94 pounds. 

As to capital invested, please accept dU 
trv^f which is easier told than a fiibricatioq^ 
I rented the building I now occupy, bor- 
rowed my machinery, which was sent nic 
free of cost, and commenced business without 
a doUar. When the cocoons which offered 
were reeled, I took, as my fee, a portion of 
the silk, made the whole up into sewingi. 
&c., for which I have found ready sale, and 
paid over to the owners the highest maricet 
price for their portion. The first year I paid 
f 5 50 per pound ; last year, $5 00. 

I employ two hands to each reel, one 
youngr woman and one child, all females; 
sometimes supernumenuries to the number 
of (en and twelve.. 

As to the quality of American raw silk, 
compared with foreign, I have little experi^ 
ence, except with my own, which I knoif 
has eotitinued to command the highest n^azket 
price, and generally, indeed I may say al- 
ways, from fifty cents to a dollar more per 
pooiid th^ the Ibroiga^ . I wofuld also ^ 



USTTEB& 



.iNirreyi&at ftfetM niiitiftBiaMtir here, wlio 
liare worked nil leeled in my filature, hftve 
fiven it a decided preference. A sample of 
fueled rilks and lewinet, which I sent to the 
Natiomd Gallery at Washington last year, 
has been complimented as being equal to any 
In the world. While on the subiect of reel- 
ing, periiaps I will be excusable for men- 
tbning what to me often proves a source of 
deep regret 1 mean the inexperience of 
those, in different sections of our country. 
Who reel their own silk, without knowing 
tile necessity of its being done in a particular 
manner, to suit the manufacturer. Lots of 
silk are firequently offered for sale, which, to 
look at, appear perfectly good ', but, upon ex- 
amination, are not saleable at any orice, 
because they cannot be worked. Hence 
another cause of discouragement to- the 
grower. 

In regard to the best tree for feeding, I 
prefer the white Italian; I think the silk 
stronger, and susceptible of higher lustre; 
and would recommend m all cases <^ multi- 
eaulis feeding, where practicable, that the 
white Italian should be substituted from the 
hurt moulting to the finishing. The other 
▼arieties I am not acquainted with. 

In the Tariff, the Act appears ambiguous : 
** On sewing-silk, a duty of two dollars per 
pound." — ** On raw silk, comprehending oU 
silks in the gum, fifty cents per pound.'* It 
fis currently understood, hut I am unable to 

Cy with what correctness, that sewings are 
iported in the ffum at 50 cents per pound. 
If so, the duty fnff^ 50 per pound is more or 
less defbated. Foreign sewings include gen- 
erally fWMn two to three ounces artinciaj 
weignt in the pound of thirteen ounces, <» 
•bout 90 per cent, illegal profit The Amer- 
ican manufiicturer, even if so disposed, is un- 
able to compete whh this ftaud, on account 
of the small quantity dyed at the same time. 
Foreign sewinn are made from second and 
third quality sUk, first quality being mann- 
fiietured into fine fabrics. American sew- 
ings are made from the first quality of raw 
«iu, and are admitted to be much stronger 
And better. 

As to the enterprise being ^asible, I can 
see nothing to prevent it. Our climate has 
been sufficiently tested to prove that it can 
be done. That the climate south of the par- 
allel of 40 degrees is more congenial to the 
vrorm, we may admit, haying little need of arti- 
ficial heat ; but if good cocoons can be wrown 
in the northern part of the State of New York, 
why not in any part of our Union ? Our 
IK>pulation want leadino on by State boun- 
ties, and a protective tariff on mlk, (that can- 
not be evaded,^ until^ by their experience, 
tiiey become skilled in raising the worm; 
and my humble opinion is, that a crop of silk 
will become as much a matter of course, with 
fiurmers generally, as is their present crop of 
wheat or com. 

In conclusion, I may aay, that havine ex- 
tended my brief epistle to almost a eoMciM, 
It can sca^peely be necessary for me (if even 
wimi t M tftt Mis#) to maka mycosilesy 



at your Cenventloii, eiad in ay 
silk. 



[The Secretary of the Institute sent a 
special invitation to the author of this inteiw 
estinji^ document, to attend the Convention, 
clad m her domestic silk. The Conventioa 
were pained to receive a note firom her 
afiiicted husband, stating that she was dai»- 
gerouslyill.— I.R. B.] 

Alxxandbr Smith, Fredoma^ ChaUtUifme 
Co,f JV. Y, — I have been engaged for the 
last six years in the culture and manufacture 
of silk. I feel a deep interest in the success 
of the enterprise ; and, havin^g been one ef 
the first to engage in it in this county, have 
watched its progress with solicitude, and am 
much gratified to see it steadily advancing. 
There have been about 13 or 14 hundrA 
pounds of cocoons raised this^year in the six 
towns alon^ the lake shore, Vhich m, prob* 
ably, three times the quantity ever raised be- 
fore in one year. Several gentlemen ara 
preparing to feed largely next year, and many 
others are making preparations to begin next 
spring. From my own experience, 1 am 
convinced that tlie soil and climate, in tha 
northern part of this county, is well adapted 
to the culture of silk. The southern and 
middle parts I do not think so ffood, owing 
to their elevation, and more sudden chancres 
of temperature. I have come to the concin* 
sion, that silk can be profitably raised in any 
district where Indian corn is cultivated to 
advantage, as the season which suits one is 
perfectly adapted to the other. 

The worms fed in this vicinity the tve 
years preceding this were very sickly, owing, 
t believe, principally to want cf leaves, and 
vmit of skill in those who fisd. This year, 
they have been remarkably healthy, with 



some very fow slight exceptions, 
coons raised here are all made into- sewings ; 
none have ever been sold out of the county, 
to my knowled^. I have manufactnred, 
prolMibly, two thirds of the cocoons raised in 
the county for the last four years, and nuu^ 
from Pennsylvania. I have a reel, twisting- 
machine, and spooling-frame, all of my own 
invention, and all work admirably. Tkm 
reel can be made for six dollars, and, for sin* 
plicity, durability, and facility of reeling, I 
think has not been exceeded. 

My twisting machine may be made te 
drive any number of spindles. It may be 
turned by hand or by water. It twists a 
smooth, even thread, is very simple in its 
structure, and is not liable to get mil of 
repair. 

The twist may be regulated so as to twist 
hard or slack, as the operator pleases, l^er 
can be biylt with twelve spindles for f9o. 
The Bpoohng-firame is equally simple, cheap, 
and convenient. I pay from four to five 
dollars per bushel for cocoons, according to 
quality, and my silk sells readily for four 
dollars per huni&ed skeins. There iaanollMr 
gentleman in this county who has a machint 
of 3 spindles, with ring»flioit, bnt h* WQihi 



LElTERa 



Thw I liaTe giTen a 
Toy brief sutenieiit of the silk cultore in 
Hue county. 

The amount of cocoons above stated has 
been raised in the six towns along the lake 
ahore. 

There axe, probably, two or three hundred 
pounds grown in other parts of the county. 

L. R. Hkwivi, Foxkor«mgk^Ma»9, — I am 
TeiT much ^tified to know that you are 
BMkiaf exertMBS to forward the silk Dusiness 
•a the United States. 

I hare raised a few worms each year, for 
ftmr Tears, with good success in general. 
Fed tnem in a room 14 feet square, puistered. 
I>id not regulate the temperature in any way. 
I have not fed in an open shed, but the gen- 
«nl opinion here is, that this is the best. 
!¥• prefer the pea-nut worm, as they reel 
more readily than tny other. We use the 
teKan, white and multicaulis, and let them 
.stand through the winter without injury, if 
^planted OB dry land. 

We have tried early and lale feeding, and 
Ibnnd early feeding much the best, as the 
worms do better tnd make much heavier 



Great care should be taken to procure 
ems from healthy worms, and then, with a 
IttUe experience, we may secure a good crop. 

We have been engaged in the manufacture 
about five years, most of the time making 
•ewings. Have made some warps for weav- 
iMT bonnet edgings. 

Have not much capital invested for ma- 
chinery, say, $100 fer reeling and twisting, 
wiueh. ny the way, I invented and got up 
■ijrseli. We emplojr no hands out of our 
ewB fkmHy, and only two of ua work at this 
business. 

Have worked some imported raw silk, 
which was not worth so much by ^ per cent 
as our own, owing to its not being reeled 
w«ttt i. e. was not worth so jnuoh by %l per 
pound, which would pay for the reeling. 
- < I kiiow of BO difierenee m the silk made 
lirom the diffnent kinds of mulberry. 

And in eondusien, we have planted the 
trees, fed the worms, reded and twisted the 
silk, and finished it ready for the market, and 
know of no possible reason why the business 
is not practicable and profitable in all its 
parts. 

I would ask for ii^ormation respecting 
i^g^*g sewing-silk. Does any one know 
how to weight «t, as the imported is weigrkted t 

We wm§ii oun^but presume not m the 
light way. 

1 sena you a speeiraen of sewing^silk, 
reeled on my reel, and doubled and twisted 
on my twister, which does the doubling and 
twistmg at one operation. 

[The enclosed silk bears testimony of the 
excellence of the machinery, and the skill of 
the operator. I. R. B.] 

Z. Storm 4l Sov, Mmt^fi/dd Cemire^ 
OMuk-^I had inteadedeto meet the Silk 
OoDTentioa in New Toik, hot «• I eaimot 
6 



do that, I aa desiroua to add my mite io tlie 

mass of information which will be collected. 
I have been for forty or fiflv years conver* 
sant with the growing of silk in this town, 
though not personally engaged in the bust* 
ness. I consider it feasiUe and simple, in 
the whole process, and that a little practical 
knowledge will convince any one of this 
feet, and that the generality of publications 
on the subject have mvested it with too much 
mystery. 

1 have been now for about ten yean en- 
gaged, in a moderate way, in the manufac- 
ture of sewinff-silk and twist — have about 
three hundred spindles and winders, pro- 
pelled by water^ower, and employ in the 
mill from 10 to 14 hands, and produce from 
25 to 40 pounds per week — using from one 
to two thousand pounds oi raw silk yearly, 
adapting it to the demand. The capital 
necessary fer this, I find to be about $8(X)0. 

We have used various kinds of raw silk, 
and I can say, without hesitation, that the 
American, properly reeled, is equal to any : 
and 1 do not think — at least, I could never 
discover— much difference, whether made 
fimm the multicaulis, alpine, or white mul- 
berry. I think the present tariff on silk 
neecM some alteration, in the law or the 
construction, to prevent the importation of 
thrown silk at the same duty as raw silk. 

As to the ultimate success of the silk busi- 
ness in this country, both in growing and 
manufacturing, I have no doubt on the sub- 
ject, but think the growing of silk may and 
will ^Id mcNre profit than the present pro- 
duction of cotton. 

I have written in great haste, and should 
be glad to enter more at large on this im- 
portant subject, had I time. Shall always 
Ub pleased to hear firom jrou, and shall be 
ready to give any information in my power. 

NATBAiriEt J. Chvrch, Minesink^ Ot' 
ansre Co., Jf, F. •— I began feeding worms in 
18§9 — took a lot half grown to begin with, 
Uiat had been powly fed, and loot the moat 
of them. 

1840. Hatched and fed a kit Iwasover* 
stocked — leaves came short, and lost three 
fourths of my crop. 

1841. Succeeded in bringing my crop to 
maturity — only a few diseased — had 38 
pounds cocoons. 

1842. Made 119 pounds, and in 1843, 103 
pounds. Worms healthy and cocoons. 

2. I fed in my house and barn, and the 
temperature was regulated in no way, ex- 
cept by opening the doora and windows, as 
the case seemed to reqaire. 

3. I have not fed in an open shed or tent. 

4. I have tried several kinds of silk- worm, 
and give a preference to the small White pea- 
nut, principally because I have observed it 
to wmd off much easier than any of the 
othen. 

5. I have about two acres of trees, ens of 
white and ens of multicaulis, and a few 
hundred alpines. 

6th qaestion it paitially anawcfed abofv* 



URnmiB^ 



. 7. The caoae of bad sacceas ia fQedinff, is thn 
neighborhood, may principally be traced to want 
of cleanliness, huddling too many together, and 
irregularity in feeding. I once iniured ray own 
crop by suddenly changing from the multtcaulis 
to the wild mulberry-leaf, when they had fasted 
for some hours. My help consists principally of 
■mall boys and girls, who gather leaves and feed 
the worms ', the expense is next to nothing, jn 
manufacturing the cocoons into sewing-silk, we 
have not hired any help. 1 made my own reels ; 
and, witii my wife's assistance, we have reeled, 
spooled, doubled and twisted, — skeined, col- 
ored, finiahed, and sold, the past season, and 
received to the amount of ;Jl 13,50. The ex- 
pense of our reel and spools, and skeining, I sup- 
pose might be ^3, havmg made them principally 
myself, and our old spinning-wheel we had be- 
fore. I find more difficulty in adoring than in 
any thing else, having att to learn by experience. 
Books are of little service to me, as their pro- 
cess is generally on a large scale, and the arti- 
cles used not easily understood. However, as I 
am not easily discouraged, I think all these dif- 
ficulties will be at last overcome. I mean to at- 
tend the Convention, and bring some silk along ; 
not because I expect it will be of much use to 
others, but I wisn to learn. I am fully satisfied 
that the business is not only practicable, but 
that it will well remunerate and justify any cap- 
ital that may be judiciously emploved. If our 
county agricultural societies woula appoint spe- 
cial committees in each county, to collect in- 
formation and lay it before the public, offerii^ a 
small premium, many would be induced to 
make experiments, and bring in the result. A 
spirit of enterprise and competition would soon 
follow, and much good evidently be the conse- 
quence. ^^_^ 

W. Adam, Northampton, Mast. -^ On behalf 
of the Northampton Association of E>ittcation 
and' Industry, I beg to acknowledge the receipt 
of the Silk Circular, issued by the officers of the 
American Institute ; and in reply to the queiB- 
tions annexed to it, I have the pleasure to ap- 
pend such information as the experience of the 
Association supplies, embracing a brief state- 
ment of the results of silk-growing during the 
past season. 

