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Full text of "The silvery hosts of the North Sea : with a sketch of "quaint old Yarmouth""

Old 
Yarmouth, 



C STACY- WATS ON. 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 




LANDING HERRINGS AT YARMOUTH: OLD STYLE. 
"Of all the fish of the sea, Herring is king." 




Clupea Harengus. 

THE SILVERY HOSTS 

OF THE 

NORTH SEA. 



Mvtlj it ^litttlj of "Quaint ft frannmttjr." 






C. STACY-ATSON. 



Here is the noblest fishery for herrings in Europe." 

SiR H. SPELMAN. 



WITH A PREFATORY NOTE 

BY 

THE EDITOR OF "HOME WORDS." 



"HOME WORDS" PUBLISHING OFFICE. 

i, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G. 

All rights reserved. 



i> 



Butler & Tanner, 

The Selwoocl Printing Works, 

Frome, and London. 



/fsrv/3 




PREFATORY NOTE, 




OMETHING about Herrings," 
ought to arrest the attention of 
everybody : and an introductory 
note to the following pages, which 
I have been asked to write, seems 
to me very much like a work of supererogation. 
One thing, however, I can say : many years 
ago it was my privilege to acquaint myself 
with Yarmouth Herrings on the spot, and to 
see a good deal of the processes connected 
with the catching, curing, and preparation of 
this delicious breakfast luxury ; and knowing 
what I do of Mr. C. Stacy- Watson, the author 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



of this book, I feel I can fairly guarantee not 
only the interest of his story, but his special 
fitness to be a guide and teacher of those who 
desire to become more fully acquainted with 
" The Silvery Hosts of the North Sea." 

Of Yarmouth itself I can truly say there is 
little scenery, but there is plenty to see. It 
possesses a certain old-world originality. Butter 
is still sold by the "pint." The town is one 
vast gridiron, of which the bars are represented 
by " Rows " to the number of one hundred 
and forty-five. The Parish Church is a grand 
structure. The Denes except in windy 
weather are delightful. The roadstead has 
several times contained the navy of England, 
and sometimes over 1,000 vessels are to be 
seen riding at anchor. The fisheries, and the 
fish, are of course in their season a never- 
failing topic. The reader will learn all about 
these from Mr. Stacy- Watson ; and as to the 
quaint old town, my advice to each is to 
resolve to exercise a personal judgment by 
making a personal visit. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



"It is as prayte a town," said a Royal 
Commissioner sent here some three centuries 
ago, who ought to have been a Royal Courtier 
"It is as prayte a town as I knowe any 
where on the sea costes ; and as thriftie and 
honest people in the same ; for, in my opinion 
it is the prosperest towne, the best bylded, 
with most substancyall howses, that I knowe 
so near the sea in all your Majestie's realme ! " 

" As prayte a town " was safe ground for a 
Commissioner three centuries ago, when the 
modern annual exodus of England to the sea 
was an unknown luxury, and dozens of "de- 
lightful localities" had never been heard of 
in the busy, and not busy, world of English 
society. "As prayte a town" might arouse 
considerable difference of opinion now ; but if 
I say " praytier than it was three centuries 
ago," without making any further comparison, 
I shall doubtless satisfy my Yarmouth friends, 
and spare my postbag a heavy burden of in- 
dignant remonstrances from disinterested 
perhaps interested inhabitants. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



One word I would add. Let no visitor 
omit to read at Yarmouth the marvellous 
history of the good work of Sarah Martin. 
The annals of benevolence have no nobler 
record ; and the story of the poor Yarmouth 
dressmaker giving up, as she unaffectedly says, 
" a day in a week from dressmaking (by which 
I earned my living) to serve the prisoners " 
(who at that time had no chaplain), may well 
stimulate others to look around to see if there 
is not a field of self-denying labour waiting to 
be occupied by them. 

C. B. 

7, THE PARAGON, 

BLACKHEATH, S.E. 




CONTENTS. 



PREFATORY NOTE 

BY THE EDITOR OF "HOME WORDS" . . 5 

CHAPTER I. 
IGNORANCE OF HABITS, ETC., OF HERRING . . . 13 

CHAPTER II. 
DESCRIPTION OF HERRING . . . ... 19 

CHAPTER III. 
BOTTOM-OF-SEA INFLUENCE ON HERRING . % . 25 

CHAPTER IV. 

MIGRATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HERRING. . .30 

CHAPTER V. 
FISHING IMPLEMENTS AND MODE OF CAPTURE . . 35 

CHAPTER VI. 

HERRING CURING. .. . ; ... . . ... ; . . .44 

CHAPTER VII. 
FOUNDING OF YARMOUTH 53 



io CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
HERRING FAIR . ^. . . . . . . . 59 

CHAPTER IX. 
TOWN WALL AND HAVEN MOUTH AND OLD TOWN . 64 

CHAPTER X. 
MODERN TOWN . . .73 



How TO COOK THE YARMOUTH HERRING . . 79 

VISIT TO A HERRING-CURING ESTABLISHMENT . . 89 
MEANINGS AND DERIVATION OF WORDS. . . 94 

PRESS NOTICES 96 

TESTIMONIALS . 102 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

LANDING HERRINGS AT YARMOUTH : OLD STYLE Frontispiece 
A FISH AUCTION ON YARMOUTH BEACH : OLD STYLE . 12 

HAULING IN THE NETS . 35- 

YARMOUTH TROLLY FOR CARRYING FISH . . .40. 

YARE FISHERY WORKS 5i_ 

ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH 52 

"Row 120". . . . . . ''* 69 

SOUTH COAST TOWER 72^ 

THE OLD GAOL OR TOLL HOUSE 74 

NELSON'S MONUMENT 78 

BLACK FRIARS TOWER .... . - .. 93% 




CHAPTER I. 

IGNORANCE OF HABITS, ETC., OF 
HERRING. 

HE word Herring is said to be derived 
from the German " Her," or in 
modern spelling "Heer," an army, 
great mimber, multitude; with the 
idea also of unity ; and this deriva- 
tion gives a very appropriate descrip- 
tion of the habit of this fish, for it swims the waters 
like a vast and well appointed army, in orderly array 
marching to its destination. 

Although herring have been fished by the Dutch, 
Scandinavian, English, Scotch, and French for cen- 
turies, yet the amount of positive knowledge as to its 
home and life is very meagre. 

The famous Danish ichthyologist, Kroyer, who had 
for some time made scientific researches in this direc- 




14 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

tion, in his great work, "The Fish of Denmark," 
makes use of these words : " How desirable it is to 
gain more insight into the natural history of fish is 
strikingly illustrated by the herring, as many points 
in its mode of living are still unexplained, and many 
fabulous accounts are transmitted from one genera- 
tion to another." In the old days, when the unknown 
was generally accepted as synonymous with the won- 
derful, which last possessed the happy privilege of 
reconciling all inconsistences, herrings were supposed 
to have their home under the crystal sea of the polar 
regions ; there, in quiet seclusion, protected from the 
ceaseless greed of their enemies, they sported and 
multiplied to such an extent that, their native waters 
becoming overcrowded, necessity compelled colonies 
of them to seek out a new world for themselves ; the 
surplus population, as was supposed, migrating 
annually in several large columns towards the south. 
Upon leaving the protection of their icy covering 
they were quickly attacked by hungry enemies in 
their own element, and by fierce birds of prey dart- 
ing down upon them from above, all on the eager 
watch for a bonne-bouche ; and thus they were driven 
into shallow seas, and into the bays and inlets of the 
British Isles and the Scandinavian coasts, there to be 
snared for the delectation of unsophisticated palates. 
Of late years, thanks to scientists on the Continent, 
and the evidence collected by the United States 
Government, and by the late Frank Buckland, a little 
more light is being thrown upon the several questions 
awaiting solution. The evidence, as it now stands, 



IGNORANCE OF HABITS, ETC., OF HERRING. 15 

shows conclusively that, instead of a single tribe, 
there are several distinct varieties of herring, each 
having its own particular haunt. Thus, the Shetland 
can be distinguished from the Ballantrae, the East 
Coast from the West Coast, and the Yarmouth from 
the North Sea fish ; while, on the Norwegian coasts, 
varieties are found which differ from the Scotch and 
the Dutch, and these again from herring taken on 
the French coast. Thus the many varieties of her- 
ring found on the coasts washed by the North Sea 
prove that they do not come from one common tribe, 
from the polar regions or elsewhere, as formerly sup- 
posed ; the probability being that each variety has 
its own particular home in the deeper water outside 
that coast which it frequents during the spawning 
season. It has been noted by Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes, "that on the northern coasts of France, and 
not far apart, are two tribes of herrings, each of 
which has its separate home in certain basins of the 
sea, and that these tribes never intermingle." 

In his Report on the Herring Fisheries of Scotland, 
Frank Buckland gives it as his opinion that, instead 
of migrating from the Arctic regions, the herring 
comes up from the deeper water outside towards the 
shore ; and he notes that the fishermen of Montrose 
now go out some sixty to eighty miles to meet the 
herrings coming in, instead of, as formerly, fishing 
within some twenty miles of the coast. Also, that 
when the herring-fishing season is over, the fish hav- 
ing departed, cod-fish roaming the deeper waters are 
caught with herrings in their stomachs. M. A. Boeck, 



16 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

in his report to the International Exhibition at Ber- 
gen, says that the result of his observations leads 
him to conclude that herring, in general, inhabit 
the great submarine depths, and that they do not 
take up their quarters beyond the 65 latitude. 

The proper home of the herring is the North Sea 
and the Atlantic, and the seas connected with them, 
such as the Baltic and the Kattegat ; thus the her- 
ring ranges along the coasts of Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, France, British Isles, Greenland, and the 
north-east coasts of North America. 

" The appearance of the herring first in the north, 
then gradually farther south, the wealth of the fish 
near the Dogger Bank, which is washed by cold water 
during the months of April to June, are hints point- 
ing to the intimate connection existing between the 
temperature of the sea and its animal life." 

There are three conditions of sea water which 
exercise a decided influence over its animal and 
vegetable life, viz., temperature, saltness, and currents. 

Shallow waters are subject to more frequent and 
greater ranges of temperature than are deep waters, 
and seas which, like the Baltic, receive large masses 
of fresh water from rains and melting snows, also 
differ considerably in saltness. As observed by one 
of the writers of the reports issued by the United 
States Government (a noble example which might 
be followed with advantage by others, and to whom, 
as well as to other writers, we are indebted for much 
valuable information, for all of which we here grate- 
fully acknowledge our obligations), the North Sea 



IGNORANCE OF HABITS, ETC., OF HERRING. 17 

itself differs, the one part of it from another, in depth 
and in saltness ; and consequently, to some extent, 
in temperature, all of which affect the animal and 
vegetable life subject to them. As to depth, the 
North Sea may be divided into three zones : the 
shallowest including the Dogger Bank, the coast 
waters of Schleswig Holstein, and. Jutland, commu- 
nicating with the ocean only through the narrow 
British Channel ; the middle zone, extending from 
the north of the Dogger Bank to a line drawn from 
Peterhead in Scotland, to Cape Skagen in Jutland, 
has a greater depth of water, receiving those brought 
down by the Baltic, which are much less salt than 
the ocean ; and the third zone, which is the deepest 
of the three, stretching northward from Peterhead, 
having a free communication with the Atlantic and 
the cold water coming down from under the paleo- 
crystic seas. The influence of the winds upon the 
herring fishery is still an open question ; but it has 
been found that under certain conditions, when a 
coast is exposed to strong winds blowing towards it, 
herrings will not approach ; that with a continuation 
of stormy weather there is a very serious decrease 
in the catch ; and that a violent gale precludes all 
possibility of fishing* 

Under somewhat altered conditions a breeze may 
be an advantage ; thus it is in evidence that at Peter- 
head (Scotland), after a northerly breeze herring are 
always to be had on that coast, and very heavy takes 
have been made during thunder. 

The evidence collected by the late Frank Buckland; 

B 



i8 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

in Scotland, not only indicates that temperature 
exercises an important influence upon the fishing ; 
but, that as the temperature increases, the herring 
rise from the bottom and swim at a higher level 
during the spawning period. Thus at Wick, where 
a deep sea thermometer had been in use for some 
years, it was observed that when the temperature fell 
to 53 there was no catch, while when it rose to 55 
in the day, and 54 at night, fishermen have had the 
best of catches. Dutch scientists have also found 
that more fish are caught at a temperature of 12 to 
14 Celsius, 5 3 '6 to 57-2 Fah., than at any other time. 
"Dutch herring-boats are therefore always supplied 
with a thermometer, which enables them to place the 
net at a proper depth." 

During his stay on the west coast of Norway, 
Boeck constantly noticed the temperature, and noted 
down a large number of observations during different 
years. In his report for 1862, he showed the in- 
fluence of cold on the herring-fishery. In that year 
he examined the temperature at different depths. 
The weather had been calm, but a severe cold had 
prevailed for some time, by which the temperature 
of the sea at a depth of ten fathoms had been brought 
as low as I J or 2, Reaumur, while at a depth of thirty 
fathoms it was from 3 to 4. He further noticed in 
the same year that at some of the rich fisheries, when 
the fishing implements were placed at a depth of ten 
fathoms below the surface but few herrings were 
caught ; while others, placed at a depth of from fifty 
to sixty fathoms, caught a large number. 




CHAPTER II. 

DESCRIPTION OF HERRING. 

HE Herring, from the breadth of its 
back, is a good swimmer. This 
breadth is due to masses of flesh on 
either side of the backbone. On 
cutting through a herring at right 
angles to the backbone, the form will 
be seen to be that of an egg-shaped oval, the breadth 
being greatest about the level of, or a little above, 
the vertebra. On each side of the backbone are the 
large muscles, each composed of fine fibres, which 
collectively exercise the strong motive power needed 
by the herring when swimming. By shortening the 
muscles of the left side, the back part of the body 
bends towards the left, and by shortening the muscles 
on the right side, the back of the body bends to the 
right ; these movements alternating with each other, 
and rapidly repeated, impel the fish forward, while 
the fins keep the body in the right position in the 
water, or deflect its course as desired. It has 2 
pectoral, 2 ventral, I dorsal, i anal, and i caudal 



20 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

fin, the lower lobe of which is somewhat longer 
than the upper; the tail is considerably forked. 
Dorsal fin, 19 ; pectoral, 17 ; ventral, 9 ; anal, 17 ; 
caudal, 20 rays ; and 56 vertebrae. 

The scales adhere so loosely that in hauling the 
nets, or in handling the fish, they come off with the 
greatest ease. 

" The gill-covers at the sides of the head, back of 
and below the eyes, are alternately opened and 
closed by the fish, in order to draw in water for 
breathing through the mouth over the gills, to be 
discharged through the gill opening. Each gill-cover 
consists of four bony plates. Below these is joined 
to the third and fourth plates a skin or membrane, 
kept extended by means of small bones. It has four 
pairs of gill-arches ; to these are fastened at the back 
two rows of gristly gill-leaflets, which are covered 
with so thin a skin that in the live fish they look 
dark red from the blood passing through them. In 
front the arches of the gills have a dense row of 
slender appendages, technically called gill-rakers, on 
each side of them. All water which the herring 
takes in its mouth to let it flow out again over the 
gills in breathing, must pass through the fine grating 
formed by these spinous points. By this process all 
small animals which, with the water^ enter the mouth 
and gill-cavity are retained in it, and accumulate 
till they are swallowed. This enables the herring, 
whenever the water is full of small life, to fill its 
stomach in a short time with thousands of them. In 
the abdominal cavity of fully grown herrings, the 



DESCRIPTION OF HERRING. 21 

sexual organs, the ovaria, and spermaries take up the 
largest room. As soon as the eggs and milt are fully 
matured, they pass from their envelopes through a 
narrow tube toward an opening which is immediately 
back of the anus. The intestinal canal starts from 
the stomach, at whose back there are hollow tubes, 
which, when food is plentiful, are filled with a fatty 
juice. In front of the stomach there is a short and 
wide cavity ; from the stomach a tube, the pneumatic 
duct, passes to the swimming bladder, which shines 
like silver, and has the shape of a spindle. On either 
side of the swimming bladder are the kidneys, and 
between these, and close below the spine, there is 
a large blood vessel, in which a large portion of the 
blood which has passed through the gills is conveyed 
to the lower part of the body." 

