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Full text of "The silviculture of Indian trees. Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council"

THE SILVICULTURE 

OF 

INDIAN TREES 



VOLUME II 

Leguminosae (Caesalpiiiieae) to Yerbenaceae 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

I'UBLISHER TO THE TTNTVERSITY 



THE SILVICULTURE 



OF 



INDIAN TREES 




BY 



R. S. TROUP, M.A., CLE. 

INDIAN FOREST SERVICE ; FELLOW OF ST. JOHN's COLLEGE, OXFORD, AND 
PROFESSOR OF FORESTRY IN THE UNIVERSITY 



VOLUME II 



Leguminosae (Caesalpiiiieae) to Verbenaceae 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1921 




7961J74 







CONTENTS OF VOLUME II 

PAGE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vii 

ORDER XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE (contd.) 337 

SUB-ORDER II. CAESALPINIEAE 337 

1. Caesalpinia, p. 337 ; 2. Poinciana, p. 337 ; 3. Acrocarpus, p. 338 ; 
4. Hardwickia, p. 340 ; 5. Saraca, p. 362 ; 6. Amherstia, p. 362 ; 
7. Tamarindus, p. 362 ; 8. Cassia, p. 366 ; 9. Bauhinia, p. 375. 

SUB-ORDER III. MIMOSEAE 389 

1. Prosopis, p. 389 ; 2. Xylia, p. 402 ; 3. Acacia, p. 418 ; 4. Albiz- 
zia, p. 466 ; 5. Dichrostacbys, p. 484 ; 6. Adenanthera, p. 485 ; 
7. Pithecolobiiim, p. 485 ; 8. Leiicaena, p. 486. 

ORDER XXIV. ROSACEAE 487 

1. Primus, p. 487 ; 2. Pyrus, p. 490. 

ORDER XXV. HAMAMELIDACEAE 491 

1. Bucldandia, p. 491 ; 2. Parrotia, p. 496. 

ORDER XXVI. RHIZOPHORACEAE 496 

1. Ehizophora, p. 500 ; 2. Ceriops, p. 501; 3. Kandeba, p. 503; 
4. Bruguiera, p. 503 ; 5. CaralKa, p. 504. 

ORDER XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 506 

1, Terminaba, p. 507 ; 2. Anogeissus, p. 538 ; 3. Lumnitzera, p. 548. 

ORDER XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 548 

1. Eugenia, p. 548 ; 2. Eucalyptus, p. 556 ; 3. Barringtonia, p. 590 ; 
4. Careya, p. 591 ; 5. Plancbonia, p. 592. 

ORDER XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 593 

1. Lagerstroemia, p. 593; 2. Duabanga, p. 605; 3. Sonneratia, p. 608 ; 
4. Woodfordia, p. 609 ; 5. Punica, p. 610. 

ORDER XXX. SAMYDACEAE .610 

1. Casearia, p. 610 ; 2. HomaKum, p. 611. 

ORDER XXXI. DATISCACEAE .612 

Tetrameles, p. 612. 

ORDER XXXII. CACTACEAE 612 

Opuntia, p. 612. 

ORDER XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 613 

1. Anthocephalus, p. 614 ; 2. Adina, p. 616 ; 3. Stepbegyne, p. 621 ; 
4. Nauclea, p. 624 ; 5. Hymenodictyon, p. 625 ; 6, Wendlandia, 
p. 628; 7. Gardenia, p. 628 ; 8. Randia, p. 632. 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

OEDEE XXXIV. ERICACEAE ...... 633 

1. Rhododendron, p. 633 ; 2. Pieris, p. 635. 

ORDER XXXV. MYRSINACEAE ...... 636 

Aegiceras, p. 636. 

ORDER XXXVI. SAPOTACEAE ... ... 636 

1, Mimusops, i>. 637 ; 2. Bassia, p. 640. 

ORDER XXXVII. EBENACEAE ... ^ . 646 

Diospyros, p. 646, 

ORDER XXXVIII. OLEACEAE 656 

1. Fraxinus, p. 656 ; 2. Olea, p, 658 ; 3. Nyctanthes, p. 661 ; 
4. Schrebera, p. 662. 

ORDER XXXIX. SALVADORACEAE 662 

Salvadora, p. 662. 

ORDER XL. APOCYNACEAE 663 

1. Holarrhena, p. 664 ; 2. Alstonia, p. 668 ; 3. Wrightia, p. 668 ; 
4. Carissa, p. 672. 

ORDER XLI. ASCLEPIADACEAE 672 

1. Cryptostegia, p. 673 ; 2. Calotropis, p. 673. 

ORDER XLII. LOGANIACEAE 673 

1. Strychnos, p. 673 ; 2. Eagraea, p. 676. 

ORDER XLIII. BORAGINACEAE . . . ... 677 

1. Cordia, p. 677 ; 2. Ehretia, p. 682. 

ORDER XLIV. BIGNONIACEAE 684 

1. Stereospermum, p. 684 ; 2. Oroxylum, p. 691 ; 3. Millingtonia, 
p. 692 ; 4. Tecoma, p. 693. 

ORDER XLV. ACANTHACEAE 693 

1. Acanthus, p. 693 ; 2. Adhatoda, p. 694 ; 3. Phlogacanthus, p. 694 ; 
4. Strobilanthes, p. 694. 

ORDER XLVI. VERBENACEAE 697 

1. Tectona, p. 697; 2. Gmelina, p. 769; 3. Vitex, p. 776; 
4. Premna, p. 778 ; 5. Callicarpa, p. 778 ; 6. Avicennia, p. 779 ; 
7. Lantana, p. 780. 

INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES, VOLUME II. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, VOLUME II 

PAGE 

137. Acrocarpusfraxiuifolius, seedling .......... 339 

138. Hardwichia hinata, sapling crop on trap, Nimar, Central Provinces. (D. 0. Witt 

photo.) .............. 342 

139. Hardwickia hinata, bushy young growth on a heavily grazed area, Nimar, Central 

Provinces. (D. 0. Witt photo.) . . ^ 342 

140. Hardwickia bhiaia, old pollarded tree on sandstone, Nimar, Central Provinces. 

(D.O.Witt photo.) 343 

141. Hardwickia binaia, seedlmg . .......... 344 

142. Hardwickia pinnata, seedling .......... 363 

143. Tamarindus indica, seedling . . . . . . . . . - 365 

144. Cassia i^'iS^wZa, Dehra Dun, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) . . . 366 

145. Cassia Fistida, seedling ........... 368 

146. Cassia auriculata, seedling ........... 374 

147. Bauhinia racemosa, seedling .......... 377 

148. Bauhinia malaharica, seedling .......... 381 

149. Bauhinia purpurea, seedling .......... 384 

150. Bauhinia variegata, seedling .:........ 388 

151. Prosopis spicigera, seedling ........... 393 

152. Prosopis spicigera, plantation about forty years old, Changa Manga, Punjab. 

(E.Marsden photo.) 396 

153. Xylia dolahriformis,'R\ivm.a.. (J, H. Lace photo.) ....... 397 

154. Xylia dolahriformis, seedling .......... 406 

155. X^/Zm fZofofer^/o/wn's in upper mixed forest; Burma. (J, W. Oliver photo.) . . . 408 

156. Xylia dolahriformis, seedling towards end of second season, regularly weeded and 

watered. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 409 

157. Xylia dolahriformis, seedlings fifteen months old, showing effect of weeding, Dehra Dun. 

(T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 409 

158. Xylia dolahriformis, dense natural reproduction in fire-protected forest, establishment 

assisted by gradual opening of the overhead canopy combined with repeated cleanings, 

Minhla reserve, Tharrawaddy, Burma. (A. Rodger photo.) ..... 410 

159. Xylia dolahriformis, dense natural sapling crop in fire-protected forest, assisted by 

gradual opening of overhead canopy combined with repeated cleanings, Konbilin 
reserve, Tharrawaddy, Burma. (A. Rodger photo.) . . . . .411 

160. Xylia xylocarpa, seedling . . . . . . . . . .415 

161. Acacia arahica, seedling ........... 428 

162. Acacia arahica, weeded ridge sowings, end of first season, Hamirpur district, United 

Provinces. (Author photo.) .......... 438 

163. Acacia arahica, ridge sowings in bed of stream, end of second year, Fisher forest, Etawah, 

United Provinces. (E. Marsden photo.) ........ 438 

164. Ravine lands being afforested with Acacia arahica, Kalpi, United Provinces. 

(T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 439 

165. Acacia arahica^ so\vings on ravine lands, Kalpi, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar 

photo.) . 439 

166. Acacia leucophloea, seeiHing ........... 446 

167. Acacia leucophloea, JjTpjieT ^nxma. (A. Rodger photo.) ...... 448 

168. Acacia Catechuiree, 10 ft. 6 in. in girth, in riverain tract, Siwaliks, Ignited Province.s. 

(Author photo.) 448 

169. Riverain forest of ^cacmC'a^ecte, Siwaliks, United Provinces ..... 449 



Vlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

170. Acacia Catechu, seedling .... ..... 450 

171. Line sowings of Acacia CatecMt three and a half months old in conjunction with field 

crops, Dehra Dun (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 454 

172. Acacia Catechu on very jioor eroded ground, Gonda district, United Provinces. 

(Author photo.) ............ 454 

173. Acacia Catechu, unirrigated line sowings, weeded and thinned, end of third season, Delua 

Dun. (T.B.Cliitrakar photo.) 455 

174. Coppice of Eucalyptus Globulus and Acacia dealbata, six years old, the latter forming an 

underwood to the former, Coonoor Peak plantation, Nilgiris. (Author photo.) . . 464 

175. Coppice of Acacia dealbata. with younger coppice intermingled, and numerous root- 

suckers in foreground, Nilgiris. (Author photo.) . ...... 465 

176. Mixed plantation of Eucalyptus Globulus and Acacia Melanoxylon, forty years old, Rallia 

plantation, Nllgiris. (Author photo.) . . . . . . . 466 

177. Albizzia Lebbek in evergreen forest, Andamans ....... 467 

178. Albizzia Lebbel; seedling . . . . . . . . . . . 468 

179. Albizzia stipulata, Vnited 'Provinces. (Basti Ram photo.) . . . . . 472 

180. Albizzia procera growing gregariously on low-level savannah, Goalpara, .Assam. 

(Author photo.) 473 

181. Albizzia stipulata, seedling . . . . . . . . . 475 

182. Albizzia procera, seedling ........... 476 

183. Albizzia lucida, seedling ........... 482 

184. Prunus Padus, seedling ........... 489 

185. Prunus Padus growing gregariously, with an underwood of Taxus baccata, Hazara. 

(Author photo.) 490 

186. Bucliandia, populnea, mature tree, girth 22 ft. 6 in., height 140 ft., bole 85 ft., Darjeeling 

hihs. (H. S. Gibson photo.) 491 

187. Buclclandia populnea, j)ole grown in sufficiently close crop to produce a clean bole, Dar- 

jeeling hills. (H. S. Gibson photo.) ......... 491 

188. Buckiandia populnea, plantation between twenty and thirty years old, Darjeeling liills. 

(H. S. Gibson photo.) .491 

189. Buckiandia populnea, seedlmg .......... 493 

190. Buckiandia populnea, plantation five years old, Surial, Darjeeling hills, 4,300 ft. 

elevation. (E. Marsden photo.) ......... 494 

191. Buckiandia populnea, interior of plantation thirtj'-eight years old, below Rangirum, 

Darjeeling hills. (E. Marsden photo.) ........ 495 

192. Rhizophoraceae, germination .......... 502 

193. Terminalia belerica, seedling ........ . 508 

194. Terminalia Chebula, seedling ......... 512 

195. Terminalia belerica, United Provinces. (Basti Ram photo.) ..... 514 

196. Terminalia tomentosa, tree 12 ft. 4 in. in girth and 115 ft. in height on alluvial gromid, 

Gonda district. United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) . .... 515 
197-200. Terminalia tomentosa, establishment of pure crops on alluvial ground, Gonda 

district, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 516-17 

201. Terminalia tomentosa, seedling .......... 518 

202. Terminalia Arjuna, seedling .......... 630 

203. Terminalia myriocarpa, seedling .......... 532 

204. Terminalia Arjuna, Bombay. (E. M. Hodgson photo.) ...... 536 

205. Anogeissus latifolia, Dehra Dun, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo, j . . 537 

206. Anogeissus latifolia, seedling .......... 540 

207. Anogeissus pendula, seedling .......... 544 

208. Eugenia Jambolana on bank of stream, United Provinces. (Basti Ram photo.) . . 548 

209. Eugenia Jambolana y owing gregariously along bank of stream and worked as coppice, 

Gorakhpur district, United Provinces. (T. B. -Chitrakar photo.) .... 549 

210. Eugenia Jamholana, seedling .......... 550 

211. Eugenia Jamholana, co\^\)iqq 30 ft. liigh in process of being felled on swampy ground, 

Gorakhpur distiiet, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) .... 552 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix 

PAGE 

212. Eugenia Jamholana, line sowings in second year, showing beneficial effect of side shade, 

Dehra Dun. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 553 

213. Eugenia Jambolana, plants thirteen months old from broadcast sowings, showing 

beneficial effect of weeding, Dehra Dmi, (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) . . . . 554 

214. Eunenia Jamholana. natural reproduction on soft sandy soil, Tirsal forest, Dehra Dun, 

United Provinces. (T. B. Cliitrakar photo.) ....... 554 

215. Eugenia Jamholana, coppice four years old, 15 ft. high, on alluvial ground along the bank 

of a stream, Gorakhpur district, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) . . 555 

216. J5Jt<caZ?/piM.s (?/o6i<^?<s, coppice seven months old, Mlgiris. (Author photo.) . . . 572 

217. Eucalyptus Glohulus, coppice, grass-land type, two years and six years old, Arambj' 

plantation, Ootacamund. (Author photo.) . ....... 573 

218. Eucalyptus Globtdus, coppice eight years old, grass-land type, Aramby plantation, 

Ootacamund. (Author photo.) .......... 574 

219. Eucalyptus Globulus, coppice on s/iote-land. age four years, height 45 ft , Coonoor Peak 

plantation, Xilgiris. (Author photo.) . . . . . . . . 575 

220. Eucalyptus Glohulus, plantation, forty-nine years old, on s/jo/a-land, Aramby II. 5, 

Ootacamund. (Author photo.) .......... 576 

221. Eucalyptus Glohulus, high forest plantation, thirty years old, Mutinad, Nilgiris. 

(Author photo.) 577 

222. Barringtonia acutangula, seedling .......... 590 

223. Lagerstroemia parviflora, seedling ......... 594 

224. Former riverain forest of Dalbergia Sissoo in process of conversion to forest of 

Lagerstroetnia parviflora, Goa\i->a,vA, Assum. (Author photo.) . .... 596 

225. Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Bombay. (R. S. Pearson photo.) ..... 597 

226. Lagerstroemia Flos-Iieginae, seedling ...... . . 598 

227. Lagerstroemia tomentosa, seedling ...... ... 600 

228. Duahanga sonneratioides, seedling .......... 604 

229. Duahanga sonneratioides. (B. S. Gupta photo.) ....... 606 

230. Duahanga sonneratioides, crop six years old, Darjeeling hills. (E. Marsden photo.) . 607 

231. Homalium tomentosum, girth 12 ft., height 120 ft., Minhla reserve, Tharrawaddy, 

Burma, (A. Rodger photo.) 612 

232. Homalium tomentosum in upper mixed forest, Prome, Burma. (J. W. Oliver photo.) . 613 

233. Anthocephalus Cadamha, seedling .......... 614 

234. Anthocephalus Cadamha, natural reproduction on an area formerly grazed, but free from 

grazing in recent years, Buxa division, Bengal. (Author photo.) .... 616 

235. Adina cordifolia, vigorous seedling in third season. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) . . 617 

236. ^rfiwj corc^i/oZm, Siwalik hills, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) . . . 617 

237. Adina cordifolia, seedling . . . . . . . . . . .618 

238. Stephegyne parvifolia, height 78 ft., girth 27 ft. 6 in., Siwalik hills, United Provinces. 

(T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 621 

239. Stephegyne parvifolia, seedling .......... 622 

240. Hymenodictyon excelsum. seedling ...... ... 626 

241. Gardenia turgida, seedling . . . . . . . .631 

242. Rhododendron arhoreum, seedling .......... 635 

243. Mimusops Elengi, seedling ........... 638 

244. Bassia latifolia on former forest land cleared for cultivation, Singhbhum, Chota Kagpur. 

(Author photo.) ............ 641 

245. Diospyros hurmanica, regrowth from root-suckers and coppice -slioots on fields left 

un worked for four years, Burma. (A. Rodger photo.) . . ... 641 

246. Bassia latifolia, seedling ........... 643 

247. Bassia longifolia, seedling ........... 644 

248. Diospyros Melanoxylon, seedling .......... 648 

249. Diospyros Emhryopteris, seedling . . . . . " . . . . . 652 

250. i^raxmwsexceZswr, girth 8ft. 1 in., upper Siran valley, Hazara. (Author photo.) . . 658 

251. Fraxinus xa7ithoxyloides, K&ga.n xaMey, HAzara. (Author photo.) . . . . 658 

252. Olea c^ispidatajHazsivai. (Author photo.) ........ 659 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

253. Holarrheiiaantidi/sentenca in ivmt,'Dehva. Dun. (T. B. Chitrakar photo. ) . . . 664 

254^. Alstonia scholar is, Behva, Bun. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 665 

255. Holarrhena antidysenterica, seedling ......... 666 

256. Wrtghtia tomentosa., seedling . . 670 

257. Strychnos Nux-Umida, seedling . 674 

258. Cordia Myxa, seedling 679 

259. Cordia vestita, seedling ........... 680 

260. Stereos per mum suaveolens, seedling ......... 686 

261. Oroxylumindicum, seedling ........... 690 

262. Tectona grandis, girth 11 ft. 7 in., Minye, Toungoo, Burma. (J. H. Lace photo.) . 698 

263. Teak tree, height 152 ft., girth 10 ft. 3 in., Mohnyin reserve, Katha, Upper Burma. 

(Author photo.) 699 

264. Pure teak forest, Mohnyin, Katha, Upper Burma. (Author photo.) . . . . 699 

265. Teak in evergreen forest, Mogaung, Upper Burma. (J. W. Oliver photo.) . . . 702 

266. Teak in upper mixed forest, Bhamo, Upper Burma. (J. H. Lace photo.) . . . 703 

267. Teak in lower mixed forest, Pyinmana, Upper Burma. (J. H. Lace photo.) . . 708 

268. Tectona gra7idis,inQ.ovesGenee. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 709 

269. Tectona gra7idis, ivuiting -psinicle. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 709 

270. TectoJia grandis, seedling 710 

271. Tectotut grandis, seedlings in different stages up to two months old. (T. B. C!hitrakar 

photo.) .............. 712 

272. yecto?^? g'ra/ic^is, vigorous seedling in first season. (T. B Chitrakar photo.) . . . 712 

273. Tectona grandis, line sowings in second year, Dehra Dun, showing effect of weeding. 

(T. B. Chitrakar phQto.) 713 

274. Natural reproduction of teak along old dragging-path, Pyinmana, Upper Burma. 

(J. H. Lace photo.) 724 

275. Forest of Bamhnsa polymorpka, never fire-protected, with natural reproduction of teak 

on the ground, Tharrawaddy, Burma. (F. Beadon Bryant photo.) . . . . 725 

276. Dense young growth of Cephalostachyum pergracile under Bamhusa polymorpka in forest 

Avhich has been fire-protected for fourteen years, Tharrawaddy, Burma. (F. Beadon 

Bryant photo.) ............ 725 

277. Dense natural reproduction of teak, chiefly 2 to 3 ft. high, in a teak and sissoo plantation 

forty years old, Ramgarh. Gorakhpur, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo. ) . 728 

278. Dense natural reproduction of teak in a teak plantation forty years old, Ramgarh, 

Gorakhpur, United Provinces. (T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 729 

279. Teak plantation fourteen years old, Ramalur block, Nilambur, South Malabar. 

(Author photo.) ............ 732 

280. Teak plantation twenty years old, Edacode block, Nilambur. (Author photo.) . . 733 

281. Teak plantation fifty-four years old, Elanjeri block, Nilambur. (Author photo ) . . 734 

282. Teak plantation fifty-seven years old, Panengode block, Nilambur. (Author photo.) . 735 

283. Teak plantation sixty-five years old, Moolathamanoo block, Nilambur. (Author 

photo.) 736 

284. Young teak tomgrj/a plantation in second year, Burma. (J. W. Oliver photo.) . . 737 

285. Young teak taungya plantation in third year, Tharrawaddy, Burma. (J. W. Oliver 

photo.) 740 

286. Teak taungya plantation nine years old, ready for first thinning, Tharrawaddy, Burma. 

(J. H. Lace photo.) ............ 741 

287. Natural reproduction of teak induced by clearing overhead canopy, cutting and burning 

undergrowth and weeding young plants, Molmyin, Upper Burma : plants of two 

rains' growth. (J. H. Lace photo.) ......... 752 

288. Natural reproduction of teak induced by clearing overhead canopy, cutting and burning 

undergrowth and weedmg young plants, Mohnyin, Upper Burma : plants of three 

rains' growth. (J. H.Xace photo.) ......... 752 

289. Natural reproduction of teak induced by clearing overhead canopy and undergrowth, 

Mohnyin, Upper Burma : area not burnt but weeded regularly : plants of four rains' 

growth. (J. H. Lace photo.) . . . . . . . . . . 753 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi 

PAGE 

290. Regeneration fellings in Mohnyin forest, Katha, Upper Burma : a regenerated area 

after the second rainy season, with teak seedlings plentiful : girdled trees not yet 
removed. (G. S. Hart photo.) .......... 753 

291. Natural reproduction of teak one year old in upper mixed forest, induced by clearing 

overhead cover, cutting bamboos, thoroughly burning, and weeding the resulting 
teak seedlings, North Toungoo, Burma. (G. S. Hart photo.) . .... 753 

292. Natural reproduction of teak in area where bamboo {Cephalostachijuni pergracile) 

has flowered, Myitkyina, Upper Burma. (J. H. Lace photo.) . .... 760 

293. Sowing of teak and cutch {Acacia Catechu) in flowered bamboo area, Bwet forest, 

Prome, Burma. (J. W. Oliver photo.) ........ 761 

294. Omelina arborea, seedling ........... 770 

295. Gmelina arborea, irrigated line sowings five months old, Dehra Dun. (T. B. Chitrakar 

photo.) 772 

296. Gmelina arborea, irrigated line sowings, end of third season, Dehra Dun. (T. B. Chit- 

rakar photo.) ............ 772 

297. Gmelina arborea, unirrigated weeded line sowings, end of third season, Dehra Dun. 

(T. B. Chitrakar photo.) 773 



ORDER XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE {continued) 
Sub Order II. CAESALPINIEAE 

Genera 1. Caesalpinia, Linn.; 2. Poinciana, Linn.; 3. Acrocarpus, 
W. and A. ; 4. Hardwickia, Roxb. ; 5. Saraca, Linn. ; 6. Amherstia, Wall. ; 
7. Tamarindus, Linn.; 8. Cassia, Linn.; 9. Bauhinia, Linn. 

1. CAESALPINIA, Linn. 

Species 1. C. Sappan, Linn.; 2. C.digyna, Rottl. ; 3. C. Coriarid, Willd. 

1. Caesalpinia Sappan, Linn. Sappan wood. 

A small tree or shrub, the wood of which yields a red dye. It is believed 
to be wild in the Shan hills, and is cultivated in India and Burma. 

2. Caesalpinia digyna, Rottl. Vern. Sunletthe, Burm. 

A thorny scandent shrub whose pods, commercially known as tari pods, 
are very rich in tannin. It is found wild in many parts of Burma and Assam 
as well as in Bengal, occurring on waste lands and in hedgerows, chiefly near 
villages ; it prefers well-drained ground with sandy soil and avoids badly- 
drained localities. The seeds are very hard and germination is difficult. 
Mr. I. H. BurkilP found that prolonged soaking had no effect, but by cutting 
through the outer impervious layer of the seed-coat with a minute cut 
germination was readily induced : Mr. W. A. Robertson informs me that in 
Burma germination is induced by filing through the testa. At Dehra Dun it 
was found that germination took place almost at once, without any harm to 
the seed, by soaking the seed in hot water and then removing the softened testa. 

3. Caesalpinia Coriaria, Willd. Divi-divi, American sumach. 

A small tree of the West Indies, cultivated, chiefly in southern India, for 
the sake of its pods, which give a valuable tanning material. It grows well 
in Lower Burma, bearing pods in quantity ; some years ago there was a small 
experimental plantation at Tharrawaddy, in which the trees bore pods in 
abundance. It prefers well-drained ground, becoming stunted on stiff soil ; 
in the Tharrawaddy plantation there was a marked difference where the soil 
became clayey. 

2. POINCIANA, Linn. 

Species 1. P. regia, Bojer; 2. P. elata, Linn. 

1. Poinciana regia, Bojer. Gold mohur. 

A native of Madagascar ; largely grown for ornament in the warmer and 
moister parts of India and Burma. It is almost evergreen, and has a broad 
spreading crown of feathery foliage, large flaming red flowers which appear 
chiefly in April and May, and broad flat pods 1 to 2 ft. long, which ripen in 
the rainy season and remain long on the tree. It is usually grown from seed, 
but can also be raised from cuttings. It is fast growing, and has spreading 
superficial roots which kill out other plants. Its shallow root-system renders 
it liable lo be blown down during storms. 

1 Gardens Bulletin, Fed. Malay States, vol. i,. No. G, 1913, p. 193. 

2307.2 g 



338 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

2. Poinciana elata, Linn. White gold mohur. 

A small practically evergreen tree with feathery foliage and handsome 
yellowish white flowers which turn orange as they fade ; the flowers appear 
in the hot season or early rains. Wild, possibly indigenous, in the Barde hills 
in Porbunder state, Kathiawar ; probably not wild elsewhere in India. The 
tree is capable of growing on poor dry soil, and in the Barde hills it grows 
in the crevices of trap and basalt rocks, where however it is stunted. It is 
often cultivated for ornament. It grows fast and is easily raised from seed. 

3. ACROCARPUS, W. and A. 

Acroearpus fraxinifolius, Wight. Vern. Mandania, Nep. ; Handige, 
havalige, Kan. ; Malaikonnai, Tam. ; Balanji, Coorg ; Yetama, ^nayahnin, 
Burm. 

A very large deciduous tree, usually with large buttresses at the base. 
Leaves bipinnate, with three or four pairs of pinnae each about a foot long : 
the young leaves are bright red. Bark thin, light grey. Heartwood light red, 
moderately hard, used for shingles, tea-boxes, furniture, and building. The 
tree is one of the largest in India. Colonel Beddome mentions that in southern 
India he has seen trees fully 200 ft. high and 150 ft. to the first branch ; ^ he 
records a tree 27 ft. in girth above buttresses. Mr. Gamble states that Sir D. 
Brandis in his company measured a tree at Dalingkot in the Sikkim Himalaya 
181 ft. high and 110 ft. to the first branch. 

Distribution and habitat. The natural habitat of the tree is in the 
evergreen forests of the Western Ghats, chiefly on hill slopes up to 4.000 ft., 
Sikkim, ascending to 4,000 ft., Duars, Assam, Chittagong, and Burma. It is 
a tree of the regions of heavy rainfall, but Mr. Tireman mentions that in 
Coorg it has been cultivated for shade over coffee as far east as the 70 in. 
rainfall zone. 

Flowering, fruiting, and silvicultural characters. In southern 
India the flowers appear from November to January, when the tree is leafless. 
The fruits ripen from April to June. The tree is easily raised from seed, some 
of which germinates within a week, while some may lie dormant for as long 
as a year before germinating. Bourdillon notes that it reproduces well and 
the growth is fast. It is sensitive to frost. It is somewhat light-demanding, 
though capable of standing some shade in j^^outh. 

Germination (Fig. 137, 6-/). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end of the seed ; the hypocotyl elongates and carries above ground the coty- 
ledons enclosed in the testa, which soon falls off with the expansion of the 
cotyledons. 

The seedling (Fig. 137). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, terete, tapering, wiry, flexuose : 
lateral roots moderate in number and length, fibrous. Hypocotyl distinct 
from root, 1-1-1 -8 in. long, terete or slightly compressed, glabrous or minutely 
pubescent in the upper part. Cotyledons sessile, foliaceous, somewhat fleshy, 
0-4-0-7 in. by 0-3-0-4 in., elliptical or oblong, entire, glabrous, apex and base 
rounded. Stem erect, woody, yellow to rusty tomentose, particularly in the 
younger parts ; internodes 0-2-1 in. long.'^ Leaves alternate, compound, 
paripinnate, first 1-3 leaves with 3 pairs of leaflets, the number increasing to 

1 Ind. Forester, ii (1876), p. 196. 



a 





Fig. 137. AcrocarpusfraxinifoUus. Seedling x|, 
a, seed ; b-f, germination stages ; g, seedling six months old. 



B 2 



340 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

6 pairs by the end of the first season. Stipules minute, yellow tomentose. 
Rachis 1 in. (in the earliest leaves) to 5 in. long, yellow or rusty tomentose, 
terminating in a fine bristle. Leaflets opposite, with petioles up to 0-05 in. 
long, larger towards apex than at base of leaf, those of earlier leaves 0-2-1 in. 
by 0-1-0-5 in., those of later leaves 0-4-2 in. by 0-2-0-8 in., ovate, acute or 
acuminate, base rounded or acute, entire, finely pubescent to glabrescent, 
lateral veins up to eight pairs. 

Rate of growth. Mr, Tireman recorded in 1916 the measurements of 
thirty-seven young trees in an abandoned coffee estate at Mercara, Coorg. 
These trees were raised from seedlings about a foot high collected in the forest 
and planted in 1908, and at the time of measurement were therefore about 
eight or possibly nine years old from seed. The plants had received practically 
no attention since they were planted. In 1916 their height varied from 7 to 
24 ft. and averaged 15 ft., while their girth varied from 4-5 to 31 in. and 
averaged 10-9 in. 

4. HARDWICKIA, Roxb. 

Species 1. H. hinata, Roxb.; 2. H. pinnata, Roxb. 

1. Hardwickia binata, Roxb. V em. Arijan, Hind., Mar. ; Kamra, karachi, 
Kan. ; Acha, Tam. ; Yepi, naryepi, yapa, Tel. 

A moderate-sized to large tree, leafless for a short time or nearly evergreen, 
with graceful drooping slender branchlets and greyish green coriaceous bi- 
foliate leaves, the leaflets 1-2-5 in. by 0-5-1-2 in. ; crown conical in early life, 
becoming broader afterwards. Bark of saplings almost silvery white and 
smooth, gradually changing as the tree gets older to dark grey and rough with 
irregular vertical cracks, 0-5-1 in. thick, exfoliating in narrow flakes. In 
isolated situations or on poor shallow soils the tree tends to branch low down 
and produce a short bole, but when grown in a fairly crowded crop on favour- 
able soil it produces a long straight cylindrical bole with an elevated crown. 

The dimensions vary greatly according to locality. On trap formations, 
characterized by a shallow and somewhat stiff soil, the tree rarely attains 
a height of 60 ft. and often does not reach a height of more than 30-40 ft. 
with a maximum girth of 3 ft. On deeper sandy soil overlying sandstone, 
granite, and other formations it may attain a height of 80-100 ft. and a girth 
of 6-10 ft., with a clean cylindrical bole 40-50 ft. in length. Haines says 
that in the Kymore hills near the Sone river it reaches a height of 120 ft. 
Mr. E. D. M. Hooper records a tree with a large gnarled trunk 15 ft. in girth 
in the Raja's garden at Sandur, Bellary district, Madras. Almost everywhere 
the trees have been much mutilated by pollarding for the sake of fodder, 
manure, or bast fibre, and in most localities the larger trees are old pollards. 
LaT-ge trees are very frequently hollow, owing, it is generally held, to former 
damage by fire and mutilation, and possibly also to the repeated dying back 
in the seedling stage producing a centre of infection for subsequent decay. 

The wood is perhaps the hardest and heaviest in India, the weight 
averaging 82 lb. per cubic foot. The sapwood is small and white, the heart- 
wood dark reddish brown streaked with purple, close grained, very durable, 
used for bridge and house construction, agricultural implements, carts, wheel- 
work, &c. The bast yields a strong fibre largely employed for ropes, and the 
branches are much lopped for manure and cattle-fodder. 



HARDWICKIA 341 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is distributed in isolated blocks 
and patches varying in extent in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula, 
extending as far north as the Banda district, United Provinces. In Madras 
it occupies well-defined areas in the Godavari, Kistna, Kurnool, Bellary, 
North Arcot, Anantapur, Cuddapah, Nellore, and Salem districts. In Bombay 
it is fairly common in parts of Khandesh and Nasik, and is found scattered 
in the dry scrub forests of eastern Belgaum ; Talbot says there is a small 
isolated patch in the Ranebennur subdivision of the Dharwar district. In the 
Central Provinces and Berar it occurs in parts of Buldana, Nimar, Hoshang- 
abad, and South Chanda. In Buldana it is found in the Amdari, Geru-Matergaon, 
and Ghatbori reserves and intervening forests over an area of about 182 square 
miles. It is fairly plentiful in Nimar, and occupies restricted areas in Hoshang- 
abad and South Chanda (south of Allapalli and in Sironcha), while it has been 
introduced artificially in Nagpur and elsewhere. In Chota Nagpur it is found 
only in Palamau, especially towards the Sone, on the other side of which, in 
the Kymore hills, it is frequent (Haines). It occurs locally in Mysore and 
in some of the Central India states, for example in Indore and Gwalior. 
The remarkably local distribution of the species, which is not altogether 
accounted for by soil and climate, is somewhat puzzling, and has not yet been 
satisfactorily explained. 

The rock and soil on which the tree grows have a marked influence on its 
growth. In many localities, for example in parts of Nimar and Buldana, in 
Khandesh and Nasik, the underlying rock is trap and the soil is usually very 
shallow, soon merging into hard murram and thence into solid rock. On this 
formation it is often remarkably gregarious, forming pure crops of greater or 
less extent where the trees, which are frequently in the pole or sapling stage, 
may grow thi,ckly together. On such ground, however, it never attains the 
large dimensions which it reaches on more porous soils overlying rocks which 
disintegrate more readily than trap. Thus the best growth is attained on 
sandstone, conglomerate, quartzite, granite, and schist, with an overlying soil 
of sandy loam or, what is a very characteristic soil for Hardwickia, a quartzose 
reddish gravelly sand. On such formations the tree frequently attains a large 
size, even though the overlying soil may not be deep, since the taproot has 
a wonderful capacity for making its way through fissures in solid rock. Here, 
however, it is not so characteristically gregarious as it is on trap, for although 
it may form pure crops it is also commonly found scattered among a miscel- 
laneous growth of other species. 

Some examples may be quoted of the occurrence of Hardivickia hinata 
on shallow soil overlying trap rock. In East Khandesh, Bombay, the tree 
is almost pure over considerable areas, particularly on the higher ground with 
poor shallow soil ; in places it is mixed with teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Bos- 
wellia serrata, and Acacia Catechu. The trees are of comparatively small size, 
attaining their maximum girth, about 4 ft., in the Jamner reserve : most of 
the trees are hollow, owing, it is believed, to former fires. In the adjoining 
Nasik district it occurs pure towards the Khandesh border, becoming scarcer 
on proceeding west until it disappears and gives place to scrub : the soil is 
poor and shallow and the trees are of small size. In the Nimar district of the 
Central Provinces Hardivickia hinata occupies a considerable portion of the 



342 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

trap areas along the branch of the Satpuras forming the watershed between 
the Nerbudda and the Tapti. Regarding these trap areas Mr. D. O. Witt 
states : ^ ' On the extreme west we find the Anjan scattered and fairly plenti- 
ful, but proceeding east it becomes less so, until we reach the railway at 
Mandwa, where it practically vanishes, hardly a single tree being found 
throughout the whole of the ridge east of the railway. Isolated Anjan are 
found on Samardes, and it is fairly common at the western extremity of the 
ridge separating Nimar from the Berar plain. It does not grow to any great 
size in these areas. Proceeding to the areas north of the main central ridge, 
we find the low and undulating hills of the Khandwa range fairly stocked with 
Anjan, and to the extreme west of this range, and extending almost up to 
the Nerbudda, we find a peculiar type of Anjan growth, viz. isolated blocks 
of practically pure Anjan in the pole stage, growing closely and thickly together. 
Old mature trees are few and far between, and where found are of small 
dimensions, and have invariably at some time or other in their life been 
pollarded. That the present pole growth is the natural regeneration of a pre- 
viously existing Anjan forest goes without saying, but the manner of its forma- 
tion is a subject of much speculation. . . . The average height of a mature 
Anjan tree throughout these areas may be put at 40 ft. and its girth at 3 ft.' 
Fig. 138 shows a sapling crop on trap in the Nimar district. In the Buldana 
district of Berar Hardwickia binata predominates over the greater part of the 
trap areas, Bosivellia serrata being its chief companion. The forest is of poor 
quality, the trees having been much hacked and pollarded ; the maximum 
height and girth of. the existing trees are 25 ft. and 2 ft. respectively on the 
hill slopes, and 30 ft. and 3 ft. respectively on the better soil of the valleys. 

Examples of the other geological formations on which Hardivickia binata 
is typically found, consisting for the most part of sandstone or metamorphic 
rock, occur in numerous localities. The overlying soil, as already mentioned, 
consists chiefly of a reddish gravelly sand or sandy loam, and although the 
tree is often scattered among other species, as a rule it attains much larger 
dimensions than it does on the stiffer soil of the trap areas. In the Kurnool 
district of Madras it occurs in greater or less abundance on the quartzites, 
sandstones, and shales of the Yerramalai hills, chiefly on reddish gravelly sand 
or on sandy loam, either in gregarious patches of varying extent or mixed 
with Soytnida febrifuga, Terminalia tomentosa, Anogeissus lafifoUa, Albizzia 
amara, and teak. In some of the forests of the Cumbum range of Kurnool old 
trees may be found scattered amongst a thick growth of bamboos. Mr. E. M. 
Crothers - states that the only species with which it forms a good mixed crop 
is Anogeissus latifolia. 

In the Bellary district it is found on rocky quartz soils, and in the forests 
of the Harpanahalli range it is probably the most numerously represented 
species, occurring chiefly on the more level ground at the bases of the several 
hill ranges ; it is most abundant on the southern slopes of the Sogi reserve 
and at the base of the Hyarada hills, where it forms nearly pure forests.'^ 

1 The Sylviculture of Hardwickia binata, Ind. For. Records, vol. ii, pt. iii, pp. 78. 79. 
- Ind. Forester, xxxi (1905), p. 380. 

' Working Plan for the Forests of the Harpanahalli Range, Bellary District, Madras, 
H. Tireman, 1911. 




Fig. 138. Hardwichia binata, sapling crop on trap, Nimar, Central Provinces. 




Fig. 139. Hardwickia binata, bushy young growth on a heavily grazed area, Niniar, Central 

Provinces. 




Fig. 140. Hardwickia binata, old pollarded trees on sandstone, 

Nimar, Central Provinces. 



HARDWICKIA 343 

Here the trees consist almost entirely of pollards. In the North Arcot district 
it occurs on the Tirpati and other hills on gneissic rock overlain by masses of 
quartzite and conglomerate ; the soil is usually a red loam with much sand. 
Here Hardwickia is associated with Pterocarpus santalinus, P. Marstipium, 
Ghloroxylon Swietenia, Terminalia Chebula, T. tomentosa, Albizzia Lehbek, 
A. odoratissi'ma, Dalbergia latifolia, and other species. In the Salem district 
it is found in the Shevaroy and Aranuttu hills on gneiss, the soil being a red 
ferruginous sandy loam. It occurs on rocky quartz soil in Anantapur and on 
the sandstones and shales of the Palnad in Kistna. In Bombay it is found 
on sandstone in the eastern part of the Belgaum district. 

In the South Chanda district of the Central Provinces Hardwickia hinata 
is prevalent on sandy and gravelly soil overlying sandstones and quartzites 
in the Sironcha range. Here it is essentially a tree of the sandy soils^ and 
attains a girth of 8 ft. It avoids clay unless covered with a depth of sandy 
debris. In the Nimar district, apart from the trap areas already described, 
in which, though often remarkably gregarious, it does not attain large dimen- 
sions, there is a strip of broken and hilly ground along the Nerbudda occupied 
by Vindhyan sandstone, conglomerate, granite, schist, and limestone. The 
overlying soil is sandy or gravelly, and though as a rule by no means deep, 
it is porous, while the underlying rock is much fissured. On this tract, com- 
prising the Punasa and Chandgarh ranges, Hardwickia is never pure, but is 
always mixed with other species, seldom forming more than 5 per cent, of the 
growing stock. The development of the individual trees, however, is here 
excellent, mature trees with a height of 80-100 ft., a girth of 6-10 ft., and 
a clean cylindrical bole of 40-50 ft. b^ing by no means uncommon. As regards 
natural reproduction, a distinction has to be drawn between the forest on the 
hard crystalline Vindhyan sandstones, which disintegrate with difficulty and 
have a shallow covering of soil, and the more loose-structured conglomerates 
and shales, which disintegrate readily and produce a fair depth of porous soil, 
in that the tree regenerates as a rule more freely on the latter. 

Hardwickia hinata thrives in a dry climate characterized by a long period 
of drought, scanty to moderate rainfall, and intense heat during the hot 
season. In the cold season frosts occur only in certain portions of its area 
of distribution, particularly in low-lying places ; these frosts are as a rule 
slight. It may be said that within its natural habitat the absolute maximum 
shade temperature varies from 110 to 117 P., and the absolute minimum 
from 34 to 50 P., while the normal rainfall varies from 10 to 60 in. ; it 
appears to thrive best with a rainfall of 20 to 40 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless or nearly 
so for a short time towards the end of the cold season, the new leaves, which 
are tinged with red, appearing in April ; in the hot weather the trees are in 
leaf, and their feathery foliage is conspicuous when most other species are 
leafless. Mr. Witt ^ draws attention to their habit of shedding branchlets : 
'Towards the end of the season of growth, about March, a portion of the 
year's growth is shed, much in the same way as leaves are shed. ... In April 
and May the ground under Anjan trees will be found to be littered with small 
twigs and branches, which at first sight appear to have been broken off, but 

' loc. cit., p. 101. 



344 XXIII. LEGUIHINOSAE 

a closer inspection shows that thej^ have literally been shed like leaves.' This 
characteristic, which is also seen in Tamarix articulata, Phyllanthus Emblica, 
and Casuarina equisetifolia, is obviously a xerophytic adaptation, and the 
probable explanation of the phenomenon is that the tree endeavours to protect 
itself from the rigours of the dry season by shedding the less completely 
lignified and therefore more sensitive portions of its branch-system. 

The small pale yellowish green flowers, in axillary and terminal lax 
panicled racemes, appear from July to September, and the pods develop 
rapidly, reaching full size early in the cold season and "ripening the following 
April or May. The pod (Fig. 141, a) is flat and samaroid, 2-3 in. by 0-4-0-6 in., 
oblong lanceolate, coriaceous, narrowed at both ends, with parallel longitudinal 
veins, containing one seed near the apex. The pod dehisces at the apex after 
it reaches the ground, when germination takes place. The light winged pods 
commence falling early in May and are often carried to some distance from 
the parent tree by the strong winds which are prevalent at that season : in 
full seed-years the ground to the leeward of the seed-bearers is often thickly 
strewn with pods. 

The seed is exalbuminous, flat, averaging 0-8 by 0-3 in., sub-reniform, 
pointed at one end and rounded at the other, with a fairly hard testa. Fresh 
ripe seed has a high percentage of fertility, and germinates readily with 
moderate moisture. It is sometimes said that the seed will not retain its 
vitality for a year, but instances are recorded in which it has remained fertile 
to some extent for one or even two years. Thus, ' Yepi seed kept over from 
1908 was tried in 1909 with some success ', but only 20 per cent, germinated.^ 
Again, Shyam Sunder Lai, Assistant Conservator of Forests, Indore state, 
writes : - ' We have sown one-year-old seed in the arboricultural nursery, 
which germinated fairly well, and the young plants were later transplanted 
to roadsides in Indore and are quite healthy.' Finally, in patch sowings carried 
out in' 1912-13 in the Saugor division. Central Provinces, seed two years old 
and not very good germinated satisfactorily in 338 patches out of 1,200.^ 

The tree seeds sporadically to some extent every year, but gregarious 
seeding takes place on an average every three to five years according to 
locality. The local extent as well as the periodicity of general seedings varies, 
and a good seed-year in one locality need not necessarily be a good one in 
another. When a general seeding takes place the crop of seed is often profuse, 
the trees being laden with pods. The precise cause of gregarious seeding of 
this kind is not entirely clear, but there is a presumption, borne out to some 
extent by meteorological statistics, that it is induced by a season of drought 
the year before the seeding. The following records of seed-years are available : 
Nimar, 1874, 1879, 1884, 1889, 1893, 1899, 1905, 1911 ; Kurnool, 1902, 1905, 
1908, 1912; Khandesh, 1908, 1911. 

Germination (Fig. 141, h-g). Epigeous. The apex of the pod dehisces 
slightly and the radicle emerges, developing rapidly into a taproot. The 
cotyledons expand and turn green, extricating themselves from the testa and 
the pod ; they remain only just above ground-level. The pod and the testa are 
left on the ground. 

^ Working Plan for the Yerramalais, W. Kurnool, 1913. 

- Ind. Forester, xxxvii (1911), p. 65. ^ Forest Administration Report, 1912-13. 







Fig. 141. Hcu'dwickia hinata Seedling x -J- 

a Fruit b-g Germination stages h, i Development of seedling during first season 
(Note. On poor dry soil the taproot may attain a considerably greater length.) 



HARDWICKIA 345 

The seedling (Fig. 141). 

Roots : primary root long, thin, terete, tapering, wiry : lateral roots 
moderate in number, short to moderately long, thin, fibrous, distributed down 
main root. Hypocotyl distinct from the root, 0-2-0-3 in. long, thick, fleshy, 
tapering downwards, glabrous, subterranean or at ground-level. Cotyledons 
on short thick petioles less than 0-1 in. long : lamina 1-1-1 -5 in. by 0-5-0 -9 in., 
thin, somewhat fleshy, elliptical oblong or obovate, apex broad rounded 
truncate or retuse, base sagittate, entire, glabrous, yellow turning green, 
surface irregularly depressed. Stem erect, terete, zigzag at the nodes, slender, 
wiry, glabrous, green, young parts red ; internodes 0-2-0-7 in. long. Leaves 
alternate, bifoliate, at first small, the size increasing with successive leaves. 
Stipules up to 0-25 in. long, ovate falcate, apex acute acuminate or rounded, 
pale green turning brown. Common petiole 0-2-0-6 in. long, terete, wiry, 
glabrous, green, that of young leaves red. Leaflets sub-sessile, 0-5-2-5 in. by 
0-3-1-5 in., obliquely ovate or obscurely trapezoidal, apex rounded, base 
obtuse, entire, coriaceous, glabrous, darker above than below, young leaves 
red, arcuately 4- or 5-veined from the base. 

Mr. Witt ^ has recorded the results of observations on the development 
of natural seedlings on a plot of ground at Khandwa in Nimar, where the 
normal rainfall is 30 in., and the seedlings grew on dry sandy soil 6 to 18 in. 
deep overlying hard murram soon passing into solid trap rock. These observa- 
tions show that the seedlings, like those of the sal and of certain other species 
in dry localities, die back annually for a series of years, the taproot gradually 
developing until it reaches the moist layers of the subsoil and establishes itself 
sufficiently to produce a permanent vigorous shoot which does not die back. 
These observations indicate the following to be the stages of development of 
a normal seedling in its natural habitat : 

First season. After germination, which takes place with the first heavy 
downpour of the monsoon proper towards the end of June, the taproot develops 
rapidly, attaining a length of about 5 to 6 in. within a week, the stem having 
two leaves almost fully formed. One month from germination the taproots 
of seven seedlings were dug up and found to vary from 8-38 to 16-1 in. in 
length : an eighth seedling had a damaged taproot 6-5 in. long. A typical 
seedling had four leaves fully developed and a fifth commencing to appear. 
There is little or no development above ground after August, the normal 
seedling by the end of the first season attaining a height of 5 to 6 in. with 
about nine leaves, while the taproot ordinarily reaches a length of 12-20 in., 
or even as much as 3 ft. or more if the depth of the soil permits. In this 
connexion ' Old Ranger ' "^ writes : ' I have found young seedlings, of 6-9 
months growth and only 3-4 in. high, the possessors of taproots 22-28 in. 
long (actual measurements), the almost complete absence of side shoots being 
very noticeable.' 

The taproot shows wonderful power of penetrating hard ground and 
piercing what appears to be almost solid rock ; on shallow soil it twists and 
turns in search of fissures. By the middle of October the seedlings commence 
to die back, and by the middle of March, or February in dry seasons, not 
a single green seedling is to be found, the stems all having died back partially 
or completely though the taproots remain alive. 

Second season. With the following rainy season the seedlings come into 
1 loc. cit., pp. 89-100. - Ind. Forester, xxxi (1905), p. 698. 



346 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

;ife again, sending up new shoots from dormant buds at the points marking 
the axils of the cotyledons or from buds on the main stem if the latter has 
not been completely killed. The second year's shoot is even smaller or more 
weakly than that of the first year, the plant's energies being concentrated on 
developing its root-system. On shallow soil the taproot does not develop 
greatly in length, but thickens somewhat, and there is a marked diminution 
in the number of lateral roots. Dying back occurs again at the end of the 
second season. 

Third and subsequent seasons. In the third season a new shoot is produced 
from the root-collum, neither larger nor more vigorous than that of the second 
season. Meanwhile the taproot develops slowly in length and thickens con- 
siderably. The annual dying back of the stem and gradual development of 
the taproot continues year after year for an unknown period, which Mr. Witt 
estimates at not less than ten years, the portion above ground gradually 
developing into a many-branched bush 12-18 in. high. A marked change 
then takes place : dying back ceases, and a leading shoot forms and grows 
up at the rate of about 1 ft. or more annually. By this time the seedling 
may be said to have reached the sapling stage, and the taproot has now 
become much thickened, with a length up to about 8 ft., ^the length varying 
with the depth of the soil : in shallow rocky soil the taproot is much twisted. 
At the commencement of the sapling stage a natiu-al plant, especially in areas 
subject to grazing, usually consists of a bushy and many-branched base, from 
the centre of which rises the leading shoot. As the sapling increases in height 
the bushy growth at its base gradually dies off, and by the time the plant 
is 10 ft. high it has disappeared altogether. Each year's growth in the sapling 
is marked by slightly raised annular marks. These are due to the fact, already 
noted, that a portion of each year's shoot is shed at the end of each season ; 
a scar is thus formed, on the surface of which develops a bud which produces 
the following year's shoot. The annular marks represent the scars formed in 
this way. 

The phenomenon of dying back on the part of natural seedlings has been 
recorded by previous observers in other localities. Thus Mr. E. D. M. Hooper, 
writing in 1903, mentions its habitual occurrence in the dry districts of Madras 
where the tree grows, and attributes it partly to fire and partly to the excessive 
heat of the dry season, and he mentions also the bushy form of growth which 
this dying back produces until a definite leading shoot is formed.^ Mr. L. S. 
Osmaston - estimates the period of dying back at four to seven years in West 
Khandesh. 

The phenomenon of dying back, however, is not necessarily universal, 
for under favourable conditions the seedling may shoot up without any check. 
Thus Mr. Hooper observes that occasionally under favourable circumstances 
a patch of young seedlings from its earliest life grows without hindrance, and 
notes having seen a plant grown on prepared soil at Nagpur on a trap ridge 
which in one season was over 5 ft. in height. Again, in patch sowings of 1911 
in the Saugor district, Central Provinces, some of the seedlings are reported 
to have reached a height of 3 ft. in three years. Nursery plants at Dehra 
Dun, kept weeded and watered, reached a height of 6 to 14 in. by the end of 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxi (1905), p. 104. 2 75 /^^ xxxv (1909), p. 381. 



HARDWICKIA 347 

the first season and a maximum height of 2 ft. 6 in. by the end of the second 
season, no dying back having taken place. It follows, therefore, that the 
habit of dying back is not innate in the species, any more than it is in the sal, 
teak, and many other species which die back under conditions sufficiently far 
removed from the optimum. 

In other respects also it will be interesting to compare the habits and 
requirements of the seedling in its natural habitat, as observed by Mr. Witt 
in Nimar, with those which have been observed in twenty-one experimental 
plots at Dehra Dun, where, however, the climatic conditions are very different 
from those prevailing in the natural habitat of the tree, the normal rainfall 
being 85 in. and frost being at times severe. It goes without saying that for 
practical purposes a study of the habits and requirements of the seedling in 
its natural home is of infinitely greater importance than if these are observed 
under very different conditions, but the results obtained in the latter case are 
certainly interesting, for though in some respects they differ from Mr. Witt's 
observations, as might be expected, in others they corroborate them. The 
conclusions regarding the habits and requirements of the seedling, based on 
observations made under various conditions, may be summarized as follows : 

Root-system. The development of the taproot under natural conditions 
has already been described. At Dehra Dun the root-system showed a tendency 
to strong development, even where regular watering was carried out ; this 
development extended to the lateral roots and was not confined to the taproot 
as in the case of natural seedlings. By the middle of the second season nursery 
plants had taproots up to 2 ft. 6 in. in length and 0-7 in. in diameter, with 
lateral roots up to 1 ft. 7 in. in length. 

Drought. In the natural habitat of the species the seedlings are very 
sensitive to drought, as has already been explained in describing the pheno- 
menon of dying back. This fact has been corroborated again and again by 
different observers, and it may be said without question that the great mortality 
noticeable among the numerous seedlings which appear after a good seed-year 
is due to drought, the excessive heat combined with desiccating winds pro- 
ducing a degree of transpiration which the root-system in the parched soil 
cannot make good. Even at Dehra Dun many seedlings were found to die 
down partially or wholly in sunny situations from April onwards. 

Frost. In the natural habitat of the tree frosts are not severe enough 
to do the seedlings any harm, and Mr. Witt notes that he has never observed 
a single case of a seedling having been damaged in the slightest degree by 
this agency. At Dehra Dun the frost was found to be severe enough to kill 
back seedlings of the first year either partially or down to ground-level ; they 
had good power of recovery, however, and invariably produced new shoots. 
From the second year onwards they proved to be immune from injury by 
ordinary frosts. 

Shape and development. The shape and development of the seedling under 
natural conditions has already been described. At Dehra Dun some of the 
seedlings commenced branching in the first year, while those which had been 
affected by frost or drought assumed a bushy growth in the second season, 
with long and rather straggling branches. Growth continued until December, 
all the leaves had dropped by the end of February, and the new shoots appeared 



348 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

in March. The young leaves were reddish in sunny situations, and usually 
green in shady situations. 

Damp. At Dehra Dun seedlings proved to be very sensitive to damp, 
numbers rotting off during the first season even in open nursery beds where 
watering was done too freely ; in the shade hardly a single seedling survived 
the damp of the rainy season. This corroborates the statement of 'Old 
Ranger V who writes : ' So sensitive are the very young seedlings to excessive 
moisture that, if seed be sown in a, pot containing leaf mould or rich soil, and 
this be allowed to get a little too damp, the thick fleshy cotyledons of the young 
seedlings are immediately attacked by rot, which extends downwards to the 
roots, and a whole pot of young seedlings may thus be destroyed in a single 
night.' 

Effect of grass and iveeds. Various opinions have been recorded from time 
to time as to the effect of a soil-covering of grass on the development of the 
seedling. According to one theory, the extensive mortality among natural 
seedlings is due to the inability of the taproots to penetrate the matted roots 
of the grass. This explanation can hardly be accepted universally, as the 
degree of obstruction caused by the grass roots must vary, while the roots 
of Hardwickia seedlings have considerable power of penetrating obstructions. 
The effect of a matted growth of grass roots in preventing soil-aeration, how- 
ever, may be of importance, and will be considered below under ' natural 
reproduction '. There is little reason to doubt that the development of the 
seedlings may be hindered or even entirely prevented from this cause, but on 
the other hand Mr. Witt - has proved by means of experimental plots that 
the very existence of the seedlings in their natural habitat may depend largely 
on the protection from the heat of the sun which is afforded them by a soil- 
covering of grass. His conclusions are summarized as follows : 

(1) Grass, as such, does not hinder germination ; (2) seedlings may fail 
to survive on soil quite free of grass ; (3) the taproot is quite capable of 
penetrating through any obstruction of grass roots ; (4) the first season 
of growth is the crucial one in the life-history of the seedling, the mortality 
being then heaviest ; (5) seedlings on soil clothed with grass retain their 
leaves for a longer period than those on soil not so clothed ; (6) the shoots 
of seedlings protected by a long growth of grass do not dry up so early as' 
those from around which (though on precisely similar soil) the protecting 
grass covering has been cut away ; (7) seedlings up to an age of 3| years are 
not smothered and killed by a dense growth of grass weighing down on them ; 
(8) the removal of a covering of grass, from seedlings which have developed 
under its protection, may be distinctly harmful. 

In the damper climate of Dehra Dun, on richer soil with a more luxuriant 
covering of grass and weeds, experimental plots demonstrated that such 
a soil-covering not only has a very deleterious effect on the development of 
the seedling, but is the cause of much mortality through suppression and 
through the damping off of the seedlings in the rains. These plots also showed 
clearly that regular weeding has a most beneficial effect on the development 
and survival of seedlings provided the weeding is carried out from the com- 
mencement ; on the other hand, the sudden removal of grass and weeds from 
' Ind. Forester, xxxi (1905), p. 697. " Iqc, cit., pp. 121-6. 



HARDWICKIA 



349 



around seedlings which have grown under them is very liable to cause the 
death of the seedlings through desiccation. 

The following particulars of seedlings grown under different conditions in 
experimental plots at Dehra Dun demonstrate clearly the beneficial effects of 
regular weeding : 



Hardivickia hinata 



measurements of seedlings in experimental plots, 
Dehra Dun. 



No. 
1 



Condition under 
which grown. 

In nursery beds, 

watered and weeded 



Height of seedlings at end of 
season. 



1st season. 

ft. 6 in.- 
1 ft. 2 in. 



2nd season. 
Maximum 
2 ft. 6 in. 



2 Broadcast sowing, Maximum Oft. 11 in. - 

irrigated, weeded ft. 10 in.i 2 ft. 4 in.^ 

3 Broadcast sowing. Maximum ft. 3 in. and 

irrigated, unweeded ft. 4 in.^ ft. 4 in.* 



Remarks. 



^ 42 survivors, vigorous. 
^ 36 survivors, vigorous. 

^ 8 survivors. 

* 2 survivors ; rest killed by 

suppression of grass and weeds 

li ft. high. 



4 Broadcast sowing, un- 

irrigated, weeded. 

5 Broadcast sowing, un- 

irrigated, unweeded 



ft. 7 in.- 
2 ft. in.5 

ft. 3 in.- 
ft. 4 in.6 



20 survivors, vigorous. 



^ 4 survivors in poor condition ; 
rest killed by suppression of 
grass and weeds. 



The observations recorded in Nimar and at Dehra Dun lead to the general 
conclusion that if moisture conditions are such as to prevent mortality by 
drought, freedom from grass and weeds, with the attendant loosening of the 
soil during weeding, is of great benefit as regards the development and survival 
of the seedling ; but where, as is probably the case in most if not all parts 
of the natural region of the tree, such moisture conditions do not exist, a soil- 
covering of grass is of benefit and may be essential for the survival of the 
seedling, in that it protects it from desiccation. In the latter case, however, 
it may be presumed, on general principles as well as from the results of the 
Dehra Dun experiments and of sowings in the Central Provinces and Berar, 
that the soil-covering of grass must have an adverse effect on the development 
of the seedling, and that on soil which is loosened and thus aerated better 
development may be expected, provided the seedling and the soil can be 
afforded protection by trees, bushes, or otherwise, from the desiccating effects 
of the sun and dry winds. This question closely concerns the natural repro- 
duction of the species, and will be further alluded to below. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The physical conditions under which Hard- 
wickia hinata grows in its natural habitat have been dealt with in some detail 
under distribution and habitat. It may be said in general that the tree thrives 
in a dry climate and is capable of establishing itself and growing on dry shallow 
soil and rocky ground where most other species would succumb. This is due 
partly to the great development of the taproot during youth and its power 
of penetrating hard soil and fissures in solid rock, the stem usually dying back 
annually during the development of the taproot, and partly to the fact that 
the tree stands mutilation better than the majority of species. These facts 



350 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

no doubt account in large measure for its gregariousness under adverse physical 
conditions and its survival in spite of continuous maltreatment. The best 
development is secured as a rule on geological formations such as sandstone, 
gneiss, conglomerate, &c., which disintegrate into a porous sandy loam, rather 
than on the stiff and usually shallow soil overlying trap ; on the latter forma- 
tion, however, although development is poorer than on the former, gregarious- 
ness is more pronounced. 

The great development of the taproot is maintained throughout the life 
of the tree, as may be observed where the root-system is exposed by scouring 
along the high banks of streams or the sides of ravines. On shallow soil witli 
compact underlying rock the taproot may assume a gnarled and twisted form, 
running for some distance horizontally not far below the surface ; in such 
cases the trees are liable to be blown over in high winds. 

The tree is capable of standing a certain amount of shade in youth, and 
even requires shelter in its young stages ; later it may be classed as a moderate 
light-demander or partial shade-bearer, though Mr. Witt states : ^ ' Even the 
moderate shade afforded by a mature tree of Bosivellia serrata is too dense 
for an Anjan sapling to penetrate through, if once dominated. The very 
flexible yielding shoot of an Anjan sapling may also account to some extent 
for its inability to pierce overhead cover.' Mr. L. S. Osmaston - classes the 
tree as a partial shade-bearer. 

In its natural habitat it is frost-hardy in all stages, being quite unaffected 
by all ordinary frosts. Except in the seedling stage it is capable of standing 
great heat and drought. ' This ', says Mr. Witt,^ ' was very noticeable in 
Nimar during the droughts of 1901 and 1904. Whereas following these droughts 
such species as Tectona grandis, Terminalia tomentosa, Lagerstroemia parvi flora, 
Mangifera indica, and Buchanania latifolia suffered severely all over the 
division, not only coppice being affected but also mature trees, in the case 
of Anjan no damage whatever was done, even on the driest soils." The young 
shoots are sensitive to fire, but the power of recovery is good ; ordinarily, 
seedlings when burnt back send up new shoots from the root-coUum, but in 
severe fires they may be killed outright. Young plants and coppice-shoots 
suffer much from grazing, the leaves being browsed by deer as well as by 
cattle and goats ; buffaloes especially are partial to them. A grazing incidence 
which hardly affects a teak forest will prevent young Hardwickia plants from 
making any headway. In heavily grazed areas the plants assume a charac- 
teristic bushy form (see Fig. 139). 

The tree pollards well even up to a comparatively advanced age, and 
old po'Jards when re-pollarded almost invariably produce abundant new 
shoots : indeed, a special feature of the existing Hardwickia forests is the 
large number of pollarded trees, the result of lopping for fodder and manure 
(see Fig. 140). On the other hand, the tree coppices indifferently. Old trees 
which send out vigorous pollard-shoots if cut a few feet above the ground 
produce no coppice-shoots if cut flush with the ground : old pollards when 
felled at ground-level never coppice. In some localities a moderate amount 
of success has been attained by felling at 12 to 18 in. from ground-level. 

J loc. cit., p. 85. - Ind. Forester, xxxv (1909), p. 380, ^ /^f ^.,7^ p gi 



HARDWICKIA 351 

Shyam Sunder Lai/ writing of coppice coupes in Indore state, notes that stumps 
of trees felled about 1 ft. from ground-level delayed sending out shoots for 
several months, a second inspection revealing a larger percentage of success 
than one made shortly after the felling. 

As regards actual statistics, experiments in North Khandesh in 1903 
showed that 47 per cent, of felled trees yielded coppice-shoots, the number 
being two to six shoots per stool and the average height in the first season 
being 4 ft. The most complete statistics so far recorded, however, are those 
published by Mr. L. S. Osmaston - giving measurements of 877 stumps in 
fourteen coupes in West Khandesh. The measurements included stumps of 
varying dimensions from under 2 ft. to over 6 ft. in girth, and of varying 
heights from under 2 in. to over 12 in. from ground-level : they also embraced 
coupes felled in years of deficient as well as of ample rainfall. 

These measurements gave the following results, which are somewhat 
surprising : 

(1) The height of the stump had no relation to its vitality : actually the 
percentage of live stumps of each girth class varied from 39 to 50 and 
averaged 47. 

(2) Similarly the girth of the stump had no relation to its vitality : the 
percentage of live stumps of each girth class varied from 41 to 49 and 
averaged 47. 

(3) The rainfall had no effect on the vitality of the stump, the percentage 
of live stumps being 53 in the case of years of most deficient rainfall and 54 in 
the case of years of most ample rainfallv 

These results confirm the opinion generally held that coppice reproduction 
cannot be relied on to a sufficient extent. 

Mr. H. W. Starte has recorded the result of an experiment in coppicing 
10 acres of pure Hardwickia forest in North Khandesh. Out of 886 stumps 
varying in girth from 12 to 70 in., cut flush with the ground, the number 
which failed to coppice was 201, or 22-4 per cent. ; there was no relation 
between girth and coppicing power. 

The tree reproduces from root- suckers. 

Natural reproduction. As already mentioned, the light winged pods 
ripen in April and May and fall in the latter month, being often carried to 
some distance from the trees ; in good seed-years they are plentifully scattered 
over the ground. Germination takes place soon after, with the first heavy 
.downpour of the monsoon, and seedlings may be found in quantity during 
the rainy season. From October onwards, however, the seedlings die off in 
large numbers, this mortality being due to drought : under favourable con- 
ditions it may consist of dying back with subsequent recovery, but where the 
seedlings have not had the advantage of protection from the hot sun they may 
be permanently killed off in large quantities and the seed-crop may result in 
complete failure. Assuming, however, that a certain number survive, their 
establishment and further progress until they reach the sapling stage is a matter 
of time owing to the annual process of dying back described above. A good 
deal of evidence is available regarding the factors which assist or retard natural 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxvii (1911), p. 63. ^ iUfi^ xxxvi (1910), p. 356. 



352 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE . 

reproduction, but in some respects this evidence is very conflicting, and it will 
be well therefore to examine it under the following heads : 

(1) Effect of grass and weeds; (2) Fire and grazing; (3) Soil conditions; 
(4) Protective shade; (5) Climatic factors. 

1 . The effect of grass and weeds on the development of the seedling has 
already been discussed at some length, and it may be concluded that whereas 
in dry regions a soil-covering of grass assists materially in and may be essential 
for the establishment of natural reproduction, on the other hand where the 
grass is too luxuriant it may cause the death of the seedlings through suppres- 
sion or through rotting off. The beneficial effects of a covering of grass in 
dry localities have been proved conclusively by Mr. Witt's experiments in 
Nimar, while Mr. L. S. Osmaston ^ says of seedlings in Khandesh that they 
do not mind grass even if it be 2 or 3 ft. high. Again, in Anantapur natural 
reproduction is reported to be good in open grassy areas.'- Mr. H. F. Arbuthnot,^ 
writing of the Malahanagadi block, Bellary, says : ' This block is an interesting 
one, as it has been under special protection from grazing, cutting, and fires 
for the last twenty-five years. The result has been that most of the area, 
which was then presumably blank, has been stocked with Hardivickia hinata, 
which is the principal species of the block.' Other instances might be quoted 
of the beneficial effects of a protective soil-covering of grass, but these will 
suffice. 

On the other hand, there is much evidence regarding the adverse effects 
of such a soil-covering. Thus Mr. J. Dodgson ^ writes : ' On account of the 
seed of the Anjan being so light it iias great difficulty in reaching the soil 
through the matted growth of grass, &c., and in this way much of the seed- 
crop is wasted.' This accords entirely with my own observations in the case 
of other winged fruits (e.g. Pterocarpus spp.). As regards the suppression of 
those seedlings which do succeed in passing the germinating stage, Mr. S. 
Srinivasulu Naidu ^ remarks that the heavy grass undergrowth which is 
common on the trap areas in Buldana probably accounts for the failure of 
seedlings to establish themselves owing to the smothering action of this growth. 
A very definite opinion on this point is expressed in the following extract 
from a report by Mr. L. K. Martin, quoted in the Berar Forest Report for 
1903-4 : ^ 

' The Anjan seeded very fairly profusely in the spring of 1902, and the 
seed germinated freely during the following monsoon along the Ajanta Hills, 
especially in the Geru-Matargaon Range around Botha and Matargaon. A 
very noticeable feature was the complete absence of seedlings from the midst 
of dense grass, that is, from areas entirely closed to grazing. They appeared 
wherever the grass was light, and increased in numbers with decrease in density 
of the grass, till over areas free of grass the seedlings were quite dense. 

' The above was most noticeable round Matargaon. There in one and the 
same ravine the climatic factors are presumably everywhere identical, and 
the fertility of the soil can hardly vary much over localities only a mile apart 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxv (1909), p. 380. ^ Mcadras Forest Reix)rt, 1913-14. 

3 Ind. Forester, xxx (1904), p. 123. 

* Working Plan for the Anjan and Scrub Jungles of the Malegaon, Baglan, Kalvan, and 
Chandwad Ranges of the Nasik District, Bombay, 1906. 
'' Working Plan of the Buldana Forest Division, Berar. 
Cf. Ind. Forester, xxxi (190.5), j). 105. 



HARDWICKIA 353 

(at any rate they appear to me to be similar). In the portions of the reserve 
closed to grazing, and consequently covered with a dense crop of grass, anjan 
seedlings were completely absent, except just along roadsides, whereas in 
Survey Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 6 of Chinchkher, which were open to heavy 
grazing and, being situated close to a public road, were much resorted to by 
cattle and as a result absolutely clean grazed, thousands of seedlings have 
sprung up and stand out uninjured and perfectly healthy. The above appears 
to prove conclusively that a dense growth of grass is inimical to the successful 
reproduction of anjan. The seedlings observed in those Survey Numbers 
have survived the past two hot weathers and escaped injury from cattle during 
the same period, when in the absence of other fodder cattle might have been 
expected to browse them off ; grazing throughout the year must obviously be 

looked upon as a distinct advantage, in fact a real necessity.' 

In addition the Dehra Dun experiments described under ' the seedling ' 

above afford conclusive proof that where the rankness of the grass is sufficient 

heavy mortality may be caused through the damping off of seedlings during 

the rains : it should be remembered, however, that these possibly represent 

an extreme case of moisture seldom, if ever, met with in the natural habitat 

of the tree. 

So far as the evidence goes, it may thus be concluded that whereas 
a soil-covering of grass as a protection against the heat of the sun may be an 
invaluable factor in the establishment of natural reproduction, under certain 
conditions it may become noxious, preventing the germination of seed and 
the establishment of seedlings owing to its rank growth ; the precise con- 
ditions under which its influence is beneficial or the reverse have not yet 
been determined. 

2. Fire and grazing. The direct effects of fire and grazing are, with good 
reason, generally held to be highly prejudicial to natural reproduction, for 
although the power of recovery of the seedling from injury from these causes 
is higher than that of many other species, great damage is suffered in unpro- 
tected areas, and reproduction is much retarded. Much evidence has been 
recorded in proof of this, and it will suffice to quote only a few instances. 
Mr. G. S. Hart ^ notes regarding Nimar : ' At present the number of Anjan 
seed-bearers in these forests is often small, but the natural regeneration oi 
this species in all closed areas is excellent and is not confined, as in the Buldana 
district, to small seedlings, the majority of which cannot be considered as 
established.' Of the same forests Mr. C. F. BeU ^ writes : ' The hot weather 
kills out a large percentage of seedlings and over-grazing in the open coupes 
and grazing blocks completes the destruction, fn coupes worked over and 
then closed to grazing for ten years, however, a fair number of seedlings have 
established themselves, and the future prospects of the crop are promising.' 
Again, Talbot^ states: 'Owing to sheep and cattle grazing, reproduction by 
seedlings over large areas in Khandesh and Nasik is much impeded. Multi- 
plication of the species by root-suckers is, however, general and there appears 
little danger of the valuable Anjan disappearing from any of the areas of its 
distribution.' Finally, Mr. J. Tapp ^ writes regarding West Kurnool : ' Natural 

^ Inspection Kote on the Nimar Forest Division, 1911. 

^ Working Plan for the Reserved Forests of the Xiniar District, Central Provinces, 1913. 

^ Forest Flora of the Bombay Presidency and Sind, i. 457. 

^ Working Plan for the Yerramalais, West Kurnool, 1913. 

2307.2 Q 



354 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

reproduction has hitherto been very poor, but since lopping of Yepi trees for 
fibre has been put a stop to and fire protection introduced natural seedlings 
of Yepi are beginning to come up in many of the reserves.' 

On the other hand, instances may be quoted where fire and grazing have 
not had the adverse effects which they might be expected to have. Mr. Martin's 
report, just quoted in connexion with the effects of grass, would indicate that 
where there is a sufficient supply of palatable grass the seedlings may escape 
injury, and even benefit by the partial removal of the grassy covering ; without 
further evidence of a similar nature, however, it would be unsafe to generalize 
on the results of this particular case. The same may be said of the results 
attained by Mr. H. L. Newman in experimental plots in East Khandesh in 
1908, though these results, which are quoted in the Bombay Forest Report 
for 1908-9, are interesting so far as they go. The object of these experiments 
was to ascertain the percentage of mortality among natural seedlings in 
thirty-one different patches. Several of these patches were accidentally burnt 
and others were purposely burnt in the dry season following the seeding ; the 
results showed a larger percentage of survivals in the burnt than in the unburnt 
plots. Protection from fire and grazing may have an adverse effect under 
certain conditions in inducing a rank growth of grass. 

3. Soil conditions. Under natural conditions the degree of soil moisture 
necessary for the normal development of the sapling is not ordinarily attained 
until the taproot has penetrated some distance into the subsoil, and hence 
the annual dying back of the stem, which has already been described. It. is 
generally agreed that the shallower the soil and the harder and more imperme- 
able the subsoil the more difficult it is for the seedling to establish itself, the 
progress of the taproot being slower and the period during which the plant 
is exposed to the risks of desiccation being longer. Conversely, it might be 
expected that anything which will tend to increase the porosity of the soil 
or prevent desiccation will materially assist in the establishment of the seedling ; 
and there is ample evidence to prove that this is the case. To begin with, 
the Dehra Dun experiments described above clearly demonstrate the beneficial 
effect of regular weeding in stimulating the development of the seedling, this 
"stimulus being due, in the earlier stages at all events, at least as much to the 
loosening of the soil as to the actual removal of weeds. Soil-aeration of this 
kind is now an accepted factor in the case of plant growth, not only providing 
a supply of air to the roots, but also furnishing an air-cushion which conserves 
the soil-moisture and preft^ents desiccation. In the dry regions in which 
Hardwickia binata grows it is of special importance, and there is no lack of 
evidence to show that loosening the soil has assisted in establishing reproduc- 
tion. Thus the abundance of natural reproduction on abandoned cultivation 
has been commented on on more than one occasion, while there are numerous 
instances of seedlings establishing themselves readily on hoed ground on which 
seed has been sown. Mr. E. E. Fernandez has recorded some interesting 
observations bearing on this subject in an article entitled The Treatment of 
Hardwickia hinata,^ from which the following quotations, relating to the Nimar 
district, are taken : ' Up to the reservation of Punasa . . . every attempt . . . 
had been made to get rid of the forest and replace it by field crops, but the 

1 [lul. Forester, xxix (1903), p. 517. 



HARDWICKIA 355 

forest reappeared almost as fast as it was destroyed. . . . The ground was never 
completely cleared of forest ; numerous trees of seed-bearing age were left 
scattered all round and over the fields. The seed fell from these trees on the 
newly broken land, now at last also freed to a great extent of grass, and 
the resulting seedlings came up under the most favourable condition for 
survival. The subsequent cultivation of the soil, limited to a mere scratching 
of the soil, left an appreciable proportion of the seedlings uninjured to continue 
their development, and as the field was abandoned as soon as the soil showed 
the first signs of exhaustion, the young plants were left in complete possession 
of the ground. . . . During the seven years that I was able to continue my 
observations before I was transferred to the United Provinces the seedlings 
of pre-reservation days continued to strengthen themselves and develop, but 
no new contingent of seedlings survived to swell their numbers. . . . The 
seedlings are as usual produced in countless numbers after every periodic 
gregarious seeding, but, being unable to push their taproots down deep enough, 
they all perish in their very first year.' Again : ' There is no doubt whatsoever 
that the death of the seedlings is due to their inability to force their long 
slender taproot down deep enough through the matting of grass roots occupying 
the soil everywhere to a depth of 1-2 ft.' 

We have already seen that Mr. Witt's experiments appear to disprove the 
theory that the taproots of the seedlings are unable to force their way through 
the roots of the grass, and to show that the mortality among the seedlings is 
due to drought. At the same time, the observations of Mr, Fernandez indicate 
that seedlings appearing on land which has been broken up for cultivation 
and subsequently ' scratched ' for a few years have succeeded in establishing 
themselves, whereas in the same locality seedhngs appearing on land which 
has reverted to grass have failed to do so. This affords room for a strong 
presumption that success in the former case was due to soil-aeration, and that 
Mr. Fernandez was not very far v/rong in attributing failure in the latter case 
to the grass roots, though the failure was probably due not so much to their 
direct obstructive action as to the introduction of an unfavourable factor 
possibly connected with deficient soil-aeration, caused, in part at least, by 
the binding action of the roots. 

To quote further examples of establishment of reproduction on broken 
soil, Shyam Sunder Lai ^ writes of conditions in Indore state : ' The natural 
seed regeneration in the seeding year (which is generally every third year) is 
so profuse, that many thousands of small seedlings per acre can be counted 
in the forests. A large proportion of these, however, die from several causes, 
but this kind of regeneration, on old sites of cultivation, has always been 
noticed to thrive extraordinarily, and it is an object lesson to be remembered 
that breaking up of land in the vicinity of anjan seed-bearers, either by means 
of ploughs or otherwise, helps the young seedlings considerably and gives 
much better results. . . . This has been tried in our forests with good results.' 

Mr. P. M. Lushington,2 referring to a remarkable plot of natural repro- 
duction in the Malappakonda reserve, Anantapur district, which is known to 
have come up within recent years near old seed-bearers on cultivated land 
acquired at settlement, remarks : ' A lesson can I think be learned from this 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxvii (1911), p. 65. 2 inspection Note, 1913. 

C2 



356 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

area, that we can aid the regeneration of this valuable species in places where 
there is a reasonable amount of soil by merely ploughing it up in the vicinity 
of existing trees.' 

Mr. S. Srinivasulu Naidu^ writes of experiments in Buldana : 'In the 
Moegaon felling series of the Amdari Reserve the experiment consisted in 
closing the area to grazing and breaking up the soil for a radius of fifty feet 
round a number of marked seed-bearers in a forest which had been subjected 
to heavy grazing and in which natural regeneration was practically absent at 
the time the experiments were started. The sample plots are situated close 
to the Buldana-Malkapur road and the grass in the locality is cut over once 
or twice in the year. Some of the sample plots have been specially'' kept clear 
of heavy grass by weeding, while others have been left without treatment, 
but in both cases the results are generally satisfactory and often excellent.' 

Mr. L. S. Osmaston '^ notes with regard to Khandesh : ' Although anjan 
often reproduces itself well by seed naturally, still such reproduction 
is considerably helped and better ensured by breaking up the soil under 
a seeding tree ; on such broken up soil the seedhngs are not only more 
numerous but better grown, more vigorous and more likely to withstand the 
first hot weather than those on unbroken ground.' 

4. Protective shade. The value of protective shade has already been 
indicated in connexion with the dying of seedlings through drought and the 
beneficial effect of the protection afforded by grass in dry localities. We have, 
however, already seen that there is a strong presumption that in certain 
cases a growth of grass may produce adverse soil conditions sufficient to 
counterbalance the beneficial effects of the grass, and it remains to be seen 
if any other form of protection is likely to secure the establishment of natural 
reproduction. As far as is known there are no records of definite experiments 
to ascertain the effect of the protective shade of trees and bushes and how 
this shade should be applied. There are, however, suggestions and observa- 
tions which may be quoted. Thus, in 1903, Mr. T. B. Fry ^ suggested the open 
condition of the forests in Bombay as one possible cause of mortality among 
seedlings, and thought something might be gained by introducing nurses to 
protect the young plants from the fierce heat of the sun. Mr. Witt * states : 
' From observations made, we are strongly of opinion that shade as a protec- 
tion to seedlings during the first three or four years' growth, against the heat 
and the dry winds of the hot season, is a sine qim non in the successful regenera- 
tion of anjan forests.' And again : ^ ' The more the seedlings are exposed to 
the direct rays of the sun and the scorching hot winds of the dry season the 
more will they transpire, and the more moisture will they require. Con- 
sequently, if in addition to the protecting growth of grass the seedlings also 
have overhead cover, we might expect it to act in a similar manner. And 
this is exactly what we have observed. Wherever the seedlings have been 
protected by a growth of grass and overhead shade, they have survived in 
far greater numbers than those in free and exposed positions.' 

Mr. L. S. Osmaston ^ also records the following observations : ' Bushes 

1 Working Plan for the Buldana Forest Division. 

2 Ind. Forester, xxxv (1909), p. 380. Ihicl, xxix (1903), p. 527. 

loc. cit., p. .85. 5 Iqc, cit., p. 126. Ind. Forester, xxxv (1909), p. 380. 



HARDWICKIA 357 

of Cassia auriculata, Gymnosporia montana, and Rhus parvi folia are of great 
use in regeneration : it is surprising how many healthy Hardwickia seedlings 
one finds right under the shade of such bushes : this is apparently due to the 
shelter afforded from the heat of the direct sun's rays and to the fact that 
under such bushes there is an accumulation of soil and humus ; also where 
cattle grazing is allowed such bushes protect the seedlings from being eaten. 
I have not yet come to a conclusion as to whether such bushes should be cut 
level with the ground when the Hardwickia seedlings in their shade have 
attained a certain age.' 

5. Climatic factors. We have already considered at some length the 
adverse effects of drought on the development of the seedling and the establish- 
ment of natural reproduction. The factor of rainfall is one which seems to 
require further study, and in this connexion the following quotation from the 
Yerramalais working plan ^ is of interest : 

' Most of the seedlings die out in the prolonged drought which follows 
the rains and continues for about nine months. It is only when this drought 
is interrupted by rainfall that some of them survive. Therefore it is usual 
to come across a group of youilg seedlings in one place and a patch several 
years older at another. For successful regeneration rainfall should be regular 
or the seedling sh6uld be able to pass the strata affected by drought before 
it is killed.' 

The extent and distribution of the seasonal rainfall may very well be 
presumed to have an effect on the establishment of natural reproduction ; in 
the absence of direct evidence, however, it seems unsafe definitely to ascribe 
the establishment of reproduction in patches to favourable years of rainfall, 
though it is by no means an improbable explanation of the phenomenon. 

Conclusions. From the details just given it may be concluded that, given 
the necessary seed-bearers, factors ordinarily beneficial to the establishment 
of natural reproduction are porosity and depth of soil, protection in early 
youth from the heat of the sun, protection from fire and grazing, and probably 
also favourable rainfall conditions. Adverse factors are stiffness and shallow- 
ness of soil, exposure of the seedlings to a hot sun, fire, grazing, and probably 
adverse rainfall conditions. Under certain conditions a soil-covering of grass 
may be decidedly beneficial in affording protection from the sun, while under 
other conditions it may, if sufficiently rank, be a highly noxious factor in 
preventing the seed from reaching the ground and in suppressing seedlings or 
causing them to damp off. 

There may possibly be other factors affecting the question, but those 
under consideration give some indication of how natural reproduction may 
be induced, namely, by ploughing or hoeing up the ground to the leeward 
of seed-bearers in good seed-years and protecting the resulting seedlings from 
the heat of the sun. In Nimar, and no doubt in other localities, this protection 
can be secured, according to Mr. Witt's observations, by allowing the grass 
to grow up ; under some conditions, however, it may be necessary to keep 
the soil loose and to clear the grass. In either case the shade afforded by 
trees and bushes will be beneficial and may even be essential. This last con- 
sideration gives a possible clue to the origin of some of the existing crops 
1 Working Plan for the Yerramalais, West Kurnool, J. Tapp, 1913. 



358 XXIII. LEGIBIINOSAE 

of Hardwichia in localities where natural reproduction does not appear now ; 
these crops may have come up under the shelter of previously existing trees. 
On the other hand, it is not improbable that some of them are the result of 
natural reproduction which appeared on land at one time under cultivation. 

Artificial reproduction. Hardwickia Imiata has been propagated 
artificially to some extent both within and without its natural habitat, partly 
by direct sowing and partly by transplanting, though it is generally agreed 
that the former is the more successful. Haines says it has been extensively 
planted in Nagpur, where it grows well on the trap hills ; also that it is best 
sown in situ, and remains very small for the first two or three years. It has 
been transplanted with success on the Talankheri (Seminary) hill, Nagpur, 
after pruning the stem and root. In Saugor patch sowings have been carried 
out with varying success ; in some cases the seedlings have attained a height 
of 3 ft. in three years. Mr. Fernandez ^ says it bears transplanting well, and 
recommends transplanting superfluous seedlings from patches from the third 
year onwards, younger plants not being robust enough. This does not agree 
with my experience at Dehra Dun, where direct sowings w^ere found to be much 
more successful than transplanting, whether with pruned or intact stem and 
roots. The difficulty of transplanting is corroborated by Mr. L. S. Osmaston,- 
who writes : ' It is hopeless to try and transplant the seedling, however young 
the seedling may be : artificial regeneration can therefore only be sviccessful 
if sowing takes place where the tree is to be permanently. When sowing it 
is best not to cover the seed with soil at all, or at any rate to only partially 
cover it.' I have found it advantageous to cover the seed lightly, as this not 
only prevents it from being blown away but also protects the radicle from the 
attacks of birds during germination. 

The experience of Shyam Sunder Lai regarding transplanting in Indore 
is, on the other hand, favourable. He writes as follows : ^ 

' As regards its suitability for transplanting, I can say with confidence 
that it transplants as well as any other tree. I have transplanted several 
hundred small seedlings to fill blanks in the forests and always with good 
results. In the year 1908 I sent more than a dozen trees, 9 ft. in height, from 
our forests to the Residency compound at Indore, and every one of these 
plants is fully established, and out of the two 18-inch girth trees which I had 
sent to Indore from a distance of 20 miles, one died, the other is perfecth^ 
healthy. In the Rajputana-Malwa Railway Executive Engineer's compound 
at Mhow, several hundred seedlings were transplanted six or seven years back, 
and these are at present 10 to 12 ft. high and look quite promising.' 

In the Yerramalais working plan it is stated that broadcast sowing on 
ploughed land as well as dibbling have been tried without success, for although 
germination was good nearly all the seedlings were killed off by drought. 
The system found most successful is to sow in contour trenches 6 ft. by 2 ft. 
by 1| ft., in which the soil at the bottom has been loosened, and on mounds 
of earth thrown up alongside. The seedlings in the trenches are shaded from 
December or January until the following rainy season by laying sticks across 
the trenches and covering them with a thick layer of grass weighted with stones, 

1 Ind. Forester, xxix (1903), p. 527. - Ibid, xxxv (1909), p. 380. 

3 /6/rf.,xxxvii(]9]l), ]). 64. 



HARDWICKIA 359 

a length of 1 ft. being left uncovered at the end of each trench to admit light 
and air. 

Various methods of experimental sowing on trap formation in the dry 
climate of Nasik (rainfall about 24 in.) have been described by Mr. L. 8. 
Osmaston.^ Dibbling the pods proved a failure. Broadcast and line sowings 
without preparation of the ground, as w^ell as sowing in pits, were only 
moderately successful. Mound sowings gave more success, especially in the 
case of fairly large mounds 2^ ft. high, and 2 ft. and 7 ft. in diameter at the 
top and base respectively, while broadcast sowings on ploughed ground were 
decidedly successful, particularly where the ploughing was followed by harrow- 
ing to remove the tufts of grass. The greatest success, however, was attained 
by means of line sowings in combination with the raising of agricultural crops, 
a method which has generally been found to be the most successful in raising 
forest plantations in dry regions. These sowings are described in the Indian 
Forester, vol. xxxiii (1907), p. 266. The field crops employed were sesamum, 
cotton, and the lesser hemp, the sowing being preferably carried out by lessees 
under a two years' lease. Two separate methods were tried as follows : 
(1) In, the first year the lessee cultivated field crops only, while in the second 
the tree seeds as well as field crops were sown, the area being weeded 
twice in the first rains. One line of tree seeds was sown to three lines of field 
crops, and the lines being about 1 ft. apart the distance between the lines of 
tree seeds was about 4 ft. (2) The tree seed was sown in the first year of the 
lease, four adjacent lines of tree seeds (forming a strip 3 ft. wide) alternating 
with strips of field crops 8 ft. wide ; in the second year the lessee cultivated 
field crops between the strips of tree seedlings and weeded and sowed up 
blanks in the latter. In departmental sowings of this kind the cost of formation 
for the first three years amounted to Rs. 28-11-0 per acre and the receipts 
from the produce of the field crops Rs. 32 per acre, showing a profit of Rs. 3-5-0 
per acre. 

Similar sowings with field crops in Berar, which have also proved success- 
ful, have been described by Mr. C. G. Rogers.- The field crops employed were 
sesamum, cotton, and arliar ; the Harchvickia seedlings reached a height of 
1| to 2 ft. in two years and four months. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. At present Havdwickia binata is treated 
under a variety of methods of working. In various localities the system 
employed is coppice-with-standards, in which Hardivickia constitutes the 
standards and miscellaneous species the coppice. In the Dhulia and Pimpalner 
ranges of West Khandesh the treatment prescribed is improvement fellings 
with artificial reproduction of Hardivickia by broadcast and by agri-silvicultural 
sowings.^ Similar treatment is prescribed for the Yerramalais, West Kurnool, 
regeneration being effected by means of trench and mound sowings already 
described. In Buldana a somewhat similar method of working is in operation 
experimentally.^ The treatment consists of the removal, mider a felling cycle 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxiii (1907), p. 177. - Ibid., xxxvii (1911), p. 8. 

3 Working Plan for the Anjan and Scrub Jungles of Dhulia and Pimpalner Ranges, West 
Khandesh, J. Hamilton, 1914. 

Working Plan for the Buldana Forest Division, Berar Circle, Central Provinces, S. Srinivasulu 

Naidu, 191.3. 



360 



XXIII. LEGLMINOSAE 



of twenty years, of over-mature and deteriorating stems subject to the reten- 
tion of a minimum of 20 seed-bearers per acre, combined with regeneration 
by breaking up the soil and sowing broadcast : Hardwickia is felled at a height 
of 18 in. from the ground. 

Under 'natural reproduction' (conclusions) and 'artificial reproduction', 
pp. 357-9, methods are suggested for obtaining regeneration naturally and arti- 
ficially, and it will generally happen that even if the former is secured it will 
require to be supplemented by the latter. Important points are the retention 
of sufficient siiade until the young crop is established, protection from fire, 
and closure to grazing until the saplings are out of reach of animals, that is, 
usually for ten years or even more. 

Rate of growth. The annual rings are not very distinct, but according 
to Mr. Witt they can frequently be made out with a good lens by the numerous 
pores filled with resin at the inner edge of the ring. Gamble says the rate of 
growth is usually about 10 rings per inch of radius, which gives a mean annual 
girth increment of 0-63 in. In dry localities on poor shallow soil the growth 
under natural conditions may be extremely slow. Mr. E. D. M. Hooper writes : 
' The natural growth of the young tree in the dry Deccan is undoubtedly very 
slow, and I have watched the species in the Malpangudi and Sherbi reserves 
of Bellary for the past twenty years and the stems have scarcely progressed.' 
Trees raised* artificially and tended grow much more rapidly. Mr. Ananda 
Rao 1 says : ' Some planted in the Nandyal compound about twelve years 
ago are about 25-30 ft. high and about 6 in. in diameter at breast height.' 

Allusion has already been made, under ' the seedling ', to the fact that the 

rate of growth of saplings can be traced by the annular marks on the stem, 

which denote each year's growth. Mr. Witt "^ estimates in this way that the 

average rate of height-growth of a normal sapling in Nimar, from a height 

of 3 ft. upwards, is 9-12 in. a year, and that allowing for the period of dying 

back in the early stages a natural sapling 10 ft. high would be about twenty 

years old. He also quotes some interesting figures showing the estimated 

rate of growth of trees on trap and on sandstone respectively. Thus forty-five 

trees, planted along roads in the civil station of Khandwa on shallow soil 

overlying trap rock, were thirty-seven years old. Measurements gave the 

following results : 

Average height . . . . . . . ... . . .35 ft. 

Mean annual height increment .......... 9-3 in. 

Average diameter (at breast height) . . . . . . . . .10-1 in. 

Corresponding girth . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ft. 8 in. 

Mean annual girth increment (including bark) ....... 0-86 in. 

Number of rings per inch radius (after deducting 1 in. thickness of bark) . . .9 rings 

As regards growth on sandstone, ring-countings made by him in respect 
of ten trees of various ages showed an average of between 13 and 14 rings 
per inch of radius, representing a mean annual girth increment of 0-46 in. 

Mr. A. W. Lushington, quoted by Gamble,^ says that planted trees of 
known age on the Kistna canals gave 204, 3-23, 4-54, 6-10, 7-35, 8-43, 9-43, 
10-39, 11-33, 12-26. and 1318 in. diameter for 5, 10. 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 

^ Working Plan for the Yerramalais Hill Reserves, West Kurnool, 1906. 

2 loc. cil.. pp. 101-2. 3 Man. Tnd. Timbers, 1902, p. 277. 



HARDWICKIA 361 

45, 50, and 55 years respectively. The last corresponds to about 8 rings per 
inch of radius. 

As regards coppice growth, Mr. L. S. Osmaston records the following 
measurements made in coppice coupes of different ages on trap formation in 
West Khandesh (rainfall about 20 in.) : 

Hardwkkia biriata : number of shoots per stool and growth of coppice. 







Mean girth at 






No. of shoots 


breast height of 


Mean height of 


Age. 


per live stump. 


largest shoot. 


largest shoot. 


('ears. 




inches. 


feet. 


1 


2-8 





1-4 


2 


30 





1-6 


3 


2-6 


20 


60 


4 


2-9 


2-7 


6-7 


5 


2-6 


60 


11-7 


6 


3-5 


.6-8 


12-5 


7 


2-7 


B-3 


111 


8 


3-3 


4-3 


9-6 


9 


2-5 


80 


13-6 


10 


2-8 


8-8 


150 


11 


3-2 


110 


170 


12 


34 


6-9 


11-7 


13 


2-2 


9-8 


14-5 


14 


3-4 


110 


13-9 



The average number of shoots per live stump in all the coupes is 2-9. 

2. Hardwickia pinnata, Roxb. Vern. Madeyan sampirani, koda palei, 
Tarn. ; Shurali, kiyavu, Mai. ; Chon paini, Coorg. 

A large handsome evergreen tree attaining a height of 100 ft. and a girth 
of 14 ft., with dark green shining foliage. Leaves with four to seven leaflets 
2-4 in. long. Bark dark brown and green, rather rough. Wood moderately 
hard, dark red or reddish brown, ornamental, used for building and furniture. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree occurs in the Western Ghats from 
South Canara to Travancore. It is abundant in the forests of Travancore up 
to 3,000 ft. In Coorg it is common in the evergreen forests : enumerations 
by Mr. N. E. Shrigley in 1914-15 gave an average per 100 acres of 58 trees 
above 7 ft. 6 in. in girth, and 22 trees 6 ft. 9 in. to 7 ft. 6 in. in girth. In 
the Coorg evergreen forests its chief companions are Hopea spp., Dipterocarpus 
indicus, Vateria indica, Dysoxylum malaharicmn, Artocarpus hirsuta, A. infegri- 
folia, Calophyllum spp., Dichopsis elliptica, and Mesua ferrea. 

Flowering and fruiting. The small white flowers, in dense panicled 
racemes, appear in February, and the pods ripen in May-June. The pod 
(Fig. 142, a) is 1-2-2 in. long by 0-8-1 -2 in. broad, turgid, woody, compressed, 
with a single seed in the apical part, indehiscent until germination, when it 
dehisces slightly at the apex. 

Germination (Fig. 142, h-d). Hypogeous. The pod dehisces slightly at 
the apex, enabling the radicle and plumule to emerge ; these elongate rapidly, 
while the cotyledons remain within the pod. 

The seedling (Fig. 142). 

Roots : primary root long, moderately thick, terete, tapering, flexuose : 
lateral roots few to moderate in number, short, fibrous, distributed down 
main root. Hypocotyl scarcely distinguishable. Cotyledons 0-8-1 -2 in. by 
0-4-0-7 in., fleshy, remaining within pod. Stem erect, glabrous or young 



362 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

parts minutely puberulous. Leaves alternate, compound, earlier leaves with 
one pair, later leaves with two or three pairs of leaflets, fost few leaves abortive 
and scale-like. Stipules up to 0-15 in. long, falcate acuminate. Common 
petiole (earlier leaves) 0-4-1 -5 in. long. Leaflets with thick petiolules 0-1- 
0-15 in. long, lamina 1-5-3-5 in. by 0-6-1 -2 in., obliquely ovate acuminate, 
entire, coriaceous, gland-dotted, glabrous or lower surface minutely puberulous 
in young leaves, lateral veins numerous. The seedling ordinarily attains 
a height of about 8 in. in the first season, with a taproot 1 ft. or more in length. 

The growth of the seedling appears to be somewhat slow. Mr. H. Tireman 
informs me that young plants raised from seed sown in 1914 under moderate 
shade in an abandoned kumri in Coorg had an average and maximum height 
in January 1918 of ft. 11 in. and 2 ft. 9 in. respectively. 

Rate of gro"\vth. Bourdillon says that the annual rings are marked by 
dark lines, and that the rate of growth is about 12 rings per inch of radius, 
giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-52 in. 

5. SARACA, Linn. 

Saraca indiea, Linn. Asoka tree. Vern. Asok, ashok, Hind. 

Though not an important forest tree, this tree is often planted for orna- 
ment or for religious purposes ; it is one of the most sacred trees of the Hindus 
and Buddhists, the flowers being much used for religious ceremonies and temple 
decoration. It is found wild along streams, or in the shade of the evergreen 
forests, in the Khasi hills, Chittagong, Arakan, Tenasserim, Upper Bm-ma, 
the Northern Circars, and the west coast of Bombay. The clusters of fragrant 
orange or red flowers appear from January to April or May. The tree is 
interesting as furnishing an example of drooping young leaves without chloro- 
phyll, like those of certain other evergreen trees, for example Amherstia 
nobilis, Mesiui ferrea, Mangifera indiea, PolyaUhia fragrans, and others. The 
leaflets of the young leaves are red in colour, thin 'and flaccid, and hang 
vertically downwards for some time after attaining full size. 

6. AMHERSTIA, Wall. 

Amherstia nobilis, Wall. Vern. Thaivka, Burm. 

This, one of the most beautiful flowering trees in the world, is an evergreen 
tree indigenous in Tenasserim and cultivated in the moister parts of Burma 
and southern India. The flowers are crimson to yellow or salmon pink, in 
large candelabrum-like pendulous racemes hanging amongst the handsome 
foliage. The young leaves are of a rich red or purplish colour and hang flaccid 
(see under Saraca indiea above). The tree is somewhat difficult to cultivate, 
being delicate when young and requiring a rich soil and a warm moist equable 
climate. It may be raised from seed in pots or baskets, but can best be 
propagated by layering in the hot season and planting out during the rains. 
It is cultivated successfully in Ceylon, but seldom ripens its seeds there ; it 
flowers during the greater part of the year, but chiefly from January to March. 

7. TAMARINDUS, Linn! 

Taniarindus indiea, Linn. Tamarind. Vern. Imli, amli. Hind. ; Himase, 
Kan. ; Chinch, Mar. : Pidi, Tam. ; Chiiifa, Tel. ; Pulinje, Coorg ; Magyi, 
Burm. 




Fig. 142. Hardwichia pinnaia . Seedling x |. 
a, fruit ; h-d, germination stages ; e, seedling one month old ; /, seedling six months old. 



364 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

A large usually evergreen tree attaining a height of 100 ft. and a girth 
of 15 ft. or more, with a spreading rounded crown and pinnate leaves with 
ten to twenty pairs of leaflets about 0-5 in. long. Bark dark grey, moderately 
thick, deeply cracked. Wood hard and close grained, used for rice-pounders, 
oil and sugar mills, tools, furniture, and turnery. The tamarind is not a forest 
tree, but is largely planted for shade and ornament and for the sake of its 
pods, which are used as an astringent and aperient and for making condiments. 
It is an excellent avenue tree, being always in leaf and having a spreading 
crown. Mr. A. E. Wild records a tree 25 ft. 6 in. in girth at Kara, Gaya. 

Distribution and habitat. Said to be indigenous in Abj^ssinia and 
central Africa. Largely planted in India along roads and avenues, and in 
and around villages ; frequently run wild. Tamarind groves in the forest 
often mark the sites of deserted villages. It thrives only in the warmer parts 
of India, and though planted as far north as the Punjab it does not ripen its 
fruits, nor does it flourish. In Burma it is one of the commonest of village 
trees in the dry zone. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is never leafless 
except in very dry localities, where it is sometimes leafless for a short time 
in the hot season. The new leaves appear in March-April. The small yellow 
and red variegated flowers appear from April to June (also in October, Haines), 
and the pods ripen from February to April. The pods are brown, 3-6 in. 
long, 0-5 in. thick, with a brittle epicarp, filled with a dark brown fibrous 
acid pulp containing three to ten brown smooth compressed seeds (Eig. 143, a). 
The pods are readily eaten by monkeys, which are instrumental in scattering 
the seeds. The germinative power of the seed is fairly high (average 66 per 
cent, in tests at Dehra Dun, where conditions are not favourable). 

Germination (Fig. 143, b-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end of the seed and descends rapidly. The hypocotyl elongates, arching 
slightly, and raises above ground the cotyledons enclosed in the testa. The 
latter falls to the ground when the cotyledons expand. 

The seedling (Fig. 143), 

Roots : primary root long, wiry, flexuose : lateral roots numerous, 
moderately long, fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct 
from and thicker than root, 1 5-3-5 in. long, slightly compressed, finely tomen- 
tose. Cotyledons sessile, 0-5-0-7 in. by 0-35-0-5 in., plano-convex, thick, 
fleshy, unequally ovate, orbicular or obovate, apex rounded, base projecting 
about 0-1 in. behind point of insertion. Stem erect, terete or slightly com- 
pressed, wiry, tomentose ; internodes 0-3-1 in. long. Leaves paripinnate, 
first pair opposite, subsequent leaves alternate. Stipules 0-2-0-3 in. long, 
falcate acuminate, pubescent. Rachis 1-1-3 in. long, pubescent, terminating 
in a bristle. Leaflets 6-10 pairs, opposite, sub-sessile, 0-4-0-9 in. by 0-15- 
0-3 in., linear oblong or rhomboidal, obtuse or slightly emarginate, entire, 
pubescent, glaucous beneath, darker above. 

The early development of the seedling is fairly rapid under favourable 
conditions, a height of 2 ft. or more in the first season and 4 ft. or more in 
the second season being attainable with regular weeding and watering. A long 
taproot is developed early ; this may attain a length of over 1 ft. within two 
months of germination. Weeds greatly hinder the growth of the seedling, 
which responds in a marked degree to weeding. The young plant grows best 




Fig. 143. Tamarindus indica. Seedling x |. 
a, seed ; b-e, germination stages : f-h, development of seedling to end of first season. 



366 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

in a porous soil and if sheltered from the sun in the earlier stages ; it is very 
sensitive to frost. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is not exacting as regards soil, 
though it thrives best on deep alluvium : Haines says it has become naturalized 
among granite rocks near Kuru, Chota Nagpur. It is sensitive to frost, but 
withstands drought, having remained unaffected in the severe drought of 
1899-1900 in the Deccan. The tree produces root-suckers. Owing to the fact 
that under its shade the ground is usually bare it is one of the most suitable 
trees for planting along fire-lines, for which piu-pose it has been employed in 
Mysore.^ Its growth is somewhat slow. 

Artificial reproduction. The tree is not difficult to propagate, whether 
by direct sowing along ploughed or hoed lines or by transplanting : in either 
case regular weeding and loosening of the soil stimulate growth. The seed 
should be sown about April in raised nursery beds composed of light porous 
soil, the beds being kept regularly watered and weeded : germination ordinarily 
commences in about five to ten days. Experiments at Dehra Dun showed 
that transplanting can be most successfully carried out during the first rains 
before the taproot reaches too great a length. Transplanting with entire root 
and stem in the second rains is more difficult and is liable to failure unless 
watering can be carried out for some time after. A fair amount of success 
has been attained at Dehra Dun by transplanting during the second rains 
after pruning the stem and taproot down to a length of about 2 in. and 9 in. 
respectively. Successful planting along fire-lines in Mysore has been carried 
out by raising seedlings in tile pots and planting them out 9 ft. by 9 ft. in 
pits 3 ft. cube, no subsequent watering or attention being required except to 
hoe up the soil round the plants once a year. 

8. CASSIA, Linn. 

Species 1. C. Fistula, Linn.; 2. C. renigera, Wall.; 3. C. siamea, Lam.; 
4. C. auriculata, Linn. 

1. Cassia Fistula, Linn. Indian laburnum. Vern. Amalfas, Hind. ; 
Bahaiva, Mar. : Kakke, Kan. : Konnai, Tam. ; Rela, Tel. ; Sonaru, Assam ; 
Ngu, Burm. (Fig. 144.) 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree with a rather open crown ; leaves pari- 
pinnate with four to eight leaflets 2-6 in. long. Bark about 0-25 in. thick, in 
younger trees smooth, light grey, reddish brown inside, in older trees reddish 
brown, exfoliating in hard scales. This is one of the most beautiful of Indian 
flowering trees. Wood hard and durable, in demand for house-posts, carts, 
and agricultural implements. The pulp of the pods is a strong purgative 
(ihe Cassia Pulpa of the British Pharmacopoeia), while the bark is much in 
demand for tanning. 

Distribution and habitat. Common in deciduous forests throughout 
the greater part of India and Burma, ascending to 4,000 ft. in the Himalaya ; 
also in Ceylon. The tree is not gregarious, but is scattered in mixed deciduous 
forests, often of a somewhat open type : it occurs fairly frequently in sal forest. 
Sometimes it approaches gregariousness in localities frequented by monkeys 

1 Ind. Forester, ix (1883), p. 143. 




Fig. 144. Cassia Fistula in fruit. Dehra Dun, United Provinces. 



CASSIA 367 

(see under 'natural reproduction ', p. 368). It is found on a variety of geo- 
logical formations and will grow on poor shallow soil, as on the dry outer 
slopes of the Himalaya. In climatic requirements it shows a wide range. In 
its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 
100 to 120 F., the absolute minimum from 25 to 65 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 20 to 120 in. or more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless for 
a very short time, or hardly at all, between March and May, the new leaves 
appearing in April-May ; these are bright green or sometimes a beautiful 
rich copper colour. The long pendulous racemes of large bright yellow flowers 
appear chiefly with the new leaves from April to June, but it is no uncommon 
thing to find the tree in flower even as late as September, particularly in dry 
years. The long cylindrical pods develop rapidly, reaching almost full length 
but not full thickness by October, when they are still soft and green. By 
November they are full-sized but still green and unripe ; they commence 
ripening in December and continue ripening from January till March or April. 
The ripe pods are 1-2 ft. long or sometimes more, 0-75-1 in. in diameter, pendu- 
lous, cylindrical, dark brown, smooth, hard, indehiscent, septate into numerous 
one-seeded cells, the seeds being embedded in a dark brown sweetish pulp 
which is a strong purgative. The ripe pods hang for some time on the tree, 
commencing to fall about April-May, and continuing to fall in the following 
months : old pods may often be found on the trees in September or later 
along with the new half-grown green pods. 

The seeds (Fig. 145, a) are 0-3-0-4 in. by 0-2-0-3 in., ovate, compressed, 
light brown, hard, smooth, shiny, with a moderately hard testa and a horny 
albumen. About 2,500 weigh 1 lb. Like many other hard leguminous seeds, 
those of Cassia Fistula take some time to germinate, some lying a whole year 
in the ground before doing so, even if regularly watered. Boiling the seeds 
for about five minutes before sowing has been found to give very good results 
in stimulating germination. ^ Tests carried out at Dehra Dun showed that 
the seeds retain their vitality unimpaired for at least two years. It was found 
that seed from pods one year old germinated more quickly than that from 
fresh pods, though the percentage of sound seeds in the former may be low 
owing to insect attacks. As regards the identity of the insects which do much 
damage by attacking the seeds within the pods, specimens of infected pods 
collected in the Siwaliks in December 1910 were kept under observation ; 
from these were bred out (1) from May 4 to June 5, 1911, moths identified 
as Trachylepiclia fructicassiella, Rag., and (2) from May 4 to 13, 1911, beetles 
identified as Caryoborus gonagra, Fabr.- 

Germination (Fig. 145, b-e). Epigeous. The radicle issues and the 
hypocotyl arches slightly, raising above ground the cotyledons enclosed in the 
testa, which soon falls, along with the albumen, when the cotyledons expand. 

The seedling (Fig. 145). 

Roots : primary root long, terete, tapering, wiry, yellow turning brown, 
glabrous : lateral roots numerous, fibrous, distributed down main root : 

1 Forest Report of Bihar and Orissa, 1917-18. 

2 Lefroy, Indian Insect Life, pp. 351 and 509. See also Ind. Mus. Notes, iv. 106, for damage 
by the tortricid moth Cryptophebia carpophaga, Wlsm. 



368 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

nodules present. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 1-2-3 in. long, terete, tapering 
upwards, tender and green at fii'st, becoming brown and wiry, minutely 
pubescent. Cotyledons sessile or very shortly petiolate, thin, plano-convex, 
somewhat fleshy, 0-7-0-8 in. by 0-4-0-5 in., elliptical oblong, apex rounded, 
base obtuse, entire, green, glabrous, 5- veined from the base, the three central 
veins more distinct than the lateral two. Stem erect, terete, wirj^ pubescent ; 
internodes 0-2-0-5 in. long in young stages. Leaves alternate or first pair 
opposite or ^ub-opposite, compound, paripinnate, earlier leaves with two 
pairs of leaflets, followed by leaves with three, then four pairs. Stipules minute, 
linear. Rachis 0-3-1 -5 in. long in first season, pubescent. Leaflets opposite, 
very shortly petiolate, 0-5-1-7 in. by 0-2-0-5 in. in first season, unequally 
ovate lanceolate, acute, entire, pubescent, venation reticulate. Earh'' leaves 
small, successive leaves becoming larger. 

The effect of weeding arid watering on the development of the seedling 
is most marked. Various plots of seedlings, some weeded and watered and 
others left unweeded and unwatered under purely natural conditions, were 
kept under observation at Dehra Dun, and the following measurements of 
the plants were recorded : 

Cassia Fistula : measurements of seedlings. 

Treatment. Height at end of season. 

1st. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 

Plants regularly weeded and ft. 6 in.- 2 ft. in.- Maximum 

watered 2 ft. in. 12 ft. 10 in. 15 ft. 

Plants not weeded or watered Maximum Maximum 9 in.- , 

ft. 9 in. 1 ft. 10 in. 2ft. 8 in. 5 ft.-8 ft. 

This indicates that under natural conditions the seedling develops slowly for 
the first few years, after which more rapid growth takes place. A fairly long 
taproot is produced at an early stage. 

Seedlings are somewhat frost-tender, but have good power of recovery. 
If exposed to the sun during germination they are sensitive to drought, and 
the protection afforded by a covering of earth or a moderate growth of grass 
is useful ; during the rains, however, much mortality occurs owing to the 
damping off of the seedlings where there is a heavy growth of weeds. In 
northern India the old leaves of natural seedlings drop about February-, and 
new growth commences in March or early April. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Cttssia Fistula stands a moderate amount 
of shade. It is not frost-hardy, and suffered severely in the great frost of 
1905 in northern India. In the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908, which 
seriously affected the forests of Oudh, it proved to be decidedly hardy. It is 
not readily browsed, even by goats. It coppices vigorously and produces 
root-suckers freely from a root-system which is partly superficial. As already 
stated, it is not exacting as regards soil, and may be found on poor shallow 
soils. 

Natural reproduction. As the natural reproduction of this tree was 
something of a mystery, I made a special study of it in 1910 and following 
years, with interesting results, for it appears to furnish an instance where 
animal assistance is necessary in obtaining natural reproduction, and so far 
no case has yet been observed of reproduction having been effected without 
the agency of animals. 



a 



c 






^ 




cr 





k. 



Fig. 145. Cassia Fistula Seedling x f 
a Seed b - e Germination stages f - h Development of seedling during first season 



CASSIA 369 

As already mentioned, the pods ripen from December- January onwards, 
hanging on the tree often for many months : they commence falling about 
April-May, continuing to fall until September or even later. After falling 
they lie on the ground, where they may be found in quantity during the 
succeeding cold and hot seasons. If pods are collected from the ground during 
these seasons and broken open each seed will be found loose in its own cell, 
the pulp having dried up : many of the seeds will as a rule be found to be 
eaten by grubs, while those which are not attacked will be quite sound, and 
in fact tests have shown that they retain their vitality for at least two years. 
Later in the season, and throughout the rains, pods lying untouched on the 
ground continue in much the same state, their hard outer shells often becoming 
partially eaten by white ants, but no sign of the germination of the seed being 
apparent. 

In order to determine if possible what happens to the pods on the ground 
and how reproduction is effected, ripe pods were collected in March 1911 and 
laid on the ground on a marked plot at Dehra Dun with the view of periodical 
observations being made. Within a week the plot was discovered by jackals, 
which broke the pods up with their teeth in order to eat the pulp, scattering 
the seeds about the plot. This plot was left in the condition in which it was, 
with the remnants of the pods and seeds lying about as the jackals had left 
them. A second plot, however, was laid out alongside the , original one, 
and in it another lot of ripe pods was laid on the ground ; this plot, how- 
ever, was covered with a strong cage of wire netting to keep animals off, 
and both plots were subsequently kept under observation, with the following 
results : 

A. Unprotected plot (seeds scattered by jackals). (1) First season, germina- 
tion commenced in July, after heavy rain, and continued throughout August ; 
24 seedlings came up, of which 15 damped off during the rains owing to heavy 
weed-growth, leaving 9 at the end of the season with a maximum height of 
8 in. (2) Second season, 10 new seedlings appeared in July from seed which 
had lain dormant for a year ; of these new seedlings 6, and of the old ones 
2, damped off during the rains owing to heavy weed-growth, leaving at the 
end of the season 1 1 survivors up to 1 ft. 6 in. in height, of which 7 were old 
and 4 new seedlings. (3) Third season, the 11 survivors of last year remained 
alive and in good condition, attaining a maximum height of 2 ft. 8 in. by 
the end of the season ; more dormant seeds germinated in July, but only 
2 seedlings escaped damping off luider a growth of weeds, and the total number 
of seedlings in the plot at the end of the season was 13. 

B. Protected plot (covered with cage of wire netting to keep off animals). 
During the first rains the pulp within the pods became mouldy and rotten, 
but the seeds not attacked by grubs remained quite sound and fertile ; many, 
however, were destroyed by grubs. The pods were kept under observation 
for four seasons. The seeds never escaped from them, and no germination 
took place. The shells of the pods became partly eaten by white ants, and the 
seeds were also to some extent attacked, though some remained sound until 
the end of the period of observation. The fact remained that no germination 
took place from the pods in this plot. 

In addition to the observations just recorded many others have been 

2307.2 jy 



370 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

made in the forest with the view of ascertaining the extent to which animals 
assist in the natural reproduction of this tree, and no case has yet been met 
with in which the seed was found to germinate without having been extracted 
from the pods by animal agency ; on the other hand, the remnants of pods 
broken up by animals have frequently been met with, and in many cases 
young seedlings have been found during the rains in the neighbourhood of 
these remnants. The animals which are known to eat the pulp of the pods, 
and are therefore useful agents in the spread of the tree, are monkeys, jackals, 
bears, and pigs ; there are possibly other animals also. Although many of 
the seeds are scattered near the trees where the pods are eaten, without being 
swallowed by the animals, some are swallowed, as the seeds have been noticed 
in their excreta ; in this way not only are the seeds disseminated, but germina- 
tion is probably accelerated, an important point in the case of hard leguminous 
seeds of this kind. Some curious instances of natural reproduction traceable 
to the presence of animals have been observed. In certain localities along the 
base of the outer Himalaya the tree is so plentiful as to approach gregarious- 
ness, and although reproduction is partly from suckers, yet seedlings of various 
ages are also met with ; such places have always been noticed to be frequented 
by numbers of monkeys, and there can be little doubt that they are the agents 
directly responsible for the spread of the tree. 

As regards the time taken by the seeds to germinate under natural 
conditions, the observations already recorded have been confirmed by other 
observations in similar plots in which the seed has been extracted from the 
pods and scattered on the surface of the ground, namely, that the seed 
germinates chiefly during the rainy season after thorough soaking ; only 
a portion of it may germinate during the first year, some lying dormant until 
the second or even the third year before germinating. In the case of seed 
lying on the surface of the ground much mortality is caused during germination 
by the destruction of the radicle by birds and insects, or through drying up 
in places exposed to the sun. Where the seed is buried by rain or otherwise, 
which frequently occurs under natural conditions, germination is more suc- 
cessful. A growth of grass, if not too rank, also protects the germinating seed. 
High mortality among the seedlings is caused subsequently by damping off 
where weed-growth is heavy. 

Much of the natural reproduction met with in the forest consists of root- 
suckers ; this is particularly the case on hill-sides, in cuttings, and other places 
where the surface roots are liable to be exposed. 

To summarize, the following facts have been established regarding the 
natural reproduction of this tree from seed : 

1. Reproduction is effected mainly, and perhaps entirely, through the 
agency of animals (monkeys, jackals, bears, pigs, and possibly others), which 
break open the pods to eat the pulp and thus scatter the seeds or swallow 
and disseminate them. 

2. The seed germinates during the rainy season, some lying dormant 
until the second or even the third rains. 

3. Germination is favoured if the seed becoriies buried, and to some 
extent if it is protected by a moderate growth of grass ; if the seed lies on 
the surface of the ground much mortality takes place during germination 



CASSIA 371 

owing to the destruction of the radicle by birds and insects, or to its drying 
up if exposed to the sun. 

4. Many seedlings perish in heavy weed-growth owing to damping ofE 
during the rains. 

Artificial reproduction. The seed germinates tardily, that kept for 
a year germinating more readily than fresh seed. Certain methods of hastening 
the germination of hard leguminous seeds have been suggested in the intro- 
duction to this order, and these may prove effective. The seed should be 
sown in seed-beds in drills about 10 in. apart in March or April, and regularly 
watered ; germination ordinarily takes place early in the rains, though some 
of the seed may lie dormant until the second year, germinating at different 
times from March onwards. Transplanting requires some care, but it can be 
carried out satisfactorily while the plants are still comparatively small during 
the first rains : basket planting is the most satisfactory method, the seedlings 
being transferred to the baskets in the first rains and planted out in the second 
rains. It is doubtful if direct sowings can be relied on for forest purposes 
unless this species is mixed with other species, owing to its uncertain germina- 
tion : nevertheless, plants which do come up from direct sowings and are 
kept regularly weeded have been found to develop better than transplants. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. The ouly Satisfactory treatment for this 
species appears to be coppice, since natural reproduction by seed cannot be 
depended on over definite areas ; the tree is not of sufficient value to raise 
in regular plantations except as an accessory species in mixture with other 
trees. 