The Association, which was established in 
184%, on the principle of a community of inter- 
ests among tne members, purchased the estate 
formerly belonging to the Northampton Silk- 
Manniactnrinff Coo^rany, including between 
twenty and thirty acres of mulberry trees, the 
ettl|ivation of which had been long neglected. 
In the spring of the present year, the Associa- 
tion built a cocoonery, and commenced the cul- 
ture of five acres of the trees, by cropping, 
ploughing, and hoeing, and the foliage produced 
was in consequence very greatly increased, and 
the result of feeding hi&rhly satinactory. 

The building erected is a frame, covered and 
•hiofled, without any floor. The sills are raised 

S underpinning the posts 3 and, with a view to 
oroufh ventilation, a large number of the 
boards are secured in such a manner as to swing 
back like doors; several scuttles in the roof 
also assist the free circulation of air. The 
building is 100 by 25 feet, with two tiers of 
Irames the whole length, on which the worms 
are fed. 

The following is a brief view of the value of 
the capital invested, and of the 



present season, 
trf: 



results of the 
in this department of Indus- 



Cost of Cocoonery, t . pOOfiO 

dacresoflandat jfiOperacre, .... 260,00 

Capitel invested, ^160,00 

DebUt. 

To 8 ounces of seed, hatched for feed- 
ing, at j;3 per OK g^JOO 

" 106 days^ labor of men and boys, «▼• 

eraging 75 cents, 78;7i» 

** rent of cocoonery at 10 per cent oa 

cost, ao/w 

** rent of land, at six per cent, en Tal* 

nation, • . « , 21,00 

'< reeling 44 lbs. silk, at 75 cts. per lb. SiLfiO 

Debits, j;i75,75 

CrtdiU, 

By 44 iU. silk, at ;^5 per lb j^220/» 

" 40 oz. seed eggs at ^3 per ounce, 120,00 
" half a bushel of cocoons, sold for ' 

seed, atj^T, 5,50 

<< 4 bushels of perfbtated cocoons, at 

60 cents, tfl^ 

Credits, 346,50 

Debits, 179,76 

Net profits, at 37| per cent ;{ 169,75 

Referring to your Circular, for the two series 
of questions you propose <» the snlge^ of the 
growth and manufacture of silk, 1 now subjoiA 
answers, numbered in conformity witn your que* 
ries : — 

GrowikqfSQk, 

1. We have fed worms two seasons. Last 
year we did not produce so much silk as we have 
this year, but the results were in about the saSM 
proportion. 

2. The boildin|[ has been described above. 
The temperature is not regulated by any ortift' 
cial means whatever. 

3. We made an experiment, durin the pasit 
season, of feeding in ah open shed or tent. 
The results were not favorable j but, under the 
actual circumstances, we do not consider the 
experiment decisive against that mode of feed- 
ing. 

4. We prefer the pem-mit vaiiety of silk'>wenfe 
to any other. 

5. We feed from the alpine vaiietj of mnl* 
berry, and we plough and hoe thei^. 

6. Our experience is in favor of early feeding. 

7. We are not acquainted with any cases of 
failure in feeding. 

8. We have made no experiment in the man* 
ufacture of paper from the mulberry-le^, either 
in the green or dry state. 

9. We have not attempted by water- or deww 
rotting, to convert the bark of the mnlbeny- 
shoots into paper or silk fkbrics. 

Manufaehsre ^f SOk, 

1. We have been engaged in maaiAdariiig 
silk 18 months. 

2. We manufactDie ^ the ▼sricliet of sew* 
ing-<eilk and twist. 

3. We manufacture at the late of 12 to 1500 
pounds weight annually. 

4. The aAiount of capital invested in the aaan- 
ufacture is about J^3,5(X). 

5. In the manufacture, which includes dyeing^ 
we employ three men, eight girls, and three 
youths, of eighteen years and UMer. 

6. American raw silk, properly raried, is de- 
cidedly supenor to the fiMgn artide ler «■■» 
faetunng purposes. 



LETTBHa 



and it is, in cottMquence/iuifit to Im empio 
for tlieprodiiction of a good manttfaetured t 
cle. The cause of the Ixul reeling is to be fo 



7. W« lMf« no praetical knowledge of tiie 
CS wj M B 'B fi e e qnality of silk made from the dif- 
Ikrent kinds of trees in common use in this 
0ottnti7. 

%. So lar as the present tariff has been tested, 
it dees not appear to have operated in a manner 
favorable to the silk manufacture. Wiiat modi- 
featioas are neede<l, is a question which I am 
not prapered to anewer. Whether any protect- 
ive tariff for silk is needed, or is just and prop- 
er. is another qoestion, wiich you have not 
asked, and which I do not answer. But, how- 
ever this qoestioa may be answered, 1 am in- 
elinM to believe that the Northampton Associa- 
tion can compete suocessAiUy, both in price and 
<|eaUtyy with tlie best foreign-manufactured sew- 
iM-silk usually imported. 

y. 1 have no doubt that both the growth and 
muBttfacUire of silk are destined to be perma- 
Bent and eiteneive branches of American indus- 
try *, bet in these, as in every department of la- 
bor, pmdence. judgment, economy, and order 
are indi^nsaue to success. The great defect 
of American raw silk is, that it is badly reeled, 

}d arti- 
reeling is to be found 
in the eimple fact that it is reeled in the families 
where the worms are fed, and the cocoons pro- 
duced. It is probable <hat there are circum- 
sUnces which will always prevent silk that is 
reeled in families from being well reeled. But, 
evee if, in every individual instanee, properly 
reeled, the silk in one family will be reeled 
with a different degree of care, and of a differ- 
ent degree of fineness, from the silk of most 
other families ; and when the manufacturer pur- 
chases American raw silk in considerable quan- 
ti^ for manufactnre, he finds himself in posses- 
sion not of one unUbrm kind and quality of silk 
adapted to his purpose, but of numerous varie- 
ties, IVom very coarse to very fine, from very 
even to very uneven, each variety in small 
qaanti^— •thus presentinff an insuperable ob- 
stacle to the production of a good manufactured 
article ftom such stock. The remedy of the 
evil is as simple as its cause. Raw silk must be 
reeled only in large quantities, of a uniform qual* 
ity and fineness, in order to be employed in 
manufactures. This is equivalent to saying that 
it should not be reeled in families^ where only 
small quantities can be product. The proper 
business of fkmilies, andf the only business adapt- 
ed.to them ia the- silk euk«rR,is the feeding- of 
the worms and the production of the cocoons. 
This is aU dMt is done by private families in It- 
aly and India'*- large silk-growing countries — 
and is all that can be done by private families in 
America with advantage, if we desire to make 
this country a large silk-growing and silk-man- 
ttfacturin|( eountiy ; and, until the necessity of 
this division of labor is perceived, and fiunily- 
leelinf discootinued. American raw silk will 
■ever aeooire a high character generally, nor 
will the Ameriean eilk manufacture from native 
■ c odhi co ever vest on a secure foundation. The 
NortlMiBptOtt Assoeiation has, in consequence, 
loselved never to mirehase American raw silk, 
ucept under neenliar ciscumstances, but only 
coeooos, and tbeee of a good quality, for which 
they will always bo ready to give a iair and rea- 



•I have now only to add that a lai^ proportion 
of the silk grown by the Northampton Associa- 
tion,id«ruig>tha pott season, and carried through 
eve^ arocois, from the hatching of the eggs to 
its oBura ccoDqiletioB in ibfi manufactured state, 



will be presented for exhibition at the Siiteenth 

Annual Fair of the American Institute. 



RiXFORD & DiMocK, Mansfield Centre, CU 
— We send you the following statement : — 

(1.) We commenced manufacturing silk in 
1839, and have been engaged in it ever since, 
being about four years. 

(2.) We have manufactured sewing-silk and 
cord, chiefly sewings. 

(3.) The quantity of raw material used by ns 
would average twenty-five pounds per week, and 
the cost would average S^/^ per lb. 

(4 ) Amount of capital invested in the business 
would not exceed four thousand dollars. 

(5.J We have employed about 9 hands, to turn 
out tnia amount of silk per week. 

(G.) We have manufactured about all kinds of 
raw silk, and we find that American silk, reeled 
as it ought to be, exceeds any other kind for 
strength and durability. 

{!.) It is our opinion that silk made from the 
white mulberry exceeds any other kind. We 
have manufactured silk made from the alpine, 
and from the multicaulis j and, if we could get 
such as we have manufactured from the alpine, 
we would be satisfied. 

Our views, with regard to the silk business in 
this country, are, most clearly, that it will suc- 
ceed. The time is not far distant when we, as a 
country, shall raise our own silk, and manufac- 
ture it 3 and ultimately compete with foreign na- 
tions. _^^ 

Moses R. Kino, Newark, N. J. —From an 
investigation of those manufactories similar to 
my own, in this city, it is believed that the 
amount of silk consumed annually will not vary 
far from dOO lbs. This is used in making coacn 
lace, fringe, tassel, and gimps, and is composed 
of those kinds of sUk known as tram and organ- 
zine. In these manufactures we use other ma«- 
terials besides silk. 

My opinion, as regards the quality of Ameri* 
can silk, is, that, if we 11 reeled, it is equal, if not 
superior, to the foreign article. The American- 
sewings we consider far more desirable for our 
business than the imported. As a cousequence,. 
we have, for the last two years, purchased that,, 
when we could find it in the market. The tram 
and organzine, commonly called floss silk, wo 
have found more difficult to get, of such quality 
as to meet our wants. This jias, no dpubt, been 
caused by the inexperience of those engaged in 
its manufacture. We frequently find it filled 
with burrs, and its color otten presenting difler- 
ent shades of whiteness. This appears to re- 
sult from want of care, or a want of the proper 
knowledge of the business, and of course is a 
difficulty which time will overcome. We feel 
assured of this, as we have purchased some beau* 
tiful lots of American floss, which have fully met 
o6r desires. 

Permit me to add that I am rejoiced to find the 
subject of silk culture and manufacture receiv- 
ing incre.ased attention. Since its first introduc- 
tion into our country, my faith in its ultimato 
success, complete and entire, has not wavered. 
I early became satisfied that we were payinff 
into the hands of foreigners a large amount of 
money annually which could and ought to bo 
paid to our own citizens. So great has been my 
desire to encourage it, that I have not unfre* 
quently purchased the American article of floss 
when it nad to be used to some disadvantage. I 
wish you great succeu in your attempt to excite 



LETrTBRa 



Hm imWIe tHMthm to fhw unportaot ud highly 
iBtoretting mibject. 

Isaac E. Jones, Ridmond, h^dkma^-^l acci- 
dentalJy, a few days since, saw one of your SUk 
Circulars, and perused it with much interest, 
and being in a small way engaged in both the 
growing and manufacturing of silk, and feeling 
much anxiety for its progress and encourage- 
ment in the United States, f felt willing to cast my 
mite into the treasury. I should not, however, 
have attempted it but for the observations in 
the last paragraph of your Circular. 

Anawen on growing Siik. 

1. We have fed more or less three years past, 
and feel stimulated to persevere in the business. 

2. We occupy the upper story of our factory to 
feed in, and use Tillinghast's suspended frames. 

3. We have never fed in an open shed or tent 
-«tbe temperature ought to be uniform-— 70 
to 80. 

4. We prefer the mammoth-sulphur variety, 
both for the grower and manufacturer. 

5. We use the multtcaulis entirely, and plant 
in large rows 4 feet apart, cut 12 to Id inches 
hiffh. Feed branches. 

b. We have tried both, and believe early and 
midsummer feeding best. 

