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Full text of "The simple cobler of Aggawam by Nathaniel Ward; a reprint of the 4th edition, published in 1647, with fac-similes of title page, preface, and head-lines, and exact text, and an essay, Nathaniel Ward and The simple cobler"

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To help mend his Native Country, la 
mentably tattered^both in the upper-Leather 
and folc.with all the honcft ft itches be can take. 

And as willing never to bee paid for his work, 
by Old Englifh wonted pay. 

It is bis Trade to patch all they ear long, gratis, 
Therefore I pray Gentlemen keep your purfes. 

By Theodore de U Guard. 
> fourth Edition^ withfomc Amendments. 

In rebus trdnis AC tenri fpe, fortifsim* 
qtrt<iueco*fili*ttttifsima funf. 

In Englidi, : -; ,> : . ; 

When bootes awl iliocs arc tornc up to the lett i, 
CoblerJ rouft thraft their awles up to th 

This Ji no time to feare Aple* grtmm \ 



Printed by J. 2>. at It. /. for Styht* BtfoteS. at the fignc of the 
Bible in Popes Head- Alley, 1647. " 



- - *- . ? * 




fray wake a little roorte for a 
Cobler, \>u work WM^done in time, 
but a Jhip fettiyg Jayle one day 
too foon makes it appear e Jome 
weeks too late Seeing lee is Jo 
reafonablea* to demand no other 
pay for bit labour and leather, but le<fi>i to pay us 
reft/or our faults, let it be mil accepted, as Coun^ 
fell in Mr occajions to come y and a* TsJKriUny to w1x& 

J I r 0! ^ ; 
By a Friend. 



ITHER I am in an Appoplexie, or 
that man is in a Lethargic, who 
doth not now fenfibly feele God 
fhaking the heavens over his head, 
and the earth under his feet: The 
Heavens fo, as the Sun begins to 
turne into darkneffe,the Moon in 
to blood, the Star res to fall down 
to the ground; So that little Light of Comfort or 
Counfell is left to the fonnes of men : The Earth fo, 
as the foundations are failing, the righteous fcarce 
know where to finde reft, the inhabitants ftagger like 
drunken men : it is in a manner diffolved both in Re 
ligions and Relations: And no marvell; for, they 
have defiled it by tranfgreffing the Lawes, changing 
the Ordinances, and breaking the Everlafting Cove 
nant. The Truths of God are the Pillars of the 
world, whereon States and Churches may ftand 
quiet if they will; if they will not, Hee can eafily 
fhake them off into delufions, and diftractions e- 


The Simple CoUer of 

Sathan is now in his paffions, he feeles his paffion 
approaching; hee loves to fifh in royled waters. 
Though that Dragon cannot fting the vitals of the 
Elect mortally, yet that Beelzebub can fly-blow their 
Intellectuals miferably: The Y finer Religion grows, 
the finer hee fpins his Cobwebs, hee will hold pace 
with Chrift fo long as his wits will ferve him. Hee 
fees himfelfe beaten out of groffe Idolatries, Herefies, 
Ceremonies, where the Light breakes forth with 
power; he will therefore beftirre him to prevaricate 
Evangelicall Truths, and Ordinances, that if they 
will needs be walking, yet they fhall laborare varici- 
bus, and not keep their path, he will put them out of 
time and place; Affaffinating for his Engineers, men 
of Paracelfian parts; well complexioned for ho- 
nefty; for, fuch are fitteft to Mountebanke his 
Chimiftry into ficke Churches and weake Judge 

Nor fhall hee need to ftretch his ftrength over 
much in this worke: Too many men having not 
laid their foundations fure, nor ballafted their Spirits 
deepe with humility and feare, are preft enough of 
themf elves to evaporate their ow T ne apprehenfions. 
Thofe that are acquainted with Story know, it hath 
ever beene fo in new Editions of Churches: Such as 
are leaft able, are moft bufie to pudder in the rubbifh, 
and to raife duft in the eyes of more fteady Repay- 
rers. Civill Commotions make roome for uncivill 
practifes: Religious mutations, for irreligious opi 
nions: Change of Aire, difcovers corrupt bodies; 
Reformation of Religion, unfound mindes. Hee that 
hath any well-faced phanfy in his Crowne, and doth 


AGGAVVAM in America. s 

not vent it now, fears the pride of his owne heart will 
dub him dunce for ever. Such a one will trouble the 
whole Ifrael of God with his moft untimely births, 
though he makes the bones of his vanity ftick up, to 
the view and grief e of all that are godly wife. The 
devill defiers no better fport then to fee light heads 
handle their heels, and fetch their carreers in a time, 
when the Roofe of Liberty ftands open. 

The next perplexed Queftion, with pious and pon 
derous men, will be: What fhould bee done for the 
healing of thefe comfortleffe exulcerations. I am the 
unableft advifer of a thoufand, the unworthieft of ten 
thoufand; yet I hope I may prefume to affert what 
follows without juft offence. 

Firft, fuch as have given or taken any unfriendly 
reports of us New-Englifh, fhould doe well to recol 
lect themfelves. Wee have beene reputed a Colluvies 
of wild Opinionifts, fwarmed into a remote wilder- 
nes to find elbow-roome for our phanatick Doctrines 
and practifes: I truft our diligence paft, and conftant 
fedulity againft fuch perfons and courfes, will plead 
better things for us. I dare take upon me, to bee the 
Herauld of New-England fo farre, as to proclaime to 
the world, in the name of our Colony, that all Fami- 
lifts, Antinomians, Anabaptifts, and other Enthufiafts 
fhall have free Liberty to keepe away from us, and 
fuch as will come to be gone as faft as they can, the 
fooner the better. 

Secondly, I dare averre, that God doth no where 
in his word tolerate Chriftian States, to give Tolera 
tions to fuch adverfaries of his Truth, if they have 
power in their hands to fuppreffe them. 

B Here 

Tie Simple Colter of 

Here is lately brought us an Extract of a Magna 
Charta, fo called, compiled between the Sub-planters 
of a Weft-Indian If land; whereof the firft Article of 
conftipulation, firmly provides free ftable-room and 
litter for all kinde of confciences, be they never fo 
dirty or jadifh; making it actionable, yea, treaf on- 
able, to difturbe any man in his Religion, or to dif- 
commend it, whatever it be. Wee are very forry to 
fee fuch profeffed prophaneneffe in Enghfh Profef- 
fors, as induftrioufly to lay their Religious foundati 
ons on the ruine of true Religion ; which ftrictly binds 
every confcience to contend earneftly for the Truth: to 
preferve unity of fpirit, Faith and Ordinances, to be all 
like minded, of one accord; every man to take his bro 
ther into his Chriftian care: to ftand fa ft with one fpi- 
rit 9 with one mind, ftriving together for the faith of the 
Go/pel, and by no meanes to permit Herefies or er- 
ronious opinions: But God abhorring fuch loath- 
fome beverages, hath in his righteous judgement 
blafted that enterprize, which might otherwise have 
profpered well, for ought I know; I prefume their 
cafe is generally knowne ere this. 

If the devill might have his free option, I beleeve 
he would ask nothing else, but liberty to enfranchize 
all falfe Religions, and to embondage the true; nor 
fhould hee need: It is much to be feared, that laxe 
Tolerations upon State-pretences and planting necef- 
fities, will be the next fubtle Stratagem he will fpread 
to diftate the Truth of God and fupplant the peace of 
the Churches. Tolerations in things tolerable, ex- 
quifitely drawn out by the lines of the Scripture, and 
penfill of the Spirit, are the facred favours of Truth, 


AGGAVVAM in America. 

the due latitudes of Love, the faire Compartiments of 
Chriftian fraternity : but irregular difpenfations, dealt 
forth by the facilities of men, are the frontiers of er 
ror, the redoubts of Schifme, the perillous irritaments 
of carnall and fpirituall enmity. 

My heart hath naturally detefted f oure things : The 
itanding of the Apocrypha in the Bible; Forrainers 
dwelling in my Countrey, to crowd out native Sub 
jects into the corners of the Earth; Alchymized 
coines; Tolerations of divers Religions, or of one 
Religion in fegregant fhapes: He that willingly af- 
fents to the laft, if he examines his heart by day-light, 
his confcience will tell him, he is either an Atheift, or 
an Heretique, or an Hypocrite, or at beft a captive to 
fome Luft: Poly-piety is the greateft impiety in the 
world. True Religion is Ignis probationis, which doth 
congregare homogenea & fegregare heterogenea. 

Not to tolerate things meerly indifferent to weak 
confciences, argues a confcience too ftrong: preffed 
uniformity in thefe, caufes much difunity: To tole 
rate more then indifferents, is not to deale indifferent 
ly with God : He that doth it, takes his Scepter out of 
his hand, and bids him ftand by. Who hath to doe to 
inftitute Religion but God. The power of all Religion 
and Ordinances, lies in their purity: their purity in 
their fimplicity: then are mixtures pernicious. J lived 
in a City, where a Papift preached in one Church, a 
Lutheran in another, a Calvinift in a third; a Luthe 
ran one part of the day, a Calvinift the other, in the 
fame Pulpit: the Religion of that place was but mot- 
ly and meagre, their affections Leopard-like. 

If the whole Creature fhould confpire to doe the 

B 2 Crea- 

6 The Simple Colter of 

Creator a mifchiefe, or offer him an infolency, it 
would be in nothing more, than in erecting untruths 
againft his Truth, or by fophifticating his Truths 
with humane medleyes: the removing of fome one 
jota in Scripture, may draw out all the life, and tra- 
verfe all the Truth of the whole Bible: but to autho- 
rife an untruh, by a Toleration of State, is to build a 
Sconce againft the walls of heaven, to batter God out 
of his Chaire: To tell a practicall lye, is a great fin, 
but yet tranfient; but to fet up a Theoricall untruth, is 
to warrant every lye that lyes from its root to the top 
of every branch it hath, which are not a few. 