Rate of growth. The following records of periodical girth measurements 
in sample plots in the United Provinces show that the growth of trees (as 
distinct from coppice-shoots) is moderate only : 

Cassia Fistula : rate of growth in high forest sample plots, United Provinces. 







Number of 


Number of 




Mean annual 


Number of 


Forest 


years under 


trees under 


Girth 


girth increment 


sample plots.' 


division. 


observation. 


observation. 


class. 

ft. 

1-2 

2-3 


for period. 


2 


Siwalik 


7 and 12 


{I 


in. 
016 
0-63 


3 


Lansdowiie 


12 and 17 


3 


11-3 


0-54 



These plots were laid out primarily for the measurement of sal, and it is 
probable that the Cassia trees were dominated or even suppressed, so that 
the rate of growth exhibited here is probably slower than would be obtained 
under more favourable conditions. 

Gamble's specimens gave about 9 rings per inch of radius, equivalent to 
a mean annual girth increment of 0-7 in. A cross -section 2 ft. 8 in. in girth 
in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun had 55 rings ; this represents 
a mean annual girth increment of 0-58 in. 

The rate of growth of coppice-shoots is fairly rapid while it lasts, but in 
a small-sized tree of this kind the growth slows down early. Measurements 
of coppice-shoots one year old in Bhandara, Central Provinces, in 1912-13, 
showed an average height of 6 ft. 1 in. as against 7 ft. 1 in. for teak. Measure- 
ments' recorded by Mr. A. F. Broun in 1886 in a coppice coupe nine years old 

D2 



372 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

at Bullawala, Dehra Dun, showed a mean girth of 7-7 in. and a mean height of 
11 ft. 8 in. for Cassia as compared with 8-6 in. and 16 ft. respectively for sal. 

The following figures give the results of measurements made in coppice 
coupes by Mr. C. M. McCrie in 1910 in Gorakhpur, United Provinces, together 
with measurements of sal coppice in the same coupes : 





Cassia Fistula : rate of growth o 


if coppice, Gorakhpur. 






Mean height. 


Mean girth. 




Age. 


Cassia. Sal. 


Cassia. 


Sal. 


years. 


ft. ft. 


in. 


in. 


2 


40 30 


- 





4 


7-6 70 


2-2 


20 


6 


110 10-3 


3-3 


2-9 


8 


140 130 


4-2 


3-8 


10 


16-4 15-3 


51 


4-8 


12 


18-5 17-5 


5-9 


5-8 


14 


20-3 19-2 


6-7 


6-7 


16 


221 20-9 


7-3 


7-5 



Measurements made in 1911 in coppice coupes two years old in Gonda, 
United Provinces, gave the following results : 

Cassia. Sal. 

Mean height 9 ft. 9 ft. 

Average number of shoots per stool . . . 1-5 1-7 

2. Cassia renigera, Wall. Vern. Ngushwe, ngusat, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree of the dry zone of Upper Burma, chiefly in dry 
open scrub forests. It is often cultivated for ornament, and grows and flowers 
well even in moist climates like that of Rangoon, .although in its natural 
habitat it is accustomed to a dry climate and is capable of growing on com- 
paratively poor soils. The tree has large pink flowers (Prain notes that the 
Shan hills specimens have yellow flowers) ; these appear in April and May 
in short racemes along the bare branches together with the young leaves, and 
the trees at this time are strikingly handsome. The pods are about 15-18 in. 
long, cylindrical and pendulous, resembling those of C. Fistula. The tree is 
leafless for- some time in the hot season. 

3. Cassia siamea, Lam. Syn. C. florida, Vahl. Vern. Mezali, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with a dense crown, probably indigenous 
in Burma and the southernmost part of Madras ; largely planted for ornament. 
The yellow flowers, in large pyramidal terminal panicles, appear mainly in 
the hot season, but the flowering period is comparatively long, and flowers 
may often be found at various seasons. The pods are 4-10 in. long, and ripen 
towards the end of the hot season ; they hang in clusters and give the tree 
a somewhat untidy appearance. The tree grows fairly rapidly and is easy 
to cultivate ; it grows well on moist soils provided tlie drainage is good. 

4. Cassia auriculata, Linn. Tanners' cassia. Vern. Tarwar, tanvad, 
taroda, Mar. ; Avararn, Tam. ; Tangedu, Tel. ; Peikthingat, Burm. 

An evergreen often gregarious shrub ; leaves paripinnate with eight to 
twelve pairs of leaflets. It yields the most important tan-bark in India, and 
on this account is worth cultivation on a larger scale than at present. It is 
also a useful plant for clothing dry bare rocky ground and poor soil. In 
Madras it is sown as a green manure crop. 



CASSIA 373 

Distribution and habitat. Common in the drier parts of the Indian 
Peninsula from Ajmer and the Jumna river southwards, covering large areas 
in the Deccan ; also found in the dry zone of Upper Burma. It is common 
on dry stony hills in open places and in scrub forest ; it occurs also on black 
cotton soil and on laterite near the sea-coast. It is naturally a species of hot 
dry regions, where the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 
100 to nearly 120 F., the absolute minimum from 33 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 20 to 50 in. 

Flowering and fruiting. The yellow flowers appear at various seasons, 
chiefly from October to May. The flowering and fruiting seasons overlap, 
and ripe fruit may be found for a considerable period of the year. The pod 
is flat, 3-4 in. long by about 0-6 in. broad. The seeds (Fig. 146, a) are 0-3 in. 
long ; about 1,100 weigh 1 oz. Good seeds have no difficulty in germinating, 
and the percentage of fertility is fairly high. The plant begins to flower and 
fruit at an early age, usually when about a year old. 

Germination (Fig. 146, b-d). Epigeous. The radicle emerges and 
descends ; the hypocotyl elongates, raising above ground the cotyledons 
usually enclosed in the testa, which falls to the ground with the expansion 
of the cotyledons. 

The seedling (Fig. 146). 

Roots : primary root very long, terete, tapering, woody : lateral roots 
moderate in number, short to moderately long, distributed down main root. 
Hypocotyl distinct from root, 1-2 in. long, terete, tapering upwards, minutely 
pubescent when young. Cotyledons very shortly petiolate, foliaceous, some- 
what fleshy, 0-6-0-8 in. by 0-5-0-7 in., sub-orbicular or broadly obovate, 
entire, green, glabrous. Stem erect, woody, glabrous, young parts green. 
Leaves alternate, compound, paripinnate, first 2-6 usually with 2 pairs of 
leaflets, subsequent leaves with 3-6 pairs or more. Stipules in young seedlings 
up to 0-25 in. long, linear or triangular acuminate, auriculate, green, pubescent. 
Rachis channelled above, sparsely pubescent. Leaflets shortly petioluled, 
with a filiform reddish gland at the base of each pair, 0-3-1 in. by 0-2-0 -5 in., 
elliptical oblong, obtuse, mucronate, entire, terminal pair larger than remaining 
leaflets. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. This shrub does not stand shade or drip 
from overhead trees, and grows best in open places with an abundance of 
light. It is sensitive to frost, but stands drought well, growing readily on 
dry shallow soil. It prefers light porous soil ; on water-logged ground or in 
soil containing an excess of moisture seedlings are apt to rot. The plant is 
avoided by goats an^ cattle, but plants cultivated near Dehra Dun were 
browsed by deer. It coppices well. 

Cultivation. The plant has been frequently cultivated in various parts 
of India, and for the production of tan-bark it is worked as coppice. For 
tanning cow and buflalo hides the bark from shoots three to five years old 
gives the best results, whereas for tanning goat and sheep skins that of young 
shoots two years old is preferred : this refers to unirrigated plants. The rota- 
tion has thus to be fixed according to requirements. 

For the formation of plantations stiff, water -logged, or alkaline soil and 
frosty localities should be avoided, care being taken to select places with soil 
which is light, porous, and not too moist. The site for the plantation should 




Fig. 146. Cassia auriculata. Seedling x ^. 
a, seed ; h-d, germination stages ; e-g, early development of seedling. 



CASSIA 375 

be an open one, trees and bushes being removed if they are present. Direct 
sowing has given much better results than transplanting, and it has been found 
advantageous to plough up the land before sowing. The sowing may be done 
either broadcast or in lines : the latter method is considered preferable as it 
facilitates weeding, thinning out the seedlings, and loosening the soil. Lines 
3 to 4 ft. apart produce a dense crop. In southern India June has been found 
to be the best month for sowing, except where the monsoon rains are heavy, 
in which case October is preferable. The seedlings should be thinned out 
during the first season where necessary ; weeding and cultivation of the soil, 
though not always essential, stimulate growth. Irrigation is not necessary 
except in an arid climate like that of Sind, where irrigated sowings are said 
to have produced a height-growth of 20 ft. in two years. Nevertheless^ 
irrigation is sometimes carried out during the first two years in the normal 
climatic region of the plant, and this hastens growth. With suitable tending, 
but without irrigation, the plants should reach a height of about 4 or 5 ft. in 
the second year, or under favourable conditions more. 

9. BAUHINIA, Linn. 

This genus contains over thirty Indian species, of which the majority are 
climbers, more than a third being trees and shrubs. They are easily recognized 
from the two leaflets being united for a portion of their length, forming 
a bilobed palmately veined leaf. Although none of the trees are of great 
importance as producers of timber, the bauhinias are of special interest as 
being widely represented throughout the forests of India and being charac- 
teristic members of many different forest types. Some are useful indirectly, 
for example B. purpurea for stocking frosty blanks, B. racemosa for afforesting 
open places, B. retusa for clothing hill slopes. 

Among the better known species five are described below in some detail, and 
these contain certain characters in common. They require care in transplanting, 
the roots being somewhat sensitive. The fruit forms rapidly and ripens soon 
after flowering, except in B. racetnosa, which takes several months to ripen 
its pods. The pods dehisce as a rule on the tree, scattering the seeds : this 
is particularly marked in the climber B. Vahlii, whose hard woody pods open 
with a crack in sunny weather and shoot the seeds to some distance. B. mala- 
harica is an exception to the rule, the pods usually^eaching the ground before 
dehiscing. The seed germinates readily, but in certain species (e. g. B. mala- 
barica and B. racemosa) so le of the seed may lie dormant for a year before 
germinating. It is of great advantage to successful reproduction if the seed 
becomes covered before germination, since the radicles of seeds germinating 
on the surface of the ground are liable to be eaten by birds or insects or to 
dry up before gaining a footing in the soil. Germination of the species studied 
is epigeous, but two species {B. purpurea and B. variegata) are interesting as 
showing a transition between hypogeous and epigeous germination. 

The genus contains several climbers which are noxious to tree growth 
and require to be cut periodically in the forest. The best known is B. Vahlii, 
W. and A., a gigantic climber sometimes reaching a girth of 4 or 5 ft. or even 
more ; its eradication is difflcult, since when cut down it at once sends out 
from the base new shoots which grow at a very rapid rate. 



376 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Species 1. B. racemosa, Lam.; 2. B. malabarica, Roxb.; 3. B. retusa, 
Ham. ; 4. B. purpurea, Linn. ; 5. B. variegata, Linn. 

1. Bauhiiiia racemosa, Linn. Vern. Jhinjeri, jhanjhora, inakuna, Hind. ; 
Apta, Mar. ; Banne, Kan. ; Vattdtthi, Tarn. ; Ari, Tel. ; Palan, Burm. 

A small to moderate-sized deciduous (or evergreen ?) tree with a somewhat 
crooked bole, drooping branchlets, and small leaves broader than long, cleft 
nearly half-way down. Bark bluish black, rough with numerous deep vertical 
cracks, pinkish red inside, turning brown on exposure. The tree is of no 
importance for timber, but the bast yields a strong cordage fibre. Silvi- 
culturally it is of some importance as a common constituent of the drier types 
of forest and as a useful species for filling blanks. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of India in 
deciduous forests of a dry type, ascending to 5,000 ft. in the western Himalaya; 
frequent in grassy blanks and open spaces, and common also on dry hills. 
In Burma it occurs on savannah lands and is fairly common in the dry zone 
associated with Acacia Catechu, A. leucophloea, Pentacme suavis, Shorea obtusa, 
Terminalia Oliveri, T. tomentosa, Bridelia retusa, Diospyros hurmanica, Buchan- 
ania latijolia, Zizyphus Jujuba, Odina Wodier, Cassia renigera, Pliyllanthus 
Emhlica, and other trees. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 30 to 85 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The old leaves are shed in 
the cold or early hot season and the new foliage appears in the hot season, 
sometimes before the old leaves have all fallen. The racemes of small creamy 
white flowers appear from March to June. The pods ripen in November- 
December and remain some months on the tree, falling towards the end of 
the hot season or early in the rains : they are indehiscent, 5-8 in. long, dark 
brown when ripe, thick, rigid, falcate, containing twelve to twenty seeds which 
rattle in the septate pods. The seeds (Fig. 147, a) are dark reddish brown, 
hard, smooth, shining, 0-3-0-4 in. by 0T8-0-25 in., with a hard fairly thick 
testa : about 220-250 weigh 1 oz. The seeds have a fairly high germinative 
power (58 to 95 per cent, in tests at Dehra Dun) and retain their vitality to 
some extent for at least one year. In order to collect the seed the pods should 
be plucked off the trees when thoroughly ripe, from January to March ; they 
should then be hammered open and the seeds separated out. 

Germination (Fig. 147, 6-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end o,f the seed and descends ; the hypocotyl elongates by arching, and the 
cotyledons, enclosed in the testa, are carried up above ground, the testa falling 
with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 147). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, wiry, flexuose : lateral roots 
moderate in number, fibrous : nodules present. Hypocotyl distinct from and 
thicker than root, 0-3-0-5 in. long, slightly compressed and more or less 
grooved down two sides, tapering downwards, green, glabrous. Cotyledons 
sub-sessile or very shortly petiolate, 0-9-1 -2 in. by 0-5-0-6 in., foliaceous, 
somewhat fleshy, obliquely ovate elliptical, entire, green, glabrous. Stern 
erect, terete or slightly compressed, wiry, zigzag at the nodes, green, young 
parts minutely i^ubescent, soon becoming glabrous. Leaves simple, alternate. 



'a 











Fig. 147. Bauhinia racemosa. Seedling x |. 
a, seed ; b-e, germination stages ; f-h, early development of seedling. 



378 



XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 



Stipules minute, subulate. Petiole 0-4-1 in. long. Lamina 0-6-1 -5 in. by 
1-2 in., broader than long, cleft nearly half-way down, mucronate, entire, sub- 
coriaceous, glaucous beneath, darker above, glabrous, apices of lobes rounded, 
each lobe palmately 7- or 9- veined, with a straight midrib between the lobes. 

The development of the seedling is rapid under favourable conditions, 
that is, particularly if weeding and watering are carried out. The young 
plant is of straggling habit, commencing to form strong side branches from 
the base at an early age ; these side branches succeed each other in alternate 
succession up the stem and grow rapidly, those near the base attaining a length 
of over 3 ft. by the end of the first season in the case of vigorous plants. The 
stem and branches droop, their extremities often touching the ground. A long 
taproot is developed at an early age, and may attain a length of over 2 ft. 
in three months from germination. Growth ceases in November-December, 
and new growth commences in March ; in the second season the growth 
usually starts with the elongation of the lower side branches, the main stem 
showing little or no growth until May or later (Dehra Dun). The leaves 
commence to fall in December and continue falling till May. 

Seedlings have good power of pushing their way through grass and low 
weeds, but their development suffers until the weeds are overtopped ; regular 
weeding has a marked effect on their growth. Drought is to be feared chiefly 
in the germinating stages in the case of seed lying on hard bare ground exposed 
to the sun. In frosty localities the seedlings are sometimes killed back, 
especially in grass, but have good power of recovery. 

The following measurements of seedlings in experimental plots at Dehra 
Dun will give soine idea of the rate of growth under different conditions : 

Bauhinia racemosa : rate of growth of seedlings, Dehra Dun. 



Condition under which 
grown. 

Weeded irrigated sow- 
ings 



Height and other particulars at end of season. 



1st season. 
Maximum 4 ft. 2 in. 
(side branches up to 
3 ft. 3 in. long) 



Unweeded 

sowings 



irrigated Maximum 2 ft. in. 



2nd season. 

Maximum 9 ft. in. 
(dense crop, very 
vigorous) 

Maximum 3 ft. 6 in. 
(chiefly under 1 ft. 
6 in. among weeds) 

Maximum 3 ft. 2 in. 



Weeded unirrigated Maximum 3 ft. in. 

sowings 

Unweeded unirrigated ^(1) Maximum 2ft. 7 in. Maximum 3 ft. 6 in. 
sowings (i.e. natural 
conditions) 



Nursery-raised plants, 
transplanted with 
entire roots and stem 

Nursery- raised plants, 
transplanted with 
pruned roots and 
stem 



^(2) Maximum Oft. 61 in. 
Maximum 1 ft. 2 in. 

Maximum ft. 9 in. 



Maximum 1 ft. 3 in. 
Maximum 3 ft. 6 in. 



3rd season. 

Maximum 15 ft. in. 
(maximum diameter 
21 in. at 2^ ft. from 
the ground) 

ft. 21 in. -3 ft. 9 in. 
(chiefly under 1 ft. 
Sin.) 

Maximum 7 ft. 7 in. 

ft. 5 in. -4 ft. 8 in. 

(chiefly under 2 ft. 

except w^here weeds 

scanty) 
ft. 4i in. -3 ft. in. 

2 ft. 9 in.-4 ft. 2 in. 



4th seas 



Maxim 

7 ft. 



Maximum 1 ft. 9 in. ft. 10 in. -3 ft. 8 in. 



Weeded unirrigated 
line sowings with 
field crops 



r(l) Maximum 1ft. 9 in. 
1(2) 



Maximum 2 ft. 4 in. 
3 in. -3 ft. 10 in. 

These figures demonstrate the great value of weeding, whether irrigation 
be carried out or not. 



BAUHINIA 379 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a light-demander, though some- 
imes found in slight shade. It is affected to some extent by frost, but has 
5ood power of recovery. In the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in the 
orests of Oudh it proved to be decidedly hardy. The tree produces root- 
;uckers and coppices well. 

Natural reproduction. The pods fall towards the end of the hot season 
)r early in the rains. If the seed be extracted from the pods germination 
;ommences with the early showers of May and continues for some time during 
he rains, some seed lying even until the second rains before it germinates. 
Che pods being indehiscent the seeds do not escape for some time after the 
)ods fall ; this they do ordinarily through the pods rotting or becoming eaten 
)y white ants, but in any case it is probable that under natural conditions 
nost if not all of the seed fails to germinate until the rains of the following 
T'ear. An important aid to successful germination is the covering of the seed 
)y earth and debris, which often takes place under natural conditions during 
he period in which the seed lies on the ground before germinating. When 
germination takes place on the surface of the ground there is much mortality 
hrough the drying up of the radicle or its destruction by birds and insects. 
sTatural seedlings are capable of struggling successfully through low weeds 
bnd grass, but their growth is kept back until the weeds are overtopped. In 
Iry hot situations the seedlings tend to die back for a few years, finally 
tarting upward growth when the root-system has established itself. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that 
he best results are obtained by direct sowings in lines, the young plants being 
:ept weeded and the soil being loosened from time to time. Line sowings 
vith field crops, the crop employed being the lesser millet or mandwa {Eleusine 
oracana), gave good results provided the lines were kept clear of crops to 
I width of 2 ft. 

Transplanting can be carried cut successfully with small nursery plants, 
he seed being sown in nursery drills not less than 9 in. apart in April or 
klay and the seedlings transplanted during the first rains ; the long taproot 
)revents successful transplanting later unless regular watering can be carried 
)ut, and experiments in pruning down the stem and taproot were only partially 
uccessful. 

This is one of the species which have been raised by sowings in conjunction 
vith field crops (sesamum, tur or arlmr, and cotton) in the Amraoti forest 
livision, Berar.^ 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. The tree is only of secondary importance, 
bnd is treated as an accessory species. Where a regular system is applied to 
,he mixed forests in which it occurs the treatment usually followed is that 
)f coppice or coppice-with-standards. 

Rate of growth. So fa^r as available statistics show, the rate of growth 
n high forest is slow. Sample plot measurements in the Siwaliks, extending 
)ver a period of twelve years, showed the following mean annual girth incre- 
nents for the period : 

Trees 12-24 in. in girth 0-21 in. (four measurements). 

Trees 24-36 in. in girth 0-33 in. (four measurements). 

^ Ind. Forester, xxxvii (1911), p. 8. 



380 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

As regards coppice, the following figures resulting from measurements 
made in 1910 by Mr. C. M. McCrie in the Ramgarh coppice coupes, Gorakhpur, 
United Provinces, indicate that the rate of growth for a time is fairly fast : 

Bauhinia racemosa : rate of growth of coppice, Gorakhpur. 



Age. 


Mean height. 


Mean girth 


years. 


ft. 


in. 


2 


4-5 





4 


90 


3-3 


6 


12-5 


4-5 


8 


160 


5-7 


10 


19-5 


6-8 


12 


230 


7-5 



2. Bauhinia maIabarica,Roxb. Y em. Amli,imli,amlosa, Hind. ; Karmai, 
Beng. ; Shadlu, Kan. ; Atthi, Tarn. ; Aram puli, Mai. ; Bwechln, Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree, evergreen or nearly so, with a bushy crown of dark 
green foliage ; leaves 2-3 in. long, broader than long, cleft about one-third of 
the length, acid to the taste, unlike those of B. racemosa, which they resemble 
somewhat otherwise. Bark rough, dark brown, exfoliating in long strips, pink 
to red inside. The wood is used only for fuel. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of India and 
Burma, but not in the driest tracts, in deciduous forests usually of a moister 
type than those in which B. racemosa is found. It is a common accessory 
species in the sal forests of India, in the teak and lower mixed forests of Burma, 
and in the moist forests of western and southern India. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 110 F., the absolute minimum from 32 to 62 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 40 to 120 in. or more. 

Flowering and fruiting. The dull whitish flowers, in small axillary 
racemes, appear from August to October, and the pods develop rapidly, ripen- 
ing from January to March, and often hanging in large quantities on the trees. 
The pods are 7-12 in. long by about 0-75 in. broad, fiat, flexible, many seeded, 
tapering gradually to a point. The pods either dehisce on the trees towards 
the end of the hot season or fall before dehiscing. The seeds (Fig. 148, a), 
of which about 320 weigh 1 oz., retain their vitality to some extent for one 
year. 

Germination (Fig. 148, b-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges and 
descends, and the hypocotyl elongates by arching ; the cotyledons, enclosed 
in the testa, are raised above the ground, and the testa falls with their expan- 
sion. 

The seedling (Fig. 148). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, terete, tapering : lateral roots 
moderate in number and length, fibrous. Hypocotyl distinct from and thicker 
than the root, 0-3-0-8 in. long, terete or slightly compressed, fusiform or taper- 
ing slightly upwards, sparsely covered with minute stiff hairs. Cotyledons : 
petioles 0-06 in. long, flattened above ; lamina 0-8-1-1 in. by 0-6-0-7 in., 
foliaceous, somewhat fleshy, oblong or elliptical, entire, sparsely covered with 
minute stiff hairs, 5-vcined from the base. Stem erect, terete or slightly com- 
pressed, somewhat zigzag at the nodes, pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, 
acid. Stipules 0-15 in. long, linear falcate, pubescent. Petiole 0-4-0-6 in. 
long, pubescent. Lamina 0-5-1 in. by 1-2 in., broader than long, cleft to 



BAUHINIA 



381 



ibout one-third of the length, mucronate, base cordate, entire, glabrous, 
)almately 7-veined with a straight midrib between the lobes. 

Under natural conditions the development of the seedling is slow, but if 




b 



d 






Fig. 148. Bauhinia malabarica. Seedling x f . 
a, seed ; b-e, germination stages ; /-/;., development of seedling during first season. 

iveeded and watered it grows more rapidly. Seedlings grown under natural 
conditions in grass at Dehra Dun had maximum heights of ft. 4 in., 1 ft. 8 in., 
md 5 ft. 7 in. at the end of the first, second, and third seasons respectively, 
rhe seedling has good power of struggling through grass and low weeds, but 



382 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

its growth suffers in the process and increases rapidly when the weeds are 
overtopped. The leaves fall about December-February, and new growth 
starts in March (Dehra Dun). The seedling is somewhat frost-tender in early 
youth. 

Natural reproduction. The seeds are sometimes scattered through 
the pods dehiscing on the tree in dry hot weather, but perhaps more commonly 
they escape either through the dehiscence of the pod after reaching the ground 
or through the pod valves becoming eaten by white ants or rotting off. Ger- 
mination commences early in the rains and continues for a time during the 
rainy season ; many seeds lie ungerminated until the second rainy season. 
Germination is most successful on loose soil where the seed becomes buried ; 
if it takes place on the surface of the ground the radicle is apt to dry up or to 
become eaten by insects or birds before it can penetrate the soil. 

Rate of growth. Little is known regarding the rate of growth of this 
species. Two trees measured for seven years in a sample plot in the Siwaliks 
showed the following growth : 

1. Girth class 12 to 24 in. ^mean annual girth increment for the period, 

Oil in. 

2. Girth class 24 to 36 in. mean annual girth increment for the period, 

0-6 in. 

3. Bauhiuia retiisa, Ham. Vern. Kayidla, semla, kurdl, Hind. ; Nirpa, Tel. 

A moderate-sized tree, never quite leafless, with entire or emarginate 
coriaceous leaves 4-6 in. broad, somewhat broader than long. Bark 0-3- 
0-5 in. thick, dark brown, longitudinally cracked, pale pink inside. The bast 
yields a fibre and the cortex a clear gum, for which the trees are extensively 
tapped in some localities. Gamble says the wood is the best of those of the 
bauhinias, but is not much used. Silviculturally the tree is important in the 
outer Himalaya, as it covers the hill-sides at elevations intermediate between 
those at which many of the low-level species disappear and Quercus incmia 
and its associates commence. 

Distribution and habitat. Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya 
from the Beas to Nepal, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, Central Provinces (Raipur, 
Bilaspur, South Chanda, Bhandara, Balaghat), and the Circars. In the outer 
Himalaya it is gregarious at elevations chiefly between 3,000 and 4,500 ft., 
but on southern slopes it occasionally ascends to 6,000 ft., as below Naini Tal, 
where it is associated with Quercus incana and Pmus longifolia ; it is also 
found in the Siwalik hills. According to Parker it occurs in the Jowlian reserve, 
Khanpur range, Hazara, but has not been collected between this and the 
Beas. It is always found on well-drained ground, on hill slopes or the sides 
of ravines. In the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan region it occurs mainly on 
shale, sandstone, and conglomerate. In Chota Nagpur it is common on the 
hills, especially on northern slopes, in Singhbum and elsewhere. Haines says 
it is very common on quartzite along the Konar nadi, Hazaribagh, and that 
it is found on quartzite rocks near Deori, Bhandara, Central Provinces. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 28 to 42 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 40 to 90 in. 



BAUHINIA 383 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is never leafless : 
he old leaves fall during the hot season and the new bright green foliage 
ippears in May and June, at which time the trees are conspicuous. The 
lowers appear from September to November, and the trees are then covered 
dth masses of yellowish white blossom. The pods form rapidly, becoming 
b rich crimson colour before ripening ; the masses of crimson pods hanging 
imongst the rich green foliage give the trees a particularly handsome appear- 
ance from January onwards. The pods are 4-7 in. by 1-2-1 -7 in., flat and 
lard ; they dehisce on the tree in June (outer Himalaya), the valves curling 
pirally and scattering the seeds. The seeds are dark brown, smooth, flat, 
ibout 0-5 in. in diameter. ' * 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The silviculture of this tree has not yet 
)een studied in detail. One particular requirement is a demand for perfect 
Irainage. Otherwise its demands do not appear to be exacting, as it can 
frow on poor stony ground where many species could not survive. 

Natural reproduction. The seeds, scattered towards the end of the 
lot season, germinate early in the rains, and, as in the case of other bauhinias, 
he establishment of the seedling appears to depend largely on the seed becom- 
ng covered with earth and debris, while new soil formed by landslips and 
;rosion is very favourable to germination, and germinating seeds are some- 
imes found in quantity on such ground during the rains. These conditions 
jommonly obtain on the hilly ground frequented by the tree, the flat seed 
ending itself to being covered with the loose earth washed down in the rains ; 
;his may to some extent account for the gregariousness of the species in the 
Duter Himalaya. 

Rate of growth. Reliable statistics are wanting as regards the rate of 
growth of seedling trees. A cross-section 3 ft. 3 in. in girth in the silvicultural 
nuseum at Dehra Dun had 47 rings, giving a mean annual girth increment 
Df 0-83 in. 

Measurements made in 1916 in the Saitba coppice coupes, Kolhan, Chota 
S[agpur, show the following average rate of growth of coppice of Bauhinia 
'etusa and sal respectively in a somewhat poor locality : 

Bauhinia retusa : rate of growth of coppice, Saitba. 

Mean girth at 4J ft. from ground. 

Bauhinia retusa. Sal. 

in. in. 
2-5 40 

4-3 6-5 

5-7 8-6 

70 10-3 

80 11-5 

90 12-6 

100 13-6 

* 

4. Bauhinia purpurea, Linn. Vern. Khairwdl, kardr, kolidr, kanidr, 
Hind. ; Atmatti, Mar. ; Sarul, haswaimpacla, kanchivdla, Kan. ; Kanclmn, 
Pel. ; MaJmhlegani, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with a bushy crown ; leaves 3-6 in. long, 
somewhat longer than broad, cleft about half-way down. Bark dark grey or 





Mean 


height. 




Age. 


Bauhinia retusa. 




Sal. 


years. 


ft. 




ft. 


2 


5-5 




90 


, 4 


110 




160 


6 


150 




200 


8 


19-5 




22-5 


10 


23-5 




24-5 


12 


27-5 




26-5 


14 


310 




28-5 





a 



-,v 



WAV . \'i\ 



>v'' /.',% 











Fig. 149. Bauhinia purpurea. Seedling x |. 
a, fruit ; fe, seed ; c-f, germination stages ; g-h, development of seedling during first season. 



BAUHINIA 385 

brown, pink to pale yellow inside. The wood is used for agricultural imple- 
ments and the bark for tanning. 

Distribution and habitat. Common in the mixed and sal forests of 
the sub-Himalayan tract, ascending the outer hills and valleys to 4,000 ft., 
Assam and the Indian Peninsula ; not indigenous in Burma. In its region 
the tree is characteristic of mixed deciduous forests, often of a dry type, 
occurring on hill slopes, in valleys, and along streams. Frequently cultivated 
for the sake of its handsome flowers. In its natural habitat the absolute 
maximum shade temperature varies from 100 to 115 F., the absolute mini- 
mum from 30 to 50 F., and the normal rainfall from 40 to 85 in. 

Flowering and fruiting. The terminal panicled racemes of large 
purple, deep rose to lilac flowers appear amongst the foliage from September 
to December. The flowers are very fragrant, and are visited by numerous 
bees, by whose agency pollination is effected. The pods (Fig. 149, a) form 
rapidly, some attaining a fair length while the tree is still in flower : they 
ripen from January to March, and are then greenish purple, 6-12 in. by 0-7-1 in., 
flat, fairly thick, pointed, slightly falcate, with coriaceous valves, containing 
10-15 seeds. The seeds (Fig. 149, h) are brown, compressed, 0-6 by 0-5 in. 
They germinate readily and have a high percentage of fertility, which they 
retain unimpaired for at least one year ; tests at Dehra Dun with seed kept 
for 14 months showed a fertility of 100 per cent. The pods dehisce on the 
tree during the hot season, scattering the seeds. 

Germination (Fig. 149, c-f). Strictly speaking epigeous, but shows 
a transition between the hypogeous and epigeous form. The radicle emerges, 
while the plumule commences to grow and the young shoot to develop before 
emerging from between the cotyledons : the latter separate very slightly and 
the young shoot extricates itself by arching or bending as in hypogeous germ- 
ination, but after its emergence the cotyledons, which become green, separate 
and are carried above ground on a short hypocotyl. 

The seedling (Fig. 149). 

Roots : primary root moderately long and thick, terete, tapering : lateral 
roots moderate in number, fibrous. Hypocotyl distinct from the root, 0-2- 
0-5 in. long, moderately thick, white or pale green, glabrous, subterranean or 
at ground-level. Cotyledons sub-sessile, 0-6-0-8 in. by 0-4-0-5 in., plano- 
convex, somewhat fleshy, oblong, apex rounded, base sagittate, green, glabrous. 
Stern erect, terete or slightly compressed, somewhat zigzag at the nodes, 
glabrous or young parts minutely pubescent ; internodes 0-4-1 -5 in. long. 
Leaves simple, alternate, at first small, becoming consecutively larger. Stipules 
0-05 in. long, falcate. Petiole 0-3-1-3 in. long, finely pubescent. Lamina 
0-3-1-5 in. by 0-3-1-5 in., about as broad as long, cleft to nearly half-way 
down, mucronate, apices of lobes acute, base cordate or truncate, entire, 
young leaves finely pubescent, palmately 7-veined with a straight midrib 
between the lobes. 

The growth of the seedling is very rapid under favourable conditions. 
Nursery-raised plants at Dehra Dun, regularly weeded and watered, attained 
a maximum height of 3 ft. 9 in. in two months from germination. In one plot 
17 nursery plants varied from 3 ft. 7 in. to 10 ft. 5 in. by the end of the first 
season ; by the end of the second season they had a maximum height of 
15 ft. 6 in., and were in flower. Under less favourable conditions the growth 

2307.2 J, 



386 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

is much slower. The season's growth ends about November, and new growth 
begins in February (Dehra Dun). 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a moderate light- demander. It 
is decidedly frost-hardy, as is proved by the fact that it may be found surviv- 
ing on grass-lands subject to bad frosts, where all but the most frost-hardy 
trees fail. 

Natural reproduction. The seeds germinate readily at the beginning 
of the rains, when numerous young seedlings may be found in the neighbour- 
hood of seed-bearers. Where germination takes place on the surface of the 
ground, however, much mortality takes place owing to the drying up of the 
radicle if exposed to the sun. The survival of the seedlings is greatly' facilitated 
if the seed becomes buried in loose earth before germination and the roots of 
the young plant are not exposed. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that 
the best results are attained by line sowings kept regularly weeded : irrigation 
also has a marked effect on the growth. The seedlings are somewhat sensitive 
to transplanting, which has to be done with care. The seed should be sown 
in the nursery in April or May in drills 9-10 in. apart, and covered to a depth 
of about a quarter of an inch, regular watering and weeding being carried out. 
The seedlings appear in about 4-10 days, and can be transplanted while still 
of small size during the first rains. Transplanting with unpruned stem and 
roots should not be attempted during the second rains unless regular watering 
is possible for some time. A certain amount of success has been attained by 
transplanting after pruning the stem and taproot down to 2 and 9 in. respec- 
tively, but this checks the growth severely for a time. 

5. Bauhinia variegata, Linn. Vern. Kachndr, Hind. ; Kanchan, thaur, 
Mar. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree with leaves 3-6 in. long, as broad as or 
broader than long, cleft about one-quarter to one-third down. Bark grey, 
with longitudinal cracks, pale pink inside. The wood is used for agricultural 
implements and the bark for tanning. The tree is extremely handsome when 
in flower, and is largely planted for ornament. 

Distribution and habitat. The sub-Himalayan tract and outer hills 
and valleys from the Indus eastward, ascending to 5,000 ft., Assam, Burma, 
Chota Nagpur, Central Provinces, and other parts of the Indian Peninsula. 
Frequently cultivated for ornament. It is essentially a tree of the mixed 
deciduous forests, often of a somewhat dry type, and occurs frequently on 
hilly ground. It ascends some distance into the Himalayan valleys, and 
occurs gregariously on some of the outer hills up to 5,000 ft. on southerly 
aspects. In the Indian Peninsula it occurs chiefly on hilly ground, and in 
Burma it affects the drier types of mixed forest, entering the dry zone and 
ascending the lulls to over 3,000 ft. In its natural habitat the absolute maxi- 
mum shade temperature varies from 97 to 115 F., the absolute minimum 
from 28 to 45 F., and the normal rainfall from 40 to 100 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves commence 
falling in November-December, and the tree is leafless or nearly so by March ; 
the new leaves appear in April and May. The large pink to purple or white 
flowers appear from February to April, chiefly on the upper leafless branches. 



BAUHINIA 387 

the lower branches often being still in leaf. The flowers are fragrant and are 
visited by bees, by whose agency pollination is effected. The pods (Fig. 150, a) 
form rapidly, ripening in May and June (northern India) : they are 6-12 in. by 
0-7-1 in., hard and flat, with 10 to 15 seeds, and dehisce for the most part on 
the tree, scattering the seeds. The seeds (Fig. 150, b) are 0-5-0-75 in. by 
0-5-0-7 in., nearly circular, flat, brown, with a somewhat coriaceous testa, 
70-100 weighing 1 oz. ; they germinate readily and show a high percentage 
of fertility, which is retained to some extent for at least a year. 

Germination (Fig. 150, c-g) as in B. purpurea. 

The seedling (Fig. 150). 

Boots : primary root moderately long and thick, terete, tapering, whitish 
or light brown : lateral roots moderate in number, fibrous. Hypocotyl distinct 
from the root, 0- 1-0- 15 in. long, thick, tapering downwards, minutely pubescent 
or glabrescent, subterranean or at ground-level. Cotyledons sessile or sub- 
sessile, 0-8-1 in. by 0-6-0-8 in., plano-convex, somewhat fleshy, broadly 
elliptical or sub-orbicular, usually oblique, apex rounded, base slightly auricu- 
late or sub-sagittate, entire, yellow or greenish, glabrous. Stem often arched 
during germination, soon becoming erect, grooved and angular, pubescent ; 
internodes 0-3-1 -5 in. long. Leaves simple, alternate, the first one or two 
often small and abortive. Stipules minute. Petiole 0-3-1 in. long, pubescent. 
Lamina 0-4-0-9 in. by 0-8-1-6 in., broader than long, cleft to about one-quarter 
to one-third of the length, mucronate, apices of lobes often acute, entu'e, 
sub-coriaceous, glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath, palmately 7- or 
9- veined with a straight midrib between the lobes. 

If weeded and watered the seedling develops rapidly. Nursery-raised 
plants at Dehra Dun attained a height up to 3 ft. 4 in. in two months from 
germination, with taproots up to 1 ft. 7 in. long and 0-5 in. thick. Eight 
nursery-raised seedlings in one plot varied from 3 ft. 7 in. to 7 ft. 10 in. in 
height by the end of the first season. Under less favourable conditions the 
growth is considerably less, natural seedlings usually attaining a maximum 
height of 1 ft. by the end of the first season. The season's growth ceases about 
November, and new growth commences in February (Dehra Dun). * 

Natural reproduction. The seeds, which are scattered before the 
beginning of the monsoon, germinate readily when the rains begin, and germ- 
inating seeds may be found in quantity round the trees. But unless the 
seed happens to become buried in earth and debris, or is sheltered from the 
sun, most if not all of the young plants may die off owing to the drying up of 
the radicle if exposed to the sun, while birds and insects also cause a good 
deal of mortality by eating off the radicles. The most favourable condition 
for the establishment of reproduction appears to be the presence of loose 
porous well-drained soil, in which in the first place the seed has a chance of 
becoming covered with earth, and in the second place the seedling develops 
sufficiently rapidly to overcome weed-growth. 

Artificial reproduction. The most successful means of raising the 
tree artificially is by sowing in lines in which the soil has been well loosened, 
followed by regular weeding and loosening of the soil. Unless regular watering 
can be carried out, transplanting is difficult except in the case of small plants 
during the first rains. The seed should'be sown in May in drills 9-10 in. apart : 
the young plants usually appear in 4 to 10 days, and may be transplanted 

E 2 




Fig. 150. Baiiliinia variegata. Seedling x f . 
a, fruit ; b, seed ; c-g, germination stages ; h, i, development of seedling to end of first season. 



BAUHINIA 389 

while still comparatively small dm-ing the first rains. Trees planted for 
ornament may be kept a second year in the nursery, but regular watering is 
necessary in the dry season following transplanting ; in this case either the 
seedlings should be pricked out in the nursery during the first rains or the 
drills should be at least 12 in. apart, and the seedlings should be thinned out 
where necessary. 

Rate of grow^th. The only authentic statistics relate to coppice coupes 
at Ramgarh near Dehra Dun, the following measurements having been recorded 
by Mr. A. F. Broun in 1886 (sal coppice measurements in the same coupes 
entered for comparison) : 

BauUnia variegata : coppice measurements, Ramgarh, Dehra Dun. 





Mean height. 




Mean girth. 




Age. 


Bauhinia variegata. 


Sal. 


Bauhinia variegata. 


Sal. 


years. 

8 

8 

9 

10 


ft. 
18 
20 
13 
10 


ft. 
16-3 
13-2 
160 
11-9 


in. 
7-5 
60 
70 

4-0 


in. 
8-3 
71 

8-6 
5-9 




Sub-Order 


III. 


MIMOSEAE 





Genera 1. Prosopis, Linn. ; 2. Xylia, Benth. ; 3. Acacia, Willd. ; 
4. Albizzia, Durazzini ; 5. Dichrostachys, DC. ; 6. Adenanthera, Linn. ; 
7. PiTHECOLOBiUM, Martius ; 8. Leucaena, Benth. 

1. PROSOPIS, Linn. 

Species 1. P. spicigera, Linn. ; 2. P. juliflora, DC. 

1. Prosopis spicigera, Linn. Vern. Jand, Punjab ; Kandi, Sind ; Khejra, 
Rajputana ; Semru, su7nri, Guz. ; Shema, saunder, Mar. ; Baiini, Kan. ; 
Jamhu, parambe, Tam. ; Jamhi, Tel. 

A moderate-sized thorny tree, evergreen or nearly so, with light foliage 
and straggling rather slender branches armed with conical prickles. It does 
not ordinarily exceed a height of 40 ft. and a girth of 4 ft., the maximum 
attained being 50 ft. and 6 ft. respectively. The bole is usually short and is 
rarely straight ; spines persist on the bole until it reaches a girth of about 
1| ft. Bark up to 1 in. thick, grey, rough with longitudinal furrows and 
transverse cracks. Wood very hard, heartwood dark brown ; it makes 
excellent fuel and charcoal, and is used locally for various purposes. The pods 
contain a dry sweetish pulp, and are used as food for cattle. 

Distribution and habitat. This tree occurs in the dry and arid regions 
of India, namely in Sind, the Punjab plains, Baluchistan, Rajputana, Guzerat, 
the Deccan, and the drier parts of southern India ; it extends into Persia. 

In Sind Prosopis spicigera is one of the principal species on the higher 
and older alluvium in the region of the Indus. Although found to a greater 
or less extent both in upper and in lower Sind, it may be considered to be the 
most characteristic species in the former just as babul {Acacia arahica) is in 
the latter : this is probably due partly to the greater intensity of frost in 
upper Sind, which is more harmful to Acacia arahica than to Prosopis, and 
partly to the fact that the duration of river inundations is longer and their 



390 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

extent greater in lower than in upper Sind, the babul being favoured bj' these 
moister conditions. The occurrence of Prosopis spicigera marks one of the 
successive stages between that in which new alluvial ground is formed in the 
river-bed and the time when, owing to the receding of the river, this land is left 
high and dry above the reach of even abnormal river floods. The flood season 
of the Indus commences about the beginning of May, with the melting of the 
Himalayan snows, and the river continues to rise, with occasional interrup- 
tions, until July or sometimes later ; thereafter it subsides gradually and 
reaches its winter level as a rule about the end of October. In the course of 
the annual floods much land is lost by erosion, while corresponding new land 
is won by accretion. The newest so-called kacha, alluvium thrown up by 
deposits of silt becomes quickly covered with Tamarix dioica and T. Troupii, 
and a growth of Jcanh grass {Saccharum spontaneum) : as the ground becomes 
more elevated Populus euphratica and Acacia arahica make their appearance, 
while later, when the land becomes elevated above the reach of all but abnormal 
floods, Prosopis spicigera becomes the prevailing species, having already 
gained a footing with the aid of the river floods and having survived after the 
preceding species have gradually disappeared. This, however, is not the 
final stage, for although its long taproot and its power of reproduction by 
root-suckers enable it to outlive its predecessors it is not strictly a desert 
species, and though it lingers for a long time on the older higher and drier 
alluvium it eventually gives place in the driest tracts to more typical desert 
species such as Capparis aphylla, Salvadora oleoides, and S. persicu. 

While often gregarious, particularly in upper Sind, Prosopis is frequently 
associated by single trees or small groups with the various species which 
precede it on the one hand and succeed it on the other. Thus, before it meets 
the desert species it may be found with Tarnarix dioica and Troupii (some- 
times in the form of moribund remnants). Acacia arabica, Populus euphratica, 
and Tamarix articulata, the largest species of Tamarix, which is characteristic 
of drier ground than the other two : again, on the older and drier alluvium 
Prosopis is commonly associated with the desert species already mentioned, 
with or without surviving individuals of the other species. 

The soil on these alluvial tracts consists of varying mixtures of sand and 
clay. A special feature, indicative of deterioration of the soil through lack of 
surface drainage, is the presence of tracts of varying extent in which the soil 
is charged with an excess of sodium salts, these salts appearing as a white 
efflorescence on the surface of the ground. Where the soil becomes very 
saline Prosopis, in common with most other species, quickly dies out ; on 
pure sand, also, it does not survive long. 

In the Punjab Prosopis spicigera occurs throughout the alluvial plains 
from the Salt Range to the Sutlej river, but does not extend into the hills. 
By far the largest tracts are situated in the arid regions in the south-west of 
the province in the Mult an and Montgomery districts. According to Mr. 
B. O. Coventry,! the area of these forests under the Forest Department in 
1915 was about 3,500 square miles, of which about 2,700 square miles were 
in Multan, and about 700 square miles in Montgomery, the remainder being 
in the Lahore, Gujranwala, and Shahpur districts. There is little doubt that 

1 Ind. Forester, xli (1915), p. 307. 



PROSOPIS ^ 391 

the area of forest was at one time far greater, and that it has been gradually 
curtailed by the extension of cultivation, a process hastened in recent times by 
the development of irrigation. This curtailment is still proceeding rapidly, and 
will continue to do so with the extension of irrigation, the natural dry forests 
giving place to cultivation and irrigated plantations, chiefly of Dalbergia Sissoo. 

The five great rivers of the Punjab, of which the Indus is the chief, play 
an important part in the origin and the distribution of the Prosopis forests. 
These rivers, which are snow-fed, are liable to high floods when the Himalayan 
snows melt in the hot weather, and the process of annual flooding with attendant 
erosion and accretion proceeds in the manner already described for the Indus. 
The topography of the plains thus exhibits four main stages in the alluvial 
formation : (1) new alluvium in the river-beds ; (2) low land subject to inunda- 
tion ; (3) higher ground beyond the reach of ordinary floods ; and (4) high 
so-called bar land forming the watershed between the rivers. The subsoU 
water-level varies from a few feet below ground surface in the low land near 
the rivers to as much as 100 ft. on the high bar land. The soil is a deep fertile 
loam with occasional hard pans of kankar, that is, concretionary calcareous 
deposits, a few feet below the surface, and with occasional unfertile tracts of 
saline soil locally known as reh or kallar. Prosopis regenerates on the low 
ground subject to floods, but not on the high bar land, and it owes its existence 
on the latter to the remarkable powers of survival due to its long taproot, 
which responds to the lowering of the water-level, and to its capacity for 
reproducing by root-suckers. Thus the conditions under which it is able to 
persist when once established are entirely unsuitable for its reproduction by 
seed, and it is further evident that this persistence may be of very long dura- 
tion, perhaps, as Mr. Coventry remarks, for hundreds if not thousands ol 
years. 

On the high bar land Prosopis trees are as a rule somewhat scattered, and 
are usually associated with Salvador a qleoides and Capparis aphylla, while the 
two latter species often occur without Prosopis, which has gradually dis- 
appeared in course of time ; there are also frequently large blanks due to 
deposits of kankar or the presence of saline soil. Except for the tree growth 
the ground is bare of vegetation for several months in the year, though a fair 
crop of grass is produced during the rainy season. On the lower ground 
nearer the rivers the tree occurs gregariously in well-stocked crops ; here it is 
sometimes associated with Tamarix and with Acacia arabica. 

In the Indian Peninsula the tree is not gregarious, but is scattered in open 
dry types of forest in association with Acacia Catechu, A. arabica, A. leucophloea, 
A. eburnea, Chloroxylon Swietenia, Anogeissus latifolia, Zizyphus Jujuba, 
Z. Xylopyrus, and other species. In some localities it occurs on black cotton 
soil with Acacia arahica and a few other kinds of trees. 

In the most important areas of its distribution the climate is dry to arid, 
and is characterized by extremes of temperature, intense heat being a featiu-e 
of the hot weather, while in the winter the thermometer may register a few 
degrees of frost. Within its region in Sind and the Pimjab the absolute maxi- 
mum shade temperature varies from 118 to 125 F., the absolute minimum 
from 25 to 40 F., and the normal rainfall from under 3 in. to about 25 in. or 
slightly over. In the Punjab plains it occurs most plentifully in the drier 



392 ^ XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

regions where the normal rainfall is from 5 to 10 in. In Baluchistan it experi- 
ences lower temperatures than it does in Sind and the Punjab. In the Indian 
Peninsula it occurs in regions where the absolute maximum shade temperature 
varies from 105 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 40 to 60 F., and the 
normal rainfall from 20 to 35 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The foliage becomes some- 
what thin towards the end of the cold season. The spikes of small yellow 
flowers appear from March to May, after the new leaves. The pods ripen 
from June to August ; they are indehiscent, 4-8 in. long, slender, contracted 
between the seeds, filled with a dry sweetish pulp, and contain 10-15 seeds. 
The seeds (Fig. 151, a) are 0-2-0-3 in. by 0-15-0-2 in., compressed, ovate 
oblong or rhomboidal, brown, smooth, hard, with a moderately hard testa. 
The seed retains its vitality for at least a year. 

Recent experiments in the Montgomery district with seed from coppice- 
shoots 5-11 years old showed that such seed was sufficiently fertile and that 
seed from the younger shoots was as fertile as that from the older ones. 
Ordinarily the seed, if watered, germinates from one to two weeks after sowing. 
The seed is distributed partly by water, partly by birds, and partly by cattle 
and other animals, which eat the sweetish pulp of the pods and void the seeds. 

Germination (Fig. 151, b-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges and the 
hypocotyl elongated by arching, carrying the cotyledons above ground when it 
straightens ; as a rule the testa is carried up over the cotyledons, falling with 
their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 151). 

Roots : primary root long, thin, terete, tapering, wiry, yellow turning 
brown : lateral roots few, short, fibrous, distributed down main root : nodules 
present. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0-8-1 -4 in. long, terete, expanded in 
a ring at the base, white turning green, glabrous, smooth at first, soon becom- 
ing striate by cracks in the epidermis. Cotyledons very shortly petiolate, 
0-5 by 0-4 in., elliptical ovate, apex rounded, base sagittate, foliaceous, some- 
what fleshy, upper surface convex, lower concave, green, glabrous, 5-veined 
from the base, the two lateral veins very indistinct. Stetn erect at first, soon 
branching and becoming straggling, zigzag at the nodes, wiry, glabrous, green 
or reddish, covered with prickles which are at fu\st minute, later 0-1 in. long ; 
internodes 0-2-0-3 in. long. Leaves alternate. Stipules 0-2 by 0-1 in., falcate, 
mucronate, green. First leaf pinnate, rachis 0-5 in. long, with occasional^ 
rudimentary or minute prickles, leaflets usually in five pairs, opposite, with 
very short petiolules, 0-2 by 0-1 in., obliquely oblong, mucronate, entire. 
Subsequent leaves bipinnate with one pair of opposite pinnae ; common rachis 
0-1-0-2 in. long, pinnae 0-3-0-6 in. with 4-6, later 7-8, pairs of leaflets similar 
to those of first leaf. 

Under ordinary conditions the growth of the seedhng is slow, though by 
irrigation and weeding more rapid development can be secured. In Sind, 
even in the case of irrigated sowings, the seedlings normally attain a height of 
only 6 in. to 1 ft. by the end of the first season. The seedling tends to assume a 
straggling growth, developing long side branches at the expense of height-growth. 
It forms a long wiry taproot, which by the end of the second season may 
attain a length of as much as 2^ ft. or more : this helps it to establish itself 
in the dry regions in which it grows. Young plants are somewhat sensitive to 
frost, and small weakly plants are liable to die back to ground-level owing to 



f^ 



/ 







Fig. 151. Prosopis spicigera. Seedling x |. 
a, seed ; b-e, germination stages ; f-j, development of seedling during first season. 



394 



XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 



drought ; such plants, if they survive, are apt to assume for a time a bushy 
form owing to the development of new shoots from the lower portion of the 
stem. In the natural home of the tree, rats are often very destructive to young 
plants, gnawing them just below the ground-level ; in seasons of low inunda- 
tion, when the rats become numerous, their ravages are worst. The leaves 
of seedlings fall dm"ing the cold season, the young plants being leafless for 
a time towards the end of that season. 

The following measurements of seedlings grown in experimental plots at 
Dehra Dun (which, however, is outside the natural habitat of the tree) compare 
to some extent the growth under varying treatment : 

Growth of Prosopis spicigera seedlings under varying treatment, Dehra Dun. 



O 

< 



Condition under 
which grown. 

(1) In nursery, weed- 
ed and watered 



(2) In nursery, weed- 
ed and watered 



(3) Broadcast sowing, 
irrigated, weeded 



(4) Broadcast sowing, 
irrigated, unweeded 



Height at end of season. 

1st season. 2nd season. 3rd season. 

ft. I in.-0 ft. 3 in. Maximum ft. 5 in. ft. 3 in.-O ft. 8 in. 

(side branches up 
to 1 ft. 7 in. long) 



(5) Broadcast sowing, 
imirrigated, weeded 



Maximum 1 ft. 2 in. 
(with several strag- 
gling branches) 

ft. 3 in.-l ft. 9 in. 



1 ft. 1 in.-l ft. 4 in. 
(only a few sur- 
vived the weeds, 
but now over them 
and in good condi- 
tion) 



Maximum ft. 4 in. Maximum 1 ft. in. 



Maximum ft. 6 in. 



Maximum ft. 8 in. 
(vigorous and 
numerous) 

Maximum ft. 5 in. 
(few, weakly) 



ft. 2 in.-0 ft. 9 in. 
(decrease due to 
damage by frost and 
drought). 



(6) Broadcast sowing. Maximum ft. 7 in. ft. 2 in.-l ft. 4 in. 
unirrigated, weeded (seedlings numerous) (seedlings numerous) 



(7) Broadcast sowing, 
unirrigated, un- 
weeded 



Maximum ft. 7 in. 
(seedlings few) 



(all killed by frost 
or suppression) 



SiLvicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a decided light-demander. 
Although the seedlings are sensitive to frost and drought, older plants are 
very drought-resistant and stand frost better than Acacia arahica. Although 
it resists ordinary frosts within its habitat, it suffered somewhat in the Punjab 
plains during the abnormal frost of 1905. A most important characteristic 
of the tree is the extremely long taproot which it develops ; this enables it to 
retain possession of the ground, in the dry regions which it inhabits, by obtain- 
ing its water-supply deep down in the subsoil. Gamble ^ mentions a specimen 
of a taproot, exhibited at Paris in 1878, which was 86 ft. in length, and had 
penetrated vertically for 64 ft. Mr. Navani '^ mentions a taproot which was 
dug up in Sind and found to measure 117 ft. in length. 

1 Man. Ind. Timbers, 1902, p. 288. 

2 Revised Working Plan for the Jerruck Forest Division, Sind, 1915. 



PROSOPIS 395 

The tree coppices well up to a moderate age, but old trees usually coppice 
badly or fail to coppice. Prolonged inundation is harmful to coppice, and it 
is therefore advisable to cut the stools high in places liable to be flooded for 
long ; otherwise the coppice grows vigorously on irrigated forest land. In 
dry localities the stools sometimes become covered with the mounds of white 
ants, but although the growth of the coppice is thus checked, growth is carried 
on by root-suckers produced around the stump. 

The tree reproduces freely by root-suckers, a form of reproduction which 
is of great importance in enabling it to survive long after its original associates 
have disappeared, and to reproduce itself freely after conditions have become 
impossible for reproduction by seed. Although the production of root-suckers 
is apparent everywhere, it seems to be most active where the water-level is 
comparatively near the surface ; on high ground where the water-level is deep 
root-suckers appear for the most part close round the parent stem, and develop 
slowly. Felling, particularly if the stumps are grubbed out, appears to stimu- 
late the production of suckers : on land cleared for cultivation the roots left 
in the ground reclothe the area with a flourishing crop of suckers which require 
to be dug out again. Fires in the grassy areas of riverain tracts also stimulate 
the production of suckers. 

In some localities the tree is pollarded for camel and goat fodder : 
this induces rot, which spreads down into the bole, and it also frequently 
causes the appearance of numerous epicormic branches. The tree is readily 
browsed by camels and goats, and in areas open to goat browsing young 
plants assume a bushy growth, while a similar bushy growth often surrounds 
the bases of the trees owing to the browsing down of the root-suckers around 
them. 

Natural reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that 
under natural conditions the seed germinates at different times during the 
rainy season after heavy rain, some lying ungerminated until the second 
season. Germination and the establishment of the seedling are greatly assisted 
if the seed becomes slightly covered with soil ; seeds washed into heaps in 
loose alluvial sand were found to germinate in quantity. If the seed germinates 
on the surface of the ground the radicle is apt to be eaten by insects or to dry 
up if there is insufficient moisture. In the dry weather following the rainy 
season there is much mortality among seedlings which have not succeeded in 
establishing themselves thoroughly. 

In Sind and the Punjab natural reproduction by seed is confined almost 
exclusively to moist depressions and other places not far from the rivers, 
where the seedlings obtain occasional surface water and where the proximity 
of the subsoil water-level to the siu-face ensures soil moisture sufficient to 
enable the seedlings to establish themselves. This question of soil moisture 
appears to be all-important, for whereas on the lower ground near the rivers 
promising crops of Prosopis establish themselves from seed, on the high and 
dry ground away from rivers seedling reproduction is almost entirely absent, 
and the species has to depend on its remarkable power of reproduction by root- 
suckers to maintain its existence in these dry tracts. Here, although the 
seed may germinate successfully, the seedlings are unable to survive the 
drought. 



396 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

In the riverain areas the young plants appear to resist suppression better 
than Acacia arahica, and are often found making their way through a fairly 
dense growth of grass where the latter species fails to establish itself. 

Artificial reproduction. Various experiments carried out at Dehra 
Dun have shown that transplanting cannot be relied upon, but that direct 
sowings are successful if the seedlings are kept free from weeds and the soil is 
periodically loosened. Transplanting was tried both in the first and in the 
second rainy season, with entire as well as with pruned roots and stem, but 
failure resulted in each case. 

In the dry parts of the Punjab plains, attempts have repeatedly been 
made to raise plantations by direct sowing without irrigation, but failure has 
resulted in every case, since the plants, just as in the case of natural seedlings, 
are unable to resist the drought. On the other hand, sowings artificially 
irrigated have proved quite successful, as in the case of the portion of the 
Changa Manga plantation known as the ' Jand extension ', formed about the 
year 1885, and now a flourishing plantation of Prosopis several hundred acres 
in extent (see Fig. 152). 

In Sind the tree has been successfully raised by sowings in conjunction 
with cereal crops on irrigated land. It has also been raised successfully by 
sowings on land which is subject to occasional floods but is too dry to support 
Acacia arahica permanently : these sowings require to be watered thoroughly 
during the first year, after which occasional watering is usually sufficient until 
the plants are established. Sowings of Prosopis in conjunction with field crops 
are carried out as a rule on the higher land above the reach of river floods, 
the lower land being devoted to the raising of the more valuable Acacia arahica. 
On these higher lands the system usually followed is to saw strips of Prosopis 
4 ft. wide, with intervening strips 20 ft. wide sown with field crops. Irrigation 
is carried out by means of Persian wheels. Cultivation along with irrigation 
continues for two years ; during the third year there is no cultivation of field 
crops, but irrigation is continued under agreement with the cultivator. After 
the third year the seedlings require no attention, but have to be protected 
against browsing animals. The field crops are the irrigated klmrij crops sown 
in June together with the tree seeds and reaped in November ; the crops 
commonly cultivated are the two millets hajri {Pennisetum typhoideum) and 
jowari {Sorghum vulgare), and sometimes sesamum, chillies, or other crops. 
The crops are irrigated from June to October. The field crops are assessed to 
revenue, and the cultivation is carried out under a regular agreement by which 
the cultivator is bound to protect the young plants from browsing and other 
injury during the three years in which they are under his care. 

An experiment, which appears to have been successful, in planting up 
saline land with Prosopis spicigera and Acacia arahica, is described under the 
latter (p. 440). 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. It will be apparent from what has been 
said above that seedling reproduction is not obtainable in the plains of Sind 
and the Punjab except in riverain areas subject to occasional floods : hence 
throughout the higher tracts any system involving the retention of seed- 
bearers is out of the question. 

In the Punjab the system in operation is simple coppice, and the rotation 




bJO 



OS 



o 









=0^ 



o 



'M 



o 




Fig. 153. Xylia dolabrifonnis, IJurma. 



PROSOPIS . 397 

commonly adopted is thirty years. In Sind the treatment followed, which is 
based primarily on the requirements of the principal species, Acacia arahica, 
is that of clear-felling with natural reproduction on the riverain alluvium, 
supplemented where necessary by artificial sowing, often with the aid of field 
crops ; these sowings, as applied to Prosopis spicigera, have been described 
above. At one time a rotation of fifteen years was adopted, but as this was 
found to be too short it was raised subsequently to thirty years, which is 
the rotation prescribed in the more recent working plans. In the Sind 
coupes, reproduction of Prosopis is secured also by root-suckers and coppice- 
shoots. 

It is many years since the stimulation of reproduction by root-suckers 
became the subject of observation and experiment in the Punjab. In 1881 
' Punjabi ' } recording his observations in the case of land cleared for cultiva- 
tion where the stumps were respectively left in the ground and grubbed out, 
notes that in the latter case the resulting root-suckers were stronger and more 
numerous than in the former, and ascribes this in part to the fact that water 
lodges in the holes left after grubbing out the stumps and tends to keep the 
surrounding soil moist : these observations were subsequently confirmed by 
experiments made on forest land. The grubbing out of the stump and upper 
portion of the taproot, apart from its effect in stimulating the production of 
root-suckers, has the advantage of providing a considerable quantity of fuel 
and thus increasing the yield. The question of sucker reproduction is again 
alluded to in 1892 by Mr. C. F. Elliot,- who writes : ' It is some years since 
in the Punjab we recognized that the regeneration of Prosopis spicigera in the 
bar forests depends chiefly on root-suckers ; at all events, that any improvement 
in the way of filling up blanks will be accomplished in this way and not by 
seed. ... It is well known that these shoots from the roots of trees of which 
the stumps and main roots even have been dug out on the compartment lines 
are almost impossible to kill : year after year they have to be cleared away to 
keep the lines open.' 

Rate of growth. Seedling trees. The growth of the seedling for the first 
few years is slow, but subsequent growth up to an age of about forty to fifty 
years is fairly rapid, particularly on land which is subject to periodical floods. 
In the original working plan of the Jerruck division, Sind, it is estimated that 
an average diameter oi 10 in. is attained in 30 years. ^ In the Naushahro 
division, Sind,^ countings of annual rings on stumps of seedling stems in 
fiverain forest gave 3-1 in. diameter in six years, 5-1 in. diameter in eleven 
years, and 6-6 in. diameter in fourteen years. In partially inundated areas 
the growth was faster, namely 6 in. diameter in nine years, and 7-5 in. diameter 
in fourteen years. 

Coppice-shoots. Mr. B. 0. Coventry ^ estimates that coppice-shoots in the 
Punjab attain a height of about 30 ft. in fifteen years, with a girth of 2 to 3 ft. 
in good localities, and that the out-turn of fuel per acre varies from 100 to 
1,000 cubic ft. and averages 300 cubic ft. stacked. The following measure- 

1 Ind. Forester, vi (1880-1), p. 327. ^ /jj^^,^ xviii (1892), p. 305. 

3 Working Plan for the Jerruck Division, Sind, A. C. Robinson, 1899. 

* Working Plan for the Forests of the Naushahro Division, Sind, A. C. Robinson, 1900. 

s Ind. Forester, xli (1915), pp. 310-11. 



398 XXIII. LEGIBIINOSAE 

ments of vigorous and fairly vigorous coppice-shoots in Multan are recorded 
by Mr. A. L. Mclntire : ^ 

Prosopis spicigera : coppice measurements, Multan. 







Out-turn of thick wood 






over 2 in. in diameter 


Age. 


Diameter. 


j)er stool. 


years. 


in. 


cubic ft. stacked. 


5 


1 to 2-5 





10 


3 to 5 


1 to 10, av. 4 


15 


5 to 7 or 8 


6 to 18, av. 10 


20 


6 to 9 or 10 


10 to 30, av. 20 



Experimental coppice fellings in the Montgomery district were carried 
out in 1912 in different months from April to November ; measurements 
made on January 10, 1915, showed that shoots obtained from trees felled 
from April to August (i.e. aged two years five months to two years nine 
months) varied in height from 6 ft. to 12 ft. 6 in., whilst those from trees felled 
from September to November (i. e. aged two years two months to two years 
four months) varied in height from 4 ft. to 7 ft. 8 in.- 

Measurements made in 1899-1900 in annually inundated riverain coppice 
coupes in the Naushahro forest division, Sind, gave the following results : ^ 

Prosopis spicigera : measurements of riverain coppice, Naushahro, Sind. 



Forest. 

Mohbat Dero 

Bhour 

Bhorti 

In the Jerruck division of Sind it is estimated that coppice-shoots 4-8 in. 
in diameter are produced in fifteen years.'* 

The following measurements, made in 1901-2, of 2,073 coppice-shoots in 
the Sukkur division of Sind, show the average rate of growth in riverain and 
dry forests respectively : ^ 

Prosopis spicigera : coppice measurements, Sukkur, Sind. 



Age 3 


years. 


Age 4 years. 


No. of stems 
measured. 


Mean girth 

at 1 ft. from 

ground-level. 


No. of stems 
measured. 


Mean girth 

at 1 ft. from 

ground-level. 


29 
60 
25 


in. 
5-9 
6-2 
5-9 


39 
81 
34 


in. 
95 
9-5 
9-5 







Mean diameter. 




Age. 


Riverain forests. 


Dry forests, 


years. 


in. 






in. 


2 


1-77 






1-20 


3 


2-48 






1-72 


4 


3-65 






2-43 


5 


4-25 






2-89 


6 


517 






3-51 



^ Wjorking Plan for the South Kabirwala and Mailsi Forests, Multan, 1899. 

2 Punjab Forest Conference Proceedings, 1915, p. 17. 

' Working Plan for the Forests of the Naushahro Division, Sind, A, C. Robinson, 1900. 

^ Working Plan for the Forests of the Jerruck Division, Sind, A. C. Robinson, 1899. 

^ Working Plan for the Forests of the Sukkur Division, Sind, A. C. Robinson, 1903. 



PROSOPIS 399 

The following coppice measurements in Baluchistan are recorded in the 
Forest Report of that province for 1915-16 : 

Prosopis spicigera : coppice measurements, Baluchistan, 

Age. Maximum height. Forest. 

years. ft. in. 

4 5 8 Gullushahr 

8 20 1 AbdullaKheli 

9 22 2 

10 22 

11 22 10 

2. Prosopis Juliflora, DC. Var. glandulosa, Sarg. Syn. P. glandulosa, 
Torr. ; P. pallida, H. B. and K. Mesquit bean. 

This species is very variable : the variety velutina, Sarg., is said to be 
the more useful timber variety, the tree reaching a height of 50 ft. and a 
diameter of 2 ft. (cf. R. S. Hole in Ind. For. Records, vol. iv, pt. iii). P. juli- 
flora, DC, the typical variety (or species) is a small evergreen tree, usually 
unarmed ; it is cultivated in nprthern India, but not extensively. Var. 
glandulosa, Sarg. (P. glandulosa, Torr.), is a small or moderate-sized deciduous 
tree armed with stout scattered axillary thorns : it appears to have been first 
introduced into India in 1877 from seed obtained through Kew, and in some of 
the drier parts of India has proved of great importance for afforestation work, 
for which purpose it deserves further attention. It is recommended for plant- 
ing shifting sands in dry localities. It is also a useful source of supply of fuel, 
of faimine fodder, and of food for man in times of scarcity, the pods being 
sweet and edible. 

Its natural distribution, according to Bentham,^ is ' west tropical and 
sub-tropical North and South America ; very abundant from Buenos Ayres 
and Chile, along the Andes, to Mexico and Texas, and frequently planted '. 
In North America it is ' one of the characteristic trees of the lower Sonoran 
Zone, an area where the conditions as to rainfall and climate range from arid 
to semi-arid, that is, the rainfall varies from less than 10 to about 25 in. 
per aimum '.'^ 

In Jamaica the tree is known as ' cashaw ', and is described as ' an 
admirable tree (often attaining a height of 40 to 60 ft.) to grow in dry gravelly 
soil, and in situations where rain does not fall for months together. It is fast 
growing : the ti^iber is excessively hard and of a remarkably durable character. 
It is used for making knees of boats and all work requiring strength and 
tenacity. Posts of cashaw in wire fences last longer than any other, and are 
in great request for that purpose. . . . The pods are of a sweetish succulent 
character eagerly sought for by cattle : indeed in some parts of this island 
during droughts they subsist largely on them.' ^ 

In India it has succeeded admirably in dry regions, reproducing some- 
times in profusion by seed and by root-suckers : in damp localities, however, 
the seedlings are apt to die off in the first rains, being susceptible to an excess 
of moisture. In Sind it has proved a most useful sand-binder, and has been 
grown there since 1878. It may be seen growing in profusion about Miani 

* Mimoseae in Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xxx, 1874. 

2 U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 16, J. G. Smith, 1899, p. 18. 

3 Ind. Forester, x (1884), p. 293. 



400 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

near Hyderabad. For many years inroads of drifting sand gave much trouble 
in this place, but it has reproduced naturally over the Miani plain through seed 
distributed by goats, which eat the pods ; as a result it has fixed the sand 
and has formed an efficient screen against further inroads of drifting sand. 
It has also done well in Baluchistan, where it has been found to resist drought 
admirably. 

In northern India the seed ripens in May and June. Seedlings can best 
be raised in flower-pots, several seeds being sown in each pot. When about 
4 in. high they are transferred singly to small pots, and planted out in the 
monsoon, about August, after a good fall of rain. Direct sowings are also 
successful. 

Mr. R. N. Parker has published the following interesting note on the tree 
in the Punjab : ^ 

' One striking peculiarity about the plant is that wherever large specimens 
are seen in dry and arid districts, natural seedlings are almost sure to be found 
in abundance in the immediate neighbourhood. The tendency of P. juliflora 
to spread naturally may be seen on the unil-rigated strip of land between the 
canal and the plantation at Changa-Manga. Here the rainfall averages 15 inches 
and the strip of land referred to carries a sparse growth of the trees which 
were found in this district before the plantation was made, i. e. Prosopis 
spicigera, Capparis aphylla and Salvadora oleoides. A few trees of P. juliflora 
were planted some years ago in this strip and they are spreading rapidly, the 
seedlings being in places so dense that it is difficult to walk through them. 
Cattle graze here daily, but plants within easy reach show no signs of having 
been browsed. Seedlings of the indigenous trees it may be remarked are 
conspicuous by their absence. P. juliflora keeps to the unirrigated ground and 
shows no inclination to spread into the plantation. 

' In Khushalgarh, in what once was the compound of a P.W.D, build- 
ing but which now is the most accessible portion of the village grazing ground, 
there are two P. juliflora trees about 2 ft. in girth and 25 ft. high, A few 
root-suckers of Capparis aphylla badly browsed by goats and a soft sandstone 
rock describes the growing stock and soil of the surrounding waste. The rainfall 
is, I believe, about 18 inches. In spite of these unfavourable conditions, seed- 
lings of P. juliflora are plentiful around the large trees and extend some 
distance away into the village waste. 

' In the Pabbi reserve P. juliflora has been successfully used in reboise- 
ment works and has made considerably faster growth than Acacia modesta, 
with which it has as a rule been mixed. Regeneration of P. juliflora is frequent 
in the Pabbi reboisement area, whereas natural seedlings of the indigenous trees 
are difficult to find. P. juliflora was tried many years ago at Gujranwala. 
I have not seen the original trees, but along the railway line all the way from 
Gujranwala to the Pabbi Hills natural seedlings of P. juliflora may be seen at 
frequent intervals, P. j^diflora has certainly come to stay in the Punjab and 
it is likely to be a common tree in all the drier districts in time, 

' I have grown P. juliflora on a small scale almost every year since 190G, 
mainly without much success, but as failures often teach us more than success, 
I mention some of them. In 1906-07 I tried P. juliflora at Nurpur, district 
Kangra, The plants grew well as long as they were in pots, but on being 
planted out they did badly and none were left when I visited Nurpur in 
October 1912, In Nurpur the rainfall is 67 inches, but the plants were tried 
in a dry well-drained place. In the winter of 1907-08 I planted some plants in 
a hedge of Agaves at Phillaur. The plants were not watered at all, but I saw 
them on the 30th June, 1908 (the rains broke next day), and found them all doing 

1 Tnd. Forester, xxxix (1913), ]). 320. 



PROSOPIS 401 

well. I looked for these plants when I next visited Phillaur in July 1912, but 
found very few left, and these had made poor growth. A few hundred yards 
off there was a natural seedling of P. juliflora growing in a jfield, and the growth 
made by this plant in the four years 1908-12 was very marked. The 
rainfall in Phillaur is about 30 inches. In 1909 I tried P. juliflora in a grassy 
blank in one of the scrub forests in Hazara. I saw the sowings about a year 
later and found that the plants had made very poor growth and gave little 
promise of surviving. In this case the rainfall was 30-40 inches. 

' The spread of P. juliflora over grass-lands in parts of America has been 
attributed to the stocking of the country with cattle, which graze down the 
grass and weaken it, and thus enable the tree to compete successfully against 
it. In the cases of failure with P. juliflora mentioned above there was a fairly 
heavy grass growth and protection from grazing, and it seems that this may 
have been responsible for the bad results. The rainfall could not have been 
responsible except perhaps indirectly by favoring the growth of other plants, 
as the natural seedling in Phillaur showed. This seedling was in a place 
where grass and jungle were kept down by cattle. Cattle and even goats 
seem to do little harm to P. juliflora, and I have often been surprised to see 
the leaves untouched, although within easy reach of cattle and at a time 
when there is little green fodder available. 

' As regards frost-hardiness, I have seen seedlings pass through a winter 
at Abbottabad (4,000 ft.) uninjured, so that it may be regarded as quite 
hardy anywhere in the plains of India. 

' The habit of P. juliflora is peculiar : most of the trees and all the natural 
seedlings I have seen branch at ground level, giving several crooked branches. 
. . . There is, however, an erect form, and the two big specimens in Khushalgarh 
had an upright habit not unlike that of Acacia arabica. This form, however, 
is not constant, as the seedlings from the Khushalgarh trees all showed the usual 
crooked habit. 

' As regards the rate of growth of P. juliflora, G. B. Sudworth says in 
" Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope " : "The tree is unquestionably long lived, 
though of exceedingly slow growth. Trunks 10-12 inches in diameter are from 
100 to 125 years old, while the larger trunks occasionally found are likely to 
be very much older." This does not apply to the tree in India, as it has only 
been introduced some 35 years, and specimens 6-8 inches in diameter are 
not infrequent. . . . 

' As a drought-resister I know of no tree to equal P. juliflora. It has 
been used with success to clothe some old brick-kiln mounds in the Govern- 
ment Agri-Horticultural Gardens, Lahore. The average rainfall in Lahore 
is 19 inches, and of this a large portion usually falls in heavy showers on one 
or two days in the year and runs off the steep slopes of the mounds so that the 
trees have to manage with considerably less than 19 inches of effective rain. 
Two years in succession of deficient rain has caused some of the plants on the 
top of the mounds to lose the tips of their shoots, but although there must be 
fully 100 specimens I have not seen a single one that has died of drought. 
On the very top of one of these mounds a sowing was made in 1911. The 
seedlings were not watered, and the rainfall in 1911 and 1912 was 13 and 
14 inches respectively. When I last saw the place about a month ago, a good 
many plants were left. The place is much frequented, and the survivors all 
showed signs of having been trodden on, so that it is quite likely that those 
which died, died from having been trodden on and not from deficient moisture. 
Mr. Brown, Superintendent of Farms, N.-W. F. Province, tells me he has 
P. juliflora growing luxuriantly on the crest of a dry bank near Peshawar. 
The plants were planted in February 1911, and were not watered; the rainfall 
in 1911 amounted to 13 inches, and to 8 inches in 1912. The ability of this 
plant to withstand drought is astonishing, especially as it comes into leaf early 
in April and remains green right through the hot weather. 

2307.2 -c. 



402 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

' . . . Any one who has collected seeds of Indian Acacias or Albizzias 
must have noticed the large proportion attacked by insects. With Acacia 
modesta in the Punjab it is not uncommon to find fully half the seed crop 
destroyed by weevils. In the case of P. jiUiflora seed collected in India, I have 
never seen a single seed attacked. To this is perhaps largely due the profuse 
reproduction of P.julifiora in suitable localities as compared with the indigenous 
trees. During the past 18 months I have received several consignments of 
P. juliflora seed from Mexico, and in each case found a very large proportion 
of the seed destroyed by weevils. It is evident that P. juliflora on being 
brought to India has left its natural enemies behind. The publicity given 
to the merits of this tree may perhaps lead to fresh consignments of seed 
being imported from America, and if this is done, care should be taken to see 
that the weevils are not introduced too. As seed is produced in abundance 
in India there is no need to import it from America, unless the object be to 
obtain other varieties than var. glandulosa. Last year over 60 maunds of seed 
was collected in the Pabbi Reserve, and several maunds could be collected 
annually in Lahore or Changa-Manga.' 

2. XYLIA, Benth. 

Species 1. X. dolahriformis , Benth.; 2. X. xylocarpa, Roxb. 

L Xylia dolabriformis, Benth. Iron wood of Burma, pyinkado. Vern. 
Pyinkado, pyin, Burm. (Fig. 153.) 

A very large deciduous tree. Leaves bipinnate with one pair of pinnae, 
each pinna with two to six pairs of leaflets. Bark thin, yellowish or reddish 
grey, fairly smooth, exfoliating in irregular rounded plates. Wood reddish 
brown, very hard, heavy and durable, extensively used for house and bridge 
construction and for railway sleepers ; it is one of the most important timbers 
in Burma. 

Under favourable conditions the tree reaches a height of 120 ft. and 
a girth of 12 ft. or more, but on poor ground it is stunted. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of Burma and 
Arakan, ascending to 3,000 ft. In the Irrawaddy valley it extends as far north 
as 24 N. lat., being locally common in some of the forests of the Shweli river 
drainage : in the Chindwin valley it extends somewhat farther north, though 
its northernmost limit has not yet been accurately determined. It extends 
southward into Tenasserim, eastward into the Shan States, and westward into 
Arakan. It is probably most abundant, as well as most accessible, in the 
extensive forests of the Pegu Yoma, the low range of hills running up the 
centre of Burma and forming the watershed between the Irrawaddy and 
Sittang rivers. It is foiuid in parts of the dry zone of Upper Burma, but 
here it does not attain large dimensions. In Arakan it occurs in many localities, 
often in belts or patches of varying extent. The quality is best in the Sando- 
way district, where the percentage of pyinkado in the crop is usually higher 
than it is in most parts of Burma ; on the islands, and in the eastern part 
of the Akyab district, the trees are often stunted and badly shaped. 

Pyinkado is found both on hilly and on flat ground, but particularly on 
the former, attaining its best development on the lower slopes of hills and 
in well-drained valleys. It thrives best on d(?ep moist porous loam and requires 
good drainage, for which reason its occurrence on flat ground is decidedly 
local, being confined to well-drained areas, preferably with a slightly undulating 



XYLIA 403 

mrface ; it avoids low-lying flat ground subject to inundation. The tree is 
'ound on a variety of geological formations. On the sandstones and shales 
)f the Pegu Yoma, producing a deep sometimes sandy loam, it thrives extremely 
^ell. In the Chindwin valley it is found, often of large size, on sandstone 
md conglomerate with occasional shale, clay, or limestone. In the Ruby 
ilines district it occurs to some extent on limestone, sandstone, slate, and 
ihale. Mr. G. R. Jeffery ^ attributes its local occurrence in this district to 
he fact that it avoids saline and ferruginous soils : thus, although it is present 
i,nd abundant in the Hintha and Ondok blocks, it is wholly absent from the 
leighbouring Kyauktaung block, where the soil is largely saline and ferru- 
jinous. In the Madaya drainage of the Mandalay district it occurs on gneiss 
.nd occasional limestone, while east of the Sittang river it is found on gneiss 
bUd granitic schist. In the Thaungyin valley of Tenasserim it occurs on argil- 
aceous sandstones and shales, on igneous or metamorphic rocks and on 
Lmestone. In various localities it grows on recent alluvium, provided the 
Irainage is good. In the dry zone of Upper Burma it is found to a very 
imited extent and of small size on sandstone with alternating thin bands of 
hale. Throughout its distribution it occurs locally and in stunted form on 
j/terite in the dry dipterocarp forest known as ifidaing. 

In the natural habitat of the tree the absolute maximum shade temperature 
aries from 100 to 113 F., and the absolute minimum from 40 to 55 F. 
^s regards rainfall requirements, it is actually found in limited quantity in 
he dry zone of Upper Burma in places where the normal rainfall is as low as 
in., though here it reaches only a small size. It may be said in general 
hat where the rainfall is less than 45 in. it does not attain large dimensions, 
r'hile it grows best with a rainfall of 60 in. and over ; actually it is known 
grow extremely well with a rainfall of 120 in., and no doubt it thrives in 
ven wetter localities. 

The tree occurs in five broad types of forest : (1) upper mixed deciduous 
Drest; (2) lower mixed deciduous forest; (3) evergreen forest; (4) indaing 
Drest ; and (5) scrub forest of the dry zone. 

1. Upper mixed deciduous forest. This is by far the most important 
ype, and the one in which the trees are found in the greatest abmidance 
nd attain the largest dimensions. This type is characteristic of hilly country, 
lie hills being often little more than comparatively low spurs, as on the outer 
:inges of the Pegu Yoma (see Fig. 155) : it is the type which comprises the 
reat bulk of the more important teak forests of Burma, and is in the great 
lajority of cases characterized by the presence of bamboos. There are many 
ab-types of this type ; these can be classified to a large extent according 
the moistness or dryness of the forest, the bamboos being the best indicators, 
'he moistest sub-type is that which verges on evergreen, and often contains 
ttle or no teak ; in this sub-type, which is well developed in the moister 
3gions of the Pegu Yoma, pyinkado is sometimes so abundant as to become 
ractically gregarious. This sub-type merges into the typical moist mixed 
eciduous sub-type and thence through various stages into the driest sub-type 
f mixed deciduous forest. The typical bamboo of the driest sub-type is 

^ Working Plan for the Hintha, Ondok, and Kyauktaung Reserves, Ruby Mines Division, 

308. 

F 2 



404 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Dendrocalamus strictus, while Batnbusa Tulda is also found in dry forest, 
though it extends also into the moister sub-types. Other typical bamboos of 
the upper mixed deciduous forests are Banibusa polymorpM, Cephalostachyum 
pergracile, Oxyteimiithera alhociliata, Dendrocalamus lo7igis2)atJms (moist valleys 
in the Pegu Yoma), and Thyrsostachys Oliveri (Upper Burma). The pj'inkado 
probably reaches its finest development in upper mixed forest of the moister 
sub-type, in which Bambusa polymorpJm grows in greatest luxuriance. In the 
Pegu Yoma some of its more important associates in the upper mixed type 
are Tectona grandis, Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae, L. tomeiitosa, L. villosa, 
Homalium tomentosum, TermijiaUa tomentosa, T. Chebula, T. pyrifolia, Sterculia 
spp., Adina cordifolia, A. sessilifolia, Stephegyne diversifolia, Bomhax insigne, 
Spondias majigifera, Odina Wodier, Dalbergia cultrata, D. ovata, Pterocarpus 
macrocarpus (in dry forest), Cassia Fistula, Alhizzia odoratissima, Acacia 
Catechu (in drier types), ScJdeichera trijuga, Berrya Ammonilla, Eugenia Jam- 
holanu, Gmelina arhorea, Vitex pubesceris, V. glabrata, Premna tomentosa, and 
Ajiogeissus acumiiiata. In moist types verging on evergreen forest Diptero- 
carpus alatus makes its appearance, while in the drier types approaching 
indaing in character the most important trees are Pentacme suavis and Shorea 
obtusa. There is a further variety of dry forest without bamboos, exemplified 
in parts of the Pegu Yoma, locally known as thitkyin forest, which is charac- 
terized by an extremely plentiful advance growth of pyinkado, and in which 
the most characteristic species, apart from Xylia, are Tectona grandis, Ter- 
minalia tomentosa, Homalium tomentosum, and Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae. 

In the Chindwin drainage most of the above-mentioned species are also 
found. In the southern part of this drainage Acacia Catechu and Pterocarpus 
macrocarpus are fairly common. The chief bamboos are Ceplialostachyum 
pergracile, Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa Tulda, and Dendrocalamus Bran- 
disii. Bambusa polymorpha is very rare and local. 

In the Ruby Mines district pyinkado, though somewhat local, is plentiful 
in some localities. It is found in three main types of forest : (i) on fertile 
sometimes rather dry slopes with Tectona grandis, Terminalia tomentosa, 
T. Chebida, Vitex pubescens, V. alata, Pterocarpus nmcrocarpus , Anogeissus 
acuminata, Adina cordifolia, Pentacme suavis, Odina Wodier, Sterculia versi- 
color, 8. villosa, &c., the chief bamboos being Dendrocalamus strictus, Thyrso- 
stachys Oliveri, and Ceplialostachyum pergracile ; (ii) on flats in bends of streams 
with Tectona grandis, Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae, Tetrarneles nudiflora, Adina 
cordifolia, Anogeissus acuminata, Terminalia tomentosa, and Pterocarpus macro- 
carpus, the chief bamboos being Bambusa Tulda and Oxytenanthera albociliata, 
and there is often a dense undergrowth of thorny climbers ; (iii) in poor open 
bamboo forest, chiefly of Dendrocalamus strictus, and occasionally Thyrsostachys 
Oliveri and Ceplialostachyum pergracile, on dry shallow soil, where the trees 
attain small dimensions ; here the principal associate species are Terminalia 
tomentosa, T. Oliveri (in drier parts), Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Diospyros 
burmanica, Acacia Catechu, Adina cordifolia, Odina Wodier, and others, and 
there is often a dense thorny undergrowth of such shrubs as Harrisonia 
Bennettii and Cratoxylon prunifolium. 

In the Madaya drainage of the Mandalay district pyinkado is associated 
with numerous deciduous species, such as Tectona grandis, Pterocarpus macro- 



XYLIA 405 

carpus, Terminalia tomentosa, GmeliTia arborea, &c., with Pentacme suavis and 
Shorea obtusa in the drier parts ; the chief bamboo is Thyrsostachys Oliven, 
with Dendrocalamus strictus. on dry areas. 

In the Thaungyin drainage of Tenasserim the most important pyinkado 
tracts are the semi-moist and dry mixed teak-bearing forests, which are found 
partly on hill slopes and ridges and partly on flat alluvial ground with sandy 
soil along the Thaungyin river ; in the former areas Dendrocalamus strictus 
is the prevailing bamboo. Pyinkado of large size is plentiful in all the semi- 
moist forests, especially along the Thaungyin river, its chief associates being 
Tectona grandis, Terminalia tomentosa, Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae, L. tomen- 
tosa, Adina cordifolia, Ginelina arborea, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Homalium 
tomeiitosmn, and Odina Wodier ; the principal bamboos, besides Dendrocalamus 
strictus, are Oxytenanthera albociliata, Dendrocalamus Brandisii, CepJmlo- 
stacJiyum pergracile, Bambusa Tulda, and B. arundinacea. Pyinkado is also 
found to a limited extent in moist forest containing no teak, which occurs 
chiefly on the higher moist slopes on the east of the Meple-Thaungyin water- 
shed ; this forest is characterized by a dense undergrowth of bamboo, chiefly 
Oxytenanthera albociliata. 

2. Lower mixed deciduous forest. So far as pyinkado is concerned this 
type is of less importance than the upper mixed forest. It occurs on the flat 
usually alluvial ground of the plains, and merges, to some extent into the 
upper mixed type or into evergreen forest or, where laterite occurs, into 
indaing forest. Pyinkado is not found on the low-lying portions of the alluvial 
plains, where the forest merges into savannah types, but occurs only where 
the drainage is good. Its chief companions are Tectona grandis, Lagerstroemia 
Flos-Reginae, L. onacrocarpa, L. toinentosa, Terminalia tomentosa, T. belerica, 
T. Chebula, T. pyrifolia, Homalium tomentosum, Adina cordifolia, A. sessili- 
folia, Stephegyne parvifolia, S. diversifolia, Careya arborea, Odina Wodier, 
Bridelia retusa, Eugenia Jambolana, Berrya Ammonilla, Eriolaena Candollei, 
Schleichera trijuga, Dalbergia cultrata, Anogeissus acuminata, Diospyros ehre- 
tioides, Vitex glabrata, and Dillenia pentagyna. Bamboos are usually absent, 
though in some localities Bambusa Tulda occurs along watercourses. 

3. Evergreen forest. Although tropical evergreen forest is very frequently 
found without pyinkado, the tree nevertheless occurs in this type, in common 
with other large deciduous trees such as Tetrameles nudiflora, Sterculia alata, 
Artocarpus Chaplasha, and A. Lakoocha, as well as lofty evergreen species 
such as Dip)terocarpus alatus, Hopea odorata, Anisoptera glabra, and others, 
all these forming an upper story over a dense growth of evergreens of many 
species, with palms and canes. It is probable that this type represents in 
many cases a progressive succession from deciduous to evergreen forest, and 
this is borne out by the fact that pyinkado-bearing types intermediate 
between the deciduous and the tropical evergreen forest are met with, and 
that in the latter the pyinkado may be represented only by large trees which 
have survived from the former moist deciduous forest. Mr. A. E. Ross ^ notes 
an interesting fact regarding the encroachment of evergreen forest and its 
effect on teak and pyinkado in the forest of the lower Thaungyin drainage 
in Tenasserim. It was noted that on the edges of evergreen forest within the 

^ Working Plan for the Lower Thaungyin Working Circle, 1909. 



406 



XXIII. LEGUIVIINOSAE 



fire-protected area the evergreen species appeared to be spreading. Several 
pyinkado, teak, and other moist forest species were found standing dead in 
the evergreen near its edge. Many of these trees still had their bark on and 
had evidently been choked for want of light. Farther in, dry stag- headed 
trees and fallen trees of these species were occasionally met with. 

4. Indaing forest. This type of dry dipterocarp forest occm's on laterite 
or gravel, among its most characteristic species being Dipterocarpus tiiber- 
culatus, Pentacme suavis, Shorea obtusa, Melanorrhoea usitata, Buclw.iiania 
latifolia, Dillenia pulcherrirna , and Diospyros hurmanica. Pyinkado is some- 
times fairly plentiful in this type, but the trees are always stmited, and this 
forest cannot be regarded as an important pyinkado-bearing type. 

5. Scrub forest of the dry zone. Pyinkado is not a typical tree of the 
dry zone of Burma, but is met with to a very limited extent in the better 
types of dry zone scrub forests on sandstone with alternating thin bands of 
shale, though it attains only small dimensions ; its chief companions are 
Pentacme suavis, Shorea obtusa, Terminalia tomentosa, T. Oliveri, Tectona 
Hamiltoniana , Acacia Catechu, A. leucophloea, Cassia renigera, Buclmnania 
latifolia, Odina Wodier, Diospyros burmajiicu, and Schleichera trijuga. 

Some figures may now be quoted showing the prevalence of pyinkado in 
different forest tracts. The proportion of this species in the lower mixed 
forests is comparatively small, the highest percentage recorded being 9-4 for 
the Kangyi reserve of the Zigon forest division. Some of the plains forests, 
however, owing to their accessibility, have been heavily worked in the past, 
and figures regarding these forests may be misleading : thus the Satpok 
reserve in Tharrawaddy, with only 3 per cent, of pyinkado, contains numerous 
stumps of that species. The case of the upper mixed forests is different, for 
working plan enumerations have been carried out over extensive areas where 
pyinkado had not previously been worked, and the figures obtained indicate 
that in many cases, particularly in the moister types of mixed forest, pyinkado 
is more numerous than any other species, often approaching gregariousness. 
The following instances may be quoted of sample plots specially rich in 
pyinkado : 



Forest division. 



Pjdnmana . 
Xyaunglebin 



Toungoo 
Tharrawaddy 







Average number of 






pyinkado trees 3 ft. 




Area of 


and over in girth 


Forest. 


sample plot. 
acres. 


per acre. 


Yeni 


133-4 


11-4 


Aingdon Kun 


118-0 


10-7 


99 


89-0 


ll-o 


?9 


100-0 


111 


West Kun 


124-0 


14-3 


Yenwe 


104-0 


10-9 


Gwethe 


68-8 


110 


Konbilin 


41 


11-51 



^ Trees 1 ft. in diameter and over. 



Outside the Pegu Yoma the richest pyinkado tract hitherto examined is 
the Nwa working circle of the Myittha forest division in the Chindwin drainage, 
where enumerations showed an average for the whole tract of 490 pyinkado 
trees 3 ft. and over in girth per 100 acres, this species forming no less than 
24 per cent, of the total growing stock. 




Fig. 154. Xylia dolabvifovmis Seedling x f 
a Seed b- e Germination stages f - j Development of seedling to end of first season 



408 



XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 



Prevalence of Xylia dolabriformis in the Pegu Yoma forests proceeding from 

north to south. 





Western side of watershed. 






Eastern side of watershed. 




Sound trees 3 ft. 














Sound trees 3 


and over in girth. 














and over in gi 




Percent- 














Percent- 




No. 


age of 


Forest or 




For- 


For- 




Forest or 


age of 


]^ 


per 


total 


working circle. 


Approxi- 


est 


est 


Approxi- 


working circle. 


total 


p 


100 


growing 




mate 


divi- 


divi- 


mate 




growing 


1 


acres. 


stock. 




rainfall, 
in. 


sion. 


sion. 

c 


rainfall, 
in. 
40 
45 
50 
55 


Sinthe 

Taungnyo 

Pozamigdaung 

Ngalaik 

Yanaungmjan 


stock. 

9-5 
12-7 
12-2 
16-6 


ao 

2( 

2- 
2{ 













c3 


60 


Kaing 

Palwe j 


14-9 


22 












B . 


, , 
















.i-t 


65 


Yonbin 


21-5 


3{ 












P-i 


70 


Minbyin 


15-5 


3: 






Satsuwa 









75 


Yeni 

Saing Yane 


141 
171 


3( 







3 


228 


13 


Tindaw 
,E. Yoma 


45 







80 


Kyaukmasin 
W. Swa 1 


16-7 


3 




17-9 


N. Nawin 






1' 




85 


Sabyin 
Lonyan . 


23-6 


3^ 


280 






324 


18-6 


Middle Nawin 


50 


53 


in 


. . 


Kabaung 


23-3 


3: 


248 


17-3 


S. Nawin 


. . 


S 





. . 


Bondaung 


22-0 


4 


300 


17-5 


Chaungzauk 


. . 




rt 


90-100 


Pyuchaung and 






(1581 


9-11) 
18-2 


Shwele 
Taungnyo 


55 




^ 




Pyukun 


21-9 


3 


2842 


<o 








3082 




Bawbin 


60 


_bc 












190 2 




Gamon 


65 


N 


TO (L) 


110-120 


Nyaunglebin 


27-6 


5 




>: 




230 2 




Minhla 


' 70 


^3 


iz;' 










270 2 




Mokka 


, , 


t 












2112 
2502 




Kadinbilin 
Konbilin 


75 

80 




bC 


120 


S. Zamayi 


20-0 


3 


2192 




Thonze 














248 


15-6 


Rangoon hills 


95 


ill 

m 













^ These figures do not afford a fair comparison, as they are calculated on a total containing a considerabh 
of unproductive forest. 

2 The working plans give numbers of trees 1 ft. in diameter and over ; the number 3 ft. in girth and over ' 
be slightly greater. 




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XYLIA 



409 



The growth of the seedling during the first season is only moderate, 
a height of 5-12 in. being ordinarily attained. In the second and subsequent 
years, however, the development under favourable conditions is rapid, as the 
measurements in the statement below will show. Growth is greatly stimulated 
by regular weeding and loosening of the soil, as well as by moderate watering : 
it is much impeded by weeds and by stiff soil, as the seedling requires good 
drainage and soil- aeration. 

Fig. 156 shows a plant towards the end of the second season, vigorous 
growth having been stimulated by regular weeding and watering. 

A long taproot is developed at an early age ; it may reach a length of 
1 ft. in two months from germination and a length of 1-5 ft. or more by the 
end of the first season. In the middle of the second season a plant was dug 
up with a taproot 3 ft. 2 in. long and 0-6 in. in diameter. The seedling stands 
comparatively heavy shade in its early stages. It is sensitive to drought as 
well as to frost. 

The table below gives a summary of measurements in experimental plots 
at Dehra Dun, in which the beneficial effects of weeding are clearly demon- 
strated. The rate of growth for a locality far outside the natural habitat of 
the species is remarkable. 

Xylia dolabriformis : rate of growth of young plants, Dehra Dun. 



dition under which grown. 

nursery, weeded and watered 
nursery, weeded and watered 
nursery, weeded and watered 

Dadcast sowing (seed lightly 
vered), irrigated, weeded 
aadcast sowing (seed lightly 
vered), irrigated, not weeded 
aadcast sowing (seed lightly 
vered), unirrigated, weeded 

Dadcast sowing (seed lightly 
vered), unirrigated, not weeded 
tural conditions (seed scat- 
red on surface of ground), not 
;eded after sowing in open 
tural conditions (seed scat- 
red on surface of ground), not 
jeded after sowing in open 
atural conditions (seed scat- 
red on surface of ground), not 
3eded after sowing in slight 
>ade 

atural conditions (seed scat- 
red on surface of ground), not 
eeded after sowing in heavy 
lade 



Height at end of season. 



1st season. 

Oft. 3 in. -Oft. 6 in. 
Oft. 4in.-0ft. 11 in. 
Maximum ft. 1 1 in. 

Maximum ft. 7 in. 

Maximum ft. 6 in. 

Maximum ft. 9 in. 

Maximum ft. 6 in. 
Maximum ft. 5 in. 

Oft. 2 in. -Oft. 5 in. 
(impeded by weeds) 

Oft. 3 in. -Oft. 5 in. 



Oft. 3 in. -Oft. 7 in. 



2nd season. 

Maximum 3 ft. 9 in. 
6 ft. 3 in. (one plant) 

ft. 8i in.-4 ft. in. 

Oft. 4 in. -1ft. Sin. 

(impeded by weeds) 

Oft. 9 in. -5 ft. lin. 



Oft. 3 in. -Oft. 11 in. 
(impeded by weeds) 
All killed by drought 



3rd season. 



lift. 4 in. 

(girth 6 in ) 



4th season. 



17 ft. 4 in. 
(girth 10 in.) 



12 ft. 6 in. (girth 
6 in. at 4 ft. from 
ground) 



Fig. 157 shows in a striking manner the effect of regular weeding. A plot 
was sown broadcast : no watering was done, but the portion to the left of 
the staff was regularly weeded, the soil being kept loose, while the portion 
to the right of it was left unweeded. The effect of the weeding after fifteen 
months is very marked. 



410 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a shade-bearer, particularly in 
youth, although in this respect it cannot compete with the more shade-bearing 
evergreens. It is sensitive to drought in youth. For its best development it 
requires a moist, deep, well-drained soil ; it is sometimes found on dry shallow 
soils, where, however, it never reaches large dimensions. Owing to its thin 
bark it is readily injured by fire, large wounds due to this cause being frequently 
found at the base of the tree, as shown in Fig. 155. The tree is attacked by 
a parasitic fungus, Fomes fulvus, Fries, the spores of which probably gain 
admission through wounds (see Indian Forester, xxvi. 19 and 160). The tree 
coppices well up to a moderate size : it is not known if it produces root-suckers 
like the Indian species. 

Natural reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun gave the following 
results : (1) Germination takes place very readily at the commencement of 
the rainy season. (2) Bare ground favours germination, but if the ground is 
hard the germinating seedling is liable to dry up before the radicle penetrates 
the soil ; loosening the soil greatly helps matters. (3) Mortality also takes 
place during germination owing to (a) the rotting of the radicle or the seed 
in heavy wet weed-growth or on badly-drained ground, (b) the destruction of 
the radicle by birds and insects, (c) the drying up of the radicle or the swollen 
seed if exposed to the sun after germination has started ; this is a very fruitful 
cause of death. (4) Under shade (other than that of heavy wet weed-growth) 
germination takes place readily, and the seedling can establish itself without 
difficulty ; in shady places the radicle may creep along the ground for some 
distance before it gains admission to the soil, and even roots and leaves may 
form before the seedling gains a footing, which would be impossible in 
the sun. 

These results appear to indicate that natural reproduction is favoured by 
loose bare ground under shade where the drainage is good. The question of light 
necessary for its establishment is considered below. 

In the forest young pyinkado seedlings are often found in large quantities 
under these conditions. On the surface of a new road under construction 
through the Konbilin forest in Tharrawaddy, where the soil had recently been 
dug up and levelled, in June 1904 I observed seedlings in countless numbers ; 
these were so numerous that it was impossible to walk without treading on 
them at every step. In the same forest pyinkado seedlings have frequently 
been observed in quantity under the shade of teak plantations of different ages. 

The effect of fire-protection on the natural reproduction of pyinkado is 
often most pronounced, and annual reports frequently contain references to 
the quantity of seedlings appearing in fire-protected forests. It is an undoubted 
fact that in the moister types of deciduous teak-bearing forest in the Pegu 
Yoma teak is to a large extent being replaced by pyinkado mider the influence 
of fire-protection, which, while greatly assisting the reproduction of pyinkado, 
has a correspondingly adverse effect on that of teak. The stimulus given by 
fire-protection to pyinkado reproduction has been observed in moist and dry 
upper mixed forest, both with and without bamboos, as well as in lower mixed 
forest. On the other hand, cases of good reproduction in areas annually 
burnt may also be observed, though such cases occur only where the 
state of the soil-covering is such as to preclude severe fires. The effect of 







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11) 



XYLIA 411 

fire-protection, however, does not appear to be universally beneficial, for cases 
are recorded, particularly from South Tenasserim, where owing to the thick 
carpet of leaves, and possibly owing sometimes to the dense undergrowth, the 
seedlings fail to establish themselves in fire-protected forest. This appears 
to indicate that, as in the case of teak, when the type of forest passes a certain 
degree of moisture protection induces conditions adverse to successful repro- 
duction ; this degree is passed at a considerably drier stage in the case of 
teak than in the case of pyinkado. 

Another factor of great importance to the establishment of pyinkado 
reproduction is light. Although seedlings appear under fairly heavy shade 
and may even persist for a time, they become suppressed and killed out unless 
a moderate amount of light is admitted. Operations carried out in Tharra- 
waddy to assist natural reproduction have shown, however, that if the overhead 
cover is opened out severely a heavy growth of grass and weeds tends to spring 
up in which pyinkado seedlings, though they may appear in large numbers, 
become suppressed, while, on the other hand, if the cover is removed gradually 
weeds are prevented from coming in to the same extent and the advance 
growth of pyinkado grows rapidly : repeated weeding and cleaning in the 
earlier years is necessary, however, in order to bring up the young crop. 
Figs. 158 and 159 illustrate the manner in which natural young crops of 
pyinkado can be established in fire-protected forest by the gradual opening 
of the canopy combined with weedings and cleanings. Observations have 
been recorded in various localities regarding the quantity of reproduction 
which springs up in areas where felling and bamboo cutting have taken place, 
the disturbance of the soil no doubt assisting as well as the admission of light. 

Mr. T. W. Forster,^ writing of the effect of the admission of light on the 

reproduction of pyinkado in Tharrawaddy, notes that whereas young pyinkado 

is well distributed over areas where bamboos are absent, it is conspicuous by 

its absence in many bamboo areas except along the outer edges where side 

light has penetrated and in places where clumps have died after seeding. 

That seedlings do appear in large quantities in untreated bamboo areas may 

be realized from the following countings made in two plots : (1) area I acre : 

seedlings present, 3,309, or 13,200 per acre ; (2) area 1 square chain : seedlings 

present, 1,088, or 10,800 per acre. In such cases, however, if sufficient light 

is not admitted a very large proportion of these die off. The following countings 

on a linear survey 9 chains in length covering 1-8 acres in untreated bamboo 

forest in the Mokka reserve show the extent to which the establishment of 

seedlings and saplings is prevented by the effect of overhead cover : 

Seedlings 1 ft. in height and over ...... 3,691 

Poles 8 in.-l ft. in girth . 



Trees 4-5 ft. in girth 
Trees 5-6 ft. in girth 
Trees over 6 ft. in girth 



21 
2 
2 
2 



Within recent years special attention has been paid in some of the Pegu 
Yoma tracts to the question of obtaining natural reproduction of pyinkado. 
It has been demonstrated clearly that once their roots have become well 
established young pyinkado plants are capable of surviving severe burning 
almost as well as teak, and although bm-nt back they afterwards send up strong 

^ Ind. Forester, xxxviii (1912), p. 45.5. 



412 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

vigorous shoots. This takes place even after severe fires in flowered bamboo 
areas. Experiments in Prome, Tharrawaddy, and Toungoo have shown that 
natmi-al reproduction can be secured in quantity by cutting bamboos and other 
growth in the vicinity of seed-bearers, in order to lighten the cover, and 
thoroughly burning the cut material. Natural pyinkado seedlings appear in 
quantity on the burnt ground ; thereafter the area is fire-protected and the 
young crop is regularly weeded, while light is admitted gradually by the 
removal of the overwood. This results in the establishment of dense young 
crops of pyinkado. 

The immunity of well-established pyinkado seedlings from destruction by 
fire indicates the treatment which would probably be successful in mixed teak 
and pyinkado crops. This would consist of encouraging pyinkado advance 
growth by a slight opening of the canopy near seed-bearers, accompanied by 
burning ; for some years the area would be fire-protected and the young 
pyinkado would be weeded if necessary until well established. A clear felling 
and burning of the area would then secure teak reproduction, while the young 
pyinkado, after being burnt back, would shoot up again from the base. Further 
weeding of the young mixed crop would then be necessary until it is established. 
It may be noted in this connexion that pyinkado reproduction often appears 
in teak taungya plantations in the form not only of seedlings but also of 
coppice-shoots from the bases of saplings which have been burnt back. 

Natural reproduction of pyinkado is sometimes found in great quantity 
in the rather dry type of forest known as thitkyin alluded to above, containing 
few or no bamboos ; this reproduction is the result of fire-protection, but the 
young plants are kept in suppression, and few succeed in making their way 
up unless the canopy is opened. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that 
direct sowing gives much greater success than transplanting from the nursery. 
Transplanting, if carried out carefully in rainy weather, was found to be 
successful with small plants in the first rainy season, but not with large plants 
in subsequent years. Pruning down the stem and the root did not prove 
successful, either in the first year or subsequently. 

The beneficial effects of thorough weeding and loosening of the soil have 
already been alluded to u.nder ' the seedling ', and hence line sowings, where 
these can be carried out most effectively, are indicated as likely to give the 
best results. 

In the Kyangin reserve of the Henzada forest division a mixture of teak 
and pyinkado has been tried with field crops in shifting cultivation {taungya) 
on a fairly extensive scale, but owing to the different requirements of the two 
species as regards germination the success has not been great. Teak seed, in 
order to germinate successfully, requires to be put in early in order to obtain 
the benefit of the alternating showers and hot sun at the commencement of the 
rainy season. Pyinkado seed, on the other hand, germinates with the first 
shower, and in an open taungya the germinating seedling is dried up on the 
next sunny day. To sow the pyinkado later when the rains have well set in 
would add to the cost of the plantation, and might be difficult in practice. 
A small tainigya plantation of pure pyinkado was formed in the Tharrawaddy 
divrision about 1900. Tliis I saw in 1904, and the plants were few in number 



XYLIA 413 

* 

and in poor condition : the surrounding forest contained pyinkado trees of 
good quality, and the poor condition of the plantation, in which the ground 
was covered with a thick growth of grass, was probably due to this growth 
of grass, to unfavourable soil conditions induced by the removal of the 
forest cover, and to the exposure of the plants to the sun. The readiness 
with which natural reproduction of pyinkado sometimes springs up in teak 
plantations would indicate that it might be introduced successfully as an 
under-story in such plantations if the correct degree of light is obtained : 
sowings of pyinkado in lines between the lines of teak, after the latter have 
been sufficiently thinned out, should not be difficult to carry out. 

2. Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.), Hole in Ind. For., xxxviii. 463. Vern. 
Jamba, yerul, suria. Mar. ; Jambe, tiruwa, Kan. ; Ind, Tam. ; Tangedu, Tel. ; 
Iruniulla, kada, Mai. 

A moderate-sized to large deciduous tree. Leaves bipinnate with one 
pair of pinnae, each pinna with two to six pairs of leaflets. Bark 0-2-0-5 in. 
thick, smooth, reddish grey, exfoliating in large irregular plates. Wood very 
hard, reddish brown, durable, liable to split in seasoning, used for house and 
bridge construction. 

The tree is considerably smaller than the Burmese species, seldom reaching 
a height of more than 60 ft. and a girth of more than 6 ft. ; in dry localities 
and on poor ground it attains much smaller dimensions than these, and pro- 
duces a somewhat crooked and fluted bole. 

Distribution and habitat. This tree occurs in the Indian Peninsula, 
extending as far north as Bombay in the west, Orissa in the east, and the 
Balaghat district of the Central Provinces in the centre. It extends southward 
to Travancore, but is absent from the south of that state. It is not found 
in the dry districts of the Deccan. It is plentiful throughout the deciduous 
forests of the Western Ghats, in the Belgaum and North Kanara districts of 
Bombay, and in South Canara, Malabar, and thence south to Travancore. 
Here its most important companions are teak, Terminalia tomentosa, T. pani- 
culata, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpus Marsupium, 
Adina cordifoUa, and ScMeichera trijuga. It is, however, a typically gregarious 
tree, often forming nearly pure crops, especially on abandoned cultivation. 
In the east of the Peninsula it is plentiful in some of the deciduous forests 
of the Crodavari district, where it also becomes more or less gregarious. It is 
locally common in Ganjam. In the Puri district of Bihar and Orissa it occurs 
on low hilly country, where it is sometimes mixed with sal, forming pole crops. 
In the Central Provinces it is found locally in mixed deciduous forests on hill 
slopes and in valleys in Chanda, Bhandara, Balaghat, Raipur, and Nagpur, 
sometimes forming dense pure young crops under teak and other species. 

The tree is found on various geological formations, such as granite, gneiss, 
mica schist, basalt, trap, quartzite, sandstone, and limestone, while it is some- 
times very plentiful on laterite, though on this formation it does not appear 
to attain large dimensions. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 37 to 62 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 50 to 180 in. or perhaps more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves fall about 



414 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

February and the new leaves appear in March or April, the flowers appearing 
at the same time. The globose fragrant flower- heads are j^ellowish white, 
0-5-0-7 in. in diameter, with numerous very small flowers. The pods commence 
ripening next December, and the seed as a rule all falls by March. The pods 
are brown, 4-6 in. long by 2-2-5 in. broad, flat, woody, falcate-oblong, con- 
taining six to ten seeds. The pods dehisce on the tree, the hard woody 
valves bursting open elastically, curving backwards and ejecting the seeds. 
The open pods do not remain long on the tree, and have usually all fallen by 
the end of May ; the hard valves may then be found in quantity on the 
ground. The seeds (Fig. 160, a) are flat, ovate, oblong or nearly orbicular, 
0-5-0-7 in. by 0-35-0-5 in., brown, smooth, shining, with a moderately hard 
testa. 

Germination (Fig. 160, b-d). Epigeous. The testa splits at one end 
and the radicle emerges and descends rapidly. The hypocotyl arches and 
elongates, soon straightening and raising the cotyledons above ground. The 
testa is usually carried up over the cotyledons, falling to the ground with their 
expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 160). 

Moots : primary root long, moderately thick, terete, tapering, wirj', 
glabrous or minutely pubescent when young : lateral roots fairly numerous, 
at first short, afterwards long, fibrous, distributed dowTi main-root. Hypocotyl 
distinct from the root, 1 5-2-5 in. long, fusiform or tapering slightly at the 
lower end, white turning green, minutely pubescent. Cotyledons : petiole 
0-05 in. long, thick : lamina 0-7-0-9 in. by 0-5-0-6 in., broadly elliptical or 
obovate, apex rounded, base sagittate, entire, fleshy, glabrous, upper surface flat 
or slightly concave, lower surface convex, veins not distinct. Stem erect, woody, 
green turning brown, young parts pubescent ; internodes 0-3-1-2 in. long. 
Leaves compound, first pair opposite, paripinnate, with two pairs of leaflets, 
subsequent leaves alternate with 1, 2, or 3 pairs of leaflets, very rarely trifoliate ; 
bi-compound leaves, with leaflets up to six pairs, are ordinarily produced in 
the second season. Stipules up to 0-2 in. long, linear lanceolate, acuminate, 
pubescent. Rachis (flrst season) 0-8-5 in. long, pubescent, terminating in 
a fine bristle. Leaflets opposite, with petiolules up to 0-1 in. long, 0-7-5 in. 
by 0-25-2 in., ovate or ovate lanceolate, acuminate, entire, glabrous above, 
pubescent on the veins beneath, terminal pair larger than remaining leaflets, 
young leaves often copper-coloured. 

Nursery-raised seedlings in Malabar reach a height up to 1 ft. in the first 
season, and between 2 and 3 ft. by the end of the second season. 

The seedling stands a good deal of shade when young, though when once 
established it benefits by the admission of light. Experience gained in sowings 
in Coorg shows that it is sensitive to drought. A long taproot is developed 
early, and may attain a length of 1 ft. or more within a month of germination. 
As in the case of the Burmese species, the growth of the seedling is greatly 
stimulated by weeding. The young plants are not eaten by cattle. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a shade-bearer, particularly in 
youth : it owes its gregariousness in part to this character, which enables it 
to gain a footing under the moderate shade of mixed deciduous forest, though 
it cannot compete with the heavy shade-bearers of the evergreen forests. 
Although it grows best on deep soil overlying sandstone and crystalline rocks 
it is usually more gregarious on shallow soil on laterite, though here it does 




Fig. 160. Xylia xylocarpa. Seedling x |. 
a, seed ; h-d, germination stages ; e-g, development of seedling during first month. 



416 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

not attain large dimensions. Bourdillon notes that in Travancore it does not 
seem to thrive well at the lower elevations where it is most common, but is 
badly shaped, fluted, and twisted, whereas at 1,500 ft. and upwards, where 
it is not so abundant, it attains a larger size : this may, however, possibly 
be due to geological formation and soil rather than to elevation. Opinions 
appear to vary as regards the fire-resisting power of this tree. Talbot attributes 
the defective unsound stems in the Bombay Presidency to forest fires : 
]\rr. D. T. Barry,^ writing of South Canara, says it withstands fire better than 
most species. The effect of fire on natural reproduction is dealt with below. 

The tree coppices and pollards well, and produces root-suckers in abmi- 
dance, particularly in burnt areas and where the roots are exposed. Coppice 
and pollard experiments carried out in 1909 in North Chanda, in which cutting 
was done in April, May, and June, gave the following results in the case of 
Xylia as compared with teak : 

(1) Percentage of stools which produced coppice-shoots : Xylia 95 per 

cent. ; teak 97 per cent. 

(2) Percentage of success in pollarding : Xylia 85 per cent. ; teak 73 

per cent. 

Natural reproduction. The seeds germinate with the early showers 
of the rainy season, and in May numerous young seedlings may be found on 
the ground with the cotyledons still present. The natural i-eproduction of 
this tree is profuse throughout the greater part of its habitat, and in Bombay 
it threatens in places to oust more valuable species such as teak, blackwood, 
and Pterocarpus Marsupium, forming pure young crops under the other trees 
of the mixed deciduous forests, often to the almost complete exclusion of 
other species. In the teak plantations of Nilambur in South Malabar young 
crops of Xylia have appeared in quantity on the laterite areas where the teak 
develops poorly and has almost disappeared in places. In the Central Provinces 
natural reproduction has spread extensively in the mixed deciduous forests 
where seed-bearers are present, forming dense pure crops under teak and other 
trees, and it is a question whether the tree will not yet prove to be noxious 
in preventing the reproduction of the more valuable species. In the majority 
of cases the spread of Xylia reproduction is directly traceable to fire-protection, 
its shade-bearing character and its immunity from damage by grazing being 
of special assistance to it. In moist regions where the vegetation tends to 
assume a tropical evergreen character, however, fire-protection appears to 
have the reverse effect, favouring the spread of the more shade-bearing ever- 
greens, to the detriment of Xylia reproduction. 

Natural reproduction springs up with great freedom on abandoned fields 
during the process of shifting cultivation, the sites of former cultivation being 
often marked by pure patches of Xylia. This indicates its partiality for new 
soil, which favours the germination of the seed and the establishment of the 
seedling, as in the case of the Bm-mese species, and its capacity for contending 
successfully against the second-growth species which appear on abandoned 
cultivation. 

Artificial reproduction. Little appears to have been done so far to 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxix (1!J13), p. 30. 



XYLIA 



417 



form plantations of this species, since its natural reproduction is as a rule so 
good. It has been raised experimentally in Coorg with the aid of shifting 
cultivation {humri), but the seedlings were found to suffer to some extent 
from drought. Possibly it requires to be gro^vn under moderate shade for a time. 

SOiVicuLTTJRAL TREATMENT. Hitherto the tree has been worked along 
with the other species associated with it either in some form of selection 
fellings or as coppice-xvith-standards. For the latter system it is suitable. 
The ease with which natural reproduction can be secured, and the tendency 
of the tree to form even-aged pure crops, indicate that there should be little 
difficulty in treating it by concentrated high forest regeneration fellings with 
the object of producing even-aged crops. It could also be employed usefully 
to form an under-story to other species of greater value, whether in planta- 
tions or in natural crops. 