7. We think bad success in feeding is mostly 
owinff to bad stock and want of ventilation. 

8. We have not, but intend to try it this fall. 

9. We think it may become useful: from a 
•mall experiment of water-cottiog, the fibres are 
fine and strong. 

An9wer9 on mmn^aduring, 

1. We have been manufacturing 8 or 10 
mcmtbs. 

2. We make at present satins, ladies' dress 
■ilks, cravats, scarfs, &.C., &.C., of different colors. 

3. We are not yet able to answer this question 
■atisfactorily, perhaps 75 to 100 pounds. 

4. We have, including water-power, building, 
machinery, &c., &c., about $4000. 

5. We nave, as occasion requires, Arom 5 to 8 
males, females, and children. 

6. We are of the opinion, fully, that American 
raw silk, well reeled, is equal if not superior to 
most foreign silk. 

7. We tnink silk made from the mujticaulis 
better than any of the other varieties. 

8. We think the present tariff should be in- 
creased, and continue a few years at least. 

9. We think, if properly protected by govern- 
ment, the silk enterjprise is entirely feasible, 
strict economy being observed. 

l*am glad to find so warm an interest now 
manifestMl on the silk subject. I am very de- 
sirous to hear something about French's Knitting 
Loom. I have seen it very hi|[hly spoken of in 
the New York Tribune, i think one of them 
would be a useful acquisition to our silk estab- 
lishment^ if it merits one half that is said about 
it. I think such a machine would be useful in 
working up the more inferior Quality of silk as 
well as the best. The people here are tuminff 
their attention to the silk subject in earnest. I 
think our city and vicinity have raised 12 to 
IdOO lbs. of cocoons this season. All were not 
successful, owing to bad stock, but we are pre- 
pared with the best kinds for neit year. I should 
admire to be with you in Convention, if it were 
possible. ^^ 

Caft. Joseph Coitavt, NorthampUm, Mats. 
— Tour favor is before me. PMtsiiig avocations 



leave mo time, at p r esent, only t» wanmt jmu 

queries very briefly. 

(1.) Yoar fini question *- How long havie yo« 
been acquainted with growing silk 7 I wmmwp 
that 1 was born in Mansfield, Conn., and have 
been more or less actively engaged in th« b«si* • 
ness nearly 46 years. 

(2.) As to baildings : 1 have fed in about eveiyw 
thing bearing the name,— bams, eora-housesy 
and other open 6MiMtng«, with usual good svo* 
cess. But 1 have no records and can givo ao 
statistics. 

(3.) Have never fed in a thed or fenl, so called, 
but have done what amounts to the samo tkkmg, 
and, beyond all doubt, this is the true system. 
The pure air of heaven is indispensable, and the 
feeder can get it in any way he pleases, bat f st 
U he m«wl. 

(4.) 1 have geneFslly used the ia 



{%) i nave geneFBlly used tbe Jane snlplMV 

worm, but recently the pea-nut, which I prefer. 

(5.) As to trees : 1 have generally used tbe 



white mulberry -—the only kind known in Maae* 
field or the country, during the years in wlttch 1 
did the most in ibeaing. 
(6.) Prefer early feeding, decidedly. 
'7.) The causes of bad success are sevefll — • 
eggs, or good eggs badly mamoed, insiilB» 
cient or imsuitabie food, &c. But Uie one greet 
has been inadequale fMniOation, 



J^ 



i nadtqua U \ 

As to the mulberry-leaf for paper, or the haifc 
for Diirposes specified in the Cirenlar, I have 
madfe no experiments. 

In regaixl to manufactoring silk, I 
remark: 

(1.) I have been acquaittted with tbe I 
as carried on in Mansfield, in a domestic way, 
from a child. In 1829, myself and another BNtt 
commenced manufactunng sewings by bm* 
chinery in Mansfield, which was, I believe, the 
first attempt in this country in that way } awl 1 
have been engaged in the misinesB ever since. 

(2.) I have made sewings, twist, some ladiea' 
dresses, vesiings, and haii^erchiefs. 

(3.) Have used from one to four thoosand 
pounds of raw silk annually, chiefly fbr sewings, 
and at a cost varying from ^^3 50 to f6 00 per lb. 

(4.) Have now from ^3000 to 1^4000 invested 
in buildings, Sec. connected with the business. 

[5.\ £mploy 10 to 12 hands, male and female, 
chiefly females. 

(6.) I have no hesitation in saying, as a menu* 
facturer, that American silk, properly reeled, is 
equal to any in the known wond. For strenffth. 
and lustre, it is superior to any Aweign-silk I 
have ever seen. 

{!.) As to silk made from the white mulbeny, 
multicaulis, CanUm, Asiatic, and Alpine, I knew 
of no diflerencCf 

(8.) In reffard to the present tariff, I cencer 
entirely in the views expressed bv Mr. Memy 
and other manufacturers, now before the Con- 
vention. 

<9.) " What do you think of the whole silk 
business, as a business of this country f " Thie 
|uestioa I cannot at present answer as I wish. 

will however say, in brief, that I feel eetire 
confidence in the opinion, that it wiH eltiiBately 
become sn important branch of besmess. em* 
ploying an amount of indostiy, and diflasieff 
wealth to an extent scarcely equalled by way 
other. Had I time, I could sive yoe maay foea 
and sufficient reasons for ue opiaioa hei^ e»> 



JoBN Fox, Senior, Mt, FUaaantf J ifirmm 
Co. J OMo. — I will answer voor nine lateirei 
gatoriei M coBdsely es posiible. 



LETifauai 



1. Ilnf»betBi^oUyia tlw BMMiftetnreor 
•UIl 36 yean in London and 10 yean in Ameiiea. 
I waa born in London ; my predecesion were 
weaven of the old achool. I waa t»rooght up to 
the bofliness yoiin^, and never went out of it 
While engaged in it in London, I superintended 
for the followinff gentlemen : — Measrs. Hopkins 




Freboiit, Finabai7,«-M ioonw; beaidea being, 
after that, in business for myself, in Church 
Street, Spitalfields, and Basinghall Street, City, 
five yean with twenty looms. During the period 
of filteen years, I bad from 250 to 300 lbs. of 
silk, of every grade and name, pasa through my 
hands weMv. 
2. There is no article of ailk 



have not manufactured, 



during the above forty-five yean, 
>7 3. During the laat aixteen n» 
r^^-roeled ailk. 



that I 
fto be done, 



months, S80 Iba. 



4b Inclttdmg&ctoiT buildings, Biacbinefy,&c., 
Itc, ifd,400; expended the laat 16 montha, for 
cocoons, reeled ailk,vraaven, winden, dyeing, 
and girla employed, ;^U,S71. My son haa now 
25 hands engaged and conatantly employed. 

5. My opinion of the American silk, if well 
prepared, ia that it is quite equal to anv I have 
seen in England, from France, Italy ^ China, or 
Valencia, and in aome qoattties aupenor. 

7. I would give the preference to an orchard 
of white Italian varieties, believing them to poe- 
aesa medicinal aa well aa nutritive propertiea. 

8. I do not conaidei the tariff as answering 
the end for. which it waa intended, and very 
little good will be effected by it unless it ia ad 
valorem as well as specific. 

9. I have no more doubt of the ultimate suc- 
cess of the silk business in this country than I 
have of my own eziatence. 

Thus fiur I have answered the questions pro- 
posed, as far aa my knowledge extends. I am 
nappjr to aay the Richmond (Indiana) Silk Fac- 
tory ia in the hands of my two sons on their 
own responsibility, who are progressing aa well 
aa can be expected. 

I will now cloae with a few remarks of some 
importance. It ia evident, from the greatly in- 
creased quantity of cocoona raised this year, that 
something must be done to provide reeling 
establiahments, and that quickly; otherwise 
there most be a decline. I would anggesfthat 
filatiiiea be estahUahed in aeveml parte of every 
ailk-rataing State, that the raisen may have a 
market at a convenientdiatance to resort to with 
their cocoons. My son that iawith Mr. Gill 
haa purchaaed for nim upwards of 600 bushels 
of this year's crop, and I am satisfied not half 
has come in yet. The distance they have come 
has in some instances much injured the cocoons. 
The expense to establish these filatures would 
be trifling, compared to the eonvenience, safety, 
and cheapneaa of transporting the silk. I hope 
aome of m^ highly esteemed friends in the £ast 
will give this sufanect that conaidentioa it merite. 
But the moat effectual means for working up 
the nw material ia to establish ailk factories. 
This would be an honor to the Union, and evince 
the patriotic sentimente of ite citizens, and 
withm five yean bring in a lucntive return for 
their inveatmenta. When 1 look back only aix 
or aeven yean, there waa not the semblance of 
a ailk fkctory in the West. Mow what a change ! 
We aee them at Moaot Pleasant, Ohio— at 
Richmond, Ind.— at Nashville, Tenn.— and at 
Eeonomj, Pmtu -*- and elMwheie, in a laaUar 
6« 



w^. 0r. WliMft. Uw. Offi, 1 . 
aona, were the oaiy iadividuala engaged in the 
caoae. We pioneered our way through evU 
report and through good report The public 
looked Ujpon ua either aa. maniacs or designing 
men. The latter waa the fkct; for we de- 
signed to save twenty millions per annum from 
being foolishly sent away from these shores, and 
make aomething for ounelves. We have par- 
tially succeeded^ and all that is wanting to 
complete our deaigna ftilly ia men of the aame 
liberal and patriotic princ«plea aa Mr. G. I am 
awara that able ana diainterested auperiatei^ 
dente are acarce^ aa a auperintendent must not 
only be a good silk-weaver, but a manufacturer, 
or at least one that baa had the superintendence 
of an establishment in Europe : and I should 
find no difficulty in getting sucn men provided 
there waa a probability or permanent employ- 
ment. 

I am happy to aay there Is every prospect of 
three more establiahmente being raised next 
April — one in Cincinnati, one in Kingseourt, 
Tenn., and one in Indiana, Pa. 1 hope to hear 
of Connecticut, Masaachnsette, 4bo., aeing like- 
wise. Commence economicallv ; go on with 
spirit^ blended with prudence ana perseveiance, 
and success will be the happy reaiut 

MuRRAT 6c Rtlx, Proprietan qflhe PaUt» 
ton 8iik Mamtfaetoryj Paienon, N. /.—The 
Circular of the American Institute has received 
our respectful attention, and we take ^at 
pleasure in furnishing replies to die inquiriea 
addressed to manufacturen of silk : vis. 

1. Our establishment .was commenced in the 
summer of 1840. 

2. The varieties of silk we manufacture are 
chiefly sewing — tram^ organzine, twiste, of va- 
rious descriptions, and in iact every kind of silk 
thread. We have lately comroencea the weaving 
of cloth, and have now IS looms in opention; 
Specimens of these artidea will be exhibited at 
tbefair. 

3. Our conanmption of nw ailk is at present 
at the rete of 8O00 Iba. per annum. 

4. The capital employed is about ^20,000. 

5. The number or handa employed la about 
50, chiefly women and children. 

6. American silk, when reeled with care, pro- 
duces a stronger thread than silk of foreign 
^wth, and we give it the preference ia every 
instance when o&red ns for sale. 

7. We have not had sofilcient experience in 
the qualities of American silk maoe fifom difr 
ferent trees, to answer this qnestioa. In ofder 
to arrive at any correct conclusion on the auh* 
ject, it would be necessary for the grower of 
each lot of silk to specify upon wlwt kind of 
mulberry he fed bis worms. 

8. In answer to this question, we would state 
that the present tariff on silks does not answer 
the objects contemplated in making it ^* which 
we presume were, encouragement <h the growth 
and manufacture of ailk, aa well aa refvenne. 
The aection of the tariff on raw ailk reads 
thaa:^ 

'*' On rew ailk, comprehending all ailka in the 
gum, whether in hanks, reeled, or otherwise —»• 
dO cente per pound of 16 oz.*' 

Now, raw silk is known, in common accepta> 
tion, as the silk simply reeled fVom the cocoon, 
and made up in hanka for the manufacturer. 
But, under the clause " or otherwise,'' silk in 
the gum, although mont/aefiirfd through att tho 
mcuMSnX ttagetf preoUnutff to the .operation qf 
""' — , (in which the natanl gum ia fior tha fiiit 



m 



.urrTESfi. 



•of 50 oenUi fit povuMl* Tlie importer of 
•Hk ift thi« tteg« of UMikufketaipe, when n 
pttrehaMr caih ibr a parti^iilar color, has 
only to send the (Quantity required to a dyer, 
who coloiB and prepares it to order, at small 
expense, and returns it to the importer in 
that fuUy ioisbed and manuiactured state, 
.which, if 60 iiBported in, would pay a duty 
of $ 2.50 per pound ; and thus, by this de- 
lect in the law, it is eTident that govern- 
■Rttt loRB f^^ per pound revenue, and our 
home industry m deprived of the manufac- 
ture, which the law gives to the pauper 
tabor of £urope. 

purinjT the last session of Confess, and 
brior to the passing of tlie present act, the 
bearing and probable effects of the section 
lelative tp the duty on raw silk, as now 
.worded, was 6iUy and strongly represented 
by ourselves and others, manufacturers and 
frowvrs, to the committee on manufactures, 
and to the comptroller of the United States. 
These representations were received in such 
m way, as to favor the eXjpectation, that the 
flection would be so modified, as to secure 
all the objects of the law ; another of which 
sraa, to insure to tlie grower of silk, a home 
market fi>r the produce of his labor. And 
we would here a«k, whefe is the silk-grower 
lo find a home market, if not firom the home 
manufacturer.^ And how is the manufac- 
tarer to succeed, if the manufactured article 
is admitted at tke same duty as the raw ma- 
terudf 

^ The act was passed without any modifica- 
lion of the section, thus showing that foreign 
CUAfiing aad ingenuity had prevailed over 
ike iainpeflts of lK>th silk-grower and manu- 
facturer — for to no other mfluence can this 
tttiuordinary proceeding be attributed. 