I would willingly hope that no Member of the 
Parliament hath skilfully ingratiated himfelfe into the 
hearts of the Houfe, that he might watch a time to 
midwife out fome ungracious Toleration for his own 
turne, and for the fake of that, fome other, I would 
alfo hope that a word of generall caution fhould not 
be particularly mif applied. I am the freer to fuggeft 
it, becaufe I know not one man of that mind, my aime 
is generall, and I defire may be fo accepted. Yet good 
Gentlemen, look well about you, and remember how 
Tiberius play d the Fox with the Senate of Rome, and 
how Fabius Maximus cropt his ears for his cunning. 

That State is wife, that will improve all paines and 
patience rather to compofe, then tolerate differences in 
Religion. There is no divine Truth, but hath much 
Cceleftiall fire in it from the Spirit of Truth: nor no 
irreligious untruth, without its proportion of Antifire 
from the fpirit of Error to contradict it: the zeale of 
the one, the virulency of the other, muft neceffarily 
kindle Combuftions. Fiery difeafes feated in the 


AGGAVVAM in America. 

fpirit, imbroile the whole frame of the body: others 
more externall and coole, are leffe dangerous. They 
which divide in Religion, divide in God; they who 
divide|in him, divide beyond Genus Generali/fimum, 
where there is no reconciliation, without atonement; 
that is, without uniting in him, who is One, and in 
his Truth, which is alfo one. 

* -.Wife are thofe men who will be perfwaded rather 
to live within the pale of Truth where they may bee 
quiet, than in the purlieves, where they are fure to be 
hunted ever & anon, do Authority what it can. Every 
fingular Opinion, hath a fingular opinion of it felf ; and 
he that holds it a fingular opinion of himfelf , & a f im- 
ple opinion of all contra-fentients : he that confutes 
them, muft confute al three at once, or elfe he does no 
thing; which will not be done without more ftir than 
the peace of the State or Church can indure. 

And prudent are thofe Chriftians, that will rather 
give what may be given, then hazard all by yeelding 
nothing. To fell all peace of Country, to buy fome 
peace of confcience unfeafonably, is more avarice than 
thrift, imprudence than patience : they deal not equal 
ly, that fet any Truth of God at fuch a rate; but they 
deal wifely that will ftay till the Market is fallen. 

My prognof ticks deceive me not a little, if once 
within three feaven years, peace prove not fuch a pen 
ny-worth at moft Marts in Chriftendome, that hee 
that would not lay down his money, his luft, his opi 
nion, his will, I had almoft faid the beft flower of his 
Crowne for it, while he might have had it; will tell 
his own heart, he plaid the very ill husband. 

Concerning Tolerations I may further affert. 

B 3 That 

8 The Simple Cobler of 

That Perfecution of true Religion, and Toleration 
of f alfe, are the Jannes and Jambres to the Kingdome 
of Chrift, whereof the la ft is farre the worft. Augu- 
ftines tongue had not owed his mouth one penny-rent 
though he had never fpake word more in it, but this, 
Nullum malum pejus libertate errandi. 

Frederick Duke of Saxon, fpake not one foote be 
yond the mark when he faid. He had rather the Earth 
fhould fwallow him up quick, then he fhould give a 
toleration to any opinion againft any truth of God. 

He that is willing to tolerate any Religion, or dif- 
crepant way of Religion, befides his own, unleffe it 
be in matters meerly indifferent, either doubts of his 
own, or is not fincere in it. 

He that is willing to tolerate any unfound Opinion, 
that his own may alfo be tolerated, though never fo 
found, will for a need hang Gods Bible at the Devills 

Every Toleration of falfe Religions, or Opinions 
, hath as many Errours and fins in it, as all the falfe 
Religions and Opinions it tolerats, and one found 
one more. 

That State that will give Liberty of Confcience in 

, matters of Religion, muft give Liberty of Confcience 

and Converfation in their Morall Laws, or elfe the 

Fiddle will be out of tune, and fome of the ftrings 


He that will rather make an irreligious quarell with 
other Religions then try the Truth of his own by va 
luable Arguments, and peaceable Sufferings; either 
his Religion, or himfelfe is irreligous. 

Experience will teach Churches and Chriftians, 


AGGAVVAM in America. 9 

that it is farre better to live in a State united, though 
a little Corrupt, then in a State, whereof fome Part 
is incorrupt, and all the reft divided. 

I am not altogether ignorant of the eight Rules gi 
ven by Orthodox divines about giving Tolerations, 
yet with their favour I dare affirme, 

That there is no Rule given by God for any State 
to give an affirmative Toleration to any falfe Religi 
on, or Opinion whatfoever; they muft connive in 
fome Cafes, but may not concede in any. 

That the State of England (fo farre as my Intelli 
gence ferves) might in time have prevented with eafe 
and may yet without any great difficultie deny both 
Toleration, and irregular connivences falva Republica. 

That if the State of England fhall either willingly 
Tolerate, or weakly connive at fuch Courfes, the 
Church of that Kingdome will fooner become the 
Devils dancing-Schoole, then Gods Temple: The 
Civill State a Beare-garden, then an Exchange: The 
whole Realme a Pais bafe then an England. And 
what pity it is, that that Country which hath been the 
Staple of Truth to all Chriftendome, fhould now be 
come the Aviary of Errors to the whole world, let 
every fearing heart judge. 

I take Liberty of Confcience to be nothing but a 
freedome from fmne, and error. Confcientia in tantum 
libera, in quantum ab errore liberata. And Liberty of 
Errour nothing but a Prifori for Confcience. Then 
fmall will be the kindneffe of a State to build fuch Pri- 
fons for their Subjects. 

The Scripture faith, there is nothing makes free but 
Truth, and Truth faith, there is no Truth but one: 


10 The Simple^Cobler of 

If the States of the World would make it their fumm- 
operous Care to preferve this One Truth in its purity 
and Authority it would eafe you of all other Politi- 
call cares. I am fure Sathan makes it his grand, if not 
only taske, to adulterate Truth; Falfhood is his fole 
Scepter, whereby he firft ruffled, and ever fince ruined 
the World. 

If Truth be but One, me thinks all the Opinionifts 
in^England fhould not be all in that One Truth, fome 
of a them I doubt are out. He that can extract an unity 
out of fuch a difparity, or contract fuch a difparity in 
to an unity; had need be a better Artift, then ever was 

If two Centers (as we may fuppofe) be in one Cir 
cle, and lines drawn from both to all the points of the 
Compaffe, they will certainly croffe one another, and 
probably cut through the Centers themf elves. 

There is talk of an univerfall Toleration, I would 
talke as loud as I could againft it, did I know what 
more apt and reafonable Sacrifice England could offer 
to God for his late performing all his heavenly Truths 
then an univerfall Toleration of all hellifh Errors, or 
how they fhall make an univerfall Reformation, but 
by making Chrifts Academy the Divills Univerfity, 
where any man may commence Heretique per faltum; 
where he that is filius Diabolicus, or fimpliciter pef- 
fimus, may have his grace to goe to Hell cum Publico 
Privilegio; and carry as many after him, as he can. 

Religio docenda eft, non coercenda is a prety piece of 
album Latinum for fome kinde of throats that are wil 
lingly fore, but Hcerefis dedocenda eft non permittenda 9 
will be found a farre better Diamoron for the Gar- 


AGGAVVAM in America. 


garifmes this Age wants, if timely and throughly 

If there be roome in England for 


r M.tnes 













the rom 

L fnr < 




* iv/i 






* By Brownifts 


I mean not In 
dependents, be- 


Brorvnifts * 


dew-clawd Se- 
peratifts: far 
be it from me 

Men but 


Good Spi- 
rits,but ve 
ry Devils. 

Pega fides. 


to wrong godly 
I truely ac 
that I judge 

" -*^ - 

my felf neither 


\ word room for Hell above ground. 

able nor wor 
thy to honour 

fome of them 

Tt ic { air 

TVirmo-Vi fl mjin liavp liVVit enoiiO"h himffl 

as they deferve 

to fee the Truth, yet if he hath not enough to enligh 
ten others, he is bound to tolerate them, I will engage 
my felf, that all the Devills in Britanie f hall fell them- 
felves to their fhirts, to purchafe a Leafe of this Pofi- 

C tion 

Tie Simple Colter of 

tion for three of their Lives, under the Seale of the 

It is faid, That Men ought to have Liberty of their 
Conference, and that it is perfecution to debarre them 
of it: I can rather ftand amazed then reply to this: 
it is an aftonifhment to think that the braines of men 
fhould be parboyl d in fuch impious ignorance; Let 
all the wits under the Heavens lay their heads toge 
ther and finde an Affertion worfe then this (one ex- 
cepted) I will petition to be chofen the univerfall I- 
deot of the world. 

It is faid, That Civill Magiftrates ought not to 
meddle with Ecclefiafticall matters. 

I would anfwer to this fo well as I could, did 
I not know that fome papers lately brought out of 
New- England, are going to the Preffe, wherein the 
Opinions of the Elders there in a late Synod, concer 
ning this point are manifefted, which I fuppofe will 
give clearer fatisf action then I can. 