The herring when it leaves the egg is about as thin 
as a ribbon, and almost as transparent as the water 
in which it swims. In Scotland the smallest fully 
matured herring measure 215 millimeters, whilst 
on the coast of Norway they measure 225, and are 
supposed to reach their full size in their fourth year. 
That the herring is exceedingly prolific may be 
readily supposed from a consideration of the vast 
quantities which, having escaped the many egg- 
devourers, are yearly destroyed by their ever vigilant 
enemies. The quantity of herring taken in the 
thousands of miles of netting spread for them by all 
the fishermen engaged in their capture is but small 
in comparison with what is destroyed by birds and 
fish. When herring take to the deep water, they 



22 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 



are hunted by the cod-fish and other deep swimmers ; 
while, if they rise to the top, surface swimmers and 
sea birds follow them as long as they remain in sight. 
If the herring were not possessed of enormous re- 
productive powers, they would long ago have become 
as extinct as the dodo. 

Frank Buckland, in his Report, gives the following 
table as the result of his calculation of the number 
of eggs carried by the female : 



No. 


Weight of Fish. 


Weight of Roe. 


No. of Eggs. 


I 


4|oz. 


I OZ. 


29,280 


2 


6f 


If 


51,240 


3 


6 


I 


29,280 


4 


4i n 


1,, 


21,960 



Bloch, in his history of the herring, computes the 
number at 68,000 ; other ichthyologists give from 
21,000 to 36,000. M. de la Blanchere gives 70,000; 
the great difference between the numbers stated 
above may, perhaps, be reconciled if we suppose the 
examples to have been taken from fish of different 
ages. 

In the very interesting report referred to above, 
Frank Buckland quotes Dr. Letheby's chemical 
analysis of the herring, in comparison with beef as a 
food, and makes a calculation of its enormous value 
to the population. According to Dr. Letheby's cal- 
culation, beef contains 1,854 grs. carbon, and 184 grs. 
nitrogen ; herrings, 1,435 grs. carbon, and 217 grs. 
nitrogen. According to this, the herring is inferior to 



DESCRIPTION OF HERRING. 23 

beef as a heat producer, but is much richer as a flesh 
former. Following Buckland's method of reckon- 
ing three fresh herrings to one pound, and eight 
pounds to the stone, and an average bullock at sixty 
such stones, and comparing the price of butcher's 
meat with the price of herrings, the advantage is 
immensely on the side of the fish. Taking beef at 
an average, say of I2d. per pound, and three fresh 
herrings, which, as a rule, will weigh one pound, at 
4<^., the cost of beef is three times greater than that 
of herring. The difference in value to the nation, 
when we are dealing with such large totals, is well 
worthy of the very serious consideration of those 
who may have it in their power to develop and 
encourage such a grand source of wealth. Reckoned 
on this basis, one last of herrings is equivalent to a 
fraction over nine bullocks. The quantity of herrings 
landed at Yarmouth during the regular fishing seasons 
for the last ten years, excluding the spring and 
summer fisheries, amounts to 149,152 lasts; or 
reckoned in bullocks, it gives the enormous number 
of 1,367,226, or an average of 136,722 bullocks per 
year. The demand for herrings, both from abroad 
and at home, increases year by year, side by side 
with increased facilities of transport. More railways 
on the Continent mean more markets ; cheaper 
freights mean larger demands for the silvery wealth 
circling the shores of Albion. When it is considered 
that such a mass of food as the above is won out of 
the waters by the crews fishing from the single port 
of Yarmouth, during the short season of four months 



24 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

in the year, and the cheapness of the herring as a 
food when compared with flesh foods raised on land, 
the value from a national point of view of the herring 
fisheries round the British coasts cannot be over- 
estimated. 
The following table may interest the reader : 

Number of herrings caught in Scotland 

in 1882, on the east coast, including 

the Lewis and Bara early fishings . . 584,578,400 
At Great Yarmouth, not including spring 

or summer fishings 224,400,000 

* Exported from Norway, Sweden, France, 

and Holland to three Baltic ports . . 140,128,500 



Total . . . 949,106,900 

As the writer has no statistics for Whitby, Scar- 
borough, Grimsby, and the frequent other fishing 
stations on the English coast, the reader will under- 
stand that the figures given above by no means re- 
present the total catch of herrings ; they are given 
simply with a view of indicating the probable magni- 
tude and value of this one particular industry. 

* Statistics give these in number of barrels. Norwegian 
barrels run from 450 to 550 per barrel ; a mean of 500 per barre 
has been taken for this. 




CHAPTER III. 




BOTTOM-OF-SEA INFLUENCE ON 
HERRING. 

iHE character of the bottom of the 
sea exercises a very material influ- 
ence upon its vegetable life, and, con- 
sequently, upon the kind of fish 
frequenting its waters ; and not only 
the character of the bottom, as to 
whether it be clay, sand, gravel, or rock, but also its 
configuration. The bottom of the sea, like the sur- 
face of the land, has its hills and valleys, its broad 
flat plains and its dark gullies, its steep ridges and its 
deep channels, the different kinds of fish finding in 
these differences of the bottom that which suits their 
own habits best. The herring has its favourite swims, 
which are as sharply defined as the bottom is strongly 
marked. Mr. Boeck, during the time he was com- 
missioned by the Norwegian Government to examine 
the herring fisheries, made certain experiments by 
placing nets in the Channel between Roaer and Faeo, 
and stretching towards Hauskeskaer ; and another 



26 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

chain, the greater part of which stood on rocks, with 
only one end of it reaching the channel. He found 
the nets placed in the channel caught a large number 
of herrings, while those on the rocks caught none, 
except in that portion touching the channel ; and he 
draws attention to the "large level places at the 
bottom of the sea covered with rough gravel, which 
in calm weather are the herrings' favourite spawning 
places." He raised with the dredge large lumps of 
roe and gravel intermixed, and he notices that "in 
these places the largest number of herring is invari- 
ably caught." In other places, frequented by the 
herring in spawning time, large masses of spawn 
have been dragged up from the bottom in the form 
of thick cakes, likened to tapioca pudding, and fisher- 
men often find the spawn sticking to their nets, which 
it does by means of a glutinous substance which 
hardens soon after being extruded from the fish. 
In Scotland, herring spawn in August to Septem- 
ber ; on the east coast of England from September to 
October and November ; and in the English Channel 
later still in the autumn. 

Herring are known as hard and soft roed : the hard 
roe being the female, and the soft the male. The roe 
is composed of thousands of small eggs, while the 
milt is the fertilizer. When the spawn (the roe) is first 
extruded, it is found covered with a sticky substance 
which, as the eggs fall to the bottom, or come into 
contact with other substances, causes them to adhere 
firmly. Their period of development depends largely 
upon temperature : in cold weather they take eighteen 



BOTTOM-OF-SEA INFLUENCE ON HERRING. 27 

days, while in warm they may take no more than 
six days. In the Baltic, with its lower temperature, 
it is said they do not leave the egg in less than forty 
days. Referring again to the reports issued by the 
United States Government, "The development of the 
egg can easily be observed with the naked eye. As 
soon as the little fish begins to form inside the egg, 
the two eyes are distinctly seen in the otherwise trans- 
parent egg, like two black dots." The body of the fish, 
when hatched, is as transparent as the water, which 
enables it to escape some of its argus-eyed foes. For 
a time after being hatched the abdominal cavity is still 
filled by what may be called the yolk, during which 
time it requires no other food, but lies about at the 
bottom, making curious little jerky movements. In 
the course of a few days, when the yolk has been 
absorbed, the little creatures begin to swim about in 
shoals with wide-open mouths, eager to become better 
acquainted with their portion of the universe, which 
they find in the embryo of gasteropods, etc., with which 
they quickly fill themselves for near their whole length. 
When they have passed their first stage, which may 
be called the larva, that is, the " baby," they begin to 
put on their shining silver armour; but being yet 
only juveniles, and everything new to them, they keep 
the even balance of their scales by deserting the now 
dangerous shallow waters for the deeper seclusion of 
their progenitors. Here the gay young knights 
develop into the " middle form," at which time they 
are generally very fat. From this they are promoted, 
by the law of seniority, to the rank known as " ma- 



28 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

ture," when they enter upon the serious duties of life, 
making preparations for the fulfilment of the respon- 
sibilities of their being. They are supposed to reach 
their full size in their fourth year, when, having thus 
far escaped their numerous enemies, their experience 
gives them some little chance in life, not much, 
however, while curing-houses exist. 

Herring feed mostly on small crustaceans, which 
inhabit various localities in myriads, and also on crab 
spawn, sea-lice, and eels, shrimps, small fry of other 
fish, not always sparing their own offspring. At 
certain seasons they feed on small oily aquatic ani- 
mals, at which time they are no more fit for human 
food than an alderman, save among sharp-set canni- 
bals. The herring is gregarious, swimming in shoals 
that may be likened to the regiments of an army on 
the march : the smaller schools of a given locality 
gathering together to form this grand army, the 
whole being led by the larger and stronger fish, the 
weaker falling back to the rear, where they become a 
prey to the demon dog-fish and whales, which hang 
about the skirts of them. They all swim in the same 
direction. If, for any reason, the leaders turn, the 
school makes the same movement. As a rule, they 
move in a straight, or slightly-curved, line ; but 
sometimes they wheel about, when those in the centre 
remain stationary, while the outer members pass 
through the water rapidly. When they move swiftly 
in large masses, a peculiar glitter is produced upon 
the surface of the water, called by fishermen " herring- 
light." The old amphibious Norseman, half fisher- 



BOTTOM-OF-SEA INFLUENCE ON HERRING. 29 

man and half warrior, took a lesson from the herring 
when, leaving the "briny deep," he went on the 
war-path, marching, as it occasionally does, in wedge 
form. About the spawning season the school at 
times attains such large dimensions as to be known 
as " herring mountain." They enjoy fine weather as 
well as other creatures, manifesting their pleasure by 
sporting about at the surface, and beating the water 
with their dorsal fins, splashing each other with 
showers of spray. Fishermen call this " the play of 
the herring," and consider it a favourable sign for 
their fishing. Herring very seldom, save in excep- 
tional circumstances, live in solitude. Swedish fisher- 
men refer to a variety met with on their coasts, which 
they call " the wandering herring," the arrival of 
which is observed with displeasure. It has the repu- 
tation of being among herrings what the " rogue " is 
among elephants, it does no good to anybody, but 
chases better company away. 




CHAPTER IV. 




MIGRATION AND DESTRUCTION OF 
HERRING. 

^ERRINGS sometimes migrate to 
places with which fishermen would 
be glad to become acquainted. 
Fisheries which have been profitable 
for years have suddenly ceased, and 
again been abundant, and again 
ceased. That they should, when they find a given 
locality deficient in food, seek like others to better 
their lot in life, is only reasonable ; and it is only 
reasonable, also, to conclude that their enemies, in- 
creasing through becoming thoroughly acquainted 
with their haunts, make their residence too hot for 
them. Many fishermen believe that every fish that 
swims, as well as the birds of the air, live off the 
herring ; and no wonder if they do, seeing what a 
delicate morsel it is, fit for the palate of kings if un- 
spoiled by outlandish cookery. Fishermen fishing 
with long line in the deeper water often take cod-fish 
with several herrings in them ; dog-fish hunt them 

30 



MIGRATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HERRING. 31 

like packs of wolves ; the whale with wide gaping 
mouth skims the sea and fills himself with the cream 
of it. The shark, the salmon, and the cuttle-fish take 
their bite, certainly no mean one. Frank Buckland 
makes an interesting calculation of the loss inflicted 
by the cod-fish and the ling below, and by the 
gannet above. He says : " It is a very common 
thing to find a cod-fish with six or seven large 
herrings, of which not one has remained long enough 
to be digested, in his stomach. If, in order to be 
safe, we allow a cod-fish only 2 herrings per diem, 
and let him feed on herrings for only seven months 
in the year, then 2 herrings x 210 days = 420 herrings 
as his allowance during that time. In round numbers, 
3,500,000 cod, ling, and hake were taken in Scotland 
alone in 1876. It would be a great exaggeration to 
suppose that one cod was taken out of every twenty 
in the sea ; but assuming that five per cent, of the cod 
in the sea were actually caught, 70,000,000 cod, ling, 
and hake must have existed off the coasts and islands 
of Scotland. If, however, each of these 70,000,000 
cod, ling, and hake consumed 420 herrings a year, they 
must together have consumed 29,400,000,000 herrings, 
or twelve times more than all the herrings caught by 
Scotch, English, Irish, Dutch, French, and Norwegian 
fishermen put together; and nearly thirty-seven 
times as many herrings as are taken by Scotch fisher- 
men alone." Following the same method of calcula- 
tion, it is estimated that the gannets upon Ailsa 
Craig number not less than 10,000, and that they 
destroy 21,600,000 herrings per year; and on the 



32 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

assumption that there are fifty gannets in the rest 
of Scotland for every one on Ailsa Craig, the Scotch 
gannets alone consume 1,110,000,000 herrings. 

Estimated destruction of herring off 

the coasts of Scotland by cod, 

ling, and hake 29,400,000,000 

By gannets 1,110,000,000 

Total . 30,510,000,000 

or meat-food equivalent to over 21,000,000 bullocks 
destroyed by only four enemies of the herring. This 
destruction refers to only one small portion of coast 
washed by the North Sea ; if we add to this the 
enemies frequenting the long line of Norwegian 
coast, with its numerous rocky islands and points 
jutting out into the sea, such as wild fowl love to 
inhabit, the above total sinks into insignificance. In 
1877, according to reports furnished to the United 
States Fishery Commission, the number of cod-fish 
taken by Norwegian fishermen were : 

In the LofFodon Islands 29,500,000 

Other fisheries of the North 4,500,000 

At Finmark 17,500,000 

At Sondmore, Romsdal, Nordmore . . . 8,500,000 
Estimated yield of smaller fisheries along 

the coast 7,500,000 

Total . 67,500,000 

The above total does not include the cod fisheries of 
Germany, Denmark, and Sweden, for which estimates 
are not at hand. Estimating upon the same basis 
as before, that for every cod-fish taken twenty have 



MIGRATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HERRING. 33 

been left in the sea, there must have been off the 
Norwegian coasts 1,350,000,000 cod-fish, and it is 
in evidence that as soon as the herring makes its 
appearance off the coast, cod-fish will leave off feed- 
ing upon anything else, and at once greedily pursue 
the glittering silver herring ; in fact, so fond of herring 
are cod-fish, that when fishermen bait their hooks 
with old salt herring in place of fresh, when this is 
not at hand, the cod will snap at the salt rather than 
have none at all; and should the herring make off 
from the coast, the cod follow them, for which reason 
cod-fishing seasons are sometimes prematurely closed, 
and the fishing spoilt. The cod greedily fills himself 
with herring ; and as he quickly loses his lean con- 
dition and gets fat on it, it will be well within the 
mark to allow every cod 6 herrings per day. Accord- 
ing to evidence, as before stated, collected by Frank 
Buckland, that quantity has been found undigested 
in its stomach when caught ; and allowing him to 
feed at this rate for only 30 days in the year, we get 
the enormous total of 243,000,000,000 herrings de- 
stroyed by only one of its enemies in the short 
space of one month along this line of coast. This 
quantity if put into railway trucks, such as are used 
to carry herrings from Yarmouth to the interior 
markets in England, would require 4,602,272 trucks, 
or over 153,000 trains of 30 trucks to the train. 
With engines, tenders, and brakes this reaches the 
aggregate length of 16,300 miles, or united end to 
end would stretch considerably over half-way round 
the world. This alone, without counting the herring 

c 



34 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

destroyed on the British coasts, would give 19 
herrings, equal to 6 Ibs. meat food, for each member 
of the population of the United Kingdom for every 
day in the year. 