Inasmuch as the silk-grower wili be bur- 
dened iifi fbrei^ markets with heavy, if not 
toitehr prohibitory duties and charges, and 
can, therefore, expect to find a profitable 
fnarket only at home ; and, as the consump- 
tion aad demand caa only be increased by 
encouragement to the manufacturer, it be- 
JioTes &Kk both, as well as uLl the friends of 
kmne Made, to use every exertion and influ- 
enoe to ha^e the present tariff so amended, 
■s to impeise a proper duty on silk manufac- 
iicrred in any way, or to anj exten^ and also 
a proper duty upon silk simply reeled from 
^he cocoon and put up in hanks. 
.. 9th. Our experience has proved to us, that 
ii only requires fostering laws from govern- 
^eat,. latrgely and rapidly to increase the 
jBa«MifactwrQ, and to render the growth of 
ttik unitenal, and a most profitable branch 
of domestic industry, inasmuch as its culti- 
^ralion lisaroely interfbres with other agricul- 
tural labors, en)j the a^d and the vounf 
of either sex being required to superintend 
the raising and feeding of Uils invaluable 
Snsecl. We believe this business is destined 
shortly to add nUUunu v^Mm mUli4ms to our 
«atponai treawres. The enterprise is m 
ymg^ ^mein j»rs^psoC,«sid all «Qr k^fislatofs 

SHWBS SVSK mS \ 



We p w s MP e the fsnmr #iil mktr^' as 
an answer to the Circiw or the Ameriean 

Institute. 

One, if not both of us, will attend th6 
Convention, to give any further inforination 
in our power ', and for the sake of eluci- 
dating our remarks on this unjust law of 
Congress, will exhibit to the members of the 
Convention, silk in the gum, raw, and in its 
various stages of manunoture, be£»re going 
into the hands of the djrer. 

Wm. a. Haynes, Secretary -ef the J^Cash' 
title Silk Manufacturing Co,^ JXashvUle^ Ttun. 
— At a recent meeting of the Tennessee 
Manufacturing Silk Company, 1 was in- 
structed, by the Board of Ilirectors, to make- 
out, and forward to your Convention, a. 
statement of Uiei. progress of the culture 
and manufacture of silk in this State. 

The history of the culture of silk in Tenn- 
essee, is a bnef one. With the exoe^^n of 
a few families, no attention was giYen to 
feed in? silk- worms, prior to the years 1839 
and '40 ; since that time, the ci^ure of silk 
has rapidlv progressed. 

In 1640, there were raised in Tennessee, 
1237 pounds of cocoona. Evidence of the 
rapid increase of the culture is found in they 
fact, that 4500 pounds of cocoons hlive beeo>^ 
sold in this city during the present year/ 
Not more than half tb« quantity raised in 
Middle Tennessee has been brought to this 
market. From tlie reports in East and West 
Tennessee, we are satisfied that the produc- 
tion of cocoons in this State, the present 
year, does not fall short of 20,000 or 25,000 
pounds. 

A. D. Carden, Agent for the Silk Com. 
pany, has raised tM lanreBt crop of silk- 
worms in the State, 1430 pounds at three 
feedings, in an spen hmue, made for the 
purpose, on Mr. John W. CriO*s system 
of tent and cradle feeding, the worms all 
healthy. 

The farmers are going at it in earnest in 
this State. The . oCmate and soil are just 
what the silk-woim wants. Many of our 
&rmers believe they can raise cocoons at 
one dollar per bnshiel, by this open feeding 
with cradl«(, betlier than they could in the 
old way at three dollars. 

The Silk Co. has engaged as superintend- 
ent, Mr. Wm. Turner, an experienced silk- 
weaver from London. He has two looms in 
operation, one weaving satin, ([see sample 
enclosed,) from silk grown in this city. 

[The sample endosed is very superior* 
It cannot be excelled 'm «ny part of the 
worid. I.R.B.] 

Wm. Titicnck^ SupermtendefU ff the SUk 
Manufacturing Co.^ fCashviJie^ Ttnn. — I will 
confine my remarks to Tennessee silk, not 
knowing much about silk grown in other 
parts ot the country. 

As a manufacturer, tberefcn^ I say, un- 
faesitsiingly^that TenwMMe silk, sreU reeled, 
is deddtdbf superior, both fee nirengtk nnd 
Instve, to-mny loieign aUk I bme^svr «i«% 



LETTESta. 



«ad Wwcttth 115 pelr cent over the hnpoited 
artielM of raw liik. 

As to the quantitj now grown in Ihii 
region, I cannot form a ver^ exact opinion. 
I will, however, say, that 1 reel entire confi- 
dence in the opinion, thst one humdrtd hands 
could now be employed in its manufacture, 
diffmrng wealth to the State ; and that, ul- 
timately, no other business will eqnal it. 

P. S. Fifty yards of satin, the same as 
the enclosed, was sold for vesting, by my- 
self from the loom, without the u^tal dress- 
ing with rdlefB, ^that I used in England.) 
at $ 3,00 per yard. This was a fair profit 
on the manafacturing, — and was consid- 
ered much lower than the imported satin, 
by those who bought it. 

A. D. CAiti^Eir, MuhviUe^ Tmn. 

[As a further confirmation of the rapM 
progress of the silk culture in Tennessee, 
1 am permitled to present the following ex- 
tract from a business letter received by Mr. 
Oiii, while in New York attending the Con- 
vention, covering a bill of several shipments 
of cocoons, arooonting to 410 bushels. The 
letter was written by Mr. A. D. Garden, 
referred to above, as Agent of the Co., and 
as having himself fed 1430 pounds cocOons 
in open feeding with full success. I. R. B.l 

** The above purchases of cocoons exceed 
the funds placed by you in my hands, by 
^ , and exceed tiie quantity you author- 
tied m^ to purchase. There are many more 
offering in this market for sale ; but as you 
inform me that you have as many as you 
can reel in your vicinity, I decline further 

Curehases. 1 hope you will take these. I 
ope also, by another vear, we shall be able 
to do better in this State, in the way of 
reeling. 

** Ton will see at the fhir a sample of satin 
wove by Mr. Turner. We should be very 
much pleased to have you represent Ten- 
nessee, or our infant Silk Factory, in the 
Convention. 

**As you will see eastern manufiicturers 
at the Convention, perhaps you can nuJae 
arrangements to have our surplus cocoons 
purchased and sent East — any thing you 
can do, to provide a market Ibr our cocoons, 
we shall be thankfhl for. If the market 
&ils, the growers will become discouraged. 

** There are three or four times as many 
cocoons raised in this State this year as ever 
before, and it is your system of shed and 
cradle feeding, that has done the thing. 
There can be no doubt, if the market can 
be Oontinued, they will increase in quantity 
and quality. I have saved over 100 ounces 
of pea-nut eggs. From this stock the silk- 
growers can take a goo# start, and raise 
the very best of cocoons.'* 

[I cut the following scrap from the news- 
paper, bearing on the same subject. I. R. B.] 

Gov. JoiTES, of Tennessee, has been pre- 
•snted with a frill suit of Domestic Silk, bv 
the silk-growers of that State, in acknowl* 
jtilm t0ojknt Mrvioea to tihe eaue 



ot American Iddttrtry in kid euivdstf ' iHit 

summer. He responded thus :— * 

Nashville, Oct. 18, 1843. 

GenilenMn : — I receive, with a very grate* 
ful sense of the value of the compliment, 
the present of a rich and beautiAil suK <ft^ 
Domestic Silk, accompanied by your note 
of the 14th inst. If any thing could heigiti' 
en the estimation, in which I hold this kind 
and undeserved mark of regard from my 
personal friends, it is the consideration w- 
ferred to in your note, that it also proceeds 
from <* the friends and advocates of the cul- 
ture and home manufkcture of silk/* and, 
that the suit itself, is the produce of thid 
truly interesting and imp<Mrtant branch of 
industry. 

I fear, gentlemen, you over-estimate iay 
services, humble and inefficient as 1 know 
them to be, in promoting the cause of do* 
mestie manufiicturesv I? my ability were 
equal to the heattifelt interest which, in 
common with the great body of my fellow- 
citiaens, 1 feel in Siis great cause, I could 
then flatter myself that your compliment wa# 
deserved : in the absence of such ability, I 
be? to; transfer to the truly distinguished 
aira experienced champions of 'American in- 
dustry, all the credit which your kind par*- 
tiality would award to my poor services. 

Suffer me, in conclusion, gentlemen, ttt 
repeat to you, and through vou, to tlur 
friends you represent, my grateful acknowl- 
edgments, with assurances of the warm per- 
sonal esteem of 

Tour obedient friend, 
JAMES C. JONES; 

Messrs. G. W. M^nTiir and others of the 
Committee. _^_^^ 

Jomr W. Gill, M. FleoMni^ JejftrstH 
Co., Ohio. 

f^uesUons on growing SUk. 

Answer to Question 1. I have fbd wornM 
for five years past — results various, owing 
to the various fixtures used, and experimenta 
tried, attention (mt negleot of the feeder. / 
ntver had aUiiof teorms tecamo di$ea»ed^ or 
die, if from n healthy stock of totU-kept eg^s, 
without being akle to trace the cause, tSnck 
teas altsays local, and easily remedied'. 

2. I used both one ana two-story buildi 
ings, built of brick and also of wood >-> have 
used stoves and also fire-places with chink* 
neys; prefer fire-places, on account of their 
drawing off imptfre air. I think artificial 
heat beneficial m cold damp weather, es-i 
pecially when worms are .spinnings Mt 
cocooneries are ventilated by openings, wtta 
shutters near the floor, with ventilators frtMi 
each story through the roof. 

3. I have fed in open sheds and tonM 
with complete success. 1 fed ithis year, four 
several successive crops, and gatheted thft 
cocoons from the same cradles. 1st cr«» 
fed In June, last Crop, in September^ bol» 
perfectly healthy, and mkde superior etf^ 
coons. Bcareely'a dead worm, imperfeot oi^ 
double cocoon, among them.- 

4. Tho SMdmoB peft^Stttlatbi iNNrt^ igfum 



usnTERa. 



|mi-iiiit next; cold jieft-iRit, 3d , Piednumt, 
4th; Mammotb yarieties an also Qr<>od. 
Have no faith in any two-crop varieties 
whatever, after five years' ezperimenting 
with all kinds recommended ; but would ob- 
<^Berve, tha^ those who wish eggs to hatch, 
must select the pure white cocoons from 
the first lot fed, to get millers to lay eggs 
&r the ^ crop. 

5. White mulberry and multicaulis. I 
cultivate them as I do com, and replant the 
multicai^lis every three years. 

6. Previous veaxs, my first crops of worms, 
fed early in tne season, have always been 
the best. The cause of failure of late-fed 
lots, is in feeding toUjE^h, hard, full-grown 
foliage, in which mere is but little silk-gum. 

In consequence of the severe droujifht this 
season, my trees were almost defoliated in 
August, ^¥e then had plentiful rains. The 
ti«es threw out an ample supply of youns 
leaves, full oi silk-gum, and my last lots of 
worms, fed the last of August and first of 
Beptember, are equal to any I have ever 
raised or seen. 

. 7. 1st cause is, eggs saved from unhealthy 
•toek. 3d is, eggs being impr<M)erIy pre- 
served. 3d. irregular feeding and unwhole- 
some food. 4th. Changing the worms while 
moulting. 5th. And most frequent cause, 
want of pure air, and neglect to remove the 
excrements immediately firom the worms. 
6ith. Letting the mice eat thiem during their 
last age, and while they aie winding their 
cocoons. 

Q^egtUms <m manvfacturing Silk, 

1. Between five and six years. 

2. .Since we commenced, have made al- 
most every varietur of staple silk in use, as 
velvets, satins, thirty varieties of vestings, 
twenty of dress silks for ladies' wear, hat 
and coat plushes, brocades, lustrings, levan- 
tine, seiges, florentines, fla^jp-silks, stage 

' dresses, uinbreUa and parasol silks, handker- 
chiefs, scarfs, cravats, aprons, grloves, socks, 
stockings, shirts, dnwera, sewmgs, tassels, 
twist, buttons, 41m!«, 4bc. 

3. Abotti 1000 bushels cocoons annually. 

4. ^ 610,000. 