The true Englifh of all this their f alfe Latine, is no 
thing but a generall Toleration of all Opinions; 
which motion if it be like to take, it were very requi- 
fite, that the City would repaire Pauls with all the 
fpeed they can, for an Englifh Pantheon, and beftow 
it upon the Sectaries, freely to affemble in, then there 
may be fome hope that London will be quiet in time. 

But why dwell I fo intolerable long about Tolera 
tions, I hope my fears are but panick, againft which 
I have a double cordiall. First, that the Parliament 
will not though they could: Secondly, that they can 
not though they would grant fuch Tolerations. God 
who hath fo honoured them with eminent wifdome 


AGGAVVAM in dmtrica. is 

in all other things, will not fuffer them to caft both 
his, and their Honour in the duft of perpetuall Infa 
my, doe what they can; nor fhall thofe who have 
fpent fo great a part of their fubftance in redeeming 
their Civill Liberties from Ufurpation, lofe all that 
remaines in enthralling their fpirituall Liberty by To 

It is faid Opinionifts are many, and ftrong, that de 
funt Vires, that it is turbata respublica, I am very for- 
ry for it, but more forry, if defpondency of minde 
fhall caufe the leaft tergiverfation in Gods Worthies, 
who have receiv d fuch pledges of his prefence in their 
late Counfels, and Conflicts. It is not thoufands of O- 
pinionifts that can pinion his Everlafting armes, I can 
hardly beleeve there is a greater unbeleever then my 
Selfe, yet I can verily beleeve that the God of Truth 
will in a fhort time fcatter them all like fmoake be 
fore the wind. I confeffe I am troubled to fee Men 
fo over-troubled about them; I am rather glad to 
heare the Devill is breaking up houfe in England, and 
removing fomewhither elfe, give him leave to fell all 
his rags, and odde-ends by the out-cry; and let his 
petty Chapmen make their Market while they may, 
upon my poore credit it will not laft long. Hee that 
hath done fo much for England will go on to perfect 
his owne praife, and his Peoples Peace: Let good 
men ftand ftill, and behold his further Salvation. He 
that fitteth in the Heavens laughs at them, the moft 
High hath them in Derifion, and their folly fhall cer 
tainly be manifefted to all men. 

Yet I dare not but adde, and in the Name of God 
will adde, that if any Publique members of Church or 

C 2 State, 

14 The Simple Colter of 

State, have been either open fautors, or private abet- 
ters of any blafphemous, contagious Opinions, It will 
be their wifdome to proportion their repentance to 
their Sin, before God makes them Publique monu 
ments of Ignominie, and Apoftafie. 

Thirdly, That all Chriftian States, ought to dif- 
avow and decry all fuch Errors, by fome peremp 
tory Statutary Act, and that in time, that Subjects 
knowing fully the minde of the State, might not de 
lude themfelves with vaine hopes of unfufferable 
Liberties. It is leffe to fay, Statuatur veritas, mat 
Regnum, than Fiat juftitia, ruat Ccelum; but there is no 
fuch danger in either of them. Feare nothing Gentle 
men, Rubiconemtranfiiftis, jacta eft alea, ye have turned 
the Devill out of doores; fling all his old parrell after 
him out at the windows, left he makes another errand 
for it againe. Quw relinquuntur in morbis poft indica- 
tionem, recidivas facer e conf never e. Chrift would have 
his Church without fpot or wrinckle; They that help 
make it fo, fhall lofe neither honour nor labour: If 
yee be wife, fuffer no more thorns in his fides or your 
owne. When God kindles fuch fires as thefe, hee 
doth not ufually quench them, till the very fcum on 
the pot fides be boy led cleane away, Ezek. 24. 10, 11. 
Yee were better to doe it your felves, than leave it to 
him: the Arme of the Lord is mighty, his hand very 
heavy; who can dwell with his devouring fire, and 
long lafting burnings ? 

Fourthly, to make fpeedy provifion againft Ob- 
ftinates and Diffeminaries : where under favour, two 
things will be found requifite. First, variety of pe- 
naltyes, I meane certaine, not indefinite: I am a 


AGGAVVAM in America. 15 

Crabbat againft Arbitrary Government. Experi 
ence hath taught us here, that political!, domefticall, 
and perfonall refpects, will not admit one and the 
fame remedy for all, without fad inconveniences. Se 
condly, juft feverity: perfecution hath ever fpread 
Truth, profecution fcattered Errour: Ten of the moft 
Chriftian Emperors, found that way beft; Schollars 
know whom I meane: Five of the ancient Fathers 
perfw^aded to it, of whom Auguftine was one, who 
for a time argued hard for indulgency : but upon con 
ference with other prudent Bifhops, altered his judge 
ment, as appears in three of his Epiftles, to Marcelli- 
nus, Donatus, and Boniface. I would be underftood, 
not onely an Allower, but an humble Petitioner, that 
ignorant and tender confcienced Anabaptifts may 
have due time and means of conviction. 

Fifthly, That every Prophet, to whom God hath 
given the tongue of the learned, fhould teach, and e- 
very Angel who hath a pen and inkehorne by his 
fide write againft thefe grieving extravagancies: 
writing of many books, I grant is irkefome, reading 
endleffe. A reaf enable man would thinke Divines 
had declaimed fufficiently upon thefe Themes. I have 
ever thought the Rule given, Titus 3. 10. which cuts 
the work fhort and fharpe to be more properly pre 
valent, then wearifome waiting upon unweariable 
Spirits. It is a most toylfome taske to run the wild- 
goofe chafe after a well-breath d Opinionift: they 
delight in vitilitigation : it is an itch that loves alife 
to be fcrub d: they defire not fatisf action, but fatif- 
diction, whereof themfelves muft be judges: yet in 
new eruptions of Error with new objections, filence 
is finfull. C 3 As 

ic The Simple Colter of 

As for my felf, I am none of the difputers of this 
world: all I can doe, is to gueffe when men fpeak 
true or f alfe Divinity : if I can but finde the parentall 
root, or formall reafon of a Truth, I am quiet; if I 
cannot, I fhore up my f lender judgement as long as 
I can, with two or three the handfomeft props I can 
get: I fhall therefore leave Arguments to acuter 
heads, and onely fpeak a word of Love, with all 
Chriftian refpect to our deare Brethren in England, 
which are againft Baptizing of Infants: I intreate 
them to confider thefe few things feriouf ly and meek 
ly. Firft, what a high pitch of boldneffe it is for man 
to cut a principall Ordinance out of the Kingdome of 
God; If it be but to make a dif location, which fo 
far difgoods the Ordinance, I feare it altogether un- 
hallows it, to tranfplace or tranftime a ftated Inftitu- 
tion of Chrift, without his direction, I thinke, is to 
deftroy it. Secondly, what a Cruelty it is to de- 
veft Children of that onely externall priviledge 
which their heavenly Father hath bequeathed them 
to intereft them vifibly in Himfelfe, His Son, His 
Spirit, His Covenant of Grace, and the tender bo- 
fome of their carefull Mother the Church. Thirdly, 
what an Inhumanity it is, to deprive Parents of that 
comfort they may take from the baptifme of their In 
fants dying in their Childehood. Fourthly, How 
unfeafonable and unkindly it is, to interturbe the 
State and Church with thefe Amalekitifh on-fets, 
when they are in their extreame pains of travell with 
their lives. Fifthly, to take a through view of thofe 
\vho have preambled this by path. Being fometimes 
in the Crowds of foraigne Wederdopers, that is, 


AGGAVVAM in, America. 17 

Anabaptifts; and prying into their inward frames 
with the beft eyes I had ; I could not but obferve thefe 
difeuifed guifes in the generality of them. 

Firft, a flat formality of Spirit without fait or fa 
vour in the fpiritualties of Chrift, as if their Religion 
began and ended in their Opinion. Secondly, a fhal- 
low flighting of fuch as difcent from them, appearing 
too often in their faces, fpeeches and carriages. Third 
ly, a feeble, yet peremptory obftinacy; feldome are 
any of them reclaimed. Fourthly, a fhamefull fliding 
into other fuch tarpauling tenets, to keep themf elves 
dry from the fhowers of luftice, as a rationall minde 
would never entertain, if it were not Errour-blafted 
from Heaven and Hell. I fhould as fhrewdly fufpect 
that Opinion, that will cordially corrive with tw r o or 
three fottifh errours, as that faith that can profeffedly 
live with two or three fordid fins. I dare not feare 
our godly Brethren in England to be yet comming to 
this paffe; how foon they may, themfelves know not, 
the times are flippery: They will undoubtedly finde 
God as jealous of his Ordinances, as themfelves are 
zealous of their Opinions. 

Sixthly, that Authority ought to fee their Subjects 
children baptized, though their Parents judgements 
be againft it, if there be no other Evangelicall barre 
in the way. 

Seventhly, that prudent men, efpecially young, 
fhould doe well not to ingage themfelves in confe 
rence with Errorifts, without a good calling and great 
caution; their breath is contagious, their leprey fprea- 
ding: receive not him that is weak, faith the Apoftle 
to doubtfull difputations ; much leffe may they run, 


is The Simple Colter of 

themfelves into dangerous Sophiftications. He ufually 
hears beft in their meetings, that ftops his ears clo- 
feft; he opens his mouth to beft purpofe, that keeps it 
fhut, and he doth beft of all, that declines their com 
pany as wifely as he may. 

Brethren, have an extraordinary care alfo of the 
late Theofophers, that teach men to climbe to heaven 
upon a ladder of lying figments. Rather then the de- 
vill will lofe his game, he will out-fhoot Chrift in his 
owne bow; he will out-law the Law, quite out of the 
word and world: over-Gofpell the Gofpell, and qui- 
danye Chrift, with Sugar and Rats-bane. Hee was 
Prof ef four not long fince at S chief tat in Al/atia, where 
he learned, that no poyfon is fo deadly as the poyfon 
of Grace. 

