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Full text of "The Silk Road : connecting cultures, creating trust : the 36th annual Smithsonian Folklife Festival on the National Mall, Washington, D.C., June 26-30, July 3-7, 2002"




Tke Silk Road 



Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust 



2002 SMITHSONIAN FOLKLIFE F 

On the National Mall, Washington. D.C. 



\ ' ' '■ 



The Smithsonian Institution 

Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 

partners with 

the Silk Road Project, Inc. 
to present 

The Silk Road 

Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust 

the 36th annual Smithsonian Folklife Festival 

On the National Mall. Washington. D.C. 

June 26-30. July 3-7. 2002 



Smithsonian Institution 

Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage 

750 gth Street, NW 

Suite 4100 

Washington, DC 2056o-og$3 

www.folklife.si.edu 

©2002 by the Smithsonian Institution 
ISSN 1056-6805 

Editor: Carlo M. Borden 
Associate Editor: Peter Seitel 
Director of Design: Kristen Fernekes 
Graphic Designer: Caroline Brownell 
Design Assistant: Rachele Rileu 



The Silk Road: Connecting Cultures. Creating Trust at the Smithsonian Folklife Festival is a partnership of the Smithsonian Institution 

Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage and the Silk Road Project. Inc. The Festival site is designed by Rajeev Sethi Scenographers 

and produced in cooperation with the Asian Heritage Foundation. The Festival is co-sponsored by the National Park Service. 



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Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



!SILKR®AD 

project 



The Festival is supported by federally appropriated funds. Smithsonian trust funds, contributions from governments, 
businesses, foundations, and individuals, in-kind assistance, volunteers, food and craft sales, and Friends of the Festival. 



The 2002 Festival has been made possible through the following generous sponsors and donors to the Silk Road Project. Inc. 



LEAD FUNDER AND 
KEY CREATIVE PARTNER 






The Aga Khan Trust for Culture 



GLOBAL CORPORATE PARTNERS_ 

SIEMENS 



FOUNDING SUPPORTER 
Sony Classical 



MAJOR FUNDING BY 



The Starr Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry R. Kravis 

Mr. Richard Li 

Mr. William Rondina 

Wolfensohn Family Foundation 

Octavian Society 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Carolyn G. Mugar/ 

The Armenian Tree Project 



and by the following supporters of the Smithsonian Institution: 



LEAD DONOR 



E^onMobil 



DONORS 



U.S. Department of State 
Mr. Arthur Pacheco 



Trust for Mutual Understanding 

Music Performance Trust Funds 

Asian Cultural Council 

J.S. Lee 



IN-KIND DONORS 



Turkish Airlines 

Motorola/Nextel 

Go-Ped 

APL 

Fresh Fields/ 

Whole Foods Market 



The Silk Road on the Mai 
by Lawrence M. Small 

A Journey of Discovery 
by Yo-To Ma 



The Silk Road Today 
/■>v Luis Monreal 



10 



13 



The Festival and the 
Transnational Production of Culture 
by Richard Kurin and Diana Parker 



The Silk Road: 
Connecting Cul 

by Richard Kennedy 



Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust 



19 Making the Silk Road Festival 

by Riijeee Sethi 



23 The Silk Road: Connecting Peoples and Cultures 

by Richard Kurin 
28 Silk Road Travelers 

by James Deutsch and Stephen Kidd 

37 The Silk Road: 

Crossroads and Encounters of Faith 
by Azim Nanji and Sarfaroz Niyozov 

40 Martial Arts along the Silk Road 

from Bodhidharma to Bruce Lee by Doug Kim 

45 The Tree of Life 
bv Elizabeth Moynihan 

49 Visual Arts of the Historical Silk Road 
by Elizabeth ten Qrotenhuis 

52 Paper by \ alerie I lansen 

54 Blue-and-White by Robert Mc( '. .{Jams 



57 Artists along the Silk Road 

by Henry Qlassie and Pravina Shukla 

67 Silk Road Cooking: A Culinary Journey 
by Najmieh Batmanglij 

73 Music and Musicians along the Silk Road 
by Theodore Levin 

75 Nomad Performance Competition 

in Central Asia by lean During 

81 Nomads 

by Alma Kunanbay 

89 General Festival Information 



Note on Transliteration 

To ensure thai program materials arc as accessible as possible to Festival audiences and that the many languages used along the Silh Road arc treated equitably and consistently 

in these materials, we have followed these principles 

Words that are commonly used in English are primarily used in that form. In addition, ice provide 1 in parentheses I the form that is familiar to native speakers and scholars. 

Diacritical marks arc omitted unless they are an integral part of the language 

For transliterations we have been guided by National Museum of Asian Art (Smithsonian Institution 1 and Library of Congress usage 

For place names we have referred 10 the U.S. Hoard on Qeographic Names. 



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The Silk Road on the Mall 

Lawrence M. Small. Secretary. Smithsonian Institution 

For ten days this summer, the great geographical and cultural distance that lies between the heart of Europe and the 
far reaches of Asia is being reduced to the length of a leisurely afternoon stroll on the National Mall. For the first 
time in its 36-year history, the Smithsonian Folklife Festival has a single — and remarkably ambitious — theme: 
the Silk Road. The name denotes the network of trade routes, over both land and sea, along which merchants and 
travelers began to move across Asia and Europe from the first millennium b.c.e. The most famous east-west compo- 
nent of the Silk Road began in Xf an, the ancient capital of China, broke north and south of Chinas Takla Makan 
Desert, and traversed a vast stretch of Central and Western Asia on its way to the eastern end of the Mediterranean. 
Along those staggering distances lay a wealth of cultures and traditions. They are still there: during the Folklife 



Festival, they come to life in the heart of Washington as well. 



Merchants took to the Silk Road for commercial gain. But 
their movement also brought riches of another kind: the cultural 
traditions that were transported along the Silk Road. The ingen- 
ious, distinctive emblems of peoples — their science, technology, 
religions, customs, crafts, music, food, architecture, fashions - 
made the journey, too. and the dazzling variety of the world that 
commerce opened was diffused, welcomed, and adapted. 

That's the tale to be told in this year's Folklife Festival, The 
Silk Road: Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust. Produced in 
association with the Silk Road Project, Inc., an organization 
founded by the cellist Yo-Yo Ma, supported in large part by the 
Aga Khan Trust for Culture, and featuring exhibits designed by 
Rajeev Sethi, the Festival turns the National Mall into a 
mammoth visual representation of the Silk Road, with the Great 
Gate in Nara. Japan, at the eastern end, toward the Capitol, and 
St. Mark's Square in Venice at the western end, in the shadow of 
the Washington Monument. And between the two, visitors will 
wander Eurasia, through Istanbul. Samarkand, and Xi an. On the 
way they'll move among hundreds of musicians, artists, dancers, 
crafts workers, and chefs from some two dozen nations of the Silk 
Road, working side by side with Americans who trace their 
origins to the region or have been culturally influenced by its 
traditions. 



An especially valuable aspect of the event is its focus on 
Central Asia, a region to which we Americans were all too indif- 
ferent before events of the past year. We now know the names of 
the nations in that part of the world. The Festival gives the people 
of those nations and their traditions a human face. 

Visitors who make the journey across the Festival site can 
immerse themselves in the energy and larger educational purpose 
of the Festival: they'll have an opportunity to travel across conti- 
nents, centuries, and cultures. They will meet with a diversity of 
artists who, through their demonstrations of skill — with silk, 
jewelry, ceramics, carpets, paintings, paper, calligraphy, food, 
and, not least, music — do more than merely affirm their cultural 
traditions. They embody them. This year's Folklife Festival, like 
every other, celebrates humanity and breathes a spirit of human 
engagement. On a great green stretch of this nation's capital, 
people from many different societies will be brought together face 
to face. And those chance, transient encounters may affect the 
way they think about the world. 



This article originally appeared in Smithsonian magazine, 
June 2002. 




A Journey of Discovery 

Yb Yb Ma, Artistic Director, 1 he Silk Road Project, Inc. 

These days, the Silk Road is mostly remembered as a string of fabled places - Samarkand, Nishapur, Bukhara. 
Kashgar. For me. however, the Silk Road has always been fundamentally a story about people, and how their lives 
were enriched and transformed through meeting other people who were at first strangers. By starting a conversa- 
tion and building shared trust, strangers could become allies, partners, and friends, learning from one another along 
the way and working creatively together. 



If you accept that the Silk Road is still present in our world 
as .in inspirational symbol of intercultural meetings, then there are 
many people alive todav whose lives exemplify modern-day Silk 
Road stories. 1 am one of them. I was born in Paris to Chinese- 
parents. My father was a violinist and composer who devoted his 
career to building musical bridges between China and the West. 
When I was seven, my family moved to the United States. I 
began plaving Western classical music as a youngster but have 
always been curious about other cultures. 

As a cellist who loves working in different musical styles, 
1 ve had the good fortune to travel and learn about music outside 
my own tradition. I have visited the Khoisan people of the 
Kalahari Desert and listened to Buddhist chant in Japan s ancient 
Todaiji Temple. 1 have learned Celtic and Appalachian dance 
tunes and have taken lessons on the mor'm huur, the Mongolian 
horsehead fiddle. These encounters have led me to think about 
the way that music reveals the connections among us. 

For example, is the horsehead fiddle, held upright and 
plaved with a horsehair bow. in fact an ancient ancestor of 
European viols? How did a Japanese stringed instrument, the 
biiva, originally created in the 8th century and now part of the 
Imperial Shosoin collection in Nara. come to be decorated with 
West and Central Asian motifs? Why does music from the Celtic 
lands, Mongolia. India, and many other disparate places rely so 
heavily on the concept of melody plaved against a steady drone? 
Answers to these questions are not always fully known, but 
persuasive evidence suggests that peoples now separated by great 
distances had at some time been connected. Moreover, these 



connections were not passive but based on a vigorous exchange of 

ideas, artifacts, technologies. ; 

in turn inspired innovation and creativity. 



ideas, artifacts, technologies, and fashions. Cultural exchange has 



The message seems clear: we al 



have much to gain h\ 
staving in touch, and much to lose bv throwing up walls around 
ourselves. We live in a world of increasing interdependence 
where it is ever more important to know what other people are 
thinking and feeling, particularly in the vast and strategic regions 
of Asia that were linked by the Silk Road. 

In 199<S the Silk Road Project was founded to study the 
historical and present-day flow of culture and ideas along the 
trans-Eurasian trade routes. I believe that when we enlarge our 
view of the world we deepen our understanding of our own lives. 
Through a journey of discovery, the Silk Road Project hopes to 
plant the seeds of new artistic and cultural growth, and to cele- 
brate authentic living traditions and musical voices. But what are 
"authentic traditions? Look deeply enough into any one, and 
you 11 find elements of others. Discovering whats shared, and 
what can be appropriated, refined, and restvled. is the essential 
work of cultural exchange and innovation. 

As a crucible for cultural intermingling, the lands of the Silk 
Road, then and now, offer an unparalleled vantage point from 
which to understand vitally alive and ever-evolving languages of 
music, art, and craft that may seem by turns familiar and exotic. 
Our challenge is to embrace the wondrous diversity of artistic 
expression while remaining mindful of the common humanity 
that links us all. I hope that your own visit to the Festival will lead 
to enduring discoveries on both fronts. 






The Silk Road Today 

Luis Monreal, General Manager, Aga Khan Trust for Culture 

For the two weeks of the Folklife Festival, the United States capital is the destination for an idea that began over 
2,000 years ago, when the Silk Road became an economic thoroughfare, a conduit of knowledge and culture, a 
network, a myth perfumed by spices and resplendent in silk. When Yo-Yo Ma and the Silk Road Ensemble 
perform, or when an unknown folk group from Kazakhstan plays to an American audience, we are moved because 
we understand, in those transcendent moments, how we all connect, and what our true responsibilities are to each 
other. We also feel a poignant anguish at the realization that, too often, we do not take these responsibilities to heart. 

Those responsibilities go beyond music, of course — to make connections on the ground, to help societies recon- 
struct after being destroyed by war, drought, and famine. When the Aga Khan Development Network began work 
in the Central Asian part of the Silk Road in 1992, we needed to address the most immediate problems -- food 
sufficiency and the repair of roads, bridges, and the electrical grid — but another pressing task was to help in the 
construction of pluralistic societies capable of dealing with age-old ethnic tensions. 



It is not new to assert that a classical education should 
include mure than the usual Great Books in the traditional 
Western canon, but perhaps it is new to surest that a broad, 
inclusive humanities curriculum should be introduced in coun- 
tries where no such program ever existed before. One oi our 
programs in Central Asia, a region undergoing a period ol transi- 
tion, is the Humanities Project, The Project arose out ol deep 
concern for the divisions that emerged after the dissolution of the 
Soviet Union and the humanitarian crisis that followed. Ethnic 
rivalries surfaced, and the region was menaced by civil war. If the 
people of the region were to live in peace with their neighbors 
who. bv extension, include the rest of the world -- then we 
needed ways to create an appreciation of other cultures and intel- 
lectual traditions. 

The Humanities Project therefore aims to develop skills of 
cultural interpretation, independent thinking, reasoned debate, 
and open-ended curiosity. The Project, based in Dushanbe, 
Tajikistan, will eventually extend to many Central Asian universi- 
ties. It is also intended to promote tolerance for pluralism in ideas, 
cultures, and peoples, and aims to develop the capacity for ethical 
reflection and aesthetic appreciation. 

In 2000. we established the University of Central Asia, an 
internationally chartered private institution of higher education 
dedicated exclusively to education and research on mountain 
regions and societies. Mountain populations experience extremes 
of poverty and isolation as well as constraints on opportunities 
and choice, but at the same time, they sustain great linguistic, 
cultural, ethnic, and religious pluralism, and show remarkable- 
resilience in the face of extraordinarily harsh circumstances. By 
creating intellectual space and resources, the university will help 
turn the mountains that divide the nations and territories of 
Central Asia into the links that unite its peoples and economies in 
a shared endeavor to improve future well-being. 

Another related issue of concern in Central Asia, and one 
that the Aga Khan Development Network has been working to 
address, is the decline of musical traditions and activities that 
coincided with rapid changes occurring in the region. In 
response, we created the Music Initiative in Central Asia, which 
has been collaborating with the Smithsonian Institution and the 
Silk Road Project to put on this year's Festival. While the sounds 
of the Silk Road come to the National Mall in Washington, D.C., 



the Music Initiative is working to preserve and promote the 
musical traditions of the Central Asian portion ol the Silk Road: 
in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and I zbekistan 
and now. Afghanistan. 

The Initiative provides financial resources mm.\ technical 
assistance lor the restoration ol the great classics ol ( 'entral Asian 
music and funds recordings, research, conferences, publications, 
and concerts of traditional music. I he Initiative supports selected 
music schools that train students through oral-tradition transmis- 
sion from master to disciple (ustad-shagird) and facilitates appren- 
ticeships of promising students to master luthiers with the aim of 
improving the quality of musical instrument construction. A 
Multimedia Programme is producing an anthology of Central 
Asian music and promoting it through broadcasts and video and 
audio recordings. The Intra-Asian Cultural Exchange 
Programme organizes local festivals featuring a variety of reper- 
toires and artists, supports educational activities, and facilitates 
exchanges of performers and teachers among music schools in 
different regions. 

Under the aegis of the Initiative. Yo-Yo Ma and the Silk 
Road Ensemble are performing in Central Asia in a series of 
concerts and master classes that feature specially written pieces by 
outstanding composers from the Silk Road region. The Music 
Initiative also worked with the Smithsonian and the Silk Road 
Project to produce the two-CD compilation. The Silk Road: A 
Musical ( 'aravan. 

1 believe these efforts in Central Asia should be mirrored by 
a greater effort at cultural inclusion in the teaching of the sciences 
and the humanities throughout the world. II the Smithsonian 
Folklife Festival is about broadening our cultural and intellectual 
horizons, and I believe it is, then we should take this idea beyond 
the duration of the Festival and make it a feature of all our 
societies. 

As we listen now to the harmonious conjunction of Fast and 
West, here on the National Mall, let us reflect on our responsibil- 
ities to remain curious and open to the worlds riches. We may 
find our identities in our own cultures, but we gain nothing by 
exclusion. Let us all be moved by others' music, bv their art. bv 
the vast and myriad possibilities in the cross-fertilization of 
cultures that make up the world today. 



The Festival and the Transnational 
Production of Culture 

Richard Kurin Diana Parker 

Director, Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Director, Smithsonian Folklife Festival 

Who produced the Festival this year? In the end, over a thousand people of good will from around the globe will 
join with a million visitors to produce the experience. The inspirational idea and genuine engagement of Yo-Yo Ma, 
a musical artist of Chinese parentage who grew up in Paris and studied at Harvard, has provided the vision. The 
support of His Highness the Aga Khan, the leader of the Ismaili Muslim community, who supports educational, 
health, architectural, and development programs in places ranging from Central Asia to Mali to MIT, has been 
crucial. The site was designed by Rajeev Sethi, South Asia s renowned scenographer, who is currently working on 
projects in several continents. It was curated by the Smithsonian's Richard Kennedy, whose English family long 
ago migrated to Berkeley, and who himself turned back east to specialize in the study of Tamil history and 
Cambodian dance; and by Ted Levin, a Dartmouth professor who has worked with Uzbek, Bukharan Jewish, and 
Tuvan musical traditions in the heart of Inner Asia. Alma Kunanbay, a scholar from Kazakhstan married to a promi- 
nent Russian musicologist, organized the area devoted to nomadic traditions, while Henry Glassie, a folklorist and 
material culture expert who has worked in Turkey, Japan, and Bangladesh, organized ceramic and textile artists. 
And so it goes, among the many members of our staff, our collaborators with the Silk Road Project. Inc., and the 
Aga Khan Trust for Culture, our many volunteers, and, most of all, the hundreds of musicians, artists, storytellers, 
cooks, and performers who have come to the National Mall of the United States from all over the United States and 
from two dozen other nations. Artists from India have painted fabrics to simulate the great bell tower of Xf an, and 
woven textiles to simulate the ikats of Japan. Japanese masked performers include in their troupe members from 
Senegal and Guinea. Of course, the Festival itself would not exist save for the Smithsonian, founded by an 
Englishman who lived mainly in France and Italy, and loved America without ever having visited. 



Clearly we live in .1 transnational world, where people and 
ideas overflow the conventional boundaries of their birthplaces 
and birth groups. The Festival is a transnational creation, 
animated by artists I mm numerous and diverse communities but 
speaking a common language oi cultural creativity and engaging 
in a joyful mission ot encouraging cross-cultural understanding. 
The Festival is also a place to learn. Visitors, artists, and organ- 
izers alike share in the highly mutual, sometimes studious, some- 
times serendipitous act of learning about people, traditions, and 
ideas that, seemingly distant, become quite familiar. 

The Festival also exists within a framework in which knowl- 
edge rather than ignorance is valued: the dignity of representation 
is prized, not sullied: toleration and humility are virtues, not 
weaknesses: and the right to proclaim, shout, sing, dance, cook, 
and mold one s existence does not impede the rights of others to 
do so. 

The Festival, it turns out. is a station on the Silk Road. Not 
the historical one of ancient, medieval, or early modern times, but 
rather the contemporary Silk Road that draws inspiration from the 
bountiful cultural interchange it represents. The Festival is a cara- 
vanserai in which people from different backgrounds, speaking 
dilterent languages, and havin« varied interests can nonetheless 
stop for a moment on their life s journey, gather with others, trade 
and share their art, knowledge, and perspectives. We as a society, 
we as people of a planet, need spaces such as the one that the 
Festival on the National Mall of the United States provides to 
meet each other in a respectful way. to hear what our neighbors 
have to say. and hopefully be inspired to become better human 
beings as a result. 

The Silk Road brought wondrous things — silks, porcelain, 
horses — to appreciative people. Music, song, instruments, and 
styles moved along the transcontinental byway, and our musical 
heritage is the better for it. Ideas about the heavens and cosmos, 
mathematics, physics, and the elements were carried with its 
caravans. Religions developed, spread, and thrived along the Silk 
Road, sometimes in harmony, sometimes in conflict. The Silk 



Road did not always bring good. War, disease, and banditry 
moved along its networks. Those traversing it endured a variety ot 
travails. Differences ol values, languages, and interests sometimes 
closed the roads, cut oil the exchanges, and destroyed communi- 
ties. Yet by and large, the Silk Road proved beneficial to 
humanity: precisely because it brought diverse people into 
contact, it stimulated the development of foods, medicines, 
philosophies, religions, and the arts. 

The Silk Road is an apt metaphor for our times: it speaks to 
the transnational creation of culture. We are all connected. The 
Festival makes that perhaps more obvious - it heightens our 
sensation of those connections. The question is what to do with 
them. Do we think of our connection as a rare moment to be 
forgotten, or as one that encourages us to explore our own poten- 
tial to grow as human beings? 

Very few Americans have met someone from Kyrgyzstan. At 
the Festival you can easily do so. Most Americans are unfamiliar 
with the culture of Central Asia. Now is a chance to change that. 
Many Americans have an open mind toward learning about the 
beliefs and practices of people who are Muslim, Buddhist, and 
I lindu. Here at the Festival you have the opportunity. 

Following the events of September 11. it seems clear to us 
that it is ever so important for people and societies the world over 
to take account of their neighbors, to come to know them and 
learn of and from them, to engage them in positive ways. 
Insularity and xenophobia, the fear and dehumanizing of 
"others — even one s own neighbors — are recipes for disaster in 
a complicated world. It is better to do the hard work of fostering 
understanding and respect, for these often produce inspiration. 
So weather Washington's summer heat and humidity, don t be 
dissuaded by the dust, overcome your shyness, don t worry about 
the fact that you dont speak Uyghur or know the difference 
between Turk and Turkmen — embrace, engage, and enjoy the 
Festival journey. May it inspire you as it has us and the very fine 
community of cultural workers and supporters who have 
produced it. 






<mm 



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The Silk Road: 
Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust 

by Richard Kennedy 

For 35 years the Smithsonian Folklife Festival has presented well over a hundred programs focused on the tradi- 
tional cultures of nations, regions, states, and communities, as well as on various occupations and themes. Never 
before has a Festival been devoted to one topic; never before has a Festival offered such research, conceptual, and 
logistical challenges. Producing The Silk Road for the 2002 Smithsonian Folklife Festival has stretched our 
thinking, our professional abilities, and our relationships with collaborating organizations. This has been a 
daunting but exhilarating effort, and one well worth doing in the hopes of benefitting both the American public and 
people of Silk Road lands. 




The Silk Road, a term coined in the 19th century with 20th- 
century PR savvy, defines an exchange of products, both material 
and intellectual, across Eurasia from China to the Mediterranean, 
traditionally from the 2nd century b.c.e. and over the first 1,200 
years of the Common Era. People who know something of the 
Silk Road think first of the transport of silk to Rome or the expan- 
sion of Buddhism from India to China, although certainly it is 
much more. But why silk, and why a road to describe this 
exchange? Silk provides the example of a mysterious luxury 
product for which people throughout the region were willing to 
pay high prices and even jeopardize lives. And the "road" refers to 
the exchange of those material products that traveled by land, 
although this literal meaning must be extended to include cultural 
and spiritual exchanges that would be part of a metaphorical Silk 
Road. Beyond these definitions the idea of the Silk Road is still 
available for new interpretations. And in the present political envi- 
ronment the idea is particularly evocative. 

One reason Smithsonian staff has been particularly excited 
to work on a Silk Road project at this time is the political trans- 
formations that have taken place in the region over the previous 
two decades. The opening of China and the collapse of the Soviet 
Union have enabled researchers, businessmen, and travelers alike 
to visit a vast area little known to Westerners in the past hundred 
years. A new Silk Road is being traveled. The modest victories of 



democracy and capitalism at the end of the second millennium 
allowed strangers once again to meet along the ancient roads of 
silk and once again exchange ideas and products. People spoke of 
new economic and political realities, and it seemed that new 
cultural realities were likely developing out of this transformation 
as well. If oil was the new silk, and democracy the new religion, 
then where did the old cultural traditions of the Silk Road stand? 
Had they withstood the onslaught of the Mongols, the seafaring 
European capitalists, and the more recent Russian and Chinese 
communists? How had they been transformed? 

The understanding of exchange along the Silk Road has 
broadened with new archaeological discoveries throughout the 
region. It is now clear that there has been trade between what is 
now defined as Europe and Asia for many millennia. Textiles, 
beads, and languages all moved across the region centuries before 

(Above left) Ahmed §ahin continued the centuries-old tradition o/gini 
pottery in Kiitahya, Turkey. £ini pottery has its roots in the blue-and- 
white tradition of China, elaborating the art with finely painted surfaces. 

Photo bv Henrv Glassie/Ptavina Shukla 

(Above right) Pottery studios like this one in Jingdezhen, China, have 
produced the famous blue-and-whitc porcelain for over 600 years. 
Jingdezhen ware influenced ceramics in Japan. Turkey, and throughout 
Europe. 

Photo bv Richard Kennedy ' Smithsonian Institution 




the Common Era. Traffic between India and Europe, including 
Russia (a North/South component of the Silk Road), was always 
an integral part of the Silk Road and continued long after the 
collapse of the 13th-century Pax Mongolica that closed major land 
routes across Eurasia. Products and ideas have been continuously 
exchanged back and forth across the region, and that exchange- 
continues today. The Silk Road Festival features only a select few 
of these living traditions, but their survival will tell surprising 
stories of long-standing connections between peoples and nations. 
Visitors to the Festival will be greeted by five "sentinels of 
arrival." landmarks along the ancient Silk Road -- St. Marks 
Square in Venice, Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya) mosque/church/ 
museum in Istanbul, Registan Square in Samarkand, the Xi an 
bell tower, and the great gate to Todaiji Temple in Nara. Each will 
house a stage that reflects a different performance tradition. The 
performing arts selected for the Festival have been grouped into 
spiritual activities, courtly entertainment, local celebrations and 
entertainments, nomadic presentations, and new musics that draw 
from tradition. Spiritual music, for example, provides the program 
an opportunity to present the stories of the expansion of religion 
- Buddhism. Islam, and Christianity — along the Silk Road. 
Buddhist monks from Tibet and Sufi Muslim devotees from 
Turkey and Bangladesh will highlight the central role that religion 
played in Silk Road trade. 



The Silk Road was not just a story of merchants, nomads, 
and dusty caravanserais, but also functioned because of powerful 
military forces based in urban centers along the route. These 
centers not only hosted the travelers and exacted tolls but also 
supported communities of artists of all kinds. Craftspeople and 
musicians traveled throughout the region, sometimes freely, 
sometimes subject to restrictions, and sometimes even as 
prisoners of war. Music of the royal courts, some of which 
survives, was an important tradition developed in these centers. 
Maqam ensembles from Azerbaijan to Xinjiang as well as 
Chinese and Japanese courtly music still have a place in the lives 
of people along the Silk Road. 

These centers were also a place of cultural confluence and 
celebration. Folk musics, then as now. were a part of everyday 
life. Bukharan jews settled in Central Asia and now in the United 
States still celebrate traditional weddings, while contemporary 
Armenian and Chinese folk ensembles share instruments if not a 
language in their musics. Similarly, nomads from Iran to 
Mongolia, who were so instrumental in supporting the caravans 
on their journeys, share stories, songs and language. Their fine 

Bukharan Jewish musician Ilyas Malaev plays the tanbur on the balcony 
of his apartment in Queens, New York. Bukharan music, Chinese opera, 
karate, and pizza all came to the U.S. with immigrants from Silk Road 

countries. Photo r Hc-rmine Dreyfuss 



weaving skills are displayed in the 
textiles that decorate camels, brought 
to the Festival site to demonstrate 
nomadic travel. In the twenty-first 
century transport is more often by 
painted trucks, on which similar 
aesthetic skills are brought to bear. 

Trade products are perhaps easier 
to trace along the Silk Road than 
music. Existing examples of ancient 
silk, pottery, carpets, and glass all tell 
very specific stories of travel and 
exchange and remind us of the extent 
to which people across the region have 
been connected throughout history. 
What may be surprising to some, 
however, is how many such objects are 
still made today. The curatorial staff 
has chosen to feature ceramics, silk 
and cotton textiles, carpets, paper, and 
stone and metal products, including 
glass. Each is in a different compound 
- the Paper Garden, the Ceramics 
Courtyard, the Silk Grove, the Family Oasis, and the Jewel 
Garden — and tells a story from a different period along the Silk 
Road, including, in some cases, a chapter from life in the United 
States. Paper, for example, was invented in China and remained 
a secret of the region for centuries; along with written language, 
writing materials were thought to possess magical qualities. 
Religious texts as well as commercial bills were written out and 
transported along a route that, through such communication, 
could more easily function. Each region added its own distinctive 
features of paper art including Turkish marbling and Italian 
watermarks. Similar elaborations have been made in the art of 
calligraphy, which, particularly in Islamic and Chinese cultures, 
has become highly refined and stylistically differentiated as to 

Decorated camels participate in an Independence Day parade in 
Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Decorating camels displays the fine weaving 
skills of nomads and mirrors the skills of Pakistani truck painters. 
Photo 1 Hermine Dreyfuss 




school and usage. Representatives of 
these schools still train new genera- 
tions of artists along the Silk Road and 
in the United States. 

Certain ceramics along the Silk 
Road became particularly sought after. 
Finely painted, pure porcelain from 
China was greatly desired by the 
Islamic elite and was traded from 
China east to Japan and west across 
Asia, and eventually on to Europe. 
Japanese and Turkish potters put their 
own stamp on this ceramic tradition. 
On the coattails of porcelain came tea, 
and with the passion for tea in the West 
came the fine teapots of China and 
Japan. Chinese. Japanese, and Turkish 
ceramics traditions all remain vital. 

Silk was the most highly visible 
product to come to Rome during the 
first large-scale Silk Road exchange- 
around the beginning of the Common 
Era. In fact it was more than a symbol 
for luxury exchange; it was an obsession of the Roman elite and 
caused a serious drain of gold and silver to the East. As explained 
by Richard Kurin in his article, silk moved easily and became a 
"vehicle of cultural creativity wherever it went. This continued 
creativity can be seen in the fashion designers at the Festival from 
Japan and Central Asia. But silk's flexibility can also be seen in 
the ikat and embroidery techniques still produced by hand in 
India. Uzbekistan, and Syria. Cotton has a similarly long if less 
expensive history. From India cotton traveled to Central Asia and 
Europe, becoming the crop that almost ruined economies as 
varied as those of 20th-century Uzbekistan and the 19th-century 
American South. Cotton production became a symbol of India's 
independence in the 1930s and an ecological disaster in parts of 
Central Asia. Both fibers, though, have for millennia been contin- 
uously woven and embroidered to suit the fashion of people. 

Carpets have a more nomadic history, which springs from 
the looms of sheep herders in ancient Iran and Central Asia. One 



16 



of the extraordinary archaeological discoveries oi the 20th century 
was the 4th-century b.( .i . Pazyryk carpet, found perfectly 

preserved on the Eurasian steppes west of Mongolia. This finely 
woven carpet connected the frozen steppe with Persian civiliza- 
tion and indicated that carpet weaving stretched back more than 
three millennia. The carpet has been an important decorative 
element ot nomadic culture 
that has carried its motifs 
across the Silk Road region for 
thousands ot years. At the 
Festival, audiences can see 
Turkmen carpet weavers, 
whose ancestors fled the tsars 
persecution to Afghanistan 
and now. in the most recent 
upheavals, reside in Pakistan 
still weaving patterns known 
throughout the region. Thev 
are joined bv other exiles, 
Tibetans who have brought 
their weaving traditions to 
new homes in India and 
Nepal awav from Chinese 

domination, and by settled Turkish weavers who carry on the 
tradition and motifs of their nomadic ancestors. 

Workers in stone and metals also fashioned luxury goods for 
exchange. People all along the Silk Road sought jewelry and 
engraved metal containers that were easily transported. Glass and 
stone beads particularly were traded throughout history and are 
often found far from their source. Lapis lazuli from the Pamir 
Mountains, precious gems from India, and turquoise all found 
their way to Rome, Byzantium, China, and Japan. Festival visi- 
tors can meet contemporary jewelers from Syria. Turkey, and 
India, and bead makers from Pakistan and Europe. Glass, which 
like silk seemed magical to those who did not understand its 
origins, was traded from the Middle East to China. Unlike 
textiles and jewelry it did not travel well, and its exchange is more 
difficult to trace. Glass and metalwork, however, are two of the 
Painted trucks travel the ancient silk roads between Pakistan and China. 

Photo by Mark Kcnoyer ' Smithsonian Institution 



great Islamic decorative traditions that still survive. The 
Venetians, in turn, took glass art perhaps to its highest form. 

The movement of religious traditions around the world has 
arguably been one of the most important forces throughout world 
history. Both Islam and Buddhism were introduced to millions of 
new adherents along the Silk Road, and these conversions 

continue to alter the face 
of our world. 1 hese reli- 
gions, along with all of the 
above exchange goods, 
have also altered the face 
of the United States. 
Manx' Americans drink tea 
in fine china. buy 
"Oriental carpets, and 
certainly wear garments of 
cotton, wool, and silk. 
They are likely familiar 
with Asian martial arts and 
mav attend an Islamic 
mosque. The Silk Road 
has extended to the 
United States and. since 
the tragic events of September II. understanding that connection 
clearly has become more important. There is no better time, then, 
to learn more about the roots of this vital connection and to cele- 
brate the long-standing relationships that have existed between 
East and West and North and South. This Festival provides a rare 
opportunity to connect with other cultures as well as with one's 
own and in doing so, in a small way, to build trust between and 
within cultures of the global Silk Road. 




Richard Kennedy. Deputy Director of the Center for Folklife 
and Cultural Heritage, is co-curator of The Silk Road: 
Connecting. Cultures, Creating Trust. 



17 




Making the Silk Road Festival 

by Rajeev Sethi 

As a South Asian, the influence of the ancient Silk Road is part of my living reality. Helping create a Festival that 
would constitute a major pan-Asian presence on the National Mall has been a rare opportunity. Interface between 
the Asian diaspora in the United States, the American public, and hundreds of Silk Road artists can help us better 
understand who we are as Asians and what we mean to the world. 



19 





In search of a comprehensible and meaningful Asian iden- 
tity. I was most inspired by commonalities, still visible across 
many countries, where the past and the present are never far 
apart. The design for the Festival evolved through mv search. As 
I traveled through Uzbekistan. China, japan. Italy, Turkey, and 
South Asia, contemplating the Festivals possible scenography, I 
was greeted with much proactive good will for the Silk Road 
concept. It has been seen as well in related projects — Pakistan. 
China, and various Central Asian nations have joined in devel- 
oping their own Silk Road festivals, for example, while the 
Japanese Silk Road Foundation has sought to map historic trade 
routes across Eurasia using satellite technology. People are 
enthused by the idea of being seen as part of a phenomenon that 
predates globalization and vet continues to unite them in a variety 
of contemporary adaptations and re-inspirations. 

The Festival design on the Mall reflects this concept of 
continuity and change. It offers a seamless journey in which each 
visitor is a traveler. Positioned between the U.S. Capitol Building 
and the Washington Monument, the vast Silk Road stretches 
along Washington's central vista. The regions represented by 
iconic monuments on the Silk Road are conceived as a series on 
the east-west axis. I called them "sentinels of arrival. 

As portals of entry to their respective regions, these sentinels 
welcome and bid farewell to "travelers. ' As the guardians of terri- 
tories and defenders of the great faiths of the world, I originally 
wanted them to be experienced in their real scale; having to design 
them within a limited budget and time frame was a challenge. 



Architectural representation offers a slippery path. 
Deviating from tradition can mean not knowing where you fall, if 
you slip. How could we reinterpret in Washington these glorious 
specimens of an immensely influential material heritage -- a 
heritage reflected in the very monuments and museums 
surrounding the Festival site? Replication of ancient monuments 
using existing skills would be one answer, but too expensive. 
Reducing the scale and finding a new context on the Mall 
without becoming Disney-esque became a huge concern, but one 
in which, with the use of deconstruction, playfulness, and 
contemporarv artistic adaptation, I hope we succeed. 

The Great South Gate of Todaiji Temple in Nara. japan, 
already influenced by Chinese architecture, is restructured with 
bamboo and textiles. A body of suspended norcn fabric screens 
calligraphed by Japanese and Indian contemporary artists rede- 
fined the architecture as an extension of traditional skills and as an 
affirmation of their training as fine artists. The principles of the 
Silk Roads artistic exchange were applied to the Festival. 
Japanese screens were fabricated in villages of Andhra Pradesh, 
India, where craftsmen had been exposed to Japanese shibori and 
have worked with contemporary international designers. 

The ancient Xi'an bell tower, a sentinel symbolizing China s 
historical growth, required a contemporary interpretation. The 
Festival's bell tower, painted on screen-printed silk organza, 

(Above left) The Great South Gate of Todaiji Temple in Nara, Japan. Photo by Jiro Okura 
(Above right) As interpreted by Rajeev Sethi Scenographers for the Folklife Festival. 



20 



ings in the air like an exquisite memory ol a glorious past beck- 



oning a grand future. 



The Buddhas ol Bamiyan, carved in the niches ol Afghan 
cliffs, were symbols of a secure haven for weary travelers. Seen 
from afar, the now destroyed Buddhas were the gateway to South 
Asia and evoked awe and tranquility. Buddhism defied any repre- 
sentation of the Buddha s body for many centuries after his death, 
so the destruction of the statues would perhaps have made the 
sage smile. As an act of contrition, a collective Asian catharsis, 
three Muslim sculptors from Pakistan who excel in carving 
Gandharan images create a plaster or soft stone Buddhist image at 
the Festival. 

The Registan Square in Samarkand. Uzbekistan, resplen- 
dent in its austere symmetry and profuse ornamentation, offers a 
play of distances. We used a part of an arch in its actual scale and 
the monument in reduced ratio. The square presents a stunning 
combination of tile mosaic, cuerda seca, and the bannai technique 
where rectangular nieces of glazed tile alternate with unglazed 
bricks to create magical patterns which at times spell out sacred 
names. To suggest the way ceramic mosaics reflect and deflect 
light, we created a varying color palette at the Festival with a 
collage of layer upon layer of fine tissue paper! 

Instead of recreating Istanbul's Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya) on 
the Mall, we recreated its plan as architectural ornamentation. 
The Byzantine configurations of ceramic blue tiles, the patterned 
lead roofs and domes upon domes, as well as the inlaid stone 
calligraphy that matured during the Islamic period, are repre- 
sented. The continuity of architectural features is again seen at the 
western end of the Mall, in the archways of the Venetian sentinel, 
the Basilica of St. Mark (Basilica di San Marco), fabricated with 
an overlay of different historical periods and cultural influences 
that characterized that merchant city-state and terminus of the 
Silk Road. 

The process of designing the site required much research 
and inspiration. Finding popular cultural metaphors and talented 
professionals in different parts of Asia became necessary. India, 
like an open palm stretched under a thriving Silk Road, became 
an overflowing crucible with seminal churnings. The Asian 
Heritage Foundation sought out skills within the Indian subcon- 



tinent that would complement the work ol craftspeople from other 
Silk Road nations. Most of what has been fabricated on the Mill 
at the Festival has come from the unique synthesis of crafts seen 
on the Silk Road and would have been a part ol the ancient trade. 
So craftsmen of Khurja and faipur in Rajasthan were commis- 
sioned to paint Turkish tiles. Sikkimese painters gilded Chinese 
architectural elements. Ikats from Uzbekistan and japan were 
eagerly emulated on looms in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. 
Screens, tents, and canopies from villages all over India were used 
to shade and filter light in a variety of Asian styles. Mats and rugs 
embellished with Silk Road iconography were easily understood, 
copied, and improvised upon. 

The resonance of common motifs — the felines from Venice 
to Mongolia, the mosaic angels of Venice, the farishtahs of Central 
Asia, the apsarases of India, and the celestial beings of China and 
Japan — all appear as exhibits on stretched canvas walls demar- 
cating the boundaries of the site. Pan-Asian composite beings, the 
lozenge, the star and the sunburst, blue pottery as an architectural 
ornament, and most of all the Tree of Life, an evocative metaphor 
for the Silk Road, helped us define our story. 

The story is not new; many schools and styles were assimi 
lated by this great grafted tree called the Silk Road. The more 
thorough the interaction, the more vibrant the resulting bloom. 
The Festival now takes its place among the living evidences of a 
common ethos and sensibilities. Like a banyan the branches have 
become roots and the spread is wide ... and widening. 



Rajeev Sethi is the principal of Rajeev Sethi Scenographers and 
founder of the asian heritage foundation, organizations 
serving as Festival site design and production partners. Rajeev 
Sethi worked with the Smithsonian on three groundbreaking 

EXHIBITIONS IN 1985 FOR THE FESTIVAL OF INDIA: MeLA! FOR THE 

Festival, Aditi in the National Museum of Natural History, and 
The Qolden Eye in the Cooper-Hewitt, National Museum of 
Design. He went on to design the Basic Needs Pavillion at the 
Hannover World Expo, and is now working on the redesign of 
the Barcelona waterfront. 



21 






The Silk Road: 
Connecting People and Cultures 

bv Richard Kurin 

The Silk Road spanned the Asian continent and represented a form of global economy when the known world was 
smaller but more difficult to traverse than nowadays. A network of mostly land but also sea trading routes, the Silk 
Road stretched from China to Korea and Japan in the east, and connected China through Central Asia to India in 
the south and to Turkey and Italy in the west. The Silk Road system has existed for over 2,000 years, with specific 
routes changing over time. For millennia, highly valued silk, cotton, wool, glass, jade, lapis lazuli, gold, silver, salt, 
spices, tea. herbal medicines, foods, fruits, flowers, horses, musical instruments, and architectural, philosophical, 
and religious ideas traveled those routes. The roads themselves were generally in poor condition. Travelers in cara- 
vans had to brave bleak deserts, high mountains, extreme heat and cold. They had to face bandits and raiders, 
imprisonment, starvation, and other forms of deprivation. Those going by sea braved the uncertainties of weather, 
poorly constructed ships, and pirates. Yet because the goods and ideas were in great demand and commanded high 
prices, courtly rewards, or spiritual benefits, they were worth the trouble of transporting great distances. 