SUMMARY. 

Herrings destroyed by cod, ling, and 

hake off Scotch coasts .... 29,400,000,000 

By gannets. 1,110,000,000 

Norwegian cod ........ 243,000,000,000 



Total . 273,510,000.000 

A total which, if translated into bullocks, would 
make a herd numbering nearly one hundred and 
ninety millions. In addition to these are the dog- 
fish, the whale, coal-fish, porpoise, seal, pollack, cuttle- 
fish, salmon, and shark, with myriad clouds of wild 
birds not included, all of them implacable hunters of 
the herring, whose devastations it would be impos- 
sible to estimate. We may safely assume that the 
herrings captured by all the fishermen engaged in 
the North Sea do not amount to the thousandth 
part of the number destroyed by enemies which have 
not, in comparison, one tenth of their value. 




CHAPTER V. 



FISHING IMPLEMENTS AND MODE OF 
CAPTURE. 

THE nets used for 
catching herrings 
vary in length and num- 




ber of mesh, according to the 
waters fished and mode of fishing. 
Thus, in the Bay of Soraka, in the White 
Sea, during the winter months, holes are made 
in the ice for the nets, which range from 1 12 to 245 feet 
long, by 17 to 28 feet deep ; while their autumn fish- 
ing is done with nets 56 feet long, which are attended 
by a couple of boats, each manned by three men, the 
nets that are hauled in from the shore being from 
350 to 700 feet long. In Sweden nets are used vary- 
ing from 35 to 120 fathoms long, by 12 to 26 yards 
deep, meshes ranging from 1 8 to 24 to the yard. In 
Deep Sacke Bay the nets are from 40 to 45 fathoms, 
by 8 to 10 fathoms deep, 30 meshes to the yard. In 
Scotland nets run 60 yards by 18 to 20 deep, with 
meshes varying from 33 to 42 to the yard, and their 
boats carry from 40 to 80 nets, which are now gene- 
rally made of cotton, This being about half the 



35 



36 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

weight of hemp, allows a boat to carry double the 
length of net formerly used. The substitution of 
cotton for hemp will be seen to be of great import- 
ance when it is noted that at the Lewis and Bara 
fishing, in Scotland, last year (1882), there were 1,300 
boats engaged ; so that at a moderate computation 
they spread nearly 2,000 miles of netting, instead of 
half that quantity ; and off Fraserburg, on a good 
night, there will be 1,000 miles of net set. 

Yarmouth boats are considerably larger than the 
Scotch, and carry more nets and hands. The original 
cost of a first-class drifter of the largest size (Yar T 
mouth), hull and spars, ready for sea, ranges from 
1,000 to 1,200; to this must be added nets and 
fishing gear, which increases her total by from 400 
to 500 more. The same remarks apply also to the 
Lowestoft boats, many of which, from the greater 
number of herring buyers, frequent the Yarmouth 
haven in preference to their own. These boats ave- 
rage twelve hands eleven men and one boy each. 
During the season of 1882 there fished from Yarmouth 
some 400 Yarmouth boats of from 15 to 40 tons; 200 
under 15 tons; 150 boats from Lowestoft ; 250 from 
Scotland, and some 30 from other places, more than 
1,000 boats, employing about 1 1,000 souls, and spread- 
ing over 2,000 miles of net. Yarmouth boats carry 
from 100 to 1 80 nets, which measure 30 yards by n 
yards deep, with 32 meshes to the yard. Thus a single 
boat, according to her size, spreads from I J to 3 miles 
of net. 

In July the Yarmouth herring boats are busy 



FISHING IMPLEMENTS-MODE OF CAPTURE. 37 

making their preparations for the North Sea fishing, 
which begins in August. During the winter months, 
after the closing of the herring season at Christmas, 
the stronger boats have their masts and rigging taken 
out of them, and others of an entirely different design 
put in, suitable for another class of fishing, called 
trawling. Others are hauled up high and dry in the 
ship yards, where they are thoroughly overhauled, 
the previous season's damages repaired, and the boats 
brightened up with another coat of paint. In due 
course they take to their native element again, when, 
fitted with their gear, salt, and stores, and with 
their crews aboard, the boats are speedily towed by 
steam tugs out of the haven into the roads, presenting 
a lively and picturesque scene. The larger boats 
make for the Dogger Bank, while the smaller do not 
go out so far, but fish about the Great Silver Pit, or 
nearer to the land. On arrival at their intended fish- 
ing-ground, the nets are shot (put overboard). With 
a favourable breeze the nets are shot over the waist 
(side), the warp i.e. the strong rope to which the 
nets are secured along their upper side by finer lines, 
which regulate the depth at which the nets are to be 
sunk passes over the stern, and the boat, sailing away 
from the spot, the length of nets is passed into the 
water, and the mast lowered. If the weather is too 
rough for this mode of shooting, the mast is first 
lowered, and then the nets " tumbled " over the waist 
as before ; but the warp is paid out over the bows, 
and the boat drifts away from the spot where the first 
nets entered the water. By these means the one and 



38 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

a half to three miles of netting carried by the boat are 
stretched out in a long straight line, the upright 
position of the nets in the water being maintained by 
buoys, called bowles, and cork floats secured to their 
upper edge, while their own weight causing them to 
sink preserves them in the form of a long perforated 
wall. A few more fathoms of warp are paid out, to 
which the boat swings, and nets and boat together 
drift with the current or tide. The boat, being more 
susceptible to the wind cr current than the nets, 
maintains a constant strain upon them, which keeps 
the nets in an even, extended line, and so prevents the 
wash of the waves from causing them to foul one an- 
other. A watch of two men is set, relieved every two 
hours, and the regulation light put up. The nets are 
tried every two hours, by hauling up two or three of 
them.; and as soon as they are thought to show fair 
signs of capture, they are hauled in by steam gear, 
if the boat has it ; if not, by four men, who in their 
tramping round and round walk some eight miles, 
the other hands being engaged, each in his appointed 
place, attending to the nets and fish as both are being 
got on board. Should the nets, after hauling has 
begun, show signs of the catch getting poorer, the 
remaining nets are not hauled, but those already in 
are again shot. In the event of a material change of 
wind occurring after the nets are shot, the whole fleet 
of boats is obliged to haul in the nets as quickly as 
possible, and re-shoot ; otherwise the many miles of 
net out would soon get into inextricable confusion, 
resulting in great loss. 



FISHING IMPLEMENTSMODE OF CAPTURE. 39 

Occasionally a single haul is sufficient to send the 
boat dancing, as fast as wind and weather will let her, 
into port, which may be Whitby, Scarborough, Grims- 
by, or Great Yarmouth, according to the particular 
ground the boat has been fishing, and the direction 
of the wind. As the herrings draw nearer the coast, 
coming farther south, the boats follow them, fishing 
the Great Silver Pit, the Coal Pit, the Little Silver 
Pit, working their way south, taking in Smith's Knoll 
and neighbourhood, finishing the season a little south 
of Lowestoft a day or two before Christmas, by which 
time, as the herrings have completed their spawning, 
the boats lose them. The Scotch boats which come 
up for the Yarmouth season, being smaller, and carry- 
ing nets of a lighter thread, do not go out so far, but 
fish just off the Yarmouth sands, and run into port 
with their fish fresh. 

When the larger boats approach the Yarmouth 
roadstead with their silvery freight, steam tugs, which 
are constantly on the watch, tow them up to the 
fish wharf; for if they have any fresh herrings on 
board, it is especially needful to get these to the 
market as quickly as possible, while they are yet in 
their primest condition, as they are wanted for the 
best class of bloaters ; consequently the prices paid 
for such "stuff" is frequently three times as much 
as is paid for "salt stuff." On arrival at the fish 
wharf, " tellers " (men who count the herrings), step 
on board, and count the fish into light wicker baskets, 
each basket as it is filled is passed on shore to the 
mate, who empties it into larger baskets of a different 



40 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

shape, called " swills," which hold five of the smaller 
ones, that is, five hundred herrings ; twenty of these 
swills making a " last." 

At this point the herrings come into the charge 
of the fish salesman, who sells them by auction. As 
previously noted, herrings, when on the march, occa- 
sionally move in such close and compact order, and 
with their outer lines so sharply defined, that nets 




YARMOUTH TROLLY FOR CARRYING FISH. 

shot within a few fathoms of each other differ very 
widely in their catches. Sometimes a single haul 
will give such a large quantity of fish that the boat 
at once sets sail for her port. In 1882, the " Snaefell," 
of Yarmouth, made such a haul, taking i8f lasts, or 
247,000 herrings. The largest number landed, during 
the same season, as the fruit of a single voyage, which 
may include the shooting and hauling of the nets 
several times, was brought in by the "Corisande," 



FISHING IMPLEMENTS-MODE OF CAPTURE. 41 

which landed 2/J lasts, or 363,000 herring ; but such 
takes are quite exceptional. 

The harvest of the sea differs very materially from 
that of the land. When the season for in-gathering 
comes round, the farmer, as he watches the weather 
day by day, can form something of an estimate as 
to the probable result of his labours. He may insure 
his growing crops against loss by hail ; but the harvest 
of the fishermen swims fathoms deep out of sight, 
and no office will grant him an insurance policy upon 
it until he has gathered it in, when he does not need 
it. The fisherman may insure, at a considerable 
premium, the hull and spars of his boat, but no office 
will insure his nets, which may be torn to pieces by 
some of the larger fish, or lost through storms ; 
happy is he if he only loses his nets. Storms 
in the North Sea are frequent and bitter, rising 
suddenly, and often compelling the boats, though 
fish may be abundant and the nets just shot, to leave 
their nets and seek a place of shelter without delay. 
November, which should give the largest and best 
yield of herring to the Yarmouth fishermen, may be, 
as in 1882, one continued succession of gales, not 
enough to drive the fish quite away, but sufficient 
to spoil the fishing in the very month when the fish 
are at their best, and when they should be most 
plentiful. Some years ago the Government sent out 
an expedition to make a scientific investigation of 
the bottom of foreign seas. The time occupied and 
the distance traversed were considerable, and the 
information gained very interesting to scientific 



42 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

minds; but, however interesting the results of the 
few scratches made by the dredge here and there at 
the bottom of the waters thousands of miles away 
from the haunts of man may have been, they could 
not equal in interest and value those which might 
be gained by a thorough investigation of the North 
Sea, if carried out upon a scale adequate to the 
interests in view. The area known to fishermen 
within which they find herring for a very brief period 
is comparatively small ; and with all the experience 
inherited, fishermen yet largely depend upon the 
enemies of their wealth to show them where to find 
it. Herring are migratory in the limited sense of 
dwelling in one place and spawning in another ; the 
knowledge that is wanted is, where do they dwell 
after completing this operation ? While preparing 
for this, herrings take little or no food ; so that when 
they have emptied themselves of their burden, the 
long, lean, hungry creatures, enfeebled by their 
labours, must needs seek the friendly shelter of 
deeper waters, where they quickly recover form, 
when they would be again a valuable reward to the 
fisherman. 

If we draw a line from the Norwegian coast to 
the Shetland Isles, and follow the coast lines of 
Britain, France, Holland, and Jutland, carrying the 
line along the Norwegian coast to the starting point, 
we have a large basin which is a home of wealth 
far beyond many gold fields. For want of informa- 
tion, we fish but a small portion of this basin beyond 
the Dogger Bank and its neighbourhood, and what 



FISHING IMPLEMENTS MODE OF CAPTURE. 43 

may be called the lip of the basin ; the greater part 
of the North Sea is practically unfished. If the 
North Sea were divided into squares of moderate 
size, and each square dredged and netted at different 
depths each month of the year, careful note being 
made of every fact, the configuration and the char- 
acter of the bottom, its temperature, vegetable life, 
and the fish frequenting its waters at the time, 
whether at the bottom or at different depths ; the 
stomach of the fish carefully examined to see what 
it was feeding on when caught, a mass of facts would 
be gained which would undoubtedly lead to such an 
increase of wealth, in comparison with which our 
present catch would seem but a trifle. The enemies 
of our marine wealth, instead of being viewed as 
friendly pilots showing us where we could get a bite, 
would be regarded as vermin, and treated accord- 
ingly. If such an investigation of the North Sea 
were thought to be too great an undertaking for a 
single Government, it is surely within the powers of 
diplomacy to arrange with other countries to share 
the glory of opening up such a grand source of 
wealth to each, whose fishermen now reap less than 
a tithe of the harvest at present hidden from them 
in the deeper recesses and secret channels of the 
North Sea. 



CHAPTER VI. 




HERRING CURING. 

CCORDING to the spirit of the ancient 
proverb, " having caught our hare " we 
are in a position to submit its merits 
to the good offices of the cook ; 
but as this fish is such a very 
delicate morsel, as good to eat as 
it was beautiful to look at when it was caught in the 
mesh of the fisherman's net, it is necessary first to 
preserve its otherwise fleeting appetizing qualities. 
This is done by submitting it to the friendly action 
of salt or smoke, or both combined, which is accom- 
plished in what are called " curing houses " or 
" curing works." 

A complete and well-arranged herring curing 
works consists of lofty ranges of smoke houses, 
spacious barfe houses, commodious chambers, pick- 
ling pits, store houses for salt, etc., with cooperage, 
stables, and comfortable dwelling-house for the fore- 
man of the works. Each smoke house is divided 
into "rooms" about 4 feet wide, and from 16 to 
20 feet long, according to the depth of the house. 