The wifeft way, when all is faid, is with all humi 
lity and feare, to take Chrift as himfelfe hath revealed 
himfelfe in his Gofpel, and not as the Devill prefents 
him to preftigiated fanfies. I have ever hated the 
way of the Rofie- Crucians, who reject things as 
Gods wifedome hath tempered them, and will have 
nothing but their Spirits. If I were to give phyfick to 
Spryts, I would do fo too: but when I want Phyfick 
for my body, I would not have my foule tartared: 
nor my Animall Spirits purged any way, but by my 
Naturall, and thofe by my bodily humours, and thofe 
by fuch Ordinaries, as have the neareft vicinage to 
them, and not by Metaphyficall Limbeckings. I can 
not thinke that materia prima or fecunda, fhould bee 
good for me, that am at leaft, Materia millefsima fex- 
centefima quadragefima quinta. 

Here I hold my felfe bound to fet up a Beacon, to 


AGGAVVAM in America. 19 

give warning of a new-fprung Sect of phrantaf ticks, 
which would perfwade themfelves and others, that 
they have difcovered the Nor-weft paffage to Hea 
ven. Thefe wits of the game, cry up and downe in 
corners fuch bold ignotions of a new Gofpell, new 
Chrift, new Faith, and new gay-nothings, as trouble 
unfetled heads, querulous hearts, and not a little grieve 
the Spirit of God. I defire all good men may be fa- 
ved from their Lunatick Creed, by Infidelity; and ra 
ther beleeve thefe torrid overtures will prove in time, 
nothing but horrid raptures downe to the loweft hell, 
from which he that would be delivered, let him avoid 
thefe blafphemers, a late fry of croaking Frogs, not 
to be indured in a Religious State, no, if it were pof- 
fible, not an houre. 

As fome are playing young Spaniels, quefting at 
every bird that rifes; fo others, held very good men, 
are at a dead ftand, not knowing what to doe or fay; 
and are therefore called Seekers, looking for new 
Nuntio s from Chrift, to affoile thefe benighted que- 
ftions, and to give new Orders for new Churches. I 
crave leave with all refpect to tell them, that if they 
looke into Act. 20. 20. 25. Gal. 1. 8. 9. 1 Tim. 6. 13.16. 
and finde them not there; they may happily feek as 
the young Prophets did for Eliah s corps, where it ne 
ver was, nor ever will be found. 

I cannot imagine why the Holy Ghoft fhould give 
Timothie the folemneft charge, was ever given mor- 
tall man, to obferve the Rules he had given, till the 
comming of Chrift, if new things muft be expected. 

Woe be to them, who ever they be, that fo trouble 
the wayes of God that they who have found the way 

D to 

20 The Simple Colter of 

to heaven cannot find the way to Church: And 
woe be to them, that fo gaze at the glorious light, 
they fay, will breake forth in the thoufand yeares to 
come, that they make little of the gratious Truth that 
hath been revealed thefe fixteen hundred years paft. 
And woe be to them that fo under- value the firft Ma- 
fter Builders, I mean the Apoftles of Chrift, that un- 
leffe he fends wifer than they, He muft be accounted 
leffe faithfull in his houfe than Mofes was. 

I have caufe enough to be as charitable to others 
as any man living; yet I cannot but feare, that thofe 
men never Moored their Anchors well in the firme 
foile of Heaven; that are weather-waft up and down 
with every eddy- wind of every new doctrine. The 

g)od Spirit of God doth not ufually tie up the 
elme, and fuffer paffengers to heaven to ride a drift, 
hither and thither, as every wave and current carries 
them: that is a fitter courfe for fuch as the Apoftle 
calls wandring Starrs and Meteors, without any cer- 
taine motion, hurried about with tempefts, bred of 
the Exhalations of their owne pride and felfe-witted- 
neffe: whofe damnation fleepeth not, and to whom 
the mift of darkneffe is referved for ever, that they 
may fuffer irreparable fhipwrack upon the Sands and 
Rocks of their owne Errors, being of old ordained 
to condemnation. 

Eightly, let all confiderate men beware of un 
grounded opinions in Religion : Since I knew what to 
feare, my heart hath dreaded three things: a bla 
zing ftarre appearing in the aire: a State Comet, I 
meane a favourite rifing in a Kingdome, a new Opi 
nion fpreading in Religion: thefe are Exorbitancies : 


AGGAVVAM in America. 

which is a formidable word; a vacuum and an exor 
bitancy, are mundicidious evils, Concerning Novel 
ties of opinions ; I fhall expreffe my thoughts in thefe 
brief e paffages. Firft, that Truth is the beft boone 
God ever gave the world: there is nothing in the 
world, world, any further then Truth makes it fo, it 
is better then any creat Ens or Bonum, which are but 
Truths twins. Secondly, the leaft Truth of Gods 
Kingdome, doth in its place, uphold the whole King- 
dome of his Truths; Take away the leaft vericulum 
out of the world, and it unworlds all, potentially, and 
may unravell the whole texture actually, if it be not 
conferved by an Arme of fuperiordinary power. 
Thirdly, the leaft Evangelicall Truth is more worth 
than all the Civill Truths in the world, that are meer- 
ly fo. Fourthly, that Truth is the Parent of all li 
berty whether politicall or perfonall; fo much un 
truth, fo much thraldome, I oh. 8. 32. 

Hence it is, that God is fo jealous of his Truths, that 
he hath taken order in his due juftice: Firft, that no 
practicall fin is fo finfull as fonie errour in judgement; 
no man fo accurfed with indelible infamy and dedo- 
lent impenitency, as Authors of Herefie. Second 
ly, that the leaft Error, if grown fturdy and preffed, 
fhall fet open the Spittle-doore of all the fquint-eyd , 
wry-necked, and brafen-faced Errors that are or ever 
were of that litter; if they be not enough to ferve its 
turne, it will beget more, though it hath not one cruft 
of reafon to maintain them. Thridly, that that State 
which will permit Errors in Religion, fhall admit Er 
rors in Policy unavoidably. Fourthly, that that Po 
licy which will fuffer irreligious errors, fhall fuffer the 

D 2 loffe 

The Simple Cotter of 

loffe of fo much Liberty in one kind or other, I will 
not exempt Venice, Rhagufe, the Cantons, the Nether 
lands, or any. 

ft^An eafie head may foon demonftrate, that the pre- 
mentioned Planters, by Tolerating all Religions, had 
immazed theinfelves in the moft intolerable confufi- 
ons and inextricable thraldomes the world ever heard 
of. I am perfwaded the Devill himfelfe was never 
willing with their proceedings, for feare it would 
breake his wind and wits to attend fuch a Province. 
I fpeak it ferioufly, according to my meaning. How 
all Religions fhould enjoy their liberty, Juftice its due 
regularity, Civill cohabitation morall honefty, in 
one and the fame Jurif diction, is beyond the Attique 
of my comprehenfion. If the whole conclave of Hell 
can fo compromife, exadverfe, and diametricall con 
tradictions, as to compolitize fuch a multimonftrous 
maufrey of heteroclytes and quicquidlibets quietly; I 
truft I may fay with all humble reverence, they can do 
more then the Senate of Heaven. My modus loquendi 
pardoned; I intirely wifh much welfare and more 
\vifdom to that Plantation. 

It is greatly to be lamented, to obferve the wanton 
fearleffeneffe of this Age, efpecially of younger pro- 
feffors, to greet new opinions and Opinionifts: as if 
former truths were growne fuperannuate, and fap- 
leffe, if not altogether antiquate. Non fenefcet veritas. 
No man ever faw a gray haire on the head or beard 
of any Truth, wrinckle, or morphew on its face: 
The bed of Truth is green all the yeare long. Hee 
that cannot folace himfelfe with any faving truth, as 
affectionately as at the firft acquaintance with it, 


AGGAVVAM in America. 

hath not only a faftidious, but an adulterous heart. 

If all be true we heare, Never was any people un 
der the Sun, fo fick of new opinions as Englifh-men\ 
nor of new fafhions as Englifh-women: If God helpe 
not the one, and the devill leave not helping the other, 
a blind man may eafily forefee what will become of 
both. I have fpoken what I intend for the prefent to 
men ; I fhall fpeak a word to the women anon : in the 
mean time I intreat them to prepare patience. 

Ninthly, that godly humble Chriftians ought not 
to wonder impatiently at the wonderfull workes of 
God in thefe times : it is full Seafon for him to worke 
Soveraign worke, to vindicate his Soveraignty, that 
men may feare before him. States are unftated, Ru 
lers growne Over-rulers, Subjects worfe then men, 
Churches-decayed. Tofts, Profeffors, empty casks 
filled with unholy humours; I fpeake not of all, but 
too many; I condemne not the generation of the juft 
God hath his remnant, whom he will carefully pre- 
ferve. If it bee time for men to take up Defenfive 
Arms against fuch as are called Gods, upon the point 
of Salus populi, it is high time for him that is God in 
deed, to draw his Sword againft wormes and no 
men, upon the point of Majeftas imperil: The pier 
cing of his Sword fhall difcover the thoughts of many 

Laftly, I dare averre, that it ill becomes Chriftians 
any thing well-fhod with the preparation of the 
Gofpel, to meditate flight from their deare Countrey 
upon thefe difturbances. Stand your grounds ye Ele- 
azars and Shammahs, ftir not a foot fo long as you 
have halfe a foot of ground to ftand upon : after one or 

D 3 two 

24 The Simple Cotter of 

two fuch Worthies, a great Victory may be regained, 
and flying Ifrael may returne to a rich fpoile. Englifh- 
men, be advifed to love England, with your hearts and 
to preferve it by your Prayers. I am bold to fay that 
fince the pure Primitive time, the Gofpel never thri 
ved fo well in any foile on earth, as in the Brittifh, nor 
is the like goodneffe of nature, or Cornucopian plenty 
elfe-where to be found: if ye lofe that Country and 
finde a better before ye come to Heaven, my Cofmo- 
graphy f ailes me. I am farre from difcouraging any, 
whom neceffity of Confcience or condition thrufts 
out by head and fhoulders: if God calls any into a 
Wilderneffe, Hee will be noe wilderneffe to them, 
Jer. 2, 31. witneffe his large beneficence to us here 
beyond expectation. 