23 



Since the concept of "Seidenstrassen" or "Silk Roads" was 
first invented by the German geologist and explorer Baron 
Ferdinand von Richthofen in 1877, the "Silk Road" has been used 
as a metaphor of European and Asian cultural interchange. While 
largely commercial, the Silk Road provided the vehicle for all sorts 
of creative exchange between tremendously diverse peoples and 
cultures. 

Given the Silk Road s symbolic meaning of sharing and 
exchange, it is somewhat paradoxical that the desire to control its 
namesake commodity, silk, was so strong. The ancient Chinese 
guarded the secret of silk production for centuries. The Ottoman 
Turks and the Persians fought a war over it. The English and 
French competed to restrict its markets. But despite such 
attempts, silk moved across the planet with remarkable ease and 
was a vehicle of cultural creativity wherever it went. The degree 
of borrowings and choosing of techniques and patterns, the 
invention and discover)' of uses and styles is incredible. Every 
culture that touched silk added to its adornment of humanity. 

And silk turns up everywhere — aboard medieval Viking 
ships sailing out of Constantinople and as kerchiefs from India 
(bandannas, from bandhana) around the necks of cowboys in the 
American West. The terms used for silk reveal its history and 
influences. Damask silk, referring to the style of Damascus. Syria, 
is actually Chinese in origin. Silk chinoiserie is not Chinese but a 
European imitation of Chinese style. Martha Washington wore a 
dress of Virginia silk to her husband s inauguration, and Native 
Americans learned silk embroidery to decorate traditional apparel. 
In the 19th century Paterson. New Jersey, of all places, declared 
itself "Silk City." 

What is so special about silk? How did it go around the 
globe, and connect diverse civilizations for millennia? And what 
is the current significance of the Silk Road? 

Chinese Silk Cultivation 

Silk cultivation and production is such an extraordinary process 
that it is easy to see why its invention was legendary and its 
discover)' eluded many who sought its secrets. The original 
production of silk in China is often attributed to Fo Xi, the 
emperor who initiated the raising of silkworms and the cultivation 
of mulberry trees to feed them. Xi Lingshi. the wife of the Yellow 



Emperor whose reign is dated from 2677 to 2597 b.c.e., is 
regarded as the legendary Lady of the Silkworms for having 
developed the method for unraveling the cocoons and reeling the 
silk filament. Archaeological finds from this period include silk 
fabric from the southeast Zhejiang province dated to about 
3000 b.c.e. and a silk cocoon from the Yellow River valley in 
northern China dated to about 2500 b.c.e. Yet silk cloth frag- 
ments and a cup carved with a silkworm design from the Yangzi 
Valley in southern China dated to about 4000-5000 b.c.e. 
suggest that sericulture, the process of making silk, may have an 
earlier origin than suggested by legend. 

Many insects from all over the world — and spiders as well 
- produce silk. One of the native Chinese varieties of silkworm 
with the scientific name Bombvx mori is uniquelv suited to the 
production of superblv high-quality silk. This silkworm, which is 
actually a caterpillar, takes adult form as a blind, flightless moth 
that immediately mates, lays about 400 eggs in a four- to six-day 
period, and then abruptly dies. The eggs must be kept at a warm 
temperature for them to hatch as silkworms or caterpillars. When 
they do hatch, they are stacked in layers of trays and given 
chopped up leaves of the white mulberry to eat. They eat 
throughout the day for four or five weeks, growing to about 
10,000 times their original weight. When large enough, a worm 
produces a liquid gel through its glands that dries into a thread- 
like filament, wrapping around the worm and forming a cocoon in 
the course of three or four days. The amazing feature of the 
Bomhyx mori is that its filament, generally in the range of 
300-1.000 yards — and sometimes a mile — long, is very strong 
and can be unwrapped. To do this, the cocoon is first boiled. This 
kills the pupae inside and dissolves the gum resin or seracin that 
holds the cocoon together. Cocoons may then be soaked in warm 
water and unwound or be dried for storage, sale, and shipment. 
Several filaments are combined to form a silk thread and wound 
onto a reel. One ounce of eggs produces worms that require a ton 
of leaves to eat. and results in about 12 pounds of raw silk. The 
silk threads may be spun together, often with other yarn, dyed, 
and woven on looms to make all sorts of products. It takes about 
2,000-3,000 cocoons to make a pound of silk needed for a dress; 
about 150 cocoons are needed for a necktie. The Chinese tradi- 
tionally incubated the eggs during the spring, timing their 



2-t 




hatching as the mulberry trees come to leaf. Sericulture in China 
traditionally involved taboos and rituals designed for the health 
and abundance of the silkworms. Typically, silk production was 
women's work. Currently, some 10 million Chinese are involved 
in making raw silk, producing an estimated 60.000 tons annually 
- about half of the world's output. Silk is still relatively rare, and 
therefore expensive; consider that silk constitutes only 0.2 
percent of the world's textile fabric. 

There are other types of silkworms and of silk. Indian tussah 
silk dates back possibly to 2500 b.c.e. to the Indus Valley civi- 
lization and is still produced for domestic consumption and 



foreign trade in various forms. Since traditional Hindu and Jain 
production techniques do not allow for the killing of the pupae in 
the cocoon, moths are allowed to hatch, and the resultant fila- 
ments are shorter and coarser than the Chinese variety. The 
ancient Greeks, too, knew of a wild Mediterranean silk moth 
whose cocoon could be unraveled to form fiber. The process was 
tedious, however, and the result also not up to the quality of 
mulberry-fed Bombyx mori. 

On this postcard (date unknown ), women are shown in costume feeding 

mulberry leaves to silkworms. DOE Asia: [apan: General: NM 90351 04668700, 
courtesy Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives 



25 



Silk has been long thought to be a special type of cloth; it 
keeps one cool in the summer and warm in the winter. It is 
extremely absorbent, meaning it uses color dyes much more effi- 
ciently than cotton, wool, or linen. It shimmers. It drapes upon 
the body particularly well. Silk is strong enough to be used for 
surgical sutures — indeed, by weight it is stronger than steel and 
more flexible than nylon. It is also fire and rot resistant. All these 
natural characteristics make silk ideal as a form of adornment for 
people of importance, for kimonos in Japan and wedding saris in 
India, for religious ritual, for burial shrouds in China and to lay 
on the graves of Sufis in much of the Muslim world. 

Early in Chinese history, silk was used to clothe the 
emperor, but eventually it was adopted widely through Chinese 
society. Silk proved to be valuable for fishing lines, for the making 
of paper, for musical instrument strings. Under the Han dynasty 
(206 B.C.E.-220 c.e.), silk became a great trade item, used for 
royal gifts and tribute. It also became a generalized medium of 
exchange, like gold or money. Chinese farmers paid their taxes in 
silk. Civil servants received their salary in silk. 





Silk on the Road 

Evidence of trade in ancient Chinese silk has been found in 
archaeological excavations in Central Asian Bactria (currently the 
region around Balkh and Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan) dating to 
about 500 b.c.e. Strands of silk have been found in ancient Egypt 
from about 1000 b.c.e., but these may be of Indian rather than 
Chinese origin. Alexander the Great, who ruled much of the 
known world from the Mediterranean to India in the late 4th 
century b.c.e., wore robes of deep purple-dyed silk. The silk was 
probably from China, which the Greeks knew as Seres — the 
place where serikos or silk was made — and made optimum use 
of the rare and expensive purple dye that was produced by the 
Phoenicians of Tyre from the secretions of sea snails. Yet, in the 
West, knowledge of silk and its trade were relatively limited. So. 
too, in the Far East. Sericulture was carried to Korea by Chinese 
immigrants in about 200 b.c.e. Though silk was extant in Japan 
at the turn of the millennium, sericulture was not widely known 
there until about the 3rd century c.e. 

Conventionally, historians refer to three periods of intense 
Silk Road trade: 1) from 206 b.c.e. to 220 c.e., between the 



ancient Chinese Han dynasty and Central Asia, extending to 
Rome: 2) from about 618 to 907 c.e., between Tang dynasty 
China and Central Asia, Byzantium, the Arab Umayyad and 
Abbasid empires, the Sasanian Persian Empire, and India, and 
coinciding with the expansion of Islam. Buddhism. Assyrian 
Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Judaism into 
Central Asia: and 3) during the 13th and Wth centuries, between 
China, Central Asia, Persia, India, and early modern Europe, 
made possible by Mongol control of most of the Silk Road. Some 
would add a modern Silk Road period, beginning in the 19th 
century with the "Great Game - the competition between 
Russian and British colonial powers for influence over Central 
Asia — and extending through today. 

From Han China to Rome 

In 198 b.c.e., the Han dynasty concluded a treaty with a Central 
Asian people, the Xiongnu. The emperor agreed to give his 
daughter to the Xiongnu ruler and pav an annual gift in gold and 
silk. By the 1st century b.c.e. silk reached Rome, initiating the first 



26 










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I 










Hi 




1 






IS 






Silk Road." Pliny, writing about silk, thought it was made from 
the down of trees in Seres. It was very popular among the Romans. 
People wore rare strips of silk on their clothing and sought more; 
they spent increasing amounts of gold and silver, leading to a 
shortage in precious metals. Coinciding with the development of 
ruling elites and the beginnings of empire, silk was associated with 
wealth and power -- Julius Caesar entered Rome in triumph 
under silk canopies. Over the next three centuries, silk imports 
increased, especially with the Pax Romana of the early emperors, 
which opened up trade routes in Asia Minor and the Middle East. 
As silk came westward, newly invented blown glass, asbestos. 



amber, and red coral moved eastward. Despite some warnings 
about the silk trades deleterious consequences, it became a 
medium of exchange and tribute, and when in 408 c.E, Alaric the 
Visigoth besieged Rome, he demanded and received as ransom 
5,000 pounds of gold and 4,000 tunics of silk. 

(Opposite, above) When silkworm eggs hatch, they are placed on trays or 
frames, fed for several weeks, and then, when they have grown to about 
10,000 times their original weight, they form cocoons. Both of these 
photos are from Karnataka State. India. One is a elose-up of silkworms 
and cocoons in a specially woven frame: the other shows the full frame'.. 

Photos ' )ejn-Luc Rjv. Agj Kh.in Foundation 



27 



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Venice 



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Silk Road Travelers 



by James Deutsch and Stephen Kidd 

While the vast majority of connections along the Silk Road were 
made through countless anonymous journeys, several historical trav- 
elers have become famous for the scope of their discoveries and their 
impact on Silk Road cultures. 

As China participated in Silk Road trade during the 7th century 
with the expansion of the Tang dynasty from its seat in Chang'an 
(present-day Xi'an), the journeys of one traveler helped to alter the reli- 
gious beliefs of the Tang leadership. A Buddhist monk, Xuanzang left 
Chang'an around 629 c.e. in search of greater understanding of 
Buddhist religious texts that had been brought to China from Tibet and 
India centuries earlier. Xuanzang's quest took him to the Buddhist 
center of Dunhuang in western China, across the Takla Makan Desert 
to the great Central Asian cities of Bukhara and Samarkand, and then 
through present-day Pakistan to the source of Buddhism in India. In 



•Mecca 



m 



3 



India he studied the most difficult Buddhist texts, which he translated 
into Chinese and brought back to Chang'an around 645. On his return, 
he persuaded Chinese elites to embrace Buddhism. 

An even more renowned traveler, whose name is familiar to any 
American child who has ever played the hide-and-seek game of "Marco 
Polo," is the legendary Venetian merchant who may have been the first 
to travel the entire Silk Road from Italy in the west to China in the east. 
Marco Polo (1254-1324) was more than a treasure-seeking trader; he 
claimed to have lived in China for 17 years, primarily in the court of 
Kublai Khan, acquiring knowledge that was instrumental in promoting the 
cultural exchange of ideas and commodities. His detailed travel accounts 
— compiled during the last 20 years of his life — were carefully studied 
(albeit sometimes skeptically) by generations of cartographers, 
merchants, explorers, and general readers who yearned to better 



28 




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[ashgar 
'''••.,Hotan 



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Beijing' 







Xi'an 

(Chang'an) 



Tokyo 
,„.;••• Kyoto 

Nara 



•••.^Bodh Gaya 



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comprehend their world. 

One year after Marco Polo's death. Muhammad ibn Batuta (1304- 
1368?) left his native Morocco to make the customary Islamic 
pilgrimage to Mecca, ibn Batuta could not have known then, however, 
that he would spend the next 24 years continually traveling throughout 
Asia (particularly China and India), Africa, and the Middle East, before 
returning to Morocco in 1349. During this time, he recorded everything 
that intrigued him: from political and economic conditions to variations 
in human anatomy. Like Marco Polo, ibn Batuta's reputation rests largely 
on the published account of his travels (ca. 1354). which served not only 
to illuminate the depth and diversity of human culture, but also to expand 
the limited horizons of the medieval European world. 

In our own time, when the countries of the Silk Road can be 
traversed in a single day, there is another traveler who has begun to 



explore the complexity of the Silk Road. Tracing the roots of European 
classical instruments to Asia, cellist Yo-Yo Ma was inspired by the 
cultural connections made as diverse peoples met along the Silk Road. 
In 1998 he founded the Silk Road Project to celebrate and foster the 
traditional cultures found along the ancient trade route. Today, fulfilling 
this mission, the Project's Silk Road Ensemble crosses the globe 
performing both traditional works from Silk Road cultures and new 
commissions from composers who hail from Silk Road countries. In 
an era of supersonic journeys, Yo-Yo Ma travels in search of lasting 
cultural connections. 



James Deutsch and Stephen Kidd, both holders of Ph.D.'s in American Studies 
from George Washington University, are program coordinators for the 2002 
Folklife Festival. 



29 




Silk Road Travelers 



by James Deutsch and Stephen Kiod 

While ihe vasi majority of connections along the Silk Road were 
made through countless anonymous journeys, several historical trav- 
elers have become famous for the scope of their discoveries and their 
impact on Silk Road cultures. 

As China participated in Silk Road trade during the 7th century 
with the expansion of the Tang dynasty from its seat in Chang'an 
(present-day Xi'an). the journeys of one traveler helped to alter the reli- 
gious beliefs of the Tang leadership. A Buddhist monk. Xuanzang left 
Chang'an around 629 c.E. in search of greater understanding of 
Buddhist religious texts that had been brought to China from Tibet and 
India centuries earlier. Xuanzang's quest took him to the Buddhist 
center of Dunhuang in western China, across the Takla Makan Desert 
to the great Central Asian cities of Bukhara and Samarkand, and then 
through present-day Pakistan to the source of Buddhism in India. In 



India he studied the most difficult Buddhist texts, which he translated 
into Chinese and brought back to Chang'an around 645. On his return, 
he persuaded Chinese elites to embrace Buddhism. 

An even more renowned traveler, whose name is familiar to any 
American child who has ever played the hide-and-seek game of "Marco 
Polo." is the legendary Venetian merchant who may have been the first 
to travel the entire Silk Road from Italy in the west to China in the east. 
Marco Polo (1254-1324) was more than a treasure-seeking trader: he 
claimed to have lived in China for 17 years, primarily in the court of 
Kublai Khan, acquiring knowledge that was instrumental in promoting the 
cultural exchange of ideas and commodities. His detailed travel accounts 
— compiled during the last 20 years of his life — were carefully studied 
(albeit sometimes skeptically) by generations of cartographers, 
merchants, explorers, and general readers who yearned to better 



comprehend their world. 

One year after Marco Polo's death. Muhammad lbn Batuta (1304- 
1368?) left his native Morocco to make the customary Islamic 
pilgrimage to Mecca. lbn Batuta could not have known then, however, 
that he would spend the next 24 years continually traveling throughout 
Asia (particularly China and India). Africa, and the Middle East, before 
returning to Morocco in 1349. During this time, he recorded everything 
that intrigued him: from political and economic conditions to variations 
in human anatomy. Like Marco Polo, lbn Batuta's reputation rests largely 
on the published account of his travels (ca. 1354), which served not only 
to illuminate the depth and diversity of human culture, but also to expand 
the limited horizons of the medieval European world. 

In our own time, when the countries of the Silk Road can be 
traversed in a single day, there is another traveler who has begun to 



explore the complexity of the Silk Road, Tracing the roots of European 
classical instruments to Asia, cellist Yo-Yo Ma was inspired by the 
cultural connections made as diverse peoples met along the Silk Road. 
In 1998 he founded the Silk Road Project to celebrate and foster the 
traditional cultures found along the ancient trade route. Today, fulfilling 
this mission, the Project's Silk Road Ensemble crosses the globe 
performing both traditional works from Silk Road cultures and new 
commissions from composers who hail from Silk Road countries. In 
an era of supersonic journeys. Yo-Yo Ma travels in search of lasting 
cultural connections. 



James Deutsch and Stephen Kidd. both holders of Ph.O.'s in American Studies 
from George Washington University, are program coordinators for the 2002 
Fouufe Festival 



The Tang Silk Road: Connecting Cultures 

Silk continued to be popular in the Mediterranean region even as 
Rome declined. In Bvzantium. the eastern successor of the 
Roman state, silk purchases accounted for a large drain on the 
treasury. In 552 c.e., legend has it that two Assyrian Christian 
monks who visited China learned the secret of silk production and 
smuggled out silkworms and mulberry seeds in their walking 
sticks. They returned to Constantinople, the capital of the 
Byzantine Empire, and provided the impetus for the growth of a 
local silk industry. Under Emperor Justinian I, Constantinople's 
silks were used throughout Europe for religious vestments, rituals, 
and aristocratic dress. The Persians, too, acquired knowledge of 
silk production: and Damascus became a silk center under Arab 
rulers. By the time the second Silk Road developed under the 
Tang dynasty (618-907 c.e.) in China, Central Asians had also 
learned silk cultivation and developed the famed ubr technique of 
silk resist dying generally known today by the Indonesian term 
ikut. Chinese silks, though, were still in demand for their excep- 
tionally high quality. The Tang rulers needed horses for their mili- 
tary. The best horses were in the west, held by the Turkic Uyghurs 
and the peoples of the Fergana Valley. The Tang traded silk for 
horses. 40 bolts for each pony in the 8th century. 

Not only did silk move, but so did designs and motifs as well 
as techniques for weaving and embroidering it. The Tang Chinese 
developed a satin silk, readily adopted elsewhere. Chinese silk 
weaving was influenced by Sogdian (Central Asian), Persian 
Sasanian, and Indian patterns and styles. For example, Chinese 
weavers adapted the Assyrian tree of life, beaded roundels, and 
bearded horsemen on winged horses from the Sasanians, and the 
use of gold-wrapped thread, the conch shell, lotus, and endless- 
knot designs from the Indians. Byzantines were also influenced 
by the Persians, weaving the Tree of Life into designs for 
European royalty and adopting the Assyrian two-headed eagle as 
their symbol. The Egyptian draw loom, adapted for silk weaving, 
was brought to Syria, then to Iran and beyond. Japanese weavers 
in Nara developed tie-dye and resist processes for kimonos. In 
some cases, weavers were uprooted from one city and settled in 
another: for example, after the Battle of Talas in 751. Chinese 
weavers were taken as prisoners of war to Iran and Mesopotamia. 
During the Tang dynasty, cultural exchange based upon silk 



reached its apex. Discoveries of the silk stowed in the Buddhist 
caves of Dunhuang in about 1015 c.e. reveal the tremendous rich- 
ness of silk work of the time, as well as an archaeology of shared 
styles of silk weaving and motifs. 

The growth of silk as a trade item both stimulated and char- 
acterized other types of exchanges during the era. Curative herbs, 
ideas of astronomy, and even religion also moved along the Silk 
Road network. Arabs traveled to India and China. Chinese to 
Central Asia, India, and Iran. Buddhism itself was carried along 
these roads from India through Central Asia to Tibet, China, and 
Japan. Islam was carried by Sufi teachers, and by armies, moving 
across the continent from Western Asia into Iran. Central Asia, 
and into China and India. Martial arts, sacred arts like callig- 
raphy, tile making, and painting also traversed these roads. The 
Tang capital city of Chang an. present-day Xi'an. became a 
cosmopolitan city — the largest on earth at the time, peopled with 
traders from all along the Silk Road, as well as monks, mission- 
aries, and emissaries from across the continent. 

The Mongol Silk Road and Marco Polo 

Though some new silk styles such as silk tapestry made their way 
eastward from Iran to Uvghur Central Asia to China, the 
transcontinental exchange of the Silk Road diminished in the later 
Middle Ages and through the period of the Christian Crusades in 
the Holy Land from 1096 to the mid-1200s. Yet Crusaders, 
returning home with Byzantine silks, tapestries, and other spoils, 
rekindled European interest in trade with Asia. Moorish influence 
in Spain also had an enormous impact. It was through Arab 
scholars that Europeans gained access to Indian and Chinese 
advances in medicine, chemistry, and mathematics, and also to 
ancient Greek and Roman civilizations that had survived in 



Arabic translations and commentaries. This 



of kne 



edge 



eventually helped to fuel the Renaissance. 

With the Mongol descendants of Genghis (Chinghis) Khan 
in control of Asia from the Black Sea to the Pacific, a third Silk 
Road flourished in the 13th and Hth centuries. The emissary of 
Ling Louis IX of France, Willem van Rubruck. visited the court 
of the Mongol ruler in 1253. and, seeing the wealth of silks, real- 
ized that Cathay, or China, was the legendary Seres of Roman 
times. The Venetian Marco Polo followed. 



30 




Setting out with his uncles in 1271. Polo traveled across Asia 
by land and sea over a period of 24 years. The tales of his travels, 
narrated while a prisoner in a Genoa jail cell, spurred broad 
European interest in the Silk Road region. He told of the 
Mongols, who under Genghis and then Kublai Khan had taken 
over China and expanded their dominion across Asia into Central 
Asia, India. Iran, and Asia Minor. Polo related fantastic tales of 
the lands he had visited, the great sites he had seen, and the vast 
treasures of Asia. 

The 13th and Hth centuries were characterized by consider- 
able political, commercial, and religious competition between 
kingdoms, markets, and religious groups across Eurasia. 
Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, and Hindus vied for adherents 



and institutional support. Conflict between and among the 
Mongols, European kingdoms, Arab rulers, the Mamluk Turks. 
Hindu chiefdoms, and others made for unstable states, diplo- 
matic jockeying, alliances, and wars. Yet the Mongols, with their 
vast Asian empire skirting the edge of Russia and Eastern 
Europe, were, through a mixture of hegemony and brutality, able 
to assure a measure of peace within their domains, a Pax 
Mongolica. They were also pragmatic and quite tolerant in 
several spheres, among them arts and religion. Their Mongolian 
capital of Karakorum hosted, for example. 12 Buddhist temples. 
two mosques, and a church. The Mongols developed continental 
In Bursa. Turkey, silkworm cultivators check cocoons that arc about to be 

auctioned at a bazaar. Photo r - Hermine Dreyfuss 



31 



postal and travelers' rest house systems. Kublai Khan welcomed 
European, Chinese, Persian, and Arab astronomers and estab- 
lished an Institute of Muslim Astronomy. He also founded an 
Imperial Academy of Medicine, including Indian, Middle 
Eastern. Muslim, and Chinese physicians. European. Persian. 
Chinese, Arab. Armenian, and Russian traders and missionaries 
traveled the Silk Road, and in 1335 a Mongol mission to the pope 
at Avignon suggested increased trade and cultural contacts. 

During this "third" Silk Road, silk, while still a highly 
valued Chinese export, was no longer the primary commodity. 
Europeans wanted pearls and gems, spices, precious metals, 
medicines, ceramics, carpets, other fabrics, and lacquerware. All 
kingdoms needed horses, weapons, and armaments. Besides, silk 
production already was known in the Arab world and had spread 
to southern Europe. Silk weavers and traders - - Arabs. 
"Saracens," Jews, and Greeks from Sicily and the eastern 
Mediterranean - - relocated to new commercial centers in 
northern Italy. Italian silk-making eventually became a stellar 
Renaissance art in Venice, Florence, Genoa, and Lucca in the 
14th and 15th centuries. New stylistic techniques were added, like 
alto-e-hasso for velvets and brocades, while old motifs, like the 
stylized Central Asian pomegranate, took on new life. 

Commercial trade and competition was of great importance 
by the 15th century with the growth of European cities, guilds, 
and royal states. With the decline of Mongol power, control over 
trade routes was vital. The motivation behind Portuguese explo- 
rations of a sea route to India was to secure safer and cheaper 
passage of trade goods than by land caravans, which were subject 
to either exorbitant protection fees or raiding bv enemies. Indeed, 
it was the search for this sea route to the East that led Columbus 
westward to the "New World." When Vasco da Gama found the 
sea route to India and other Europeans subsequently opened 
direct shipping links with China, contact with Central Asia 
decreased dramatically. 

The Modern Era 

Trade in silks helped fuel the mercantile transformation of 
Western Europe. French King Charles VII. the dukes of 
Burgundy, and their successors participated vigorously through 
markets in Bruges, Amsterdam, Lyon, and other towns. The prac- 



tice of emulating Asian silk styles was institutionalized in Lyon. 
France, with the development of imitative Chinese and Turkish 
motifs, chinoiserie and turqueserie respectively. A steady stream of 
European travelers and adventurous merchants moved luxury 
goods between Europe, the Middle East. Iran, India, and China. 
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605-98). who traversed parts of the 
Silk Road on six journeys and witnessed the building of 
Versailles, Isfahan, and the Taj Mahal, traded in diamonds and 
pearls, was awarded "Oriental ' silk robes of honor by the Shah of 
1 ran and a barony by Louis XIV (for the sale of what later became 
the Hope Diamond). The English developed their own silk 
industry and tried silk cultivation in Ireland, and even in the New 
World. Mulberry trees and silkworms went with settlers to 
Jamestown in the early 1600s. Silk cultivation was successful but 
onlv for a time: other attempts followed later in Georgia, among 
the 19th-century Harmonists in Pennsylvania, and even among 
the Shakers in Kentucky. Still, imported silks showed the long 
reach of an international trade. 

Silk styles and fashions were led, in Europe, by royalty, but 
soon extended to a wealthy merchant class, and were broadened 
further as a result of new manufacturing techniques. Silk produc- 
tion became industrialized in 1804 with the Jacquard loom. This 
loom relied upon punched cards to program the complex orches- 
tration of threads into wonderful patterns; the cards later inspired 
the computer punch cards of the mid-20th century. Throughout 
the 19th century, chemists developed synthetic dyes. Designers, 
who could create one-of-a-kind items for the elite but also 
develop mass-produced lines of clothing, furnishings, and other 
silk products, set up shop in Paris. Asia was the subject of 
romantic allure and fascination by elites of the period. In the early 
1800s. England's George IV built his Brighton palace in an Indo- 
Persian style, decorated it with Chinese furniture, and wore silk 
garments, thereby setting a trend, with his friend Beau Brummel, 
for men's formal fashion. Declared Empress of India in 1858, 
Queen Victoria was feted with grand celebrations and a diamond 
jubilee that included "Oriental" durbars or courtly convocations, 
replete with marching elephants and parades of Asian troops 
adorned in native dress. Parisians held costumed balls, dressed up 
as sultans and Asian royalty. Kashmiri and Chinese silk scarves 
were a big hit. Jewelers Cartier and Tiffany used Asian gemstones 



32 




Polo 



In its earliest forms, polo dates back more than 2,500 years to the Central Asian steppes; the first recorded game took place in Iran in the 
6th century B.C.E., and by the Middle Ages polo was played across the Silk Road from Constantinople to Japan. The game has a number of varia- 
tions, including, for example, one played by Chinese women during the Tang dynasty 12 centuries ago. American polo is derived from the game 
viewed by British soldiers on the northwestern frontier of 19th-century colonial India. There, the game known as buzkashi is a raucous, physical 
exercise of competitive horsemanship. Two teams play against each other. The field might be a large meadow, with an area or pit designated as 
the "goal." A goat or calf carcass is the "ball." Horsemen from one side must scoop up the carcass, ride around a pole or designated marker, 
reverse course, and drop the carcass into the goal. The social purpose may be sport, but the game teaches and encourages excellent horseman- 
ship skills — precisely those needed to attack caravans, raid towns, and rout opposing forces. Victorian Englishmen then turned this sport into one 
that we now think of as very sophisticated and upper class. Polo is a fine example of how meanings and practices can be transformed as they 
move across cultures, a wonderful Silk Road story. 



Polo and variations on the game have been played along the Silk Road for thousands of 
years. Picturedhere is a 1985 game in Susum, Pakistan. 
Photo ' Jean-Luc Ray. Aga Khan Foundation 



33 




and imitated Asian decorative styles. Tiffany and Lalique were 
designing silk sashes, scarves, and other items. New silk textiles 
like chiffons and crepes were developed in France, and silk culti- 
vation centers sent raw silk to design houses and production 
factories to meet demand. This demand extended to the United 
States, and raw silk was imported from Japan and dyed using the 
soft waters of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey. Paterson 
became the U.S. headquarters of silk supply, design, and 
furnishing companies. 

It was during this Orientalist period that the idea of the Silk 
Road as a way of connecting European and Asian culture, history, 
and art. was articulated by Baron von Richthofen. In 1786 
William Jones had found the links between Sanskrit and Latin, 
devising the idea of an Indo-European family of languages. 
Throughout the 19th century, European philologists were working 
on the relationships between European and Asian languages, 
positing such "families" as Uralic and Altaic. European scholars 
found common roots in religions and symbols spanning Eurasia 
and relating Hinduism and Buddhism to ancient Greco-Roman 
mythology, and with Judaism. Islam, and Christianity- 
Archaeologists had begun to find links between widely dispersed 
civilizations of Egypt, the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Iran. 
India, and Central Asia. Cultural diffusion, particularly strong in 
German and later English social science, became an explanatory 
model for the similarities found in widely separated societies, and 
an alternative to cultural evolutionary theories. These connections 
across cultures, history, and geography still intrigue us today. 
Consider, for example, the names of a number of stringed instru- 
ments with the root tar ("string" in Persian), from the tar itself to 
the dotar, dutar, lotar, setar, sitar. qitar, guitarra, and the guitar. 

Silk became both a component and a symbol of this cultural 
diffusion. It was seen as a valuable index of civilization with 
regard to religious ritual, kingship, artistic production, and 
commercial activity. Silk stood for the higher things in life. It was 
a valuable, traded commodity, as well as a historical medium of 
exchange. Silk both epitomized and played a major role in the 

Silk turns up everywhere. This Cree caribou hide pouch from Roberval, 
St. Johns Lake, Hudson Bay. Canada, ca. 1900, is decorated with silk 
embroidery. Courtesy National Museum of the American Indian 

Photo by Katherine Fogden 



34 



early development of what we now characterize -is .1 global 
economic and cultural system. Europeans ol the 19th century saw 
this new globalism not just -is .111 interesting historical occurrence. 
but also -is something that resonated with the growing distribu- 
tion of silk use and manufacturing oi the time. 

Central Asia and the Silk Road Today 

In formulating the idea of the Silk Road. Richthofen saw Central 
Asia as not only the land bridge between distant civilizations, but 
as a source of cultural creativity in its own right. I le also saw it as 
disputed territory, a region that had served as the crossroads of 
political and military influence. Indeed, control over the Silk 
Road, particularly its Central Asian link, was serious business for 
18th- century colonial powers playing the "Great Game. Both 
the Russians and the British vied for control over Afghanistan at 
the limit of their territorial aspirations. Rudyard Kipling, the 
English colonial writer, set the fictional tale of Kim against this 
backdrop, with the hero traveling one of the historical trade routes 
along what is now the Afghan-Pakistan Irontier and partaking of 
what we might today call a multicultural adventure. 

Though eclipsed in trade volume by sea routes for several 
centuries. Central Asia has in recent times and particularly after 
September 11 resumed its historical importance. Its geopolitical 
significance has grown as a result of the demise of the Soviet 
Union, the need to achieve stable political states in light of 
competing interests, and the need to find an appropriate role for 
religion, particularly' Islam, in civic life. Most recently, the entry of 
the United States in Central Asia, fighting the Taliban and 
al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, using bases in Uzbekistan and Pakistan, 
and being drawn into disputes over sovereignty in Kashmir, 
democracy in Iran, rights for ethnic minorities in western China, 
and freedom in Kazakhstan, mark a new development in the 
contemporary jockeying for political influence and control. 

The nations of the region are trying to build their own post- 
Soviet and contemporary economies. They are struggling to 
develop local markets, industries, and infrastructures, while at the 
same time participating in an increasingly globalized world 
economy. Some local entrepreneurs seek to rebuild economies 
based upon a traditional repertoire of deeply ingrained Silk Road 
commercial skills. Among emerging markets are those for recently 



discovered oil in Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan, and western China. 
Pipelines are being planned and constructed, constituting new 
pathways for moving a valuable commodity across the region to 
the rest of the world. 

New social institutions are being built universities, 

hospitals, and financial systems. Some leaders like the Aga Khan 
are encouraging a contemporary renaissance of traditional knowl- 
edge, architecture, and artistry embedded in Central Asian 
history that will allow local citizens the opportunity to flourish. 
Famed and beautiful Uzbek ikat weavings are returning to the 
world marketplace. Designers from the region are creating their 
own distinctive fashions. Ancient musics performed by contem- 
porary artists arc making their way onto world stages. Historical 
sites are being restored. 

Given the needs in the region, the work to build politically 
stable nations that are economically healthy, socially secure, and 
culturally confident is of immense scope, and the prognosis far 
from certain. But it does seem clear that people in the region stand 
the best chance of bettering their lives and those of their children 
by reclaiming their place in a transnational, transcultural How of 
goods and ideas exemplified by the historical Silk Road. It is 
better to connect to the peoples and cultures around them and to 
participate in the commerce of nations than to withdraw from 
such interchange. By reclaiming the heritage of the Silk Road, the 
region may, once again, play an important role in the cultural and 
economic life of the global community. 

For Further Reading 

Elisseeff, Vadime, ed. 2000. The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and 
Commerce. New York: Berghahn Books; Paris: UNESCO 
Publishing. 

Scott, Philippa. 1993. The Booh of Silk. London: Thames & 
Hudson, Ltd. 

Whitefield. Susan. 1999. Life Along the Silk Road. Berkeley: 
University of California Press 

Richard Kurin is the Director of the Smithsonian Center for 
folklife and cultural heritage and first worked on the 
Festival in 1976. He is a cultural anthropologist who has done 
much of his fieldwork in India and Pakistan. He is also the 
author of Reflections of a Culture Broker: A View from the 
Smithsonian. 



35 



<" k - - 


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. 1 '*. ' 







■#\ 



The Silk Road: 
Crossroads and Encounters of Faiths 

by A:im Nanji and Sarfaroz Niyozov 

The Silk Road evokes images of places and peoples linked by the exchange of exotic goods and fabled treasures. 
This limited notion of commerce, however, overshadows the fact that the Silk Road as a network of trade routes 
also spread religious ideas and beliefs. 

Communities of faith interacted, co-existed, competed, and influenced each other over long periods of time. These 
include local traditions that evolved in ancient China, the Middle East. Central Asia, and Korea and Japan, and the 
subsequent larger traditions that arose in the region - - Judaism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and 
Islam — as well as the shamanistic and animistic traditions of various nomadic peoples stretching across Central 
Asia, some of which still are practiced today. The history of religions along the Silk Road is a remarkable illustra- 
tion of how beliefs and indeed civilizations often reflect a broad pattern of synthesis, rather than clash. 



37 



Zoroastrianism 

Various accounts place Zoroaster s birth sometime between the 
11th and the 6th century b.c.e. and somewhere between 
Mongolia and Azerbaijan. He taught belief in one God (Ahura 
Mazda), the Lord of Wisdom, and regarded the other Iranian 
gods (daevas) as demons. He also saw an evil force in the 
Universe called Ahriman (Angra Mainyu). Juxtaposing Ahura 
Mazda against Ahriman. Zoroaster viewed human life in a 
cosmology of an eternal dialectical struggle between good and 
bad. Through this approach emerged profound messages of 
realism and of a nccessarv struggle to sustain hope (good) by 
means of ethical action. 

In the 3rd century c.e., long after Zoroaster's death, 
the Sasanian dynasty began its rule in Iran and embarked on a 
period of conquest and expansion. It sanctioned Zoroastrianism 
as the official religion of the state and supported the codification 
of its texts, practices, and doctrines. Even so, Zoroastrianism 
continued to interact with and be influenced by local traditions 
and practices in different regions, and there were a number of 
rituals that distinguished Central Asian Zoroastrians from their 
Western Iranian cousins. In Central Asia, for example, the moon 
was also seen as a divine force. The famous temple of the Moon 
(Mali) in Bukhara was devoted to its veneration. Similarly, the 
tradition of a New Year, Nawruz. is a regional ritual that predates 
Zoroaster. 

Judaism 

The Silk Road became a meeting point between Iranian religions 
and another ancient faith, Judaism. Judaism as expressed in both 
its ancient oral and written traditions was centered on the belief in 
one God, who revealed Himself to the people of Israel and made 
a covenant with them to live according to His will, as articulated 
in the Torah (the first Five Books of the Hebrew Bible) and 
concretized as Halakah. or "the way." Part of this ancient history 
is traced to Abraham, the great Patriarchal figure in Judaism, and 
his descendants, who were chosen by God to lead the people from 
slavery to freedom. The well-known event of the Exodus, under 
the prophetic figure of Moses (ca. 1200 b.c.e.). led to their even- 
tual settlement in Israel, the emergence of a kingdom, and the 
writing down and codification of the first part of the Scriptures. 



In 586 b.c.e., the southern part of the kingdom. Judah, was 
conquered by the Babylonians, and this led to many Jews being 
exiled to Central Asia. In 559 b.c.e.. the Sasanian ruler Cyrus 
freed the Jewish population, and. while some returned to Israel, 
manv chose to stay in Iran, where they continued to practice their 
faith. They also created Jewish settlements along the Silk Road. 
including in the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara. Jewish prac- 
tices and beliefs were enriched by contacts with existing tradi- 
tions and the intellectual heritage of Iran, and then Greece. Apart 
from the original community of exiled Jews, it seems that Judaism 
gained local converts, too. though these were not a result of pros- 
elytization. The Jewish presence in the region continues to the 
present. 

Buddhism 

The Silk Road provided a network for the spread of the teachings 
of the Buddha, enabling Buddhism to become a world religion 
and to develop into a sophisticated and diverse system of belief 
and practice. Of the IS Buddhist schools of interpretation, five 
existed along the Silk Road. Among these was the less monastic 
but very significant tradition of Mahayana. which preached the 
continuity of the Buddha's compassionate nature through 
bodhisattvas — embodiments of love and teaching who became 
the bridge to local traditions, communities, and cultures. The 
tradition suggests that all bodhisattva Buddhist seekers are equal 
before the Buddha, have a Buddha-nature, and may aspire to 
reach Buddhahood through right ways of living. 

In Central Asia, Buddhism is associated with the rise of the 
Kushan Empire, which lasted from the 1st to the 3rd centurv c.e. 
While Kushan rule marked a significant period in the growth of 
Buddhism, Kushan coins illustrate more than a narrow adherence 
to Buddhism. They show that along the Silk Road there were 
kings and rulers who sought to rise above certain groups, tribes, 
and religious traditions. Along with figures of their own kings 
such as Kanishka, Kushan coins depict Buddhist. Greek, and 
Iranian nobility. Statues made by the Gandharan school also 
feature a blend of Indian, Greek, and Iranian elements. The rulers 
built monasteries and temples along the Silk Road that were often 
used bv the faithful of various religions. One such monastery is 
believed to have been in the famous city of Bukhara, which later 



38 




became a major Central Asian cultural center of Islam. The oldest 
manuscript of an Indian Buddhist text, the Dharmapada, has 
been preserved in the Central Asian Kharosthi script. This combi- 
nation of patronage, the founding of monasteries, and the rise of 
Buddhist scholarship produced favorable conditions for the 
general spread of Buddhism. Rulers, missionaries, monks, and 
traders all contributed to make Buddhism a very significant pres- 
ence all over Central Asia. 

The greatest success of Buddhism came with its spread to 
China, where it reinvigorated the existing philosophy, culture, 
and literature. It also reached Korea and Japan. Its encounter with 
Daoism and Confucianism helped establish deep roots among the 
peoples of East Asia. Here Buddhism became a religious and 
spiritual presence as well as the catalyst for greater links with 



Eurasia. Thus, during the first millennium of the Common Era, 
Buddhism was the strongest influence among the peoples of the 
Silk Road. Great Buddhist scholars always looked at the Silk 
Road as a connecting thread with what they regarded as the 
founding values of Buddhism. Among them was the pilgrim- 
monk, Xuanzang (595-664 ( .1 . ). who undertook a challenging 
16-year journey (629-45 c.e.) towards the West, crossing the 

Dunhuang was an important trading post along the Silk Road in western 
China for over 1.000 years and also was a center of Buddhist learning. 
Near the city are almost 500 eaves that were hollowed from cliffs as 
dwelling places, meditation sites, and worship halls for Buddhist monks 
beginning in the 4th century. These caves house an unparalleled collection 
of ancient Buddhist art. 

Mogjo Grottoes. Dunhujng. China Photo by Neville Agnew, May 1998. 
<' The I. Paul Getty Trust. 2002- All rights reserved. 



39 



Martial Arts along the Silk Road — from Bodhidharma to Bruce Lee 



by Doug Kim 



As a conduit for religion and commerce, the Silk Road was an 
important means by which Asian martial arts were nurtured and dissem- 
inated. 

According to tradition, the process started with Bodhidharma, an 
Indian missionary who introduced Chan Buddhism to China in the 6th 
century. Called Damo, Tal-ma, and Daruma in China, Korea, and Japan 
respectively, this monk from India's warrior caste was the progenitor 
of Shaolin martial arts — many of which have come to be known as 
kung fu igungfu). To improve the Shaolin monks' physical and mental 
ability to endure long meditation sessions, he is said to have taught them 
18 exercises, probably derived from Indian yoga practices of the period. 
These "18 Hands of Lohan" were built upon and expanded into Shaolin 
"boxing." Shaolin temples, often remote and secluded, evolved into 
centers of meditation and martial arts training; they also attracted 
soldiers and professional warriors seeking sanctuary, who added their 
knowledge and skills to the training. Shaolin boxing strongly influenced 
indigenous martial arts styles as itinerant monks and Shaolin disciples 
spread religious and fighting principles throughout China and beyond. 