Rate op growth. (1) Natural high forest. The annual rings, though 
more or less visible, are not very distinct. Certain working plans in the North 
Kanara district of Bombay estimate the rate of growth by ring-countings. 
The following statement, prepared after reducing the figures to girth measure- 
ments, obtaining average curves after plotting by rectangular co-ordinates, 
and including bark thickness, gives a summary of the results : 

Xylia xylocarpa : rate of growth in girth in high forest, North Kanara district, 

Bombay. 



























Yekambi- 




Ankola 
















Sonda 


k high 


Supa fuel 


high forest. 


Kalinaddi 


Sopinhosalli 








forest, 


reserves.^ 


Blocks xxiv 


slopes. 


high forest. 


Ankola - 


Sirsi town 


Block 




and 


XXV. 2 


Block 


xxvi.2 


Block 


xxvii.3 


Kumta coast.^ 


forests.3 


xxviii.* 


(1906) 


(1908) 


(1909) 


(1910) 


(1911) 


(1913) 


(1914) 


ft. in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


6 





6 





7 





7 


6 





4 





3 


1 


1 





1 


2 


1 





1 





9 





7 


1 5 


1 


5 


1 


6 


1 


5 


1 5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 10 


1 


10 


2 





1 


9 


2 


1 


6 


1 


7 


2 4 


2 


3 


2 


6 


2 


2 


2 5 


1 


10 


2 


I 






2 


8 


2 


11 


2 


7 


2 11 


2 


2 


2 


7 






3 


1 


3 


5 


3 









2 


7 


3 









3 


6 


3 


10 


3 


5 






2 


11 


3 


5 






3 


11 


4 


4 


3 


9 






3 


3 


3 


10 






4 


3 


4 


10 


4 


2 






3 


8 


4 


3 






4 


6 


5 


3 


4 


7 






4 





4 


7 






4 


10 


5 


8 


5 









4 


3 


5 









5 


1 


5 


11 


5 


5 






4 


7 


5 


4 






5 


4 


6 


2 


5 


9 






5 


10 


5 


8 






5 


7 


6 


4 


6 


2 






5 


2 


6 









5 


10 


6 


5 


6 


7 






5 


5 


6 


3 






6 





, 





, 


, 











6 


6 



1 Measurements by D. A. Thomson. ^ Measurements by R. S. Pearson. 

3 Measurements by P. E. Aitchison. 



(2) Planted trees. Bourdillon says measurements of trees planted at 
Malayattur in Travancore showed the following growth : 

Age 5 years, height 25 ft., girth 10 in. 
10 60 ft., 22 in. 

Under favourable conditions, therefore, it appears that the tree is capable 
of very rapid growth. 

2307.2 Q 



418 XXIII. LEGU^IINOSAE 

(3) Coppice. Measurements in coppice coupes in the Karwar fuel reserves, 
West Kanara forest division, Bombay, gave the following results from the 
average curve after plotting : ^ 





Mean girth at 


Age in years. 


breast height. 




ft. in. 


5 


6 


10 


9-5 


15 


1 0-2 


20 


1 2-3 



Measurements in 1912-13 of coppice-shoots one year old in the Bhandara 
forest division, Central Provinces, showed an average height of 6 ft. 8 in. 
for Xylia as against 7 ft. 1 in. for teak. Measurements by Mr. H. Gass in 
1898-9 in coppice coupes in Kadike block. South Canara district, Madras, 
gave the following results : ^ 

Xylia xylocarpa : coppice measurements, South Canara. 







Girth 







Height. 


Number of shoots 


Age. 


Mean. 




Maximum. 


Mean. 


Maximum. 


per stool. 


years, 
2 
3 


in. 
6-6 




in. 
10 


ft. 
16 
15 


ft. 
20 
20 


1 to 20, average 10 



3. ACACIA, WiUd. 

This important genus contains over twenty Indian species as well as some 
introduced species, the three most important of the latter being the Australian 
trees A. decurrens, A. dealbata, and A. Melanoxylon. The Indian acacias are 
essentially xerophilous, occupying for the most part the dry and arid regions 
where the forests are often of the natiire of open thorny scrub : some of the 
species assume the spreading flat umbrella-like crowns characteristic of open 
xerophilous woodland in the tropics, for example A. planifrons, A. Latronum, 
and A. leucophloea. The Indian tree species are essentially light-demanding, 
regenerating on open ground and being intolerant of suppression. Some 
species reproduce most freely on recent riverain alluvium, notably Acacia 
Catechu and A. arabica ; A. Farnesiana, an introduced species, also runs wild 
gregariously in river-beds. Some species have indehiscent or tardily dehiscent 
pods, e.g. A. arabica, A. modesta, A. Senegal; others have dehiscent pods, 
e.g. A. Catechu, A. Latronum. The seeds of acacias as a rule retain their 
vitality for a considerable time. Germination is epigeous in all the species 
examined. 

Some species coppice well, for instance A. Catechu, A. modesta, A. leuco- 
phloea, A. dealbata, A. decurrens ; others coppice with less freedom, and in 
some localities hardly at all, for example A. arabica and A. Melanoxylon. 

Root-suckers are probably produced on occasion by most if not all species ; 
even A. arabica, which does not ordinarily produce suckers, does so occa- 
sionally, while A. Catechu does so sometimes when the roots are exposed. 

^ Working Plan for the Karwar Fuel Reserves, West Kanara Division, Bombay, 
D. A. Thomson, 1904. 

2 Inspection note, 1899. 



ACACIA 419 

Suckers are produced more freely by A. planifrons and A. leucophloea, and in 
profusion by A. dealbata and A. decurrens. 

Species 1. A. arabica, Willd. ; 2. A. leucophloea , Willd. ; 3. A. Catechu, 
Willd. ; 4. A. jnodesta, Wsdl.; 5. A. Senegal, WiWd.; 6. A. planifrons, W. and 
A. ; 7. A. Latronum, Willd. ; 8. A. Farnesiana, Willd. ; 9. A. eburnea, Willd. ; 
10. Australian acacias : (1) A. decurrens, Willd., (2) A. dealbata, Link, 
(3) A. Melanoxylon, R.Br. 

1. Acacia arabica, Willd. Syn. Mimosa arabica, Lam. Babul. Vern, 
Babul, Hind. ; Kikar, Pb. ; Babar, Sind ; Jali, Kan. ; Nella tuma, Tel. ; 
Karu velam, Tam. 

A moderate-sized almost evergreen tree with a short trunk, a spreading 
crown, and feathery foliage. Bark dark brown, nearly black, pinkish brown 
and hard inside, with regular deep longitudinal fissures which very often run 
spirally up the tree. Young branches green, pubescent. Stipular spines 
straight, white, up to 2 in. long, variable, sometimes absent in old trees. 

The tree varies much in size, remaining little more than a shrub in some 
localities, and in others attaining a height of 50 to 60 ft. or even more, and 
occasionally a girth of 8 to 10 ft. Brandis says the largest girth recorded is 
16i ft. near Multan. 

Acacia arabica is probably the moSt important tree in the drier parts 
of India. The sapwood is whitish and large : the heartwood is pink, turning 
reddish brown on exposure, hard and very durable if well seasoned. The 
wood is used for building, carts and carriages, wheel-work, agricultural imple- 
ments, boat-building, and many other purposes, and is an excellent fuel. The 
bark is extensively used for tanning. The pods are rich in tannin, and are 
also largely used as fodder for cattle, goats, and sheep. The leaves and twigs 
are used as fodder and the thorny branches as fencing material. The bark 
exudes a gum largely used in dyeing and calico-printing and for native medicine. 
Lac is grown on the tree in Sind. In the dry hot regions in which it grows 
it is a useful shade tree with its spreading evergreen crown, and although its 
shade is somewhat light it is frequently grown on camping grounds and along 
roadsides. 

Varieties. Several varieties of Acacia arabica have been distinguished. 
There are three ordinarily recognized varieties in India, which come true to 
seed : these are (1) The typical A. arabica with spreading shady crown and 
moniliform pods. This is the godi, teli, or telia babul, the wood of which is 
much prized : this variety is the one of most importance economically, and 
the one extensively grown in plantations or natural forest crops. (2) Var. 
vediana, the vedi, kavadi, kaora, kaulia, or kauria babul. As compared with 
the typical or telia variety this one is smaller, with a shorter bole, thp bark 
is rougher and more fissured, with more pronounced exfoliation, the pods are 
flat and little constricted between the seeds and are on shorter stalks, the 
spines are more numerous, stouter and whiter and up to 2| in. long, the 
crown is more spreading, while the branches are more twisted and interlacing. 
The wood of the kauria babul is inferior to that of the telia, and is usually 
considered fit only for firewood, though in cases of necessity it is used as timber, 
particularly for agricultural implements : hence this variety is cut or weeded 
out wherever possible in favour of the telia. This variety, which is common 

G2 



420 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

in the Deccan, appears to be a xerophytic form of the typical variety. (3) Var. 
cupressiformis , the ramkanta or ramkati hahul or kahuli kikar. This variety 
is recognized by its broom-like (cupressiform) ascending branches : the stem is 
tall and the branches are thin. It is fomid in parts of the Pmijab, Sind, Raj- 
putana, and the Deccan, where it is fairly common in the Poona district. 
In Berar there is a religious prejudice against using its timber. The word 
ramkati signifies Rama's kati or wand. 

The present account of this tree will relate to the telia or typical variety 
unless the contrary is stated, since this is the important variety for forest 
purposes. 

Distribution and habitat. General distribution. Acacia arahica is 
probably indigenous in Sind, Rajputana, Guzerat, and the northern Deccan ; 
it is cultivated or self-sown throughout most of the drier parts of India, but 
not in the extreme north-west of the Punjab, where the winter cold is too 
severe. It is not found in the moister regions. It has been introduced into 
parts of the dry zone of Upper Burma and has spread to some extent. It is 
essentially a tree of the plains, occurring on flat or gently undulating ground 
and ravine country, but not extending into hilly regions. The tree is found 
also in Africa and Arabia. 

Climate. The babul is characteristic of dry regions, but will not thrive 
without irrigation if the climate is too arid. In regions where it is indigenous 
or has become naturalized the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 105 to 122 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 3 to 50 in. In re'gions of low rainfall such as Sind, however, 
the existence of the tree is rendered possible only by river inundations : 
otherwise it is doubtful if the babul is capable of flourishing with a rainfall 
of less than 20 in., in which connexion Talbot remarks : ^ ' Quite recently 
a very large area (over 50,000 acres) of reserved forest in the Poona district, 
where laborious efforts had been made over a long series of years to raise 
hahul, had to be disforested, as it was found that the rainfall was insufficient, 
even in good soil, to produce anything but small, stunted, and decaying stems 
of very little climatic or economic value.' 

Soil. The two commonest types of soil on which the babul occurs are 
riverain alluvium subject to inundations and black cotton soil. The former 
is exemplified on a large scale in Sind and to a lesser extent along the rivers 
of the Deccan. Black cotton soil is common in many parts of the Peninsula 
and in the southern part of the Indo-Gangetic plain. It is a stiff soil which 
absorbs large quantities of water in the rainy season, becoming sodden like 
a sponge : in the dry season it dyies and contracts, forming large deep cracks 
all over the surface of the ground, and it is only by sending its long taproot 
down into the moister subsoil beneath that the young plant is able to survive 
the dry season and establish itself. 

Apart from the two classes of soil mentioned, however, the tree is also 
frequently found on other types of soil, for example over large stretches of 
country on alluvial loam in the plains of northern India, on loamy soil in the 
Peninsula, and in tank beds in the Madras Presidency. In any type of soil, 
however, it is essential that there should be a sufficient degree of permanent 

1 For. Flora Bombay, i. 482. 



ACACIA 421 

moisture in the soil and subsoil, for in this respect the babul is exacting. 
Shallow soils with underlying sheet rock or beds of kankar have a stunting 
effect : on such ground the kauria usually replaces the telia variety where 
both occur, and the same applies to saline soils. The capacity of the babul 
for existing on saline soils appears to depend on the presence of a considerable 
amount of moisture in the soil. In Sind it cannot exist for any length of 
time on saline soil, but here this soil denotes a failing water-supply, a condition 
which is unsuitable for the growth of the tree in the dry climate of Sind. In 
Berar, according to Mr. Shrinivasulu Nayadu,^ ' the existence of soda salts to 
a large extent in the soil favours the growth of babul and its few associates 
to the exclusion of other trees.' Many of the saline tracts, however, are on 
the alluvium along the Purna river, where there is a considerable amount of 
moisture in the soil. That the babul can actually flourish in salt water, and 
that absence of soil moisture rather than salinity is probably the main reason 
for its failure to grow on dry saline soils, is indicated from the following quota- 
tion from the Madras Forest Report for 1909-10 : ' The experiments conducted 
in Lower Godavari and Kistna for promoting babul growth on the saline soils 
have not been successful, but inspection showed precisely the defects. In 
Lower Godavari the area was blank ; it was evident that the water ran off 
almost at once. In Kistna the area was on a slope, the upper part blank, 
the lower part and hollows filled with babul seedlings, some of which, only 
one or two years old, were 5 ft. or 6 ft. high. It is evident, then, that if the 
water can be retained for some time, until the roots reach moisture level, 
babul will succeed. Nor is fresh water necessary below, for babul was found 
flourishing with its roots in perfectly salt water creeks.' The same is observable 
along brackish creeks near Bombay, where the tree is seen in close proximity 
to mangrove species. 

Type of forest. Acacia arahica is a typically gregarious tree, forming 
crops which are pure or in which it is usually the most prevalent species. 
It is a strong light-demander, and the crops come up in even-aged groups 
or patches of varying extent. Forests of Acacia arahica are frequently termed 
babul bans and sometimes babul meadows, the latter term referring to the 
grassy midergrowth so prevalent in forests of this species. Its companions 
vary in different localities : these, together with its mode of occiu'rence, can 
best be dealt with for different localities separately. 

Sind. Sind contains by far the most extensive babul tracts in India, 
the area of babul forest being roughly estimated at 172,000 acres, though this 
area is subject to constant change owing to river action. The babul tracts 
are situated on both banks of the river Indus. The distribution, and indeed 
the existence, of the babul in Sind is governed by this river and its effect on 
the soil moisture, for climatically Sind is unsuitable for the growth of babul. 
In the regions where the tree is found the absolute maximum shade temperature 
varies from 116 to 122 F., and the absolute minimum from 30 to 40 F., while 
the normal rainfall varies from 3 to 10 in. Under ordinary circumstances it 
would be impossible for the babul to exist under rainfall conditions such as 
these, and it is to the annual inundations of the Indus that the babul forests 
owe their origin and existence. The influence of the rainfall is of small 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxv (1909), p. 493. 



422 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

importance compared with that of the floods. The Indus river, which is fed 
by the Himalayan snows and receives during its coiu-se through the Punjab 
plains the drainage of the four other large snow-fed rivers of that province, 
annually floods a large stretch of country on either bank. The flood season 
commences about the beginning of May with the melting of the snows and 
continues, with occasional interruptions, until July and sometimes later, the 
river thereafter subsiding until it reaches its winter level about the end of 
October. The extent and duration of the river floods vary greatly from year 
to year, and this variation has a marked influence on the conditions affecting 
forest growth. 

The powerful river action causes the formation of new land in the shape 
of fresh alluvial deposits, and the loss of much existing land through erosion. 
The new alluvial river deposits (known locally as kadui ground) become 
densely covered in one or two years with a growth of Tanmrix dioica, and 
T. Troupii from water-borne seed, and of ku7ih grass {Saccharum. spontaneum). 
Where the grass is not too dense, seedlings of Acacia arahica soon make their 
appearance amongst the tamarisk, the seed being dropped by cattle or con- 
veyed by water : the tamarisk undoubtedly assists the babul to establish 
itself by protecting it from frost. The level of this new ground is gradually 
raised in com^se of time by subsequent alluvial deposits along its riverain 
edge, but as long as the land is subject to annual inundations the babul 
continues to flourish, other conditions being favourable. If, however, the 
flood water is shut out or the ground becomes elevated above the reach of 
ordinary floods the babul commences to languish, and unless there is sufflcient 
subsoil moistiu-e by percolation from the river or from perennial canals the 
trees die off if the flood water is withheld for three or four years : sufficient 
percolation from the river, however, is exceptional in ground not subject to 
floods. It has been estimated that the minimum depth of surface flooding 
necessary for good babul growth varies from 2 inches on the stiffest to 8 inches 
on the most porous soils. Deeper flooding is common, and the babul 
benefits rather than otherwise provided the water drains off at the end of 
the flood season, for prolonged inundation on low-lying ground is apt to kill 
off young plants which have been submerged. 

Although the most flourishing babul forests are those which are now in 
riverain situations subject to annual floods, there exist also forests situated 
some miles from the river, the majority of which formerly received annual flood 
water. Within the past forty years, however, embankments constructed by the 
Irrigation Department along both sides of the Indus have shut off the forests 
from their annual supply of flood water. To a large extent this has resulted 
in the disappearance of the babul, its place being taken by the deep-rooted 
and hardier Prosopis spicigera. Where the babul has survived it is in a weakly 
condition, except where it obtains a more or less adventitious supply of water 
from the surplus drainage from neighbouring cultivation or from occasional 
breaches in the river embankments. Some of the forests are also irrigated 
from canals. For some years past steps have been taken to remedy this state 
of affairs by the construction of sluices in the river embankments, connecting 
with distributary channels leading into the forests, and by the embankment 
of forest boundaries to head up water. Whether or not these works will prove 



ACACIA 423 

remunerative remains to be seen, but in 1911 the Deputy Conservator of 
Forests in charge of the Sind circle recorded the following opinion : ' These 
schemes are bearing beneficial results, but in my opinion their total cost, 
together with the large annual outlay required to maintain them in efficient 
order, will be found in the future to be out of all proportion to the revenue 
likely to be yielded by the forests concerned. These irrigation schemes are 
complicated in many instances by the necessity on the one hand of protecting 
adjoining cultivation from forest flood water, on the other hand of not inter- 
fering with the customary water supply of cultivation beyond forest limits, 
and lastly by the difficulty of draining most of the forests so irrigated, at the 
close of the flood season. When and if a solution of these difficulties can be 
found, it almost invariably implies greater expense, both capital and recurring. 
I would therefore recommend that all inland forests should be gradually 
discarded whenever opportunities occur of acquiring riparian areas instead, so 
as to maintain undiminished, and to increase if possible, the total area under 
forest, while at the same time abolishing the difficulties, expense, and inter- 
ference with more legitimate forest duties entailed by complicated schemes 
of irrigation.' 

The alluvium of which the plains of Sind are formed consists of varying 
proportions of sand and clay, from pure sand to clayey loam. In places not 
subject to annual flooding patches of saline soil known as kallar often occur : 
such soil is produced by the evaporation of subsoil moisture containing salts 
in solution, resulting in the exudation of a whitish efflorescence on the surface 
of the ground, while the soil itself is usually darker in colour and moister 
than the normal soil. Babul does not grow on this saline soil where the salinity 
is at all marked ; it gives way to tamarisk, which in turn yields to Salvadora, 
while finally chenopodiaceous plants such as Suaeda fruticosa and Salsola 
foetida mark the last limit of vegetation when the salts become too concentrated 
for the existence of other species. 

Acacia arabica is far more plentiful in lower Sind than in upper Sind. 
In the latter it is replaced to a great extent by the hardier Prosopis spicigera, 
owing no doubt principally to the greater intensity of the frost, the climate 
of lower Sind being milder owing to its proximity to the sea ; also the duration 
and extent of the river inundations is greater in lower than in upper Sind, 
and this further influences the distribution of the babul. 

The most important associates of the babul in Sind are Tamarix dioica 
and T. Troupii, which are capable of standing soil conditions both too moist 
and too dry for the babul, but thrive well along with it ; Populus euphratica, 
which appears on new alluvium along with the babul ; and, to a lesser extent, 
Prosopis spicigera. The last-named species usually appears when the land has 
become elevated above the reach of all but abnormal floods, and as a rule 
indicates a failing water-supply ; it is, however, also frequently met with in 
areas suitable for babul except for a dense growth of grass, the presence of 
Prosopis in place of babul being due to the greater power of resistance to 
suppression possessed by the former. Occasionally Tamarix articidata also 
appears with Prosopis. As the ground becomes drier Salvadora oleoides, S. 
persica, and Capparis aphylla make their appearance. Among other species, 
some of them introduced, which are occasionally found in the babul forests 



424 XXIII. LEGIBIINOSAE 

are Acacia Farnesiana, Alhizzia Lebbek, Tamurindus indica, Parkinsonia 
aculeata, ZizypJms Jujuba, Azadirachta indica, Cordia Myxa, C. Bothii, and 
Ficus bengalensis. 

Northern and central India. Acacia arabica is scattered in greater or less 
abundance in suitable localities in the plains of the Punjab and United 
Provinces, and is frequently grown along canal banks : it is occasionally 
foimd in the drier parts of Bihar and Chota Nagpur, on embankments, waste 
lands, &c. In the Punjab it does not extend to the extreme north-west, where 
the cold in winter is too severe, but elsewhere it is one of the commonest trees 
of the plains, attaining a good size near water and in irrigated tracts. It is 
found in many parts of Rajputana and the Central India States, chieflj' in 
the form of scattered trees in fields and waste lands and along roadsides, 
bmids, and railway embankments. 

In the United Provinces the most important babul tracts are in the dry 
southern districts. In the sub-Himalayan tract the tree occurs only in certain 
isolated localities. Under the policy of afforestation promulgated by the 
United Provinces Government in 1912, the reservation of tracts of babul 
forest or of land capable of growing babul was commenced a few years ago in 
the Hamirpur and Etawah districts, with the idea of being extended to other 
districts as further experience in methods of afforestation is gained. It has 
now been definitely proved by the Kalpi plantation in the Jalaun district 
and the Fisher forest at Etawah that ravine lands in the southern districts of 
these provinces can be successfully afforested with Jbabul ; the rainfall here 
is between 30 and 40 in. These plantations are referred to on pp. 437- 
440, under ' artificial reproduction '. 

Central Provinces and Berar. In the Central Provinces proper Acacia 
arabica occurs for the most part on open cultivated or waste lands and grazing 
grounds outside the large forest tracts, usually frequenting black cotton soil 
or alluvial ground in the neighbourhood of streams : it is also frequently met 
with on bunds and embankments. 

The most important babul tracts are found in Berar, where the State 
babul forests extend over about 15,600 acres, while an additional area of public 
land (grazing grounds, &c.), roughly estimated at 12,500 acres, either contains 
crops of babul or is capable of supporting them. The tree also occurs in con- 
siderable abundance over private lands, along boundaries between cultivated 
fields, along banks of streams, and elsewhere. According to Mr. Shrinivasulu 
Nayadu ^ the distribution of the babul in Berar is determined mainly by 
situation, soil, and altitude. The underlying rock consists throughout of 
Deccan trap, and there is a varying depth of black cotton soil over it. The 
topography of the country is characterized by three main features : (1) on the 
north the Gawilgarh hills (the Melghat), averaging 3,400 ft. in elevation ; (2) on 
the south the Ajanta hill range (the Balaghat), comprising undulating plateaux 
about 1,600 to 2,200 ft. in elevation; and (3) between these two hill ranges 
the broad valley of the Purna river system, known as the Payanghat plain, 
800 to 900 ft. in elevation. The Gawilgarh hills are unsuitable for babul, 
since even in the ravines and valleys the substratum is dry, while frosts of 
some severity occur : the rainfall here is about 58 in. In the Bahxghat babul 

1 loc. oil., p. 491. 



ACACIA 425 

occurs to a greater or less extent along the banks of streams, and on cultivated 
and other land where there is sufficient immunity from frost and weeds : the 
rainfall of this tract averages 38 in. 

The Payanghat plain is the important babul-bearing tract of Berar, and 
it is here that most of the State babul bans are situated. In this plain over- 
lying the Deccan trap is a deep alluvial deposit, often 150 ft. in depth. 
Black cotton soil occurs at the surface, with yellow calcareous loam beneath ; 
this loam often appears at the surface, and is less favourable to tree growth 
than the black cotton soil. Deposits of silt are frequent in the river valleys 
and along the sides of streams. The water-bearing stratum is at a considerable 
depth, but the superficial strata are sufficiently retentive of moisture to support 
the growth of babul. The rainfall in the Payanghat tract averages 30 in., 
rain falling mainly during the south-west monsoon from June to September, 
with occasional showers from November to January. Frost is of rare occur- 
rence ; indeed, wherever it occurs in Berar the babul is easily capable of standing 
the winter cold, suffering only in abnormal years, as in January 1911. Babul 
forms about 90 per cent, of the tree growth of the Payanghat, its chief com- 
panions being Acacia leucophloea, A. ebnrnea, Prosopis spicigera, Diclirostachys 
cinerea, Balanites Boxburghii, Azadirachta indica, Zizyphus Jujuba, and Phoenix 
sylvestris. Common species of the undergrowth are Cassia Tora, C. auriculata, 
and Capparis grandis. In situations favourable to the babul this tree forms 
pure crops, the associates becoming more prominent where the black cotton 
soil gives place to calcareous loam or shallow soil. Phoenix sylvestris pre- 
dominates on swampy ground. Babul occurs most plentifully and shows the 
most vigorous growth in the deep moist soil in the neighbourhood of streams 
and particularly along the Purna river : in such places it benefits by the 
annual inundations during the rainy season. Both the telia and the kauria 
varieties are common, the former seeking the localities with deep moist soil 
and the latter being more plentiful on the higher and drier ground away from 
the streams, or where there are calcareous deposits near the surface, or where 
the salinity of the soil becomes marked : the growth of the kauria is much 
slower than that of the telia variety, and the rate of growth of the latter 
decreases away from the streams. 

Bombay Deccan. The principal babul tracts of the Bombay Deccan are 
situated in the Khandesh, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Sholapur, Poona, and Satara 
districts. The actual area of these tracts is difficult to estimate, as the babul 
is restricted to certain localities and is not distributed over the whole forest 
area. In 1908 the total area of State babul forests was estimated at 45,000 
acres. The forests are for the most part widely scattered over cultivated 
lands, usually in isolated patches of comparatively small size, and along the 
banks of rivers. The underlying rock is mainly trap, over which there is 
frequently a varying depth of black cotton soil favourable to the growth of 
babvil, but on the higher ground away from rivers the soil usually becomes 
a dry shallow murram, the result of the disintegration of the trap, or a calcareous 
kankar unfavourable to babul. The best babul tracts are invariably situated 
on deep sandy alluvium along the banks of rivers and streams subject to 
annual inundation. Here the tell variety flourishes and often forms dense 
crops. On the deep black cotton soil of the lower ground the babul also 



426 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

flourishes well, but on the higher ground away from the rivers, where the 
soil is dry and shallow, the teli, variety gives place to the kavadi {kauria), the 
crop becomes more open and the trees are stunted ; finally on the poorest 
localities, where the soil consists of deposits of kankar, the babul may disappear 
altogether and give place to Acacia eburnea, A. Latronu7n, A. Catechu, Balanites 
Roxburghii, Capparis aphylla, and occasionally Azadirachta indica and a few 
other species. These species are characteristic of the poorest types of babul 
forest. Among other associates on comparatively dry ground a,Te Zizyphus 
Jujuba, Prosopis spicigera, Alhizzia odoratissima, Diospyros Melanoxylon, 
Acacia leucopJdoea, Anogeissus latifolia, and others, while on the rich alluvium 
along the rivers Pongamia glabra and Eugenia Jambolana make their appear- 
ance. The babul crops occur in various stages of development : under previous 
working plans most of the old and deteriorating trees have been cut out, and 
the majority of the more promising crops are of various ages up to 20 or 
30 years. 

The climate of this region is a dry one, the rainfall, which is uncertain, 
varying from 18 to 30 in., though the tree thrives best where the rainfall is 
over 25 in. The absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 108 to 
112 F., and the absolute minimum from 37 to 45 F. From March to May 
there is intense heat and drought, which is detrimental to reproduction and 
development on all but the deeper and richer soils where the roots are able 
to penetrate to the moist strata : the annual inundations on the alluvial 
riverain tracts are therefore of the greatest importance in producing favourable 
soil conditions to counteract the adverse climatic factors. 

Southern India. The babul is found in greater or less abundance in 
suitable localities throughout the plains in the drier parts of the Madras 
Presidency, Hyderabad, Mysore, and Travancore, where the rainfall varies 
from 20 to 40 in., but not in the moist regions of the west coast. In Madras 
it occurs in fair abundance in several districts, particularly in Kistna, Kurnool, 
Anantapur, Guntur, Bellary, Chingleput, and Tinnevelly. It is usually found 
on black cotton soil, but also occurs on other soils, for example on ferruginous 
loam overlying metamorphic rocks in Bellary, where it is stunted and much 
damaged by grazing. In some districts, particularly in Tinnevelly, good crops 
of babul are found in the beds of numerous tanks scattered about the country. 
Many of these have been formed into reserved forests and improved by artificial 
sowing ; they constitute an important source of supply of fuel and agricultural 
and domestic timber. Among the more usual associates of the babul in Madras 
are Acacia planifrons, A. Latronum, A. leucophloea, Prosopis spicigera, Cassia 
Fistula, C. auriculata, and Azadirachta indica. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. Acacia arabica is hardly 
ever quite leafless, though on very poor soils it is sometimes bare for a short 
time in April-May. The young leaves appear from March to May, the old 
leaves commencing to fall before they appear and continuing to do so while 
the young leaves are spi outing. The flowering season is somewhat irregular, 
varying not only according to locality but also in the same locality. Flowering 
is most general in the rainy season, from June to September or October, but 
trees may be found in flower as late as December or January. The flowers 
are in fragrant yellow globose heads about 0-5 in. in diameter. The young 



ACACIA 427 

fruits develop rapidly ; the time of ripening varies according to locality, but 
is usually from April to June, or earlier in southern India. In the Peninsula 
the kauria variety is said to ripen in January and February. In Sind the 
tree flowers as a rule twice a year, once in June-July and again in November- 
December. The pods from the first flowering ripen about October, but are 
usually poor in quality and quantity : those of the second flowering ripen 
about May, and as a rule give a better crop. The pods {telia or typical variety) 
are 3-6 in. long by 0-5 in. broad, compressed, whitish tomentose, deeply 
constricted between the seeds, eight- to twelve-seeded. In the kauria variety 
the pods are more shortly stalked, about 0-75 in. broad, and very little con- 
stricted between the seeds. The seeds (Fig. 161, a) are compressed, ovoid, 
dark brown, shining, with a hard testa ; about 200 to 300 weigh 1 oz. They 
retain their vitality for some years if carefully stored. They are liable to beetle 
attacks even when still on the tree. 

Trees commence to bear fruit at an early age, usually at about five to 
seven years or somewhat later in Sind. They seed annually as a rule : in Sind 
the crop of pods is sometimes affected if the winter is severe, but this is not 
frequent. The pods are usually blown from the trees by the dry winds of 
the hot weather. They dehisce with difficulty, and if not eaten by animals 
may lie on the ground mitil the valves rot, the seed remaining ungerminated 
until it escapes in this way, though it is exposed in the meantime to the attacks 
of insects, rats, and squirrels. In exceptional cases the seeds may germinate 
inside the decaying pod, a line of germinating seeds being found partially 
enclosed in the pod : such cases are rare. Seed may be removed from the 
pods by drying the latter and pounding them. In tests of Berar seed carried 
out at Dehra Dun in 1911 and 1912 the telia variety gave the highest percentage 
of success, the kauria came next, and the ramkati gave the lowest percentage. 
The pods are readily eaten by sheep, goats, and cattle, and the seeds 
are ejected by them. As far as recorded observations go the seed, although 
it does so in the case of bovine animals, seldom passes completely through 
sheep and goats, but is ejected by them from the mouth during rumination ; 
the seeds are, it is true, found among their droppings, but this is because of 
the fact that rumination ordinarily takes place where the animals are herded. 
The fermentation and moistening which the seeds undergo before their ejection 
undoubtedly assists germination, and seed which has been ejected by animals 
is also held to be less liable to insect attacks than seed collected straight from the 
pod. The superiority of seed collected from goat and sheep pens is generally 
recognized, and seed so collected is extensively used for artificial sowings. 

Experiments carried out in Sind in 1910-11 and 1911-12 to test the 
fertility of seed obtained from goat and sheep pens and chose obtained direct 
from pods gave the following results : 

From pens. From pods, 

per cent. per cent. 

Sukkur division .... 13 6 

Hyderabad division ... 56 43 

Naushahro division ... 70 35 

Jerruck division .... 51 31 

An experiment in the Sukkur division to ascertain if the fertility of seed 
is impaired by prolonged immersion in water showed that immersion extending 



428 



XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 



up to five weeks had no harmful effect, a fact which is of importance in tracts 
inundated for some time. 

Germination (Fig. 161, b-d). Epigeous. The radicle emerges and 
descends. The hypocotyl elongates, arching very slightly or not at all, and 
raises the cotyledons above ground ; as a rule the testa is carried up over 
the cotyledons, falling with their expansion. 

The seedling {telia variety, Fig. 161). 

Boots : primary root long, thick in vigorous plants, otherwise thin and 
wiry, terete, tapering, light brown : lateral roots numerous, short, fibrous : 
small nodules present. Hypocotyl distinct from and thicker than young root, 
0-7-1 -3 in. long, terete, cylindrical or tapering slightly upwards, expanded in 
a ring at the base, pale green, glabrous. Cotyledons : petiole 0-1 in. long, thick, 
glabrous : lamina 0-5 in. by 0-4 in., plano-convex, fleshy, less than 0-1 in. 
thick, elliptical or ovate, apex rounded, base sagittate, entire, glabrous, pale 
green beneath, darker above. Stem erect, somewhat zigzag at the nodes, wiry, 
pale green, glabrous ; internodes variable in length, usually 0-2-0-4 in. long 
in young seedlings. Leaves : first pair opposite or sub-opposite, subsequent leaves 
alternate. Stipular spines in pairs at the base of the leaves at first 0-1 in. long, 
increasing to 0-5 in. long after a few nodes. First pair of leaves paripinnate, 
up to 1 in. long, with about four pairs of leaflets 0- 1-0-2 in. long, or second leaf 
sometimes bicompound, subsequent leaves bicompound, first with one pair 
then with two pairs of pinnae, the number of pinnae increasing subsequently. 

Under favourable conditions the development of the seedling is rapid 
from the commencement, plants which germinate about July sometimes 
reaching a height of 3 to 4 ft. by December, Experiments carried out at 
Dehra Dun indicate that the chief factors stimulating rapid development are 
an abundance of light and a loose soil free from weeds : irrigation also stimu- 
lates growth, but in the seedling stages weeding and loosening of the soil are 
even more important. The climate of Dehra Dun, it may be noted, is damper 
than in any region where the tree grows naturally. The development is poor 
on stiff clay. Experimental plots at Dehra Dun, some weeded and others 
not weeded, some irrigated and others not, showed the following rate of 
growth during the first season in respect of the three varieties of babul : 

Acacia arahica : growth of seedlings under different conditions, Dehra Dun. 

Irrigated. Unirrigated. 



Variety. Particulars. 

Telia Number of plants 

at end of season 
Height 
Condition . 

Kauria Number of plants 
at end of season 
Height 
C'ondition . 

Ramkuli Number of plants 
at end of season 
Height 
Condition . 



Weeded. 



Unweeded. 



Weeded. 



Unweeded 



99 15 28 12 

ft. 3 in. -2 ft. in. ft. 2| in.-l ft. in. ft. 9 in. -3 ft. 6 in. ft. 2 in.-l ft. 
Chiefly vigoro us Weakly Chiefly vigorous Weakly 



36 80 38 2 

ft. H i--3 ft. 8 in. ft. 3 in. -2 ft. in. ft. 3 in.-3 ft. 6 in. Larger ft. 1 1 
Chiefly vigorous Weakly Chiefly vigorous Weakly 



16 2 29 12 

Oft. 10 in. -4 ft. 3 in. Oft. 3in.-0ft. 5 in. Oft. 3in.-4ft. Oin. Oft. 2. V in. -Oft. 
Vigorous Weakly Mgorous Weakly 



Approximately the same quantity of seed was sown in each plot, Init the 
number of seeds sown was not recorded. 



d 



v1 



h 








Fig. i6i. Acacia arabica Seedling x f 
a Seed b - d Germination stages e - h Development of seedling during first season 



430 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

seedlings are weeded in the rains, but becomes very noticeable when the 
harvest is over and there is no food in the fields to invite the rats. These 
animals appear to multiply most freely in dry seasons, heavy rain being 
injurious to them. The deep cracks in the black cotton soil are specially 
favourable to them, since they live in deep burrows. The rats rear their young, 
eight to twelve at a time, in nests built about 2 ft. above ground in the inter- 
laced branches of babul thickets, and a knowledge of this fact is useful in 
helping to reduce their numbers. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Light. Acacia arahica is a strong light- 
demander, and will not tolerate suppression of any kind at any period of its 
existence. Young natural crops are often dense, and for some years the 
saplings may grow up without many side branches, but they thin each other 
out and the trees develop broad and full though somewhat light crowns. 
When grown in a free position the tree maintains a bushy form for many years, 
though the main stem is distinguishable. 

Eoot-system. The young plant, as already mentioned, develops a long 
taproot from the commencement, and strong lateral roots are also formed 
early. The subsequent development of the root-system depends to some 
extent on the locality. Under normal conditions on dry ground the taproot 
reaches a considerable length. Mr. Ribbentrop states : ^ 'I have known 
them to be 25 ft. long, and under certain conditions they may reach much 
lower.' In addition to the taproot a strong superficial root-system is pro- 
duced. On shallow soil the taproot branches without reaching any depth, 
and the plant is liable to die of drought. On inundated land the root-system 
is largely superficial. 

Root-suckers. The babul has not as a rule been observed to produce root- 
suckers regularl}^ but Mr. A. W. Lushington says : ^ ' When pulling up what 
appeared to be seedlings of babul {Acacia arahica)' in the Kistna district, they 
were found not to be seedlings at all, but sucker-shoots.' He mentions fui'ther 
that these suckers are produced especially when trees have been felled or where 
the roots have been exposed, and that he has found that a very fair percentage 
of what he always supposed to be seedlings have been these sucker-shoots. 
Mr. P. M. Lushington,^^ writing of babul areas in the Guntur district, Madras, 
says : ' Hitherto I have believed that the coppice resulting from babul was 
practically unproductive, and have for many years advocated the wounding 
of the roots with a view to producing root-shoots.' The Deputy Conservator 
of Forests, Sind circle, wrote in 1911 : ' Experience here tends to show that 
babul has very limited powers of reproduction by coppice-shoots or root- 
suckers.' Other writers have expressed doubt as to the capacity of the tree 
for producing root-suckers. So far as observations go at present, therefore, 
it may be considered as established that the babul, though it may not produce 
root-suckers universally, does produce them in some localities and under 
certain conditions, this tendenc}'^ being stimulated if the trees are felled or the 
roots exposed. 

Coppicing power. The coppicing power of the babul varies greatly. 
Throughout the greater part of its habitat it coppices poorly ; this, from 

1 Ind. Forester, xxv (1900), p. 136. " Ibid., xxx (1904), p. 163. 

^ Inspection note, 1912-13. 



ACACIA 431 

observations recorded by numerous forest officers, appears to be the case in 
Sind, Berar, the Bombay Deccan, and many parts of southern India, for 
although stumps up to about 6 or 7 in. in diameter frequently produce coppice - 
shoots, these in the majority of cases do not develop, remaining small and 
bushy or dying off altogether. Larger stumps cannot be relied on to produce 
coppice-shoots, and in general coppice as a regular means of reproduction is 
held to be out of the question. 

Certain important exceptions have, however, been recorded, notably 
from Guntur in the Madras Presidency, where the babul has been regularly 
worked under the coppice system for some years. Mr. P. M. Lushington, 
after inspecting one of the babul tracts in Guntur, wrote : ' Hitherto I have 
believed that the coppice resulting from babul was practically unproductive. 
... A glance at this area was sufficient to show me that my opinion was un- 
sustainable. Here we have a well established working series in which coppice 
reproduction is the main feature. The working is fully justified by results, 
for I saw established coppice seven years old which, though it did not cover 
the whole area, was well on its way to establishing a fairly thick forest.' Other 
recorded observations indicate that in certain parts of Madras, at all events, 
coppice reproduction can be relied on to a fair extent provided the trees felled 
are not of large size. 

The precise reason why babul coppices in some localities and not in others 
has not yet been satisfactorily explained. That flooding, provided it is not 
of excessive duration or intensity, is a possible factor is indicated from the 
observations of Mr. J. S. Scot, who notes that all the best coppice areas in 
Guntur are those which are under water for some period each year.^ There 
must, however, be other factors at work, otherwise the babul in Sind would 
coppice freely. 

Pollarding. The babul usually pollards well, and is freely lopped for 
thorn fences and fodder. 

Susceptibility to injuries, (i) Storms. Trees on inundated ground which has 
become soft are lia,ble to be uprooted on an extensive scale ; this is particularly 
the case in Sind. Where the fungus Fom,es Pappianus is prevalent trees 
are frequently uprooted owing to decay in the roots, or the stems or large 
branches may be snapped in two owing to the brittleness of the affected wood. 

(ii) Frost and drought. The tree is frost-tender, but is drought-resistant 
so long as the subsoil moisture holds out. The mortality among trees in Sind 
after the land ceases to be regularly inundated has already been referred to. 
In Sind damage by frost is less severe on inundated lands than on lands which 
have passed beyond the stage of annual flooding. 

(iii) Fire. The babul is not a fire-resistant species, and is often killed 
outright where much inflammable grass is present. 

(iv) Animals. Among grazing animals goats and camels are the most 
destructive, and sheep and buffaloes are also harmful. Cattle are the least 
harmful, and may even be beneficial, if admitted in small numbers, in keeping 
down grass and weeds and thus reducing the cover for rats and hares and the 
amount of inflammable material. Damage to young plants by deer, antelopes, 
hares, and rats has already been referred to. 

^ Ind. Forester, xxxviii (1912), p. 396. 



432 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

(v) Insects. The two most destructive insect pests of the babul are the 
beetles Coelosterna scahrata, Fabr., and PsilojJtera jastuosa, Fabr., an account 
of which by E. P. Stebbing is contained in Forest Bulletin No. 12 of 1912. 
The former, which is the more dangerous of the two, is a root-boring longicom, 
the grubs of which tunnel in the roots and kill young trees : the imago strips 
the bark from the leading shoots and branches of yomig trees. The latter 
beetle is a buprestid, which as far as is kno^\'n attacks trees only in its mature 
stage, stripping the bark off the shoots and branches. 

(vi) Fungi. Much damage is caused in Berar by the fungus Fom,es Pap- 
pianus, Bres. This fungus attacks the heartwood of the stem and branches 
and spreads into the roots, causing the wood to become brittle, and in severe 
cases to crumble away : infected trees are thus liable to be blo^\Ti over or to 
have their stems and branches snapped in two by wind. The fungus does not 
attack young healthy trees, but only those w^hich are in an unhealthy condition 
or have ceased to grow vigorously owing to injury or to old age : it attacks 
isolated trees as well as those growing in dense crops. It has not yet been 
ascertained whether the fungus spreads imderground tlirough the roots by 
means of mycelia or through wounds above ground by means of spores, or 
both. 

Measures which have proved efficacious in keeping the fungus in check 
are: (1) to remove all sporophores from infected trees ; (2) to cut out badly 
infected trees ; (3) to execute regular thinnings in young crops, removing sickly 
stems and promoting vigorous growth in those retained ; (4) to cultivate the 
soil with field crops after the babul crop has been removed, and to keep the 
young babul crop healthy by hoeing the groimd and promoting soil-aeration. 

(vii) Lopping. Lopping for fodder and thorn hedges is a source of much 
injury to the babul : in some cases the lopping takes the particularly destructive 
form of half cutting through the branches and bending them down to be within 
the reach of goats and cattle, a jagged wound being thus formed : small trees 
are similarly cut half through a few feet from ground-level and broken down. 
Although the babul has great capacity for heahng womids, jagged wounds 
formed by rough methods of lopping do not heal, and become centres of 
infection by rot. It is by no means improbable that lopping may prove to 
be one of the chief causes of the spread of fungus attacks. 

Natural reproduction. Under natural conditions germination com- 
mences early in the rainy season and continues for some time. Much moisture 
and warmth are necessary to effect complete germination, and without these 
the seed may lie dormant for two seasons or more and then germinate if con- 
ditions are favourable. Experiments at Dehra Dun in which seed was sown 
under varying degrees of shade and temperature showed that germination 
was considerably retarded under even slight shade, owing to the reduction of 
temperature, and that when it did take place the seedlings were unable to 
persist for any length of time in the absence of complete light. 

The dangers to which the seedling is exposed during and after germina- 
tion have been mentioned above under ' the seedling ', and these are all factors 
inimical to natural reproduction. 

It may be said generally that the conditions essential for the stimulation 
of vigorous natural reproduction are: (1) complete sunlight, (2) abundant 



ACACIA 433 

moisture, (3) loose soil, and (4) absence of grass and weeds. Apart from these 
factors germination is greatly stimulated if the seeds have been swallowed by- 
animals and ejected by them. 

The effect of complete light may be seen in any babul tract. Successful 
reproduction never appears under or even close around seed-bearers, but 
always in open gaps fully exposed to light. The effect of abundant moisture 
is seen in riverain tracts, where successful reproduction depends largely on 
the extent of the annual floods, failure usually following abnormally dry 
seasons. In tank beds in Madras it is noticeable that natviral reproduction is 
most plentiful where the ground is annually inundated and scanty on the higher 
ground. Seedlings are, however, sometimes killed out by excessive flooding, 
not only in riverain tracts but also in depressions on flat ground. In riverain 
tracts it is probable that considerable loss is caused by seeds and seedlings 
becoming buried in thick deposits of silt. 

The effect of loose soil is most marked, since it has a direct influence on 
the development of the taproot, and causes soil-aeration and the retention of 
soil moisture. For this reason vigorous natural reproduction frequently springs 
up on ploughed land and on new embankments, while on hard un worked 
ground reproduction is usually scanty or absent. The presence of rank grass 
and weeds is one of the factors most adverse to the establishment of natural 
reproduction, babul seedlings being particularly sensitive to suppression. In 
this respect grazing is advantageous in keeping down a rank growth of grass. 
One of the worst weeds in babul tracts of the Peninsula is Cassia Tora, which 
sometimes forms a dense soil-covering and effectually prevents reproduction. 

The importance of animal agency in promoting the germination of the 
seeds has already been alluded to. Apart from this grazing animals perform 
a most useful function in spreading the seed over ground on which they are 
herded, and which is usually kept free of grass and weeds. Both in inundated 
riverain tracts and on other lands subject to grazing the seed is brought on to 
the ground very largely by animals, and the existence of many babul groves 
may be traced directly to their agency. The young seedhngs as a rule require 
protection from cattle only for about six months or less, but protection from 
goats is necessary until the plants are well out of their reach. 

A consideration of the factors just enumerated does not, however, always 
solve the question of natural reproduction, the presence or absence of which 
in patches of varying extent for no apparent reason is not always easy to 
account for. Thus good patches of even-aged reproduction frequently occur 
in places where attempts to regenerate artiflcially by scattering seed on the 
ground have resulted in failure, and this would indicate that there may be 
special reasons for such natural reproduction establishing itself only under 
certain favourable conditions, whether seasonal or otherwise. 

Artificial reproduction. The choice between direct sowing and 
transplanting from the nursery is easily decided, for owing to the sensitive- 
ness of the taproot transplanting on a large scale is out of the question for 
forest purposes. Numerous transplanting experiments at Dehra Dun, in which 
roots and stem were in some cases pruned and in others left intact, resulted 
in almost complete failure. Only when very small plants of the first season 
were transplanted early in the rains with great care, and watered in dry weather, 

2307.2 H 



434 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 



was even slight success attained. On a large scale the cost of such operations 
would be prohibitive considering the proportion of failure likely to be met 
with. 

Direct sowings, however, are very successful, provided certain precautions 
are observed. The chief of these are as follows : 

1. Choice of site. In arid climates, as in Sind, the formation of plantations 
is useless unless natural or artificial irrigation can be secured. It is doubtful 
if plantations could ever be profitable in regions with a rainfall of less than 
20 in., except on deep rich moist soil, such as that found along the sides of 
rivers and streams. In any locality sowings on poor shallow soil such as 
kankar deposits will never produce anything but poor stunted growth ; babul 
sowings should be confined to the more fertile ground, the poorer soil being 
reserved for neem {Azadirachta indica), kJiair {Acacia Catechu), and other trees 
which are not exacting. Localities subject to severe frost should be avoided. 

2. Treatment of soil. Except in certain flooded riverain lands, thorough 
loosening of the soil and removal of matted grass roots are necessary for the 
success of babul sowings ; not only is this the case before the seed is sown, 
but in places where the soil is apt to cake or crack it is also necessary subse- 
quently, and can be effected, where the soil is not too stiff, by means of hand 
ploughs. In black cotton soil it may be necessary to fill up the cracks which 
form in the dry season. 

3. Preparation of seed. Where possible seed collected from sheep and goat 
pens should be employed, as this germinates more quickly and gives a higher 
percentage of success. Failing this a common practice is to soak the seed in 
water or heap it up with moist cow-dung to stimulate germination. 

4. Weeding. Although exceptional cases occur where weeding is found 
to be unnecessary, as in the flooded riverain tracts of Sind, as a general rule 
systematic weeding of the young crop for the flrst two or three years is essential. 

5. Thinriing. In the United Provinces and Berar it has been found of 
great advantage to commence thinning out the young plants in the first year 
and to continue annual thinnings for a few years, followed by periodical 
(usually 5-yearly) thinnings later. The early thinnings consist in spacing the 
plants in such a way as to prevent contact of the branches. 

6. Admission of grazing. In some localities grazing of all kinds is excluded 
during the earlier years of the plantation. In Berar, on the other hand, success 
has been found to depend largely on the admission of light grazing by cows 
and bullocks (not sheep and goats) from the end of the first rains onwards, in 
order to keep down the growth of grass, which harbours rats, hares, and 
beetles, and also suppresses the seedlings. In order to secure the utmost 
benefit from grazing, the lines are widely spaced, usually 12 ft. apart, the 
plants are regularly thinned, and their lower branches are pruned in order to 
allow the cattle to obtain access to the grass between the plants. 

Various examples of sowings in different localities are described below. 
The method of sowing must necessarily vary under different conditions, but 
it has now been conclusively proved that in dry regions on non-irrigated 
culturable land the method which has succeeded best, and is also very cheap, 
is that of line sowings in conjunction with the raising of field crops, which has 
been practised on a considerable scale in Berar. The ridge sowings emploj^ed 



ACACIA 435 

in the United Provinces in the Hamirpur district and elsewhere also give good 
promise of success, though they are somewhat costly. 

Experimental sowings at Dehra Dun. In numerous experimental sowings 
carried out at Dehra Dun it was found that both irrigated and unirrigated line 
sowings on loosened soil succeeded well, provided the lines were kept thoroughly 
weeded and the soil was worked up periodically along the lines. Wherever 
weeds were allowed to get the upper hand the babul was killed out by the 
middle of the second season. In the irrigated line sowings the seed was sown 
along the base of the ridge of earth thrown up alongside an irrigation channel 
1 ft. wide and 9 in. deep. Unirrigated line sowings along with field crops 
were found to give excellent results where the seed was sown along a loosened 
strip 2 ft. wide kept clear of crops, the crops being sown in the intervening 
spaces. Where the crops were sown continuously over the area the young 
babul plants were suppressed and killed out. Thorough weeding and periodical 
loosening of the soil along the lines were found to be necessary for satisfactory 
development. One pound of seed was found sufficient for 270 ft. length of 
line. The field crop employed was the lesser millet or manclwa {Eleusine 
coracana, Gaertn.), which was sown early in June and reaped in October. 

Berar : agri-silvicultural sowings. The sowing of babul in conjunction 
with the raising of field crops has been carried out systematically in Berar 
for several years past, and has proved much more successful and economical 
than any other form of artificial reproduction ; efforts are therefore constantly 
being made to extend this method of reproduction and popularize it among 
cultivators. 

Under the Berar system the coupe of the year is auctioned, the purchaser 
being required to grub up the stumps after felling the trees, and to cultivate 
the land with field crops under a lease. Cultivation with field crops alone is 
carried out for two successive years, and in the third year babul seed is sown 
in lines with cotton as the intervening field crop. The two years' preliminary 
cultivation is considered necessary (1) to enable the lessee to recoup the cost 
of digging out the roots of the felled trees, (2) to ensure the thorough cleaning 
and aeration of the ground, and (3) to remove all traces of the fungus Fomes 
Pappianus in the soil. The babul seed employed is that which has been 
swallowed and ejected by goats ; it is collected free of charge by the lessee. 
In the earlier sowings the lines of babul were sown 6 or 7 ft. apart, with three 
or four intervening lines of cotton ; this distance between lines was found to 
be too close to admit of the light grazing necessary to keep down the growth 
of grass after the removal of the field crops, and the distance now commonly 
adopted is 12 ft. 

The lessee is required to weed the lines of babul thoroughly and to exclude 
goats from the area after the babul seed is sown. Provided he abides by the 
conditions of his agreement the lessee is allowed to retain possession of the 
area, free of assessment, until January of the year following the sowing of the 
babul, and is then rewarded at the rate of lis . 2 per acre fully stocked with 
babul, suitable deductions being made for failures. The area is then taken 
over by the Forest Department and at once opened to light grazing of cows 
and buUocks one animal per two acres during the rainy season, in order 
to keep down the growth of grass and weeds. In places where growth is slow 

H2 



486 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

or failures have occurred, or where there is a danger of the young plants being 
overtopped by a rank growth of grass, the lessee is permitted to cultivate for 
a fourth season on condition that he weeds the lines of babul and sows seeds 
wherever the first sowings have failed. 

An important modification has been introduced in certain localities in 
order to combat the ravages of the beetle Coelosterna scahrata. This insect in 
the imago stage finds harbourage in grass and weeds, and hence the ground 
requires to be kept clear of such growth for as long as possible. This is effected 
by permitting the lessee to cultivate between the lines of babul for as long as 
he wishes, provided he weeds along and between the lines and prunes off the 
lower branches of the babul to give cattle access to the lines. A further 
precaution adopted is to sow neem {Azadirachta indica) seed along with the 
babul in the proportion of one of the former to three of the latter : the two 
species grow well together. 

Thinnings are considered essential for the healthy development of the 
crop. The young plants are thinned out annually during the first few years, 
until they are as far apart as the distance between the lines, and thereafter 
at intervals of five years. The pruning of side branches is also carried out. 

This system of cultivation promotes vigorous growth, the thorough work- 
ing of the soil and the weeding causing the babul roots to strike deep down 
from the commencement. A height of 4 to 8 ft. is attained in two years on 
deep moist soil, and in three years on drier and poorer ground. It is proposed 
to work the plantations on a rotation of twenty or twenty-five years in order 
to supply timber as well as fuel. 

Berar : broadcast, mound, patch, and strip sowings. Apart from the agri- 
silvicultural method of raising babul plantations in Berar, the following 
methods have given satisfactory results, though the success has never been 
as great as that of sowing with field crops : ^ 

1. Broadcast sowings at a cost of about 4 annas an acre have been success- 
ful on areas which flank small streams : elsewhere they have usually proved 
a failure. 

2. Mound sowings have been made in areas subject to floods or in swampj?- 
or water -logged situations. Low mounds 6 in. high and 2 ft. in diameter, 
spaced 8 ft. by 4 ft., have given good results : the cost has not exceeded 
Rs. 3 per acre. 

3. Patch sowings have been made in blanks amongst young growth of 
babul or other species already on the ground. Patches 2 ft. by 1 ft., dug and 
cleared of roots to a depth of 6 in. and spaced 8 ft. by 4 ft., have given good 
results : th,e cost should not exceed Rs. 2-8-0 per acre. 

4. Strip sowings have been largely carried out. Strips 10 ft. apart are 
made by means of three confluent plough furrows, each strip being about 
2| ft. broad : the cost has been from Rs. 2-8-0 to Rs. 2-12-0 per acre. 

In all these sowings success was found to depend largely on the admission 
of light grazing of cows and bullocks in order to keep down the grass ; as a rule 
no grazing was permitted during the monsoon in which the sowings were 
made, but from October onwards the admission of cattle commenced. Goats 
and sheep were rigidly excluded. 

* Shrinivasuhx Nayadu, loc. ciL, p. 491. 



ACACIA 437 

Bombay Deccan : agri-silvicultural sowings. Mr. L. S. Osmaston ^ has 
described the results of experiments in sowing babul and other species in 
the Bombay Deccan in dry localities where the rainfall is scarcely 20 in. He 
states that in his experience the only successful method of restocking the 
forests of these dry tracts is by sowing in conjunction with the raising of field 
crops : the crops employed here are chiefly sesamum, cotton, and the lesser' 
hemp. 

Operations are conducted where possible by lessees and not depart- 
mentally. A two years' lease is given, and two different methods have been 
tried : 

1. In the first year the lessee is allowed to cultivate field crops, the tree 
seeds as well as field crops being sown in the second year, one line of tree 
seeds to three lines of field crops, the distance between the lines of tree seeds 
being about 4 ft. : the lines are weeded twice in the first rains. 

2. Tree seeds are sown in the first year of the lease in broad strips 4 ft. 
apart four lines 1 ft. apart' alternating with strips of field crops 8 ft. broad : 
the lessee cultivates field crops between the strips of tree seedlings in the 
second year of the lease, and also weeds and sows up blanks. 

The first method had been tried only recently, but if experience in Berar 
holds for the Bombay Deccan, the distance between the lines of babul may 
be found too small. The second method promises well, but success must 
depend largely on favourable rainfall : babul seedlings 3| years old had 
a maximum girth of 11 in. and a maximum height of 16 ft. In departmental 
sowings on this principle the cost of formation -including cost of collection 
of seed and weeding, but not of supervision for the first three years amounted 
to Rs. 28-11-0 per acre : the receipts from the produce of the agricultural 
crops amounted to Rs. 32 per acre, leaving a profit of Rs. 3-5-0 per acre. 

In the Poona district deep ploughing with broadcast sowing of seeds 
Avhich have been swallowed and ejected by sheep and goats has proved 
fairly successful. 

Sind : broadcast sowings with and without field crops. In Sind broadcast 
sowings are carried out to supplement natural reproduction on new riverain 
land subject to annual inundations. The seed is scattered on the water when 
the floods are subsiding and sinks into the ground. 

Broadcast sowings in conjunction with the raising of field crops are 
carried out extensively on land above the reach of ordinary floods which is 
capable of being irrigated by lifts. The babul seed is sown broadcast along 
with the field crops in the first year ; in the second year the area is again 
ploughed up and a second field crop is sowai together with more babul seed. 
The second ploughing seems to do little damage to the babul crop, the culti- 
vator learning to avoid the patches of babul, and the results attained are 
highly successful. The cultivator pays the current rate of land revenue during 
the two years in which he cultivates, and is also bound to irrigate the young 
babul crop for a third year and to protect it by means of thorny hedges. These 
plantations are formed entirely free of cost. 

United Provinces. The babul has played an important part in afforesta- 
tion schemes in the southern and drier parts of the United Provinces, where 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxiii(1907). p. 265. 



438 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

the normal rainfall varies from 30 to 40 in. The sowing of babul, chiefly on 
an experimental scale, has been carried out both on ravine land and on fiat 
or gentlv undulating ground. The principal examples of the former are the 
Kalpi plantation and the Fisher forest at Etawah. The Piprayan plantation, 
about 4| miles south-east of the Ata railway station, furnishes a none too 
successful example of sowings on uncultivated but irrigable land. This land, 
162 acres in extent, was acquired in 1905, with the view mainly of providing 
bark for the Cawnpore tanneries. The plantation has suffered from insufficient 
irrigation, combined with the effects of abnormal frost and -drought. 

More recent experiments have been carried out on black cotton soil in 
the Hamirpur district in localities where the normal rainfall varies from 33 to 
38 in. These experiments are interesting as showing the excellent results 
attainable by sowing on raised ridges both on water-logged and on over-drained 
ground. Under this method trenches 1| ft. by 1| ft. in section and 10 ft. 
apart are dug, and the loose earth is heaped up in a ridge alongside the trench. 
The seed is sown along the top of the ridge in June, before the rains com- 
mence ; w^eeding is carried out throughout the rains, and after the rains, when 
the soil dries and tends to cake, it is kept loose, cracks being filled up. The 
seedlings are thinned out from the earliest stage ; at first they are pulled up 
by hand, and afterwards superfluous plants are cut down with pruning shears, 
the rule being to thin out to such an extent as to prevent the plants from 
touching each other. The weeding, loosening of the soil, and thinning promote 
vigorous development, and by the end of the first season the young plants 
reach a height of 1| to 2 ft. or more with long thick taproots and stout stems 
and branches. As a rule it is found that unless the plants have strongly 
developed side branches they are liable to dry up in the hot weather. In order 
to guard against frost the grass which springs up between the lines, and which 
intensifies the risk, is cut and sold after the end of the rains. Fig. 162 shows 
these ridge sowings during the cutting of the grass. The main objection to 
this form of sowing on continuous ridges is its high cost, which in the experi- 
mental stages amounted to Rs. 15 to Rs. 20 per acre with an additional Re. 1 
for each weeding, or Rs. 6 for six weedings in the first year. It is believed, 
however, that the cost will be considerably reduced after further experience, 
and by making the ridges non-continuous, say 5 ft. lengths of ridge alternating 
with breaks of 5 ft. Ridge sowings have given good results in the Fisher forest 
at Etawah (see Fig. 163). 

Other methods which have been tried in the same locality are sowing in 
mounds, broadcast, and in ploughed lines, pits, and patches : these have 
proved far less successful than ridge sowings. Mound sowings were fomid to 
be fairly successful, provided the mounds were high : they are cheaper than 
ridge sowings, costing Rs. 9 per 100 mounds, but when failures occur large 
gaps are the result. Broadcast sowings have been successful only on the 
higher ground, and the results are therefore patchy. The ground requires to 
be kept loose and the plants to be weeded and thinned, operations which are 
difficult under the bxoadcast system. Sowings in ploughed lines were likewise 
successful only on the higher ground, not on low ground. The lines tend to 
crack longitudinally after the rairis, causing the death of some of the plants. 
Thorough weeding and thinning of the plants and loosening of the soil are 




Fig. 162. Acacia arahica, weeded ridge sowings, end of first season, Hamirpur district, United 
Provinces : grass being cut between lines. 




Fig. 163. Acacia arahica, ridge sowings in bed of stream, end of second year,^Fisher forest, 

Etawah, United Provinces. 




-.':?!' -^fff'-W - r^ 




Fig. 164. Ravine lands being afTorested witb Acacia arabica, Kalpi. United Provinces. 




I'lc. \(\'). Acacia arabica, sowings on nivinc lands. Kalpi. United Provinces. 



ACACIA 439 

necessary. Sowings in pits and patches proved an entire failure, the seedlings 
being swamped not long after germination. 

Afforestation of ravine lands : the Kalpi plantation. The Kalpi plantation 
in the Jalaun district of the United Provinces was started in 1904 by the 
acquisition of 850 acres of ravine land, with the twofold object of producing 
supplies of babul bark for the Cawnpore tanneries and of ascertaining whether 
ravine lands could be successfully afforested with babul, in order to check the 
erosion to which these tracts are subject every year. Afforestation work was 
completed over the whole area in nine years. 

This plantation may be regarded so far as purely experimental, but it 
has demonstrated that the ravine lands of the United Provinces can be success- 
fully afforested with babul. The financial success of the plantation has not 
yet been assured, but this is due largely to the experimental character and 
therefore high cost of the work, and to a succession of abnormal years of frost 
and drought which greatly militated against success, ancT required the partial 
renewal of sowing operations over the same ground for a few years in succes- 
sion. The plantation might have been more successful had closer supervision 
been possible, but as far as they go the results have been by no means un- 
satisfactory. 

The preliminary work of reclamation of these ravine lands consists of 
breaking down the steep sides of the ravines into gentler slopes and construct- 
ing at intervals across the ravines bunds of loose earth with suitable outlets 
for water dug in the hard ground round their ends : these bunds are con- 
structed at a comparatively cheap rate. This work is followed by the sowing 
of babul seed thickly along the bunds, on the sides of the ravines and on the 
elevated ground between them. The soil is extremely poor, with layers of 
gravel and kankar, the latter in particular hindering the development of the 
taproot. The sowings have proved particularly successful on the bunds of 
loose earth, which have become covered with dense promising crops of 
babul. 

Apart from the bund sowings, which have always given the greatest 
success, three principal methods of sowing were tried : 

1. Ploughing in strips with broadcast sowing. This was carried out in 
places where the ground was sufficiently level : strips were ploughed to 
a width of 3 or 4 ft., a distance of about four paces separating the strips, and 
seed was sown broadcast along the strips and covered by means of the agri- 
cultural patra. After the first year the width of the ploughed strips was 
increased to 5 or 6 ft. Ploughing was carried out at the commencement of 
and after the end of the monsoon rains, that is up to the middle of July and in 
September and October, and again during the winter rains in December and 
January. Thorough ploughing is necessary to eradicate the roots of grass 
and weeds. 

2. Pitting. Where ploughing was impracticable, pits measuring 1| ft. 
in diameter and depth were dug at frequent intervals on contour lines, the 
loose earth being returned to the pits and the seed being sown on it : in the 
second year the size of the pits was reduced to 1 ft. in diameter and depth. 

3. Lining. This was a modified form of pitting in which the lines con- 
sisted of elongated pits along the contour. 



440 ~ XXIII. LEGmnNOSAE 

In each case the seed was sown at the beginning of the year, and at the 
end of the first season the success, particularly in the case of the sowings in 
ploughed strips and along contour lines, was decidedly promising. A j^ear of 
abnormal frost and two years of abnormal drought, however, killed a large 
proportion of the young plants and seriously interfered with the success of 
the experiment. Indeed, throughout these sowings drought has proved the 
most serious source of injury, and success depends largely on years of good 
rainfall. The normal rainfall here is 32 in. 

The sowings on the more level parts of the plantation have proved least 
successful, owing to the poverty and hardness of the soil, which increase the 
danger from drought. The whole plantation has been fenced and regularly 
fire-protected. The crop of grass which sprang up with the sowings necessitated 
careful weeding from the first season. It was sometimes found necessary to 
weed more than once during the first season, and the weeding was continued 
in subsequent years until the plants were well clear of grass and weeds. Hand- 
watering of the young plants was tried at one time, but had to be given up 
owing to its high cost. Fig. 164 shows the general aspect of the ravine lands 
in the Kalpi plantation, and Fig. 165 shows some of the results of the afforesta- 
tion work. 

More recent work in the afforestation of ravine lands in the Etawah 
district has given wonderfully successful results even on the most unpromising 
ground, where owing to the denuded and hardened condition of the soil the 
whole rainfall drains off rapidly. The subsoil water-level is at a great depth, 
and the upper strata of the soil are excessively dry. On such ground great 
success has been attained by deep ploughing, sowing of tree seeds in June, 
and repeated weeding and loosening of the soil. The first weeding is carried 
out spon after the first showers of rain, and two more weedings are carried out 
before the end of October, the soil being well loosened at the time of the last 
weeding. The ravines themselves are reclaimed by the construction of earth 
bunds at intervals across their beds, with the object of holding up silt, and 
the bunds and beds of silt are sown up. The sides of the ravines are 
afforested by means of a system of contour trenches and ridges on which 
sowings are carried out. Apart from Acacia arahica it has been found 
possible to raise crops of teak, Dalbergia Sissoo, Omelina arborea, and other 
species on these ravine lands. The total cost of reclamation and afforesta- 
tion amounts to between Rs. 50 and Rs. 60 per acre, inclusive of establish- 
ment charges and depreciation on plough bullocks and plant. The success 
of this work depends largely on the protection of the young plantations from 
grazing. 

Experimental plantations on saline layids. Experimental plantations of 
Acacia arahica and Prosopis spicigera on salt-impregnated lands in the Aligarh 
district are described by Mr. G. Greig in the Indian Forester, vol. ix (1883), 
p. 454. Success was obtained by digging pits 3 to 4 ft. deep and filling them 
with good soil, in which young nursery-raised plants were planted. The seed 
was sown in the nursery early in June, the seedhngs being pricked out 2 ft. 
apart in July, when about 4 in. high, and transplanted early in the rainy 
fieason of the following year, when about 2 ft. high, great care being taken to 
keep moist earth, bound on with grass, round the roots. Transplanting was 



ACACIA 441 

also found to be possible, if carefully done, in December and January. The 
plantations were regularly irrigated. Flooding was found to be injurious to 
the young trees ; the best method of irrigation proved to be by means of 
small channels 1 ft. broad and 1 ft. deep running along the edges of the lines 
of trees, the water being allowed to stand in the channels for several hours 
and to percolate into the pits in which the trees were planted. Eleven acres 
of the Pardihiagar plantation, on strongly saline land, had been planted in 
this way eight or nine years previously, and some three-fourths of the area 
was densely covered with Acacia arabica trees 20 ft. or more in height. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. Clear fclUngs. The system under which the 
babul is most commonly worked is that of clear-felling in equal annual 
coupes with artificial reproduction by sowing under one of the methods already 
described. This system is the one in vogue in Berar, the Bombay Deccan, Sind, 
and the United Provinces, the rotation ordinarily employed being 25 or 30 
years in Berar, 30 or 40 years in the Bombay Deccan, and 30 years in Sind. 
Actually the rotation in Berar is two years shorter, the first two years being 
taken up with the cultivation of field crops prior to the sowing of babul. The 
tendency in Berar is to reduce the rotation, as experience has shown that 
after twenty years the babul is increasingly liable to fungus attacks. For 
the supply of tanning bark in the United Provinces a rotation of sixteen years 
is being adopted provisionally in afforestation schemes, though it is possible 
that in ravine lands it may be necessary to lengthen the rotatioti to twenty 
years. In Madras certain babul forests are worked under clear fellings, a few 
standards being sometimes left to provide natural reproduction. 

In Sind the management is complicated by cyclones, drought, and erosion, 
and by the necessity for irrigation. The first three factors upset the working 
plans from time to time, necessitating the temporary suspension of regular 
fellings to provide for the removal of dead and fallen material. Special 
' erosion fellings ' are carried out to clear threatened banks in advance of the 
river's action, with the object not only of utilizing the trees but also of pre- 
venting the formation in the river of snags which endanger navigation. Irriga- 
tion schemes of considerable magnitude and complexity are also a special 
feature of the management of the Sind babul forests. Reproduction is not 
altogether artificial, a certain amount of natural reproduction being also 
obtainable ; artificial sowings, therefore, though sometimes extensive, may be 
regarded as supplementary. A rotation of thirty years has been adopted 
primarily to meet the demand for fuel. The coupes are sold standing in 
August each year ; the purchaser commences felling on October 1 or as 
soon afterwards as the floods subside, and completes felling and extraction 
by September 30 following, after which seed is broadcasted over the felled 
area. 

Coppice-tvith-standards. In some parts of Madras, where babul of moderate 
size coppices without difficulty, the system of coppice-with-standards is 
followed ; the standards left are few in number, and the coppice is usually 
worked on a rotation of fifteen to twenty years. 

Thinnings. Practice as regards the conduct of thinnings varies in different 
localities. In Sind thinnings are not carried out. In Berar they are con- 
sidered essential to the proper development of the crop. Regular thinnings 



442 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

usually commence at an age of about ten years, and are repeated at intervals 
of five or six years ; they are carried out with sufficient intensity to free the 
crowns of the trees from contact with each other. In the Bombay Deccan 
regular thinnings are also the rule. 

Grazing. The question of closure to grazing has been carefully studied 
in Berar, and it is now recognized to be most beneficial to admit light grazing 
of cows and bullocks, one animal per 2 acres or sometimes up to one head per 
acre, as soon as the field crops are off the ground : this continues until the 
young crop is well established, that is for about five to seven years, after which 
the limit as to number is removed and buffaloes may al^o be admitted, but 
camels, goats, and sheep are excluded. In the Bombay Deccan closure to all 
kinds of grazing is prescribed for varying periods up to fifteen years or even 
more. In Sind the coupes are closed to all grazing for five years from^ the 
date of sowing, though in view of the rank growth of grass which springs up 
it would probably be beneficial to admit light grazing of cows and bullocks at 
an earlier stage : this is recognized, and actually closure is enforced for the 
first six to twelve months only. Browsers are not admitted until ten years 
after sowing, though it would be advantageous to exclude them for a longer 
period, if not permanently. 

Rate of growth. The annual rings in Acacia arahica are indistinct, 
and much reliance cannot therefore be placed on the results of ring- 
countings. The rate of growth varies considerably, but under favourable 
conditions it is rapid. The following recorded measurements refer to various 
localities : 

Punjab. Brandis ^ says that in the Punjab the tree attains a girth of 
2| ft. in about twelve years, and 5 ft. in about thirty years. Mr. Minniken 
reported that in the Delhi Bela plantation a girth of 2 ft. was attained in 
1^ years. 

Sind. Brandis ^ states that in lower and middle Sind the average girth 
at 4 ft. from ground-level has been ascertained to be 4 ft. in 35 years, and 
6 ft. in 55 years. He also mentions that trees planted in 1844 at Jacobabad 
reached in less than 30 years a girth of 6-8 ft. and a height of 50-60 ft. More 
recent measurements in the Jerruck forest division - in annually inundated 
coupes of known age from 5 to 18 years old showed a mean annual girth 
increment of 1-73 in. : on alluvial land the age of which was approximately 
known the mean annual girth increment up to 40 years was estimated to be 
1-67 in. 

In the Hyderabad forest division measurements of trees of known age 
gave the following results : ^ 



Age. 


Diameter. 


Corresponding girth 


years. 


in. 


ft. in. 


5 


1-8 


5-6 


10 


3-5 


110 


15 


50 


1 3-7 


20 


6-2 


I 7-5 



1 For. Flora N.-W. and Central India, p. 182. 

'^ Revised Working Plan for the Jerruck Forest Division, D. J. Navani, 1915. 

^ Working Plan for the Hj^derabad Forest Division, H. Mitra, 1900. 



ACACIA 443 

Boinhay Deccan. In the Ahmednagar forest division the following has 
been estimated to be the average rate of growth, based on ring-countings : ^ 

Acacia arabica : rate of growth, Ahmednagar. 

Age. 
years. 

151 
20/ 

25 \ 
30/ 

35 \ 
40/ 

The following measurements are recorded in the Poona babul forest 
working plan,^ though the working plan officer does not place absolute reliance 
on them since they are based on ring-countings : 





Diameter at base 




Height. 


without bark. 


Volume, 


ft. 


in. 


cub. ft. 


20-25 


/ 2-5 
\ 50 


0-5 
2-2 


30-40 


r 7-5 
\100 


51 

9-0 


40-45 


/12-5 
\150 


160 
240 


45-50 


/17-5 
\200 


350 
450 





Acacia arabica : rate of growth 


, Poona. 






Mean radius. 


Mean radius. 




Above flood- Below flood - 


Above flood- 


Below flood 


Age. 


level. level. Age. 


level. 


level. 


years. 


in. in. years. 


in. 


in. 


5 


1-2 1-4 30 


5-3 


6-5 


10 


21 2-4 35 


6-2 


7-6 


15 


2-9 3-4 40 


7-2 


8-8 


20 


3-7 4-4 45 


8-3 





25 


4-4 5-4 50 


9-4 






Berar. Mr. Shrinivasulu Nayadu ^ says that in Berar generally speaking 
a babul crop attains a height of 12 to 15 ft. in ten years, and estimates that 
with proper cultural attention babul crops ought to produce about 1 ton or 
40 cub. ft. per acre per annum. In the Loni Bhongaon range working plan 
the mean annual radial increment is estimated from ring-countings to be 
019 in., and the average yield of timber and fuel in existing coupes is estimated 
at 470 cub. ft. solid per acre. 

Sample plot measurements extending over four years in the Akola forest 
division gave the following results : 



Mean annual girth 
Plot No. measured. measured. increment for 4 years. 



1 



Acacia arabica : 


rate 


of growth, 


Number of trees 
measured. 




C4irths of trees 
measured. 

in. 


27 
15 
13 
13 
6 




30-56 
16-46 
15-30 
15-33 
24-50 



m. 
20 



2 15 16-46 1-6 

3 13 15-30 0-94 

4 13 15-33 0-9 

5 6 24-50 1-2 

1 Working Plan for the Fuel and Fodder Reserves of the Ahmednagar Division, R. S. F. 
Fagan, 1901. 

2 Working Plan for the Poona Babul Forest, L. Napier, 1902. 

3 loc. cit., pp. 504 and 512. 



444 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Madras. Mr. A. W. Lushington ^ records the following girth measurements, 
presumably excluding bark, based on ring-countings in the Guntur taluk of 
the Kistna district : 



Age (years) . 


. 10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


Girth (inches) 


. 71 


13-9 


19-4 


24-9 


341 


43-2 



The sapwood varied from three to six rings in thickness. He mentions 
elsewhere "^ that some samples gave an average of 1^ rings per inch of radius : 
this rate of growth, equivalent to a mean annual girth increment of about 
4| in., is extremely rapid. The soil is black cotton, and the normal rainfall is 
about 34 in. 

2. Acacia leucophloea, Willd. Syn. Mimosa leucophloea, Roxb. White- 
barked acacia. Vern. Rem, rinj, raunj, rhea,, safed kikar, Hind. ; Heivar, 
Mar. ; Velvaylam, Tam. ; Telia tuma., Tel. ; Tanaung, Burm. (Fig. 167.) 

A moderate-sized to large thorny deciduous tree, with a somewhat spread- 
ing crown and a trunk often crooked and gnarled. Bark light yellowish grey 
to nearly white, smooth, exfoliating in irregular scales, light red inside ; bark of 
older trees rough and nearly black. Heartwood comparatively small, reddish 
brown streaked with darker and lighter colour, strong and hard. The wood, 
which is not of great value, is used for posts and beams, carts, wheels, agricul- 
tural implements and turning, also for fuel. 

Distribution and habitat. This tree is found on the plains of the 
Punjab and United Provinces, particularly in the drier parts, in the Siwalik 
hills between the Jumna and the Ravi, Rajputana, central, western, and 
southern India, and Burma, chiefly in the dry zone. It is characteristic of 
dry regions, occurring chiefly in open scrub or thorn forests. In the Indian 
Peninsula it is often very common on trap and on black cotton soil, though it 
is also found on other geological formations. In the Deccan, the south Mahratta 
country, and the Central Provinces its associates vary from place to place, 
but include some or all of the following species : Acacia Catechu, Zizyphus 
Jujuba, Z. Xylopynis, Prosopis spicigera, Chloroxylon Sivietenia, Soymida 
fehrifuga, Diospyros Melanoxylon, Aegle Marmelos, Butea frondosa, Anogeissus 
latifolia. Cassia Fistula, Azadirachta indica, and other species, while in southern 
> India in addition to most of these it is commonly associated with Acacia 
Latronum, A. eburnea, Albizzia ainara, Canthiurn parviflorum, and Dolichandrone 
crispa. 

In the dry zone of Burma it is one of the most characteristic trees, forming 
somewhat open forests, often on poor shallow soil, in association with Acacia 
Catechu, Terminalia Oliveri, Tectona Hamiltoniana, Zizyphus Jujuba, Limonia 
acidissima, and other dry zone species. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 105 to 120 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 18 to 60 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless towards 
the end of the cold season and in the earlier part of the hot season, the new 
leaves appearing about April. The yellowish white flowers, in small globose 

1 Ind. Forester, xxi (1895), p. 2.55. 

2 Preliminary Working .Scheme for the Guntur Babul Workmg Circle, Kistna District, 
1893. 



ACACIA 445 

heads 0-25 in. in diameter, arranged in large terminal panicles, appear from 
August to November (sometimes May, according to Brandis) ; the tree is 
a conspicuous sight when in blossom. The pods, 4-8 in. long by 0-2-0-35 in. 
broad, flat, shghtly curved, ripen from April to June (or earlier?). The pods 
are 10- to 20-seeded, and are scarcely dehiscent. The seeds (Fig. 166, a) are 
irregularly elliptical or rhomboidal, 0-2-0-25 in. by 0-15-0-2 in., dark brown, 
smooth, shining, compressed, with a hard testa : about 200 weigh 1 oz. 
The seed germinates readily with moisture and warmth, and does not require 
any special preparation. 

Germination (Fig. 166, h-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges, the 
hypocotyl elongating with slight arching and carrying the cotyledons above 
ground ; the testa usually remains partially enclosing the cotyledons until 
they expand, when it falls to the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 166). 

Roots : primary root long, terete, tapering, wiry, white turning yellowish 
brown : lateral roots fairly numerous, fine, fibrous : nodules present. Hypo- 
cotyl distinct from root, 0-4-1 -5 in. long, terete, tapering slightly upwards, 
expanded in a ring at the base, white turning green, glabrous. Cotyledons : 
petiole 0-1 in. long or less, glabrous : lamina 0-3-0-4 in. by 0-25-0-35 in., 
plano-convex, somewhat fleshy, ovate obovate or oblong, apex rounded, base 
broadly sagittate, entire, glabrous, bright green above, paler beneath. Stem 
erect, somewhat zigzag at the nodes, wiry, glabrous, green turning brown ; 
internodes 0-3-1-2 in. long. Leaves alternate. Stipular spines 0-1-0-2 in. long. 
First leaf once paripinnate, rachis 0-5-0-7 in. long, terminating in a fine bristle, 
leaflets 4-8, usually six pairs, sub-sessile, 0-1-0-25 in. by 0-1 in. or less, obliquely 
oblong, entire, glabrous, mucronate ; next six or more leaves bipinnate with 
one pair of pinnae and 5-15 leaflets on each pinna ; subsequent leaves with 
two pairs, followed in the second season by leaves with three or four pairs of 
pinnae. 

In loose fertile soil the growth of the seedling is fairly rapid, a height of 
2 ft. or more being attained by the end of the first season. Under usual natural 
conditions in poor dry soil, however, the young plant grows slowly. A long 
taproot is developed early, and may reach a length of 1 ft. in the first month. 
Loose deep soil is very favourable to its development, and stiff clay is 
prejudicial. The seedling is sensitive to suppression by weeds : it is also very 
tender to frost, but has good power of recovery when killed back. SeedHngs 
raised at Dehra Dun ceased growing by November-December, and new growth 
commenced in February-March. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Acttcia hucopMoea is a decided light- 
demander. It stands drought well, and was not affected by the abnormal 
drought of 1899-1900 in the Indian Peninsula. Though young seedlings are 
sensitive to frost the tree itself is frost-hardy within its habitat : in the severe 
frost of 1910-11 in the Central Provinces it proved to be one of the hardiest 
of the indigenous trees. It suffers from browsing, goats in particular being 
very partial to it. It coppices well and produces root-suckers. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that 
direct sowing is more successful than transplanting. Young seedlings were 
found to transplant fairly well early in the first rainy season, but the trans- 
planting checked their growth. Line sowings were found to be the most 
successful, as it is necessary to weed regularly, and this can be done most 



"b 



d 






Fig. 166. Acacia leucopJiloea. Seedling x |. 
a, seed ; b-e, germination stages ; /-/", development of seedling during first season. 



ACACIA 447 

effectively along lines. Sowings have given good results in Ajmer-Merwara 
in places where the soil was not too dry. Line sowings in conjunction with 
the raising of field crops have been tried experimentally in Berar, and this 
system would appear to be the most satisfactory one to adopt : the details of 
this form of sowing are given on p. 435, under Acacia arahica. 

Rate of growth. Reliable statistics of rate of growth are wanting. 
The tree is generally considered to be slow growing. A section 2 ft. 5 in. in 
girth, including bark, in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun had 31 rings,, 
giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-94 in. 

3. Acacia Catechu, Willd. Cutch tree. Syn. A. Sundra, DC. ; Mimosa 
Catechu, Linn. Vern. Khair, Hind., Mar. ; Kagli, shemi, Kan. ; Karangalli, 
Tam. ; Sundra, tella tumma, Tel. ; Sha, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree with a light feathery crown, the branch- 
lets armed with twin hooked prickles. Bark 0-4-0 -5 in. thick, dark grey or 
greyish brown, rough, exfoliating in long narrow strips, brown and red inside. 
Sapwood yellowish white ; heartwood dark or light red, very hard and durable. 
The wood is largely used for house-posts, agricultural implements, wheels, 
tool-handles, and other purposes : it also gives excellent fuel and charcoal. 
The substances cutch and kath are obtained by boiling down chips of the 
heartwood : the former is largely exported for dyeing and tanning, and the 
latter is used for chewing with betel-nut. The tree sometimes reaches a fair 
size : Fig. 168 shows one 10 ft. 6 in. in girth. Prain ^ distinguishes three 
varieties : 

(1) Var. Catechu proper. Calyx, petals, and rachis covered with spreading 
hairs. Chiefly in the Punjab, Garhwal and Kumaun, Bihar, Ganjam, and in 
the Irrawaddy valley : also in North Kanara and the Konkan (Talbot). 

(2) Var. catechuoides. Calyx and petals glabrous, radhis puberulous. 
Chiefly in the Sikkim tarai and Assam, also in Upper Burma, Mysore, and the 
Nilgiris. 

(3) Var. Sundra. Calyx, petals, and rachis all glabrous. Chiefly in the 
Indian Peninsula and Upper Burma. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of India and 
Burma, except in the most humid regions. The tree is most typically found 
in one of two main classes of forest : (1) in the shingly or sandy alluvial beds 
of rivers and streams which may or may not be dry for a considerable portion 
of the year ; here it is markedly gregarious, often forming entirely pure 
forests : (2) in dry types of forest on high land away from watercourses, 
where it is frequently more or less gregarious, though commonly mixed with 
other species characteristic of dry regions. Examples of forest types in 
different localities are given below, and it will be seen that although the tree 
is capable of growing on the poorest soil in dry localities, it occurs also in 
mixed forest of good quality as in the drier types of teak forest in Burma 
where it may attain considerable dimensions. 

Rock and soil. Acacia Catechu occurs on a variety of geological formations 
and soils, though it undoubtedly thrives best on porous alluvium composed 
of sand and shingle and on well-drained sandstone, as in the Pegu Yoma. 
It is known to occur on granite, gneiss, schist, quartzite, shale, basalt, trap, 

1 Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, LXVI, ii (1898), p. 508. 



448 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

limestone, conglomerate, and laterite, while as regards soil it is common on 
sandy and gravelly alluvium, and on loam or gravel with varying proportions 
of sand and clay ; it grows also on black cotton soil. It is frequent on arid 
shallow stony soil and grows even on sheet rock. In the poor shallow soils 
composed of murrain or kankar, which are frequent in parts of the Indian 
Peninsula, it grows where few other species are able to survive ; this adapta- 
bility is seen also in parts of the sub-Himalayan tract, where it grows pure, 
though in stunted form, on poor hard soil composed largely of calcareous 
nodules, where hardly any other tree can exist. On stiff clay where the drainage 
is bad it becomes stunted and tends to die off early. 

Climate. Acacia Catechu is essentially a tree of comparatively dry regions, 
though in its alluvial form it extends into regions of heavy rainfall, as in the 
eastern sub-Himalayan tract, where it is found in places where the rainfall 
is as much as 150 in. In gravelly riverain tracts, however, it has few com- 
petitors and is no doubt enabled to establish itself for that reason. Away 
from riverain tracts it occurs ordinarily in localities where the normal rainfall 
varies from 20 to 85 in. In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade 
temperature varies from 105 to 120 F., and the absolute minimum from 
30 to 55 F. 

Local occurrence. Suh-Hiinalayan tract. Acacia Catechu is common 
throughout the sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus to Assam, ascending the 
Himalayan valleys to 3,000 ft. and sometimes to 4,000 ft. From the Jumna 
eastwards it occurs either gregariously in the beds of rivers and streams or 
in various types of dry mixed forest, where it may be either more or less 
gregarious or scattered. The riverain khair forests of northern India are very 
characteristic. They spring up on new alluvium along the banks or in the 
beds of the rivers and streams in the valleys of the outer Himalaya and the 
Siwalik range, on deposits of sand, shingle, and boulders, extending some 
distance out into the plains provided the alluvium remains sandy or shingly 
and does not reach the consistency of soft mud. In these alluvial forests the 
khair is either pure or mixed with Dalbergia Sissoo, and occasionally with 
Acacia eburnea, Bombax malabaricum, Albizzia procera, and a few other species. 
It is also associated with characteristic grasses, the chief of which are Saccharum 
Munja, S. spontaneum (xerophilous form), Aristida cyananiha, Triraphis mada- 
gascariensis, and Andropogon monticola. There is often a dense undergrowth 
of Adhatoda Vasica in these riverain forests. The gregarious habit of the tree 
in this type of forest is shown in Fig. 169. 

At the higher elevations it meets the hill species ; for example, above 
Ratighat in the Naini Tal hills, at 4,000 ft., it grows in a river-bed with 
Quercus incana and Pinus longifolia growing on the slopes down to the edge 
of the river : in the same locality it is found mixed with Celtis australis on old 
riverain boulder beds. 

In non-riverain tracts the tree occurs either in scattered savannah lands 
or in various types of dry mixed forest, sometimes as a survival from former 
riverain forest which has become elevated at no very distant date above the 
river-bed owing to changes in the course of the river, but frequently on land, 
both flat and hilly, which shows no such recent transition, or on which it has 
sprung up naturally after the land has ceased to be new alluvium. In such 













Fig. 167. Acacia leucophloea, Upper Burma. 




Fig. 168. Acacia Catechu tree, 10 ft. 6 in. in girth, in 
riverain tract, yiwaliks. United Provinces. 




'I 



Si 

!k8 



ACACIA 449 

tracts the kliair is frequently mixed with a variety of deciduous species, such 
as Dalbergia Sissoo, Bornbax malabaricum, Garuga pinnata, Odina Wodier, 
Ehretia laevis, Phyllanthus Emhlica, Zizyphus Jujuba, Bauhinia racemosa, 
Holarrhena antidyseiiterica, and others. On drier and poorer ground it is stunted, 
but survives under conditions which are unfavourable to the existence of 
almost every other species. Striking examples of its hardiness occur in certain 
parts of the submontane mixed forests of the Gonda district in the United 
Provinces, on undulating ground intersected by ravines ; the soil, besides 
being very poor, is subject to erosion, which is hastened by grazing, and 
the roots of the trees are in consequence much exposed, as shown in 
Fig. 172. In the poorest parts of these tracts Acacia Catechu occurs pure, 
nothing else being capable of growing, but where the soil is somewhat more 
favourable it is associated with stunted specimens of Diospyros tomentosa, 
Anogeissus latifolia, Buchanania latijolia, and Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis. The 
soil, which is excessively poor, is a reddish clay with calcareous nodular 
pebbles. 

West of the Jumna the riverain type of khair forest is scarce, being 
confined to a few localities, for example in parts of the Kangra valley, but the 
tree is common on the dry foot-hills, often associated with A, modesta, and 
extends in some places into the region of Pinus longifolia. 

In the sub-Himalayan tract Acacia Catechu occurs in localities where the 
normal rainfall varies from 25 to 180 in. 

hidian Peninsula. The tree is common throughout the greater part of 
the Indian Peninsula in dry types of mixed forest on a variety of geological 
formations and soils. 

In the Central Provinces and elsewhere it occurs in open grass-lands, and 
in teak forest of a dry type as well as in forest devoid of teak, its commoner 
associates being Terminalia toinentosa, T. Chebula, Lagerstroemia parviflora, 
Anogeissus latifolia, Diospyros Melanoxylon, Ougeinia dalbergioides, Buchanania 
latifolia, Zizyphus Jujuba, Z. Xylopyrus, Aegle Marmelos, Odina Wodier, Butea 
frondosa, Acacia leucophloea, Cochlospermum Gossypium, Holarrhena anti- 
dysenterica, Phyllanthus Emblica, Chloroxylon Sivietenia, Soymida febrifuga, 
Cleistanthus collinus, Gardenia latifolia, G. lucida, and other trees, as well as 
the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus. On dry hills it is found with Boswellia 
serrata and Sterculia urens, in places where the soil is poor and shallow, with 
sheet rock cropping out. It is also found associated with Hardwickia binata 
on trap or on gravelly soil. In the Central Provinces it is one of the commonest 
species in a poor stunted type of forest where the soil has an excess of calcareous 
nodules on the surface, its chief associates here being Chloroxylon Swietenia, 
Soymida febrifuga, Diospyros Melanoxylon, Buchanania latifolia, and Ter- 
minalia tomentosa. 

In Bombay it occurs in Guzerat, the Deccan, and the South Mahratta 
country in dry open thorn forests. It is associated with many of the species 
already named as well as with Prosopis spicigera and sometimes Acacia arabica ; 
here also it forms poor stunted types of forest on dry calcareous or murra7v 
soil. Talbot says that it ascends to 3,700 ft. in the Khandesh Akrani, and that 
it occurs nearly pure in larger or smaller patches on the low level laterite 
near the sea-coast in North Kanara and the Konkan. In the Dangs of Surat 

2307.2 T 



450 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

it is common, but not so plentiful as it once was, having been heavily worked 
at one time for catechu boiling. 

In Chota Nagpur it is found not only in dry mixed deciduous forest but 
also frequently in association with sal. It occurs in the dry forests of Central 
India and Rajputana, often growing on mere sheet rock in the hilly tracts. 
It is common in Merwara associated with Anogeissus pendula, Albizzia odora- 
tissima, Boswellia serrata, Acacia leucopJdoea, and other species. 

In Madras it is common in dry mixed forests, often on dry stony soil, 
associated with Acacia leucophloea, Albizzia amara, A. odoratissima, Chloroxylon 
Swietenia, Prosopis spicigera, Cassia Fistula, Anogeissus latifolia, Zizyphus 
Jujuba, Z. Xylopyrus, Santalum album, Hardwickia binata, and others. 

Burma. Acacia Catechu is one of the commonest trees in the dry zone 
of Upper Burma, where it occurs partly in the form of pure crops in the sand}^ 
beds of streams and partly on dry ground away from rivers and streams. 
The riverain cutch attains fairly large dimensions, but the trees on the higher 
ground are often stunted, forming scrub forests in association with Acacia 
leucophloea, Terminalia Oliveri, T. tomeniosa, Tectona Hamiltonia7ia, Capparis 
burmanica, C. flavicans, Cassia renigera, Bauhinia racemosa, Zizyphus Jujuba, 
Azadirachta indica, Diospyros burmanica, Limonia acidissima, Flacourtia cata- 
phracta, Gardenia turgida, Phyllanthus Emblica, Pentacme suavis, and occa- 
sionally Dipterocarpus tuberculatus. In this dry region, where the rainfall 
varies from about 23 to 40 in. and the soil is often poor and shallow, the trees 
are for the most part of small size and the crop is open. Cutch trees were 
formerly more plentiful than they are now, but have been extensively cut out 
for cutch boiling, not only the stems but also the stumps and main roots 
having been utilized for this purpose. 

In Burma the tree extends well outside the dry zone proper, occurring 
both in Upper and in Lower Burma and in the Shan States in mixed deciduous 
forests with or without teak, in association with Terminalia tomentosa, T. Che- 
bula, Xylio. dolabriformis, Homalium tomentosum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, 
Dalbergia cuUrata, Pentacme suavis, Shorea obtusa, and many other species 
characteristic of the drier types of the- upper mixed forest. Bamboos are 
also common, the chief being Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa Tulda, and 
Cephalostachywn pergracile. In the Pegu Yoma the tree extends southward 
to the northern part of the Tharrawaddy district, where on the well-drained 
sandstones and shales of this range it attains large dimensions, the minimum 
feUing diameter under the Taungnyo working plan being fixed at 1 ft. 6 in. 
In the Thayetmyo forest division (East Yoma and other reserves) the exploit- 
able girth is fixed at 4|^ ft. In Burma it does not extend into regions with 
a rainfall higher than 65 in. 

Leaf-shedding, elowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless for a time 
during the hot season. In northern India the leaves are shed about Februarj', 
the new leaves appearing towards the end of April or during May. When 
leafless the khair forests have a grey and dreary appearance, in strong contrast 
to the fresh green of the sissoo crops, which by that time have come into new 
leaf. By June, however, the khair forests have acquired their new delicate 
green feathery foliage, and are a beautiful sight. The whitish flowering spikes, 
2-3-5 in. long, which are axillary on the young shoots, appear with the new 




ex 

t7 




4 



A 





t 



a Fruit b Seed 



Fig. 170. Acacia Catechu Seedling x \ 

c - g Germination stages h - j Early development of seedling, first season 
k Seedling towards end of second season 



ACACIA 451 

leaves, and add to the beauty of the trees. The trees continue in flower until 
July or August, sometimes later. The pods develop rapidly, becoming full- 
sized by September or October, and turning from green to reddish green and 
then to brown : they begin to ripen by the end of November and continue 
ripening during December and early January. The pods (Fig. 170, a) are 
2-4 in. long by 0-4-0-6 in. broad, straight, flat, dark brown, shining, dehiscent, 
usually three- to six-seeded. The seeds (Fig. 170, b) are 0-25-0-35 in. by 
0-2-0-3 in., broadly ovate or orbicular, dark greenish brown, smooth, shining, 
moderately hard, with a hard testa which becomes soft and pliant on soaking. 
About 900-1,100 seeds weigh 1 oz. 

The pods dehisce not long after ripening, and commence falling in January, 
continuing to fall in the succeeding months : the seeds adhere to the pod 
valves, and the latter being light are often blown to a considerable distance 
from the trees, dissemination of the seed being effected in this way. In alluvial 
tracts the dissemination of the seed is further effected by water. Some pods 
remain on the tree until the following October, by which time, however, the 
seed has become so damaged by insects as to be useless. 

As a rule the tree seeds well every year. The seed can best be collected 
by stripping the pods off the trees in December or early January and spreading 
them in the sun for a few days. The seeds cling tenaciously to the pod valves, 
and in order to detach them it is necessary to heap the pods on a large cloth 
and beat them well with sticks, after which the seeds can be separated by 
shaking and winnowing in a flat basket. 

The seed is badly subject to insect attacks, even when carefully stored. 
Seed kept for one year was tested at Dehra Dun and found to be quite unfertile : 
it is not certain how far this was due to insect attacks. It is advisable, there- 
fore, to sow the seed the year in which it is collected. The fertility of fresh 
undamaged seed is high. The seed germinates readily with moderate rain, 
and requires no special preparation to stimulate germination. 
^ Germination (Fig. 170, c-g). Epigeous. The radicle emerges first and 
curves downwards ; the hypocotyl then elongates, with or without arching, 
and raises above ground the cotyledons enveloped by the testa. The cotyledons 
expand, turning from yellow to pale green, and the testa falls to the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 170). 

Roots : primary root long, wiry, thickening considerably after a few 
months, terete, tapering, whitish or pale brown becoming darker brown : 
lateral roots few to numerous, short, fibrous or wiry, distributed down main 
root : nodules present. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0-5-0-8 in. long, terete, 
expanded in a ring at the base, white becoming green, glabrous or sparsely 
pubescent in upper part. Cotyledons very shortly petiolate, plano-convex, 
somewhat fleshy, 0-3-0-4 in. in diameter, orbicular, entire, base sagittate, 
glabrous, yellow becoming green, obscurely 3-veined. Stem erect, somewhat 
zigzag at the nodes, thin, delicate at first, becoming wiry, green or reddish, 
young parts pubescent, elsewhere glabrous or nearly so. Leaves alternate. 
Stipules minute, subulate, caducous. First leaf once paripinnate with three 
to four pairs of opposite leaflets 0-2-0-25 in. by 0-1 in., rachis pubescent ; 
subsequent leaves bipinnate, at flrst with one pair, then with two pairs of 
pinnae, each pinna at first with 3-5 pairs of leaflets, the number increasing 
with succeeding leaves, leaflets 0-2-0-4 in. by 0- 1-0-2 in. ; the number of 
pinnae increases in subsequent leaves. 

12 



Maximum height 


of seedUngs. 


ft. 


in. 





6 


1 








11 





10 



452 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Under favourable conditions the growth of the seedling is rapid from the 
commencement, plants regularly weeded and watered attaining a height ol 
3 ft. or more in three months from germination. Branching takes place at 
an early age, and the general habit is more or less straggling. The seedling 
develops a long taproot, which may attain a length of 2 ft. or more in three 
months. 

Under natural conditions the growth of the seedlings may be extremely 

slow, particularly if they are hampered by weeds or subject to damage by 

grazing. Thus a plot of natural seedhngs 200 sq. ft. in area on sand and 

shingle among scattered tufts of grass about 3 ft. high in a dry river-bed in 

the Siwaliks was kept under observation for about 4| years : the following 

shows the number of seedlings counted and their maximum height at different 

stages : 

No. of seedlings 
Date of observation. present. 

December 11, 1910 (end of 1st season) . . . 201 

December 28, 1911 (end of 2nd season) . . 

December 19, 1913 (end of 4th season) ... 74 

April 14, 1915 (beginning of 6th season) . . 24 

These results show a steady diminution in the number of seedlings and no 
progress in their growth, this being due mainly to damage by grazing ; nearly 
all the survivors were found in the clumps of grass, where they received 
a certain amount of protection. 

The beneficial results of irrigation and weeding, of which the latter is of 
even more importance than the former, are well demonstrated by the following 
figures showing the development of seedlings in various experimental plots 
at Dehra Dun : 

Acacia Catechu : development of seedlings under varying treatment. 

Time of ob- Irrigated. Unirrigated. ^ 

servation. j^pg^^jarfy weeded. Not weeded. Regularly weeded. Not weeded. 

ft. in. ft. 

End of 1st Maximum height Maximum height (1) Maximum height 8 (1) Maximum height 
season ry ft. 2 in. 5 in. (fairly vigorous) (very weakly) 

(very vigorous) (weakly) 

^ (2) ,. 3 8 (2) 

(3) 2 3 (3) 

End of 2nd Maximum height Maximum height (1) ,, ,, 4 (1) ,, 

season 10 ft. 3 in. 1 ft. in. (2) 6 3 (2) 1 

(very vigorous) (3) ,, ,, 12 9(3) ,, ,, 1 

(4) 12 (4) 1 

(5) 10 (5) 2 

Endof 3rd Maximum height Maximum height (1) 9 6 (1) Height 2 ft. 6 in. to 7 

season 14 ft. in. 1 ft. 1 in. (2) Maximum height 18 8 thin lanky stems am 

(very vigorous) Mean height 8 4 growth of weeds 

Maximum girth 7 

(3) Maximum height 14 10 

(4) Maximum height 17 9 
Mean height 6 
Maximum girth 7J 

In most of the unweeded plots the seedlings were all killed out by suppression 
or had damped off before the end of the third season. One of the commonest 
forms of mortality in the case of seedlings in a heavy growth of weeds is the 



ACACIA * 453 

damping off to which they are subject during the rains : in tall open grass, 
however, where they are not subjected to such a degree of damp, they are 
capable of making their way up successfully, though their development is 
comparatively slow during the process. 

The effect of light on the development of the seedling has been studied 
at Dehra Dun in the case of plants grown in plots under varying degrees of 
shade : these tests proved the seedlings to be strongly light-demanding, and 
liable to be killed out in one season where the shade is at all dense. The 
seedlings are frost-tender during the first few years, and are also apt to suffer 
from drought during long periods of dry weather. In dry regions they some- 
times die back for a few years in succession, eventually shooting up after the 
root has established itself. Rats do much injury to the seedlings by gnawing 
through the taproots. The power of recovery of the plants, however, is good, 
numerous cases having been observed of new shoots being sent up from the 
portions of the taproots left in the ground after this form of damage. Similar 
new shoots were found to be sent up from the roots in the case of plants 
thinned out in unirrigated line sowings at Dehra Dun, in which the taproots 
were severed a few inches below ground-level. Young plants are very subject 
to browsing by deer. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Acacta Catechu is a strong light-demander. 
Within its habitat it is decidedly frost-hardy, though young seedlings are 
somewhat tender : in the abnormal frost of 1905 in northern India it stood 
the frost better than most species, though young coppice growth was killed 
back. It is often found thriving in frosty grass-lands where tender species 
succumb. Although decidedly xerophilous in character, and capable of growing 
in dry situations where almost every other species fails to survive, it may 
suffer severely in years of abnormal drought, as in 1899-1900 and subsequently 
in the Indian Peninsula, and in 1914-15 in Palamau, Chota Nagpur. In the 
abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in Oudh it was unaffected on the low 
alluvial lands where it grows. 

The tree coppices well up to a moderate size and produces root-suckers, 
particularly where the roots have been exposed : coppice-shoots, however, 
require complete light for their development, and under shade they are 
frequently not produced at all, the stools dying off. It is very subject to 
damage by browsing, and responds readily to closure to grazing. Porcupines 
are particularly destructive to the trees, gnawing the bark off round their 
bases and often killing them. Ranger Basti Ram ^ reports that he has found 
a smearing of lime efficacious in keeping them off. An American plan for 
dealing with porcupines is to soak small boards in brine and strychnine and 
nail them to the bases of the trees ; the porcupines have a partiality for salt 
and gnaw the boards, dying of strychnine poisoning. 

In the mixed forests Acacia Catechu is subject to the usual damage from 
climbers. In the sub-Himalayan alluvial forests a very characteristic climber 
is Dregea volubilis, which does great damage ; other common climbers in these 
forests are Cryptolepis BucJianafii and Vallaris Heynei. 

Natural reproduction. Under natural conditions the seed is dis- 
seminated by wind, the seeds adhering to the light pod-valves ; in alluvial 

1 Ind. Forester, xli (1915), p. 383. 



454 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

tracts water is also an important agency. Germination takes place early in 
the rainy season, and the early development of the seedling is greatly favoured 
on loose soil free from weeds. Thus on alluvial sand or gravel countless numbers 
of small seedlings may be found in the early part of the rainy season, not only 
in the open, but also under comparatively dense cover. In the latter case they 
die rapidly owing mainly to shade and to damping off, and by the end of the 
season hardly a seedling is to be found. In the open a fair proportion survive 
provided they are protected from grazing : frequently, however, there is high 
mortality from drought, particularly if the soil is stiff or shallow and the roots 
have difficulty in penetrating it. The seed germinates readily with heavy 
rain, and although germination takes place ordinarily at the commencement 
of the monsoon it may begin earlier in the season if abnormal falls of rain 
occur ; when this happens the seedlings almost invariably die off or the 
germinating seed perishes in the ensuing spell of dry weather. Such mortality 
is particularly marked in the case of seeds germinating on the surface of the 
ground. Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that this early germination takes 
place more readily on ground exposed to the sun than in shady places, owing 
to the greater warmth in the former case. In alluvial riverain situations the 
tufts of grass which frequently appear on new ground, provided they are not 
too dense, act as a useful protection from drought in the early stages. In wet 
and sodden grass, however, the seedlings damp off. 

The adverse effects of grazing have been alluded to above, under ' the seed- 
ling ', in the case of a riverain plot in the Siwaliks. A striking example of 
the benefits of closure to grazing came under my notice in the submontane 
mixed forests of the Gonda district. United Provinces, along a central fireline 
which separated a block of forest permanently closed to grazing from an 
adjoining block open to grazing. The forest on either side of the line was 
similar, except that on the side closed to grazing khair trees of all sizes filled 
up every gap, while on the side open to grazing this species was represented 
by only a few old trees. In one part the grazed forest consisted of a rather 
open growth of nearly pure hael {Aegle Marmelos), while on the opposite side 
of the line the forest closed to grazing consisted of a dense crop of kJiair with 
bael trees scattered through it. Numerous other instances might be quoted 
of the adverse effects of grazing on the natural reproduction of Acacia CatecJm, 
but the above will suffice. 

Forest Ranger A. K. Desai ^ remarks on the large quantity of khair 
reproduction which appeared in gaps formed by the heavy exploitation of 
trees killed by the abnormal drought of 1899-1900 in the Godhra range of the 
Panch Mahals, Bombay, this reproduction being stimulated by the admission 
of light and warmth, and no doubt also by the breaking up of the soil during 
the extraction of the timber. 

The freedom with which natural reproduction springs up in alluvial 
riverain tracts is remarkable. The chief factors favouring it in such localities 
are the new loose soil free from heavy weeds and the abundance of light, while 
the soil moisture obtained by percolation no doubt also assists the development 
of the seedlings. As the crops become older and elevated above the river-bed 
through changes in the course of the river, the conditions for natural repro- 

1 1ml. Forester, xxxiv (1908), p. 15. 




Fig. 171. Line sowings of Acacia Catechu 3^ months old in conjunction 

with field crops, Dehra Dun. 




Fig. 172. Acacia Catechu on very poor eroded ground, Gonda district, United Provinces, 




o 



O) 



a* 

CD 



o 









ACACIA 455 

duction change. The ground becomes harder and a dense undergrowth of 
Adhatoda Vasica or other plants frequently makes its appearance. Under 
such conditions natural reproduction is no longer possible, and although it 
continues to take place where new alluvium is thrown up it ceases under the 
old crops. 

Artificial reproduction. Numerous experiments in the artificial repro- 
duction of Acacia Catechu have been carried out at Dehra Dun. These have 
shown that transplanting cannot be relied on, but that direct sowing, if carried 
out properly, is highly successful. Transplanting was tried under different 
conditions, both in the first and in the^ second season, and moderate success 
was attained only by transplantiiig young plants early in the first rainy season, 
care being taken to avoid any injury to the root-sj'-stem. This, however, does 
not appear to be the experience everywhere, for Mr. Pearson ^ says regarding 
this species in Bombay : ' The only results at all favourable with kfiair are 
those when carried out with large plants.' In the Dehra Dun experiments 
pruning of the roots and stem invariably resulted in the death of the 
seedling. 

The success of direct sowings depends on : (1) the degree to which the soil 
is kept loose for the first two years or so after sowing; (2) thorough weeding; 
(3) abundance of light from the commencement. In addition the thinning 
out of the young plants has a marked effect on their development. Irrigation 
undoubtedly stimulates the growth of the plants, but is not essential provided 
regular loosening of the soil is carried out. 

In the Dehra Dun experiments the greatest success was attained by line 
sowings, particularly in combination with the raising of field crops. A distance 
of 8 to 10 ft. between the lines should be sufficient. It was found necessary 
to sow the khair seed along the lines in clear strips 2 to 3 ft. wide, the field 
crops being sown in the intervening spaces (see Fig. 171). Where the crops 
were sown continuously over the area many of the seedlings were killed by 
suppression, the development of the survivors was poor and the stocking was 
incomplete, while the sudden exposure when the crops were reaped caused 
the leaves of the seedlings to fall prematurely and many of the seedlings to 
die down partially. The field crop employed was the lesser millet or mandwa 
{Eleusine coracana), which was sown in May or June and reaped in October : 
the land was cleared forest land, and the millet crop was dense and heavy 
and up to 3J ft. in height. The khair seed was sown at the same time as the 
millet, and the lines were kept weeded both when the crops were on the ground 
and after they were reaped. The results along the weeded lines were admirable, 
the seedlings being plentiful and vigorous and attaining a maximum height 
of 2 ft. 3 in. by the end of the first season and 6 ft. 3 in., with an average of 
4 ft. 3 in., by the end of the second season. Regular thinning of plants, com- 
mencing from the end of the first season, stimulated their development greatly. 
The necessity for regular weeding may be realized from the fact that one line 
was left unweeded after the reaping of the crop, with the result that by the 
end of the next season every seedling had been killed by weeds. 

In the Dehra Dun experiments, weeded line sowings without field crops 
also proved highlj'- successful where the soil was thoroughly loosened before 

^ Ind. Forester, xxxi (1905), p. 638. 



456 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

sowing, and regular weeding, thinning, and loosening of the soil were carried 
out subsequently : 1 lb. of seed was found sufficient for about 350 ft. length 
of line. Fig. 173 shows line sowings at the end of the third season. 

Sowings of Acacia Catechu have been carried out in many parts of India 
and Burma in a variety of ways. In the grassy savannahs of Oudh line 
sowings have proved successful in spite of a fairly tall growth of grass in 
the rains. In Berar line sowings in conjunction with field crops have also 
done well : the system employed has been described under Acacia arahica 
(p. 435). 

Mound and ridge sowings have been carried out with varying success. 
Owing to their high cost, however, they are hardly justified except on very 
stiff soil where the drainage is bad. Broadcast sowing has also been frequently 
tried, often with success : where suppression from weeds is to be feared, how- 
ever, it cannot compare with line sowings. 

In Burma numerous cutch plantations have been formed on the taungya. 
system, the seed being dibbled 6 ft. by 6 ft. or 12 ft. by 3 ft. or 9 ft. by 4 ft. 
on temporary forest clearings in which field crops, usually hill rice, are raised. 
In many cases mixed plantations of teak and cutch have been formed in this 
way. The two species, however, do not mix well, their requirements being 
dissimilar ; not only does the cutch damage the teak by contact with it, 
but one of the species in time usually ousts the other, the cutch or the teak 
gaining the upper hand according to the nature of the locality. These 
mixed plantations are not as a rule formed now. A description of these 
taungya plantations is given under Tectona grandis. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. Under existing working plans the tree is 
frequently worked under coppice or coppice-with-standards, both in alluvial 
tracts and in mixed forests. The khair and sissoo forests of the Ganges islands, 
for example, are worked as simple coppice on a rotation of twenty years, 
a protective belt at least 100 ft. wide being left uncut round the edges of 
the islands. Provided the trees coppiced are not too old, and provided the 
standards are not numerous enough to suppress the coppice, this system has 
usually answered satisfactorily for the production of poles. 

The treatment under high forest is a more difficult matter. Several 
working plans, both in India and in Burma, prescribe selection fellings, the 
object of which is to remove mature trees. This, however, does not ensure 
reproduction, which cannot be obtained under any system which does not 
involve removal of the overwood and of weed-growth. This being so, as far 
as experience goes the only system under which complete regeneration can 
be ensured on a given area appears to be that of clear felling with artificial 
reproduction. The question of regenerating riverain crops of Dalbergia Sissoo 
has been discussed in some detail on p. 314. The system proposed is to 
divide these crops into two classes, stable and unstable, the former to be 
regenerated artificially, while in the latter the fellings would consist of utihzing 
marketable material, regeneration being left to the vagaries of the river. For 
riverain crops of Acacta Catechu exactly the same procedure is indicated. 

In crops of Acacia Catechu which tend to become very dense, regular 
thinnings are of great importance. 

Rate of growth. Coppice. Statistics relating to coppice growth are 



ACACIA 



457 



scanty. Measurements in Bhandara, Central Provinces, in 1912-13 showed 
the average height of coppice-shoots one }ear old to be 6 ft. 4 in. as against 
7 ft. 1 in. for teak and 6 ft. 6 in. for Terminalia tomentosa. Measurements 
recorded by Mr. A. F. Broun at Bulla wala near Dehra Dun in 1886 showed 
an average girth of 8 in. and an average height of 11 ft. 4 in. for coppice 
nine years old. 

High forest. The annual rings are usually, but not always, quite distinct, 
and the rate of growth can thus as a rule be deduced from ring-countings. 
Measurements show the growth to be extremely variable. Gamble says 
Himalayan specimens show 5 rings per inch of radius, giving a mean annual 
girth increment of 1-26 in. ; a specimen from the bed of the Mahanadi, Dar- 
jeehng tarai, showed 3-8 rings per inch of radius, giving a mean annual girth 
increment of about 1-7 in., which is fast. 

Extremely slow growth is shown in an unthinned riverain sample plot 
of kJiair mixed with Dalbergia Sissoo in the Saharanpur Siwaliks in a somewhat 
dry locality with a soil of sand and boulders. The measurements, which 
applied to forty-five trees and extended over five years only (1910-11 to 
1915-16), gave the following results : 

Acacia Catechu : girth increment in unthinned sample plots, Siwaliks, 

United Provinces. 



Age. 


Mean 


girth. 


Age. 


Mean girth 


years. 


ft. 


in. 


years. 


ft. in. 


10 





Oi 


70 


I of 


20 





2 


80 


1 10 


30 





H' 


90 


2 21 


40 





7 


100 


2 61 


50 





n 


110 


2 10 


60 


1 


n 







Although these results can hardly be regarded as very accurate owing 
to the short period over which the measurements extended and to the fact 
that dominated and suppressed trees were included, they emphasize the 
importance of carrying out regular thinnings to promote more rapid growth. 
A somewhat faster rate of growth is shown in an unthinned sample plot 
in the Sathiana block of the North Kheri forests. Measurements, which 
extended over eight years and related to seventy-five trees, gave the following 
results : 

girth increment in unthinned sample plot, Sathiana block, 



Acacia Catechu : 


girth incremen 




North Kh 


Age. 


Mean girth, 


years. 


ft. in. 


20 


8 


30 


1 21 


40 


1 8J 


50 


2 2 


60 


2 7i 


70 


3 1 


80 


3 6J 



Age. 


Mean girth. 


years. 


ft. in. 


90 


4 


100 


4 5 


no 


4 10 


120 


5 21 


130 


5 7 


140 


5 11 



This plot was situated within the limits of the sal forests, not on recent 
alluvium. 



458 



XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 



Measurements of 100 trees by Mr. Beadon Bryant in the Kumaim sub- 
Himalayan tract gave the following results : ^ 



Girth. 



Over 4 ft. 6 in. 
3 ft. -4 ft. 6 ill. 
1 ft. 6 in. -3 ft. 
1 ft.-l ft. 6 in. 



?rage age. 


Average volume, 


years. 


cub. ft. solid. 


' 53 


350 


36 


165 


20 


40 


15 


1-3 



Periodical measurements of 117 trees in three unthinned sample plots in 
the Palamau district of Bihar and Orissa gave the following results : ^ 

Acacia Catechu : girth increment in unthinned sample plots, Palamau, Bihar 

and Orissa. 



Age. 


Mean girth. 


Age. 


Mean girth, 


i^ears. 


ft. in. 


years. 


ft. in. 


30 


4i 


90 


1 10^ 


40 


7i 


100 


2 2| 


50 


101 


110 


2 7| 


60 


1 Of 


120 


3 Of 


70 


1 3i 


130 


3 7 


80 


1 7 







Mr. W. R. Fisher ^ records very rapid growth in a plantation at Kuch 
Behar where the seed was sown in 1873 and 1874 : measurements made in 
1881, the plantation being then seven to eight years old, showed an average 
and maximum girth of 1 ft. 6 in. and 2 ft. 1 in. respectively. 

Measurements recorded by Mr. J. Nisbet ^ from the dry, intermediate, 
and moist zones in Upper Burma showed rapid growth, particularly in the 
moist zone. The following is a summary : 



Acacia Catechu : girth measurements, Upper Burma. 



District. 

Yamethin and Meiktila 

Yamethin and Meiktila 

Yamethin (Pjdnmana sub- 
division) and Minbu 



Character of forest. 

Dry zone : dry open forest and 

scrub jungle 
Intermediate zone : mixed forest 

and scrub jungle 
Moist zone : mixed and savannah 

forest 



Number of 
measure- 
ments. 

8 

3 

10 



Mean annual 

girth 

increment. 

in. 

2-2 

2-2 

3-54 



Ring-countings which I carried out in 1902 in the Meiktila district of 
Upper Burma on twenty stumps in pure riverain cutch forest on sandy soil 
gave the following results : 

Acacia Catechu : girth increment, riverain forest, Meiktila district, 

Upper Burma. 





Girth including 


Mean annual 


Age. 


bark. 


girth increment. 


years. 


ft. in. 


in. 