Ye fay, why come not we over to helpe the Lord 
againft the Mighty, in thefe Sacred battailes : 

I anfwer, many here are diligently obferving the 
counfell of the fame Prophet, 22. 10. Weepe not for 
him that is dead, neither bemoan him; but weep for him 
that is gone away and f hall returne no more to fee his Na 
tive Country. Divers make it an Article of our Ameri 
can Creed, which a celebrate Divine of England hath 
obferved upon Heb. 11.9. That no man ought to for- 
fake his owne countrey, but upon extraordinary caufe, 
and when that caufe ceafeth, he is bound in confcience 
to returne if he can : We are looking to him who hath 
our hopes and feafons in his only wife hand. 

In the mean time we defire to bow our knees before 
the Throne of Grace day and night, that the Lord 
would be pleafed in his tender mercy to ftill the fad 
unquietneffe and per-peracute contentions, of that 


AGGAVVAM in /mcrica. 25 

moft comfortable and renowned Ifland, that at length 
He may have praife in his Churches, and his Chur 
ches peace in him, through Jefus Chrift. 

SHould I not keepe promife in fpeaking a little to 
Womens fafliions, they would take it unkindly: I 
was loath to pefter better matter with f uch ftuffe ; 
I rather thought it meet to let them ftand by them- 
felves, like the Quce Genus in the Grammer, being 
Deficients, or Redundants, not to be brought under 
any Rule: I fhall therefore make bold for this once, 
to borrow a little of their loofe tongued Liberty, and 
mifpend a word or two upon their long- wafted, but 
fhort-skirted patience: a little ufe of my ftirrup will 
doe no harme. 

Ridentem dicer e verum, quid prohibet? 

Gray Gravity it felfe can well beteam, 
That Language be adapted to the Theme. 
He that to Parrots /peaks, muft parrotife: 
He that inftructs a foole, may act th unwife. 

It is known more then enough, that I am neither 
Nigard, nor Cinick, to the due bravery of the true 
Gentry: if any man mif likes a bullymong droffock 
more then I, let him take her for his labour : I honour 
the woman that can honour her felfe with her attire : a 
good Text alwayes deferves a fair Margent ; I am not 
much offended, if I fee a trimme, far trimmer than fhe 
that weares it: in a word, whatever Chriftianity or 
Civility will allow, I can afford with London mea- 


The Simple Colter of 

fure: but when I heare a nugiperous Gentledame in 
quire what dreffe the Queen is in this week : what the 
nudiuftertian fafhion of the Court; with egge to be in 
it in all hafte, w r hatever it be ; I look at her as the very 
gizzard of a trifle, the product of a quarter of a cypher, 
the epitome of Nothing, fitter to be kickt, if fhee were 
of a kickable fubftance, than either honour d or hu 
mour d. 

To fpeak moderately, I truly confeffe it is beyond 
the ken of my underftanding to conceive, how thofe 
women fhould have any true grace, or valuable ver- 
tue, that have fo little wit, as to diffigure themfelves 
with fuch exotick garbes, as not only difmantles their 
native lovely luftre, but tranfclouts them into gant- 
bar-geefe, ill-fhapen-fhotten-fhell-fifh, Egyptian Hye- 
roglyphicks, or at the beft into French flurts of the 
paftery, which a proper Englifh woman fhould fcorne 
with her heels : it is no marvell they weare drailes on 
the hinder part of their heads, having nothing as it 
teems in the fore-part, but a few Squirrils brains to help 
them frisk from one ill-favour d fafhion to another. 

Thefe whimm Crown dfhees, thefe fafhion-fanfying wits, 
Are empty thin brain d /hells, and fidling Kits. 

The very troublers and impoverifhers of mankind, 
I can hardly forbeare to commend to the world a fay 
ing of a Lady living fometime with the Queen of Bo 
hemia, I know not where fhee found it, but it is pitty 
it fhould be loft. 

The world is full of care, much like unto a bubble; 


AGGAVVAM in dmcrtca. 27 

Women and care, and care and women, and women and 

(care and trouble. 

The Verfes are even enough for fuch odde peg- 
ma s I can make my felfe ficke at any time, with com 
paring the dazling fplender wherewith our Gentle 
women were imbellifhed in fome former habits, with 
the gut-foundred goofdom, wherewith they are now 
furcingled and debauched. Wee have about five or 
fix of them in our Colony : if I fee any of them acci 
dentally, I cannot cleanfe my phanfie of them for a 
moneth after. I have been a folitary widdower almoft 
twelve yeares, purpofed lately to make a ftep over to 
my Native Country for a yoke-fellow: but when I 
confider how women there have tripe-wifed them- 
felves with their cladments, I have no heart to the 
voyage, leaft their naufeous fhapes and the Sea,fhould 
work too forely upon my ftomach. I fpeak fadly ; me 
thinkes it fhould breake the hearts of Englifh-men, to 
fee fo many goodly Englifh-women imprifoned in 
French Cages, peering out of their hood-holes for 
fome men of mercy to help them with a little wit, and 
no body relieves them. 

It is a more common then convenient faying, that 
nine Taylors make a man: it were well if nineteene 
could make a woman to her minde: if Taylors were 
men indeed, well furnifhed but with meer morall prin 
ciples, they would difdain to be led about like Apes, 
by fuch mymick Marmofets. It is a moft unworthy 
thing, for men that have bones in them, to fpend their 
lives in making fidle-cafes for futulous womens phan- 
fies; which are the very pettitoes of Infirmity, the 

E giblets 


The Simple Colter of 

All the Coun 
ties and fhires 
of England 
have had wars 
in them fmce 
the Conqueft, 
but Effex, which 
is onely free, 
and fhould be 

giblets of perquifquilian toyes. I am fo charitable 
to think, that moft of that myftery would worke 
the cheerfuller while they live, if they might bee 
well difcharged of the tyring flavery of mif-tyring 
women: it is no little labour to be continually put 
ting up Englif h-women into Out-landif h caskes ; who 
if they be not fhifted anew, once in a few months, 
grow too fowre for their Husbands. What this Trade 
will anfwer for themfelves when God fhall take mea- 
fure of Taylors confciences is beyond my skill to i- 
magine. There was a time when 

The joyning of the Red-Rofe with the White, 
Did fet our State into a Damask plight. 

But now our Rofes are turned to Flore de lices, our 
Carnations to Tulips, our Gilliflowers to Dayzes, our 
City-Dames, to an indenominable Qusemalry of o- 
verturcaf d things. Hee that makes Coates for the 
Moone, had need to take meafure every noone : and he 
that makes for women, as often, to keepe them from 

I have often heard divers Ladies vent loud femi 
nine complaints of the wearifome varieties and charg- 
able changes of fafhions: I marvell themfelves pre- 
ferre not a Bill of redreffe. tt would Effex Ladies 
would lead the Chore, for the honour of their Coun 
ty and perfons; or rather the thrice honorable La 
dies of the Court, whom it beft beefemes: who may 
wel prefume of a Le Roy le veult from our fober King, 
a Les Seigneurs ont affentus from our prudent Peers, 
and the like Affentus, from our confiderate, I dare not 


AGGAVVAM in America. 29 

fay wife-worne Commons: who I beleeve had much 
rather paffe one fuch Bill, than pay fo many Taylors 
Bills as they are forced to doe. 

Moft deare and unparallel d Ladies, be pleafed to 
attempt it : as you have the precellency of the women 
of the world for beauty and feature ; fo affume the ho 
nour to give, and not take Law from any, in matter 
of attire: if ye can tranfact fo faire a motion among 
your felves unanimouf ly, I dare fay, they that moft re- 
nite, will leaft repent. What greater honour can your 
Honors defire, then to build a Promontory prefident 
to all foraigne Ladies, to deferve fo eminently at the 
hands of all the Englifh Gentry prefent and to come: 
and to confute the opinion of all the wife men in the 
world; who never thought it poffible for women to 
doe fo good a work ? 

If any man think I have fpoken rather merrily than 
ferioufly he is much miftaken, I have written what I 
write with all the indignation I can, and no more then 
I ought. I confeffe I veer d my tongue to this kinde 
of Language de induftria though unwillingly, fuppo- 
fing thofe I fpeak to are uncapable of grave and rati- 
onall arguments. 

I defire all Ladies and Gentlewomen to underftand 
that all this while I intend not fuch as through necef- 
fary modefty to avoyd morofe fingularity, follow fa- 
fhions flowly, a flight fhot or two off, fhewing by 
their moderation, that they rather draw countermont 
with their hearts, then put on by their examples. 

I point my pen only againft the light-heeFd beagles 
that lead the chafe fo f aft, that they run all civility out 
of breath, againft thefe Ape-headed pullets, which 

E 2 invent 

so Tie Simple Colter of 

invent Antique foole-f angles, meerly for fafhion and 
novelty fake. 