It may seem curious that lethal fighting arts were elaborated and 
regularly practiced by religious orders. However, study and use of these 
skills were highly valued by the monks — to improve their ability to 
focus and meditate in their quest for spiritual enlightenment, and for 
self-defense against road bandits, would-be temple robbers, and, at 
various times, government persecution. Shaolin missionaries carrying 
Chan Buddhism eastward not only influenced Korean and Japanese 
martial arts but also provided the basis for Zen Buddhism, which itself 
became a fundamental part of the samurai tradition and bushido (the 
Japanese "way of the warrior"). Numerous guardian figures in fearsome 
martial poses can be found at Buddhist temples and shrines along the 



Silk Road, clearly demonstrating the intimate connection between 
Buddhism and martial arts. 

Commerce played a crucial role as well in the diffusion of 
Chinese styles to neighboring areas: monks and mercenaries skilled in 
martial arts served as escorts for merchants traveling along the Silk 
Road, providing protection against attackers. The recent award-winning 
film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon is a classic Chinese tale about such 
"guards for hire." 

Asian martial arts first came to the United States with Chinese 
immigrants in the mid-igth century but remained largely secret, guarded 
within their community. Although President Theodore Roosevelt took 
judo lessons from a Japanese instructor in the White House in the early 
1900s. it was almost half a century before Asian martial arts started to 
attract widespread interest in America — the result of contact between 
American servicemen and Japanese practitioners during the occupation 
of Japan and Okinawa after World War II. The floodgates of interest 
burst open as Bruce Lee's kung fu movies hit the United States in the 
1970s. Virtually overnight kung fu. judo, karate, tae kwon do, and wu 
shu schools, clubs, movies, and competitions became well-established 
parts of everyday American life. Martial arts techniques traditionally 
taught only to blood relatives or fellow members of religious orders — 
and never to non-Asians — can now be acquired openly by anyone who 
wants to learn. Asian martial arts have become staples of international 
competition; judo and tae kwon do are Olympic sports, and serious 
efforts are underway to add wu shu to this list. 



Doug Kim, a second-generation Korean American, has been active in martial arts 

FOR OVER 25 YEARS. AND HOLDS BLACK BELTS IN TAE KWON DO AND HANK1DO. He WAS A 
PRESENTER AT THE 1982 FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL. 



40 



Takla Makan and Gobi deserts, the high Pamir Mountains, and 
also visiting Buddhist monuments in Bukhara. Samarkand, and 
Herat. Xuanzang returned to China laden with 650 books on 
Buddhism and provided a colorful account of his journey and the 
history of Buddhism in the region. I le contributed greatly to the 
survival and spread of Buddhism in Fast Asia. 

Christianity 

Along with the growth of Buddhism, the Silk Road nurtured 
minority groups from other major faiths. Assyrian Christians, or 
more accurately the Church of the East, were one such group. 
Often mistakenly identified simply as Nestorianism. the Church 
was strongest in eastern Svria. where as part of the Persian Empire 
it gained recognition and subsequently flourished after the arrival 
of Islam. In Syria, this tradition is a visible presence to this day, 
attesting to the lasting influence of the Eastern Christian tradition 
in the region. The Assyrian Christians played a crucial role in the 
creation of an important intellectual center at Jundishapur, where 
study of philosophy, astronomy, medicine, and astrology directly 
influenced Muslim learning. Doctrinally, they shared with other 
Christian groups the belief in the foundational and redemptive 
role of Jesus Christ, but they also taught that Jesus Christ had two 
distinct natures, divine and human, a view that brought the then 
patriarch of Constantinople. Nestorius, into conflict with those 
who held to the doctrine of the inseparability of the two natures of 
Jesus. Subsequently, the followers of Nestorius were excommuni- 
cated and eventually became a separate church with its own 
distinctive hierarchy, liturgy, and theological tradition. 

In Central Asia the Assyrian Christians influenced the 
Sogdians. who. due to their strategic location, had already 
become the commercial masters of the Silk Road and its cultural 
transmitters. Sogdian became the lingua franca of the Silk Road, 
spreading Christianity further east to China and north among the 
Turks. The Eastern Christians succeeded in three major mass 
conversions of lurks in Central Asia from the 7th to the 11th 
centuries. Despite being seen as a faith of foreign traveling 
merchants. Eastern Christianity gained acknowledgment as "the 
Brilliant Religion" (Foltz 2000: 72) in China, with Christian 
saints being referred to as Buddhas and their treatises as sutras. 



Manichaeism 

Manichaeism, founded by a royal Parthian called Mani 
(b. 216 c ,i . i. was another important religion that emerged in West 
Asia. A gnostic tradition. Manichaeism "posits a radically dual- 
istic view of the universe, in which 'good is equated with spirit 
and 'evil' with matter" (Foltz 2000: 75). The cosmology drew 
from Iranian figures such as Zurvan, Ahura Mazda, and Ahriman 
and portrayed good and spirit as light and fire and evil as dark- 
ness. Lite was a struggle between good and evil in which the 
former strives to liberate the self from evil matter. Knowledge- 
derived rationally became the basis of an awakening of the self. 
Blending the major beliefs of Christianity. Buddhism, and 
Zoroastrianism, the teachings of Mani reached the peoples of 
India, Mesopotamia, Iran. Central Asia, and China in their own 
languages and in concepts familiar to them. Central Asian 
Sogdians with their pragmatic tolerance helped Manichaen ideas 
to move further east to the land of the Uvghurs, where 
Manichaean became the official state-sponsored religion for 
about 70 years. Its powerful appeal, offered as a significant alter- 
native to the other major traditions, resulted in tension and 
conflict as it gained converts. Yet, despite its appeal, 
Manichaeism was not able to survive the arrival and dominance of 
new traditions and was eventually eradicated as a distinct reli- 
gious tradition, though some of its ideas lived on. assimilated into 
other faiths. 

Islam: Arrival and Diffusion 

Islam became the faith of the majority of people along the Silk 
Road. The first Muslim community emerged in Arabia in the 7th 
century in a region dominated by ancient civilizations and 
empires. Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, a family man and a 
merchant by trade, was also committed to a life of contemplation. 
The revelations that came to him are recorded in Arabic in the 
Koran (Quran), the revealed book of Islam. It affirms a belief in 
one God. unique and merciful: in past messengers and scriptures 
sent by God to other societies: in the creation of a society ruled by 
compassion, charitv. and justice that would be a model for all 
peoples. The initial establishment of Muslim rule in neighboring 
territories in the 7th and Sth centuries was a result of conquest, 
but the actual spread of Islam was achieved primarily by 



41 







preaching and conversion undertaken by scholars, merchants, 
and devout men and women. Muslims are taught bv the Koran to 
spread the faith by example, not bv compulsion. 

The first Muslim expeditions to Central Asia were part ol 
the general pattern of conquest and expansion of territory during 
the first centuries of Islam. The consolidation of these early 
attempts at conquest was continued under earlv Umawad rule 
(661-750) and its successor, the Abbasid dvnastv. which estab- 
lished its capital in Baghdad in 762. Muslim armies conquered 
territories beyond the River Oxus (Amu Darva). and bv the end 
of the 9th centurv the Samanids emerged as the first of the local 
Muslim kingdoms in the area. The process of conversion and 
Islamiiation of Central Asia that accompanied this spread and 
diffusion of Muslim culture and influence lasted several centuries. 
As the Silk Road once again became a vital international arterv of 
commerce and trade. Muslim travelers, preachers, mystics, and 
merchants acted as mediators of faith, enlarging the communities 



of Muslims in the various regions of Central Asia. 

The famous North African traveler Ibn Batuta (1304-68?), 
taking advantage of a well-defended and secure pathway along 
the Silk Road, managed to travel from his hometown of Tangier to 
China and India, reporting on his travels and illustrating the 
burgeoning trade, social activity, and vital religious life in the 
region. 

The historv of the Silk Road under Muslim influence reveals 
a diverse religious landscape, among different faiths and also 
within the Muslim community. Sunni. Shia. and Sufi Muslim 
groups interacted and flourished together. Charismatic Sufi 
leaders such as Ahmad Yasawi id. 1166 1 and Bahauddin 
Naqshband (1318—89) built communities that nurtured vernac- 
ular tradition and languages. The full diversity of Muslim law. 

Tlie Burana Tower in the Zhu River Valley, Kyrgyzstan, is a minaret 
from the 11th century, one of the first in Central Asia. 

Photo ' Hcrmmc Dreyfuss 



42 



theology, culture, arts, and architecture spread across the Silk 
Road. This multidimensional world of Islam contributed to a 
broadly based society, bound bv common ethical and cultural 
assumptions but differentiated in its practices and local traditions, 
that stretched from Afghanistan to Southeast Asia. China, and the 
Philippines. Some of the greatest scholars of Muslim science and 
technology lived in the region. The Ismaili Muslims who 
founded Cairo in the 10th century also spread along the Silk Road 
and with many other Muslims brought a tradition of philosoph- 
ical inquiry and scientific knowledge across the Mediterranean to 
Iran and the Karakoram and the Pamirs (Daftary: 1990). The 
great Ismaili poet and philosopher. Xasir Khusraw (1004-88), 
traveled along the Silk Road on a seven-year journey from Balkh 
across the Middle East, North Africa, and on to his pilgrimage 
destination. Mecca. His Safamamah (travelogue) describes in 
vivid detail his meetings with famous scholars and visits to the 
region's religious communities and sites. 

Conclusion 

A historical view of the Silk Road reveals a world in which reli- 
gions were living traditions. Central Asia, then one of the most 
pluralistic religious regions in the world, has again become a 
center of attention, and perhaps the most important lesson learned 
on the Silk Road — the ideal of religious pluralism and tolerance 
- may yet enable it to become a bridge between cultures once 
more. 

Some of the oldest inhabited places in the world can be 
found along the Silk Road. Each faith has left its signature there, 
in ideas, art. music, and buildings, and in traditions of learning, 
remembering, celebrating, and sharing. This cumulative resource 
from different traditions of knowledge and faith can still, as in the 
past, help us build trust, reinvigorate civilizational dialogue, and 
move away from the constraints and ignorance that exacerbate 



divi 



and generate conflict. 



Azim Nanji is Director of the Institute of Ismaili Studies, 
London. Sarfaroz Niyozov is the Central Asian Studies 
Co-ordinator at the Institute. 



References Cited 

Daftary, F. 1990. The Ismailis. Their History and Doctrines. 
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Foltz, R. 2000. TJie Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and 
Cultural Exchange From Antiquity to The Fifteenth Century. 
New York: St. Martin's Press. 



For Further Reading 

Bennigsen, A. 1985. Mystics and Commissars: Sufism in the Soviet 
Union. London: C. Hurst & Company. 

Bentley. J. 1993. Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and 
Exchanges in Pre-Modcm Times. New York: Oxford University 
Press. 

Frye, R. 1996. The Heritage of Central Asia: From Antiquity to 
Turkish Expansion. Princeton: Marcus Wiener Publications. 

Harvey, P. 1990. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teaching. History and 
Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

History of the Civilizations of Central Asia. (1996-98) Vol. 1-4. 
Various eds. Paris: UNESCO. 

Krader, L. 1975. Peoples of Central Asia. Hague: Mouton & Co. 

Liu, T. 1976. "Traces of Zoroastrian and Manichean Activities in Pre- 
Tang China." In Selected Papers from the Hall of Harmonious 
Winds. Leiden: Brill. 

Major, J., J. Barnart, and J. Betrles. 2001. Silk Road Encounters: 
Sourcebook. New York: Asia Society and The Silk Road 
Project, Inc. 

Moflett, S. 1992. History of Christianity in Asia. Vol. 1. San Francisco: 
Harper. 

Nanji, A., ed. 1996. The Muslim Almanac. Detroit: Gale Research 
Inc. 

Palmer, M. 2001 The Jesus Sutras. New York: Ballantine. 

Shaked, S. 198-4. "Iranian Influence on Judaism: First Century b.c.e. 
to Second Century c.e." In Cambridge History of Islam, edited 
by W. Davies & L. Finkelstein. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press. 

Wriggins. S.H. 1997. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim along the Silk 
Road. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. 



43 




The Tree of Life 

by Elizabeth Moynihan 

The remote, mountainous Kohistan district of Pakistan was one of the most difficult and dangerous passages along 
the historic Silk Road as described by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian at the beginning of the 5th century. If 
travelers from Xinjiang survived crossing the rope suspension bridges that linked narrow footpaths chiseled into the 
rock walls above the Indus River, they then had to avoid marauding tribesmen. 



45 







The constant tribal wars of these fierce mountaineers kept 
the northern provinces isolated and largely unexplored bv 
Westerners until the 1890s. However, in the 1970s you could 
follow the old Silk Road in relative safety. In early spring the 
valleys were alive with wildflowers, but. colorful and evanescent 
as a rainbow, they disappeared, and within a few short weeks the 
arid valley floor became shrouded in dun-colored dust. It shim- 
mered in the sunlight, and everything — travelers, donkeys, the 
car, even the birds — was covered with a fine coat of dust. 

The road skirts the base of the mountains which rise steeply 
here, and many small, ancient Buddhist shrines are carved in the 
rock walls. Said to lead to a sacred site, one of the side tracks 
lacing across the historic route was a difficult path up a rocky, dry 
riverbed bounded by buff banks that wound through the sere 
landscape. Around a deep curve on a bluff stood a solitary tree, 
old, wind-whipped, and crooked, its roots partially exposed 



where the bank had been scoured out below. Its branches were 
adorned with a few prayer flags, faded and frayed beneath a layer 
of dust. The surprise of this unexpected, vivid image swept away 
the centuries and intervening cultures and elicited a reverential 
response to the tree. 

This sacred tree in Kohistan represented one of the oldest 
known forms of veneration: tree cults were common to all ancient 
cultures and civilizations, and the tree as a symbol of rebirth was 
universal. The prominence of votive trees in religious ritual was 
particularly well developed very early along the Eurasian routes of 
the Silk Road. For example, a wonderful carving, now in the 
British Museum, shows Ashurnasirpal, who ruled Assyria in 
885 60 b.c .i .. pouring the Water of Life on the Tree of Life. 

An image of the Tree of Life is delicately carved in stone in the 
16th-century Sidi Sayyid Mosque, Ahmedabad, India. 

Photo bv Elizabeth B Movnihan 



46 



I sing the familiar objects oi trees and water as symbols was 
well established 5.000 years ago in the Middle East. In 1937 
Dr. Phyllis Ackerman oi the American Institute for Persian Art 
and Archaeology devised an enchanting explanation oi the Tree 
of Life or Moon Tree based on the early Mesopotamia!! concep 
tion of the skv as a triangle and depicted as a mountain. 1 he 
moon, which brought relief from the relentless sun. was repre 
sentcd as a tree atop the mountain of the sky. As trees mark an 
oasis and the moon is a life-giver, so the sap of the moon tree must 
be water, the elixir of life. 

From prehistoric times there was communication between 
the civilizations of the Indus Valley. Mesopotamia, and the 
Iranian plateau. Indus Valley seals incised with a Moon Tree 
resembling the peepul tree native to the subcontinent were found 
at Susa, an ancient Persian site. 

The myth of the miraculous Cosmic Tree not only repre- 
sented regeneration and immortality but in some cultures symbol- 
ized a means of ascent to heaven. In the ancient Brahmanical 
tradition of India and the shamanism practiced throughout much 
of Central Asia, the sacred tree symbolized the Axis Mundi, the 
central axis of the earth. Such a World Tree is a powerful unifying 
svmbol. the center of the universe, binding the heavens to the 
earth. 

Often a shaman s ritual garments were decorated with the 
Tree of Life to aid him in invoking spirits and reaching an ecstatic 
state. An actual tree or pole representing the tree as a ladder to the 
heavens was central to the ceremony in which the shaman made 
a celestial journey or descended to the underworld. 

Sacred trees are mentioned in the literature of the world's 
major religions as the Tree of Knowledge or the Tree of Good and 
Evil. In the Book of Revelation (22:1-2) and in Genesis (2:9) the 
Tree of Life in Paradise is associated with the rivers of life. The 
Koran (13:38) mentions the Tuba Tree in Paradise. The Cosmic 
Tree is depicted in an inverted position growing downward 
toward the earth with its roots in heaven in the Upanishads of 
ancient India and in medieval cabalistic writings. In the Middle- 
Ages, the Tree of Life, associated with the Cross of Christ, was a 
major allegorical theme in religious art and writings. 

From ancient times, priests in India maintained groves of 
sacred trees at temple sites and used the blossoms in religious 



ritual. Certain trees and (lowers were thought to symbolize deities 
or possess qualities which could enhance man s spiritual life. 
Such was the sacred Bodhi free under which the Buddha 
attained perfect knowledge. There is a legend that in the 3rd 
century b.< .i .. before his conversion to Buddhism, the great 
Ashoka burned this sacred wild tig tree, and it was miraculously 
reborn from its own ashes. In the 7th century c.E., a cutting from 
this tree was the greatest gilt an Indian ruler could send to the 
emperor of China. Such a gift would have been carried along the 
Silk Road in the footsteps of the monks who first brought 
Buddhism to East Asia. 

Another gift the Chinese emperors coveted were "flying 
horses" from Fergana, now in Uzbekistan, famed for their speed 
and endurance. In the early 15th century, when the importance of 
the Silk Road had greatly diminished. Babur. a feudal prince from 
Fergana who ruled Kabul, conquered northern India and founded 
the Mughal dynasty. His ancestor, the Central Asian conqueror 
Timur. had brought the tradition of the paradise garden to 
Samarkand from Persia, and Babur introduced these walled 
gardens with their symbolic trees and water in India. 

In the wake of the caravans along the southern route 
crossing the high Pamirs, as well as the northern route across the 
Heavenly Mountains, cross-cultural influences were reflected in 
the arts, architecture, and handicrafts of the city-states and 
throughout the mountains, steppes, and deserts of the Silk Road. 
Classic and stylistic representations of the Tree of Life are still 
ubiquitous, rendered on everything from richly embroidered 
Uzbek coats and Chinese robes to block-printed cottons, carpets, 
porcelain, and bronze. Today, centuries after commerce moved 
away from the Silk Road, the Tree of Life motif remains, its 
tendrils binding the multitudes along the route that crosses 
boundaries and the ages, reaching even to the National Mall of 
the United States. 



Elizabeth B. Moynihan began research in India in 1973 
on Mughal architecture, especially the gardens. Until 

ITS DISSOLUTION IN 1996 SHE WAS A MEMBER OF THE InDO-U.S. 

sub-commission on education and culture and is the author of 
Paradise As a Qarden in Persia and Mughal India, The Moonlight 
Qarden: New Discoveries at the Taj Mahal, and numerous 
articles. 



47 



*m? I' 
Visual Arts of the Historical Silk Road 

by Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis 

Although people, ideas, and goods had been traveling across Eurasia for millennia, the historical Silk Road is 
considered to have been established in the 2nd century b.c.e. when a Chinese envoy journeyed into Central Asia 
in search of horses and allies to fight marauders on the borders of China. Soon afterward, Buddhism began to 
spread from India north along Silk Road land routes to Central Asia, China, Korea, and Japan and south by sea 
routes to Southeast Asia. Buddhist art and architecture, of course, were transmitted along with the religious 
doctrines. One of the major architectural monuments of Buddhism is the stupa, in India a solid hemispherical 
mound signifying the death and final great enlightenment of the historical Buddha Shakyamuni who lived and 
taught ca. 450 b.c.e. Influenced by the shape of Chinese watchtowers, the stupa was transformed into a multisto- 
ried pagoda in China, Korea, and Japan, but it retained its original symbolism. 



49 



Until about the beginning of the 
Common Era, the Buddha was repre- 
sented by signs such as the Bodhi Tree 
under which he experienced enlight- 
enment and the Wheel of the Law. a 
term given to Buddhist teachings. Bv 
the time Buddhism was spreading to 
the rest of Asia, in the lst-2nd 
centuries c.e.. worship was aided bv 
anthropomorphic images. The human 

image of the Buddha first developed in two places on the Indian 
subcontinent — in Gandhara (present-day northwest Pakistan) 
and in north-central India. The Gandharan figures were partly 
inspired by provincial Roman images, such as grave portraits 
produced in Palmyra on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, 
a trading terminus of the Silk Road. These Gandharan figures 
wear heavy, toga-like robes and have wavy hair. The figures from 
north-central India (particularly' the city of Mathura) were partly 
modeled on indigenous Indian male fertility deities and wear 
cool, lightweight garments. 

With the development of the tradition of Mahavana 
(Greater Vehicle) Buddhism from the beginning of the Common 
Era onward, the number of sacred Buddhist figures greatly 
increased. Devotion was focused not only on the historical 
Buddha Shakyamuni, but also on a growing number of celestial 
Buddhas and bodhisattvas. (Bodhisattvas are agents of salvation 
who attend the Buddhas. postponing their own complete eman- 
cipation from the world of suffering until they can save all sentient 
beings.) The celestial Buddhas did not have historical biogra- 
phies like Shakyamuni but. like Shakyamuni. were embodiments 
of the wisdom and compassion of the faith. The hierarchy of 
Buddhism includes many other angelic and guardian figures, all 




of whom were represented in painting 
and sculpture throughout South, 
Central. East, and Southeast Asia. 
Cave-temples were often carved out of 
rock escarpments to house these 
images in India, on the Central Asian 
Silk Road routes, and in China. 
Bamiyan, in Afghanistan, with its 
mow destroyed) colossal Buddhas was 
one such site. Another well-known 
site, comprising almost 500 cave-temples filled with some 45.000 
wall-paintings and thousands of sculptures, is found near the 
town of Dunhuang in northwest Gansu province. Dunhuang was 
the first Silk Road oasis trading center within the borders of 
China proper, and merchants grown wealthy from Silk Road 
trade were among the patrons of the cave-temples. 

Another visual form associated with Buddhism is the 
mandala, a representation of an enlightened realm where union 
between the human and the sacred occurs. Most often, for 
example in Tibetan Buddhist art or in Japanese Esoteric Buddhist 
art. the mandala is a circular or square configuration, with a center 
that radiates outward into compartmentalized areas. The deity at 
the center of the configuration, who signifies absolute truth, 
engages in reciprocal interactions with figures in the outer 
precincts, who signify manifested aspects of that truth. The prac- 
titioner unites the outer manifestations in the center of the 
mandala and then internally absorbs the mandala as a whole. 

During and after the 8th century c.e., mandalas were drawn 
on paper or cloth through all of Asia. These two-dimensional 

Fifty-three-meter (175 feet) Buddha at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. 

ea. 600 C.E. (destroyed 2001). Photograph ' John C. Huntington 
Photo courtesy The Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Related Arts 



50 




mandalas were hung on 
temple walls as focal points 
for veneration, for contempla- 
tion, and for rituals, or they 
were spread out on altar tops 
for specific ceremonies. A 
two-dimensional mandala, 
how ever, is meant to be trans- 
formed into a three-dimen- 
sional realm, usuallv a palatial 

structure, bv means of contemplation and ritual. In their two- 
dimensional forms, these mandalas often look like architectural 
ground plans, seen from an aerial viewpoint. 

Buddhism was well established in India, Central. East, and 
Southeast Asia by the 7th centurv c.e. when another religion, 
Islam, and its visual images began to spread across Eurasia on 
Silk Road routes. Bv the 8th centurv. just one century after the 
death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 c.e.. Islam had spread 
from its homeland in Arabia west across Egypt and North Africa 
to Spain and east to Sasanian Persia. Early Islamic art showed a 
mixture of Roman, Coptic. Byzantine, and Sasanian styles. 
Although the holy text of Islam, the Koran (Quran), does not 
prohibit figural images, the non-figural character of Islamic deco- 
ration began early, based on traditional theological prohibitions 
against imitating God's creation. The earliest extant Islamic 
structure is the Qubbat al-Sakhra (often called the Dome of the 
Rock by Westerners) in Jerusalem. Built in 691-92 to commem- 
orate the place from which Muhammad is believed to have 
ascended to heaven, this shrine with its golden dome displays 
vivid mosaics of scrolling vines, flowers, crowns, and jewel forms 
in greens, blues, and gold. Sacred calligraphy — writing from the 
Koran — also adorns this shrine, reflecting the importance of the 



Word of God in the Islamic 
tradition. The Koran was 
sometimes written in gold 
script on parchment deco 
rated with floral interlaces. 
An interesting parallel to this 
form of sacred writing is 
found in East Asia where 
Buddhist scriptures were 
often written in gold charac- 
ters on bluish-purple paper. The Buddhist tradition of sacred 
writing developed independently but reflected a similar yearning 
on the part of devotees to sanctify holy utterances with the color 
gold. 

Many other religions were practiced in Silk Road lands - 
Hinduism, Zoroastrianism. Judaism, Assyrian Christianity, 
Manichaeism, Confucianism. Daoism. shamanism - - but 
Buddhism and Islam spread most pervasively throughout this 
region, leaving the greatest imprint on Silk Road culture. 

The Silk Road was at its height during the 7th through 9th 
centuries, when Muslims ruled in West Asia and the Tang 
dynasty presided over a cosmopolitan culture in China. Various 
land and sea routes stretched from the shores of the 
Mediterranean to Japan, the easternmost terminus of Silk Road 
culture. Ceremonies that took place in the year 752 at the 
Buddhist monastery of Todaiji in present-day Nara. Japan, 
provide a vivid testament to the internationalism of Silk Road 
culture. The occasion was the consecration of an enormous gilt 
bronze Buddha about 50 feet tall, weighing some 250 tons. 

Womb world mandala, Japan, mid-13th century. Qold and color on 

indigO-dyed silk; hanging Scroll; 90.3 X 79 Cm. Collection of Sylvan Barnet and 
William Burto 



51 



Paper 

by Valerie Hansen 

Philosopher-statesman Francis Bacon (1561-1621) identified paper as 
one of inventions that separated the modern world from the traditional 
world: the others were the magnetic compass, gunpowder, and printing. 
He never realized that every one of them originated in China. 

Chinese craftsmen first discovered the secret of making paper 
when they washed rags and left them out to dry on a screen. This new. 
flexible material could be used to wrap things, and indeed the first use 
of paper, in the 2nd century b.ce., was as a packaging material for 
medicine. Within a century, paper had begun to displace bamboo strips 
as China's main writing material, and by the 3rd and 4th centuries c.e. 
the Chinese used paper for all their writing. 



Chinese paper moved along the Silk Road into Central Asia before 
the technology of papermaking did. Archaeologists have found paper 
with Chinese writing on it as far afield as the Caucasus mountains (at 
the site of Moshchevaya Balka) on an alternate route to Constantinople. 
Similar paper was in use in the years before 712 at a small fortress on 
Mount Mugh outside Samarkand. There a local ruler imported Chinese 
paper that had already been used on one side — so that he could write 
on the blank reverse when the occasion arose. 

From the writing on the back of one sheet of paper found at 
Mount Mugh we know that it came from Liangzhou, Gansu. an impor- 
tant city on the Chinese silk route. 2,000 miles to the east. Mount Mugh's 



Those in attendance included monks from India, Central 
Asia, and China. Among the many rituals and performances 
that took place was a ribald dance-drama performed by 
masked and costumed dancers. A Chinese lion-dog led 
the dancing procession. He was followed by a hand- 
some prince from South China and a beautifu 
Chinese maiden. An ugly, fanged lecher tried to 
seduce the Chinese lady but was restrained by two 
fierce, muscular Buddhist guardian deities. Then 
appeared Garuda, from Indian Hindu and Buddhist 
mythology, a mythical bird who obtains the elixir o 
immortality and devours his enemy, the dragon. 
Garuda was followed bv an old Brahmin priest-sage from India 
and by another elderly figure wearing a Turkish hat. The dancing 
procession ended with a group of intoxicated, red-faced barbar- 
ians and their Persian king. Occasionally the Persian king and his 
drunken entourage are identified as the Greek god of wine- 
Dionysus and his companions. Most scholars seem to feel, 
however, that this was really a group of Persians. Probably, for 
8th-century Japanese, the distinction between Persians and 
Greeks was nebulous. They were all "barbarians from the 
Western Lands. 

Chinese Tang dynasty objects also attest to the cosmopoli- 
tanism of the era. Many textiles show Persian motifs, most 
notably the pearl-encircled roundel with figurative designs such 




as men on rearing horses facing backward to shoot 
rampant lions or two animals in ritual confrontation 
with one another. Another West Asian specialty, 
gold and silver metalwork, was also imported into 
Tang China. Metal bowls, plates, and cups, deco- 
rated with such West Asian motifs as griffins, 
mouflons, and deer, are found in the graves of the 
upper classes. These tombs also contain ceramic 
igures of foreign musicians and dancers. Other 
figures on horseback - both men and women - 
seem to be playing polo, a game that may be derived 
from a 6th-century b.ce. Persian sport. 
In 750. just before that festive consecration of the Great 
Buddha in Nara, the Muslim Abbasid dynasty established its 
capital in Baghdad, which became a fabled city of learning. The 
9th century saw the building of the Great Mosque of Samarra and 
the Great Mosque of Cairo. It was during this period that lustre, 
an opalescent metallic glaze used on ceramics, was developed. 
The shimmering square lustre tiles set in lozenge patterns on the 
Great Mosque of Al Qayrawan (ca. 862) are a splendid example. 
The 8th century saw the Muslim advance into Central Asia. 
One of the material results of this conquest was the Muslim adop- 
ting drawing of an 8th-century wooden mask representing the drunken 
Persian king called Suiko-o. Height of original: 37.7 cm. Shoso-in 

Collection. Nara. Japan. Drawing by Linda Z. Ardrey 



52 



imported paper was so expensive that the ruler used it only for corre- 
spondence. For his ordinary household accounts he used willow sticks, 
cut from willow branches with the bark removed. Other common writing 
materials were leather and, in the Islamic world at the time, papyrus. 

Legend has it that the secret of papermaking entered the Islamic 
world with the 751 battle of Talas (in modern Kyrgyzstan) when Islamic 
armies captured several Chinese craftsmen, who taught their captors 
how to make paper. Most scholars today think the technology, which 
was not very complex, could have moved out of China into western 
Iran before 751, though no examples of early. non-Chinese paper 
survive. Embracing the new technology, the founders of the Abbasid 



caliphate (750-1258) sponsored a papermaking factory in Baghdad in 
796. Soon all scholars in the Islamic world were copying manuscripts 
onto paper, which was transmitted to Europe via Sicily and Spain by the 
12th century (Bloom 2001). 

Reference Cited 

Bloom. Jonathan M. 2001. Paper Before Print: TheHistoru and Impact of Paper in 
the Islamic World. New Haven: Yale University Press. 

Valerie Hansen teaches Chinese history at Yale. Author of The Open Empire: 
A History of China to 1600, she is now writing a book on the Silk Road. 




tion of paper, a substance that had been developed much earlier 
in China. Muslims began to transcribe onto paper the knowledge 
that they had gained from many people — including Greeks, 
Central Asians, and Indians — and made these pages into books. 
Paper helped link the Islamic Empire across three continents 
(Asia. Africa, and Europe), and paper itself, the process of 
making it, and the knowledge written on it were eventually trans- 
mitted to Europe, helping to inspire the European Renaissance. 
Another great period for cross-cultural interaction along Silk 
Road lands was the age of the Mongol Khanate (13th and 14th 
centuries), when the Polo family traveled from Venice to China 
and back. In the 13th century the Mongols (Turkic-Mongolian 
nomads) conquered China and pressed as far west as the 
Ukraine. They entered Islamic Iran and conquered Baghdad in 
1258. Although the Mongols massacred tens of thousands of 
Muslims, soon many Mongols converted to Islam. Within ten 
years of their conquests Mongol Muslims were building great 
mosques and stimulating arts and letters by their patronage. One 
way they encouraged and transformed the arts in West Asia was 
by importing Chinese artifacts, artisans, and styles. A group of 
Chinese workmen directed a papermaking establishment in 

Islamic Sufi dance from a manuscript of the Divan by llafiz, present-day 
Afghanistan, Herat, dated 1523. Opaque watercolor, gold, and silver on 
paper; 18.8 x 10.3 cm. 

Freer Gallery of Arr. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.: Purchase F1932.54 



53 



Blue-and- White 



by Robert McCormick Adams 

It is commonly assumed that worldwide technology rivalries and 
the interdependence of trade are modern developments. But the history 
of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain and its Middle Eastern, Japanese. 
European, and New World derivatives challenges this view. 

Blue-and-white was traded southward and then westward late in 
the 14th century (about a hundred years after it was first introduced), 
although by that time other Chinese export wares were centuries old. 
They had long moved in both directions between China and the Islamic 
world (and its antecedents), along the ancient overland Silk Road 
through Central Asia and in the cargoes of Arab and Persian seafarers. 
Indirect though it was. this distribution system efficiently communicated 
back to the Chinese information on the tastes of their Muslim 
customers. 

Meantime, there also developed in the Middle East a wave of 
cheaper local copies. When they began appealing to customers in their 
own right, these products no longer needed to be so strictly imitative. 

Soon the West got into the act. After a resolute process of 
exploration at least as consequential in the eyes of contemporaries as 
the voyages of Columbus, the Portuguese finally rounded the Cape of 
Good Hope late in the 15th century, opening the Orient to sea trade. 
Quantities of blue-and-white were being shipped to Lisbon as early as 



1530, becoming no less prized in European markets than they were else- 
where. 

Once again the Chinese producers were quickly responsive to the 
changing demands, helped along in this case by painted wooden models 
that the Dutch sent along with their huge orders. 

The Japanese part in all this is equally fascinating. Their taste for 
blue-and-white did not develop until they had begun to master the tech- 
nology themselves, which they succeeded in doing about 1600. Not long 
afterward they made their own entry into world markets. Splendid Dutch 
records tell a story of massive shipments of Chinese blue-and-white 
into Japan at first, followed by a Japanese invasion of Southeast Asian 
and European markets when Chinese production was temporarily inter- 
rupted by a civil war. Only in the later part of the 17th century did the 
Chinese reemerge as competitors. By then the producers of Japanese 
Imari wares, originally crude and derivative, had developed their own 
vigorous, indigenous styles for which there was a secure niche in the 
upper tiers of European and Middle Eastern markets. 

Then there is a New World element. Spain came comparatively 
late to the Pacific by way of the Philippines. Annual shipments of 
Mexican silver from Acapulco quickly followed, eventually reaching China 
in quantities sufficient to drive out Manchu paper currency and greatly 



Samarkand under Mongol patronage in the 13th and 14th 
centuries. 

Blue-and-white ceramics are a good example of East-West 
interchange along Silk Road lands during this period. Islamic 
potters had decorated tin-glazed vessels with cobalt from about 
the 9th century onward. Muslim merchants in South Chinese 
coastal cities introduced this ware to China where, in the late 13th 
century, it was copied by Chinese potters creating high-fired 
porcelain ware. The white porcelain vessels decorated with cobalt 
blue designs were then exported to West Asia and to Southeast 
Asia where they became enormously popular and were copied, 
although not in high-fired porcelain. A good example of cobalt- 
decorated ware inspired by the Chinese examples is Turkish 
stoneware from the Iznik kilns, dating from the late 15th century 
onward. In the 15th century the Chinese court finally began to 
patronize blue-and-white porcelain, encouraging domestic 
production and use of the wares, not just their export. 



The importance of the historical Silk Road, with its 
emphasis on overland routes, declined after the 15th century, 
when Europeans began to dominate the sea routes connecting 
Europe, the New World, and Asia. These sea routes increased the 
ease of travel and the availability of goods. Objects and ideas 
continued to influence East and West as Westerners adopted 
Asian fashions and collected Asian objects, and, in turn, Asians 
developed a taste for Western fashions, food, and technologies. 
The exchange of objects continues today in the global market- 
place at an accelerated rate, with camel caravans and clipper ships 
replaced by e-commerce and overnight air delivery. 



Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis, an associate in research at the 
Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at Harvard 
University, is Associate Professor of Asian and Japanese art 
history at boston university. 



54 






disrupt the internal economy. The return trade was in silks - and, of 
course, blue-and-white. Dispersed across Mexico, pieces found their way 
even to the rude northern frontiers of New Spam. Sherds still turn up 
from time to time in historic Indian villages along the upper Rio Grande. 
just as they do more frequently along the Arabian coasts. 

Initially imitative industries sprang up in northwestern Europe, in 
Italy, even in Mexico. Out of these, in time, came the splendid tradition 
of Delftwares and the English porcelains that still grace our tables. But 
what is most interesting is the antiquity as well as the worldwide range 
of the shifting patterns of supply and demand, stimulus and response. 
An ebb and flow of technological and trading leadership long antedates 
the modern era. 



Left: Plate. Turkish. Ottoman dynasty, ca. 1500-1525. 
Freer Gallery of Art. Smithsonian Institution. Washington. D.C. 

Center: Dish. Chinese. Yuan dynasty, ca. 1350. 

Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

Right: Dish. Japanese. Edo period, ca. 1690-1710. Freer Gallery of Art. 
Smithsonian Institution. Washington. D.C. 



Robert McCormick Adams, an archaeologist, was Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution from 198/, to 199/,. This article originally appeared in Smithsonian 
magazine, March 19S6. 



For Further Reading 

Blair, Sheila, and J. Bloom. 1994. The Art and Architecture of Islam 
1250-1800. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 

Brend. Barbara. 1991. Islamic Art. Cambridge: Harvard University 
Press. 

Fisher. Robert E. 1993. Buddhist Art and Architecture. London: 
Thames and Hudson. 

Hatrstein, Markus, and Peter Delius, eds. 2000. Islam: Art and 
Architecture. Cologne: Koneman. 

Hayashi, Ryoichi. 1975. The Silk Road and the Shoso-in, translated 
by Robert Ricketts. New York: Weatherhill. 

Juliano. Annette L., and Judith A. Lerner. 2001. Monks and 
Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China. Qansu 
and Ningxia. 4ik-7th Century. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 
Inc., and Asia Society, Inc. 



Milleker, Elizabeth J., ed. 2000. The Year One: Art of the Ancient 
World. East and West. New York: The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. 

Schafer, Edward H. 1963. The Qolden Peaches of Samarkand: A 
Studv ofT'ang Exotics. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth, ed. 2002. Along the Silk Road. Asian Art 
and Culture, no. 6. Washington, D.C: Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. 

. 1999. Japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred 

Qeography. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 

Vollmer, John E., et al. 1983. Silk Roads. China Ships: An Exhibition 
of East-West Trade. Toronto: Roval Ontario Museum. 

Watt, James C.Y, and Anne E. Wardwell. 1997. When Silk Was 
Qold: Central Asian and Chinese Textiles. New York: The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



55 






Artists along the Silk Road 

by Henry Glassie and Pravina Shukla 

The Silk Road, historically a tangle of trade routes across Asia, raises for us the idea of connections between East 
and West, providing an evocative prelude to the globalization of the present. The Silk Road chastens us to 
remember that transnational connections are not unique to our age. And then, we are chastened further to recall that 
the connections of the past were not merely commercial. The most splendid vield of the connections made along 
the Silk Road was art, and evidence of old motion and past exchange is still to be found in the living arts of Asia. 



57 




West 

At the western edge of Asia, on the Aegean coast of Turkey, a 
great mountain lifts, rolls, and slides into the sea. Mount Ida to 
the ancients, Goose Mountain to the Turks, it holds in its folds a 
scatter of compact villages built upon the sites of their winter 
encampments by nomadic Turks. The land is rocky, unfit to the 
plow. Sheep pick among the rocks and grow the wool that is 
sheared and combed, spun, dyed, and woven into beautiful 
carpets, red with the rosy glow of dawn. 

Fatma Balci sits at the loom, between her mother and aunt, 
in their stone home in the village of Ahmctler. They use no plan, 
no cartoon, but weave kafadan, from the head, sitting together and 
improvising like jazz musicians, weaving their separation into 
symmetrical unity. Rolling the carpet on the wooden beam below, 
they cannot see what they have done as they tie knots to the warp, 
color by color, trapping rows of dyed dots between shoots of weft. 
After weeks of work and hundreds of thousands of knots, they cut 
their creation from the loom. Praise God: from their heads, 
through their fingers, perfectly formed geometric motifs rise on a 
placid red field, framed by busy borders. This carpet, into which 
they have poured themselves in concentration, in dedication, is 
mnat, art — a palpable sign of their skill, taste, and commitment. 



It incarnates them and symbolizes their place, being one of the 
dozen designs found on the floor of their village mosque. 

Ahmet Balci, Fatma's father, says that his people — he calls 
them the Turks -- followed their flocks out of Central Asia, 
settled, and continued to weave the carpets that are emblems of 
their Yoriik. nomadic, identity. The scholar, looking closely at the 
motifs on their carpets, can retrace the trail of their migration east- 
ward, finding comparable motifs in the weavings of northwestern 
Turkev, south-central Turkey, northern Iran, and Central Asia. 

Fatma Balci will keep the best of the carpets for her dowry. 
Others she will donate to her mosque in commemoration of 
deceased loved ones. Most will go to market in the town of 
Ayvacik, and then to Istanbul, before finding their places of rest 
on the floors of fine homes in Washington or London, Stockholm 
or Melbourne. In this there is nothing new. Paintings by the 
masters of the Renaissance, showing rugs draped over altars and 
spread beneath the feet of princes, prove that carpets woven in 
Fatma s region of Turkev have been purchased and prized in the 
West for 600 years. 

Connecting Central Asia with Turkey through migration. 
Women sell carpets woven in nearby villages at the market in Ayvacik, 

Qanakkalc, Turkey. Photos by Henry Glassie/Pravinj Shuldj 



58 



Turkey with the world through commerce, the Oriental carpet has 
achieved universal appreciation. Asserting order in its geometry, 
subverting order in its spontaneous handcraft, intensely human. 
the Oriental carpet — a woman's art. a folk art. a fine art — has 
become one marker of the presence of our species on the earth. It 
is rivaled in its global spread and acceptance only by Chinese 
porcelain. 

Istanbul is the key node in the network oi trade through 
which Turkish carpets have traveled the world. Soon after 
Mehmet II. Fatih, took Istanbul and made it the capital of the 
Ottoman Empire in 1453. a strong hall was built for fine textiles, 
and the streets around it were vaulted to create the Covered 
Bazaar. There the land routes from the East ended, and elegant 
commodities were sent by sea to Europe. Spices 
and cotton from India, silk and porcelain from 
China came by stages through the cara 
vanserais of Anatolia to make Istanbul - 
the natural capital of the world, said 
Napoleon — the center of global trade. 
The Ottoman sultans wore caftans of 
silk, and they so appreciated Chinese 
porcelain that a vast collection remains 
at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. In 
the ambit of imperial favor. Turkish arti- 
sans were inspired to experimentation, 
working through the last decades of the 15th 
century to invent a variety of pottery called gini 
(cognate with "china"), which, though low-fired 
and technically unlike porcelain, emulates its ring and 
sheen. 