5 


6 


1-2 


10 


1 8 


20 


15 


3 


2-4 


17 


3 6 


2-47 



1 Working Plan for the Kumaun Forest Division, 1893. 



2 Ind. For. Records, vol. vi, pt. v. 
* Ibid.. xix(l893), p. 11. 



3 Ind. Forester, vii (1881), p. 41. 



ACACIA 



459 



This shows rapid growth, and as the rings were perfectly distinct the 
figures may be regarded as accurate. The diameter of heartwood averaged 
0-67 of the whole diameter including bark. 

Proportion of heartwood. The following measurements by Mr. A. Rodger 
of about 100 sections of cutch trees in the Thayetmyo and Prome districts 
of Burma show that the percentage of heartwood increases with size : 

Acacia Catechu : measurements of heartwood in trees of different sizes. 



Diameter 








Percentage of total 


including 


Corres 


ponding 


Diameter of 


area of section oc- 


bark. 


girth. 


heartwood. 


cupied by heartwood 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


in. 




6 


1 


7 


3-6 


35 


7 


1 


10 


4-7 


45 


8 


2 


1 


5-6 


49 


9 


2 


4 


70 


61 


10 


2 


7 


8-0 


64 


11 


2 


11 


90 


67 


12 


3 


2 


90 


56 


13 


3 


5 


10-3 


65 


14 


3 


8 


10-7 


59 


15 


3 


11 


12-5 


64 


16 


4 


2 


12-5 


61 


17 


4 


5 


13-6 


63 


18 


4 


9 


15-2 


68 


19 


5 





160 


70 


20 


5 


3 


170 


73 


21 


5 


7 


18-2 


75 


22 


5 


9 


18-7 


72 


24 


6 


3 


21-2 


80 



4. Acacia modesta, Wail. Syn. Mimosa dumosa, Roxb. Vern. Phtdai, 
Punjab. 

A moderate-sized thorny tree with a bushy rounded crown and drooping 
branchlets. Bark rough, with numerous irregular cracks. Sap wood large, 
white : heartwood very hard, dark brown with black streaks, not durable, 
used for cane-crushers, Persian wheels, and agricultural implements, and 
largely for fuel. The tree is useful for afforestation purposes on poor stony 
soil in the dry lower hills and plains : it also makes a good hedge plant if 
trimmed. 

This tree occurs more or less gregariously in the dry outer hills and valleys 
of the Suliman Range, ascending to 4,000 ft. in the Salt Range, the sub- 
Himalayan tract from the Jumna westwards, ascending to 4,000 ft., the 
northern part of the Punjab plains, and Baluchistan. In Hazara it is common 
on limestone in the scrub forests of Khanpur, and occurs in the Kagan valley 
on hot shaly hill-sides up to 5,500 ft. Within its natural habitat the rainfall 
varies from 15 to 50 in., the absolute maximum shade temperature may rise 
to over 120 F., and the absolute minimum may sink to well under freezing- 
point. 

It is found on various geological formations, including limestone, sand- 
stone, conglomerate, and shale, and is capable of growing in poor dry shallow- 
soil where few other species can survive. It may occur pure or in mixture 
with other trees. Among its commoner associates are Oka cuspidata, Acacia 
Catechu, Flacourtia Eamontchi, Tecotna undulata, Prosopis spicigera, Bauhinia 
variegata, Odina Wodier, Zizyphus Jujuba, Ehretia laevis, and other miscel- 



460 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

laneous species, often with an undergrowth of Dodonaea viscosa, Carissa 
spinarum, Adlmtoda Vasica, Woodfordia floribunda, and other shrubs. It 
extends into the lower limits of Pinus longifolia in some parts of the outer 
Punjab hiUs. On poor dry localities at low elevations it is sometimes associated 
with Salvadora oleoides and Capparis aphylla. The new leaves appear in 
March : they are of a delicate green colour, but turn later to an ashy grey. 
The spikes of fragrant white flowers appear from March to May, when the 
trees are conspicuous with their masses of white tasselled blossoms. The pods 
ripen in the autumn and hang long on the tree ; they are 2-3 in. long by 
0-5 in. broad, flat, indehiscent, three- to five-seeded. The seeds, like those of 
A. arabica, are subject to the attacks of weevils. The tree seeds freely at 
frequent intervals, but occasional bad seed-years occur. 

The tree is a drought-resistant species. It coppices well, and is usually 
worked as coppice-with-standards. The coppice-shoots as well as seedling 
plants require protection from browsing, as they suffer much damage from 
goats, sheep, and camels. Seedling reproduction is somewhat disappointing, 
and in many localities grazing is largely the cause of this. The tree has been 
raised artificially by direct sowings in afforestation operations in the outer hills. 

An attempt was made by Mr. A. M. Reuther during the preparation of 
the Kalachitta working plan ^ to deduce the rate of growth by ring-countings 
on stumps of trees selected and felled for the purpose. As the rings are not 
always easy to distinguish he was unable to place absolute reUance on the 
results, which must be taken as approximate only. From the recorded 
measurements the following statement showing the approximate rate of growth 
has been prepared : 

Acacia tnodesta : rate of growth in Kalachitta forest. 

Age. Mean height. Mean girth, 

years. ft. ft. in. 

10 6-0 5-7 

20 12-0 11-4 

30 15-0 1 5-0 

40 17-5 1 108 

50 19-7 2 4-6 

Parker says the growth is very slow, plantations made in the sub- 
Himalayan tract having reached a height of 18-20 ft. in as many years, though 
the girth was only about 1 ft. at the base. 

5. Acacia Senegal, Willd. Syn. A. rupestris, Stocks. Vern. Khor, Sind ; 
Kumta, Kajputana. 

A small thorny deciduous tree, usually gnarled, ordinarily reaching 
a height of 10-15 ft. and a girth of 1-2 ft. Bark smooth, pale greenish grey, 
peeling off in flakes and exposing the yellowish new bark underneath ; branches 
smooth, grey, shining, flexuose. The wood, which is hard with a nearly black 
heartwood, is used for weavers' shuttles and for fuel, and the true gum-arabic 
of commerce is obtained from wounds in the bark. In habit and appearance 
the tree resembles A. modesta, but is readily distinguished by its smooth pale 
bark, its infra-stipular spines in threes, and its larger pods. 

This is a tree of the arid regions of India, occurring on the dry rocky 
hills of Sind, the south-east Punjab, the Aravalli, and the other hills of Raj- 
1 Working Plan for the Kalachitta Forest, Rawalpindi Forest Division, 1897. 



ACACIA 461 

putana, where it is abundant, and Ajmer ; it is also found in Arabia and Africa. 
In its Indian region the absohite maximum shade temperature may rise to 
over 120'" F., and the absolute minimum may sink to well under freezing- 
point, while the normal rainfall varies from about 10 to 25 in. The tree occurs 
on the poorest soil on rocky hills and sandy tracts. In Ajmer it is associated 
with Anogeissus pendula, Acacia Catechu, and Boswellia serrata : here it pro- 
duces abundant seed every year, and is said to regenerate freely under con- 
ditions adverse enough to prevent the regeneration of A. Catechu. Parker 
says it regenerates much more freely than A. modesta, and that it has been 
employed successfully for afforesting bare rocky hills and shifting sand in the 
Jaipur state. Raj putana. Mr. E. Mc Arthur Moir,-*^ writing of sowings of this 
and other species in the dry regions of Ajmer-Merwara, notes that the seedlings 
died back for two or three years before finally establishing themselves and 
'becoming capable of resisting drought and frost, developing in the meantime 
taproots of great length and thickness. The tree is readily browsed by camels 
and goats. It is a hardy species, surviving under most adverse conditions. 

The fragrant white flowers, in lax spikes 2-4 in. long, appear from August 
to December ; the pods, which ripen the following spring, are 3 in. long by 
0-7 in. broad, thin, flexible, brown when ripe, five- or six-seeded, tardily 
dehiscent. 

6. Acacia planifrons, W. and A. Umbrella thorn. Vern. Kodaivelam, 
odai (which is also a name given to A. Latronum), Tarn. ; Godugu thumma, Tel. 

A small to moderate-sized tree with a flat spreading dense umbrella-like 
crown, common and often gregarious in the southern parts of the Indian 
Peninsula, in the south Deccan, Salem, Madura, Tinnevelly, and Travancore, 
in dry forests, often occurring along with A. Latronum, and sometimes also 
with A. arabica, Albizzia amara, Dichrostachys ciiierea, Chloroxylon Swietenia, 
and a few others. Mixed with A. Latronum it forms at times a dense and 
impenetrable growth, but often it occurs in stunted form in open crops. In 
shape it exhibits the umbrella form characteristic of tropical open xerophilous 
woodland. The tree reproduces from root-suckers when felled ; in the Tin- 
nevelly district it is worked for the production of fuel as simple coppice on 
a rotation of fifteen years, reproduction being largely from root-suckers. 
Seedling reproduction is also said to be good in open places. 

7. Acacia Latronum, Willd. Vern. Odai (also a name given to A. plaiii- 
frons), odai usal, Tam. ; Jala, Tel. 

A gregarious very thorny shrub or small tree resembling A. planifrons 
in its spreading umbrella-like crown, but smaller than that species. It is 
common in the dry parts of the Deccan and southern India, covering con- 
siderable stretches of country with a dense impenetrable thorny scrub, and 
often growing on bare hard gravelly soil, both on flat ground and on the lower 
hill slopes, where it may perform a useful function in preventing erosion and 
in protecting young plants of other species from injury by browsing. It is 
readily browsed by goats itself, though its thorns afford a formidable protec- 
tion. The thorns are of two kinds, one large, white, conical and hollow, often 
tenanted by large black ants, and the other shorter and slender. Among its 
more common associates are Acacia planifrons, A. leucophloea, A. arabica, 

1 Ind. Forester, iv (1879), p. 387. 



462 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Albizzia aTnara, Randia dwnetorum, Azadirachta indica, Dichrostachys cinerea, 
and Chloroxylon Swietenia. On poor soils it is sometimes associated with 
Acacia eburnea, Balanites Roxburghii, and Capparis aphylla. 

8. Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. Syn. VachelUa Farnesiana, W. and A. 
Cassie flower. Vern. Wilayati babul, wilayati kiTcar, gukiJcar, Hind. ; Jalli, 
Kan. ; Kankri, Mar. ; Nanlongyaing , Burm. 

A thorny shrub or small tree reaching a height of 15 ft. or sometimes 
more, with fragrant flowers from which a perfume is extracted ; it yields 
a gum. Indigenous in tropical America ; cultivated and self-sown throughout 
the greater part of India and Burma. In northern India it is sometimes 
found gregariously in river-beds on loose sandy soil, a condition which appears 
to favour its establishment. On the plains of the Punjab it grows well on 
pure sand in fairly dry places, and would probably do well for sowing up 
shifting sands. 

The flowering season is somewhat irregular, but lasts chiefly from Novem- 
ber to March ; the bright yellow globose flower-heads are powerfully scented. 
The pods form rapidly, and are usually full-sized but still green by May. They 
commence ripening about July (Dehra Dun), but hang long on the tree, and 
may be collected almost any time. The pods are 2-3-5 in. long by 0-5 in. 
thick, nearly cylindrical, pointed at both ends, turgid, dark brown when ripe, 
with a double row of numerous seeds embedded in dry spongy tissue ; they 
are hardly dehiscent. About 300-340 seeds weigh 1 oz. The pods usually 
fall without dehiscing, and the valves become eaten by insects or decay or are 
beaten open by heavy rain, the seeds being washed out. The seeds often 
germinate within the pod, a dense clump of seedlings resulting. Germination 
takes place during the rains, but many seeds remain on or in the ground for 
a whole year, germinating in the second rains. At Dehra Dun the season's 
growth ends about December ; the leaves commence falling in November- 
December and the plants are leafless or nearly so in* January-February, the 
new leaves appearing in February-March. 

Under favourable conditions the growth of the seedling is rapid. Seed 
sown at Dehra Dun in May in a nursery-bed regularly watered and weeded 
produced plants up to 7 ft. high by the end of the first season, and these 
flowered early the next year. In another plot seedlings regularly weeded but 
not watered reached maximum heights of 2 ft. 1 in. and 7 ft. 10 in. by the 
end of the first and second seasons respectively, and by the end of the third 
season the dominant plants varied from 7 ft. to 14 ft. 4 in. in height ; they 
commenced flowering in the end of the second season and the pods ripened 
successfully in the third season, the plants being then about two years old. 
The plants require free growing space, and the smaller ones are quickly sup- 
pressed and outgrown by the more vigorous ones. They stand frost fairly well. 

9. Acacia eburnea, Willd. Syn. Mimosa eburnea, Roxb. Vern. Palmri 
kikar. Hind. ; Marmati, Mar. ; Odai vel, kal odai, Tam. 

A large shrub or small tree with rough dark grey bark, sparse greyish 
foliage and straight spines, the larger ones white and up to 2 in. long. Though 
nowhere abundant, it is widely distributed in the drier parts of India, extending 
westward into Arabia. In the sub-Himalayan tract it occurs in dry river-beds 
along with A. Catechu. In the Indian Peninsula it is found in open thorn 



ACACIA 463 

forests on dry stony soil, associated with A. Catechu, A. Latronum, A. leuco- 
pJiloea, Prosopis spicigera, and other species, and on the poorest ground with 
Balanites Roxhurghii and Gapparis aphylla. It is associated with Acacia 
arahica on black cotton soil, but where this gives place to shallow murram or 
calcareous soil with rock or a clay stratum near the surface it replaces that 
species. 

The yellow flower-heads, which have a somewhat unpleasant odour, 
appear from November to March, and the pods ripen from April to June. 

10. Australian acacias. Three important Australian acacias, A. decurrens, 
Willd., A. dealbata, Link, and A. Melanoxylon, R.Br., have been introduced 
into India, chiefly in the Nilgiris, but to some extent also in the Himalaya and 
other hill tracts. In the Nilgiris they have become such a feature in the 
landscape that a brief account of their introduction and propagation in these 
hills will not be out of place. 

A general description of the topography and climate of the Nilgiris will 
be found under Eucalyptus Globulus, the exotic tree par excellence in that 
region. Australian acacias appear to have been introduced first in the 
early forties of last century, mainly with the object of providing fuel, of 
which there was a great shortage at that time. Although as plantation trees 
they have been outclassed by Eucalyptus Globidus, still the acacias chiefly 
A. dealbata and A. Melanoxylon, and to a smaller extent A. decurrens were 
extensively planted, partly in mixture with eucalyptus and partly alone. 
The actual area of pure acacia plantations owned by Government in 1912 
amounted to 322 acres ; in addition there are considerable areas of eucalyptus 
and acacias mixed, at elevations varying from 5,000 to 8,300 ft. These acacias 
are also to be found along roadsides, on waste land, in private plantations, 
and in gardens. A. dealbata has spread by root-suckers to such an extent as 
to become in many cases a nuisance. 

The acacias appear to have been propagated from transplants and not by 
direct sowings, and this system has answered well. Spacings of 6 ft. by 6 ft. 
to 9 ft. by 9 ft. have been the general rule in plantations. The Government 
plantations, whether pure or mixed with eucalyptus, are worked for the pro- 
duction of fuel under the system of simple coppice. The rotation adopted until 
recently was one of ten years, but in 1913 it was raised to fifteen years. Under 
the coppice system, A. Melanoxylo?i is gradually dying out, and in a few 
unimportant cases it is being maintained, where pure, as high forest. Where 
acacia is mixpd with eucalyptus the resulting crop becomes a two-storied 
coppice, owing to the more rapid growth of the eucalyptus. 

The following particulars regarding the three acacias in question may be 
of interest : 

(1) Acacia decurrens, Willd. Green wattle. An evergreen tree ; bark 
olive green when young, dark grey on older trees. Branchlets and foliage 
nearly glabrous and not hoary ; decurrence of leaf-stalks very marked. Flowers 
paler yellow and less plentiful and less strongly scented than in A. dealbata ; 
pods narrow and constricted between the seeds. Maiden describes six varieties, 
but admits that the gradations from one to another are slight. Var. mollis, 
Lindl., has tomentose foliage, but the pubescence on the branchlets is golden 
yellow ; this variety is regarded in Australia as the best tannin producer 



464 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

among the acacias, and Maiden quotes yields of 32 to 36 per cent, of tannic 
acid in bark samples. Analyses of Nilgiri bark samples of the typical variety 
made at the Indian Institute of Science in 1912 gave 24-42 per cent, of tannin. 
In India it is nowhere plentiful enough to yield regular supplies of bark in 
quantity. 

This species (or variety) is a native of Queensland, New South Wales, 
Victoria, and Tasmania. It is far less plentiful in the Nilgiris than A. dealhata ; 
it has been planted in fair abundance along roads in Coonoor, but is not so 
common at Ootacamund, and is comparatively rare in the plantations. Its 
general habits in the Nilgiris are somewhat similar to those of A. dealhato 
described below ; it reproduces well by coppice-shoots and root-suckers, but 
not so freely as that species. Its growth is more erect than that of A. dealhata. 

(2) Acacia dealhata, Link. (^. fZecwrrens,Willd., var. f/ea76a/a, Von Mueller 
ex Maiden.) Silver wattle. An evergreen tree with grey, sometimes silvery 
bark. Young branchlets angled, hoary, covered with minute pubescence ; 
foliage also hoary. Flower-heads in profuse axillary and terminal panicled 
racemes, globose, about 0-15-0-2 in. in diameter, deep saffron yellow, strongly 
scented. Pods straight or curved, flattened, 2-3 in. long by 0-25-0-5 in. 
broad, broader and less constricted between the seeds than in A. deciirrens ; 
decurrence of leaf -stalks less marked than in the latter. Maiden regards A. 
dealhata as merely a variety of A. decurrens. 

In Australia it ordinarily attains a height of 50 ft. and a girth of 3-6 ft. ; 
in Tasmania a tree has been recorded about 100 ft. in height and 11 ft. 2 in. 
in girth. In the Nilgiris it seldom attains a height of over 40 ft. or a girth of 
over 4 ft. In Australia the timber is considered of little value, and is used 
chiefly for making cheap cask-staves. In the Nilgiris it is used as fuel, for 
which purpose it is considered good. The bark is not so rich in tannin as that 
of A. decurreyis. Maiden says that in Australia the best samples of bark 
contain about 25 per cent, of tannic acid. Analyses of Nilgiri bark made at 
the Indian Institute of Science in 1912 showed 9-56 per cent, of tannin. 

The tree is a native of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and 
Tasmania. It has been extensively planted in the Mediterranean Riviera and 
elsewhere. In India it has become thoroughly naturalized in the Nilgiri and 
Palni hills, and has been planted in the Himalaya. 

In the Nilgiris this tree, together with the blue gum, is one of the most 
characteristic features of the vegetation from 5,000 ft. upwards. One of its 
most striking peculiarities is its extraordinary power of reproduction by root- 
suckers, which come up in dense masses of thin whippy shoots, and spread 
with great facility. For this reason it is almost unrivalled as a means of 
clothing unstable hill slopes ; in the neighbourhood of gardens, however, it 
is an intolerable nuisance owing to its powers of spreading and the diflficulty 
of eradicating it, which is possible only by deep hoeing and extraction of all 
the roots. Another peculiarity of this tree in the Nilgiris is its stragghng 
and sometimes almost recumbent habit of growth, erect trees being quite excep- 
tional. It is very liable to breakage from wind. In the Nilgiris it has proved 
an excellent under-story to the eucalyptus in the grass-land type of plantations, 
where a soil-protective undergrowth is desirable : it appears to stand the light 
shade of the eucalyptus well, and reproduces freely by coppice. Fig. 174 




IG. 174. Coppice of Eucalyptus Globulus and Acacia dealbata, 6 years old, the latter 
forming an underwood to the former, Coonoor Peak plantation, Nilgiris. 



ACACIA 465 

5hows a crop of Eucalyptus Globulus coppice with Acacia dealbata coppice as 
Mi under-story, and Fig. 175 shows pure coppice of acacia, in which numerous 
'oot-suckers are intermingled. The tree has been found to have a powerful 
litrogenizing action on the soil, and is thus a good natural fertilizer. In 
France it is said not to thrive on soil containing lime ; the soil of the Nilgiris 
s particularly free from lime, and this may possibly favour its extraordinary 
vegetative activity on those hills. 

As regards the yield of plantations, Mr. S. Cox ^ points out that it is 
lardly possible to give accurate figures for A. dealbata by itself, as it has been 
miversally planted with A. Melanoxylon, and although in the plantations 
'egularly coppiced for fuel the latter has largely died out there is always 
I small proportion left. Allowing for error caused by the mixture of the two 
>pecies, the general average yield of coppice from ten to fifteen years old in the 
second rotation may be said to be from 2,000 to 3,000 cub. ft. stacked per acre. 

The tree has been commonly planted in the Himalaya, for example at 
5imla and in the Naini Tal and Almora hills, chiefly between 6,000 and 8,000 ft. 
elevation. It sufl^ers considerably from snow-break, but where its value lies 
n its adaptability for afforestation purposes this is not a serious drawback, 
^n the abnormal frost of 1905 it suftered to a considerable extent, particularly 
it the higher elevations, but the check to the growth resulted in the production 
)f numerous root-suckers. In the Naini Tal hills it stood the abnormal drought 
)f 1907 and 1908 well where most other exotic species were badly damaged. 
n the Himalaya the tree flowers from January to March, and the seed ripens 
n June : in cold situations the fruit fails to ripen. When in flower the trees, 
aden with yellow blossom, are a striking sight. 

(3) Acacia Melanoxylon, R.Br. Australian blackwood. 

An evergreen tree, in its natural home ordinarily reaching a height of 60 to 
^0 ft. and a girth of 6 ft. Exceptionally it is said to reach a height of 120 ft. 
ind a girth of 10 ft. In the Nilgiris it often reaches a height of 80 ft., but 
seldom attains a girth of over 5 ft. On rich soil it grows luxuriantly : thus 
n the Rallia plantation near Coonoor, where it is mixed with Eucalyptus 
llobidus, occasional trees reach a height of 110 ft. at an age of forty years, 
;hough the girth averages less than 3 ft., the trees having been drawn up to 
leight by close planting (see Fig. 176). The largest recorded measurements 
n the Nilgiris are those made by Mr. Cowley-Brown in the case of a tree forty- 
line years old in Bleak House plantation ; these are : (1) height 127 ft., (2) girth 
it breast height 6 ft. 4 in., (3) estimated volume 212-5 cub. ft. (timber only), 
rhis tree has since been killed by Lorafithus. Trees fifty-two years old in the 
Marlimund block on deep moist soil measured up to 100 ft. in height and 5 ft. 
in girth. 

Acacia Mela^ioxylon is a larger tree, with more erect habit, straighter bole, 
and denser crown, than A. decurrens or A. dealbata. The dense olive-green 
foliage, consisting mainly of phyllodes and not of true leaves, forming a sym- 
metrical tapering crown reaching low down, makes it one of the handsomest 
of the exotic trees in the Nilgiris ; its general appearance is unlike that of 
a typical acacia. The young branchlets are angled, minutely grey tomentose, 
rarely glabrous. Phyllodes coriaceous, glabrous, lanceolate or oblong, usuall^^ 

^ Working Plan for the Nilgiri Plantations, 1913. 

2307.2 jj 



466 XXIII. LEGUMINO.SAE 

falcate, variable in size, usually 2-5-4 in. long by 0-3-0-8 in. broad. True bipin- 
nate leaves often present, especially on young trees. Flower-heads 3 to 4 in 
axillary racemes, globose, yellow, about 0-2 in. in diameter. Pods linear, flat, 
often curved in a circle, 2-4 in. long by 0-3-0-4 in. broad. Seed small, with 
a long pale red funicle which encircles it. 

The timber is of very good quality, dark brown, beautifully mottled, and 
is used in Australia for furniture, gunstocks, railway carriages, and other 
purposes. In the Nilgiris there is little demand for it for such uses. Analyses 
of Nilgiri bark at the Indian Institute of Science in 1912 gave 704 per cent, 
of tannin. 

The tree is a native of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales, and 
extends into South Australia and Queensland : it grows typically on rich soil. 
It has been fairly extensively planted in the Nilgiris, where it does well on 
fertile soil, but it is slowly dying out, partly owing to its susceptibility to the 
attacks of a Loranthus, which kills off numbers of trees, and partly to the fact 
that its coppicing powers are feeble. It reproduces by root -suckers, but not 
to the same prolific extent as A. dealbata. On deep moist fertile soil its growth 
is fairly rapid, as the figures quoted above show. Mr. D. E. Hutching found 
in 1883 that trees in the Nilgiris gave about four rings per inch of radius and 
an annual increment of about 5 to 6 tons of wood per acre. 



4. ALBIZZIA, Durazzini. 

This genus contains fourteen Indian species, all trees, some of which are 
of importance in Indian silviculture. Perhaps the most characteristic feature 
of the genus, as affecting the distribution of the seed, is the pod, which is thin, 
flat, and dry, developing rapidly after the flowering, but taking some time to 
ripen fully ; in most cases dehiscence does not take place fully until after the 
pods fall, and as they fall chiefly in the hot season when dry winds are pre- 
valent, they may be blown to some distance from the tree. In some cases, 
especially in A. Lebbek, the seeds are very liable to destruction by insects, and 
this probably explains to a considerable extent the absence of reproduction 
where such damage is prevalent. Germination is epigeous. Some species 
produce root-suckers freely, e. g. A. lucida, A. mollis, and A. odoratissima. 
The growth of some is extremely rapid, e. g. A. moluccana. (not indigenous) 
and A. stipulata. The species vary in soil moisture requirements from A. 
procera, which thrives on moist and even swampy ground, to ^4. amara, which 
grows on poor dry soils in the Indian Peninsula. 

Species 1. ^. Lebbek, Benth. ; 2. A. sfipnlafa, Boivin ; S. A. procera, Benth. ; 

4. A. odoratissima, Benth.; 5. A. lucida, Benth.; 6. A. amara, Boivin; 

7. A. mollis, Boivin; 8. A. moluccana, Miq. 

1. Albizzia Lebbek, Benth. Siris, East Indian walnut. Vern. Siris, 

Hind. ; Chichola, Mar. ; Sirsul, Kan. ; Dirasanam, Tel. ; Vagai. Tarn. ; 

Kokko, Burm. 

A moderate-sized or large deciduous tree ; bark dark grey, rather rough 

with irregular cracks, red or crimson inside. In the open the tree forms 

a short bole, branching low down, with a broad crown, but in the forest 




Fig. 176. Mixed ijlantation of Eucalyptus Globulus and Acacia Melanoxylon, 

40 years old, Rallia plantation, Nilgiris. 











Fig. 177. Albizzia Lebbek in evergreen forest, Andamans. 



ALBIZZIA 467 

when drawn up by other trees it produces a long straight bole. In the Anda- 
mans it is said to yield squares up to ^0 ft. long with 3 ft. siding. 

The sap wood is whitish and large, the heart wood dark brown with lighter 
or darker streaks, ornamental, used for building, furniture, agricultural 
and other implements, carving, turning, &c. The burrs are particularly 
valuable. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree has been so extensively planted 
in gardens, along roadsides and in other places, from which it has probably 
run wild, that its natural habitat is difficult to determine. It is believed to 
be wild in the sub-Himalayan tract, Bengal, Chota Nagpur, the Indian 
Peninsula, Burma, and the Andaman and Cocos islands. In the Himalayan 
valleys it occurs up to 4,000 ft. or sometimes more, usually along the banks 
of streams. Haines has come to the conclusion that it is nowhere wild in the 
southern forest circle of the Central Provinces, though very commonly planted, 
but the tree often called A. Lebbek is A. odoratissima, Benth., var. lebbekifoJ"''^ 
Haines. Talbot says it is scattered throughout the Bombay Presidency in dry 
and moist monsoon forests. It is undoubtedly wild in some of the Madras 
forests, and Bourdillon says it is wild in the deciduous forests of Travancore 
at low elevations. It is a tree of the mixed deciduous forests, in both dry and 
moist types, or of moist semi-evergreen or even evergreen forest, usually 
occurring scattered and not gregariously. In the Andamans it is a regular 
forest tree, and occurs not only in the semi-deciduous or padauk-bearing 
forest but also in the evergreen forest : in the former it is associated with 
Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Lagerstroemia hypoleuca, Terminalia bialata, Bombax 
insigne, Sterculia alata, 8. villosa, Myristica Irya, Artocarpus Chaplasha, and 
other species, while in the evergreen forest its chief companions are Diptero- 
carpus turbitiatus and other species of Dipferocarpus , Planchonia andamanica, 
Artocarpus Chaplaslia, A. Lakoocha, Myristica Irya, Calophyllum spectabile, 
Mesua ferrea, Hopea odorata, Mimusops Elengi, Baccaurea sapida, and Podo- 
carpus neriifolia. Fig. 177 shows a tree in evergreen forest. 

Mr. F. H. Todd^ notes that in the North Andaman its northern limit, 
except for occasional specimens, is the Balmi creek, and that it is particularly 
abundant in Interview and Bennett Islands, in which from valuation surveys 
he estimated the stock to be : (1) trees 6 ft. in girth and over, 7,820 ; (2) trees 
41-6 ft. in girth, 3,275 ; (3) trees 3-4i ft. in girth, 3,275. He also mentions 
that in the North Andaman the tree grows best in the moist semi-evergreen 
forests, and though fairly numerous in the deciduous forests, it is usually 
somewhat stunted. 

More recent estimates from enumerations by Mr. Bonig, in which Mr. 
Todd's figures are incorporated, give the following figures : - 



Trees over 6 ft. 
ill girth. 


Trees under 6 ft, 
in girth. 


10,725 

18.133 

1,220 


21,624 
4,990 



Northi Andaman felling series .... 
Middle Andaman felling series .... 
Southern Andaman felling series .... 

[n Burma it grows in tropical forests as well as in mixed deciduous forests. 

^ Draft Working Plan for the Forests of the North Andaman, 1900. 
^ Working Plan Report of the Andamans Forest Division, 1916. 

K 2 



468 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

In the former Brandis ^ mentions it as one of the lofty deciduous trees towering 
above the evergreen trees, other large deciduous trees growing with it being 
Xylia dolabrijorrnis, Alhizzia stipulata, Teframeles nudiflora, Penface burmanica, 
StercuUa spp., &c. It is found both in the moist upper mixed forests and in 
the dry mixed forests. In the former it is associated with teak, Xylia, Lager- 
stroemia Flos-Reginae, DijpterocarpiLS alatus, and many other trees, the chief 
bamboos being Bambusa polymorpJia and Cephalostachyurri pergracile. In the 
dry mixed forests its chief companions are Pentacme suavis, Shorea ohtiisa, 
Buchanania latifoUa, Dalbergia cultrata, Terminalia tomeniosa, Phyllanifius 
Emblica, Dillenia pulcherrima, Cassia Fistula, and others, sometimes with 
teak of comparatively small size ; the chief bamboo is Dendrocalamus 
str ictus. 

In the dry forests of the Madras Presidency it is found chiefly along streams 
and in moist places. It is frequently planted in dry regions, and on a variety 
of soils ; it grows successfully when planted on black cotton soil. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. In northern India the 
leaves commence falling in October and November, and some trees are almost 
leafless by the end of November. Some are still in full leaf during December. 
In some cases the leaves continue falling from December to the end of February 
or even into March. The new leaves appear in April or sometimes as early 
as March. Trees or branches which yield fruits in plenty become leafless 
earlier and remain leafless longer than those which do not. 

The flowers, of a somewhat heavy fragrance, appear chiefly in April and 
May, sometimes earlier or later, and the masses of yellowish white blossom 
are conspicuous against the new foliage. 

The fruits develop rapidly, and by August some are nearly full-sized. In 
northern India they approach maturity by October, though still green, and 
begin to turn yellow in November, ripening soonest on trees which have lost 
their leaves ; by December or January the pods are all ripe. Farther south 
they ripen sooner. They hang on the tree as a rule until March, when they 
commence to be blown down, but many continue hanging through April and 
May, some exceptionally remaining on the trees as late as October, so that 
from July onwards old yellow pods may be seen hanging along with young 
green ones. Heavy rain from March onwards brings down the pods in 
quantity. 

The ripe pods are straw coloured, 8-12 in. long by 1-2-2 in. broad, flat, 
thin, firm, linear-oblong, 6- to 12-seeded, the outlines of the seeds prominent 
on the outside. They rustle in the breeze with a characteristic sound which 
has been described as that of the frying of meat. On leafless trees they are 
often produced in great abundance, the trees having the appearance of being 
covered with dry light yellow foliage. The pods are dehiscent, but dehiscence 
does not as a rule take place until the pods have reached the ground, and 
may be tardy or only partial, the seeds remaining within the pod for a con- 
siderable time. 

The seeds (Fig. 178, a) are 0-3-0-45 in. by 0-25-0-35 in., obovate or oblong, 
compressed, light brown, smooth, with a hard testa. Their weight varies 
considerably, from 140 to 350 (average 230) weighing 1 oz. Tests carried out 

^ Report on the Attaran Forests. 



d 



c 










a Seed 



Fig. 178. Albizzia Lebbek Seedling x | 
b - d - Germination stages e - g - Development of seedling during first season 



ALBIZZIA 469 

at Dehra Dun showed that the seed retains its vitality well for at least one 
year, though fresh seed has a higher percentage of fertility than seed which 
has been kept for a time ; seed kept for a year germinated more rapidly than 
fresh seed. The seeds are very subject to the attacks of insects, particularly 
of a small whitish caterpillar, and many are destroyed both on the tree and 
on the ground. Rain sometimes causes much of the seed to rot in the pods, 
particularly after they have fallen, and it is therefore advisable to collect the 
seed as soon after it ripens as possible. This can best be done by men ascending 
the trees and picking the pods off, or by knocking them off with the aid of 
a long stick ; in the latter case it is advisable to spread sheets under the trees, 
as much of the seed may fall out during the process. The seeds are extracted 
from the pods either by opening the latter or by crushing them in the hands 
and separating the seeds by winnowing. 

Germination (Fig. 178, b-d). Epigeous. The radicle emerges first, and 
the hypocotyl elongates by arching, soon straightening and carrying the 
cotyledons above ground ; as a rule the testa is carried up over the cotyledons, 
falling with their expansion, but sometimes it remains underground. 

The seedling (Fig. 178). 

Roots : primary root long, terete, tapering, wiry, brown : lateral roots 
moderate in number, short, fibrous, distributed down main root : nodules 
present. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 1-5-2 in. long, terete, tapering upwards, 
minutely pubescent. Cotyledons sessile, 0-6 by 0-4 in., elliptical ovate, apex 
rounded, base sagittate, flat or slightly plano-convex, fleshy, entire, green, 
glabrous. Stetn erect, terete, wiry, green, pubescent ; internodes 0- 1-0-5 in. 
long. Leaves alternate. Stipules minute, lanceolate. First leaf once pari- 
pinnate, rachis 0-6-1-3 in. long, leaflets opposite, five or six pairs, 0-4-0-7 in. by 
0-15-0-17 in., obliquely oblong, subsequent leaves bipinnate, at first with one 
pair of pinnae 0-7-1-5 in. long, common rachis 0-5-1 in. long, the number of 
pairs of pinnae increasing subsequently. 

The development of the seedling varies greatly among individual plants 
even under identical conditions, but there are certain factors which stimulate 
development, and which induce remarkably rapid growth from the com- 
mencement ; the most important factors are absence of weeds, loose soil, 
sufficient soil moisture, and full sunlight. Numerous experimental plots at 
Dehra Dun have demonstrated the marked effect of regular weeding and 
loosening of the soil on the growth of the seedling, and although watering 
has a beneficial effect it is of comparatively little avail unless weeding is 
carried out. 

As regards light requirements, experimental plots of seedlings grown 
under shade of varying intensity have shown that dense shade greatly retards 
germination, some seed failing to germinate until the second year ; seedlings 
which do appear are capable of standing heavy shade for one season but 
not longer, and development is very slow, a maximum height of only 4 in: 
having been recorded at the end of the season. The seedlings develop 
satisfactorily with moderate side shade, but at Dehra Dun their growth was 
found to be inferior to that of plants grown in full sunlight. The following 
measurements recorded in various experimental plots at Dehra Dun exhibit 
the marked effects of regular weeding, whether accompanied by irrigation 
or not : 



Unirrig 


ated plots. 

Unweeded. 




. 9 in.i 


(1) Maximum 1 ft. 

(2) Oft. 

(3) Oft. 

(4) Oft. 


1 in. 

Tin. 

Sin. 

10 in. 


11 in.i 


(1) Maximum 2 ft. 

(2) 1 ft. 

(3) 2 ft. 

(4) 2 ft. 


9 in.i 
9 in. 
9 in. 
10 in. 



470 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Albizzia Lebbek : rate of growth of seedlings in experimental plots. 

Irrigated plots. 
Weeded. Unweeded. Weeded. 

Height at end of first season. 

(1) 1 ft. 2 in.-8 ft. 4 in. Maximum 1 ft. 5 in.^^ Maximum 2 ft, 

(nursery plants ; seed 
sown Feb. and early 
start obtained) 

(2) Maximum 2 ft. in.i 

Height at end of 2nd season. 

(1) Maximum 14 ft, 4 in. Maximum 4 ft. 5 in.^ Maximum 6 ft. 

(2) 6 ft. 8 in.i 

Height at end of 3rd season. 

(1) Abandoned Maximum 11 ft. in. Maximum 14 ft. 9 in. (1) Maximum 4 ft. 10 in. 

(2) Maximum 13 ft. in. (dominant plants (2) 4 ft. Sin. 

(dominant plants vigorous) 

vigorous) 

^ Growth of seedlings retarded by attacks of Oxyrhachis taratidus, Fabr., a hemipterous insect 
of the family Membracidae which infests seedlings and saplings of this and other species of Albizzia 
as well as certain other leguminous species (to some extent Acacia Catechu), doing much damage 
by sucking the young shoots and causing them to wither ; the leading shoots are often destroyed in 
this way and the growth of the plants is seriously interfered with. 

All the plots noted in the above statement were in fuU sunlight : the 
unirri gated unweeded plots may be taken to represent the development under 
natural conditions. Nursery-raised plants, regularly weeded and watered, 
show rapid growth from the commencement, and may attain a height of 
nearly 4 ft. in four months from germination. A long stout taproot is pro- 
duced at an early stage ; this may reach a length of 2 ft. in three to four 
months. The lateral rootlets are often covered with rather large nodules. In 
northern India the leaves of seedlings fall from about December to March, 
and growth ceases during the cold season ; new growth commences about 
February. 

The seedlings are not very frost-tender, though the leaves are apt to 
shrivel up in frosty localities before falling, and the leading shoots are some- 
times killed back where frost is severe. Young plants are somewhat sensitive 
to drought, especially in the first season. If early rain stimulates germination 
and prolonged dry weather ensues, the young seedlings are killed off in quantity. 
Under naturtv^ conditions light weed-growth and grass, though it impedes 
development, acts as a protective against drought. The sudden removal of 
weeds from over young seedlings is fatal ; weeding requires to be carried out 
from the commencement. Seedlings do not stand suppression weU, and where 
they are at all crowded the more vigorous individuals quickly suppress the 
more weakly ones. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Youug plants are capable of standing 
a moderate amoimt of shade, though their growth is interfered with if the 
shade is at aU heavy. For its best development the tree requires full over- 
head light. It is not exacting as to soil, and will grow fairly well even on 
laterite or black cotton soil. The root-system is largely superficial, and though 
as a rule the tree does not produce root-suckers regularly, it may do so if the 
roots are exposed. Mr. G. M. Ryan writes : ^ " Albizzia Lebbek is not a tree 

1 Ind. Forester, xxx (1904), p. 454. 



ALBIZZIA 471 

which has been noticed to throw up root-suckers habitually, but a very interest- 
ing instance of such reproduction occurring on the exposure of the root-system 
came to my knowledge recently in the Wada Range (Thana district, Bombay), 
where 21 Alhizzia Lebbek suckers were observed in some excavated pits arising 
from roots which were embedded to the depth of 1| ft. in the soil. A close 
examination proved that these suckers arose from a network of subterranean 
roots which spread out from an Alhizzia Lebbek 100 ft. away.' Its shallow root- 
system renders it liable to be thrown by wind. The tree is browsed by camels 
and lopped for camel fodder. It is sometimes badly attacked by Loranthus. 

Natural reproduction. Under natural conditions germination ordinarily 
commences early in the rainy season and may continue until late in the rains. 
If the seeds are exposed to full sunlight germination is usually prompt and 
complete, but under shade it is delayed, and seed may lie ungerminated until 
the following year. In full sunlight, however, there may be high mortality 
if dry weather occurs after rain during or shortly after germination, and the 
survival of the seedlings is surer in a moderate growth of grass and weeds 
than if they are fully exposed to the sun, though their development is impeded. 
The ideal conditions for natural reproduction appear to be loose fairly moist 
soil, free from weeds, under light shade preferably from the side, the shade 
being removed when the seedlings have established themselves. 

The sporadic nature and uncertainty of natural reproduction in most 
localities is noticeable. Seedlings in various stages are occasionally met with, 
but considering the large quantities of pods produced natural reproduction 
is decidedly scanty. It is probable that insect attacks account for this to a large 
extent, and an experiment carried out at Dehra Dun appears to support this 
view. Pods which were knocked off the trees by heavy rain in March were 
placed on a plot of ground which had been previously dug up, germination 
being thus favoiu-ed. The pods, which were left uncovered as under natural 
conditions, gradually dehisced and the seed began to fall out in May, but by 
July every seed had become badly attacked by insects, and not a single one 
germinated, although the plot was kept under observation until the end of 
the year. Drought is no doubt also a fruitful cause of failure, in dry localities 
and on stiff or shallow soils, particularly during germination and in the early 
seedling stages. Heavy shade, in retarding germination and thus prolonging 
the period during which the seed is exposed to insect attacks, is another 
adverse factor. 

Artificial reproduction. Albizzia Lebbek can be grown by direct 
sowings and by transplanting from the nursery, but experiments at Dehra 
Dun showed the former to be the more successful, as transplanting checks the 
growth to some extent. It was found that transplanting could be carried out 
successfully either by pruning the root and stem or by leaving them intact ; 
in the latter case it is advisable to use small plants during the first rainy season, 
owing to the length of taproot. If pruning is carried out the stem should be 
cut down to about 2 in. from ground-level and the taproot pruned to a length 
of about 9 in. The seed may be sown in the nursery in March- April in drills 
not less than 9 in. apart, the beds being watered regularly but moderately and 
kept well weeded ; the young plants will be ready to transplant early in the 
rainy season. 



472 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

For direct sowings the Dehra Dun experiments showed that line sowings 
on well-loosened soil, the lines being kept weeded from the commencement, 
gave the best results. Irrigation stimulates the growth, the seed being sown 
along the base of the ridge of loose earth thrown up alongside an irrigation 
channel 1| ft. by 1| ft. in section. In line sowings the seedlings require, to be 
thinned out regularly. 

Mr. L. S. Osmaston ^ has described some experiments carried out in 1905 
and 1906, in raising Alhizzia Lehbek artificially on shallow soil overlying trap 
in the Nasik district of Bombay, where the rainfall is about 24 in. The experi- 
ments and their results were briefly as follows : 

1. Broadcasting without previous preparation of the soil. Seedlings of 
1905 died ; those which failed to germinate in 1905 germinated in 1906, but 
the results in the latter case have not been recorded. 

2. Dibbling : results similar. 

3. Sowing on circular moimds : 

(a) Large mounds 2| ft. high, 2 ft. diameter at top, and 7 ft. at base ; 
percentage of successful mounds, 100. 

(b) Medium mounds 1 ft. to IJ ft. high, 2 ft. at top and 4 ft. at base ; 
percentage of successful mounds, 89-4. 

(c) Small mounds 9 in. high, 3 ft. diameter at base ; percentage of success- 
ful mounds, 100. 

4. Sowings in pits : 

(a) All soil returned to pit ; percentage of successful pits, 37. 
(6) Pits half filled with soil ; percentage of successful pits, 68. 
(c) No soil returned to pit ; percentage of successful pits, 43. 

5. Planting one-year-old transplants ; only 300 survived out of 7,000, or 
4-3 per cent. 

Mr. Osmaston further describes the conduct of line sowings in conjunction 
with the raising of field crops in the same locality : - this system, wliich is 
explained under Acacia arabica (p. 437), proved quite successful, the plants in 
3| years reaching a maximum height and girth of 18 ft. and 1 ft. 5| in. re- 
spectively. The Berar system, described under Acacia arabica (p. 435), should 
also prove suitable for the raising of Albizzia Lebbek. 

Mound sowings have proved successful in the Bellary district, Madras. 
The tree grows readily from cuttings. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. As the tree occurs scattered in mixed forests 
it is in actual practice treated along with other species, usually either as coppice- 
with-standards or under selection fellings. In the Andaman forests it is 
regarded as one of the more valuable species ; under the existing working 
plan these forests are worked by selection fellings, the minimum girth limit 
for the felling of sound Albizzia Lebbek being fixed at 6 ft. 

As a general rule natural reproduction is so scanty that the only means 
of ensuring a plentiful and regular supply of this timber would appear to be 
by artificial cultivation. 

Rate of growth. The growth is fast. The rapid development of young 
plants under favourable conditions has already been alluded to under ' the 
1 Ind. Forester, xxxiii (1!H>7), ]>. 177. ^ /^jVf^ p 265. 




Fig. 179. Albizzia stipulata, United Provinces. 



ALBIZZIA 473 

seedling '. Brandis says that trees in the Punjab reach a girth of 2 ft. 9 in. 
in twelve years and 4 ft. 6 in. in thirty years, and that trees seventeen years old 
at Sukkur in Sind reached a girth of 5 to 6 ft. These figures probably refer 
to trees grown in more or less open positions ; in the forest the growth in 
girth would probably be slower. 

2. Albizzia stipulata, Boivin. Vern. Ohi, Pb. ; Siran, Hind. ; Chakua, 
Beng. ; Sau, Ass. ; Kalbage, Kan. ; Laeli, Mar. ; Konda chigara, Tel. ; Pili 
vagai, Tarn. ; Bonmeza, Burm. (Fig. 179.) 

A large deciduous tree with feathery foliage and large stipules. The 
crown is often spreading and flat-topped. Bark dark grey, fairly smooth, 
with occasional prominent horizontal wrinkles and furrows and numerous 
small vertical wrinkles. Sapwood large, white ; heartwood brown, soft, not 
very durable, used for building, furniture, domestic utensils, &c. It is used 
as a shade tree in tea plantations in Assam and the Bengal Duars. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the sub-Himalayan tract and 
Himalayan valleys up to 4,000 ft.. Bengal, Assam, Chota Nagpur, the moist er 
parts of the Indian Peninsula, Andamans, Nicobars, Burma, Ceylon, and the 
Malay Peninsula. 

The tree occurs chiefly in moist localities. It is common in the Kangra 
valley. In the sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys it often occurs in swampy 
ground and moist low-lying savannahs. In the Peninsula it is found only in 
the moister regions, both on the west coast and in southern India. Bourdillon 
says it is very common in the lower open and deciduous forests of Travancore, 
ascending the hills to 3,000 ft. It occurs in the evergreen sholas of North 
Coimbatore (C. E. C. Fischer). Mr. F. H. Todd mentions it as one of the 
species in the semi-evergreen and deciduous forests of the North Andaman.^ 
In Burma it is common in the tropical forests, in mixed forests both of moist 
and of dry types, and extends into the hill forests. Kurz ^ mentions it as one 
of the lofty deciduous trees towering above the stratum of evergreen trees in 
closed tropical forests. He also gives it as one of the trees of the pine {Pinus 
Klmsya) forests of the hills, with Daphnidiuni, Aperula, Helicia, Engelhardtia , 
Dillenia aurea, Ternstroemia japonica, &c., and of the lower drier hill forests, 
of a rather stunted type, occupying exposed ridges at 3,000 to 4,000 ft. and 
upwards, associated with Ternstroemia japonica, Schima Noronhae, Turpinia 
nepalensis, Bucklandia populnea, Dillenia. aurea, Symplocos, laurels, &c. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 110 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 65 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 45 to 200 in. or more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. Kurz ^ and Haines * say 
the tree is evergreen. In northern India it is deciduous, the leaves commencing 
to fall about January, shrivelling up and falling by single leaflets or by whole 
pinnae. The trees are usually leafless in February-March, the new leaves 
appearing in March or early April. 

The masses of fragrant feathery yellowish white flowers appear from 
April to June amongst the rich green of the new foliage, and the tree is then 

'^ Draft Working Plan for the Forests of the North Andaman, 1906. 

2 PreUminary Forest Report of Pegu, 1875. " For. Flora Br. Burma. 

* For. Flora Chota Nagpur. 



474 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

particularly handsome. The pods while developing are pale reddish green : 
they comraence ripening about November-December, and continue hanging 
in quantity through the leafless season, when they resemble small siris pods 
on the trees. They commence falling in quantity about March, and continue 
falling during the hot weather months, being blown to some distance from the 
trees by the dry winds : a few old empty pods may sometimes be found on 
the trees as late as September. 

The pods (Fig. 181, a) are 3-5-6 in. long by 0-5-0-8 in. broad, flat, glabrous, 
light brown, often wrinkled over the seeds, 8- to 12-seeded. The majority of 
the pods dehisce after falling to the ground, the seed thus being distributed 
by the wind ; only those which remain late on the tree dehisce before falling. 
The seeds (Fig. 181, 6) are 0-15-0-3 in. long, flat, ovate or elliptical, greenish 
brown, smooth ; about 900 weigh 1 oz. Tests at Dehra Dun have show^l that 
the seed retains its vitality to some extent for at least a year, though the 
percentage of fertility of seed so kept is less than that of fresh seed. 

Germination (Fig. 181, c-e). Epigeous. After the emergence of the 
radicle the hypocotyl arches slightly, soon straightening and raising the 
cotyledons above ground. The testa is usually carried up over the cotyledons, 
falling with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 181). 

Roots : primary root moderately long and thick, terete, taperuig, ^^ iry, 
white turning brown : lateral roots numerous, moderately long, fibrous, dis- 
tributed down main root : nodules present. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 
0-6-1 -5 in. long, cylindrical or tapering upwards, expanded in a ring at the 
base, green or pinkish when young, minutely pubescent. Cotyledons sessile or 
very shortly petiolate, 0-3-0-4 in. by 0-15-0-2 in., elliptical or ovate, plano- 
convex, or slightly concave beneath, thin, somewhat fleshy, apex rounded, 
base sagittate, entire, glabrous. Stem erect, slightly zigzag at the nodes, 
green, minutely pubescent ; internodes 0-2-0-5 in. long. Leaves, first two 
sub-opposite or alternate, subsequent leaves alternate. Stipules 0-1-0-15 in. 
by 0-1 in. or less, falcate acuminate, caducous. First leaf usually once pinnate, 
sometimes bipinnate ; if once pinnate rachis 0-4-0-6 in. long, with about 
five pairs of leaflets 0-1-0-2 in. by less than 0-1 in., obliquely oblong or falcate, 
acute, entire, pubescent, glaucous beneath, midrib close to and parallel to 
one edge ; subsequent leaves bipinnate, first few with one pair*, then a few 
with two pairs, then three pairs of pinnae, leaflets 4-20 pairs, up to 0-4 by 
0-15 in., rachis with a gland on the upper side. . 

During the first season the seedling does not show that rapid growtli 
which is such a marked feature later on. Seedlings raised under natural 
conditions on unweeded and unwatered ground at Dehra Dun showed the 
following growth in the first two seasons : 

Under moderate shade. In full sunlight. 

Height at end of 1st season . . . Chiefly 5-7 in. Chiefly 5-8 in. 

Height at end of 2nd season . . . Maximum 4 ft. 1 ft. 3 in.-4 ft. 9 in. 

The seedlings stand moderate shade, but are killed by dense shade. Tliey 
are capable of struggling well through a moderate growth of weeds and grass, 
though their development is stimulated by regular weeding as well as watering : 
seedlings regularly weeded and watered reached a height of 3 ft. by the end 
of the first season. Weeding, however, has to be carried out from the com- 
mencement, since if weeds are suddenly removed from over young seedlings 




Fig. 181. AMzzia stipulata. Seedling x |. 
a, fruit ; b, seed ; c-e, germination stages ; f-j, development of seedling during first season. 



they are apt to die of drought. The seedlings are very sensitive to drought ; 
they are also somewhat sensitive to frost, though they have good power of 
recovery if killed back. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Little is kiiown of the silvicultural characters 
of this tree. It may be classed as a moderate light-demander ; that it is able 
to stand some shade is evident from the fact that it sometimes grows up in 
teak plantations in Burma and makes its way through the teak. 

Natural reproduction. Germination starts early in the rainy season, 
and in warm sunny places is completed early. Under shade germination may 
continue throughout the rains and on till October or November, while some 
of the seed may lie dormant through the ensuing dry season, and may germ- 
inate in the second rainy season. The most favourable conditions for natural 
reproduction appear to be loose soil, in which the seed becomes covered dm-ing 
the early showers, and a fair degree of moisture. A moderate growth of grass 
and weeds is not harmful, though it may hinder the development of the seed- 
lings to some extent ; in dry localities it is even useful in protecting them 
from drought. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown 
that direct sowing is more successful than transplanting, and regular weeding 
from the commencement stimulates growth ; in this respect line sowings give 
the best promise of success. 

Transplanting can be carried out without much difficulty in the rains. 
The seed should be sown in the nursery about March or April in drills 9 in. 
apart, the beds being well watered and weeded thi'ough the dry season. The 
seedlings should be planted out during the rainy season ; they can be trans- 
planted successfully after pruning down the stem to near ground-level and 
cutting the root doAvn to a length of about 9 in. If unpruned plants are 
used they should be small, otherwise the taproot gives trouble. 

Rate op growth. The growth is very rapid. In teak plantations in 
Burma the tree grows quickly through the fast growing teak and has to be 
cut out periodically in thinnings. Two cross-sections in the silvicultural 
museum at Dehra Dun, from trees in the United Provinces, showed the follow- 
ing rates of growth : 

(1) Age 28 years : girth 4 ft. 11 in. : mean annual girth increment 2-1 in. 

(2) Age 43 years : girth 4 ft. 6 in. : mean annual girth increment 1-25 in. 

Gamble's specimens gave three to four rings per inch of radius, or a mean 
annual girth increment of 1-57 to 21 in. He also quotes the following measure- 
ments : ^ ' Roxburgh says that a tree he planted in the Botanic Garden at 
Calcutta measured 48-5 in. in girth at 4 ft. above ground when 7 years old; 
this would give a rate of growth of slightly less than 1 ring per inch of radius. 
Stewart, in " Punjab Plants '\ p. 56, says that a tree in the Saharanpm* Gardens 
was 7 ft. in girth at about 17 years of age, which gives rather over 1 ring 
per inch of radius. ... A round in the Bengal Forest Museum from a young 
tree shows 11 rings on a mean radius of 6 in., or 1-8 rings per inch of radius.' 

3. Albizzia procera, Benth. Syn. Mimosa elata, Roxb. White siris. 
Vern. Safed siris, gurar, Hind. ; Koroi, Beng., Ass. ; Bellati, Kan. ; Kinlmi, 
Mar. ; Konda vagai, Tarn. ; Chigara, Tel. ; Sit, Burm. 

1 Man. Ind. Timb. (1902). j). .307. 



i 



a 



^ 



1 



b 





A 



r-v. 



Fig. 182. Alhizzia pvoceva Seedling X f 
a Seed b - e Germination stages f - h Development of seedling during first season 



ALBIZZIA 477 

A large tree with a long clean bole, often branching at a considerable 
height and forming a somewhat light crown. Bark smooth, light yellowish or 
greenish grey, exfoliating in thin flakes, red inside. The sapwood is large, 
whitish, the heartwood brown with streaks of darker or lighter colour, used 
for house-posts, agricultural implements, &c. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the sub-Himalayan tract, 
common from the Jumna eastwards, Assam, Bengal, Chota Nagpur, the Indian 
Peninsula, Burma, and the Andamans. The tree is found most commonly on 
alluvial ground along streams and in moist, even swampy places ; it is par- 
ticularly common in low-lying moist savannahs, as in the Duars of Bengal 
and Assam, in Burma and elsewhere ; in such places it is often gregarious, 
the clean light-coloured boles being very conspicuous (see Fig. 180). It is in 
many localities also a common species in mixed forests, generally on moist 
alluvial ground. In the Dehra Dun valley it is one of the constituents of the 
swamp forests, along with Trewia nudi flora, Ficus glomemta, Pterospermum, 
aceri folium, Cedrela Toona, and other swamp species. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 98 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 65 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 40 to 200 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree becomes almost 
leafless for a short time during the hot season, from April to June, according 
to locality : Haines ^ says there may be a second flush of new leaves in August 
growing through the flowering panicles. The large panicles of yellowish white 
flowers appear from June to September. The pods soon commence forming, 
and in the cold season, especially from October to January, they have a rich 
red colour, the trees at this time being particularly handsome with the masses 
of red pods against the green foliage. The pods ripen from February to May, 
and are then dark reddish brown, 4-8 in. long by 0-5-0-9 in. broad, thin, 
strap-shaped, 6- to 12-seeded, dehiscent. The seeds (Fig. 182, a) are 0-2-0-3 in. 
by 0-15-0-25 in., flat, elliptical to nearly orbicular, hard, smooth, greenish 
brown, with a leathery testa ; about 500-850 weigh 1 oz. 

The pods fall from the trees for the most part during the hot season, 
dehiscing before or about the time of falling. The seed germinates readily, 
and is less subject to insect attacks than that of A. Lebbek. It retains its 
vitality for at least a year ; two tests of seed one year old at Dehra Dun 
showed 23 and 80 per cent, of fertility respectively. 

Germination (Fig. 182, b-e). Epigeous. After the emergence of the 
radicle the hypocotyl arches slightly, carrying the cotyledons above ground; 
the testa is either left on or in the ground, or, less commonly, carried up over 
the cotyledons, falling with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 182). 

Roots : primary root long, at first thin, becoming fairly thick in vigorous 
plants, terete, tapering, wiry, whitish at fii^st, becoming yellow or light brown : 
lateral roots few, somewhat short, fibrous, distributed down main root : 
nodules present. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 1-2-2 in. long, cylindrical, 
green or pinkish. Cotyledons sessile or sub-sessile, 0-35-0-4 in. by 0-2 in., 
elliptical, flat, somewhat fleshy, base sagittate, entire, green, glabrous. Stem 
erect, terete, wiry ; internodes 0-2-1 -5 in. long. Leaves alternate, compound. 

^ For. Flora Chota Nagpur. 



478 XXIII. LEGUMIN08AE 

Stipules minute, linear. First leaf compound, paripinnate, with racliis 0-6-1 in, 
long, terminating in a bristle, leaflets normally three pairs, opposite, shortly 
petioled, 0-4-0-6 in. by 0- 15-0-25 in., obliquely ovate or obovate oblong, acute 
or obtuse, glabrous. Subsequent leaves bipinnate, leaves of the first season 
with one pair of pinnae, the number of pairs increasing later ; common rachis 
and pinnae each 0-5-2 in. long ; leaflets at first two or three pairs on each 
pinna, the number increasing to about ten pairs during the first season, opposite 
or sub-opposite, up to 1 in. by 0-3 in. 

Under natural conditions the seedling usually attains a height of 4-8 in. 
by the end of the first season, but if regularly weeded and watered it grows 
rapidly, nursery -raised seedlings at Dehra Dun having attained a height of 
1 ft. to 1 ft. 8 in. in three months from germination. The seedling is capable 
of struggHng during the first season through low weeds and grass, its growth 
being slow during the process but increasing considerably after the weeds 
have been surmounted. The sudden removal of weeds from around seedlings 
previously unweeded, however, is liable to cause their death through sudden 
exposure to the sun. Vigorous seedlings produce long stout taproots which 
may reach a length of nearly 2 ft. in three months from germination : the 
lateral rootlets are usually covered with nodules. 

The following measurements of seedlings in various plots at Dehra Dun 
will give some idea of the rate of growth under different conditions : 

Albizzia procera : development of seedlings. 

Conditions under Height at end of season, 

wliich grown. 1st season. 2nd season. 3rd season. 4th sc 

Nursery -raised trans- (1) Maximum ft. 6 in. (1) 1 ft. 2 in. -3 ft. 4 in. (1) 1 ft. 9 in. -7 ft. 5 in. 

plants, entire stem (2) 1 ft. 4 in. (2) Maximum 3 ft. 1 in. 

and roots 
Nvirsery-raised trans- Maximum 1 ft. in. Maximum 4 ft. 2 in. 2 ft. 10 in.-8 ft. 5 in. 

plants, pruned stem 

and roots 
Natural conditions, (1) Maximum ft. 6 in. (I) Maximum 2 ft. 1 in. 

unweeded, in full (2) 4 in.-T^ in. (2) 1 ft. 6 in.-2 ft. 5 in. (2) 2 ft. 4 in.-8 ft. 2 in. (2) Mf 

sunlight 11 ft 

Natural conditions, (1) Maximum ft. 6 in. (1) 5J in.-l ft. 10 in. 

unweeded, in mode- (2) ft. 7i in. (2) 9 in.-l ft. 8 in. 

rate side shade 

The growth would in most cases have been greater except for the damage 
caused by the hemipterous insect Oxyrhachis tarandus, Fabr., which causes 
much injury to this species, as in the case of Albizzia Lebbek. The seedlings 
are somewhat frost-tender, and are liable to be killed back in frosty localities. 
Growth ceases about November, and recommences about February- March. 
The leaves drop from December to February and the seedling is leafless for 
a short time. 

SiiiVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Although it stands moderate but not heavy 
shade in youth the tree may be classed as a light-demander, as it cannot 
stand suppression. In the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in Oudli it 
proved fairly drought resistant, though in the moist localities in which it 
grows it was probably not as severely tested as species growing in drier tracts. 
In the great frost of 1905 in northern India it suffered severely. The tree is 
much subject to cankerous wounds, as a rule where branches have been broken 



ALBIZZIA 479 

off. Mr. G. M. Ryan,^ writing of conditions in Bombay, says the tree throws 
up root-suckers when the aerial portion of the stem has been mutilated or 
when an advanced age has been reached. 

Natural reproduction. The natural reproduction of this tree is far 
more satisfactory than that of A. Lehbek. Germination takes place readily 
provided there is sufficient moisture, and in the forest seedlings may be found 
in quantity in the neighbourhood of seed-bearers during the rainy season, 
from seed which germinated early in the rains. Although the seed germinates 
more readily than that of A. Lebbek, in densely shaded localities the seedhngs 
quickly die off, while in such places some of the seed may lie ungerminated 
until the second rains. The factors most favourable to natural reproduction 
are plentiful moisture and bare loose soil where the seed becomes buried with 
the early showers. Thus on new soft alluvial ground near rivers seedlings in 
all stages may often be found in abmidance. Natural seedlings may also be 
found in some quantity in moist grassy tracts. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments carried out at Dehra Dun have 
shown that transplanting can be carried out successfully in the rainy season, 
preferably during wet weather, with stem and root either pruned or left intact ^ 
but in the latter case transplanting is troublesome unless small plants of the 
first season are used. The seeds should be sown in nursery beds about March 
to May in drills about 9 in. apart, the seeds being placed a few inches apart 
in the drills and lightly covered. 

Direct sowing has proved more successful than transplanting, provided 
regular weeding and loosening of the soil is carried out ; line sowings have given 
greater success than any other form of sowing owing to the facility with which 
weeding can be carried out. This is a suitable species for growing in irrigated 
plantations or in line sowings in conjunction with the raising of field crops. 

The tree grows readily from cuttings. 

81LVICULTURAL TREATMENT. The tree is a useful one for afforesting 
low-lying savannahs and moist alluvial tracts. Although natural reproduction 
is often good near seed-bearers artificial reproduction would have to be relied 
on for complete stocking. 

Rate of growth. The rate of growth is rapid. A cross-section in the 
silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun showed 26 rings for a girth, including 
bark, of 3 ft., giving a mean annual girth increment of 1-38 in. Brandis says 
that in northern India it attains a girth of 3-4 ft. in twelve years and 4-6 ft. 
in thirty years, giving a mean annual girth increment of 1-6 to 4 in. Gamble's 
specimens gave 6 rings per inch of radius, representing a mean annual girtli 
increment of about 1 in. 

4. Albizzia odoratissima, Benth. Syn. Mimosa odoratissima , Roxb. Black 
siris. Vern. Kartnaru, Pb. ; Kali siris, bansa (C. P.), Hind. ; Bilkumbi, bilwara, 
Kan. ; Karu vagai, Tarn. ; Thitmagyi, Burm. 

A large tree with graceful drooping dark green foliage. Bark grey to 
yellowish grey, dark crimson inside. The dark brown heartwood is used for 
building, carts, wheels, furniture, &c. Haines "^ recognizes a variety A. lebbeki- 
folia in the Central Provinces, with foliage very like A. Lebbek but distinguish- 
able by the short peduncles, sessile flowers, and colour of the pods. 

1 Ind. Forester, xxx (1904), p. 454. - Ibid., xl (1914), p. 227. 



480 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

Distribution and habitat. Sub-Himalayan tract and slopes and valleys 
of the Himalaya up to 5,000 ft., Bengal, Chota Nagpur, the Indian Peninsula, 
and Burma ; also in the low country of Ceylon. The tree is widely distributed, 
being a common constituent of many types of mixed deciduous forest, where 
it grows sporadically. It is frequently found on hill slopes, and sometimes in 
valleys. In northern India it is common in the outer Himalaya and in the 
Siwalik hills : it extends throughout the greater part of the Indian Peninsula in 
dry as well as in moist deciduous forests. In Ajmer-Merwara it is one of the most 
important species, growing in dry forests on hill slopes with Anogeissiis pendula, 
Acacia Catechu, BoswelUa serrata, and other trees. In Burma it is common 
in the upper mixed forests with teak and its associates, extending into the 
drier types where the teak is associated with Pentacme suavis, Shorea obtusa, 
Dalbergia cuUrata, Phyllanihus Emblica, &c. In Bombay it is common in the 
moist monsoon forests of North Kanara *nd the Konkan and also in the dry 
Deccan, ascending to 3,700 ft. in the Khandesh Akrani (Talbot). Bourdillon 
says it is common on grass-lands and in open forest tln-oughout Travancore 
up to 3,000 ft. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 120 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 25 to 120 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves commence falling 
about December (northern India), and the new leaves appear in March- April. 
The tree sometimes becomes quite leafless for some little time, but more 
commonly the new leaves appear before the old ones have all fallen. The 
pale yellowish white fragrant flower-heads in large terminal panicles appear 
from April to June, and by October the pods are full-sized but still green : 
they commence ripening in December (northern India), or earlier farther 
south, falling during the hot season and dehiscing as a rule after falling, though 
some may hang for a long time on the tree, dehiscing before falling. When 
ripe the pods are 5-12 in. long by 1-1-3 in. broad, reddish brown or purplish 
green with darker markings over the seeds, flat and flexible, eight- to twelve- 
seeded. 

Silvicultural characters. The tree stands a certain amount of shade 
in youth, but may be classed as a moderate light-demander. It is not exacting 
as regards soil, though on poor soil it is somewhat stunted. Its roots are largely 
superficial, and numerous root-suckers are produced. The young plants are 
susceptible to frost, and plantations formed in Ajmer-Merwara are reported 
to have failed for this reason. The tree coppices well, and in Ajmer-Merwara 
the shoots are said to reach a height of 10 ft. in two years, but are liable to be 
killed by frost : natural seedlings are reported to be plentiful in sheltered 
places where the soil is good.^ 

Rate of growth. The only measurements available are those recorded 

by Mr. Gamble from wood specimens examined by him, the average of which 

showed 4 rings per inch of radius or a mean annual girth increment of 1-57 in. 

5. Albizzia lucida, Benth. Burmese siris. Vern. TJiantJia.t, Burm. 

A large tree with thin greyish bark and a full crown of handsome dark 

green foliage, the leaflets fewer and larger tlian in other species of this genus. 

^ Working Plan for the State Forests of Ajmer-Merwara. 1896. 



ALBIZZIA 481 

Distribution and uabitat. The sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal east- 
wards, eastern Himalayan valleys up to 2,000 ft., Assam, Chittagong, and 
Burma. The tree is often planted along avenues and in gardens outside its 
natural region, and grows well in Dehra Dun and other stations of northern 
India. It is found wild as a rule along the banks of streams and in moist 
places. In Burma it occurs in tropical forests where many of the species are 
evergreen, in lower mixed forests of the alluvial plains, and also in upper 
mixed deciduous forests. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 98 to 108 F., the absolute minimum from 35 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 45 to 200 in. or more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless or nearly 
so for a short time in the early part of the hot season, about March ; the 
leaves usually turn yellow before falling. The yellowish white flow^ers appear 
in April-May. The pods become full-sized about October-November, but are 
then unripe and green or reddish green ; they ripen from February to April 
(observed ripening February in Bengal Duars, April in Dehra Dun). When 
ripe (Fig. 183, a) they are 4-8 in. long by 0-7-1 in. broad, light brown, fiat, 
the seeds prominent. Most of the pods fall during the hot season, and dehisce 
as a rule after falling : they are carried by wind, with the seeds enclosed, to 
some distance from the tree. Some dehisce on the tree and a few of the open 
pod-valves may remain hanging as late as the following November. The 
seeds (Fig. 183, b) are 0-3-0-4 in. long, broadly elliptical or orbicular, light 
brown, flat, smooth, with a leathery testa : about 550-600 weigh 1 oz. The 
seeds germinate readily, but so far as tests at Dehra Dun go thej'' appear to 
lose their vitality more quickly than those of other species of Albizzia. 

Germination (Fig. 183, c-g). Epigeous. After the emergence of the 
radicle the hypocotyl arches, soon straightening and carrying the cotyledons 
above ground : as a rule the testa is carried up over the cotyledons, falling 
off with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 183). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, terete, tapering, flexuose : lateral 
roots moderate in number, fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl 
distinct from and thicker than young root, 1-2-1 -8 in. long, terete, tapering 
slightly upwards, green, minutely pubescent. Cotyledons sub-sessile, 3-5-5 in. 
by 3-4 in., plano-convex, fleshy, elliptical orbicular, base sagittate, entii'e, 
glabrous, greenish yellow. Stem erect, wiry to woody. Leaves, first pair 
opposite, produced after a very short internode, thus emerging from between 
the cotyledons, subsequent leaves alternate. First pair simple or paripinnate 
with two or three pairs of leaflets or imparipinnate with five leaflets or 
bipinnate, one of the leaves often differing in form from the other. Simple 
leaves with petiole 0-1 in. long, lamina 0-8-1-2 in. by 0-3-0-4 in., ovate or 
elliptical lanceolate, acuminate, entire, giabrescent or minutely pubescent. 
Earliest compound leaves with rachis 0-5-0-8 in. long, leaflets opposite, verj- 
shortly petiolate, 0-5-0-8 in. by 0-2-0-4 in., ovate lanceolate, acuminate. 

Seedlings raised at Dehra Dun showed only moderate growth during the 
first two years, nursery-raised transplants having a maximum height of 5| in. 
and 14 in. by the end of the first and second seasons respectively. The 
seedlings proved very sensitive to drought, and grew best if well watered and 
kept shaded from the sun. 

2307.2 T 



fmM c 




g 




i^' 






m 





If 



I 






Fig. 183. Alhizzia lucida. Seedling x |, 
a, fiuit ; b, seed ; c-g, germination stages ; h-7i, early seedling stages showing variations in leaves. 



I 



ALBIZZIA 483 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The silvicultural characters of this tree 
have not been studied in detail. It appears to be somewhat shade-bearing, 
and requires a moist situation for its best development. It has long spreading 
lateral roots near the surface of the ground, which produce a prolific crop of 
root-suckers to a considerable distance from the tree. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that 
transplanting can be done without much difficulty both in the first and in 
the second rainy season, though this should be carried out as far as possible 
in wet weather. Fresh seed should be sown in the nursery-beds about March 
or April, the beds being kept well watered and weeded and shaded from the 
sun during the heat of the day. The transplanting of root-suckers is also 
recommended. 

6. Albizzia amara, Boivin. Syn. Mirnosa amara, Roxb. Vern. Tugli, 
tugal, Kan. ; Lallei, Deccan ; Chikreni, Tel. ; Thuringi, imjai, usil, Tam. 

A small or moderate-sized much-branched deciduous tree with thin smooth 
dark greenish scaly bark. The leaves have numerous small leaflets. Heart- 
wood purplish brown, very hard, used for small building material, agricultural 
implements, &c., but chiefly for fuel. 

A tree of the Indian Peninsula from Khandesh and Vizagapatam south- 
wards, on dry often hilly country. Dry regions of Ceylon. On the Laun 
sandstone plateau in Raipur, Central Provinces (Haines). It is a common 
tree in the dry mixed deciduous and thorn forests of the Deccan. It is one 
of the most characteristic trees in the dry regions of the Madras Presidency, 
often growing on very poor soil ; among its chief companions are Acacia 
Latronuni, A. Catechu, A. planifrons, A. leucophloea, Cldoroxylon Swietenia, 
Dichrostachys cinerea, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus latifolia, Prosopis spici- 
gera, Cassia Fistula, Strychnos Nux-vomica, S. potatorum, PhyllantJms Emhlica, 
Cleistanfhus collinus, Terrninalia Chebula, Zizyphus Xylopyrus, and Wrightia 
tinctoria. 

The tree reproduces freely from coppice-shoots and also produces root- 
suckers ; the coppice-shoots are often produced in such numbers that their 
size suffers and thinning is necessary. Natural reproduction by seed is usually 
good in areas protected from fire and grazing : goats are very partial to it, 
and it suffers much in grazed areas. The tree is usually worked as coppice 
or coppice-with-standards. It has been roughly estimated that coppice-shoots 
attain a girth of 2| ft. in thirty years. ^ 

The yellow fragrant flower-heads appear from April to June and the pods 
ripen in the cold season, chiefly from November to January. The pods are 
5-8 in. by 0-7-1 in., thin, flat, greyish brown, pubescent, veined, with undulate 
edges. 

7. Albizzia mollis, Boivin. Syn. A. Julihrissin, Durazzini. Pink siris, 
hill siris. Vern. Sirin, lal siris, kurmura. Hind. 

A moderate-sized tree of the western Himalaya, ascending to 7,000 ft. 
The tree reproduces freely from root-suckers, and is useful for afforesting 
unstable hill-sides. The large pink tassels of flowers appear from April to 
June, at which time the tree is very handsome. The pods ripen from September 
to November, and remain some time on the tree : they are 3-5 in. by 0-6-0-9 in., 

^ Tiruvannamalai Working Plan, vSouth Arcot, 1902. 

L2 



484 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

thin, yellow or light brown, eight- to twelve-seeded. The growth is fast ; 
Gamble's specimens showed 3-4 rings per inch of radius, which gives a mean 
annual girth increment of 1-57 to 2-1 in. 

8. Albizzia moluccaiia. Miq. 

A very large fast -growing Malayan tree with light foliage and a straight 
clean smooth grey bole, branching high up. It is largely grown in Ceylon 
and Java as a shade to coffee, and is worth cultivating as a quick-growing 
shade tree for other crops requiring light shade, as it is said to possess soil- 
improving properties. It has recently been grown on land cleared for tea in 
Assam, where in the Towkok garden, Sonari, Sibsagar district, trees four years 
from seed were reported in 1913 to have grown 46 ft. in height with a girth 
of 2 ft. 9 in. at 3 ft. from ground-level. Plantations of this tree have recently 
been formed in the Andamans, where it grows well even in exposed situations 
and is not affected by wind. Plants from seed sown in December 1912 attained 
by 1916 a height of 30 to 35 ft. and a girth of fi to 2 ft. ; those on the soil 
of cleared evergreen forest attained in the same time a height of 40 to 45 ft. 
and a girth of 2-3 ft. at 3 ft. from ground-level. A tree in the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon, eleven years old, was 125 ft. high and nearly 
11 ft. in girth at 2 ft. from the ground.^ In Ceylon the pods ripen in May- 
June ; the seeds are small, about 1,200 weighing 1 oz. The wood is soft and 
light, and suitable for tea-boxes and planking. Owing to its rapid growth it 
should be worth planting for this purpose in suitable localities. 

5. DICHPvOyTACHY.S, DC. 

Dichrostachys ciuerea, W. and A. 

A thorny shrub or small tree with brown or grey longitudinally furrowed 
bark, found on dry stony ground in central and southern India, Rajputana, 
the Deccan and the dry zone of Upper Burma. It occurs also in Timievell^^ 
along with Acacia planifro7is, on land regularly inundated by sea-water during 
the north-east monsoon, forming a dense impenetrable growth. In the dry 
regions in which it is commonly found the forest is usually of an open scrubby 
nature, situated both on hilly and on flat ground. In the Central Provinces 
it is frequent on black cotton soil. Silviculturally its chief importance in dry 
regions lies in the fact that it is very drought -resisting and reproduces freely 
by root-suckers, which are often produced at a considerable distance from 
the main stem owing to the long spreading lateral roots : thickets many 
yards in diameter are formed in this way. It is also comparatively immune 
from damage by grazing. 

The plant resembles an acacia, having bipinnate leaves with minute 
leaflets. The inflorescences are striking, consisting of cylindrical spikes of 
flowers, the upper ones yellow and bisexual and the lower ones rose-coloured 
and sterile with long staminodes. The pods are 2-3 in. long, curled and 
twisted. The flowers appear and the fruit ripens at various times according 
to locality, during the hot season, the rains, or the cold season. 

1 Cir. and Agf. Journ. Roy. Bot. Gardens, Ceylon, Ser. I, No. 18, July 1900. 



485 

6. ADENANTHERA, Linn. 

Adeiiauthera pavoiiina, Linn. Vern. Mu7ijuti, Kan. ; Anei, kundumani. 
Tarn. ; Ywegyi, Burm. 

A handsome deciduous tree of the eastern sub-Himalayan tract, Burma, 
the Andamans, and the Western Ghats, often planted for ornament, especially 
in southern India. It attains a height of about 60 ft. The red wood is used 
for cabinet work and the scarlet seeds are used for jewellers' weights and 
necklaces. The tree requires a moist climate to thrive well, and can be grown 
easily from large cuttings put down early in the rains. The seeds are hard, 
and germinate with some difficulty unless kept moist for some days prior to 
sowing. The tree is leafless for a short time during the cold season. The small 
yellow fragrant flowers appear in the hot season. The pods are linear, narrow, 
about 6-8 in. long, twisting while opening and exposing the red seeds. 

7. PITHECOLOBIUM, Martins. 

Species 1. P. didce, Benth. ; 2. P. Soman, Benth. 

L Pithecolobium dulce, Benth. 8yn. Inga dulcis, Willd. ; Mimosa dulcis, 
Roxb. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with stipular spines in pairs, a native 
of Mexico but commonly cultivated in India and Lower Burma as a hedge 
plant, and in southern India also as a fuel tree. On the coast of the Nellore 
district of Madras it has been planted on pure sand in the casuarina plantations 
as a safeguard against fungus disease in the casuarina. For hedges it is usual 
to sow the seed at site, and to trim the plants. The small globular heads of 
white flowers appear in January-February and the pods ripen from April to 
June ; the latter are 4-5 in. long by 0-3-0-4 in. broad, twisted, with black 
seeds embedded in a spongy edible pulp. The growth is fast. The tree 
coppices vigorously, and stands a good deal of shade. Parker ^ gives the 
following note regarding its susceptibility to frost in the Punjab : 

' In Lahore it suffers considerably from frost. Seedlings planted in the 
Changa Manga Rest House Garden grown from seed received in 1912 from 
Sonora, Mexico, were uninjured by three nights' frost when the shade tempera- 
ture sank to 27, 27, 26 F., although they were only a foot or so high and 
were quite unprotected. In 1914-15 plants from Indian seed were killed by 
frost in Lahore, but plants from Sonoran seed were uninjured, though they 
were not protected in any way. Hence it appears that the Sonora plant is 
a more frost-hardy variety than the one hitherto grown, which has not got 
beyond the South and Eastern portions of the Province owing to frost.' 

2. Pithecolobium Saman, Benth. Rain tree. 

A large tree with a broad spreading crown, branching low down and 
forming a short bole. A native of tropical South America, it has been largely 
planted along roadsides in some of the warmer parts of India, and particularly 
in Lower Burma, where it is one of the commonest roadside trees. It will 
not stand the colder parts of northern India, but elsewhere it is not particular 
as to soil, and will thrive even in comparatively dry climates, as at Mandalay, 
though it grows best in a moist climate. In the delta districts of Burma it 

1 For. Flora Punjab, p. 201. 



486 XXIII. LEGUMINOSAE 

is capable of growing in some of the wettest places, rapidty killing out grasses 
with its broad crown ; it has therefore been suggested as a suitable tree for 
planting up grassy blanks in the fuel reserves in swampy localities, with the 
view of killing out grass and enabling other species of trees to be introduced 
afterwards. The pods contain a sweet edible pulp, and are readily eaten by 
cattle ; the wood, however, is of little value. In Burma the flowers with 
their pink tufts of stamens appear in the hot season, chiefly in April and May, 
and the pods ripen from March to May. The growth is very rapid, and the 
tree is easily raised from seed ; it can also be grown from cuttings. 



8. LEUCAENA, Benth. 

Leucaena giauca, Benth. Lead tree. 

An unarmed evergreen large shrub or small tree, a native of tropical 
America and naturalized in other tropical regions of the world. It is planted 
in the plains of India, often as a hedge plant, and regenerates freely from 
self-sown seed. It occurs in the Phillaur plantation on the Punjab plains, 
where natural seedlings appear readily and stand a fair amount of shade. 
In the Philippines, where it is known as ipil-ipil, its growth in youth, according 
to Mr. D. M. Matthews,^ is extremely rapid, seedling plants twenty-six months 
old varying from 3 to 5 cm. (1-2 to 2 in.) in diameter at breast height. It 
coppices vigorously and the growth of coppice-shoots is much more rapid than 
that of seedling plants, the shoots reaching a height of 5 m. (16-4: ft.) and 
a breast-height diameter of 5 cm. (2 in.) in one year. Coppice coupes one year 
old on well-drained soil were found to yield more than 90 stacked cubic metres 
per hectare (1,287 cub. ft. per acre), including brushwood of all sizes, while 
coupes two years old yielded up to 114 stacked cubic metres per hectare of 
material large enough for fuel, giving an annual production of 57 cubic metres 
per hectare or 815 cub. ft. per acre. 

The utility of this species for afforesting grass-lands with the view of 
preparing the w^ay for the introduction of timber trees has been proved in 
the Philippines. The dominant grass is Imperafa exaltata, with which few 
species are able to compete owing to its dense mass of rhizomes and roots. 
The usual custom is to burn the grass immediately before the rainy season 
and to sow the Leucaena seed broadcast at the beginning of the rains : plough- 
ing up the ground before sowing the seed is considered likely to give better 
results. Where seed is not sufficiently plentiful sowing in ploughed lines or 
transplanting from the nursery is suggested. The plant flowers and fruits at 
a very early age, good seed being produced by vigorous plants in the first or 
second year. In the Philippines the plant grows at comparatively low eleva- 
tions in regions where the rainfall varies from 40 to IGO in. It is not particular 
as to soil, though it flourishes best on deep moist soil. 

' Bureau of Forestry, Philippines, Bull. No. l.'i, 1914. 



487 

ORDER XXIV. ROSACEAE 

This order is of little importance from a forest point of view, except that 
many of the species reproduce freely by means of root-suckers and are thus 
useful in clothing unstable hill-sides. This characteristic may, however, in 
some cases render them noxious weeds, as in the case of certain species of 
Riibus and Rosa, which form dense thickets in moist places, impeding the 
reproduction of forest trees. Ruhiis lasiocarpus, Sm., a scrambling shrub of 
the outer Himalaya, has an effective means of spreading by long flexible 
whip-like pendulous shoots which are produced in the rainy season and grow 
rapidly. The ends of these shoots are soft, and as soon as they come in contact 
with the ground they produce roots which quickly take a firm hold of the 
ground and in their turn produce new plants, a dense gregarious mass of 
interlacing brambles being formed in time. Of climbers, Rosa 7nosc7iata, Mill., 
and R. Leschenaultiana, W. and A., deserve mention. The former is a common 
Himalayan species, often attaining considerable thickness and climbing to 
some height ; although extremely handsome when in flower in the spring, it 
is often noxious to tree growth, causing suppression with its mass of scrambling 
branches and foliage. The latter is a large climber of the hills of southern 
India, very common in the Nilgiri sholas. 

This order contains several important fruit trees grown in India, chiefly 
in the hills, namely Prunus armeniaca, Linn., the apricot ; P. persica, Benth. 
and Hook, f., the peach ; P. communis, Huds., the plum ; P. Amygdalus, Baill., 
the almond ; P. Cerasus, Linn., the cherry ; Pyrus Malus, Linn., the apple ; 
P. communis, Linn., the pear; and Eriobotrya japonica, Lindl., the loquat. 

The Rosaceae are with few exceptions hill species, the majority Hima- 
layan, several in the hills of southern India and some in Baluchistan and the 
hills of Assam and Burma. 

Genera 1. Prunus, Linn.; 2. Pyrus, Linn. 

1. PRUNUS, Linn. 

Species 1. P. Puddum, Roxb ; 2. P. Padus, Linn; 3. P. nepalensis. 
Hook. f. 

1. Prunus Puddum, Roxb. Vern. Padam, Hind. Indian wild cherry. 

A tree of the Himalaya, at 2,500-8,000 ft., Khasi hills and hills of Upper 
Burma, often cultivated. Bark greyish brown, smooth, shining, peeling off 
in thin horizontal strips like that of the common cherry. Gamble notes that 
there are two varieties of the tree in the Darjeeling hills : (1) a very large tree 
with crimson flowers wliich appear in March, and (2) a small or medium-sized 
tree with pink flowers which appear in October-November. The latter is the 
common one in the western Himalaya, both wild and cultivated. It is small 
or moderate-sized, producing clusters of pink flowers in the autumn or early 
winter, chiefly from October to December, though it occasionally flowers 
partially out of season, e.g. in July. The old leaves turn yellow and fall from 
October to December, the new flush appearing before the old ones have all 
fallen, and remaining fresh and green through the winter. The fruit, a yellow 
and red ovoid drupe 0-4 0-6 in. long, ripens chiefly from April to June. The 



488 XXIV. ROSACEAE 

seeds are spread by birds. In Burma the tree is evergreen or nearly so, and 
this is also the case in the western Himalaya. When in flower it is very 
handsome. In the western Himalaya it is common in open village lands 
as well as in the forest. It stands a fair amount of shade, and may be found 
flourishing under the moderate shade of other trees, though it flowers best 
in the open. It reproduces fairly freely from root-suckers, and can be grown 
from cuttings ; it forms a good stock plant for the common cherry. 

2. Prunus Padus, Linn. Syn. Padus cornuta, Carr. ; Cerasus corniita, 
Wall. Bird cherry. Vern. Paras, kalakat, zam, Pb. ; Jamana, jamoi, 
Jaunsar. 

A moderate-sized or large deciduous tree with brown scaly bark. Wood 
with a handsome silver grain, suitable for furniture and deserving to be better 
known. In Europe it is usually a rather small tree, but in the Himalaya it 
attains a height of 60 ft. or sometimes more, and a girth of 6 ft. or over. 

Distribution and habitat. This is the most widely distributed of all 
the species of Prunus, and is found throughout the greater part of Europe, 
in Siberia, Manchuria, North China, Japan, Persia, the Caucasus, and the 
Himalaya. In the Himalaya it is common chiefly at 6,000-10,000 ft., often 
occurring more or less gregariously on rather moist pasture grounds and in 
forest glades, associated with Acer caesium, Aesculus indica, Ulmiis Wallichiana, 
and other broad-leaved species, as well as with conifers, particularly with yew 
(Taxus haccafa), which in Hazara is often in the form of an underwood to it 
(see Fig. 185). It is particularly common in Hazara, where it attains very fair 
dimensions : on the higher ridges and grazing grounds at 9,000-10,000 ft., 
where it is plentiful, it is often associated with Pyrus lanata. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves turn red and 
fall in the autumn, the tree remaining leafless during the winter and the new- 
leaves appearing in the spring. The racemes of small white flowers appear 
from April to June, and the fruits, red to nearly black drupes about 0-4 in. 
in diameter, ripen from August to October. Fig. 184, a, shows the fruit-stone. 
The seed is disseminated by birds, which eat the fruits. 

Germination (Fig. 184, h, c). Epigeous. The fruit-stone splits in two, 
enabling the radicle to emerge. The hypocotyl elongates, carrying the coty- 
ledons above ground, while the two halves of the fruit-stone are left on the 
ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 184). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, wiry, flexuose : lateral roots 
moderate in number and length, fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypo- 
cotyl distinct from root, 1-2 in. long, terete, fusiform or tajDermg upwards, 
red, minutely pubescent and tender when young, brown, glabrous and woody 
in second year. Cotyledons : petiole very short, flattened : lamina 0-25-0-3 in. 
by 0-15-0-2 in., plano-convex, fleshy, elliptical or obovate, entii'e, glabrous. 
Stem erect, slightly compressed, minutely pubescent ; first internode, above 
cotyledons, 0-6-1 -5 in. long, subsequent internodes of first season very short, 
leaves being crowded together. Leaves simple, first pair opposite, subsequent 
leaves alternate or sub-opposite, approximate. Stipules 0-2-0-3 in. long, 
linear acuminate, fimbriate. Petiole 0-2-0-4 in. long. Lamina 1-2-5 in. by 
0-5-1 in., ovate lanceolate, acute or acuminate, base acute or tapering, serrate, 
glabrous, venation arched, veins prominent, depressed above, raised beneath, 
lateral veins 7-10 pairs. 




Fig. 184. Prunus Padus. Seedling x |. 

a, fruit-stone ; 6, c, germination stages ; d, e, development of seedling during first season ; 

/, seedling in second season. 



490 XXIV. ROSACEAE 

The growth of the seedling is somewhat slow, natural seedlings attaining 
a height of about 3-5 in. during the first season and 9 in. to 1 ft. in three years. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a moderate light-demander. 
It coppices well and produces root-suckers freely, especially when trees are 
felled or when the superficial roots are exposed and wounded. The branches 
are somewhat liable to be broken by snow. 

Natural reproduction. Under natural conditions the seed germinates 
about April. Seedlings spring up in abundance on newly exposed ground, 
and particularly on deep loose rubble ; natural reproduction may often be 
found in quantity on landslips and places recently eroded by snow. 

3. Primus nepalensis, Hook. f. Vern. Arupatti, Nep. 

A large tree of the central and eastern Himalaya at 6,000-10,000 ft., 
Khasi hills, Upper Burma in evergreen forest in the Ruby JVIines district at 
6,000 ft. Bark greyish black, thin, smooth ; branches verticillate. Mr. F. B. 
Manson ^ says the seeds, which are distributed by birds, germinate very easily 
in the end of February and the beginning of March, even when hoar-frost is 
frequent, and that the seedlings seem to thrive almost as well under cover 
as in the open, and are very common and useful for restocking blanks. He 
adds that the tree has an extensive range, but in the Darjeeling hills it thrives 
best between 6,000 and 6,500 ft. ; here it grows quickly, and sound trees of 
8 to 10 ft. in girth with fine straight boles are met with. In this locality the 
new leaves appear in March, the flowers in May, and the fruit ripens in 
October-November. - 

2. PYRUS, Linn. 

Pyrus Pashia, Ham. Syn. P. variolosa, Wall. Vern, Patangi, Hazara ; 
Kdint, mehdl, W. Him. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree of the Himalaya at 2,000-8,000 ft., 
Khasi hills and hills of Upper Burma. In the outer Himalaya it is very 
common on open sunny slopes, often with Quercus incana, JRhododendron 
arhoreum, Berheris aristata, B. Lyciutn, and Pieris ovalifolia, and lower down 
with Pinus longifoUa, while at the base of the hills it is associated with low- 
level species, for example at Dehra Dun. It has spreading superficial roots 
and reproduces with great freedom from root-suckers, especially on hill-sides 
where the roots have become exposed ; in this respect it is useful in preventing 
landslips. It can be grown from cuttings, and forms a useful stock for the 
apple. The leaves fall in November or early December, turning nearly black 
before falling, and the trees are leafless until the following March or April, 
when the new leaves appear ; at low elevations they may appear as early 
as February. The white flowers appear with the new leaves, but occasionally 
trees may be seen flowering out of season, as late as July. The fruit is a globose 
five-celled pome 0-6-1 -2 in. in diameter, greenish brown, covered with raised 
light grey dots, resembling a miniature apple, with brownish black shining 
seeds like small apple seeds. The fruits become full-sized by about July or 
August, but remain hard, with a firm whitish very astringent flesh until 
November-December, when the flesh begins to rot and turn black and sweetish ; 

J Working Plan for the Darjeeling Forests, 1893. - Gamble, Darjeeling List. 




Fig. 185. Prunus Pad us growing gregariously, with an underwood of 

Taxus baccata, Hazara. 




J3 









CI 



s 



XI 




^ a 



3 3 



c O 

O 



2^ 






^ ^ 



sc 



i c 



X ;; X 



O si 



r 


r 






ti^ 








3b ^ 


flf 


bC 


o 


C 












0) 


(D 


<u 




ki 


s 


cS 


^, 


Q 


p 


^ 








+J 


^ 


<-M 










^ 


TC 








o 






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X :: 



PYRUS 491 

they are conspicuous on the leafless trees during the earlier part of the winter. 
The fruits are left untouched by birds, though sometimes eaten by monkeys, 
until they become over-ripe, in which condition they are eagerly devoured by 
birds, including crows, which visit the leafless trees in winter, testing each 
fruit and eating those which have become soft and leaving those which have 
not yet reached this condition ; in this way the seeds are scattered. 

Gamble notes that the leaves are attacked by the fungus Gymnosporangium 
Cunning JM7nia7ium, BarcL, whose alternate generation is on the Himalaj'an 
cypress, and that another species is also found on it, G. clavariaeforme, Jacq., 
whose alternate generation is probably on the juniper. 

The growth is moderate. Gambles specimens showed 8 rings per inch 
of radius, or a mean annual girth increment of 0-78 in. A cross-section 
2 ft. 10 in. in girth in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun had 31 rings, 
giving a mean annual girth increment of 1-1 in. 



ORDER XXV. HAMAMELIDACEAE 
Genera 1. Bucklandia, R. Br.; 2. Parrotia, C. A. Meyer. 

1. BUCKLANDIA, R. Br. 

Bucklandia populnea, R. Br. Vern. Pipli, E. Him. 

A tall handsome evergreen tree with cordate shining coriaceous leaves 
and thick fleshy stipules. Bark of poles blackish and slightly rough, that of 
old trees reddish brown and deeply furrowed. The bole is long but seldom 
entirely free from side branches, and the crown is dense and spreading ; poles 
grown in the open are pyramidal in shape, and often have several leading 
shoots. The tree reaches very large dimensions, attaining a height up to 
140 to 150 ft. Mr. H. S. Gibson records a tree 22 ft. 6 in. in girth (see Fig. 186) ; 
the largest apparently sound stem measured by him was 17 ft. in girth. 

This is one of the most valuable trees of the Darjeeling hills, with a reddish 
brown durable wood used for planking, flooring, door and window frames, 
and many other purposes. It is one of the best trees for afforestation and 
for the protection of hill slopes liable to landslips ; it is also an excellent 
soil-improver. It was at one time so extensively cut out in the Darjeeling 
forests that there are now very few large trees left, and the timber seldom 
comes on to the market ; it is, however, being extensively planted. 

Distribution and habitat. The eastern Himalaya, Khasi hills, Manipur, 
and the hills oi Martaban. In the Darjeeling hills it is found between 3,000 
and 8,000 ft., but thrives best between 4,000 and 6,500 ft. The climate here 
is moist, the normal rainfall being about 120 to 160 in. The tree is found 
on various aspects ; a northerly aspect suits it best, no doubt owing to 
favourable conditions of soil moisture, but plantations on southerly dry slopes 
have succeeded well, showing thati- it is adaptable. It prefers a thoroughly 
moist sandy loam, though it does well on clayey soils, and is not exacting : 
it grows better in depressions than on ridges. The tree grows in mixture with 
other species of the Darjeeling hills, but has a great tendency to regenerate 
on newly exposed ground on landslips and similar places, where it often forms 



492 XXV. HAMAMELIDACEAE 

pure groups ; on such places it is frequently associated with Alnus nepalensis, 
which also regenerates freely on newly exposed ground. It occurs sometimes 
on precipitous ground. 

Flow^ering and fruiting. The tree produces flowers and fruits at 
various seasons, and one tree in flower and another in fruit may be found 
side by side. The fruit is a small globose capsule, in which the lower seeds 
are winged and fertile and the upper ones are sterile. The seeds (Fig. 189, a) 
are 0-2-0-3 in. long, compressed, angular, reddish brown, smooth, moderately 
hard, light, about 7,000 weighing 1 oz. The small light winged seeds are 
capable of being blown to a considerable distance by the wind. Good seed- 
years are of frequent occurrence. Although seed is obtainable at almost any 
time of year, Mr. J. R. P. Gent has observed that seed collected in March 
gives the best results, possibly because the climatic conditions in the foUo^Aing 
months are most favourable for germination and early development ; these 
conditions are sufficient warmth and probable showers of rain in May. Great 
care is necessary in collecting the seed. If collected a day or two before it is 
actually ripe it will not germinate, while if collection be delayed too long 
the seed wiU have escaped from the capsules. The fruits should therefore be 
collected when they are just commencing to open and spread in the sun to 
open them, the seed then being shaken out and sown at once. 

Germination (Fig. 189, b-i). Epigeous. The whitish radicle emerges 
from one end of the seed, the hypocotyl elongates by arching and soon 
straightens, carrying the cotyledons above ground. The testa is almost always 
carried up over the cotyledons, and frequently adheres to the end of one of 
them after they expand, eventually falling to the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 189). 

Boots : primary root moderately long, at first thin and delicate, after- 
wards wiry, flexuose : lateral roots numerous, long, fibrous. Hypocotyl 
distinct from root, 0-5-0 -8 in. long, terete or slightly compressed, white or pink 
turning green, minutely pubescent. Cotyledons : petiole about 0-05 in. long : 
lamina 0-3-0-35 in. by 0-2 in., foliaceous, somewhat fleshy, elliptical or ovate, 
apex rounded, entire, glabrous. Stem erect, terete or slightly compressed, 
pubescent, appearing jointed owing to the ring-like scars left by the stipules 
after falling. Leaves simple, alternate. Stipules 0-2 by 0-1 in. in young seed- 
lings, up to 0-8 by 0-4 in. in second season, somewhat unequally elliptical, 
pubescent, enclosing the terminal bud, deciduous. Petiole 0-2-2 in., pubescent. 
Lamina 1-2-.5 in. by 0-9-2 in., cordate, acuminate, entire, glabrous above, 
slightly pubescent beneath, venation arcuate with five prominent veins from 
the base. The leaves increase considerably in size, to about 4-5 in. long and 
broad in the second season. 

The growth of the seedling for the first few years is somewhat slow. It 
reaches a height of only a few inches by the end of the first season, adding 
a few inches more by the end of the second season ; plants raised at Dehra 
Dun were 4-10 in. high at the end of the second season. The seedlings are 
capable of stanrling a fair amomit of shade, but once established they develop 
much better if full light is admitted ; shade tests at Dehra Dun showed that 
they are killed by very dense shade. In heavy weed-growth the young plants 
become suppressed, but if they surmount the weeds their strong leaders 
penetrate through almost anything. At Dehra Dun they were found to damp 





f 







Fig. 189. Bucklandia 2)02)ulnea. Seedling. 

a, seed X | ; h-i, germination stages (b-h x f , * x j) ; j-l, development of seedling during first 
season x J ; w, seedling early in second season x ^. 



494 XXV. HAMAMELIDACEAE 

off if given too much water. The seedling is sensitive to frost, but in its 
natuj'al home it is usually out of danger after it reaches a height of 3 or 4 ft. 
At Dehra Dun seedlings in the open were killed in large numbers during the 
winter. The young plant is not usually considered very sensitive to drought 
in the Darjeeling hills, but at Dehra Dun seedlings in the open died off in 
large numbers during the hot weather even when watered, whereas those 
kept under slight shade survived. 

SiiiVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a shade-bearer, and also gives 
heavy shade ; it develops best, however, with abundant overhead light, 
though it requires to be grown in a close crop in order to counteract its 
tendency to form numerous side branches. Fig. 187 shows a pole grown in 
a crop sufficiently dense to produce a clean bole. It does not coppice except 
when young, and it does not produce root-suckers. It is sensitive to frost 
in youth, but later it is immune in its natural home. In dry situations it is 
liable to suffer from prolonged drought, but in the Darjeeling hills it is seldom 
severely tried in this respect. It is very sensitive to fire, and although pole 
crops are capable of surviving light ground fires they are killed by severe 
fires. The young plants are sensitive to grazing ; they are readily eaten by 
cattle and by deer, and plantations accordingly require to be fenced, par- 
ticularly against the latter. 

Natural REPRODUCTioisr. As already mentioned, the small light winged 
seeds are carried by wind to a considerable distance from the tree, and seedlings 
are therefore often found a long way from any seed-bearer. The tendency to 
regenerate in masses on newly exposed ground on landslips and similar places 
has already been noted : this is a characteristic of many species with small 
light seeds, and is due largely to the fact that such seeds are unable to reach 
the ground when it is covered with a mass of undergrowth or a low thick 
herbaceous growth of weeds and grass, while the small seedling is unable to 
effect contact with the mineral soil except where the latter is exposed. Natural 
seedlings, however, are not confined to landslips, and are found in other places 
where there is no heavy soil-covering and where the shade is not too dense 
for their development, for instance along paths, on ridges, and sometimes in 
the forest itself where conditions are favourable. 

Artificial reproduction. The tree has been extensively grown in 
plantations in the Darjeeling hills. Seed is sometimes sown broadcast on 
landslips, but otherwise transplanting from the nursery is the invariable rule. 
Pure plantations have been found to give better results than plantations 
where Bucklandia is mixed with Michelia excelsa and oaks. Experience has 
also shown the unsatisfactory results of wide spacing owing to the tendency 
of this species to form numerous side branches ; a spacing of not more than 
6 ft. by G ft. is now considered advisable. 

The usual method adopted in the forest nurseries in the Darjeeling hills 
is to sow freshly collected seed in nursery beds of fine earth in March or April, 
the seed being lightly covered with earth. The seedlings are either pricked 
out 6 in. by 6 in. at the end of the first season and again transplanted 6 in. 
apart in lines 9 in. apart at the end of the second season, or left for two years 
in the seed-beds and transplanted into nursery lines 1 ft. apart in the third 
season. Beds containing seedlings up to two years old are protected by screens 




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BUCKLANDIA 495 

from heavy rain, from frost in the winter, and from a hot sun in the summer. 
The seedHngs are usually kept in the nursery until four years old, by which 
time they are about 3 ft. high and are large enough to plant out into the 
forest ; they can be transplanted when three years old, but they are usually 
somewhat small and the extra cost of cleaning makes it preferable to keep 
them a year longer in the nursery. 

Transplanting is usually carried out in the rainy season from June till 
early August. A break in the rains is considered the best time, as plants 
pitted out in rainy weather are apt to become water-logged and to die owing 
to an accumulation of water in the pit. Nursery plants often have too much 
foliage, and this should be reduced at the time of planting to prevent excessive 
transpiration. Winter planting is possible, but the risk of frost damage makes 
rains planting preferable. In places subject to severe frost it is customary 
to protect the plants during the first year after transplanting, usually by means 
of a leafy branch stuck in the ground beside the plant and broken over it. 
The plantations require to be fenced against deer. 

In the Mongpoo plantations of the Cinchona Department a different 
method is adopted. The seed is sown in March and April in well-manured 
seed-beds under the shelter of double bamboo mats. When about 3 in. high 
the seedlings are pricked out about 3 in. apart : they are kept well weeded 
and watered, and by the end of June in the second year are about 8 or 9 in. 
high. The shelter of bamboo mats is then gradually removed and the seedlings 
are transplanted with balls of earth, the planting holes being dug to a depth 
of 18 in. at least a fortnight in advance. The plants are tended carefully for 
the first year or so after they are put out, and when there is danger of drought 
the ground around their roots is covered with grass. When the ground becomes 
hard it is forked up all round the plants. Under this treatment the growth is 
fast, the plants attaining a height of 20 ft. in seven or eight years on good soil. 

Fig. 190 shows a young plantation, and Figs. 188 and 191 show older 
plantations. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. Tile best treatment for Bucklandia is to 
grow it in dense pure crops with sufficient side shade to prevent the formation 
of side branches but with abundant overhead light to promote height-growth. 
The tending of natural plants or crops as well as of plantations requires to be 
carried out with this object in view. 

Rate of growth. Young plants ordinarily reach a height of 3 ft. in 
five years and 8 to 15 ft. in ten years. At fifteen years the height is about 
15 to 25 ft., and at twenty years about 30 to 40 ft., with a girth of \\ to 2 ft. 
According to Gamble the radial growth is 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius, repre- 
senting a mean annual girth increment of 0-9 to 1 in., which is fairly fast. 

A plantation below Rangirum in the Darjeeling hills, shown in Fig. 191, 
was measured in 1917 with the following results : 





No. of stems 


Mean 


Mean 


Solid volume 


Age. 


j)er acre. 


girth. 


height. 


per acre. 


years. 




in. 


ft. 


cub. ft. 


38 


220 


36-2 


79 


4,517 (timber 2,889 cub. ft.) 



A thinning carried out that year gave a total of 1,632 cub. ft., of which 
timber amounted to 878 cub. ft. 



496 XXV. HAMAMELIDACEAE 

2. PARROTIA, C. A. Meyer. 

Parrotia Jacquemontiana, Dene. Himalayan witch-hazel. Vern. Pdser, 
kildr, shtar, Punjab. 

A large gregarious deciduous shrub or small tree, strongty resembling 
a hazel, occurring between 3,000 and 8,500 ft. in the Himalaya from the 
Jumna westward. It is used chiefly for wicker-work for the walls of houses 
and for rope-bridges, the twigs being flexible and very tough : it is also used 
for walking-sticks and other purposes. Silviculturally it is of importance 
owing to the abundance with which it springs up as an underwood in certain 
localities. It coppices very vigorously, stands a certain amoujit of shade, and 
forms dense masses which impede the reproduction of deodar, blue pine, 
and other trees. It is a good soil-improver, and if it can be kept down 
sufficiently to allow young deodar and pine to penetrate its cover they grow 
well : the only means of ensm-ing this seems to be to cut back the Parrotia 
repeatedly, a costly operation owing to its vigorous power of coppicing. 

ORDER XXVI. RHIZOPHORACEAE 

This order comprises for the most part a number of littoral species collec- 
tively known as mangroves, which, together with certain species belonging to 
other natural orders, make up the curious littoral forest formation known as 
mangrove swamp. Of non-littoral species the most important is CaraUia 
lucida, Roxb. 

Mangrove swamp. Mangrove forest is found in littoral regions through- 
out the tropics, not along sandy beaches or rocky shores which are exposed to 
the full force of the wind and the waves, but in the estuaries of rivers, in creeks 
and lagoons, and on low islands where the force of these agencies is not so 
strong. In such places the mangrove belt occupies a strip of low-lying muddy 
ground, subject to inundation by ordinary tides, the strip varjdng in width 
from less than a hundred yards to several miles. 

Distribution and species. In a classification of the mangrove forma- 
tions of the world two broad but well-defined areas are distinguishable an 
eastern area embracing East Africa, Asia, and the Polynesian Islands do\\ai 
to Australia, and a western area comprising the coasts of America and West 
Africa. The species in the respective areas are distinct, but the eastern area 
is far richer in species than the western. The most extensive and highly 
developed mangrove forests are found in the Malayan region, and particularly 
in the island of Borneo, where the configuration of the country favours the 
formation of mangrove swamps over large areas in the coastal regions.^ 

In the Indo-Burman region the mangrove forests are distributed to 
a greater or less extent in suitable localities throughout the coastal regions, 
from the delta of the Indus in Sind southwards along the west coast of the 
Peninsula down to Travancore, from the Sundarbans southwards along the 
east coast of the Peninsula and down the coast of Chittagong, Arakan, and 
Burma ; also along the coast of the Andamans and adjacent islands. The 
mangrove forests of Arakan are estimated to cover 948 square miles, while 
1 Distribution and Utilization of the Mangrove Swamps of Malaya, F. W. Foxworthy, 1909 
(Ann. Jarcl. Bot. Buitenzorg, 2" s6r., Suppl. HE). 



RHIZOPHORACEAE 



497 



there are further large stretches of mangrove both north and south of Mergui 
along the coast and round the islands. 

The natural orders and the principal species which make up the mangrove 
formations of the Indo-Burman region, and the localities in which they are 
known to occur, are given in the following tentative table : 

Distribution of mangrove swamp species in the Indo-Burman region. 











CD 










Natural order. 


Specis. 


3 

-a 


11' 






1 1 






a 








ndian 

west c 


ndian 
east c( 


3 

3 


3 


4, 

a 

3 


a 

cS 

a 






'J2 


1 1 


hH 


xa. 


'O 


PQ 


<1 


Rhizophoraceae 


Rhizophora mucronata. Lam. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




R. conjugata, Linn. 


X 


X 


? 


? 


X 


X 


X 




Ceriops Cmidollmna, Am. 


X 


X 


? 


X 




^ , 


X 




C. Roxburghiana, Am. 


X 


X 


? 


X 


X 


X 






Kandelia Rheedii, W. and A. 


, , 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Lam. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




B. eriopetala, W. and A. 




xi 














B. caryophylloides, Bl. 




X2 




, ^ 





x3 


, , 




B. parvi flora, W. and A. 




, ^ 




X 




X3 


X 


Meliaceae 


Carapa obovata, Bl. 




X 


? 


X 


X 


X 


X 




C. moluccensis, Lam. 








X 






X 


Leguminosae 


Cynometra ramiflora, Linn. 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Combretaceae 


Lumnitzera racemosa, Willd. 




X 


? 


X 


X 


X 


X 




L. coccinea, W. and A. 














x 


X5 


Lythraceae 


Somieratia acida, Linn. f. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




S. apetala. Ham. 




X 


? 


X 


X 


X 


, , 




8. alba. Smith 




X 








x4 


X 




S. Griffithii, Kurz 













X 




E/ubiaceae 


Scyphiphora kydrophyllacea, 
Gaertn. 






X 








X 


Myrsinaceae 


Aegiceras majus, Gaertn. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Acanthaceae 


Acanthus ilk if alius, Linn. 




X 


? 


X 


X 


X 




Verbenaceae 


Avicennia officinalis, Linn. 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Euphorbiaceae 


Excaecaria Agallocha, Linn. 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Palmeae 


Nipafruticans, Wurmb. 








X 


X 


X 


X 




Phoenix paludosa, Roxb. 




. . 


. . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


^ Malabar and Travancore. 2 


Travancore. 






3 Tenasserim 






* Mereui. 






^ Nicobars. 









Although the species mentioned in this table occur in the mangrove 
swamps, some of them are by no means confined to them, and may extend to 
the drier ground farther inland. 

Characteristics of mangrove swamps. Mangrove swamps are formed 
on the silt which is washed down by rivers and creeks, and which, subject to 
occasional erosion, gradually spreads seawards, the mangrove spreading with 
it and helping, by means of its dense growth and mass of roots, to hold up the 
silt and form new land. As the silt accumulates the ground graduallj'^ rises 
and becomes drier, and an entirely new formation replaces the mangrove ; 
this formation occurs on land which is inundated only by spring tides, and 
is commonly known as tidal forest. The most important Indian species of the 
tidal forest is the sundri (Heritiera Fomes). Although some of the species of 
the mangrove swamp extend into this forest many new species appear. The 
mangrove formation extends up rivers sometimes for miles, and is usually 
intersected by numerous creeks, Avhich are often dry at low tide but can be 

2307.2 jj 



498 XXVI. RHIZOPHORACEAE 

ascended by boats at high tide. The ground is a soft mud which is often 
knee-deep, but can be traversed on foot, with some difhcidty and discomfort, 
at low tide. On the seaward side there is usually a stretch of shallow water 
into which the mangrove is spreading, and approach by boat from that side is 
often difficult or impossible ; the mangrove swamp can, however, be penetrated 
by boat and often by launch, along the creeks. 

Root-system. The root-system of the mangroves is highly specialized. 
In the case of Bhizophora the lower part of the stem dies early, and the stem 
is supported by numerous stilt-like roots which raise it above the mud, while 
aerial roots are sent down from the stem and branches and anchor themselves 
in the ground. These stilt -roots are covered by water at high tide and exposed 
at low tide. Bhizophora is usually characteristic of the outer edge of the 
mangrove swamp, and the mass of stilt-roots is a conspicuous sight on approach- 
ing the shore. These peculiar stilt -roots are not conspicuously developed in 
other species of the mangrove formation except in Acanthus ilicifolius, a thistle- 
like herbaceous or shrubby plant with pricldy leaves, which sometimes forms 
a dense undergrowth. In other species the roots are superficial, twisting 
about on the surface of the mud, sometimes ribbon-shaped as in Carapa 
ohovata, sometimes bending out of the mud in the form of knees (i. e. knee- 
rooted), as in Bruguiera, Kandelia, and Lumnitzera. Some species produce 
pneumatophores which rise out of the mud from the superficial roots and 
resemble inverted tent-pegs. The ribbon-roots, knee-roots, and vertical 
pneumatophores, some mere knobs or finger-like outgrowths and others, as 
in Sonneratia apetala and Avicennia officinalis, of considerable size, are all 
adaptations for supplying the roots with oxygen, and are covered with lenticels 
or exhibit other devices for breathing purposes, such as the shedding of cortex. 

Leaf-structure. The habitat of the mangroves, namely swamp^^ 
ground impregnated with salt, is a physiologically dry one, and the leaves of 
the trees therefore possess a marked xerophilous structure, ' with a thick 
cuticle, large mucilage-cells, protected stomata, and especially a large-celled 
thin-walled, aqueous tissue, the dimensions of which increase with the age of 
the leaf and v/ith the corresponding rise in the amount of salt contained. Old 
leaves serve essentially as water-reservoirs for the younger leaves ' (Schimper). 

Germination. One of the most interesting characteristics of the Rhizo- 
phoraceae is that they exhibit vivipary. The fruit is indehiscent, and there is 
no resting stage for the embryo as in the case of normal seeds. As soon as the 
fruit is fully developed the embryo commences to grow inside it ; the radicle 
soon pierces its apex, and the hypocotyl elongates and protrudes, hanging 
vertically from the fruit. After it has reached a length varying from a few 
inches in some species to 1^-2 ft. or more in the case of Bhizophora mucronata , 
the embryo plant falls, leaving the cotyledons inside the fruit, which remains 
on the tree. The lower part of the hypocotyl is tliicker than the upper part, 
and in some cases the lower extremity (radicle) comes to a sharp point ; when 
the embryo falls into the mud, therefore, it becomes firmly planted in a more 
or less vertical position. Within a short time of falling the young seedling- 
produces rootlets from its lower extremity, thus fin-ther establishing itself, 
and before long the first pair of foliage leaves are produced at its apex. Tlie 
embryos are buoj'ant. and if they do not obtain an immediate footing under 



RHIZOPHORACEAE 499 

the parent tree, or are uprooted, they are carried by water and find a resting- 
place in the mud, eventually establishing themselves in an upright position 
through the positively geotropic nature of the lower extremity and the 
negatively geotrophic nature of the upper extremity (shoot). 

It will thus be seen that the term sowing or dibbling of mangrove seed is 
strictly speaking incorrect ; it is the embryo or young seedling which is planted 
in the ground. 

In the other species of the mangrove formation vivipary is also exhibited 
by Aegiceras majus and Avicennia officinalis, and although it does not occur 
in other species, the embryos of some, particularly those of Acanthus ilicifolius, 
are always further developed than is usual in inland plants. 

Local occurrence of species. The requirements of the various species 
of the mangrove swamp differ to some extent, particularly as regards water, 
and their local distribution is influenced accordingly. The species of Rhizo- 
phora grow typically on the outer and seaward fringe of the swamp, wher'^ 
the water is most salty and exposure to wind and wave is greatest. R. mucro- 
nata can apparently live in pure salt water, for Schimper notes that he has 
seen it thriving on the rocky ground of the coral islands of the Java Sea, where 
there is no fresh water. ^ Geriops spp. grow well out in the swamp. Bruguiera 
gymnorhiza and B. parviflora require a greater admixture of fresh water, and 
grow farther inland behind the RhizopJiora, the first named, the largest of the 
mangroves, overtopping the surrounding vegetation. Sonneratia spp. and 
Avicennia, officinalis not only grow in deep mud in the mangrove swamp, but 
also extend some distance inland into the tidal forest, and are found in the 
upper stretches of the tidal streams. Carapa spp. occur mainly in the drier 
parts of the swamp, often near or just beyond high- water mark, and extend 
into the tidal forest in areas remote from the mangrove swamp. Avicennia 
officinalis may occur near the outer edge of the swamp or at some distance 
up tidal streams on wet ground : it sometimes comes up in abundance on 
cleared areas. Acanthus ilicifolius sometimes forms a rather dense prickly 
undergrowth, growing near the sea. The palm Nipa fruiicans is at times very 
abundant, not only in the mangrove swamp but also in the drier tidal forest 
beyond high tide, forming fringes along the banks of creeks. 

Interference with the free flow of tidal water and of fresh water from the 
landward side may alter the character of or destroy the normal vegetation 
of the mangrove swamp. Thus at Port Blair in the Andamans attempted 
reclamation by means of embankments has rendered large areas unfit for the 
growth of mangroves, and marshy blanks have resulted. 

Method of working mangrove forest. The working of mangrove 
forest is carried out under difterent methods. The coppicing and pollarding 
capacity of the different species have not been studied in detail. In unregulated 
fellings rough pollarding is often carried out. Working plans for mangrove 
areas in the Madras Presidency prescribe coppice fellings under a rotation of 
five years in one case and ten years in another. Larger trees which have been 
pollarded are said to have thrown out vigorous pollard-shoots. In the Anda- 
mans a considerable area has been clear-felled and replanted. In the Federated 
Malay States the selection system is in operation, the felling cycle being twenty 

1 Plant Geography, p. 396. .; 

M 2 



500 XXVI. RHIZOPHORACEAE 

years, and the minimum felling limit being a girth of 1 ft. at 4| ft. from ground- 
level. The system is said to be difficult to control, and when, as sometimes 
happens, the crop consists mainly of stems 1 ft. in girth and over, clearings 
may result, and artificial reproduction has to be resorted to.^ The retention 
of seed-bearers in such places should help to regenerate the blanks naturally. 

Artificial reproduction. Artificial reproduction is a simple matte/;, 
the embryos being collected off the ground after falling and stuck vertically 
in the mud. In the Andamans mangrove plantations were commenced in 
1897, the species employed being Rhizophora mucronata, R. conjugafa, Bruguiera 
gymnorhiza, B. parvifiora, Kandelia Rheedii, and Ceriops Candolleana. These 
plantations were extended until 1908, when the total area amounted to 685 
acres, the cost of creation being Rs. 5,368 or slightly under Rs. 8 per acre. 
The original spacing is said to have been 3 ft. by 3 ft., which proved to be 
excessively close, and some years later alternate rows were cut out, as well as 
alternate saplings in each row, leaving a spacing of 6 ft. by 6 ft. These planta- 
tions have suffered much from the erection of bunds already referred to, whereby 
the flow of fresh and tidal water was interfered with. 