In a word, if I begin once to declaime againft fafhi- 
ons, let men and women look well about them, there 
is fomewhat in the bufineffe; I confeffe to the world, 
I never had grace enough to be ftrict in that kinde; 
and of late years, I have found fyrrope of pride very 
whole fome in a due Dos, which makes mee keep tuch 
ftore of that drugge by me, that if any body comes 
to me for a queftion-full or two about fafhions, they 
never complain of me for giving them hard meafure, 
or under-weight. 

But I addreffe my felf to thofe who can both hear 
and mend all if they pleafe : I feriouf ly fear, if the pi 
ous Parliament doe not find a time to ftate fafhions, 
as ancient Parliaments have done in part, God will 
hardly finde a time to ftate Religion or Peace : They 
are the furquedryes of pride, the wantonneffe of idle- 
neffe, provoking fins, the certain prodromies of affu- 
red judgement, Zeph. 1. 7, 8. 

It is beyond all account, how many Gentlemens 
and Citizens eftates are deplumed by their feather- 
headed wifes, what ufefull fupplies the pannage of 
England would afford other Countries, what rich re- 
turnes to it felfe, if it were not flic d out into male and 
female fripperies: and what a multitude of mif-im- 
ploy d hands, might be better improv d in fome more 
manly Manufactures for the publique weale: it is not 
eafily credible, what may be faid of the preterplura- 
lities of Taylors in London: I have heard an honeft 
man fay, that not long fince there were numbered be 
tween Temple-barre and Charing -Cro/fe, eight thou- 


AGGAVVAM in Jmenca. 31 

fand of that Trade: let it be conjectured by that pro 
portion how many there are in and about London, and 
in all England, they will appeare to be very nume 
rous. If the Parliament would pleafe to mend wo 
men, which their Husbands dare not doe, there need 
not fo many men to make and mend as there are. I 
hope the prefent dolefull eftate of the Realme, will 
perfwade more ftrongly to fome confiderate courfe 
herein, than I now can. 

Knew I how to bring it in, I would fpeake a word 
to long haire, whereof I will fay no more but this: 
if God proves not fuch a Barbor to it as he threatens, 
unleffe it be amended, Efa. 7. 20. before the Peace of 
the State and Church be well fetled, then let my pro- 
phefie be f corned, as a found minde f comes the ryot 
of that fin, and more it needs not. If thofe who are 
tearmed Rattle-heads and Impuritans would take up 
a Refolution to begin in moderation of haire, to the 
juft reproach of thofe that are called Puritans and 
Round-heads, I would honour their manlineffe, as 
much as the others godlineffe, fo long as I knew what 
man or honour meant : if neither can finde a Barbours 
fhop, let them turne in, to Pfal. 68.21. Jer. 7.29.1 Cor. 
11.14. if it be thought no wifdome in men to diftin- 
guifh themf elves in the field by the Sciffers, let it bee 
thought no Injustice in God, not to diftinguifh them 
by the Sword. I had rather God fhould know me by 
my fobriety, than mine enemy not know me by my 
vanity. He is ill kept, that is kept by his owne fin. A 
fhort promife, is a f arre faf er guard than a long lock : 
it is an ill diftinction which God is loth to looke at, 
and his Angels cannot know his Saints by. Though 

E 3 it 

32 Tie Simple Colter of 

it be not the mark of the Beaft, yet it may be the mark 
of a beaft prepared to Daughter. I am fure men ufe 
not to weare fuch manes; I am alfo fure Souldiers 
ufe to weare other marklets or notadoes in time of 

HAving done with the upper part of my work, I 
would now with all humble willingneffe fet on 
the beft peece of Soule-leather I have, did I not fear I 
ftiould break my All, which though it may be a right 
old Englifh blade, yet it is but little ana weake. I 
fhould efteem it the beft piece of workmanfhip my 
Cobling hand ever wrought, if it would pleafe Him 
whofe worke it is, to direct me to fpeake fuch a word 
over the Sea, as the good old woman of Abel did o- 
ver the wall, in the like exigent : but alas, I am but 
fimple. What if I be? 

When States dishelv d are, and Lawes untwift, 
Wife men keep their tongues, fools /peak what they lift. 

I would not be fo unwife as to grieve the wife, if I 
were wife enough to forefee it: I would fpeake no 
thing to the Caufe or Continuance of thefe weari- 
fome Warres hitherto; the one is enough debated, the 
other more than enough peracted. Nor would I de- 
claime of the uncomlineffe, unbrotherlineffe, unfea- 
fonableneffe and unreafonableneffe of thefe direfull 
digladiations : every ftroak ftruck founds too loud 
upon this harfh ftring. I would much rather fpeake 
perfwafives to a comely brotherly feafonable and 
reafonable ceffation of Armes on both fides, by a 


AGGAVVAM in America. 33 

drawn battaile: Wherein if I fhall adventure a few 
over-bold words, I intreat my ignorance, impartiality, 
and Loyalty may plead pardon for me. 

Foure meanes there are, and no more, within the 
compaffe of my confideration, conducing to what is 
defired. Either to get the Standard fixed in heaven 
by the Lord of Hofts taken downe, I meane by Re 
formation : Or to fet up white colours inftead of red, 
on one fide or other, I meane by Compofition: Or 
by furling up all the Enfignes on both fides, I meane 
by mutuall and generall Ceffation: Or by ftill dif- 
playing all the Colours and Cornets of every batalli- 
on, I mean by profecution : without Reformation there 
will hardly be any Compofition; without Compofi 
tion little hope of Ceffation; without Ceffation there 
muft and will be Profecution; which God forbid. 


WHen the Roman Standard was defixed with 
fuch difficulty at the battaile between Hanni- 
ball and Flaminius at Thrafimene, it proved an ill O- 
men. When God gives quietneffe, who can make trouble; 
when he hideth his face, who can behold him? Whether 
it be again ft a Nation or a man onely. That the Hypo 
crite reigne not, left the people be infnared, Job 34. 
29, 30. How can the fword of the Lord put it felfe 
up into its fcabbard and be quiet, when himfelf hath 
given it a charge to the contrary ? Jer. 47. 6, 7. It was 
a Cardinall Truth which Cardinall Poole fpake to 
H. 8. Penes Reges eft inferre bellum, penes autem Deum 
terminare. If Kings will make their beginnings, God 
will make his ends: much more when himfelfe be 

34 The Simple Cotter of 

gins : When I begin, I will alfo make an end, 1 Sam. 
3. 12. Farre better were it, for men to make an end 
with him in time, than put him to make fuch an end 
with them as he there intends. 

Political! Reformation he feemes to call for now 
indigitanter. When he beholds Chriftian Kingdomes 
and States unfound in their foundations, illineal in 
their fuperftructures, unjuft in their adminiftrations ; 
he kicks them in peeces with the foot of his Indigna 
tion: But when Religious Statefmen frame and build 
by the levell and plummet of his wifdome, then peo 
ple may fay as his fervants of old, Looke upon Zion 
the City of our Solemnities; Your eyes /hall fee it a qui 
et habitation, a Tabernacle that /hall not be taken down ; 
not one of the /takes thereof fhall be removed,neither fhall 
any of the coards thereof bee broken, Ifa. 33.20. neither 
by civill Commotions nor foraign Invafions, When 
the coards of a State are exquifitely tight, and the 
ftakes firmely pitched ; fuch a Tent though but a Tent 
fhall not eafily flutter or fall: But if the Tacklings be 
fo loofe, that the maine Ma ft cannot ftand fteady, nor the 
Saile be wellfpread; then may the lame take and devide a 
great prey, ver. 23. If Religion, Laws, Liberties, and 
foraigne Federacies be flight: the ftrength of ftrong 
men fhall beweakneffe, and the weakneffe of the weak 

Purapoliteja neunum admittitfolceci/mulum,neque va 
let, prcefcriptio in politicis aut moralibus. It may main 
tain a bright conjecture, againft a rufty Truth : a legi 
ble poffeffion, againft an obliterate Claime: an in 
convenience, againft a convenience; where no cleare 
remedy may be had: but never anything that is for 

AGGAVVAM in America. 35 

mally finfull, or materially mifchievous. When rot 
ten States are foundry mended from head to foot, pro 
portions duly admeafured, Juftice juftly difpenced; 
then fhall Rulers and Subjects have peace with God 
and themfelves: but till then, the gayeft Kingdomes 
fhall be but ruffling fcuffling, removing and commo- 
ving hovells. For England, however the upper Sto 
ries are fhroadly fthattered; yet the foundations and 
frame being good or mendable by the Architectors 
now at worke, there is good hope, when peace is fet- 
led, people fhall dwell more wind-tight and water 
tight than formerly, I earneftly wifh our Mr. Builders 
to remember, that punctuality in Divinity and Politic, 
is but regularity; that what is amiffe in the mould, will 
misfafhion the profult: and that if this market be flipt, 
things may grow as deare as ever they were. Moft 
expert Gentlemen, bee intreated at length to fet our 
Head right on our Shoulders, that we may once look 
upwards and goe forwards like proper Englifhmen. 

God will alfo have Ecclefiafticall Reformation 
now, or nothing: And here he ftands not upon Kings, 
Parliaments or Affemblies, but upon his own Termes. 
I feare Hee will have all droffe and bafe mettalls 
throughly melted away by thefe combuftions, before 
Hee quenches them; all his Ordinances and veffells 
caft into his own fafhion, in his own mould, to his 
own amufsim, before he re f tores peace. If this firft 
worke bee throughly and throughoutly difpatched as 
I hope it is, the great Remora is removed. If the Parli 
ament and Affembly be pleafed to be as curious and 
induftrious as I have feen a great Popifh Bifhop in 

F execra- 

36 Tie Simple Colter of 

execrating a Proteftant Par. Church one day, and con- 
fecrating it the next; they may adjourn a while with 
leave enough, 

Some ten or twelve years before thefe Wars there 
came to my view thefe two Predictions. 