At two centers in western Turkey, in the cities of Iznik and 
Kutahya, Turkish potters at first imitated the blue-and-white 
porcelain of Jingdezhen. Then in a surging series of innovations, 
they made it their own in the 16th century, adding new colors, 
notably a luscious tomato red. and pushing the designs toward 
natural form and Islamic reference. Iznik failed early in the 18th 

This plate is painted with the Besmele (Bismila), the opening formula 
of the Koran (Quran): In the name of Qod, the Merciful, the 
Compassionate. It a:as designed and painted by Nurten §ahin. Kutahya, 

Turkey. Collection of the Indiana University Art Museum 




century, but the tradition has faltered and flourished through a 
sequence of revivals in Kutahya, where today, in ateliers 
numbering in the hundreds, gini is made. 

The master of the atelier, a man like Ihsan Erdeyer at Susler 
Cini. directs a team of workers. Men mix seven elements to make 
a composite white substance — they call it mud — that is shaped, 
slipped, and fired. Women pounce and draw the designs, filling 
them with vibrant color before the ware is glazed and fired again. 
They make tiles to revet the walls of new mosques. They make 
plates, domestic in scale and association, that do at home what 
tiles do in the mosque, bringing shine and color and religious 
significance to the walls. 

The master and his team depend upon a designer. In the 
20th century, Klitahya's greatest designer was a 
gentle, confident, marvelous artist named Ahmet 
Sahin. As a young man, he was one of two 
potters who brought the tradition from the 
brink of extinction at the end of World War 
1. As an old man, he drew the majority of 
the designs used in the dusty ateliers, he 
painted magnificent works to inspire his 
city, to keep quality high, and he taught 
all who came to him. Ahmet Sahin died 
in l ( J% at the age of 90, but his robust 
style continues. Two of his sons, Zafer and 
Faruk. are masters. Zafer's son. Ahmet 
Hurriyet Sahin. and his wife, Nurten, number 
among the foremost artists of contemporary Kutahya. 
As many as 40.000 people are involved in the gini 
trade, but a small number of artists who design and paint the ware- 
lead the city. Their styles are diverse. Sitki Olcar seeks the new. 
Ismail Yigit copies the old. and Klitahya's tradition advances in 
the hands of those who have shaped personal versions of the 
works of the old masters. Nurten Sahin, famed for new calli- 
graphic designs, paints with clarity and supernatural precision. 
Ibrahim Erdeyer, son of Ihsan. paints in a bold manner, reminis- 
cent of Ahmet Sahin. Mehmet Giirsoy, teacher and entrepreneur, 
paints with delicate finesse, accepting and then breaking the 
rules, and he has set the new standard, becoming the leader most 
artists choose subtly to follow. 



59 




Their art, and they insist it is art, not mere craft, depends on 
material quality, on a smooth white surface and gem-like colors 
set beneath a lustrous gla:e. It depends on meticulous painting, 
on faultless lines drawn and filled with paint in an altered state of 
concentration, when, with passion, the artists transfer themselves 
into their work, making gini an embodiment of their devotion. 
And their art depends on Islamic significance, gifts to the mind 
and soul: calligraphic designs that repeat beautifully the very 
word of God: geometric designs that represent the will of the one 
God bringing order to the universe: floral designs that symbolize 
a harmonious society, governed by love. 

East 

As Kiitahya is to Turkey, Arita is to Japan. It is a small city of 
potters on the southern island of Kyushu, where a Korean potter 

Mustafa Onq works at the wheel at Nakis. Cini. one of hundreds of 

potteries in Kiitahya, Turkey. 



discovered porcelain clay at the beginning of the 17th century. As 
in Turkey, the first pieces of Japanese porcelain were inspired by 
Chinese examples, but, as in Turkey (though a century later). 
Japanese artisans soon adjusted porcelain to their place, adding 
colors to the blue-and-white palette and creating new designs, 
some to meet a Japanese taste, and others that, sent out on Dutch 
ships, achieved commercial success in Europe. The ware 
intended for the West came to be known as Imari, after the city 
through which it was traded. Among Arita's traditions favored in 
Japan, one — Kakiemon, named for the family that has continued 
its practice to the 14th generation — is remarkable in its parallels 
with Kiitahya. Kakiemon porcelain features the color red and 
exhibits bright floral patterns on a snow-white field. And. as the 
potters of Kiitahya strove in the 20th century — first in the days 
of Ahmet Sahin. then in the days of M ehmet Giirsoy — to accom- 

(Oppositc page) One of Nona Agawa's lion sculptures comes into being in 
this sequence: from an early phase, to the middle phase, ready for glazing, 
and finally glazed and boxed for shipping. 



60 



plish anew the technical excellence of the 16th century, so did the 
potters of Arita struggle in the 20th century to match the technical 
excellence of the 17th century. 

Sadao Tatebayashi, a designer and painter in the Kakiemon 
atelier, was a member of the team that restored old excellence to the 
porcelain of Arita. Upon his retirement, he established his own 
workshop, Korin-An, where his son, Hirohisa, is the master today. 

Hirohisa Tatebayashi says that porcelain is so complex that 
no one can make it alone. It takes ten years to master each facet of 
production, and he has assembled a team, including his son. 
Naonori, who work to the highest standard. Their inspiration is 
Sadao Tatebayashi. who died in 1992. They use his designs, as 
Ahmet Hlirriyet and Nurten Sahin use those of Ahmet Sahin, but 
they have also widened their reach beyond the Kakiemon tradi- 
tion, painting bluc-and-white plates based on Chinese originals, 
and. to close the circle perfectly, they have begun painting plates 
with Turkish designs -- the very designs favored in modern 
Kiitahva — lifted from recent publications. 

"Delicate is the word Hirohisa Tatebayashi consistently 
uses to describe his painting. Delicacy of brushwork suits the 
smooth, luminous surface, the immaculate white ground, and the 
fine forms of porcelain. The contrast is complete with the roughly 
touched surfaces, dripping glazes, and earthy distorted forms of 
the stoneware made for the tea ceremony, practiced by millions in 
modern Japan. lea ware provides an opportunity for another story 
of cultural connection. 

When the aristocratic tea ceremony was at the peak of its 
fashion, earlv in the 17th century, the lord of the Mori clan brought 
two Korean potters to Hagi in western Japan to make ceremonial 
vessels. Evolved from Korean precedent in the lineage of the Miwa 
and Saka families, Hagi yaki is made now in 200 ateliers in the city 
and its environs. In his sunny shop on the banks of the Hashimoto 
River, Norio Agawa works alone, making tea bowls, thrown to 



retain the track of his fingers and flowing over with a thick white 
glaze that drifts on the gritty surface like snow on a gra\ elly beach. 

Reflecting the paradoxes of a Zen view of the world - 
smooth and rough, bright and dull — Norio Agawa's bowls and 
vases for the tea ceremony exemplify Hagi s tradition, but the 
heart of his practice lies in sculpture. Late in the 17th century, a 
brilliant potter of the Saka family added sculpture to Hagi s reper- 
tory, and Norio Agawa has studied his works and continued his 
line. Norio Agawa's pride is the lion. He calls it a Chinese lion. 
Lions come in pairs, one female, one male. In China, they sit. the 
male with a ball, the female with her cub. In Hagi, they pounce, 
the female with her mouth open to speak the sound of the begin- 
ning, the male with his mouth closed to murmur the sound of the 
end. Together thev utter the sound of eternity "om" - and 
vigilantly guard the Buddha s way. 

Miraculously raising clav by hand around nothing into 
expressive hollow forms. Norio Agawa also shapes human 
images. One is the brooding Daruma. a monk who came from 
India to China in the 6th century to establish both the Zen inflec- 
tion in Buddhism and the discipline of the martial arts. But, like 
his brother Hachiro Higaki. who learned from him, Norio Agawa 
images most often the Seven Gods, ubiquitous in Japan as the 
recipients of popular devotion, the donors of good fortune. 

The Seven Gods are also the prime subjects of the ceramic 
sculptors of Seto, an ancient city of potters in central Japan. Their 
handling of the clay expresses the range of their personalities. 
Susumu Kato slowly shapes images that are refined and precise. 
Denko Maekawa hastily makes impressionistic figures that 
display the pinch and pull of the clay yielding to the artist's hand. 
Shigeyuki Masuda works between them, enjoying, like Susumu 
Kato, the counterpoint of glazed and unglazcd surfaces, while 
creating figures that embody his own calm and gentle personality. 

Assembled into a set since the 15th century, the Seven Gods 



61 




bespeak old connections. The one figured most often is Hotei, a 
Chinese Zen priest of the 10th century, merry and fat. big with 
compassion for the people of the world. Next is the pair Daikoku 
and Ebisu, a carpenter and a fisherman, smiling bringers of 
wealth, native to Japan. Then there are the bearded Chinese 
deities of wisdom and longevity. Jurojin and Fukurokuju. At last 
there are Bishamon in armor and Benten, the only woman among 
them, the Japanese incarnation of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess 
of learning and art - both ultimately from India. From Japan, the 
Seven Gods carry us westward to Daoist and Buddhist China, 
and southwestward to Hindu India. 



Haripada Pal, of Dhaka, Bangladesh, sculpted and painted this clay image 
of Kali (standing), which is worshiped in the Shankharibazar Kali 
Mandir. 



South 

From the world s tallest mountains, great rivers run to the sea. 
Where the sacred Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the mighty 
Meghna meet and merge, their silt has built the world's widest 
delta, the territory of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. The 
land is lush and green, relentlessly flat, free of stones, and rich in 
clay for the potter. 

There are 680 villages of potters in Bangladesh. Most of the 
potters are Hindus, bearing the same surname. Pal, designating 
them as members of the craft-caste of the workers in clay. They 
make vessels to carry water and cook food, and the most talented 
men among them also sculpt murtis, images of the deities for 
worship. The greatest of them all is Haripada Pal. who works in a 
cramped, damp shop on Shankharibazar in the capital city of 
Dhaka. Trained by his grandfather in the village of Norpara. 
Haripada traveled west and east to India, perfecting his craft. 

Haripada Pal frames an armature of sticks, wraps it with rice 
straw, and covers the straw with clay. In the clay, he says, there is 
the seed of all creation, a drop of God that springs to life with 
prayer. In his body, too, there is a drop of God, the soul that 
enables all action. As he works, massaging the clay into symmet- 
rical form, the God in his body erupts through his fingertips to 
reunite with the God in the clay, and his sculpture is infused with 
power. Then he sands the surface and paints it for beauty. 

On the day of worship, the deity is invited into the clay. 
Delighted with the beautiful image, the God descends and stays 
as long as the lights dance, the incense smokes, and the songs of 
praise continue. The devotees press forward, taking darshan, 
connecting eye to eye with the porter's creation, asking for the 
boons that make life on this earth tolerable. Then the night 
passes, the songs end, the God leaves. The statue is empty, a 
pretty shell. It is borne to the river in a jubilant, carnivalesque 
procession and immersed, sacrificed, melted back into the water 
that carries the silt from which the murtis of the future will be 
shaped. The rivers go on running. 

Haripada Pal's technique differs from that of the Japanese 

Opposite page: Weaving shops line the road through the village of 
Kazipara, Rupganj. Bangladesh, at one of the eastern ends of the Silk 
Road trade routes. Here, weaving traditions are being passed on in the 
workshop of Askar Ali. 



62 



potters. Their images arc hollow, his are tilled with sticks and 
straw. Theirs .ire fired, his are dried without firing because heat 
and flame would destroy the power that abides in dampness. Yet. 
Haripada's technique was once employed in japan, where it was 
carried, out of India, through China, with Buddhism. And like 
the potters of Japan. I laripada serves the needs of his community, 
though, for him. the highest goal is to make art so excellent, so 
pleasing to God that, upon his death, Haripada will be released 
from the endless cycles of reincarnation into a state of eternal 
bliss. 

Haripada Pal says he is a poor man, but happy because he 
spends his days shaping the body of God. In clay, he depicts the 
full Hindu pantheon, but he specializes in the prime deities of 
Bengal: Radha and Krishna, the very vision of love, and Durga. 
the great goddess, with her children: Saraswati, the goddess of 
wisdom: Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth: Kartik, the dapper god 
of war: and Ganesh. the Lord of Beginnings, with his opulent 
paunch and elephants head. Hindu artist in the predominantly 
Muslim nation of Bangladesh. Haripada Pal connects, in his 
work, westward to India, to Calcutta and Banaras, where sculp- 
tors in clay work as he does. 

Upriver from Dhaka, the Ganges bends to embrace Banaras. 
the city of light and smoke, the holiest city of Hinduism, the best 
place to die. As it was when the Buddha delivered his first sermon 
just outside the city, Banaras is a place of industry and commerce 
as well as perpetual prayer in its temples more numerous than the- 
nce grains in a ten-kilo sack. 

Sculptors work in stone, carving images of the Hindu 
deities. Jewelers hammer gold and set precious stones, repeating 
luxurious ornaments from Mughal times. But the most renowned 
of the city's artistic creations is the silk sari that Indian women 
hope to wear for their weddings. In three neighborhoods - 
mazes of alleys clicking and humming with the report of the loom 
- Muslim men weave the long strips of brocaded silk that Hindu 
brides drape as saris, that Muslim brides cut and sew into salwar 
kameez, matching pants and tunics. 

What Hirohisa Tatebayashi said of porcelain, Hashim 
Ansari said of the Banarasi sari. Its production is too complex for 
one person to master. Silk weaving requires teamwork. Hashim 
Ansari divides the tasks with his three brothers in one of the tour 



workshops run by cousins on the first floor of the tall building 
where all of them live. I lashim s lather, Abdul Qaiyoum, decides 
upon the designs. Drawn on paper, the design is taken to Manuj 
Kumar, the cardwallah, who punches holes rapidly, translating 
the design, line by line, onto perforated cards. Linked in 
sequence, the cards are fed into a facquard apparatus that dangles 
from the ceiling above the loom in the dark workshop. A French 
invention of the early LJth century, used extensively in North 
America to weave coverlets, the jacquard device changes the 
pattern when the weaver tramps on a pedal that brings a new card 




63 




Banaras, but jamdani saris are prized for their handcraft and for 
the diaphanous web that surrounds the woman who wears them 
with a gauzy haze of light. The jamdani sari of Bangladesh, like 
the Banarasi sari of India, is expensive. The women of Rupganj 
weave jamdanis, Showkat Ali said, but thev do not wear them. 

At Rupganj. on the wide green delta of Bengal, we are at one 
of the eastern ends of the trade routes that carried goods and 
inspiration westward. Fine cotton cloth, woven in remote 
villages, sold in the markets at Demra, then Dhaka, went by 
caravan through Mosul in Iraq, gaining the name muslin, and 
Bengali muslins have been treasured by European consumers for 
more than 2,000 years. 



into position above him. Metal fingers poke through the holes in 
the card, causing some warp threads to lift. The weaver - 
Hashim Ansari in one shop, his cousin Sadique Ansari in another 
— runs an extra weft through the pattern and follows it with quick 
shots of the shuttle. The loom is a pit loom of the old Indian sort, 
married to a European machine to create shimmering silk strips, 
intricately brocaded in shades of gold. 

All the brothers in Hashim Ansari s shop are weavers, but 
Mohsin is the color king, the master of dyeing, Shameem repairs 
the finicky machines, and Hashim takes their creations to market. 
The streets of the city are lined with stores selling the very finest 
saris. Most of the saris are the city's product in silk, but thev are 
displayed along with saris brocaded on cotton so sheer that the 
designs seem to float on air. 

To find the source of these fine cotton saris, we return down 
the Ganges to the delta of Bengal, where, in the countryside east 
of Dhaka, brocaded — jamdani — saris are woven by Muslim 
men and women on thousands of looms. Weaving shops line the 
road through the village of Kazipara, Rupganj. Bamboo sheds 
shelter pit looms like those of Banaras, but there is no machine to 
set the pattern. Instead, masters like Showkat Ali and Enamul 
Haque sit to the right, with a helper to the left, and pierce the weft 
by hand and eye, running an extra weft into the warp and then 
securing it with two passes of the shuttle. The designs, heavy or 
light, are angular and geometric, less intricate than those of 

Azizul Haqim weaves a jamdani sari in the workshop of Enamul Haque 
in Kazipara, Rupganj, Bangladesh. 



The routes across Asia, convenient for warriors and mystics 
as well as merchants, for the movement of ideas as well as 
commodities, carried spice and cotton from India, silk and porce- 
lain from China, and carpets from Central Asia, Iran, and Turkey 
to the great cities of the Ottoman Empire. At Bursa, the first 
Ottoman capital, the Silk Road ended at the Kozahan, a stone 
building near the Great Mosque, where today silk is woven and 
farmers bring silk cocoons for sale in a market that puts the 
American observer in mind of the tobacco auctions of North 
Carolina. At Istanbul, the Covered Bazaar spreads between the 
Forum of Constantine and the mosque of Bevazit, offering a 
bounty of Asian goods, of textiles and ceramics, that provoke the 
historical imagination. 

Carried overland to be shipped from Turkish cities, or trav- 
eling the long route by sea from China and Japan. Asian works of 
art found such appreciation, and inspired so many imitations, that 
they have been absorbed into the culture of the West, so thor- 
oughly absorbed that we do not stop to notice our debt to the 
East, when, say, in a small hotel in rural Ireland, we walk across 
linoleum embossed with a design from a Turkish carpet, and sit 
down for a breakfast of oatmeal served in a willowware bowl that 
is an English version of an original from China. 



Henry Glassie and Pravina Shukla teach in the Folklore 
Institute at Indiana University. 



64 




Expensive brocaded cotton jamdani saris are sold at market in Derma, 
Bangladesh. Fine cotton cloth woven in remote villages, sold in the 
markets at Dcmra. then Dhaka, went by caravan through Iraq and have 
been treasured by European consumers for more than 2.000 years. 



For Further Reading 

Atasoy, Nurhan, and Julian Raby. 1989. lznik: The Pottery oj 
Ottoman Turkey. London: Alexandria Press. 

Barnard, Nicholas. 1995. Arts and Crafts of India. London: Conran 
Octopus. 

Briiggemann, W., and H. Bohmer. 1983. Rugs of the Peasants and 
Nomads of Anatolia. Munich: Kunst and Antiquitaten. 

Carswell, John. 1985. Blue and White: Chinese Porcelain and Its 
Impact on the Western World. Chicago: The David and Alfred 
Smart Gallery. 

. 1998. Iznik Pottery. London: British Museum Press. 

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. 1989 (1909). The Indian Craftsman. 
New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. 

Dutt. Gurusaday. 1990. Folk Arts and Crafts of Bengal: The Collected 
Papers. Calcutta: Seagull. 

Glassie, Henry. 1993. Turkish Traditional Art Today. Bloomington: 
Indiana University Press. 



. 1997. Art and Life in Bangladesh. Bloomington: Indiana 

University Press. 

. The Potter's Art. 1999. Bloomington: Indiana University 



Press; Philadelphia: Material Culture. 

Kumar, Nita. 1988. The Artisans of Banaras: Popular Culture and 
Identity. 1880-1986. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Lynton, Linda. 1995. The Sari: Styles. Patterns. History. Techniques. 
New York: Abrams. 

Nayatake, Takeshi. 1981. Kakiemon. Tokyo: Kodansha. 

Sethi, Rajeev, Pria Devi, and Richard Kurin. 1986. Aditi: The Living 
Arts of India. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. 

Tichane, Robert. 1983. Ching-te-Chen: Views of a Porcelain City. 
Painted Post: New York State Institute for Glaze Research. 

Wilson, Richard L. 1995. Inside Japanese Ceramics: A Primer of 
Materials. Techniques, and Traditions. New York: Weatherhill. 

Yanagai, Soetsu. 1972. The Unknown Craftsman: A Japanese Insight 
into Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. 



65 






Silk Road Cooking: A Culinary Journey 

by Najmieh Batmanglij 

Join mc on a voyage of culinary discovery that stretches through the ages and across half the world, from China in 
the east to Persia and on to the Mediterranean in the west, along the ancient network of trading routes known today 
as the Silk Road. Each place on the Silk Road itself, be it splendid city, rich trading town, or green oasis, has its 
own distinctive character and culture and yet is linked across desert and mountain to every other place. The same 
is true of salads, soups, breads, rice, kabobs, and pastries from Xi'an to Samarkand, from Isfahan to Istanbul and 
then northwest to Italy. It was along the caravan trails (and later the sea routes) that vegetables, fruits, grains, and 
seasonings — and the techniques for cooking them — passed from one civilization to another, to be absorbed and 
transformed into local specialties. 



67 



In markets in Uzbekistan, one finds huge melons of 
surpassing sweetness and vibrant orange carrots unlike any 
others. In Iran the familiar flat bread — also called nan in India, 
Pakistan. Afghanistan. Uzbekistan, much of Central Asia and 
Western China and cooked in a tandoor (clay oven) or on a saaj (a 
convex cast iron plate placed over fire) — is offered on wooden 
carts, loaves scented with onion, garlic, and sesame, cumin, or 
nigella seeds. In Xi an, stalls groan under bright persimmons, 
pomegranates, big ted jujubes, and figs, peaches, and grapes. 
Aromatic ginger, onions, and leeks are everywhere to be found as 
well. 1 like to call these "Silk Road ingredients" - and the 
wonderful produce, fresh from the earth, stalk, vine, or branch, 
has come to the markets of America, too. 

The dishes to be made from this rich bounty appear in infi- 
nite variety. Consider only that tempting assembly of little dishes 
found throughout the Middle East (mezze) and into Spain (where 
they are called tapas). In China they refer to a similar layout of 
little dishes as dim sum, while in Italy thev arc the antipasti. 

The noodles of my childhood are present in almost every 
country along the ancient Silk Road. In northern China a noodle 
master, in what looks like sleight of hand, can stretch and swing a 
lump of dough into perfect individual strands in 15 minutes. The 
sauces and soups that enhance these noodles exist in as rich a 
variety in China as they do in Italy. 

Such mastery would seem to support the old legend that 
Marco Polo brought noodles from China to Italy in the 
13th century. Recent archeological and linguistic scholarship 
shows, however, that the transfer was much earlier and in both 
directions. Todav. culinary food historians agree that pasta prob- 
ably originated in Iran. The first pasta dish is recorded in a 10th- 
century Arab cookery book, Kitah al-Tahikh wa-islah al-Aghdiyah 
al-Ma'kulat, which calls it by the Persian word lakhshah, meaning 
to slide, presumably because of the slipperiness of noodles. (The 
Russian lapsha and the Yiddish lokshn, for example, derive from 
lakhshah.) The same book also mentions that the dish was 
invented by the Sasanian Persian King Khosrow I (531-79 c.e.). 
It was probably the Arabs who introduced noodles, and the hard 
durum wheat necessary for making them, to Italy in the 
9th century via Sicily (noodles) and Genoa (ravioli). 

No one knows exactly how the technique for making pasta 



reached China. What is known is that before the Han dynasty 
(206 b.c.e. -220c.e.), China lacked the mills for large-scale flour 
grinding, which it acquired as she expanded to the west via the 
newly explored Silk Road. As soon as the mills appeared, 
however, Han cooks adapted or invented a vast array of "noodle 
foods, as they were called by writers of the time. By the end of 
the dynasty, China already had developed the technique for 
swinging dough into individual strands. These were boiled and 
served with a range of seasonings, and, although they were gener- 
ally considered common food, they were so delicious that even 
the emperor ate them. Other pasta foods include dumplings, 
steamed buns, and little wheat cakes. Some were invented by 
ordinary people, a 3rd-century chronicler reports, and some came 
from foreign lands. 

The many types and names of Chinese noodle food offer the 
sorts of clues that delight linguistic scholars, who find hints of 
food origins in the wanderings of words. Among the Chinese 
favorites, for example, is mantou, a steamed, sweetened, bread- 
like bun. The term appears in Japan as manzu, meaning steamed 
bread with a filling: and in Korea as mandu, a kind of ravioli filled 
with beef. Tibetans make stuffed dumplings in a variety of shapes 
and call them momo. In Central Asia, manti is a small steamed 
pasta that may contain meat, cheese, or vegetables and is served 
with yogurt or vinegar; in Turkey and Armenia the same word 
refers to a stuffed pasta shell steamed, poached in broth, or baked: 
and in Iran it is a wonton-like pasta cooked in a broth. Although 
some suggest a Central Asian origin for such dishes, no one- 
knows for sure. What is more important than the origin is that the 
dishes and their names are all related. They form a culinary bond 
- a sign of early and peaceful communication -- that links 
distant and sometimes hostile cultures. 

It is a curious fact that the noodles that reached culinary 
heights in China and Japan, not to mention Italy, occupy only a 
humble place in the cookery of their Iranian home. Rice, on the 
other hand, is the same story in reverse. The grain, cultivated in 
China and India for at least 5.000 years, seems to have reached 
Iran only in the -4th century b.c.e. It did not begin to play an 
important part in Iranian cookery, however, until the 8th century. 
Since then, rice has become something special in Iran. It is not 
the anchor of a meal as it is in China, but the basis of festive and 



68 





elaborate dishes called polows (parboiled and steamed rice). A 
polow may be cooked with a golden crust; it may be flavored with 
tart cherries, quinces, pomegranates, barberries, or candied bitter 
orange peel: it may include pistachios, almonds, walnuts, or rose 
petals. Like other good dishes, polow has spread far bevond its 
Persian source. Under such related names as pilau, pilavi, pilaf, 
paella, and pullao, and with such additions as chickpeas and 
raisins or onions and carrots, it graces celebrations from 
Afghanistan to Albania, and from India to Spain. 

Similar tales linking east and west, north and south, could be 
told for rice pudding, for bread, and for dozens of other prepara- 
tions based on vegetables, grains, fruits, herbs, and spices. This 
cuisine from the region that was once home to the Silk Road 
seems to have certain characteristics in common: foods and tech- 
niques that have been passed from region to region: a philosophy 

i Left i A girl sells scallion bread at a Xi'an market. 

(Right) Flat bread is a staple at this market in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 

Photos ' 2001 Najmieh Batmjnglij/Aljgc Publishers 



of healthy, balanced eating from Chinas yin-yang to India s 
ayurveda and from Iran's "hot and cold " to the Salerno Regimen 
of the Italian Middle Ages; and a particularly generous insistence 
on hospitality. That is the result of a long shared history, which 
began with an intrepid Chinese traveler of the 2nd century b.( .i .. 
Zhang Qian. 

Today. Italian and Chinese cooking together with Indian. 
Persian, Uzbek, and Turkish cuisine represent the tasty, inexpen- 
sive, down-to-earth, and cheerful food that is a lasting influence 
of the ancient Silk Road. And with the increase in culinary aware- 
ness and health concerns, and a trend toward simpler, more rustic 
ingredients such as flour with bran, brown rice, and fresh and 
seasonal food, America has become a kind of modern Silk Road 
entrepot where wonderful ingredients from all over the world - 
and instructions for cooking them — are available to everyone. 



69 



Venice 



CHINA 



Few cultures were as enthusiastic 

as China's about culinary imports, 

but then, few cultures were as food ,.'\ , 

oriented as China's. ■.., ■■■>...^^^... l 

While the central philosophy of 

eating, in early periods as now, was that a meal 

should consist of fan (grain) as the primary food and cat 

— vegetables and/or meat and fish, cut small, carefully blended and 

flavored, and quickly cooked — the possibilities for variation were 

infinite. 

The possibilities for cai were great before the opening of trade 
routes. People ate meat and fish as well as such vegetables as bamboo 
shoots, water mallow (something like spinach), turnips, yams, radishes, 
lotus root, scallions, shallots, and mushrooms. During the Han and later 
dynasties, new vegetables arrived from Western Asia and Iran, including 
spinach, rhubarb, onions, cucumbers, broad beans, peas, and melons; the 
Chinese classified them, developed them, and found new ways to cook 
them. 

It was the same with fruits and nuts. China was blessed with 
superb produce, including peaches, plums, apricots, and persimmons, 
and from the south came mangoes, bananas, and citrus. The Chinese 
also carefully cultivated new fruits arriving from the Silk Road — figs 
and dates, cherries, melons, pomegranates, grapes, almonds, pistachios, 
walnuts, caraway, coriander, and sugar cane. 

Then there were fermented and pickled foods, used for flavoring 
but also useful to travelers. The soybean was as central to Chinese 
cuisine, then and now, as ginger. It provided bean curd and soy sauce, 
among other preparations. 

Still, the first rule of Chinese dining was "nothing to excess"; even 
children were admonished to eat only until they were 70 percent full. 
Thus gourmets developed the fashion for "natural foods," which fit 
China's Daoist roots as well as Buddhist precepts. What was natural 
food? It was food gathered in the mountains or woods — edible plants, 
herbs, mushrooms, and the like — cooked as simply as possible so as 
to reveal its unique flavor: It was the kind of culinary philosophy good 
cooks advocate today. 

IRAN 

The Persians had inherited a millennia-old tradition of Mesopotamian 
cookery from the empires of Sumeria, Babylon, Assyria, and Akkad, to 
name a few. Sumerian tablets record about 20 kinds of cheese, 100 
soups, 300 breads. Their cooks dried grains, beans, dates, grapes, and 
figs; they preserved fruits in honey; they flavored their various stews 
with garlic, onions, leeks, and possibly mint, mustard, cumin, and 
coriander. The various Mesopotamian kingdoms borrowed dishes from 
one another, as recorded in their names. 



Istanbul (Constantinople) 




According to Roman historians — hardly friendly commentators — the 
Parthians, who ruled an empire that at its height in the 1st century b.C.e. 
stretched from the Euphrates to the Indus rivers and from the Oxus 
(Amu Darya) to the Indian Ocean, were very fond of palm wine and ate 
lightly of grains, vegetables, a little fish and game. We may suppose that 
the later Parthians. originally nomadic horsemen, ate such dairy prod- 
ucts as clarified butter (gfiGe, which keeps well in hot climates) and 
yogurt (often fermented with cracked wheat and still common in 
Kurdistan, where it is called tarkhineh). As the prime middlemen control- 
ling the Silk Road, they taxed and no doubt enjoyed exotica arriving 
from east and west. 

All these elements converged in the court cooking of the second 
Persian empire of the Sasanians (221-651 c.e.). whose magnificent 
capital, Ctesiphon. not far from what is now Baghdad, was the bustling 
entrepot of Silk Road trade. A z,th-century poem, "Khosrow and His 
Knight," outlines the most favored dishes of those with discriminating 
tastes; among them are desserts such as almond and walnut pastries, 
coconuts from India, and Iran's own dates stuffed with walnuts or 
pistachios. 

Indeed, it was Persian cooking, already international, that helped 
to define the courtly cuisines of the conquering Arabs of the 
7th century and the Mongols of the 13th. In medieval Arab cookbooks 
appear the Persian foods and preparations that were to travel with the 
conquerors far beyond Iran's borders. The herbs and spices are familiar: 
Iran's mint, coriander, saffron, and caraway, as well as cinnamon and 
ginger from Ceylon and China, and cloves from the East Indies. Ground 
almonds and walnuts thickened the rich sauces. Pomegranates and 
limes, combined with dates, honey, and sugar, produced the sweet-and- 
sour contrasts that characterize Persian cuisine today. Persianized Arabs 
adopted the braises, salads, breads, cheeses, and omelets of Iran, and 



70 




Xi'an 
(Chang'an) 



created magnificent polows from rice that had been imported for culti- 
vation centuries before from the East. 

Such classic Persian preparations spread throughout western Asia 
and into Europe with the Arab diaspora; the Mongols, like the Arabs 
before them, combined their own nomadic traditions with those of the 
Persian court and exported the new cuisine. It was the Mongols' 
descendants who helped shape the cuisines of India as we know them 
today. 

INDIA 

Successive waves of settlement as well as trade gave India early access 
to the fruits, vegetables, and spices of cultures both East and West. The 
Aryan invaders who came from Central Asia to India in about 1500 b.c.e. 
left in their Sanskrit language a number of clues to the origins of 
various foods. Foods native to India such as the eggplant, for instance, 
often have names derived from pre-Aryan languages. Imports are given 
prefixes that indicate their origins, and the names of later imports are 
often versions of the names from their home countries. Thus the 
stuffed pastries known as samoso in India are called (like Arab 
sanbusaq, Turkish samsa, and Central Asian sambusai varaqi) after their 
medieval Persian originals, sonbosog. And, especially in the southwest, 
there are dishes adapted from and named after those of the 
Portuguese, who ruled a colony at Goa for 400 years. Indian cooks 
gave their recipes complexity with the addition of such spices as 
cardamom, mustard seeds, cloves, cumin, and ginger, not to mention 
generous lacings of chili peppers, imported by the Portuguese from the 
New World in the 16th century. 

Such a cosmopolitan past inspired as many cuisines as there are 
regions in India. As in China, a broad division exists between rice eaters 
in the south and wheat eaters in the north. Northern cuisine centers on 



N.ira 



a variety of breads; because of the north's long communication with 
central Asia, the cooking fat is usually gfiee. and yogurt plays a greater 
part in the cuisine. Northern fruits are those such as peaches, which 
thrive in temperate to cold climates; dried fruits and vegetables flavor 
many dishes. 

Until the 16th century, Indian food consisted of boiled grains and 
pulses, fried bread, and stewed vegetables. With the advent of the 
Islamic Mughal empire, however, came the Persian-based cuisine of 
Western Asia. The Muslims were meat eaters, and even today the north 
of India, where they were dominant, is known for its meat dishes. But 
Mughal innovations — including polows. pastries, stuffed vegetables, 
baked bread, sherbet, and such sweet confections as halvah — trans- 
formed Indian cookery. Indian cooks adapted the luxurious creations for 
vegetarian dining to suit their own tastes. Mughal cookery and later 
imports from the New World helped shape Indian cuisine into the rich 
tapestry it now is. 

ITALY 

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Italy became a series of city- 
states and remained so well into the 19th century. Nonetheless, from the 
iz,th century on, it was the cradle of the renaissance of European arts, 
including culinary ones. This was in no small measure because of its 
contacts with Arab and Jewish traders through Venice, Naples, and 
Genoa. Arab traders excelled at absorbing and passing on local cooking 
styles and ingredients at each of their stops along the Silk Road. Italian 
upper classes were greatly influenced by Arab, Chinese, and Japanese 
courts and copied the dining style, refinement of cuisine, manners, and 
etiquette of the Arab courts. Exotic spices and sugar became symbols 
of their wealth. The great Italian court cooks discarded the techniques 
of purees and porridges as well as the tendency to disguise ingredients, 
common at the time, and brought out the flavor of individual ingredi- 
ents by careful seasoning and moderate cooking. Historically, it was 
usually the upper classes that set culinary trends — cooking with rose 
water, saffron, orange peel, dried fruits, sugar, and the use of almond 
pastes were all picked up from the Arabs (who in turn had taken them 
from the Persians) and passed them on to the rest of Europe. 

najmieh batmanglij has spent the past 22 years living in france 
and the United States, researching Persian traditions, 
collecting recipes, and presenting authentic persian food and 
ceremonies in books, articles, lectures, and cooking classes. 
Her newest book is Silk Road Cooking: A Vegetarian Journey; 

THIS ARTICLE IS ADAPTED FROM THE INTRODUCTION. 



Sa 




nkirk. onions, cucumbers, broad beans, peas, and melons: the 
>d rhem. developed them, and found new ways to cook 



CHINA 

Few cultures we'- 3$ enthusiast!! 
as China's arc ■ jlmary imports. 
bui then few cultures were as food 
oriented as China's. 

While the central philosophy of 
eating, in early periods as now. was thai a meal 
should consist of fan (grain) as the primary food jnd coi 
— vegetables and/or meal and fish, cut small, carefully blended and 
flavored, and quickly cooked — the possibilities for variation were 
infinite. 

The possibilities for cai were great before the opening of trade 
routes. People ate meal and fish as well as such vegetables as bamboo 
shoots, water mallow (something like spinach), turnips, yams, radishes, 
lotus root, scallions. shallots, and mushrooms. During the Han and later 
dynasties, new vegetables arrived from Western Asia and Iran, including 

W^ 

Chinest 

them. 

It was the same with fruits and nuls. China was blessed with 

superb produce, including peaches, plums, apricots, and persimmons. 

and from the souih came mangoes, bananas, and citrus. The Chinese 

also carefully cultivated new fruits arriving from the Silk Road — figs 

and dates, cherries, melons, pomegranates, grapes, almonds, pistachios. 

walnuts, caraway, coriander, and sugar cane. 

Then there were fermented and pickled foods, used for flavoring 
but also useful to travelers. The soybean was as central to Chinese 
cuisine, then and now. as ginger. It provided bean curd and soy sauce, 
among other preparations. 

Still, the first rule of Chinese dining was "nothing to excess": even 
children were admonished to eat only until they were 70 percent full. 
Thus gourmets developed the fashion for "natural foods." which fit 
China's Oaoist roots as well as Buddhist precepts. What was natural 
food ? It was food gathered in the mountains or woods - edible plants, 
herbs, mushrooms, and the like - cooked as simply as possible so as 
to reveal its unique flavor: It was the kind of culinary philosophy good 
cooks advocate today. 

IRAN 



The Persians had inherited a millennia-old tradition of Mesopotamian 
cookery from the empires of Sumeria. Babylon. Assyria, and Akkad. to 
name a few. Sumerian tablets record about 20 kinds of cheese, too 
soups. 300 breads. Their cooks dried grains, beans, dates, grapes, and 
figs: they preserved fruits in honey; they flavored their various stews 
with garlic, onions, leeks, and possibly mint, mustard, cumin, and 
coriander. The various Mesopotamian kingdoms borrowed dishes from 
one another, as recorded in their names. 



According to Roman historians - hardly friendly commentators - the 
Parthians. who ruled an empire that at its height in (he 1st century b.c.e. 
stretched from the Euphrates to the Indus rivers and from the Oxus 
(Amu Darya) to the Indian Ocean, were very fond of palm wine and ate 
lightly of grams, vegetables, a little fish and game. We may suppose that 
the later Parthians. originally nomadic horsemen, ate such dairy prod- 
ucts as clarified butter {ghee, which keeps well in hot climates) and 
yogurt (often fermented with cracked wheat and still common in 
Kurdistan, where it is called tarkhineh). As the prime middlemen control- 
ling the Silk Road, they taxed and no doubt enjoyed exotica arriving 
from east and west. 

All these elements converged in the court cooking of the second 
Persian empire of the Sasanians (221-651 c.t.). whose magnificent 
capital. Ctesiphon. not far from what is now Baghdad, was the bustling 
entrepot of Silk Road trade. A <th-century poem, "Khosrow and His 
Knight." outlines the most favored dishes of those with discriminating 
tastes; among them are desserts such as almond and walnut pastries, 
coconuts from India, and Iran's own dates stuffed with walnuts or 
pistachios. 

Indeed, it was Persian cooking, already international, that helped 
to define the courtly cuisines of the conquering Arabs of the 
7th century and the Mongols of the 13th. In medieval Arab cookbooks 
appear the Persian foods and preparations that were to travel with the 
conquerors far beyond Iran's borders. The herbs and spices are familiar: 
Iran's mint, coriander, saffron, and caraway, as well as cinnamon and 
ginger from Ceylon and China, and cloves from the East Indies. Ground 
almonds and walnuts thickened the rich sauces. Pomegranates and 
limes, combined with dates, honey, and sugar, produced the sweet-and- 
sour contrasts that characterize Persian cuisine today. Persianized Arabs 
adopted the braises, salads, breads, cheeses, and omelets of Iran, and 



I 



created magnificent polows from rice that had been imported for culti- 
vation centuries before from the East. 

Such classic Persian preparations spread throughout western Asia 
and into Europe with the Arab diaspora: the Mongols, like the Arabs 
before them, combined their own nomadic traditions with those of the 
Persian court and exported the new cuisine. It was the Mongols' 
descendants who helped shape the cuisines of India as we know them 
today. 

INDIA 

Successive waves of settlement as well as trade gave India early access 
to the fruits, vegetables, and spices of cultures both East and West. The 
Aryan invaders who came from Central Asia to India in about 1500 B.C.E. 
left in their Sanskrit language a number of clues to the origins of 
various foods. Foods native to India such as the eggplant, for instance, 
often have names derived from pre-Aryan languages. Imports are given 
prefixes that indicate their origins, and the names of later imports are 
often versions of the names from their home countries. Thus the 
stuffed pastries known as samosa in India are called (like Arab 
sonbusoq. Turkish samsa, and Central Asian sambusai varaqi) after their 
medieval Persian originals, sanbosag. And. especially in the southwest, 
there are dishes adapted from and named after those of the 
Portuguese, who ruled a colony at Goa for 400 years. Indian cooks 
gave their recipes complexity with the addition of such spices as 
cardamom, mustard seeds, cloves, cumin, and ginger, not to mention 
generous lacings of chili peppers, imported by the Portuguese from the 
New World in the 16th century. 

Such a cosmopolitan past inspired as many cuisines as there are 
regions in India. As in China, a broad division exists between rice eaters 
in the south and wheat eaters in the north. Northern cuisine centers on 



a variety of breads: because of the north's long communication with 
central Asia, the cooking fat is usually ghee, and yogurt plays a greater 
part in the cuisine. Northern fruits are those such as peaches, which 
thrive in temperate to cold climates: dried fruits and vegetables flavor 
many dishes. 

Until the 16th century. Indian food consisted of boiled grains and 
pulses, fried bread, and stewed vegetables. With the advent of the 
Islamic Mughal empire, however, came the Persian-based cuisine of 
Western Asia. The Muslims were meat eaters, and even today the north 
of India, where they were dominant, is known for its meat dishes. But 
Mughal innovations — including polows, pastries, stuffed vegetables, 
baked bread, sherbet, and such sweet confections as halvah — trans- 
formed Indian cookery. Indian cooks adapted the luxurious creations for 
vegetarian dining to suit their own tastes. Mughal cookery and later 
imports from the New World helped shape Indian cuisine into the rich 
tapestry it now is. 