In Burma in 1908 five acres in the Zapathwe fuel reserve in the Hantha- 
waddy district were cleared of all undergrowth and species of little value and 
planted 4 ft. by 4 ft. at the end of October with Rhizophora mucronata (2 acres), 
R. conjugata (1 acre), and Kandelia Rheedii (2 acres). The overhead clearance 
caused early drying of the mud, while hog-deer ate off the main shoots, with 
the result that only about 30 per cent, of the seedlings survived until the 
following May, and these were in poor condition. Similar experiments with 
Rhizophora mucronata and R. conjugatu in the Mingalun fuel reserve in the 
same district gave better results, about 30 per cent, of the former species and 
40 per cent, of the latter being in good condition, with a height of about 
2| ft., by the following May. In the Federated Malay States the embryos 
are usually dibbled in 4 ft. by 4 ft. or 6 ft. by 4 ft., and the percentage of sur- 
vivals is high, almost the only danger being from crabs, wliich eat through 
the stem at its base. 

Rate of growth and out-turn. The rate of growth of mangroves is 
said to be slow, but actual statistics are not available except in the case of 
the Andamans plantations, where Rhizophora mucronata and Bruguiera gym- 
norhiza attained a height of 30-35 ft. and a girth of 9-12 in. in fifteen years. 
Sample plots in Arakan gave an average yield per acre of 3 tons of bark and 
25 tons of wood in clear-felled coupes. 

Genera 1. Rhizophora, Linn. ; 2. Ceriops, Am.; 3. Kandelia, W. and 
A. ; 4. Bruguiera, Lam. ; 5. Carallia, Roxb. 

L RHIZOPHORA, Linn. 

Species 1. R. mucronata. Lam. ; 2. R. conjugata,, Linn. 

1. Rhizophora mucronata, Lam. Vern. Bfutra, Beng. ; Randal, Mar. ; 
Kamo, Sind ; Uppu pottm, Tel. ; Pyu, Burm. 

A small to moderate-sized evergreen tree with elliptical mucronate leaves 
4-7 in. long, the young branches thick and prominently marked with the scars 
of fallen leaves and stipules. Bark fairly smooth, brown. This tree produces 
1 The Mangrove Forests of the West Coast, F.M.S., J. P. Mead, 1912. 



RHIZOPHORA 501 

characteristic stilt-roots, the lower portion of the stem dying early and the 
tree remaining propped up on numerous roots which are submerged at high 
tide and stand out of the mud at low tide. Aerial roots are also produced 
from the branches, these fixing themselves in the mud. This tree is the one 
most commonly found on the outer fringes of the mangrove swamp where 
the water is decidedly salty and the action of the tides and waves is most 
strongly felt : its peculiar root-system therefore is of special advantage in 
forming an anchorage to withstand this action. 

The conspicuous white flowers appear in the hot season and rainy season, 
and the fruits ripen in the rainy season. The fruit (Fig. 192, a) is 1-5-2 in, 
long, conical-ovoid, pendulous, coriaceous, rough, dark brown. The hypo- 
cotyl (Fig. 192, b-d), which emerges through the apex of the fruit, is sharp 
pointed and rough with lenticels. Before dropping it attains a considerable 
length, ordinarily up to 1| 2 ft., but sometimes longer, and the seedling ie 
thus able to establish itself in water of some little depth, the sharp point of the 
hypocotyl penetrating the mud and the young plant being kept upright while 
the roots are rapidly developed and the first pair of foliage leaves appear at 
the apex of the shoot. >Seedlings which have established themselves in this 
way may often be found in quantity in the mud and shallow water round the 
parent trees. The tree commences to produce fruits at an early age. 

The sapwood is light red and the heartwood dark red, hard, but splits in 
seasoning. It is a good fuel. The bark is used for tanning. 

2. Rhizophora conjugata, Linn, Vern. Pyu-tna, Burm. 

A tree somewhat smaller than, but with habits similar to those of the 
last species, with which it is commonly associated. The leaves are narrower 
and darker than in R. mucronata ; it can be most easily distinguished by the 
calyx-lobes, which are pale yellow within. The fruit is about 1 in. long ; the 
hypocotyl is smaller than in B. mucronata, up to about 1 ft. long. 

2. CERIOPS. Arnott. 

> 

Species I. C. Candolleana, Arn. ; 2. C. Roxhurgliiana, Arn. 

1. Ceriops Candolleana, Arn. Vern. Goran, Beng. ; Gimuri, Sind. 

2, Ceriops Roxburghiana, Arn. Vern. Goran, Beng. ; Guttia, Chittagong ; 
Kahaing, Burm. 

Small evergreen trees resembling each other in appearance and habit, 
and distinguished mainly by the inflorescence, which is more compact in the 
latter than in the former. The bark of both species contains a great deal of 
red colouring matter. The stem is not supported by stilt-roots as in Rhizophora, 
but aerial roots are sent down from the branches, and small or inconspicuous 
pneumatophores are produced. The fruit, which is about 1 in. long, ripens 
in August-September, and the hypocotyl when it falls is 4-6 in. long by 0-25-- 
0-35 in. in diameter, longitudinally grooved and ribbed, tapering upwards : 
about 120-150 of the embryos weigh 1 lb. Fig. 192, e-g, shows germination 
and the development of the young seedling. 

Brandis gives the respective distribution of the two species as follows : 
C. Gandolleana. Tidal forests of Sind, the Indian Peninsula, Bengal, and 
the Andamans. Sea-coast of tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. 



T .a 





^i 



4 



! >? 




V'-,:i| 



Fig. 192. Hhizophoraceae. Germination. 

Rhizophora mucronata x} ; a, fruit ; b, fruit with radicle protruding ; c, fruit with embrjo (hypo- 

cotyl) half grown ; d, embryo after falling from fruit. 
Ceriops Candolleana x^; e, fruit with protruding hypocotyl fully developed ; /, embryo detached 

from fruit ; g, h. development of j'^oung seedling. 



CERIOPS 503 

C. Moxburghiana. Simdarbans, coast of Burma, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. 

Both are indiscriminately known in the >Sundarbans as goran, and are in 
great demand for fuel and house-posts. The goran is often gregarious, forming 
nearly pure forests in many places ; it is also found in mixture with various 
other species. In Chittagong, Ceriops is worked as coppice on a rotation of 
eight years for the production of small fuel and of bark, the latter being sold 
to fishermen for tanning their nets. In the Malay region the bark is considered 
superior to that of any other mangrove for cutch making : it is also used for 
dyeing a red colour. 

3. KANDELIA, Wight and Arn. 

Kaudelia Rheedii, W. and A. Vern. Goria, Beng. ; Madama, Burm. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree with spongy reddish brown flaky bark, 
eUiptical oblong leaves 3-5 in. long, and white flowers. Fruits ovoid, 0-5-1 in. 
long, encircled by the calyx lobes ; hypocotyl up to 15 in. long. This man- 
grove is not as a rule so common as most of the others ; it occurs usually on 
the banks of tidal rivers some little distance inland, and not so much near the 
sea-face. The wood is soft, and is used only for fuel and charcoal. 

4. BRUGUIERA, Lam. 

Species 1. B. gymrwrhiza, Lam. ; 2. B. eriopetaJa, W. and A. ; 3. B. caryo- 
phylloides, Bl. ; 4. B. parviflora, W. and A. 

1. Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Lam. Vern. Kankra, Beng. ; Kandal, Mai. 
This, the largest of the mangroves, is an evergreen tree attaining under 

favoiu-able conditions a height of 80 ft., though in India a height of 30-40 ft. 
is more usual. In Malaya it is said to reach a height up to 100 ft. and a girth 
up to 5 or 6 ft. Bark rough, dark, with large corky lenticular patches. Flowers 
large, solitary, orange or red. Fruit 0-7-1 in. long, enclosed in the calyx tube 
and crowned by the 12-14 red calyx lobes. The hypocotyl usually grows to 
6-12 in. in length before di'opping, but may attain a length of 2 ft. The flowers 
and fruits are produced from June to October. 

This tree is a common one in the mangrove forests of the Indian region, 
being associated with the two species of Ehizophora and occurring as a rule 
immediately behind them. Unlike these, however, it is not supported on stilt- 
roots, but produces knee-roots along the surface of the ground. 

Bourdillon says it is very common on the backwaters about Quilon, form- 
ing with the two species of Rhizophora the majority of the mangroves seen 
there. Talbot says it is equally common with Rhizophora in the North Kanara 
mangrove formations, and Prain says it is the chief constituent of the mangrove 
jimgles in the Cocos Islands. 

The wood is reddish brown, very hard, used for beams, posts, planks, and 
firewood ; it is said to be difficult to split. The bark is sometimes used for 
tanning. 

2. Bruguiera eriopetala, W. and A. 

A tree strongly resembling the last species, but smaller, with large, solitar}^ 
yellow flowers. 



504 XXVI. RHIZOPHORACEAE 

3. Briiguiera caryophylloides, Bl., including B. tnalabarica, Arn. 

This is the smallest and probably the rarest species of the genus. The 
bark is thin, brown, the foliage light green, the leaves thinly coriaceous, and 
the flowers small, white, in 2- to 3-flowered cymes. The fruit is yellow, about 
0-5 in. long, and the hypocotyl reaches a length of about 6-8 in. before falling. 
Flowering and fruiting take place in the rainy season. 

4. Bruguiera parviflora, W. and A. 

A small tree, widely distributed in the mangrove formations of the Eastern 
Hemisphere, and often very common, sometimes forming pure crops in the 
middle of the mangrove swamp. In some localities it attains a fair height, 
but it is always of small girth : in the Indian region it is a small tree or a mere 
shrub. The foliage is yellowish green, paler than in the previous species. 
The fruit is about 1 in. long, enclosed in the enlarged calyx : the flowers and 
fruits appear in the rainy season. The hypocotyl is furrowed, truncate, 
and reaches a length of only 4-5 in. before falling. The tree grows on drier 
ground than RhizopJiora, chiefly away from the banks of streams, and often 
reproduces in great profusion. 

5. CARALLIA, Roxb. 

Carallia lucida, Roxb. Syn. C. integerrima, DC. Vern. Sliengali, panasi. 
Mar. ; Andi, andamuria, Kan. ; Karalli, Tel. ; Thekera-7ndM, Ass. ; Maniaivga, 
Burm. 

A moderate-sized to large handsome evergreen tree with a dense crown 
of shining opposite leathery elliptical leaves, and pronounced opposite branch- 
ing. Bark moderately thick, the outer dead bark corky, furrowed, dark grey 
outside, pink when cut, the inner living cortex pale greenish yellow or pinkish 
when newly cut, turning orange brown on exposure. There are numerous 
small corky excrescences on comparatively small-sized twigs of the previous 
year's growth ; the new twigs are green. The numerous broad meduUary rays 
are conspicuous as vertical streaks on the outer surface of the sapwood and 
on the inner surface of the cortex when the latter is stripped off. Sometimes 
the tree produces aerial roots, showing its relationship to the mangroves. 
The tree is at times mistaken for a Garcinia, and vice versa, but the pink 
corky bark is a distinctive feature, while the cut cortex of Garcinia spp. exudes 
a yellow gum-resin which is not present in that of Carallia. In Burma the 
tree reaches a height of 50-80 ft., with a girth of 6 or 7 ft. In the Indian 
Peninsula it is smaller. 

The wood is hard and very ornamental if cut radialty, the large medullary 
rays giving it the appearance of good oak ; the heartwood is red to chestnut- 
brown. The wood is suitable for panelling, furniture, picture -frames, and 
similar purposes. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is found in limited quantity in 
damp evergreen and swamp forests in the sub-Himalaj^an tract as far west as 
Dehra Dun ; it is very scarce in the west but commoner in the east. It occurs 
in Bengal, ascending to 4,000 ft. in Sikkim, Assam, Chittagong, Chota Nagpur 
along streams and ravines in Singhbhum (Haines), Orissa and the Circars, 
the Central Provinces in South Clianda along Howhig .streams in Ahiri and 



CARALLIA 505 

yironcha ranges (Haines), Western Ghats, Burma, chiefly in the moister parts 
of Pegu and Tenasserim : also in Ceylon, China, the Malay Peninsula and 
islands south to Australia. It is nowhere abundant, and is typical of moist 
localities, occurring in evergreen and semi-evergreen forests and along streams 
and moist shady ravines. In the Dehra Dun valley it is a constituent of true 
swamp forest, where it is associated with Diospyros Efnbryopteris , Putranjiva 
Roxburghii, Eugenia Jambolana, Ficus glomerata, Pterospermum acerifolium, 
Cedrela Toona, Bischoffia javanica, Alhizzia procera, Trewia nudiflora, and 
Calamus tenuis. In the Bengal Duars it occurs in moist evergreen and semi- 
evergreen forest associated withDillenia indica, Michelia, Amoora, Dysoxylum, 
Meliosma, Turpinia, Eugenia spp., Elaeocarpus spp., Garcinia spp., and several 
Lauraceae. 

Bourdillon says it is common in all the evergreen forests of Travancore 
up to 4,000 ft. Talbot says it is found throughout the tropical rain forests 
of the Konkan and North Kanara. In Burma Kurz, in his Preliminary Report, 
mentions that it is frequent in Pegu and Tenasserim up to 4,000 ft. on meta- 
morphic rocks, sandstones, and permeable laterite, in evergreen tropical and 
upper mixed forest ; it occurs also in the lower mixed forest where it verges 
on evergreen forest. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 110F., the absolute minimum from 33 to 65 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 50 to 200 in. or more. 

Flowering and fruiting. The small flowers with white petals, in 
trichotomous cymes, appear from December to March, and the fruits ripen 
about May-June. The fruit is globose, fleshy, 1-seeded, coriaceous. The seed 
is 0-2-0-3 in. in diameter, compressed, shaped like a crescent in which the 
horns are curled round to form an almost complete circle, reddish brown, 
somewhat rough, with a fairly thick hard testa and a copious white albumen : 
840-980 seeds weigh 1 oz. (samples from Burma). The seed is perishable, 
and while on the ground is verj' liable to rot and to be attacked by insects. 
It is difficult to explain the scattered distribution of the tree otherwise than 
by the dissemination of the seeds by bird agency. 

Germination. Epigeous. The testa splits round the edge, the radicle 
emerging through the opening so caused. The hypocotyl elongates by arching, 
raising the cotyledons above ground ; the ends of the cotyledons remain 
enclosed in the albumen of the seed for some little time before falling. 

The seedling. Seedlings cultivated at Dehra Dun showed slow develop- 
ment during the first two seasons, reaching a height of l|-2 in. by the end of 
the first season and 5-14 in. by the end of the second. In the earlier stages 
the young plants suffered much from the attacks of crickets. During the third 
and subsequent seasons growth was more vigorous, the height being 3 ft. 11 in. 
at the end of the third season, and 7 ft. 8 in., with a basal girth of lO-gin., at 
the end of the fifth season. The young plants were found to grow best under 
slight shade on ground kept well watered but loose. They proved sensitive 
to drought, but were not so frost-tender as might be expected from a tropical 
evergreen species. 

Seedlings at Dehra Dun had two to three pairs of leaves by the end of 
the first season, the cotyledons persisting until the end of the season. Side 



506 XXVI. RHIZOPHORACEAE 

branches commenced to form in the second season, and from the third season 
onwards the branching was vigorous, with copious foHage. The following 
characters apply to the young plant : 

Young stems bright green, somewhat flattened, with a longitudinal ridge 
up the centre of each flat side ; nodes swollen. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, 
finely serrulate, coriaceous, glabrous, shining, darker above than below, up 
to 5-5 in. by 1-5 in, by the end of the second season ; petiole 0-2-0-4 in. long. 
Young leaves very shiny, lighter green than the older ones, involute in the 
bud, with small acuminate interpetiolar stipules between them which quickly 
enlarge to 0'5-0-6 in. in length and fall, leaving well-marked brown scars 
extending across the shoot from base to base of the petioles. 

The serrulate leaves of young plants are interesting. In the older plants 
they are entire, or serrulate above the middle ; in the forest young trees up 
to 6 or 7 ft. high or more have been noticed with all the leaves serrulate 
throughout. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a shade-bearer. It coppices 
well and reproduces freely from root-suckers, which are sometimes produced 
in quantity on swampy ground. Frost does not ordinarily occur within its 
habitat except in the extreme north ; in the abnormal frost of 1905 it suffered 
severely in the Dehra Dun valley, where one tree was noticed to have been 
killed right down, but next year it shot up vigorously from the base. It is 
exacting as to soil, being found only on rich deep moist soil. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that 
owing to the large percentage of failure in the seed direct sowings cannot be 
relied on. Transplanting, however, is easy. The seed should be so"mi quite 
fresh in drills in fairly rich but porous soil about May-June, the beds being 
kept well weeded and watered, and sheltered from the sun in hot weather. 
The plants are ready for transplanting in the rainy season when two years old. 

This tree can also be grown successfully from cuttings, which should be 
kept in the nursery and watered and shaded until well rooted. 



ORDER XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

This order is one of great importance in Indian forestry, containing as it 
does several trees of considerable economic as well as silvicultural importance 
belonging to the genera Terminalia and Aiiogeissus. It also contains several 
climbers or scrambling shrubs of the genera Coinhretum, Quisqvalis, and 
Calycopteris. Of these Combretum decandrum, Roxb., conspicuous by the 
large white bracts of the inflorescence, is a particularly noxious climber. It 
is common in parts of the sub-Himalayan tract, for example on the hill slopes 
round Kalsi on the Jumna, in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, Chota Nagpur, and 
in parts of the Indian Peninsula. It forms dense masses, suppressing young 
seedling and coppice growth and climbing into the crowns of trees. It is very 
diflficult to deal with, as it grows rapidly and luxuriantly after cutting, and 
reproduces freely from seed, quantities of young seedlings appearing in the 
rainy season. 

Genera 1. Terminalia, Linn. ; 2. Anogeissus, Wall. ; 3. Lumnitzera, Willd. 



507 . 

1. TERMINALIA, Linn. 

This genus is of great importance both silviculturally and economically ; 
it comprises ten Indian species, all trees, some of which reach large dimensions. 
The climatic and other requirements of the species vary considerably, T. 
Oliveri being confined to the driest parts of Burma, while others such as 
T. myriocarpa, T. paniculata, T. bialata, and T. Catappa are characteristic of 
the moister regions, the last named being essentially a littoral species. T. 
tomentosa, T. Chehula, and T. helerica are very widely distributed, while 
T. Arjuna is pecidiarly restricted to the banks of streams, where, however, it 
is often abmidant within its region. 

The fruits vary. They are drupaceous in T. helerica, T. Chebula, and 
T. Catappa, ordinarily 5-winged in T. tomentosa, T. Arjuna, and T. Oliveri, 
unequally 3- winged in T. paniculata and T. myriocarpa, and broadly 2- winged 
in T. bialata. The germinative power of the seed is variable. In T. Chebula- 
it is poor, in T. belerica usually good, while in the other important species it is 
more variable but often indifferent. Germination is hypogeous in T. belerica 
and epigeous in T. tomentosa, T. Arjuna, T. Chebula, and T. myriocarpa. 
The straggling habit of the young plant is a peculiar feature in certain species, 
notably T. tomentosa, T. Arjuna, and T. inyriocarpa ; young plants of T. 
belerica are erect. 

Species I. T. belerica, Roxb. ; 2. T. Chebula, Retz. ; 3. T. tomentosa, W. 
and A. ; 4. T. Arjuna, Bedd. ; 5. T. myriocarpa, Heurck and Muell. Arg. ; 
6. T. Catappa, Linn.; 7. T. paniculata, Roth; 8. T. bialata, Steud. ; 9. T. 
Oliveri, Brandis. 

1. Terminalia belerica, Roxb. Vern. Bahera, Hind. ; Tare, Kan. ; Goting, 
bherda. Mar. ; Tani, Tam. ; Tandi, Tel. ; Thitsein, Burm. (Fig. 195.) 

A large deciduous tree, attaining a height of 120 ft. and a girth of 10 ft. 
or more, usually with a straight tall bole ; large trees are often buttressed at 
the base. Bark bluish or ashy grey, with numerous fine longitudinal cracks, 
yellow inside. Leaves broadly elliptical, 4-8 in. long, clustered at the ends of 
the branchlets. Wood yellowish grey, hard, not durable, but lasts fairly well 
under water, used for planking, packing-cases, boats, and other purposes. 
The fruits are used for tanning, but are inferior to those of T. Chebula. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is found in deciduous forests 
throughout the greater part of India and Burma, but not in arid regions. It 
is a common associate of the sal, the teak, and other important trees, occurring 
more or less scattered and not gregariously. In the Indian Peninsula it occurs 
most frequently in moist valleys. In Burma it is fairly common in deciduous 
forests both of the upper and of the lower mixed types, with or without teak. 

In its natiu?al habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 97 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 40 to 120 in. or more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. In northern India the 
leaves commence falling in some cases as early as November, some trees being 
almost leafless by the end of that month, while others may be in full leaf till 
the end of January. The trees remain leafless until March to May, when the 
new foliage appears. The spikes of small greenish white flowers appear in 



508 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

April-May with the young leaves ; they have a strong honey-like smell, which 
is almost overpowering at times. The fruits (Fig. 193, a) ripen from November 
to February and fall during the cold and hot seasons. The fruit is a somewhat 
dry fleshy drupe 1-1-5 in. long, ovoid, pyriform, ellipsoidal or globose, grey 
velvety tomentose, with a hard thick-walled woody light yellow putamen 
0-7-11 in. long (Fig. 193. b). The fruits are greedily eaten by monkeys, 
squirrels, pigs, deer, goats, and other animals, and are never allowed to lie 
long on the ground before being stripped of their fleshy covering : during the 
cold and hot seasons small clusters of the light yellowish fruit-stones may be 
foimd lying about the forest disgorged by deer in rumination. During the 
cold season the trees may often be seen with numerous withering branchlets, 
broken by monkeys in picking the fruits. The partiality of animals for the 
flesh of the ripe fruits is an assistance to the spread of the seed. On the other 
hand, much of the fruit crop is rendered ineffective by insects and animals. 
The immature fruits are attacked by insects during the rainy season, and 
may fall to the ground. The hard nuts of the fruits are very largely bored 
into by insects while lying on the ground, and the whole crop may be destroyed 
in this way. The nuts are also frequently broken open, for the sake of the 
kernel inside, by squirrels, pigs, and other animals, and in some localities it 
is rare to find a single sound nut on the ground by the beginning of the rainy 
season. 

The germinative power of the seed is better than that of most species of 
this genus, and much better than that of T. Chebula. Tests carried out at 
Dehra Dun showed a fertility of 86-100 per cent, for fresh seed and 5-40 
per cent, for seed kept one year. 

Germination (Fig. 193, c-e). Hypogeous, thus differing from that of 
the other species under consideration. The hard putamen splits into two 
halves, and the radicle emerges, a strong taproot soon establishing itself. 
Meanwhile the cotyledonary petioles elongate, curving in the process and 
separating sufficiently to enable the young shoot to issue from between them. 
The cotyledons and the remnants of the putamen remain in or on the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 193). 

Roots : primary root long, thick, terete, tapering, light brown : lateral 
roots moderate in number and length, fibrous, distributed down main root. 
Hypocotyl not very distinct, 0-2-0-3 in. long, subterranean. Cotyledons : 
petiole 0-4 in. long, thick, fleshy, flattened, curved to side of stem : lamina 
0-6-0-8 in. by 0-5-0-6 in., thick, fleshj', broadly ovate or nearly orbicular, 
auricled by a basal prolongation, convolute and remaining some time within 
the nut. Stem erect, terete, green, pubescent ; internodes 0-4-1 -2 in. long. 
Leaves simple, exstipulate, first pair opposite, sub-opposite or alternate, 
subsequent leaves alternate, earlier leaves small, subsequeiit leaves increasing 
rapidly in size. Petiole 0-1-0-3 in. long. Lamina 0-9-5 in. by 0-5-3 in., 
elliptical or obovate, acute, base acute or tapering, entire, glabrous above, 
sparsely pubescent on veins beneath, venation arched reticulate. 

The growth of the seedling during the first season is only moderate, 
a height of about 5-8 in. being ordinarily attained. Subsequently the develop- 
ment is more rapid, particularly if the plants are regularly weeded, for although 
they are capable of making their way through weeds their development is 
considerably impeded in the process. The young plants do not assume the 




A 



\ 







Fig. 193. Terniinalia belerica Seedling x -g- 
a Fruit b Endocarp c-e Germination stages f, g Development of seedling during first season 



TERMINALIA 



509 



straggling habit of some Terminalia species, but grow erect, producing strong 
dde branches from the second year. A long stout taproot is formed, and 
develops considerably in the second year ; plants only one year old, that is 
n the second season, have been dug up and found to have thick taproots as 
much as 3-|- ft. long. 

The seedlings stand fairly dense shade during the first year or two, but 
very heavy shade suppresses and kills them afterwards. Frost often affects 
the leaves, but ordinary frosts do not kill back the seedlings, particularly in 
grass. Hail tears the large leaves to pieces, as was observed in a severe hail- 
storm at Dehra Dun in February 1913. In northern India the season's growth 
stops in November-December, and new growth starts in March. The leaves 
turn yellow about November-December, and commence falling in December- 
January ; by March they have usually all fallen. 

The following measurements in experimental plots at Dehra Dun give 
some indication of the rate of growth of young plants under different con- 
ditions, and exhibit the marked effect of weeding : 



Terminalia belerica : rate of growth of young plants, Dehra Dun. 
.ditioii under which grown. 



:sery, weeded and watered 
plants of 1st rains, not weeded 
red subsequent to transplanting 
scattered on ground as under 
conditions ; subsequently 
. Sunny locality 

scattered on ground as under 
conditions ; not subsequently 

. Sunny locality 
scattered on ground as under 
conditions ; not subsequently 

. Siuuiy locality 
scattered on ground as under 
conditions ; not subsequently 

. Moderate side shade 
scattered on ground as under 
conditions ; not subsequently 

. Heavy shade 



1st season. 
Oft. 6 in. -Oft. Sin. 
Maximum ft. 6 in. 

Maximum ft. 5 in. 



Oft. 4 in. -Oft. 7 in. 

(heavy grass and 

weeds) 
Maximum ft. 5 in. 



Height at end of season. 

2nd season. 3rd season. 4th season. 5th season. 



Maximum 1 ft. 2 in. - 

1 ft. 6 in. 2 ft. in. 

2 ft. 6 in.- 4 ft. 5 in. 

3 ft. 2 in. 10 ft. 



ft. 7 in.- 
ft. 9 in. 



2 ft. 6 in.- 

3 ft. 7 in. 
Maximum 

12 ft. 9 in. 

(girth 

Oft. 7 in.) 



Maximum Maximum Maximum 
1ft. 3 in. 2ft. 7 in. 5 ft. 10 in. 



Maximum ft. 8 in. Maximum 
(heavy growth of Oft. 11 in. 
weeds) 

Maximum ft. 6 in. ft. 3 in.- 
ft. 10 in. 



4ft. 11 in. 
5ft. 8 in. 



SiLVicuLTURAL, CHARACTERS. The tree is a light-demander, though it can 
stand slight shade in youth. It is decidedly sensitive to frost, all records of 
severe frosts agreeing in this respect ; the leaves are usually found to be 
touched by frost more readily than those of almost any of its associates. As 
regards drought it is somewhat more hardy, though it does not occur in very 
dry localities. In the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in the sal forests 
of Oudh it proved to be fairly hardy, while it was not affected in the severe 
drought of 1899 and 1900 in the Indian Peninsula. 

It coppices fairly well. Measurements made by Mr. C. M. McCrie at 
Ramgarh in the Goraklipur district, United Provinces, showed an average 
varying from 1 to 2-5 shoots per stool in coppice coupes of different ages up 
to fifteen years old. Measurements made by me in 1911 in the Tikri forest, 
Gonda, United Provinces, gave for coppice one year old an average height 
of 5 ft., and an average of two shoots per stool, as against 4-7 ft. and 2-2 shoots 



510 



XX VII. COMBRETACEAE 



respectively for sal. Experiments in 1909 in North Chanda, Central Provinces, 
showed a poor pollarding capacity, while tlie results of coppice fellings were 
on the whole good ; the percentage of stools which coppiced successfully in 
different months being : (1) April, nil ; (2) May, 100 ; (3) June, 100 ; (4) July, 
100 ; (5) September, 50. 

Natural reproduction. The consumption of the fleshy portion of the 
fruit and the dissemination of the hard nuts by animals has already been 
alluded to. Where the flesh is not so consumed it rots off or is eaten off b}- 
white ants, the nuts often being wholly or partially buried in the process. 
Germination takes place at different times during the rainj^ season. Successful 
germination is greatly assisted if the nuts are buried by rain, by white ants, 
or otherwise, since the radicle of the germinating seedling is liable to be eaten 
by birds and insects or to dry up if exposed to the sun. A considerable degree 
of moisture is necessary to stimulate germination, and it has been found by 
experiment that germination takes place more readily in moist places under 
shade, particularly if the nuts are buried, than in places exposed to the sun. 

The high germinative power of sound seed and the comparative ease 
with which the seedling establishes itself would indicate that the tree should 
be more gregarious than it is. There can be little doubt that its sporadic 
character is due to the fact that the seed is so much subject to the attacks 
of animals and insects that a comparatively small proportion reaches the 
germinating stage. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments in direct sowing have not been 
tried, but transplanting during the first rainy season, before the taproot has 
become too long, has proved quite successful. The nuts or the whole fruits 
should be sown in the nursery in March or April, covered with earth and 
watered regularly. Germination visually takes place about one to two months 
after sowing. Transplanting should be done in wet weather, and may be 
carried out either after pruning the stem and roots or with stem and roots 
intact ; the latter gives the better results, the former checking the growth 
considerably. 

Rate of growth. The rate of growth is moderate, or under favourable 
conditions rapid. The following records are available of girth measurements 
of trees in sal forest sample plots in the United Provinces : 



Terminalia helerica 



girth measurements in sample plots, United 
Provinces. 







No. of years 


No. of trees 




MC! 


m annual 


Forest 




under 


under 


(lirth 


girth incronien 


divasion. 


Locality. 


observation. 


observation. 


classes. 


for the period. 










ft. 




in. 


Saharanpur 


Dholkhand and 


7 and 12 


{? 


O-I 




0-30 




Malowala 




3-4 




0-86 


kSouth Khori 


Bhira range 


8 and 9 


{i 


1-2 
2-3 




0-38 
0-.54 


Laiisdowne 


Chauklianil) 


17 


6 


li-4 




34 




Jogicbaur 





I 


3-4 




0-80 




Kauria 


4 


1 


6-8 




0-49 




(Towairi 


12 


2 


l.J-3 




010 


Hiildwii.iii 


Khonaui 


6 


2 


3^ 




0-46 



TERMINALIA 511 

A tree raised from seed sown in 1901 by Mr. Haines in the forest garden 
at Chaibassa, Chota Nagpur, attained in sixteen years a height of 36 ft. and 
a girth of 2 ft. li in. 

Gamble's specimens gave three to seven rings per inch of radius, repre- 
senting a mean annual girth increment of 0-9 to 2-1 in., which is rapid. 

As regards coppice, measurements by Mr. C. M. McCrie in 1910 in the 
Ramgarh coppice coupes, Gorakhpur, gave the following results : 

Terminalia belerica : rate of growth of coppice, Ramgarh, Gorakhpur, United 

Provinces. 



Age. 


Mean girth. 


Mean height, 


years. 


in. 


ft. 


2 




4 


4 


2 


8 


6 


3 


11 


8 


3-8 


14 


10 


4-6 


16-5 


12 


5-5 


19 


14 


6-3 


21 



2. Terminalia Chebula, Retz. Syn. T. tomentella, Kurz. Myrabolan tree. 
Vern. Harra, Hind. ; Hirda, Mar. ; Aiiale, Kan. ; Kadakai, Tam. ; Karaka, 
Tel. ; Panga, Burm. 

A moderate-sized to large deciduous tree with a rounded crown, spreading 
branches, and usually a short trunk, though in Burma it often grows taU and 
straight. Bark dark brown, often longitudinally cracked, exfoliating in woody 
scales. Wood very hard, fairly durable, used for building, agricultural imple- 
ments, and other purposes. The tree is important mainly on account of its 
fruits, which are the best of the commercial myrabolans used for tanning. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of India and 
Burma in mixed deciduous forests, extending into forest of comparatively dry 
types. It ascends to considerable elevations, up to 5,000 ft. in the outer 
Himalaya, and according to Bourdillon, up to 6,000 ft. in Travancore in localities 
where the rainfall is light. In Burma it occurs in deciduous forests both of 
the upper and of the lower mixed types, along with teak, Terminalia tomentosa, 
and their associates : it occurs also in indaing forest on laterite, along with 
DipterocarpKS tuberculatus and its companions. It extends to the borders of 
the dry zone of Burma, but is not a characteristic tree of the drier parts of 
that zone. It is found on a variety of geological formations, and on clayey 
as well as on sandy soil. In the Central Provinces it is particularly common 
on metamorphic rocks in open forest or village lands, but also occurs on other 
geological formations. In Bombay it is common on Deccan trap, and Talbot 
notes that on the laterite of the Mahableshwar plateau at 4,500 ft. it is one of 
the principal constituents of the low elfin- wood forest . It is also a characteristic 
tree of other special types of dry forest. Thus in the Goalpara district of Assam 
it is common in the bhahar tract fringing the base of the outer hills on deep 
boulder formation in mixture with sal and Lagerstroemia parvifiora in a dry 
stunted type of forest of a pronounced deciduous character : again, in the 
Kangra valley it grows gregariously in rather stunted form on poor rocky 
ground at about 3,500 ft. elevation, either pure or mixed with Pinus longi- 
folia. 



512 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade' temperature varies 
from 98 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 30 to 130 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. In some localities the leaves 
commence falling in November, and by Februarj^ or March the trees are usually 
leafless. The new leaves appear from March to May ; they are light green 
or sometimes copper coloured. The spikes of greenish white flowers appear 
with the new^ leaves. In the Himalayan valleys flowering may take place as 
late as June. In the Central Provinces, Haines says flowering takes place 
to a small extent in Juh^-August, in addition to the usual flowering in 
April-May. 

The fruits ripen from November to March, according to locality, and fall 
soon after ripening. The fruit (Fig. 194, a) is a somewhat hard drupe 1-2 in. 
long, obovoid, ellipsoidal or ovoid, yellow to orange brown, sometimes tinged 
with red or black, 5-ribbed when drj' ; the nut (putamen) is 0-7-0-8 in. by 
0o-0-6 in., ovoid, pale yellow, rough, hard, sub-angular. For commercial 
purposes the fruits are collected when quite ripe and spread out in the sun 
until thoroughly dry. The fruit crop varies from year to year. About 35 to 
45 fresh fruits, or 60 to 75 dry fruits, weigh 1 lb. 

The germinative power of the seed is poor. The precise cause of this has 
not been ascertained ; Mr. J. E. C. Turner,^ writing of conditions in Bombay, 
says that germination is generally backward with regard to the ridged fruits, 
but that those known locally as bhonga, in which the fleshy portion has been 
transformed into a black powder, presumably by a fungus, germinate readily. 
Tests at Dehra Dun with whole fruits as well as with nuts from which the 
outer fleshy covering was removed, invariably gave poor results. The results 
were better in the shade than in the sun. It was also found that the seed retained 
its fertility to a small extent for one year. 

Germination (Fig. 194, b-f). Epigeous. The hard putamen splits in 
two and the radicle emerges from one end ; the cotyledonary petioles elongate, 
arching slightly and raising above ground the cotyledons, ^hich are convolute 
in the seed and unroll on emerging. The young stem then issues from between 
the cotyledons, and the discarded pieces of the putamen remain in or on the 
ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 194). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, somewhat thin, terete, tapering, 
wiry, yellow turning brown : lateral roots moderate in number and length, 
fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct from and much 
thicker than root, 0-3-0-6 in. long, somewhat compressed and quadrangula]', 
yellow turning green, pubescent, scarcely emerging from the soil. Cotyledons : 
petiole 1-1-5 in. long, flattened above, yellow or pinkish turning green, tomen- 
tose : lamina 0-9-1 in. by 1-5-1-7 in., foliaceous, somewhat flesh\% reniform 
or broadly orbicular, apex truncate or retuse, base acute, entire, yellow at 
first, becoming green on expanding, pubescent near base on both surfaces, 
glabrous elsewhere, with three prominent and two less conspicuous veins 
from the base, veins prominently branched. Stem erect, zigzag at the nodes, 
terete, green, rusty pubescent; internodes 0-5-1-2 in. long. Leaves simple. 

^ hul. Forester, xxxiii (1007). ]>. 362. 



a 









^'^ 




Fig. 194. Tci'miualia Chchula Seedling x S 
a Fruit b - f Germination stages g, h Development of seedling dnring first season 



TERMINALIA 513 

alternate, exstipulate. First leaf sometimes under 0-3 in. long, ovate lanceo- 
late, acute or acuminate, pubescent. Subsequent leaves with petiole 0-1-0-2 in. 
long, tomentose ; lamina 0-8-4-5 in. by 0-5 -2 in., ovate, acute, entire, pubescent, 
bright green above, somewhat paler beneath, venation arched reticulate, 
lateral veins 4-10 pairs. 

The young seedling of this species can be distinguished from those of 
T. tomentosa and T. Arjuna by the length of the hypocotyl and the cotyle- 
donary petioles (see p. 519). 

The growth of the seedling is comparatively slow, a height of about 
4-8 in. being ordinarily attained by the end of the first season, increasing to 
1-2 ft. by the end of the second season. The year's growth ceases about 
November ; the leaves commence falhng that month, and the seedling is 
leafless in January-February, new growth commencing about March (Dehra 
Dun). Young plants are fairly frost-hardy. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a light-demander, though in 
youth it stands slight shade and even benefits by side protection from the 
sun. It is fairly hardy against frost as well as drought. It withstands 
fire well, and has good powers of recovery from burning. It coppices fairly 
well. 

Natural reproduction. The fallen fruits often become partially buried 
by rain, the soil round them being blackened with the tannin they contain. 
The fleshy portion becomes partly eaten by white ants or disintegrates, leaving 
the hard nut exposed. Germination takes place in the rainy season, some- 
times not until the end of that season, or in some cases not until the following 
year. The scarcity of natural reproduction in some localities is very noticeable, 
and is a matter which requires further study. Where the collection of myra- 
bolans is carried out extensively, the removal of the fruits would be sufficient 
to account for it. On the other hand, the lack of reproduction may be attribut- 
able to some extent to the poor germinative power of the seed and to the fact 
that it is much subject to the attacks of insects, rats, and squirrels. Numerous 
fruit-stones found lying ungerminated after the end of the rainy season have 
been split open, and almost invariably the seed has been found to be destroyed 
by insects. The seed germinates better if it has become covered with earth 
or debris than if it is lying in the open. 

Artificial reproduction. Sowings on mounds, in patches or trenches, 
and otherwise have been carried out for years, but with very indifferent 
success, owing in part at least to the poor germinative power of the seed and 
to its liability to the attacks of insects, squirrels, and rats. 

Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that transplanting from the nursery 
can be carried out successfully in the first or second rainy season. The most 
successful method of raising plants in the nursery was found to be by drying 
the fruits thoroughly, removing the hardened fleshy covering, and sowing the 
fruit-stones in boxes before the rainy season, covering them with earth and 
watering them regularly. Even with this treatment a success of only 20 per 
cent, was attained. Soaking the fruits in moist manure for some days was 
found to have no effect in stimulating germination. For artificial reproduc- 
tion the fruits should be collected from the ground as soon as they fall, and not 
off the tree. 

2307.2 N 



514 



XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 



Rate of growth. The rate of growth is slow. The following measure- 
ments of trees in sal forest sample plots have been recorded : 

Terminalia Chehula : records of girth measurements in sample plots. 



Province. 


Forest 
division. 


Locality. 


No. of years 

under 
observation. 


Xo. of trees 

under 
observation. 


Girth 
classes. 
ft 


Mean annual 

girth increment 

for the period. 

in 


United 
Provinces 

J 


Pehra Dun 

Lansdowne 
> 

J5 


Nagsidh and 
Thano 

Chaukhamb 

Jogichaur 

Barswar 


17 and 20 

17 

4 
4 


f 6 

h 

11 
1 

15 


Lit, 

1-2 
2-3 

4-5 
11-6 
1-1-3 
11-3 


ILL. 

0-25 
0-29 
0-37 
0-56 
0-38 
0-27 


Bihar and 
Orissa 


South Kheri 
Singhbhum 


Bhira 

(Kishanpur) 
Tirilposi 


9 
18 




[ 1 
1 
2 
1 


1-2 
2-3 
3-4 
4-5 


0-22 
0-12 
0-70 
0-67 


Central 
Provinces 


Balaghat 








30 


2-3 


016 



Gamble's specimens showed six to ten rings per inch of radius, representing 
a mean annual girth increment of 0-63 to 1-05 in. 

Coppice measurements showed an average height of 8 ft. and 8-5 ft. in 
five years in Dehra Dun and Gorakhpur respectively. 

3. Terminalia tomentosa, W. and A. Vern. Sain, ain, saj, asna, asan, 
Hind. ; Matti, Kan. ; Sadada, Guz. ; Maddi, naUamaddi, Tel. ; Karra marda, 
Tam. ; Taukkyan, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with a long clean bole and a full crown. Bark 
grey to black, with deep longitudinal fissures and transverse cracks dividing 
it into oblong scales, red inside. Wood dark brown with darker streaks, 
hard, strong, of variable durability, used for building, carts, railway wagons, 
mine props, bedsteads, and other purposes : it lasts well under water. 

The thickness of the bark varies with size and other conditions : the 
following figures give the average of a number of measurements made in the 
Dehra Dun district : 



Girth of tree. 



0-6 in. 
6in.-l 
1-2 ft. 
2-3 ft. 



ft. 



Bark thickness. 



in. 



0-2 

0-35 

0-5 

0-8 



Girth of tree, 
ft. 

3^ 
4-5 
5-6 
6-7 



Bark thickness, 
in. 

10 
11 
11 
1-2 



Apart from its economic value the tree is important silviculturally as being 
one of the commonest of Indian forest trees and being suitable for afforesting 
clayey ground. In favourable localities it attains a girth of 12 ft. or more 
and a height of over 100 ft., but on dry rocky ground and other unfavom-able 
situations it is stunted. 

It is somewhat variable, particularly as regards its leaves, which as a rule 
are large and tomentose in less favourable localities and smaller and more 
glabrous in localities in which it grows best. 

Distribution and habitat. General distribution. Terminalia tomentosa 



M^-^ 



'''^-Jfe'' 



^.^'^ 
















'--, ^ -- 



Fig. 195. Terminalia belerica, United Provinces. 



5U 




Fk;. I9(). Terminalia tomentosa, troo 12 ft. 4 in. in liirtli and ll') ft. in lieiglit on 
alluvial ground. Oonda district, Tnitcd I'l'ovinces. 



TERMINALIA 515 

is one of the commonest and most widely distributed of Indian forest trees. 
It extends throughout the sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards, 
ascending the outer hills to 4,000 ft. : it is not common east of the Jalpaiguri 
district of Bengal, and is rare in most parts of Assam. It is not found in 
Sind and Rajputana, but is common throughout the greater part of the Indian 
Peninsula, extending into comparatively dry regions. It is plentiful throughout 
the greater part of Burma, extending into the dry zone and ascending to 
4,000 ft. in the Southern Shan States. 

Climate. In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperatm-e 
varies from 95 to nearly 120 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to nearly 
60 F., and the normal rainfall from 30 to 150 in. 

Soil. The tree attains its largest dimensions on deep rich alluvial soil. 
On poor shallow soil, particularly on hilly ground, though often plentiful it 
remains stunted. It favours stiff clayey soil, where it often becomes gregarious 
in depressions and round the edges of swamps. It grows freely on black 
cotton soil, though it remains stunted. It is abundant on laterite in some 
localities, though here also it is stunted. 

Local distribution and forest types. Sub-Himalayan tract. In the sub- 
Himalayan tract Terminalia tomentosa is abundant in the sal forests, becoming 
gregarious on flat clayey ground and in grass-covered depressions which 
usually mark the sites of former ponds or watercourses and which have 
gradually filled up. In such places it is probable that the tree acts as a useful 
draining agent, for it is noticeable that sal reproduction eventually makes its 
way into these areas underneath it. That it is not specially partial to badly 
drained clayey ground, though it is capable of growing there, is shown by 
the fact that it occurs in quantity and shows its best development on well- 
drained ground. In the sal forests, besides the sal {Shorea robusta) its principal 
associates are Lagerstroemia parvijiora, Terminalia belerica, Adina cordifolia, 
Ougeinia dalbergioides, Anogeissus latifolia, Stereospermum suaveolens, Eugenia 
Jambolana, E. operculata, and Buchanania latifolia. 

A special type of forest, in which Terminalia tomentosa occurs pure or 
mixed with Anogeissus latifolia on rich alluvial groimd beside rivers, is a feature 
of some of the submontane forests and is well exemplified in the Gonda district 
of the United Provinces. The evolution of this type is explained on p, 523 
under 'natural reproduction' and is shown in Figs. 197-200. Fig. 200 gives 
a good idea of the appearance of a crop of this type approaching maturity. 
On rich alluvial ground of this kind it reaches magnificent proportions, as 
may be judged from Fig. 196, showing a tree 12 ft. 4 in. in girth and 115 ft. 
high. 

In the Siwalik hills and outer Himalaya it is common and sometimes 
gregarious, often on somewhat poor soil, but here it reaches only a small size. 
In the Himalaya it ascends to about 4,000 ft. It extends westward to the 
Kangra hiUs, and possibly to a small extent farther west. 

In the eastern part of the sub-Himalayan tract it reaches very large 
dimensions, for instance in the Tista forests, where it occui's both in sal forest 
and in low-level mixed forest without sal. In Jalpaiguri it is not plentiful, 
though there are some well-grown trees in the Upper Tondu forest : east of 
this district it is not common, and is more often absent altogether. In the 

N2 



516 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

Benc^al Duars it mixes with T. inyriocarpa, but farther east the latter replaces 
it largely if not entirely. 

Chota Nagpur. In Chota Nagpur the tree is common, particularly in 
valleys and moist localities. On village lands it is very common, and is 
extensively pollarded for the cultivation of the tasar silkworm. It is a common 
constituent of the sal forests, while in some valleys it occurs along with Bombax 
malaharicum and other species without sal, probably owing to insufficient 
drainage. 

Central Provinces and Berar. Terminalia tomentosa is common in deciduous 
forests throughout the greater part of the Central Provinces and Berar ; it 
is a common companion of the sal as well as of the teak. It is plentiful on 
black cotton soil, which many species avoid, but here it is usually small. 
It reaches its best development on moist fertile alluvium, near rivers, where it 
sometimes tends to be gregarious. 

In the usual mixed deciduous type, in which teak may or may not be 
present, its chief companions are Pterocarpus Marsupium, Terminalia helerica, 
T. Chehula, T. Arjuna (along streams), Anogeissus latifolia, Ougeinia dal- 
bergioides, Bassia latifolia, Lagerstroemia parvi flora, Diospyros Melanoxylon, 
Buclmnania latifolia, Soymida febrifuga, Adina cor di folia, Dalbergia 
latifolia, Cleisanthus Collinus, Chloroxylon Sivietenia, Butea frondosa, as 
well as many other species of less importance. Sometimes a special type is 
found in moist valleys on flat ground where the soil is fair to good and 
often clayey, the chief associates being Cleistanthus Collinus, Bassia latifolia, 
Anogeissus latifolia, Ougeinia dalbergioides, Biiclmnania latifolia, and a few 
other species. 

Bombay. Terminalia tomentosa is plentiful in most of the forest tracts 
of the Bombay Presidency, being perhaps nowhere more abundant than in 
Kanara and in the Dangs forests of Surat ; in parts of the latter forests there 
are sometimes as many as 30 mature trees per acre, while in the Mungod 
high forest of the I^ast Kanara division it forms 23 per cent, of the crop. 
In Kanara it grows better on granite and schist than on laterite. In the 
Deccan it prefers black cotton soil to the shallow soils of the quartzite hiUs 
so frequent in that region. It occurs in nearly all types of mixed deciduous 
forest, ascending to between 3,500 and 4,000 ft. on the Nasik ghats and the 
Khandesh Akrani, but is absent from the laterite of the Mahableshwar plateau. 
It thrives best in the moister localities, particularly in valleys on alluvial 
ground, becoming gregarious on clayey soil. At the higher elevations, in 
exposed situations and on poor soil, it becomes stunted. In the Kanara 
forests, where the number of species is considerable, its most important com- 
panions are teak, Dalbergia latifolia, Lagerstroe^nia lanceolata, L. parviflora, 
Xylia xylocarpa, Pterocarpus Marsupium, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia pani- 
culata, and Adina cordifolia. It shows a marked tendency to occupy the more 
level ground where the soil is deep and moist. In the mixed forests of some- 
what drier localities it is found with teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Lagerstroemia 
parviflora, Bassia latifolia, Ougeinia dalbergioides, BucJianania latifolia, Dios- 
pyros Melanoxylon, Dalbergia latifolia. Cassia Fistula, PhyUanfhus Emblica, 
and many other species. 

Southern India. Although not so common as in Bombay, the tree is fairly 




Fig. 197. Terminalia tomentosa, establishment of jnire crops on alluvial ground, Gonda dis- 
trict, United Provinces : (1) natural seedlings up to 20 ft. high appearing on comparatively recent 
alluvium. 
















Fig. 198. Terminalia tomentosa, establishment of pure crops on alluvial ground, Conda district, 
United Provinces : (2) natural reproduction up to 8 ft. high ; older forest of Terminalia tomentosa 
on older alluvium behind. 




Fig. 199. Terminalia tomentosa, establishment of piire crops on alluvial ground, Gonda 
district, United Provinces : (3) young crop about 15 ft. high : older alluvial crop on left behind. 




Fio. 200. Tcrnihmlia tomcniosn, cstabHslunent of ])urc crops on alluvial ground, (Jonda 
district, United Provinces : (4) forest approaching nuiturity. 



TERMINALIA 517 

well distributed in Madras, and in some localities it is plentiful. It is charac- 
teristic of various types of mixed deciduous forest, and in Ganjam is a common 
companion of the sal. It is fairly plentiful in the Wynaad, and ascends to 
4,200 ft. in the Nilgiris. In Goorg it is one of the commonest species in the 
deciduous forests, and attains very fair dimensions. It is common in many 
parts of Hyderabad and Mysore, and is very common in Travancore up to 
2,000 ft. 

Burma. Terminalia tomentosa is common in most of the mixed deciduous 
forests throughout Burma, both in the upper and in the lower mixed types, 
as well as in indaing (dry dipterocarp) forest. It is sometimes found in dense 
evergreen forest, for example on alluvial flats along streams in some parts 
of the Upper Ghindwin, but here the evergreen has probably encroached on 
a former deciduous type of forest. 

In the upper mixed forests, which are found on hilly or undulating ground, 
it is characteristic more of the dry than of the moist types, its chief companions 
being teak, Xylia dolabrijormis , Acacia Catechu, Sterculia spp., Homalium 
tomentosum, Dalhergia cultrata, Termiyialia Chebula, Vitex glabrata, Pterocarpus 
macrocarpus, Odina Wodier, Adina cordifolia, Anogeissus acuminata, and others, 
and in the drier parts Pentacme suavis and Shorea obtusa. The chief bamboos 
are Dendrocala^nus strictus in the driest types, Bambusa polymorpJia in the 
moister types, and in intermediate types CepTialostachymn pergracile, and in 
Upper Burma Thyrsostachys Oliveri ; Bambusa Tulda often occurs with it on 
alluvial flats. 

It is very plentiful in certain types of lower mixed forest on flat alluvial 
land tending towards dry rather than moist conditions. A case in point is 
the Satpok forest of the Tharrawaddy district, where after teak it is the 
commonest tree, these two species being far more plentiful than any other. 
Although flat, the locality is fairly well drained ; the chief associate species 
are Xylia dolabrijormis, Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae, Berrya Ammonilla, Adina 
cordifolia, A. sessilifolia, Stephegyne diversifolia, Terminalia Chebula, T. belerica, 
Odina Wodier, Eugenia Jambolana, and Eriolaena Candollei. The rainfall in 
this tract is about 80 in. 

The following figures based on complete enumerations in the Satpok 
forest give some idea of the prevalence of this tree in some of the compart- 
ments : ^ 

Stock of Terminalia tomentosa trees in certain compartments in the 
Satpok forest, Tharrawaddy district, Burma. 









Number of trees. 








I 


II 


III 


IV 


Compartment 


Area in 


7 ft. girth 


6 to 7 ft. 


4J to 6 ft. 


3 to 4i ft. 


No. 


acres. 


and over. 


girth. 


girth. 


girth. 


2 


178 


192 


250 


470 


508 


4 


178 


235 


283 


383 


437 


8 


178 


176 


173 


357 


717 


9 


178 


128 


141 


214 


487 


24 


178 


122 


114 


295 


524 


25 


178 


177 


193 


310 


372 



1 Working Plan for the Satpok, Sitkwin, and Thindawyo Reserves, Tharrawaddy, R, S. 
Troup, 1906. 



518 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

The tree extends into the open scrub forests of the diy zone of Upper 
Burma, but even outside that zone it is characteristic of certain dry types of 
poor open bamboo forest on shallow soil, where the trees attain small dimen- 
sions. This type is exemplified in parts of the Ruby Mines district, where 
the chief associate species are ,Xylia dolahriformis , Pterocarpus macrocarpus, 
Diospyros burmanica, Acacia Catechu, Adina cordifolia, Odina Wodier, and 
others, with Terminalia Oliveri in the drier parts ; the chief bamboo is Dendro- 
calamus strictus. In the dry zone proper the rainfall varies from 22 in. to about 
50 in., but it is doubtful if the tree occurs in tracts where it is less than 30 in. 
The geological formation consists mainly of soft sedimentary imaltered 
sandstones and shales. Terminalia tomentosa is common, but its gTOwth is 
stunted : its chief associates are Terminalia Oliveri, Tectona Hamiltoniana , 
Acacia Catechu, A. leucophloea, Buchanania latifoUa, Diospyros hiirmanica, 
Odina Wodier, Schleichera trijuga, and sometimes Xylia dolahriformis of small 

size. 

A variety with larger leaves and fruits (var. macrocarpa, Kurz) is charac- 
teristic of indaing forest, chiefly on laterite, in association with Dipterocarpus 
tuherculatus, Pentacme suavis, Shorea ohttisa, Melanorrhoea usitata, Buclmnania 
latifoUa, Diospyros hurmanica, and other species. Where the soil becomes 
stiff and clayey Terminalia tomentosa becomes the predominating species and 
may form entirely pure crops, often of an open description with a soil-covering 
mainly of grass. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. In northern India the leaves 
usually commence falling in January or February, and by March or April, 
and in dry places as early as February, the trees are leafless, though the dead 
leaves sometimes hang on the trees for some time. This is one of the latest 
forest trees to acquire its new foliage, and in northern India the new leaves 
only begin to appear about the end of June. Farther south they appear 
about April-May. The panicled spikes of small whitish flowers appear about 
July in northern India and about May-June farther south. In the early part 
of the rainy season a forest of Terminalia tomentosa is a beautiful sight with 
the masses of whitish blossom against the deUcate green of the yomig foUage. 
The fruits form rapidly, becoming full-sized by about October, though still 
green ; they remain pale yellowish green from November to January, ripening 
about February-March. The fruit (Fig. 201, a) has a hard bony axis with 
five coriaceous wings, and is brown when ripe. The ripe fruit falls chiefly 
from March to May, but many unripe fruits, usually fomid to be bitten off 
by insects or possibly birds, fall during January-February, and turning brown 
after falling give the false impression of being ripe. Parrots often destroy 
much of the fruit crop prematurely. The ovary is often attacked by a Cynips, 
wliich prevents the formation of the fruit and produces bunches of galls which 
may be mistaken for fruits, though they have no resemblance to the charac- 
teristic winged fruits. 

So far as tests show, the percentage of fertility of the seed is comparatively 
low. In a number of tests carried out at Dehra Dmi the maximum percentage 
obtained was only 45, except in one case in which 78 per cent, was obtained. 
Possibly these poor results are due partly to the difficulty in discriminating 
between good and bad (i. e. prematurely fallen) seed when the fruits are 



- -TTT/- .:.'rr-2-J._. 



C 





g 




Sx ^ 






Fig. 20 1. Tevminalia tomentosa Seedling x f 
a Fruit b - e Germination stages f - h Development of seedling to end of first season 



TERMINALIA 519 

collected from the ground, but in any case this would represent the actual 
conditions so far as natural reproduction is concerned. In seven different 
samples of fruits from northern India the number weighing 1 lb. varied from 
150 to 250. 

Records of seed-years extending over a series of years in various localities 
show that fair to good seed-years are the rule, though occasional bad seed- 
years occur at varying intervals. 

Germination (Fig. 201, h-e). Epigeous. The hard endocarp of the fruit 
opens slightly and the radicle emerges. The cotyledonary petioles elongate 
by arching and the large foliaceous cotyledons, which are convolute in the 
seed, extricate themselves and miroll. The cotyledons are raised above ground 
by the further elongation of their petioles, from between which the young 
shoot emerges. 

The seedling (Fig. 201). 

Boots : primary root moderately long and thick, terete, tapermg, brown, 
upper part, immediately below ground-level, swollen, with a characteristic 
bend due to the efforts of the seedling to escape from the hard endocarp of 
the fruit during germination ; lateral roots moderate in number and length, 
fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0-2 in. 
long, green, immediately below or on surface of ground. Cotyledons : petiole 
0-8-1-5 in. long, flattened above, green, pubescent : lamina 1-2-1-4 in. by 
1-1-5 in,, foliaceous, somewhat fleshy, broadly and often obliquely obovate 
orbicular, apex truncate or retuse, base tapering and slightly decurrent, bright 
green, glabrous, with five prominent veins from the base. Stem erect, terete, 
green, tomentose ; first internode, above cotyledons, 1-8-2-5 in., subsequent 
internodes 0-1-0-7 in. long. Leaves simple, exstipulate, alternate, rarely sub- 
opposite, first pair not opposite. Petiole 0-1-0-2 in. long, tomentose. Lamina 
1-3-4 in. by 0-8-1-6 in., elliptical ovate or obovate, apex and base acute, 
entire, pubescent or glabrescent above, pubescent beneath, tomentose round 
margin and on principal veins beneath, lateral veins 6-8 pairs in young seed- 
lings ; two small glands present, one on either side of midrib near base of 
lamina on under surface. 

The cotyledons of T. tomentosa, T. Arjuna, and T. Ghehula are somewhat 
similar, but in the germinating stages the seedlings can be readily distinguished 
by the lengths of the hypocotyls and cotyledonary petioles, thus : 

Cotyledonary petioles short (0-3-0-6 in.) ; hypocotyl long (2-2-3 in.) 

T. Arjuna. 
Cotyledonary petioles long (0-8-1-5 in.) ; hypocotyl moderately long 

(0-3-0-6 in.) T. ChebuU. 
Cotyledonary petioles long (0-8-1-5 in.) ; hypocotyl very short (0-2 in.) 

T. tomentosa. 

During the first season the growth of the seedling is only moderate, 
a height of 4-7 in. being ordinarily attained under natural conditions, while 
even with regular watering and weeding a height of more than 1 ft. is seldom 
reached, though occasionally a height of 18 in. or more may be attained. 
The taproot reaches a length of about 6-10 in. within two months of germina- 
tion. In the subsequent growth of the young plant height is sacrificed to 
a branching or stragghng growth, long branches being produced which bend 
over towards the ground, and no definite upward leader being formed for 



520 XX\^I. COMBRETACEAE 

some time ; this form of straggling or bushy growth is characteristic of certain 
other species of Terminalia, e. g. T. Arjuna and T. myriocarpa. 

The seedlings are fairly hardy against drought, but are more sensitive to 
frost. They stand moderate side shade, but are intolerant of heavy overhead 
shade ; in experimental plots at Dehra Dun it was found that few seedHngs 
survived heavy shade more than one season, while all succumbed before the 
end of the second season. The cotyledons are subject to the attacks of 
birds, and the seedlings are browsed by deer and cattle and are uprooted by 
pigs. 

In the forest, seedlings of Terminalia tomentosa often pass unrecognized, 
since the leaves of young seedlings are very different from those of older 
plants, the leaves being much smaller, more pointed, and more conspicuously 
hairy. A characteristic featiu-e of seedlings of the first year is a swelling and 
decided bend where the taproot joins the stem immediately below ground- 
level, at the point where the seedling escaped from the hard fruit during 
germination. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Terminalia tomentosa is a light-demander, 
and is rapidly suppressed under shade. It cannot be called exacting as regards 
soil, being found on a variety of soils, and sometimes on dry hills with poor 
shallow soil. Although capable of existing on stiff clay better than most 
species it does not follow that this type of soil suits it best, for its development 
on deep well-drained soil is better. 

In years of severe drought the tree has proved decidedly tender. In the 
abnormal droughts of 1899 and 1900 in the Indian Peninsula and 1907 and 
1908 in Oudh it was badly affected, but in the latter case the sal suffered 
more severely than it did. As regards frost, the leaves are readily killed, but 
the damage is often more apparent than real, since the stems frequently 
remain untouched when all the foliage is withered. Young plants are, how- 
ever, often killed back in frosty localities. 

Young plants suffer less than sal from grazing, probably because they 
lose their leaves in the hot season, at which time the sal plants send up succulent 
young shoots. Mr. J. Best ^ describes a curious form of growth due to excessive 
grazing in the Bhandara district of the Central Provinces. Considerable areas 
are covered with plants up to 18 in. in height, much branched and stunted 
in growth. On being dug up they are found to have a thick and distorted 
stem at or just beneath ground surface. This stunted growth is attributed 
more to trampling and hardening of the soil than to actual browsing, and it 
is pointed out that on steep hills where cattle do not graze this stunted groAvth 
is absent. 

The tree has a deep root-system. It sometimes produces root-suckers 
where the roots are exposed, but as a rule sparingly. Trees up to medium size 
generally coppice and pollard well, but the coppicing power of trees more 
than about 4 ft. in girth is usually poor : stools of this size sometimes make 
a dying effort by producing an immense mass of small coppice-shoots and 
then succumb. In some districts, particularlj^ in parts of Chota Nagpm-, the 
Central Provinces, and elsewhere the tree is regularlj^ pollarded for the growing 
of tasar silk : in parts of Bombay it is extensively'- lopped for ash manure 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxv (1909), p. 612. 



TERMINALIA 521 

for crops, while in some localities it is lopped for cattle fodder. The coppicing 
and pollarding power appears to vary. Experiments carried out in the Chanda 
district of the Central Provinces in 1909 showed that of eleven different species 
coppiced and pollarded Terminalia tomentosa showed the poorest results under 
either method. As regards coppice, the percentage of stools which produced 
shoots when cut in different months from April to September was : April, 66 ; 
May, 66 ; July, 40 ; August, nil ; September, nil. Coppicing experiments in 
North Khandesh, Bombay, in 1903 showed that 70 per cent, of the trees 
yielded coppice-shoots, 1-9 shoots per stool. Measurements which I made in 
1911 in three coppice coupes one and two years old in the Gonda district, 
United Provinces, showed that out of 17 species Terminalia tomentosa 
showed the largest average number of shoots per stool in each of the coupes, 
namely 4-7 in the one-year-old coupe, and 4-7 and 2-9 in two coupes two 
years old. 

A curious form of injury very prevalent among trees on the western side 
of the Indian Peninsula from North Kanara southwards to Malabar is that 
known as water-blister. This so-called blister is a ridge-like swelling on the 
side of the tree, apparently resulting from the healing over of a longitudinal 
crack in which sap or water has accumulated, so that when the blister is cut 
into a quantity of yellowish fluid is forced out under considerable pressure. 
There may be one or more blisters on a tree. 

Natural reproduction. The natural reproduction of this important tree 
is not yet fully understood. Considering the comparatively low germinative 
power of the seed, the wide distribution and relative abundance of the species 
is remarkable, and points to some compensating advantage in its power of 
establishing itself under varying conditions. In forest tracts young seedlings 
may be found in large quantities after a good seed-year, indicating that even 
if a considerable proportion of the seed fails to germinate, the seedUngs which 
survive from seed which does germinate are sufficiently plentiful. 

Numerous experiments have been carried out at Dehra Dun to ascertain 
the conditions which favour natural reproduction, and so far as they go these 
experiments have shown that germination, which takes place early in the 
rains, is more successful on bare ground than where the fruits are scattered 
on grass or on low weeds. Although germination takes place fairly readily 
in the case of fruits lying on the surface of the ground, there is a higher 
percentage of success if they are slightly buried, as often happens imder 
natural conditions on loose soil during the early showers preceding the rainy 
season. Moisture greatly stimulates germination, and thus the seed may 
germinate freely under the densest shade, though the seedlings do not survive 
for more than one season if the shade is at all heavy. Successful germination 
as well as establishment of seedlings is possible in the case of fruits lying on 
a layer of dead leaves both in the sun and under shade ; this is not the case 
with sal, which fails to germinate on a layer of dead leaves in the sun, while 
under shade, although germination takes place, the seedlings do not survive 
more than one season where the leaf layer is thick. In a damp sodden growth 
of weeds the seedlings tend to rot during the first rainy season : otherwise 
they are capable of making their way through a moderate growth of grass 
and low weeds. 



522 



XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 



The effects of light and shade and of soil-covering at the time the fruit 
falls are indicated by the following results of experiments in six plots in the 
same locaUty at Dehra Dmi : 

Termi7ialia tomentosa : survival and development of seedlings. 

Percentage of 



Condition of plot. 

(1) In full sunlight : on bare ground, 
not weeded subsequently 

(2) In full sunlight : on short grass 

(3) In moderate side shade : on bare 
ground, not weeded subsequently 

(4) In moderate side shade : on short 
grass 

(5) In dense overhead shade : on bare 
groimd, not weeded subsequently 

(6) In dense overhead shade : on short 
grass 



germmation 
(100 fruits 

scattered in 

each plot). 

42 

14 
29 



45 



29 



Percentage and condition of survivors 

at end of first season. 
40 ^ Seedlings up to 6 m. high ; plots 
I covered wiih grass up to 1 ft. 
12 J high. 

28 \ Seedlings health}-, up to 5| in. 

I high ; gromid moist with heavy 

4 I dew ; grass and weeds about 

J 9 in; high. 
14 Of which only 2 health}-, 4 in. 
high, on side of plot near light ; 
remainder djdng. 
6 Up to 5 in. high, only on side of 
plot near light. 



The effect of light on natural reproduction has been further brought out 
in two plots in close proximity to each other at Dehra Dun, one plot being 
under the fairly heavy shade of bamboos and the other in the open. These 
plots were laid out with the view of ascertaining if sal seed scattered on the 
surface of a thick layer of leaves would germinate and the seedlings would 
establish themselves under shade and in the open respectively. The leaves 
in question were collected in the forest, and among them were a number of 
fruits of Terminalia tomentosa. In the shaded plot several seedlings appeared 
from these fruits during the rainy season in July and August : germination 
was very successful owing to the wet layer of leaves. Of the seedlings which 
appeared the survivals were only 4 in November, 2 in December, 1 in January, 
1 in March, and none in July. It is probable that the mortality was due 
not only to shade but also to want of moisture, since the ground became 
decidedly dry after the rainy season was over ; this, however, would also 
hold under similar conditions in the forest. In the open (unshaded) plot ten 
seedlings appeared : although some of the fruits germinated on the dry upper 
layer of the dead leaves a number failed to do so, and this indicates that 
a thick layer of dead leaves in the open may prevent reproduction to some 
extent, though to nothing like the extent wliich it does in the case of sal, 
for the sal fruits fall after the season of leaf-shedding, whereas those of 
Terminalia tomentosa fall in the early part of it and therefore do not he on 
the top of the leaves. These ten seedlings all survived, and by October of 
the second year varied from 1 ft. 5 in. to 4 ft. 2 in. in height ; some were 
amongst grass about 2 ft. high and others were quite in the open. This experi- 
ment clearly demonstrates the necessity for an abmidance of light for successful 
natural reproduction. 

To summarize, it may be said that these preliminary experiments indicate 
the foDowing to be some of the main factors which favour the estabhshment 
of natural reproduction : (1) abundance of light, (2) a fair degree of soil 
moisture. (3) bare ground. (4) loose soil, enabling the fruits to be slightly 



TERMINALIA 523 

covered during the early showers, (5) absence of dense sodden grass and weed- 
growth. The influence of frost, fire, and grazing will be alluded to below. 

Confirmation of the results of these preliminary experiments may fre- 
quently be met with by observations in the forest. The effect of light in 
particular is constantly noticeable. Vigorous young seedlings appear in 
quantity along roads, paths and fire-lines, and on open spaces. Dense masses 
of saplings establish themselves in gaps with complete overhead light, and 
the stronger ones eventually suppress the weaker. 

An instance of the result of admitting light and clearing the gromid is 
recorded in the Burma Forest Report for 1914-15, where it is stated that 
good natural reproduction resulted from the burning of an area in Toungoo 
in which' the bamboo had flowered ; this area had previously been fire- 
protected for many years. 

A good instance of the value of loose soil was observed a few years ago 
in the Gonda district of the United Provinces, where vigorous seedlings 
appeared in large numbers in the loose earth washed down along the base 
of the ridge of earth thrown up alongside a new bomidary trench. The 
abundance of the seedhngs was due to the fruits ha^ang been washed against 
the base of the ridge and partially covered with soil, and indicates that surface 
water in the rains is an important distributing agency ; the vigour of the 
seedlings was apparently due to the loose earth in which they grew. Similarly 
in loose bare earth along the sides of cart tracks in the" forest seedlings are 
often found in great abundance. 

The establishment of the pure type of Terminalia tomentosa forest on 
alluvial land in parts of the sub-Himalayan tract, which has already been 
alluded to, furnishes a good instance of a combination of factors which favour 
the reproduction of this species to such an extent that it becomes dominant, 
forming pure or almost pure forest. The chief factors in question are full 
overhead light, loose soil, sufficient soil moisture, and absence of dense weed- 
growth, though the gromid may be covered with an open growth of moderately 
tall grass. The gradual evolution of this type of forest, which is illustrated 
in Figs. 197-200, is as follows : 

The fruits are partly wind-borne and partly water-borne, and the seed 
germinates on alluvial deposits in the beds and along the banks of streams 
in a soil consisting of sand, or of fine sand with an admixtm-e of clay forming 
a rich alluvial loam. Frequently Acacia Catechu and Dalbergia Sissoo are 
found coming up along with the Terminalia, the latter being mixed with the 
others either by single trees or, as is more common, by groups. In such 
a mixture the Acacia and Dalbergia eventually become outgrow^n and sup- 
pressed by the Terminalia, and the latter forms a pure crop or, if there are 
gaps in the crop, other species may come in ; of these the commonest is 
Anogeissus latifolia, while sal also tends to appear where the locality is suitable 
and the cover is not too dense. 

The development of this forest is interesting as showing that Terminalia 
tomentosa, like Acacia Catechu and Dalbergia Sissoo, is capable of establishing 
itself on new alluvial ground on which sal is unable to establish itself owing 
to the fact that the soil moisture in the dry season of the year is insufiicient 
to support it ; in other words, Terminalia tomentosa is capable of estabhshing 



524 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

itself in soil in which sal fails to survive for want of sufificient permanent 
moisture. On the other hand, a copious rainfall in the year of seeding appears 
to favour natural reproduction : thus in the Dehra Dun forests in 1910, 
following a season of abundant rainfall, young seedlings were found in great 
abundance in the ensuing cold weather. 

In connexion with soil moisture it may be mentioned that seedlings of 
Terminalia tomentosa, like those of sal, have been observed to die back in 
dry localities, forming long thick taproots which enable the young plants 
eventually to establish themselves. 

Excessive grazing is a serious menace to natural reproduction. Allusion 
has already been made under ' silvicultural characters ' to a bushy growth 
resulting from excessive grazing in the Bhandara district, Central Provinces. 
In the Gonda district of the United Provinces, where excessive grazing has 
resulted in a dense undergrowth of Carissa spinarum with little or no repro- 
duction of tree species, the plan was adopted a few years ago of cutting the 
Carissa and with the cut plants forming a thorny fence round coupes recently 
feUed, in order to keep out cattle : the exclusion of grazing combined with 
the admission of light resulted in abundant reproduction of Terminalia tomen- 
tosa, and provided weed-growth is kept within bounds its establishment is 
assured. 

In the drier types of forest, fire is undoubtedly injurious to natural 
reproduction, but in moist types, such as those of Kanara and Malabar, 
fire-protection tends to oust this and other deciduous species and to replace 
them by shade-bearing evergreens. Mr. F. A. Leete,^ writing in 1900 of the 
results of fire-protection in the sal forests of Kheri and Bahraich in Oudh, 
observed that fire-protection had not favoured Terminalia tomentosa repro- 
duction, but the reverse, and that although saplings which originated before 
the days of fire-protection were plentiful, seedling reproduction had come to 
a standstill. Mr. (now Sir Sainthill) Eardley-Wilmot,^ referring to these 
observations, noted that the forests in question had passed through three 
stages, namely : 

' First stage. The forest annually burnt, impossible for seed to germinate 
save in those localities which escaped fires ; in consequence the tree represented 
in perfection in low-lying areas and along the drainage lines and banks of lakes. 

' Second stage. The forests protected from fire, the above restriction 
removed and immediate spread of the species over the ruined sal forest. 

' Third stage. Continued protection, recovery of vitality in the sal forest, 
renewed suitability of the soil for sal reproduction, intolerance and defeat of 
other species by the triumphant sal forest.' 

The observation on the third stage undoubtedly bears out the results of 
the preliminary experiments in respect of the light requirements of the young 
plant and its inability to compete with more vigorous vegetation, in this case 
sal. The explanation of the paucity of Terminalia reproduction in tliis case 
is no doubt the correct one, namely, that whereas reproduction is favoured 
by fire-protection, it is prevented by continuous protection, which favours the 
sal to a greater extent. In such a case the reproduction of Terminalia must 
be looked for only in places unsuitable for the sal, and this is in fact the case, 
^ Ind. Forester, xxvi (1900), p. 239. 2 7^,7/., p. 377 



TERMINALIA 525 

for it is in low-lying badly drained ground, where sal cannot gain a footing, 
that Terminalia chiefly springs up. 

The fruits fall for the most part before or during the season of fires, and 
this fact has been held to be a preventive of reproduction owing to the destruc- 
tion of the fruit. In the case of severe fires the germinative power of the seed 
is possibly destroyed, but in the case of light fires it is difhcult to believe, in 
the absence of definite tests, that the hard endocarp is not a sufficient pro- 
tection to the seed. 

In some localities, particularly in the Indian Peninsula, the plants assume 
a low bushy growth only a few feet high, which they may maintain for several 
years before they commence to grow up. Haines notes that the ultimate 
stem is a sympodium, arising not from the apex of one of the shoots but from 
a bud lower down. The cause of this bushy growth is not always definitely 
known, but probably it is due to more causes than one. Excessive grazing, 
and more probably trampling, have already been noted as a cause. Frost 
certainly produces this growth, for it has been noticed to be prevalent in 
frosty hollows where the stems are killed back annually. Fire and suppression 
are other possible causes, while on the analogy of the dying back of sal this 
abnormal growth may perhaps be due in some cases to want of soil moisture, 
to stiffness or hardness of the soil, or to some other unfavourable soil factor, 
such as bad soil- aeration. It has been suggested that rich soil and absence 
of weeds may be possible causes of this form of growth ; if this be the case 
these factors certainly do not always cause it. Mr. P. M. Lushington mentions 
that the pruning of all but the strongest shoot may result in a leader being 
formed. 

Artificial repeoduction. Direct sowings, as well as transplanting from 
the nursery during the first rains, before the taproot has reached any great 
length, prove quite successful. In order to ensure regular weeding at small 
cost sowing in lines is preferable to other forms of sowing ; in order to allow 
for indifferent germination the fruits should be sown fairly close together, at 
intervals of about 6 in., superfluous plants being afterwards transplanted to 
fill gaps in the lines. Line sowings with field crops have proved successful 
on an experimental scale, the lines being kept clear of crops to a width of 
about 2 ft. Pit sowings to fill up blanks have proved successful in Bombay. 
Sowing should be carried out before the early rains, the soil being worked up 
and the fruits lightly covered. As a rule 1 lb. of fruits will suffice for 100-120 ft. ' 
of line. In the nursery the fruits should be sown not long after they ripen, 
about March-April, and if the beds are regularly watered and weeded the 
seedlings should be ready for transplanting early in the rainy season. In 
Bombay the fruits are sown on a layer of leaves and grass in order to raise 
them from the ground and prevent them from rotting : the seed germinates 
readily after a good fall of rain, and the seedlings are easy to lift without 
damage to the root if the sowing is done on leaves.^ 

Mr. R. Bourne informs me that in Malabar he has obtained the best 
results in germination by sowing the seeds in seed-beds divided into squares 
surrounded by small mud walls, so that when the beds are flooded the water 
stands in them for some time. 

1 R. S. Pearson in Ind. Forester, xxxi (1905), p. 170. 



526 



XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 



Owing to the light requirements of the young plants, sowing and 
planting under cover should be avoided, such work being confined to open 
places or gaps of some extent. Plantations are apt to be damaged by deer 
and pigs. 

SzLVicuiiTURAL TREATMENT. The correct treatment of this tree must be 
based on its light-demanding character during all stages of its existence. 
Actually its treatment is as a rule that of an accessory species to more valuable 
trees such as teak or sal, or as a component of a mixed crop in which it is not 
of outstanding importance. Under existing working plans it is worked along 
with, other species usually under some form of selection fellings or under 
coppice- with-standards. For the rearing of silkworms it is regularly pollarded. 
It is quite suitable for working as even-aged high forest with natural or 
artificial reproduction. 

Rate of growth. (1) High forest. The annual rings are not always 
clearly distinguishable, though the rate of growth in several working plans is 
based on the results of ring-countings ; the figures deduced in tliis way may 
be taken as only approximately correct. The results of various sample plot 
measurements are available, and these may be taken to be more accurate 
than the figures based on ring-countings, though here also there is an element 
of uncertainty in the fact that the time required for a seedling to establish 
itself under different conditions is not known. 

United Provinces. The statement below gives a summary of the results 
of sample plot girth measurements in natural forest up to 1917, the measure- 
ments in all sample plots being combined for separate localities or forest 
divisions. These sample plots are situated in sal forest. 

Terminalia tomentosa : girth increment in high forest sample plots, 

United Provinces. 











{ 


ZJorresponding girth. 










Dehra Dun. 


S. Kheri. 


N. Kheri. 


Gonda, 


Pilibhit. 


Bahraich. 


Age. 


(260 trees) 


(67 trees) 


(30 trees) 


(64 trees) 


(21 trees) 


(30 trees) 


years. 


ft. in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


10 







, 




, 


. 


. 




5 


20 


, , 


o" 


5 





7 





4 





10 


30 


11 





10 


1 


1 





7 




1 5 


40 


1 4 


1 


2 


1 


8 





11 


2 "o 


2 


50 


1 10 


1 


6 


2 


2 


1 


4 


2 6 


2 7 


60 


2 3 


1 


11 


2 


8 


1 


8 


2 11 




70 


2 9 


2 


4 


3 


2 


2 





3 3 




80 


3 4 


2 


10 


3 


7 


2 


4 


3 7 




90 


3 11 


3 


4 


4 





2 


9 


3 11 




100 


4 6 


3 


10 


4 


4 


3 


1 


4 2 




110 


5 2 


4 


5 


4 


8 


3 


6 






120 


5 9 


5 


1 


4 


11 


3 


10 








130 








5 


2 


4 


3 








140 








5 


4 


4 


9 








150 








5 


6 


5 


4 








160 








5 


8 


5 


11 








170 








5 


10 












180 








5 


11 


, 


, 









Note. Measurements taken over bark at 4J ft. from ground-level : no addition made for 
time required for seedling to establish itself. 



TERMINALIA 



527 



Bihar and Orissa. The following are the results of measui-ements in two 
sample plots in the Singhbhum forest division, (1) in Tirilposi block, (2) on 
the Samta-Hendakuli old road : 



Terminalia tomentosa 



girth increment in high forest sample plots, 
Singhbhum division. 



Girth 


No. of trees under 


class. 


observation. 




(1) (2) 


ft. 




2-3 


1 


3-4 


6 18 


4-5 


< 


5-6 


3 


6-7 


1 



No. of years under 
observation. 



(1) 



18 



(2) 



27 \ 



Mean annual girth 
increment for period. 

(1) (2) 

in. in. 
0-47 

0-51 0-30 

0-33 
037 



A tree raised from seed sown in 1901 by Mr. Haines in the forest garden 
at Chaibassa attained in sixteen years a height of 33 ft. and a girth of 2 ft. 3| in. 

Central Provinces. Ring-countings in the case of a few felled trees in 
the South Chanda forest division gave the following results : ^ 

Terminalia tomentosa : girth increment. South Chanda, Central Provinces. 



Girth at 4J ft. from 




Mean annual girth 


ground-level. 


Age. 


increment. 


in. 


years. 


in. 


6 


8i 


0-71 


12 


17 


0-70 


18 


251 


0-71 


24 


47 


0-51 


30 


76 


0-40 



Note. ^No addition made for time required for establishment of seedling. 

The following results of sample plot measurements extending over a period 
of eight years in respect of 39 trees in the Baihar and Raigarh ranges of the 
Balaghat division show a very slow rate of growth : ^ 

Terminalia tomentosa : girth increment in high forest sample plots, 

Balaghat. 



Mean girth, 
ft. in. 
2 6| 

2 9i 

3 



Age. 


Mean 


girth. 


Age. 


years. 


ft. 


in. 


years 


20 





3i 


70 


30 





6 


80 


40 





9 


90 


50 


1 





100 


60 


1 


2* 


110 



jar 


I girth. 


Age. 


ft. 


in. 


years 


1 


5i 


120 


1 


8 


130 


1 


lOf 


140 


2 


li 





2 4 



Note. No addition made for time required for establishment of seedlmg. 

1 Working Plan for the Dhaba, Ghot, and Markhanda Ranges and Elchil Forest, South 
<:handa, J. Donald, 1913. 

2 Statistics compiled in the Silviculturist's office, 1916-17 ; Ind. For. Rec, vol. vi, pt. v. 



528 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

Bombay. The following table has been compiled from measm'ements 
based on ring-countings and recorded in high forest working plans in 
Bombay : 

Terminalia tomentosa : diameter increment in high forest, Bombay 

Presidency. 

North Kanara district. Surat 

district. 







-^T3 


m 


tiO 


ee 


CC 


r5 








0) n 


^-g 




cc 

(1 


5 ^.=. 




pa fuel 
lerves.^ 
1906) 


Ankolahighfo 
Blocks xxiv : 

XXV.- 

(1908) 


ddi slo 
ck XXV 
1909) 




Ankola-Kui 
coast.'' 
(1911) 


wn for( 
1913) 




Age. 


02 2 


Kalina 

Bio 

( 


r- CO b*i -,. ^ 

s O 
^^ 

02 


Sirsi to 
( 


Yekai 

lug 

Bloc 

( 


years. 
10 


in. 
2-21 


in. 
2-18 


in. 
2-4 


in. 
1-7 


in. 
1-6 


in. 
1-1 


m. 
10 


20 


4-20 


400 


5-7 


3-7 


40 


2-4 


2-6 


30 


6-27 


5-76 


8-4 


6-2 


6-4 


3-7 


4-6 


40 


812 


7-46 


9-9 


6-8 


8-6 


50 


6-6 


50 


1006 


905 


12-2 


8-4 


10-3 


6-2 


8-8 


60 


11-50 


10-55 


14-2 


100 


11-8 


7-4 


10-7 


70 




11-73 


15-9 


11-6 


13-1 


8-7 


12-5 


80 




12-80 


17-6 


13-1 


14-3 


10-1 


14-3 


90 




14-13 


18-9 


14-5 


, , 


11-5 


160 


100 




15-51 


20-4 


15-8 


. , 


13-0 


17-6 


110 




16-82 


21-9 


17-1 




14-4 


19-2 


120 




18-10 


23-2 


18-5 


, , 


15-6 


20-6 


130 




19-21 


24-4 


19-9 


. , 


16-6 


21-8 


140 




20-75 


25-5 


21-3 


. , 


17-6 


22-8 


150 




21-96 


26-5 


22-7 


. , 


18-0 


23-6 


160 




2310 


27-3 


24-0 


, , 


, , 


24-4 


170 




. . 


. 


. . 






25-4 



m 
Q -iS Csl 



in. 
2-5 
7-3 
10-6 
13-2 
16-2 
20-2 
22'2 
24-5 
25-5 



Note. Measurements do not include bark. Thickness of bark is given as 1-3 in. in the 
North Dangs forests, and 1-6 in. in the Sopinhosalli and Yekambi-Sonda forests. 

1 Measurements by D. A. Thomson. ^ Measurements by R. S. Pearson. 

3 Measurements by P. E. Aitchison. * Measurements by G. E. Marjoribanks. 

Madras. Ring-countings in the Begur forest (25 trees) and Chedleth 
range forests (77 trees), North Malabar, gave the following results : 

Terminalia tomentosa : results of ring-countings, North Malabar, Madras. 

Mean age. 



iameter. 


Corresponding 


girth. 


Begur. 


Chedleth range, 


in. 


in. 




years. 


years. 


6 


19 




28 


26 


12 


38 




58 


48 


18 


57 




85 


72 


24 


75 




117 


100 



(2) Coppice. United Provinces. Measurements by Mr. C. M. McCrie in 
1910 in sal coppice coupes at Ramgarh in the Gorakhpur district gave the 
following results for Terminalia tomentosa as compared with sal {Skorea 
rohusta) : 



TERMINALIA 529 

Terminalia tomentosa : growth of coppice at Ramgarh, Gorakhpur, 

United Provinces. 





Mean 


height. 




Mean girth. 




Age. 


Teminalia tomentosa. 


Sal. 


Terminalia tomentosa. 


Sal. 


years. 


ft. 




ft. 


in. 


in. 


2 


4-5 




30 


1-3 




4 


90 




70 


30 


20 


6 


12-3 




10-3. 


4-5 


2-9 


8 


150 




130 


5-7 


3-8 


10 


170 




15-3 


7-3 


4-8 



The following measurements made by me in 1911 in yomig coppice coupes 
in the Tikri forest, Gonda, show the comparative growth of Terminalia tomen- 
tosa and sal : 

Terminalia tomentosa : growth of young coppice in the Tikri forest, 

Gonda, United Provinces. 





Mean height. 




Average No. 


of shoots 


per 


stool. 


Age. 


Terminalia tomentosa. 


Sal. 


Terminalia tomentosa. 




Sal. 


years. 


ft. 


ft. 


in. 






in. 


1 


8-2 


4-7 


4-7 






2-2 


2 


11-2 


100 


2-9 






1-7 


2 


6-3 


7-6 


4-7 






1-8 



Bihar and Orissa. Measurements in coppice coupes of various ages in 
the Saitba block, Kolhan, Chota Nagpur, in a somewhat dry type of forest 
on hilly ground with stony soil, gave the following results : 

Terminalia tomentosa : growth of coppice in the Saitba block, Kolhan, 

Chota Nagpur. 





Mean height. 




Mean girth. 




Age. 


Terminalia tomentosa. 


Sal. 


Terminalia tomentosa. 


Sal. 


years. 


ft. 


ft. 


in. 


in. 


2 


5 -5 


9-0 


1-5 


40 


4 


10-5 


160 


3-2 


6-5 


6 


14-5 


20-0 


4-8 


8-6 


8 


17-8 


22-5 


6-5 


10-3 


10 


20-4 


24-5 


8-3 


11-5 


12 


22-7 


26-5 


100 


12-6 


14 


24-5 


28-5 


11-6 


13-6 



Bomhay. The following coppice measurements are recorded in the working 
j)lan for the Karwar fuel reserves. West Kanara forest division : ^ 

Terminalia tomentosa : growth of coppice in the Karwar fuel reserves. 

West Kanara, Bombay. 



Age. 


uirtn. 


Age- 


Vjtllbll, 


years. 


in. 


years. 


in. 


4 


6-75 


11 


1116 


5 


8-46 


12 


11-31 


6 


8-55 


13 


11-69 


7 


8-71 


15 


12-75 


8 


9-26 


18 


170 


9 


10-55 







1 Working Plan for the Karwar Fuel Reserves, West Kanara, Bombay, D. A. Thomson, 1904. 

2307.2 O 



530 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

4. Terminalia Arjiiua, Bedd. tSyn. T. glabra, W. and A. ; Pentaptera 
Arjuna, Roxb. Vern. Arjun, arjima, hahua, koha, Hind. ; Savimadat, Mar. ; 
HoIemaUi, Kan. ; Kula maruthu, Tarn. ; Thella maddi, Tel. (Fig. 204.) 

A large handsome tree, evergreen or nearly so, with trunk often buttressed, 
a large crown and drooping branchlets. Bark smooth, exfoliating in thin 
irregular sheets, green when newly exposed, turning light grey, pink inside ; 
young bark with chlorophyll. The tree resembles T. tomentosa except for its 
smooth bark, the narrower wings to the fruits, and the fact that it is charac- 
teristic of the banks of streams. It sometimes attains an enormous girth. 
Mr. J. C. McDonnell ^ records two trees 26 ft. and 32 ft. in girth at 5 ft. from 
ground-level at the village of Manapur in Jammu. 

The wood is brown, very hard, used for building, agricultural imple- 
ments, carts, and boats. The bark is used for tanning, and is much collected 
for the purpose in Central India. A special blazing instrument is used 
which strips off flakes of cortex without penetrating to and damaging the 
cambium, and within two years the stripped patches are covered with a 
thick new growth of cortex slightly lighter in colour than the original bark : 
if the cambium is injured the wood blackens and no regrowth of cortex takes 
place. 

Distribution v^nd habitat. Terminalia Arjwia is common throughout 
the greater part of the Indian Peninsula along rivers, streams, ravines, and 
dry watercourses, reaching a large size on fertile alluvial loam. It extends 
northward to the sub-Himalayan tract, where it is locally distributed along 
the banks of streams. It is common in Chota Nagpur, Central India, 
the Central Provinces, and parts of the Bombay and Madras Presidencies, 
extending south to Ceylon. It is often planted for shade or ornament 
along roadsides and in avenues. In some localities it has escaped from 
cultivation along streams, and is doubtfully indigenous. It is found naturally 
in regions where the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 
100 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 30 to 70 in. ; as, however, its occurrence depends largely on the 
moisture supplied by streams, its distribution is not governed by climatic 
considerations alone. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is evergreen or 
nearly so, the new foliage appearing early in the hot season. The panicled 
spikes of small white flowers appear from April to July, and the fruits ripen 
the following February to May. The fruits (Fig. 202, a) are 1-2 in. long, 
with a hard bony axis and five to seven wings 0-25-0-5 in. broad ; about 
80-110 weigh 1 lb. As in T. tomentosa, the germinative power of the seed 
is often indifferent. The tree flowers and fruits at an early age : a tree six 
years old flowered and fruited abundantly at Dehra Dun in 1918. 

Germination (Fig. 202, h~J). Epigeous. The hard endocarp of the fruit 
opens slightly and the radicle emerges. The hypocotyl elongates bj^ arching, 
and the large foliaceous cotyledons, which are convolute in the seed, extricate 
themselves and unroll. The hypocotyl straightens and still farther elongates, 
carrying the cotyledons above ground ; at the same time the young shoot 
emerges from between the two cotyledonary petioles. 

* Ind. Forester, xxix (1903), p. lo2. 




Fig. 202. Terminalia Arjtma Seedling x f 
a Fruit b - f Germination stages g, h Development of seedling to end of first season 



TERMINALIA 531 

The seedlixg (Fig. 202). 

Boots : primary root long, terete, tapering, wiry : lateral roots numerous, 
fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 2-2-3 in. 
long, terete or slightly compressed, tapering slightly upwards, tomentose. 
Cotyledons : petiole 0-3-0 -6 in. long, flattened above, tomentose : lamina 
0-7-0-9 in. by 1-4-2-2 in., foliaceous, somewhat fleshy, reniform, much broader 
than long, apex broadly truncate, base decurrent, entire, green, with three 
conspicuous and two minor veins from the base. Stem erect, terete, pubescent ; 
first internode, above the cotyledons, 1-8-2-2 in., subsequent internodes 
0-2-1 in. long. Leaves simple, alternate, or first pair sub-opposite, exstipulate. 
Petiole 0-2-0-3 in. long, flattened above, pubescent. Lamina 2-4-4 in. long, 
elliptical lanceolate, apex and base acute, widely serrulate, sparsely pubescent, 
or glabrous on the upper surface, venation sub-arcuate, lateral veins 8-12 
pairs. 

The young seedling of this species is easily distinguished from those of 
T. tomentosa and T. Chebula by the length of the hypocotjd and cotyledonary 
petioles (see p. 519). 

The growth of the seedling during the first season is somewhat faster 
than in the case of T. tomentosa, a height of about 5-12 in. being ordinarily- 
attained under natural conditions, and a height of 1 ft. to 1 ft. 9 in. in the 
case of nursery-raised plants. A fairly long taproot is developed early and 
may attain a length of as much as 1 ft. within two months of germination. 
As in the case of T. tomentosa and T. myriocarpa, the young plant during the 
first few years tends to assume a straggling or branching formation, sacrificing 
height-growth to the production of long side branches which bend over towards 
the ground. This does not alwaj^s occur, however, and rapid height-growth 
may take place from the commencement ; thus young tended plants at Dehra 
Dun have attained a height of 6-10 ft., with a basal girth of 5-8 in., in three 
years. In Berar seedlings have reached a height of 1^ ft. in two years, and 
at Nagpur they have attained 3 ft. in 2^ years. Growth is stimulated by 
regular watering and loosening of the soil. 

The seedlings are somewhat sensitive to frost, and are decidedly sensitive 
to drought, both in the germinating stages and subsequently. They grow 
well in full sunlight provided the ground is moist ; they also stand moderate 
shade, but not dense overhead shade. In northern India the season's growth 
ceases in November-December and new growth commences about March. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is capable of standing more shade 
than T. tomentosa. It has a more or less superficial root-system, and relies 
for its moisture chiefly on the streams whose banks it frequents. It is some- 
what tender to frost as well as to drought. Mr. C. M. McCrie ^ notes regarding 
the abnormal drought of 1899 and 1900 that many trees along the banks of 
the streams in the Nagpur district died owing to the lowering of the subsoil 
water-level. The tree produces root-suckers and pollards well. Experiments 
in Bombay have shown that it coppices well up to a girth of about 2| ft., 
after which the coppicing power is indifferent. 

Natural reproduction. Under natural conditions germination takes 
place early in the rainy season, and may actually commence with the early 
showers before the monsoon proper. Numerous experiments at Dehra Dun, 

1 Ind. Forester, xxvi ( 1900), p 338. 
02 



532 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

including plots of ground kept moist by percolation in order to imitate natural 
conditions, showed that the seed does not germinate readily if exposed to the 
sun, and if germination begins the radicle is very liable to dry up. If the 
fruits become partially buried by rain or otherwise germination is much more 
successful, while the success is greater on bare soil with a considerable amount 
of moisture, provided the fruits are buried : these conditions ordinarily obtain 
on alluvial ground along streams. A certain degree of shade, particularly 
from the side, assists the establishment of the seedling, but heavy shade is 
inimical. In the forest seedlings are often to be found in large quantities 
where the fruits have been accumulated by the action of streams in loose 
alluvial soil and conditions for germination have been favourable. 

Artificial reproduction. The plants bear transplanting well during 
the first rainy season before the taproot becomes too long. The fruits should 
be sown in the nursery about April-May, covered lightly, and watered regularly. 
Irrigated weeded line sowings have been found successful. 

Rate of growth. Few detailed statistics are available regarding the 
rate of growth, but young trees planted at Dehra Dun and well watered have 
grown fairly rapidly. A cross-section from the United Provinces 2 ft. 8| in. 
in girth, including bark, in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun showed 
43 rings, giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-75 in. Trees raised from 
seed sown in 1901 by Mr. Haines in the forest garden at Chaibassa, Chota 
Nagpur, attained the following dimensions in sixteen years : 

(1) Height 40 ft., girth 2 ft. 11 in. 

(2) Height 37 ft., girth 2 ft. 8 in. 

(3) Height 37 ft., girth 1 ft. Sf in. 

Measurements in coppice coupes in Bombay showed that a height of 12 ft. 
and a girth of 10 in. may be expected in six to seven years. 

5. Terminalia myriocarpa, Heurck and Muell. Arg. Vern. Panisaj, Nep. ; 
Hollock, jhalna, Ass. 

A very large evergreen tree with pendulous branches. Bark greyish 
brown, rough, exfoliating in vertical flakes. Wood dark brown, hard, used 
for house-building, canoes, cheap furniture, and other purposes. The tree 
attains very large dimensions. Mr. Jacob ^ records one tree in the Raidak 
valley over 30 ft. in girth, and two trees close together in the Chirrang valley 
roughly 36 and 27 ft. in girth. Babu R. N. De ^ records a tree 46 ft. 4 in. in 
girth round buttresses in the Lakhimpur district, Assam. 

Distribution and habitat. Eastern Himalaya from Nepal eastwards, 
in valleys and lower hills up to 5,000 ft., Assam, hills of Upper Burma. It is 
very plentiful in some localities, often coming up in gregarious patches on 
newly exposed ground, forming pure even-aged groups underneath which 
evergreen species appear. Mr. Jacob notes that it is very common in Bhutan 
up to 3,000 ft. and is found up to 4,000 ft. Mr. Milroy ^ reports that in the 
Abor country it is the predominant tree on the lower hills, where trees of 
12 and 14 ft. girth are common, and still larger ones up to 18 and 20 ft. are 
not scarce ; he adds that although the trees are apt to be short in the bole 

1 Report on the Forests of Bhutan, 1912. ^ i^d. Forester, xliv (1918), p. 517. 

^ Report on the Forest Resources of the Abor Country, 1912. 




a Fruit 



Fig. 203. Terminalia myriocarpa Seedling x \ 
b - d Germination stages e - i Development of seedling to end of first season 



TERMINALIA 533 

and much branched a great quantity of clean timber could be extracted from 
them. 

Terminalia myriocarpa is essentially a tree of moist situations and rich 
soil, and in Assam is often found associated with Bischoffia javanica. In its 
natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 90 to 
102 F., the absolute minimum from 33 to 45 F., and the normal rainfall 
from 80 to 200 in. or possibly more. 

Flowering and fruiting. The panicles of small pink flowers appear 
in October-November and the fruits ripen from March to June. The fruits 
(Fig. 203, a) are small and light, 0-1-0-15 in. long, light yellowish brown, with 
a pair of lateral membranous wings, the whole 0-4-0-5 in. in width. About 
4,000 to 4,500 weigh 1 oz. The germinative power of the seed is fairly good, 
tests at Dehra Dun showing a fertility of 63 per cent., which for a small light 
seed is not unsatisfactory. Seed-year records show that the tree seeds well 
as a rule every year. The trees are a very handsome sight when covered 
with masses of pink blossom or yellow fruits. 

Germination (Fig. 203, b-d). Epigeous. The thin radicle emerges from 
one end of the winged fruit and the cotyledons from the other ; the hypocotyl 
quickly elongates, carrying above ground the cotyledons, which expand in the 
meantime, and the yoimg shoot emerges from between them. 

The seedling (Fig. 203). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, terete, tapering, wiry : lateral roots 
numerous, fine, fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct from 
root, 0-5-0 -8 in. long, thin, terete, cylindrical, tomentose. Cotyledons : petiole 
0'l-0-15 in. long, flattened above, pubescent : lamina 0-1-0-2 in. by 0-15- 
0-3 in., foliaceous, reniform or sub-orbicular, broader than long, apex truncate 
or retuse, base tapering, entire, glabrous or minutely pubescent. Stem erect, 
terete, green or red, rusty tomentose ; internocles 0-2-0 -7 in. long. Leaves, 
first pair opposite, small, subsequent leaves larger than first pair, alternate, 
exstipulate. First pair with petiole 0-1 in. long or less, tomentose, lamina 
0-4-0-5 in. by 0-15-0-2 in., elliptical lanceolate, apex and base acute, entire 
or obscurely serrate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent above, sparsely pubescent 
beneath. Subsequent leaves with petiole 0-1-0-3 in. long, tomentose, lamina 
0*1-2-8 in. by 0-4-1 in., elliptical lanceolate, acuminate, base acute, serrate, 
pubescent, venation arcuate, lateral veins 6-10 pairs, nearly reaching the 
margin ; later leaves of the first season with glands at the base. The serrate 
leaves of the seedling are interesting ; the adult leaves of this species, and of 
the whole order, are entire. 

In its early stages the seedling is minute, and is apt to be washed away 
by rain before it gains a footing. It develops rapidly, however, and attains 
a height of about 4-8 in. or more by the end of the first season. As in the 
case of T. to^nentosa and T. Arjuna, the young plant has a tendency to produce 
long straggling branches in place of a definite leader, but in spite of this its 
height -growth after the first season is rapid. Sixteen plants gi"own at Dehra 
Dun had a height of 4 ft. 8 in. to 7 ft. 3 in. by the end of the second season, 
and 10 to 15 ft. by the end of the third season. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree bears a fair amount of shade and 
is exacting as regards moisture. It is not known to produce root-suckers. 

Natural reproduction. The ideal conditions for successful reproduc- 
tion are a loose porous soil free from weeds, in order to enable the small light 



534 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

fruit to reach the soil and the germinating seedling to establish itself quickly, 
and a fair amount of soil moisture. The light fruits tend to be washed into 
heaps and the minute seedlings are also liable to be washed awaj^ considerable 
mortality resulting. The young seedlings are apt to dry up if exposed to the 
sun, and benefit by a certain amount of shade ; they are also apt to die off 
in quantity on stiff water -logged soil, and good drainage appears to be 
necessary for their establishment. The young crop often tends to come up 
gregariously, where conditions are favourable, on newly exposed ground or 
fresh alluvium. 

Artificial reproduction. Direct sowings are unsuitable, as the small 
light fruits are liable to be washed away. Experiments at Dehra Dun showed 
that the best results are attained in fine porous sandy soil in boxes or in well- 
raised beds protected from sun and heavy rain ; watering should be frequent 
but light. Germination ordinarily starts in two or three weeks and may- 
continue for about three months. The plants transplant well during the first 
rainy season when 3 to 4 in. high. 

6. Terminalia Catappa, Linn. Syn. T. procera, Roxb. Indian almond. 
Vern. Badam, Beng. Known in the Anclamans as ' white bombway ', a cor- 
ruption of the Burmese hanbwe {Carey a arborea). 

A large handsome deciduous tree with whorled branches and large glabrous 
leaves which turn red before falling in the hot season. Bark smooth, grey, 
stem often buttressed. The tree is a native of the Andamans and adjacent 
islands and of the Malay Peninsula, in coast forests. It is extensively planted 
in tropical India and in Burma, particularly round monasteries, both for 
ornament and for the sake of its fruits, the kernels of which are eaten. 

In the Andamans it is common in the littoral forests on raised beaches 
and deposits of sea-sand above high tide, associated with Calophyllum Ino- 
'phyllum, Afzelia bijuga, Thespesia populnea, Heritiera littoralis, Erythrina 
indica, Sterculia spp., Pongamia glabra, Odina Wodier, Hibiscus tiliaceus, and 
Pandanus tectorius. It also extends into the padauk forests, where it is confined 
to sandy soil as a rule not far from the sea, or to diluvial deposits formed of 
detritus brought down by streams in flood. 

The whitish flowers, in axillary spikes, appear from February to May, 
and according to Bourdillon again in October-November (Travancore). The 
fruits ripen in June-July (also January, Bourdillon). The fruit is a yellowish 
ellipsoidal drupe, somewhat compressed, 1-5-2 in. long, with a porous fibrous 
to fleshy pericarp and a hard endocarp enclosing the edible seed. The fruit 
is adapted for dissemination by water, the thick husk of porous tissue rendering 
it buoyant. The tree is easily raised from seed, the fruits being sown in the 
nursery about July and the seedlings transplanted during the following rainy 
season. The tree grows best in a moist tropical climate. 

7. Terminalia paniculata, Roth. Vern. Kindal, kinjal, Mar. ; Hulve, 
honal, bili-matti, Kan. ; Pulavdi, venmarudu, pumarudu, Tam. ; Nimiri, pula- 
rnaddi, Tel. 

A large to very large deciduous tree. Bark 0-4-0-6 in. thick, dark brown, 
rough, with numerous shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. The lower 
part of the bole is often much fluted. Heartwood light brown, very hard ; 
wood used chiefly for planking, agricultural implements, and canoes, but not 



TERMINALIA 535 

quite so much in demand as that of T. tomeniosa. The bark contains much 
tannin. 

The tree reaches considerable dimensions. Mr. H. Tireman records one 
13 ft. 3 in. in girth measured in the Coorg forests : large trees, however, are 
usually unsound inside. It attains a height of 100 ft. under favourable 
conditions. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is found in the western regions 
of the Indian Peninsula from Bombay southwards, and in southern India. 
In Bombay it is one of the commonest trees of the North Kanara mixed 
deciduous forests, its most important associates being teak, Dalbergia latifolia, 
Pterocarpus Marsupium, Terminalia tomentosa, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, and 
Xylia xylocarpa. It is rare on the Deccan trap and absent from the Dangs 
and Satpuras. It extends southwards through South Canara and Malabar to 
Travancore, and occurs in the Nilgiris, Anamalais, and other hill ranges of 
southern India. In Coorg it is most plentiful and attains its largest dimensions 
in the deciduous forests of the ghats ; it is also found throughout the eastern 
forests, but here it reaches smaller dimensions-. Throughout its region it is 
often the most plentiful species of the mixed forests. Bourdillon says it 
is probably the commonest tree in Travancore, often forming 50-60 per cent, 
of the trees in the deciduous forests up to 2,000 ft. elevation. It is also the 
commonest timber tree of the Nilambur valley in Malabar and of some of the 
Kanara forests. 

The tree is most frequently found in valleys and on lower slopes, preferring 
fairly moist situations. It requires a well-drained soil, and is not found on 
water-logged ground, thus differing from T. tomentosa. In the Western Ghats 
it grows equally well on the laterite soils at the foot of the ghats and on the 
decomposed crystalline rocks of the slopes. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 102 F., the absolute minimum from 55 to 65 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 40 to 180 in. or more. 

Flowering and fruiting. The flowering season appears to vary. 
Brandis gives it as August to December, Talbot (Bombay) as August to Septem- 
ber, and Bom^dillon (Travancore) as July to December, one flowering succeeding 
another. Mr. H. Tireman informs me that in Coorg he has observed it in 
flower in April-May. The flowers are small and white in rusty-pubescent 
panicled spikes. 

The fruits, which ripen from December to May, are brick-red, 0-25-0-5 in. 
long, with one large wing about 0-5-0-75 in. broad and two smaller wings ; 
about 100-120 fruits weigh 1 oz. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree stands rather more shade than 
T. tomentosa, saplings and poles being found coming up in small gaps ; it wiU 
not, however, stand heavy shade, and may be regarded as a light-demander 
rather than a shade-bearer. Frost is unknown within its region, and prolonged 
drought seldom if ever occurs. The tree coppices well up to a moderate size. 

Natural reproduction. The natural reproduction of this tree is as 
a rule plentiful, though the conditions influencing it require further study. 
In many places the moist deciduous forests of Kanara are gradually changing 
towards the evergreen type as a result of fire-protection, and the natural 



536 



XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 



reproduction of this and other deciduous trees is reported to be suffering in 
consequence, though it is plentiful near cultivation and along the sides of 
roads where heavy weed-growth is kept down. Mr. Tireman notes that in 
the Coorg ghats it probably owes its existence to fires, as the deciduous forest 
is almost certainly due to the humri cultivation which has killed all the ever- 
green trees which must formerly have covered the locality. This would 
fiu-t her indicate that newly exposed ground, such as that obtained by shifting 
cultivation, is a favourable factor, as it is in the case of light winged seeds 
and fruits in general. 

PtATE OF GROW'TH. The following table shows the rate of growth in 
diameter, based on the results of ring-countings recorded in working plans of 
the North Kanara district, Bombay : 

Terminalia paniculata : growth in diameter in high forests of the North 

Kanara district, Bombay. 







Ankola 










Yekanibi 




Supa 


high forest, 


Kalinaddi 


Sopinhosalli 






Sonda 




fuel 


Blocks xxiv 


slopes, 


higli forest, 


Ankola -Kumta 


Sirsi town 


high fores 




reserves.^ 


and XXV.- 


Block xxvi." 


Block xxvii.2 


coast." 


forests.^ 


Block XXV 


Age. 


(1906) 


(1908) 


(1909) 


(1910) 


(1911) 


(1913) 


(1914) 


years. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


10 


21 


21 


2-2 


1-2 


1-8 


10 


1-2 


20 


4-2 


41 


4-4 


2-8 


4-0 


2-4 


2-8 


30 


6-6 


5-9 


6-6 


4-4 


6-3 


3-8 


4-8 


40 


9-2 


7-7 


8-8 


6-4 


8-5 


5-4 


70 


50 


11-8 


9-5 


110 


8-5 


10-8 


7-2 


9-4 


60 


13-3 


11-2 


13-2 


10-5 


130 


90 


11-5 


70 


, , 


12-9 


15-2 


12-6 


15-2 


111 


13-5 


80 


, , 


14-6 


171 


14-6 


17-4 


13-3 


15-4 


90 


, , 


16-2 


190 


16-7 


^ , 


151 


170 


100 




17-8 


20-7 


18-8 




16-6 


18-5 


110 


, , 


19-4 


22-5 


20-9 


, , 


17-7 


200 


120 




20-6 


241 


230 






21-5 


130 


.. 


220 


25-4 









231 


140 





23-3 


26-4 








24-7 


150 


, , 


24-2 


27-2 






^ , 


26-4 


160 


, , 


24-9 


27-6 


^ ^ 


, , 


, , 


. . 


170 


, , 


25-6 


, , 


, , 




, , 





Note. Diameter excludes bark. 
0-6 in. in Sopinhosalli high forest. 



Average bark thickness 0-4 in. in Ankola high forest and Kalinaddi sic 



^ Measurements by I). A. Thomson. 
^ Measurements by P. E. Aitchison. 



2 Measurements by R. S. Pearson. 



As regards coppice, the following measurements by Mr. H. A. Gass in 
the Kadike block of the South Canara district, Madras, were recorded in 

1898-9 : 

Terminalia 'paniculata : coppice measurements, 8outh Canara. 









No. 


f shoots 


Age. Girth. 


Height. 


per 


stool. 


years. 


in. 


ft. 








8 


15 




2 


2 


4 


18 




4 




I 7 


15 




6 




flOJ 


15 








9i 


12 






3 


9i 


18 








14" 


20 




8 




12 


18 








Fig. 204. Terminalia Arjuna, Bombay. 



536 




Fig. 205. Anogeissus latifoUa, Dehra Dun, T'nitt d Provinces. 



TERMINALIA 537 

8. Termiiialia bialata, Steuclel. White chugiam (Andamans). Vern. Lein, 
Burm. ; Chugalam, And. 

A large deciduous tree of Burma and the Andamans, reaching a height 
of 100 ft. In Burma it occurs in the upper mixed deciduous forests along 
with teak and its associates, and probably also in the lower mixed forests. 
In the Andamans it is one of the chief species in the semi-deciduous forests 
associated with Pterocarpus dalbergioides (padauk), Lagerstroemia hypoleuca, 
Bomhax insigne, StercuUa spp., Albizzia Lebbek, and others. It also occurs 
sometimes in the evergreen dipterocarp forest. It flowers in the rainy season 
(Brandis) and the fruits ripen in the cold season (Kurz) ; ripe fruits have been 
received from Burma in February. Mr. C. G. Rogers ^ says that numbers of 
germinating seeds were seen in the Andaman forests in the month of May, 
and that the large proportion of this species, including saplings and poles, in 
the standing crop points to its being better able to reproduce itself naturally 
than the other trees associated with padauk. The wood of this tree is strong, 
elastic, straight grained, and of good quality, and it is likely to become an 
important timber when better known. 

Another tree known in Burma as lein is common on the plains of Pegu, 
where it is of comparatively small size with a bushy form of growth. This 
is probably T. pyrifolia, Kurz, which, according to Brandis, merits careful 
study in the forest, as to whether it is really a distinct species ; its size and 
mode of growth are certainly different from that of the larger and cleaner- 
stemmed T. bialata. 

9. Termiiialia Oliveri, Brandis. Vern. TJmii, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree with smooth greenish grey bark and 
a somewhat irregularly shaped and often channelled stem. It attains a height 
of 40-50 ft. and a girth of 4-5 ft., but on poor ground it is stunted. The 
leaves are only 1-5-3 in. long, and turn red before falling in the hot season. 
The fruit is five-winged like that of T. tomentosa, but much smaller. The 
wood is a good fuel and the bark is illicitly used to adulterate cutch. This 
tree is very common in the dry zone of Upper Burma in tracts where the 
rainfall varies from 22 to 40 in. and the soil is often poor and shallow. It 
extends from the Magwe and Yamethin districts in the south to about 23| 
N. lat. in the Ruby Mines district in the north. It is one of the most charac- 
teristic trees of the dry open forests associated with Acacia Catechu, A. leuco- 
%)hloea, Tectona Hamiltoniana, Diospyros burmanica, TenniTialia tomentosa, 
Pentacme sicavis, and other species. Towards its northern limit in the Ruby 
IVIines district it occurs in dry open forest on poor shallow soil, its chief 
associates being Diospyros burmanica, Vitex pubescens, Pterocarpus macro- 
carpus, Anogeissus acuminata, Xylia dolabriformis, Terminxilia tomentosa. Acacia 
Catechu, and others, with bamboos, chiefly Dendrocalamus strictus : the trees 
are of small size. Towards its southern limit in the Magwe and Yamethin 
districts it occurs in dry forest of a similar type, which may be regarded as 
a transition between the scrub forests of the dry zone and the upper mixed 
deciduous forests occurring outside that zone. 

1 Report on the Exploration of the Forests of the South Andaman and other Islands, 1906, 
para. 23. 



538 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

2. ANOGEISSUS, Wall. 

This genus contains three well-defined Indian species ; A. sericea, Brandis, 
which occurs in parts of the Central Provinces and in the Panch Mahals, is 
possibly not distinct from A. acuminata, Wall. The fruit is small, dry, two- 
winged, terminating in a beak formed by the persistent calyx-tube ; the 
fruits are clustered in small globose heads. One of the chief peculiarities of 
this genus is the infertility of the seed, in spite of which natural reproduction 
often appears in great quantity, resulting in the case of A. lafi folia and 
A. pendula in gregariousness. This question is discussed in dealing with 
A. latifolia ; it has been suggested that fertile seed is produced in quantity 
only in certain years, and that the cause of this is climatic. 

Species 1. A. latifolia, Wall.; 2. A. pendula, Edgw. ; 3. A. acumiiiata. 
Wall. 

1. Anogeissus latifolia, Wall. Syn. Conocarpus latifolia, DC, Vern. 
DJmura, dhau, dhawa, bdkli. Hind. ; Dindal, dinduga, Kan. ; Vellay naga. 
Tarn. ; Chiriman, Tel. (Fig. 205.) 

A moderate-sized to large deciduous tree with a somewhat feathery 
rounded crown and di'ooping branchlets. Bark thin, smooth, greenish or 
greyish white, exfoliating in irregular thin rounded scales which leave shallow 
depressions ; the outer layer contains chlorophyll. The bark sheds rapidly, 
and rings of paint often disappear within two or three years of being 
applied. 

The tree seldom attains very large dimensions, a girth of more than 6 ft. 
not being common. Mr. T. Carr recorded a sound tree 9 ft. 3 in. in girth in 
the Sarda range of the Haldwani forest division. United Provinces. A cross- 
section without bark in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun measures 
8 ft. 9 in. in circumference ; this was cut from a tree in the United 
Provinces. 

The wood, which is hard, very strong, and tough, is used for cart-axles, 
shoulder-poles, axe-handles, furniture, agricultural implements, poles and 
rafters, boat-building, and other purposes. The leaves are rich in tannin, 
and are collected for tanning purposes ; the bark is also used for tanning, and 
yields a gum much used in calico-printing. Apart from its economic uses 
the tree is useful silviculturally in clothing dry hill-sides, and is an important 
constituent in certain dry types of forest. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the sub-Himalayan tract and 
outer hills from the Ravi to Nepal, ascending to 4,000 ft., Bihar, Chota Nagpur, 
Central India, and southwards throughout the greater part of the Indian 
Peninsula, ascending the hills of southern India to 4,000 ft. ; also in the dry 
country of Ceylon. Not in eastern Bengal, Assam, or Burma. 

The tree is characteristic of deciduous forests, usually of a dry type, but 
is also common in sal forest and in other types of moderately moist forest. 
In the outer Himalaya it often marks a distinct zone towards the upper limit 
of the low-level species, at about 2,500-4,000 ft. ; here it is gregarious, forming 
almost pure crops or mixed with Bauhinia retusa and a few other species. 
In the JSiwalik hills it occurs gregariously in the same way on sandstone and 
conglomerate, the chief species associated with it being Buchanania latifolia, 



ANOGEISSUS 539 

Ovgeinia dalbergioides, Terminalia tomentosa, Wendlandia exserta, and Pinus 
longifolia. In the submontane forests of the Himalayan region it is often 
abundant, both in certain types of sal forest and in mixed forest without sal. 
A very common companion is Terminalia tomentosa, and on alluvial flats near 
streams the crop sometimes consists entirely of this species and Anogeissus ; 
here the trees attain large dimensions. 

In Chota Nagpur it is very common, especially on the drier hills, often 
growing more or less gregariously. In the hills of Central India it is likewise 
plentiful in some localities. In Gwalior it often forms an underwood in 
Boswellia forests. In the Central Provinces and Bombay it is a common 
constituent of the mixed deciduous forests, where it is at times gregarious, 
among its chief companions being teak, Terminalia tomentosa, Lagerstroemia 
parviflora, Ougeinia dalbergioides, Diospyros Melanoxylon, Cassia Fistula, and 
Phyllanthus Emblica. 

In Bombay it is one of the commonest trees above ghats, particularly in 
Belgaum and Kanara ; on the eastern (Dharwar) side of the North Kanara 
forest division it forms nearly pure crops over considerable areas. In the 
Madras Presidency it is perhaps more abundant than it is anywhere else, 
particularly in the south-east, in Madura and in Tinnevelly, where it may 
form as much as 50 per cent, of the crop on the upper dry slopes of the 
hiUs. It is plentiful in the eastern forests of Coorg, in many parts of 
Mysore and Hyderabad, and in the dry deciduous forests of Travancore up 
to 4,000 ft. 