5w *^ from forty to fi% hands. 

6. ** equal to the best I ever exam- 
iMd. 

7. The quality of the silk is owing to the 
kind of worm that spins it. The quantity 
may be owing to the kind and quality of fo- 
liage fed. Worms fed on the native tree. 
mSke more floss and less silk than those fed 
on- Italian or multicaulis, but the silk, what 
there is (^ it, is as good as from the same 
worm, fed on the other varieties. 

8. I think, to protect American labor, 
there should be a duty on all silks importea 
by weight, and also,, say twenty per cent, 
duty on its value in the u nited States, both 
on the raw and manufactured article. The 
duty by weight, on the raw article, protects 
the producer, and an ad valorem duty pro- 
tects the manufacturer. This would prevent 
the surplus tmsaleahle silks of Europe fiwm 
l»iaf thnfwa into ow murlwtSy and sold 



here at attet&on. at any prioe, having tiie e& 
feet to break aown or discourage our citi- 
zens firom commencing in the business, 
draining us of our coin, and relieving their 
own market of groods, the sale of which 
would conflict with the regular profit on 
their fiuhionable and saleabfe goods. Thin 
is necessary to protect this new branch of 
American Industry from being thus assaa* 
sinated, while it is now in its iiuancy. In a 
few years, it will become full grown, and 
will supply us with the best fabrics at the 
price we now pay for the cast-off foreign 
stuffs. 

9. Is raising sheep in Ohio, hemp in Ken- 
tuckv or Missouri, or cotton in Mississippi, 
feasible f If so, the raising of silk in the 
greater part of the United States is equally 
so. Disseminate correct information, estab- 
lish filatures to reel the silk, and protect .us 
from foreifrn asaassinaticm by a judiciotui 
tariff, and it will, in a few years, be the Uad» 
ing staple of American production and man- 
uiacture, and supply us the means honorably 
to pay the immense foreign debt we now 
owe i^principally for silks) without jrepu^- 
ating It. 

My factory is in full and successful opera* 

tion, producing more goods than at any time 

previous. Our operations, as per nustorjr 

books and account stock taken, Ausixst 8th, 

for the past sixteen months, is as fidiows, in 

a condensed form, viz : — 

Cash value of Factory buildings, ,$ 1340 

^ *^ Machinery, engine, 

and permanent fixtures, 4060 

1067 bushels cocoons purchased, 3600 

280 pounds reeled silk do., 1400 

Contingent expenses, &c., 604 

Wa^s paid fiictory hands, &e., 3158 

Dveing, dyes, &c., 607 

Wages paid weavers, 1610 

8000 bushels coal, at five cento, 400 

$16,773 

In buildings, f 1340 

In machinery, &0., 4060 

Manufactured 3731 yards velveto, 
K ' vestings, dress, and other silks, 

&o., 6324 

1006 cravats and handkerchiefs, 1396 

850 pairs eloves and stockings, 875 

70 pairs shirU and drawers, 395 

10 pounds sewings, , 100 

Contingent credito, 1000 

Cocoons, reeled, and other pre- 
pared silk, warps in looms, and 
other stock, coal, &c., per in- 
voice, 3180 



^ $ 18,600 

Since August vfa, we have purchased over 

five hundred bushels cocoons. With what 

we have gathered and now have winding, 

my crop will exceed one hundred bushels. 

My first hatchings finished winding 1st 

July. The last will finish by 1st October, 

being ten or twelve successive lots between 

those penods. 

1 have been iuoMSfful beyoi4 my n«l 



» 



jintheibedf 
'veatilattiigr cnidtos. Have gathered four 
ciopslroiii each, aTenging aeven buahek 
per cradle, or near two baa&li at each gfath- 
enn^ per cradle. The- two fint, and the last 
crops were very healthy, and made saperior 
cocoons, of large salmon and pea-nat varie- 
taec. The third lot was stinted for food, 
oiwinsf to the long drought this summer, 
w^hicE obliged us to resort to the native leaf 
for about ten days. They were hard snd 
dry, and injured the lot, then feeding, very 
much. 

Those fed entirely en shelves nearly all 
died, and of those in the cradles about one 
half, occasioned by starration. They could 
not eat these leayes. From middle of Au- 
gust np to date, except three rery cold rainy 
days, the weather has been fayorable, with 
re ft es h ing showers of rain. Foliage came 
an abundantly and our worms haye done 

I thinh our cocoons will ayerage twenty 
ovnoes silk per bushel. The cost to me this 
year fat producing them will not exceed two 
dollars per buBheL 

I am completely satisfied that my system 
of shed, or tent and cradle, and branch feed* 
ing, as a syatem for gaUrM adoption, will 
prodooe more cocoons than any other method 
yet introduced, at half the usual expense, 
during three to four months each fiseding 
season. Cold weather, in early and late 
feeding, may retard the worms some in eat* 
ia^, and lengthen their time some little in 
•pmning ; eausinr, however, no other injury ; 
and for warm, smtry weather, nothing can 
nuperKde them. (I find the fans over the 
cradle entirely unnecessary.) Many others 
have used them, and advised me of their 
complete success. 

There has been a Isrge amount of cocoons 
saised in the Ohio valley this year, fax more 
than we shall be able to manufacture. I 
should think, from my correspondence, at 
Isast sufficient to*keep two hundred reels in 
constant operation. It is of the greatest im- 



poflancc that filatures should be started in 
various parts of the country, to take in the 
small lots of cocoons and reel them. From 
neglect in reeling, I think at least one third 
of all previous siui crops have been lost to 
the producer. The Convention, and friends 
of silk culture, should take this part of the 
sttbiect under their serious consideration; 
and, by getting the State legislatures to give 
liberal bounties for reeling sdk^ and the Con- 
vention giving premiums for the best reeled 
silk, they woula soon cause filatures to be 
established and get the grower to reeling. I 
do not see why more fixtures have not yel 
been established. The cost to run, say ten 
or twenty reels, would be small, not exceed- 
ing $ 300 to $ 500, and the silk could be sold 
as soon as sent to market. The art of reel- 
ing is very simple, and easily learned. We 
have learned, probably, fifly girls in our es- 
tablishment, any of whom could reel two 
and a half to three pounds of fine even silk, 
of six to eight fibres, per week, Worth five 
dollars per pound. Tney become expert in 
a few weeks. Then why is it, that, after a 
good lot of cocoons has been raised, they are 
suffered to get old •* mice and moth eaten, 
and finally lost, for want of simply reeling 
them. 

Another operation of importance is spin- 
ning up the cut-out and imperfect cocoons, 
floss, and reeler's waste. I nave a number 
of persons employed spinning it at their 
homes, on the common spinning-wheel, and 
it makes a valuable thread for shirts, stock- 
ings, &c., and afler paying well for idl labor 
bestowed, nets something considerable for 
the raw material. 

I am pleased with the brightening pros- 
pect of the silk ctdture ana manufacture. 
All elementary questions are now settled by 
carefully conducted experiments: and the 
whole country has nothing to do but to 
fl[0 forward, with a steady and careful ac- 
tivity, in this new and promising form of 
home industry, — growing and manufactur- 
ing silk. 



PREMIUMS, 

ON 8SK, RAW AND MANUFACTURED, 
AtMtM ai the SaUmfh Aimwd Ikir tf the Ameriem IndituUy Nho York 



W. J. GsMtsZs, Weehawken, N. J., for the best specimens of Cocoons and 

BawSHk, GM Medal. 

Jttsrf P. Hear*, Troy, N.Y.,fi>r«d best Cocoons, Diphtna. 

iMiMOM«y,MaMM,8ttiitog« Co., N.T., for the Sd best B«w Silk, .Si^Mr Jtfsdsl. 



7» 110116691 

^finr^m^ton Amodaiimt of Education mtd hUkHry^ Noithmploliy Mttfk, ftff 

speoimenB of Raw Silk, « «« ,« *l>ipti9nmu 

Luke A. White, 17 Whitehall St., N. T., for a »peeimeii of Raw Silk,. Dndrntm. 

F. Trowbridge, Flushing, N. Y., for a specimeD of Raw Silk,. ........... 4 • .jD^^mm* 

Ephraim Montague, BeUilehem, Mam., for a specimen of Raw ^ilk, JD^^hma. 

9v, J. Ctrntelo, Weehawken, N. J., for CmtUlo's Winding Bmckiw: Gooooiis,.i>»p/MMi. 

Wm. Hayden, 9th Avenue, N. Y., for speeimen« of Stlk Dyeing, SHpUmm. 

J^ew Engitmd SUk Company, Dedham, Mass., for the best speoknca of Uaek 

and colored jewing Silk, » •..-...*. Stiver JMml* 

Jforthwrnpton Jisgociatian of Eduattion and Industry, Northampton, Maes^ for 

the 2d best specimen of Sewing Silk,. . . j ».i>»9ZinMu 

Haskell I. Hayden, Windsor, Conn., for superior colored Spool Sewing Silk,. /h^JonM. 

(A Oold Medtd having been previously awarded to the same.) 
Mm W. Gill, M oant Pleasant, Jefferson Co., Oliio, for the gtttUMt vonsiy »f 

manufactured Silk Goods, , Gold JiM(d. 

Timothy Smith, Amherst, Mass., for a piece of phun Dnb Silk, ..6^ter MedmL 

Murray ^ Ryle, Paterson, N J., for Ladies' and Gendemes's Cmvata, and 

twilled Silk Handkerchiefs, , GM Modal. 

John Dmmead, 137 WUham St., N. Y., tor Silk Gimps, Wire, and Coat 

Bindings, ........•«• Sihor « 

Miss Mary Beach, Newark, N. J., for a pair of White Silk Uoae,. . k** . •• . 



The Examining Committee, among other remarks, say : 

** It is highly gratifying to observe a decided improvement in the reeling of nw siUui, mi. 
tending greatly to the advantage of the manufacture of fine goods," &c. 
There are many excellent samples of sewings. 

The piece of plain drab, by Mr. T. SmiUr, of Amheret, Mass^ i» wort^^ of ^leciol 
noliec! for its evenness of texture, color, and finish, and is the kestpiote qfsHk in the F«ijr» 

G. M. HAYWOOD, ) 

* H. BYRNES, > Conimtta«. 

EDWARD F. WOODARD,V 



sCoJ 



NOTICES. 

. In reference to future operations, the Trustees of the Institute would give the followtii^ 
Notices. 

Repository op- the Ameeican IsstiTuxE, 
New York, November 3d, 1843. 

The trustees of the American Institute, in accordance with the resolution of' the Cfoh- 
vention in regard to a SUk Manual, as given on page 17 of this Report, would inform the 
public that they fully appreciate the importance of ttfis measure, and have en^faged I. R. 
Barbour, Esq., of Oxford, Mass., to prepare such a work. It is designed that it be plain, 
concise, elementary, and strictly American in its character ; and not so large as to exceed 
25 to 27 f^ cents in price. Mr. B. hopes to be able to get out the work in a few months. 

We also ^ive notice that a Medal of the Institute will be ffiven, at the next Annual Fair 
of the Institute, for the best Experiment in making paper irom the leaf of the Mulberry' 
Tree. The application must be accompanied with a sample of the paper made, together 
with a full written statement of the quantity made, of the kind and quantity of leaves 
used, and whether used green or dry, the processes, and all the materials employed in 
manufacturing, and also the value of such stock, oompaied with other kinds of stock for 
paper. 

We also give notice, that a Medal of the Institute will be given at the same time, for 
the best Experiment in separating the inner bark of the muiWry-sbopt from the outer 
bark and wood; either by dew, or water-rotting ; or by any oth" process, by which it may 
be obtained in a suitable state for paper, or coarse silk goods, or any other valuable use. 
The applications must be accompanied with a sample of the bark thus prodtified,. together 
with a written statement of the quantity thus prepared, the kind and age of the shoots 
used ; and all the materials and processes employed in the business. 

We also give notice that another Silk Convention will be called dnriBg the next Fafr^ 
The Trustees, the Managers^ and all the members of the Institute, as well as Ihe intelli- 
gent friends aChome industry generally, have been exceedingly gratified with the «pfrit tad. 
Uke proeeedings, and all the reffulta, of the Convention just qixmedi. We hkdme ima — 1 






iBUBIARltt. 9Ql 

Ikii already exerted, and,1)y Uie pubfication of this Report, will continiie to exert, )a 
poinrerful and healthful influence in behalf of this great business. The facts imbodied in 
this Ilep(^ in our judgment, are sufficient to settle the whole silk questimi Ibrever, as a 
business suited to be a permanent branch of American labor. We regard it as ao settled, 
mnd, in all our future efforts in respect to this subject, shall treat this point as one already 



disposed 

Anoth 



of- -e«iii^-o f-^, proof, „d .a^Uing ao furU^r doubt. 