44 



HERRING CURING. 45 

These rooms, however, are unlike those of dwelling- 
houses, being formed by open partitions, which rest 
upon strong baulks of timber spanning the house 
from front to back, about seven feet from the brick 
floors. The partitions consist of substantial studs 
placed about four feet apart, reaching from the 
baulks to the roof ; across these are fastened a series 
of horizontal ledges at equal distances, running 
parallel to each other from top to bottom, upon 
which the spits, strung with herrings, are hung, and 
exposed to the currents of air and smoke as long as 
requisite. These are called " loves ; " the word, 
doubtless, being derived from the German word 
"Luft," the //being softened into v, as in knife, knives : 
the word means air ; " Luften," to expose to the air. 
Oblong apertures are left in the walls at the ends of 
the rooms when building the houses, and fitted with 
moveable shutters to control the currents of air, and 
to regulate the heat during smoking. Barfe houses are 
spacious rooms with brick floors, in which the herrings 
are received, salted, and washed. Spacious chambers 
are provided for stowing the numerous empty 
packages required, which are made between the fish- 
ing seasons, in order that the people may be free to 
attend solely to the work incidental to curing when 
the fish come to hand. The pickling pits may be 
likened to underground cellars, the walls and floors 
of which are lined with cement, in order that they 
may be watertight. They are covered with strong 
planking resting on cross-beams, and are for storing 
the fish not required for immediate use. Storage 



46 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

accommodation for salt, billet-wood, etc., is necessary. 
After the fishing season is ended, the cooperage, 
which has been silent and deserted during this time, 
again resounds with the hammer, as the barrels for 
another campaign are being made. Some curers, 
however, employ local tradesmen to make these 
packages, and therefore make no provision for work- 
ing this branch of the business. As the process of 
pickling herrings differs very essentially from the 
process of smoking, it is advisable to carry it on in 
separate premises, which should however, if possible, 
for obvious reasons adjoin the other buildings. For 
this purpose a spacious yard, with sheds round the 
sides in which to store the empty barrels and do the 
packing, and a store for salt, are necessary. Such 
premises, including counting-house and other minor 
but necessary offices, form a considerable block of 
buildings. Visitors looking over such curing works 
are struck by the heaps of herrings, the immense size 
of the vats used for washing them, and the large 
number of black-looking rods, about four feet long 
and as thick as an average walking-stick, called spits, 
upon which the herrings are to be strung. As the 
herrings are brought in, they are salted and laid in 
" cobs " (heaps) on the barfe-house floors, where they 
remain until they have acquired the degree of salt- 
ness for the purpose intended. They are then care- 
fully washed in the large vats filled with fresh water, 
and placed in " maunds " (large baskets) to drain ; 
after which they are turned out into wooden troughs, 
and the women, called " rivers," string them upon the 



HERRING CURING. 47 

spits, hanging the spits, when full, on wooden racks 
placed conveniently for the purpose, each spit holding 
from 23 to 27 fish, according to their size. When 
the "horses" (racks) are full, the men mount the 
"loves," the hanger going to the top, one man re- 
maining in the middle, and one near the bottom, and 
with a foot on each " love," like the letter Y turned 
upside down, they, receiving the spitted herrings from 
the " rivers," pass them up to the hanger, who places 
them about six inches apart on the ledges, beginning 
at the top and working downwards. A good hanger 
prides himself in so hanging his house that when 
finished the roof may be seen through each row of 
herrings from the floor. This operation completed, 
the oak-billet fires are made on the floor, and the 
smoking process begins ; this is varied according to 
the market for which the fish are destined. 

This part of the curing requires constant attention 
by day and night. For special cures the intermediate 
processes vary. When the herrings are sufficiently 
smoked they are "struck" (passed down from the 
loves), the men climbing up as before. They are 
then put into packages, which vary in size and style 
according to the cure or market for which they are 
intended. For exportation strong barrels are used, 
while for the home trade the lighter box or " ped " 
(hamper) is adopted. The fish are rarely counted 
into the packages except for special orders ; but so 
regular is the packing, from long practice, that the 
contents of a number of packages will vary very 
slightly. 



48 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

When the packing is completed, the goods are 
branded and forwarded to their intended destination. 
To obtain the unrivalled " Yarmouth Bloater " in 
perfection, a very careful selection of the qualities of 
herrings, suitable for the purpose, must be made from 
the different samples as the boats arrive with their 
catches from sea, and removed to the curing premises 
without loss of time. During the curing they must 
be handled very gently, in order to avoid the loss of 
scales, which easily become detached, and which would 
detract from their appearance. 

After a slight salting, they must be carefully 
washed in abundance of fresh water, speedily spitted 
and hung, so that the oak fires may with as little 
delay as possible be lighted under them, as in this 
state they are most susceptible to the pungency of 
the smoke, which they quickly absorb ; this, com- 
bined with their natural juices, produces the delicious 
flavour of this " matchless breakfast delicacy." 

Thus cured, they are easily affected by atmos- 
pheric changes, and in very warm weather retain 
their freshness only for a few days. They are not 
packed till the latest possible moment, and should be 
unpacked immediately upon arrival at destination, 
and strung on a horizontal line separate from each 
other, which will keep them good several days 
longer. 

From the nature and extent of the preservatives 
absorbed by the higher cures, and the quantity of oil 
and juice extracted from the fish during the various 
processes which they undergo, they will keep good a 



HERRING CURING. 49 

much longer time. The consumer should, however, 
in all cases endeavour to obtain them direct from the 
curing works, thus avoiding long packing and indis- 
criminate storage, which tend to deteriorate their 
flavour. 

It sometimes happens that a roving young pilchard, 
dissatisfied with the restraints of home life, and wan- 
dering thence in search of adventure, like " the frog 
who would a-wooing go," is caught in the nets, and, 
unnoticed, is delivered to the curer among his her- 
rings. His presence is, however, certain to be dis- 
covered sooner or later, and when detected he is 
seized by the workpeople, and immediately impaled 
upon the outside of the lintel of a smoke-house door, 
in order, according to ancient superstition, to drive 
away others which may possibly be among the her- 
rings then on the fishing-grounds. 

To pickle herrings, the fish require to be salted 
as soon as possible after being caught, in order that 
their scales may be set, and their "freshness" pre- 
served. Different methods are employed. In some 
cases the fish are laid loosely into strong brine imme- 
diately upon being caught, and afterwards taken out 
and "gypped," i.e. the entrails and gills removed. 
They are then passed through clean brine, and packed 
in barrels, in layers, with salt sprinkled between each 
layer. 

Another plan is to " rouse " (turn over) the fish in 
salt, and afterwards " gyp " them. 

" Gypping " is done by women, called " gutters," 
and consists in removing the gills and entrails in the 

D 



50 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

following manner. The back of the herring is laid 
in the hollow of the left hand, with its head projecting 
about an inch beyond the fingers. The " gypping " 
knife (a short, sharp-pointed blade firmly set in a 
wooden handle) is held in the right hand, and its 
point inserted into the throat of the fish, cutting 
down to the backbone, and through to the other side, 
when, by a dexterous movement of the fingers and 
turn of the hand, the entrails and gills are removed. 

After being " roused " in salt again, they are packed 
in barrels, in layers extending across the barrel. Be- 
tween each layer a small quantity of salt is sprinkled. 
The barrels being filled, they are covered and left for 
two or three days, when the fish will be found to have 
settled. 

The barrels are then filled up out of others of the 
same day's packing, in order to preserve the uni- 
formity of the parcel throughout ; they are then 
headed down, and rolled away into tiers, where they 
must be frequently examined, in order to ascertain 
whether they retain their pickle, to supply any defi- 
ciency, and to repair any leak that may be discovered. 

The fish are packed as quickly as gutted, in order 
that the juices they contain, and which contribute 
largely to their ultimate flavour, may not be wasted. 

When required for shipment, they are tightly 
bunged, and the hoops examined to see that all is 
right for the rough handling they have of necessity 
to undergo during transit. Another plan is to pack 
the fish without gutting them, in which case they 
are well " roused " in salt, and immediately packed 



HERRING CURING. 



in barrels, in layers as before, care being taken to 
sprinkle the salt specially on the gills, in order to 
prevent decomposition, which would otherwise quickly 
set in from the blood held there. 

When it is necessary to use the pickling pits, care 
is taken to see that they are perfectly clean, and a 
quantity of salt is sprinkled at the bottom before 
putting in the herrings, which are first well " roused " 
in salt on the floors, and well sprinkled with salt 
as they fall into their place. When filled, the fish 
are weighted to keep them below the pickle, and the 
pits are examined every few days to add a further 
supply of salt to take the place of that absorbed 
by the fish. Herrings thus treated are eventually 
packed into pickle barrels, or smoked, as occasion 
requires. 




YARE FISHERY WORKS. 



CHAPTER VII. 
FOUNDING OF YARMOUTH. 

" The Britons oft are wont to praise this place, for that through 

all 

The realm they cannot show the like ; and Yarmouth they 
it call." 

MANSHIP'S " History of Yarmouth " 
(time, Queen Elizabeth). 

" For here is the noblest fishery for herrings in Europe." 

SIR H. SPELMAN. 



'HE very seat of that town doth more 
nearly and properly adjoin to that 
part of the sea-coast, where now be 
the fishing streams and the very sea 
of herring, about the Feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, for more than 
six hundred years, far above any other sea-coast town 
within this realm of England, or in any part of the 
world beside. It is undoubtedly true that, to make 
a city or town populous, or rich, or great (next to the 
blessing of the Almighty), is to have some merchan- 

53 




54 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

disc in it that is in especial request, and vendable in 
all places, and that is more excellent there than in 
any place whatever; as cloves in Moluccas, salt in 
Cyprus, wine in France, wool in England, velvet in 
Genoa, cloth of gold and silver in Milan, scarlet in 
Venice, and herrings in Yarmouth ; where they be so 
excellently and artificially handled, dressed, and 
trimmed, as not in any other place of the world. 
What huge multitudes of people from all parts of 
England, France, Holland, and Zealand resort thither, 
and what store of herrings is here bought and sold in 
that season ! Wherefore, concerning ' the herrings 
there taken from the ist of September until the last 
of November, which, swarming in sculls about the 
shores, they are there garbaged, salted, hanged, and 
dried, and by infinite numbers transported into the 
Levant and Mediterranean seas, where they be very 
good chaffer, and right welcome merchandise." 

The site upon which the town of Great Yarmouth 
stands was originally a sandbank, washed by the 
waves of the sea, extending north and south parallel 
to the mainland, from which it is divided by the 
river Yare. This bank was first known as " Cerdick 
Sand," from Cerdick, the Saxon having landed upon 
it in the year 495, about which time the herring 
fishery is supposed to have commenced. 

Camden, as cited by Swinden, says : " Cerdick, a 
warlike Saxon, landed here* ; whence the place at this 
day is called by the inhabitants ' Cerdick sand,' and 
by historians ' Cerdick shore.' When he had harassed 
the Iceni with a very grievous war, he sailed thence 



FOUNDING OF YARMOUTH. 55 

to the western parts, where he founded the kingdom 
of the West Saxons." 

The Saxons afterwards called the town built here 
Garmud, or Jiermud, the Saxon d being pronounced 
like our th. 

The great value and importance of the herring 
fishery off this coast, with the convenience of a con- 
siderable sandbank, where the nets could be dried 
and repaired, connected as it is by three rivers with 
the interior, drew together in early times fishermen, 
not only from British ports, but also from France, 
Holland, Denmark, Flanders, and Zealand. Thus, 
upon a barren sandbank for about forty days in the 
year, were clustered painted tents and booths, in 
which lodged buyers and sellers during what was 
called the " herring fair." 

Jeake's " Charter of the Cinque Ports," cited by 
Swinden, says : " Hither resort the fishermen of the 
ports, and other sea towns, every year in the fishing 
season for herrings ; which by a wonderful and rare 
providence, having their constant course once a year 
round this island, about the autumnal equinox begin 
to keep their quarters on these coasts. . . . And 
now by pregnant probabilities, it is in my opinion 
very clear, that from the landing of Cerdick, in Anno 
495, now 1124 years past, this sand by defluxion 
of tides, did by little and little lift its head above the 
waters, and so in short time after sundry fishermen, 
as well of this kingdom, viz., of the FIVE PORTS 
(being then the principal fishermen of England), as 
also of France, Flanders, and the Low Countries, 



56 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

yearly about the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 
resorted thither, where they continued in tents made 
for the purpose by the space of forty days, about the 
killing, trimming, salting, and selling of herrings to 
all that hither came for that purpose ; whereunto did 
resort the merchants of London, Norwich, and other 
places to buy herrings during that season, and then 
departed. ... So in short time after, as that 
sand became firm land, and that thereby traffic began 
more and more to be increased, men finding the same 
to be a commodious place to dwell and inhabit in, 
did for that purpose gather themselves together to 
have a continual residence therein, and began to 
build houses (' more comely and soon after superb ') 
of which came streets, and of those streets this 
flourishing township." 

The frail tent gave place to the well built house, 
and the six weeks' sojourn became a permanent resi- 
dence. As the fame of this place as a fishing station, 
during the six weeks that the season lasted, drew 
together people from different countries, and of 
opposing interests, it was found needful to provide 
some kind of government to keep order, and to settle 
disputes. The Barons of the Cinque Ports, being 
the chief fishermen of England, were authorized to 
send their bailiffs at the beginning of the " herring 
fair," to "govern all that fishing season." At the 
first, the Barons of the Cinque Ports, through their 
bailiffs, had the sole government ; but, " by reason 
of the constant increase of the inhabitants, and the 
great concourse of fishermen, traders, and merchants 



FOUNDING OF YARMOUTH. 57 

from many parts of England, Flanders, and Nor- 
mandy, on account of the vast quantity of lenten pro- 
vision manufactured here annually ; it pleased King 
Henry the First, in the ninth year of his reign, to 
invest with authority a proper magistrate, called in 
Latin prcepositus, but in the dialect of those times 
Le Provost. . . . Under this regimen, Yarmouth 
flourished about one hundred years; till the reign of 
King John," who granted the burgesses a charter 
creating this ancient burgh into a free burgh, with 
many immunities and privileges ; the town to pay 
him and his heirs an annual rent of .55 for ever, 
which amount was taken out of the customs of the 
port, the town not being allowed to take any custom 
of goods bought or sold in the market upon land. 

The liberties formerly held by the barons, inter- 
fering with those newly granted to the burgesses of 
Yarmouth, "occasioned such horrid discords, war, 
and confusion as the like perhaps never happened 
for so long a time between any two places in the 
British dominion, the whole nation being sometimes 
alarmed with their debates, riots, and depredations 
on each other." 

To such an extent was this carried, that when 
King Edward the First went to assist the Earl of 
Flanders against the French, " the men of the ports 
and Yarmouth, through an old grudge long depend- 
ing between them, fell together and fought on the sea 
with such fury, that notwithstanding the king's com- 
mandment to the contrary, twenty-five ships of Yar- 
mouth and their partakers were burnt." 



58 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

Another account states that thirty-seven ships were 
greatly damaged, one hundred and seventy-one men 
killed, and goods to the value of 15,356 "spoiled 
and taken from them." 

Disputes continued, more or less, until the time 
of Queen Elizabeth, when matters were arranged 
by commissioners, who, happily, were able to make 
an award, deemed at the time satisfactory to both 
parties; after which "they continued more mild and 
friendly one towards another, till the year 1662;" 
after which date no more bailiffs from the Cinque 
Ports seem to have come to Yarmouth in any official 
capacity. Queen Anne granted a new charter in the 
second year of her reign, empowering the burgh to 
choose a Mayor instead of bailiffs, and otherwise 
bringing the Corporation into the " state it has ever 
since continued." 






CHAPTER VIII. 

HERRING FAIR. 

HE " Herring Fair," as before ob- 
served, lasted forty days, beginning 
with the Feast of St. Michael. "And 
to repress and prevent disorders 
arising among the multitude upon 
the sale and delivery of the herrings 
brought ashore there, for want of a settled govern- 
ment . . . the ports used to send thither yearly 
certain men, as their baliffs, that during the time of 
this herring fair they might abide there, and govern 
all that fishing season. But the fishing trade con- 
tinuing and proving profitable, once settled, quickly 
is supposed to have built a town there ; or if built 
before, so to enrich it as to procure thereto a govern- 
ment by some portreeve or provost, and bailiffs, which 
it had in the time of King Edward I., between 
whom (the town bailiffs) and the port bailiffs contests 
did arise ; these endeavouring to keep their ancient 
jurisdictions, rights, and privileges ; and the other 
to wrest them out of their hands, so that sometimes 

59 



60 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

the ports have complained to their sovereigns for 
redress and remedy, and yet sometimes been sufferers 
by the outrage and insolence of the people." 