Generally speaking it avoids moist regions, but on the other hand it does 
not extend into the driest parts of India, being absent from Sind and rare 
in Ajmer-Merwara : in the drier regions of its habitat it is usually stunted 
and crooked, though this condition is often due in part to fire and maltreat- 
ment. It grows on a variety of geological formations, including sandstone, 
limestone, metamorphic rocks, trap, and laterite : it attains its largest dimen- 
sions, however, on deep alluvial or diluvial soil. It avoids swampy and badly- 
drained ground, and requires good drainage. In the natural habitat of the 
tree the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 102 to 118 F., 
the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal rainfall from 25 
to 90 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves turn a coppery 
red to reddish brown about November, and in the cold season the trees are 
very conspicuous with their deep red foliage. The leaves fall chiefly in 
February, the trees remaining leafless until xA.pril-May, when the new foliage 
appears. The insignificant greenish yellow flowers, in small globose heads, 
appear from June to September according to locality (August-September 
towards the northern limit of the species). 

The small dry indehiscent fruits (Fig. 206, a), crowded in globose heads, 
are 0- 15-0-25 in. in diameter, compressed, with a narrow wing on each side, 
yellowish brown, fairly hard. About 3,000-3,500 weigh 1 oz. They ripen 
from December to March, fall soon after ripening, and may be found scattered 
over the ground round the trees from February-March onwards. 

As a rule the tree seeds abundantly every year, but the fertility of 
the seed is usually very poor ; this question is considered under ' natural 



540 XX\ai. COMBRETACEAE 

reproduction '. Fertility tests can probably best be carried out on shaded 
well raised and watered beds of loose sand and gravel, as explained under 
' artificial reproduction '. 

Geemixatiox (Fig. 206, b). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from the 
extremity of the fruit and descends. The hypocotyl and the cotyledonary 
petioles elongate, raising the cotyledons above ground. The shell of the fru.it 
encloses the cotyledons for a time, falling with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 206). 

Boots : primary root long, moderately thick, terete, tapering, woody or 
wiry : lateral roots few to moderate in number, short, fibrous, distributed 
down main root. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0- 1-0-3 in. long, terete or 
slightly compressed, minutely pubescent. Cotyledons : petiole 0-5-0 -9 in. long, 
finely pubescent, often red : lamina 0-2-0-4 in. by 0-35-0-6 in., foliaceous, 
much broader than long, apex truncate or retuse, base tapering, entire, glabrous 
above, minutely pubescent beneath, green, often red beneath, prominently 
3-veined from the base. Stem erect, terete, wiry, pubescent, often reddish ; 
internodes 0-1-0-8 in. long. Leaves, first two sub-opposite or alternate, some- 
times abortive and 0-1-0-2 in. long, subsequent normal leaves alternate, at 
first small, successively increasing in size. Stipules absent. Petiole up to 
0-1 in. long. Lamina 0-4-2-8 in. by 0-3-1-1 in., elliptical ovate, acute or 
acuminate, mucronate, base acute, entire, glabrous above, glabrescent or 
minutely pubescent beneath, especially on the veins, margins finely ciliate, 
venation arched reticulate, veins often reddish on under surface. 

The growth of the seedling is only moderate, a height of 4-8 in. being 
ordinarily attained by the end of the first season. The taproot attains a length 
of 18 in. or more in the same time. The seedlings suffer a little from frost, 
but the damage is not as a rule serious, and extends only to the wilting of 
the leaves. In dry localities the seedlings may die back annually for some 
years before they finally shoot up. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a decided light -demander, though 
it can stand a slight amount of shade in early youth. Although it grows in 
dry types of forest it is sensitive to drought, and suffered much in the abnormal 
droughts of 1899-1900 in the Indian Peninsula and of 1907 and 1908 in Oudh : 
in the dry years from 1911 to 1914 in Jodhpur many young coppice-shoots 
died back and the stools did not recover. As regards its susceptibility to frost, 
Branclis notes that in January 1870, on the borders of Pertabgarh, south-west 
of Nimuch, he found it had been injured a good deal. It may, however, be 
found flourishing in grass-covered frosty blanks where tender species could not 
exist, for example on the flat land fringing the Siwalik hills along with other 
frost-hardy species such as Stereospennum suavolens, Ougeinia dalbergioides, 
and Acacia Catechu. It cannot therefore be considered a very frost-tender 
species. It is less susceptible to damage by browsing than many other species, 
even goats being not very partial to it. It suffers from fire, and in severely 
burnt areas it becomes gnarled and hollow. It produces root-suckers. If 
cut at the right season of the year it coppices and pollards well in most 
localities, but in experiments carried out in North Chanda, Central Provinces, 
in 1909, of trees pollarded only 16 per cent, produced pollard-shoots, while 
in the case of trees coppiced in different months the percentage of stools 
which produced coppice-shoots was: (1) April, 92 ; (2) May, 100; (3) June, 50; 
(4) July, 50; (5) August, nil; (6) September, nil. This shows that coppicing 



.V. 




Fig. 206. Anogeissiis latifolia Seedling x f 
a Fruit b Germination c - g -Development of seedling during first season 



ANOGEISSUS 541 

in the rainy season is unsuccessful. In an experimental coppice area in North 
Khandesh, Bombay, in 1903, the percentage of felled trees which yielded 
coppice-shoots was 60, the number of shoots per stool varying from 2 to 7. 
In experiments carried out by Mr. E. Marsden in the United Provinces pol- 
larding was found to give better results than coppicing for the production 
of young leaves and twigs for tanning ; the best season for pollarding was 
found to be not later than March, and the best results were obtained from 
branchy trees, girth being of less importance than branchiness for the pro- 
duction of numerous shoots. 

Natural reproduction. The natural reproduction of this tree is not 
yet fully understood. Seedlings come up naturally, often in abundance, on 
newly exposed well-drained ground on stony hill-sides, on landslips, on aban- 
doned cultivation, on open grassy areas as well as on alluvial ground. Repro- 
duction is always best, however, where the drainage is perfect, dense crops 
of saplings appearing on the well- drained slopes, of hills and on sandy or 
gravelly soil. Light is undoubtedly an important factor in the establishment 
of natural reproduction, which is often plentiful in open gaps and bare places, 
but the Bombay experiments described below under ' artificial reproduction ' 
would indicate that shade and moisture are favourable to successful germina- 
tion. Absence of weed-growth is also favourable, for the seedlings are very 
intolerant of suppression by weeds, and it is noteworthy that good reproduction 
has been observed to spring up on burnt areas, though its ultimate establish- 
ment is favoured by protection from fire and excessive grazing. 

The want of fertility of the seed does not accord with the fact that 
reproduction often springs up in dense masses on well-drained hill-sides, and 
Mr. R. S. Pearson ^ has advanced a theory to explain this fact. Having noticed 
in the Panch Mahals that reproduction appeared in even-aged masses differing 
from each other by definite intervals of years, as determined by counting 
rings on cut seedlings and saplings, he ascertained that the years in which 
reproduction took place were those following on years of deficient rainfall. 
He surmised therefore that whereas under normal conditions the tree produces 
little or no fertile seed, the production of fertile seed is stimulated by years 
of drought. This theory is well worth following up by fertility tests of seeds 
carried out annually for a series of years, including seasons of good and of 
deficient rainfall, the results so obtained being supplemented by comparative 
observations of the state of reproduction in the forest. 

Mr. A. K. DesSii ^ notes that seedlings sprang up in great abundance on 
flat grass-covered ground in the Panch Mahals as a result of the opening out 
of the forests by the removal of dead timber killed by the drought of 1899-1900. 
If Mr. Pearson's theory be correct, the production of fertile seed as a result 
of the drought might be considered to be the rnain factor which induced this 
reproduction. 

Mr, H. Tireman^ remarks on the profuse reproduction of Anogeissus 
which springs up and establishes itself in the Coorg forests on the removal, 
after burning, of the dense growth of lantana which infests them. The 
germination of the seed is evidently favoured by the clean bare soil under 

1 ;Ind. Forester, xxxiii (1907), p. 231. - Ihid., xxxiv (1908), p. 15. 

3 ii^id^^ xlii(1916), p. 390. 



542 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

the lantana, and the rapid growth of the seedlings, when the lantana is 
removed, is stimulated by the absence of grass for the first year or two and 
the fact that the lantana enriches the soil. 

Artificial eeproductiox. The fruits require to be collected when the 
heads commence to break up, and not before. The infertility of the seeds 
is a serious drawback to artificial reproduction, and if the theory just referred 
to holds good the best results would seem to be obtainable after dry years 
when a fertile crop of seed is obtained. Under ordinary conditions the 
infertility of the seed would preclude any great success by direct sowings, 
though in years of fertile seed-production they should prove successful on 
well-drained porous ground. Many years ago Mr. Haines carried out successful 
sowings on heaps of loose earth and rubble at Chaibassa, Chota Nagpur. 
Mr. Pearson ^ notes that he obtained successful germination in the Panch 
Mahals, Bombay, by sowing the seed on well-irrigated raised beds, the soil 
being mixed with a large q-uantity of coarse sand ; the seed was sown in June 
and lightly watered by hand every day. Germination commenced after about 
twenty days ; it was successful only where the beds were well shaded by 
a thick covering of leaves and branches some 18 in. above the ground : under 
this shade a large mass of seedlings came up, whereas in beds exposed to 
the sun hardly any seed germinated. Seedlings can be transplanted without 
difficulty. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. At present this tree is worked only as 
a component species of mixed forests, either as coppice-with-standards or 
under selection and improvement fellings, when, however, it is frequently cut 
out in the interests of more valuable species such as teak or sal. 

As the leaves and bark give promise of furnishing valuable tanning 
material, it is not unlikely that some system will have to be devised before 
long for working this species for the production of regular supplies of bark 
and leaves. The young tender leaves and shoots are richest in tannin. Short 
rotation coppice, or some modification of it, suggests itself, though the best 
method remains to be discovered by experiment. Meanwhile the following 
experiment carried out in Central India is of interest : 

A trial coupe of 6 acres on the slopes of the Sharda Devi hill, about 
2| miles from Maihar in Central India, was coppiced in January 1916, about 
1,500 trees having been cut to ground-level, leaving rounded stools. The 
trees were all small and badly shaped. The yield obtained from these was ; 
Dry leaves . . .31 maunds (of approximately 82 lb. each). 

Dry bark . . .41 maunds. 

Dry fuel . . .214 maunds. 

Within two months of cutting, strong shoots of a bushy growth appeared, 
covered with fresh leaves rich in tannin. The first flush of leaves was collected 
and weighed 3 maunds. The method of working proposed in this tract is to 
continue the collection of the fresh leaves from the coppice-shoots for two 
or three years and then to leave one strong shoot on each stool to develop 
into a pole before any further coppicing is carried out. Fresh new leaves are 
found to be produced on the young coppice-shoots very soon after the shoots 
have been stripped of leaves. 

^ Irid. Forester, x.xxi (lOOii), p. 637. 



ANOGEI88US 



543 



The following programme of pollarding and plucking has been adopted 
tentatively in Central India : 

October, November, December : collection of old leaves, only green leaves 

being suitable. 
January, February, March : pollarding and collection of twig bark, once 

in three years. 
April, May, June : collection of sumach (young leaves) once a month ; 

this is the most important crop. 
July, August, September : continued collection of sumach if drying 

arrangements are possible. 

Rate of growth. The following figures are available of girth measure- 
ments in sample plots in high forest : 

Anogeissus latifolia : girth increment in high forest sample plots. 









No. of years 


Xo. of trees 




Mean annual 




Forest 




under 


under 


Girth 


girth incremen 


>vince. 


division. 


Locality. 


observation. 


observation. 


classes. 

ft. 

1| 3 


for period. 


ed 


Lansdowne 


Chaukhamb 


17 


8 


in. 
0-29 


ninces 




Jogichaur 


12 


2 


11-3 


014 






Giwain 


4 


2 


li-3 


0-27 






9? 


12 


10 


1^3 


0-63 




Haldwani 


Khonani 


6 


1 


1^-3 


0-20 




Gonda 


Chandanpur 


2 


13 


14-1 


016 






Sakra 


2 


16 


11-3 


0-24 


:?ral 


Balaghat 


Baihar and 


8 


8 


1-2 


0-20 


1 mnees 




Raigarh ranges 










r and 

Fissa 


Singhbhum 


Tirilposi 


25 


1 


3-4 
4-5 
2-3 


0-30 
0-32 
0-37 






Samta-Hendakuli 


11 


4 


3-4 


0-35 


> 








2 


4-5 


0-76 



.Some of these figures probably under-estimate the rate of growth actually 
attainable, since all these plots are in sal forest, and their main object is to 
estimate the rate of growth of sal ; hence in thinned plots dominant accessoiy 
species would be cut out, and the increment figures would refer to dominated 
or suppressed trees. Trees raised from seed sown in 1901 by Mr. Haines in 
the forest garden at Chaibassa, Chota Nagpur, attained the following dimen- 
sions in sixteen years : 



Height. 


Girth. 


ft.. 


ft. in. 


35 


1 101 


281 


1 10| 


29" 


1 61 


28 


1 01 


29 


1 31 



The annual rings are tolerably clear. Gamble's specimens gave an average 
of 7 rings per inch of radius, or a mean annual girth increment of 0-9 in. 
A cross-section in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun, measuring 8 ft. 9 in. 
in girth without bark, had 176 rings, giving a mean annual girth increment 
of 0-6 in. 

Measurements of natural saplings in the Panch Mahals, Bombay, recorded 



544 



XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 



by Mr. Pearson/ give some idea of the rate of growth in youth : the ages were 
determined by ring-countings on the stumps of felled saplings. The measure- 
ments are as follows : 

Anogeissus latifolia : rate of growth of natural saplings, Pancb 

Mahals, Bombay. 



Age. 
years. 

4 
5 
o 

20 



Xo. of 
plants. 

1 
3 
3 



Girth. 
At base. 

34 in. 

At k'ft. 

8,11, 11, Hi, 

and 1 3 i in. 



Height. 

7 ft. 4 in. 
8-10 ft. 
2, 5, and 9 



,J 



Remarks. 

These measurements are of 
dominant plants ; very small plants 
of the same age were also met with. 



25, 25, 15, 26, 

and 20 ft. 

respectively 



The following table summarizes the available results of measurements in 
coppice coupes : 

Anogeissus latifolia : rate of growth of coppice. 





Saitba block, 




Kolhan, Bihar 




and Orissa 


Age. 


(1 


916). 


years. 


girth. 


height 




in. 


ft. 


1 


, , 


, , 


2 


1-3 


4-5 


4 


2-5 


8-2 


6 


3-6 


10-8 


8 


4-6 


13-0 


10 


5-5 


15-0 


12 


6-4 


16-8 


14 


7-2 


18-0 


15 


, , 


, , 



Mean girth and height in different localities 

Gorakhpur, Tikri, 
Dehra Dun U.P. 

(A. F. Broun, (C. M. McCrie, 
1886). 1910). 

girth, height, girth, height. 



Gonda, Bhandara, N. Khandesh, 



m. 



ft. 



ni 



ro 



ft. 



7-25 2 



U.P. 


C.P. 


Bombay 


(1911). 


(1912-13). 


(190;>). 


height. 


height. 


height. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


S 


6-2 


2-5 



2. Anogeissus pendula, Edgew. Vern. Dhokra, Ajmer-Merwara ; Kardhai, 
Central India. 

A small tree with a short usually crooked bole, readily distinguished from 
A. latifolia by its smaller leaves and graceful slender drooping branches. In 
exceptional cases the tree reaches a height of 30-40 ft. and a girth of 5 ft., 
but ordinarily the height is about 20 ft. and the girth 2-3 ft., the stem branching 
at a height of about 4-5 ft. 

The bole yields little or no timber, but poles cut from the branches are in 
demand for building and other purposes. The leaves contain tannin, and the 
tree has possibilities as a producer of sumach. In the dry regions in which it 
occurs this is an important tree, not only as a source of timber and fuel, but 
also for clothing dry tracts. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree has a decidedly limited distribu- 
tion. It extends from the Aravalli hills in Rajputana to Bundelkhand, and 
from the Kishengarh state and the Jhansi, Hamirpur, and Banda districts of 
the United Provinces on the north to the Nerbudda in Nimar and the Panch 



1 Ind. Forester, xxxiii (1907), p. 234. 




# 



V. 



X 



MA 





( 



\ 



\ 



Fig. 207. Anogeissus pendula Seedling 
a Fruit x i^ b Germination x li c - f Development of seedling during first season x | 



ANOGEISSUS 545 

Mahals in the south. It is essentially a tree of the dry hot regions ; within 
its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 
115 to 120 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 38 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 17 to 35 in. 

The tree is typically gregarious, sometimes forming pure forests and 
sometimes occurring in mixture with a few other species. In the Aravalli 
hills of Rajputana, Ajmer and Merwara, which consist of metamorphic and 
sub-metamorphic rocks chiefly gneiss, schist, slate, and quartzite with 
occasional limestone and trap it often forms almost pure forests of consider- 
able extent, usually occupying the lower and more gentle slopes. The ridges 
and upper slopes are occupied mainly by Boswellia serrata, below which and 
extending to the foot of the hills Anogeissus pendula occurs, particularly if 
the soil is good. Where the slopes are gentle this tree may extend to the hill- 
tops ; where the soil is poor it is replaced by Acacia rupestris. Besides the 
two species mentioned, its more important associates in this region are Acacia 
%Catechu, Albizzia odoratissima, Dalbergia lanceolaria, DichrostacJiys cinerea, 
Bauhinia racemosa, and Grewia spp., while on the level ground below the 
Anogeissus forests the prevailing species is Zizyphus Jujuba. 

In the Jhansi district the tree forms practically pure forests on quartzite 
ridges, other species such as Diospyros Melanoxylon, Acacia Catechu, Zizyphus 
Xylopyrus, Bauhinia racemosa, Odina Wodier, and Butea frondosa, being 
occasionally scattered with it. The trees here are small and badly shaped, 
though the forest is often well stocked. Another type of forest in this district 
is that occurring on undulating to hilly ground on a gneiss formation ; here 
Anogeissus pendula occurs in pure patches or in mixture with A. latifolia and 
Acacia Catechu, while the other species previously mentioned occasionally 
make their appearance. 

Leaf-shedding, flow^ering, and fruiting. The leaves, which are green 
throughout the rainy season, turn a beautiful reddish brown colour in the cold 
season and commence falling in January, the trees becoming leafless about 
March and remaining so until about May-June, when the new foliage appears. 
The small flower-heads, about J in. in diameter or less, appear towards the 
end of the rainy season. The fruits (Fig. 207, a) ripen December-January ; 
they are small, winged, and nearly orbicular, about 2,700 weighing 1 oz. The 
tree fruits abundantly nearly every year, but the germinative power of the 
seed, like that of A. latifolia, is usually poor, though tests carried out at Dehra 
Dun gave a higher percentage of fertility than in the case of A. latifolia. 

Germination (Fig. 207, b). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from the 
extremity of the fruit and descends. The hypocotyl elongates, raising the 
cotyledons above ground. The shell of the fruit encloses the cotyledons at 
first, and falls with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 207). 

Boots : primary root long, thin, terete, wiry : lateral roots moderate in 
number, short or moderate in length, fibrous, distributed down main root. 
Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0-5-0-6 in. long, terete, minutely tomentose. 
Cotyledons : petiole 0-1 in. long or less : lamina 0-15-0-25 in. by 0-35-0-55 in., 
foliaceous, reniform, much broader than long, truncate or slightly retuse, base 
truncate or slightly lobed, entire, green, glabrous. Stem erect, terete, wiry, 
tomentose ; internodes up to 0-5 in. long. Leaves simple, first pair usually 

2307.2 p i 



546 XXVII. COMBRETACEAE 

opposite or sub-opposite, subsequent leaves alternate, exstipulate. Petiole 
less than 0-1 in. long. Lamina 0-2-1 in. byO-1-0-5 in., ovate, acute or acuminate, 
mucronate, entire, glabrescent above, pubescent on veins beneath, gland- 
dotted. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree stands a fair amount of shade in 
youth, but as saplings appear in quantity in open gaps it seems to require 
a good deal of light for successful development. It is frost-hardy, but suffers 
severely from drought in abnorrhally dry years : in the famine of 1892 in 
Ajmer the branches of the trees were extensively killed, but new shoots were 
produced from the stem. The tree coppices and pollards well, but the growth 
of the coppice-shoots is slow. It produces root-suckers freely. 

Natural reproduction. The factors which affect natural reproduction 
require further study. Reproduction by root-suckers is often plentiful, but 
seedling reproduction is also frequently good. Like^4. latifolia the tree tends 
to regenerate in even-aged masses, and this would indicate that the theory 
put forward with regard to that species, namely that the production of fertile* 
seed in quantity takes place only after years of scanty rainfall, might apply 
equally to A. pendula. In 1913 seed was sown at Delira Dun along a ridge of 
loose earth and also in the trench from which the earth was dug. No seed 
germinated on the ridge, but several seedlings appeared in the loose alluvial 
soil accumulated in the trench ; none of these, however, survived the rainy 
season, being killed by an excess of moisture. Definite conclusions cannot be 
drawn from this solitary experiment, but it might be inferred that, as in the 
case of A. latifolia, shade, or rather protection from a hot sun, is favourable 
to germination, and also that the seedlings cannot tolerate an excess of 
moisture. 

Silvicultural treatment. Forests of Anogeissus pendula are at present 
treated either under coppice-with-standards or under improvement tellings 
for the removal of old badly shaped trees over promising young natiural crops. 
A coppice rotation of twenty years in Ajmer has been found to be too short 
for the production of material of a useful size. In the Jhansi forests Mr. J. 
Whitehead has suggested that after a provisional period of improvement fellings 
the most suitable method of treatment, in view of the tendency of this tree to 
come up in even-aged masses, would be to regenerate in even-aged crops 
imder a shelterwood.^ 

Rate of growth. A cross-section 3 ft. 2 in. in girth, in the silvicultural 
museum at Dehra Dun, shows 42 rings, representing a mean annual girth 
increment of 0-9 in., which is fairly fast. This does not accord with observa- 
tions in the forest, at all events in the case of young plants, whose growth is 
decidedly slow. Coppice-shoots likewise grow somewhat slowly, particularly 
in the earlier years. In Ajmer shoots seven years old had a height of 7-8 ft. 
and a girth of 3-4 in., while shoots eight years old had a height of 10-12 ft. 
and a girth of 4-7 in.^ 

3. Anogeissus acuminata, Wall. Vern. CJmkwa, Beng. ; Pasi, Tel. ; Yon, 
Burm. 

A large handsome deciduous tree with a tall straight bole and graceful 

^ Working Plan for the Forests of the Jhansi and Banda Districts, 1911. 
'^ Ajmer-MtTwara Working Plan, 1909. 



ANOGEISSUS 547 

drooping branches. Bark dark grey, in Burma often covered with small 
globular pustules. The tree is variable. In Burma Kurz distinguishes two 
varieties: var. 1. genuina, with densely pustular bark, frequent in the mixed 
forests all over Burma ; and var. 2. pJiillyreaefolia, with smaller leaves, and 
bark more or less destitute of pustules, restricted to the savannah and swamp 
forests of the alluvial plains of Prome and Pegu, and extending to Upper 
Burma. Haines distinguishes three varieties in Chota Nagpur, of which 
complete material is wanting. 

The wood is moderately hard, but is inferior to that of A. latifolia ; it is 
not durable, and warps and cracks in seasoning. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is found in limited quantity in 
Chota Nagpiu" (Singhbhum district), extending southward through Orissa, the 
Northern Circars, and the Chanda district. Central Provinces. It is found 
typically along the banks of streams on alluvial ground. It occurs in the 
Chittagong hill tracts, and is a common forest tree throughout the greater 
part of Burma, extending to the borders of the dry zone. In Burma it is 
frequent not only along river banks, but also in the upper mixed deciduous 
forests with teak and its associates. It is, however, perhaps most plentiful in 
the lower mixed deciduous forests of the plains, along with Dillenia pentagyna, 
Terminalia tomentosa, T. belerica, T. Chehula, Schleichera trijuga, OdiTia Wodier, 
Dalbergia cultrata, Vitex glabrata, Eugenia Jamholana, Adina cordifoUa, 
Stephegyne diversifolia, and in the better drained localities teak, Xylia 
dolabriformis, and Homalium totnentosum. It extends into low-lying swampy 
ground, and is one of the most characteristic species of the freshwater swamp 
forests of the plains, which are inundated during the rainy season. It is, 
however, not confined to moist localities, but is common in certain dry regions, 
for example in the Ruby Mines district, where it occurs in open dry forest on 
somewhat poor shallow soil, the trees being of small size ; here it is associated 
with Terminalia tomentosa, Acacia Catechu, Diospyros burmanica, Vitex 
pubescens, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, and others. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 40 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 35 to 120 in. or more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. In Burma the tree is leafless 
for a short time in the hot season ; the flowers appear in February-March, 
and the fruits ripen in April-May, falling as soon as they ripen. In Chota 
Nagpur, according to Haines, the flowers appear in March-April and the fruits 
commence ripening in April. About 1,100 to 1,800 of the fruits weigh 1 oz. 
The seed, like that of other species of this genus, is very unfertile. No fewer 
than fifteen tests under different conditions were carried out at Dehra Dun 
in two separate years with samples of seed from three different localities in 
Burma, and in no case did a single seed germinate. 

Natural reproduction. Notwithstanding the unfertile nature of the 
seed, natural reproduction of this tree in Burma is often very good, young 
plants sometimes forming dense even-aged thickets, particularly on alluvial 
ground in places where the fruits have been washed into heaps along with silt. 
In the case of A. latifolia it has been suggested that fertile seed is produced 
only in certain years, probably following on seasons of deficient rainfaU. 

P2 



548 XXVTI. COMBRETACEAE 

Although it is possible that in the case of A. acuminata the production of 
quantities of fertile seed may take place only in certain years, the reason for 
this cannot be any deficiency of rainfall, since this does not occur throughout 
the greater part of its habitat in Burma. 

3. LUMNITZERA, Willd. 

Lumnitzera racemosa, Willd. Vern. Kir pa, Beng. ; Yinye, Burm. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree of the mangrove swamps along the 
coasts of India and Burma, an accomit of which is given on pp. 496-500. 
It extends also into the tidal forests behind the mangrove swamps, occurring 
chiefly on the banks of streams. The wood is hard and durable, and is used 
for house-posts and for fuel. Flowers March-April ; fruits September (Talbot). 
Its root-system is superficial, the roots bending out of the mud in the form of 
knees for breathing purposes. 



ORDER XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

An important order containing some useful Indian trees {Eugenia, Gareya) 
and a number of introduced species, mainly of the great Australasian genus 
Eucalyptus, several of which have become thoroughly acclimatized in India. 
Among trees and shrubs yielding edible fruits may be mentioned Psidiuin 
Guayava, Linn., the guava, introduced from tropical America and groMai all 
over India, Eugenia Jamhos, E. Jambolana, and other species of Eugenia, 
and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Wight, the hill gooseberry of the Nilgiris. Many 
of the species have aromatic and coriaceous leaves, and exhibit xerophytic 
characters, as seen for example in the pendulous leaves of Eucalyptus. Their 
silvicultural requirements vary considerably even in different species of the 
same genus. Of those which thrive in moist and even swampy ground may be 
mentioned Barringtonia and several species of Eucalyptus and Eugenia, while 
other members of the last two genera are found on dry poor ground. Of 
hardy fire-resisting species characteristic of burnt savannah lands, the most 
important are Carey a arbor ea and Eugenia operculata. Many of the members 
of this order coppice with great vigour. 

Genera 1. Eugenia, Linn. ; 2. Eucalyptus, L'Herit. ; 3. Barringtonia, 
Forst. ; 4. Careya, Roxb. ; 5. Planchonia, B1. 

1. EUGENIA, Linn. 

This genus is probably richer in tree species than any other Indian genus. 
Brandis {Indian Trees) enumerates no fewer than 79 species, chiefly trees, 
with a few shrubs ; of these 76 or 77 are indigenous. They are nearly always 
evergreen, with gland-dotted often coriaceous leaves, which with rare excep- 
tions are opposite. The fruit is a one- or few-seeded berry, often succulent, 
sometimes nearly dry. The great majority of the species are moisture-loving, 
and are found in moist localities, often in evergreen forest, while several grow 
along the banks and in the beds of streams. E. formosa, Wall., a large-leaved 
species with ternate leaves up to 18 in. long, often grows in the beds of perennial 







Fig. 208. Eugenia Jambolana on bank of stream, United Provinces. 



548 




o 

-r. 



6; 



~8 



d 

M 



EUGENIA 549 

streams with its roots permanently in water. E. Heyneana, Wall., a willow-like 
shrubby species, grows in the beds of streams, and is often inundated for 
a considerable period during the rainy season. E. Jamholana, Lam., and others, 
sometimes grow under similar conditions. Some species, on the other hand, 
grow in dry types of forest and exhibit xerophytic tendencies. Thus E. Jamho- 
lana itself is the most characteristic tree of the dwarf evergreen formation on 
the laterite of the Mahableshwar plateau, Bombay, while the variety caryo- 
phyllaefolia, Lam., of the same species, is found on dry hills in Chota Nagpur. 
E. grandis, Wight, occurs on dry ridges in Upper Burma. 

Several species of this genus are rare or local, and on the whole the trees 
are, with one or two exceptions, not of great importance in Indian forestry. 
By far the most important generally is E. Jamholana, Lam. In the sal forests 
of northern India, E. operculata^ Roxb,, is a useful species from a silvicultural 
point of view. 

Species I. E. Jamholana, Lam.; 2. E. operculata, Roxb.; 3. E. Jamhos, 
Linn. 

1. Eugenia Jambolana, Lam. Black plum. Yevn. J dman, Hind. ; Jamhul, 
Mar. ; Nerlu, Kan. ; Naval, Tam. ; Neredu, Tel. ; Thahye, Burm. (Fig. 208.) 
A large evergreen tree with a dense shady much-branched crown of shining 
dark green foliage and usually a rather crooked bole. Bark up to 1 in. thick, 
light to dark grey or brown, fairly smooth, with shallow depressions caused by 
exfoliation, red inside. Wood moderately hard, fairly durable, used for 
common building, agricultural implements, well curbs, and other purposes ; 
an excellent fuel. This is an important forest tree, and is also largely planted 
on roadsides and in gardens for shade or ornament and for the sake of its 
edible fruits. It is variable as regards the shape of the leaves and the size and 
shape of the flowers and the fruits. 

Sometimes it reaches a very large girth : Mr. J. C. McDonnell ^ records 
one 20 ft. 6 in. in girth by the Saruinsar lake, Jammu. 

Distribution and habitat. Common throughout India and Burma, 
except in the most arid regions. Also in the Andamans, Ceylon, the Malay 
Archipelago, and southward to Australia. In the Himalayan valleys it ascends 
to 4,000 ft. or sometimes more, and in the Nilgiris to 6,000 ft. It is found in 
a variety of situations, but most typically along streams and in damp and 
even marshy localities, where it is often gregarious (see Figs. 209, 211). In 
the Indian Peninsula a variety with narrow leaves is very common on alluvial 
sand or loam in the beds and along the banks of watercourses which are 
often dry for several months in the year. The tree is, however, by no means 
confined to very moist situations. It is a common constituent of the sal 
forests. It is the commonest species of the stunted evergreen forest on the 
laterite of the Mahableshwar plateau in the Bombay Presidency, forming 
roughly 50 per cent, of the stock and associated with ActinodapJme Hookeri, 
Memecylon edule, Flacourtia Ramontchi, TermiTialia Chehula, Olea dioica, and 
Canthium didymum. The plateau is exposed, the ground often rocky, and the 
soil shallow, while the rainfall is heavy (over 200 in.), most of the rain falling 
in July and August ; the trees seldom grow more than 25 ft. high, and have 
short thick boles and low flat crowns. 

1 Ind. Forester, xxix (1903), p. 152. 



550 xx\t:ii. myrtaceae 

The narrow-leaved variety, cart/ophyllaefolia, Lam., is mentioned by 
Haines ^ as being very common in dry open forest on the hills of Singhbhum, 
Palamau, and Manbhum ; this variety, as noted below, exhibits the xerophytic 
character of dying back in the seedling stage. 

In Burma the tree occurs in various types of mixed deciduous forest, 
both upper and lower, in tropical evergreen forest, and in indaing (dry diptero- 
carp) forest on laterite, here again occurring in a xerophytic environment. 
In Travancore it is common on the Peermerd plateau at 4,000 ft., and else- 
where in the evergreen forests of the hills (Bourdillon). 

In its natural habitat in India and Burma the absolute maximum shade 
temperature varies from 95 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 28 to 
65 F., and the normal rainfall from 35 to over 200 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves usually com- 
mence falling about January and continue falling during February and March. 
The new leaves, which are coppery red in colour, appear in February -March. 
In dry localities the trees become almost, if not quite, leafless for a short time 
early in the hot season. Sometimes trees with large quantities of blossom 
become almost leafless. 

The panicles of small greenish white sweet-scented flowers appear chiefly 
from March to May. The fruit (Fig. 210, a), which ripens from June to August, 
is an oblong-obovoid or sub-globose juicy berry, 0-5-1 in. long, or larger mider 
cultivation, purplish-black, smooth and shining when ripe, with a thin skin 
and a pink succulent flesh, which is edible though somewhat astringent. The 
seed (Fig. 210, &) is 0-4 0-8 in. long, shaped like the fruit, or tw^o to five angular 
and irregularly shaped seeds are compressed together into a mass resembling 
a single seed, the whole enclosed in a sub-coriaceous covering. 

The germinative power of fresh seed is high, but the seed very quickly 
loses its vitality. The fruits fall as soon as they ripen ; they are eagerly 
devoured by birds and flying foxes, and the seed is spread by their agency. 

Germination (Fig. 210, c, d). Hypogeous. The covering enclosing the 
seeds quickly rots off, leaving the green interior (cotyledons), which usually 
breaks up into two or more portions, from each of which a seedUng is pro- 
duced ; usually two or three, sometimes four or even five, seedlings emerge 
from one fruit ; the cotyledons remain in or on the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 210). 

Roots : primary root moderately long and thick, terete, tapermg, wiiy : 
lateral roots numerous, moderately long, fibrous, distributed down main root 
or often crowded at its base. Hypocotyl very short and scarcely distinguish- 
able, subterranean. Cotyledons irregular in shape and size, angular, fleshly, 
green, subterranean. Stem erect, quadrangular, green or pinkish, glabrous ; 
internodes 0-2-1 -2 in. long. Leaves simple, exstipulate, fii'st few often abortive, 
1-0-2 in. long, sometimes alternate or sub-opposite, subsequent normal leaves 
opposite. Petiole 0-1 in. long or less, channelled above. Lamina 0-7-2 in. 
by 0-4-1 in., ovate, obovate or elliptical, apex acute or sometimes obtuse, base 
acute, entire, glabrous, coriaceous, aromatic when crushed. 

The development of the seedling is slow during the first season, but under 
favourable conditions is more rapid during the second and subsequent years. 

^ For. Flora Chota Nagpur, p. 351. 



a 



#^ 



e 



^ 



d 



.1 ^ 



or 



^ 




\f 



#f 




n 




y 



Fig. 2IO. Eugenia Jamholana Seedling x \ 

a Fruits b Seed c - d Germination stages e - h Development of seedling during first season 

i Seedling early in second season 



EUGENIA 551 

In the case of the normal moisture-loving variety seedlings are very sensitive 
to drought if exposed to the sun, mortality commencing as early as September 
or October, and being particularly common during the subsequent hot season. 
Even under shade, seedlings have been observed to die off on dry ground. Soil 
moisture, indeed, appears to be of more importance than shade, since seedlings 
develop well even if exposed to the sun, provided the soil is kept moist. Under 
natural conditions, however, or where watering is not carried out, shade is of 
great benefit in preventing the desiccation of the soil and the death of the 
seedlings. 

A striking instance of the value of shade occurred in connexion with 
experimental line sowings at Dehra Dun. Two lines of Eugenia Jambolana, 
IJ ft. apart, were sown early in the rains along a clear strip 3 ft. wide, with 
the object of ascertaining the value of this species as a nurse to sal, a line of 
which was sown between the two lines of Eugenia. The strip ran from north- 
west to south-east, and on either side of it field crops (lesser millet) were 
sown ; these field crops grew rapidly and attained a height of 3| ft. by the 
end of the rains. The direction of the strip was such that one line of Eugenia 
received shade from the sun from midday onwards, while the other line was 
exposed to the sun. The seed germinated along both lines, and the seedlings 
developed well during the rainy season. On the sunny line, however, high 
mortahty from drought occurred in September-October, and continued to 
some extent subsequently, the result being that whereas the shady line con- 
tinued to be weU stocked with vigorous seedMngs, very few plants survived 
until the following rains in the parallel line exposed to the sun. Fig. 212 
shows the appearance of the two lines a year after sowing. 

In the case of var. caryophyllaefolia, Lam., I have noticed numerous 
seedlings in Singhbhum in open hiU forest, growing on the driest ground in 
situations exposed to the smi ; these seedhngs, like those of many other 
species in diy localities, were observed to have died back amiually for some 
years in their early stages, new shoots having been sent up each year from the 
base or from lateral buds. This great dissimilarity in the habit of this form 
from that of the normal seedling lends colour to Haines's suggestion as to this 
form being a separate species. 

The seedling is capable of struggling well amongst weeds, but its develop- 
ment suffers. Weeding and watering, particularly the former, have a marked 
effect on its growth and vigour. On stiff soil the development is poor. Where, 
as is frequently the case, the seedlings are in dense masses, the more vigorous 
individuals rapidly suppress the more weakly plants. The seedhngs are some- 
what frost-tender, particularly on grassy ground, where they are frequently 
killed back. The season's growth continues until November-December, new 
growth commencing in February or March (northern India). The taproot 
reaches only a moderate length during the first season, showing greater develop- 
ment during the second year, when it attains a length up to 2 ft. or more. 

The following measurements, made in experimental plots at Dehra Dun, 
give some indication of the dimensions attained by young plants under different 
conditions : 



552 



XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 



Eugenia Jambolana : development of seedlings, Dehra Dun. 

Height and other particulars at end of season. 

Condition under which grown. 

^ 1st season. 2nd season. 3rd season. 

(1) ^fursery plants watered and Maximum Oft. 4 J in. 
weeded 

(2) Irrigated sowings, full sun- Maximum ft. CJin. Oft. 4 in. -4 ft, 1 in. Maximum 8 ft. in. 
light, weeded (dense mass of strong 

thick-stemmed plants) 

(3) Irrigated sowings, full sun- Maximum ft. 6 in. ft. 3 in.-l ft. 3 in. Oft. 8 in. -3 ft. 1 in. (con- 
light, unweeded dition somewhat poor) 

(4) Unirrigated sowings, full sun- Maximum Oft. 10|in. ft. 7 in. -3 ft. 8 in. 
light, weeded , (vigorous, the larger 

suppressing the 
smaller) 

(5) Unirrigated sowings, full sun- Maximum ft. 6 in. ft. 6-| in.-O ft. 10 in. 
light, unweeded 

(6) Unirrigated sowings, in par- Maximum Oft. 4|in. Maximum 2 ft. 3 in, 
tial shade, weeded 

(7) Unirrigated sowings, in par- Maximum ft. 5 in. Maximum 2 ft, in. 
tial shade, weeded 

(8) Transplants, in partial shade Maximum ft. 3 in. Maximum 1 ft. 6 in. ft. 11 in. -2 ft. 7 in, 

Nos, 2 to 5 demonstrate the great value of weeding. Fig. 213 shows 
Nos. 2 and 3 during the second season ; the effect of weeding, as shown on 
the left of the staff, is very marked in comparison with the unweeded plot on 
the right of it. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Eugenia Jambolana is a shade-bearer, 
particularly in youth ; dense masses of young plants may be found coming 
up under moderate shade near streams and in other moist places, while seed- 
lings and saplings are often found under shade in sal forest and other types of 
forest. Although somewhat frost-tender in j^'outh, it is hardier later, and in 
the abnormal frost of 1905 in northern India it was not much affected. In the 
abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in Oudh it proved to be hardy in the 
sal forests, but along streams and in swamps it suffered when the water dried 
up. It is not readily browsed by cattle. 

The tree possesses remarkable coppicing power, shoots being produced 
in large quantities, chiefly round the periphery of the cut surface of the stool ; 
large stumps as well as small ones produce shoots as a rule. Figs. 209, 211, 
and 215 show the appearance of pure coppice on rich alluvial land, subject to 
inundation in the rainy season, along the banks of streams in the Gorakhpur 
district. United Provinces. At an age of four years, with a height of 15 ft., 
there are often more than thirty shoots on one stump, more than half of them 
being usually dominant. The soil requirements of the tree have akeady been 
alluded to ; they are somewhat contradictory, though the differences appear 
in some cases to coincide with well-marked botanical varieties. 

Natural reproduction. The fruits fall in quantity under and around 
the parent trees early in the rainy season ; the seeds are washed into heaps 
by the rain, germination quickly taking place on moist ground and in pools 
of mud. Each fruit may produce from one to four or even five seedlings 
clustered together, and the seedlings often appear in dense masses : this is 
particularly the case on alluvial ground, where as many as 100 seedhngs about 
(i in. high to the square foot have been counted after the end of the rainy 




Fig. 211. Eugenia Jambolana coppice 30 ft. high in process of being felled 
on swampy ground, Gorakhpur district, United Provinces. 



552 



TiV 







Fig. 212. Eugenia Jambolana, line sowings in second year, sliowing beneficial 
effect of side shade, Dehra Dun. Line on left (a) exposed to the sun for a eonsi(Uu'able 
part of the day, with the result that nearly all the plants have died of droiight : line 
on right (b) receives side shade for most of the day, w ith the result that there has 
been little or no mortalitv from drought. 



EUGENIA 553 

season on sandy alluvium. Fig. 214 shows profuse growth of seedlings at the 
end of the first season. Sometimes two or three tiers of seedlings of different 
years may be found under the same seed-bearer, showing to what an extent 
the young plants will stand shade. Seedlings often occur sporadically in the 
forest where there are no seed-bearers in the neighbourhood, the seed having 
been disseminated by the agency of birds. The necessity for soil moisture in 
the establishment of natural reproduction and the mortality which takes 
place on dry gromid, even under shade, have already been noted under ' the 
seedling ' ; indeed, the value of shade appears to lie mainly in its power of 
preventing desiccation of the soil. 

The exceptional case in which natural seedlings of var. caryopJiyllaefolia 
establish themselves on dry hilly ground after dying back for some years in 
succession has abeady been alluded to : possibly this may also be found to 
be the case with seedlings growing on laterite. 

Artificial reproduction. So far as experiments show, direct sowing is 
preferable to transplanting, since there is usually a considerable proportion 
of failure during transplanting, in spite of precautions. Of the forms of direct 
sowing tried so far, line sowings kept regularly weeded have proved the most 
successful, but it is essential that the soil should be kept moist, and where 
irrigation cannot be carried out, shade is necessary. This can be effected by 
means of narrow cleared and well-hoed lines under the shade of an overwood 
or cut through low growth, so as to retain shade and at the same time allow 
of regula^r weeding : side shade is of more importance than overhead shade. 
The seed should be sown early in the rainy season, as soon as it ripens. 

Sowings of Eugenia Jamholana to fill open grassy or other blanks have 
been repeatedly tried, but they have almost invariably resulted in failure 
except along the edge of the surrounding forest, where side shade is obtained 
from the sun. 

For transplanting purposes the greatest success is obtained by sowing 
in baskets, two or three seeds in each, and retaining the healthiest seedhng in 
each basket. The baskets are kept well watered under moderate shade, and 
are planted out during the second rains. For forest purposes transplanting 
should usually be done under shade unless the ground is permanently moist. 
Roadside trees usually require watering in dry weather for the first year or 
two. Transplanting from nursery beds requires care, as the seedlings do not 
stand much exposure of or injury to the roots. Natural seedlings in the forest 
can be transplanted successfully in moist places or under shade. 

SiLVicuLTURAL TREATMENT. In the forest the tree is ordinarily treated 
as an accessory species and worked along with other species in coppice coupes 
or in selection fellings. In private forests on alluvial ground along river- 
banks in parts of Oudh, pure crops of this species are worked very successfully 
as simple coppice for the production of poles (see Figs. 211 and 215). The 
rotation is usually a short one, about 10-15 years, or sometimes less, and 
judging by the density of the crops the yield must be high ; these areas are 
grazed, but the cattle do not appear to damage the coppice-shoots to any 
extent. 

Rate of growth. (1) High forest. The following statement gives a 
summary of available girth measurements in high forest sample plots : 



554 



XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 





Eugenia Jamholana : girth increment in 


high forest 


sample 


plots. 








No. of years 


No. of trees 




Mean annual 




Forest 




under 


under 


Girth 


girth increment 


Province. 


division. 


Locality. 


measurement. 


measurement. 


classes, 
ft. 


for period. 
in. 


United 


Dehra Dun 


Sherpur forest 


4 


1 


0-1 


0-41 


Provinces 


Lansdowne 


Chankhamb 


17 


2 


U-3 


0-70 






Giwain 


4 


1 


li-3 


013 






Barswar 


4 


14 


l|-4 


0-33 




95 


Jogichaur 


4 


1 


6-8 


0-32 




Ramnagar 


Mandal 


1 


3 


ii-3 


0-40 




J J 


S. Patli Dun 


19 


5 


0-3 


0-27 




99 


Donianda 


19 


1 


11-3 


0-36 




Haldwani 


Silani 


11 


4 


li-6 


0-61 




S. Kheri 


Kishanpur 


9 


1 


4-5 


0-09 




Gonda 


Chandanpur 


2 


1 


0-li 


015 




S> 


Sakra 


2 


2 


lJ-3 


030 


Central 


Balaghat 


Raigarh and } 


8 


{1 


1-2 


0-47 


Provinces 




Baihar ranges ij 


2-3 


0-31 



The sample plots in question are situated in sal forest, and the rate of 
growth shown is probably slower than what might be expected on moist 
alluvial ground near streams. 

Ring-countings made in 1905 by Mr. D. A. Thomson in respect of nine trees 
in the Supa fuel reserves, North Kanara, Bombay, gave the following results : ^ 

Eugenia Jambolana : rate of growth in Supa fuel reserves, North 

Kanara. 



Age in years . , . 5 10 15 20 

Mean diameter (inches) . 1-06 2-16 3-26 4-38 
Corresponding girth (inches) 3-2 6-6 101 13o 



25 30 35 40 
5-48 6-58 7-60 8-78 
17-2 20-7 23-9 27-6 



45 50 55 
9-82 10-73 1113 
31-4 33-8 350 



A cross-section from the United Provinces in the silvicultural museum at 
Dehra Dun, measuring 3 ft. 3 in. in girth, had 34 rings, representing a mean 
annual girth increment of 1-15 in. Measurements in 1907 of eight planted 
trees, sixteen years old, in the Thapal grant estate, Saharanpur, United Pro- 
vinces, gave an average girth of 2 ft. 4 in. and an average height of 25-7 ft., 
which shows that under favourable conditions the growth is fairly fast. 

2. Coppice. On fertile ground coppice-shoots grow rapidly. On ricli 
alluvium along river banks in Gorakhpur, Oudh, coppice four years old showed 
an average height of 15 ft. In Nellore, Madras, a height of 6 ft. was attained 
by coppice-shoots in eight months.^ Measurements made in 1911 in the 
Tikri forest, Gonda, United Provinces, showed for an age of two years an 
average height of 7 ft., as against 7-6 ft. for sal. 

The following measurements made in 1886 by Mr. A. F. Bromi in the 
Bullawala sal coppice, Dehra Dun, compare the rate of growth of Eugenia 
JamhokiTha coppice with that of sal : 

Growth of Eugenia Jamholana and sal coppice, Bullawala, Dehra Dun. 

Mean girth. Mean height. 



Age. 

years. 

8 

8 

9 

10 



Eugenia. 
in. 
7-5 
6-5 
7-2 
90 



Sal. 
in. 
8-3 
71 
8-7 
5-9 



Eugenia 

ft. 
16 
14 
10 
14 



m. 

6 





Sal 
ft. 
16 
13 
13 



m. 
2-5 
1-9 
5-5 



Working Plan for the Supa Fuel Reserves, 1907. 



11 10-6 
2 Forest Report, 1909-10. 




Fig. 213. Eugenia Jamholana. plants 1.3 months old from broadcast sowings, showing bene- 
ficial effect of weeding, Dehra Dun : on left of staff", plot regularly weeded contains 88 vigorous 
seedlings up to 3 ft. 9 in. in height ; on right of staff, plot sown at same time and left unweeded 
contains 23 seedlings up to 1 ft. 3 in. in height struggling through grass and weeds. 



>5 .:-, 














fT-*' 


















^^^,%S 




i:>i;-^ 




^'^ 



-o^^r?' 



Fig. 214. Eugenia Jarnbuluna, natural reproduction on soft sandy soil, end of first season, 
seedHngs about 6 in. high, Tirsal forest, Dehra Dun, United Provinces. Note dense mass of 
seedlings in upper part of picture. 







o 

he 

, /; 

> g 



71 

^ -i 

^ c 

o 



o 

e 
o 

^, 




F I 

d 






EUGENIA 555 

Measurements made in 1910 by Mr. C. M. McCrie in sal coppice in Gorakh- 
pur, United Provinces, showed the following growth for Eugenia and sal 
respectively : 

Growth of Eugenia Jamholana and sal coppice, Gorakhpur. 







Mean 


girth. 




Mean height. 




Age. 


Eugenia 


I. 




Sal. 


Eugenia. 


Sal. 


years. 


in. 






in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


2 










2 


3 


4 


2-0 






2-0 


4 8 


7 


6 


3-0 






2-9 


7 


10 4 


8 


3-8 






3-8 


8 5 


13 


10 


4o 






4-8 


10 


15 4 



2. Eugenia operculata, Roxb. Vern. Pidman, Rai jdman, Hind. ; Kon 
thdbye, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with a short bole and spreading branches. 
Leaves coriaceous, turning red in the cold season. Found in the sub-Himalayan 
tract, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Chittagong, and Burma. This is a familiar tree 
in the sal forests of northern India, particularly on grassy savannahs and 
blanks, where it is often the first tree to appear, and being fire-resisting and 
frost-hardy, it establishes itself in such localities and forms a useful nurse to 
sal, which regenerates weU under its protection. In their earlier stages, how- 
ever, the seedlings are sensitive to frost. In northern India the fruits ripen 
about August. The growth is slow to moderate. Sample plot measurements 
in sal forest in the United Provinces give the following results : 

Eugenia operculata : girth increment in sample plots, United Provinces. 



Forest 
division. 


Locality. 


No. of years 

under 
measurement. 


No. of trees 

under 
measurement. 


Girth 

classes. 

ft. 

11-3 

0-3 


Mean aimual 

girth increment 

for period. 

in 


Lansdowne 
Ramnagar 


Barswar 
S. Patli Dun 


4 
19 


5 

2 


0-34 

0-17 



A cross-section 6 ft. 3 in. in girth, in the silvicultiu:al museum at Dehra 
Dun, has 83 rings, giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-9 in. 

The tree coppices well, and the coppice-shoots sometimes show fairly 
rapid growth. Measurements of coppice made in 1911 in the Tikri forest, 
Gonda, United Provinces, showed an average height of 6 ft. in two years, 
compared with 7 ft. 7 in. for sal ; the average number of shoots per stool was 
two as compared with 1-8 for sal. Measurements by Mr. C. M. McCrie in 1910 
in a coppice coupe three years old in Gorakhpur, United Provinces, showed 
an average height of 7 ft. 6 in. as against 9 ft. 7 in. for sal. Measurements in 
1886 by Mr. A. F. Broun in the Bullawala coppice coupes, Dehra Dun, showed 
the following growth of Eugenia operculata as compared with sal : 

Eugenia operculata : growth in coppice coupes, Bullawala, Dehra Dun. 

Mean gu;th. Mean height. 

Age. Eugenia operculata. 

years. in. 

8 8-1 

8 6-2 

9 15-2 
10 10-5 



:5al. 


Eugenia operculata. 


Sal. 


in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


8-3 


17 4-4 


16 2-5 


71 


13 6-6 


13 1-9 


8-7 


17 5-5 


13 5-5 


5-9 


18 3-6 


11 10-6 



556 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

These coupes are subject to occasional severe frosts which damage the sal 
coppice, and this accounts for the poor growth of the sal in some cases. 

3. Eugenia Jambos, Linn. Rose apple. Vern. Guldb jdman, Hind. 

A tree cultivated in many parts of India and Burma for its fruit, which 
is rather insipid though sweet-scented. According to Brandis it is indigenous 
in the Malay Archipelago and in Upper Burma (Shwebo district, at 1,000 ft. 
on stream banks). It has run wild in many places. The handsome flowers, 
with large yellowish white bunches of stamens, usually appear from February 
to April. The fruits ripen from June to August, and drop at once ; the seeds 
germinate soon after falling, and large quantities of seedlings may be fovmd 
under and around the trees during the rainy season, as in the case of E. Jam- 
hokina. These survive if the locality is sufficiently moist and shady, but if 
exposed to the sun they die off rapidly. This habit coincides exactly with 
that of the common form of E. Jambolana, and it is possible that on closer 
study of the various species it may be foimd to be fairly general in the case of 
those which grow in moist localities. 

2. EUCALYPTUS, L'Heritier. 

An Australasian genus consisting of about 140 species, most of which 
are found in Australia and some in Tasmania, New Guinea, and other islands. 
The eucalypts are evergreen trees, all more or less aromatic and containing 
oil-glands in the leaves ; the oil distilled from the leaves of some species is 
of value in medicine. The leaves of young trees, of young coppice-shoots, 
and of shoots sent out after injury by fire or otherwise, are generally opposite, 
sessile, and horizontal, and are often of a different shape from the normal 
leaves of the adult tree ; the latter are usually alternate, petiolate, and 
hang vertically. The flowers are white or red, and the flower-buds have the 
calyx-tube covered with a lid or operculum which faUs off when the flowers 
open. The fruit is a woody capsule, consisting of the hard calyx-tube and 
containing numerous small seeds, a considerable proportion of which are usually 
unfertile. 

The eucalypts contain several of the most important timber trees of the 
Australian continent, where they form large tracts of forest, some growing 
pure and others mixed. Some of them reach gigantic size, and are among the 
largest trees in the world, specimens of the blue gum {E. Globulus, Labill.) 
and peppermint gum {E. regnans, F. v. M., formerly included under E. amyg- 
dalina, Labill.) having been stated to reach a height of over 400 ft. 

Introduction into foreign countries. The eucalypts appear first to 
have attracted attention outside their natural home in the early part of the 
nineteenth centmy, when seed began to be introduced into southern Em-ope, 
and the trees, probably for the most part E. Globulus, began to be cultivated, 
first for ornament or as curiosities, and later, when their rapid growth and 
economic importance began to be realized, in plantations. Since then eucalypts 
have been extensively planted in the Mediterranean region, in California, 
Florida, Hawaii, and several other parts of the western hemisphere, in South 
Africa, and in other sub-tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the 
globe. 

Introduction into and cultivation in India. The introduction of 



EUCALYPTUS 557 

eucalypts into India probably dates from 1843, when a few trees were planted 
experimentally in the Nilgiris mainly with the object of finding some species 
capable of yielding regular and plentiful supplies of fuel : regular plantations, 
chiefly of E. Globulus, were commenced in these hills in 1856, and have been 
extended subsequently on a large scale. Numerous species have since been 
tried under all sorts of climatic and other conditions in many parts of India 
and Burma, both in the hills and on the plains. Some details of the results 
attained in different localities are given below, but it may be said generally 
that some species or other of eucalyptus has been found which is suited to 
almost any climate in India with the possible exception of: (1) very moist 
tropical regions, where the seedlings damp off in spite of all precautions ; and 
(2) elevations above the winter snow-line, where snow-break is to be feared. 
It is, however, possible that species may yet be found which will grow well in 
localities where eucalypts have failed hitherto, for although several species 
have been proved to thrive well in India under given conditions, the intro- 
duction of a large number is as yet in the initial stage of experiment or has 
not yet been attempted. 

The extension of eucalyptus cultivation in India has its advocates and its 
opponents. The former urge the great utility of these trees in supplying fast- 
growing timber and fuel as well as oil, tannin, and other products, their swamp- 
draining capacity and their direct anti-malarial value, though from a medical 
point of view the last-named quality appears to be problematical. The latter 
maintain that the extension of eucalyptus cultivation in India has gone far 
enough, that the trees are monotonous, and that in regions where they are 
capable of growing it is possible to grow indigenous trees which furnish better 
timber and are superior in every way except so far as rapidity of growth is 
concerned. There is something to be said on both sides. It is true that as 
timber trees the eucalypts have not come up to expectations in India, but 
that is no reason for believing that some good timber species may not yet be 
found which will be capable of profitable cultivation. On the other hand, so 
far as fuel production goes, the rapidity of growth and the volume-production 
of the eucalypts in places where they do thrive far exceed anything attainable 
by indigenous species. The blue gum has conferred an inestimable boon on 
the Nilgiris, and those who complain of the monotony of the eucalypts which 
dominate the landscape on the Nilgiri plateau should remember that these 
trees saved a fuel famine in the middle of last century, while in Ootacamund 
and the adjoining stations they now yield plentiful supplies of fuel, obtainable 
at far cheaper rates than is the case in any other hill station in India. Where 
large supplies of quick-growing and therefore cheap fuel are required, there 
seems to be every reason for the extension of eucalyptus plantations in India 
in places where these trees wiU grow well and furnish liigher yields than in- 
digenous species ; while, again, the experimental introduction of little-known 
or new species, which has been proceeding for several years past, is all to the 
good, since it tends towards a solution of the question of cheap supplies of fuel 
and possibly of timber. Provided, therefore, the extension of eucalyptus 
cultivation in India is confined to cases where it is likely to be of distinct 
advantage, and does not involve the clearing of valuable indigenous timber 
species, there is much to be said in favour of it. 



558 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

Much experimental work has been carried out in the past, and continues 
to be carried out, in the cultivation of eucalyptus in India, but in spite of this 
the records of results are in most cases disappointing, and are often unreliable. 
Fruitful sources of error are the wrong naming of seeds, the inadvertent mixing 
of seeds of different species, the interchanging of labels of plants in different 
stages, as well as errors and omissions in maintaining the records. Again, it 
frequently happens that a species grows well for a few years and then fails ; 
it is favourably reported on for some years and the record then ceases, though 
the plant has by this time acquired an undeserved reputation, and is wrongly 
recorded as a success. It is therefore of little use judging of the suitability of 
a species for a given locality until it has reached reasonable dimensions and 
shown its adaptability to its new environment. Mistakes in identification are 
very common, and have been the cause of a good deal of confusion in the past. 
For the correct identification of the eucalypts, botanical specimens should be 
as complete as possible, and should ordinarily include primordial as well as 
adult leaves, flowers, fruits, and bark : as these are not all obtainable at the 
same time, great care is necessary to ensure that the specimens are all collected 
from the same tree. 

Numerous failures in the past have been due to the fact that trees from 
the temperate regions of Australasia have been repeatedly tried in the hotter 
parts of India, while those from the tropical and other warm regions of that 
continent have been tried at cool elevations in the hills. Generally speaking 
it may be laid down that for low elevations in India, if any species is to have 
a reasonable chance of succeeding it must be obtained from the tropical and 
warm parts of Queensland and adjacent northern regions, where also are 
found such well-known Indian trees as Bombax malabaricum, Eugenia Jamho- 
lana, Barringtonia racemosa, Alstonia scholaris, Mallotus philippi7iensis , Trema 
orientalis, Ficus glomerata, and Casuarina equisetifolia. On the other hand^ 
species from Tasmania and the southern parts of Australia only are likely to 
be successful at the higher elevations in India. To quote one example : the 
blue gum {E. Globulus), a tree of Tasmania and the south-eastern parts of 
Australia, has been tried time and again at low elevations in India, but has 
always failed signally, whereas at the higher elevations in the Nilgiris it has been 
a remarkable success. 

The results attained hitherto in different parts of India, so far as records 
are available, are of some interest, and may prove to be useful as a guide 
towards the selection of species for further experiment. 

1. The Nilgiris. The introduction of eucal3^pts in 1843, and the formation 
of plantations from 1856 onwards, have already been alluded to. In 1914 
the total area of Government eucalyptus plantations, either pm:e or mixed 
with acacia, amounted to 1,089 acres, in addition to which there are numerous 
privately owned plantations. Fuel from these is supplied at extremely cheap 
rates. The altitude of the plantations varies from 5,000 to 8,300 ft. The 
principal rock is a fine-grained gneiss decomposing into a red clay : there is 
a marked absence of lime in the soil. 

The climate of the Nilgiris is cool, equable, and moist, with a well-dis- 
tributed rainfall of about 50 to 80 in. The winter is on the whole mild, with 
only occasional frosts of more than slight intensity, and these are of short 



EUCALYPTUS 



559 



duration ; snow is unknown. The following climatological statistics may be 
quoted : 

Climatological statistics for the Nilgiris. 

Shade temperature (degrees Fahr.). 



Station. Maximum, Minimum. 

Absolute. Average. Absolute. Average, 
tacamund . . 75 . . 35 

',327 ft.) 
onoor 
,200 ft.) 

jUington 83-4 81 24-7 36 

1,200 ft.) 



Normal rainfall (inches). 

Jime-Sept. Oct. -Dec 
Jan.- Apr.- (SW. 

Mar. May. monsoon). 
2-46 9-70 24-76 



(NE. 

monsoon). 

1403 



8-17 8-82 



16-68 



32-09 



Total 

for 

vear. 

50-95 

65-76 

51-09 



The species far more extensively planted than any other is E. Globulus, 
which grows very rapidly and thrives admirably. Many other species, however, 
have been planted, not only in plantations but also in private gardens and 
along roadsides, while there are many different species in the Government 
gardens at Ootacamund and in Sim's Park at Coonoor. The identity of many 
of these was obscure until, in 1912 and subsequently, Mr. R. Bourne made 
a careful investigation into the question, and with the aid of specimens collected 
on the spot succeeded in establishing the identity of no fewer than 36 species. 
After E. Globulus by far the commonest species in the Government planta- 
tions are E. ohliqua and E. Sieberiana. Except E. Globulus the only two 
species which have attained large dimensions are E. obliqua and E. eugenioides, 
to which may be added occasional large specimens of E. viminalis. The 
following is a complete list of species which IVIr. Bourne has succeeded in 
identifying in the Nilgiris : E. acmenoides, Schauer, E. amygdalina, Labill., 
E. botryoides, Sm., E. calophylla, Brown, E. capitellata, Sm., E. cornuta, Labill., 
E. corymbosa, Sm., E. crebra, F. v. M., E. eugenioides, Sieber, E.ficifolia, F. v. M., 

E. foecunda, Schauer, E. Globulus, Labill., E. Gunnii, Hook., E. hemiphloia, 

F. V. M., E. Leucoxylon, F. v. M., E. longifolia, Link and Otto, E. macrorrhyncha, 
F. V. M., E. maculata. Hook., var. citriodora, Bailey, E. microcorys, F. v. M., 

E. miniata, Cunn., E. obliquu, L'Herit., E. paniculata, Sm., E. ptychocarpa, 

F. V. M., E. pilularis, Sm., E. pulverulenta , Sims., E. punctata, DC, E. redunca, 
Schauer, E. resinifera, Sm., E. robusta, Sm., E. rostrata, Schleich, E. saligna, 
Sm., E. sideropJiloia, Benth., E. Sieberiana, F. v. M., E. Stuartiana, F. v. M., 
E. tereticornis, Sm., E. viminalis, Labill. 

Trials were commenced in 1910 to ascertain if any good timber-yielding 
species will succeed in the Nilgiris, and for this purpose small experimental 
plantations were formed at three different elevations, namely 6,700, 7,300, 
and 8,300 ft. The species tried were E. acmenoides, Schauer, E. crebra, F. v. M., 
E. eugenioides, Sieber, E. hemipJdoia, F. v. M., E. paniculata, Sm., E. pilularis, 
Sm., E. punctata, DC, and E. sideropJiloia, Benth. There was some difficulty 
in raising the young plants, which proved tender in the early stages, and had 
to be reared under forcing frames. When once put out they proved more 
hardy, but required protection against frost, for which purpose they were 
surrounded with coverings of bracken. The species which have done best so 
far are E. punctata, E. acmenoides, and E. pilularis. The least promising is 
E. hemiphloia. 

2. Indian Peninsula. Except in the Nilgiris there is little reliable infornia- 



560 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

tion regarding the results of planting eucalypts in the Indian Peninsula. 
Probably the most successful species so far tried at low elevations is E. tereii- 
cornis, which grows well even at Bombay ; E. rostrata also does well at low 
elevations, and is grown at Poona and elsewhere. Attempts made about 
18746 at Saugor in the Central Provinces, to grow certain species, including 
E. cornuta; E. Globulus, E. marginata, E. obliqua, E. rostrata, E. Sideroxylon, 
and E. viminalis, resulted in failure. E. Globulus was tried in 1909 in coast 
sand in the Madras Presidency, but needless to say the result was a failiu-e. 
In the same year E. marginata, E. resinifera, and E. rostrata were sown in the 
Sanyasimalai plantation in North Salem at an elevation of 4,000 ft. ; the 
seedlings throve the first year, but no subsequent information is available. 
Eleven different species were tried at Mercara in Coorg in 1913 ; those which 
proved the most successful during the first few years were E. maculata, E. 
pilularis, E. punctata, E. goniocalyx, E. saligna, and E. resinifera. Plants of 
E. maculata three years old had a maximum height of 21 ft. and a maximum 
girth of 7 in. 

. 3. Himalaya. Eucalypts have been grown in various parts of the Himalaya 
for many years, but at elevations where there is any appreciable snowfall in 
winter they have suffered so severely from snow-break that they are now 
recognized to be unsuitable for planting except at the lower elevations. 
E. Globulus is probably the species which has been planted most extensively, 
and it has grown well except for liability to snow-break ; E. Sideroxylon is 
reported to have done well in the Kumaun hills. Mr. R. N. Parker notes 
that at Abbottabad (elevation 4,000 ft.), where eucalypts are extensively 
grown, the species seen are E. tereticornis, E. rostrata, E. Sideroxylon, E. macu- 
lata var. citriodora, and E. Globulus.^ Prior to the abnormal frost of 1905 

E. Globulus was far commoner than it is now, but all the trees were badly 
injured and many were killed outright in that year. At present E. tereticornis 
is by far the commonest species in that station : there are also several 
specimens of E. Sideroxylon, and one each of E. rostrata and E. maculata var. 
citriodora, dating from before 1905. 

Experiments in the cultivation of eucalyptus in the Simla liills have been 
in progress for some years past, the most complete of these dating from 1909, 
when small experimental plots were established at various elevations along the 
Kalka-Simla railway and in the neighbourhood of Simla itself. The cultiva- 
tion was carried out by means of direct sowings on roughly prepared ground, 
no watering being done. So far the following have been found to succeed, 
to some extent at least, at different elevations : 

[a) Under 4,000 ft. : E. calophylla, R. Br.*, E. cornuta, Labill., E. cory- 
nocalyx, F. v. M., E. eximia, Schauer*, E. gomphocepMla, DC, E. goniocalyx, 

F. V. M., E. Gunnii, Hook., E. hemiphloia, F. v. M., E. Leu/^oxylon, F. v. M.*, 
E. longifolia. Link and Otto*, E. Maideni, F. v. M., E. melliodora, A. Cunn., 
E. microcorys, F. v. M., E. paniculata, Sm.*, E. punctata, DC, E. resinifera, 
Sm., E. rosttata, Schlecht*, E. rudis, Endl., E. Stuartiana, F. v. M., E. tereti- 
cornis, Sm.* 

(6) 4,000-6,000 ft. : E. amygdalina, Labill., E. Ca^nbagei, Deane and 
Maiden*, E. coriacea, A. Cunn., E. corynocalyx, F. v. M., E. crebra, F. v. M., 

^ Ind. Forester, xxxix (1913), p. 81. 



EUCALYPTUS 561 

E. eugenioides, Sieb., E. eximia, Schauer*, E. Globulus, Labiil.*, E. gornp/io- 
cephala, DC, E. Ghmnii, Hook.*, E. hemiphloia, F. v. M., E. longifolia, Link 
and Otto*, E. Maideni, F. v. M.*, E. melliodora, A. Cunn., E. Planchoniana, 

F. V. M., E. regna7is, F. v. M., E. rudis, Endl., E. saligna,, Sm,, E. Sideroxylo7i, 
A. Cunn., E. Stuartiana, F. v. M.*, E. tereticornis, Sm., E. viminalis, Labiil.* 

(c) 6,000-7,000 ft. : E. Gamhagei, Deane and Maiden, E. corymbosa, Sra., 
E. corynocalyx, F. v. M., E. crebra, F. v. M., E. Globulus, Labiil., E. Gunnii, 
Hook.*, E. hemiphloia, F. v. M., E. Maideni, F. v. M.*, E. Stuartiana, F. v. M.*, 

E. viminalis, Labiil.* 

(d) Over 7,000 ft. : E. corymbosa, Sm., E. corynocalyx, F. v. M., E. crebra, 

F. V. M., E. melliodora, A. Cunn., E. saligna, Sm. 

Those marked with an asterisk have so far proved the most successful. 
Above 5,000 ft. the results have not been nearly so satisfactory as they have 
below that elevation, though this is ascribed more to poverty of soil than to 
elevation. Species which have so far proved unsuitable for introduction on 
a large scale are E. Imertmstoma, Sm., E. rnacrorrhynclm, F. v. M., E. Muelleriana, 
Howett, E. obliqu/i, L'Herit., E. pauciflora, Sieb., E. pilularis, Sm., E. piperita, 
Sm., E. Sieberiaim,, F. v. M. 

Further experiments are in progress in the Simla hills with numerous 
other species, and these may be expected to yield definite results in due 
course. 

4. Sub-Hinmlayan tract and plains of northern India. Eucalypts were 
first introduced into northern India about 1860, and numerous species have 
been tried. The reports of the Government gardens at Lucknow, Lahore, and 
Saharanpur contain the results of various trials from time to time. In the 
Changa Manga irrigated plantation near Lahore various species were intro- 
duced many years ago, while more recently experiments on a considerable 
scale have been carried out there and in the Kot Lakhpat plantation. 

Mr. R. N. Parker ^ enumerates the following species found growing on 
the Punjab plains, which he has been able to identify with tolerable certainty, 
though he admits that the list is by no means complete : 

E. muculata, Hook., var. citriodora, Bailey. Less common than the following 
two in the Punjab, but the commonest species in Saharanpur and Dehra Dun. 

E. tereticornis, Sm. This and the next are the commonest species in the 
Punjab, and have given the best results where extensive trials have been 
made. Almost the only species in the Rawalpindi and Hazara districts. 
Succeeds well in the Hoshiarpur district. Not common at Saharanpur and 
Dehra Dun. 

E. rostrata, Schl. Very common on the Punjab plains ; seldom seen in 
Rawalpindi and Hazara. Does well at Saharanpur. 

E. crebra, F. v. M. Occasionally seen in Lahore, Amritsar, Kapurthala, 
Changa Manga, and Saharanpur. 

E. melanophloia, F. v. M. Grown in Lahore, Changa Manga, Agra, and 
Saharanpur. 

E. saligna, Sm. Grows well at Amritsar and Saharanpur. 

E. robusta, Sm. Occasionally grown in Lahore, Kapurthala, Saharanpur, 
and Agra. 

* loc. cit. 

2307.2 Q 



562 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

E. siderophloia , Benth. One specimen in Changa Manga doing well. 

E. Sideroxylon, A. Cunn. Several in Changa Manga, not doing very well. 

The first three of the above species are by far the commonest grown in 
the plains and sub-Himalayan tract. 

According to Mr. Parker the following species have been sufficiently tried 
to show that they are quite unsuitable for planting on the plains : 

E. amygdalhia, Labill., E. capitellata, Sm., E. coccifera, Hook, f., E. coriacea, 
A. Cunn. {E. pauciflora, Sieb.), E. corymbosa, Sm., E. Globulus, Labill., E. 
goniocalyx, F. v. M., E. Gunnii, Hook, f., E. hae^nastoma, Sm., E. 7nacrorrhynca, 
F. V. M., E. marginata, Sm., E. obliqua, L'Herit., E. pilularis, Sm., E. piperita, 
Sm., E. resinifera, Sm., E. Sieberiana, F. v. M., E. Stuartiana, F. v. M., E. 
urnigera, Hook, f., E. viminalis, Labill., E. virgata, Sieb. (E. stricta, Sieb.). 

The following species appear to be unlikely to thrive on the plains, though 
evidence is not yet conclusive : 

E. acmenoides, Schau., E. alpina, Lindl., E. Andrewsi, Maiden, E. Bailey - 
ana, F. v. M., E. calophylla, R. Br., E. ci^ierea, F. v. M., E. corynocalyx, 
F. V. M., E. delegafensis, R. T. Baker, E. dives, Schau., E. engenioides, Sieb., 
E. eximia, Schau., E. ficifolia, F. v. M., E. longifolia, Link and Otto, E. Lueh- 
7nanniana, F. v. M., E. Macarthuri, Deane and Maiden., E. macrandra, F. v. M., 

E. macrocarpa, Hook., E. Muelleriana, Howett, E. occidentalis, Endl., E. 
obcordata, Turcz. {E. Platypus, Hook.), E. Planchoniana, F. v. M., E. regnans, 

F. V. M., E. rubida, Deane and Maiden, E. Smithii, R. T. Baker, E. stellulata, 
Sieb., E. trachyphloia, F. v. M., E. umbra, R. T. Baker. 

Many other species are under trial. At Lahore, among species which have 
shown promise during the first few years are E. gomphocepJiala, DC, E. hemi- 
pJiloia, F. V. M., E. melanophloia, F. v. M., E. inelUodora, A. Cunn., and E. rudis, 
Endl. The last named has shown extraordinary growth on poor saline soil, 
and appears to be well suited for such ground. E. Kirtoniana, F. v. M., does 
well if it gets sufficient water. At Saharanpur the most successful so far, 
apart from those already mentioned, are E. microcorys, F. v. M., E. obliqua, 
L'Herit., E. paniculata, Sm., and E. rudis, Endl. The following, recently 
grown at Dehra Dun, are well established : E. bicolor, A. Cunn., E. botryoides, 
Sm., E. microcorys, F. v. M., E. patenfinervis, R. T. Baker, E. rostrata, Schl., 
E. saligna, Sm,, E. Sideroxylon, A. Cunn. ; of these E. bicolor, E. botryoides, 
and E. Sideroxylon are regarded as failures at Saharanpur. 

The following climatological statistics for plains and low-level stations 
in northern India give some indication of the conditions under which the 
above-mentioned species have been tried : 

Climatological statistics for some plains and low-level stations in northern India, 





Shade temperature 






(prior 


to 1903). 






Absolute 


Absolute 


Normal 


Station. 


maximum. 


minimum. 


rainfall. 




degrees P. 


degrees F. 


in. 


Tjahorc 


120-3 


29-2 


20 


Saharanpur 


116 


.30 


38 


Lucknow 


119 


30 


38 


Agra 


120 


30 


26 


Dehra Dim 


111 


,33-9 


8.') 



The great bulk of the rain falls during the 
SW. monsoon from .July to September ; 
the remainder of the year is dry except 
for occasional showers or burets of rain. 



EUCALYPTUS 563 

5. Assam. E. Globulus thrives at Shillong, showing ra})id growth and 
attaining very fair dimensions. 

6. Burma. Eucalypts have been tried from time to time in various parts 
of Burma. At Maymyo (elevation 3,500 ft.) planting was commenced about 
the year 1893 ; the species which has proved- most successful there is E. 
rostrata, though E. amygdalina and E. maculata var. citriodora have also 
done well, and E. resinifera fairly well. These species are likely to do well on 
the Shan States plateau should plantations be required there. There is a fine 
avenue in the Maymyo bazaar consisting chiefly of E. rostrata. E. Globulus 
has proved a failure at Maymyo, but has succeeded in the hills of the Ruby 
Mines district. The species which has done best at low elevations is E. vimi- 
nalis, which has proved hardy. E. cornuta was reported in 1911-12 to be 
growing well in a rubber plantation at Kwanhla in the Amherst township. 

7. Andamans. Seventeen species were tried in the Andamans in 1914, 
but after the first year the only species showing any promise were E. resinifera, 
E. robusta, E. rostrata, and E. tereticorriis. Two species, namely E. botryoides 
and E. robusta, were tried in mangrove swamps, but were unable to stand the 
salt water. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Eucalypts, as a rule, are intolerant of 
shade, though many species tend to branch low if grown in isolated positions, 
and in early youth seedlings endure a little shade for a time. Many species 
coppice well, but the blue gum {E. Globulus) is probably the most vigorous of 
all the better known species in this respect. The root-system is usually of 
a spreading type, the roots penetrating for a considerable distance in search 
of moisture ; superficial spreading roots are common. Eucalypts are generally 
speaking wind-firm, but many species are liable to become bent, gnarled, and 
stunted in exposed situations. Species tried at the higher elevations in the 
Himalaya have been found very liable to snow-break. Fire does little damage 
to older trees with thick persistent bark, but young trees and those with thin 
or deciduous bark suffer severely : those whose bark exfoliates in long dry 
strips, like E. Globulus, suffer much damage, the fire ascending up the loose 
bark into the crowns. Most species have good power of recovery from damage 
by fire. Injured trees produce shoots with primordial leaves, and a blue gum 
plantation which has recently been burnt presents a silvery-blue appearance, 
owing to the production of these shoots. The most aromatic eucalypts are 
not readily browsed by cattle ; two species particularly susceptible to this 
form of damage are E. corynocalyx, whose leaves have a sweetish taste, and 
E. Gunnii, whose leaves are not strongly aromatic. Plantations of young 
trees near Dehra Dun have suffered much through rubbing by deer, the 
aromatic bark attracting these animals ; where deer are prevalent, fencing 
may therefore be necessary. In the Changa Manga plantation in the Lahore 
district, seedlings are browsed down by nilgai in the winter, and when the 
plants are out of reach of browsing these animals gnaw the bark. 

The requirements of the various species as regards soil and climate vary 
considerably. Some details are given under the individual species described 
below, but so far as Indian conditions go our knowledge is confined to a com- 
paratively small number of species which have been tried in different localities. 
Much experimental work remains to be done in discovering species suitable 

Q2 



564 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

for the diverse climates and types of soil met with in India, for experience 
has shown that it is most unsafe to predict the behaviour of a newly tried 
species in India, even though its requirements are well understood in its 
natural home. Generally speaking, most if not all eucalypts grow best on deep 
fresh soil with a fair amount of subsoil moisture ; many, however, accommodate 
tliemselves to poor dry soils, swampy ground, exposed situations, high altitudes, 
or other conditions unfavourable to their best development, and here they 
often assume a stunted or misshapen form or display special characteristics 
amounting to sub-specific variation, for example in the form of the bark, the 
shape and size of the leaves, or the amount of essential oil contained in them. 

The following are some examples of species whose requirements are 
tolerably well known : 

Suitable for wet ground : E. rostrata (probably the best for swampy 
ground), E. rohusta, and to some extent E. hotryoides, E. Globulus, and E. Ureti- 
cornis. 

Suitable for dry, poor soil : E. corynocalyx, E. resinijera, E. siderophloia, 
E. Sieheriana. 

Exacting as to soil : E. Globuhis, E. pilularis. 

Not exacting as to soil (i. e. will tolerate dry as well as unduly moist 
soils) : E. amygdalina, E. cormita, E. resinifera, E. robusta, E. rudis, E. Sidero- 
xylon, E. viminalis. 

Suitable for saline soils : E. rudis. 

Frost-resistant : E.coriacea, E. Ounnii, E. resinifera, E. rostrata, E. sidero- 
phloia, E. tereticornis, E. viminalis. 

Frost-tender : E. calophylla, E. maculata var. citriodora. 

The following list of relative frost-hardiness of different species of Euca- 
lyptus has been drawn up by Mr. E. N. Munns as a result of observations 
during an exceptional period of low temperature in South California : ^ 

Very resistant to low temperatures : E. viminalis, E. polyanthema, 
E. Gunnii, E. regnans, E. crebra. 

Resistant to low temperatures : E. tereticornis, E. rostrata, E. Globulus, 
E. coriacea, E. resinifera, E. corynocalyx, E. robusta^, E. goniocalyx. 

Frost-sensitive, but capable of recovering from injury : E. Sideroxylo7i, 
E. Stuartiana, E. citriodora, E. longifolia, E. amygdalina, E. saligna. 

Very frost-sensitive : E. rudis, E. corymbosa, E. Leucoxylo7i, E. cornuta, 
E. diversicolor , E. calophylla. 

Drought-resistant : E. corynocalyx, E. resinifera. 

Drought-tender : E. Globidus, E. maculata var. citriodora, E. obliquxi, 
E. saligna. 

Natural reproduction. So far as India is concerned, the question of 
natural reproduction from seed is at present of no consequence. To a limited 
extent natural seedlings have been springing up in and around the blue gum 
plantations of the Nilgiris for some years past, and the essential conditions 
appear to be bare soil free of weeds and sufficient light. In Australia it is 
generally recognized that natural reproduction can be secured without much 
difficulty by cutting the undergrowth, passing fire over the area, and there- 
after strictly protecting from fire and in the first few years from grazing ; 
these methods usually result in a good crop of natural seedlings, from seed 

* Journal of Forestry, xvi (April 1918), p. 412. 



EUCALYPTUS 565 

lying dormant or falling subsequent to the fire, wherever there is sufficient 
light for their development. 

Artificial reproduction. The artificial raising of eucalypts requires 
a considerable amount of care : the seeds are small and are easily washed 
away by rain, while the young seedlings of many species are sensitive to 
drought or frost and for some little time after germination are very liable 
to damp off with excessive moisture. 

Direct sowings are less commonly employed than transplanting, but 
E. crehra was sown with success at Dehra Dun on alluvial ground in lines 
with the aid of field crops, a cleared strip 3 ft. wide in which the eucalypts 
were sown being left imsown with the field crop ; two lines of eucalypts 1| ft. 
apart were sown, with a line of sal between them, the object of the former 
being to act as a protection to the sal against frost and drought. The field 
crop employed was the lesser millet or mandwa (Eleusine coracana), which 
was sown in June and reaped in October, and the eucalyptus was sown in 
August, 1| oz. of seed being used for sowing the double line 74 ft. long. The 
eucalypt seedlings died off in quantity in the first dry season, but a sufficient 
number survived to produce thickly stocked lines, the dominant plants reaching 
a height of 5-6 ft. in eighteen months ; they were then much in need of 
thinning out, and their subsequent development was poor owing to their 
congested state. This experiment is not conclusive, but this method of sowing 
is worth further trial where seed is plentiful. Experimental broadcast sowings 
have been carried out since 1909 in small patches in the Simla hills, and the 
results have been noted on pp. 560 and 561 ; more recently sowings on a larger 
scale have been tried, but the results have not proved successful. 

Nursery treatment. The methods of raising eucalypt seedlings in the 
nursery vary considerably, and local experience alone can decide which method 
to adopt in any particular case. Experience has shown that the best time 
for sowing the seed in most parts of India, both in the hills and on the plains, 
is early spring, about February-March or even as early as January in the 
hills ; this enables the seedlings to reach a size large enough for planting out 
at the beginning of the rainy season. The cheapest method of raising seedlings 
is to rear them in seed-beds, which should be well raised and should consist 
of a mixture of fine leaf-mould and sand. The surface having been well 
smoothed and moderately, not excessively, watered, the seed is sown broadcast 
on the surface and lightly covered with a layer of fine earth. The seed-beds 
should be kept moist with a fine spray until germination begins : from the 
commencement the beds should be protected by a covering, raised about 
12 in. above them, of thatch or other material impervious enough to prevent 
rain from dripping through, these screens being removed in dull cloudy weather 
and replaced to protect the beds and seedlings from sun, frost, or heavy rain. 
The seedlings require a fair amount of water, but excess of moisture causes 
damping ofif. The beds should never be flooded ; watering should be done 
frequently but sparingly with a fine spray. 

Flat boxes about 4 or 5 in. deep are in many ways preferable to seed-beds, 
and for new species as yet untried or of which only a limited quantity of seed 
is available they should certainly be adopted. The bottoms of the boxes 
should have a number of small holes bored in them for drainage purposes, 



566 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

and otherwise the same precautions as regards soil, watering, and protection 
should be employed. An open shed is useful for protecting the boxes of 
seedlings during heavy rain and frosty weather or in the heat of the day. 
One special advantage of seed-boxes is that they can be protected against 
ants, which carry off the seeds, and white ants, which destroy the roots of 
young seedlings : the boxes may be isolated by placing them on stones wrapped 
in cloth soaked with kerosene oil or on stands the legs of which rest in tins 
of water. In place of boxes, kerosene tins cut in half, with holes punctured 
on the under side, may be employed. 

Whether raised in seed-beds or in boxes, the seedlings on attaining 
a height of 2 to 4 in. should be pricked out 2 to 3 in. apart, either in nursery- 
beds or in boxes, and shaded for the first two or three days. Pricking out 
requires much care, as the seedlings are sensitive to any damage to stem or 
roots. On attaining a height of about 6 in. they may require pricking out 
again, or what is preferable, they may be planted individually in baskets or 
pots made of stiff paper about 8 or 9 in. deep, or in bamboo tubes open at 
either end, the lower end being stopped up with grass or other material ; in 
transplanting the baskets or pots are buried bodily, the bottoms having been 
broken open, while in the case of the bamboo tubes the plant is forced down 
through the tube into the planting hole, the tube being removed. In this way 
there is no disturbance of the roots during transplanting. Clay pots at least 
7 in. deep may also be employed, the seedlings being carefully removed from 
them, with the earth intact, for planting purposes. In the Nilgiris the system 
of mossing is sometimes adopted, the roots of the seedling, enclosed in a ball 
of earth, being wrapped round with moss with the object of retaining moisture ; 
the mossed plants are placed on the ground under partial shade, regularly 
watered, and shifted slightly every few days to prevent the roots from fixing 
themselves in the ground. 

Where baskets, pots, &c., are employed, the preliminary pricking out is 
sometimes dispensed with, the seedhngs being transferred to them straight 
from the seed-beds or boxes. For planting out purposes where seedlings have 
been pricked out in boxes the boxes of seedlings should, if possible, be conveyed 
to the planting site and the seedlings should be removed from the boxes by 
means of a trowel, with as little disturbance of the earth round the roots as 
possible. If transplanting is to be carried out in a dry situation the plants 
should be gradually hardened in the nursery by giving them more and more 
sun and less and less water. 

Planting and s'pacinrj. In India the best time for planting is about the 
]>cginning of the rainy season, and for forest purposes seedlings about 12 in. 
in height are the most suitable. Winter planting has been tried in the Hima- 
laya, but the results were less successful than in the case of monsoon planting. 
It is advantageous to dig the pits two or three months beforehand and expose 
the soil ; in low-lying or swampy ground it may be found advisable to plant 
on slightly raised mounds. 

The question of spacing is somewhat debatable, and probably (he only 
tlefinite conclusions arrived at so far in India are in respect of the blue gum 
])iantations in the NiJgiris, where in the earlier years various spacings from 
6 ft. by 6 ft. to 9 ft. by 9 ft. were adopted. At first opinions varied as to 



EUCALYPTUS 567 

the results likely to be attained, but there is now no doubt whatever that 
a spacing of 9 ft. by 9 ft. is preferable to one of 6 ft. by 6 ft., and that there 
is no occasion to plant closer than 8 ft. by 8 ft. ; these wider spacings not only 
give equally good, if not better results, but also reduce the cost of formation 
considerably. As regards other species and conditions, accurate information 
is wanting as to the best spacings to adopt in India. Generally speaking, 
however, wide spacings, say 8 ft. by 8 ft. to 10 ft. by 10 ft., are indicated on 
good soils, and for species which grow vigorously and tend to form clean boles, 
while closer spaciiigs are necessary on poor soils and for species which develop 
more slowly and tend to branch low. It is doubtful if a spacing of less 
than 6 ft. by 6 ft. is ever indicated in India if a plantation is to prove 
profitable. 

Subsequent tending. For the first year, or sometimes two years, it may 
be necessary to protect the young plants from frost by means of cowls of grass 
or bracken. Hand watering is not ordinarily practicable under forest con- 
ditions on a large scale ; most eucalypts, however, respond to irrigation. 
Thinnings first become necessary as a rule from the sixth to the tenth year, 
and the effect of regular thinnings on the yield and on the subsequent develop- 
ment of the crop is most marked. 

System of working. So far as India is concerned, the Nilgiri blue gum 
plantations are the only ones which have as yet been worked regularly, the 
system adopted being for the most part simple coppice for the production 
of fuel : hitherto the rotation adopted has been ten years, but this has recently 
been increased to fifteen years. A few of the less accessible plantations have 
been left as high forest to be felled later, and as far as can be foreseen the 
best method of regeneration will be by clear-felHng and replanting. Coppice- 
with-standards has been tried in the Nilgiris, but the results were unsatisfactory 
owing to the poor growth of the coppice, and this system has been abandoned 
in the Government plantations. Some further details regarding the working 
of the Nilgiri plantations will be found below under E. Globulus. 

Particulars regarding species. Information regarding most of the 
species which have hitherto been tried in India is given below. Particulars 
as to the characters and occurrence of these trees in their natural home have 
been taken mainly from von Mueller's Eucalyptographia, Maiden's Critical 
Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus and Flora of New South Wales, Baker and 
Smith's Research on the Eucalypts, Bentham's Flora Australiensis, and Bailey's 
Queensland Woods. 

Species (in alphabetical order) 1. E. acmenoides, Schauer ; 2. E. alpina. 
Lindl. ; 3. E. amygdalina., Labill. ; 4. E. Andrewsi, Maiden ; 5. E. Baileyarui, 
F. V. M. ; 6. E. bicolor, A. Cunn. ; 1. E. botryoides, Smith ; 8. E. calophylla,, 
R. Br. ; 9. E. Cambagei, Deane and Maiden ; 10. E. capifellata. Smith ; 
11. ^. cinerea, F. v. M. ; [E. citriodora, Hook., see 36. E. imculata, Hook. ; 

E. coccifera, Hook, f., see 3. E. amygdalina, Labill.] ; 12. E. coriacea, A. 
Cunn. ; 13. E. cornuta, Labill. ; 14. E. corymbosa. Smith ; 15. E. corynocalyx, 

F. V. M. ; 16. E. crebra, F.v.M. ; 17. E. delegatensis, B,.T. Baker ; 18. E. dives, 
Schauer; 19. E. eugenioides,S\eher ; 20. E. eximia,Sch3iUev; 21. E.ficifolia, 
F. V. M. ; 22. E. foecunda, Schauer ; 23. E. Globulus, Labill. ; 24. E. gompho- 
cephala, DC. ; 25. E. goniocalyx, F. v. M. ; 26. E. Guniiii, Hook. ; 27. E. 



568 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

haemastoma. Smith; 28. E. hemiphloia, F. v. M. ; 29. E. Kirtoniana, F, v. M.; 
30. E. Leucoxylon, F. v. M.; 31.-5/. longifolia. Link and Otto; 32. E. macran- 
dra, F. v. M. ; 33. E. Macarthuri, Deane and Maiden ; 34. E. 7nacrocarpa, 
Hook. ; 35. E. macrorrhyncha, F. v. M. ; 36. E. inaculata. Hook. ; 37. E. 
Maideni, F. v. M.; 38. E. marginata, Smith; 39. E. melanopkloia, F. v. M. ; 
40. E. fmlliodora, A. Cunn. ; 41. E. microcorys, F. v. M. ; 42. E. miniata, Ciinn. ; 
43. E. Mueller tana, Howett; 44. E. ohcordata, Turcz.; 45. E. obliqua, L'Herit. ; 
[E. obtimfolia, DC, see 74. E. virgata, Sieb.]; 4G. E. occidentalis, Endlicher; 
47. E. paniculata. Smith; 48. E. patentinervis, R. T. Baker; [E. pauciflora, 
Sieb., see 12. E. coriacea, A. Cunn.]; 49, E. piUdaris, Smith; 50. E. piperita, 
Smith ; b\. E. Planchoniana, F. v. M. ; [E. Platypus, Hook., see 44. E. ohcordata, 
Turcz.] ; 52. E. ptychocarpa, F. v. M. ; 53. E. pulverulenta, Sims. ; 54. E. 
punctata, DC. ; 55. E. redunca, Schauer ; 56. E. regnans, F. v. M. ; 57. E. 
resinifera. Smith ; 58. E. rohusfu, Smith ; 59. E. rostrata, Schlecht ; 60. E. 
ruhida, Deane and Maiden ; 61. E. rudis, Endl. ; 62. E. saligna, Smith ; 
63. E. siderophloia, Benth. ; 64. E. Sideroxylon, A. Cunn. ; 65. E. Sieberiana, 
F. V. M. ; 66. E. Smithii, R. T. Baker; 67. E. stellulata, Sieb. ; [E. stricta, Sieb., 
see 74. E. virgata, Sieb.]; 68. E. Stuartiana, F. v. M. ; 69. E. tereticornis. 
Smith; 70. E. trachijphloia, F. v. M.; 71. E. umbra, R. T. Baker; 72. E. 
urnigera, Hook. f. ; 73. E. viminalis, Labill. ; 74. E. virgata, Sieb. 

1. Eucalyptus acmenoides, Schauer. White mahogany. 

A fairly tall straight-growing tree with drooping rather bushy foliage. 
Bark persistent, fibrous. Wood strong, tough and durable, used for posts, 
piles, building, &c. ; posts are said to have lasted over fifty years in Australia. 
Indigenous in eastern New South Wales and Queensland, growing well on well- 
drained sterile hills. There are a few specimens in the Nilgiris. Mr. R. Bourne 
gives the following: (1) CoonoorPeak; (2) below Cluny Hall; (3) St. Thomas's 
churchyard. It is being experimented with further as a plantation tree 
and has done well so far. It has not attained a large size in the Nilgiris. 
It is being tried on the plains of northern India, but appears unlikely to 
thrive. 

2. Eucalyptus alpina, Lindl. 

A shrubby rare alpine species found on Movmt William, Victoria, at an 
elevation of over 4,000 ft. Very slow-growing and of dwarf habit. Has recently 
been tried on the plains of northern India, but is most unlikely to succeed. 
A curiosity and not a species of commercial importance. 

3. Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill., including E. regnans, F. v. M. Giant 
gum, peppermint gum. 

Maiden separates the two species, but they are here considered together 
because it is not yet certain to which belong the trees grown under the name 
of E. amygdalina in India. In its native home E. regnans is the largest of the 
eucalypts, trees over 400 ft. high having been recorded (F. v. Mueller). The 
stem is tall, straight and clean, with smooth almost white bark, and the foliage 
feathery and handsome. New South Wales, Victoria (eastern humid districts), 
and Tasmania, up to 4,000 ft. It attains its largest dimensions in well-watered 
ravines of the cooler ranges; in open country and on ridges it is a much 
smaller tree. Wood fairly light, floating in water, unlike that of most eucalypts, 
not very durable underground, but used for shingles, planking, and palings. 



EUCALYPTUS 569 

The leaves are very rich in oil, but perhaps this refers to the variety 
known as the peppermint gum, with fragrant leaves. The tree is grown 
to a certain extent in the Nilgiris : Mr. R. Bourne mentions the following : 
(1) Coonoor Peak, block I, compartments 4 and 7 ; (2) several fine speci- 
mens in Sim's Park, said to be about 30 years old (in 1912), the largest 
114 ft. high and 11 ft. 1| in. in girth ; (3) a few specimens near Wrenn and 
Bennett's ; (4) Springfield, compartment 11, six fine specimens along the road. 
It has been under trial in the Simla hills since 1909, and so far it has been 
found to do moderately well at 4,000-6,000 ft. It has been tried on the plains 
of northern India, but according to Mr. R. N. Parker it has been found quite 
misuitable. Dr. Brandis in 1876 reported a number of trees, believed to be 
this species, in the Changa Manga plantation, the largest, then eight years old, 
being 56 ft. high and 27 in. in girth ; probably, however, the species was not 
correctly determined. It has done well at Maymyo in Burma (3,500 ft.). 

Var. coccifera. Hook, f., has been tried without success on the plains of 
northern India. It is said to be very frost-hardy, and to have passed through 
severe winters in England. 

4. Eucalyptus Andrews!, Maiden. Blackbutt or peppermint (of New 
England), white top. 

A tall tree with rough somewhat fibrous bark on the stem, and red twigs. 
Timber not of the first class, with many gum veins. Common in New England, 
New South Wales, generally on metamorphic rocks, on rocky ground with 
poor soil. Stands a considerable degree of cold. Has been tried recently on 
the plains of northern India, but is unlikely to prove successful. 

5. Eucalyptus Baileyana, F. v. M. Rough stringybark. 

A tall tree with dense shady foliage, attaining 150 ft. in Australia. Bark 
very rough and fibrous. Wood very tough, suitable for tool handles. South- 
east Queensland, on poor somewhat sandy ridges near Brisbane. Has recently 
been tried on the plains of northern India, but so far does not show much 
promise. 

6. Eucalyptus bicolor, A. Cunn. Black box. 

Usually a small tree or only a shrub. Has recently been grown at Dehra 
Dun and has established itself well so far. 

7. Eucalyptus botryoides, Smith. Bastard mahogany. 

A tall straight-stemmed tree with handsome dark green dense shady 
foliage resembhng that of a Eugenia. Bark furrowed, outside greyish brown, 
inside rusty brown. Wood hard, tough and durable, used for large beams 
and felloes of wheels. South Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tas- 
mania, in moist localities along river flats and in mountain ravines. Also on 
coast sands, where it is somewhat gnarled ; it is one of the few eucalypts 
suitable for such localities. Will endure excessive soil- moisture, but the growth 
suffers if the ground is too swampy. Unsuitable for dry climates. It is among 
the species grown in the Nilgiris. Mr. R. Bourne gives the following localities : 
(1) Cairn Hill, block III ; a felled tree measured 97 ft. in height ; (2) Sim's 
Park, compartments 2 and 3, and in the Park itself. It grows well at Coonoor. 
It has recently been tried at Dehra Dun, and has estabhshed itself satisfactorily 
so far. It has been tried in mangrove swamps in the Andamans, but without 
success. 



570 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

8. Eucaiyptiis calophylla, R. Br. Orange- flowered gum. 

A moderate-sized to large tree with broad almost equilateral Eugenia-like 
leaves, and easily recognized from its very large urn-shaped fruits. SeedUng 
leaves peltate at the base. Bark persistent, dark brown, deeply furrowed, 
reddish and rather stringy on young trees. Wood not durable in the ground, 
but useful for spokes and tool handles, for which purpose it is replacing hicko^3^ 
South-west Australia, often in jarrah {E. marginata) forests. An extra-tropical 
tree, but has succeeded fairly well in some almost equatorial regions, as at 
Zanzibar. Requires a mild equable climate, and does not stand frost. It is 
grown in the Nilgiris. Mr. R. Bourne gives the following localities : (i) Coonoor 
Peak, block I, compartments 10, 33, and 36 ; (2) Rallia ; (3) an aged specimen 
on the Coonoor gJmt below Aravankadu on the north side of the road ; 
(4) Botanical gardens, Ootacamund, No. 17, 4 ft. in girth and 66 ft. in height. 
It was introduced experimentally in 1909 in the outer Himalaya below Simla, 
and so far has done well below 4,000 ft. It has recently been tried on the 
plains of northern India, but has not shown much promise. 

9. Eucalyptus Cambagei, Deane and Maiden. Bastard box. 

A low stunted tree with somewhat fibrous bark. Timber of no use. 
Victoria and New South Wales. It has been tried in the Simla hills since 
1909, and has done well at 4,000-6,000 ft. and moderately well at 6,000- 
7,000 ft. elevation. 

10. Eucalyptus capiteilata, Smith. Brown stringybark. 

A moderate- sized to tall straight or sometimes stunted tree with rather 
dense dark foliage and deeply fissured stringy bark. Wood tough, strong, 
durable, and fissile, used for construction, posts, shingles, and fuel. New 
South Wales (south-west and north of Sydney on poor rocky country), Victoria 
(Gippsland over 500 ft. and in places along the coast), South Australia (Mount 
Lofty). It is stunted and forms dwarf forests on moist sandy ridges. Suitable 
for wet sandy soil, and is found sometimes on moist flats. Grown in the 
Nilgiris, Cairn Hill, block HI ; a tree 66 ft. in height was measured by Mr. R. 
Bourne. Has been tried on the plains of northern India, but has proved 
quite unsuccessful. 

11. Eucalyptus cinerea, F. v. M. Argyle apple. 

A handsome tree 40-50 ft. high, covered with a whitish bloom. BarJv 
fibrous, thick. New South Wales. Has recently been tried on the plains of 
northern India, but does not show much promise. 

Eucalyptus citriodora, Hook., see 36. E. maculata, Hook. 

Eucalyptus coccifera, Hook, f., see 3. E. amygdalina, Labill. 

12. Eucalyptus coriacea, A. Cunn. Syn. E. pauciflora, Sieber. 

A moderate-sized tree, often with spreading branches, the branchlets more 
or les.s pendulous and often covered with a bluish bloom. Bark smooth, 
whitish grey. Wood rather soft and brittle ; an excellent fuel. Victoria, 
New South Wales, Tasmania, from the lowest elevations up to near the snow- 
line in the Australian Alps. Is capable of standing rather severe frost, and 
grows close to glaciers, forming dwarf forests with E. Gunnii up to 5,500 ft. 
Has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and has done moderately well 
at 4,000-6,000 ft. Recently tried on the plains of northern India, but 
failed. 



EUCALYPTUS 571 

13. Eucalyptus coriiuta, Labill. Yate. 

A tree reaching fair dimensions in its liome, but usually of small or 
moderate size, with slightly drooping foliage. Bark dark greyish brown, 
rough. Wood hard and elastic, used for shafts, boat ribs, and agricultural 
implements. South-west Australia. It thrives best in moist localities and 
does well in a humid climate, but can grow on poor soil. It can stand a con- 
siderable degree of frost, trees in Florida having withstood temperatures as 
low as 23 F. Under favourable conditions its growth is rapid. It has been 
grown in the Nilgiris (Botanical gardens, Ootacamund). It was tried without 
success about 1874-6 at Saugor in the Central Provinces. It has been tried 
in the Simla hills since 1909, and so far has done moderately well below 4,000 ft. 
It was reported in 1911-1 2 to be growing well in a rubber plantation at Kwanhla 
in the Amherst township, Burma. 

14. Eucalyptus corymbosa, Smith. Bloodwood. 

A tall tree, but often small and stunted. Bark persistent, rough, blackish 
grey, yellowish or reddish brown inside, that of upper branches smooth and 
reddish or whitish. Wood very hard and durable, but difficult to saw owing 
to the quantity of kino in it, and not a good fuel ; used for piles and fence- 
posts. Queensland, North Australia, and New South Wales ; the commonest 
eucalypt in Queensland (Bailey). There is a specimen, which has not grown 
to any size, in the Nilgiris in Sim's Park, Forest Lodge. It has been tried in 
the Simla hills since 1909, and has done moderately well above 6,000 ft. It 
has recently been tried without success on the plains of northern India. 

15. Eucalyptus corynocalyx, F. v. M. Sugar gum. 

A moderately tall tree with smooth bark and sweetish foliage which 
attracts cattle and sheep. Wood durable and very strong ; said to be better 
than hickory. South Australia and Victoria. Growth not very rapid. Very 
drought-enduring, but grows best with a fair amount of moisture : intolerant 
of excessive soil moisture. It has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hills at 
various elevations, and so far has done moderately well from below 4,000 ft. 
to over 7,000 ft. It has recently been tried on the plains of northern India, 
but so far it does not show much promise. 

16. Eucalyptus crebra, F. v. M. Narrow-leaved ironbark. 

A moderate-sized or large tree with long narrow leaves, slender drooping 
branchlets, and small flowers and fruits'. Bark rough, deeply furrowed, grey 
to almost black. Wood hard, tough, elastic and durable, used for posts, piles, 
bridges, and wagons. Queensland, New South Wales, and North Australia ; 
often gregarious. Grown in the Nilgiris. Mr. Pv. Bourne gives the following : 
(1) Sim's Park ; (2) below Cluny Hall, one tree measured 4 ft. 10 in. in girth 
and about 40 ft. in height ; (3) Botanical gardens, Ootacamund, 7 ft. 6 in. in 
girth and 92 ft. in height. Now being experimented with further as a planta- 
tion tree in the Nilgiris, but the growth of the young trees is very slow, and 
success is not anticipated. Has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and 
so far has done only moderately well from 4,000 ft. upwards. Occasionally 
seen on the plains of northern India (Lahore, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Changa 
Manga, Saharanpur, Lucknow). On the plains the success is variable and the 
growth is slow in youth. Parker says the growth is slow for eucalyptus, but 
he records a tree 7 ft. in girth and fully 100 ft. high in Amritsar, the age of 



572 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

which could not have been more than fifty years, and may have been con- 
siderably less. Line sowings along with field crops made at Dehra Dun proved 
successful in the earlier stages, a thick crop over G ft. high having resulted 
after two years : the plants did not suffer from frost, though in the very early 
stages many died of drought. The lines were, however, left untended and the 
])lants suffered from overcrowding. Flowers Deceinber-January, Punjab 
(Parker). 

17. Eucalyptus delegatensis, R. T. Baker. White ash. 

A tall tree with reddish stringy bark. Wood fissile, pale coloured, light, 
esteemed for indoor work. South-eastern part of New .South Wales, Victoria, 
on mountain ridges. Has been tried on the plains of northern India, but does 
not show much promise. 

18. Eucalyptus dives, Schauer. Broad-leaved peppermint gum. 

A moderate-sized tree with very aromatic leaves. Bark rough on the 
stem, smooth and yellowish on the branches. Timber of little value. New 
South Wales and Victoria, on poor rocky ground, usually on gTanitic rock. 
Has been tried recently on the plains of northern India, but gives little promise 
of success. 

19. Eucalyptus eugeuioides, Sieber. Wliite stringybark. 

A tall tree with dense dark shining Eugenia-like foliage and almost 
horizontal side branches. Bark thick and very stringy. Wood durable, fairly 
hard, easily worked, splits easily into shingles, slabs, &c. ; used also for fence- 
posts, building, sleepers, paving-blocks, flooring, and other purposes. Bark 
used for roofing and inner bark for mats and packing. South Queensland, 
New South Wales, and Victoria, growing gregariously for the most part on 
elevated poor ground but descending into sandy low land. The tree grows 
very Avell in the Nilgiris, reaching a size not attained in its natural home. 
Mr. R. Bourne gives the following : (1) Coonoor Peak, block I, compartments 

4 (girth 12 ft. 5 in.) and 36 ; (2) three or four fine specimens (one measured 
113 ft. high and 10 ft. 7 in. in girth) in Botanical gardens ; (3) Sim's Park (girth 

5 ft. in. and 7 ft. 4 in., height 81-| ft. and 95 ft. respectively) ; (4) below 
Walthamstow ; (5) one fine specimen on the roadside near the lake below 
Woodcot ; (6) Keti, Snowdon, Aramby experimental plantations. It has been 
tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and so far has done moderately well at 
4,000-0,000 ft. elevation. It has recently been tried on the plains of northern 
India, but does not give much promise of success. 

20. Eucalyptus eximia, Schauer. White bloodwood, mountain bloodwood. 
A fairly tall tree with dark foliage. Bark persistent, somewhat scaly or 

flaky, yellowish, verging into a brown or grey tinge. Wood soft, not durable, 
containing kino ; a good fuel. Has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, 
and has done well so far at elevations below 6,000 ft. Has recently been 
tried on the plains of northern India, but does not promise well, 

21. Eucalyptus ficifolia, F. v. M. Scarlet-flowered gum. 

A small bushy tree with broad stiff leaves, dark above, paler below, and 
clusters of large handsome crimson flowers. A very handsome tree, planted 
mainly for ornament. South-west Australia. Has been extensively planted 
for ornament in the Nilgiris. Has recently been tried on the plains of northern 
India, but does not promise well. 







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EUCALYPTUS 573 

22. Eucalyptus foecuuda, Schauer. 

A whnib or sma!l tree with dark green foliage and darkisii .smooth bark 
f^hedding in cartilaginous lamellae. Wood hard and elastic. Western Australia, 
chiefly on limestone, but also on sandy plains with a calcareous substratum. 
Grown in the Nilgiris, but rare ; Sim's Park (R. Bourne). 

23. Eucalyptus Globulus, Labill. Blue gum. 

A very large tree, with a tall straight clean bole when grown under forest 
conditions, but often tending to branch freely when grown in the open. Bark 
constantly decorticating in brown strips of varying length, showing the young 
smooth greyish or bluish white bark ; sometimes almost wholly persistent, 
and often rough at the base of the stem. The tree can be recognized by the 
quadrangular branchlets, the warty glandular calyx covered by a crown-shaped 
lid, and the characteristic leaves of seedlings and young coppice-shoots, which 
are opposite, sessile, cordate or cordate-ovate, covered with a bluish-white 
bloom and strongly impregnated with a gummy aromatic oil ; the stems of 
seedlings and young coppice-shoots are sharply quadrangular. Primordial 
leaves are also produced by adult trees which have been injured by fire or 
otherwise, and a burnt plantation has a characteristic silvery appearance. In 
the Nilgiris ripe seed may be collected about May, but the seed does not fall 
naturally until about July-August. Samples of Nilgiri seed gave 6,500 to 
9,400 per oz. ; fresh seed gave the highest percentage of fertility, that kept 
for one year germinating fairly well, and that kept for two years germinating 
poorly. Fertile seed is produced at an early age : seed collected from 
coppice-shoots nine years old in the Nilgiris in 1912 showed a fertility of 
47 per cent. 

The wood is hard, heavy, and strong, and in its native home is con- 
sidered durable, though not among the most durable of eucalypt timbers ; it 
is much used for house-building (joists, rafters, &c.), ship-building, carriage- 
building, &c. In the Nilgiris it has an indifferent reputation as timber, owing 
to its tendency to warp and split, but has proved to be fairly durable and is 
used for fence-posts. Possibly its poor reputation is due to some extent to 
the employment of timber from immature trees, for in some cases timber of 
fair quality has been yielded by large-sized trees. So far as Indian experience 
goes, however, there is not at present sufficient justification for planting the 
blue gum on an extensive scale as a timber tree. In the Nilgiris it is the 
principal source of fuel supply, and owing to its rapid growth and high yield 
it is eminently suitable for cultivation as a fuel tree. 

The blue gum is a native of Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales, 
where it occurs chiefly in the humid regions, in valleys as well as on ridges 
and mountain slopes ; while common in most parts of Tasmania it is most 
plentiful in the south, but it does not ascend to alpine elevations. The blue 
gum has been more extensively planted than any other eucalypt in extra- 
tropical regions throughout the globe, its first introduction into southern 
Europe dating from the early part of last century. It was among the earliest 
of the eucalypts introduced into India, probably about 1843, when the first 
attempts were made to cultivate these trees in the Nilgiris. 

The blue gum grows best in a moderately cool moist equable climate on 
deep fertile soil. It will endure excessive moisture, though not the equal of 



574 XXVIIT. MYRTACEAE 

E. rostrata in this respect : swampy ground, however, is not favourable to 
good growth. It is averse to calcareous and to saline soils. The seedlings 
are somewhat sensitive to frost and drought, and even in the Nilgiris, where 
the winter cold is by no means intense, they require to be protected from 
frost for the first year after planting out. The adult trees also do not stand 
severe frost or drought. 

The blue gum has been tried from time to time in all kinds of localities 
throughout India, and from the experience gained it may be laid down that 
it is totally unsuitable for cultivation on the plains, or indeed at any elevation 
much below 4,000 ft. It has even been tried on coast sand in Madras, but 
needless to say the attempt was a complete failure. It has been planted in 
various parts of the Himalaya and has succeeded tolerably well in several 
places, particularly where the climate is not too severe, but it is very liable 
to breakage by snow, for which reason it is unsuitable for cultivation at 
altitudes where the snowfall is at all heavy. Prior to the abnormal frost of 
1905 it was one of the commonest species grown at Abbottabad (4,000 ft.), 
but it was severely injured in the great frost, and many trees which had been 
killed outright were felled ; there are now far fewer specimens there, and 
those which existed prior to 1905 are all injured. Experiments within recent 
years have shown that it grows well in the Simla hills at 4,000-7,000 ft. 
elevation. In Burma it has proved a failure at Maymyo (3,500 ft.) but has 
succeeded in the hills of the Ruby Mines district. It grows well at Shillong 
in Assam. It is in the Nilgiris, however, that this tree grows to the greatest 
perfection ; it has been extensively planted at elevations varying from 5,000 
to 8,300 ft., and is of paramount importance as a fuel-producing species. The 
climate of the Nilgiris has been described on pp. 558-9 : being cool, equable, 
and moist it is an ideal one for the growth of the blue gum, while the red 
clayey soil overlying gneissic rock, and remarkably free from lime, appears to 
be specially favourable to the growth of the tree. The Nilgiri plateau is hilly 
to undulating, and consists largely of open grassy downs with sholas, or patches 
of dense evergreen "forest of rather small-sized trees, occupying the more 
fertile hollows and ravines. Blue gum plantations have been formed both 
on grass-land and on shola-land, and the latter being more fertile the growth 
on this type of land is superior to that on the grass-land. 

The blue gum plantations of the Nilgiris are worked mainly as simple 
coppice, the rotation adopted for some time past being ten years, but under 
the latest revised working plan ^ it has been raised to fifteen years, this 
rotation being likely to furnish a higher yield. Some of the plantations in 
the less accessible situations have remained as high forest, and these give 
some idea of the large dimensions attained by this tree. Coppice- with- 
standards was tried at one time, but the standards were found to interfere 
with the development of the coppice, and the system was therefore abandoned : 
some of the coppice-with-standards coupes have been allowed to grow up into 
high forest. The coppicing power of the tree is remarkable, numerous shoots 
being sent up both from the cambium round the top of the stool and from 
the periphery of the stool lower down, but chiefly from the latter ; a callus 
forms over the top of the stool and may cover it completely in a few years. 
^ Working Plan for the Nilgiri Plantations, S. Cox, 191 .3. 




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Fig. 219. J'Jacalijptius (JlubiduH coppico on shola l;uul, age 4 years, 
height 45 ft., Coonoor Peak plantation, Nilgiris. 



EUCALYPTUS 575 

The vitality of the stools is considerable, for there are several coupes in the 
Nilgiris already in their fourth rotation, the last two rotations being ten years 
and the first generally longer, and the stools are apparently as vigorous as 
ever. The young coppice-shoots grow rapidly, reaching a height of 3 or 4 ft. 
or more in a few months. Fig. 216 shows a young coppice coupe, with the 
characteristic opposite pale bluish green primordial leaves, and Figs. 217 and 
218 show older coppice coupes of the grass-land type, where there is little 
undergrowth except grass. The extremely rapid growth of coppice on shola- 
land is shown in Fig. 219, which represents coppice four years old and 45 ft. 
liigh. The young coppice-shoots thin themselves out rapidly, the average 
number per stool at five years of age being about 3, while even up to twenty- 
five years of age it varies ordinarily from 2 to 3. 

The dimensions attained by individual trees in the Nilgiris may be 
exemplified by the following measurements made by me in 1912, it being 
understood that where the age is unknown none of the trees can be more 
than sixty-nine years old : (1) Woodside, isolated tree, age unknown, girth 
19 ft. 2 in., height 138 ft. ; (2) Tudor Hall, more or less isolated, age unknown, 
girth 12 ft. 7 in., height 150 ft. ; (3) Brooklands plantation, age fifty years, 
trees in open crop, rather branchy, without much height-growth, maximum 
girth measured 15 ft. 1 in. In 1905 Mr. Cowley-Brown measured a tree on the 
Woodcot estate fifty-one years of age with a height of 106 ft. and a girth of 
18 ft. 10 in. 

Excellent growth is also shown in the high forest plantations of the 
Nilgiris, but as most of these have not been regularly thinned and have become 
congested, the girth increment and volume production are not what they 
would otherwise have been. Figs. 220 and 221 show two typical high forest 
plantations of very good quality, the former (Aramby) tliinned and the latter 
(Mutinad) in need of thinning. In the former particularly the dimensions 
attained are remarkable ; the age in 1912 was forty-nine years, the average 
and maximum girths were 6 ft. 9 in. and 11 ft. 6 in. respectively, and the 
average and maximum heights were 175 and 185 ft. respectively. The 
Aramby plantation consists of standards in former coppice-with-standards, 
and the trees have had free growing space throughout the greater part of 
their life. 

A series of measurements in coppice and high forest crops was carried out 
in the same year in the blue gum plantations of the Nilgiris, and the results 
are summarized below.^ The coppice figures may be regarded as giving a very 
fair general average, since they are based on numerous measurements in crops 
of various ages : the high forest figures, however, are given for individual 
crops only, since the number of crops of different ages was insufficient 
to give general averages, while the absence of regular thinnings in the 
past prevents a true idea of the development of most of the crops being 
arrived at : 

^ See my note on the Blue Gum Plantations of the Nilgiris, Ind. For. Records, vol. v, pt. ii, 
1913. 



576 



XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 



1. Euc^lyptv.'i Globulus : girth and height measurements, Nilgiri plantations. 



Age. 
years. 



5 
10 
15 
20 
26 



Grass- ShoUi 

land. land. 

in. in. 



0-0 
13-8 



Mean girth. 

General 
average, 
shola- and Grass 
grass-land. land, 
ft. 



Mean height. 

General 
average, 
- Shola- shola- and 
land, grass-land. 



Remarks. 



in. 



9-8 
17-2 
21-4 
23-8 
25-2 



ft. 



ft. 



Coppice 

30 
56 



general averages for stems of all sizes. 



33 
61 
74 
81 

85 



30 
30 



35 
37 
40 
40 

42 
49 



420 



510 

47-0 



65-7 
56-0 
89-0 

58-0 
81-0 



High forest : individual measurements of plantations, not general averages 

163 . . Mutinad. unthirmed plot : dominant trees only. 

143 . . Mutinad, thinned plot : average of trees left after 

ning, including both dominant and dominated i 

Fig. 221 shows this crop before thinning. 
115 .. .. Little Rallia : quality poor. 

172 . . Yeppakuchy. 

156 . . Rallia. 

162 . . Coonoor Peak, compt. 9: standards ia former co 

with-standards. 
158 . . Newman. 

175 . . Aramby, II, 5 : standards in former coppice 

standards, see Fig. 220. 



2. Eucalyptus Globulus : number of stems and voknne production and increment i)cr a( 

Nilgiri plantations. 





No. of stems 








Mean a 


nnual increment pei 






per 


acre. 




Volume per acre. 




acre, solid volume. 




















General 




















average; 










Grass- 


Sliola- General 


average. 


Grass- 


Shola- 


grass- and 






Domi- 


Total 


land. 


land, grass- & shola-\a,nd. 


land. 


land. 


s/jofa-land. 


Remarks. 


, 


nant 


of all 


Solid 


Solid Solid 


Stacked 










Age. 


only. 


classes. 


vol. 


vol. vol. 


vol. 










'ears. 






cub. ft. 


cub. ft. cub. ft. 


cub. ft. 


cub. ft. cub. ft. 


cub. ft. 










Coppice : general averages. 











5 




2,080 


1,270 


1,700 


2,576 


271 




340 




10 




880 


3,230 


4,850 


7,348 


360 




485 




16 




590 




8,050 


12,197 


, , 




537 




20 




470 


, . 


11,200 


16,970 


, , 




560 




25 








14,400 


21,818 






576 








High forest : ii 


idividual crops, not general 


averages. 






30 


94 


526 




14,212 






474 




Mutinad, mi thinned plot. 