Lnother remark. It is intended to make the Convention, now so happily closed, the 
beginning of a series qf^mvmd Conventions^ to be continued as long as the interests of the 
silk business may seem to demand ; and to make this Report the j£r»^ of a series of Jinnual 
Reports on this subject, that shall form in the end a vast RepofUaty of Facts and hislruo- 
Htnt^ for reference and use in all future times; Reports that will be extensively diflused, 
' and carefully preserved ; so that when this business comes to stand before the nation, 
and before the world, as second to no other on the Western Continent, our children and 
cliildren's children may here find all the recorded evidences of our struggles and our 
triamphs. 

We wish, therefore, now to shape our measures in reference to this great object. We 
.tlaisk it will not be important to jpuUish another volume of Letters, in extenso^ like the 
present. This will be sufficient tor such purposes. It is, therefore, our purpose now to 
commence collecting fkcts pn the silk business in such a form that they can be imbodied in 

Statistieal Tables. This year we have been happy to receive from one to two hundred 

letters, and yet not one in twentgr of those engaged in the business has written to us. 

^ext year, returns, we trust, will come in by thousands, and we wish to have them come 
'in the form as above indicated. To secure this object, we subjoin two blank scheduleSy one 

ibr Silk Growers, and the other for Silk Manufacturers, which they will be able easily to 

understand and fill up with figures. 

In addition to filling the following blanks, we would invite each correspondent to ofl^r 
«ay f«flMirii Of s ugyj s t wHi, «r state any discovery, or improvement, he may have made, ia 
any part of the busmess,*or any thing that will be of special interest to growers, or mani^ 
ftcturers, and all such statements wQl be preserved in the Report. 

Another remark. We are very happy to see the public press, at the present time, ready 
to publish on silk. We trust they will extract freely from this Report; and a copy of it 
will be sent to any Editor, in any part of the country, who shall signify his wish to receive 
Vine by sending a number of his paper to the publisher of the Report. We wish these JW 
Uees may be published entire^ and that Silk Growers and Manufacturers will preserve them^ 
especially the Tables, for future use. 

We also trust that county^ or other local Silk Conventions will be held, next September,, 
throughout the whole country, and that returns will be obtained and forwarded from every 
•grower and maiMffactttfer, whether his operations are large or small. We will send a copy 
of the Report, as we do this year, to every person whose name and labors shall help to filK 
up our proposed Statistical Tables. 

In conclusion, we take the liberty to say, that the Trustees and Managers of the Institute^ 
have no pecuniary interest whatever in tne silk business, or in any part of it ; that, in all< 
these labors to promote that business, we are only carrying out the designs of our Associa^ 
tion ; that these designs aire wholly benevolent and patriotic, having reference to all the- 

Seat interests of our great country ; that our only income is derived from the receipts of 
e Fair, and the voluntary offerings of a few public-spirited men connected with the In- 
stitute, and is all expended for public objects. We trust, therefore, that tlrese statistical 
facts may be collected, and forwarded to T. B. Wakeman, f^q., Secretary of the insti- 
tute, free of expense. 

President^ 
JAMES TALLMADGE, 

Vice-Presidents y 
ADONIRAM CHANDLER, 
WILLIAM INGLIS, 
SHEPHERD KNAPP. 



Recording Secretary^ 
GURDON J. LEEDS. 
Corresponding Secretary^ 
T. B. WAKEMAN. 

Treasurer. 
£D. T. BACKHOUSE. 



»^ Trustees. 



93 



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SILK GROWERS. 

1844. 


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SILK MANUFACTURERS 
Prios to 1844. 


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74 



APPENDII. 



1*0 this Edition, we append the following Lettera: — 



OiFORD, Feb. 14, 1844. 

T. B. Wakeman, Esq., 

Secretary of A. Institute, N. York. 

My dear Sir : — 1 have just returned from 
a journey as far West as Ohio, undertaken 
for purposes connected with the silk business. 
I went out in company with a gentleman 
from Pittsburg, who is going fully into the 
business, and who had spent several weeks 
in New England, visiting our establishments, 
and collecting information in regard to grow- 
injf and manufacturing silk. I spent a week 
with him in these investigations, before leav- 
ing for the West. The deep interest which 
you, and the Institute with which you are 
.connected, have tAken in the silk cause, must 
constitute my apology for laying before ^ou 
tome of the results of these our joint inquiries. 

There has been a large increase in the 
manufacture of silk in New England, within 
the last one or two years. Several new es- 
tablishments have been started in that time, 
and old ones, that were prostrated by the mul- 
berry speculation of 1839, have been resusci- 
tated, and are now going on prosperouslv. 
These establishments are employed chiefly 
.in making sewings and twist, and severallv 
eonsume from 20 to 200 pounds raw silk 
weeklv ; amounting, in the aggregate, I 
should think, to twice or three times the 
quantity worked up one year ago. We found 
one new establishment just going into ope- 
ration, at Mansfield, Conn., for the manu- 
facture of cords, gimps, and other trimmings. 
The building is over 100 feet long, three 
•tories high, and designed for a large busi- 
-ness. Messrs. Dale and Denmead are the 
owners. All our New England factories 
purchase all the American raw silk they can 
.|«t properly reeled, and nay higher for it 
tnan for the foreign article, and yet their 
chief dependence is upon foreign stock. 

There are three Silk Factories now in 
regular operation at Northampton, and one 
at Dedham, Mass. Something is also done 
in this way at Wobum, Hingham, and Tox- 
borough. 

The Northampton Association have lately 
made an important improvement in reeling, 
ao that they can now pay $4 50 to $5 per 
huflhe! for cocoons^ cash^ and are ready to do 
it for any quantity — they want this year 
8000 bushels. 
^_)ii.Maiipaeld».Oo]io» theos ufi.fiis or aix 



establisbmenta of the kind, though we could 
not visit all of them. Isx Manchester, Conn . , 
the Messrs. Cheneys have, within a fe^ 
months, revived their establishment, and «tnr 
now mcLkinff 200 pounds of sewings weekly. 
There is &jso a factory at Wiodsor, and an- 
other at Pognonock, near Hartfordj Conn. 

All these establishments are going x^gyL" 
larly forward, finding a ready and profitable 
sale for their goods. 

Messrs. Murray & Ryle, Faterson, N. J., 
whose ^oods attracted so much attention at 
the Fair, we were sorry not to be able to 
visit, but heard that they were still going on 
prosperously. 

We spent an hour or two with Mrs. Mc- 
Lanahan, Philadelphia, whose interestinip 
letter is imbodied in this Report. Tou wiu 
be happy to know that she is about resuming 
her patriotic labors. 

West of the mountains, the business is 
carried on very differently ftom what it ia in 
New England. No foreign raw silk is used 
in any establishment. No sewing-silk or 
twist of any consequence is made. The en- 
tire attention of manufacturers in that quar- 
ter is turned to plain and fibred dress gfoods, 
serges, satins, velvets, ribbons, ditc., £c. f 
brought home with , me some 70 diffi;rpnt 
samples of such goods, from the richeat 
figured velvet, down to the pkin and simple 
pongee ^- samples that will well bear con- 
parison with the same kinds of goods made 
in England or France. T)ie two leading; 
establishments are Mr.' Rapp's, at Economy, 
Pa., and Mr. Gill's, Mount Pleasant, Jeffer- 
son County, Ohio, both of which were got 
up under the superintendence of John Fox, 
senior, and Sons, practical manufacturera 
from England, and have gone steadily for- 
ward, enlarging their operations from time to 
time, and finding a profitable and ready sale 
for their goods as fast as made. We found 
Mr. Gill building a new factory, 50 by 2Q| 
feet, 3 stories high, to be filled with ppwer- 
looms for weaving plain pongees for print<4 
ing. We could hear of no establishin^nt a^ 
the West that had failed, or had been sus- 
pended, though many of them had suffered 
much from the want of more capital. Wa 
I learned from Mr. Fox, at Mount Pleasant^ 
I that his sons, at Richmond, Indiana; weva 
going on prosperoi^sljr. We had stmoar iil« 
I telligenca fi»m-£UahviUa,-T« 



ATPfiNBDL 



ia regard to thft |yrodttctioa of raw silk, 
t^ West, especiallj the valley <^ the Ohio 
Hiver and ite tributaries, has gone ahead 
of New England. Mach evidence on this 
fpoint is given in our Report. Mr. Gill there 
^ves- it as his opinion, that the crop of 
tke past season in that vallev is sofiioient to 
lieep 200 reels in operation tnrough the year. 
Tliis opinion he repeated to me in conver- 
sation. The vertr rapid increase in that 
region, and its relative gain upon the East, 
is to be accounted for as follows : — 

The mulberry speculation did not prevail 
St the West as in the Atlantic States, and of 
course about ali .the disastrous consequences 

Cwing out of that matter fell upon the At- 
tic States, where they beloi^^d. West- 
«rB lands are all rich, and mulberry-trees, 
when put out, push forward at once, making 
« rapid growth of three to six feet bv mid- 
•ummer. On the othe^ hand, our Eastern 
lands are exhausted, and our trees will do 
nothing without manure, any more than our 
corn, and other crops. On this point many 
ailh-growers at the East have made a san 
ttistake, and laid the foundation for their own 
disappointment, and the discouragement <fi' 
themselves an4 others. In this matter, the 
West have precisely the same advantages 
over the East in the silk business, as in other 
agvictthural purauits, and no more.' West* 
«m farmen do every thing on a larger scale 
than we do in the East, and they are carry- 
ing this characteristic spirit into the silk cul- 
ture. Their summers, also, are some two or 
three weeks longer than ours, though no 
betteir m any other respects. 

I think, thezeibre, that the Weit and South- 
west will take the lead in the growth of silk, 
just as they now do in corn, and most other 
9grie«UtHnu products, and for the same gen- 
eral reasons. 

I am not a prophet, nor the' son of a prophet. 
But I veniare the prediction, that in thirtjr 
to fifty years, the valley of the Mississippi 
wtU eontrol the silk markets of the country, 
9md of the world. What our country has 
done in the cotton culture, gives us a pledge 
to this e0ect Yet there is this difference m 
the two eases : Silk may be successfully cul- 
tivated in every state and territorv in the 
Union. Cotton, on the other hand, is con- 
fined within certain paralleb of latitude. 

I have said, that the West and South-west 
will take the lead of the Atlantic States in 
the silk ealtiae . Shall eastern farmera, then, 
abandon the business? By no means. We 
know that com is one of our best and most 
Mofitable crops, in all the Eastern States, 
bom Maine to the capes of Florida, and yet 
we all admit that the West can and does lead 
us in the production of thia article. I reason 
aboat sUk in the same way. Here we are, 
fixed upon our hills and plains, exhausted 
llioiiffh they may be. Some of us would not 
abandoB them for the fertile West, if we 
aould. dome of us could not, if we would. 
Here we are, and here we must be, and we 
VHVit do aomethiBj^. We are on a tread-mill, 
tpd it ia «ar k or die ; and the ool J queatioQ is, 



what articles of pfoduction kn moat irofdnr' 

of our cultivation P Sooner or later my reaa* 
en will decide in favor of silk as one of tha 
class. 

1 found at the West several large estab- 
lishments for feeding going into openttoft. 
Mr. J. O'Hara, near Pittsburg, who has 
been experimenting in the business for two 
yean, is preparing to stock 90 acres, in the 
spring, with trees. Mr. G^eorge Sanders, 
near Wheeling, Vs., has already 8 or 9acreSy 
and will put out 50 acres more in the spring. 
This gentleman, with whom I had the pleas* 
ure of spending an evening on mv way home, 
is personally acquainted with the Irasiness, 
as carried on in France and Italy, and has 
recently arrived in this country, and pur- 
chased the farm on which I found him. Ha 
is preparing to carrv out, in this countnr, tha 
most approved methods of feeding in Franca 
and Italy. For this purpose he is building- 
a cocoonery, 132 by 35 feet, one story, witS 
abundant windows, doora, ventilaton, and 
scuttles in the roof. In addition, he is putting ' 
up 12 stacks of ehimneysj the chief desi^ or 
which is, to change the air in the room^ in h&i^ 
sultry ^ confined weather, by the aid ofjlash 
JireSf mtjae of brash, straw, leaves, or any 
light material. In this way, he informs me, 
that he can at anv time, and in a yerj few 
minutes, change the air in the room entirelv. 
Who can doubt it .^ The plan is perfectly 
philosophical. In the great fire in New York, 
the heat was so intense, as stated in tha 
papera at the time,, as to cause the winds to 
come blowing in upon the fire from all points 
of the compass, at the same time. 