ITALY 

After the collapse of the Roman Empire. Italy became a series of city- 
states and remained so well into the 19th century. Nonetheless, from the 
iz,th century on. it was the cradle of the renaissance of European arts, 
including culinary ones. This was in no small measure because of its 
contacts with Arab and Jewish traders through Venice. Naples, and 
Genoa. Arab traders excelled at absorbing and passing on local cooking 
styles and ingredients at each of their stops along the Silk Road. Italian 
upper classes were greatly influenced by Arab. Chinese, and Japanese 
courts and copied the dining style, refinement of cuisine, manners, and 
etiquette of the Arab courts. Exotic spices and sugar became symbols 
of their wealth. The great Italian court cooks discarded the techniques 
of purees and porridges as well as the tendency to disguise ingredients, 
common at the time, and brought out the flavor of individual ingredi- 
ents by careful seasoning and moderate cooking. Historically, it was 
usually the upper classes that set culinary trends — cooking with rose 
water, saffron, orange peel, dried fruits, sugar, and the use of almond 
pastes were all picked up from the Arabs (who in turn had taken them 
from the Persians) and passed them on to the rest of Europe. 

NAJMIEH BaTMANGI I| HAS spin Irt AKs 1 IV IN'f. IS \ 

ami the United States, researching Persian traditions, 
colli' Persian food and 

ceremonies in books. articles, lectures, and cook1m. ii \ssis 
noDK is Sn t. Road ( coking, 

THIS ARTICLE IS ADAPTED I ROM THE INTRODf 




Music and Musicians along the Silk Road 

by Theodore Levin 

So many musicians, so many stories — each a window into a life, a society, a history. Each story is unique, yet 
connected to other stories, other histories. The lands of the Silk Road contain a remarkable musical cross-section 
of this dense web of human connectedness. What are the origins of musical connections? How is it that musicians 
separated by great distances play similar instruments or perform in similar musical styles? And conversely, why, in 
some cases, do musicians living only a valley or mountain pass away perform music that is utterly different? 



73 



Musicians, musical instru- 
ments, and music itself have surelv 
been on the move since antedilu- 
vian times. The astonishing diver- 
sity of the world's music is matched 
onlv by the reassuring similarity of 
the basic tools used to produce it: 
foremost, of course, the human 
voice, followed by instruments 
made from ubiquitous natural 
materials such as wood and animal 
parts and classified into groups 
such as flutes, fiddles, lutes, and 
drums: melodies and scales usually 
containing no more than three to 
seven separate pitches: rhythms 
that organize the temporal dimen- 
sion of sound. Indeed, music along 
the Silk Road illustrates overar- 
ching regularities not only in the 
way it is physically produced, but 
also in the role it plays in society 
and culture. 

In music, as in other aspects 
of culture, the history of the Silk 
Road has largely been the history of 
interaction between two large 
cultural domains: the sedentary 

world and the nomadic world. Nomadic and sedentary people 
have coexisted in Eurasia for millennia, and their relationship has 
not always been an easy one. In the 13th century, for example, 
Genghis (Chinghis) Khan's nomadic armies laid waste to great 
cities such as Samarkand and Baghdad, while in the 20th 
century, the Soviet Union, an empire built on the power of 
industry and agriculture, tried forcibly to sedentarize some of 
Inner Asia's last nomads. Yet despite periods of hostility, pastoral- 
ists and sedentary dwellers have both relied on an intricate 
commercial and cultural symbiosis that is one of the hallmarks of 
Inner Asian civilization. This symbiosis is evident in the way that 
music and musical instruments have traveled from one cultural 




realm to the other. 

It may well have been along 
the Silk Road that some of the first 
"world music jam sessions took 
place. For both Europeans and 
Asians, the mesmerizing sound of 
exotic instruments must have had 
an appeal not unlike the visual 
allure of exotic textiles, ceramics, 
and glass. Innovative musicians 
and luthiers adapted unfamiliar 
instruments to perform local 
music while simultaneously intro- 
ducing non-native rhythmic 
patterns, scales, and performance 
techniques. Before the Crusades, 
numerous instruments from the 
Middle East and Central Asia had 
already reached Europe: lutes, 
viols, oboes, zithers, drums, and 
other percussion. Following trade- 
routes in both directions, many of 
these instruments also turned up 
in China, Japan. India, and 
Indonesia. For example, the 
Central Asian short-necked lute 
called barbat is the ancestor of the 
Middle Eastern oud and 
European lute as well as the fapanese biwa and Chinese pipa 
an instrument that Chinese documents record as belonging to the 
"northern barbarians, which is to say, nomads. Turkic and 
Mongolian horsemen from Inner Asia were not only lutenists. but 
also were probably the world's earliest fiddlers. Upright fiddles 

Armenian instrument maker Hakoh Yeritsyan displays a qanun (rear), 
oud (on table), and violin, which illustrate the migration of musical 
instrument', along the historical Silk Road. The qanun originated in the 
Arabic Middle East, the oud is related to the European lute and Chinese 
pipa, and the violin and other European strings may have evolved from 
horsehead fiddles first played by Turco-Mongol herders. 

Photo ' Sam Sweezy 



74 



strung with horsehair strings, played with horsehair bows, and 
often featuring a carved horse's head at the end ol the neck have 
an archaic history among the nomadic peoples oi Inner Asia and 
are closely linked to shamanism and spirit worship. Such instru- 
ments may have inspired the round-bodied spike fiddles played in 
West Asia (kamanche, ghijak) and Indonesia {rehab) and the 
carved fiddles of the subcontinent (sorud, sarinda, mrangi I. 1 ,oud 
oboes called uinh/i in Central Asia became the shahnai in India, 
suona in China, and zuma in Anatolia. Central Asia in turn 
imported musical instruments from both East and West. 

Nomad Performance Competition in Central Asia 

Two bards take their place before an audience of several hundred 
onlookers, who squat in a loose semicircle on a grassy hillside. One 
of the bards ceremoniously addresses the gathering in an elevated 
rhetorical style, then sings a lyrical poetic text while strumming an 
accompaniment on a small lute. The other bard follows, repeating the 
same performance sequence but with greater eloquence, livelier 
gestures, and crisper strums on the lute. Such oratorical contests, vari- 
ously called a/tys. aitysh. or deish in local Turkic languages, are one of 
the cornerstones of nomadic culture in Central Asia. An analogous 
event for virtuoso instrumental soloists is called tortys. 

The rules of the contest vary widely and depend on the particular 
genre in which the competitors excel. For example, bards may impro- 
vise poetic verse without ever using the sounds "p" or "b." or reply to 
the verse of a competitor using the same rhyme scheme. Virtuosos on 
strummed lutes like the dombra or komuz may try to outdo one 
another in complex fingering techniques and hold their instrument in 
eccentric postures — upside down, behind the neck, with crossed hands, 
and so on — while continuing to play it. 

Each bard tries to outdo the other in strength, eloquence, and 
humor. Strategies are numerous. Mockery is one, but watch out for the 
reply! A single word can cause a technical knockout, and indeed, the 
public watches such contests as if they were viewing boxing matches. 

The power of the bardic word has always been useful to persons 
in authority both to defend their own supremacy and attack the posi- 
tion of an adversary. Just as the great religions have ascribed the power 
of the sacred to the physical sound of particular words and syllables, 
nomadic spirituality, rooted in an intimate relation with the natural world, 
maintains the magical power of words and music through the vocation 
of the bard. Like shamans, bards are often regarded as healers who can 
summon spirits and as living repositories of cultural memory. For one 
who performs such a vital social role, qualifications are crucial. And 
what more democratic way to certify excellence than through competi- 
tion? All of the nimble qualities of mind and body required to endure 



Notwithstanding millennia ol cultural exchange, however, 
pastoralists and sedentary dwellers preserve distinctive musical 
identities. Moreover, music may serve as a telltale vestige ol a 
nomadic past among groups that are presently sedentarized. In 
nomadic cultures, the preeminent musical figure is the bard: a 
solo performer of oral poetry who typically accompanies himselt 
or herself - for women have played an important role in the Inner 
Asian bardic tradition - on a strummed lute with silk or gut 
strings. Nomadic cultures have also produced virtuosic instru- 
mental repertories performed by soloists on strummed lutes, jew s 




and flourish in the harsh conditions of the Inner Asian grasslands 
are exuberantly summed up in the nomadic performing arts and their 
quintessential traditional showcase, the oitys. 

Adapted by Theodore Levin from a text by Jean During, a director of research 
at France's Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Currently based in 
Tashkent, Uzbekistan, he also serves as Program Manager of the Aga Khan Music 
Initiative in Central Asia. 

Abdurahman Nurak. a Kyrqijz musician, strums a three-stringed komuz. 
Photo by Jean During 



75 




harps, flutes, fiddles, and zithers. The distinguishing feature of 
these repertories is their narrative quality: pieces typically tell 
stories by using a kind of musical onomatopoeia, for example, the 
pounding of horse's hooves or the singing of birds, all represented 
through musical sound. Individual innovation is highly valued, 
and bards are performance artists who combine music with 
gesture, humor, and spontaneous improvisation to entertain their 
audience. One of the most intriguing aspects of nomadic music is 
rhythm, which tends toward asymmetry and is never expressed 
on percussion instruments (with the exception of the ritual drum 
used by shamans). Such rhythmic asymmetry may be an abstract 
representation of the natural rhythms of wind and flowing water, 
the shifting gait of a horse as it adjusts its pace to changes in 

Aygul Ulkenbaeva plays the dombra, a Kazakh long-necked lute. 
Yedil Huseinov is a Jew's harp virtuoso from Kazakhstan. 

Photos bv Cloc Drieu 



terrain, or the loping of a camel -- all central to the nomadic 
soundworld. 

In sedentary cultures, bv contrast, metrical drumming is a 
highly developed art. Reflecting perhaps the deep impact of Islam 
as a spiritual and cultural force among Inner Asia's sedentary 
populations (in contrast to its relatively limited impact among 
nomads), the central artifact of musical performance is the elabo- 
ration and embellishment of words and texts by a beautiful voice. 
Singers are typically accompanied by small ensembles of mixed 
instruments that almost always include percussion. The beauty of 
the voice may also be represented symbolically by a solo instru- 
ment such as a plucked lute, violin, or flute, which reproduces the 
filigree embellishments and ornamentation characteristic of a 
great singer. 

From Istanbul all the way to Kashgar (Kashi). in the west of 
China, the highest artistic aspirations of urban musicians were 
realized in the performance of classical or court music known as 
maqam (or cognate terms such as mugham, mukam, makam I and 
in Iran, as dastgah. Local styles and repertories of maqam are like- 
regional dialects of what is at root a common musical language. 
The maqam represents a vast yet integrated artistic conception 
that encompasses music, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics 
within a worldview that is specifically Islamic. Like classical 
music in the West, maqam demands specially trained musicians 
and has evolved over at least a millennium in conjunction with 
erudite traditions of music theory and poetics. 

Islam is not the only great religion to be represented in 
musical life along the Silk Road. Buddhism has shaped the form 
and style of monastic chanting which, like maqam. exists in a 
variety of local and regional traditions bound by common spiri- 
tual and aesthetic ideals. It has also created a cultural context for 
a vast array of music that celebrates festive events tied to holidays 
and life cycle rituals. Assyrian Christianity, based on the doctrine 
of the Sth-century Syrian bishop Nestorius. spread eastward 
along the Silk Road between the 7th and 10th centuries and 
survives as a living spiritual tradition among adherents in Syria 
and in diaspora communities in the West. Present-day Assyrian 
choirs represent an ancient tradition of liturgical song and chant 
rooted in the same "Oriental" scales and melodic modes as 
Middle Eastern music commonly associated with the Islamic 




world. Similar scales and modes also turn up in the music of 
Armenia, one of the Middle East's oldest Christian cultures, and 
in Jewish music and chant, for example, cantillation of the Torah 
and spiritual songs sung on the Sabbath and other holidays. 
Jewish communities have lived since ancient or early medieval 
times in the great cities of the Middle East and Central Asia: 
Baghdad. Bukhara, Balkh. Damascus, Samarkand, and others. 
As a minority living in a culturally symbiotic relationship amid a 
Muslim majoritv. Jews both absorbed elements of Muslim 
musical traditions and served as musical performers at Muslim 
courts and for Muslim festivities. On the subcontinent. 
Hinduism inspired a rich practice of Vedic chant, devotional 
songs, and sacred dance, as well as framing the aesthetics and 
metaphysics of raga. one of the worlds great art music traditions. 
Much music along the Silk Road is not linked to a single 
faith or religious worldview, but is the result of syncretism and 
intermingling. For example, the mystical songs of the Bauls of 
Bengal reveal a synthesis of Hinduism and Sufism, the mystical 



trend in Islam. The ecstatic chant and dance favored by some Sufi 
groups is itself very likely an adaptation of archaic shamanistic 
practices. Shamanism and animism have also syncretized with 
Buddhism to create forms of vocal chant, instrumental music, 
sacred dance, and theater that pay homage not only to Buddhist 
deities, but also to the spirit world. The brilliantly eclectic form of 
early Japanese masked dance-drama known as giguku exemplifies 
just such Silk Road syncretism, bringing together ritualized 
performance that may have been influenced by contact with the 
mask art of ancient Greece, Iran, India, and China. 

The great religions each have their own liturgical reperto- 
ries, but the lines between sacred and secular so sharply drawn in 
Western music are muted in the traditional culture of the Silk 
Road lands. Festive calendar and life-cycle celebrations inspire 
music that covers the entire spectrum of human spiritual needs, 
from meditation and prayer to rejoicing and dance. In the tradi- 

( 'hinese men playing huqin (a two-stringed Chinese fiddle). 

Photo c Jean-Luc Rjv, Aga Khan Foundation 



77 




tional world, boundaries between sacred and secular dissolve: the 
world is sacred, life is sacred. Moreover, in traditional societies, 
there are no "traditional musicians. There are simplv musicians. 
The essence of tradition is transmission from one generation to 
the next, and it is common to see people of diverse ages enjoying 
the same songs, tunes, dances, and stories. The association of 
particular musical styles and repertories with specific age groups 
so pervasive in contemporary Western music is largely absent in 
traditional Silk Road music. 

While music along the Silk Road is strongly rooted in local 
traditions, not all of it is strictly speaking "traditional. Ensembles 
such as Sabjilar from Khakasia and Roksanake from Kazakhstan 
represent what one might call neo-traditionalism, that is. music 
consciously modeled on tradition yet itself the product of a post- 
traditional world. How could it be otherwise, lor in music, as in 
everything else, todays Silk Road links not only territorial 
communities, but also imagined communities — communities 



scattered by emigration and diaspora yet joined by common 
cultural ideals. For example, expatriate Afghan musicians living 
in Peshawar. New York, Toronto, and Fremont, California, are all 
writing new chapters in the history of Afghan music. Bukharan 
Jewish music barely exists in its homeland, the city of Bukhara, 
but is vibrantly alive in Tel Aviv and New York. Some of the most 
imaginative music by Chinese composers is being written and 
performed not in China but in the United States. The music of 
this new Silk Road responds quicklv and resourcefully to changes 
in fashion and taste in the communities it serves. Indeed, it is this 
connection, between musicians and the spiritual needs of living 
communities, that is the life-blood of musical tradition, or neo- 
tradition. Each in its own way, the personal stories of the musi- 
cians who have journeyed from afar to perform at this year s 
Folklife Festival are testimony to the abiding strength of the 
communities that have inspired and supported their art. 



Musicians from the city of Khiva in the Khorezm region of northwest 

Uzbekistan perform music for dancing. Photo' Theodore Levin 

Qhewar Khan, from Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. India, plays the kamaicha. a 
long-necked bowed lute with a shin-covered body. 

Photo bv Henry Gbssie/Pravina Shukla 



Theodore Levin began musical fieldwork in Inner Asia in 1977 

AND IS A FREQUENT VISITOR TO THE REGION. He TEACHES IN THE MuSIC 

Department at Dartmouth College and is co-curator of this 
year's Folklife Festival, The Silk Road: Connecting. Cultures, 
Creating. Trust. 



78 




Baul musicians from Bangladesh performing: Sunil Karmakar. violin; 
Momimul Islam, tabid: Bably Ami, flute; Anjali Qhosh, singing with 
harmonium: and Bclal Siddique with cymbals. 
Photo bv Henrv Glassie/Pravina ShukU 



For Further Reading 

Bjilv, John. 1988. Music in Afghanistan: Professional Musicians in the 
City of Herat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

During, Jean. 1991. The Art of Persian Music. Washington: Mage 
Publishers. 

Qarland Encyclopedia of World Music, Vol. 6. "The Middle East," 
eds. Virginia Danielson, et al., 2001; Vol. 7, "East Asia," eds. 
Robert C. Provine, et al., 2001. New York: Routledge. 

Jones, Stephen R. 1995. Folk Music of China: Living Instrumental 
Traditions. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Levin, Theodore C. 1996. The Hundred Thousand Fools of Qod: 
Musical Travels in Central Asia (and Queens, New York). 
Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 

Pegg. Carole. 2001. Mongolian Music. Dance b" Oral Narrative: 
Performing Diverse Identities. Seattle: University of 
Washington Press. 

Sadie, Stanley, ed. 2001. The New Qrove Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians. "Azerbaijan," "Iran," "Uzbekistan," and other 
country articles. New York: Grove. 



For Further Listening 

The Art of Mugham: Alim Qasimov Ensemble. 2001. Ocora Radio 
France C560U2. 

Asie Centrale: Traditions classiques (2 CDs). 1993. Ocora Radio 
France C560035-36. 

Buddhist ( 'hant of Shuni-e C 'eremony, Todaiji. 1997. King Record Co. 
KICC 5215. 

Bukhara: Musical Crossroads of Asia. 1991. Smithsonian Folkways 
SFW 40050. 

Classical Music of Iran: The Dastgah Systems. 1991. Smithsonian 
Folkways SFW 40039. 

Ilyas Malayev Ensemble, At the Bazaar of Love. 1997. Shanachie 
Records. 

Iran: Las maitres de la musique traditionnelle (3 volumes). 1991. Ocora 
Radio France C560024-26. 

Lalezar: Music of the Sultans. Sufis, and Seraglio (4 volumes). 2000. 
Traditional Crossroads CD 4301-4304. 

Ouzbekistan: The Art of the Dotar. 1997. Ocora Radio France 
C560111. 

Shashmaqam, Music of the Bukharan Jewish Ensemble. 1991. 
Smithsonian Folkways SFW 40054. 

Shoghaken Ensemble (Armenia Anthology). 2002. Traditional 
Crossroads CD 4211. 

The Silk Road: A Musical Caravan. 2002. Smithsonian Folkways 
SFW CD 40438. 

Tajikistan: Chantes des hordes. 1998. Collection AIMP Musee 
d'ethnographie Geneve, VDE-GALLO CD-973. 

Turkey: The Djem Alevi Ceremony. 1998. Ocora Radio France 
C560125. 

Ustad Mohammad Omar, Virtuoso from Afghanistan. 2002. 
Compiled, produced, and annotated by Hiromi Lorraine 
Sakata. Smithsonian Folkways SFW CD 40439. 

Uyghur Music from Xinjiang: Music from Oasis Towns of Central 
Asia. 2000. Ace Records CD ORBD 098. 

Yo-Yo Ma and the Silk Raod Ensemble, Silk Raod Journeys: When 
Strangers Meet. 2001. Sony Classical SK 89782. 



79 




Nomads 

by Alrrw Kunanbay 

Nomads and nomadism have been intimately linked to Silk Road trade and culture since ancient times ("nomad" 
derives from Greek nomas, "pasture ). and, at the debut of the 21st century, still constitute a vital if all too often 
endangered economic and social force in large parts of Inner Eurasia. From Siberian reindeer herders and 
Mongolian horse breeders to Turkmen shepherds and Tibetan yak drivers, modern-day pastoralists preserve a way 
of life that embodies some of the Silk Road region's most time-tested and ingenious traditions. 



81 



Marking the frontiers of the great civilizations of .China, 
Iran, India, and Greece, the historical borders of the nomadic 
world have been indefinite and diffuse. Nomads and settled 
peoples have long existed in a complementary relationship, and in 
the history of trans-Eurasian trade and cultural exchange, nomads 
have been like blood vessels that circulated the oxygen of ideas 
and distributed new technologies and products along the Silk 
Road. In particular, nomads provided temporary accommodation 
and security, stabling and fodder for the animals of merchants and 
blacksmiths for making horseshoes, kept vitally important wells, 
established markets for the exchange of goods — that is, every- 
thing without which international trade along such a huge road 
would not have survived long. Nomads can be proud of their 
historical achievements, which include movable dwellings, 
clothing suitable for riding horseback, felt and leather utensils, 
and the equine harness. They invented kumiss (fermented mare s 
milk), the art of hunting with birds of prey, and bowed stringed 
instruments that are the ancestors of the cello and violin. 

Nomadism on the steppes of Eurasia is thought to have 
originated around 3,000 years ago. It was not. however, the first 
source of human livelihood on the steppes. Archaeological 
evidence shows that migratory herding had been preceded by a 
complex livestock-raising and agricultural economy. Nomadism 
arose in response to ecological and climatic factors: first and fore- 
most, inadequate food and water resources, which led people to 
depend increasingly on hunting. Thev then began to migrate in 
pursuit of the animals they hunted, following the seasonal migra- 
tions of wild mammals in Eurasia's arid steppe zone. In turn, 
selective breeding created an ecological niche that favored 
domesticated animals over their wild counterparts. 

Present-day nomadic groups Buryats. Kalmyks, 

Kazakhs. Kyrgyz, Mongols, Turkmens. and Yakuts, to name a 
few — practice diverse types of stockbreeding and patterns of 
migration, belong to different religions, and speak different 
languages. At root, however, they represent two distinct linguistic 
groups, Turkic and Mongolian, and this binary distinction 
resonates in other aspects of nomadic culture. For example, the 
dwellings of Turkic nomads have spherical roofs, while those of 
Mongolian groups have conic roofs. Turkic nomads orient the 
entrance of their dwelling to the east, while among Mongolians. 






the entrance always faces south. Turkic nomads wear soft 
footwear, drink clear tea. and slaughter sheep in a way that drains 
away the blood; Mongolian nomads wear hard footwear, drink 
tea mixed with milk, butter, salt, and flour, and slaughter sheep in 
such a wav as to preserve the blood (which is made into blood 
sausage). 

Nomad civilization has its own laws governing the organi- 
zation of time and space, and nomads follow very sensitively the 
cycles of nature. In the words of one song, they are in continual 
pursuit of eternal spring. The primacy of movement serves as the 
basis of the nomads" entire worldview. For them, everything that 
is alive is in movement, and everything that moves is alive: the 
sun and moon, water and wind, birds, and animals. 

The low fertility of the soil does not allow nomads and their 
herds to stay in any one area for a long time. Overgrazing can 
have dire results — at the extreme, removing a pasturage from 
economic use for a period of years. In order to maximize the yield 
of a pasturage, nomads have to judge precisely when to drive their 



82 




herds from one pasture to the next, leaving the abandoned area to 
rejuvenate over the course of a year. Migration with livestock is 
an unavoidable fact of survival, and during the process of natural 
and forced selection, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, and horses have 
been selected for their suitability for lengthv migrations. Indeed, 
the symbol of nomadism is the horse, whose praise is sung in 
songs, epic tales, and stories. The winged flying horse, called bv 



various names 



e.g., Tulpar, Jonon Khar 



like Pegasus of the 



ancient Greeks, is a beloved character of legends and a source of 
poetic inspiration. 

At the earliest signs of spring, nomads drive their cattle to 
spring pastures where the animals give birth to their young, and 
sheep have their spring dip and arc shorn. Spring is a time of hope 
and the beginning of the new cycle of life marked by the obser- 

Nomads who spend the long winters in lower altitudes in the southern 
areas of Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, ascend to higher regions in 
the summer to take advantage of the rich grazing land. 

Photo ' Ali Njcmi. Apj Khan Foundation 



vance oi the New Year, called Nauru: (in Persian, new da) 

among the lurks and Tsagan Sara (literally, "white sacred 
month ) among the Mongols. Without lingering long, nomads 
drive their animals on to summer pastures, where the happiest 
time nl the nomadic year begins. Summer is a season ol fattening 
for the animals and is characterized by an abundance ol lood. 
games and holidays lor the young, and meetings with relatives as 
different migratory paths crisscross. At the same time there are 
preparations lor the hard winter ahead: sewing clothes, weaving 
rugs, beating felt. With the onset ol the first cool days, nomads 
undertake their migration to tall pastures where they shear sheep 
and camels, prepare milk and meat lor the winter, and return to 
winter quarters. 

This nomadic cycle is not exactly the same each year, lor the 
seasons themselves are not the same from one \ ear to the next. Yet 
what remains constant for the nomad is the sensation ol a natural 
rhythm of movement, stable forms of social organization, and 
abiding relationships among people. Success in nomadic life- 
depends on mastery of a vast body of collective knowledge- 
amassed over centuries. This knowledge, passed on from father to 
son and mother to daughter, embraces an entire complex of trade- 
craft, domestic know-how, and moral norms. 

A nomad s memory preserves thousands of sounds, colors. 
and smells: the smell of smoke rising from the hearth of a yurt and 
flatbread frying in fat; of felt and fluffy hides warming from body 
heat in the cold night; of steppe grasses and flowers in the spring, 
especially wild tulips and irises; of the bitter dust of fall and the 
fresh snow of winter. Those smells bring back memories of places 
where the senses received their first lessons in the never-ending 
variety of life. 

Nomadism would be impossible without transportable 
dwellings, and among Eurasian nomads, evidence of such 
dwellings comes from ancient times. Describing the campaign of 
the Scythians against the Persian armies of Darius in the 5th 
century B.C.E., the Greek historian Herodotus mentions felt 
dwellings on carts. Herodotus s observation is echoed in the 
description of "felt Turkic carts" by Friar Willem van Rubruck. 
who. as the envoy of Louis IX of France, traveled the Furasian 
steppes in 1252 54 on his voyage to Karakorum, then the capital 
of the Mongol empire. The carts that carried such felt homes were 



83 



Marking the frontiers of the great civilizations of China. 
Iron. India, and Greece, the historical borders of the nomadic 
world have been indefinite .md diffuse. Nomads and settled 
peoples have long existed in a complementary relationship, and in 
the history of trans-Eurasian trade and cultural exchange, nomads 
have been like blood vessels that circulated the oxygen ol ideas 
and distributed new technologies and products along the Silk 
Road. In particular, nomads provided temporary accommodation 
and securit) . Stabling and fodder lor the animals ol merchants and 
blacksmiths lor making horseshoes, kept vitally important wells. 

established markets lor the exchange ol goods - that is. every- 
thing without which international trade along such a huge road 
would not have survived long. Nomads can be proud of their 
historical achievements, which include movable dwellings, 
clothing suitable lor riding horseback, felt and leather utensils, 
and the equine harness. The) invented kurnhi (fermented marc s 
milk I. the an of hunting with birds ol prey, and bowed stringed 
instruments that are the ancestors ol the cello and violin. 

Nomadism on the steppes ol I urasia is thought to have 
originated around 3,000 vcars ago. It was not, however, the lirst 
source ol human livelihood on the steppes. Archaeological 
evidence shows that migrator) herding had been preceded by a 

complex livestock-raising and agricultural economy, Nomadism 

arose in response to ecological and climatic factors: first and fore- 
most, inadequate lood and water resources, which led people to 
depend increasingly on hunting. They then began to migrate in 
pursuit ol the animals thev hunted, following the seasonal migra- 
tions ol wild mammals m Eurasia's arid steppe zone. In turn, 
selective breeding created an ecological niche that favored 
domesticated animals over their wild counterparts. 

Present-day nomadic groups Buryats, Kalmyks, 

Kazakhs. kvrgvz. Mongols. Turkmcns. and lakuts. to name a 
lew practice diverse typi ol itockbreeding and patterns of 

migration, belong to different religions, and speak different 
languages. At root, however, thev represent two distinct linguistic- 
groups, lurkic and Mongolian, and this bmarv distinction 
resonates in other aspects ol nomadic culture. For example, the 
dwellings ol Turkic nomads have spherical rools. while those ol 
Mongolian groups have conic rools. lurkic nomads orient the 
entrance ol their dwelling to the east, while among Mongolians, 




the entrance alvvavs laces south. Turkic nomads wear soft 
footwear, drink clear tea. and slaughter sheep in a way that drams 
away the blood; Mongolian nomads wear hard footwear, drink 
tea mixed with milk, butter, salt, and Hour, and slaughter sheep in 
such a way as to preserve ihe blood (which is made into blood 
sausage). 

Nomad civilization has its own laws governing the organi- 
zation of time and space, and nomads follow veiv sensitively the 
cycles of nature. In the words of one song, thev are in continual 
pursuit of eternal spring. I he primacy ol movement selves as the 
basis of the nomads entire world view. Foi them, everything that 
is alive is in movement, and everything that moves is alive: the 
sun and moon, water and wind, birds, and animals. 

I lie low fertility ol the soil does not allow nomads and their 
herds to stay in any one area for a long time. Overgrazing can 
have dire results ,n the extreme, removing a pasturage from 
economic use for a period of years. In order to maximize the yield 
of a pasturage, nomads have to judge precisel) when to drive their 



I 



herds from one pasture to the next, leaving the abandoned area to 
rejuvenate over the course of a year. Migration with livestock is 
on unavoidable fact of sun aval, and during the process of natural 
and forced selection, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, and horses have 
been selected for their suitability for lengthy migrations. Indeed, 
the symbol of nomadism is the horse, whose praise is sung in 
songs, epic tales, and stories. The winged living horse, called b) 
various names - e.g.. Tulpar. |onon Khar like IVgasus of the 
ancient Creeks, is a beloved character ol legends and a source ol 
poetic inspiration. 

At the earliest signs ol spring, nomads drive their cattle to 
spring pastures where the animals give birth to their young, and 
sheep have their spring dip and are shorn. Spring is a time of hope 
■tnd the beginning of the new cycle of life marked by the ol 

"ho spend tk . in lower altitudes in ilu- touthem 

mm of Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, ascend to higher regions in 
nmer to take advantage of the rich grazing luml. 

Photo ■ All Natmi. Agj Khan Foundation 



vance ol the New Year, called Xawruz (in Persian, new day") 

among the lurks and Isagan Sara iliterallv. white sacred 
month i among the Mongols. Without lingering long, nomads 
drive their animals on to summer pastures, where the happiest 
time of the nomadic year begins. Summer is a season of lattening 
for the animals and is characterized by an abundance ol food 
games and holidays lor the young, and meetings with relatives as 
different migratory paths crisscross. At the same time there are 
preparations lor the hard winter ahead: sewing clothes, weaving 
rugs, beating felt. With the onset ol the first cool davs. nomads 
undertake their migration to fall pastures where thev shear sheep 
and camels, prepare milk and meat for the winter, and return to 
winter quarters. 

1 his nomadic cycle is not exactly the same each vear. for the 
seasons themselves are not the same from one vear to the next. Yet 
vv hat remains constant lor the nomad is the sensation of a natural 
rhythm ol movement, Stable forms ol social organization, and 
abiding relationships among people. Success in nomadic hk 
depends on masterv ol a vast body of collective knowledge 
amassed ovei centuries. 1 his knowledge, passed on from lather to 
s< iii and mother to daughter, embraces an entire complex ol trade- 
cralt. domestic know-how. and moral norms. 

A nomads memory preserves thousands ol sounds, colors, 
and smells: the smell ol smoke rising from the hearth ol a vurt and 
flatbread Irving in fat; of felt and fluffy hides warming from bod) 
heat in the cold night: ol steppe grasses and flowers in the spring. 
especially wild tulips and irises: ol the bitter dust ol fall and the 
fresh snow ol winter. I hose smells bring back memories of places 
where the senses received their lirst lessons in the never-ending 
variety of life. 

Nomadism would be impossible without transportable 
dwellings, and among I urasian nomads, evidence ol such 
dwellings comes from ancient times. Describing the campaign of 
the Scythians against [he Persian armies ol Darius in the 5th 
century B.C.E., the (.reek historian Herodotus mentions felt 
dwellings on carts. Herodotus's observation is echoed in the 
description ol 'felt lurkic carts In I rial \\ illem van Kubruck. 
who. as the envoy oi I ouis l\ ol France, traveled the Eurasian 
steppes in 1252 54 on his voyage to Karakorum, then the capital 
ol the Mongol empire. Ihe carts that carried such felt homes were 






Nomads Today 



Arid zones constitute one-quarter of the earth's surface. With 
annual precipitation in the range of 200-400 mm, these regions 
of steppe, desert, semi-desert, and mountains are inhospitable to agri- 
culture, and the only economically viable source of livelihood is 
nomadic stockbreeding. An estimated 150 million people in more than 
30 countries still practice some form of nomadism. An additional 
30 million who live in the huge territory of Inner Asia that extends from 
the west of China almost to the Black Sea can trace their ancestry to 
nomads who lived as recently as a century or two ago. 

Taking a census of nomads is difficult, not 
only because they do not have addresses and 
passports, but also because nomadism itself can 
be transitory. Political turmoil or changes in 
climate can suddenly sweep masses of sedentary 
dwellers into a nomadic existence, or the 
reverse: nomads may be forced by external 
conditions to adapt to a sedentary life. 

The most critical period for nomadism in 
the Silk Road region has been the last hundred 
years, when nomads lost their independence and 
under political pressure from neighboring 
empires were forced to settle down. Forced 



30 feet wide and pulled by 33 pairs of oxen. 
While probably quite comfortable, such 
structures were cumbersome to transport, 
and could only be moved at a very slow 
pace. 

The yurt is the universal dwelling of 
nomads in Inner Eurasia and represents a 
unique achievement of human genius. As the name of a kind of 
dwelling, "yurt entered general usage from Russian. In Central 
Asia itself "yurt" is a polysemous word that can mean "commu- 
nity," "family, "relatives," "people," "land." or "countryside." 
Turkic-speaking nomads call their dwellings kiyiz uy, "felt 
home. Mongolian speakers use the term ger. 

For nomads, the yurt is rich in symbolism that represents 
both the macrocosmic and microcosmic world. The yurt dupli- 
cates the endless hemisphere of the sky. called Tengri. which is 
also the name of God among nomadic animists, with the round 
opening of the smoke hole symbolizing the sun. Set on the 




settlement threatened their tradition and culture and brought about a 
decline in their population, yet the spirit of nomadism did not completely 
disappear. As in the past, nomads demonstrated their ability to adapt and 
survive. The nomadic worldview became a part of contemporary 
society. For example, these days traditional yurts or gers are found not 
only in the countryside but in urban centers. In city apartments, the 
place of honor is opposite the entrance, just as in a yurt. The rituals 
of nomadic hospitality are alive and well, as is the art of nomadic 
cuisine. Traditional nomadic dress has influenced 
modern fashion and preference in fabric colors. 
Ancient musical instruments are still heard in 
both traditional and contemporary environments. 
Authentic folk songs, epics, tales, and legends 
are widely used as a resource for the creation 
of new types of music, poetry, theatrical plays. 
and films, as well as for educational purposes. 
The essence of nomadic ideas is evident not 
only in the preservation of folk art but also in 
modern architecture, design, and literature. At the 
dawn of the 21st century nomads have much to 
offer the world at large, and they hope to be 
received respectfully. 



emerald green grass of a mountain slope, 
covered with white felt and richly orna- 
mented, the vurt suggests a bird alighting on 
the slope to rest. At first glance quite simple. 
the yurt is at the heart of the traditional 
nomadic worldview. It provides a model and 
symbol of humanity and the universe, and is 
the key to understanding nomadic civilization. 

Putting together a yurt is a magical act that for nomads 
represents the original creation: the transformation of Chaos into 
the Cosmos, Disorder into Order. Conversely, dismantling the 
yurt creates a reverse transformation. Each step in erecting a yurt 
has a symbolic meaning, of which participants in the process are 
keenly aware. Moreover, the yurt has been anthropomorphized so 

Nomads surround themselves with decorative objects that signify the link 
between art and life and that are associated with dryness and warmth. 
These felt straps cover the outside of a yurt in Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan. 

Photo ' Hcrmine Drevfuss 



84 



, 



ft 




>•».• '»-~- 




that its parts arc described by the same words used to name parts 
of the human body. For example, the center of the yurt where the 
hearth is located is known as the "navel : walls are "thighs : the 
interior of the lattice frame is the "womb"; the root is called 
"shoulders"; the opening in the smoke hole is an "eve"; the 
wooden frame is called "bones or "skeleton, and the felt 
covering is "clothing. ' Herders say that each yurt has its own 
spirit, which is why guests bow their heads and pronounce greet- 
ings when entering a yurt, even if no one is home, 

I he inside of a yurt has a sacred character and is also 
imbued with its own symbolism. The spot opposite the entrance 
is the place of honor and is reserved for people who are closer to 
the Upper World by virtue of their social status, age, or artistic 
gifts. At the same time, this seat provides a vantage point from 
which the occupant can view the entire yurt, with men conven- 
tionally seated on the right side and women on the left. The spot 
This traditional vurt in Tajikistan is a nomad's summer home. 

Photo ' Katherinc Hinckley. Aga Khan Foundation 



close to the door is for people considered to be closest to the 
Lower World, for example, the poor and the sick. 

The center or "navel of the yurt is the hearth, which should 
never be crossed, even when no fire is burning. Violating this 
taboo may even be dangerous, as it can evoke retribution from the 
spirits. The hearth is a sacred territory, the place of fire through 
which the worldly axis passes as it unites the Upper, Middle, and 
Lower worlds. It is along this axis that life itself rotates, and. in 
particular, the life of the inhabitants of the felt dwelling. 

In their traditional daily lives, nomads do not know an 
unadorned space. All of their surroundings, beginning with the 
internal appointments of the yurt. are adorned or ornamented by 
their own skilled hands. To "ornament is to domesticate, to turn 
an object into a part of one's own cultural universe. Thus every- 
thing that is locally produced, from simple household necessities 
like drinking vessels and blankets to specially crafted items like 
horse harnesses and jewelry, represents an inviolable link 
between art and life. Moreover, ornaments are not simply decora- 



85 




tion, but comprise a special language that is essential knowledge 
for an understanding of nomadic arts. 

From a tactile point of view, all the objects used by nomads 
in their daily lives exemplify the qualities of dryness and warmth. 
Leather is warm and dry, as are rugs, textiles, and wood that has 
been worked. But the warmest of all is felt. One might even ask 
through what magical process felt preserves its warmth for what 
seems like thousands of years. A well-dressed felt withstands the 
merciless ravages of time and provides a link between the 
nomadic past and nomadic present. 

The yurt is not just a place of residence, but a home full of 

Nomads herd sheep, goats, cattle, camels, and horses, all animals that can 
endure long migrations. These sheep herders are from Kazakhstan. 

Photo ' Herminc Drevfuss 



life — a place of daily work and rest, of festivities and holidays, of 
socializing and taking meals. The nomadic diet is high in protein 
and consists mostly of meat and milk products. Such food 
provides the energy people need to engage in hard physical labor 
and symbolizes not only physical, but also spiritual survival. The 
daily meal, with its symphony of tastes, customs, and rituals 
played and replayed in the life of every nomad since childhood, 
serves as a cornerstone of self-identity, and the shared meal is in 
its turn at the very epicenter of traditional nomadic culture. The 
ritual of seating guests around the yurt neatly sums up the social 
and familial relations of people in any given group, demonstrating 
hierarchy and priorities. 

Nomadic hospitality rituals are stronglv regulated: they 
provide an opportunity to exchange news and for guests — at the 



86 



behest of their host to talk about themselves, their travels, and 
events in the place where they live. Genealogical ties between 
hosts and guests are thoroughly discussed, and elders recount 
historical legends and stories. Among the means of communica- 
tion particular to life on the steppe is a unique form of transmit- 
ting information know n as the "long car : whatever is discussed 
around the dastarqan (tablecloth) can already be known the next 
day for hundreds of miles around. How. and by what means? 
Who knows! 

Nomadic life is marked by eternal circles — the circle of the 
sun, the open steppe, the circumference of the vurt. the horned 
circular scroll of ornaments, the life cycle of the mushels or 
"twelve-year animal cycle. The completion of one circle leads to 
the beginning of the next, and each moment of transition is 
consciously and carefully marked by the appropriate customs, 
rituals, and holidays. One of the turning points is Nawruz. the 
beginning of the calendar year that occurs on the vernal equinox. 
March 21-22. 

Preparations for Nawruz begin early: homes are cleaned, 
new clothes are sewn. On the eve of Nawrur, nomads light 
bonfires and jump over them, young people wander about with 
lighted torches, women gather to cook large pots of a soup called 
sumelak or Nawruz kozhe made of seven ingredients — water, 
salt, meat, wheat, millet, rice, and milk. Stirring the soup, they 
sing special songs and pronounce blessings. With the sunrise, 
they sit down to the first meal of the new year and. as they eat, 
wish one another a long life. Then they call upon relatives, who 
await them in their yurts with spreads of delicious food. The 
holiday continues with horse competitions. At meals, elders are 
offered a boiled sheep s head, there are songs, and bards engage 
in verbal dueling competitions. Meanwhile, young people play 
games like "White Bone, which consists of looking for a sheep's 
tibia bone that has been thrown into the open steppe — into a 
magical night full of laughter and freedom under a spring sky 
filled with stars. 

The holiday has provided a short but joyous respite on the 
path of life, and as it recedes into memory, a new morning arises 
in the endless steppe, signifying yet another beginning, another 
rebirth. It is a rebirth in which nomads believe wholeheartedly, a 
rebirth that carries them through snowstorms and intense heat. 



losses and disappointments, betrayals and challenges, and all the 
tests of fate that lead to the future. 

For Further Reading 

Barfield, Thomas Jefferson, 1993. The Nomadic Alternative. 
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. 

Basilov, Vladimir, ed. 1989. Nomads of Eurasia. Seattle and London: 
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in association 
with University of Washington Press. 

Benson, Linda. 1998. China's Last Nomads: The History and Culture 
of China's Kazakhs. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe. 

Berman, Morris. 2000. Wandering Qod: A Study in Nomadic 
Spirituality. Albany: State University of New York Press. 

Faegre, Torvald. 1979. Tents: Architecture of the Nomads. Garden 
City. N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday. 

Ginat, Joseph, and Anatoly M. Khazanov, eds. 1998. Changing 
Nomads in a Changing World. Brighton. England; Portland, 
Ore.: Sussex Academic Press. 