30 


174 1 


628 




15,822 






527 




Mutinad, thinned plot, b 
thinning : see Fig. 221. 


35 




720 




10,212 






291 




Little Rallia : quality poo 


37 




228 


t 


11,843 

13,750 

3,992 






;520 
344 
100 




Yeppakuchy. 
Eucalyptus l 
Acacia Melanoxtjlon , Ra 


40 


302- 


5803- 


^ Total 


2,090 
19,832 
14,010 






52 
496 
350 





Shola trees. i 

/Coouuor I'cuk 
Standards compt. 9: fo 


40 


40 


190 


Total 


2,470 
16,480 




* ' 


112 
462 




Coppice coppicc-witli-s 
dards. 


42 


. . 


544 


. , 


14,195 






338 




Newman. 


49 


51 






12,704 .. 




' " 


259 




Aramby, 11, 5 : stajuhirt 
former coppice-wilh-s 
dards : see Fig. 220. 


1 


Trees 


left after 


thinninf; : these include some do 


miuatod stoma. 


- EucalvDtus onlv. 


3 


Includea acacia 


and sliola trees. 








* 1 


>,606 cub. ft. 'stacked. 




Fig. 220. Eucalyptus Globulus plantation on shola land ; age 49 years ; girth 
average 6 ft. 9 in., maximum II ft. 6 in., height average 175 ft., maximum 185 ft.; 
trees per acre 51, solid volume per acre 12,704 cubic ft., Aramby II. 5, Ootacanuind. 




Fig. 221. Eiicali/ptiis (jllohnJns liigh toii-st plantation, before tliinning ; age 30 
years ; after thinning, mean girth 3 ft. 11 in., mean height 143 ft. ; before thinning, 
stems per acre 028, solid volume per acre 15,822 cub. ft., Mutinad plantation, 
Nilgiris. 



EUCALYPTUS 



577 



The following tables showing form factors and bark allowances have 
been compiled from the measurements made in 1912 : 

3. Eucalyjptus Globulus : form factors., Nilgiri plantations. 

Remarks. 

Average of 179 felled trees. Form factor, /, 

obtained from the formula / = - where v = 

volume of tree including bark, 5 = sectional area 
at breast height, and h = total height of tree : 
s and V obtained from true sectional area, iir -. 



Height. 

ft. 
30-50 


Form factor. 
0-55 


51-70 


0-54 


71-100 


0-53 


over 100 


0-51 



4. Eucalyptus Globulus : allowance for bark thickness, Nilgiri plantations. 







Average allowance for 


Total girth of tree 


Average thickness 


bark in girth 


including bark. 


of bark. 


measurements. 




in. 


in. 


Under 6 in. 


01 


0-6 


6in.-ll in. 


0-25 


1-6 


1 ft.-l ft. 11 in. 


0-4 ^ 


2-5 


2 ft. -2 ft. 11 in. 


0-6 


3-8 


3 ft. -3 ft. 11 in. 


0-8 


50 


4 ft. -4 ft. 11 in. 


0-9 


5-7 


5 ft. -5 ft. 11 in. 


1-2 


7-5 


6 ft. -6 ft. 11 in. 


1-3 


8-0 


7 ft. -7 ft. 11 in. 


1-35 


8-5 


8 ft. and over 


1-4 


90 



24. Eucalyptus gomphocephala, DC. Tooart. 

A tall fairly shady tree. Bark persistent, rough and dark on old stems, 
greyish and smooth on younger stems and branches. Wood hard, strong, 
heavy, durable, difficult to split, used for ship-building, piles, bridge-construc- 
tion, and other purposes. Western Australia, near the coast on limestone 
formation. Has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hills, and so far has done 
moderately well below 6,000 ft. Has recently been tried at Lahore and has 
succeeded fairly well hitherto, reaching a height of 16 ft. in four years. 

25. Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F. v. M. Mountain gum, spotted gum of 
Victoria. 

A very tall tree, in rich valleys attaining 300 ft. in height, but often 
much smaller and tending to branch low. Bark persistent, wrinkled or fissured, 
but somewhat variable. Wood hard, tough, and durable, difficult to split, 
used for boat-building, construction, wheel-work, posts, &c. Victoria and 
New South Wales ; a rough-barked variety grows on low dry and stony ranges, 
and a taller variety with smoother bark is found in hilly country up to 3,000 ft., 
descending into wet valleys. Not usually gregarious. Has been tried since 
1909 in the Simla hills, and has succeeded moderately well at elevations below 
4,000 ft. Has been tried on the plains of northern India, but without success. 
It has recently been tried at Mercara in Coorg, and shows some promise. 

26. Eucalyptus Gunnii, Hook. Swamp gum, cider gum. 

A tree reaching large dimensions, but often crooked, and sometimes 
stunted. The leaves have not the strong aromatic odour characteristic of most 
eucalypts, and are therefore readily browsed by cattle and sheep. Bark 
constantly exfoliating in long strips, exposing the younger whitish bark. Wood 



2307.2 



R 



578 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

hard and of good quality, but straight stems are not always available ; usually 
splits with difficulty. South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and 
Tasmania, on alluvial flats, particularly in swampy places, but also on moist 
hill-sides and mountains, ascending in a dwarf state to 5,500 ft. A hardy 
species, standing a considerable degree of frost. It is cultivated in the Mlgiris ; 
Mr. R. Bourne gives the following : (1) Sim's Park, Forest Lodge ; (2) Botanical 
gardens, Ootacamund, No. 16, girth 4 ft. 2 in., height 63 ft. 6 in. ; (3) Cairn 
Hill, block III. It has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and has done 
well at elevations of 4,000-7,000 ft. and moderately well under 4,000 ft. It 
has been tried on the plains of northern India, but without success. 

27. Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smith. White or scribbly gum. 

A fairly tall slender erect tree with rather broad peppermint-scented 
leaves. Bark very white. Wood not of great value, not durable : a fair fuel. 
South Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, often on poor 
ground. Has been tried without success in the Simla hills and on the plains 
of northern India. 

28. Eucalyptus hemiphloia, F. v. M. White or grey box. 

A moderately tall tree with drooping foliage. Bark peeling off in long 
strips. Wood strong, hard, tough, close grained, and durable, used for posts, 
building, wheel-work, tool-handles, &c. South Queensland, sometimes extend- 
ing into the tropics. New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, some- 
times on fiats but usually on rough dry hills or ridges. Not particular as to 
soil or climate. It is grown in the Nilgiris, where it is only a small tree. 
Mr. R. Bourne gives the following : (1) Sim's Park; (2) below Cluny Hall, 
one tree measured 3 ft. in girth and about 35 ft. in height ; (3) St. Thomas's 
churchyard. It has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hills, and so far has 
done moderately well at elevations below 7,000 ft. It has recently been tried 
at Lahore, and has shown promise during the first few years, having reached 
a height of 22 ft. in four years. 

29. Eucalyptus Kirtoniana, F. v. M. 

A large tree with rough somewhat fibrous bark. According to Maiden 
this is a variety of E. resinifera, Smith, but whereas the latter cannot be gro^vn 
on the plains, E. Kirtoniaria has been grown successfully at Lahore and 
Saharanpur. According to Parker it does well on the plains provided it gets 
a good deal of moisture. There are a number of specimens in the grounds of 
the Punjab Club at Lahore. Flowers October-November (Parker). 

30. Eucalyptus Leucoxylon, F. v. M. Victorian ironbark, white gum of 
South Australia. 

A tree sometimes reaching a large size but usually crooked and of small 
size, with pendulous branchlets. Bark persistent, deeply fissured, very hard, 
and dark coloured ; a variety has the stem pale and smooth through the 
outer bark falling. The bark is rich in kino. Wood very hard, durable, and 
strong, used for wheel-work, shafts, railway sleepers, paving-blocks, axe- 
handles, &c. South Australia, New South Wales, and southern Queensland. 
The ironbark variety with persistent furrowed bark occurs chiefly on stony 
ridges or mountains of sandstone and slate formation. The white-barked 
variety occurs on alluvial plains around Adelaide. It has a wide range of 
climate and will grow even on poor soil. According to von Mueller it is one 



EUCALYPTUS 579 

of the best eucalypts for a moist tropical climate. There are specimens in 
the Nilgiris, but they have attained only small size. Mr. R. Bourne gives the 
following : (1) Government gardens, Ootacamund ; (2) Sim's Park, compart- 
ment 1; and (3) along Walker's Hill road, where it forms a handsome avenue. 
It has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hills, and has done well so far at 
elevations below 4,000 ft. 

31. Eucalyptus longifolia, Link and Otto. Woolly butt. 

A large handsome tree with drooping foliage which turns a pink colour. 
Bark persistent, greyish brown, fibrous, very thick. Wood more useful for 
fuel than for timber ; used for fence-posts. Victoria and New South Wales. 
It is grown in the Nilgiris, attaining a fair size. Mr. R. Bourne gives the 
following : (1) Sim's Park ; (2) Botanical gardens, Ootacamund : two trees 
measured, (i) girth 10 ft. 2 in., height 95 ft. 6 in., (ii) girth 7 ft. 6 in., height 
113 ft. 10 in. It has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and has done 
well so far at elevations below 6,000 ft. It has recently been tried on the 
plains of northern India, but does not show much promise. 

32. Eucalyptus macrandra, F. v. M. 

A shrub or small tree with smooth bark, a native of Western Australia. 
Has been tried recently on the plains of northern India, but has not shown 
much promise. 

33. Eucalyptus Macarthuri, Deane and Maiden. Paddy's River box. 

A moderate-sized tree with rough bark. A native of New South Wales, 
preferring low swampy situations. Has recently been tried on the plains of 
northern India, but has not shown much promise so far. 

34. Eucalyptus macrocarpa, Hook. 

A large shrub, mealy all over with a whitish bloom, leaves opposite, 
sessile, lobed at the base. Flowers large and handsome with orange or crimson 
stamens. Western Australia, in dry scrub forests. Has recently been tried 
on the plains of northern India, but does not promise well. 

35. Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha, F. v. M. Victorian stringybark, red 
stringybark. 

A tree sometimes attaining fair dimensions but usually of moderate size, 
with handsome drooping foliage. Bark persistent, greyish brown, thick, deeply 
fissured, stringy, used for roofing. Wood hard, durable, easily split, used for 
shingles, fencing, and boarding. South Australia, Victoria, and New South 
Wales, on comparatively sterile ridges and ranges, often gregarious, frequently 
mixed with E. obliqua, not usually ascending to any great elevation. It is 
grown in the Nilgiris. Mr. R. Bourne gives the following : (1) Sim's Park; 
(2) Botanical gardens, Ootacamund, No. 13, height 75 ft., girth 9 ft. 4 in. 
It has been tried in the Simla hiUs and also on the plains of northern India, but 
so far has proved unsuccessful. 

36. Eucalyptus maculata, Hook. Spotted gum, including var. citriodora, 
Bailey (Syn. E. citriodora, Hook.), lemon-scented gum. 

A tall straight clean-boled tree. Seedling leaves peltate at the base, rough 
with reddish hairs. Var. citriodora is distinguished from the normal variety by 
its strongly lemon-scented leaves. Bark smooth, whitish to reddish grey, 
falHng off in patches, leaving an indentation where each patch was peltately 
attached and giving a spotted appearance to the stem. Wood strong, tough, 

R2 



580 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

elastic, and durable, liable to warp in drying, easily split, used for wheel-work, 
carriage -building, tool-handles, ship-building, wood-paving, sleepers, &c. New 
South Wales and Queensland, the lemon-scented variety in Queensland. In 
its home it occurs usually on hilly ground. Outside its habitat it has been 
found incapable of resisting severe frost or excessive drought. It does best 
with considerable soil moisture, but will grow on fairly dry ground. In the 
severe frost of 1905 at Lahore young plants were killed but new shoots were 
sent up from the base ; nursery plants at Dehra Dun are apt to be affected 
by frost in the winter unless protected. This is the species (var. citriodora) 
most commonly planted at Saharanpur and Dehra Dun, where it grows well 
and rapidly, though it runs to height rather than to girth. An avenue of 
this species was planted in the Forest Research Institute grounds at Dehra 
Dun in 1914. It also grows well at Lucknow and other stations of northern 
India. In the Punjab it is less common ; seedlings are somewhat difficult to 
raise at Lahore. It is fairly common at Abbottabad. There are several 
specimens in the Nilgiris : Mr. R. Bourne gives the following : (1) Sim's Park, 
a specimen in the front of the Lodge ; (2) in Mr. C. Mackenzie's garden at 
Ootacamund ; (3) Botanical gardens, Ootacamund, girth 4ft. 4 in., height about 
70 ft. ; (4) Sim's Park, compartment 1, in front of Forest Lodge; (5) a solitary 
specimen growing in the Moyar forest by the side of the Masnigudi-Tappacadu 
road, where it seems to be thriving fairly well. It was tried in 1913 at Mercara, 
Coorg, and so far has proved one of the best species experimented with, having 
attained a maximum height of 21 ft. and a maximum girth of 7 in. in three 
years. There are some trees at Maymyo in Burma, planted about 1893 and 
doing well. Flowers February-March, Punjab (Parker). 

37. Eucalyptus Maiden!, F. v. M. 

A tall straight tree with smooth white or bluish bark. New South Wales, 
at 1,000-2,000 ft., often on steep slopes. It has been tried since 1909 in the 
Simla hills, and has done well at 4,000-7.000 ft., and moderately well under 
4,000 ft. elevation. 

38. Eucalyptus marginata, Smith. Jarrah. 

A large tree, averaging 100 ft. and reaching 150 ft. in height, sometimes 
buttressed at the base. Bark persistent, greyish brown, somewhat fibrous. 
Wood extremely durable, though not by any means the strongest of eucalypt 
timbers. It lasts for a long time under various conditions, not only in or on 
the ground, but also under water, and is said to be immune from the attacks 
of teredo in the sea. One of the best known timber trees in the world : wood 
largely used for piles, construction of all kinds, railway sleepers, paving-blocks, 
ship-building, &c. Jarrah sleepers have been imported into India in quantity 
for several years past. It occupies an area estimated at 8,000,000 acres in 
the south-western part of Western Australia, growing gregariously and at its 
best on hilly country on granite and ironstone, while on the sandy plains near 
the coast it is scattered and inferior in quality. Its region has an average 
rainfall of 30 to 40 in., and is peculiar in having regular winter rains from 
April to October. Where tried outside its habitat it has been found to be 
readily affected by frost, and to be unsuited for dry soils, requiring a moist 
but well-drained soil. Its introduction into India has been attempted from 
time to time, but so far as is known it has not yet been successfully established. 



EUCALYPTUS 581 

It has been tried and found quite unsuitable for the plains of northern India. 
At Lucknow it was found incapable of standing the rains. BrancUs reported 
in 1876 that it was cultivated in the Nilgiris, but no specimens are known 
to exist there now. Seed was sown in 1909 in the. Sanyasimalai plantation. 
North Salem, Madras, at an altitude of 4,000 ft., and the seedlings are reported 
to have done well during the first year, but no further reports are available. 

39. Eucalyptus melanophloia, F. v. M. Silver-leaved ironbark. 

A tree with a spreading crown and opposite sessile silvery leaves. Bark 
dark, rough. Wood hard and close grained. New South Wales, Queensland, 
in open country. This species is grown in Lahore, Changa Manga, Agra, and 
Saharanpur. When young it is apt to grow spindly and rec[uires staking. 
Given sufficient water the growth is fairly fast ; at Lahore young plants 
reached a height of 24 ft. in four years. It stands drought well. Flowers 
May-June, Punjab (Parker). 

40. Eucalyptus melliodora, A. Cunn. Honey-scented gum, yellow box. 
A moderate-sized tree, occasionally attaining large dimensions, with 

pendulous branches and slender branchlets. Bark brownish grey outside, 
yeUow inside, more or less persistent. Wood yellowish, very hard, heavy, 
tough, and durable, used for wheel-work, posts, &c., but not very suitable for 
sawing into planks ; an excellent fuel. Victoria and New South Wales, chiefly 
on ridges but descending into valleys. Will live on poor soil. Has been tried 
since 1909 in the Simla hills, and has done moderately well at elevations below 
6,000 ft. Recently tried at Lahore, and has shown promise during the first 
few years, having reached a height of 25 ft. in four years. 

41. Eucalyptus microcorys, F. v. M. Tallow- wood, wangee. 

A large tree with reddish fibrous persistent bark. Wood very tough and 
durable, used for house- and ship-building, sleepers, wheel-work, &c. New 
South Wales and southern Queensland, on arid or sandy hills, on the coast 
side of the ranges. Comparatively rare in the Nilgiris : Sim's Park, a good 
specimen above the drive to Sim's Park Lodge (R. Bourne). Has been tried 
since 1909 in the Simla hills, and so far has done moderately well below 4,000 ft. 
Has recently been tried with some success at Saharanpur. 

42. Eucalyptus miniata, Cunn, 

A very ornamental tree with red flowers. Bark with external appearance 
and fracture resembhng mica-schist. North Australia and Queensland. Nil- 
giris, in Sim's Park reserve (R. Bourne). 

43. Eucalyptus Muelleriana, Howett. Yellow stringybark. 

A tree often attaining 60 ft. in height, mth straight massive bole and 
moderately spreading branches. Bark dark grey, fibrous, fissured. Wood of 
good quafity, fissile, very durable. South AustraHa, Victoria, and New South 
Wales, usually on broken country, preferring the taluses of hills on moderately 
good soil and avoiding exposed situations (Maiden). It has been tried experi- 
mentally in the Simla hills since 1909, but has proved unsuitable for intro- 
duction on a large scale. It has also been tried recently on the plains of 
northern India, but does not show promise. 

44. Eucalyptus obcordata, Turcz. Syn. E. Platypus, Hook. 

A large shrub or small tree with broad leaves with wavy margins and 
very broad flattened flower-stalks. Bark smooth, greyish. Western Australia, 



582 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

often forming almost impenetrable thickets. Has recently been tried on the 
plains of northern India, but gives Httle promise of success. 

45. Eucalyptus obliqua, L'Herit. Stringybark (South Australia and 
Tasmania), messmate tree (Victoria). 

A very tall straight tree, attaining a maximum height of about 300 ft. 
Bark persistent, very fibrous, greyish outside, brownish red inside, rather soft. 
Wood not very durable but much used, owing to its abundance, for rough 
building purposes ; very fissile, and extensively split into palings, shingles, &c. 
It is said to be an indifferent fuel, but this has not been found to be the case 
in the Nilgiris, where it is much used. The bark is used for roofing. South 
Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania, one of the commonest 
and most gregarious of the eucalypts, forming vast forests and extending to 
high but not to alpine elevations. It does not stand drought. After E. Globulus 
this is one of the commonest species in the Nilgiris, where it reaches large 
dimensions. It was tried at Saugor in the Central Provinces in 1874-6, but 
failed. It has been tried in the Simla hills at various elevations, but so far 
has not proved successful. It has failed hitherto on the plains of northern 
India, but recently it has given more promise of success in the early stages 
at Saharanpur. 

Eucalyptus obtusifolia, DC, see 74. E. virgata, Sieb. 

46. Eucalyptus occideutalis, Endl. Flat-topped yat. 

A moderate-sized tree, attaining fairly large dimensions in favourable 
locaUties, but often Uttle more than a shrub. Wood hard and strong, used 
for wheel-work. Western Australia, on clayey as well as on sandy soil, and 
also in wet places. Has recently been tried on the plains of northern India, 
but does not show much promise. 

47. Eucalyptus paniculata, Smith. White ironbark. 

A moderate-sized tree, attaining a height of 60 to 70 ft. Bark persistent, 
hard, rough, brown. Wood strong and very durable, much used for wheel- 
work, carriage-building, construction, sleepers, posts, &c. Chiefly in New 
South Wales in the coastal regions ; also in Victoria. It can stand poor dry 
soil but not excessive heat or drought. There are specimens in the Nilgiris : 
Sim's Park, Forest Lodge (R. Bourne). It has recently been tried experi- 
mentally for plantation work in those hills, but so far the growth has been 
slow. It has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hills, and has done weU hitherto 
at elevations below 4,000 ft. It has been grown for some time at Saharanpur, 
and there are a few trees at Changa Manga. Flowers September-October, 
Punjab (Parker). 

48. Eucalyptus pateutinervis, R. T. Baker. Bastard mahogany. 

A large tree with angular branchlets and bark resembling that of some 
species of pine. New South Wales. Has recently been tried at Dehra Dun 
and has estabhshed itself, but has not been tried long enough to give definite 
results. 

Eucalyptus pauciflora, Sieb., see 12. E. coriacea, A. Cunn. 

49. Eucalyptus pilularis, Smith. Blackbutt. 

A very large tree. Bark persistent at the base, greyish, fibrous, and rough, 
falling off in strips from the upper part of the trunk and branches. Wood 
hard, tough, and durable, used for building, ship-building, paving-blocks, 



EUCALYPTUS 583 

posts, &c. Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria. Usually a mountain 
tree, but sometimes found on level ground along rivers ; prefers a damp 
climate and a moist rich soil. It is not common in the Nilgiris, and does not 
attain the large dimensions reached in its native home : Mr. R. Bourne records 
a tree in Sim's Park 116 ft. high and 5 ft. 6 in. in girth. It is being further 
experimented with in the Nilgiris as a plantation tree, and so far has shown 
promise. It was tried at Mercara, Coorg, in 1913, and has done well so far. 
It has proved a failure in the Simla hills and on the plains of northern India. 

50. Eucalyptus piperita, Smith. Sydney peppermint. 

A moderate- sized tree, closely akin to E. pilularis, but with rougher bark 
extending to the branches. Wood said to be of inferior quality. Victoria, 
New South Wales, and Queensland, on rather poor ground. Has been tried 
in the Simla hills and on the plains of northern India, but without success, 

51. Eucalyptus Planchoniana, F. v, M. 

A moderate-sized tree with angular branchlets and flattened petioles. 
Bark persistent, more or less fibrous. Wood hard and heavy, used for house- 
building. Local in southern Queensland and New South Wales on sandy or 
rocky ridges. Has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hiUs and has done 
moderately weU between 4,000 and 6,000 ft. elevation. Has recently been 
tried on the plains of northern India, but does not promise well. 

Eucalyptus Platypus, Hook., see 44. E. obcordata, Turcz. 

52. Eucalyptus ptychocarpa, F. v. M. 

A moderate-sized tree with persistent grejdsh, wrinkled, somewhat fibrous 
bark, ornamental red flowers, and longitudinally ridged fruits. North Australia, 
along rocky streams and dry watercourses. Nilgiris : ( 1 ) Cairn Hill ; (2) plentiful 
along the Walker's Hill road in Coonoor ; (3) two or three fine specimens along 
the Ghat road from Aravankadu to Wellington (R. Bourne). 

53. Eucalyptus pulverulenta, Sims. Silver-leaved stringybark. 

A small scraggy tree with bluish white glaucous opposite sessile leaves 
and grey stringy bark. Wood brittle and twisted. Victoria and New South 
Wales. It has been grown to a small extent in the Nilgiris : Mr. R. Bourne 
gives the following : (1) Botanical gardens, Ootacamund ; (2) Cluny Hall 
compound ; (3) in a small plantation above the Sigur Ghat road, just beyond 
the junction of the Lascelles and Sigur roads. 

54. Eucalyptus punctata, DC. Leather jacket, hickory gum, 

A moderate-sized to large tree of spreading habit, with dark rough bark. 
Wood hard, tough, extremely durable, difiicult to spht, used for sleepers, 
fence-posts, wheel-work, building, &c. ; a good fuel. New South Wales, usually 
in dry rocky places. It is grown in the Nilgiris (Sim's Park), and is receiving 
a further trial there as a plantation tree, showing good promise so far. It 
was tried at Mercara, Coorg, in 1913, and has proved successful in the early 
stages. It has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and hitherto has suc- 
ceeded moderately well at elevations below 4,000 ft. Recently it has been 
tried along the railway between Lakhsar and Hardwar, and so far has done 
well on dry stony ground. 

55. Eucalyptus reduiica, Schauer. Wandoo, white gum (Western 
Australia). 

A large tree with persistent smooth white bark. Wood hard, heavy, 



584 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

durable, and very tough, much in demand for building, wheel-work, shafts, 
and tool-handles. Western Australia, forming extensive forests and more 
plentiful in the south-western parts of Australia than any species except 
E. marginata. It grows on hill slopes and on flats, being content mth poor 
soil and even badly-drained ground. It is grown in the Nilgiris (Sim's Park), 
but is apparently uncommon (R. Bourne). 

56. Eucalyptus regnaus, F. v. M. See under 3. E. amygdalina, LabiH. 
Trees raised from seed imported under the name E. regnans have been 

under trial since 1909 in the Simla hills, and so far have done moderately well 
from 4,000 to 6,000 ft. elevation. This species has also recently been tried on 
the plains of northern India, but does not promise weU. 

57. Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith. Red mahogany. 

A large tree, forming a tall straight clean bole. Bark rough, fibrous, 
persistent, decorticating on the branches, deep reddish brown in the young 
trees, changing to Kght grey and brown on older stems. Wood a rich red 
colour, strong and durable, used for piles, fence-posts, and building. The 
tree exudes kino. New South Wales and southern Queensland, not extending 
far inland. It prefers a moist semi-tropical climate, gro^ving best on deep 
fertile gromid ; it will grow on a variety of soils, including poor gravel and 
sand, and is drought-resistant, but will not stand badly-drained swampy 
ground. It has proved exceptionally^ frost-resistant in Florida, having with- 
stood temperatures of 19 F. without damage.^ It is grown in the Nilgiris 
(Sim's Park), but is apparently rare (R. Bourne). It has recently been under 
trial in the Sanyasimalai plantation. North Salem, at an elevation of 4,000 ft. 
Its cultivation has been attempted in the Simla hills since 1909, so far with 
moderate success at elevations below 4,000 ft. It has been tried on the j)lains 
of northern India, but without success : a species introduced about J 865 and 
successfully cultivated at Lucknow under the name of E. resinifera was in 
1876 finally determined to be ^. saligna, Smith. Mr. R. N. Parker notes that 
for many years E. rostrata and E. tereticnrnis have been distributed from the 
Agri-Horticultural Gardens, Lahore, under the name of E. resinifera. This 
species has done fairly well at Maymyo in Burma (elevation 3,500 ft.). It was 
tried in the Andamans in 1914, and showed some promise after the first year. 
It has been found to do well in the neighbourhood of Mercara in Coorg, at 
4,000 ft., in places sheltered from the force of the south-west monsoon, and it is 
proposed to plant such areas with this species for the fuel supply of INIercara. 

58. Eucalyptus robusta, Smith. Swamp mahogany. 

A moderate-sized to large tree with stout angular branchlets, large leaves, 
and somewhat spreading habit, making it suitable as a shade tree. Bark 
persistent, wrinkled, and somewhat furrowed, grey outside, sometimes turning 
a rusty colour. Wood rather brittle, difficult to split, fairly durable, used 
chiefly for building. Ncav South Wales and Queensland, growing best in 
regions not far from the sea. This tree prefers moist situations, but will grow 
under a variety of conditions ; it is particularly well adapted for thriving in 
badly-drained swamps, though not quite so tolerant of swampy ground as 
E. rostrata. It is somewhat sensitive to frost. The growth is fast. There are 

^ Eucalypts in Florida, R. Zon and J. M. Briscoe, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, For. Serv. Bull., 
No. 87, 1911, p. 21. 



EUCALYPTUS 585 

a few trees in the Nilgiris. Mr. Bourne records two in Sim's Park: (1) girth 
9 ft. 9 in., height 60 ft. ; (2) girth 7 ft., height 80 ft. He states that no trace 
of this species can be found in the plantations, and where references to it are 
made in old records E. obliqua was evidently meant. It is grown in various 
parts of the plains of northern India and in the sub-Himalayan tract, where 
it is worth growing only in moist situations, being unsuccessful in even 
moderately dry places ; young plants grow vigorously, but older trees often 
become misshapen and ugly. It was recently tried in mangrove swamps in 
the Andamans, but was unable to stand the salt water , it showed some 
promise during the first year on ground farther inland. 

59. Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlecht. Red gum. 

A large tree attaining a large girth, sometimes erect and symmetrical, but 
often irregular in shape, with droopmg foliage. Bark smooth, ashy grey or 
whitish, often mottled mth brown. Wood strong and very durable, used for 
railway sleepers, piles, bridge-construction, ship-building, wheel-work, and 
many other purposes ; a very good fuel. Victoria, South Austraha, Western 
Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, and North x\ustraHa ; not in 
Tasmania. This is one of the most important timber trees of Australia, not 
only because of its useful timber, but also because of its wide range and great 
abundance. It has been introduced into various parts of the globe, and grows 
under a variety of cHmatic conditions and in various situations and soils, 
preferring moist alluvial valleys and river-banks, but enduring considerable 
drought. It is particularly well adapted for grooving in moist swampy localities, 
being probably unsurpassed by any other eucalypt for this purpose. It stands 
a considerable degree of frost as well as of heat ; in California it endures 
minimum temperatures of 15 to 20 F., and maximum temperatures of 110 
to 115 F.^ The growth is rapid, though not equal to that of E. Globulus. 

It is grown in the Nilgiris, where it coppices badly ; Mr. R. Bourne gives 
the following locaUties : (I) Cairn Hill, block I, compartment 3 in the 
swamp, and block II, compartments 4 and 5 ; (2) Aramby, in a few places. 
It was tried without success at Saugor, Central Provinces, in 1874-6. It was 
sown in 1909 in the Sanyasimalai plantation. North Salem (elevation 4,000 ft.), 
and did well in the early stages. It has been tried since 1909 in the Simla 
hills, and has done weU up to date at elevations below 4,000 ft. It is one of 
the species grown at Abbottabad (4,000 ft.). On the plains of northern India 
it thrives well and grows rapidly. In the Changa Manga plantation this 
species and E. tereticornis have proved more successful than any other eucalypt 
hitherto tried, and when once established they can hold their o^vn against the 
mulberry. At Maymyo, Burma (elevation 3,500 ft.), it has done better than 
any other species tried so far ; the fine avenue in the Maymyo bazaar consists 
chiefly of this species. It has recently been tried in the Andamans, and has 
shown promise in the early stages. It is cultivated at Calcutta, Poona, and 
other low elevations. Flowers May-June, Punjab (Parker). 

60. Eucalyptus rubida, Deane and Maiden. Candle-bark. 

A tree with smooth glaucous bark, often with reddish patches, the outer 
layer falling off in ribbons. Nev/ South Wales and Victoria. It has recently 
been tried on the plains of northern India, but has not shown much promise. 

1 Eucalyptus, its History, Growth, and Utilization, C. H. Sellers, California, 1910. 



586 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

61. Eucalyptus rudis, Endl. Swamp gum, flooded gum. 

A moderate -sized to large tree with leaves rich in oil. Bark greyish, 
usually rough and persistent, but sometimes flaking off and leaving the trunk 
smooth. Wood useful for fueL and also used for posts. Western Australia, 
on river-banks and around swamps. In California it has proved remarkably 
hardy to heat and cold, enduring minimum temperatures of 15 to 18"" F,, a,nd 
maximum temperatures of 110 to 118 F.^ It has been tried since 1909 in the 
Simla hills, and so far has proved fairly successful at elevations below 6,000 ft. 
Within recent years it has been tried on the plains of northern India and in 
the sub-Himalayan tract (Lahore, Saharanpur, Lucknow, Dehra Dun), and has 
proved extraordinarily successful. A tree situated in the worst plot of land 
in the Government Agri-Horticultural Gardens, Lahore, attained a height of 
50 ft. and a girth of 2 ft. 5 in, in four years. '^ This tree formed one of a row 
of trees groAving vigorously in a patch of saline soil in which the salt- weed 
{Suaeda fruticosa) could hardly grow, and where all ordinary plants were 
incapable of living ; at three j^ears of age they averaged 30 ft. in height. ]\Ii'. 
R. N. Parker,^ in describing these plants at Lahore, notes that for satisfactory 
growth, E. rudis apparently requires a very dry climate ; the Lahore plants 
received constant irrigation since they were planted, but an abundance of 
water is not essential, as in the Kot Lakhpat plantation near Lahore this species 
is growing remarkably well with only moderate irrigation and with long- 
intervals between successive watering. This species is doing well at Lucknow, 
and is reported to be thriving on swampy ground between Lakhsar and 
Hardwar.'* Flowers October to February (Parker). 

62. Eucalyptus saligna, Smith. Grey gum. 

A tall straight tree mth deciduous rather thick grey bark. Wood very 
hard, tough, and close grained, used for ship -building, carpentry, &c. New 
South Wales and southern Queensland, often plentiful on ridges, but also 
frequent along banks of streams. Said to prefer a deep moist soil and. to be 
sensitive to drought. In Florida a tree has withstood temperatures of 22 F. 
without serious injury ; another tree in an exposed situation was bent and 
dwarfed by the wind.^ It is grown in the Nilgiris (Sim's Park), It has been 
tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and has done moderately well above 4,000 ft. 
It grows well on the plains of northern India, but apparently in most of the 
older reports the name E. saligna has been applied to totally different species. 
On the other hand, at Lucknow specimens of Avhat were at first considered to 
be E. resinifera were in 1876 finaUy determined to be E. saligna ; one tree 
was reported in 1877 to have attained a height of 45 ft, and a girth of 8 ft. 9 in. 
at 3 ft. from ground-level in ten to twelve years. Recently this species has 
again been tried at Lucknow, and so far it has proved very promising. It has 
recently been tried at Mercara in Coorg, and shows some promise. Mr, R, N, 
Parker ^ notes that on the Punjab plains he has seen this species only in 
Amritsar, where there are a number of specimens growing remarkably well ; 
seedlings sown in Lahore in 1912 died off in large numbers during the monsoon, 
but the survivors were quite healthy and ^ngorous the following year. The 

^ yellers, loc. cU., p, 73. - CJardeii Report, 1914-15, 

^ Iiid, Forester, xl (1914), p, 452. * Report Gov, Bot. Gardens, Saharanpur, 1915-16. 

* Zon and Briscoe, loc. cif., p. 26. ^ Ind, Forester, xxxix (1913), p. 85, 



EUCALYPTUS 587 

plants reached a height of 12 ft. m three years. Flowers May, Punjab 
(Parker). 

63. Eucalyptus siderophloia, Benth. Sydney ironbark. (The name 
broad-leaved or large-leaved ironbark is the one more correctly applicable to 
var. rostrata, the young leaves of wliich are often 2 to 6 in. mde).^ 

A large tree mth a straight stem. Bark persistent, dark brown to nearly 
black, thick, deeply furrowed. Wood close grained, very hard, heavy and 
durable, largely used for building, bridge-construction, railway sleepers, wheel- 
work, and other purposes for which great strength is required ; this is the 
principal ironbark tree in its native home. New South Wales and southern 
Queensland. A tree in Florida about ten years old measured 55 ft. in height 
and 13-7 in. in diameter ; it was growing on dry soil and had withstood 
a temperature of 22 F.- In the Nilgiris there is a small plantation beyond 
Forest Lodge in Sim's Park, where this species is growing well (R. Bourne). 
It is now being experimented with further as a plantation tree in those hiUs, 
and has hitherto shown fairly rapid growth. There is a specimen doing well 
in the Changa Manga plantation near Lahore. It has been tried at Lucknow 
since 1912, and so far has done well. At Lahore seeds of this species were 
sown in 1911, and the plants reached a height of 11 ft. 7 in. in three years, 
but failed in the fourth year. Flowers April, Punjab (Parker). 

64. Eucalyptus Sideroxylon, A. Cunn. Red ironbark, Victoria ironbark. 
A moderate-sized or large tree with narrow silvery leaves and hard, 

rough, dark-coloured bark. Wood dark red, very hard, heavy, strong, and 
durable, used for railway sleepers, beams and girders, shafts and wheel-work. 
New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland, usually on poor sterile ranges. 
In California it endures minimum temperatures of 16 to 20 F., and maximum 
temperatures of 110 to 112 F.^ It was tried mthout success at Saugor, 
Central Provinces, about 1874r-6. It is reported to have done well in the 
Kumaun hiUs, and is one of the species grown at Abbottabad, where it survived 
the severe frost of 1905. It has been tried since 1909 in the Simla hills, and 
has done moderately well between 4,000 and 6,000 ft. It has been tried at 
Changa Manga, but does badly ; the heartwood of the trees becomes eaten 
by white ants. Not suitable for the plains. In India it tends to form a crooked 
bole and to produce large branches. Flowers September, Punjab (Parker). 

65. Eucalyptus Sieberiana, F. v. M. Yohut, mountain ash. 

A large tree attaining 120 ft. in height. Bark dark brown or grey, deeply 
furrowed, red and scaly on young trees, smooth and pale on branches. Wood 
tough and elastic, not durable when exposed to the weather, used chiefly for 
ship-building, tool-handles, and carriage-building ; a good fuel. South 
AustraUa, Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania, frequent on poor barren 
ground or sandy soil on rocky and stony mountain ranges, ascending on southerly 
aspects to 5,000 ft. This tree has been grown to some extent in the Nilgiris, 
where it is found almost always as coppice ; older trees are of rather crooked 
growth. Mr. R. Bourne gives the following locahties : (1) Cairn Hill, block II, 
compartments 1, 4, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 19, and block III; (2) Aramby, block II, 
compartments 13 and 14; (3) Baikie, compartments 3 and 5. It has been 

1 Bailey, Queensland Woods. - Zon and Briscoe, loc. cit., p. 27. 

3 Sellers, loc. cit., p. 73. 



588 XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 

tried without success in the Simla hiUs and also on the plains of northern 
India. 

66. Eucalyptus Smithii, R. T. Baker. White top, gully ash. 

A tall tree \^ith furrowed dark grey bark, smooth on the branches and 
upper bole. New South Wales, in the south coastal districts. Has recently 
been tried on the plains of northern India, but does not show much promise. 

67. Eucalyptus stellulata, Sieb. 

A small or moderate-sized tree with dense foHage and rough dark some- 
what scaly bark, smooth and greenish on the branches. Wood a good fuel, 
but not much in request as timber. Victoria and New South Whales, along 
elevated river valleys or flats and on mountain sides up to the sub-alpine 
zone. Has recently been tried on the plains of northern India, but does not 
show much promise. 

Eucalyptus stricta, Sieb., see 74. E. virgata, Sieb. 

68. Eucalyptus Stuartiana, F. v. M. But-but, apple-scented gum.. 
Stanthorpe box. 

A small to moderate-sized tree with drooping branchlets, and often with 
a twisted stem ; bark persistent, fibrous, soft. Wood hard, tough, and durable. 
South Austraha, Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania, on sandy and ' 
moist tracts, often on low ridges, sometimes on river flats, where it reaches 
a fair size ; Queensland, on poor ground. It is grown in the Nilgiris (Cairn 
Hill, block III), where, according to Mr. R. Bourne, several of the trees have 
been killed by cattle and deer, which tear off and eat the succulent bark. It 
has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, and so far has done well between 
4,000 and 7,000 ft., and moderately well below 4,000 ft. elevation. It has 
been tried on the plains of northern India, but has proved quite unsuitable. 

69. Eucalyptus tereticornis, Smith. Grey gum, forest red gum. 

A tall handsome tree. Bark smooth, whitish or greyish, more or less 
deciduous. Wood reddish, close grained, tough, and diu-able, used for building 
and many other purposes. Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, never far 
from the Kttoral regions, and usually found on fertile ground on humid flats, 
around swamps and lakes, or along watercourses, never on sahne ground or 
along salt-water streams ; stunted if found on rocky exposed locahties. Under 
favourable conditions the growth is rapid. It does well on sandy soil, even if 
comparatively dry, but not on hard dry soil. In Florida trees have withstood 
temperatures of 20 and 22 F., but were frozen back at 19 F., although not 
permanently injured ; in CaUfornia it is said to endure lower temperatures 
and to withstand drought well, while in Provence and Algeria it has grown 
well on low, marshy tracts where the soil is deep, and in Brazil on inundated 
soil where E. rosirata could not be grown successfully.^ The tree coppices 
excellently. At Abbottabad coppice-shoots attained in one year a height of 
15 ft. and a girth of 7Hn., and in 5| years a girth of 22 in. At Dehra Dun the 
branches have been found rather liable to breakage by wind. Parker says it 
was severely damaged by frost at Abbottabad in 1905, but not so much as 
E. Globulus or many of the indigenous trees. 

The tree has been grown in the Nilgiris ; Mr. Bourne mentions a specimen 
6 ft. 2 in. in girth and 60 ft. high in Sim's Park, and adds that a whole planta- 

^ Zon and Briscoe, loc. ciL, p. 28. 



ighi 


t, 115 ft. 


55 


115 ft. 


55 


115 ft. 


J5 


75 ft. 



EUCALYPTUS 589 

tion of this species is said to have been planted by Mr. Gamble at the back 
of the Range Lodge, but either it died out or there was a mistake in identity. 
This species is probably the most successful one tried so far at low elevations 
in India, growing well even at Bombay. On the plains of northern India it is 
one of the best species, doing well in the United Provinces and the Punjab 
as far north as the Rawalpindi district, and also in Hazara. The growth is 
very rapid ; of trees raised from seed sown about 1877 at Unah, Hoshiarpur 
district, measurements of some of the finest in 1893 (aged about sixteen years) 
were as follows : ^ 

1. Girth a,t 4 ft, from ground, 5 ft. 7 in. 

2. 5, ., 5 ft. 5 in. 

3. ,, ,, 5 ft. 1 in. 

4. ,, ,, 5 ft. 6 in. 

Parker mentions a tree on poor gravelly soil near Haripur, Hazara, six years 
from seed, which measured 30 ft. in height and 2 ft. 5 in. in girth. There 
are a few good specimens in the Kaunli garden at Dehra Dun. It is the com- 
monest species at Abbottabad. It has been tried in the Simla hills since 1909, 
and so far has done very well below 4,000 ft. and moderately well from 4,000 
to 6,000 ft. It was tried in 1914 in the Andamans, and was one of the few 
species which showed any promise after the first year. Flowers January to 
April, Punjab (Parker). 

70. Eucalyptus trachyphloia, F. v. M. White bloodwood. 

A moderate-sized tree with dense foKage. Bark persistent, rough, fibrous, 
or almost woody inside. Wood hard, heavy, and durable. Southern Queens- 
land, on poor hilly country, chiefly on sandstone. Said to be suitable as a shade 
tree in hot dry localities. Has been recently tried on the plains of northern 
India, but so far does not show much promise. 

71. Eucalyptus umbra, R. T. Baker. 

A tall tree with dark coloured stringy bark. Timber not very durable. 
New South Wales. It has recently been tried oh the plains of northern India, 
but has not shown much promise. 

72. Eucalyptus urnigera, Hook. f. ' 

A small to moderate-sized tree with spreading branches and drooping 
branchlets. Bark smooth, pale brown. Tasmania, in alpine districts. It has 
recently been tried on the plains of northern India, but has proved quite 
unsuitable. 

73. Eucalyptus viminalis, Labill. Manna gum. 

A large handsome tree with drooping foliage. Bark partly persistent 
on the lower part of the stem, rough, wrinkled, and brownish, decorticating 
on the upper parts and on the branches, leaving the young smooth, bluish 
white bark, which when rubbed gives off a white powder. Wood fairly strong 
but not very durable, used for rough building, shingles, and rails. South 
Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania, reaching large dimensions 
in deep forest glens, but found chiefly in open land, accommodating itself to 
poor and even sandy soil. It grows in the Nilgiris, sometimes attaining a fair 
size. Mr. R. Bourne gives the following distribution : (1) Sim's Park on lake 

1 W. Coldstream in Ind. Forester, six (1893), p. 381. 



590 



XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 






edge ; (2) below Cluny Hall ; (3) some fine specimens at Snowdon Hall lining 
the Kotagiri road above the Snowdon ponds; (4) Sim's Park, compartment 1, 

above Forest Lodge. Measurements at Snowdon 
Hall gave girths of 8 ft., 9 ft. 6-i in., 10 ft. 7 in., 
and 13 ft. 4 in. ; also girth 9 ft., height 124 ft. 
6 in., girth 10 ft. 01 in., height 128 ft. 6 in. It 
was tried without success about 1874-6 at Saugor, 
Central Provinces, and recently on the plains of 
northern India. It has been tried since 1909 in 
the Simla hills, and so far has done M^ell at 
elevations of 4,000-7,000 ft. In Burma it has 
proved successful at low^ elevations. 

74. Eucalyptus virgata, Sieb. Syn. E, stricta, 
Sieb. ; E. obtusifolia, DC. 

A large shrub, usually with very narrow 
leaves. New South Wales, ascending to high 
elevations in the mountains. Has been tried 
mthout success on the plains of northern India. 

3. BARRINGTONIA, Forst. 

Species 1. B. aculoMgula, Gaertn. ; 2. B. 
racemosa, Bl. 

1. Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn. Vern. 
Injar, neora, Hind. ; Hijal, Beng. ; Tivar, piwar, 
Mar. ; Kanapa, Tel. ; Kyi, kyeni, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with dark 
rough bark, obovate leaves clustered at the ends 
of the branches, and long pendulous racemes of 
flowers with bright red stamens. The wood is 
used for boat-building, cabinet-making, and other 
purposes ; the bark is rich in tannin, and is used 
to intoxicate fish. The tree is fairly common in 
many parts of India and Burma, in the sub- 
Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, 
Bengal, Chota Nagpur, the Indian Peninsula, and 
Burma; also in Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago, 
and northern AustraUa. It is always found along 
the banks of streams, round the edges of swamps 
and in similar moist places. It is a familiar tree 
in the swamps of the sub-Himalayan tract, and is 
Fig. 222. Barringtonia acut- ^^^^ common near the coast, though not found in 
angula. Seedling x |. mangrove swamps. 
a, swollen hypocotyl ; b, cross- The leaves fall and the new leaves appear 

section of hypocotyl. from February to April ; the flowers appear chiefly 

from March to May, and the fruits ripen in July- 
August. The fruits are oblong, quadrangular, 1 in. or more in length, and about 
\ in. in diameter. The seed is exalbuminous and solitary, and the embryo thick 



BARRING TONI A 591 

and fleshy with rudimentary scale-like cotyledons. The fruits fall into the 
moist often muddy ground around the trees, and seedlings may be found in 
quantity growing in soft mud. Germination is peculiar. The shoot is developed 
from one end of the fleshy embryo and the root from the other end. A long 
taproot descends into the mud and the original fleshy portion of the embryo 
enclosed in the testa, and retaining the shape of the fruit, persists until the 
seedling attains a fair size. This fleshy portion resembles a tuber, and if cut 
across shows a ring of vascular tissue like that of a carrot (see Fig. 222). The 
function of this tuberous growth is presumably to store up nutriment in order 
to feed the young plant in the dry season when the mud dries up. 

The tree is often planted for ornament. It is also suitable for planting 
in swampy ground where few other species mil grow ; probably direct sowings 
would prove most successful. It is ordinarily frost-hardy, but at Lahore it 
was slightly afl'ected in the severe frost of 1905. In the abnormal drought of 
1907 and 1908 it suffered along the banks of streams and swamps in Oudh 
when the water dried up. 

2. Barriiigtonia racemosa, Bl. 

A species with much larger flowers and fruits than the preceding. It also 
grows by streams and in swampy ground, and is indigenous along the west 
coast of the Indian Peninsula, in the Sundarbans, Andamans, Ceylon, the 
Malay Peninsula, and Polynesia. 

4. CAREYA, Roxb. 

Carey a arborea, Roxb. Vern. Kumb, kumbi, Hind.; Beng. ; Kiimbia, 
Mar. ; Kaval, Kan. ; Ayama, Tarn. ; Gadava, Tel. ; Banbwe, Burm. 

A moderate-sized to large deciduous tree with large obovate leaves 
clustered at the ends- of the branches. Bark dark grey, fissured, red and 
fibrous inside. The wood is durable, especially under water, and is used for 
building, carts, furniture, &c. ; the bark gives a good rough cordage fibre. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is found sporadically throughout 
the greater part of India and Burma, but not in the driest regions. It is very 
typical of savannah lands, where owing to its fire-resisting capacity it is able 
to survive and to regenerate, along with other fire-resisting species such as 
Dillenia pentagyna, Eugenia operculata, and Bombax malabaricum. When fire- 
protection is introduced more tender species take possession of the ground, but 
the old and often branchy savannah trees persist scattered in the new growth. 

Careya arborea is a familiar tree in the sal forests and in the grassy blanks 
so common in them. In Burma it is commonest in the lower mixed forests 
of the plains and in the open savannah tracts. Generally it is characteristic 
of the moist types of mixed deciduous forest, and not of the drier types. 

Leap-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless early 
in the hot season, the new leaves appearing in March-April. The leaves turn 
red in the cold season before falling. The clusters of large pink and white 
flowers appear with the new leaves in April-May, and the fruits ripen about 
June-July : they are green, globose, about 3 in. in diameter, containing several 
seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp, and fall soon after ripening. The seeds are 
exalbuminous, but have a large embrj'^o similar in structure to that of 
Barringtonia : they often germinate within the fruit as it lies on the ground. 



592 



XXVIII. MYRTACEAE 



SiLVicui.TUEAL CHARACTERS. The tree stands a fair amount of shade. In 
the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in the sal forests of Oudh it proved to 
be decidedh' hardy. It coppices well. It is very subject to damage by browsing, 
coppice-shoots in particular being greedily eaten by cattle and deer. As 
already noted, it is very fire-resistant. 

Rate of growth. The following statistics regarding the rate of growth 
are available from sample plot measurements in sal forest : 

Careya arborea : girth increment in high forest sample plots. 



Province. 


Forest 
division. 


Locality. 


No. of years 

under 
measurement. 


No. of trees 

under 

measurement. 


Girth 
classes. 

ft. 

1-2 
lf-8 
li-3 
lJ-3 

1-2 


Mean annus 

girth increme 

for period. 


United 

Provinces 

Central 

Provinces 


Saharanpur 
Lansdowne 

Balaghat 


Malowala 

Chaukhamb 

Jogichaur 

Rehar 

Baihar 


12 
17 
12 
19 
8 


4 
6 
2 
1 
1 


in. 
0-20 
0-32 
0-18 
005 
0-44 



Ring-countings by Mr. D. A. Thomson in respect of seventeen trees in 
the Supa fuel reserves, North Kanara, Bombay, gave the following results : ^ 



Age in years 


5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


Mean diameter (inches) 


1-05 


2-02 


307 


4-09 


5-08 


5-90 


6-84 


7-74 


8-46 


9-38 


10-14 


10-94 



11 



Coppice-shoots grow fairly rapidly. Measurements in 1911 in two separate 
coupes, each two years old, in the Tikri forest, Gonda, United Provinces, 
showed average heights of 11 and 12 ft. as compared with 10 and 7-6 ft. re- 
spectively for sal in the same coupes. Measurements made in 1886 by Mr. 
A. F. Broun in two coupes, each eight years old, in the Bullawala coppice, 
Dehra Dun, gave the following results : 

Careya arborea : growth of coppice, Bidlawala, Dehra Dun, 





Mean height. 


Mean girth. 




Age. 


Careya. Sal. 


Careya. 


Sal. 


years. 


ft. in. ft. in. 


in. 


in. 


8 


30 13 20 


90 


7-1 


8 


10 4 16 2-5 


5-7 


8-3 



]\Ir. H. A. Gass recorded in 1898-9 an average height and girth of 10 ft. 
and 7 in. respectively, with nine shoots per stool, in a coppice coupe three 
years old in Kadike block, South Canara, Madras. 



5. PLANC.^HONTA, Bl. 

Plauchonia andamanica, King. 

An evergreen tree of the Andamans, occurring in evergreen or semi- 
deciduous forests in association with Dipterocarpus spp., Hopea odorata, 
Mimusops Elengi, Arfocarpus Chaplasha, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Albizzia 
Lebbek, Terminalia bialata, Lager stroemia hypoleuca, and other species. The 
wood is hard , durable, and of good quality, and promises to become an important 
timber ; the tree deserves study from a silvicultural point of view. 

^ Working Plan for the Supa Fuel Reserves, 1906. 



593 

ORDER XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 

This order contains a number of important Indian timber trees, chiefly 
belojiging to the genus Lagerstroemia. 

Genera 1. Lagerstroemia, Linn.; 2. Duabanga, Hani.; 3. Sonneratia, 
Linn. f. ; 4. Woodeordia, SaHsb. ; 5. Punica, Linn. 

1. LAGERSTROEMIA Linn. 

This genus contains eleven Indian species of trees and perhaps a twelfth, 
L. indica, Linn., a well-known garden tree which is indigenous in China and 
possibly in the Shan hills in Upper Burma. To this genus belong some im- 
portant Indian timber trees, most of which are very ornamental owing to their 
large showy flowers. The silviculture of these trees is at present imperfectly 
understood. The fruit is a capsule containing many winged, usually small light 
seeds, which, in all the species studied so far, are uncertain in their germinative 
power, a large proportion being as a rule unfertile. L. mdica and L. Flos- 
Eeginae are known to be caj)able of propagation from cuttings, and the same 
may possibly be the case with other species. 

Species 1. L. 2)cirviflora, Roxb.; 2. L. Flos-Reginae, Retz.; 3. /,. tomentosa, 

Presl.; 4. L. lanceolata, Wall.; 5. L. macrocarpa, Kurz ; 6. L. hypoleuca, Kurz. 

1. Lagerstroemia parviflora, Roxb. Vern. Dhaura, lendia, Hind. ; Sidha, 

Hind., Beng. ; Lende, bondga, Mar. ; Ckenangi, Tel. ; Zaungbale. kyeftawsa, 

1 . Burm. 

A large, in poor localities a small deciduous tree. Bark light grey to 
reddish, thin, smooth, exfoliating in narrow longitudinal flakes, light brown 
inside. Wood very hard, durable, used for building, agricultural implements, 
carts, boats, shafts, axe-handles, &c. The tree sometimes exhibits twisted 
fibre from left to right, and often produces burrs, especially when injured. 
Large trees are often hollow in the centre, and the timber has the fault of 
splitting a good deal near the centre. Apart from its economic value this tree 
is important silviculturally as a common companion of the sal, teak, and 
other valuable species. 

Distribution and habitat. Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna 
eastwards, ascending to 3,000 ft., Bengal, Assam, Chota Na.gpur, central 
India, and the Indian Peninsula southwards to the Nilgiris, Upper Burma. 
As a general rule the tree is not gregarious, though often plentiful. In the 
sub-Himalayan tract it is a common constituent of the sal forests, and is also 
plentiful on the dry waterless bhahar tract, a deep boulder formation along 
the base of the outer hills. Here the forest is often of a dry mixed type, and 
in the United Provinces among the chief associate species are Adina cordifoUa, 
Terminalia tomentosa, T. belerica, Hymenodictyon excelsum, Holoptelea integri- 
folia, Acacia Catechu, and Phyllanthus EtKblica. Farther east, in the Duars 
of Bengal and western Assam, it is one of the commonest trees along the base 
of the outer hills and on the dry boulder formation skirting them, the forest 
being of a dry character and the chief trees besides Lagerstroemia being Shorea 
robusta, Terminalia Chebula, T. belerica, PhyUantJiKS Emblica, Stercidia villosa, 
Dillenia pentagyna, Bombax w.alabaricum. , Gmelina arborea, Premna, Stereo- 
spermum, and others, and near rivers Dalbergia Sissoo and Acacia Catechu. 

2307.2 




Fig. 223. Lagerstroemiaparvifora. Seedling x|. 
a. seed ; h-e, germination stages ; /, g, development of seedling during first season. 



LAGERSTROEMIA 595 

In these forests it attains considerable dimensions ; a girth of 8 ft. 2 in. and 
a height of 100 ft. were measured in the Borojhar forest, Buxa, and this is by 
no means a maximum. In the bhabar tract of the Duars it sometimes springs 
up gregariously on gravel and boulder deposits near rivers, after the land has 
become elevated above river-level ; here pure patches of young Lagerstroemia, 
sometimes of considerable extent, may be found with large specimens of 
Dalbergia Sissoo scattered among them, the latter being the survivors of 
a former riverain forest (see Fig. 224). 

The tree is found in fair quantity throughout the dry mixed forests of 
the Indian Peninsula as far south as the Nilgiris, in association with teak, 
Terminalia toinentosa, Anogeissus latifolia, Diospyros Me.lanoxylon, Oligemia 
dalbergioides, Buchaiiania latifolia.^ Phyllanthus Emblica, and other species. 
As a rule it does not attain large dimensions, trees over 6 ft. in girth being 
rare ; in the Dangs forests of Surat, hoAvever, large trees are occasionally met 
with, a girth of 13 ft. having been recorded. In the Bori forest of the Central 
Provinces a girth of 15 ft. has been measured. 

In Upper Burma it occurs in mixed deciduous forest along with teak, 
Terminalia tomentosa, Dillenia pentagyna, Bursera serrata, Anogeissus acumi- 
nata, Schleichera trijuga, Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae, and other species. 

The tree accommodates itself to a variety of soils and geological forma- 
tions, including black cotton soil and trap ; it thrives best on deep porous 
loam, and although it is often found on clay, it does not stand water-logging. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 50 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 30 to 180 in. 

Leaf-siiedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves turn brown 
towards the end of the cold season and are shed in February-March, the new 
leaves appearing in April-May. The panicles of small white fragrant flowers 
appear from April to June, and the capsules ripen and open from December 
to February ; they are 3- to 4-valved, 0-7-1 in. ormorein length, ovoidor obovoid, 
brown when ripe, and remain some time on the tree after ripening. The seeds 
including wing (Fig. 223, a) are 0-4-0-6 in. long, brown, with a terminal papery 
wing, having a thick stiff curved ridge along one edge. 

The germinative power of the seed is frequently poor. Tests were carried 
out at Dehra Dun for three successive years : in the first two years the seed 
was almost entirely unfertile, but in the third year it germinated well. 

Germination (Fig. 223, b-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from the 
end of the seed opposite the wing, the hypocotyl arches and extricates the coty- 
ledons in straightening, the seed-coat being left as a rule on or in the ground, 
though it is sometimes carried up over the cotyledons, falling with their 
expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 223). 

Roots : primary root long, terete, tapering, wiry : lateral roots moderate 
in number and length, fibrous. Hypocotyl scarcely distinguishable, up to 
0-1 in. long. Cotyledons : petiole 0-2-0-5 in. long, channelled above, glabrous : 
lamina 0-4- 0-5 in. by 0-4-0-5 in., foliaceous, orbicular, base tapering, entire, 
green, glabrous. Stem erect, quadrangular, often winged, green or reddish, 
glabrous ; internodes 0- 1-0-5 in. long. Leaves simple, alternate, or first pair 
sometimes sub-opposite, sessile, exstipulate, 0-3-2 in. by 0-2-1 in., ovate 

S2 



596 XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 

acuminate, base acute, entire, glabrous, margins minuteW pubescent, venation 
arcuate, lateral veins 4-10 pairs. 

The groAvth of the seedling is moderately fast. Young plants raised at 
Dehra Dun reached a height of 4 in. in two months, and 12 in. by the end 
of the year ; on poor ground the growth is slower. For its best development 
the young plant requires a porous well-drained soil free from weeds. Young 
seedlings are very frost-tender, unlike coppice-shoots, which resist frost fairly 
well. They do not stand heavy shade or suppression from a dense growth of 
grass. 

SiLVicuLTUEAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a light-demander, and soon 
becomes suppressed under shade. It is fairly frost-hardy. In the abnormal 
drought of 1907 and 1908 in the forests of Oudh it proved to be decidedly 
hardy ; saplings, however, were affected in the severe drought of 1899 and 
1900 in the Central Provinces. Cattle avoid it, and on heavily grazed areas 
coppice-shoots often remain untouched after most of the other species have 
disappeared : sometimes the presence of pure Lagerstroemia parviflora may be 
the result of heavy grazing. 

The tree coppices and pollards vigorously. Experiments were carried 
out in 1909 in North Chanda, Central Provinces, in which trees were coppiced 
in successive months from April to September ; in no month did a single stool 
fail to coppice, a result not attained by any other species experimented with. 
Again, Mr. A. E. Osmaston ^ records complete success in the case of 25 trees 
coppiced in experiments in the Gorakhpur district. United Provinces. The 
f olloAving numbers of shoots per stool have been measured in the United 
Provinces : 

1. Gorakhpur district : age one to sixteen years ; average !() to 3-2 shoots 

per stool. 

2. Gonda district : age one and two years ; average 1-7 to 2-7 shoots per 

stool. 

Natural reproduction. The natural reproduction of this tree requires 
further study. As far as is known, fertile seed is not produced in abundance 
every year, though in certain years reproduction springs up in quantity. 
Loose porous bare soil appears to favour natural reproduction- which often 
comes up readily on abandoned cultivation on well-drained ground, and on 
riverain alluvial gravel which has lisen above river-level. Immunity from 
damage by grazing anrl good power of recovery from the effects of lire and 
mutilation are factors which favour the natural reproduction of this species : 
the admission of light also stimulates it. 

81LVICULTURAL treatment. As a rule this tree is treated as an acces- 
sory to species of greater value, such as teak or sal, and its treatment is sub- 
ordinated to that of the j)rincipal species. It is eminently adapted for 
working as coppice, a rotation of thirty years being generally sufficient for 
the production of poles for building purposes. 

Rate of growth. 1 . High forest. The following residts of girth measure- 
ments in sample plots are available : 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxvii (1911), p. 429. 




?= 


cS 


^ 


M 


!j; 


'Jl 




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^ 


< 


'-^H 


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02 


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a; 


o 




O 




^ 




;-! 


^ 


aj 


w' 


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-l-i 


-k^ 




^ 


-^ 








~ 


*4 * 


"S 


^ 





j:3 

+3 


o 


o 


o 


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^^H 


bO 




rH 




i-H 












Ph 


Oi 


ce 


o 


02 


o 





!h 


fH 


P-, 


=s 




ft 


r-* 




f-t 


t>. 




^ 


o 




o 


'd 


? 


a:> 


.<* 


'd 


^ 


rt 




:3 




O 


CSS 




^ 




<i) 


S 


-o 




f"*.^ 


CQ 


s 


0) 




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-H 


O 




CD 


^^H 


Ph 




02 








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-f^ 





a 


s 


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^ 


o 


O 


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+-i 




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^ 


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^ 


0) 


0) 


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-t^ 


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8 


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^^- -^2^ 





Fig. 225. Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Bombay 



LAGERSTROEMIA 



597 



Lagerstroemia parvijlora : girth increment in high forest sample ]3lots. 



I'ovince. 



ited 
Provinces 



itral 
ovinces 



Forest 
division. 

Dehra Dun 
Saharanpur 



Lansdowne 
Haldwani 

S. Kheri 
Balaghat 



Locality. 

Thano and 

Kansrao 

Dholkhand 

Lakarkot 

Malowala 

Andermajhera 

Kaiu'ia 

Aonla Khera 

Chilla 

Khonani 

Kishanpiir 

Raigarh 



J 



Number of 

years under 

measurement. 

17 



17 
4 
4 

11 
6 
9 



8 



Xumber of 

trees under 

measurement 

1? 

f ^ 

32 

I 4 
12 
3 
1 
4 
5 
2 
1 
1 



Girth 

classes. 

ft. 

1-2 

2-3 

0-1 

1-2 

2-3 

0^ 

li-3 
0-1 i 
3-6 

li-6 
2-3 
1-2 
2-3 



Mean annual 

^irth increment 

for period. 

in. 

0-13 

0-30 

0-23 

0-23 

0-34 

0-11 

0-14 

0-40 

0-34 

0-31 

0-10 

0-09 

0-03 



These figures indicate a decidedly slow rafce of growth. The sample plots 
in question, however, are all in sal forest, and presumably many of the Lager- 
stroemia trees are dominated or even suppressed. 

The follomng rate of growth has been deduced from measurements of 
41 trees in the Dholkhand, Lakarkot, and Malowala sal sample plots, Saharan- 
pur forest division. United Provinces, and of 22 trees scattered in sal sample 
plots in the Buxa forest division, Bengal : 

Lagerstroemia parviflora : rate of growth in high forest, Saharanpur and Buxa 

divisions. 





Girth. 








Girth. 




Age. 


Saharanpur. 


Buxa. 


Age. 


Saharanpur. 


Buxa. 


years. 


ft. in. 


ft. 


in. 


j^ears. 


ft. in. 


ft. in 


20 







10 


100 


1 11 


4 1 


30 


o" 7 


1 


3 


110 


2 H 


4 6 


40 


9 


1 


8 


120 


2 5 


4 11 


.50 


Hi 


2 





130 


2 8i 


5 4 


60 


1 2 


2 


5 


140 


3 


5 8 


70 


1 41 


2 


10 


150 


. . 


6 1 


80 


1 6* 


3 


3 


160 


. 


6 6 


90 


1 9" 


3 


8 









A cross-section 4 ft. 6 in. in girth in the silvicultural museum, Dehra Dun, 
had 56 rings, giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-9(5 in. 

2. Coppice. The rate of growth of Lagerstroemia parviflora coppice is at 
first usually more rapid than that of sal, but the latter afterwards outgrows 
the former. The follomng are some recorded measurements of young coppice- 
shoots : 

Lagerstroe^nia parviflora : rate of gro^\th of young coppice, compared with sal 

or teak iji the same coupes. 

Height. 



Locality. 



Gonda, United Provinces 



GorakhiJiu', United Provinces 

Thano, Dehra Dun, United Provinces 
Bhandara, Central Provinces . 



Age. 

years. 

1 

2 

12 

li 

o 
1 



Lagerstroemia 
par vi flora. 

ft. 

6-8 
10-3 

9-.5 

7-8 

7-3 

9-1 
1.5-01 

6-3 



Sal. 


Teak 


ft. 


ft. 


4-7 


, , 


100 





7-6 




4-5 





2-8 





9-7 


. 



71 



Mean girth 6 in. 



598 



XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 



Mr. A. F. Broun recorded the following measurements made in 1886 in 
coppice coupes at BuUawala, Dehra Dun : 

Lagersiroemia parviflora : rate of growth of coppice, Bullawala, 

Dehra Dun. 

Mean height. Mean girth. 

Lager stroemia Lager stroemia 

parviflora. Sal. parviflora. Sal. 

ft. in. ft. in. in. 

19 1-1 13 1-9 6-2 

15 4-2 16 2-5 6-4 

18 60 11 10-6 6-0 



Age. 
years 

8 

8 
10 



in. 
7a 
8-3 
5-9 



Mean 


girth. 




Lagersiroemia 






parviflora. 




Sal. 


in. 




in. 


3-9 




2-0 


4-8 




2-9 


5-4 




3-8 


6-0 




4-8 


6-5 




5-8 


6-9 




6-7 


7-2 




7-5 



The results of measurements made by Mr. C. M. McCrie in 1910 in coppice 
coupes in the Gorakhpur district. United Provinces, are shown as follows : 

Lagerstroemia parviflora : rate of growth of coi)i)ice, Gorakhpur. 

Mean height. 

Lagerstroemia 
Age. parviflora. Sal. 

years. ft. ft. 

2 6-8 3-0 

4 9-8 7-0 

6 12-3 10-3 

8 14-5 130 

10 16-4 15-3 

12 180 17-5 

14 19-4 ' 19-2- 

16 20-5 20-9 

2. Lagerstroemia Flos-Reglnae, Betz. Syn. L. spieciosa, Pers. Vern. 
Jarul, Beng. ; Ajhar, Ass. ; Taman., bondara, Mar. ; Hole-dasal, chaUa, Kan. ; 
Ptimarathu, Tam. ; Manimarathu, Mai. ; Pyinrna, Burm. ; Eikmive, U. Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with a rounded crown and large handsome mauve 
flowers. Bark smooth, grey or yellowish grey, exfoliating in fairly thin irregular 
flakes. Wood light red, hard, durable, used for construction, boat-building, 
canoes, carts, and other purposes. This is one of the most important timber 
trees of Burma and Assam. 

DiSTRiBLTTiON Ais'D HABITAT. Assam, Bengal, Chittagong, western and 
southern India from North Kanara and the southern Konkan southwards 
through Malabar to Travancore, Chota Nagpur (not very common, and of 
small size). Common throughout Burma, but not in the dry zone ; Ceylon, 
in the moist low country. In the sub-Himalayan tract the tree is not con- 
sidered to be indigenous west of Bengal, but it is certainly plentiful, though 
of comparatively small size, along the banks and within some little distance 
of certain streams in forest lands in the Gorakhpur district. United Provinces, 
and if not indigenous it has at all events run wild. It is planted for ornament 
in many parts of India. 

The tree is typically found along the banks of rivers and streams and on 
low-lying swampy ground. It is not, however, always confined to such places, 
for in Burma it is often scattered in the moister tyjjes of lower mixed deciduous 
forest on alluvial ground and sometimes in evergreen forest : in the upper 
mixed forests it is usually confined to the banks of streams and to alluvial 
flats in their neighbourhood. Its growth is best on rich deep alluvial loam : 
on badly-drained swampy ground it is usually small and crooked. 





d 



f 



.^i^ 
''>^ 




h 

I 



/\ 



/. 



Fig. 226. Lageystvoeviia Flos-Reginac Seedling ] 
a Fruit b Seed c - f- -Germination stages g-i Development of seedling during first season 



LAGERSTROEMIA 599 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 95 to 110 F., the absolute minimum from 36 to 65" F., and the normal 
rainfall from 60 (about 50 in Gorakhpur) to 180 in. or more. 

Leaf-sheddi>:g, flowering, and fruiting. The tree sheds its leaves 
about February-March, the leaves turning reddish before falhng ; the new 
leaves appear in April-May. The large terminal panicles of maave flowers, 
2-3 in. in diameter, appear from April to June, at which time the trees are 
extremely handsome. The capsules (Fig. 226, a), 5- to 6-valved, broadly ovoid, 
O'7-l in. long, ripen from November to January, according to locality, though 
they do not actually open and scatter the seeds for some little time (February, 
Goalpara, Assam, 1915 ; March-April, Dehra Dun, planted trees). The seeds 
(Fig. 226, h) are light brown, angular, fairly hard, with a stiff brittle wing, 
the whole 0-6-0*7 in. long ; they are often unfertile. The tree seeds at an 
early age ; vigorous plants raised from irrigated broadcast sowings at Dehra 
Dun commenced to bear seed at the age of three years. 

Germination (Fig. 226, c-f). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from the 
end of the seed opposite the wing ; the hypocotyl arches slightly and extricates 
the cotyledons in straightening. The seed-coat is left on or in the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 226). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, wiry, flexuose, thick in vigorous 
plants : lateral roots numerous, long, fibrous. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 
0-4-0-7 in. long, quadrangular, reddish or green, glabrous. Cotyledons : petiole 
0-05 in. long : lamina 1-5-2 in. by 2-2-5 in., foliaceous, somewhat fleshy, 
orbicular reniform, broader than long, apex truncate or slightly retuse, entire, 
glabrous. Stem erect, 3- to 5-angled and winged, woody, glabrous, young parts 
green or reddish, older parts greenish brown ; internodes 0-1-1-3 in. long. 
Leaves simple, alternate, sessile or sub-sessile, exstipulate, earlier leaves small, 
the size increasing with successive leaves, 0-5-2-5 in. by 0-3-1-5 in. in natural 
seedlings, up to 8 by 3 in. in vigorous artificially grown seedlings, elliptical or 
elliptical lanceolate or obovate, acute or acuminate, base acute, entire or 
undulate, glabrous, paler beneath than above, venation arched, with a pro- 
minent intramarginal vein, midrib often reddish, veins prominent, raised on 
under side. 

During the first season the growth of the seedling is slow, a height of only 
2-6 in. being ordinarily attained by the end of the year ; subsequently the 
growth is considerably faster. Weeding and irrigation, particularh^ the former, 
greatly stimulate growth. Plants raised from weeded broadcast sowings on 
tilled ground at Dehra Dun reached in three years a height of 10 ft. when 
irrigated, and 8 ft. when not irrigated. In the first year they attained a height 
up to 3 ft. The leaves fall about November to January, and new growth starts 
in March (Dehra Dun). In their earlier stages the seedlings are small and 
delicate, and are apt to be washed away by heavy rain ; they are sensitive 
to frost and drought. 

SiLVicuLTFRAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a moderate light-demander, 
soon becoming suppressed under shade which is at all heavy ; it is less light- 
demanding than teak. In its natural habitat it is exposed neither to frost 
nor ordinarily to drought : in the severe frost of 1905 trees planted at Dehra 
Dun suffered. It is a decidedly moisture-loving tree. It coppices well, the 
coppice-shoots growing vigorously. 



600 XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 

Natural reproduction. Under natural conditions the seeds lie on the 
ground during part of the hot season and often become washed into heaps 
during the early showers. Germination takes place early in the rainy season. 
The factors influencing natural reproduction require further study, but exj)eri- 
ments carried out so far indicate that bare loose soil is favourable, and that 
weed-growth is most unfavourable. For the establishment of natural repro- 
duction a considerable amount of light is required. The sensitiveness of young 
seedlings to drought has been alluded to. The prevalence of natural repro- 
duction round the edges of swamps and along the sides of watercourses is 
probably due mainly to the fact that the seeds are washed together in quantity 
on the bare ground, and the seedlings develop well under the conditions of 
light and soil moisture which they enjoy. Good natural reproduction is 
reported to have appeared in the Yetkanzin forest, Toungoo, Burma, in an 
area where bamboos had flowered, which had been fire-protected for many 
years and then burnt after the flowering of the bamboos.^ 

Artificial reproduction. Owing to the lightness of the seed and the 
small size of the young seedlings, direct sowings are less suitable than trans- 
planting from the nursery. Broadcast sowings on cleared and hoed ground 
at Dehra Dun have, however, proved successful on an experimental scale. 
A fair amount of planting has been done within recent years in Assam, notably 
in Lakhimpur. Direct sowings in lines 6 ft. apart were carried out between 
1876-7 and 1882-3 iji the Nambor forest, Sibsagar, Assam, the Lagerstroemia 
being mixed with Mesuaferrea. In 1 903 the area was found to be very densely 
stocked with young poles of both species, in which the Lagerstroemia greatly 
outnumbered the Mesiia.'^ Transplanting after pruning the roots has been 
tried without success in Sibsagar. 

Mr. R. Bourne informs me that in Malabar he obtained the best results 
in germination by sowing the seeds in flat beds divided into squares surrounded 
by small mud walls, so that when the beds were flooded the water stood in 
them for some time. 

Rate of growth. Th(?re are few reliable statistics showing the rate of 
growth. The following heights of young plants are recorded in diflerent 
plantations in the Jokai reserve, Lakhimpur, Assam : ^ 

Age Average height. 



(exchisive of time in nurserj 
Year of planting 

1 year 

2 years . 

3 years . 



) ft. 

6 

i 

10 
9 



A few trees planted at Kuch Behar in 1873-4 liad attained in 1881 
a maximum girtli of 2 ft. 4 in. with a height of 16 ft. The locality was reported 
to De unsuitable, the trees having developed a low shrubby growth.^ 

The Rangoon plains forests working plan ^ gives an estimate of the rate 
of growth based on ring-countings, the results being as follows : 

' Burma Forest Report, 1914-15, 

- Working Plan for the Nambor Reserved Forest, Sibsagar, A. R. Dicks, 1905. 

' Forest Report, 1913-14. > W. R. F. in Ind. Forester, vii (1881-2), ]\ 41. 

'' Working Plan for the Plains Forests, Rangoon Division, Burma, J. J. Rorie, 1905. 




Fig. 227. Lagerstroemia tomentosa Seedlin'g x -f 

a Fruit b Seed c -f Germination stages g, h Development of seedling during first season 

i Seedling in second season 



(iii 


th. 


ft. 


in, 


1 


6 


3 





4 


6 



LAGERSTROEMIA 601 

Corresponding age. 

years. 

36 

63 

94 

6 125 

The mean annual girth increment, 0-576 in., is identical with that esti- 
mated for teak growing in tlie same forests. 

3. Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Presl. Vern. Lha, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree, reaching a height of 100 ft. or more, and a girth 
of 10 to 12 ft. or more in favourable localities. Bole usually straight and 
clean to a considerable height. Bark about 0-3-0-4 in. thick, light grey, fairly 
smooth, with longitudinal cracks. Wood light grey to greyish brown, moderately 
liard, close grained, fairh^ durable, used for planking, building, canoes, carts, 
shafts, wheels, and furniture, and deserving of more notice for boxes and such 
purposes. It has been tested and reported suitable for match manufacture. 

Distribution and habitat. The tree is common throughout the greater 
part of Burma, except in the dry zone. It is found in evergreen and semi- 
evergreen tropical forest, and in mixed deciduous forest of the upper and lower 
types. In the upper mixed forests it is associated with teak, Xylia dolabri- 
formis, and their common companions, usually occupying the lower slopes of 
hills and well-drained valleys on deep rich soil ; in the drier types of mixed 
forest it is either absent or is found in stunted form. In the lower mixed 
forests on alluvial ground it is sometimes very plentiful, ])articularly in some 
localities along the base of the eastern sIojdcs of the Pegu Yoma. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 110 F.. the absolute minimum from 40 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 40 to 200 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless for 
a time in the hot season. The panicles of handsome w-hite flowers, 1-1-3 in. 
in diameter, appear in April-May, and the capsules (Fig. 227, a) commence to 
ripen about November, dehiscing at various times up till Aj)ril ; they are 
ovoid, 0-5-0-6 in. long, dark brown when ripe. The light winged seeds (Fig. 
227, 6) are about 0-3 in. long ; they escape from the capsules chiefly during 
the hot season and are carried by wind to some distance from the tree. Like 
that of other species of this genus, the fertility of the seed is uncertain. Tests 
carried out at Dehra Dun showed that the seed retains its vitality to some 
extent for one year if carefully stored. At Peradeniya, Ceylon, where the tree 
was introduced in 1891, flowering takes place twice a year, in April and October ; 
this may also be the case sometimes in Burma. 

Germination (Fig. 227, c-f). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from the 
end of the seed opposite the wing, the hypocotyl arches somewhat, and the 
seed-coat is either left in or on the ground or is carried up, falling with the 
expansion of the cotyledons. 

The seedling (Fig. 227). 

Roots : primary root moderately long and thick, terete, tapering, woody : 
lateral roots numerous, long, fibrous. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0-3-0-5 in. 
long, quadrangular, glabrous. Cotyledons : petiole up to 0-06 in. long : lamina 
0-2-0-3 in. by 0-25-0-3 in., foliaceous, sub-orbicular or broadl}^ obovate, apex 
rounded, truncate or refuse, base tapering, entire, green. Stem erect, quad- 



602 XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 

rangular. stellate tomentose ; internodes 0- 1-0-6 in. long. Leaves simple, 
exstipulate, first pair opposite, subsequent leaves on main stem alternate, 
sometimes sub-opposite, those on side branches opposite or sub-opposite. 
Petiole 0-1 in. long, stellate tomentose. Lamina 0-8-3 -2 in. by 0-3-1-3 in., 
elliptical lanceolate, acuminate, base tapering, entire, stellate pubescent. 

During the first season the seedling remains comparatively small, but 
from the second year onwards the growth is fairly fast. Seedlings raised in 
a box at Dehra Dun were 1 ft. 6 in. to 2 ft. 7 in. in height by the middle of the 
second season, and one of these which was transplanted reached a height of 
9 ft. 7 in., with a basal girth of 7| in. by the end of the fourth season. These 
seedlings for the first two or three j^ears developed long thin weak stems and 
had the habit of climbers rather than of erect plants ; eventually, however, 
they became rigid and erect. The young seedlings are sensitive to drought ; 
frost is unknown in the natural habitat of the tree, but at Dehra Dun the 
young seedlings proved to be very sensitive to frost, and all those grown in 
the open succumbed during the first winter. 

Natural reproduction. The seeds fall during the hot season, and are 
washed into heaps by the early showers. Germination takes place at the 
beginning of the rainy season. The factors influencing natural reproduction 
require further study, but experiments at Dehra Dun indicate that bare loose 
moist soil is favourable to germination, and that stiff soil and weed-growi:h 
are unfavourable ; also that in early youth shade is beneficial in preventing 
mortahty through drought. These experiments, however, are not conclusive, 
more especially as climatic conditions at Dehra Dun are very different from 
those met with in the natural habitat of the tree. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that 
young plants can best be raised on well-drained porous soil kept moist and 
protected from the sun. Transplanting can be carried out without much 
difficulty in the second rainy season. No plantations of this species, so far as is 
known, have ever been made. A young tree in the Forest Research Institute 
grounds, Dehra Dun, raised from seed sown in 1912, shows good promise. 

4. Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Wall. Syn. L. microcarpa, Wight. Benteak. 
Vern. Nana, Mar. ; Nandi, bili-7iandi, Kan. ; Ventek, Tarn. (Fig. 225.) 

A large deciduous tree with smooth whitish bark exfoliating in large 
papery strips. Wood moderately hard, used for building, furniture, boxes, &c. 
A valuable timber, but liable to split and not durable in the open. 

Distribution and habitat. This is one of the most important trees of 
the west coast of the Indian Peninsula, where it is very common along and 
below the Western Ghats from Bombay southwards to Travancore, ascending 
the hill range.s of Coorg, Mysore, and Travancore, and the Nilgiris and other 
hills, to 4,000 ft. In East Khandesh it is rare, and in Kolaba and Surat is 
only scattered. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum sliade temperature varies 
from 95 to 115 F,, the absolute minimum from 43 to 63 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 30 to 180 in. or more. It attains its best development in regions 
of heavy rainfall, for instance in Kanara, Malabar, and Coorg, where it reaches 
a large size. It grows well both on hill slopes and in valleys, preferring crystal- 
line rocks to laterite. It is found most commonly in mixed deciduous forests 
associated witli teak, Terminalia tomentosa, T. j)anicvlaia, Xylia xylocarpa, 
Dalbergia latifolia, Pterocarpu-'i Mar^upium, Adina cordifolia, and other species. 



LAGERSTROEMIA 



603 



It occurs also in evergreen forest, but usually in the form of large trees surviving 
from a former deciduous forest into which the evergreen species have encroached. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless for 
a time in the hot season. The small white flowers appear from April to June, 
and the fruits ripen in the cold season. The small hght seeds fall early in the 
hot season and germinate at the beginning of the rains : they are carried by 
the winds to some distance from the tree. Mr. H. Tireman mentions that he 
has twice tried to raise seedlings in Coorg, but on neither occasion did any seed 
germinate : this would indicate that the germinative power, like that of other 
species of this genus, is uncertain. 

Silviculture and natural reproduction. The factors influencing 
natural reproduction require further study. So far as is known the seedlings 
do not stand exposure to a hot sun, and benefit by slight shade, while they 
require a fair amount of moisture in the soil. Bare loose soil aids natural 
reproduction, which appears freely on abandoned cultivation. The seedling 
is capable of bearing considerable shade, but later the tree benefits by an 
abundance of light, though it is less hght-demanding than teak. Fire does 
not appear to do much harm to reproduction, though it produces hollows at 
the bases of the trees. In the moister tj^pes of forest fire-protection has had 
an adverse effect in encouraging the growth of dense evergreen vegetation 
which has prevented the reproduction of this and other light-demanding 
deciduous trees. Mr. H. Tireman notes that the limited amount of grazing 
in Coorg is beneficial in keeping down undergrowth and favouring natural 
reproduction. The tree coppices well. 

Rate of growth. 1. High forest. The following table has been com- 
piled from measurements, based on ring-countings, recorded in high forest 
working plans in the North Kanara district, Bombay : 

Lagerstroemia lanceolata : rate of growth in diameter in high forests of the 

North Kanara district, Bombay. 







Ankola 






Ankola- 


Sirsi 


Yekambi 




Supa fuel 


high 


Kalinaddi 


Sopinhosalli 


Kumta 


town 


Sonda 




reserves.^ 


forest. 2 


slopes.'^ 


high forest.3 


coast.-^ 


forests.'"^ 


high forest.^ 


Age. 


(1906) 


(1908) 


(1909) 


(1910) 


(1911) 


(1913) 


(1914) 


^ear.s. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


10 


2-2 


2-7 


2-9 


1-8 


2-0 


M 


1-3 


20 


4-4 


4-9 


5-3 


3-6 


4-8 


2-4 


3-2 


30 


6-7 


6-7 


7-5 


5-3 


7-2 


3-8 


5-5 


40 


8-9 


8-5 


9-7 


7-1 


9-3 


5-3 


7-8 


50 


10-8 


10-3 


11-9 


9-0 


11-4 


6-9 


10-0 


60 


12-2 


11-9 


14-2 


10-9 


, . 


8-2 


11-8 


70 


13-2 


13-3 


15-9 


12-8 


^ , 


9-7 


13-4 


80 


13-7 


14-8 


17-5 


14-5 


^ , 


11-2 


150 


9C 




16-2 


190 


16-2 


, , 


12-6 


16-4 


100 




17-5 


20-3 


17-8 


, , 


13-8 


17-8 


110 




18-6 


21-7 


19-3 


, , 


15-0 


19-1 


120 




19-6 


22-9 


20-8 


, , 


161 


20-3 


130 




20-6 


23-9 




. . 


17-2 


21-4 


140 





21-5 


25 


, , 


, , 


18-3 


22-5 


150 




22-4 


25-9 




, , 


19-4 


23-6 


160 




23-2 


26-8 




, ^ 


20-5 


24-6 


170 





24-0 


27-5 


^ , 


, , 


21-6 


25-6 


180 





24-7 


28-2 


. . 








Note. Diameter 


excludes 


bark : average bark thickness 0-33 


in. in Ankola, 0-3 in. in 


Kaliuaddi slopes and 


Sopinhosalli. 










I 


Measurements 1 


by D. A. Thomson. 


2 


Measurements by R. S. 


Pearson. 



Measurements by P. E. Aitchison. 



604 



XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 



Mr. H. Tireman has recorded the following measurements, made in 1916, 
of trees which sprang up in two teak plantations in Coorg. formed in 1884 
and 1891, and therefore 32 and 25 years old respectively : 



Plantation of 1884. 




Girth at 


Height. 


breast height, 


ft. 


ft. in. 


(1)65 


2 9 


(2)61 


2 8 


(3)60 


2 8 


(4)58 


1 10 


(5)51 


1 10 


(6) 50 


2 10 



Plantation 


of 1891. 




Girth at 


Height. 


breast height 


ft. 


ft. in. 


(1)50 


2 5 


(2)49 


2 6 


(3)48 


2 8 


(4)47 


2 7 


(5)45 


2 2 


(6)45 


1 10 



Since the age of these trees cannot be greater than that of the plantations, 
the mean annual girth increments would be at least 0-91 and 1-13 in. in the 
two plantations respectively. 

Measurements in North Malabar gave the following results : 



Average age at 6 in. diameter 28 years. 

5 ;> 1^ 51 55 50 ,, 

1 8 7'"* 

55 55 -*-*-' 59 55 ' "* 5 5 

5 5 5 5 '-'^ *! 5 5 i-\JO .. 



Age. 


Height. 


years. 


ft. 


5 


10-5 


10 


19-0 


15 


23-0 


20 


27-5 


25 


31-5 


30 


34-5 


35 


370 


40 


39-0 



Gamble's specimens gave six to eight rings per inch of radius, representing 
a mean annual girth increment of 0-78 to 1-05 in. 

2. Coppice. Mr. H. Murray records the following measurements of 
coppice-shoots in Bel gaum. : 

Diameter, 
in. 
2-3 
3-6 
4-6 
5-S 
6-9 
8-0 
9-0 
9-75 

5. Lagerstroemia macrocarpa, Wall. Vern. Konpyinma, Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree, somewba,t resembling L. Flos-Reginae, but with 
larger leaves and flowers. The latter are 3 in. or more in diameter, and tlie 
tree is extremely handsome when in flower in the hot season. This species is 
most commonly found in the plains forests and on cultivated lands, often in 
rather low bushy form ; it is usually confined to moist or even swampy 
situations. 

6. Lagerstroemia hypoleiiea, Kurz. Vern. Pyinma, Burm. (in Andamans) ; 
Pdbdd, And. 

A large deciduous tree with thin whitish bark. Wood hard, durable, 
used for building, shingles, wheel-work, and other purposes ; apt to split in 
seasoning. This is one of the principal species of the Andamans, where it 
occurs chiefly in deciduous forests associated with Pterocarpus dalbergioides, 
Terminalia hialafa, T. Manii, T. Catappa, Odina Wodier, Bombax insigne, 
Albizzia Lebbek, Admanthera pavonina, Stercnlia spp., and others. Lager- 
stroemia hypoleuca is found usually on sandy soil on low ground, and is less 
common in the hills. It extends into evergreen forest, where it is associated 



d 




Fig. 228 Diiahanga soniuratioides Seedling x \ 

a Seed x 5 b-d Germination stages (b and c x 5, d x 2|) e, f -Development of seedling 

during first season x i^ g - i Development of seedling during second season x J 



LAGERSTROEMIA 605 

\v-ith various species of Dipterocarpus and other trees. Mr. C. G. Rogers ^ 
notes that the tree seeds freely nearly every year, and the seeds germinate 
easily ; on Wilson Island he mentioiis that natural reproduction in very open 
forest is remarkably good, extensive thickets of this species being found. 
Mr. F. H. Todd - notes that natural reproduction is good in the North Andaman. 
Flowers June-Julj- ; fruits cold season (Kurz). 

2. DUABANGA, Ham. 

Duabanga soniieratioides, Ham. Vern. Lmnpatia, Nep. ; Khokan, Ass. ; 
Myaukngo, Mau-lettanshe, Burm. (Fig. 229.) 

A large deciduous tree with characteristic long horizontal branches 
drooping at the ends, and opposite large sessile leaves. Bark greyish brown, 
peeling off in thin flakes. Under forest conditions the tree forms a long clean 
bole. tSometimes it attains a very large girth ; Mr. J. W. A. Grieve measured 
a tree 18 ft. in girth in the Tista valley. Wood grey or yellowish grey, soft, 
seasoning well without warping or splitting, excellent for tea-boxes, for which 
it is largely used ; also used for canoes, and has been reported on as a good 
wood for match manufacture. As a fast -growing useful softwood this tree is 
v.ell worth more attention. 

Distribution and habitat. Eastern sub-Himalayan tract, ascending to 
3,000 ft., Assam, Manipur, Chittagong, Burma, Andamans, and Nicobars. It 
occurs mainly along the banks of streams and on the sides of moist ravines, 
springing up on landslips and other places where the soil has been exposed, 
always on well-drained ground. It is essentially a tree of moist warm climates. 
In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies from 
98^ to 110 F., the absolute minimum from 36 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 50 to 200 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless for 
a time in the hot season. The clusters of large showy white flowers appear 
at the ends of the long spreading branches in Februarj^-March, weighing them 
down at the ends. The capsules ripen in the end of April or during May. The 
seeds (Fig. 228, a) are minute, averaging 0-05 in. long, tapering at each end 
to a point, and very light. Tests at Dehra Dun showed that the seed retains 
its vitality fairly well for a year. The tree flowers and fruits at an early age 
(six years in the case of a tree planted at Dehroj Dun). 

Germination (Fig. 228, b-d). Epigeous. The testa splits at one end 
and the radicle emerges ; the hypocotyl elongates, carrying the testa above 
ground, and the latter falls with the expansion of the cotyledons. 

The seedling (Fig. 228). 

Roots : primary root at first minute, resembling a flue thread, with a mass 
of woolly hairs round upper part ; by end of first season from two to several 
inches long, moderately thick, with long branching fibrous lateral roots, chiefly 
from upper part of main root. Hypocotyl distinct, at first less than 0-1 in. 
long, very fine, white or green, afterwards elongating to 0-2-0 -3 in., becom- 
ing" thicker, ofteji dark red. Cotyledons at first less than 0-05 in. long, aftci- 

1 Report on the Exploration of the Forests in tlie South Andaman and other Ishxnds, 1900, 
para. 23. 

2 Draft Working Plan foi the North Andaman, 1906. 



606 XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 

wards enlarging to 0-15-0-2 in. by 0-1 in., ovate, apex rounded, base obtuse 
or sub-cordate, entire, delicate, green, later often turning dark red. Stem erect, 
quadrangular, the corners winged by the decurrent leaf -bases, glabrous, green 
with a pink tinge in first season ; internodes in first season 0-1-0 -5 in. long. 
Leaves simple, alternate on main stem, opposite on side branches, sub-sessile 
or with petioles up to 0-2 in. long, exstipulate, first two or three leaves often 
small and abortive. Normal leaves 1-3 in. by 0-3-0-9 in. in first season, up 
to 8 by 2 in. in second season, oblong lanceolate, acute or acuminate, base 
elongated and decurrent down petiole and stem, decurrent wings expanding 
abruptly on joining stem, entire, glabrous, dark green with petiole and decur- 
rent wings often pink. 

After germination the young seedlings are extremely minute, almost 
resembling green powder on the surface of the ground ; they are smaller even 
than those of Adina cordifolia or Stephegyne parvifolia. The growi}h during 
the first season is slow, a height of only 1 or 2 in. being attained by the end 
of the year. During the second year the growth is more rapid, a height of 
2 ft. or more being attained ; thereafter the growth is very rapid. Seedlings 
raised at Dehra Dun proved to be very sensitive to drought and frost ; the 
former is seldom and the latter never experienced within its habitat. The 
seedhngs are somewhat subject to the attacks of insects, and in the forest 
young plants are readily eaten by deer and cattle. Young saplings develop 
characteristic long horizontally spreading branches at an early age. 

Natural reproduction. Natural seedlings spring up on newly exposed 
ground such as landslips and river-banks, and appear to require for their 
development an abundance of light and absence of drip from overhanging 
trees. Complete drainage and loose but moist soil also appear to be necessary. 
Natural reproduction comes up readily on banks of silt in the beds of 
rivers. Mr. Gamble ^ describes the profusion with which natural seedlings 
come up on the sites of old charcoal kilns in the Darjeeling tarai. The nearest 
seed-bearers were at least half a mile distant, and the seed must have been 
carried by wind. The sites of these charcoal kilns evidently offered ideal 
conditions for the germination of the seed and the development of the seedlings, 
which did not appear elsewhere in the neighbourhood, even on recently hoed 
ground. 

Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that if seed is scattered soon after 
ripening over fine earth or powdered charcoal in the open it is washed into 
heaps by the early monsoon showers, and the minute seedlings appear in 
groups, but are washed away in quantities during the rains. Only where the 
drainage is perfect and the young plants grow vigorously enough to obtain 
hold of the ground before being washed away, is it possible for any seedlings 
to survive the first season. In the case of charcoal -covered ground it is 
probable that the exceptional vigour induced by the porosity of the germinating 
bed is the main cause of the survival of the young seedlings. 

Artificial reproduction. Direct sowings on bare hoed ground have 
been carried out frequently in Bengal, and landslips are occasionally sown uj) 
M'ith success. On the whole, however, sowings have proved a failure owing 
chiefly to the liability of the young plants to be washed away during the first 
season. 

1 Ind. Forester, iv (1878-9), p. 245. 




Fig. 229. Duabanga sonneratioides . 



006 








'' '^- * '" -' **-;"-, .. '.car , .- 












ViSjf'4 



r^fi;-- 



'v? 



JSSi 






DUABANGA 



607 



In the Mongpoo plantations of the Cinchona Department, in the DarjeeUng 
hills, the seed is sown about the end of May or beginning of June in well-raised 
seed-beds of porous soil which have been very little manured, and the beds 
are sheltered by sloping double bamboo mats about 3 ft. above the ground. 
The seedhngs are pricked out once and are not planted out until early in the 
rains of the following year, when they are about 1 ft. high. 

Experiments at Dehra Dun showed that it is impossible to raise seedlings 
in open seed-beds, as the minute seedlings are washed away or beaten down 
and destroyed by heavy rain. The best results were attained by mixing the 
seeds with fine earth and scattering the mixture on very fine porous soil or 
on powdered charcoal in May or early June in boxes kept under cover or in 
well-raised seed-beds protected from rain by screens. Great care is necessary 
to water the beds or boxes with a very fine spray. The seedlings may be 
pricked out when about 1-2 in. high, and transplanted at the beginning of 
the next rainy season. Little difficulty was experienced in transplanting the 
seedlings provided the roots were kept enclosed in balls of earth. Basket 
planting would probably prove successful, the seedhngs being transferred to 
baskets towards the end of the first rainy season. 

Direct sowings on raised mounds under bamboo mats have given some 
success in the Tista forest division of Bengal. Mounds of loose soil 3 ft. by 
3 ft. at the base and 6 in. high are sown with a pinch of seed and covered 
with bamboo mats 2 ft. by 2 ft. in size raised 1 ft. above the mounds. The 
mats are removed as soon as the seedlings are w^ell established, that is, about 
the end of the rainy season. Superfluous plants are removed and used to 
fill up gaps. 

In plantations protection from deer and cattle is necessary for the first 
few years. 

Rate of growth. After the first year or two the growth is rapid, an 
average height increment of 5 ft. a year or more being not unusual. A saphng 
at Dehra Dun attained a height of 9 ft. 2 in. and a girth of 6^ in. at 4 ft. from 
ground-level by the end of the fourth season, including a height-growth of 
only about 1^ in. during the first season ; this, in a locahty far outside its 
natural habitat, and subject to more severe cold than it is ordinarily accustomed 
to, is very fair growth. 

Measurements carried out by Mr. E. Marsden in 1917 in three sample 
plots in the Darjeehng hiUs gave the following results : 



Duahanga sonneratioides : measurements in sample plots, 

Darjeeling hills. 







After thinning. 






Yield from thinning in 1 01 7. 










Volume 


per acre 


, solid. 




Volume per acre, solid. 




Number 
of stems 
per acre. 


Mean 
girth. 


Mean 
height. 


Timber 

over 

24 in. 

girth. 


Small- 
wood. 


Total. 


Number 
of stems 
per acre. 


Timber 
over 

24 in. Small- 
girth, wood. Total. 


Locality, 


328 


ft. in. 
11-6 


ft. 
34 


cub. ft. 


cub. ft. 
310 


cub. ft. 
310 


317 


cub. ft. cub. ft. cub. it. 
123 123 


Below 

Lopchu. 


131 
110 


2 20 

3 3-7 


50 

78 


364 

2,308 


559 
408 


923 
2,716 


86 
99 


316 316 
575 575 


Near Birick. 
Sum bong. 



GOS 



XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 



The second of these plots is shown in Fig. 230. These figures show a veiy 
rapid rate of growth and a high yield. Trees measured in 1915 in a plantation 
in the Jalpaiguri district had attained a height of 18 ft. in five years. 

The rate of growth as deduced from measurements in two unthinned 
sample plots in the Darjeeling division was as follows : ^ 

Duabanga sonneraiioides : girth increment in unthinned sample plots, 

Darjeeling division. 



Age. 


Mean girth, 


years. 


ft. in. 


' 10 


1 101 


20 


3 2" 


30 


4 2i 



Age. 


Mean girth 


years. 


ft. in. 
5 2J 


50 


6 4 


60 


7 U 



The growth here is considerably slower than that shown in the first state- 
ment : this is possibly due to the fact that no thinnings were carried out. 

Ring-countings in respect of 25 trees in the Tista valley gave an average 
of 3-1 rings per inch of radius, rej)resenting a mean annual girth increment 
of 2026 in. - 

Gamble's specimens averaged 5 rings per inch of radius (mean annual 
girth increment 1-26 in.), while one specimen showed 2 rings per inch (mean 
annual girth increment 3*14 in.). 

3. SONNERATIA, Linn. f. 

This genus comprises trees with opposite entire thick leaves, growing in 
the mangrove swamps of littoral regions (see under ' Rhizophoraceae '). There 
are four Indian species, of which two, S. acida, Linn, f., and S. apetala, Ham., 
are fairly widelj^ distributed along the coasts and two, S. alba, Smith, and 
S. Griffithii, Kurz, are far more local. 

Species 1. aS'. apetala, Ham.; 2. S. acida, Linn. f. ; 
4. S. alba, Smith. 

1. Sonneratia apetala, Ham. Vern. Keora, Beng. 
lanki, Tel. ; Marama, Tam. ; Kanbala, Burm. 

A small to moderate-sized evergreen tree with slender drooping branches 
and light glaucous-green foliage. Bark black, smooth, with horizontal oval 
lenticels. The tree produces thin upright rather sharp pneumatophores from 
its superficial roots. It coppices vigorously. Wood moderately hard, used 
for planking, furniture, knees of boats, and fuel. 

Distribution and habitat. Tidal forests of the coasts of India and 
Burma. This is one of the chief constituents of the mangrove formation, 
growing gregariously and springing up in more or less pure patches, usually 
on new alluvial land thrown up in the form of islands or of flats in tlie bends 
of tidal rivers and estuaries. It is a common tree in the Sundarbans, appearing 
on newly formed land and gradually dying out on the higher ground, where 
it tends to be replaced by Heritiera Fomes and other species. 

Flowering and fruiting. The Avhitish flowers appear from April to 
June. Ripe fruits have been received from tlie Sundarbans in September. 

^ Statistics compiled in the Silviculturist's Office, 1916-17, Ind. For. Rec, vol. vi, pt. v. 
- Working Plan for the Darjeeling Forests, J. W. A. Grieve, 1912. 



3. *S'. Griffithii, Kurz ; 
; Kandal, Mar. ; Ky- 



SONNERATIA 609 

They are globose, about 0-7-0-8 in. in diameter, fleshy, indehiscent, containing 
several angular irregularly-shaped seeds about 0-3 in. long, with a rather hard 
testa. The fruits are buoyant, and are distributed by water ; they are also 
said to be eaten by birds. After falling they soon rot and disintegrate, the 
seed being scattered. 

Germinatioist. Epigeous. The testa splits at one end and the radicle 
emerges. The hypocotyl arches and the testa is carried above ground, falling 
with the expansion of the cotyledons. 

Rate of growth. Mr. Trafford ^ notes that this tree grows more rapidly 
than any other in the Sundarbans ; he estimates the mean annual girth 
increment at 1-2 in. 

2. Sonneratia acida, Linn. f. Vern. Ora, orcha, Beng. ; Tiwar, Mar. ; 
Thirala, Mai. ; Tabu, tamu, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree with dull green foliage and black shining lenticellate 
bark. It produces pneumatophores in the shape of asparagus -like rootlets 
emerging from the mud. This is another common species of the mangrove 
swamps, with an even wider distribution than S. apetala. 

3. Sonneratia Griffithii, Kurz. 

A species of the Burma coast, strongly resembling S. acida. 

4. Sonneratia alba, Smith. 

A shrub or small tree of the mangrove swamps of the Andamans, Mergui, 
and the Konkan (Brandis). 

4. WOODFORDIA, Salisb. 

Woodlordia floribunda, Salisb. Vern. Dhaula, dhau, ddwi, Hind. ; Dhaiti, 
Mar. ; Jaji, Tel. ; Yetkyi, pattagye, panle, Burm. 

A large shrub with more or less fluted stem and long spreading branches, 
widely distributed throughout India and the drier parts of Burma, ascending 
to 5,000 ft. in the Himalaya ; also in Africa, Arabia, China and elsewhere, 
and in Ceylon (rare). 

This is a common gregarious shrub which springs up on landslips, 
abandoned cultivation, and other open places, kiUing out grass and acting as 
a useful soil-improver and a most efficient nurse to tree species, including sal, 
which come up freely under its protective cover. For clothing landslips it 
is invaluable. It is not eaten by cattle, and is frost-hardy, and thus appears 
often in extensive pure masses on open ground subject to grazing. In tracts 
where shifting cultivation has been practised the presence of old bushes of 
Woodfordia gradually dying out under the shade of poles of tree species usually 
indicates the site of a former cultivated clearing in which the shrub has 
appeared and the tree species have grown up through it, eventually sup- 
pressing it. 

The bright red flowers, which appear from January to April in axillary 
cymes along the spreading branches, make the plant a conspicuous sight. 
The capsules ripen from April to June and shed the minute seeds, which 
require open well-drained ground for germination. Mr. Haines notes that 
it scatters its seeds slowly for several weeks, and only that seed germinates 

1 Working Plan for the Sundarbans, 1912. 
2307.2 T 



610 XXIX. LYTHRACEAE 

and survives which is lucky enough to fall just before a several days' period 
of continuous wet weather.^ 

The most successful way in which to grow the plant artificially is to sow 
the seeds in broken bricks ; on ordinary seed-beds it is very difficult to obtain 
germination and to raise seedlings. The plant coppices well ; coppice-shoots 
five years old in the Gorakhpur district, United Provinces, averaged 10 ft. :} in. 
in height. 

5. PUNICA, Linn. 

Puuica (iranatum, Linn. Pomegranate. Vern. Anar,^ Hind. ; Dharu, 
daruna, Pb. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree, indigenous in Persia and Afghanistan ; 
wild and probably indigenous in Hazara, where it is very common and often 
gregarious on dry rocky ground on the limestone of the outer hill ranges at 
3,000-5,000 ft., often associated with Olea cuspidata ; also found in the Kagan 
valley up to 6,000 ft. on dry hill-sides. It is widely cultivated for the sake 
of its fruit, and is frequently found as an escape from cultivation, particiilarly 
in the Himalaya, where it ascends to 7,000 ft. and where it sometimes forms 
dense crops on the gravel and boulder deposits in the beds of dry ravines and 
similar places. It is cultivated from seed or from cuttings. In the Himalaya 
it flowers chiefly from April to July, and the fruits ripen from July to October. 



ORDER XXX. SAMYDAOEAE 
Genera I. Casearia, Jacq. ; 2. Homalifm, Jacq. 

1. CASEARIA, Jacq. 

Species 1. C. tomentosa, Roxb. ; 2. C. glomerata, Roxb. 

1. Casearia tomentosa, Roxb. Vern. Chilla, bheri, Hind. ; Modi, Mar. 

A small deciduous tree with spreading branches, tomentose leaves, and 
small greenish flowers clustered in the axils of the leaves. The wood is of 
little use, but the tree is common in the sub-Himalayan tract and the Indian 
Peninsula in deciduous forests, open scrub jungles, and waste lands. It often 
owes its abundance to its immunity from damage by grazing. It is very 
drought-hardy, as was shovm in the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in 
Oudh, It suffered much in the severe frost of 1905 in northern India, but 
apparently has good powers of recovery, since it is frequent in grassy blanks 
subject to annual frosts. The tree coppices well. The rate of growth in high 
forest is slow, sample plots in sal forest in the United Provinces showing mean 
annual girth increments of 0-09, 0-19, 0-22, and 0-34 in. Coppice-shoots grow 
more rapidly. Measurements made in 1911 in a coppice coupe one year old 
in the Tikri forest, Gonda, LTnited Provinces, showed an average height of 
4-5 ft. as against 4-7 ft. for sal. Measurements made in 1910 by Mr. McCrie 
in coppice coupes in Gorakhpur, United Provinces, showed the following 
results for Casearia tornentosa and sal respectively : 

^ Inspection note, P<alivinau, 1915. 



CASEARIA 



611 



Casearia tomeniosa : coppice measurements, Goraklipur, TTiiited Provinces. 







Mean 


girth. 






Mean 


height. 




Age. 


Casearia 


. 




Sal. 


Caseuria. 




Sal. 


years. 


in. 






in. 


ft. 






ft. 


2 










3-5 






3-0 


4 


1-7 






20 


6-0 






70 


6 


2-4 






2-9 


80 






lU-3 


8 


30 






3-8 


9-5 






130 


10 


35 






4-8 


110 






15-3 


12 


4-0 






5-8 


12-5 






17-5 


14 


4-5 






6-7 


140 






19-2 


16 


5-0 






7-5 


1.50 






20-9 



The following measurements were recorded in 1886 by Mr. A. F. Broun 
in coppice coupes at Bullawala, Dehra Dun : 

Casearia tcnnentosa : coppice measurements, Bullawala, Dehra Dun. 





Mean g 


;irth. 


Mean height. 




Age. 


Casearia. 


Sal. 


Casearia. 


Sal. 


years. 


in. 


in. 


ft. 


ft. 


8 


5-2 


8-3 


12-5 


G-2 


8 


6-0 


, , 


22-0 


, ^ 


9 


7-2 


8-6 


15-0 


16-0 


10 


7-G 


5-9 


140 


i!-9 



2. Casearia glonierala, Roxb. Syn. C. graveole,ns, Dalz. Yern. Chilla, 
nara, Hind. ; Giridi, Uriya ; Bokhada, Mar. ; Barkholi, Nep. 

A small to moderate-sized deciduous tree, sometimes a mere shrub, with 
long spreading branches and leaves which turn a deep coppery red in the cold 
season. Brandis unites C. glomerata, Roxb., and C. graveolens, Dalz. Gamble 
{Man. Ind. Timbers) describes the former as a large evergreen tree of the 
eastern Himalaya, Khasi hills, Sylhet, and hills of Upper Burma. Manson,^ 
describing the eastern Himalayan tree, notes that it is often found in second 
growth forest, perhaps most commonly on warm sunny aspects ; seedlings are 
plentiful and do well with plenty of light while thriving also under cover, and 
the tree is a capital nurse for restocking blanks. 

The tree is common in mixed forests throughout the greater part of India 
and in Burma, where it is frequent in the lower mixed forests. The wood is 
little used. 

2. HOMALIUM, Jacq. 

Honialium toinentosum, Benth. Vern. Myaukchaw, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with thin very smooth whitish bark, found in 
deciduous forests throughout Burma except in the drier parts of the dry zone. 
Also in Chittagong and the Northern Circars (Gamble). This is one of the 
most characteristic trees of the mixed deciduous forests of Burma, its smooth 
clean white bole rendering it very conspicuous. It attains large dimensions ; 
Fig. 231 shows a tree 12 ft. in girth and 120 ft. in height. It is abundant in 
the upper mixed forests with teak, Xylia dolabriformis, and their associates 
(see Fig. 232), It is also common in the better drained portions of the lower 
mixed forests, but not in areas which are water-logged for part of the year. 
Generally speaking, its presence appears to be an indication of good di-ainage. 

1 Working Plan for the Darjeeling Forests, 1893. 

T2 



612 XXX. SAMYDACEAE 

It seeds freely, and natural seedlings often spring up in great abundance, 
standing moderate shade and often forming dense pure thickets : in some of 
the teak plantations of Burma natural rej)roduction springs up freely and forms 
a lower story to the teak. The factors influencing natural reproduction have 
not been studied in detail. Seedlings raised at Dehra Dun succumbed to frost, 
which, however, is not met with in their natural habitat. The tree coppices 
well ; an average of 3 shoots j)er stool was recorded in coppice measurements 
in the Rangoon plains forests. The wood is tough and elastic, but is apt to 
develop small cracks in seasoning. It is an excellent fuel. The rings are 
distinct on a smooth cross-section. A specimen from Burma showed 9 rings 
per inch of radius, giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-7 in. 

ORDER XXXI. DATISCACEAE 

TETRAMELES, R. Br. 

Tetrameles nudiflora, R. Br. Vern. Jermala, bondale, Kan. ; Ugad, Mar. ; 
Ghini, Tam., Mai. ; Thitpok, Burm. ; Baing, U. Burm. 

A lofty deciduous tree with a long clean bole and immense plank buttresses 
at the base. Bark greyish white, fairly smooth. This tree is a conspicuous 
one in moist tropical and evergreen forests in the eastern sub-Himalayan tract 
and outer hills. Western Ghats and Nilgiris, and in Burma, towering above 
the evergreen vegetation. Gamble records a tree measured by him in the 
Buxa forests, Bengal, 154 ft. high and 15 ft. in girth. It sheds its leaves about 
January, and the new leaves do not appear until late in the hot season or early 
in the rains. The yellowish green flowers, which appear in February-March 
when the tree is leafless, are much sought after by bees, which often build 
their hives in this tree : the capsules ripen in April-May, and the small seeds 
are carried to a distance by the wind. The rate of growth is rapid, but no 
detailed records are available. The wood is whitish, soft, rather coarse, and 
not durable ; in southern India it is used for dug-out canoes, after treatment 
with fish oil to increase its durability : it is also used for rough packing-cases 

ORDER XXXII. CACTACEAE 

OPUNTIA, Mifl. Prickly pear. 

The name ' prickly pear ' has been given to certain species of Opuntia 
introduced from South America. The commonest species naturalized in India 
is 0. Dillenii^ Haw., with flat succulent jointed branches, long sharp spines, 
and tufts of bristles ; the flowers are bright yellow tinged with red. A red- 
flowered species common in the neighbourhood of Madras is said to be 0. 
spinosissima, Mill. 

Prickly pear was introduced into India, it is believed, less than a century 
ago, but it has spread with such rapidity in the drier parts of the country, 
particularly in the Deccan and southern India, that it is now one of the most 
noxious weeds with which the forest officer has to contend. Provided it is 
kept in check it is an extremely good hedge plant, pieces of the stem and 
branches stuck in the ground quickly taking root, spreading and forming an 




Fig. 231. Homalium tomentosum, girth 12 ft., height 12(1 ft., Minhhx reserve, 
Tharrawaddy, Burma ; the bamboo is Bambusa polymorpha. 




Fig. 232. Homalium tomentosurn (two wliitc smooth-barked trees, the riglit- 
hand one forked) in uppcc mixed loicsl. I'ronie, Burma. 



OPUNTIA 613 

impenetrable and formidable hedge. The fruits are eaten by man, animals, 
and birds, and the seeds are spread by their agency. The plant thrives on 
dry barren ground and is amply protected by its spines, and thus it spreads 
unchecked over waste and forest lands even where there is heavy grazing. 
To some extent it serves a useful purpose in grazed areas, in affording protec- 
tion to seedUngs of forest trees, which are able to establish themselves amid 
the clumps of prickly pear. But any good effect the plant may have in this 
respect is far outweighed by the harm it does in monopolizing large areas to 
the exclusion of forest growth and fodder grass. 

Various efforts have been made to eradicate prickly pear over given areas, 
particularly in Madras, but the process has proved a costly one. Mere cutting 
or uprooting is of Uttle avail, since the cut pieces, if left on the ground, merely 
take root and produce new masses of prickly pear. Burying the cut pieces 
in deep pits has been tried, but even with a covering of earth 1 ft. thick new 
plants made their way up and the surface of each pit became a dense mass 
of prickly pear. Stacking the cut pieces on a layer of brushwood and burning 
them proved more successful, the stacks being left to dry for a few months 
and then burnt : a few young plants subsequently came up, but they were 
dug up without difficulty. Mr. A. Lodge has tried poisoning the prickly pear 
by cutting it into pieces and watering them with a weak solution of arseniate 
of soda ; the results were quite successful, the pieces turning black and 
shrivelling up, but the operation was expensive, and the use of a deadly poison 
necessitated careful supervision. 

It is doubtful if the eradication of prickly pear over extensive areas will 
be feasible unless some means can be discovered of recouping the cost by 
providing for its remunerative utihzation. When deprived of its spines it is 
utilizable as fodder for cattle, though the latter appear to take to it only by 
degrees. An interesting experiment in burning off the spines and feeding 
cattle with chopped-up pieces of prickly pear, to which 6 per cent, by weight 
of cotton seed was added, is described by Messrs. E. W. Horn and S. G. Mut- 
kekar in the Agricultural Journal of India, vol. ix, pt. ii (April 1914), p. 190. 
The experiment in question proved decidedly successful, the animals gaining 
appreciably in weight and condition. A method of burning off the spines 
with vaporized petrol is described in the Indian Forester, vol. xlii (1916), 
p. 379 (quoting from the Pioneer). Other possible uses for the prickly pear 
which have been suggested are the manufacture of alcohol or of paper pulp. 

ORDER XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

A large and important order, furnishing not only useful timber trees but 
also trees and shrubs yielding drugs, dyes, and edible products, e. g. Cinchona, 
Coffea, Morinda, and Rubia. Most of the important timber trees {Antho- 
cephalus, Adina, Nauclea, and Stephegyne) are characterized by very small 
light seeds which for successful germination require bare ground devoid of 
weed-growth, while the minute seedlings are liable to perish in quantity through 
being washed away by rain ; their reproduction is therefore dependent on 
somewhat special conditions. 

Genera 1. Anthocephalus, A. Rich.; 2. Adina, Salisb.; 3. Stephegyne, 



614 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

Korth. ; 4. Nauclea, Linn.; 5. Hymenodictyojs, Wall.; 6. VVendlandia, 
Bartl. : 7. Gardenia, Linn. ; 8. Randia, Linn. 

1. ANTHOCEPHALUS, A. Rich. 

AiitJioceplialus Cadamba, Miq. Syn. ^4. indicus, A. Rich. ; Nauclea 
Cadamba, Roxb. ; Sarcocephalus Cadamba, Kurz. Vern. Kadam, Hind. ; 
RogJiu, Ass. ; Kadwal, Kan. ; Kadambe, Tel. ; VeUei kadambu, Tarn. ; 3Iau, 
Burm. 

A large deciduous (or sometimes evergreen ?) tree with spreading branches 
and rather large shining leaves with prominent veins ; the leaves are much 
larger in young saplings and coppice-shoots than in older trees. Bark grey, 
smooth in young trees, becoming darker and longitudinally fissured in older 
trees, exfoliating in small rectangular plates, yellowish brown inside. Wood 
yellowish white, soft, an excellent tea-box wood, and also used for planking, 
dug-out canoes, &c. ; has been highly recommended for match manufacture. 
This tree deserves more attention as a useful fast-growing soft-wooded species. 

Distribution and habitat. The sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal east- 
wards, Bengal, Assam, Chota Nagpur (valleys in Singhbhum, Haines), Burma, 
Northern Circars, and the west coast from North Kanara southwards to Tra- 
vancore, but Talbot does not consider it indigenous in the Bombay Presidency ; 
also in Ceylon. It is cultivated in many parts of India. It is a tree of moist 
warm regions, frequenting moist types of deciduous and evergreen forests, and 
often occurring on alluvial ground along rivers and also on swampy ground. 
It prefers deep well-drained moist alluvium ; on stiff badly-drained ground 
the growth is j)oor. In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade 
temperature varies from 96 to 110 F., the absolute minimum from 38 to 
(50 F.; and the normal rainfall from 60 to 200 in. or more. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves fall m the hot 
season, the tree becoming leafless or nearly so. The small orange-coloured 
flowers, in globose heads 1-5 to 2 in. in diameter, appear chiefly from May to 
July. The fruits ripen and faU in January-February (Bengal Duars) : the 
pseudocarp is a globose orange fleshy mass of closely packed capsules each 
containing a number of mirmte seeds (Fig. 233, a), the whole 1 5-2-5 in. in 
diameter. The fruits are eaten by man and also by cattle, fruit-bats, and 
other animals, and by birds, the seeds being distributed by their agency. The 
tree flowers and fruits at an early age (five years in the case of a tree at Dehra 
Dun). 

Germination (Fig. 233, b-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges and the 
hypocotyl elongates, carrying above ground the cotyledons enclosed in the 
testa, which usually remains adhering to one cotyledon for some time before 
falling to the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 233). 