1 . When God /hall purge this Land with foap and nitre, 
Woe be to the Crowne, woe be to the Mitre. 

The Accent of the blow fhall fall there. 
He that pities not the Crowne, pities not his own 
foule. Hee that pities not thofe that wore the Mitre, 
more than they pitied themfelves, or the Churches 
over which they infulted, or the State then corrupted 
and now Corruined by their pride and negligence, is 
to blame. 

2. There is a fet of Bifhops comming next behind, 
Will ride the Devill off his legs, and break his wind. 

Poore men! they might have kept his back till this 
time for ought I know, had they not put him beyond 
his pace: but Schollers muft gallop, though they 
tumble for it. Yet I commend them for this, they 
gave him fuch ftraynes as made him blow fhort ever 
fince. I doubt the Affembly troubles him; and I doubt 
he troubles them. Well, the Bifhops are gone : If they 
have carried away with them all that was in the poc 
kets of their Holliday hofe, farre them well; let them 
come againe when I give them a new Conge d 9 /tier, 
or fend a purfuivant for them ; which if I doe, I fhall 
never truft my felfe more, though they have often 


AGGAVVAM ia America. 37 

done it for me, who never deferved*that honour. Some 
of them I confeffe were veryfhoneft men, and would 
have been honefter if they dared for their fellows. 

The fad worke now is to inftitute better things in 
their Roome, and to induct betteronen in their roome ; 
rather where and how to finde thofe things, they ha 
ving cunningly laid them fo farre out of the way; I 
doubt some good men|cannot fee them, when they 
look full upon them: it is like, the Bifhops carryed 
away their eyes with them, but I fear they left their 
Spectacles behind them. I ufe no fpectacles, yet my 
eyes are not fine enough, nor my hand fteady enough 
to cut by fuch fine threads as are now fpun. I am I 
know not what; I cannot tell what to make of my 
felfe, nor I think no body elfe : My Trade is to finde 
more faults than others will mend; and I am very 
diligent at it; yet it fcarfe findes me a living, though 
the Country finds me more worke than I can turne 
my hand to. 

For Church worke, I am neither Presbyterian, nor 
plebsbyterian, but an Interpendent : My task is to fit 
and ftudy how fhapeable the Independent way will 
be to the body of England, then my head akes on one 
fide; and how fuitable the Presbyterian way, as we 
heare it propounded, will be to the minde of Chrift, 
then my head akes on the other fide : but when I con- 
fider how the Parliament will commoderate a way 
out of both, then my head leaves aking. I am not, 
without fome contrivalls in my patching braines; but 
I had rather fuppofe them to powder, than expofe 
them to preregular, much leffe to preter- regular Judge 
ments: I fhall therefore rejoyce that the worke is fain 

F 2 into 

38 The Simple Colter of 

into fo good hands, heads, and hearts, who will weigh 
Rules by Troyweight, and not by the old Haber-du- 
pois: and rather then meddle where I have fo little 
skill, I will fit by and tell my feares to them that have 
the patience to heare them, and leave the red-hot que- 
ftion to them that dare handle it. 

I fear many holy men have not fo deeply humbled 
themfelves for their former mif-worfhippings of God 
as hee will have them before he reveales his fecrets to 
them: as they accounted things indifferent, fo they 
account indifferent repentance will ferve turne. Sonne 
of man, if my people be a/homed of all that they have 
done, then fhew them the forme of the houfe, and the fa- 
fhion thereof, elfe not, Ezek. 43. 11. A fin in Gods wor- 
fhip, that feemes fmall in the common beame of the 
world, may be very great in the fcoales of his Sanctu 
ary. Where God is very jealous, his fervants fhould 
be very cautelous. 

I feare the furnace wherein our new forms are caft- 
ing, is over-heat, and cafts fmoake in the eyes of our 
founders, that they cannot well fee what they doe, or 
ought to doe; omne peril judicium cum res tranfit in 
affectum. Truth and Peace are the Castor and Pollux 
of the Gofpell : they that feeke the one without the o- 
ther, are like to finde neither: Anger will hinder do- 
meftick Prayers, much more Ecclefiaftique Counfels. 
What is produced by tumult, is either diffident or re 
dundant. When the judgements of good men con- 
curre with an harmonious Diapafon, the refult is me 
lodious and commodious. Warring and jarring men 
are no builders of houses for God, though other- 
wife very good. Inftruments may be well made and 


AGGAVVAM in America. 39 

well ftrung, but if they be not well fretted, the Mu- 
fique is marred. The great Turke hearing Mufitians 
fo long a tuning, he though it ftood not with his ftate 
to wait for what would follow. When Chrift whips 
Market-makers out of his Temple, he raifes duft : but 
when he enters in with Truth and Holineffe, he calls 
for deep filence, Hob. 2. 20. There muft not a toole 
be heard when the Tabernacle is reared : Nor is that 
amiable or ferviceable to men that paffeth through fo 
many ill animadverfions of Auditors and Spectators, 
If the Affembly can hardly agree what to determine, 
people will not eafily agree what to accept. 

I fear, thefe differences and delayes have occafion- 
ed men to make more new difcoveries then otherwife 
they would. If publique Affemblies of Divines can 
not agree upon a right way, private Conventicles of 
illiterate men; will foone finde a wrong. Bivious de- 
murres breed devious refolutions. Paffengers to hea 
ven are in hafte, and will walk one way or other. He 
that doubts of his way, thinks hee lofes his day: and 
when men are gone a while, they will be loth to turn 
back. If God hide his path, Satan is at hand to turne 
Convoy: if any have a minde to ride pofte, he will 
help them with a frefh fpavin d Opinion at every 

Where clocks will ftand, and Dials have no light, 
There men muft go by guef/e, be t wrong or right. 

I feare, if the Affembly of all Divines, do not con- 
fent, and concenter the fooner, God will breath a fpi- 
rit of wifedome and meekneffe, into the Parliament of 

F 3 no 

40 The Simple Colter of 

no Divines, to whom the Imperative and Coactive 
power fupremely belongs, to confult fuch a contem- 
perate way, as fhall beft pleafe him, and profit his 
Churches, fo that it fhall be written upon the doore 
of the Affembly; The Lord was not there. 

I feare the importunity of fome impatient, and fub- 
tlety of fome malevolent mindes, will put both Par 
liament and Affembly upon fome preproperations, 
that will not be fafe in Ecclefiafticall Conftitutions. 
To procraftinate in matters cleare, as I faid even now, 
may be dangerous; fo, not to delibrate in dubious 
cafes, will be as perilous. We here, though I think 
under favour, wee have fome as able Steerfmen as 
England affords, have been driven to tack about again 
to fome other points of Chrifts Compaffe, and to 
make better observations before we hoyfe up fayles. 
It will be found great wifdom in difputable cafes, not 
to walk on by twylight, but very cauteoufly; rather 
by probationers for a time, then peremptory pofitives. 
Reelings and wheelings in Church acts, are both dif 
ficult and dif advantageous. It is rather Chriftian mo 
desty than fhame, in the dawning of Reformation, to 
be very perpenfive. Chrifts minde is, that Evange- 
licall policies, fhould be framed by Angelicall mea- 
fures; not by a line of flaxe, but by a golded Reed, 
Rev. 21. 15. 

I feare, he that fayes the Presbyterian and Inde 
pendent way, if rightly carryed doe not meet in one, 
he doth not handle his Compaffes fo confiderately as 
he fhould. 

I feare if Authority doth not eftablifh a futable 
and peaceable Government of Churches the fooner, 


AGGAVVAM in America. 41 

the bells in all the fteeples will ring awke fo long, that 
they will hardly be brought into tune any more. 
r. My laft, but not leaft feare, is, That God will hardly 
replant his Gofpel in any part of Chriftendome, in 
fo faire an Edition as is expected, till the whole field 
hath been fo ploughed and harrowed, that the foile 
be throughly cleanfed and fitted for new feed: Or 
whether he will not tranfplant it into fome other Re 
gions, I know not : This feare I have feared thefe 20 
years, but upon what grounds I had rather bury than 

I dare not [but adde to what preceded about 
Church-reformation, a moft humble petition, that the 
Authority of the Miniftery be kept in its due altitude : 
if it be dropp d in the duft, it will foon bee ftifled: 
Encroachments on both fides, have bred detriments 
enough to the whole. The Separatifts are content 
their teaching Elders fhould fit higheft on the Bench, 
fo they may fit in the Chaire over-againft them ; and 
that their Ruling Elders fhall ride on the faddle, fo 
they may hold the bridle. That they may likewife 
havefeafonable and honourable maintenance, and that 
certainly ftated : which generally we find and practife 
here as the beft way. When Elders live upon peo 
ples good wills, people care little for their ill wills, 
be they never fo juft. Voluntary Contributions or 
non tributions of Members, put Minifters upon 
many temptations in adminiftrations of their Offices, 
two houres care does more dif fpirit an ingenuous 
man than two dayes ftudy : nor can an Elder be gi 
ven to hofpitality, when he knowes not what will be 
given him to defray it: it is pity men of gifts fhould 


42 The Simple Coller of 

live upon mens gifts. I have feen moft of the Refor 
med Churches in Europ, and feene more mifery in 
thefe two refpects, then it is meet others f hould hear : 
the complaints of painfull Pareus, David Pareus, to 
my felfe, with tears, concerning the Germane Chur 
ches are not to be related. 