Goldstein, Melvyn C, and Cynthia M. Beall. 1994. The Changing 
World of Mongolia's Nomads. Berkeley: University of 
California Press. 

Jones, Schuvler. 1996. Tibetan Nomads: Environment. Pastoral 
Economy, and Material Culture. New York: Thames and 
Hudson. 

Khazanov, Anatoly. 1994. Nomads and the Outside World. 2d ed. 
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

Kwanten, Luc. 1979. Imperial Nomads: A History of Central Asia. 
500-1500. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Olcott. Martha Brill. 1995. The Kazakhs. 2d ed. Stanford: Hoover 
Institution Press. Stanford University Press. 



Alma Kunanbay specializes in ethnomusicology, cultural 

ANTHROPOLOGY, AND LINGUISTICS. She IS THE AUTHOR OF MORE THAN 
30 ARTICLES AND TWO BOOKS, THE SoUL OF KAZAKHSTAN (WITH PHOTO- 
GRAPHS by Wayne Eastep) and Boris Asafyev On Folk Music (with 
izaly zemtsovsky) and has taught at universities in the united 
States, Russia, and Kazakhstan. Portions of this article have 

BEEN ADAPTED FROM The SoUL OF KAZAKHSTAN. 



87 






GENERAL FESTIVAL INFORMATION 






90 Participant Biographies 

100 Schedule 

110 Evening Concerts and Special Events 

111 Of Related Interest 



114 Sponsors and Special Thanks 
118 Staff 
126 Site Map 



Festival Hours 

The Opening Ceremony for the Festival takes place at 
Samarkand Square at 11 a.m., Wednesday. June 26. Thereafter, 
Festival hours are 11 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily, with evening 
concerts at specified stages. 

Festival Sales 

Traditional Afghan. Chinese. Italian, and Japanese food is sold. 

See the site map on page 126 for locations. 

A variety of crafts, books, and recordings related to the Festival 

are sold in the Lotus Bazaar on the Mall-side lawn of the Freer 

Gallery. 

Press 

Visiting members of the press should register at the Press Tent 

on the Mall near Jefferson Drive and 12th Street. 

First Aid 

A first aid station is located near the Metro station on the Mall at 
Jefferson Drive and 12th Street. 

Restrooms & Telephones 

There are outdoor facilities for the public and visitors with 
disabilities located near all of the program areas on the Mall. 
Additional restroom facilities are available in each of the museum 
buildings during visiting hours. 

Public telephones are available on the site, opposite the National 
Museums of American History and Natural History, and inside 
the museums. 



Lost & Found/Lost People 

Lost items may be turned in or retrieved at the Volunteer Tent 
near the Metro station on the Mall at Jefferson Drive and 12th 
Street. Lost family members may be claimed at the Volunteer 
Tent. 

Metro Stations 

Metro trains will be running every day of the Festival. The 
Festival site is easily accessible from the Smithsonian and 
Federal Triangle stations on the Blue and Orange Lines. 

Services for Visitors with Disabilities 

To make the Festival more accessible to visitors who are deaf or 
hard of hearing, audio loops are installed in the main music 
tents. Sign-language interpreters are on site every day of the 
Festival. Check the printed schedule and signs for interpreted 
programs. Special requests for interpreters should be made at the 
Volunteer Tent. Service animals are welcome. Oral interpreters 
are available for individuals if a request is made three full days in 
advance. Call 202.7S6.24H (TTY) or 202.275.1905 (voice). 
Large-print copies of the daily schedule and audio-cassette 
versions of the program book arc available at Festival informa- 
tion kiosks and the Volunteei Tent. A limited number of wheel- 
chairs arc available at the Volunteer Tent. Volunteers are on call 
to assist wheelchair users and to guide visitors with visual 
impairments. There are a few designated parking spaces for 
visitors with disabilities along both Mall drives. These spaces 
have three-hour time restrictions. 



89 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



Performance Traditions 

AFGHAN MUSIC 
(Afghanistan/United States) 

Homayoun Sakhi, vocal/rufcafc 

Toryalay. tabla 

Araa Zalmai, vocal/c/o/ro 

Homayoun Sakhi, a virtuoso performer on 
the rubab, recently arrived in Hayward, 
California, after leaving his native Kabul and 
living as a refugee in Pakistan, Toryalay and 
Araa Zalmai earlier followed the same route 
to Hayward, where they have helped to open 
a school of Afghan musical traditions. 

AITYS: NOMADIC TOURNAMENT 

In Inner Asian pastoral societies, tourna- 
ments of poets and musicians called oifys or 
tortus are a central feature of traditional life. 
Participants display their skills in a spirit of 
friendly competition. 

(Iran) 

Masheallah Akbari (Azeri), vocal/fca/afcan 

Asheq Hasan (Azeri), vocal/soz 

Asheq Hasan, a great Azeri bard from Tabriz, 
in northwest Iran, began his career in the 
popular teahouses of amateur Azeri musi- 
cians. Masheallah Akbari accompanies on the 
balaban, an Azeri double-reed woodwind 
related to the Armenian duduk. 

Youssef Dibaei (Turkmen), vocal/Ztamanche 
Anaberdy Vejdani (Turkmen), vocal/c/utor 

Youssef Dibaei and Anaberdy Vejdani are 
well-known bards in northern Iran, home 
to a large Turkmen community. The use 
of two instruments is an anomaly in the 
bardic tradition, where the norm is solo 
performers accompanying themselves on 
a single instrument. 



(Kazakhstan) 

Almasbek Almatov, vocal 
Sayan Aqmolda, vocal/qy/qoi>yz 
Rysbek Ashimov, vocal 
Sholpan Beimbetova. vocal 
Yedil Khussainov, Jew's harp 
Amandik Komekulu. vocal/cfombra 
Serzhan Shakrat, vocal 

The Kazakh bardic tradition includes both the 
vocal art of epic singers and the instru- 
mental art of virtuoso performers on 
stringed and bowed instruments. Epic singers 
are keepers of a collective memory that 
connects Kazakh oral traditions with 
shamanic spirituality and nomadic philosophy. 
The heart of the instrumental tradition is a 
form known as kui that tells the story or 
recounts the legend purely through musical 
sound. 

(Kyrgyzstan) 

Ruslan Jumabaev. komuz 
Kenjekul Kubatova, komuz/ vocal 
Ruslan Jumabaev, a highly regarded master 
of the Kyrgyz komuz, a three-stringed lute, 
is recognized for his performance virtuosity 
across genres, a versatility that joins 
technical dexterity with artistic interpretation. 
Kenjekul Kubatova is a gifted vocalist 
originally from Narin, a city known for its 
musical milieu. 

(Tajikistan) 

Sator Fozilov, doira 
Oumar Temourov, qbijak 

Oumar Temourov is distinguished among 
Tajik bards for his original style in which he 
brings the qbijak, a Central Asian spike 
fiddle, to Sufi music. 



(Turkmenistan) 

Lale Begnazarova, vocal 
Maksat Begnazarov. vocal 
Osman Gujimov, dutar 

The performance of epic poetry by women 
is common among the Turkmen. Originally 
from the region of Akhal, Lale Begnazarova 
and Maksat Begnazarov are conservatory- 
educated professional musicians who now 
reside in Ashgabad, Turkmenistan's capital. 
They are accompanied on the dutar by 
Osman Gujimov. 

(Qaraqalpakstan, Uzbekistan) 

Zulfiya Arzumbetova, vocal/c/utar 
Salamatdin Kaipnazarov, qbijak 

The Qaraqalpaks are a traditionally nomadic 
Turkic group whose territory — now called 
Qaraqalpakstan — lies in the northwest of 
Uzbekistan. Though close in style to their 
Turkmen neighbors to the south, Qaraqalpak 
bards do not use the low guttural sounds of 
the Turkmen bards, which perhaps explains 
why the profession of bard is widely open 
to women. Zulfiya Arzumbetova, foremost 
student of the esteemed bard Turganbey 
Qurbanov. is accompanied by Salamatdin 
Kaipnazarov. 

BADAKHSHANI MUSICAL 
TRADITIONS (Tajikistan) 

Nobovar Tchanorov. satar/ rubab/ vocal 
Mouborakcho Djoumaev, rubab 
Zarina Kobilova, dancer 
Djoumakhon Madjidov, rufcafc/vocal 
Ulfatmo Mamadambarova, vocal/ doira/cbanq 
Moussavar Minakov, satar/ qbijak/ rubab 
Gulbek Saodatov, sator 

Isolated from the rest of Central Asia by the 
Pamir Mountains, the "Roof of the World." 
Badakhshan preserves unique traditions of 
music, dance, and theater in which remnants 
of animism combine with musical genres 
and instruments from the Islamic period. 
Moussavar Minakov is the leader of a well- 
known folk music ensemble that performs a 
traditional Badakhshani repertory. 



90 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



BEIJING OPERA featuring 
Qi Shu Fang (China) 

Ding Mei-Kui 

Huang Chen Lin. second fiddle 

Huang Shi Rong. big drum 

Li Peng 

Li Shi-sheng, gong 

Liu Chunnuan 

Qi Shufang 

James Qian, fiddle 

Sun Ya Hui 

Zhao Zhen Ping, moon mandolin 

Zhao Zong Quan 

Beijing Opera, one of over 300 operatic 
styles in China, is perhaps the best-known 
and most widely practiced theatrical tradition 
in the world. Blending song, dance, and 
acrobatics, this popular Chinese art form can 
be traced as far back as the 1600s. 

BEZMARA (Turkey) 
Kemal Caba. kamanche 
Ayse Serap (^aglayan, kanun 
Walter Feldman, kudum 
Aziz §enol Filiz. ney 
Fikret Karakaya. qenq 
Osman Kirklikg, sehrud 
Birol Yayla. fontur/topuz/guitar 

Founded in 1996 by Fikret Karakaya. Bezmara 
is dedicated to historical performances of 
Ottoman music based on early manuscripts 
and using reconstructed period instruments, 
a number of which show strong links to 
Central Asia. Bezmara was the first Turkish 
group to resurrect instruments which had 
not been heard for three or four centuries 
and to study the two major notated sources 
of Ottoman music in detail. 

In the duo Yansimalar ("Reflections"), Aziz 
Senol Filiz on ney and Birol Yayla on tanbur 
and guitar give musical expression to the 
experience of Istanbul's numerous Anatolian 
immigrants through contemporary Turkish 
popular compositions. 



BUKHARAN JEWISH MUSIC 
AND DANCE (United States) 

Ilyas Malaev Ensemble 

Yusuf Abramov. tar 

Matat Barayev, doira 

Ochil ibrahimov, vocal/tar/ qhijak 

Tamara Kataev, dancer 

Ilyas Malaev, vocal/tar 

Izro Malakov, vocal 

Muhabbat Shamoeva, vocal 

Shashmaqam 

Aboshaul Aminov, vocal 

Osher Barayev, doira 

David Davidov, tor 

Firuza Junatan, dancer 

Boris Kuknariyev, vocal/accordion 

Shumiel Kuyenov. doira 

Izro Malakov, vocal 

Shoista Mulldzhanova. vocal 

Sazandas 

Travis F. Jarrell 
Firuza Junatan 
Tamara Kataev 
Tofahon Pinkhasova 

The ilyas Malaev Ensemble and Shashmaqam. 
both based in Queens. New York, represent 
the musical traditions of a Bukharan Jewish 
diaspora community numbering some 30.000 
people that have emigrated from Uzbekistan 
and Tajikistan over the last 25 years. A 
prominent figure in this tradition is the 
sazanda — a female wedding entertainer 
who dances, sings, and plays frame drums. 
Tofahon Pinkhasova. one of Bukhara's most 
famous sazandas, presently lives in Denver, 
Colorado, where she has transmitted her 
tradition to American students, including 
Travis Jarrell. Shumiel Kuyenov. leader of 
Shashmaqam. came to the United States 
from Uzbekistan in 1980. Ilyas Malaev. a 
renowned performer in Uzbekistan, 
emigrated to Queens in 1992. 



CALICANTO (Italy) 

Claudia Ferronato. vocal 

Nicola Marsilio. clarinet/flute/sax/dudu/c 

Giancarlo Tombesi. double bass 

Roberto Tombesi, vocal/manc/o/a/diatonic 

accordion/bagpipes 
Paolo Vidaich. percussion 

Founded in 1981, Calicanto is one of the 
best-known groups performing Italian folk 
music. They are committed to the recovery 
of Venetian traditional music, and base their 
style on the fusion of old and new traditions 
from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. 

CHINESE STORYTELLING (China) 

Chong Yujie, Jingyun daqu 

Jai Jainguo. Kuaiban 

Jiang Yunxian. Suzhou tanci 

Lian Liru. Beijing pingsfiu 

Mu Xiangzheng, sanxian accompanist 

Tang Gengliang. Suzhou pinqhua 

The earliest evidence of Chinese storytelling 
is found in the Mogao caves of Dunhuang. 
likely carried by Buddhist monks along the 
Silk Road. Acknowledged masters who have 
toured across China and in the United States, 
the storytellers perform northern and 
southern Chinese oral narrative arts, of 
which more than 300 different genres have 
been identified in spoken, sung, and chante- 
fable (alternatively sung and spoken) types. 



'>l 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



ETHNOSSHINGIGAKU: 

Asian Mask Dance Theater (Japan) 

Mannojo Nomura, producer 

Theodore Bah (Guinea), actor 

I Made Djimat (Indonesia), actor 

Fujita Shuji, staff 

Hashimoto Katsutoshi, actor 

Hatakeyama Yuko, musician 

Ino Makiko. actor 

Irino Tomoe, musician 

Challissery Antony Joy (India), actor 

Kang Cha Wook (Korea), musician 

Kawamura Kohei. musician 

Kim Do Yoen (Korea), actor 

Kim Yong Mok (Korea), actor 

Koga Kumiko, staff 

Lakshmipathy Narendra Kumar (India), actor 

Kuwabara Kayo, staff 

Lee Dong Yong (Korea), actor 

Lu Hairong (China), actor 

Miura Tsuneo, actor 

Qian Tenghao (China), musician 

I Ketut Rudida (Indonesia), actor 

Sugawara Kaori. actor 

Latyr Sy (Senegal), musician 

Shinsuke Suzuki, staff 

Ye Fang (China), actor 

Shingigaku ("new qiqaku") is the creation of 
Mannojo Nomura, who studied traditions of 
masked theater and dance from many parts 
of Asia and Europe with the aim of recre- 
ating the pageantry of one of Japan's most 
venerable art forms. Based in Tokyo. 
Mannojo is at the beginning of a 10-year 
performance project that he calls the "Mask 
Road" — a theatrical analog to the Silk 
Road. 



HUA FAMILY SHAWM AND 
PERCUSSION BAND (China) 

Hua Jinshan, drum 

Hua Lei, small cymbals 

Hua Yinshan (leader), shawm 

Hua Yun. shawm 

Xie Jian, gong 

Shawms were imported to China from Iran 
and Central Asia. Around the 15th century, 
they started to become common among the 
Han Chinese and assumed a central place in 
celebrations of life-cycle and calendar events. 
Hua Jinshan and Hua Yinshan learned from 
their father as young children, and are 
among the few players who know the 
ancient military repertory of shawm and 
percussion music. 

INDIAN MELA PERFORMERS (India) 

Aziz Khan, magician 

Aziz Khan started his magic career at the 
age of 5 as an assistant to his father, then 
began performing independently at 14. 

Kishan, son of Laxman Bharti. juggler 

Kishan learned juggling from his father. 
Today he performs in the streets of Delhi as 
well as at international fairs and festivals. 

Kishan, son of Sharwan Nath. behrupia 

Kishan learned the art of behrupia (imper- 
sonation) from his father. His specialty is 
impersonating monkeys. 

INDIAN OCEAN (India) 

Ashim Chakravarthy. tabla/drums 
Amit Kilam, drums 
Rahul Narasimha Ram, bass 
Susmit Sen, guitar 

Formed in 1990, Indian Ocean has toured 
throughout India and is known for the 
innovative way it blends traditional music 
with jazz and rock. 



KATHPUTLI PUPPET THEATRE (India) 

Guddi Bhatt 
Jagdish Bhatt 
Puran Bhatt 

Guddi, Jagdish, and Puran Bhatt have trained 
in string puppetry since childhood. They now 
share their talents at festivals throughout the 
world. 

MANGANIYAR MUSIC OF 
RAJASTHAN (India) 

Gazi Khan Barana. dholak/ khartal/ morchanq 

Anwar Khan, vocal 

Kheta Khan, vocal 

Chanan Khan Manganiar, khamauacha/ vocal 

Manganiyars traditionally perform at seasonal 
and life-cycle events such as weddings and 
births of their Hindu landowning patrons. 
They sing ritual and celebratory music to the 
accompaniment of the saranqi, a bowed 
string instrument, and sometimes castanets. 

MAQAM (Uzbekistan/Tajikistan) 

Mastona Ergashova. vocal 
Abdurahim Hamidov, dular 
Jurabek Nabiev, vocal 
Shawkat Nabiev, ghijak 
Shuhratdjon Nabiev, tonbur 

Vocalists Jurabek Nabiev and Mastona 
Ergashova perform a range of Uzbek and 
Tajik musical styles, including the classical art 
song genre known as sbashmaqam. Nabiev's 
sons, Shuhrat and Shawkat, provide lively 
accompaniment. Abdurahim Hamidov 
performs both the classical maqam and a 
special dutar repertory that features virtuosic 
strumming techniques on the two-stringed 
instrument. 



92 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



MONGOLIAN MUSICAL TRADITIONS 

I. Amartuvshin. morinhuur 

G. Khongorzul, urtiinduu (long song singer) 

Ts. Sansarbayar, qatqa 

N. Sengedorj, hoomii throat-singer/fiddles 

B. Tsengelmaa, bielgee dancer 

Amartuvshin and Sengedorj are charismatic 
musicians who have chosen leadership and 
tutelage in their regional communities in 
Mongolia over lucrative national and interna- 
tional careers. Joined by virtuoso performers 
of vocal music and dance, this musical group 
presents traditions from both the herders' 
culture of the western Oirats and the 
nomadic arts of central Khalkha Mongolia. 

MUGHAM (Azerbaijan) 
Elnur Ahmadov, kamanche 
Aydin Aliyev, qarmon 
Niyamettm Babyev. vocal 
Elchin Hashimov. tar 
Adalat Nasibov, saz 
Leyla Rahimova, vocal 

Azeri classical music, known as mugham, is 
traditionally performed by soloists or small 
ensembles. These days, the tradition is vigor- 
ously alive among young performers, 
including the teenage vocalists invited to this 
year's Festival. In addition to five performers 
of mugham. this delegation includes Adalat 
Nasibov, whose improvisational style on the 
saz is based on the vocal repertory of the 
Azeri bards, called ashiq. 



MUQAM OF THE UYGHURS (China) 
Rozi Tukhluk (Uzbekistan), 

vocal/rawap/tanfcur 
Nur Mahammat Tursun, satar/tanfcur 
Sa'nubar Tursun, vocal/dutar 

The Uyghur muqam are large suites 
consisting of vocal, instrumental, and dance 
music. Sa'nubar Tursun and her brother Nur 
Mahammat Tursun live in Urumqi, where they 
perform with the Xinjiang Muqam Ensemble 
and Xinjiang Song-and-Dance Troupe. Rozi 
Tughluk is part of the large Uyghur diaspora 
in Central Asia, and lives in Tashkent, 
Uzbekistan. 

MURAS (Kyrgyzstan) 
Toktobek Asanaliev. /comuz/vocal 
Gulbara Baigashkaeva. komuz/temirkomuz 
Bakytbek Chatyrbaev, qylqiuak 
Nurlanbek Nyshanov, komuz/chor/chopo 
chor/temir komuz 

Ensemble Muras ("heritage"), founded by 
Nurlanbek. performs traditional Kyrgyz solo 
music in an imaginative style that incorpo- 
rates a small ensemble. Their music 
preserves traditional practice, but also breaks 
new ground. 

PARISA AND DARIUSH TALAI: 
Persian Classical Music (Iran) 

Parisa. vocal 
Dariush Talai, tar 

Parisa is the present-day representative of 
the Davami and Karimi tradition of the 
Persian radii and is considered one of Iran's 
greatest female vocalists. She performs from 
the classical Persian repertoire known as 
dastqah and is accompanied on the tar by 
Dariush Talai. a virtuoso classical musician. 



ROKSONAKI (Kazakhstan) 

Yermek Diyarov. vocal/guitar 

Ruslan Karin, vocal/saz-syrnai/shan-kofcyz 

Viktor Khomenkov, keyboards 

Yedil Khussainov, vocal/djetygen/ 

shan-/cofcyz/saz-syrnai/syfayzgy/ 

/camys-syrnai 
Abay Rakhyshev. vocal/drums 
Kazbek Spanov, vocal/guitar 

Between New Age and shamanic pop. six 
Kazakhs found their inspiration in the ancient 
songs and instruments of the animist culture 
of the steppe. Shamanic rain songs and 
hymns to the spirits are brought together 
with modern instruments and performance 
style. 

SABJILAR (Khakasia, Russia) 
Altyn Tann Anna Burnakova. /chat/percussion 
Chanar Khyr Khaas. khai/ chatkhan 
Aycharkh Sayn, khai/ chatkhan/ qobyz 

These three musicians from Khakasia. a 
small republic in the south of Siberia, are 
masters of khai — Khakas throat-singing 
with roots in shamanism — and the recita- 
tion of epic poems. In revitalizing ancient 
Khakas traditions. Sabjilar combines khai with 
the chatkhan, a long, plucked zither regarded 
as the national instrument of Khakasia. 

SHOGHAKEN ENSEMBLE (Armenia) 

Tigran Ambaryan, kamanche 
Gevorg Dabaghyan. duduk 
Aleksan Harutyunyan, vocal/dancer 
Hasmik Harutyunyan. vocal/dancer 
Karine Hovhannisyan, kanun 
Kamo Khachatryan. dhol 
Grigor Takushyan. dham duduk 
Levon Tevanyan. shvi/zurna 

Shoghaken Ensemble was founded in 1991 by 
conservatory musicians to perform Armenian 
folk music as it has been played through 
history — in small ensembles of traditional 
instruments, singers and dancers. The 
ensemble's new CD will be released by 
Traditional Crossroads in 2002. 



93 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



THE SILK ROAD ENSEMBLE 

Edward Arron, cello 
Nicholas Cords, viola 
He Cui, s/ieng 
Gevorg Dabaghyan, duduk 
Sandeep Das. tabla 
Joel Fan. piano 

G. Khongorzul, long song vocal 
Jonathan Gandelsman, violin 
Joseph Gramley. percussion 
Colin Jacobsen. violin 
Dong-Won Kim. chanq-qo 
Yo-Yo Ma, cello/morin fiuur 
Shane Shanahan, percussion 
Mark Suter, percussion 
Kojiro Umezaki, shakuhachi 
Yang Wei. p/po 
Beixing Xiang, erfiu 

The Silk Road Ensemble is a collective of 
like-minded musicians dedicated to exploring 
the relationship between tradition and 
innovation in music From North America, 
Europe, and Asia. Each musician's career 
illustrates a unique response to the challenge 
of nourishing global connections while main- 
taining the integrity of art rooted in an 
authentic tradition. 

UZBEK PUPPET THEATER 

Venera Yusupova 
Gulshat Nazarova 
Dinara Yuldasheva 

Puppetry and folk theater have a long history 
in Central Asia, and these days are being 
reimagined in a contemporary form with 
particular brio by Uzbekistan's Republican 
Theater, represented at the Festival by three 
of its most experienced puppeteers. 



Craft Traditions 



BEAD MAKERS 

Haji Ashoor (Pakistan) 

Working with ancient blocks of lapis 
lazuli that he collected from the desert, 
Haji Ashoor began making beads when he 
was 25 years old. 

Luigi Cattelan (Italy) 

Luigi Cattelan was born into a family who 
have been glass masters since the 15th 
century. 

Abdul Momin (Pakistan) 

A skilled bead maker like his father, Haji 
Ashoor, Abdul Momin makes a distinctive 
type of painted carnelian bead. 

CALLIGRAPHERS 

Issa M. Benyamin (United States) 

Issa Benyamin is skilled in Assyrian callig- 
raphy, now retired and living in Chicago. 

Niyaz Kerim Xarki (China) 

Niyaz Kerim Xarki is a master Uyghur callig- 
rapher with works featured in collections 
around the world. 

Muhittin Serin (Turkey) 

Muhittan Serin is a master of the talik script. 

Alvin Y. Tsao (United States) 

Born in Taiwan, Alvin Tsao now works in the 
Washington. D.C., area. He has given 
numerous calligraphy and seal-carving 
demonstrations in local museums. 

Oguzhan Tugrul (Turkey) 

Oguzhan Tugrul is active in the international 
community of paper marblers and Uyghur 
calligraphers. 



John S.C. Wang (United States) 

Born in Taiwan into a family of artists and 
scholars, John S.C. Wang is praised for his 
elaborate brush strokes and intricate seal 
carvings. 

CERAMICISTS 

Chen Xinching (China) 

With decades of experience, Chen Xinching 
is a master of Jingdezhen throwing. 

Ibrahim Erdeyer (Turkey) 

Ibrahim Erdeyer was raised with pottery, 
mixing clay as a child, firing the kiln as a 
teen, and later painting. 

Mehmet Giirsoy (Turkey) 

Mehmet Gu'rsoy is dedicated to recreating 
the excellence of 16th-century porcelain, 
including the traditional palette of six colors. 

Higaki Hachiro (Japan) 

As a young man. Higaki Hachiro learned the 
art of figurative pottery from his brother. 

Kang Qing (China) 

In 2001, Kang Qing was a visiting ceramics 
professor at Harvard. She is skilled at 
blue-and-white painting. 

Maekawa Denko (Japan) 

Maekawa Denko was born in the middle of 
Seto's pottery district, and at 35 started his 
own figurative pottery studio. 

Masuda Shigeyuki (Japan) 

Masuda Shigeyuki started working at a 
ceramics factory after World War II. then 
became an independent figurative potter. 

Haripada Pal (Bangladesh) 

Haripada Pal makes molded, painted images 
for domestic worship, and larger hand- 
modeled images for temples. 



94 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



Ahmet Hurriyet §ahin (Turkey) 
Nurten §ahin (Turkey) 

Ahmet Hurriyet S,ahin trained with his grand- 
father, also named Ahmet §ahin, considered 
the 20th-century's grand master of Islamic 
ceramics. Since 1989, he and his wife Nurten 
have managed an atelier that uses his grand- 
father's old designs. 

Tatebayashi Hirohisa (Japan) 

Tatebayashi Hirohisa's family has been 
making Arita porcelain since the early 17th 
century. 

Xu Xiutang (China) 

From Jiangsu Province. Xu Xiutang is a 

master of Yixing tea pots and sculpture. 

Yie Dongxi (China) 

Yie Dongxi specializes in trimming, glazing. 

and finishing Jingdezhen pottery. 

CLOTHING DESIGNERS 

Lola Babayeva (Uzbekistan) 

Trained in a theater institute. Lola Babayeva 

draws her inspiration from traditional Uzbek 

clothing. 

Turdukan Borubaeva (Kyrgyzstan) 

A physicist by training. Turdukan Borubaeva 
is one of Kyrgyzstan's pioneering fashion 
designers. 

Tatiana Vorotnikova (Kyrgyzstan) 

Tatiana Vorotnikova runs a large workshop 
which produces clothing, bags, hats, and 
accessories. 



Nakagawa Sochi (Japan) 

Azechi Rika 
Kishimoto Kanehiro 
Koiwa Jun 
Nakagawa Masahiro 
Nakagawa Tatsuya 

The creative team of the Nakagawa Sochi 
Studio combines fashion with art and envi- 
ronmentalism. The team recycles and 
remixes old fashion buys into pieces that 
convey new meanings to their wearers. 

Taras Volikov (Uzbekistan) 
Taras Volnikov designs, cuts, and constructs 
all of his own work. He is known for his 
evening wear and tailoring. 

GLASS BLOWERS (Syria) 
Hasan al Kazzaz 
Mhd. Nazir al Kazzaz 

Hasan al Kazzaz and his son Mhd. Nazir al 
Kazzaz come from a family that has been in 
the glass-blowing trade for 400 years. 
Glass-blowing skills are passed from father 
to son through 5 years of intensive training. 

METALWORKERS AND JEWELERS 

Richard Furrer (United States) 

Richard Furrer uses traditional techniques. 

rather than the modern smelting process, to 

replicate crucible steel for daggers and 

swords. 

Sirajul Islam (Bangladesh) 

Born into a farming family. Sirajul Islam is 
considered the greatest engraver in modern 
Bangladesh. 

Mohamad al Malli (Syria) 

Mohamad al Malli continues the tradition of 

intarsia, a mosaic-like inlay of contrasting 

materials such as bone, mother of pearl, and 

wood. 



George Oubid (Syria) 

George Oubid is perhaps the best-known 
jeweler in all of Syria and is committed to 
educating others about these ancient tradi- 
tions. 

B.D. Soni (India) 

B.D. Soni is a traditional Indian goldsmith. 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERS 

John Bertles (United States) 

A composer, instrument builder, and 
educator. John Bertles has worked with the 
Carnegie Hall Link-up Program for 9 years. 
He also performs with Bash the Trash, a 
group known throughout the greater New 
York area for its musical instruments built 
from recycled materials. 

Marat Damdyn (Tuva. Russia) 
Marat Damdyn is a master instrument maker 
who makes all Tuvan stringed instruments. 
He also is a throat-singer. 

PAINTERS 

Yeshi Dorjee (United States) 

Yeshi Dorjee is skilled in thangka painting — 

a traditional Tibetan painting of a Buddha. 

Buddhist deity, or a mandala. 

Mohammed Nasseripour (United States) 
Mohammed Nasseripour is an architect 
specializing in museums and has designed 
six museums in Iran. He has a studio in 
Washington. D.C., where he teaches painting. 
At the Festival he demonstrates miniature 
painting. 

Gyan Prakash Soni (India) 
Gyan Prakash Soni, a Pichhwai painter, uses 
handspun cloth and natural dyes to create 
spiritual images. 



95 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



Aram Vartanov (United States) 

Aram Vartanov incorporates Western 
European art in his Armenian religious 
paintings and illuminated manuscripts. 

PAPER ARTISTS 

Tohtu Baqi Turdi (China) 

Tohtu Baqi Turdi is skilled in making 
mulberry paper famous in the Hotan region. 

Fukunishi Hatsumi (Japan) 
Fukunishi Masayuki (Japan) 

The Fukunishi family makes kozo paper in 
the tamQ-nagashi method with added white 
clay, a method used since the Edo period. 

Guerrino Lovato, mask maker (Italy) 

A celebrated Venetian mask maker, 
Guerrino Lovato has taught mask-making 
workshops in the United States and Europe. 

Asif Mian, kite maker (India) 

Asif Mian was awarded the national merit 
certificate by the Government of India for 
his extraordinary kites. 

Feridun Ozgoren (Turkey/United States) 

Feridun Ozgoren's art works are in the 
tradition of Turkish efcru (marbling) and 
include works in Ottoman and Arabic 
calligraphy. 

Roberto Rapanotti (Italy) 

Roberto Rapanotti is skilled in chiaroscuro 
watermarks, an innovation of Fabriano paper 
making that dates back to the mid-t8oos. 

Zhang Fengxue (China) 

Since the Tang dynasty, generations of 
Zhang Fengxue's family have made their 
living as mulberry paper makers. 



STONE CARVERS 

Iftikar Ahmed (Pakistan) 

Iftikar Ahmed makes Gandhara-style carvings 
and works with his father. Ghulam Mustafa. 

Ghulam Mustafa (Pakistan) 
Ghulam Mustafa prides himself in replicating 
a wide range of styles in both large-scale 
and small-scale work. 

Lorisa Norbu (Tuva, Russia) 

Singlehandedly breaking taboos against 
women sculptors. Lorisu Norbu fought for 
acceptance from the artists' union while 
developing a unique, representational style. 

Alexei Salchak (Tuva, Russia) 

Alexei Salchak is the head of Tuva's artists' 
union, where he organizes the annual 
pilgrimage to the sacred stone collecting 
grounds in western Tuva. 

TEXTILE ARTISTS 

Block Printer 
(India) 

Shaikh Mohammad Hussain 

Shaikh Mohammad Hussain was born in a 
family of block printers. He specializes in the 
Tree of Life motif. 

Brocade Weavers (Syria) 

Ahmad Chakkaki 

Louai Jarkas 

Ahmad Chakkaki and Louai Jarkas represent 

generations of Kurdish silk weavers in Syria, 

and learned the skill of weaving from their 

fathers. 



Ikat Weavers (Uzbekistan) 

Bobir Ismailov 
Dilbar Khalimova 
Davlat Umaralyev 

The celebrated and well-known woven ikat 
silk textiles from cities like Bukhara and 
Samarkand have been produced for centuries 
on hand looms in Uzbekistan. 

Ikat Patola Weavers (India) 

Salvi Bharatkumar Kantilal 
Salvi Rohitkumar Kantilal 
Salvi Vinayak Kantilal 

The Salvi brothers' grandparents revived the 
art of double ikat weaving. Building on this 
contribution, the brothers have reintroduced 
natural dyes and traditional patterns. 

Jamdani Weavers (Bangladesh) 

Shawkat Ali 

Md. Enamul Haque 

Shawkat Ali and Md. Enamul Haque come 
from the village of Rupshi, where some 
2,000-3,000 jamdani looms are in operation. 

Navajo Carpet Weaver 
(United States) 
D.Y. Begay 

D.Y. Begay synthesizes new materials, 
designs, and techniques with traditional 
knowledge. 

Rabari Weaver 
(India) 

Ramiben Ratna Rabari 

The bold and bright embroidery of Rabari 
women, such as Ramiben Ratna, is used to 
decorate clothing and make household 
decorations. 



96 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



Tibetan Carpet Weavers (Nepal) 

Tsering Bhuti 

Dawa Tsamchoe 

Tsering Bhuti and Dawa Tsamchoe learned 

the fundamental aspects of carpet weaving 

as children and are experts in hand carding. 

spinning, and weaving Tibetan-style carpets. 

Turkish Carpet Weavers (Turkey) 

Ahmet Balci 

Mukaddes Kavak 

Ummu Gulsum Yilmaz 

Ummu Guslum Yilmaz weaves traditional 

rugs as well as the flatweave kilims. 

Ahmet Balci is a skilled natural dyer. 

Mukaddes Kavak is an Ayvacik rug weaver. 

Turkmen Carpet Weavers (Pakistan) 

Abdul Baqi 
Sadaf Baqi 

After leaving Afghanistan as a child. 
Abdul Baqi lived in Pakistan's Turkmen exile 
community where he learned the art of 
vegetable dyeing. Sadaf Baqi is one of the 
most highly skilled weavers in her Ersari 
Turkmen refugee community. Husband and 
wife work together. 

Tussah Silk Weaver 

(India) 

Gunia Devi 

Before producing mulberry silk, India was 
known for its coarse, tussah silk. Gunia Devi 
represents this tradition. 

TRUCK PAINTERS (Pakistan) 

Haider Ali 
Jamil Uddin 

Both living in Karachi, Haider Ali builds 
trucks, and Jamil Uddin is known for his fine 
painting. 



Nomadic Traditions 



(Kazakhstan) 

Almasbek Almatov. yurt builder 

Sayan Aqmolda, yurt builder 

Rysbek Ashimov, yurt builder 

Baltabay ibrayev, yurt builder 

Amangul ikhanova, felt maker 

Zhangir Umbetov, leatherworker, yurt builder 

The traditional Kazakh yurt is not just a 
place of residence, but a home whose 
assembly invokes the symbols and emotional 
associations meaningful to a nomadic Central 
Asian lifestyle. The collapsible yurt represents 
a development that occurred in the middle of 
the first millennium C.E. 

Foodways Traditions 

Najmieh Batmanglij (Persian) 

Najmieh Batmanglij was born and raised in 
Iran, and received master's degrees in 
education and art in the United States and 
France. She is the author of the best-selling 
New Food of Life', her most recent cookbook 
is Silk Road Cooking: A Vegetarian Journey. 

Mukadder (Katie) Buyukunsal (Turkish) 

Mukadder Buyukunsal maintains her connec- 
tion to Turkish cuisine by growing a garden 
of vegetables common in her homeland, but 
difficult to find in the United States. 

Jinghua Chi (Chinese) 

Born in Beijing. Jinghua Chi divides her time 
between Washington, D.C., and Hangzhou in 
Zhejiang Province. 

Roberto Donna (Italian) 

Roberto Donna is an award-winning chef in 
Washington. D.C., and owner of both Galileo 
and il Radicchio. 



Enzo Fargione (Italian) 

Enzo Fargione studied at the Culinary 
Institute of Turin. Italy, and is currently the 
owner of il Radicchio. 

Shajan Fazelyar (Uzbek) 

Shajan Fazelyar has lived in Virginia since 
1987. She speaks Uzbek and Farsi. 

Huilan Hu (Chinese) 

Huilan Hu was born in Jiangxi Province. 
China, and now lives in the provincial capital, 
though she frequently visits family in the 
Washington area. 

Nahid Javadi (Azerbaijani) 

Born and raised in Tabriz. Iran, Nahid Javadi 
has a master's degree in English from 
Tehran University. 

Jila Nairn (Afghan) 

Jila Nairn, born in Kabul, Afghanistan, is the 
founder of Afghan Women magazine. 

Marco Nocco (Italian) 

Born in Milan. Italy. Marco Nocco has 
studied Italian culinary arts from the age of 
iz,. He is now the executive chef in the main 
kitchen of Washington. D.C.'s popular Galileo 
restaurant. 

Shukrieh Raad (Afghan) 

Born in Kabul, Afghanistan. Shukrieh Raad 

currently works for Voice of America. 

Shobha Shah (Indian) 

Shobha Shah was born and raised in 
Bombay. She is very knowledgeable in the 
traditions of North Indian and Gujarati 
cooking. 



97 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



Fay Shahidi (Persian) 

Fay Shahidi was encouraged to learn cooking 
as a child and is proud of her Iranian food- 
ways heritage. 

Nikta Shahidi (Persian) 

Nikta Shahidi caters her specialties — soups 
and Persian kukus — to the Persian/Iranian 
community in the Washington area. 

Behjat Shahverdiani (Persian) 

Behjat Shahverdiani's specialties are Persian- 
style rice meatballs, kufteh, and rice with 
sour cherries (albalupolow). 

Sakina A. Shehadi (Syrian) 

Sakina Shehadi has cooked for the Turkish 
embassy in Ankara. 

Leda Zenian (Armenian) 

Leda Zenian grew up in Beirut. Lebanon, 
and has a doctorate in economics and 
demography. 



Sacred Traditions 



ALEVI SEMAH OF HUBYAR (Turkey) 

Aysel Adiguzel 

Riza Adiguzel 

Alii Aydin 

Hasan Aydin 

Bahar Bayn 

Tutca ClicLi 

HLiseyin Denizhan. ashik 

Ru|tu Durna 

Suleyman Duran 

Ahmet Gu'ngor, ashik 

Durdane Karagoz 

Cemal Ozcan 

The Alevis comprise a religious community 
of Turks and Kurds rooted in central and 
eastern Anatolia and presently number some 
15 million, nearly a quarter of the population 
of Turkey. A zikr, the devotional and ritual- 
ized technique particular to Sufis, is recre- 
ated for a formal stage presentation. Ashiks 
who perform on the baqlamasaz, a stringed 
instrument identified with the Alevis, accom- 
pany whirling dance movements that 
symbolize the motion of cranes. 

THE KUSHTIA BAULS 
(Bangladesh) 

Anjali Ghosh Durga, vocal 
Shunil Kormakar, vocal 
Md, Naimul Karim Melal, vocal 
Sanchita Paul, vocal 
Md. Belal Siddique, vocal 

Bauls are wandering minstrels whose ecstatic 
songs and dance reflect their joy, love, and 
longing for mystical union with the Divine. 
Each member of the ensemble, led by Shunil 
Kormakar, is considered a great Baul. Baul 
songs are accompanied by tabla. dotara. 
ektara, flute, harmonium, and karatal or 
mandira. 



Madan Gopal Singh (India) 

A writer, lyricist, and singer, Madan Gopal 
Singh, is an expert on Sufis of 16th - 18th- 
century Punjab. 

TIBETAN MONKS from the Drepung 
Monastery (India/United States) 

Geshe Lobsang Chogyal 
Lobsang Chophel 
Lobsang Dhargye 
Wangchen Dorjee 
Thupten Kungkhen 
Dhakpa Norbu 
Tsering Phuntsok 
Dondup Tenzin 

Established in the 15th century, the Drepung 
Monastery trained generations of monks 
from throughout Tibet. In 1959. many monks 
fled Tibet with the Dalai Lama. With his 
support, they reestablished the Drepung 
Loseling Monastery in South India in 1971. 
Recently some of those monks have estab- 
lished a center in Atlanta, Georgia, and now 
travel throughout the United States 
performing ritual ceremonies in appropriate 
settings. 



98 



FESTIVAL PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES 



URHOY CHOIR (Syria) 

Sandy Amsih 
Adrian Aziz 
Edwar Danho 
ilona Danho 
Fadi Karat 
lzla Karat 
Jean Karat 
George Kentar 
Maya Stifo 
Samira Steifo 

Assyrian Christians were the predominant 
Syriac Christian community to send mission- 
aries across the Silk Road, and their influ- 
ence can be found in the written adaptation 
of many languages, including Mongolian, 
from the Syriac system. The Urhoy Choir of 
Qamishly. Syria, brings together Assyrian 
people belonging to several church traditions 
to perform spiritual songs in three Assyrian 
dialects: Classical Syriac, Eastern, and 
Western. 

Sports and Martial 

Arts Traditions 

ASIAN MARTIAL ARTS 
(United States) 
Steve Brown 
Sifu Tony Chen 
Christopher Cheung 
Patrick Chew 
Laura Copenhaver 
Janet Gee 

Bernard Beno Hwang 
Kaela Kang 
Jia Tao Zhang 

It is well known that Buddhism traveled along 
the Silk Road into China, but less well known 
that the Indian missionary who introduced 
Chan Buddhism to China (later called Zen in 
Japan) may have also brought with him the 
seeds of Chinese kung fu, or Chinese 
unarmed fighting techniques. America's atten- 
tion and enthusiasm for martial arts soared 
with the advent of Bruce Lee's kung fu films 
in the 1970s. 