It was ordered by the king that " whereas our 
barons of the ports claim to have at Yarmouth royal 
justice, and the keeping of our peace, doing royal 
justice, together with our provost of Great Yarmouth, 
in this form, that during the fair they shall have four 
sergeants, whereof one to bear our banner, another 
to blow a horn for to assemble the people (for pro- 
clamation) to be heard the better, and the other two 
to bear rods for to keep our peace, and these offices 
they may do on horseback if they will." The bailiffs 
who were deputed by the Cinque Ports to attend 
the " herring fair " were termed " Bailiffs for Yer- 
mouth," and they, "yearly upon the vigil of the 
Feast of St. Michael, make their repair for Yermouth 
aforesaid, unto a house which they do there hire for 
that purpose (for one of their own there they never 
had), bringing with them their learned counsel, a 
town clerk, two sergeants bearing white rods, a brazen 
horn sounder, one carrying a banner of the arms of 
the ports, and a jailor, who being come thither many 
times, the bailiffs of Yermouth within a few hours 
after with the then new elects and some other of 
their brethren do repair to their lodgings, and them 
courteously do welcome and entertain." On the next 
day, which would be St. Michael's, these strangers 
repair to the church to hear divine service, the 
"Yermouth" bailiffs sending for them to sit with 
them, " which I term courtesy ; for place among them 



HERRING FAIR. 61 

there, by right, they cannot challenge any." After 
service they take a formal leave of each other. 
Afterwards the "Vermouth" bailiffs, with their 
brethren in scarlet robes, repair to the " toll-house," 
where their justices, constables, and other officers 
are sworn in, upon which the Cinque Port bailiffs 
are sent for, who upon their entrance make a short 
speech to show " who they be ; from whence, and 
wherefore they do come thither, desiring to be re- 
ceived ; " having shown their credentials, they are 
"admitted to have place with the bailiffs of Ver- 
mouth," their names are recorded, and after a little 
other official business disposed of, the senior " Ver- 
mouth " bailiff invites the whole company to dinner, 
and his co-partner afterwards to supper, " where in 
most friendly manner they the whole day do royally 
feast, and be very merry together." In the following 
week there is another "Court day" and more feasting, 
the junior " Vermouth " bailiff providing an " elegant 
dinner," to which the aldermen of the town, " their 
brethren, with their wives, be solemnly invited." 
The bailiffs of the Cinque Ports also return the com- 
pliment, generously entertaining not only the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of the town, but also of the neigh- 
bourhood. " Supporting the expense in a plentiful 
manner, they commonly bring sixteen or eighteen 
hogsheads of excellent beer from home with them." 

Two or three days before the departure of the 
Cinque Port bailiffs, these, inviting their colleagues 
of the town and " the substantialest sort of the in- 
habitants of Vermouth, with their wives also, hold a 



62 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

great feast by way of requital, or of a kind farewell, 
when all sorts of delicacies be provided, which may 
be had for money." 

In Edward III.'s reign complaint was made by the 
Commons of the realm, " That the people of Great 
Yarmouth do encounter the fishers bringing herring 
to the said town in the time of the fair, and do buy 
and forestall the herring before they do come to the 
town. And also the hostelers of the same town ; 
that lodge the fishers coming thither with their 
herring, will not suffer the said fishers to sell their 
said herring nor meddle with the sale thereof, but 
sell them at their own will, as dear as they will, and 
give to the fishers that pleaseth them, whereby the 
fishers do withdraw themselves to come thither, and 
so is the herring set at much greater price than ever 
it was, to the great damage of our lord the king, of 
the lords, and of all the people." Upon this a statute 
was made, called the " Herring Statute," by which 
it was ordained that no herring be bought or sold in 
the sea, nor until the cable of the ship be drawn 
to land. Fishers to be free to sell their herrings 
to whom they will, without hindrance from their 
hostelers or any other, but only between sunrise 
and sunset. 

No one to buy herring to hang in their houses at 
a higher price than 4os. per last, " but less in as 
much as he may." No one to go by land or by sea 
to forestall herring, "but the herring shall come 
freely, unsold, unto the haven." 

" No pyker to make buying of fresh herring in the 



HERRING FAIR. 63 

haven of Yarmouth betwixt the Feasts of St. Michael 
and St. Martin" ; " no vessel called pyker, of London 
nor of none other place, shall enter into the said 
haven, to abate (pur encherir, to enhance or raise), 
the fair in damage of the people." 

All hostelers to be sworn before the wardens of 
the fair to receive their guests well, to aid them 
reasonably; and for every last of herrings, sold 
through them to another, they were to receive forty 
pence, and to be responsible for the payment by the 
purchaser ; but on herrings bought for themselves 
they were not to receive commission. The hundred 
herring was fixed at six score, the last at ten 
thousand. 

Yarmouth people were to sell a last of red herrings 
bought for 4Os. fresh, if sold within forty days, at 
half a mark gain, and not above. London carriers 
attending the fair were to carry a last of herrings 
from Yarmouth to London for one mark, and not 
above. 

Two lasts of shotten herring to be sold for the 
price of one of full. Two lasts of shotten red herring 
to be sold one mark dearer than one last of full red. 
"And that the same barons and bailiffs of Great 
Yarmouth cause to be kept these present ordinances 
in all points, and to be cried in every Sunday between 
St. Michael and St. Martin's upon the pain to lose 
their franchise." 




CHAPTER IX. 

TOWN WALL AND HAVEN MOUTH, AND THE 
OLD TOWN. 

N 1260 Henry III., upon petition of the 
burgesses, granted them permission to 
enclose the town with a wall and a moat, 
but nothing of much importance seems 
to have been done for many years. The 
great plague which ravaged the town in 
1349, swept off 7,052 souls, being most of the inhabit- 
ants, reducing the trade and the town to a very low 
condition. The wall was still unfinished 126 years 
after the grant had been made. For the purpose of 
building the wall the town was empowered to collect 
a custom upon all goods imported and exported. 
This was afterwards supplemented by voluntary con- 
tributions from the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. 
The wall contained a compass of about 2,238 yards, 
having ten gates and sixteen towers. After finishing 
the wall, a moat was made round the town, with 
bridges at each gate ; the moat being deep and wide 



OLD YARMOUTH. 65 

enough for boats to pass with their lading to any 
part of the town. 

Afterwards, when "great guns" came into use, the 
town was further strengthened by mounts and rave- 
lins, etc. In Henry VIII.'s reign the walls were still 
further strengthened by being rampired, which work 
was not completed until the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
when, in consequence of the sending out of the 
Spanish Armada, the work of fortifying the town was 
pushed on. A boom was also erected between the 
two jetties across the haven, and two men appointed 
to take charge of it, with instructions to have it 
opened and shut at convenient times, but by no means 
to leave it open during the night. 

The sea has been for centuries waging a contest 
with the river Yare, rejecting any acquaintance with 
its waters by casting up a sandbank in front of what 
should be its natural exit. This is the sandbank 
upon which the town is now built. In consequence 
of this antagonism between the fresh and the salt 
waters, the river has been deflected out of its course ; 
its principal channel, which entered the sea to the 
north of the town, being entirely stopped, forcing the 
waters to pass through the southern one. It might 
have been hoped that the waters of the three rivers, 
being confined to a single channel, the Yare would be 
able to maintain, at least, an even contest with its 
ancient antagonist ; but the sea had too many sands 
in battalion order at hand, which it was continually 
flinging forward, so that the mouth of the river, which 
was between Gorton and Lowestoft, became so ob- 

E 



66 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

structed that in the time of King Edward III. naviga- 
tion became so dangerous "that few ships of burthen 
could safely enter in, or go out." 

This put a stop to the trade of the town, and the 
people petitioned the king for liberty to cut a haven 
nearer the town, opposite to Gorton, which was granted 
them; but after considerable expense this only served 
them twenty-six years. The sea got the better of 
both people and river. Another petition was made 
to King Richard II. to cut a haven still nearer the 
town, and permission was given, as was also the right 
to levy I2d. for five years upon every last of herrings, 
brought into the town. Sixteen years later, A.D. 
1408, this haven was rendered useless from the same 
causes, and again resort was had to petition to 
Henry IV., who granted the request, and bountifully 
contributed, out of the customs taken at Yarmouth, 
the sum of ;ioo per year for five years towards the 
expenses, which sum was only received in part. This 
haven was maintained successfully, but at great ex- 
pense, for 100 years ; by which time the charges were 
found to be insupportable. Some little help was 
given by a remittance of " fifty marks parcel of their 
fee-farm for the term of six years." Afterwards some 
further help was given of a like character, as the town 
had lost very much of its trade. In 1508 the people 
petitioned King Henry VII. for liberty to cut out the 
mouth of the haven much nearer unto the town than 
the former. " This, with their own labour and ex- 
pense, they maintained for twenty years, when, for a 
fifth time, they became suitors for liberty to cut out 



OLD YARMOUTH. 67 

another haven." " But stormy wind and sea prevail- 
ing, the mouth of that haven . . . was choked." 
The people became so impoverished by this continual 
contest, that they could no longer support the charge 
of keeping an open way to the sea, yet it was im- 
peratively necessary that something should be done. 
It was decided to sell some of the church plate, orna- 
ments, and robes ; by these means, and by contribu- 
tions from town councillors and aldermen, .1,816 
was raised. With this sum, in the third year of 
Edward VI., by the king's permission, the townsmen 
began their sixth haven, this through mismanagement, 
after considerable further expenses, was not completed 
after eight years, and was obliged to be stopped up. 
It was then determined to make the seventh and, 
happily, the last attempt. This, after being begun, 
was seriously damaged by the sea, upon which " The 
town was advised to send for some experienced 
workmen . . . whereupon by means of Henry 
Manship . . . was brought over a certain Dutch- 
man, a man of extraordinary knowledge and experi- 
ence in works of that nature, called Joyse Johnson, 
who was appointed to be the master of the works." 

The work of makingthehaven was duly accomplished, 
and although it has ever been a constant expense to 
maintain the victory won, the victory has been gained 
over the sea, though doubtless more might yet be 
done to make the port of Yarmouth suitable for ships 
of a much heavier tonnage than can at present gain 
access to the harbour. The mouth of the haven is 
protected by two piers jutting out into the sea at 



68 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

right angles to the previous course of the river. One 
of them on the Suffolk coast, just under the Gorle- 
stone cliffs ; the other on the Norfolk side upon the 
sands. Both piers are of timber : the southern one 
turns the river face to face to the sea, being mightily 
strengthened by concrete packing. At this point the 
slightest breeze is quite sufficient to provoke a re- 
newal of hostilities, at which times the sea madly 
charges both piers, more especially the southern one, 
dashing over it with impotent rage. Joyse Johnson's 
work, begun in 1568, remains to this day a record of 
his honesty and of his wisdom. It has had to be 
supplemented largely since then, as his plans were 
not fully carried out, probably for the want of money ; 
as the inhabitants for many years afterwards were 
constant petitioners to the reigning sovereign for 
help to maintain what had been won after such great 
contest. 

The town of Great Yarmouth is built upon the 
east bank of the river Yare, at its junction with the 
Bure, the Waveney having added its waters higher up. 
Opposite the junction of the Yare and the Bure 
stands the Parish Church, named after St. Nicholas, 
built about 1123, by Herbert, surnamed "Losinga," 
i.e. a " liar " ; who, on account of alleged simony, was 
enjoined to build this church and others. The church 
has three aisles, the middle one being the longest, 
measuring within the walls 230 feet, the breadth of 
the three aisles being 108 feet. The Norman tower 
with Early English windows, and the spire, the fisher- 
men's well-remembered landmark whilst yet far out 




"ROW 120." 



70 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

at sea, spring from the centre of the building. It is 
said to be the largest Parish Church in the country, 
its porch being larger than the Church of St. Lawrence 
in the Isle of Wight. An organ was erected in it in 
1545, but the one now in use was built in 1733, since 
which time it has been several times enlarged, its 
pipes now numbering over 3,000. 

The town wall at the north rested upon the river 
Bure, from which it proceeded east for a short 
distance, thence south, and again east, so as to 
enclose the Parish Church and yard, from which it 
proceeded south, taking a curve almost parallel with 
the river for a distance of somewhat over 4,500 feet ; 
it then turned to tlie west, and rested upon the river 
Yare. The town was thus protected on the west by 
the river, and upon its other three sides by the wall. 

The old town is built in blocks with exceedingly 
narrow streets, called " rows," which are numbered 
i to 145. The rows in some instances are less than 
three feet wide, but generally they measure from four 
to six feet. 

On account of these narrow streets, which are 
mostly paved with cobble stones, the old town has 
been likened to a gridiron, the rows representing 
the bars of the grid. In these rows are yet to be 
found interesting relics of some of the houses of the 
wealthy inhabitants of the olden time, the upper 
storeys of which, occasionally projecting over the 
lower walls, shut out considerable of the little sky 
left by the narrow way. The houses of the well-to- 
do of former days, situate in the rows, are now turned 



OLD YARMOUTH. 71 

into warehouses, sail lofts, and smaller tenements for 
the poor. The rows are still traversed by the old- 
fashioned troll-cart, a long narrow vehicle without 
sides, running on two low wheels. In order to 
economise space, the wheels are placed underneath 
the hinder part of the troll, which is higher than the 
front, and very similar in appearance to the ancient 
" British war-chariot " (see page 40). 

Of course it is impossible for two of these to pass 
each other, and the pedestrian must needs, on meet- 
ing one, press into a doorway, or be content to 
retrace his steps. Fortunately the town was not 
dependent entirely upon the rows for means of pro- 
gression, as these were intersected at right angles 
by one or more wider streets, according to the width 
of the town. The principal houses were built along 
the quay side, which is over a mile in length, and for 
a portion of its distance ornamented with an avenue 
of trees. There the merchant prince watched from 
his windows the vessel loading his herrings for the 
sunnier skies of the Mediterranean, or his fishing 
boats unloading their silvery spoils from the bleak 
North Sea, or the dusky collier from Newcastle with 
its black antidote to the familiar north-easter. 

The greater portion of the town wall is now gone, 
but there are several " bits," with an occasional tower, 
yet preserved, welcome to the lover of the pencil as 
affording an opportunity for securing a reminiscence 
of a pleasant visit. The town possesses one of the 
largest market-places in the country, covering nearly 
three acres of ground. The market is well served 



72 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

and attended, especially during the visiting season, 
when the thousands of strangers greatly add to 
the liveliness of the scene. The market days are 
Wednesday and Saturday. 




SOUTH COAST TOWER. 




CHAPTER X. 

/I , MODERN ' TOWN. 

N important feature of the modern 
town is the New Town Hall, a red 
brick and stone building in Queen 
Anne style, freely treated, built at 
an expense of 40,000 ; which was 
opened by H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales, in 1882. It is built upon the site of a former 
one, upon the quay facing the river. The toll-house, 
in existence in 1261, situate in Middlegate Street, is a 
very interesting relic of early times, with a front well 
worth seeing. It is in a very good state of preser- 
vation considering its age. It was used in after years 
as a gaol, and was the scene of Sarah Martin's self- 
denying labours ; who, in spite of her own poverty, 
found means of visiting the prisoners, helping them 
to a more human state of mind, and mitigating the 
cruelty of the prison treatment usual to the times. 
A few of the old houses still remain in the town, but 
they are mostly hidden under modernized fronts ; one, 
facing the river, reputed to have been built in 1596, is 
supposed to be the one in which the death of 
Charles I. was determined. Near the Parish Church 

73 




THE OLD GAOL OR TOLL-HOUSE. 
The Scene of Sarah Martin's Labours. 