Roots : primary root at first thin, later becoming long and thick, terete, 
tapering : lateral roots numerous, long, distributed down main root but chiefly 
in its upper part. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0- 1-0-3 in. long, terete or 
slightly compressed, glabrous in young stages. Cotyledons sessile, under 
0-05 in. long, ovate, acute, entii'e. Stem erect, slightly compressed, sometimes 
gi'ooved, finely tomcntose ; internodes 0-3-1 -2 in. long. Leaves simple, opposite, 



a 



r 



b 

f 



c 

\ 




Fig. 233. Anthoccphalus Cadamha Seedling 
1 Seed X \ b - e Germination stages x \ f- j Development of seedling to end of first season (f x J, g j x^) 



ANTHOCEPHALUS 615 

first one or two pairs often abnormally small, 0-1-0 -4 in, long. Stipules 0-1- 
0-4 in. long, triangular, acuminate, fimbriate, pubescent, enclosing the terminal 
bud. Petiole 0-3-0-8 in. long, flattened above, pubescent. Lamina 1-4-5 in, 
by 0-4-2-5 in., elliptical ovate or obovate, apex acute or acuminate, base 
tapering, entire, glabrous or glabrescent above, pubescent beneath ; venation 
arcuate, lateral veins 5-8 pairs, veins of younger leaves often pink. 

The young seedlings for the first few weeks after germination are minute, 
and growth during the first season is comparatively slow, a height of 2-6 in. 
being ordinarily attained by the end of the season. From the second season 
onwards, however, the growth is very rapid. Seedlings raised at Dehra Dun 
reached a height of 6-8 ft. by the end of the second season, and under climatic 
conditions more suited to this species the growth is faster. 

In their younger stages the seedlings are very sensitive to drought and 
are also liable to damp off with an excess of moisture in the soil. They are 
very sensitive to frost, which, however, is unknown in the natural habitat of 
the tree. Seedlings are much subject to damage by insects, especially during 
the first few weeks, 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS, Although young plants will stand a httle 
shade, and require protection from the heat of the sun in their earlier stages, 
the tree may be regarded as a light-demander ; saphngs grown under shade 
become spindly in their efforts to reach the light. The tree coppices vigorously. 
It is sensitive to frost, which, however, does not occur in its natural habitat. 
Young saplings are very subject to damage from browsing by cattle and deer, 
and in grazed areas are prevented from making headway. 

Natural reproduction. As already noted, the fruits are readily eaten 
by cattle and other animals and by birds, and the seeds are spread by their 
agency. Fruits which fall to the ground and remain uneaten soon disintegrate 
or are partly consumed by white ants, and wdth the early showers preceding 
the monsoon the seeds are washed into heaps along with silt, germinating 
often in dense masses at the commencement of the rainy season : large numbers 
of the small seedlings are washed away and destroyed, and it is only where 
they obtain a secure lodgement until the end of the first rainy season that 
they have a chance of surviving. Cattle are rather important agents in 
securing natural reproduction. Seedlings often come up in considerable 
quantities in grazed areas or in places where cattle are herded together : the 
young plants are browsed down regularly, but if cattle are kept out for a time 
the saplings shoot up and estabUsh themselves. In the Bengal Duars excellent 
natural reproduction may be found coming up in areas previously grazed, but 
recently closed to grazing (see Fig, 234). In the same locality saphngs may 
often be found springing up in grazed areas under the protection of thickets 
of Zizyphus Jujuba, Acacia Catechu, and other thorny species. Reproduction 
also has a tendency to spring up on newly exposed ground, for example on 
the sides of new road embankments. Natural seedlings sometimes appear in 
great abundance ; thus Mr, S. E, Peal, quoted by Gamble, says he once 
estimated that he weeded out 450,000 seedhngs on 25 acres of clearance. 

Artificial reproduction. The artificial raising of this species from seed 
is not difficult, but requires great care owing to the small size of the seeds 
and the seedhngs and their hability to be washed away, and to the sensitiveness 
of the seedlings to drought on the one hand and excessive moisture on the 



616 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

other. Direct sowings cannot be relied on. Young plants can be raised 
successfully by broadcasting on well-pulverized fine earth either in well-raised 
nursery-beds or in boxes ; it is necessary that the beds or boxes should be 
sheltered from the sun and rain, watering being carried out with a very fine 
spray frequently but sparingly. Sowing may be done from March to May, 
and the plants should be pricked out in beds during the first season, when 
about 2 in. high. The larger plants may be transplanted during the first 
rainy season, but the remainder should be kept for a year in the beds and 
transplanted early in the following rainy season. 

Rate of growth. During its earlier years the growth is very rapid. 
Trees planted in 1911 in an avenue at Rajabhatkhawa in the Buxa Duars 
reached a girth of over 2 ft. and a height of 30 ft. in four years. Mr. S. E. Peal ^ 
says that the growth is remarkably rapid for the first six or eight years, 
averaging 10 ft. in height per annum ; the growth becomes slower up to 
twenty years and then becomes very slow. He records measurements of trees 
sixteen years old which had reached a girth of 5 ft. 5 in. at 6 ft. and 3 ft. 8 in. 
at 30 ft. from ground-level ; for tea-box planking he considers it most profitable 
to fell at twelve years of age. Sir George Hart notes a case of rapid growth on 
a low-lying alluvial flat along the Saing river in Toungoo, Burma. Here an 
attempt was made to establish a teak plantation in 1895. The teak failed, 
but Anthocephalus Cadamba came in naturally. In January 1918, when they 
could not have been more than twenty-two years old, some of the trees were 
measured and found to have girths of 7 ft. 6 in., 6 ft. 5 in., 5 ft. 7 in. (twice), 
and 5 ft. 6| in. ; the height was estimated to be not less than 100 ft., and was 
probably more nearly 120 ft. 

2. ADINA, Sahsb. 

Adiua cordifolia, Hook. f. Syn. Nauclea cordifolia, Willd. Vern. Haldu, 
Hind. ; Heddi, Mar. ; Yettagal, Kan. ; Manja kadamhu, Tam. and Mai. ; 
Hnaw, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with a large crown and cordate leaves. Under 
forest conditions the tree produces a long straight clean bole, bvit it is often 
buttressed and fluted at the base, the buttresses sometimes being of irregular 
and fantastic shapes. In more isolated positions it jjroduces a thick bole and 
massive branches with a large spreading crown (see Fig, 236). Bark grey, 
exfoliating in patches which leave indentations, pinkish inside. Wood yellow, 
moderately hard, even grained, used for building, furniture, turnery, bobbins, 
boxes, &c. The tree attains large dimensions. Mr. A. Rodger records one 
17 ft. in girth in the Paungadaw reserve. Ruby Mines district, Upper Burma. 
Mr. H. R. Blanford in 1917 took measurements of a i^ic?/-s-bound tree feUed 
in the Katha district, Upper Burma. The tree was hollow, and the breast- 
height girth over the Ficus was 24 ft. 5 in. Other dimensions recorded were : 
(1) total height 138 ft. ; (2) length of bole 61 ft. ; (3) height to first branch 48 ft. ; 
(4) girth at height of 32 ft. from ground 14 ft. 2 in., and at height of 56 ft. 
from ground 13 ft. 2 in. 

Distribution and habitat. Adina cordifolia is found scattered in 
deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India and Burma ; also in 

* Ind. Forester, x (1884), p. 24,') (quoting from Ind. Tea Gazette.). 




Fig. 234. Anthocejjhalus Cadamba, natural reproduction on an area formerly- 
grazed but free from grazing in recent years, Buxa division, Bengal. 




em-^i 



as 
IS 
o 



> 
o 



TJ 

o 



D 






o 



o 

CO 

6 




o 

a; 

S o 
O ^ 
bO 

^ o 















ADINA 617 

the dry regions of Ceylon. In the sub -Himalayan tract large trees are found 
along the lower slopes of the outer hills from the Jumna eastwards and on 
the boulder terraces at the base of these hills, where it is sometimes almost 
gregarious. It is also a familiar tree in the sal forests of the United Provinces. 
It is fairly common in mixed deciduous and sal forests in Chota Nagpur, and 
is scattered throughout the greater part of the Central Provinces and the 
Indian Peninsula generally. In Burma it is found both in the upper mixed 
and in the lower mixed deciduous forests. 

The tree is found most frequently, and attains its best development, on 
well-drained ground, for instance along the lower slopes of hills among boulders ; 
it also grows well on alluvial ground provided the drainage is good. Like 
Stephegyne parvifolia it is sometimes met with in the sub -Himalayan tract 
round the edges of swampy depressions where the soil is stiff and the 
drainage deficient, but in such places it is always stunted and tends to 
become stag-headed early. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 35 to 150 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves are shed about 
February and the trees remain leafless until about May- June, when the new 
fohage appears. The large whitish stipules enclosing the leaf -buds are con- 
spicuous ; they fall to the ground when the young leaves appear. The yellow 
globose flower-heads, about 0-6-1 in. in diameter, appear from June to August. 
By October the globose fruit-heads are almost fully formed, bjit are still green 
and unripe ; they do not actually ripen and shed their seeds until from April 
to June of the following year (northern India). The fruit-head (Fig. 237, a) 
consists of a large number of small two-valved many-seeded capsules. After 
the capsule-valves and seeds have been shed the remains of the fruit-heads 
appear like small prickly balls formed of the bristle-Hke axes of the capsules ; 
these, on their peduncles 1-3 in. long, soon fall to the ground and may be found 
there in quantity during the rainy season. Sometimes the ripe fruit-head falls 
before shedding the seeds, which may even germinate within the fallen fruit- 
head (Fig. 237, 6). 

The seeds (Fig. 237, c) are very small and light, 0-06 to 0-12 in. long, brown, 
with numerous minute longitudinal wrinkles, one end tapering to a point, the 
other terminating in a pair of pointed appendages. As many as 11,000 seeds 
weigh 1 gramme, giving over 300,000 to the ounce avoirdupois. Tests carried 
out at Dehra Dun showed that the seed, if carefully stored, retains its vitality 
well for at least a year. 

Germination (Fig. 237, d-g). Epigeous. The minute radicle emerges 
from the blunt end of the seed, the hypocotyl elongates, arching shghtly, and 
the testa, enclosing the cotyledons, is carried above ground, falhng with their 
expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 237). 

Roots : primary root in first season very fine, white, delicate, with a dense 
mass of woolly hairs in the upper part which soon disappears ; in the second 
season much thickened, tough, terete, tapering, yellowish brown : lateral 
roots moderate in number and length, fibrous, distributed down main root, 



618 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

chief lateral roots thickening considerably in second season. Hypocotyl distinct 
from root, 0-1-0-15 in. long, very fine and delicate, white turning green. 
Cotyledons sub-sessile or very shortly petiolate, up to 0-1 in. long, ovate, 
acute, base truncate or sub-cordate, entire, foliaceous, delicate, green, glabrous. 
Stem erect, terete or compressed, delicate at first, becoming woody later, 
tomentose ; internodes at first 0- 1-0-2 in. long, in second season up to 1 in. 
long. Leaves simple, opposite decussate. Leaves of the first season usually 
only two pairs : petiole up to 0-05 in. long, lamina 0-1-0-5 in. by 0-08-0-4 in., 
ovate, acute or obtuse, base obtuse, entire, usually reddish, glabrous, or 
minutely pubescent beneath. Leaves of second season : stipules 0-2-0-5 in. 
long, ovate, obovate or elliptical, pale green, terminal pair enclosing terminal 
bud : petiole up to 0-5 in. long, flattened above, tomentose : lamina up to 
3-5 by 2 in., elliptical ovate, acute, base acute or obtuse, more rarely cordate, 
entire, glabrous above, paler and minutely pubescent beneath, lateral veins 
6-9 pairs. 

For some little time after germination the seedlings are extremely mirmte 
and delicate, and are very liable to be washed away or beaten down b}'^ the 
rain. During the first season their development is slow, many attaining 
a height of only 1 in. or less, with two or three pairs of leaves, though under 
favourable conditions the more vigorous individuals may attain a height of 
4-6 in. or even more, with seven or eight pairs of leaves. During the second 
season the growth is more rapid, a height of 1-2 ft. or even more being attained 
under favourable conditions, though on stiff soil or weed-covered ground the 
growth is poor ; good drainage and a free porous soil are essential conditions 
for successful development. The taproot remains thin, but attains a fair length, 
during the first season ; during the second season, however, it thickens con- 
siderably, attaining in some cases a diameter of as much as |- in. The seedlings 
are very sensitive to frost and drought. The leaves turn reddish-brown in 
the cold season and fall about November to February, the new leaves appearing 
about March or later (northern India). Fig. 235 shows a vigorous seedling 
in the third season. 

In the forest the seedhngs require some practice to recognize, even when 

two or three years old. Superficially they are not unlike those of Clerodendron 

infortunatum., a plant often occurring in the sal forests where Adina is found. 

The Adina seedlings, however, can always be distinguished by the terminal 

stipules enclosing the bud, which are often reddish ; also their leaves are entire 

and glabrous, while those of Clerodendron seedhngs are serrate and pubescent. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Although secdUngs spring up under 

moderate shade, and require protection from drought, from the sapling stage 

onwards the tree is a strong light-demander. Saplings are sensitive to the 

rubbing of their leading shoots by overhead trees, and their leaders tend to 

die where this takes place. The soil requirements of the tree have already 

been alluded to : good drainage is essential for the best development, trees 

on stiff soil remaining stunted. Although the seedlings are sensitive to drought 

the tree is moderately hardy ; it was only shghtly affected in the abnormal 

droughts of 1899 and 1900 in the Indian Peninsula and 1907 and 1908 in Oudh. 

After the seedling stage it is moderately frost-hardy, having suffered only to 

a slight extent in the severe frost of 1905 in northern India. Young plants 

and coppice-shoots suffer more than those of almost any other species from 

browsing by cattle, goats, deer, and nilgai ; they have good power of recovery, 




Fig. 237. Adina covdifolia Seedling 



c Seed X 2 d - g Clermination 



a Fruit-head x g b Fruit-head with germinating seedlings x | 

stages X 2 h, i Development of seedling to end of first season j j-1 Development of seedling 

to end of second season x | (Seedling raised artificially, and more vigorous than a natural seedling) 



ADINA 619 

but remain in a bushy condition with repeated browsing. In some localities 
bison and sambhar do much damage by barking sapUngs. The tree coppices 
readily up to a moderate size, producing numbers of shoots, chiefly from the 
base of the stool. 

Natural reproduction. The minute seeds, shed during the hot season, 
are often carried to a distance by the wind ; in some cases the fruit-heads 
fall before all the seed is shed, and the seed may germinate within the fruit- 
heads. Germination takes place early in the rainy season. The seeds are 
produced in vast numbers, but the proportion of seedlings which survive and 
establish themselves is relatively very small. The chief reasons for this are : 
first, that the minute seeds and young seedlings are very liable to be washed 
away and so perish ; and second, that the seedlings in their early stage are 
very delicate. It is often recorded that the natural reproduction of this 
species is almost entirely absent ; this is, however, far from being the case, 
and such statements are probably as a rule the result of failure to recognize 
the seedlings. 

For successful germination under natural conditions bare ground appears 
to be essential, whereas for the successful estabhshment of the young seedling 
it is necessary that the seeds, or perhaps even the young seedlings, should be 
washed up out of the reach of floods during the first rainy season, and find 
a lodgement in a well-drained situation where the seedhngs are not liable to 
be inundated or washed away. Seedlings have actually been observed in 
greater or less abundance in the following situations : (1) on small landslips 
on hill slopes ; young plants of all ages are often found on such ground at 
the base of the outer Himalaya ; (2) in loose earth and debris at the base 
of the hills ; where this material is washed out over natural well-drained 
terraces seedlings are often plentiful, and this no doubt explains the origin 
of the many large old trees found on the boulder terraces at the foot of the 
Himalaya ; (3) on well-drained alluvial ground near rivers, and on flat ground 
generally, always provided the ground is bare and not covered with weeds 
when the seed germinates ; on such ground seedlings may often be found in 
plenty on small natural humps or mounds, or round the bases of trees or 
termite heaps, where the seeds or young seedlings have been stranded during 
the rains ; as many as eight small seedlings were counted in the slightly raised 
earth round the base of one sal tree on flat ground in the Gorakhpur forests, 
United Provinces ; (4) on abandoned cultivation, for instance in taungya 
clearings in Burma, where natural reproduction often springs up m quantity ; 
(5) on the sides of walls, embankments, and ditches ; on the side of the 
boundary trench romid the Birpur forest rest-house, Gonda, United Provinces, 
were observed numerous saplings sprung from seed washed on to the sides 
of the trench, probably on new ground when the trench was made ; (6) round 
the edges of natural tanks and depressions where water lodges during the 
rains, the seeds being washed up out of the reach of floods and stranded ; 
(7) on the sites of old charcoal kilns ; seedhngs often appear on these owing 
to the good drainage afforded ; (8) occasionally in the form of epiphytes in 
forks of or hollows in trees ; (9) in clefts in rocks ; a seedhng U ft. high and 
probably a few years old was found growing tightly wedged in a crack in 
a large sandstone boulder where there was no soil. 



620 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

As regards light requirements, the young seedlings probably benefit from 
shade, j)rovided this does not take the form of low weed-growth, since they 
are undoubtedly sensitive to drought. That they establish themselves well 
under moderate shade is certain from the fact that they may be found coming 
up in sal forest : numerous seedlings were observed thriving on bare alluvial 
ground under a well-thinned sissoo plantation in the Gorakhpur district, 
United Provinces, while in the same district seedlings, probably two or three 
years old, were found in plenty on bare ground under a light cover of Flemingia 
Chappar. That the admission of light greatly stimulates the establishment 
of natural reproduction is clear from the fact that in various parts of the sal 
forests of Oudh, where the canopy has been heavily opened out owing to the 
death of large numbers of trees during the abnormal drought of 1907 and 
1908, Adina saplings have appeared in quantity because of the admission of 
light ; no doubt many of these plants were present before the canopy was 
opened, but their growth since then has been greatly stimulated. A dense 
sal crop in the Gonda district was experimentally opened out in January 1911 
in the form of a regeneration felling for the sal ; the plot was inspected two 
years later, and found to contain numerous young Adina seedlings which had 
made their appearance owing to the admission of light. 

Protection from grazing is essential for the successful establishment of 
natural production, owing to the readiness with which animals browse down 
the young plants. 

Artificial reproduction. As far as is known success has never been 
attained by means of direct sowings. Experiments at Dehra Dun, by which 
seed was sown broadcast on hoed ground, as well as on ridges and in trenches, 
failed entirely, any seed which did germinate being washed away before the 
seedhngs could gain a footing. In the United Provinces broadcast sowings 
on hoed ground have been tried from time to time, but failure has always 
been recorded. 

Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that seedhngs can be grown 
successfully in well-raised beds of fine sifted soil with a considerable proportion 
of sand, or better still on powdered charcoal, but it is essential that the beds 
should be covered with screens raised about a foot above them, in order to 
keep off rain and sun, and that watering should be done with a very fine spray. 
Seed-boxes, however, have proved more successful than seed-beds, and con- 
sidering the large number of seedlings obtainable from one box there is little 
question that raising in boxes is to be recommended in preference to any other 
method. The following procedure has given good results : 

The seed-box is filled to within about 1 in. from the top with finely sifted 
earth with a large proportion of sand, the surface is made smooth and watered, 
and the seeds are sown about April or May on the wet surface and very Hghtly 
covered with fine earth or sand. The box should be kept under cover, and 
watering with a very fine spray should be done frequently but sparingly. 
Germination ordinarily takes place in about three to six weeks. As soon as 
the seedlings are large enough to handle, that is, in about two to three months, 
tliey should be pricked out about 2 in. apart in boxes ; the more vigorous 
ones may even be pricked out about 4 in. apart in nursery-beds. The seedlings 
will be ready to plant out in the forest early the following rains. Transplanting 





iff ' "^v ' '"''^A * 



r^\^ 







-^ f- tJ.rJiL'^-.i.lWi'-SiTiti|-lt.- 



Fig. 238. Stephegyne parvifolia, height 78 ft., girth 27 ll . in., Siwalik hills, United Provinces. 



OJl 



ADINA 621 

is not unattended with risk owing to the UabiHty of the seedhngs to die of 
drought ; care is therefore necessary to keep a ball of earth round the roots. 
Risk is further avoided by pricking out the plants into baskets or bamboo 
tubes instead of into boxes or nursery-beds, so that there is no interference 
with the roots during transplanting. After transplanting it is advisable to 
keep the soil round the plants well loosened and free from weeds in order to 
stimulate vigorous growth and to prevent caking of the ground. 

Rate of growth. The following results of girth measurements in high 
forest sample plots are available : 

Adina cordifolia : girth increment in high forest sample plots. 



Province. 


Forest 
division. 


Locality. 


Number of 

years under 

measurement. 


Number of 
trees under 
measurement. 


Girth 
classes. 

ft. 

3-4 
l|-3 
1^3 

li-3 

1-2 
2-3 
4-5 


Mean annual 

girth increment 

for period. 


United 
Provinces 

Central 
Provinces 


Saharanpur 

Lansdowne 

Gonda 
S. Kheri 
Balaghat 


Dholkhand 

Giwain 

Chandanpur 
Bhira 

Raigarh and 
Baihar 


7 

U 

2 
11 

8 


1 

1 
3 
4 

1 

{1 


in. 
1-0 
0-97 
0-27 
0-51 
0-72 
0-53 
0-19 , 



Coppice measurements by Mr. C. M. McCrie in 1910 in the Gorakhpur 
district, United Provinces, showed an average height and girth of 18-7 ft. and 
6-9 in. respectively in seven years, as compared with an average height and 
girth of 10-2 ft. and 3-87 in. respectively for sal in the same coupe. 

Measurements of coppice-shoots on somewhat poor stony ground in the 
Saitba block, Kolhan forest division, Chota Nagpur, gave the following results : 

Adina cordifolia : coppice measurements, Saitba block, Kolhan. 



Age. 


Mean girth. 


Mean height. 


Age. 


Mean girth. 


Mean height 


years. 


in. 


ft. 


years. 


in. 


ft. 


2 




30 


10 


5-5 


13-5 


4 


30 


6-5 


12 


61 


15-0 


6 


4-0 


9-0 


14 


6-6 


16-5 


8 


4-8 


11-5 









3. STEPHEGYNE, Korth. 

Species 1. S. parvifolia, Korth. ; 2. S. diversifolia, Hook. f. 

1. Stephegyne parvifolia, Korth. Syn. Nauclea parvifolia, Willd. ; Mitra- 
gyna parvifolia, Korth. Y ei'n. Kaem, phaldu, Hind. ; Kalamb, Mar. ; Kadawar, 
yetega, Kan. ; Chinna kadamhu, Tam. ; Rattaganapa, Tel. ; Tein, teinthe, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with a full rounded crown and a bole often short, 
fluted, and buttressed. Bark up to 0-8 in. thick, grey, smooth, exfohating in 
scales which leave shallow depressions. Wood light pinkish brown, even 
grained, used for building, furniture, agricultural implements, bobbins, combs, 
cups, spoons, and other carved and turned articles ; it is less in demand than 
that of Adina cordifolia. Under favourable conditions the tree reaches large 
dimensions : Fig. 238 shows a tree on alluvial ground in the Siwalik hills 
27 ft. 6 in. in girth and 78 ft. high. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of India and 
Burma, ascending to 4,000 ft. in the outer Himalaya ; also in Ceylon. Not 



622 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

reported from north and east Bengal or Assam. Within its habitat the tree 
is scattered in deciduous forests, not as a rule in any great abundance. Like 
Adina cordifolia, with which it is often associated, it reaches its best develop- 
ment on well-drained ground with deep soil. It is, however, more tolerant 
of stiff badly- drained ground than Adina, and often grows more or less 
gregariously on low-ljdng ground with clayey soil, for example on badly- 
drained savannah lands in Burma, and in many localities round the edges of 
tanks and swamps ; in the tarai and plains of the sub -Himalayan tract it 
occurs frequently in low-lying somewhat swampy ground along with Eugenia 
Jambolana. In such places, however, its development suffers, and as a rule 
it remains stunted. In the Indian Peninsula it is often found on black cotton 
soil, and on alluvial ground near rivers. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 100 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 35 to 130 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves are shed about 
February-March, and the tree is leafless in April-May, the new leaves appearing 
about May (northern India). The fragrant globose white or pale yellow flower- 
heads, 0-7-1 in. in diameter, appear from May to July, and the fruit-heads 
become fuU formed, but are stiU green and unripe, by October ; in northern 
India they do not ripen and shed their seeds until about April-May. Haines 
mentions that ripe seed has also been collected in November in Chota Nagpur. 
The fruit-heads (Fig. 239, a) are globose, 0-5-0-7 in. in diameter, with numerous 
small two-valved many-seeded capsules. Sometimes the ripe fruit-heads fall 
before shedding the seeds, which may even be found germinating within the 
fallen fruit-heads (Fig. 239, b). The seeds (Fig. 239, e) are minute, 0-1-0-15 in. 
long, pointed at either end, light brown, very light, as many as 10,000 weighing 
1 gramme, giving nearly 300,000 to the ounce avoirduj)ois. 

Germination (Fig. 239, d-f). Epigeous. The testa splits at one end and 
the minute radicle emerges, the hypocotyl elongates, arching slightly at first, 
and the testa, enclosing the cotyledons, is carried above ground, falling with 
their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 239). 

Roots : primary root in first season very fine, white and delicate, with 
a dense mass of woolly hairs in the upjjer part which soon disappears ; in 
second season much thickened, terete, tapering : lateral roots moderate in 
number and length, fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct 
from root, 0-1-0-15 in. long, very fine and delicate, white turning green. 
Cotyledons very shortly petiolate, up to 0-1 in. long, ovate, acute or rounded, 
base rounded, truncate or sub-cordate, entu'e, foliaceous, glabrous. Stetn 
erect, delicate at first, becoming woody later ; internodes in first season very 
short, in second season up to 1 in. long. Leaves simple, opposite decussate. 
Leaves of first season usually only two pairs, sub-sessile or very shortly petiolate, 
0- 1-0-5 in. by 0-08-0-4 in., ovate, acute or rounded, base obtuse or acute, 
entire, often reddish. 

Like those of Adina cordifolia, which they strongly resemble, the seedlings 
for some little time after germinating are extremely minute and deficate, and 
are very hable to be beaten down or washed away by rain. During the first 
season their growth is very slow, a height of barely J in. being ordinarily 






^ 




/ 



-Fruit-head x \ 



Fig. 239. Stephegyne parvifolia Seedling 

b Old fruit-head with seedlings germinating x 2 c~Seed x 5 d - f Germination stages x 5 
g -h Development of seedling to end of first season x 3 



STEPHEGYNE G23 

attained by the end of the season, and usually about two pairs of foliage leaves 
being produced. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. In eaily youth the tree stands a certain 
amount of shade, seedlings and saplings being often found under cover, but 
later it is a Hght-demander : as in the case of Adina cordifolia, saplings are 
sensitive to the rubbing of their leading shoots by overhead trees. As already 
mentioned, the tree is capable of growing on badly-drained ground, but its 
growth suffers in such places. It is fairly hardy against drought, having 
suffered only to a sKght extent in the abnormal droughts of 1907 and 1908 
in Oudh, and 1899 and 1900 in the Indian Peninsula. The tree coppices well 
up to a moderate size. In some locaHties bison are apt to damage poles of 
this species by stripping the bark off them. 

Natural reproduction. So far as the natural reproduction of this tree 
has been studied, the conditions influencing it appear to be very similar to 
if not identical with those affecting the reproduction of Adina cordifolia. As 
in the case of the latter species, the minute seeds are scattered in the hot 
season, some remaining in the fruit -heads and germinating in them after they 
fall to the ground, and reproduction springs up in places similar to those in 
which Adina cordifolia reproduction appears, seedUngs of the two species being 
often found together. The survival of reproduction on badly-drained ground 
is, however, more marked than in the case of Adina. Natural reproduction 
sometimes comes up fairly freely on abandoned cultivation. 

Artificial reproduction. According to experiments carried out at 
Dehra Dun, the most satisfactory method of raising this tree artificially is in 
boxes, the procedure followed being exactlj'- the same as that described for 
Adina cordifolia (p. 620). 

Rate of growth. The following results are available of high forest 
sample plot measurements in the Singhbhum forest division, Chota Nagpur : 

Stephegyne parvifolia : girth increments in high forest sample plots, 

Singhbhum. 





Number of 


Number of 




Mean annual 




years under 


trees under 


Girth 


girth increment 


Locality. 


measurement. 


measurement. 


classes. 


for period. 








ft. 


in. 


Tirilposi block 


18 


{I 


5-6 

6-7 


0-58 
0-54 


Samta-Hendakuli 


old road 10 


{I 


6-7 
7-8 


0-37 
0-2.5 



A cross-section 3 ft. 10 in. in girth in the silvicultural museum at Dehra 
Dun showed 61 rings, representing a mean annual girth increment of 0-75 in. 
Gamble's specimens showed 5 to 15, averaging 9, rings per inch of radius, 
representing mean annual girth increments of 0-42 to 1-26, averaging 0-7 in., 
which is moderate. 

Coppice measurements made in 1910 by Mr. C. M. McCrie in the Gorakhpur 
district, United Provinces, gave the following results for Stephegyyie as com- 
pared with sal : 



624 



XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 



Stephegyne parvifoUa : coppice measurements, Gorakhpur. 





Mean 


girth. 




Mean height. 




Age. 


Stephegyne. 




Sal. 


Slephegyne. 


Sal. 


years. 


in. 




in. 


ft. 


ft. 


2 








4-5 


30 


4 


2-2 




2-0 


9-0 


7-0 


6 


3-3 




2-9 


120 


10-3 


8 


4-2 




3-8 


140 


130 


10 


50 




4-8 


16-0 


15-3 


12 


5-8 




5-8 


18-0 


17-5 



2. Stephegyne diversifolia, Hook. f. Syn. Nauclea rotundifoUa , Roxb. 
Vern. Binga, Burm. ; Hnawthein, U. Burm. 

A moderate-sized to large deciduous tree with large nearly orbicular 
leaves, found in Burma, the Andamans, and Chittagong ; also in Java and 
the Philippines. The tree is a very common one in the mixed deciduous 
forests of Burma, both of the upper and of the lower type. In the lower 
mixed forests on flat alluvial Igind it is often found in great abundance. Thus 
in the Thindawyo reserve in the Tharrawaddy district enumerations showed 
it to be the commonest species in the forest, an average of 118 trees 3 ft. in 
girth and over being counted per 100 acres. ^ The seeds are minute, like 
those of 8. parvifoUa and Adina cordifolia, and a further study of the tree 
wiU no doubt reveal points of similarity to those two species in matters relating 
to reproduction. Natural reproduction is often abundant on alluvial ground 
along rivers and streams. The Burma Forest Report for 1914-15 mentions 
that natural seedlings appeared freely in the Yetkanzin reserve, Toungoo, 
in an area where bamboos had flowered and which had been fire -protected 
for many years and burnt when the bamboos flowered ; the reproduction 
was the result of the burning, which would indicate that clear ground, as 
in the case of S. parvifoUa and Adina cordifoUa, is a favourable factor. It 
often comes up in abundance on abandoned cultivation. Mr. A. Rodger - 
in 1916 enumerated a dense pole crop on an old taungya cultivated about 
seventeen years previously in the Prome district of Burma. The enumeration 
showed 1,150 stems per acre, of which 72 per cent, consisted of Stephegyne 
diver sifoUa. 



4. NAUCLEA, Linn. 

Nauclea sessilifolia, Roxb. Syn. Adina sessiUfoUa, Hook. f. Vern. Tein- 
kala, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree of Cachar, Chittagong, and Burma, occurring in 
mixed deciduous forests. In Burma it is particularly common in some of the 
lower mixed forests on flat alluvial gromid. Enumerations in the Thindawyo 
reserve of the Tharrawaddy district showed that after Stephegyne diversifoUa 
it was more plentiful than axij other species enumerated, showing an average 
of 98 trees 3 ft. in girth and over per 100 acres.^ On flat alluvial ground by 
rivers and streams natural reproduction often springs up in great quantity, 

^ Working Plan for the Satpok, Sitkwin, and Thindawyo Reserves, ThaiTawaddy, Burma, 



1906. 



- Ind. Forester, xlii (191G), p. 499. 



NAUCLEA 625 

forming dense pure patches. The seeds are minute like those of Adina cordi- 
folia and Stephegyne diversifolia, and a further study of this tree will probably 
reveal points of resemblance to those species, particularly as regards reproduc- 
tion. The wood is used for planking and building. 

5. HYMENODICTYON, Wall. 

Hymenodictyou excelsum, Wall. Syn. H. thyrsiflorum, Wall. ; H. utile, 
Wight ; Cinchona excelsa, Roxb. Vern. Kukurkat, bhaulan, bauranga, Hind. ; 
Bhorsal, Mar. ; Pottaka, Tel. ; Kusan, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree, usually with a straight cylindrical bole and a 
rounded crown. Bark greyish brown, thick, soft, corky and furrowed on 
stems of older trees, smooth on poles and branches. Wood white when fresh, 
turning darker, soft, light, used for planking, boxes, scabbards, toys, &c. ; 
has been reported as excellent for match manufacture. In northern India, 
however, the trees have often been noticed to be riddled with large burrows, 
probably those of a longicorn beetle, and the quality of the wood suffers in 
consequence. 

Distribution and habitat. Scattered throughout the greater part of 
India and Burma in dry mixed deciduous forests. The tree is particularly 
common on loose dry deposits of boulders and debris along the base of the 
outer hills in the sub-Himalayan tract. It is one of the characteristic trees 
of the bhabat' tract of the United Provinces, a deep boulder formation on 
gently sloping ground where the subsoil water-level is at a great depth ; here 
among its commoner companions are Holoptelea integrifolia, Lagerstroeniia 
parvifolia, Acacia Catechu, Bombax rnalabaricum, Terminalia belerica, Adiiia 
cordifolia, Anogeissus latifolia, Cassia Fistula, and Odina Wodier. It is also 
frequently met with on sandy or stony soils on alluvial ground near rivers, 
and in savannah lands. It is not infrequent in the sal forests of northern 
India. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 98 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 60 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 35 to 90 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The large broadly elliptical 
long-stalked leaves turn a rich yellow and fall in November-December at 
a time when few other trees are shedding their leaves. The new leaves do 
not appear until about May, and throughout the intervening months the 
leafless trees are conspicuous with their candelabra-like fruit-panicles sub- 
tended by pairs of dry leafy reddish brown bracts. The small white fragrant 
flowers, in large terminal panicles, appear from June to August. The capsules 
are conspicuous from November-December onwards, but do not open and shed 
their seeds until April-May : they are two-valved, elHpsoidal, 0-5-0-7 in. long, 
and contain many seeds. 

The seeds (Fig. 240, a) are flat, winged all round the margin, 0-3 by 0-1 in. 
including the wing ; they are very hght, about 4,800 weighing I oz., and are 
disseminated to a distance by the hot weather winds. Tests carried out at 
Dehra Dun showed that the fertility of fresh seed is high, but that the seed 
loses its vitality within a year. 

2307.2 u 



a 






y 



\ 



^ 



h 




/ 

/ 





Fia. 240. Hymenodlclyon excelsiim. Seedling x J. 

I, sood ; }>-v, (germination Ht,.ap;oH ; /, (j, devolo])tnont. of seedling during first season; li.. seedling towards en 

second season (long tliick taproot not shown). 



HYMENODICTYON 027 

Germination (Fig. 240, 6-e). Epigeous. On the emergence of the radicle 
the hypocotyl elongates, carrying above ground the cotyledons enclosed in 
the testa. On the expansion of the cotyledons the testa usually remains for 
a time on the end of one of them, ultimately dropping to the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 240). 

Roots : primary root long, thickening early and becoming very thick in 
second season, terete, tapering : lateral roots few to numerous, fibrous. Hypo- 
cotyl distinct from root, 0-3-0-5 in. long, cylindrical, green, minutely pubescent. 
Cotyledons : petiole up to 0-1 in. long, flattened above : lamina 0-35-0-5 in. 
by 0-25-0-3 in., foliaceous, ovate, emarginate, entire, glabrous, usually per- 
sisting till end of fii'st season. Stem erect, minutely pubescent, in fii-st season 
short, with internodes 0- 1-0-2 in. long; in second season thick, woody, with 
internodes 0-4-1 in. long. Leaves simple, opposite decussate : stipules (first 
season) less than 0-1 in. long, triangular, pubescent : petiole (first season) 
0-1 in. long, pubescent, midrib runnmg prominently down upper side : lamina 
(first season) 0-8-1-8 in. by 0-6-1 in., sub-rhomboidal or ovate, acute, base 
tapering, entire, pubescent, venation arcuate, lateral veins 4-6 pairs, midrib 
often red. 

The seedling develops very slowly above ground during the first season, 
and under natural conditions also during the second or third seasons, after 
which, if the plant survives, the growth is more rapid. As a rule a height 
of not more than 1 or 2 in. is attained during the first season, with not more 
than three to five pairs of leaves. The underground development, however, is 
considerable, a long stout taproot being quickly formed ; this may be as much 
as 1 ft. 6 in. long by the end of the first season. This underground develop- 
ment, which is common among seedlings of trees characteristic of dry types 
of forest, is evidently an adaptation for the establishment of the plant before 
any marked growth in the stem begins. 

The seedling is very sensitive to frost, especially during the first year or 
two while the plants are small ; in locaHties subject to frost many seedlings 
are killed outright, while some may shoot up again from the base. Weeds 
impede the development of seedlings considerably, suppressing and kiUing 
them if heavy. The seedling is decidedly light-demanding. Growth ceases 
from November to May ; the leaves turn yellow or reddish and drop in 
November-December, the plants being leafless from January to May, when 
the new leaves appear (northern India). 

The following measurements in experimental plots at Dehra Dun give 
some indication of the rate of growth of young plants : 

Hymenodictyon excelsum : development of seedlings, Dehra Dun. 
)n under which Height at end of season. 

gfown. 1st season. 2nd season. 3rd season. 4th season, 

ral conditions Maximum ft. 1 in. 
ery, weeded and 

ired ,, Oft. 1 1 in. Maximum 1 ft. .3 in. 

[cast sowing, irri- 
A, unweeded ft. 2 in. ft. 3 in.' Killed by weeds in 

3rd season 
icast sowing, un- 

ated, unweeded Oft. 1 J in. ft. 1 Mn.^ Ditto 

[least sowing, un- 
ated, weeded ft. 2 in. ft. 4 in.^ 10 in.-2 ft. 4 in. Maximum T) ft. Gin. 

* New shoots from base ; seedlings killed back by frost in previous winter, 

U2 



628 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. Except that the tree is known to be a strong 
Ught-demander its silvicultural characters have not been studied in detail. 

Natural reproduction. Germination takes place during the rainy 
season. Bare ground is favourable to germination and subsequent survival, 
young seedlings being killed off in quantity where weeds are present. The 
small seedlings are liable to be washed away by heavy rain during and after 
germination, the seed is liable to destruction by insects, while the slow develop- 
ment of the seedling and its sensitiveness to weeds, frost, and shade are all 
contributory factors towards failure of natural reproduction, which explains 
to some extent its comparative scarcity in many localities. 

Artificial reproduction. The artificial propagation of this tree is not 
easy. Direct sowings are not very suitable owing to the liability of the seed 
to be washed away and to the slow development of the seedling. Seed should 
be sown in the nursery in April and May in porous sandy loam, and lightly 
covered ; the seedlings begin to appear in about eight to ten days. The beds 
require protection from heavy rain. The seedlings should be pricked out 
when about two or three months old and protected from frost in the 
winter. The more vigorous plants will be ready to plant out during the 
following rainy season, but the smaller ones should be kept another year in 
the nursery. Care is necessary to retain earth round the roots dialing trans- 
planting, which may possibly be found more successful with the aid of long 
baskets or bamboo tubes. 

Rate of growth. There are no detailed measurements available, but 
a cross-section from the United Provinces in the silvicultural museum at Dehra 
Dun had 41 rings for a girth of 3 ft. 11 in., giving a mean annual girth increment 
of 1-15 in., which is fairly fast. 

6. WENDLANDIA, Bartl. 

Wendlandia exserta, DC. Vern. Chaulai, chila, Hind. 

A small deciduous or evergreen tree with greyish pubescent foliage, found 
locally in the sub-Himalayan tract, outer Himalaya, Chota Nagpur, and parts 
of the Indian Peninsula. It comes up gregariously on newly exposed ground, 
particularly on landslips and abandoned cultivation ; the minute seeds appear 
to require such ground for successful germination. The tree is a useful one 
for reelothing bare hill slopes and clearings. It is strongly light-demanding. 
The growth is fast : Gamble's specimens gave 4 to 5 rings per inch of radius, 
or a mean annual girth increment of 1-26 to 1-57 in. 

7. GARDENIA, Linn. 

This genus contains about eleven Indian species of small trees or shrubs, 
most of which are interesting as being common members of dry open types 
of forest on poor ground on which many species are unable to exist. The wood 
of these trees deserves to be better known as a substitute for boxwood, being 
hard, close grained, and compact. The most widely distributed species is 
G. turgida, Roxb., described below. The species best known in the Indian 
Peninsula are G. lucida, Roxb., G. gnmmifera, Linn., and G. latifolia, Alton. 
These are small trees or shrubs of xerophytic habit, growing on dry poor ground 



GARDENIA 629 

often consisting of hard clay with quartz pebbles or calcareous nodules ; they 
exude a clear fragrant yellow protective gum-resin which envelops the leaf- 
buds. The seeds of G. latifolia sometimes germinate in crevices in boulders 
and in forks or hollows of trees, and the plants grow and persist in such places : 
one plant was noticed in the Singhbhum district growing out of the side of 
a hollow Bridelia retusa tree about 10 ft. from the ground, appearing at first 
sight as if it had been grafted ; the roots penetrated the inside of the Bridelia 
down to the ground. 

In Burma various species of Gardenia are characteristic of induing (dry 
dipterocarp) forest on laterite, or of open dry scrub forests ; the better-known 
Burmese species are G. turgida, Roxb., G. coronaria, Ham., G. erythrodada, 
Kurz, G. obtusifolia, Roxb., and G. sessiliflora, Wall. 

The gardenias are characterized by very fragrant tubular white flowers 
which appear mainly in the hot season and turn yellowish before falling. The 
fruits are fleshy, and those of some species at least are eaten by birds and 
animals, the seeds being disseminated by their agency. Sometimes dense 
clusters of young seedlings may be found on the ground, having sprung from 
seed which has germinated within the remains of fruits which have fallen 
from the tree. 

The gardenias are comparatively immune from damage by grazing, and 
in grazed areas tend to become dominant owing to the extent to which most 
other species are kept down. 

The rate of growth is slow to moderate. Gamble's specimens showed for 
G. coronaria 14 rings per inch of radius, giving a mean annual girth increment 
of 0-45 in., and for G. latifolia 8 rings per inch of radius, giving a mean annual 
girth increment 0-78 in. A cross-section of G. latifolia 1 ft. 0| in. in girth in 
the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun had 28 rings, giving a mean annual 
girth increment of 0-44 in. A tree of the same species measured for a period 
of eight years in a sample plot in the Balaghat district. Central Provinces, 
showed a mean annual girth increment of 0-23 in. 

Gardenia turgida, Roxb. Vern. Thanela, karamha, ghurgia, Hind. ; Ben- 
geri, Kan. ; Thaminsa-ni, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree with light grey or whitish smooth bark, rigid 
branches armed with sharp straight thorns, and leaves crowded at the ends 
of the branches. Wood hard, close grained, whitish. 

Distribution and habitat. Throughout the greater part of India and 
Burma in dry open deciduous forests, ascending the outer Himalaya to 4,000 ft. 
The tree is characteristic of poor dry stony soil, dry rocky hill-sides, laterite, 
Jcankar, and also of stiff clayey soil. In Burma it is common in open indaing 
forests on laterite, in the open scrub forests of the dry zone, and in the dry 
deciduous forests of the Shan hills and elsewhere. 

Leap-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The old leaves are shed 
about March, the new foliage appearing about May. The white dimorphic 
flowers, the females larger than the males, appear chiefly in March-April, 
when the trees are leafless or nearly so, and the fruits ripen and fall during 
the hot season a year later. The fruits are sub-globose, 1-5-3 in. in diameter, 
greyish green, with a thick rather hard pericarp and a woody endocarp, con- 
taining numerous angular seeds (Fig. 241, a) embedded in pulp. The germina- 



630 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

tive power of the seed is fairly high : tests carried out at Dehra Dun gave 
a fertiHty of 77 per cent. 

Germinatiok (Fig. 241, b-g). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end of the seed ; the hypocotyl elongates by arching, and in straightening 
raises above ground the cotyledons enclosed in the testa, which falls to the 
ground on their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 241). 

Roots : primary root moderately long, at first thin, afterwards thickening, 
terete, tapering : lateral roots few to moderate in number, fibrous, distributed 
down main root, Hypocotyl distinct from root, 0-6-1 in. long, terete, tapering 
upwards, white turning green, minutely pubescent. Cotyledons : petiole less 
than 0-1 in. long, flattened above, minutely pubescent : lamina 0-8-0-9 in. 
by 0-5-0-6 in., foliaceous, ovate, acute, entire, green, glossy and glabrous 
above, glaucous and glabrescent or minutely pubescent beneath, margins 
sometimes fringed with fine hairs, venation arcuate. Stem erect, slightly 
compressed, pubescent, in first season short, with internodes up to 0-3 in. 
long. Leaves simple, opposite, sub-sessile or with short petioles bordered by 
the decurrent leaf-base : lamina up to 1 in. by 0-5 in., ovate, elliptical, obovate 
or oblanceolate, acute, base decurrent, entire, coriaceous, dark green and 
glossy above, paler beneath, both surfaces sparsely pubescent, margin with 
a fringe of fine hairs. Usually not more than two pairs of foliage leaves are 
produced in the first season. 

The growth of the seedling during the first season is very slow, a height 
of only 1-2| in. being attained. In the second season it is more rapid : nursery- 
raised seedlings at Dehra Dun attained a height of 1| to 4| ft. by the end of 
the second season, but under natural conditions, which are more unfavourable, 
the growth is probably much slower. The seedlings are decidedly frost-hardy. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree is decidedly hardy as regards both 
frost and drought. On low-lying grassy land subject to severe frosts it is 
often one of the few species capable of existing. In the abnormal drought of 
1907 and 1908 in the forests of Oudh it escaped injur}^ when many other 
species were killed off in quantity. It is not readily browsed, even by goats. 

Natural reproduction. The fruits are eaten by birds and animals, and 
the seeds are scattered by their agency. Those which are not eaten lie on the 
ground, turning brown and drying up somewhat in the hot season, and becoming 
partially eaten by white ants, or gradually rotting in the rainy season ; in 
this case most if not all of the seeds lie ungerminated until the second rainy 
season, when germination takes place. 

Artificial reproduction. There is little difficulty in raising this species 
in the nursery and transplanting it. The seed should be sown about March 
or April : germination is rather slow, the seedfings usually appearing about 
six weeks to two months or more after solving. The seedlings should be 
pricked out during the first rainy season and transplanted early in the second 
rains. 

Rate of growth. The growth is slow to moderate. A cross-section 
from the United Provinces in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun showed 
37 rings for a girth of 2 ft. IJ in., giving a mean annual girth increment of 
0-7 in. Gamble's specimens averaged 13 rings per inch of radius, giving a mean 
annual girth increment of 0-48 in. 



h 



fl % 






Fig. 241. Gardenia turgid a. .Seedling]. 
a, seed ; h-g, germination stages ; /*, i, development of seedling to cud of first season. 



632 XXXIII. RUBIACEAE 

8. RANDIA, Linn. 

This genus contains about fifteen Indian species of shrubs or small trees, 
some armed and others unarmed, some evergreen and others deciduous. Most 
of them have hard whitish close-grained woods suitable as substitutes for 
boxwood. The two species most commonly met with are R. uliginosa, DC, 
and R. dumetorum, Lam. A third, R. malabarica, Lam., is a thorny evergreen 
shrub common in the dry scrub forests in parts of the Indian Peninsula, often 
on laterite. 

The better-known species of Randia, unlike the gardenias, appear to be 
very subject to browsing, especially by goats ; this is certainly the case with 
R. dumetorum, R. malabarica, and R. tetrasperma, Roxb., a Himalayan species 
which is browsed down to a dense compact bush. 

Species 1. R. uliginosa, DC. ; 2. R. dumetorum, Lam. 

1. Randia uliginosa, DC. Syn. Gardenia uliginosa, Retz. Vern. Pindara, 
Hind. ; Hmanbyu, Burm. 

A small deciduous rigid armed tree with reddish brown bark and quad- 
rangular branches, common throughout the greater part of India and Burma, 
particularly on low-lying swampy ground and savannah lands ; also on black 
cotton soil in the Indian Peninsula. It produces root-suckers freely, and is 
hardy against frost and drought ; in the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 
in the forests of Oudh it escaped untouched. The tree is leafless as a rule from 
February to April. The fruit, which ripens about February-March (northern 
India), is an ellipsoidal berry, 2-2-5 in. long, yellow when thoroughly ripe, with 
about twelve seeds embedded in a somewhat soft pulp (the swollen placentas) 
in two cells within a somewhat leathery pericarp. The seeds are dark brown, 
hard, shining, obscurely angular, 0-15-2 in. long. The growth of the young 
seedling is very slow. At Dehra Dun a height of less than 1 in. was attained 
by the end of the first season ; by the end of the third season, however, plants 
attained a height of 7 ft. The rate of growth is moderate. A cross-section in 
the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun showed 56 rings for a girth of 2 ft. 
7| in., giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-56 in. Gamble's specimens 
gave 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius, representing a mean annual girth increment 
of 0-9 to 1-05 in. 

2. Randia dumetorum, Lam., including R. longispina, DC, and R. nutans, 
DC. Vern. Mainphal, Hind. ; Sethanbaya, thaminsa, Burm. 

A large shrub or small tree armed with straight axillary thorns and leaves 
in fascicles along the branches, extremely common as an undergrowth species 
in the sal forests of the sub-Himalayan tract, and common also in many parts 
of the Indian Peninsula and Burma, where it extends into the dry zone. It 
is a drought-hardy species, having resisted well the abnormal drought of 1907 
and 1908 in the forests of Oudh. It is readily browsed by goats. It produces 
root-suckers. The fruit is a globose or ovoid berry, 1-1-5 in. long, yellow when 
ripe, containing a number of more or less angular seeds embedded in pulp ; 
the fruits ripen in the cold season. As regards rate of growth, a cross-section 
in the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun showed 26 rings for a girth of 
1 ft. 4 in., giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-62 in. Gamble's specimens 
averaged 7 rings per inch of radius, representing a mean annual girth increment 
of 0-9 in, 



633 



ORDER XXXIV. ERICACEAE 

This order is not of great importance in Indian forestry, though two 
species, Rhododendron arboreum, Sm., and Pieris ovalifolia, T>. Don., are famihar 
trees in the Himalaya and other hill regions, where they are useful in clothing 
hill-sides and acting as nurses to more valuable species. All the Indian species 
of this order, of which at least forty belong to the genus Rhododendron, are 
trees or shrubs of the hills, many ascending to high elevations. 

Genera 1. Rhododendron, Linn. ; 2. Pieris, D. Don. 

1. RHODODENDRON, Linn. 

Rhododendron arboreum, Sm. Vern. Chahan, Haz. ; Chiu, burdns, 
W. Him. ; Zalatni, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree, often with a somewhat crooked or gnarled trunk. 
Bark soft, easily cut through with a pocket-knife, 0-5-1 in. thick, old bark 
grey, exfoliating in irregular longitudinal plates, exposing the smooth pinkish 
new bark beneath. The wood is of inferior quaUty, both as timber and as fuel. 

Distribution and habitat. This is a common tree in the western 
Himalaya, occurring chiefly at 5,000-8,000 ft. in association with Quercus 
incana and Pieris ovalifolia, and at the lower elevations with Pinus longifolia, 
but ascending to 11,000 ft. or even higher. It is somewhat rare in Hazara, 
being commonest in the Siran Pinus longifolia forests at 4,000 ft. and upwards 
in moist ravines. It extends to the eastern Himalaya, where, however, it is 
less common ; it is also found in the Khasi hills and the hills of Burma, 
southern India, and Ceylon. 

Flowering and fruiting. The large showy crimson, sometimes pink, 
flowers in dense corymbs appear usually from March to May, but in certain 
years only partial flowering takes place then, and a second flowering takes 
place in June or July ; this happened in the Simla hills in 1916, following 
an exceptionally dry winter and spring, and the flowers of the second bloom 
were paler in colour than usual. Similar late flowering is also said to take 
place if the first bloom is checked by hail or other injury. Occasionally trees 
may be seen in flower in January-February. The fertilization of the flowers 
is carried out partly by insects. Mr. G. B. F. Muir notes an interesting case 
observed in Tehri Garwhal of Indian martens {Martes flavigula) visiting one 
cluster of flowers after another and thrusting their noses into the flowers to 
lick up the nectar ; fertiHzation is thus carried out by their agency, and 
possibly birds may also be agents in cross-fertilization. 

The capsules (Fig. 242, a) are 0-8-M in. long by 0-3-0-4 in. in diam.eter, 
oblong, curved, greenish brown when ripening, then turning brown. They 
contain a large number of minute dark brown compressed oblong seeds about 
0-05 in. long, with a fimbriate tuft at either end (Fig. 242, 6). The capsules 
open and shed their seeds chiefly from January to March (western Himalaya). 
The open capsules as a rule remain many months on the tree. 

Germination (Fig. 242, c-e). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end of the seed and descends. The hypocotyl elongates, arching slightly, and 



634 



XXXIV. ERICACEAE 



the testa is carried above ground over the cotyledons, falling to the ground 
with their expansion. 

The seedling (Fig. 242). 

Roots : primary root terete, tajjcring, short and delicate for about two 
years, subsequently long and wiry : lateral roots at first few, short, after- 
wards numerous, moderately long, fibrous, distributed down main root. 



t 



a 





G 





f 







Fig. 242. Rhododendron arboreum. Seedling. 

a, cajisuk! \ ; b, seed X 5 ; c-e, germination stages x 5 ; /, seedling towards end of tirst season x 5 ; 
g, seedling in third season \ ; h, seedling in fourth season ] . 

Ilypocotyl distinct from root, up to 0-] in. long, terete, cylindrical or tapermg 
sHghtly upwards, green, glabrous. Cotyledons up to 0-06 in. by 0-04 in,, 
foliaceous, slightly fleshy, sub-sessile, elliptical or almost orbicular, acute, 
obtuse or rounded, minutely and somewhat widely serrulate, often tm-ning 
i(id in the autumn. Stem erect, very short during first two years, elongating 
slowly during the next few years. Leaves simple, alternate, in fii'st season 
shortly petiolate, uj) to 0-12 in. by 0-1 in., broadly ovate or orbicular, mucro- 
iiate, entire, upper surface and margins covered with stiff glandular hairs, 



PIERIS 635 

leaves sometimes tmning dark red in autumii ; leaves gradually increase in 
size from second season onwards, becoming elliptical, coriaceous, entire, the 
upper surface and margins still covered with stiff glandular hairs, at any rate 
on young leaves, for the first three or four years. 

During the first season the seedling is minute, reaching a height of 
scarcely 0-1 in., with 2 or 3 foliage leaves besides the cotyledons. For the 
first few years the growth is very slow. The seedling is very sensitive to 
drought, and survives in moist well-drained places., such as damp shady banks, 
cuttings, and rocks. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree stands a fair amount of shade, 
but develops best in the open. It will grow on rocky ground provided there 
is sufficient soil moisture, but thrives best on moist loam. It coppices well. 

Natural reproduction. Natural reproduction springs up readily on 
newly exposed ground such as road-cuttings and landslips and in the crevices 
of bare rocks. In such places seedlings of various ages may often be found in 
large quantities provided the soil is moist : natural reproduction does not 
appear in dry places, as the seedlings perish quickly from drought. 

Artificial reproduction. Seedlings may be raised artificially by sowing 
seed in March or April in boxes or pots filled with fine sand or powdered 
brick previously soaked with water ; the seeds should not be covered. The 
boxes or pots should be sheltered from rain and sun and watered regularly. 
The seedlings may be pricked out, if large enough, in the second season, and 
kept in the nursery until sufficiently large to plant out. 

A more satisfactory method of planting is to dig up seedhngs from the 
banks and cuttings on which they spring up naturally and transfer them to 
the nursery, keeping them there until large enough to plant out. 

Rate of growth. The annual rings are not always distinct, but where 
visible they show a slow rate of growth. Brandis gives 14 rings per inch 
of radius, while Gamble's specimens varied from 12 rings in the western 
Himalaya and the Nilgiris to as many as 36 in Sikkim, representing a mean 
annual girth increment varying from 0-17 to 0-52 in. 

Coppice growth, though usually faster for a time than that of Quercus 
incana, is slow. Measurements made in 1911 in a coppice coupe six years old 
at BhowaH near Naini Tal (elevation 5.600 ft.) showed an average of 5 shoots 
per stool and a mean height of 4 ft. 4 in. 

2. PIERIS, D. Don. 

Pieris ovalifolia, D. Don. Syn. Andromeda ovalifolia, Wall. Vern. Ayar, 

Hind. ; Allan, Pb. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark brown, thick, fibrous, exfohating in long 
narrow strips, deeply furrowed longitudinally, the furrows often proceeding 
spirally up the stem. This is a familiar tree in the western Himalaya at 
4,000-8,000 ft., chiefly on grassy slopes in association with Quercus incayia and 
Rhododendron arbor eum, or at the lower elevations with Pinus longifolia. In 
Hazara it is rare except in the Pinus longifolia forests of the Siran valley, 
where it is fairly common at 4,000 ft. and upwards. It is also found in the 
eastern Himalaya, descending to 2,000 ft. in the Tista valley, the Khasi hills, 
and the hills of Burma. The wood is of little value either as timber or as fuel. 



636 XXXIV. ERICACEAE 

but the tree is useful in covering hill slopes, and in the western Himalaya in 
acting as a nurse to the deodar. It is fire-resisting and is not browsed by 
cattle : the leaves are said to be poisonous to goats and camels. The racemes 
of heath-hke white honey-scented flowers appear from April to June (western 
Himalaya), and the capsules, containing numerous minute seeds, begin to ripen 
about December, dehiscing from January to March. The tree coppices well, 
the coppice growing faster than that of Quercus incana. Measurements in 
1911 in a coppice coupe six years old at Bhowali near Naini Tal showed an 
average of 8 shoots per stool and a mean height of 5 ft. 1 in., as compared 
with 4 ft. 3 in. for the oak. Gamble gives the rate of growth as 12 to 18 rings 
per inch of radius in the west, representing a mean annual girth increment 
of 0-35 to 0-52 in., and about 6 rings in the east, representing a mean annual 
girth increment of 105 in. 

ORDER XXXV. MYRSINACEAE 

AEGICERAS, Gaertn. 

Aegiceras majus, Gaertn. Syn. A. corniculata, Blanco. Vern. Kulsi, 
Beng. ; Kanjala, Mar. ; Butalet, Burm. 

A large evergreen glabrous shrub or small tree with grey bark, common 
in the mangrove forests along tidal creeks, where it is frequently gregarious. 
It is one of the most widely distributed species of this formation, occurring 
at the mouth of the Indus, along both sides of the Indian Peninsula, in the 
Sundarbans and along the coasts of Chittagong, Arakan, Burma, and the 
Andamans. Like the true mangroves this tree exhibits vivipary, the seed 
germinating within the pericarp of the curved horn-shaped fruit. The tree 
coppices Avell. The wood is used for small building material and for fuel. 

ORDER XXXVT. SAPOTACEAE 

An important order of forest trees, some furnishing useful timbers, others 
edible flowers and fruits and oil-seeds, others latex of commercial value. The 
two genera of most importance in Indian forestry are Bassia and Mimusops. 
The gutta-percha of commerce is furnished by the latex of certain species of 
Palaquium (syn. Dichopsis, Isonandra) and Payena, found in the Malay 
Peninsula and Archipelago ; both these genera are represented in India, 
though none of the Indian species are known to yield gutta-percha of good 
quality. The two most important gutta-percha producing species in the 
Malayan region are Palaquium Gutta, Burck., and P. oblong if olium, Burck. 

An interesting account of the gutta-percha forests of the Malay States 
is given in the Indian Forester, vol. xxxi (1905), p. 309, by Mr. A. M. Burn- 
Murdoch, who points out that gutta-percha is derived almost entirely from 
trees growing within 6 or 7 degrees of the Equator. Apart from the two species 
of Palaquium already mentioned, gutta-percha of good quality is yielded by 
Payena Laerii, which species, however, is not abrmdant. An inferior latex 
is produced by Palaquium pudulatum. Pvcferring to P. Gutta, including 
P. ohlow/ifolitun, which is very similar and is not always considered to be 



SAPOTACEAE 637 

specifically distinct, Mr. Burn-Murdoch notes that the tree is easily recognized 
by its leaves, which are coriaceous, oblong or obovate-oblong, about 2 in. long 
in mature plants but much longer in young plants, dark glossy green above 
and a beautiful coppery gold colour beneath. The tree occurs most frequently 
on the low hills and plains, often on steep hill-sides, up to 2,000 ft. and even 
3,000 ft. above sea-level. During the latter half of last century the trees large 
enough to yield gutta-percha were practically exterminated ; from about 1898 
onwards steps were taken to conserve the existing stock, which, however, was 
by that time found to consist of little except immature trees. The tree is 
a pronounced shade-bearer and is able to maintain the struggle for existence 
successfully, if slowly, in the dense evergreen forests in which it grows. Its 
growth is slow. Natural seedlings are often plentiful, but in the overworked 
areas many of the young plants are found to be coppice-shoots. 

At the time Mr. Burn-Murdoch wrote regular plantations were found to 
be impossible in the Federated Malay States for want of seed, and the method 
followed by the Forest Department was to cut lines through the dense under- 
growth and to transplant into these lines young natural seedlings taken from 
outside the reserved forests or from congested clumps of reproduction within 
those forests. In addition improvement fellings are carried out to assist poles 
and saplings, and undergrowth is cleared once a year or at longer intervals, 
as may be found necessary, over natural seedlings or transplants : these 
measures have been found to produce very beneficial results. The chief 
damage to this tree is caused by the larva of a moth (Rhodoneura myrsusatis, 
Wik. ? ) which eats the young shoots and leaves ; the damage is more extensive 
in pure plantations than in the case of isolated plants under natural conditions. 

Genera 1. Mimusops, Linn. ; 2. Bassia, Linn. 

1. MIMUSOPS, Linn. 

Species L M. Elengi, Linn. ; 2. M. hexandra, Roxb. ; 3. M. liitoralis, 

Kurz. 

1. Mimusops Elengi, Linn. Vern. Mulsdri, Hind. ; Bukal, Beng. ; Oivli, 
Mar. ; Bukul, Kan. ; Mahila, magadam, Tam. ; Elengi, Mai. ; Kaya, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree with a dense crown of shiny coriaceous leaves with 
undulate margins. Bark dark grey, scaly. Wood very hard, with dark red 
heartwood, heavy, strong, and durable, used for building, rice-pounders, &c. 
The fruit is eaten and the seeds yield an oil used for cooking and lighting and 
in medicine. Under favourable conditions the tree reaches large dimensions, 
with a long cylindrical bole. 

Distribution and habitat. The Indian Peninsula along the Western 
Ghats from Bombay southwards, and on the east from the Northern Circars 
southwards, the Andamans and Burma, in Martaban and Tenasserim ; also 
in Ceylon. The tree is fairly common in the moist evergreen forests of the 
Western Ghats, where it attains large dimensions ; on the Eastern Ghats it is 
found in the dry evergreen forests, often on laterite, as a comparatively small 
tree. In the Andamans it is common in the evergreen and semi-deciduous forests 
with Dipterocarpus spp., Planchonia andamanica, Artocarpus Chaplasha, A. 
Lakoocha, Mesua ferrea, Hopea odorata, Terminalia bialata, T. Catappa, Lager- 
stroemia hypoleuca, and other species. In its natural habitat the absolute 



638 XXXVI. SAPOTACEAE 

maximum shade temperature varies from 95 to US"" F., the absolute minimum 
from 50 to 62 F., and the normal rainfall from 30 to 150 in. or more. 

The tree is largely cultivated in India and Burma for ornament and for 
the sake of its fragrant flowers, which are used for making garlands and for 
distilling into perfume. 

Flowering and fruiting. The fragrant white star-shaped flowers appear 
from February to April, and the fruits ripen the following year from February 
to June or later. The fruit (Fig. 243, a) is an ovoid orange-yellow one-seeded 
berry, about 1 in. long. The seeds (Fig. 243, b) are elliptical or rhomboidal, 
compressed, 0-6-0-9 in. by 0-4-0-5 in., brown, smooth, shining, with a hard 
testa and a soft whitish albumen ; about 50-60 weigh 1 oz. The seeds do not 
retain their vitality long. 

Germination (Fig. 243, c-g). Epigeous. The hard testa spKts in two, 
exposing the albumen ; the radicle emerges, the hypocotyl elongates by 
arching, and in straightening carries the cotyledons above ground. When 
the cotyledons expand the testa, or half of it, and the albumen often adhere 
for a time to one cotyledon before falling to the ground. 

The seedling (Fig. 243). 

Eoots : primary root long, terete, tapermg, wiry, flexuose : lateral roots 
moderate in number, fibrous, distributed down main root. Hypocotyl distinct 
from root, 1-2 in. long, terete, fusiform or tapering upwards, at first green 
and finely pubescent, becoming brown and woody. Cotyledons sub-sessile, 
0-9-1-1 in. by 0-7-0-8 in., foliaceous, broadly ovate, entire, dark green, glabrous, 
coriaceous, persisting sometimes into the second season. Stem erect, terete 
or slightly compressed, wiry, green, young parts pubescent, older parts glabrous ; 
internodes 0-4-1 in. long. Leaves simple, alternate. Stipules minute, subulate. 
Petiole 0-1-0-15 in. long, flattened above: lamina 1 7-2-3 in. by 0-5-0-8 in., 
elliptical lanceolate, acute or acuminate, entire : young leaves sparsely 
pubescent, soon becoming glabrous, coriaceous, shining. 

The growth of the seedling is slow, a maximum height of about 3 in. 
being ordinarily attained by the end of the first season. The seedlings are 
very sensitive to frost, which, however, is unknown in their natural habitat : 
they are capable of standing a considerable amount of shade. 

SniVicui/ruRAL characters. The tree is a shade-bearer, retaining a full 
crown under fairly dense shade. Gamble says it appears to reproduce well 
in shade and to remain small until an opportunity offers for removal of the 
cover, when it grows up at once. Judging from cultivated trees the growth* 
is slow. 

Artificial reproduction. The best method of propagating the tree is 
to sow the seeds singly in baskets and plant these out bodily when the seedlings 
are large enough, that is, usually two years after sowing, in the rainy season. 

2. Mimusops hexandra, Roxb. Syn. M. indica, A. DC. Vern. Khirni, 
Hind. ; Banjayia, raini, Mar. ; Pala, palai, Tam. ; Palu, Cingh. 

A large handsome tree with a spreading crown and a straight massive 
bole ; the leaves are dark greyish green, shining, with an obtuse or emarginate 
apex, and are crowded at the ends of the branchlets. Bark rough, dark grey, 
crimson inside, and exuding drops of milky juice when cut. Wood red, very 
hard, heavy, tough, and durable, used for house-posts, turjiery, oil-presses, 
and other purposes. The fruits are sweet and edible, and are largely collected 




t^ 



Fig. 243. Minmsops Elengi Seedling x f 
a Fruits b Seed c-g Germination stages h, i Early development of seedling 



MIMUSOPS 639 

for food. Under unfavourable conditions, for example in very dry situations, 
the tree becomes stunted and even shrub-like. 

Distribution and habitat. In dry forests of the Deccan, Circars, Orissa, 
and the Carnatic, extending north to the sandstone of the Pachmarhi hills and 
west to Khandesh and Guzerat. In the Central Provinces Haines ^ says it is 
common along sandy nalas in North and South Chanda, occurs in the Sirpur 
range, Raipur, and does well also in lime soils, being common on marl in the 
Sattara forest. 

In the Indian Peninsula it is one of the principal trees of the dry ever- 
green forests of the Carnatic and surrounding country, especially on sandstone 
and laterite. In its natural habitat in India the absolute maximum shade 
temperature varies from 104 to 115 F., the absolute minimum from 32 to 
58 P., and the normal rainfall from 25 to 60 in. 

It is often cultivated for ornament and for the sake of its fruit. 

In Ceylon the tree is of more importance than it is in India. Mr. A. F. 
Broun,^ describing its occurrence and habit in that island, mentions that it 
is one of the most characteristic and important trees of the dry zone, occurring 
in the northern half and along the eastern and south-eastern fringes of the 
island at low elevations in situations having a rainfall of not much over 50 in. 
It does not occur in the wet zone. In favourable localities it attains a height 
of 100 ft. with a bole of 40 to 50 ft., but usually not more than 30 ft., and 
a girth up to 14 or 15 ft. The most favoiu-able soil is a deep sandy loam, but 
it is found on almost pure sand, on gravel, clayey loam, and soil overlying 
limestone. On the poor soils of the arid zone it degenerates into a small tree. 
Among its chief companions in Ceylon are Diospyros Ebenum, D. ovalifolia, 
CJiloroxylon Swietenia, Berrya Ammonilla, Alseodaphne semecarpifolia, and 
NepheliuTn Longana. 

Flowering and fruiting. The white or pale yellow flowers appear 
from November to January and the fruits ripen from April to July. The fruit 
is an ovoid or ellipsoidal berry, 0-5-0-6 in. long, smooth and red when ripe, 
containing one reddish brown shining seed, rarely two seeds. Mr. Broun 
states that in Ceylon good seed-years, which are generally dry years, are very 
irregular. 

Silvicultural characters and natural reproduction. Mr. Broun 
makes the following interesting observations regarding this tree in Ceylon : 
' It is a curious fact that trees of the lower girth-classes are generally com- 
paratively rare in high forests, but are found more abundantly in old chenas 
(regrowth after temporary cultivation). Enumeration survey figures . . . 
indicate that the tree does not reproduce itself easily under a dense leaf- 
canopy. The very appearance of the tree with its large crown, which it spreads 
out above its companions, shows that it Hkes to have light in large doses. 
It is therefore apparent that the seed fellings require to be made heavy. 
I have noticed that felhngs in palu forests are not generally followed by the 
appearance of a seedling crop of that species, although seed-bearers were 
adjoining the gaps made. This is probably partly due to the great irregularity 
of the good seed-years, which are generally dry years, but I attribute it also 
to the following causes. The rainfall being slight, the seed exposed to the 
^ Central Provinces List - Ind. Forester, xxvi (1900), p. 3G9. 



640 XXXVI. SAPOTACEAE 

scorchino' sun does not readily germinate, and if it does the tender seedling 
cannot stand the exposure, or it cannot force its roots through the tufts of 
dense urry grass which spring up on exposed patches. Moreover, the seed 
being edible and lying, as it does, in an exposed place, is soon carried away 
by animals ; it is also removed by villagers in large quantities from the seed- 
bearers. 

' As mentioned above, palu saplings are by no means uncommon in scrub 
forests ; it follows that the young plant requires some low shelter, and this 
is obtained in high forest by sparing the undergrowth which protects the soil 
and spares the fruit. Perhaps the best method of carrying on seed fellings 
is to girdle the trees adjoining seed-bearers.' 

Rate of growth. In Ceylon Mr. Broun estimates from sample plot 
statistics, which he admits to be scanty and tentative, that a girth of 6 ft. is 
attained in about 130 years. Owing to the compact and uniform nature of 
the wood the incremental rings are indistinguishable. 

3. Mimusops littoralis, Kurz. Andaman bullet-wood. Vern. Katpali, 
Burm. ; Mohwa (in the Andamans). 

A large evergreen tree with leaves crowded towards the ends of the thick 
branchlets. Bark thin, smooth, blackish brown. Wood red, very hard, 
durable, used for bridge-construction and house-posts. Common along the 
coasts of the Andamans, Cocos, and Nicobar islands ; also in upper Tenasserim 
(Kurz). In the Andamans this is a common tree in the mixed forests of the 
littoral fringe, in association with Calophyllum Inophyllum, Afzelia bijuga, 
Thespesia populnea, Terminalia Catappa, Heritiera littoralis, Pongamia glabra, 
and others. This type of forest occurs on raised beaches on deposits of sea- 
sand. Mimusops littoralis sometimes predominates, especially where the sand 
deposit is deep, forming at times almost a pure fringe. It often forms a pro- 
tective belt against the force of the south-west monsoon, which it possesses 
good power of withstanding. 

2. BASSIA, Linn. 

Of the five Indian species of Bassia the best known and most widely 
distributed is B. latifolia, Roxb., while in southern India this species is replaced 
by B. longifolia, Linn., an important tree v/ithin its region. Both these trees 
are valuable on account of their flowers, the fleshy corollas of which are eaten 
or distilled into spirit, and their seeds, which yield oil. B. butyracea, Roxb., 
the seeds of which yield a vegetable butter, is a species met with in the sub- 
Himalayan tract and outer hills. The oily seeds of the trees of this genus 
have a high percentage of fertility when fresh, but lose their vitality if kept 
for any time. 

Species 1 . B. latifolia. Roxb. ; 2. B. longifolia, Linn. ; 3. B. butyracea. 
Roxb. 

\. Bassia latifolia, Roxb., including B. villosa. Wall. Vern. Mohira, 
Hind. ; Ippi, Tel. ; Kat illipi. Tarn. 

A large deciduous tree, usually with a short bole, spreading branches, and 
a large roimded crown. Bark grey, with vertical cracks. 

This is one of the most important forest trees of India, its importance 
being due mainly to the fleshy corollas of its flowers, which are eaten raw or 







Fig. 244. Bassia latifolia tree, with others in background, remaining on 
former forest land cleared for cultivation, Singhbhum, Chota Nagpur. 




-/;' 






Fig. 24',. Diospyros hurmanicrt, regrowth from root-suckers and co])pice- 
shoots on liclds left unworked for four years, Burma. 



BASSIA 641 

cooked, or are dried, ground, and mixed with flour for making cakes, or are 
distilled into spirit. A thick white oil extracted from the seed is used by 
jungle tribes for cooking and burning, and is sold for the manufacture of 
margarine, soap, and glycerine. The wood is of good quality, but the tree is 
seldom felled, owing to the value of its flowers and fruits. 

Distribution and habitat. Common in the deciduous forests of the 
Central Provinces, Bombay Presidency, northern parts of the Madras Presi- 
dency, Central India, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, and extending north to the sub- 
Himalayan tract in Oudh, Kumaun, and westward, though not common, to 
the Ravi. Doubtfully indigenous in Upper Burma. Not found in the southern 
parts of the Indian Peninsula. Much planted on the plains of northern India 
and in the Peninsula. The tree is a characteristic one in mixed deciduous 
forests, usually of a somewhat dry type, often growing on dry rocky or sandy 
soil, and thriving on the Deccan trap. It is common also in the drier types 
of sal forest in Chota Nagpur and the Central Provinces. When forest land 
is cleared for cultivation the moJuva trees are carefully preserved, and may be 
found scattered over cultivated lands long after the clearing has taken place 
(see Fig. 244). 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 106 to 118 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 46 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 30 to 75 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The leaves fall gradually 
from February to April, and the new leaves appear about April or early May, 
with or shortly after the flowers. Fig. 244 shows a tree in March, partly bare 
of leaves. The new leaves are conspicuous from their coppery red colour. 
The brown flower-buds appear at the ends of the thick branchlets early in 
February, and the flowers open from the end of February to April. The 
corollas are 0-5-0-6 in. long, cream-coloured, fleshy, and sweet, and fall soon 
after opening. They are collected in large quantities off the ground, usually 
in places swept bare under the trees ; they are also eagerly devoured by bears, 
deer, and other animals. The fruit, which is ovoid, fleshy, greenish, 1-2 in. 
long, 1- to 4-seeded, ripens from June to August, and falls at once to the 
ground. The seeds (Fig. 246, a) are 0-8-1 -3 in. long by 0-5-0-7 in. broad, 
slightly compressed, ellipsoidal, light brown, smooth, shining, with a moderately 
hard testa ; about 200 weigh 1 lb. on an average. 

Fresh seed has a high percentage of fertility, but the seed quickly loses 
its vitality if kept, and is much subject to insect and fungus attacks. Speci- 
mens of a microlepidopterous insect whose larvae were found in large numbers 
destroying the insides of seeds have been named by Meyi'ick Stathmopoda 
basiplectra, sp. nov. Seeds attacked by fungi were examined by Dr. Butler, 
who detected two separate fungi, a Diplodia, probably parasitic, and a Schizo- 
phyllum, probably saprophytic after the seeds had lost their vitality. Affected 
seeds become rough and blistered, the surface often assuming a silvery colour, 
and the black pycnidia of the Diplodia appearing on the surface. The liability 
of the seed to attacks of insects and fungi is a matter of importance in so fai- 
as natural reproduction is concerned, for, as will be seen later, seed whicli 
becomes buried soon after falling germinates without being attacked. 

The mohiva crop is of great importance to the jungle population, and 

2307.2 Y 



642 



XXXVI. SAPOTACEAE 



good flowering years are eagerly looked forward to. They do not occur every 
year, but, as far as records go, one to two good crops may be expected every 
three years. An otherwise promising crop is sometimes destroyed by hail 
before the flowers are developed. Trees are said to commence bearing crops 
of flowers and fruit when about ten years old. The yield of mohiva (corollas) 
per tree is said to be about a maund (82 J lb.) a year when fifteen years old, 
increasing to two maunds when in full bearing. 

Germination (Fig. 246, 6-/). Hypogeous. Germination commences 
with the development of thick cotyledonary petioles, as in the case of many 
oaks. These petioles, which are not visible in the seed, reach a length of 
0-6-1 in., and assist the radicle to make its way into the ground and the 
plumule to extricate itself from between the fleshy cotyledons, which are in 
close contact. The cotyledons remain underground, the testa brealdng open 
as they swell. 

The seedling (Fig. 246). 

Roots : primary root long, thick, terete, tapering, light brown and delicate 
in early stages, soon becoming rough and woody : lateral roots at first few 
and short, afterwards longer and more numerous, fibrous, distributed down 
main root. Hypocotyl very short, subterranean, white turning green or reddish. 
Cotyledons : petiole 0-6-1 in. long, thick, fleshy, flattened, glabrous : lamina 
1 in. by 0-6 in., thick, fleshy, oblong, outer surface convex, inner flat or slightly 
concave. Stem erect, terete, pubescent ; first internode 1-2 in., subsequent 
internodes 0-5-1-3 in. long. Leaves simple, first pair opposite or sub-opposite, 
subsequent leaves alternate, first few leaves sometimes small and scale-like. 
Stipules 0-15 in. long, linear. Petiole 0-1-0-2 in. long, channelled above. 
Lamina 1-4 in. by 0-7-1-5 in., elliptical, oblong or ovate, apex and base acute 
or more rarely obtuse, entire, glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath, 
especially on the veins, young leaves often coppery red. 

The growth of the seedling is comparatively slow, and weeding and 
watering, though they stimulate development to some extent, appear to have 
a less marked effect on it than is the case with many other species. The follow- 
ing measurements of seedlings in experimental plots at Dehra Dun give some 
idea of the rate of growth under different conditions : 



Bassia latifolia : rate of growth of seedlings, Dehra Dun. 



Maximum 2 ft. in. 



Condition under which 

grown. 1st season. 

In nursery (weeded and Maximum ft. 5 in, 

watered) 
Natural conditions (not | (i) Maximum Oft. 4 Jin. ( 1) Maximum 1 ft. 2 in. 

weeded or watered) in full ^ ^ ^^ 3 . ^^ ^^ ^^.^^_ 2 Maximum 1 ft. in. 

sunlight ) ^ ' 

Sowings, irrigated and weeded ft. 1 1 in.-O ft. 5 in. 
Sowings, irrigated but not ft. 1 f in.-O ft. 4f in. 

weeded 
Sowings, weeded but not irri- ft. 1 1 in.-O ft. 6 in. 

gated 
Nursery-raised traiLsplants . . Maximum 1 ft. 1 in. 

(planted out in second rains) 



Height at end of season. 
2nd season. 3rd season. 4th ses 



( 1 ) Maximum 2 ft. in. 



ft. G in.-O ft. 10 in. Maxiii 

3 ft. 
Maximum 1 ft. 4 in. 



Growth ceases from November to February, the new leaves appearing in 
March (Dehra Dun). Young plants are somewhat frost-tender. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The tree has a large spreading root-system. 



BASSIA 



643 



many of the roots being superficial. It is capable of thriving on poor dry 
ground, where, however, it is apt to suffer, sometimes severely, in times of 
abnormal di'ought. It is ordinarily frost-hardy, but in the severe frost of 




Fig. 246. Bassia latifolia. Seedling x |. 
a, seed ; h-f, germination stages ; g, h, development of seedling during first season ; i, seedling 

early in second season, 

1905 it suffered to some extent in northern India. In its younger stages it 
is very liable to be browsed by deer and cattle. It is a strong light-demander, 
becoming readily suppressed under shade. It coppices fairly well if cut in 
the dry season, but not in the rains. In some localities the tree suffers greatly 
from the attacks of Loranthus ; this is particularly the case in some parts of 

X2 



644 



XXXVI. SAPOTACEAE 



the Central Provinces and Central India, where the trees are killed off in 
large numbers by this parasite, which itself dies after killing its host. Special 
measures are urgently called for to deal with this pest and to prevent its further 
spread. Systematic and repeated cutting of the parasite appears to be the 
only practical method of dealing with it ; mohwa lessees should be required 
to do this, and organized efforts should be instituted in the forest, in cultivated 
lands, and generally wherever the Loranthus makes its appearance. 

Natural, reproduction. The seed germinates early in the rainy season, 
soon after falling. For successful germination it is important that it should 
become covered with earth or debris, otherwise the seed is liable to fungus 
attacks, while the radicle is apt to dry up or to become eaten by insects if 
exposed. Natural seedlings are thus found chiefly in slight hollows into which 
earth is washed at the commencement of the rains. Tbeir subsequent growth, 
which is comparatively slow, is favoured by the admission of abundant light. 

Artificial reproduction. The tree may be propagated either by direct 
sowing or by transplanting from the nursery. For forest purposes direct 
sowings in prepared lines or patches are preferable, as transplanting gives 
trouble and is attended with much risk owing to the long and rather delicate 
taproot developed by the seedling. In either case fresh seed should be sown 
about July-August, and care should be taken to cover it with earth to a depth 
of about half an inch. 

For transplanting purposes it is preferable either to soav the seed direct 
in long pots or baskets, or to transplant the seedlings from nursery-beds into 
pots or baskets during the first rainy season a few weeks after germination. 
The plants may be put out in the forest early in the second rainy season. 
While they are in the nursery watering should be somewhat sparingly carried 
out, and the soil should be kept loose. Plantations should be protected from 
cattle and deer. 

Rate of growth. Few reliable statistics are available regarding the rate 
of growth of this important tree. The following measurements are recorded 
in high forest sample plots : 

Bassia latifolia : girth increment in high forest sample plots. 









Number of 


Number of 




Mean annual 




Forest 




years under 


trees under 


Girth 


girth 


increment 


Province. 


division. 


Locality. 


measurement. 


measurement. 


classes. 

ft. 

U-3 


for 


period. 


United 


Gonda 


Chandanpiir 


2 


5 




in. 
0-61 


Provinces 




and Sakra 












Central 


Balaghat 


Baihar and / 


8 


/I 


1-2 




0-70 


Provinces 




Raigarh \ 


\3 


2-3 




0-23 



As regards copj)ice, measurements made in 1911 in the Gonda district. 
United Provinces, in two coupes each two years old, showed an average height 
of 4-7 and 10 ft. as compared with 7-6 and 10 ft. for sal. Coppice-shoots 
one year old measured in Bhandara, Central Provinces, had an average height 
of 4-25 ft. as compared with 7-1 ft. for teak. Coppice measurements made in 
1910 by IVIr. C. M. McCrie in Gorakhpur, United Provinces, gave the following 
results for Bassia latifolia as compared with sal : 



a 





^'% 



e 



a 




\ 



Fig. 247. Bassia loiigifolia Seedling x ^ 
a Seed b - e Germination stages f - h Development of seedling to end of first season 



BASSIA 



645 



Bassia latifoUa : coppice measurements, Gorakhpiir. 







Mean height. 




Mean girth. 




Age. 


Bassia. 




Sal. 


Bassia. 


Sal. 


y^ears. 


ft. 




ft. 


in. 


in. 


2 


r 




3 






4 


13 




7 


2-3 


2 


6 


17-5 




10-3 


3-5 


2-9 


8 


20 




13 


4-5 


3-8 


10 


22 




15-3 


5-4 


4-8 


12 


23-6 




175 


6-3 


5-8 


14 


25 




19-2 


7-2 


6-7 


16 


2G-7 




20-9 


8-0 


7-5 



2. Bassia loiigifolia, Linn. Vern. Ijypi, Kan. ; Pedda ippa, Tel. ; Illupei, 
Tarn. ; Meze, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree with a dense spreading crown and lanceolate leaves 
clustered at the ends of the branchlets. Bark yellowish grey to brown, red 
and milky inside. The wood is similar to that of B. latifolia : in Arakan it is 
used for ships' keels and is said to be very durable, resisting the attacks of 
the teredo. The flowers and seeds are used in the same way as those of B. 
latifolia. It is an excellent avenue tree. 

Distribution and habitat. This tree replaces B. latifolia in southern 
India. It is indigenous chiefly in the monsoon forests of the Western Ghats 
from tlie Konkan southwards, where it is common along the banks of rivers 
and streams and in ravines : it extends into the Deccan. It is also common 
in many parts of southern India, where it is frequently cultivated as an avenue 
tree and for the sake of its flowers and fruits. In Arakan it is said to be in- 
digenous in the Sandoway and Kyaukpyu districts : it is occasionally planted 
elsewhere in Burma. Although found wild most commonly in rather moist 
regions, it can be grown in comj^aratively dry localities. 

Flowering and fruiting. The flowers, which have fleshy corollas like 
tliose of B. latifolia, appear in November-December in Bombay (Talbot), 
from February to May in Travancore (Bourdillon). The fruits rif)en about 
June. The seeds (Fig. 247, a) are 1-2-1 -6 in. long by 0-5-0 -7 in. in diameter, 
comjjressed, light brown, smooth, shining, with a fairly thick and hard testa ; 
about 180-200 weigh 1 lb. The fertility of fresh seed is high, but the seeds do 
not retain their vitality long. 

Germination (Fig. 247, h~e). Hypogeous, and similar to that of B. 
latifolia. It commences with the development of thick cotyledonary petioles, 
which, however, are not so long as those of B. latifolia ; these assist the radicle 
to make its way into the ground and the plumule to extricate itself from 
between the fleshy cotyledons. The cotyledons remain underground within 
the testa. 

The seedling (Fig. 247). 

Roots : primary root long, thick, terete, tapering, woody, pubescent 
when young : lateral roots moderate in number, fibrous, distributed down 
main root. Hypocotyl distinct from root, 1-1-5 in. long, thick, subterranean. 
Cotyledons : petiole 0-3-0-4 in. long, broad, thick, flattened, somewhat fleshy, 
bent to one side of stem : lamina 1-1-2 in. by 0-4-0-5 in., thick, fleshy, obliquely 
oblong, outer surface convex, inner flat. Stem erect, terete or slightly com- 
pressed, green or reddish, young parts pubescent, later becoming glabrous ; 



646 XXXVI. SAPOTACEAE 

internodes 0-4-3 in. long. Leaves simple, first pair opposite or sub-opposite, 
subsequent leaves alternate. Stipules 0- 1-0- 15 in. long, linear, pubescent. 
Petiole 0-1-0-2 in. long, pubescent. Lamina 1 6-4-5 in. by 1-3-2 in., elliptical 
or ovate, apex and base acute, or base sometimes obtuse in first pair, entu-e, 
pubescent or glabrescent ; young leaves often coppery brown ; lateral veins 
9-16 pairs. 

The growth of the seedling is moderate, a height of 6 in. to 1 ft. being 
attained in the first season and a height of about 1 to 2 ft. being ordinarily 
attamed by the end of the second season. A long but somewhat fragile taproot 
is developed rapidly, the length being sometimes as much as 1 ft, within 
a month of germination, and 2 ft. by the end of the first season. Frost is 
unknown in the natural liabitat of the tree ; seedlings raised at Dehra Dun 
were found to be very frost-tender. 

Artificial reproduction. In spite of the long fragile taproot the seed- 
lings can be transplanted successfully with care during the first rainy season 
when about one month old. Fresh seed should be sown about June-July and 
well covered with earth. The most satisfactory method is to sow the seeds 
direct in long pots or baskets, or to prick them out into these from the seed- 
beds when about one month old, and to plant the seedlings out without dis- 
turbance of the root-system early in the second rainy season. 

3. Bassia butyracca, Roxb. Vern. Phalwara, phulwa, chmra, Hind. 

A large deciduous tree with leaves somewhat larger than those of B. lafi- 
folia, and crowded near the ends of the branches. Bark dark grey. The 
seeds furnish a white vegetable butter. 

The tree occurs in the sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the 
eastern Dun eastwards, ascending to 5,000 ft. In the hills it is found chiefly 
along the sides of ravines. It flowers in the cold season, and the fruits ripen 
in June-July ; the seeds are 0-7-0-8 in. long. The growth is fast. A cross- 
section 3 ft. 5 in. in girth, without bark, in the silvicultural museum at Dehra 
Dun had 46 rings, giving a mean annual girth increment of 0-9 in. Gamble's 
specimens gave three to four rings per inch of radius, representing a mean 
annual girth increment of 1-57 to 2-1 in. 



ORDER XXXVII. EBENACEAE 

DIOSPYROS, Linn. 

This genus, which contains nearly 50 Indian species, is of importance 
chiefly as containing the ebony-yielding trees. The true jet-black ebony of 
commerce is yielded by D. Ebenum, Koenig, Avhich is of more imj)ortance in 
Ceylon than in India. The commonest Indian black ebony tree is D. McJano- 
xylon, Roxb. (including D. tomentosa, Roxb.), the heartwood of whicli, though 
not so jet black as the true ebony, is used to a considerable extent in India 
for carving and turning. Of variegated ebonies the best knowai are tlie cala- 
mander wood of Ceylon {D. quaesita, Thw.) and the marble-wood or zebra- 
wood of the Andamans {D. Kurzii, Hicrn.). 

Silvicultur-ally this genus requires further study. Several species thrive 
ill dry regions, foi- exam])le D. Melanoxylori, D. burmanica, D. Ebenum, 



DIOSPYROS 647 

and others. D. Embryopteris goes to the other extreme, thriving on moist and 
even marshy ground. The fruits are few-seeded berries ; some of them are 
edible, 'and are readily devoured by fruit-bats, monkeys, and other animals, 
as well as by birds, particularly hornbills, and the seeds are scattered by their 
agency. As a rule the seeds have a high percentage of fertility. The seedlings 
develop long taproots at an early stage, often before any appreciable elonga- 
tion of the shoot takes place. A curious creej^ing habit of the young taproot 
has been noticed in the case of D. Melanoxylon, D. luoutmm, and D. Chloroxylon 
(see under these species) ; possibly this may also be the case in other species. 
The growth of the seedling is decidedly slow in all the species hitherto examined. 
A characteristic of certain species, notably D. Melanoxylon and D. burmanica. 
is the freedom with which root-suckers are produced ; it is doubtful if any 
other Indian tree surpasses D. Melanoxylon in the profusion, hardiness, and 
tenacity of its sucker reproduction. 

To this genus belongs the fruit-tree D. Kahi, Linn, f., the persimmon 
(Japanese Kaki, Burmese Tayok-te), which is much cultivated in China and 
Japan, and occurs wild in the Khasi hills and in Upper Burma. It has been 
tried in India, and has succeeded fairly well at Dehra Dun, where the fruit 
ripens towards the end of the rainy season. D. Lotus, Linn., vern. amlok, 
Punj., a native of western Asia, extending in the Himalayan region eastward 
to Kashmir and Hazara, is cultivated for its fruit in the Punjab and in the 
Mediterranean region : it is frequently cultivated round villages in Hazara. 

Species 1. D. Melanoxylon, Roxb. (including D. tomentosa, Roxb.) ; 2. 
D. Embryopteris, Pers. ; 3. D. Kurzii, Hiern. ; 4. D. burmanica, Kurz ; 5. D. 
Ebenum, Koenig ; 6. D. Chloroxylon, Roxb. ; 7. D. morUana, Roxb. (in- 
cluding D. cordifolia, Roxb.) ; 8. D. ehretioides, Wall. 

L Diospyros Melanoxylou, Roxb., includmg D. tomentosa, Roxb. Vern. 
Tendu, Hind. ; Balai, Kan. ; Tumki, Tel. 

In his Forest Flora of North-West and Central India Brandis unites these 
two, but in his Indian Trees he separates them, while expressing doubt as to 
their being distinct species. Gamble, in his Manual of Indian Timbers, mentions 
that it is very difficult to distinguish them either in the field or in the her- 
barium. Haines, in bis List of Trees, Shrubs, c&c, of the Southern Circle, Central 
Provinces, notes that both varieties occm* mixed up and appear to be often 
indistinguishable, but that in the region dealt with D. tomentosa is perhaps 
more eastern in its distribution : see also his Forest Flora of Chota Nagjyur. 
The main botanical distinction consists in D. Melanoxylon having leaves 
narrower than D. tomentosa, with base and apex often acute and secondary 
nerves raised, while D. tomentosa usually has rounded or obtuse leaves and 
secondary nerves impressed above. So far as the two have been studied 
silviculturally, their characters appear to be identical, and unless further 
study should reveal any radical differences they may be united from a silvi- 
cultural point of view. 

A small to moderate-sized, occasionally large tree, with leaves opposite, 
sub-opposite, or alternate, coriaceous, and varying much in size and form. 
Bark greyish black, exfoliating in regular rectangular scales. Wood hard, 
reddish brown, with an irregular black heartwood sometimes streaked with 
purple or brown. The wood is used for building, shafts, shoulder-poles, and 
other purjioses, and is carved into walking-sticks, picture-frames, and fancy 
articles ; when burnt it emits showers of sparks, and is therefore not a safe 



648 XXXVII. EBENACEAE 

fuel. Silviciilturally the tree is of importance in clothing dry poor ground, 
and is interesting owing to its wonderful hardiness in surviving maltreatment. 

Distribution and habitat. The distribution of D. Melanoxylon is 
stated to be the Indian Peninsula generally, extending northward to Bihar, 
and that of D. tomentosa the sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi to Nepal, 
eastern Rajputana, the Central Provinces and Berar, Bihar and Orissa, and 
the Northern Circars. Both are common in the Central Provinces, and Haines 
says that the latter is the commoner form in Chota Nagpur, where it is one of 
the commonest trees throughout the forests. Considering the two forms as 
one species, this is one of the most characteristic trees of the dry mixed 
deciduous forests throughout India. It is locally common also in sal 
forest, often replacing the sal where the ground becomes too poor to support 
the latter. In the Peninsula it appears to reach its best development on 
metamorphic rocks. 

In its natural habitat the absolute maximum shade temperature varies 
from 105 to 119 F., the absolute minimum from 30 to 55 F., and the normal 
rainfall from 20 to 60 in. 

Leaf-shedding, flowering, and fruiting. The tree is leafless for 
a sliort time in the hot season or is frequently never quite leafless. The flowers 
appear from April to June, and the fruits ripen from April to June the foUowmg 
year. The fruit is a globose to ovoid berry, 1-1 -5 in. in diameter, smooth and 
yellowish when ripe, with 3-8 seeds embedded in a sweet yellow edible pulp. 
The seeds (Fig. 248, a) are oblong, compressed, 0-5-0*8 in. long, brown, shining, 
with a wrinkled testa and ruminate albumen. About 25 to 40 weigh 1 oz. 
Fresh seeds have a high percentage of fertility ; different samples of seed 
tested at Dehra Dun after being stored for a year had a fertility of 10, 55, and 
60 per cent, respectively. The fruits are readily eaten by fruit-bats and by 
birds, notably hornbills, which may often be seen in quantity among the trees 
at the time the fruits are ripening ; the seed is spread by their agency. 

Germination (Fig. 248, b~f). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end of the seed and descends rapidly, forming a taproot of some length before 
the elongation of the hypocotyl is completed. The hypocotyl elongates by 
arching, and in straightening raises above ground the cotyledons enclosed in 
the testa and albumen. The cotyledons are caducous, and either they become 
detached before extricating themselves from the testa and fall to the ground 
still enclosed in it, or more usually they extricate themselves, the testa falling 
to the ground, but they fall off not long after. 

The seedling (Fig. 248). 

Roots : primary root long, thick, at fii'st fleshy, afterwards woody, black, 
tomentose, often bent or swollen in upper part near ground-level : lateral 
roots sliort, fibrous, distributed down the main root. Hypocotyl distinct from 
root, 1-2-1 -6 in. long, slightly compressed or terete, tapering upwards, minutely 
tomentose, at first smooth and pink with a pale grey or pale yellow base, 
afterwards rough and reddish brown to nearly black. Cotyledons sessile, 
0-7-0-8 in. by 0-25-0-3 in., foliaceous, oblong lanceolate, apex acute or rounded, 
entire, glabrous, delicate, white, pale pink or pale green, caducous, venation 
reticulate. Ste7n erect, slightly compressed or terete, woody, tomentose ; 
internodes 0-1-0-7 in. long. Leaves simple, exstipulate, first pair or sometimes 
two pairs opposite, subsequent leaves alternate or sub-opposite. Petiole 
about 0-1 in. long, tomentose. Lamina 1-2 in. by 0-6-1-2 in., elliptical, ovate 



"1 







cr 



^ 




/ 



:~ 



Fig. 248. Diospyros Melanoxylon Seedling x f 
a Seed b- f Germination stages g-j Development of seedling to end of first season 



DIOSPYROS 649 

or obovate, apex acute, obtuse or rounded, base rounded or slightly cordate, 
entire, coriaceous, glabrescent or sparsely pubescent with yellowish hairs, 
principal veins of lower surface pubescent ; older leaves dark green, younger 
leaves dull reddish green ; lateral veins 5 to 10 pairs, in D. tomentosa impressed 
on the ujDper surface, in D. Melanoxylon somewhat variable, but for the most 
part not impressed. 

Note. This descrii^tion applies to the seedling both of D. Melanoxylon 
and of D. tomentosa. 

The main development of the seedling during the first year or two is 
underground ; a long taproot is quicldy formed, and may attain a length of 
1 ft. or more in a few weeks, and a length of 2 ft. or more with a diameter of 
nearly i in. by the end of the second season. Meanwhile the growth above 
ground is slow, a maximum height of 3 or 4 in. being attained by the end of 
the first season ; during the second season the growth is not much faster 
except under favourable conditions, when a height of 1-2 ft. may be reached 
by the end of the season. Under unfavourable conditions dying back may 
take place, particularly where drought is severe, the stem of the young plant 
dying down while the root system develops, and a new stem being produced 
the following year. The season's growth ceases about November (northern 
India) ; some seedlings are leafless by February-March, but others are never 
quite leafless, the old leaves continuing to fall throughout March. New growth 
begins in March or April. The seedlings stand a considerable amount of shade, 
persisting under it for some time. They are hardy against frost and drouglit, 
but not against excessive damp, and tend to rot in heavy damp weed-growth. 
They have great jDower of struggling through grass, but their development 
suffers, while more vigorous growth is promoted if the ground is kept clear of 
weeds and periodically loosened. 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. In the Seedling and young pole stage the 
tree stands moderate shade, but later it requires more light. It is decidedly 
frost-hardy, and in the abnormal frost of 1905 in northern India it resisted 
the frost more successfully than almost any other species. It is also drought- 
resistant ; in the abnormal drought of 1907 and 1908 in the forests of Oudh 
it proved to be conspicuously hardy {D. tomentosa), but in the severe drought 
of 1899-1900 in the Indian Peninsula it was affected to some extent, though 
sucker reproduction is said to have escaped injury {D. Melanoxylon). Young 
plants and suckers are immune from damage by browsing ; in heavily grazed 
sal forest in Oudh an undergrowth of this species may be found in places 
where the ground has been grazed bare, while in over -grazed forests in the 
Peninsula the prevalence of a stunted growth of Diospyros is a familiar sight, 
the development of the tree being probably hindered by the trampling and 
hardening of the soil and not by browsing. 

The tree coppices moderately well, but the coppice-shoots grow slowly ; 
it pollards better, though the growth of the pollard-shoots is also slow. Coppice 
experiments in North Chanda, Central Provinces, showed that after April the 
coppicing power is very poor, the percentage of stools which coppiced success- 
fully in different months being (1) April 100, (2) May 30, (3) August nil. The 
extensive production of root-suckers, however, is one of the most characteristic 
features of this tree. Its hardiness and immunity from damage by grazing 
assist it to establish itself in quantity by this means, and on cleared forest 



650 



XXXVII. EBENACEAE 



land masses of sucker reproduction persist for many years after other species 
have disappeared, and they are difficult to eradicate on land required for 
cultivation. Similarly on abandoned cultivation sucker growth springs up 
readily, and if left alone may result in pure crops of Diospyros. 

Natural reproduction. As already mentioned, the seeds are spread by 
fruit-bats and by birds, notably hornbills ; seedlings may sometimes be found 
in the forks of trees or in other places above the ground, the seed having been 
conveyed there by their agency. Under natural conditions, germination begins 
early in the rainy season and continues during that season ; some seed may 
remain dormant until the second rainy season. Germination is greatly favoured 
if the seed becomes covered with earth, as in tliis case the radicle is less liable 
to destruction by insects, or, if exposed to the sun, by drought. Nevertheless 
the young taproot is very hardy, and under shade or under the protection of 
grass it may creep for some distance along the sin^face of the ground until it 
is able to penetrate the soil ; this is a common habit in natural seedlings. The 
profusion and tenacity of sucker reproduction is, however, in itself sufficient to 
ensure the survival and increase of this species even without the aid of seedling 
reproduction, which is itself often plentiful. 

Artificial reproduction. Experiments at Dehra Dun have shown that 
transplanting from the nursery is attended with much risk owing to the large 
size of the taproot ; this applies both to seedlings transjilanted entire and to 
those transplanted with pruned stem and root. Probably the most successful 
method, if planting has to be resorted to, would be to sow the seeds in long 
narrow baskets and to plant these out intact in the second rains. Sowing 
should be carried out about April-May, care being taken to cover the seeds 
with earth. Direct sowing is usually preferable to transj)lanting, the best 
method being to sow in lines and to keep the lines weeded during the first 
two or three years. Line sowings with the aid of field crops have been carried 
out in the Amraoti forest division, Berar.^ 

Rate of growth. The few sample plot measurements available indicate 
that the rate of. growth is slow ; these are as follows : 

Diospyros Melanoxylmi and D. tomentosa : rate of growth in high forest 

sample plots. 



Province. 

United 

Provinces 
Central 

Provinces 



Forest 
division. Locality. 

S. Kheri Kishanpur 

Baiaghat Raigarh and 
Baihar 



Number of 

years under 

measurement. 

9 

8 



Number of 

tiees under 

measurement. 

1 
2 



Mean annual 
Girth girth increment 
classes. for period. 

ft. in. 

1-2 0-23 

2-3 0-20 



A tree felled in West Kurnool, Madras, had 216 rings for a girth of 6 ft., 
representing a mean annual girth increment of 0-33 in.- 

Coppice growth is also slow. Measurements made in 1911 in two coppice 
coupes each tw; years old in the Gonda distiict, United Provinces, gave an 
average height of 4 and 4-8 ft. as compared with 7-6 and 10 ft. for sal ; in 

1 Ind. Forester, xxxvii (1911), p. 8. 

2 Working Plan for the Gundlabrahmeswaram Range, West Kurnool, H. F. A. Wood, 1912. 



DIOSPYROS 651 

either coupe the average number of shoots per stool was 1-4, and the rate of 
growth of this species was slower than that of any other species present. 
Measurements in 1912-13 in coppice coupes one year old in Bhandara, Central 
Provinces, showed an average height of 5-1 ft., as against 7-1 ft. for teak, 
3-0 ft. for BucJianania latifolia, and 3-8 ft. for Soyynida fehrifuga. 

Measurements made in 1910 by Mr. C. M. McCrie in coppice coupes in the 
Gorakhpur district. United Provinces, gave the following results : 

Diospyros tomentosa : rate of gro%vth of coppice, Gorakhpur. 



Age. 


Mean height. 


]\Iean girth. 


Age. 


Mean height. 


Mean girth, 


years. 


ft. 


in. 


years. 


ft. 


in. 


2 


4-8 


1-8 


10 


9-1 


3-9 


4 


6-8 . 


2-8 


12 


9-3 


41 


6 


7-9 


3-3 


14 


9-3 


4-2 


8 


8-7 


3-6 


16 


9-3 


4-3 



2. Diospyros Embryopteris, Pers. Vern. Gab, kala tendu, Hind. ; Timburi, 
Mar. ; Kusharta, Kan. ; Niti tumiki, Tel. 

A moderate-sized% much-branched, handsome evergreen tree with a short 
bole and a dense rounded crown of dark green foliage with shining coriaceous 
leaves. Bark smooth, dark greenish grey. The fruits are rich in tannin, and 
the unri]3e fruits contain a viscid pulp used as gum in bookbinding and for 
paying the seams of boats. The tree is often planted for ornament in gardens ; 
it is not a timber tree. 

Distribution and habitat. The sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna 
to the Tista, Chota NagjDur, in many parts of the Indian Peninsula, and in 
Martaban and Tenasserim. The tree frequents moist and even swampy 
ground along streams and in shady ravines, where it is sometimes more or less 
gregarious. In the Dehra Dun valley it is characteristic of swamp forests, in 
association with Putranjiva Roxburghii, Ficus glomerata, Eugenia Jambolana, 
Pterosjperrnum acerifolium, Carallia lucida, Trewia nudijiora, Bischoffia javanica, 
and a few other species. In the Sundarbans it is found on old village sites in 
the interior. 

Flowering and fruiting. In northern India the creamy white fragrant 
flowers appear from March to May along with the young leaves, which are 
bright crimson. The fruits begin to ripen about May in the following year, 
but may be found on the tree for a few months later ; they are more or less 
globose, 1-5-2 in. in diameter, covered with a red velvety tomentum (Fig. 
249, a) ; they contain about 5-8 seeds in a glutinous pulp. The seeds (Fig. 
249, b) are 0-6-0-8 in. by 0-4-0-45 in., compressed, with a fairly thick testa ; 
about 350-400 weigh 1 lb. The fertihty of fresh seed is high, but so far as 
tests at Dehra Dun show the seed does not retain its vitahty for a year. The 
fruits are eaten by fruit-bats and monkeys, and the seeds are distributed by 
their agency. 

Germination (Fig. 249, c-g). Epigeous. The radicle emerges from one 
end of the seed and descends rapidly, forming a black taproot of some length 
before the elongation of the hypocotyl is completed. The hypocotyl elongates 
by arching, and in straightening raises above ground the cotyledons enclosed 
in the testa and albumen. 'The cotyledons are caducous, and are usually left 



652 XXXVII. EBENACEAE 

wholly or partially enclosed in the seed-coat, falhng with it, or sometimes 
they extricate themselves, the testa falling to the ground, but they in their 
turn soon fall, leaving the pointed plumule, from which the first pair of 
foHage leaves soon expands. 
The seedling (Fig. 249). 

Boots : primary root long, thick, terete, tapering, black, at first fleshy, 
afterwards woody, minutely tomentose ; lateral roots moderate in number, 
short, fibrous, chiefly in apical part of main root. Hypocotyl distinct from 
root, lower portion 0-5-0-7 in, in length, swollen, grey or light greenish brown, 
upper portion, 1 5-2-2 in. in length, compressed, pink or green turning dark 
greenish brown, glabrescent or finely pubescent. Cotyledons : jDetiole 0-1 in. 
long, channelled above ; lamina 1-1-3 in. by 0-4-0-5 in., foliaceous, oblong 
lanceolate, entire, glabrous, pale pink, caducous, apices folded into the albu- 
men. Ste7n erect, compressed, pubescent, dark greenish brown, young parts 
red ; internodes 0-2-0-7 in. long. Leaves simple, exstipulate, first one or two 
pairs opposite or sub-opposite, subsequent leaves alternate or sub-opposite. 
Petiole 0-1-0-2 in. long, flattened above, minutely pubescent. Lamina 1-5-3 in. 
by 0-4-0-7 in., oblong lanceolate, entire, dark green, smooth, shining, coriaceous, 
glabrous above, pubescent on midrib beneath, young leaves red. 

The growth of the seedhng is very slow, averaging only a few inches 
a year for the first three years. Seedlings raised at Dehra Dun attained the 
following maximum heights by the end of the first five seasons : (1) 6 in., (2) 
8 in., (3) 10 in., (4) 2 ft. 9 in., (5) 3 ft. 2 in. A long taproot is developed early, 
and may attain a length of 9 in. within a month of germination ; its subsequent 
growth is slower, a length of about 18 in. being ordinarily attained by the end 
of the second season. 

In their earlier stages the seedlings are subject to the attacks of insects, 
while birds, squirrels, and hares bite off the young shoots. Seedlings are 
sensitive to frost and drought ; they require shade for their best development, 
and are apt to die off if exposed to a hot sun. They also require plentiful 
moisture in the soil. 

SiLVicuLTXJRAL CHARACTERS. The tree is a shade-bearer ; in the natural 
state young plants develop freely under a fairly heavy canopy. It thrives 
with abundance of moisture in the soil, and along streams and in swampy 
ground it is sometimes found growing with its roots submerged in running 
water ; very moist ground, however, is not essential for its growth, since it 
is found wild, and is often cultivated, on ordinary loam, where it thrives, 
provided the soil is not too dry. 

Natural reproduction. The seed is frequently spread by animals, 
particularly monkeys and fruit-bats, and possibly also by birds ; groups of 
seedlings have been observed in the forks of trees several feet above ground, 
from seed carried by fruit-bats and passed out in their excreta. 

The fruits themselves fall to the ground from about June or July onwards, 
and soon dry up or rot, the seeds being exposed ; provided the latter become 
buried within a reasonable time, or are lying in a moist shady place, germination 
takes place during the rainy season, but seeds lying exposed in the open usually 
fail to germinate. 

Artificial reproduction. Seedlings can be raised in the imrsery and 
transplanted successfully provided care is taken not to injure the long taproot. 



a 







a Fruit b Seed 



Fig. 249. Diospyros Embryopteris Seedling x ^ 
c - g Germination stages h - j Development of seedling to end of first season 



DIOSPYROS 653 

Fresh seed should be sown in the seed-beds about July, the seeds being placed 
about 4 in. apart in drills 9 in. apart. The soil should be well worked up before 
sowing, and subsequently prevented from caking, and the beds should be shaded 
and well watered in dry weather. The seedlings usually appear in two to 
three weeks after sowing. Transplanting may be done either in the first or 
in the second rainy season ; dry situations exposed to the sun should be avoided, 
the seedlings being planted if possible under moderate shade, preferably from 
the side. Watering maj^ be necessary for a time after transj^lanting. If the 
trees are grown for their fruit, wide spacing, say 20 ft. by 20 ft. or even more, 
is necessary owing to the spreading nature of the crowns. 

Rate of growth. The rate of growth is moderate. A cross-section in 
the silvicultural museum at Dehra Dun had 70 rings for a girth of 3 ft. 3 in., 
or a mean annual girth increment of 0-56 in. Brandis gives 7-8 rings per 
inch of radius, representing a mean annual girth increment of 0-78-0-9 in. 

3. Diospyros Kiirzii, Hiern. Andaman marble-wood or zebra-wood. 
Vern. Pecha-da, And. ; Kala lakri, Hind, (in Andamans) ; Thitkya, Burm. (in 
Andamans). 

An evergreen tree with thin smooth grey bark, ordinarily attaining 
a height of 40 to 50 ft. with a clear bole of 15 to 20 ft. and a girth up to 5 ft. ; 
occasionally it reaches larger dimensions. The wood, which is known on the 
London market, is a valuable and very handsome variegated ebony with 
alternating streaks of black and grey ; the out-turn of variegated wood from 
the log is, however, comparatively small. 

The tree is found throughout the Andamans, and occurs also in the Nicobars 
and Coco Islands. It is found scattered in semi-deciduous and evergreen 
forests, usually on low-lying and undulating ground, along with padauk {Ptero- 
carpus dalbergioides) and its associates. Its silviculture has not been studied 
in detail. 

4. Diospyros biirmanica, Kurz. Vern. Te, Burm. 

A small to moderate-sized deciduous tree with rigid branches. Bark 
rough, blackish. This tree is common in Burma in indaing forest of a dry 
type, usually on laterite, along with Dipterocarpus tubercidatus, Shorea oblusa, 
Pentacme suavis, Buchanania latifolia, and other trees characteristic of this 
type of forest, and also in the dry open mixed forests of the dry zone of Burma. 
The flowers appear in March- April, and the fruits ripen in December-January ; 
they are 1-1-5 in. in diameter, sweet and edible when ripe. The tree produces 
root-suckers freely, and often springs up gregariously on abandoned cultiva- 
tion by means of suckers from roots left in the ground (see Fig. 245). 

5. Diospyros Ebenum, Koenig. Ebony. Vern. Karunkdli, Tam. ; Tuki, 
7iaUuti, Tel. ; Kaluwara, Cingli. 

A large evergreen tree with a dense crown and thick dark coriaceous 
leaves. Bark dark grey, rather rough, with longitudinal cracks. Mr. A. F. 
Broun ^ says that in Ceylon it attains a girth up to 14 ft. ; in India it is of com- 
paratively small size. The heartwood furnishes the true ebony of commerce, 
a jet-black, very hard, close-grained wood, used for turnery, carving, piano- 
keys, and fine ornamental work of various kinds. The tree is of great com- 
mercial importance in Ceylon, whence the wood is regularly exported to 

1 Ind. Forester, xxv (1899), p. 275. 



654 XXXVII. EBENACEAE 

Europe and elsewhere ; in India, however, the trees are neither large nor 
common enough to be of any great importance commercially. 

Distribution and habitat. Sparsely scattered in the forests of the 
Deccan and Carnatic, chiefly in Kurnool and Cuddapah, scarcer farther south. 
Bourdillon says that in Travancore it has been found only in the Anjinaud 
valley in the north, but it may also occur on the slopes above Puliyan and 
near Panagudi. It is a tree of the dry regions, and occurs chiefly in dry ever- 
green forests. 

In Ceylon, according to Mr. Broun, it is most abundant in the dry zone, 
and the richer forests are all in the northern half of the island, especially in 
the eastern portion of the North Central Province ; it is also well represented 
in the Northern and North-Western Provinces. Outside the dry zone it 
occurs in the intermediate zone, and in the south of the island it penetrates 
even into the moist zone. The best ebony is found on rocky well-drained soil, 
usually on sandy loam with a good subsoil drainage, but at times on soil with 
a fair proportion of clay ; it is frequently found near watercourses which are 
dry during part of the year, but never on swampy soil. It does not grow pure, 
but is found scattered in mixture with many other species, including Chloro- 
xylon Swietenia, Mimusops hexandra, Nephelium Longana, Gleniea zeylanica, 
Vitex altissima, Albizzia odoratissima, Berrya Ammonilla (on moister soils), 
and other species of Diospyros. 

Flowering and fruiting. In Ceylon the flowers appear about March, 
but the flowering season seems to be rather irregular ; the fruits usually ripen 
before the north-east monsoon, that is, about September-October, but the 
tree is said occasionally to seed twice a year. Good seed-years are somewhat 
irregular, and the seed is hable to the attacks of weevils (Broun). 

SiLVicuLTURAL CHARACTERS. The Seedlings endure a fair amount of 
shade, but after they have estabhshed themselves the admission of light 
directly overhead is beneficial. Mr. Broun considers that it is best not to 
admit too much light until the maximum height is reached, when space should 
be given for the development of the crown. 

Rate of growth. The rate of growth is slow. Mr. Broun gives for 
Ceylon the following average figures, which, however, he admits to be only 
tentative : 

Girth, Corresponding age. 

ft. in. years. 

16 25 

3 75 

4 6 135 
6 200 

6. Diospyros Chloroxylon, Roxb. Vern. Ninai, netisi, Mar. ; Ullingi, Tel. 

A large shrub or small tree, often spinescent. Bark rdugh, dark grey, 
with small rectangular corky scales. Wood yellowish grey. This is a useful 
fuel plant, and yields good fodder ; the fruits are edible. It is found in many 
parts of central and southern India, extending north to Orissa, C'handa, and 
Nasik. It is common in dry deciduous forests ; Gamble says it is common in 
the dry evergreen forests of Cuddapah, Kurnool, North Arcot, and ('hingleput, 
preferring laterite and sandstone hills, and is a useful fuel plant ; Haines says 
it is common on cotton soil in North and South Chanda. 



DIOSPYROS 655 

The flowers appear in June-July, and the fruits ripen from January to 
April. The fruit is globose, smooth, shining, 0-3 in. in diameter, with 2-3 seeds. 
The seeds have a high percentage of fertility, and tests at Dehra Dun gave 
a fertility of 80 per cent, mth seeds kept for one year. Experimental plots 
at Dehra Dun showed that under natural conditions germination starts early 
in the rainy season, and that, as in the case of D. Melanoxylon and D. montana, 
if the seed is not buried, the young taproot may creep along the surface of the 
ground for some time in its efforts to penetrate the soil. In this case if exposed 
to the sun the seedling soon perishes, but under shade it may remain alive 
and vigorous ; seedlings with two well developed foliage leaves have been 
observed with their taproots still creeping along the surface of the ground and 
developing lateral rootlets, although not yet established in the soil. The seed- 
hngs are capable of standing a considerable amount of shade and of persisting 
under grass ; they orchnarily reach a height of 4-6 in. in the first season. 
The tree produces root-suckers. 

7. Diospyros montana, Roxb., incl. D. cordifolia, Roxb. Vern. Bistendu, 
Hind. ; Tembhurni, Mar. ; Vakkanai, Tam. ; Chok, Burm. 

A small to moderate-sized, very variable, deciduous tree, often spinescent. 
Nowhere very common, but widely distributed in deciduous forests throughout 
the greater part of India and in Burma (var. cordifolia only). The wood does 
not furnish any black heartwood. The flowers appear from March to June, 
and the fruits ripen from December to February (northern India), but the 
fruiting season appears to vary ; Bourdillon (Travancore) and Talbot (Bombay) 
say the rainy season. On three occasions I have received fresh seeds from the 
Central Provinces in June- July. The fruit is globose or ovoid, 0-7-1 -2 in. 
in diameter, greenish yellow, turning black. The seeds are 0-6-1 -1 in. by 
0-4-0-5 in., brown, compressed ; the percentage of fertility is high. 

Under natural conditions the seed germinates early in the rainy season, 
and if it lies unburied the taproot may crawl along the surface of the ground 
for some time before it succeeds in penetrating the soil, as in the case of D. 
Melanoxylon and D. Chloroxylon. Under these conditions, if exposed to the 
sun, the germinating seedlings are liable to perish, but under shade they persist 
for some time until the taproot eventually establishes itself. Grass and weed- 
growth also act as an efficient protection during germination. The seedlings 
are capable of standing fairly dense shade. Their growth is slow. 

8. Diospyros ehretioides. Wall. Vern. Aukchinsa, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with spreading branches and large leaves up to 
1 ft. or more in length. The wood, which is grey with darker streaks, some- 
times handsomely mottled, is not much used. This is a familiar tree in the 
mixed deciduous forests of Burma, both in the upper and in the lower mixed 
types, though perhaps commoner in the latter. It is somewhat shade-bearing, 
its spreading crown being often conspicuous below an upper, story. The 
fruits ripen in the cold season and are eaten by horn