BUKH: LEGENDARY WRESTLING 
TRADITION (Mongolia) 

Mongolian wrestling pits four wrestlers 
against each other as the zazuul. part- 
referee, part-jester, sings their praises. After 
the eagle dance and ritual warm-up, the 
match begins. When the winner is declared, 
the wrestlers perform a ritual dance, and the 
winner distributes candy to the audience. 

THANG-TA (India) 

Khilton Nongmaithem 

Thang-ta is an ancient Indian form of 
martial arts in which "fighters" joust with 
long sticks, swords, or spears. Rooted in 
Manipur State, in the far northeast of India, 
it is believed to have been carried to China 
by Buddhist monks, and may have been one 
of the inspirations of kung fu. 

POTOMAC POLO CLUB 

Greg Ford 
Mara Hagan 
Charlie Muldoon 
Joe Muldoon, Jr. 
Joe Muldoon III 
Martine Maldanado 
Dave Polan 

Potomac Polo Club was founded in 1951 
when Frank Willson started Washington Polo 
Club at Brook Manor Country Club in Olney, 
Maryland. Throughout the 1960s, polo was a 
popular sport in Washington, often attracting 
over a thousand fans to a single match. 
Today. Potomac Polo Club is located in 
Poolesville. Maryland, and is owned and 
operated by 6-goal player. Charlie Muldoon. 



ZURKHANE (Iran) 
Morshed Mehregan. morshed 

In Iran, a zurkhane is a gym in which men 
undertake spiritual body-building, lifting heavy 
weights to the drumming and chanting of 
spiritual texts chanted by a morshed. 
Morshed Mehregan, who is from Tehran, 
leads chant and drumming for zurkhanists of 
all ages. 



99 



SCHEDULE 

WEDNESDAY 



JUNE 26 



12:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
12:45 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
1:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
2:00 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:30 The Silk Road Ensemble: 

Music of the Past, Present, and Future 
3:15 Mugam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
4:00 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
4:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 

Istanbul Crossroads 

12:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
12:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
1:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
2:00 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semofi of Hubyar 
2:45 Mugam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
3:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
4:15 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
4:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Masters of Afghan Music 
12:45 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 
1:15 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
2:00 Indian Mela: Benrupias, Jugglers. Magicians 
2:45 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
3:15 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
4:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
4:30 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
5:00 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Khakasia 

Samarkand Square 

11:00 Opening Ceremony 
12:30 Maqam. Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
1:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
2:00 Mugham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
2:45 Masters of Afghan Music 
3:30 Iluas Malaev Ensemble: Music and Dance of 

the Bukharan Jews 
4:15 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 



Ait as Stage 



12:00 A/tus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
1:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains and the 

Steppe 
1:45 Workshop: Throat-singing 
2:30 Aittjs: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
3:30 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
4:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains and the 

Steppe 
4:45 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Demonstrations nearby the Aitys stage of felt making, 
stone carving, instrument making, and nomad hospi- 
tality by participants from Kazakhstan and the Tuvan 
Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demonstrations 
of the construction and dismantling of a yurt are high- 
lighted by the loading and transport of the yurt on a 
Bactrian camel. 

Xi'an Tower 

12:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 
1:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
1:30 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
2:00 Storytellers from China 
2:45 Asian Martial Arts in America 
3:45 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
4:30 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 



Silk Grove 



Nara Gate 



12:00 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
12:45 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
1:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
2:15 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
3:00 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
4:00 Ethnos Shingigaku: Asian Mask Dance Theater 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China, 
Turkey, and Italy: Assyrian. Chinese, Uyghur, and 
Turkish calligraphy; Tibetan thangkas: Iranian, Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings; Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian. Indian, 
Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 

Ceramics Courtyard 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery: Turkish cini pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving. Uzbek 
and Indian ikat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning, Syrian brocade weaving, Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan. Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



Family Oasis 



12:00 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

12:30 Chinese Storytellers 

1:15 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

4:15 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers. Magicians 

5:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan. Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan, Chinese, Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Lotus Bazaar 

Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



♦EVENING CONCERT 


at Istanbul Crossroads. 


5:30 p.m. 


Troubadours Today. 




Music from Venice 


and Armenia 



indicates sign-language interpreted 



All schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



100 



THURSDAY 



SCHEDULE 

JUNE 27 



Venice Piazza 

°u;oo Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
11:45 Calicanlo: Troubadours of Venice 
12:30 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
1:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
2:00 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:30 Muqham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
3:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
'3:45 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Kbakasia 
4:15 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
4:45 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 

Istanbul Crossroads 

11:00 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
11:45 Workshop: Turkic Connections 

from Istanbul to Kashgar 
12:30 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
1:15 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
2:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
2:45 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
3:30 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
4:15 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
°5:oo Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
12:45 Workshop: Throat-singing 
*05 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
1:45 Masters of Afghan Music 
2:30 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
3:00 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
3:45 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
4:30 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 
5:00 Indian Mela: Behrup/as. Jugglers. Magicians 

Samarkand Square 

°n:oo Muqham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
11:45 Masters of Afghan Music 
12:30 llyas Malaev Ensemble: Music and Dance 

of the Bukharan Jews 
1:15 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
2:00 Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
2:45 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
3:30 llyas Malaev Ensemble: 

Music of the Bukharan Jews 
°4:oo Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 



Ait if s S 

11:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
11:45 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
12:15 A,, !/ s: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
1:15 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:15 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
"3:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
3:45 BuJch: Legendary Wrestling Tradition 

of Mongolia 
4:30 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitys stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactrian camel. 

Xi'an Tower 

11:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

11:30 Asian Martial Arts in America 

12:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
1:15 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 
2:15 Storytellers from China 
3:00 BuJch: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
3:30 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
4:00 Roots of Jackie Chan: Chinese Martial Arts 

and Beijing Opera 
5:00 Bufch: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 

Nara Gate 

°u:oo Workshop: Asian Mask Dance Theater 
12:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
1:15 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
2:00 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 
2:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
3:30 Workshop: Devotional Music 
4:00 Ethnos Shmgigaku: Asian Mask Dance Theater 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy; Assyrian, Chinese. Uyghur, and 
Turkish calligraphy; Tibetan thanqkas; Iranian, Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings; Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian, Indian. 
Persian. Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 

Ceramics Courtqard 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish cini pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving, Uzbek 
and Indian /'(cat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving. Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan, Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



11:00 Workshop: Kite-making 

11:45 Workshop: Beijing Opera Make-up 

12:30 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Indian Mela: Behrup/as. Jugglers, Magicians 

3:30 Silkworms and Cocoons 

4:15 Chinese Storytellers 

5:00 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan. Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Gard e 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work: Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan. Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Lotus Bazaar 

Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



^EVENING 


CONCERT 


at Nara Gate, 5:30 p 


.m. 


Mountain Music. 


Desert Music: Folk 


Traditions of Mongolia and Rajasthan 



indicates sign-language interpreted 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



101 



SCHEDULE 

FRIDAY 



JUNE 28 



11:00 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
11:30 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
12:15 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
1:00 The Silk Road Ensemble: 

Music of the Past. Present, and Future 
1:45 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:15 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
3:00 The Silk Road Ensemble: 

Music of the Past, Present, and Future 
3-^.5 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
4:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
5:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 

Istanbul Crossroads 

11:00 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
11:45 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
12:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
1:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
2:00 Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 
2:45 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
3:30 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
4:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
5:00 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
12:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
1:00 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
1:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
2:00 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
2:30 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 
3:00 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
3:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
4:15 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
4:45 Indian Mela: Behrupias, Jugglers, Magicians 

Samarkand Square 

11:00 Ilyas Malaev Ensemble: 

Music of the Bukharan Jews 
11:30 Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
12:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
1:00 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 
2:30 Masters of Afghan Music 
3:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
4:00 Ilyas Malaev Ensemble: Music and Dance 

of the Bukharan Jews 
4:45 Mugham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 

indicates sign-language interpreted 



A i t (/ s Stage 



11:00 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

12:00 Workshop: Throat-singing 

12:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
1:30 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:30 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
3:15 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition 

of Mongolia 
3:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
4:30 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitys stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactnan camel. 



Silk Grove 



Xi'an Tower 



11:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 
12:00 Storytellers from China 
12:45 Workshop: Voices of the Silk Road 
1:15 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
1:45 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
2:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 
3:15 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
4:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
4:30 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 

Nara Gate 

11:00 Workshop: Ethnos Shingigaku: 

Asian Mask Dance Theater 
12:30 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
1:00 Ethnos Shingigaku: Asian Mask Dance Theater 
2:30 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
3:15 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
4:00 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
4:45 Workshop: Devotional Music 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy; Assyrian. Chinese. Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy: Tibetan thanqkas: Iranian. Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings; Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian. Indian. 
Persian. Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 

Ceramics Courtgard 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish cm/ pots and tiles: and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving. Uzbek 
and Indian ikat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving, Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan. Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



Family Oasis 



11:00 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

11:45 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

1:15 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers. Magicians 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

3:30 Chinese Storytellers 

4:15 Silk Cocoon Stretching 

5:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 
Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan. Turkey, and the United States. 



Jewel Garden 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan, Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Evening concert: Masters of Afghan Music. 6:00 p.m. 



Lotus Bazaar 



Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



♦EVENING CONCERT 

at Istanbul Crossroads. 5:30 p.m. 

Sounds of the Steppe: 
Nomadic Music from Inner Asia 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



102 



SATURDAY 



SCHEDULE 

JUNE 29 



Venice Piazza 



11:00 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
11:45 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
12:30 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
1:15 Silk Road Fashion Show 
2:00 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
"3:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
3:45 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
4:30 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 

Istanbul Crossroads 

°u:oo Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
11:45 Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 
12:30 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
1:15 Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
2:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
2:45 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
3:30 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 
"OS Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
5:00 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 



Kashgar Teahouse 



12:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
12:45 Muqom: Uyghur Courtly Music 
1:15 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
1:45 Masters of Afghan Music 
2:15 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
'2:45 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
3:30 Indian Mela Behrupias, Jugglers. Magicians 
4:00 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 
4:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
5:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 

Samarkand Square 

°ti:oo Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
11:45 Masters of Afghan Music 
12:30 Muqham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
1:15 llyas Malaev Ensemble: 

Music and Dance of the Bukharan Jews 
2:00 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
2:45 llyas Malaev Ensemble: 

Music of the Bukharan Jews 
3:15 Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
4:00 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 



11:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 
and the Steppe 

11:45 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 
from Khakasia 

12:15 ^"us: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

1:15 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

2:15 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 

3:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 
and the Steppe 

3:45 Workshop: Throat-singing 

4:30 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
Ongoing demonstrations nearby the A/tt/s stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactrian camel. 

Xi'an Tower 



11:00 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition 

of Mongolia 
11:30 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
12:00 Paint. Powder, and Silk: Preparations for a 

Chinese Opera Performance 
12:30 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 
1:30 Asian Martial Arts in America 
2:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
3:15 Storytellers from China 
4:00 Workshop: Voices of the Silk Road 
4:30 8u<ch: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
5:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

Nara Gate 



11:00 Workshop: Ethnos Shingigaku: Asian Mask 

Dance Theater 
12:30 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
1:15 Ethnos Shingigaku: Asian Mask Dance Theater 
2:45 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 
3:30 Workshop: Devotional Music 
4:15 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
4:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 

Paper Garden 

Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy: Assyrian. Chinese. Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy: Tibetan tfrangJcas; Iranian. Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings: Italian masks: Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian. Indian. 
Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 



C e r a mj 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish fin/ pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 

Silk Grove 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving. Uzbek 
and Indian ikat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving. Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan. Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 

Fa mily Oasis 

11:00 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

11:45 Chinese Storytellers 

12:30 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Workshop: Felt-making 

3:30 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

4:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 

5:00 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers. Magicians 
Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan. Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan. Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackle r Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Polo Field 

Polo demonstration by the Potomac Polo Club between 
Nara Gate and 7th Street at 2:00 p.m. 



Lotus Bazaar 



Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



♦EVENING CONCERT 

at Nara Gate. 5:30 p.m. 

Ethnos Shingigaku: 

Asian Mask Dance Theater 



indicates sign-language interpreted 



All Schedules are subject to change: please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



103 



SCHEDULE 

SUNDAY 



JUNE to 



11:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
11:45 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
12:15 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
1:00 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 
1:45 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:15 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
3:00 Silk Road Fashion Show with Live Music 
4:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
4:45 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 



Ait qs Stage 



sr 



oad: 



11:45 

12:30 

1:15 

2:00 

2:45 

3:30 
as 

4:45 



Sufi Ritual Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 

Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 

Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 

Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 

Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 

Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 

Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 

Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 

Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 



Kashgar Teahouse 



Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 
12:30 Masters of Afghan Music 
1:00 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
1:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
2:00 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
2:30 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
3:15 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
4:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
4:45 Indian Mela Behrupras, Jugglers. Magicians 



Samarkand Square 



u:oo 
11:45 

12:15 

1:00 
2:30 
3:15 



4:45 



Mqqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 

llyas Malaev Ensemble: 

Music of the Bukharan Jews 

Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 

Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 

Masters of Afghan Music 

Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 

llyas Malaev Ensemble: 

Music and Dance of the Bukharan Jews 

Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 



indicates sign-language interpreted 



11:00 A/tys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
12:00 Workshop: Throat-singing 



Silk Grove 



12:45 

1:30 
2:30 

3:15 

3:45 

4:30 



Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 

Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 

Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition 

of Mongolia 

Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 

Anus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitys stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactrian camel. 

Xi'a n Tower 

n:oo 
11:45 



12:30 

1:00 
2:00 

2:30 

3:30 
4:00 

4:30 



Storytellers from China 

Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 

Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

Workshop: Athletics along the Silk Road 

Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 

Asian Martial Arts in America 

Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 

Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 



Nara Gate 



11:00 Workshop: Ethnos Shingigaku: 

Asian Mask Dance Theater 
12:30 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
1:15 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
2:00 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
2:45 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 
3:30 Workshop: Devotional Music 
4:00 Ethnos Shingigaku: Asian Mask Dance Theater 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy: Assyrian. Chinese, Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy: Tibetan thanqkas; Iranian, Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings: Italian masks: Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian. Indian. 
Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 

Ceramics Courtuard 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots: Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish gini pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving. Uzbek 
and Indian ikqt dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving, Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan. Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



Familq Oasis 



11:00 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

11:45 Workshop: Calligraphy 

12:30 Chinese Storytellers 

1:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Indian Me/a: Behrupias, Jugglers. Magicians 

3:30 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

4:15 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 
Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan, Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbajjan, Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 



Polo Field 



Polo demonstration by the Potomac Polo Club between 
Nara Gate and 7th Street at 2:00 p.m. 



Lotus Bazaar 



Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



^EVENING CONCERT 

at Istanbul Crossroads. 5:30 p.m. 

Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert in honor 
of Prof. Henry Glassie: Music from 
Bangladesh, India, and Turkey 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



104 



WEDNESDAY 



SCHEDULE 

JULY 3 



Venice Piazza 



1:00 Sabjilar: Epics and Throal-singing 

from Khakasia 
11:30 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
12:15 Calicanlo: Troubadours of Venice 
1:00 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past, 

Present, and Future 
1:45 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:15 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
3:00 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
3:45 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 
4:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
5:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 

Istanbul Crossroads 

11:00 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
11:45 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
12:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
1:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
2:00 Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 
2:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
3:30 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
4:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
5:00 Yansimalar: New Music from Turkey 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
12:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
1:00 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
1:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
2:00 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
2:30 Masters of Afghan Music 
3:00 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
3:45 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
4:15 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 
4:45 Indian Me/a: Behrup/qs, Jugglers, Magicians 

Samarkand Square 

°n:oo Shashmaqam: Music of the Bukharan Jews 
11:30 Maqctm: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
12:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
1:00 Panorama of Maqam: Courtly Music 

of the Silk Road 
2:30 Shashmaqam: Music and Dance of the 

Bukharan Jews 
3:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
4:00 Masters of Afghan Music 
4:45 Mugham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 

indicates sign-language interpreted 



Ait (j s S t a ; 

11:00 Ailys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

12:00 Workshop: Throat-singing 

12:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
1:30 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:30 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
3:15 BuJcfi: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
3:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
4:30 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitus stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurl 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactrian camel. 

Xi'an Tower 

O u:oo Asian Martial Arts in America 
12:00 Storytellers from China 
12:45 Workshop: Voices on the Silk Road 
1:15 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
1:45 ZurJchane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
2:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 
3:15 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
4:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
4:30 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 

Nara Gate 

11:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
11:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
12:30 Workshop: Devotional Music 
1:15 Indian Ocean: Jazz-Rock with a Tabla 
2:00 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semafi of Hubyar 
2:45 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past, 

Present, and Future 
3:30 Kojiro Umezaki: Old and New Sounds 

from Japan 
4:00 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
4:45 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 






Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy: Assyrian. Chinese. Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy; Tibetan thangkqs; Iranian, Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings: Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian, Indian, 
Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek foods.. 



Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots: Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish cini pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 

k Grove 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving. Uzbek 
and Indian ikal dyeing and weaving, lussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving. Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan. Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 

Familu, O a s i s 

11:00 Silkworms and Cocoons 

11:45 Indian Mela: Behrup/as. Jugglers. Magicians 

12:30 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Workshop: Kite-making 

3:30 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

4:15 Chinese Storytellers 

5:00 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet, 
Afghanistan, Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan: Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan, Azerbaijan. Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Lotus Bazaar 

Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



♦EVENING 


CONCERT 


at Istanbul Crossroads. 5:30 p.m. 


From the Emir's 


Court: 


Classical Music 


of Central Asia 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



105 



SCHEDULE 

THURSDAY 



JULY u 



11:00 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
11:45 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
12:30 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
1:15 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past, 

Present, and Future 
2:00 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Khakasia 
3:00 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
3:45 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
4:30 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 

Istanbul Crossroads 

11:00 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
11:45 Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 
12:30 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
1:15 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
2:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
2:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
3:30 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 
4:15 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semofi of Hubyar 
5:00 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
12:45 Workshop: Throat-singing 
1:30 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
2:00 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers. Magicians 
2:45 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
3:15 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
4:00 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
4:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
5:00 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 

Samarkand Square 

11:00 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 

11:45 Masters of Afghan Music 

12:30 Shashmaqam: Music and Dance of the 

Bukharan Jews 
1:15 Mugham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
2:00 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
2:45 Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
3:30 Shashmaqam: Music of the Bukharan Jews 
4:00 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 



Aitijs Stage 



11:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
11:45 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Khakasia 
12:15 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
1:15 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:15 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
3:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
3:45 Masters of Afghan Music 
4:30 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitus stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactnan camel. 



Xi'an Tower 



Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
11:30 Asian Martial Arts in America 
12:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
1:15 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 
2:15 Storytellers from China 
3:00 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
3:30 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
4:00 Roots of Jackie Chan: Chinese Martial Arts 

and Beijing Opera 
5:00 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 

Nara Gate 

11:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
11:45 Workshop: Devotional Music 
12:30 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
1:15 Indian Ocean: Jazz-Rock with a Tabla 
2:00 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
2:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
3:30 Workshop: Voices 
4:15 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
5:00 Kojiro Umezaki: Old and New Sounds 

from Japan 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy: Assyrian, Chinese, Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy: Tibetan thongtas; Iranian. Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings; Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian. Indian. 
Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 



Ceramics Courtyard 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-while porcelain 
and tea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish cini pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 

Silk Grove 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving, Uzbek 
and Indian ikat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning, Syrian brocade weaving. Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan, Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



Family Oasis 



11:00 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

"12:30 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

1:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Workshop: Silk Road Fashion 

3:30 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

4:15 Chinese Storytellers 

5:00 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers, Magicians 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet, 
Afghanistan, Turkey, and the United States. 



Jewel Garden 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan, Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 



Lotus Bazaar 



Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



^EVENING 


CONCERT 


at Venice Piazza, 5:3c 


p.m. 




Ballads 


and Beats 


of Today's 


Silk Road: 


Indian 


Ocean and Roksonaki 





indicates sign-language interpreted 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



106 



SCHEDULE 

FRIDAY JULY s 



Venice Piazza 



11:00 Sabjilar: Epics and Throal-singing 

from Khakasia 
11:30 Calicanto: Troubadours of Venice 
12:15 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
1:00 Bezmara: Sounds from (he Sultan's Palace 
1:45 Mugham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
"2:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
3:00 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
3:45 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
4:30 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
5:00 Silk Road Jam Session 

Istanbul Crossroads 

°n:oo Sufi Music and Dance: Alevi Semah 

of Hubyar 
11:45 Sboghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
12:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
1:15 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
2:00 Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 
2:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
3:30 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
4:15 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 
5:00 Yansimalar: New Music from Turkey 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Masters of Afghan Music 
12:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
1:00 Uzbek Puppet Theater 
1:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
2:00 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
2:30 Madan Gopal Singh: Indian Music 

of the Spirit 
3:00 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
3:45 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
4:15 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
4:45 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers, Magicians 

Samarkand Square 

11:00 Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
11:45 Shashmaqam: Music of the Bukharan Jews 
12:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
1:00 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 
^2:30 Shashmaqam: Music and Dance of the 

Bukharan Jews 
3:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
4:00 Masters of Afghan Music 
4:45 Mugham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 



Ait lis S t a 

11:00 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

12:00 Workshop: Throat-singing 

12:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
1:30 Aitus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:30 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
3:15 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
3:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
4:30 AKys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aifys stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactnan camel. 

Xi'an Tower 



11:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 

12:00 Storytellers from China 

12:45 Workshop: Voices on the Silk Road 

1:15 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 
Mongolia 

1:45 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

2:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 

3:15 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 
from China 

4:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

4:30 Bejing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 

Nara Gate 

11:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
11:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
12:30 Workshop: Devotional Music 
1:15 Indian Ocean: Jazz-Rock with a Tabla 
2:00 Sufi Music and Dance: Alevi Semah 

of Hubyar 
2:45 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 
3:30 Kojiro Umezaki: Old and New Sounds 

from Japan 
4:00 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
4:45 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan, China. 
Turkey, and Italy; Assyrian, Chinese. Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy; Tibetan thangkas; Iranian, Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings; Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian, Indian, 
Persian. Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 



Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots: Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish c/ni pots and tiles: and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 



Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving, Uzbek 
and Indian ikat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving. Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan. Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



11:00 Workshop: Calligraphy 

11:45 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

1:15 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers. Magicians 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Workshop: Felt-making 

3:30 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

4:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 

5:00 Chinese Storytellers 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet, 
Afghanistan, Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan. Chinese, Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Evening concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: Classical 
Music of Iran, 6:00 p.m. 

Lotus Bazaar 

Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 




ndicates sign-language interpreted 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



107 



SCHEDULE 

SATURDAY 



JULY 6 



za 



Ait us Stage 



11.00 

11:45 
12:30 

1:15 

2:00 

2:30 

3:00 

3:45 
do 

5:00 



Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 

Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 

Indian Ocean: Jazz-Rock with a Tabla 

The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past. 

Present, and Future 

Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 

Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Khakasia 

Silk Road Jam Session 

Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 

Yansimalar: New Music from Turkey 

Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 



Istanbul Crossroads 

11:00 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 

11:45 Workshop: Turkic Connections from Istanbul 

to Kashgar 
12:30 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
1:15 Music and Dance: Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
2:00 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 
2:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
3:30 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
4:15 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
5:00 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
12:45 Workshop: Throat-singing 

1:15 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

1:45 Masters of Afghan Music 

2:15 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 

2:45 Workshop: Musical Instruments 

3:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 

4:00 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 

4:30 Madan Gopal Singh: 

Indian Music of the Spirit 

5:00 Indian Mela: Befirupias. Jugglers, Magicians 

Samarkand Square 

11:00 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 

11:45 Masters of Afghan Music 

12:30 Shashmaqam: Music and Dance of the 

Bukharan Jews 
1:15 Muqham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
2:00 Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
2:45 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances 

from Tajikistan 
3:30 Shashmaqam: Music of the Bukharan Jews 
4:00 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 



Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
11:45 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing 

from Khakasia 
12:15 A/fys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
1:15 A/tus: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:15 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
3:00 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
3:45 Bukfi: Legendary Wrestling Tradition 

of Mongolia 
4:30 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitys stage of felt 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republican Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactnan camel. 



Xi'an Tower 



11:00 lurkhane'. Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 

11:30 Asian Martial Arts in America 

12:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
1:15 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 
2:15 Storytellers from China 
3:00 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
3:30 Zurlchane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
4:00 Roots of Jackie Chan: Chinese Martial Arts 

and Beijing Opera 
5:00 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 



Nara Gate 



11:00 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
11:45 Workshop: Devotional Music 
12:30 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 
1:15 Songs of Love and Devotion: Sufi Music 

from Bengal 
2:00 Silk Road Jam Session 
2:45 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
3:30 Workshop: Voices of the Silk Road 
4:15 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
5:00 Kojiro Umezaki: Old and New Sounds 

from Japan 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy: Assyrian, Chinese, Uyghur. and 
Turkish calligraphy; Tibetan thong/cas; Iranian. Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings: Italian masks; Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian, Indian, 
Persian, Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 



Ceramics Courtyard 

Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and tea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish c/n/ pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 

Silk Grove 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving, Uzbek 
and Indian ikal dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning, Syrian brocade weaving, Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan, Kyrgyzstan. and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 

Family Oasis 

11:00 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

12:30 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

1:15 Indian Mela: Behrupias, Jugglers. Magicians 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Workshop: Beijing Opera Make-up 

3:30 Chinese Storytellers 

4:15 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

5:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan. Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry: Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads; Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan. Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 

Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 

Polo Field 

Polo demonstration given by the Potomac Polo Club 
between Nara Gate and 7th Street at 2:00 p.m. 



Lotus Bazaar 



Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



^EVENING CONCERT 

at Nara Gate, 5:30 p.m. 

Deaf Way II Concert 

Movement along the Silk Road: 
Dance from China, India, and Japan 



ndicates sign-language interpreted 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



108 



SUNDAY 



SCHEDULE 

JULY 7 



Venice Piazza 



O u:oo Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Khakasia 
11:30 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of ihe Past, 

Present, and Future 
12:15 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
1:00 Silk Road Fashion Show with Live Music 
2:00 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
2:30 Bezmara: Sounds from the Sultan's Palace 
3:15 Roksonaki: Kazakh Folk-Rock 
4:00 Workshop: Inspired by Tradition 
5:00 Sabjilar: Epics and Throat-singing from 

Khakasia 

Istanbul Crossroads 

11:00 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubuar 
11:45 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: 

Manganiyar Music of Rajasthan 
12:30 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
1:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
2:00 Workshop: Turkic Connections from 

Istanbul to Kashgar 
2:45 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
3:30 Assyrian Voices: The Urhoy Choir 
4:15 Shoghaken Ensemble: Folk Music of Armenia 
5:00 Silk Road Jam Session 

Kashgar Teahouse 

12:00 Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
12:30 Muras: Virtuosos from Kyrgyzstan 
°i:oo Uzbek Puppet Theater 
1:30 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
2:00 Kathputli Indian Puppet Theater 
2:30 Madan Gopal Singh: Indian Music 

of the Spirit 
3:00 Workshop: Musical Instruments 
3:45 Roots of the Gypsy Trail: Manganiyar Music 

of Rajasthan 
4:15 Masters of Afghan Music 
: 4:45 Indian Mela: Benrupias, Jugglers, Magicians 

Samarkand Square 

°n:oo Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly Music 
11:45 Shashmaqam: Music of the Bukharan Jews 
12:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
1:00 Maqam: Courtly Music of the Silk Road 
2:30 Masters of Afghan Music 
3:15 Badakhshan: Songs and Dances from 

Tajikistan 
4:00 Shashmaqam: Music and Dance of the 

Bukharan Jews 
4:45 Muqham: Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 



Ait if s S t a 

11:00 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

12:00 Workshop: Throat-singing 

12:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains and the 

Steppe 
1:30 A/tys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 
2:30 Workshop: Nomadic Traditions 
3:15 8ukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
3:45 Mongolia: Music from the Mountains 

and the Steppe 
4:30 Aitys: Tournament of Minstrels and Bards 

Ongoing demonstrations nearby the Aitys stage of fell 
making, stone carving, instrument making, and nomad 
hospitality by participants from Kazakhstan and the 
Tuvan Autonomous Republic in Russia. Daily demon- 
strations of the construction and dismantling of a yurt 
are highlighted by the loading and transport of the yurt 
on a Bactrian camel. 

Xi'an Tower 

11:00 Asian Martial Arts in America 
12:00 Storytellers from China 
12:45 Workshop: Voices on the Silk Road 
1:15 Bukh: Legendary Wrestling Tradition of 

Mongolia 
1:45 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
2:15 Workshop: Athletics on the Silk Road 
3:15 Hua Family Shawm and Percussion Band 

from China 
4:00 Zurkhane: Iranian Spiritual Bodybuilding 
4:30 Beijing Opera featuring Qi Shu Fang 

Nara Gate 

11:00 Devotional Music of Bengal: 

The Kushtia Bauls 
11:45 Workshop: Devotional Music 
12:30 Silk Road Jam Session 
1:15 Indian Ocean: Jazz-Rock with a Tabla 
2:00 Sufi Music and Dance: 

Alevi Semah of Hubyar 
2:45 The Silk Road Ensemble: Music of the Past, 

Present, and Future 
3:30 Kojiro Umezaki: Old and New Sounds 

from Japan 
4:00 Songs of Love and Devotion: 

Sufi Music from Bengal 
4:45 Tibetan Monks from Drepung Monastery 



Paper Garden 



Demonstrations by paper makers from Japan. China. 
Turkey, and Italy; Assyrian, Chinese, Uyghur, and 
Turkish calligraphy: Tibetan thangkas; Iranian, Armenian, 
and Hindu devotional paintings; Italian masks: Indian 
kites; and paper prayer making. Cooking demonstra- 
tions in the Paper Garden Kitchen of Armenian. Indian. 
Persian. Turkish, and Uzbek foods. 



Demonstrations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain 
and lea pots; Japanese porcelain; tea bowls, and figu- 
rative pottery; Turkish cim pots and tiles; and Hindu 
devotional icons from Bangladesh. 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi jamdani weaving, Uzbek 
and Indian ikat dyeing and weaving, tussah silk spin- 
ning. Syrian brocade weaving. Uzbek and Gujarati 
embroidery, and Indian block printing, as well as velvet 
cutting by the International Silk Association. Activities 
in the Tree of Life Area include the construction of a 
sand mandala by the monks of Drepung Monastery. 
Demonstrations in the Silk Grove Fashion Court of 
draping, piecing, construction, and fashion sketching, by 
designers from Japan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. 
Fashion runway presentations feature the work of Silk 
Road designers. 



11:00 Uzbek Puppet Theater 

11:45 Workshop: Calligraphy 

12:30 Kathputli Puppet Theater 

1:15 Asian Martial Arts in America 

2:00 Silk Road Storytellers 

2:45 Indian Mela: Behrupias. Jugglers. Magicians 

3:30 Chinese Storytellers 

4:15 Make and Play a Silk Road Instrument 

Demonstrations by carpet weavers from Tibet. 
Afghanistan. Turkey, and the United States. 

Jewel Garden 

Demonstrations of Bangladeshi and Damascene metal- 
work; Indian and Syrian jewelry; Buddhist figurative 
carved stones from Pakistan; Turkmen and Italian 
beads: Syrian and Turkish blown glass; and Syrian inlay 
furniture. Cooking demonstrations in the Jewel Garden 
Kitchen of Afghan. Azerbaijan. Chinese. Italian, and 
Syrian foods. 

Freer and Sackler Galleries 



Please see page 111 for detailed schedule of exhibitions, 
talks, tours, concerts and storytelling. 



Polo demonstration given by the Potomac Polo Club 
between Nara Gate and 7th Street at 2:00 p.m. 

Lotus Bazaar 



Sales areas offer craft demonstrations and 
performances. 



indicates sign-language interpreted 



All Schedules are subject to change; please check area 
schedule signs for the most up-to-date information. 



109 




EVENING CONCERTS AND SPECIAL EVENTS 




Evening Concerts 



Wednesday. June 26. 5:30 p.m. 

Istanbul Crossroads 

Troubadours Today: Music from Venice and Armenia 

Thursday, [une z~, 5:30 p.m. 

Nara Gate 

Mountain Music, Desert Music: 

Folk Traditions of Mongolia and Rajasthan 

Friday. June 28. 5:30 p.m. 
Istanbul Crossroads 

Sounds of the Steppe: Nomadic Music from Inner Asia 

Mever Auditorium. Freer Gallerv. 6:00 p.m. 
Concert: Masters of Afghan Music 

Saturday-. June 29, 5:30 p.m. 

Nara Gate 

Ethnos Shingigaku: Asian Mask Dance Theater 

Sunday. June 30. 5:30 p.m. 
Istanbul Crossroads 

Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert 

in honor of Prof. Henry Glassie: 

Music from Bangladesh, India, and Turkey 

Wednesday, July 3. 5:30 p.m. 

Istanbul Crossroads 

From the Emir's Court: Classical Music of Central Asia 



Thursday. July 4. 5:30 p.m. 
Venice Piazza 

Ballads and Beats of Today's Silk Road: 
Indian Ocean and Roksonaki 

Friday. Jul 1 5, 5:30 p.m. 

Venice Piazza 

The Silk Road Ensemble: 

Exploring Tradition and Innovation 

Mever Auditorium, Freer Gallery, 6:00 p.m. 
Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 
Classical Music of Iran 

S \i i kiiay. July 6. $-.1,0 p.m. 

Nara Gate 

Deaf Way II Concert 

Movement along the Silk Road: 

Dance from China, India, and Japan 

Special Events 

Wednesday. June 26 

Opening Ceremony (Samarkand Square) 

11:0(1 a.m. 

Saturday. June 29 - Sunday. June 30: 
Saturday. Jun 6 -Sunday, Juli - 
2:00-3:00 
Polo 

Polo, a game of horsemanship and skill is derived from a Central Asian game 
dated to about 2.500 years ago. British officers in the northwestern region of 
colonial India, now at the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan, observed the local 
game of buzhashi, played by teams of hotsemen competing to deposit a goat or 
sheep carcass into a goal. The game was adapted for plav in Great Britain, and 
from there, the United States. For the Festival, the game is plaved bv the 
Potomac Polo Club. 



no 



OF RELATED INTEREST 



Freer Gallery of Art and 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 



The Festival extends into the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. 
Sackler Gallery i which together form the national museum of 
Asian art) with a series of exhibitions and public programs cele- 
brating the Silk Road. 



SCHEDULE OF EVENTS AT THE FREER AND SACKLER GALLERIES 



June 26 
[1:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Luxury Arts of the Silk Route 

Empires 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-2:45 Concert: Parisa and Danush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 
2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

June 27 
11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly 
Music 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Sacred Sites: Silk Road 

Photographs of Kenrolzu and The Cave as 

Canvas: Hidden Imaqes of Worship along the 

Silk Road 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-3:00 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 

2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: SilkRoadStories 
5:00-6:00 Storytelling: Tales and Legends Along 

the Silk Road 
7:00 Lecture: From Ancient Tellers of Tales: The 

Hamzanama at the Mughal Court, Meyer 

Auditorium. Freer Gallery 



June 28 

11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 

11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 

12:00-12:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 

12:00-1:00 Concert: Mugham: 

Courtly Music of Azerbayan 

12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Luxury Arts of the Silk Route 

Empires 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: Silk Road Stones 
4:00-5:00 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 
6:00 Concert: Masters of Afghan Music 

June 29 

11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Sift Road Stories 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Bezmara: Sounds from the 

Sultan's Palace 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-3:00 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 
2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: Sft Road Stories 



June 30 
11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Sift Road Stories 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Mugham: Courtly Music of 

Azerbaijan 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: SilkRoadStories 
4:00-4:45 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 

July 3 
11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Bezmara: Sounds from the 

Sultan's Palace 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: The Adventures of Hamza 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-3:00 Concert: Mugham: 

Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 
2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: SilkRoadStories 
4:00-5:00 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 



111 



July 4 
11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Maqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly 

Music 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: luxury Arts of the Silk Route 

Empires 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-3:00 Concert: Parisa and Dariusfi Talat: 

Classical Music of Iran 
3:00-3:45 Storytelling: Silk Road Stories 

July 5 

11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 
Classical Music of Iran 
Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 

12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Luxury Arts of the Silk Route 

Empires 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-3:00 Concert: Masters of Afghan Music 
3:00-3:45 Storytelling: Silk Road Stories 
4:00-5:00 Concert: Muqam: Uyghur Courtly Music 
6:00 Concert: Parisa and Danush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 



July 6 
11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Silk Road Stories 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Mugham: 

Courtly Music of Azerbaijan 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Luxury Arts of the Silk Route 

Empires 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:00-3:00 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: Silk Road Stories 

2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

4:00-5:00 Concert: The Silk Road Ensemble: Music 
of the Past. Present, and Future 



July 7 
11:00-11:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 

Storytelling: Silk Road Stories 
11:30-12:15 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
12:00-12:45 Concert: Parisa and Dariush Talai: 

Classical Music of Iran 

Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
12:30-1:15 Curatorial Talk: Sacred Sites: S//fc Road 

Photographs of Kenrolzu and The Cave as 

Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship along the 

Silk Road 
1:00-1:45 Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza 
1:00 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

1:30-2:00 Tour: Arts of the Silk Road 
2:30 ImaginAsia: Gifts for Kings and Queens 

3:00-3:45 Storytelling: Silk Road Stones 

4:00-5:00 Concert: Muqam: Uzbek and Tajik Courtly 
Music 

Program Locations: 

ImaginAsia: Classroom. Sackler second level 
Storytelling: Adventures of Hamza. Sackler second level 

Silk Road Stories, Sackler first level 
Tour and Curatorial Talks: Sackler first level 
Concerts: Meyer Auditorium. Freer Gallery 



Related Exhibitions at the Sackler Gallery 

The Adventures of Hamza 

June 26-Septembcr 29. 2002 

The Adventures of Hamza (or Hamzanama) is a fantastical adventure 
story based loosely on the exploits of Ham:a, an uncle of the Prophet 
Muhammad, who traveled throughout the world spreading the 
teachings of Islam. The narrative tells of abductions and hair-raising 
chases, and of encounters with giants, demons, and dragons. 



The Cave as Canvas 

Hidden Images of Worship along the Silk Road 

Through July 7. 2002 

The dissemination of luxury items, religious traditions, and cultural 
ideas along the Silk Road facilitated innumerable acts of individual 
devotion as well as the construction of bustling cities, impressive 
royal tombs, and important Buddhist monasteries and cave 
complexes. This exhibition presents fifteen wall-painting fragments 
from the Buddhist caves cut into the cliffs flanking Qizil, a flour- 
ishing Silk Road city located in what is now the Chinese 
Autonomous Re"ion of Xinjiang. 



112 



Sacred Sites: 

Silk Road Photographs by Kenro Izu 

|une9, 2002 |anuar) 5, 2003 

In the last two years, Japanese-bom photographer Kenro tzu has 
brought his large-format camera along the same Silk Road routes 
that merchants .ind monks traveled for centuries. In his photographs. 
Izu seeks to capture the resonance of stone monuments worshiped 
over millennia. 

Luxury Arts of the Silk Route Empires 

Continuing indefinitely 

Two thousand years before the development of todays global 
economy, an exchange network linked the continent of Asia via the 
Silk Road. These trade routes served as channels through which 
luxurv arts created for secular and religious purposes could travel 
great distances, between the Mediterranean coast and northern 
China. Richly decorated cosmetic containers, silver and gold 
banqeting vessels, and objects used in religious rituals illustrate the 
lively artistic interaction of the period. 



National Museum of African Art 

Gifts and Blessings: The Textile Arts of Madagascar 

April 14 September 2, 2002 

Cloth has long been considered the ultimate gill <>l the people of 
Madagascar, an island nation located of! the southeast coast oi 
Africa. The exhibition examines the historical context and 
dynamism ol contemporary cloth production through a collection oi 
silk and cotton wrappers, burial shrouds, marriage cloths, contem- 
porary fashions, and textile ait. 



National Museum of Natural History 



Modern Mongolia: Reclaiming Genghis Khan 

fuly 3 September 29, 2002 

Mongolian life from the beginning of the 20th century to toda) is 
reconstructed through three authentic gcrs (traditional Mongolian 
yurts or tents): one from the feudal Manchu dynasty during the early 
20th century, one from the communist period during the 1960s, and 
one from todays democratic state. The legacv of Genghis Khan is 
woven throughout the exhibition. 



Smithsonian Associates 



The Smithsonian Associates offers a variety of Silk Road related 
lectures, courses, and seminars to complement the Folklife Festival: 
June 29. Chinese Ceramics: East Meets West: July 2-August 6, 
Following the Caravans: July 8, Reclaiming Genghis Khan; 
July 9, The Caves of Dunhuang: China's Silk Road Treasures; 
July 10. The Culinarv Legacy of the Silk Road: July 12-13. 
Understanding Tribal Carpets: July 16. The Silk Road Ends in Italy: 
July IN, Signposts of the Silk Road in Italian Renaissance Art: July 
27. Nomads of the Steppes: September IS, Where the Silk Road and 
the Spice Route Meet. 

For further information about Resident Associates programs, call 
202. 357. 3030 or visit www.SmithsonianAssociates.ore. 



National Gallery of Art and 

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History 
During the two weeks of the Festival, there will be related 
film programs nearbv at the National Gallery of Art and 
the Smithsonian s National Museum of Natural History. 
Details can be found at www.nga.gov/programs/film.htm and 
www.mnh.si.edu cal events.html. 



Arts and Industries Building 



The Silk Road Ensemble: Portraits and Places 

[une20 July 10.2002 

Portraits of the artists by acclaimed photograher Cylla von 
Tiedemann, snapshots from artists private collections, quotes, 
personal stories, and short biographies offer a window into the rich 
and varied lives ot these extraordinary musicians. 



The Textile Museu m 

Secrets of Silk 

Opens June 2S 

This exhibition focuses on the historical importance of silk in textile 
production and trade, with examples of both silk fibers and luxury 
silk textiles that were exchanged between cultures. 