74 



MODERN TOWN. 75 

is the Fisherman's Hospital (with a figure of Charity 
in the square yard, and one of St. Peter under a cupola 
over the inner gate), built by the Corporation one 
hundred and eighty years ago, for the accommodation 
of twenty old fishermen. The population of the town 
at the last census numbered nearly 45,000 ; this is of 
course largely supplemented in the summer months by 
thousands of visitors. There are also churches and 
chapels, with charitable institutions incidental to a 
town of the size of Great Yarmouth. It is approached 
by three lines of railway, two of which belong to the 
Great Eastern Company, and one to the Eastern 
Midland, and in summer time by steamers from 
London. There is also a steam-packet service with 
Hull and Newcastle. There are several points of 
interest in the neighbourhood, as Somerleyton Park, 
the seat of Sir Saville B. Crossley ; the old Roman 
ruin of Burgh Castle ; Caister Castle, with its pictur- 
esque tower ; and for those on fishing intent there 
are the celebrated Norfolk broads. 

The modern town occupies the space between the 
old town and the beach, along which has been made 
a magnificent marine parade over three miles long. 
Here, facing the German Ocean, are the principal 
hotels and fashionable lodging-houses, and the 
splendid beach, the all-day-long delight of childhood 
and the welcome invigorator of the wearied. 

The beach begins at the harbour's mouth, some two 
miles to the south of the town, and extends far away 
to the north, being from 100 to 150 yards in width. 
The sea at Yarmouth always presents a lively scene 



76 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

from the many vessels and steamers passing through 
the roads, as well as from the numerous fishing 
vessels belonging to the port. There are three piers, 
and, during the season, the usual bathing-machines 
and pleasure-boats. At the height of the season the 
visitors number from twenty to thirty thousand ; and, 
in addition to the regular season, there is a quieter 
one extending up to Christmas. From its exposed 
easterly situation, the coast of Great Yarmouth is 
subject to fierce storms, especially during the winter 
months, when wrecks are frequent and lives lost are 
many : happily many are also saved through the cour- 
age of the life-boat crews. But it is while following 
their dangerous occupation far out in the North Sea 
that our fishermen run their greatest risks, and where 
so many lives are swallowed up by the cruel waves. 

" But men must work and women must weep, 
Though storms be sudden and waters deep." 

In 1877 eighteen fishing vessels and 116 souls were 
lost in a single storm, leaving 118 children, 55 widows, 
and 12 aged parents unprovided for. 

" For men must work and women must weep, 
And there's little to earn and many to keep." 

A special fund was raised, which was nobly con- 
tributed to by London, to meet the severity of this 
loss. There is a small permanent fund invested for 
the benefit of the dependent survivors of those fisher- 
men who have subscribed to it, but these only 
number some 300. The Mayor of the town is the 
chairman, and Mr. G. T. Watson, manager of the 



MODERN TOWN. 77 

Sailors' Home, a fine building facing the sea, is the 
Secretary, who would be glad to acknowledge con- 
tributions for the relief of foreign as well as home- 
born shipwrecked sailors. South of the town, upon 
the Denes, so often covered by the brown swaths of 
the fishermen's nets, there was built in 1817, in com- 
memoration of Lord Nelson, a Norfolk man, a 
lofty fluted Column, springing from a massive square 
pedestal. The Column is surmounted by a ball rest- 
ing upon caryatides, and above this is placed a fine 
figure of Britannia. The Column is 144 feet high, 
and is ascended by 217 steps. From the top may 
be seen, in fine weather, Norwich Cathedral, and 
a magnificent view of the roadstead with its pano- 
rama of ships and steamers, the distant sea with 
" ropes of smoke lacing the sky " against the horizon, 
uncoiled by the far-away steamers hasting on to a 
foreign port. 

The Fish Wharf, upon which is built a large shed 
750 feet long and 40 feet wide, was constructed in the 
year 1869 for the better accommodation of those 
engaged in the staple industry of the town. It is 
situate a mile from the Town Hall, lower down the 
river, just outside the south end of the town. In 
front of the shed is a landing quay, 40 feet wide, 
paved with granite cubes ; below this, at a distance 
of something over 1,500 feet, and nearly opposite the 
Nelson Monument, is a ferry to the village of 
Gorlestone. All along this line of riverside during 
the height of the season, herring boats are moored 
with their noses to the quay, packed as closely as they 



78 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 



can be placed; sometimes 
even two and three boats 
deep ; the herrings from 
the outer tier being passed 
in baskets over the decks 
of the two inner ones ; the 
boats alongside the wharf 
delivering their herrings ; 
while those lower down 
the river, having freed 
themselves from their 
burden of fish, are again 
busily engaged taking in 
fresh stores preparatory 
to their next voyage. Oc- 
casionally during the sea- 
son the whole of the space, 
from the beginning of the 
fish wharf to some dis- 
tance beyond the ferry, is 
occupied by boats deliver- 
ing their catch of her- 
rings; and the shed and 
the wharf, with an aggre- 
gate space of about 10,000 
square yards, are covered with wicker baskets, called 
swills, each holding five hundred fish, awaiting sale or 
removal to the different curing premises. The boats, 
as they complete their delivery of fish, have to seek 
at once other quarters in the river, to make room for 
those arriving with later catches. 




NELSON'S MONUMENT. 



0ixr 10 C00k % 



rng, 



" Of all the fish of the sea, Herring is king." 

" Herring in the land, 
Doctor at a stand." 

" Red Herring ne'er spake but e'en [once]: 
Broil my back but not my weamb." 

N former days, before new fashions had 
led men astray, causing us to "take a 
forgetfulness " of the worth of the herring, 
it was not thought unworthy of a place 
before kings and nobles. If it were the 
denizen of some distant sea, found swim- 
ming in solitude instead of in schools (which are 
sometimes to be measured in miles), and if every 
herring were sold at a crown per scale, it would doubt- 
less be as highly prized as any other foreign novelty. 
Its merits have long suffered an undeserved eclipse ; 
but at length the delicacy of the bloater and the 
savouriness of the ham-cure are again causing the 
herring to be recognised as worthy of the attention of 
all who estimate worth by quality rather than by cost. 




79 



8o THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

The real Yarmouth bloater, which is in season from 
August to December, is purposely cured with the 
smallest possible modicum of salt and smoke, just to 
retain the delicacy of the fresh fish for a few days ; 
the slight smoking and salting adding to, as well as 
preserving, the original flavour. Of course, with such 
slight curing the bloater will not keep like the ham- 
cure, which by the mode of its preparation acquires a 
distinctive value of its own. It may be observed, 
that by over-cooking this class of cure the fish be- 
comes very dry, and consequently over-salt ; so that 
palates which are very susceptible to this condiment, 
should choose that mode of cooking which will keep 
the fish from becoming dry. Acids, such as lemon, 
cut up fat, and in this way assist digestion, bringing 
this pleasant addition within the reach of those who 
might otherwise find them indigestible. 





BLOATER CURE. 

No. i. 

Open the fish, remove the gut, and place on a dish 
before the fire inside upwards. Toast a thin slice of 
ham over the fish, and serve with lemon inside a ring 
of mashed potatoes. 

No. 2. 

Cut off the head, and split the fish open down the 
back. Take out the backbone and roe, or milt ; 
grill, skin downwards without turning. Serve hot. 

NO. 3. 

Cut off the head, and draw out the gut without 
opening the fish ; place on a gridiron over a clear 
fire, turning occasionally. Serve hot, with pepper 
and salt. 

No. 4. 

Should the fish be found too salt when cooked by 
either of the previous methods, place it in front of a 
quick, clear fire, whole, i.e. without removing the head 

81 - 



82 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

or opening it ; turn occasionally, and when cooked 
cut off the head, split open, and remove the roe or 
milt Spread a little butter over the inside of the 
fish, and squeeze a few drops of lemon upon it. Serve 
hot 

TO POT BLOATERS OR HERRINGS. 

No. 5. 

Open and place inside to inside in a dish as many 
herrings as wanted, putting minced shallots, or bay- 
leaves, and a sprinkling of flour between each herring. 
Fill the dish with spiced vinegar. Bake very slowly 
till the bones are soft Eat cold. 



ROES AND MILTS, 
No. 6. 

When the roe or milt is not cooked with the her- 
ring, it may be cooked and served as follows : 

Grate the uncooked roe of a ham-cured herring 
over hot buttered toast. 

Break into a buttered frying-pan one egg for each 
roe or milt ; place a roe or milt across each egg while 
cooking. Eat with mustard and lemon. 

Pound the roe in a mortar with an anchovy, and 
serve with bread and butter, or hot buttered toast. 

The hard roe of the ham-cured fish need not be 
cooked, but cut into thin slices and eaten with toast 



COOKING. 83 



or bread and butter. A little mustard is a pleasant 
addition. This will be found a delicious relish for 
tea. 

HAM CURE. 

No. 7. 

Remove the heads and tails from two herrings, 
split them, take out the roes or milts, and, placing the 
insides together, fasten with skewers, one on each 
side ; place on a gridiron over a clear fire for three 
or four minutes, turning them several times. When 
done, separate, and rub a little butter on the insides. 
Serve hot with slices of lemon. Eat with mustard. 

How to serve the roe or milt. See Recipe " Roes 
and Milts," page 82. 

No. 8. 

Cut off the head and tail, split open down the back, 
take out the backbone, and gut, leaving in the roe or 
milt. Take a thin slice of bacon, the size of the 
opened fish, and lay it over the inside of the fish ; 
broil through the bacon, turning the latter as needed. 
Serve with slices of lemon, and mustard. 

No. 9. 
HORS D'OEUVRE. 

. Take two or more herrings, cut off the heads and 
tails, strip off the skin, and remove the backbone, and 
gut. Place between the two herrings a small lump of 



84 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

butter, sweet herbs, or minced shallots, or mushrooms, 
or pieces of bay-leaf. Sprinkle the whole with fine 
bread crumbs, bind in buttered paper, and grill slowly, 
or bake in moderate oven twenty minutes. Cut the 
bandage, and serve in the paper with slices of lemon. 

No. 10. 

Fold a piece of paper once round the herring, and. 
place it in the oven or broiler without removing the 
head. Let it cook gently for fifteen minutes. Split, 
serve with slices of lemon and cayenne. By this plan 
the herring retains most of its oil. 

No. ii. 
For Those who Object to the Oil of the Fish. 

Make incisions through the skin across the herring, 
place on the gridiron over a quick fire for about three 
to five minutes, turning frequently. Wipe off surplus 
oil, and serve. 

No. 12. 

Cut off the head, but do not open the herring. 
Cook over or in front of a quick, clear fire for three 
or four minutes ; turn frequently. When done, split 
open, and serve hot. 

No. 13. 

Grill the herrings whole over a clear fire for about 
four minutes. Cut off heads and tails ; open, remove 



COOKING. 85 



gut and bone, lay on dish inside upwards, and place 
on each fish a poached egg, and serve with parsley 
round the dish. 

No. 14. 

Cut off the head, open, and remove the gut, place 
in a dish ; cover with cold water' from eight to ten 
hours, dry with a cloth, and grill over a clear fire ; 
when done spread a little butter on the inside. Serve 
with lemon and mustard. 

No. 15. 

Place the herring whole in a frying-pan full of boil- 
ing water ; let it simmer from three to five minutes ; 
remove, and dry before the fire ; cut off the head, and 
serve with butter and mustard, and hot buttered 
toast. 

No. 1 6. 

Place the herring whole in a dish of boiling water, 
cover close, and let it remain for five minutes ; then 
remove and grill for two minutes. Serve without 
opening. 

No. 17. 

Remove the head and gut, cut the fish into lengths 
diagonally, one inch wide ; place in a basin, and pour 
on boiling water ; cover close. After standing about 
five minutes place the pieces on a dish, dry in the 
oven, and serve with butter and mustard. 



86 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 
NO. 1 8. 

MARINES. 

After steeping the herrings in water a few hours, 
according to their saltness, place them in a dish of 
milk into which one or more uncooked mushrooms, 
according to size, have been broken ; let the herrings 
remain in this for half an hour; remove, egg and 
bread crumb, and place in oven till brown. Serve 
with bread and butter. 

No. 19. 

MARINES. 

If found too salt, steep the herrings in milk or 
water from two to twelve hours ; drain, skin, and 
bone, and place in sufficient milk to receive them, 
mixed with a large teaspoonful of mustard, a tea- 
spoonful of minced shallot, and another of dried 
parsley. Leave the herrings half an hour in this, re- 
move, egg and bread crumb them, and place in 
moderate oven till brown. Serve with buttered toast. 

No. 20. 

Place in a stew-pan enough milk to cover the her- 
rings, a lump of butter, sufficient flour to thicken 
slightly, a sprinkle of sweet herbs and pepper ; stir 
till it comes to the boil. Having opened, gutted, 
boned, and skinned the herrings, cut them across, and 
place in the pan till hot through ; turn all out on a 



COOKING. 87 



hot dish, sprinkle over a layer of bread crumbs, place 
in oven to brown. Squeeze over a few drops of 
lemon, and serve. 

No. 21. 
For Luncheon or Breakfast. 

Cut off the head, split open, remove the backbone, 
soak for two hours in warm milk and water. Cook 
through the back on gridiron over a clear fire. Serve 
with butter and mashed potatoes. 

No. 22. 

Split the herring open down the back, and lay it 
in an ordinary pie-dish, cover it with boiling water, 
and cover it down close for ten or fifteen minutes, 
according to the size of the fish. Take out and lay 
on a cloth for a few seconds to remove the moisture 
(do not rub the fish), and dry in front of fire or in the 
oven. Serve hot on fish d'oyler, skin upwards ; eat 
with buttered toast. The roe may be treated the 
same as the herring in this case. 

No. 23. 
BALLS OR CAKES. 

Sufficient mashed potatoes, one tablespoonful of 
Spanish onions cut up very fine, one egg well beaten, 
one herring skinned, boned, and chopped fine. Mix 
all thoroughly together ; form into cakes or balls, and 
fry for five minutes in butter. Serve with lemon. 



88 THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA. 

No. 24. 
SALAD. 

Cut up fine one Spanish onion and the flesh of the 
back of a ham-cured herring ; make a dressing of one 
tablespoonful of milk, one teaspoonful of mixed 
mustard, and another of vinegar, a little pepper 
(Cayenne if preferred), the hard roe of a herring 
grated up fine. Mix thoroughly. Lettuce in place 
of onion if preferred. 



Bloaters keep longest when hung on a line separate 
from each other in a current of dry air. 

Ham-cured herrings should be kept in a dry cool 
place, in their original packages, covered down, and 
removed only as required for use. 




YARE FISHERY WORKS. 




tsit io & Herring- wring < 
BY A VISITOR. 