Every silk-grower in the land now knows, 
that we have much more to fear from ksai 
than from cold, — especially hat, suUry, eon' 
final wealher, — more especially, hU, and 
tcet. And yet, none of our enclosed eo* 
cooneries are constructed in special refer- 
ence to this danger. They were all built 
under the mistaken idea, that cold, is the 
main thing to ffuard a^inst. They are, 
therefore, generally provided with means for 
warming them, when necessar^r. But, 1 
know of no one built on the principles of 
Mr. Sanders's cocoonery, or provided with 
artificial fans, or in any other way so con- 
structed, that the air can be at any time, 
and at all times, effectually, and thoroughly 
changed. Hence, the result, in large reed- 
ing establishments, ii^ many, perhaps most, 
cases, has been unfavorable. Disease breaks 
out among the worms in the last ages, and 
sweeps them off. They generally do well 
until two-thirds grown. By this time, their 
excrements become large, and their insen- 
sible perspiration becomes large, and tha 
quai^tity of pure air required for them to 
breathe, is large. Hence,'' the air in the' 
room must be constaudy changed. If you 
have brisk winds, day and night, this change 
is secured through your doors, and windows, 
and ventilaton. Otherwise, it must be done 
by artificial means; and we trust that our 
intelligent friend, at Wheeling, will show ta 
tha whole nation that worms can be stto- 



APFENBQL^ 



onlifatlk fed, in lane erttlilishmeiitft on the 
aitifi«i«I sjslera tS fittrope^ in a wajr to 
imike- it an exclusive business, as he designs 
his to be. 

,,Ui the m^akitinie, we have triumphantly 
dfmoBstrated that thejr can be fed, with 
<)ptire sajfety, (except in yery esriy or very 
late feeding,) in sheds, tents, or any open 
building, that will give them ample shade, 
i^d heaven's pure air essentially unobstruct* 
Ojd, 9o that if the business cannot go forward 
on the artyieial system^ it can go upon the 
ntiwal €y$Um. I fully believe it can go 
i|pon both systems. 

^ At £conomy, Pa., where the silk culture 
lias been carried on for ten to twelve years, 
I £nd that they feed in enclosed buildings 
entirel^y no better ventilated than our co- 
cooneries generally. And they are uniform^ 
/« sttceessful. Tliey feed successive crops, 
this yea^ amounting to 23 or 33, and made 
hetween 500 and 600 pounds of reeled silk, 
of the very best quality. The only way 
tibai 1 can account for this^ their invariable 
success, is upen tlie care Uiey bestow upon 
eyery step in the business, from first to last. 
1. will mention one thing. They clean their 
worms evsry day^ except when moulting. 

They commenced manufiicturing silk at 
tbis place, four or five years ago, and are 
making goods of the best quality. Some 
of the richest samples in my book that I 
showed youy I obtained at this establish- 
snent. At this place, also, I found two pow- 
er, looms in operation, as an experiment. 1 
Ipought with me a sample ot* the goods 
woven, a plain satin, of first-rate quality. 
^ the same establishment, I also found 
machinery in opeilatiofl working up floss, 
silk-waste, damaged and perforated cocoons^, 
9kd brought wi& me samples of the yarn 
apwi. It makes a beautiml and valuable 
aftiele for hosiery, under dresses, and other 
gOod». We have in New England no ma- 
chinery of this kind, and oi course have 
Buffered a great loss in these articles. I 
would suggest -to all silk-growers, that they 
Hereafter pre^rve these articles with care, 
believing, that a home market for them will 
aeon be created. If the damaged and per- 
forated cocoons are boiled out m soap and 
<}Fied, they may be safely kept any length 
of time. In conclusion, I wish to call the 
attention of our business men, in the East, 
to the manufacture of silk. We now want 
establishments for weaving. Under our pres- 
ent tariff such establishments, rigbtly^ con- 
ducted, promise all reasonable profits. As 
to the .raw material, it can be obtained in 
any quantity from abroad, tmtil a sufficient 
Bttpply is furnished from our own fields. It 
was in reference to this temporary foreign 
supply^ that the duty is fixed at only filly 
oents a pound. In re^^ard to skilful opera- 
tives and able superintendents, there are 
some already in the country from England 
and France, and many others ready to come. 
For some months, I have been in corre- 
spondence with a gentleman in Lyons, on 
tW s«l^^» He waa here -Uiat aeuon* and 



left us, strong in tfie-heHef, that we are iv 
be a great silk-growing and siik-manufiKslur*" 
ing people. He is mlly recommended by 
gentlemen in New Y6rk, well acquainted- 
with him, as a man of high character, and 
one that thoroughly understands his busi- 
ness. By a, letter just received, I learn thai 
he is now ready to come to this country,* 
and take charge of an establishment for 
manu&cturing the best varieties of FrsnOh- 
goods, and in the best style, if a capital of* 
$60,000 can be secured, for the purpose^* 
and he will himself furnish one fifUi of that 
capital, that is, f 12,000. His plan would 
be, to commence the business at that pointy 
of perfection to which French skill and ex«' 
perience has already brought it. For lhi» 
purpose, he would have the latest improved 
French machinery, made here or there, as 
may be found best, and bring with him n.- 
sufficient number of operatives to carry the 
business, in ail its parts, directly forward. He* 
is himself fully confident of results altogeth-^ 
er satisfactory. I mention the case in tiik' 
manner, for the purpose of 'showing that 
the necessary practical skill in this business 
can now be easily secured, and also to invite 
a correspondence with any gentlemen dis- 
posed to embark in such an enterprixe» 
Names and references, together with full 
details of the plan, will be given to any oner 
wishing for the same, in view of such tt- 
measure. Tours truly, - 

1. R. BARBOtTR. 



Dkdham, Mass.^ March 39, 1844. ' 

Dear Sir : ^- You and the American Insti- 
tute have been of great service to the siUr 
cause, by your collection of letters from .Mft 
many persons in various parts of our eountryv 
detailing their experiments. -- "• 

The result of the whole goes to show,tfaAt, 
throughout the vast extent oi our eeuntrri 
the mulberry and the silk- worm will flourish, 
and that the silk products are steadily on the 
increase, notwithstanding the encounter of' 
many adverse circumstances. 

In answer to your inquiries about the 
manufacture of silk here, I haye to »eply, 
that the New Enghind Silk Company in this 
place use weekly about 150 pounds of raw 
silk, which is made into sewings. This is 
mostly supplied, at present, from the foreign 
markets, Smyrna, Calcutta, and Canton. Our 
American si(k-growers are not able to supply 
us with raw materials that can be depended 
upon, to keep our wheels in motion. Some 
yery favorable lots have been received, hoW* 
ever, lately, and mann&ctUfed to advantage.- 
What seems most tt>be desired, in the Amer- 
ican raw silk, is uniformity in the filature. '' 

If Mr. Duponceau's plan of haying a Nor- 
man school, to- teach reeling silk irom the 
cocoons, could be adopted, or any sjrstem of 
uniformity established throughout the Unittetf 
States^ in the mode of reeling, it would be w 
great point gained. 

I think our silk-growers cannot do belllV| 
at pieaenty than to reel theii own < 



APEBNOK. 



IK 



\ 



iiafiUiioii of the PMttonteae, and to put ap 

tlieirmlk in packages of 10 or 100' pounds^ 
for market. The inauufactorer would then 
be able to maaa^ it better, i^od pay more 
for it than he would if he received it of differ- 
ent leagths and from various kinds of reels, 
as at present. 

I perceive, by the experiments, that many 
have failed of success in raising silk'Worms, 
for want of ventilation in their cocooneries. 1 
know of no surer mode of ventilation than 
that established bv the cotton manufacturers 
at Manchester, England, bv an art^/idalfan. 
Their plan of ezpelhnf the foul air from 
their apartments is by fins, made to revolve 
with the rapidity of nearly 100 feet per sec- 
ond, and thereby to insure a constant re- 
newal of the atmosphere in anv range of 
apartments, however hirge or closely pent 
they maybe. 

One of these fans might easily be con^ 
stracted for a cocoonery, which should re- 
volve with less rapidity and still be effective 
in removing the foul air. 

There is a drawing of one of these fans, or 
ventilators, on page 382 of <* The Philoso- 
phy of Manufactures," by Dr. Andrew Ure. 
1^ instrument is ingenious and effective. 
When such a fan was placed in the window 
at one end of an apartment, 200 feet long, in 
full action, it threw the air so powerfully out 
of it as to create a draft at the other end of 
the apartment, capable of keeping a weighted 
door six inches ajar. It is easy to see, that 
a contrivance of this kind would be more 
eeonomical than to do it by flash feres, ac- 
cording to Mr. Sanders's plan, and more^ure 
than any of the common modes of ventilat- 
inff now in Use. 

By persevering in your efforts to collect 
and diffuse information relative to the silk 
business, you will merit the thanks of the 
community, as well as of your humble fjriend 
and servant) 

Jonathan H. Cobb, 

Superintendent. 

Rev. I. R. Barbour. 

P. 8. As the Dedham mill was the first 
mill of any considerable size which was set 
up in the United States, it may be well to 
give some description of it. 

The building is made of three stories above 
the basement, which is of stone, one hundred 
feet by forty. It is situated in the outskirts 
of the village, convenient to the help, which 
chiefly consists of young ^rls whose parents 
reside in the village. It is near to the Ded- 
ham Branch Rail-road, bein^ about ten rods 
south of the depot. There is a never-failing 
stream of pure water running the whole 
l^hffth of the building on the easterly side. 

The basement story contains the engine, 
whieh is of seren-horse power, requiring an 
expenditure of about three dollars per day 
for coal to keep it in operation. Here also 
is the' dyeing and reeling establishment, the 
repairing shop, and press-room. 
• In the second story is the spinning-room, 
oiHMaiaiag sixteen throwing machines^ of 



one htuddsed spbdlss each, the ooa«ti«f<« 
rooHA, uid room for putting up silk. 

In the third story is the winding-room« 
containing eighteen winding-frames, and al* 
so, a room for drying and skeining silk ; in 
the third story are the doubling«frames, and 
pressinff-maohines, hand-looms, &Ai. 

In this establishment is manufactured 
about $50,000 in value per annum of sewing-^ 
silk, and also a considerable ouaotity of nar- 
row goods : but, owihg to tne scarcity of 
the raw material, and other causes, the whole 
establishment is not in full operation. 

We wish to purchase, well-reeled raw silk. 
C. Colt, Agent of the Company* 



EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT ON 
SILK, PRESENTED BY MR. BUSS 
TO THE OHIO LEGISLATURE. 

For the last five years, we have imported, 
on an average, $18,000,000 worth of silk 
goods annually. This, in addition to what is 
raised here, is consumed among us. There ^ 
can be no doubt biyMhe market will be good 
until we can manuflRure an amount equal 
to that which we impo^ for consumption. 
Our imports will, in fact, always be just the. 
amount that the consumption of the coaMry •. 
exceeds its production. 

The consumption of the article will mr ^ 
crease in proportion as its product in* 
creases among us. Silk enters already ve^ 
largely into we clothing of the peopie. It 
is used more or less in every family ; and 
while it can be had it will not' be dispensed 
witli. It is reasonable to suppose, as the 
article of silk, for which we now send our 
gold and silver to Europe, becomes more and 
more the ordinary product of our labor, that 
a much larger proportion will- be used for 
clothing tlum is now used. Thus, when we . 
are able to produce an amount equal to our . 
present imports and our present cpnsumption, . 
the increase in our consumption will furnish 
a market fiur an amount equal to .the presen^^ 
imports, and an addition to it to an amouni 
equal to the increase in our consumption. 

But when we are able to supply the de* 
mand for home consumption, we need not 
stop at that limit for the want of a market. 
The heaviest of our imports are from Great 
Britain, and will continue to be so. For all, 
that we purchase of her, we must pay in 
some way. If we have nothing else tha^. 
she will receive, our gold must go for the pur- 
pose. England manufactures $75,000,000 
worth of silk goods annually. She makes 
them, of course, to sell ; but in the first place, 
she has to buy every pound of the raw ma- 1 
terial, as she cannot raise it. She can make 
a profit on the manufacture, and as long as 
she can do this, she toill have the raw ma 
terial, if it is to be had. If she can get it in 
no other way, she will pay the money for it 
But she will get it where she can ao it at 
the best advantage ; where, instead of paying 
the money, she can exchange het Qvm ^ot^ 



AWENDOL 



Mttt fbr it. Are not tlie e<miiaereial rela* 
tioiu between that country and oun each 
that she will be likely to buy of us if we can 
famish her? She purchases the value of 
from fifteen to twenty millions annually, of 
raw silk. She will buy it of as if she can 

Siy us as easily as she can pay others for it. 
ere, then, will be a new market' opened. 
The same may be said of France, as she 
purchases the raw material to the value of 
several millions annually. 
* But there can be no doubt on this point : 
We cannot produce enough to supply Uie 
markets that will be opened to us, and not 
enouffh to affect materially the price 4>f it. 
The demand will keep ahead of the supply. 
If, then, we can cultivate the jnrowth of silk, 
and do it successfully and profitably, and can 
find a market for all that we can produce, it 
uny be very proper to inquire into 

The fiXKSRAL IMPORTAKCS of the CVh' 
TVRS. 

On this point of the subject, a boundless 
field of inquiry is 6pened. Your Committee 
bein^. nofne or them, personally engaged in 
tlw silk businiesB, and not having given the 
sdbriect much attentioi^^^an only suggest 
8«cn considerations as tWthe result of fim- 
ited reading and reflection on the subject. 
But they begr leave to suggest a few con- 
siderations why, in their opinion, it is ex- 
ceedingly important to the interests of the 
eottfltry that it should becCme a leading 
branch of national industry. 