The Textile Museum is located at 2320 S Street. NW. Washington, 
D.C. Hours: Monday Saturday 10 a.m. - 5 p.m.: Sunday I 5 p.m. 
Free Admission. Phone: 202.667.0441 



113 



SPONSORS AND SPECIAL THANKS 



The Silk Road Project, Inc., 
Support and Special Thanks 

Lead Funder and 

Key Creative Partner 

The Aga Khan Trust for Culture 

Global Corporate Partners 

Ford Motor Company 
Siemens 

Founding Supporter 

Sony Classical 

Major Funders 

The Starr Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry R. Kravis 

Richard Li 

William Rondina 

Donors 

Barry Lam 

Octavian Society 

National Endowment of the Arts 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Asada 

The Wolfensohn Family Foundation 

Special Thanks 

Amyn Ahamed 

Jun Arii 

Mr. & Mrs. Peter Asada 

Tom Atkins 

Barbara Badalamenti 

Alex Bagnall 

Cristin Canterbury Bagnall 

Mary Pat Buerkle 

Arthur Ceria 

Barry Chait 

Laura A. Cincotta 

Ernest Chung 

Florence Davis 

Nicole de Remer 

Amanda Domizio 



Tan Dun 

Jean During 

Michelle Errante 

Barkat Fazal 

John X. Fernandez Jr. 

Niv Ficbman 

Rosemarie Garipoli 

Peter Gelb 

Jason Gelman 

Catherine Gevers 

Kim Gilbert 

Elisabeth Gill 

Neil Goteiner 

Michael Gorfaine 

Bud Grebey 

Ara Guzelimian 

Louis Hamel 

Sheryl Handler 

Thomas Hanold 

Sophie Henderson 

Chuck Hirsch 

Geoff Holland 

Karen Hughes 

Frank Hydash 

Maria Rebekah Hunter 

Habib Jamal 

Jane Janosko 

Meredyth Jensen 

Amir Kanji 

Ruth Kaplan 

Tom Kessinger 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry R. Kravis 

Robert Laconi 

Barry Lam 

Lori-Nell Lazzeri 

Celia Lowenstein 

Tim Manteau 

David McCarthy 

Molly McBride 

Jim McManus 

Orhan Memed 



Laura Mitgang 

Frank Molinaro 

Luis Monreal 

Olima Nabiva 

Fairouz Nishanova 

Stacie O'Beirne 

Franz Xaver Ohnesorg 

Blair Talcott Orloff 

Joe Parent 

Margot Perman 

Sam Pickens 

Phillipa Polskin 

Anne Postel-Vinay 

Mark Ptashne 

Anthony Richter 

JLirgen Riehle 

Josh Robinson 

Sharon Ruebsteck 

William Russell 

Walter Scheuer 

Susan Schiffer 

Fred Schroeder 

Peter Sellars 

Bright Sheng 

Margaret Smilow 

Isabel Soffer 

Eric Steinhilber 

Earnest Thompson 

Brooke Thompson-Mills 

Sandy Ulsch 

Cylla von Tiedemann 

Toshio Watanabe 

David Westin 

Doug Wheeler 

Mr. and Mrs. James D. Wolfensohn 

Sara Wolfensohn 

Grace Won 

Margie Yang 



IH 



SPONSORS AND SPECIAL THANKS 



Smithsonian Support and 
Special Thanks 

Festival Leadership Committee 
Sen. Joseph Biden (Co-chair) 
Sen. Sam Brownback (Co-chair) 

Festival Donors 



U.S. Department of State 
ExxonMobil 

The Recording Industries Music Performance 
Trust Funds 

Carolyn G. Mugar 

Arthur Pacheco 

Trust for Mutual Understanding 

Asian Cultural Council 

J.S. Lee 

SKF International 

Edele Hovnanian 

The Armenian Assembly 
of America Inc. 

The Armenia Tree Project 

Made in Armenia Direct.com 

Chuba Electric Power Company 

Major Festival 

In-Kind Support 

APL 

Turkish Airlines 

International Silk Association 

ANA 

Motorola/Nextel 

Go-Ped 

Fresh Fields/Whole Foods Market 

Kohler 

Potomac Polo Club 

Festival In-Kind Contributors 

Academia Sinica 

Amernick Bakery and Palena Restaurant 

Nicole Anderson 



Ashby & Associates Video Production 
Services 

Baby Lock Inc. 

Blanc de Chine 

Boni Productions 

John Boos & Co. 

Century Martial Arts 

CMC Company 

Grant Couch 

Jean During 

Earthues/Color Trends 

East River Bagel Inc. doing business with 
Chesapeake Bagel Factory 

Folklore Society of Greater Washington 

The Freer Gallery of Art 

Fu Ssu-Nien Library 

FUJ1FILM USA 

The Getty Conservation Institute 

Henry Glassie 

Glen Echo Park 

Glen Echo Pottery 

Global Village Productions 

Greenberg & Hammer, Inc. 

Griffith Observatory 

Healthway Natural Foods 

Heidelberg Pastry Shop 

Hot Glass Beads 

The Huntington Archive of Buddhist 
and Related Arts 

Institute of History and Philology 

Italian Government Tourist Board 

Japan Information and Culture Center 

John Paulson Productions 

Kalustyans 

Doug Kim 

Kohls 

Krispy Kreme Doughnuts Inc. 

Theodore Levin 

Maribeth's 

Maryland Sewing & Vacuum Center 

Maskroad Project 

Maxell Corporation of America 



Media Visions Video Duplication 

Museo ItaloAmericano 

National Anthropological Archives 

National Museum of African Art 

National Museum of the American Indian 

Jiro Okura 

Palace Arts Foundation Inc. 

Stefano Pandiani 

Priefert Manufacturing 

A Quest f° r Fresh Natural Food Company 

Ricola 

Saratoga Polo Club 

Pravina Shukla 

Starbucks Coffee Company 

Sam Sweezy 

TDK Electronics 

Taiwan Bodleian Library 

Target Distributing Audio/Video Division 

Tyson's Bagel Market 

University of Oxford 

Wakefield High School 

Festival Special Thanks 

Hafiz Abbasi 

Parviz Gharib Afshar 

Alexander Ahmedov 

Carol Ailes 

Mairam Akaeva 

Phil Almeida 

Jennifer Alt 

American Kitefliers Association 

American Silk Company 

Amtrak 

Catherine Anderson 

Arci Milano 

Ufficio Cultura e Spettacoli 

Leslie Ashby 

Azienda Promozione Turistica Sri. 
Venezia 

Cesare Battisti 
Doug Baum 



US 



SPONSOR S AND SPECIAL TH A N K S 



Milo Beach 

Julie Benbow 

Francine Berkowitz 

Marty Bernstein 

Mary Bochman 

Thomas Brady 

Brochier Soieries 

Margo Brown 

Michelle Brown 

Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs, 
U.S. Department of State 

Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. 
U.S. Department of State 

Caravan Design Group 

Alicia Carter 

Central Asia Crafts Support Association 

Zhu Changhe 

Mary Cliff 

Sonya Cohen Cramer 

Tony Collini 

Companies Weisbrod Zuerrer 

Francis Cooper 

Nancy Corbett 

Andrew Cortez-Greig 

Janet Cullum 

Prachi Dalai 

Tracy Drea 

Ambassador Jargalsaikhany Enkhsaikhan 

Cihad Erginay 

Sihar Erozan 

Massumeh Farhad 

Fashion Institute of Technology 

Susan Fraser 

Nan Freeman 

Ann Froelich 

Tsend Ganbat 

Gambosurengiin Ganzorig 

Gessner 

Janice M. Glowski 

Fred Gordon 

John Gordy 

Laurel Victoria Grey 



Ali Gunertem 

Badrul Haque 

Patricia Harrison 

Hiroyuki Hashimoto 

Asad Hassan-ul-Din 

Fiona Hill 

Hilton Hotels 

Hohenberg Bros. Company 
Division of Cargill 

Paul Holloway 

Meredith Hubel 

Intersole France 

Elizabeth Jacobsen 

Khalid Javaid 

Yin-Xin Jian 

Murakami Jinichi 

Kathy Johnson 

Elizabeth Jones 

Jusuf Kamal 

Bobby Kamp 

Melik Karapetyan 

Laura Kaufman 

Ambassador Laura Kennedy 

James Kenney 

Ambassador Shavkat S. Khamrakulov 

Anne Kong 

Nicole Krakora 

Kathy Kruse 

R.E.C. Krupp 

Alma Kunanbay 

Donna Larson 

Richard Larson 

Peter Leggieri 

Jodi Lehr 

Brian LeMay 

Danny Leone 

Jonathan Liebenau 

Lok Virsa 

Susan J. Lutzker 

Derrell Lyles 

John Major 

Chinara Makasova 



Hanako Matano 

Hiroshi Matshuda 

Giorgio Mattiello 

Lincoln McCurdy 

J.J. McLaughlin 

Ken Miller 

Elizabeth Moynihan 

Uxi Mufti 

Alyse Best Muldoon 

Charles Muldoon 

Joseph Muldoon Jr. 

Joseph Muldoon III 

Suzan Murray 

National Endowment for the Arts Folk 
Traditional Arts 

Ma Ning 

Mine Okamoto 

Olsson's Books & Music 

Kayoko Ota 

Gul Berna Ozcan 

Joyce Painter 

Patrizia Pallaro 

Cecilia Pang 

Peggy Parsons 

Nell Payne 

Adam Peterson 

Judith Petroski 

Rep. Joe Pitts 

Steven Prieto 

Pyramid Atlantic 

Aziz Rahman 

Fiorano Rancati 

Carol Reed 

Roslin Art Gallery 

Debbie Rothberg 

Bryan Saylor 

Raymond Seefeldt 

Lynne Shaner 

Anna Leon Shulman 

Frank Joseph Shulman 

Silk Road Dance Company 

Silk Road Foundation 



116 



SUPPORT AND SPECIAL THANKS 



Brian Silver 

Renny Smith 

Sport Soie 

Deborah Sullivan 

Youssef Summad 

Marty Summerour 

Mark Taplin 

Target, Reston, Virginia 

Taroni Company 

Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis 

Allen Thrasher 

Tourmobile Sightseeing 

Dai-ni Tsou 

Tumar Art Salon 

Turhal Kultur ve Dayanisma Dernegi 

Unesco Kyrgyzstan 

U.S. Embassy Kazakhstan 

U.S. Embassy Kyrgyzstan 

U.S. Embassy Turkmenistan 

U.S. Embassy Uzbekistan 

University of Maryland Clarice Smith 
Performing Arts Center 

Uzbek Dance and Cultural Society 

Bill Veale 

Wendy Wasserman 

Monica Williamson 

Michael Wilpers 

Dwain Winters 

The World Bank 

Van S. Wunder III 

Qin Xilin 

Yuriko Yamaguchi 

Seeroon Yeretzian 

Koji Yoneda 

Kumi Yoshiike 

Anna Zagorski 

Zurich Silk Association 



Smithsonian Office Support 



Office of the Secretary 

Office of Development 

Office of the Inspector General 

Office of the General Counsel 

Office of Sponsored Projects 

Office of the Under Secretary 
for American Museums and 
National Programs 

Arts & Industries Building 

Center for Education and Museum Studies 

National Museum of American History. 
Behring Center 

Department of Information, Technology 
and Society 

Director's Office 

National Numismatics Collection 

National Postal Museum 

Research Services Department 

Office of Communications 

Office of Public Affairs 

Visitor Information and Associates Reception 
Center 

Office of Government Relations 

Office of Human Resources 

Office of Special Events and Conference 
Services 

The Smithsonian Associates 

Office of the Director, International Art 
Museums 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

Department of Applied Arts and 
Industrial Design. Image Rights and 
Reproductions 

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery 

Curatorial Staff 

Digital Information Systems 

Public Affairs and Marketing 

Publications Staff 

Registrar 



Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Public Affairs Office 
National Museum of African Art 

Curatorial Staff 

Office of the Under Secretary for 
Science 

National Museum of Natural History 

Department of Anthropology 

AnthroNotes 

Department of Development and Public 
Affairs Education Department 

Office of Special Exhibits 

The O. Orkin Insect Zoo 
National Zoological Park 

Division of Exhibit Interpretation 

Museum Support Center 

Office of Fellowships and Grants 

Office of International Relations 

Office of the Under Secretary for 
Finance and Administration 

Accessibility Program 

Facilities Services Group 

Engineering and Design 

Environment Management and Safety 

Physical Plant 

Architectural History & Historic 
Preservation 

Horticulture 

Office of the Comptroller 

Office of Contracting 

Travel Services Office 

Office of Imaging. Printing and Photographic 
Services 

Office of Planning, Management and Budget 

Office of Risk and Asset Management 

Office of the Chief Information Officer 

Office of Information Technology 

Smithsonian Business Ventures 

Smithsonian Magazine 



117 



STAFF 



Smithsonian Institution 

Secretary: Lawrence M. Small 

Under Secretary for American Museums and 
National Programs: Sheila P. Burke 

Center for Folklife 

and Cultural Heritage 

Director: Richard Kurin 

Deputy Director: Richard Kennedy 

Smithsonian Folklife Festival 

Festival Director: Diana Parker 

Program/Publications Manager: Carla M. Borden 

Program Specialist: Arlene Reiniger 

Technical Director: Rob Schneider 

Director of Design and Production: 
Kristen Fernekes 

Graphic Designer: Caroline Brownell 

Media Specialist: Charlie Weber 

Administration 

Administrative Officer: Barbara Strickland 

Fiscal Manager: Helen O'Keefe 

Computer Specialist: Michael Page 

Office Manager: Sheila Naylor 

Administrative Assistant: Rachelle Hardy 

Financial Assistants: Lillian Phifer-Brown, 
Tracy Clonts 

Volunteers: Bill Aldacusion. Linda Benner. 
Sandie Cole. Dale Dowdal, Ramona Dowdal. 
Jerry Gay, Enid Hairston, Gorgui N'Diaye, 
Renny Smith, Marty Summerours 

Development 

Director of Development: Josh Silver 

Development Associate: Rebecca Smerling 

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 

Director: Daniel Sheehy 

Director Emeritus: Anthony Seeger 

Assistant Director: D. A. Sonneborn 

Financial Operations Manager: Betty Derbyshire 



Sound Production Supervisor: 
Pete Reiniger 

Marketing Manager: Richard Burgess 

Marketing Assistant: John Smith 

Production Coordinator: Mary Monseur 

Manufacturing Coordinator: Judy Barlas 

Licensing and Royalties: Margot Nassau 

Audio Recording Specialists: Ronnie Simpkins, 
Norman van der Sluys 

Fulfillment Manager: Sharleen Kavetski 

Fulfillment Staff: Lee Michael Demsey, 
Helen Lindsay, John Passmore 

Interns: Nathaniel Berndt. David Campana, 
Clancy Cox, Jonathan Haupt, Noel Oakes, 
Jacob Rogers, Carolina Santamaria, 
Kerri Sheingold, Cormac Symington. Sara Waller. 
Barry Weber. Jonathan Zalben 

Ralph Rinzler Archives 

Archivist: Jeff Place 

Cataloger, Assistant Archivist: Stephanie Smith 

Archives Intern: Greg Adams 

Save Our Sounds 

Project Director: Frank Proschan 

Archive Technician: Michael Pahn 

Interns: Jason Dooley. Jeff Eastman. 
Huong Nguyen, Bjorn Quenemoen 

Smithsonian GlobalSound 

Project Director: Jon Kertzer 

Technical Director: Toby Dodds 

Project Manager: Susan Golden 

Cultural Heritage Policy 

Director: James Early 

Cultural Research and Education 

Chair: Olivia Cadaval 

Senior Ethnomusicologist Emeritus: 
Thomas Vennum, Jr. 

Curators, Folklonsts, Education & Cultural 
Specialists: Betty J. Belanus, Nancy Groce, 
Marjone Hunt, Diana Baird N'Diaye, Peter Seitel, 
Cynthia Vidaurn, Nilda Villalta 

Program Manager: John W. Franklin 



Research Associates: Gigi Bradford. 
Roland Freeman, Ivan Karp, Cormne Kratz, 
Alan Lomax, Worth Long, Rene Lopez, 
Kate Rinzler, Rajeev Sethi 

Fellows: Rhea Combs, Steven Garabedian, 
Mark Jackson, Ajaya Khanal, Anthony McCann 

Interns: Adriana Cutler, Marie-Isabelle Gamier, 
Ava Jones, Indra Liepin, Galy Modan, 
Sarah Reeder. Carley Williams 

Center Advisory Council: Kurt Dewhurst. 
Anthony Gittens. Pat Jasper. Barbara Kirshenblatt- 
Gimblett. Enrique Lamadrid. David Maybury-Lewis, 
Judy Mitoma, J. Scott Raecker. Ricardo Trimillos 
(Chair) 

Folkways Advisory Board: Michael Asch (Chair). 
Phyllis Barney. Hal Cannon, Don DeVito, 
Ella Jenkins, Fred Silber 

The Silk Road Project, Inc. 

The Silk Road Project, a not-for-profit arts 
organization, was founded in 1998 by cellist 
Yo-Yo Ma, who serves as its artistic director. 
The purpose of the Silk Road Project is to 
illuminate the Silk Road's historical contribution 
to the cross-cultural diffusion of arts, 
technologies, and musical traditions, identify 
the voices that best represent its cultural legacy 
today, and support innovative collaborations 
among outstanding artists from the lands of 
the Silk Road and the West. 

At the center of the Silk Road Project is a 
two-year-long series of festivals in North 
America, Europe, Central Asia, China, and Japan 
which began in summer 2001. Co-produced 
with major presenting organizations and cultural 
institutions, the festivals draw upon a new body 
of chamber works commissioned by the Silk 
Road Project, traditional music from the lands 
of the Silk Road, and existing works by Western 
composers such as Ravel and Debussy who 
were profoundly influenced by Eastern traditions. 
This summer's Smithsonian Folklife Festival is 
the result of a creative partnership between the 
Silk Road Project and the Smithsonian's Center 
for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. 

For more information about the Silk Road 
Project, please visit www.silkroadproject.org. 



118 



STAFF 



The Silk Road Project, Inc., 
Board of Directors 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



Festival Director: Diana Parker 



Chairman: Dr. Merton Flemings 

Vice Chairman: Ms. Catherine Gevers 

Treasurer: Ms. Cristin Canterbury Bagnall 

Prince Amyn Aga Khan 

Dr. Milo C. Beach 

Dr. Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis 

Ms. Jill Hornor 

Mr. Yo-Yo Ma 

Dr. Daniel Ng 

Secretary: Ms. Brooke Thompson-Mills 

The Silk Road Project, Inc., Staff 

Artistic Director: Yo-Yo Ma 

Managing Director: Jean Davidson 

Curatorial Director: Theodore Levin 

Project Director: Esther Won 

Website Architect: Kimberly Freeman 

Research and Editorial Coordinator: 
Rachel Derkits 

Curatorial Assistant: Shayna Silverstein 

Stewardship Assistant: Ellen Ko 

Education Researcher: Blair McLaughlin 

Administrative Assistant: Allison Lee 

Exclusive Management for Yo-Yo Ma: 
1CM Artists. Ltd. 

Press Representation: Ruder Finn Arts and 
Communications Counselors 

Legal: Farella Braun & Martel. LLP and 
Hale & Dorr, LP 

Development: Ganpoli Consulting 

Accounting Firm: Parent. McLaughlin & Nangle 
Insurance Advisors: J.H. Albert and 
Marsh USA. Inc. 

Consultant: Catherine Gevers 



Assistant to the Festival Director: 
Natalie Hisczak 

Co-Curators: Richard Kennedy. Theodore Levin 

Curatorial Committee: Milo Beach. Jean During. 
Henry Glassie. Tom Kessinger, Alma Kunanbay. 
Yo-Yo Ma 

Production Committee: Cristin Bagnall, 

Jean Davidson. Catherine Gevers, 

Richard Kennedy, Richard Kurin, Theodore Levin, 

Diana Parker, Esther Won 

Festival Scenographer: Rajeev Sethi 

Researchers and 

Local Coordinators: 

Abduvali Abdurashidov, Mila Ahmedova, 

Omer Akakga, Bassam Al-Kahouaji, 

Dinara Amirova, Nahomi Aso, Najmieh Batmanglij, 

Betty Belanus, Laura Beldiman, Susan Blader, 

Guanghui Chen. Rta Kapur Chishti, 

Shafique Rahman Choudhury, Jerome Cler. 

Ardasher Dekhoti, James Deutsch, 

Hermine Dreyfuss, Cloe Drieu, Jean During, 

Jane Farmer. Sasan Fatemi, Walter Feldman, 

Henry Glassie. Chen Guanghui. Harold Hagopian, 

Elias Hanna. Rachel Harris. K. David Harrison. 

Bhagwati Prasad Hatwal, Martha Huang, 

George Jevremovic. Neslihan Jevremovic, 

Stephen Jones. Richard Kennedy, 

Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Stephen Kidd, Doug Kim, 

Peg Koetsch, Alma Kunanbay, Gavyn Lavergne, 

Theodore Levin, Firoz Mahmud, Elshan Mansurov. 

Peter Marsh, Andranik Michaelian, 

Nataliya Mussina, Afanassij Myldyk, Olima Nabiva, 

Eden Naby, Mohammed Nasseripour. 

Liesbet Nyssen. Susan Pertel-Jain, Aziz Rahman. 

Marjone Ransom. Arlene Reiniger. Rajeev Sethi. 

Pravma Shukla, Razia Sirdibaeva, 

Atesh Sonneborn, Youssef Summad, 

Nancy Sweezy, Takashi Takahara, D. Tserenpil, 

Shu-m Tsou, Oguzhan Tugral. Mark van Tongeren. 

Senc Walley, Philippa Watkins. Chris Walter, 

Toshio Watanabe 



Presen ters 

Sibel Akad. Omer Akaki;a. Bassam Al-Kahouaji. 

Dina Amirova. William Belcher, Susan Blader. 

Camilla Bryce-Laporte, Sertac Qakim. Charles 

Camp. Guanghui Chen, Rta Kapur Chishti, 

Dinara Chochunbaeva. Shafique Rahman 

Choudhury. Jerome Cler, David d'Heilly. 

Tenzin Dickyi. Hermine Dreyfuss. Jean During. 

Jane Farmer. Walter Feldman, Alysia Fischer, 

Gail Forman. Helen Frederick, Ganbold. 

Henry Glassie. Harold Hagopian. Rachel Harris. 

K. David Harrison. Bhagawati Prasad Hatwal. 

Neslihan Jevremovic, Alison Allen Jia, Mark 

Kenoyer, Catherine Kerst. Dipti Khera, Doug Kim, 

Benjamin David Koen, Peg Koetsch, 

Alma Kunanbay. Gavyn Lavergne. Tom Leech, 

Theodore Levin. Yo-Yo Ma. LaVerne Magarian. 

Firoz Mahmud, Peter Marsh, Nataliya Mussina, 

Eden Naby. Joan Nathan, Liesbet Nyssen, 

Nilgun Peksalli, Susan Pertel-Jain, Steven Prieto, 

Frank Proschan, Marjorie Ransom. Philip Schuyler. 

Shubha Sankaran. Pravina Shukla. 

Robin Ami Silverberg. Madan Gopal Singh, 

Nancy Sweezy. Takashi Takahara. Geshe Lobsang 

Tenzin. Oguzhan Tugral. Michael Twitty. 

Kojiro Umezaki, Mark van Tongeren, 

Yuriko Yamaguchi, Wang Yousheng, Chris Walter. 

Philippa Watkins. Jeffrey Werbock 

Translators 

Syeda Ahmed. Bassam Al-Kahouoji. 

Harika Bickicioglu, Maggie Cummings 

Prachi Dalai. David Davtian, Radha Dutta. 

Naz Ebrahimi. Monica Gonsalves, 

Jyldyz Kadrakunova, Gourgen Karapetyan. 

Peter Marsh. Yumjir Munkh-Amgalan, 

Ashok Kumar Rajput. Raju Sitaula. Shu-ni Tsou. 

Kurban Walli, Jeffrey Werbock, Yuriko Yamaguchi 

Cultural Liaisons 



Alimjan Abdulkerim, Adiba Asadova, 

M. Prachi Dalai, Naz Ebrahimi, Helen Faller. 

Mina Girgis. Altinay Kuchukeeva, 

Sushmita Mazumdar. Celal Mutu, Asli Z. Mutlu. 

Rosita Petrova, Siddiqur Rahman. Shoko Sasaki. 

Kosuke Yamashiro, Hui Zhang 



119 



STAFF 



Program Staff 



Program Coordinators: James Deutsch, 
Stephen Kidd. Arlene Reiniger, Shayna Silverstein 

Program Assistants: Elizabeth Smart. 
Beverly Simons. Shu-ni Tsou 

Program Interns: Siddhartha Chatterjee, 

Elvin Christmas, Mary B. Considine. 

Kevin Daugherty II, Caroline Dolive. 

Elena Gugicheva, Marinella Lentis. Kara Lustig. 

Petra Meindl-Andrews. Zsofia Molnar. 

Elana Newberger 

Participant Coordinator: Dorey Butter 
Assistant Participant Coordinators: 
Karyn Caplan. Reyhan ilhan 
Cultural Liaison Coordinator: lndrani deSilva 
Cultural Liaison Intern: Maho Saito 
Lead Program Volunteer: Renny Smith 
Housing Coordinator: Jennifer Hitt 
Housing Intern: Mina Girgis 

Family Activities Coordinator: Betty Belanus 
Paper Garden Coordinator: Jane Farmer 
Silk Grove Coordinator: Marjorie Hunt 
Fashion Court Coordinator: Diana Baird N'Diaye 
Interns: Beth Fortune, Alia Luqman 

Festival Web Site Architect: Kimberly Freeman 

Administrative and Fiscal Support 

Administrative Officer: Barbara Strickland 

Fiscal Manager: Helen O'Keefe 

Administrative Assistants, Folklife: 

Tracy Clonts, Rachelle Hardy, Lillian Phifer-Brown 

Administrative Intern: Kelsey Scott 

Administrative Fellow: Jason Yen 

Computer Specialist: Michael Page 

Volunteer Coordinator: Judy Luis-Watson 

Assistant Volunteer Coordinator: 
Abigail Sharbaugh 

Volunteer Interns: Alima Bucciantini, Lauren Chow 

Marketplace Coordinator: Rachel Delgado 



Marketplace Assistant Manager: Joe Williams 

Marketplace Operations Manager: Marlene Graves 

Marketplace Interns: E. Michael Crawford, Jr.. 
Bridgatt Mahoney. Arturo J. B. Pacheco III 

Folkways Festival Sales Manager: 
Mary Monseur 

Concessions Manager: Eddie Mendoza 

Foodways Coordinator: Amanda Pike 

Foodways Intern: Rachel Walman 

Program Book Sales Coordinator: Kelly Posey 

Technical Support 

Technical Director: Rob Schneider 

Assistant Technical Director: Teresa A. Ballard 

Technical Consultant: Shakeel Hossain 

Administrative Assistant: Sheila Naylor 

Electrician: Tommy Starkey 

Carpenters: Paul Aune, Toby Milby, Tim Raridon 

Crew Leaders: Lawrence Jewell, Michelle Kadikian, 
Ariadne Pineda 

Exhibit Workers: Joseph David, Nicole Davis, 

Michelle De Cesare. Kendra Denny, 

William Iverson, Kathleen McBride, 

Alicia McCauley. Terry Meniefield. Elsa Miller, 

Colin O'Bnan, Mariya Strauss, Alaric Strickland. 

Mike Texada, Donn Williams 

Rigger: Frank Caulder 

Trucker: Dave Laming 

Shipping Coordinator: Heather Ward 

Sound/Stage Supervisor: Pete Reiniger 

Stage Managers: David Adcock, Jeanette Buck, 
Rachel Cross. Stephen Jamison, Sissie Lang, 
Mike Monseur, Claudia Telliho 

Engineers: Saul Broudy. David Clements, 
Henry Cross, Alison Goessling, Gregg Lamping, 
Dean Languell, Al McKenney, Charlie Pilzer. 
Alyssa Rivers. Paul Watson. James Welsh 

Supply Coordinator: Patricia Bradley 

Supply Assistant: Katina Epps 

Logistics Coordinators: Jason Dooley, 
Anne Mercer 



Design & Production 

Art Director: Kristen Fernekes 
Senior Designer: Caroline Brownell 
Designer: Rachele Riley 
Design Intern: David Antoine 

Publications 

Publications Manager: Carla Borden 

Writers/Editors: Betty J. Belanus. Carla Borden, 
James Deutsch, Mark Kenoyer, Stephen Kidd, 
Martha Huang, Marjorie Hunt, Richard Kennedy, 
Richard Kurin. Theodore Levin, John Major. 
Diana Baird N'Diaye. Lucia Pierce, Frank Proschan, 
Peter Seitel. Shayna Silverstein, Elizabeth Smart, 
Shu-ni Tsou 

Consultants: Jennifer Alt, Milo Beach, 
Massumeh Farhad. Laura Kaufman, 
Alma Kunanbay, Eden Naby, Lynne Shaner, 
Anna Leon Shulman. Frank Joseph Shulman, 
Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis. Allen Thrasher 

Documentation 

Documentation Coordinator: Jeff Place 

Photo Documentation Coordinator/Webmaster: 
Stephanie Smith 

Video Documentation: Charlie Weber 

Documentation Interns: Kelly Duke, 

Jacquelyn Erdman. Brendan Kredell, Chris Magana 

Chief Volunteer. Documentation: Marilyn Gaston 

Education and Program Support 

Education Specialists: Betty Belanus 

Education Assistant: Merrill Feather 

Intern Coordinator: Arlene Reiniger 

Education Interns: Helen Louise. Kate Marshall, 
Jennifer Neely, Jennifer Sandusky 

Accessibility Coordinator: John Franklin 

Public Information: Vicki Moeser 

Public Information Interns: Amy Shapiro, 
Rom Pomerantz 



120 



STAFF 



Sign-Lanuage Interpreters: Jean Bergey. 
Candas Barnes. Martin Hiraga, Diana Mele. 
Sambia Shivers-Barclay. Kimberly Underwood, 
Hank Young 
Sign Master: Ernest Hairston 

The Asian Heritage Fou ndation 

Founder Trustee: Rajeev Sethi 

Board of Governors: Dr. Naresh Trehan. 

Madhu Trehan. Poonam Muttreja. Dr. Shiv Kumar. 

Shabana Azmi. Javed Akhtar 

Scenographer: Rajeev Sethi 

Architects: Rajeev Lunkad. Vijay Kate. Arvmd 
Saxena. Amar Prashant. Saurabh Sharma. 
Yogeshwar Kanu, Sheila Lunkad. Naveed Ahmed 

Graphic Design Team: Oroon Das. Pramod Bharti. 
Sameer Parker. Gurpreet Singh. Siddhartha 
Chatterjee. Prakash Kumar. Priyanka Bhasin 

Research Team: Pramod Kumar KG. Kavita 
Chandra 

Project Administration & Finance: Parna Patkar. 
V. Balasubramanian, K.A. Lakshmanan. Motilal 
Saini. Madan Lai. Neeti Narang 

San Marco & Istanbul Panels: Chandu Nafde, 
Monica Ranaker, Gitika Madhok, Suruchi Kasliwal, 
Ms. Ritika Jagu. Gaurav Bhutada 

Bamiyan Wall: Hoshiyar Singh. Sujata Bansal. 
Bhim. Chintu. Narendra. Radheshyam. Kamal. Tara. 
Anup, Vjay. Ravi. Kapil. Sonu 

Astronomy Tent: Gyan Prakash Soni. Om Prakash 
Soni, Bheru Lai. Sharad Soni, Shiv Prakash Soni. 
Tnlok Prakash Soni, Dinesh Soni, Kiran Soni, 
Manish Soni. Yogdeepak Soni, Sunika Soni. 
Monika Soni, Vijay Kumar. Ramesh Kumar. 
Raj Kumar 

Carpet Walls on Canvas: Moreshwar. Patil, 
Pankaj Salunkhe. JT Mane. Santoah Parab. Nilesh 
Kapudaskar, Sanjay Gade, Siddhi Ghadigankar, 
Sachin Chalke. Pragati Mistri. Vidhya Vesave, 
Sandip Dhuri. Vishalakshi. Jadav. Poshni Gavde, 
Vaishali Rokde, Swati Lubde, Yogita. Abhishek 
Baiker, Ashok Gurav, Sanjay More 

Thermocol Artists: Zia and Team 

Dunhuang on Canvas and Papier-Mache: 
Bhupendra Singh 



Painted Textures on Flex and Canvas: Mohan 
Malviya, Manish Ratnaparke 

Chinese Wall on Particleboard: Manish Pushkale, 
Santosh Kumar 

Painting on Canvas and Flex: Meghansh, Avadesh 

Yadav, Sundar Gurjar, Dilip Paranjiya. Mr. Rajesh 

Paul 

Mosaic Angels: Jitendra Vyas. Satish Narayania 

Painting and Paper Collage on Flex: Dinesh 
Parihar. Amit Mahtre, Piyush Sharma. Badri Burfa 

Hagia Sophia: Yogesh Kasera. Harbajan Singh & 
Team 

Structural Consultants: Mr. Amit Sharma. Ayush 
Ranjan, P. Dutta 

Furniture Consultant: Mr. Ayush Kasliwal 

Japanese Calligraphy Consultant: Yuriko Lochhan 

Textile Consultants: Ms. Rta Kapur Chisthi. 
Arpana Bisht 

Financial Consultants: Sudhir Saluja, Upendra 
Marwah 

Fabricators (Metal): Abid, Muhammad. Zain-uddin. 
Faroukh. Imtiaz. Salim. Riaz-Uddin, Soli Shankar, 
Zameer, Allauddin. Kanan, Pramod, Ismail, 
Qamruddin. Suresh Kumar, Roymon. Kunjappy, 
Prasad KP, N Suresh, Shahjad. Bhola, Manoj. 
Ramprasad. Sohan Singh, Prassanan KP. Matloob 
Ahmed, Nabil Ahmed 

Tailoring: Abdul Rashid, Irfan, Wasim Ahmed. 
Mustaquein Ahmed. Umar, Ajmeri, ilias 

Design Supervisor: Mr. Narendra Malhotra 

Bamboo Artisans: Madan lal, Sonu, Bhagwan, 
Laxman. Ram Avtar, Laxmi, Rampal 

Bamboo Weaving: Jagat Narain, Ram Lakhan, 
Radheshyam & Team 

Carpentry & Woodwork: Darshan, Mohammed 
Irfan, Raju, Vikas, Ram Kishore, Irshad, Aash 
Muhammad, Salim, Azmuddin, Raish Ahmed, 
ikramuddin. Jiya, Aslam, Shami, Zameer. Harbans 
Singh. Devender Kumar. Daya Ram, Montu, 
Shamboo. Chotu, Umesh, Rajkumar, Abdul Sattar 

Dyers & Printers: Deepak Srivastav, Sagar Dyers. 
Ashirwad Dyers, Venugopal, Consortium 
International 



Wood Block Makers: Sardar Hussain. Arshad 
Kafil, Ansar Hussain. Manshoor Alam. Mehfaz. 
Imran. Masroor. Iqbal, Shaheed 

Office Staff: Mr. Ghanshyam, Rajesh, Vinod, Vjay. 
Kannaiyha. Mahesh. Ram Vilas. Dhan Singh, Sunil 
Tirkey. Manu, Naresh, Omkar Singh 

In-Kind Contributors: Ratna Handlooms. Tota Ram 
Sunil Kumar. Tarini. Capital Pest Control, Trinity 
Removals Pvt. Ltd.. APL Logistics, Abhinandan 
Cargo, Duggal Visual Solutions, Manasa Ikat. Little 
Flower Ashram, Bereket Hali, Industree. The Shop. 
Saurashtra Impex, Coircraft. Sanchita, Ranjit 

Site: Kamal Kumar 

National Park Service 

Secretary of the Interior: Gale A. Norton 

Director. National Park Service: Fran P. Mainella 

Deputy Director. National Park Service: 
Donald W. Murphy 

Regional Director. National Capital Region: 
Terry R. Carlstrom 

Chief, United States Park Police: 
Teresa C. Chambers 

United States Park Police, Special Forces Branch: 
Sgt. Roxanne Brown-Ankney 

Superintendent. National Capital Parks-Central: 
Arnold Goldstein 

Deputy Superintendent, National Capital Parks- 
Central: Vikki Keys 

Chief, Division of Park Programs: 
Rick Merryman 

Special Event Coordinator, Division of Park 
Programs: Leonard Lee 

Chief, Division of Visitor Services: 
Robert Karotko 

Associate Superintendent, Maintenance: 
William Newman, Jr. 

Deputy Chief of Maintenance: Sean Kennealy 

Special Assistant for Partnerships: 
Lisa Mendelson-Ielmini 

Employees of the National Park Service and the 
United States Park Police. 



121 



For more information about the 



Smithsonian Folklife Festival visit 

www.folklife.si.edu. 



Find books about the ; : tival and the 
research behind it 

Learn about the 

, which produces 
the Festival and S 
recordings developed from the Festival 

As well as an array of recordings 
from the archives and collections of 
Folkways Records 



mian 

Folklih 

■..iJVrft'MY* 




£ MA 



Learn how you can help archival 
preservation projects like Save Our 
Sounds, and Smithsonian Global 
Sound, a Web-based project to digitize 
and distribute the world's recorded 
sound heritage 

Find resources, like cultural education 
kits and materials for schools, and 
publications concerning cultural heritage 
policy and practice 



encourage cultural democracy across the nation and around the world. 

From top right: ( 'ulture. Of By. and For the People by Richard kurin; The StoneCarvers by Marjorie Hunt; Reflections of a ( 'ulture Broker by Richard Kurin; (from Smithsonian 
Folkways Recordings) New York City: Qbbal Beat of the Boroughs; Taquachito Nights; Classic Bhegrass; Woody Quthrie: The Asch Recordings; The Bat of Broadside; Anthology of 
\merican Folk Musk . (from Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Education) Safeguarding Traditional Cultures: A Qlohal Assessment; Discovering Our Delta Education Kit; and 
Iowa Folklife Education Kit 



Learn more about 



CD 



S I LKR®AD 

project 



inc. 



at www.silkroadproject.org 



The Silk Road Ensemble Recordings Instruments o1 
that work with the Project Map with routes of th 









Also, learn more about 
Silk Road Encounters, 

a comprehensive education 
initiative exploring the 
cross-cultural influences of the 
historical Silk Road, commissioned 
by Ford Motor Company and 
developed by the Silk Road Project 
in collaboration with the Asia 
Society. 

teachers.silkroadproject.org 



Folklife Festival participant, Mongolian long song 
vocalist Ganbaatar Khongorzul. performs a traditional 

Mongolian long song. © 2001 Axel Nickolaus, Germany 




Along the Silk Road 

Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis, ed. 

This richly illustrated, lively book 
is keynoted by Yo-Yo Ma's candid 
insights into contemporary music 
and the Silk Road; distinguished 
contributors who explore the 
present-day Silk Road and its 
absorbing history include a composer, 
ethnomusicologist, archaeologist, 
photographer, scientist, film critic, 
and two art historians. 

Buy online or at the Folklife Festival. 










The Silk Road 

Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust 



The 2002 Smithsonian Folklife Festival 



www.silkroadproject.org/smithsonian 




Folklife Festival participants Ensemble Sabjilar members 
Sergei Cherkov, Anna Burnakova, and Slava Kuchenov. 
© Ted Levin 2000. Khakasia 



See photos and a map of this year's Festival. Get to know more at 
schedule with daily updates. Get recipes from food demonstrations. I 



The Silk Road Project, a not-for-profit arts and culture organization, was founded in 1998 by cellist Yo-Yo Ma, who serves as its artistic 
director. The purpose of the Silk Road Project is to illuminate the Silk Road's historical contribution to the cross-cultural diffusion of arts, 
technologies, and musical traditions; identify the voices that best represent its cultural legacy today; and support innovative collaborations 
among outstanding artists from the lands of the Silk Road and the West. 



Music that 
travels in 
extraordina 
new 
directions. 



limftF 




/ 



Silk Road Journeys 



kTATJ 




Hil 



s Meet 

join renowned cellist Yo-Yo Ma as he 
explores the rich cultural traditions along 
the Silk Road— the historic link between 
East and West— and celebrates the many 
music 




What if Marco Polo had owned 



a tape 



\nd what il his epic travels across the heart ol Asia had taken place not at the cm\ of the 13th century, 
hut at the beginning ol the 21st? The Silk Road: A Musical Caravan presents a panoramic sweep of 
the vast and rich musical territory that an adventurous traveler like Polo might uncover in this vitally 
important region today. Produced in cooperation with the Silk Road Project and the _!()()!_' Smithsonian 
Folklile Festival, this 2-CD set includes music from Afghanistan, China, Iran, Kazakhstan, .Mongolia. 
Tajikistan, and other Central Eurasian nations and peoples, most ol it never previously released. 



THE 



SILK 



ROAD 



A Musical Caravan 



"The music on these discs, traditional and 
contemporary, kindred and diverse, 
illustrates the dazzling, sometimes daring- 
results of musicians along the Silk Road 
getting connected— to their roots, their 
neighbors, and, at some usually anonymous 

moment, to strangers." 

-Yo-YoMa 



A world of sound from the Smithsonian is available at your doorstep! 
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings brings you musical treasures 
from distant places and your own backyard on over 3,000 recordings. 
Available from record and book stores, online, or mail order. 



800--i 10-98 15 www.folkways.si.edu 

t, 3 Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 




Specially priced at the Lotus Bazaar 



FESTIVAL SITE MAP 



to Smithsonian National Museum of American History 




JEFFERSON DRIVE 








(+) First Aid 
(j ) information 


( P) Performance Venue 
(Jw Food Concession 


(V) Volunteer/ 

Lost & Found 

(JJQ) Passport Station 


(MJ Metro 
















SMITHSONIAN CASTLE 






















1 1 





FREER AND SACKLER GALLERIES 



HAUPT GARDEN 



127 



FESTIVAL SITE MAP 



T to Smithsonian National Museum of American History 




JEFFERSON OftTVE 








@ Fint Ami 
(j) Infor malton 


(P) Performance Venue 
(JVJ Food Concession 


(V) Volunteer/ 

lost & Found 
fflj) Paisporl Slaiion 


(g) Metro 



I to Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History 





Nara Gate 















SMITHSONIAN CASTLE 





















i — r 

HAUPT GARDEN