[From The Eastern Daily Press, August 25th, 1881.] 
j 



S a visitor to Yarmouth, I was de- 
sirous of seeing something of the 
process by which the fish delivered 
out of the smacks are converted 
into " bloaters," and so I went down 
to the Fish Wharf, at the south end 
of the quay, hoping to be able to have my curiosity 
gratified. The Fish Wharf is a model wholesale 
market. From the boats moored alongside the quay 
the herring are delivered out of the hold and counted 
into big baskets, called " swills." These swills are 
contracted round the middle, so as to have the form 
of a figure " 8," and these are placed upon the stand 
of one or other of the salesmen, who offers them by 
auction. Most of the buyers are fish-curers, who 
have extensive premises in and around the town, 
where they conduct a business which has attained for 
Yarmouth a celebrity such as no other fishing port 

8 9 



90 VISIT TO A CURING ESTABLISHMENT. 

enjoys. I was afforded the opportunity of following 
a lot of freshly-caught herring to one of these estab- 
lishments the Yare Fishery Works over which I 
was shown by one of the proprietors, Mr. C. Stacy- 
Watson, who I observed had just had the honour of 
taking a noble lord over his extensive premises. 
Messrs. Stacy- Watson's establishment is a short dis- 
tance behind the Fish Wharf. It has been constructed 
on the newest principles, and has been fitted with the 
latest improvements, so as to economize time and 
labour. This fish-curing establishment is in the form 
of a parallelogram. When the swills of herring have 
been brought by the long carts into the yard, they are 
carried into a brick-floored building, entered by slid- 
ing doors, called a " barfe " house. Here the herring 
are sometimes heaped up in " cobs," that is, in piles 
varying from eighteen inches to three feet high, the 
preservative salt being sprinkled over layer after layer 
of fish. Under this process the herring acquire that 
degree of saltness which the curer deems necessary. 
In the " barfe " house are several huge tubs or vats, 
in which the herring are next washed, so as to remove 
the loose salt and scales, and any dirt which may 
have got among them from the time they were caught. 
The next process is that of " spitting " them. This is 
done by women. The " spits " are rods of wood, four 
feet long, with pointed ends, which are inserted 
through the gills of the fish. As each " spit " is filled 
with fish, it is placed in a " room " in a drying-house. 
This word " room " has, however, a meaning which 
differs from the conventional term. These herring 



VISIT TO A CURING ESTABLISHMENT. 91 

drying-rooms have'neither floors nor walls. They are, 
however, very lofty, those in Messrs. Stacy-Watson's 
new establishment being about twenty-five feet from 
the rafters to the roof. The rafters at the base of the 
rooms are six feet above the brick floor of the drying 
house. From these rafters, nearly four feet apart, 
spring a series of stout uprights, which reach to the 
roof, and across these, from side to side of the build- 
ing, parallel with the rafters, are stout rails, at inter- 
vals of about eighteen inches. There are thus formed 
a series of narrow, floorless compartments with skele- 
ton walls. These are the drying-rooms. The spits, 
full of herring, are handed up to a man, who places 
them on the horizontal rails, so that the fish extend 
across the room. When one pair of rails is filled, the 
man fills the next lower pair with the spits, taking 
care to place each spit exactly under the other. 
W r hen a room is thus filled, any one standing on the 
floor can look up amid the spits of herring to the 
roof. On the brick floor, oak dust, shruff, or billet, is 
placed and ignited, and then the process of smoking 
begins. A herring is subjected to only one or two 
hours' smoking to convert it into a " bloater." 

These curing-houses of Messrs. Stacy- Watson are 
fitted with improved windows for regulating the 
heating and ventilation. The old-fashioned plan was 
to have sliding windows, similar to those in use on 
the upright sides of greenhouses ; but when a drying- 
house is filled with smoke, it is difficult for a man to 
adjust such means of ventilation properly and expe- 
ditiously, for it must be done quickly, as a drying- 



92 VISIT TO A CURING ESTABLISHMENT. 

house filled with smoke cannot be entered with 
impunity. By means of long weights, which counter- 
balance the windows, Messrs. Stacy- Watson's men 
can walk round a curing-house and open all the 
windows to a fixed point in the short space of time 
in which they can hold their breath. The " ham- 
cured " herring, having undergone a special process, 
are subjected to the smoke for a considerable period. 
When they are sufficiently cured, they are collected 
and packed in barrels. These barrels are sold by 
weight, not by the number of fish they contain. 
Herring are pressed into the barrels by means of a 
small circular screw-press till the requisite weight is 
secured. Messrs. Stacy-Watson & Co. make their 
own barrels, of well-seasoned material, and have at 
the present time 6,000 in stock. This is done that 
they may guarantee sound packages for their fish, 
which they export in large quantities to Italy and the 
Levant. When the barrels are duly weighed and 
packed, they are branded according to the quality of 
the fish. I found the coopers employed on the 
establishments busily at work making barrels, to add 
to the huge store which now nearly fill the several 
chambers. There is another branch of the herring- 
curing business to which my attention was directed. 
In the floor of a long building I observed seven deep 
cement-lined tanks or vats, which I learned were 
pickling vats. These seven vats will hold 660,000 
herring. After the herring have been kept in these 
vats for a time, they are packed in barrels and sent 
away, chiefly to the Emerald Isle, where they are 



VISIT TO A CURING ESTABLISHMENT. 93 

purchased by Paddy to eat with his potatoes. An- 
other class of prepared herring are " gypped " herring, 
that is, herring which have been eviscerated, and are 
then salted and dried. These are sent in large quan- 
tities to the Baltic. From this establishment alone 
thousands of barrels of herring are yearly sent out of 
Yarmouth, principally to Ireland, the Baltic, Italy, 
and the Levant. 




BLACK FRIARS TOWER. 



MEANINGS AND DERIVATION OF WORDS. 

1. BARF HOUSE, shed or open ground-floor, where 

first stage in curing herrings takes place. 

2. EARTH, shelter, a ground-floor. 

3. COB, supposed to be from the Welsh cwb, a 

compact mass. 

4. GYP, Per. giepen, to gape. 

5. HERRING, from the German " Her," or in modern 

spelling, " Heer," an army, great number, 
multitude, with the idea also of unity. 

6. LAST, lastage or lestage. Derived from the 

Saxon last, a burden in general, as also par- 
ticularly a certain weight or measure ; for, as 
we say a last of herrings, so they say ein last 
corns (last wines, i.e. two tons), etc. 

7. LOVES, Dan. lufte, "to air." Ger., luften, "to 

lift," so as to expose to the air. 

8. MAUND, Fr. mande, an open basket. 

9. FED, an osier basket with lid. 

10. RIVERS, Dan. rive, to lacerate. 

1 1 . ROARERS, Dan. rare, to stir about 

12. Row, Fr. rue, a street. 

13. SWILL, Gael, suil, a willow. 



94 



SIIK: 

Highest Award 



H I Gr EC E S T .A.'W.A.iR, ID S , 




Cured Herrings. 
Special Prize. 




Anti-Pilferage 
Package. 



C. STACY- WATSON & CO. 

received the ONLY AWARDS 
at the National Fisheries Ex- 
hibition, Norwich, and the 
Fisheries Exhibition, Gt. Yar- 
mouth, for HAM- CURED HER- 
RINGS & ANTI-PILFERAGE 
PACKAGE, and the only Prize 
Medal awarded at the Interna- 
tional Food Exhibition, London. 



AND TWO 

DIPLOMAS OF HONOUR. 



First Prize 




Ham-cured, Export, and 
Pickled Herrings. 

Special Prize 




HerringB Preserved 
in Tins. 



C. STACY- WATSON & CO., 

CURERS AND PACKERS OF THE 
C E L E B R A T E D 



HAM CURE, 
BLOATER CURE, 
WHITE SALTED IN PICKLE, 

REDS, ETC. 
PACKED IN BARRELS, BOXES, AND TINS. 

For Prices and Particulars address 

C. STACY-WATSON & CO., Yare Fishery Works, Gt. Yarmouth. 




"THE SILVERY HOSTS OF THE NORTH SEA." 

WITH HISTORICAL SKETCH OF QUAINT OLD YARMOUTH; 

AND RECIPES 
HOW TO COOK THE YARMOUTH HERRING. 

By C. STACY-WATSON. 
Price, cloth gilt, is. 6d. ; coloured stiff covers, is. 



LONDON: "HOME WORDS" OFFICE, i, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G. 

GREAT YARMOUTH : C. STACY- WATSON. 

95 



PRESS NOTICES. 



"THE GREATEST DELICACY OF THE SEASON WHAT is 
IT ? Tastes differ, and there is abundance of choice ; but after 
honey (which the young folk consider to be always in season), 
we should say, just now, a real Yarmouth Ham-cured Herring 
at breakfast, following upon an early morning stroll to promote 
the hunger which is the best condiment at every meal, would 
carry the verdict. A family box from the inexhaustible Yar- 
mouth stores of Mr. C. Stacy- Watson, was tested the other 
morning in our presence,, and there was no questioning the re- 
sult. ' Less meat and more herring,' would not be a bad medical 
prescription especially for the breakfast table. Economy and 
health would be equal gainers. We ought to add, take care how 
you t cook ' your herring when you have ' caught it.' Like cook- 
ing a potato, it is no doubt a very simple process, but it may not 
the less be regarded as a triumph of the culinary art. Mr. 
Stacy- Watson has issued a book of hints how to cook herrings. 
There are dozens of ways ; and his suggestions will be invalu- 
able in the kitchen." Hand and Heart, October 26th, 1877. 

" Tot's . . . parents and friends much appreciated the 
breakfast delicacies, which are the best Yarmouth bloaters, Ham- 
cured by Mr. C. Stacy- Watson." Myrds Journal, December 
ist, 1876. 

" If our readers want a cheap breakfast-table luxury, let them 
try Bloaters and Ham-cured Herrings in their season. They 
may rely on Mr. Stacy- Watson, Great Yarmouth, to supply the 
best of the best. We speak from experience." The Fireside, 
1880, p. 241. 

96 



PKESS NOTICES. 97 



" A CAPITAL BREAKFAST RELISH. The majority of people 
get tired of ham, bacon, and eggs for breakfast, and long for a 
change. Such persons we advise to try the Ham-cured Yar- 
mouth Herrings sent out by Mr. C. Stacy- Watson, of Great 
Yarmouth. Although they have been advertised in our columns 
several weeks, it was only a few days ago that we had the op- 
portunity of tasting them, and after trial we can recommend 
them as a very capital breakfast relish. They are sent out in 
boxes of various sizes." Coventry Standard, March gth, 1877. 

" As I have mentioned on previous occasions, the ' sportive ' 
features of the exhibition are, in my estimation, of small account 
in comparison with those connected with the great industry of 
our coast. The ' herring ' is the staff of life to hundreds all 
round our seaboard. Future exhibitions will probably do some- 
thing more to foster and encourage the catching and curing of 
this remarkable and prolific creature. The herring employs a 
larger amount of capital engages more fishermen gives more 
work to boat-builders, net-makers, curers, and innumerable 
other handicraftsmen and demands a larger sacrifice of life 
than any other fish that swims the sea. It is breakfast, dinner, 
and tea to thousands of the poor, and the occasional luxury of 
the rich. Whether as * Bloater ' or ' Ham-cured' it is alike use- 
ful and delicate. It has made Yarmouth everywhere famous. 
Packed in Messrs. C. Stacy- Watson and Co.'s thief-proof, Anti- 
pilferage Box, which I am glad to see has obtained a diploma 
of honour, the ham-cured article goes to all parts of England, 
and indeed of the civilised world, and then, delicately cooked, 
with just a masterful squeeze of lemon to soften its flavour and 
imbue its own rich aroma with another, it makes the produce of 
the pig vulgar, and becomes a food for lords and monarchs as 
well as for labourers and artisans. But why do I write thus 
about the herring ? Simply because it is the foundation of a 
great industry, and to suggest that in future exhibitions this fact 
should be to the front." Eastern Daily Press, May 7th, 1881. 

" We must also draw the attention of our readers to a simple 
yet admirable adaptation to the necessities of the fishing trade. 
This is in the shape of packages for the better preservation 

G 



98 PKSS NOTICES. 

and carriage of cured herring. They are exhibited by Messrs. 
C. Stacy- Watson & Co., of Great Yarmouth, who have ob- 
tained what we understand to be the only diploma for the 
article in its marketable shape. These herring (which are 
exhibited in bulk, not as samples or specimens of cured fish, 
but as packages taken from stock) are * Ham-cured ' by a pro- 
cess known only to this firm. They also obtained a diploma 
for their Anti-pilferage Package. This appliance is designed 
to meet a long-felt want in the trade, that of securing consign- 
ments of fish from the petty thievery constantly going on 
amongst the servants of public carriers, much to the annoyance 
of merchants and consignees. Messrs. C. Stacy- Watson & Co.'s 
invention differs from the ordinary square box, primarily in its 
being wedge-shaped. The expediency of this is obvious when 
we point out that an iron band is passed over the thinner, and 
knocked down cooper fashion to the thicker part. This of it- 
self would make the package very secure ; but, in order to 
render it more so, nails are driven through holes bored in the 
iron band for that purpose. Herrings thus packed are proof 
against pilferage ; but in the improbable event of an attempt 
being made to extract the contents, the appliance is made self- 
detecting by placing a label over the iron band, and covering 
the entire surface of the lid, the address card being fastened 
in the centre of the label and over the band. Thus protected, 
the package is safe, and in the case of any tampering a sure 
clue is afforded to the discovery of the delinquent ; and when 
the advantage is considered, viz., the receipt of goods well packed 
and in perfect condition, there is not the least doubt that they 
will reap their reward in an increased demand for their excel- 
lently cured and securely packed commodities." Eastern 
Daily Press, May 7th, 1881. 

" Messrs. C. Stacy-Watson & Co., of Yarmouth, are to the 
fore with cured goods, and what is termed their ' Anti-pilferage' 
package, for both of which they have secured diplomas. All 
can test the eatables for themselves, and we recommend a trial. 
The box, however, must be seen or used to be appreciated as 
it ought to be. It is one of the simplest and best inventions 
we have seen for many a day, and perfectly calculated to 



PRESS NOTICES. 99 

accomplish the purpose to which it is devoted. The firm have 
done for fish-packing what some ingenious mechanics say they 
have accomplished for locks, made them unpickable. We will 
not discuss the question of locks that is a matter we must 
leave to experts and rivals ; but Messrs. Stacy- Watson & Co.'s 
invention is perfect. It consists of a wedge-shaped instead of 
a square box. Here is the great departure from the old 
practice. An iron band is made to slide from the thinner to 
the thicker part, when it is nailed to the box, and the lid thus 
securely fastened. In order, however, to render the box a 
tell-tale should violence be attempted, the label is placed over 
the iron, and as the lid must either be broken or the iron band 
be disturbed, the evidence would be complete of some one's 
guilt, and inquiry would in all probability lead to detection. 
But supposing the genius of thievery overcame the obstacle, it 
would occupy so much time, that the result would not only be 
dangerous, but annoying and profitless ; so that in every way 
this simple invention is a great improvement, and a perfect 
security against that petty crime, pilfering. This firm charge 
no more for the new package than they did for the old, thus 
showing their desire to meet the wants of the public, and to 
secure them the full quantity of articles they order and pay for. 
Much vexation is avoided, disputes rendered almost impossible, 
and a vast amount of temptation prevented. This invention is 
little to look at, but its value has been found in practice, and its 
increased usefulness and demand are the best test of success." 
Norwich Argus, Special, April 2 7th, 1881. 

" The herring-curing process is a most important industry, but 
there are, of course, different methods employed. The Ham- 
cured Herrings, as they are styled, are undoubtedly a choice 
breakfast delicacy, and of the excellence of those prepared by 
Messrs. C. Stacy- Watson & Co., of the Yare Fishery Works, 
Yarmouth, we can speak in terms of unqualified praise. Caught 
between October and December last, these delicious fish are 
now in splendid form, but they will retain their good qualities for 
twice as long a period as has elapsed since they came ashore. 
This firm, we understand, treat a vast number of barrels a year, 
and the novel recipes they give for cooking the fish should be 



ioo PRESS NOTICES. 



procured from them, as a perusal will put the cook up to ' a 
wrinkle ' or two not before understood. We are surprised this 
firm got no more than a diploma of honour." Norwich Argus, 
Exhibition Edition, May 4th, 1881. 

" Of those Harn-cured Herrings, prepared by Messrs. C. 
Stacy- Watson & Co., we can speak, as we have before 
spoken, in terms of unqualified praise. This firm has hel 
a foremost place in the Exhibition with their Ham-cured 
Herrings . . . and their new invention the l Anti-pilferage 
Package,' for both of which we are glad to see they have 
obtained diplomas of honour, the only awards for either." 
Hand and Heart, May 2oth, 1881. 