The wealth of a country is the product of 
the labor of that country. Individuals may 
become wealthy by speculation, and by va- 
rious means other than by labor; but all 
that is;obtained in this way by one, is taken 
from the pockets of others, and there is no 
increase in the aggregate. But the labor of 
a community vviuprodvce nomeihingvahittblt 
as its necessary result : that is, of course, 
when the labor performed has that for its 
object. The wealth of a country w ill increase 
in proportion as the products of its labor in- 
crease. Every man can, by his labor, ftrp- 
ii«e« something; and every additional amount 
of labor, when rightly directed, will give an 
additional product. To this product will be 
attached a certain value; and it follows that 
every product obtained from the additional 
LABOR of the country, must add something 
to the aggregate wealth of the country. 
There can be no doubt but a large amount 
of the raw material of silk may be produced 
in this country by labor that in any other 
business would be unproductive. Most of 
the labor can be performed by aged persons, 
children and females, who, without mis em- 
ployment, would produce little oj nothing. 
in tact, the aged and the children woald he 
a tax upon community to the amount of the 
cost of their support. There are, in the 
State of Ohio, 1,500,000 inhabitants. Sup- 
posing that, on an average, each 'family con- 
sisU of /m membei^ there are 300,000 fam- 
ilies in the State. Reducing this again to 
one fifth, would leave 60,000. I>6ps any 
pettoB doubt but there are 60,000 fiuniUes in 



the 0Ute of O^ that can pradnce, etdb, 
ten pounds of raw silk every year, without 
the cost of any additioi^ labor ^ It can be 
produced mostly by labor that would other- 
wise be unproductive. On this supposition, 
the product o^ the 60,000 fiimilies would be 
600,000 pounds of raw silk. This, at ^ a 
pound, would be a product of $a,000,OUO to 
the people of the State. But, while thei« 
are 60,000 that can produce ten pounds each, 
there are one half that number that can pro> 
duce twice that amount. This would give 
an additional amount of 300/K)0 pounds, 
worth $1,500,000^^ in all, a product worth 
$4,500,000 to the public. This could he 
done, and the products of the State in every 
other particular, be as large as they now are. 
This would as really be an addition to the 
wealth of the State as though the amount 
were coined expressly for her oenefit. It ie 
^the product of labor otherwise unproductive, 
and so much clear benefit to the people. 

But look at the same calculation for the 
whole Union. We have 15,000,000 of peo- 
ple. One fifVh of that number is 3,000,000, 
and one fifth of that number is 600,000. A 
product of ten pounds, each, would be 6,- 
000,000 pounds ; at $5 per pound, it would 
be $30,000,000. This is the raw material; 
and this is made without any reference to 
the vast numbers who will make the silk 
culture their business, and who will conse- 
quently produce a much larger amount. 

But further : — as soon as the raw material 
is produced, manufiictories will be established 
throughout the country. The only reason 
that ttbey have not hitherto increased, is the 
fact that the raw material could not be pro- 
cured to work up. Manufacturers are only 
waiting for this. When we can manufacture 
our own product of the raw material, we 
shall of course save to the country the ff^ 
arising from the manufacture. 

The above calculations may appear ex- 
travagant and visionary. But, from what 
little examination we have been able to give 
the subject, we are persuaded that the eeti- 
mates are too moderate, rather than other- 
wise. Mr. G. B. Smith, of 3altimore, a 
gentleman in whose opinions all who are 
mterested in the culture will have greiit con- 
fidence, in a number of the Silk Journal, 
says :^ ** But let us make a calculation^ fi>r 
the farmers' domestic use, for the production 
of silk as a domestic article in all our farm- 
ers' families, whence the invention of ma- 
chinery has expelled the spinninff-wheel, and 
where very little profitable empToyment has 
been left to the females and junior and senior 
members. Suppose the farmer has an acre 
of Round planted with 5000 trees; hie 
children gather the leaves, and his daughter* 
feed and attend to 80,000 worms. This they 
can do without materially interfering with 
any other arrangement of*^ business or pleas- ■ 
ure. They then reel the cocoons during 
their hours of leisure, and the result is 
twenty-four pounds of reeled silk the firal 
year the trees were planted, wprth to them 
$144| without a cent of coet^.or the addition 



APPENDDL 



79 



€f a cent to tbe expeniet of the fkrm/* If 
thb calcoUtion is a reuonable one, can is 
certainly not eztraTagant. Much aiight be 
added to it, and then fall far below the point 
beyond which we shall not probably go. 

but further : — the following is a statement 
of our exports and imports, from 1833 to 
1841, inclusive. 
Y«un. Export!. Importi. 

1833. .'. . . .♦90,140,438 $l(Jd,ll^;Ul 

1834....... 104 ,336,933 V^byMym 

1835.. . . . . .121,793,577. ; H9,bii:^r42 

1836 128,773,040 189,1)^^^)35 

1837 118,419,376 lH},^Ht,M77 

1838 108,486,616 1 !;i,7l7,404 

1839.. 121,028,416 im,^M,i32 

1840 131,581,950 104,^114 ,f^61 



Total. ..^923,340,381 $1,096,111,024 

It will be seen, that the balance against us, 
in the eight years, is one hundred ana seventy' 
two milltung seven hundred and seventy thou- 
sand duUars. To this enormous extent, there 
was a debt created against us. We bought 
jnore than we so2d. And to pay this debt, 
ihe precious metals were taken out of the 
country, and the necessMv result was pe- 
cuniary embarrassment. This will always, 
necessarily, be the case, when we send our 
money out of the country, whether for th§ 
purchase of goods, or for any other purpose ; 
as long as we can pay for what we buy with 
our own products, our money remains with 
us, and is used as a circulating medium. 
The only remedy for the evil is, either to 
buy less or to seU more^ or perhaps both. 
The^xcess against us, caused by the excess 
of our imports over our exports, for eight 

Tears, is as is above stated. From 1835 to 
840, inclusive, the balance against us, was 
$132,607,723} and, during the same period, 
we imported silk to the amount of $105,- 
092,190, or nearly $18,000,000, per annum. 
We have paid so much for silks which we 
might ais well have produced ourselves. The 
money so paid is a loss to the country. In 
1839, we purchased of other countries, silk 
to the amount of nearly $23,000,000, as 
follows : 
Silks from India and China, piece 

goods $1,738,509 

" from India & China, sewings. 50,650 
" sewings from other places. . . 78,884 

« raw Silk 39,258 

<^ from other places thiBin India, 

veils, shawls, &c., &c . . . . 345,490 
" other manufactiires from 

other placies than India,.. 18,685,295 
Manufactures of silk ahd worsted 
$2,319,884, (allowing one half 
tlie value to be sUk,). 1,159,942 



Total $22,838,028 

The importations of- silk are one fourth 

more than of any other article. 

The amount of cotton mannfac- 
tons imported WM, . « $14,692,397 



Of iron.... $12,061fl» 

Of cloths and casmmeres 7,025,898 

Other woollen manufactures .... 3,507,161 
One h$]f the value of silks and 

worsteds 1,150,9^ 

Total woollen goods 18,8^,907 

The amount of silk nearly equals that of 
woollen and linen together, and is equal to 
one half of all other fabrics combined. Is 
it not then an important consideration, that 
this expenditure be saved to the nation.^ 
Abstract the article of silk from the cata- 
logue of imports, and ' our indebtedness 
would be trifling. But, in addition to the 
debt incurred by our annual purchase, there 
is the interest on the loans made by the 
SUtes, of $12,000,000 a year to be met, and 
an enormous debt of $200,000,000, being the 
loans themselves, that must be paid some 
how or other. How can it be done ? It can^ 
every cent of it, be paid by our exports of silk. 
After raising enough for home consumption, 
the world is then open to receive all that we 
can produce. 

In the Burlington, N. J., Silk Record, for 
Jan. 1842, it is stated, that' 

** In £ngland, the importation of raw silk, 
from the year 1821 to UJ28, was 24,157,568 
lbs. ; which, when manufactured, was worth 
£120,770,580 sterling; and the hands re- 
quired for its manufacture were more than 
400,000. This sum is equal to $536,222,237 ! 
or $76,190,462 each year. Of^this amount, 
Itidy alone furnished $59,881,233. In 1835, 
Great Britain consumed, at wholesale prices, 
to the value of $28,262,582 of manufactured 
silks. The sum paid to weavers alone, not 
taking into the account whjit was paid for 
throwsting, winders, doublets, drawers, warp- 
ers, the soap, the dye-stuffs, and to various 
mechanics, was little short of $14,000,000 ; 
the amount of silk goods, now produced in 
that kingdom, is stated to be seventy-Jiwe 
millions of dollars! But they raise not a 
pound of the raw viaterial, 

" France manufactures $28,000,000 of silk, 
and imports of the raw material from eigbt 
to ten millions of dollars worth. She could 
manufacture annually $50,000,000 worth, 
could she procure it. England and France, 
in common with all civilized nations, are 
competitors for this precious material, wher- 
ever found ; but especially Germany, Pnis- 
sia, and Russia, would enter the field, 
making annual demands upon us, could we 
supplv them, for from 50 to 100,000,000 
pounas!" 

We can export nothing else that will ac- 
complish the object. We can raise grain, 
but where shall we find a market for it.' 
The product of our cotton fields already 
equals the demand for it; and in a little 
time longer, when its cultivation becomes 
more eztenmve in British India, ther^ wtfl 
not be a market for all that we now pro* 
duce. 



index: 



1 



• Cn««]&f of the American Ingtitute, ,..,,, -3 

'^Orgnnikation of the ConTention, .'...'. ..........'..^,..4 

-'Oj^iAg AddreM by Gen. Tallmadge, , i. ........5 

Communication from the N. E. Silk Convention, .,,«, ..........5 

Sill^ Cnltore in France, j . . ". .6 

Atldtess, in NiWo's Saloon, by I. R. Barbour,./. 7 

Addre«8,*in NiMo'e Saloon, by G. B. Smith, i^^. 10 

Kesoluttons, as adopted by the Convention,. ........... ^ ..' .14 

lietlers from the State Treasurers, ,.....*..' 17 

Editorial Remarks on the Correspondence presented, .v. . 18 

Results of Open f^eeding in Maine, .li), 24, 32 

Results of Open Feeding in Ohio, ....19,35,67 

• Large Results in Pennsylvania, 19,35 

Good Results i« Vermont, ; .20,21,43,44,40 

Disastrous Results in Auburn, New York, ...20 

Testimony from- Michigan, 1 21 

Qpen Feeding in Jt^ew Hampshire, ', , .,..•.,...22 

^fooltry Houses dangerous to Worms,..,. ......:.' .i;,ai.^*..22 

Feeding. in Ark&nsas, * :.v.''.'.1.23 

'Snclair's Feeding, Baltimore, .23,24 

Open and Artificial Feeding in Kentucky, 25 

• Preserving Eg^s, ; .26 

Melien's Experiments, Madison, New York, '. 96 

Oregon MulbeVry, ; , 27 

Feeding in Madison Co., New York, .28,29,52 

' Decided Results in Open Feeding, Northampton,. , ..»..« 429, 47, 62 

Piedmontese Reel (best), .' 32 . 

Feedinff in Indiana, , . . .© | 

Open Feeding in Sunderland, 34 

Artificial Feeding in Charlemont, Mass., 37 

■ Artifioiai Feeding in Delaware, , .37 

Artificial Feeding in New Jersey, , 40 

Cantelo's Winding Rack, , 41 

Canton Mulberry, 39^47 

Crood beginning in Mississippi, ^ ...43 

Dix's Experiments, Ithaca, New York, 1 45 

^Bafton's' Experiments, Otll, Massachusetts, 45 

Silk Prospects in Georgia, , '. 52 

Disastrous Results with Mulberry-Trees, 55 

Belcher &, Son's Experiments, Richford, New York, 57 

Montague's Experiments, Belchertown, Mass, ,.... ^ ....58 

•Mrs. McLanahan's Experiments, Philadelphia, 59 

Laarge Results in Tennessee, .' , .66, 67 

Gills Experiments, Mount Pleasant, Ohio,.. ...» .67 

-Prem'rams awarded by the Institute, • , , 60 

-Medal offered for Bark Silk, i.. ;;,70 

' Mf^al offered for Mulberry-Paper, V.70 

If dtice of anothcfr Convention, " .a. 70 

Annual Reports on Silk for a Course of Years,.'. • 71 

Bl%nk Schedule for Silk Growers,..., 1 ,...,72 

Blank delfeedule for Silk Manufacturers, • ,.«.... ....:73 

APPENDIX. 

■ lPa«s. 

Vicfs latefjr eollecM by I. R. Barbour, 74 

Utter from i. W. Cobb, ; ..'.•«5 

Eztnets firom Report to the Ohio Legislature, ».tfi«.o««..*...«f««^«i<.77 



YC 8/273