"HAM-CURED HERRINGS. This breakfast-table relish is 
again ready. Mr. C. Stacy- Watson, of Great Yarmouth, is ac- 
quiring a wide reputation for the supply of these charming 
Ham-cured Herrings. We have tested them now for some 
years, and each year we are disposed to say we appreciate them 
better, though we hardly see how that is possible. A Family 
Box direct from Great Yarmouth, will make a welcome gift in 
any home. We advise our readers to try it." Hand and Hearty 
September 7th, 1880. 

"YARMOUTH HERRINGS, ETC. At the recent Fisheries Exhi- 
bition, Norwich, prominent among the exhibitors were Messrs. 
C. Stacy- Watson & Co., the well-known fish curers and ex- 
porters, and the sole proprietors of what is known as the * Anti- 
pilferage Package/ of the celebrated Yarmouth Bloater and 
Ham-cured Herrings. These specialities are very good, and 
deservedly popular wherever they are known." Australian and 
New Zealand Gazette, June 25th, 1881. 

" FISHERIES EXHIBITION, GT. YARMOUTH. C. Stacy- 
Watson & Co.'s exhibits are numerous and excellent in every 
particular. First, we may notice a plan of his herring-curing 
buildings on South Denes Road, and which will hang fifty 
lasts, and also tanks for pickling fifty lasts (over a million- 
and-a-quarter herrings). There is a stand specially devoted to 
C. Stacy- Watson's toothsome Ham-cured Herrings, and his far- 



PXSS NOTICES. 101 

famed ' Anti-pilferage Package ' for which he received a diploma 
of honour (the only award given for either) at the recent Norwich 
Exhibition. It is needless to expatiate on the merits of the 
* Anti-pilferage Package,' as its merits have already been fully 
acknowledged." Yarmouth Gazette and North Norfolk Con- 
stitiitionalist, July 23rd, 1881. 

" Messrs. Stacy-Watson & Co. showed the Ham-herring in 
addition to the ' Anti-pilferage Package/ The quality of these 
fish was demonstrated by Mr. Watson opening a package in 
our presence. These were last year's fish, packed in April of 
the present year, and when the box was opened they were found 
to be as sound and full-flavoured as when they were packed. 
The Anti-pilferage Package, invented by Mr. Watson, has been a 
great success, and is everywhere spoken of in the highest terms. 
It thoroughly answers its purpose, namely, prevents pilfering in 
the passage of the goods from one place to another. Numerous 
testimonials have been received as to the success of his pack- 
age, and although its introduction and make entail a consider- 
able addition to the cost as compared with the old style, no 
addition of price is made." Yarmouth Independent, July 23rd, 
1881. 

" 'HAM-CURED ' HERRINGS. As tasteful as ever, this break- 
fast delicacy ought to be found on every breakfast table. 
Messrs. Stacy- Watson Co., of Great Yarmouth, have made 
the 'Ham Cure' quite famous." Church Standard, February 
1 6th, 1883. 




TESTIMONIALS. 



" COUNTY ANALYST'S OFFICE, London Street, Norwich, 
October, 1877. 

" I hereby certify that I have made a very careful examination 
of some boxes of Bloater and Ham Herrings, as sent out by 
Stacy- Watson & Co., of Gt. Yarmouth, to ascertain whether 
they were smoked with oak wood, or with common and cheaper 
materials as is too often the case. The result of my examin- 
ation has perfectly satisfied me that they are cured with oak 
smoke ; and I may further add that it is seldom I have tasted 
any herrings equal to them in flavour and quality, and certainly 
have never had them surpassed. 

" (Signed) FRANCIS SUTTON, F.C.S., 
" Fellow of the Chemical Societies of London and Berlin, 
Public Analyst for the County of Norfolk, Borough oj 
Gt. Yarmouth, etc? 

"March, 1881. 

" Sirs, Since I made the original examination of your 
Bloaters and Ham Herrings in 1877, I have repeatedly com- 
pared them with the fish sold in fish shops and by travelling 
salesmen, with the result that your method of curing finds pre- 
ference at the table, and the genuine oak flavour is always the 
same. 

"(Signed) FRANCIS SUTTON." 

From the Rev. CHARLES BULLOCK, B.D., Blackheath. 
" To my taste they are exquisite. I regard you as a bene- 
factor of the country." 



TESTIMONIALS. 103 



From J. HUTTON, Rector of Stilton. 

"Your Family Box of ' Ham-Cured ' Herrings is of excellent 
quality." 

From F. BARLOW, Mayor, Cambridge. 

" The Herrings duly to hand, and very good indeed ; so good, 
that I shall be glad to receive another box." 

From W. H. OLLEY, Esq., Savage Gardens, London. 
" Kindly forward to the above address two packages of the 
same fine description of Bloaters as you sent me last year." 

From A. E. RUTTER, Esq., Summerside, Shaftesbury, Dorset. 

" Will feel obliged by Messrs. C. Stacy- Watson Co. 
forwarding a barrel of their 'Ham-Cured' Herrings, which 
were so delicious last season." 

From T. C. PENNY, Esq., Little Dartmouth, Dartmouth. 
" Box of ' Ham-Cured ' Herrings has given great satisfaction, 
and friends inquire where they come from." 

From J. H. THOMPSON, Delifield Road, Charlton* 
" The Herrings sent last season were splendid." 

From G. JENNINGS, Esq., Elvaston Castle, Derby. 
" If you have any Bloaters or Kippers, please send the Earl 
of Harrington a box to above address. You have sent them 
here before." 

From JAMES SMALE, Hales Street, Southwark, London. 
" So very fine in flavour. I should like you to send me six 
boxes of the same kind just sent." 

From VISCOUNT HARDINGE, South Park, Penshiirst, Kent. 
" Lord Hardinge would be obliged by your sending him a 
box of fifty Bloaters, same as before." 



104 TESTIMONIALS. 

From JOHN HEAD, Esq., Somerton, Somerset. 
" The barrel of ' Ham-Cured ' Herrings has arrived, and they 
are very good. Some of my neighbours have taken a part, so 
that I require another barrel as before." 

From THOMAS CASELY, \a, Kentish Town Road, London. 
" They are really very fine. I don't know where such a quality 
get to when they arrive in London, for we never see them." 

From ROBERT MCCRACKEN, Esq., 38, Fenchurch Street, 
London. 

" The Bloaters are really delicious, which fact was demon- 
strated by the manner in which they disappeared from my 
breakfast table this morning." 

From Mrs. W. VIGOR Fox, Comberbech House, Northwich, 
Cheshire. 

" Encloses P.O.O. requesting Mr. Stacy- Watson to send her 
a box of his ' Ham-Cured ' Herrings, which are much liked." 

From J. R. V. BRYANT, Esq., St. Michael's Square, Pembroke. 
" The fish are very good, and the box cannot possibly be 
opened on the way." 

From HENRY RIBBAND, Esq., Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. 
" The Bloaters you sent me arrived safely, and were most 
beautiful. Kindly send me another 90 box as soon as possible." 

From FRANCIS SUTTON, Esq., County Analyst's Office, 

London Street, Norwich, March, 1883. 
" I have great pleasure in telling you that the barrel of ' Ham- 
Cured ' Herrings which I bought of you at the end of last year, 
and also the box had at the beginning of this year, turned out 
of first-rate quality, and possessed the same rich oak-smoke 
flavour as those which I originally examined in 1877." 



HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

DEAN CONNOR, one of Her Majesty's Chaplains, writes : 
" Her Majesty permits me to say she has read and approved of it with 
much pleasure." 

THE WEEKLY PENNY NEWSPAPER. 

"THE CHURCH STANDARD:" 

&n Ellustratcti Journal anti 



The Art Journal says : " The art is as gopd as the literature." 
The Derby Mercury says : " We are more pleased than ever with the 
thorough manliness of tone, its outspoken comments on passing events, and 
the admirable summary of events of the day contained in its columns." 

THE NEWS DEPARTMENT COMPRISES : 

I. The Week: a Chronicle of Current Events and Opinions. 
II. In Parliament: A Digest of the Debates during the Session. 

III. Leaders on the most prominent Topics of the Day. 

IV. Jottings on Men and Things. By a London Wayfarer. 

V. Temperance : Facts, Figures, and Illustrations of the Move- 
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OTHER TOPICS. 



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XIII. Evenings at Home. 

XIV. Humanity Page. 
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XVI. Men of Mark. 

*,* This Series has included Portraits and Biographical Notices of the 
following Temperance Leaders: 



ARCHBISHOP OF YORK. 

SIR WILFRID LAWSON, M.P. 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK. 

J. B. GOUGH. 

CANON ELLISON. 

THOMAS BURT, ESQ., M.P. 

THE REV. J. HASLOCH POTTER. 

THE BISHOP OF EXETER. 

J. G. RICHARDSON, ESQ. 



THE BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

MR. ROBERT RAE. 

THE BISHOP OF BEDFORD. 

THE REV. CANON FLEMING. 

MR. A. SARGANT. 

THE REV. J. F. KITTO. 

CANON BASIL WILBERFORCE. 

MR. F. SMITH. 

THE BISHOP OF GLOUCESTER. 



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105 



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The Rescue. In the Glen. 

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Now ready, cloth gilt, is. 

Volume III. H.R.H. PRINCE LEOPOLD, K.G. 

Life and Addresses. With Portrait by T. D. SCOTT. 

Now ready, cloth gilt, is. 

Volume IV. SIR WILFRID LAWSON, Bart., M.P. 

With Portrait by T. D. SCOTT. 

Biography and Selection from Speeches, etc., by FREDERICK SHERLOCK, 

Author of " Illustrious Abstainers " etc. Introductory Note by the 

Rev. CHARLES BULLOCK, B.D. 



The "Talks" in these volumes will deal with "the politics of home" 
the most important politics of all which pre-eminently concern the domestic 
and social happiness and prosperity of the people. Each volume is com- 
plete in itself. 



London : " HOME WORDS " Office, i, Paternoster Buildings, E.G. 



WORKS BY THE LATE FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL. 

PUBLISHED AT "HOME WORDS" OFFICE, i, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G. 
Now ready, Second Thousand, cloth gilt, with Portraits. Price zs. 6d. 

''SPECIMEN-GLASSES" FOR THE KING'S 
MINSTRELS. 

CONTENTS. 



CHAP. Prefatory Note. Introductory. 
I. The Rev.W. Pennefather's Hymns. 
II. Charlotte Elliott's Hymns. 

III. Dean Alford's Hymns. 

IV. Bishop Wordsworth's Hymns. 

V. Hymns by Charitie Lees Smith and 
Mary Bowly. 



CHAP. 

VI. Hymns of Joy. 
VII. Hymns for Sufferers. 
VIII. Hymns for Sufferers (continued). 
IX. Seven Clerical Hymn Writers. 

X. Mission Hymns. 
XI. Mission Hymns (continued). 



II. 

Eighth Thousand, cloth gilt, with Portrait and Illustration of Astley Church and the 

Rectory, is. 

ECHOES FROM THE WORD: FOR THE CHRISTIAN 

YEAR. 

Advent. Epiphany. Easter. Whitsuntide. 

Christmas. Lent. Ascension. Trinity. 

"Ought to be as popular as ' Keble's Christian Year.' " The Fireside. 

III. 
Third Thousand, leatherette gilt, -with Illustrations. 35. 6d. 

MY BIBLE STUDY, FOR THE SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR. 

A fac-simile memorial of F. R. H. 

IV. 

Fiftieth Thousand, with Illustration, price id. 
WAYSIDE CHIMES: for the Months of the Year. 

V. 

Sixtieth Thousand, with Illustration, id. 

"HIM WITH WHOM WE HAVE TO DO." 

Written by F. R. H. shortly before her death, for the January Number of The Day of Days. 

MUSIC FOR FESTIVALS, ETC. 

By the late FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL. 
I. 

" O'ER THE PLAINS : " a Christmas Carol. 

Words by the Rev. W. J. VERNON, B.A. 

II. 
"THE GOOD OLD CHURCH OF ENGLAND." 

Words by the Rev. W. BLAKE ATKINSON. 

III. 
"GOD BLESS THE BOYS OF ENGLAND." 

Words by the Rev. DR. MAGUIRE. 

Price -$d. each ; but quantities supplied at a great reduction, on application at the Publishing 
Office. 

The late FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL. 
Seventh Thousand, bevelled cloth gilt, with Portrait, is. 

"WITHIN THE PALACE GATES:" 

A Memorial Volume by the Rev. CHARLES BULLOCK, B.D., Author of "The Way Home," etc. 
"A touching tribute." The Record. 

LONDON: "HOME WORDS" OFFICE, i, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G. 

in 



"HOME WORDS" PUBLICATIONS. 



MAGAZINES FOR THE HOME. 

Edited by the Rev. CHARLES BULLOCK, B.D., 

Formerly Rector of St. Nicholas', Worcester, Author of "England's Royal 
Home." 

THE FIRESIDE. 

THE NEW VOLUME, RICHLY BOUND, fs. 6d., CONTAINS 

TWO NEW SERIAL TALES. 

1. DAYSPRING. By Mrs. MARSHALL. 

2. FORBIDDEN TO MARRY. By Mrs. G. LINNAEUS BANKS. 



3. TEMPERANCE PIONEERS. By FREDERICK SHERLOCK, Author of 

" Illustrious Abstainers," etc. 

4. BIBLE EMBLEMS. By the Rev. C. WAREING BARDSLEY, M.A., Vicar of 

Christ Church, Surbiton. 

Other Serial Works by well-known Authors. 

6d. MONTHLY. 
" 'The Fireside' is excellent, and wonderfully cheap." The Times. 



II. 

HOME WORDS. 

id. Monthly. New Vohime, 2S. 

CONTAINS : 

1. Five Thousand Pounds. A 

Tale. By AGNES GIBERNE. 

2. Rain and Shine. A Tale. By 

EMMA MARSHALL. 

3. Our Church Portrait Gallery. 

28 Portraits. 

4. The Bible Mine. By the Bishop 

of SODOR AND MAN. 

5. President Garfleld. By H. G. 

REID. 



You." By E. B. 



6. Fables for 

PROSSER. 



7. The Home Songster. (Various 

Authors.) 

8. How they Lived in the Olden 

Time. By the EDITOR. 

9. Wayside Chimes. (Various.) 
10. Young Folks' Page. Etc., etc. 



III. 

THE DAY OF DAYS. 

T.d. Monthly. New Volume, vs. 
CONTAINS : 

1. Wordsof MinistryintheHome. 

2. Sunday Tales Illustrating 

Bible Truths. 

3. Leaves of Christian Biography. 

4. Mission Work. 

5. The Sunday Bible Hour. 

6. The Olive Branch, etc., etc. 
"An extraordinary cheap publica- 
tion." East Anglian Daily Times. 

" Deserves to be most extensively 
circulated." Wakefield Herald. 

" A marvel of cheapness, got up in 
a superior style." Kentish Indepen- 
dent. 

" THE DAY OF DAYS, reduced to a 
penny, now runs an even race with the 
favourite HOME WORDS." Peter- 
borough Advertiser. 

" THE DAY OF DAYS, as a Sunday 
Magazine, is without a rival. Mental 
vigour and moral excellence com- 
bined." Hastings and St. Leonard's 
News. 

"It is hard to believe, on turning 
over the pages, that it is sold at so low 
a price." Ckztrck Simday-School 
Magazine. 

" Bright, pithy, and always wel- 
come." Derby Mercury. 



London: "HOME WORDS" Office, i, Paternoster Buildings, B.C. 
112 



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Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 






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