There is yet a personall Reformation, as requifite as 
the politicall. When States are fo reformed, that they 
conforme fuch as are profligate, into good civility: 
civill men, into religious morality: When Churches 
are fo conftituted, that Faith is ordained Paftour, 
Truth Teacher, Holineffe and Righteoufneffe ruling 
Elders: Wifedome and Charity Deacons: Know 
ledge, love, hope, zeale, heavenly-mindedneffe, meek- 
neffe, patience, watchfulneffe, humility, diligence, fo- 
briety, modefty, chaftity, conftancy, prudence, con- 
tentation, innocency, f incerity, &c. admitted members, 
and all their oppofites excluded: then there will bee 
peace of Country and Confcience. 

Did the fervants of Chrift know what it is to live 
in Reformed Churches with unreformed fpirits, under 
ftrict order with loofe hearts, how formes of Religi 
on breed but formes of Godlineffe, how men by 
Church-difcipline, learne their Church-poftures, and 
there reft; they would pray as hard for purity of 
heart, as purity of Ordinances. If wee mocke God 
in thefe, He will mocke us; either with defeat of our 
hopes ; or which is worfe : when wee have what we fo 
much defire, wee fhall be fo much the worfe for it. It 
was a well falted fpeech, uttered by an Englifh Chri- 
ftian of a Reformed Church in the Netherlands, Wee 
have the good Orders here, but you have the good 


AGGAVVAM in Antnca. 

Chriftians in England. Hee that prizes not Old Eng 
land Graces, as much as New England Ordinances, 
had need goe to fome other market before hee comes 
hither. In a word, hee that is not Paftour, Teacher, 
Ruler, Deacon and Brother to himfelfe, and lookes 
not at Chrift above all, it matters not a farthing whe 
ther he be Presbyteran or Independent : he may be a 
zelot in bearing witneffe to which he likes beft, and 
yet an Ifcariot to both, in the witneffe of his owne 

I have upon ftrict obfervation, feen fo much power 
of Godlineffe, and fpirituall mindedneffe in Englifh 
Chriftians, living meerly upon Sermons and private 
duties, hardly come by, when the Gofpell was little 
more than fymptomaticall to the State; fuch Epi- 
demicall and lethall formality in other difciplinated 
Churches, that I profeffe in the hearing of God, my 
heart hath mourned, and mine eyes wept in fecret, to 
confider what will become of multitudes of my dear 
Country-men when they fhall enjoy what they now 
covet: Not that good Ordinances breed ill Confci- 
ences, but ill Confciences grow ftarke nought under 
good Ordinances ; infomuch that might I wifh an hy 
pocrite the moft perilous place but Hell, I fhould wifh 
him a Memberfhip in a ftrict Reformed Church : and 
might I wifh a fincere Servant of God, the greateft 
greife earth can afford, I fhould wifh him to live with 
a pure heart, in a Church impurely Reformed; yet 
through the improvement of Gods Spirit, that greife 
may fanctifie him for Gods fervice and presence, as 
much as the means he would have, but cannot. 

I fpeak this the rather to prevent, what in me lyes, 

G the 

44 The Simple Colter of 

the imprudent romaging that is like to be in England, 
from Villages to Townes, from Townes to Cities, 
for Churches fake, to the undoing of Societies, Friend- 
fhips, Kindreds, Families, Heritages, Callings, yea, 
the wife Providence of God in difpofing mens habi 
tations, now in the very Infancy of Reformation : by 
forgetting that a little leaven may feafon a large lump : 
and it is much better to doe good than receive. It 
were a moft uncharitable and unferviceable part, for 
good men to defert their own Congregations, where 
many may glorifie God in the day of his Vifitation, 
for their pre fence and affiftance. If a Christian would 
picke out a way to thrive in grace, let him ftudy to 
adminifter grace to them that want; or to make fure 
a bleffing upon his Family, let him labour to mul 
tiply the Family of Chrift, and beleeve, that he which 
foweth liberally, fhall reape abundantly; and he that 
fpareth more than is need, from them that have more 
need, fhall furely come to poverty: yea, let me fay, 
that hee who forfakes the meanes of grace for Chrift 
and his Churches fake , fhall meet with a better bar- 
gaine, namely, grace it felfe. It is a time now, when 
full flockes fhould rather fcatter to leane Churches 
than gather from other places to make themfelves fat ; 
when able Chriftians fhould rather turne Jefuites and 
Seminaries, than run into Covents and Frieries: had 
this been the courfe in the Primitive time, the Gofpel 
had been pinfolded up in a few Cities, and not fpread 
as it is. 

What more ungodly facriledge or man-ftealing can 
there be, then to purloin from godly Minifters the firft 
born of their fervent prayers and faithfull preachings, 

J. v A " 


AGGAVVAM in America. 45 

the leven of their flocks, the incouragement of their 
foules, the Crowne of their labours, their Epiftle to 
Heaven? I am glad to hear our New-England Elders 
generally deteft it difpuenter, and look at it as a kil 
ling Cordolium: If men will needs gather Churches 
out of the world (as they fay) let them firft plough 
the world, fow it, and reap it with their own hands, 
and the Lord give them a liberall Harveft. He is a ve 
ry hard man that will reap where he hath not fowed, 
and gathered where he hath not ftrowed, Mat. 24. 25. 

He that faith, it is or was our cafe, doth not rightly 
underftand himfelf or us, and he that takes his warrant 
out of Joh. 4. 37.38. is little acquainted with Expofi- 
tors. Wifemen are amazed to hear that confcientious 
Minifters dare fpoile many Congregations to make 
one for themfelves. 

In matter of Reformation, this would be remem- 
bred, that in premonitory judgements, God will take 
good words, and fincere intents; but in peremptory, 
nothing but reall performances. 


IF Reformation were come thus neer, I fhould hope 
Compofition, were not farre off: When hearts meet 
in God, they will foon meet in Gods wayes, and up 
on Gods termes. But to avoid prolixity , which fteales 
upon me; For Compofition, I fhall compofe halfe a 
dozen diftichs concerning thefe kind of Wars; wifh- 
ing I could fing afleep thefe odious ftirs, at leaft on 
fome part, with a dull Ode. He is no Cobler that can 
not fing, nor no good Cobler that can fing well : 

G 2 Si 

46 The Simple Coller of 

Si natura negat, facit indignatio verfum 1 They are 
Qualemcunque poteft Juvenal.} thefe. 


H ey feldome lofe the field, but often win, 
That end their warrs, before their warrs begin. 


Their Caufe is oft the worft, that fir/t begin, 
And they may lofe the field, the field that win: 


In Civill warrs twixt Subjects and their King, 
There is no conqueft got, by conquering. 


Warre ill begun, the onely way to mend, 
Is fend the warre before the warre doe end. 


They that well end ill warrs, must have the skill, 
To make an end by Rule, and not by Will. 


In ending warrs tween Subjects and their Kings, 
Great things are fav d, by lo/ing little things. 

Wee heare that Majeftas Imperil hath challenged 
Solus Populi into the field; the one fighting for Pre 
rogatives, the other defending Liberties: Were I a 
Conftable bigge enough, I would fet one of them by 
the heeles to keep both their hands quiet; I mean one 
ly in a paire of ftocks, made of found reafon, hand- 
fomely fitted for the legges of their Underftanding. 

If Salus Populi began, furely it was not that Salus 
Populi Heft in England: that Salus Populi was as man 
nerly a Salus Populi as need bee : if I be not much de 
ceived, that Salus Populi fuffer d its nofe to be held to 
the Grindftone, till it was almoft ground to the grifles 


AGGAVVAM in Ancrica. 47 

and yet grew never the fharper for ought I could di- 
fcerne; What was, before the world was made, I 
leave to better Antiquaries then my felfe^but I think, 
fince the world began, it was never ftoried that Sa- 
lus Populi began with Majeftas Imperil, unleffe Ma- 
jeftas Imperil firft unharbour d it, and hunted it to a 
ftand, and then it muft either turne head and live, or 
turn taile and die : but more have been ftoryed on the 
other hand than Majeftas Imperii is willing to heare : 
I doubt not but Majeftas Imperii knows, that Com 
mon-wealths coft as much the making as Crownes; 
and if they be well made, would yet outfell an ill-fa- 
fhioned Crown, in any Market overt, if they could be 
well vouched. 

But Preces & Lachrymw, are the peoples weapons : 
fo are Swords and Piftoles, when God and Parlia 
ments bid them Arme. Prayers and Tears are good 
weapons for them that have nothing but knees and 
eyes; but moft men are made with teeth and nailes; 
onely they muft neither fcratch for Liberties, nor 
bite Prerogatives, till they have wept and prayed as 
God would have them. If Subjects muft fight for 
their Kings againft other Kingdomes, when their 
Kings will; I know no reafon, but they may fight a- 
gainft their Kings for their own jKingdomes, when 
Parliaments fay they may and muft : but Parliaments 
muft not fay they muft, till God fayes they may. 

I can never beleeve that Majeftas Imperii, was ever 
fo fimple as to think, that if it extends it felf beyond 
its due Artique at one end, but Salus Populi muff An- 
tartique it as farre at the other end, or elfe the world 
will be Excentrick, and then it will whirle; and if it 


48 The Simple Colter of 

once fall afrwhirling, ten to one, it will whirle them 
off firft, that fit in higheft Chaires on cufhions filPd 
with Peacocks feathers; and they are like to ftand 
their ground fafteft, that owne not one foot of ground 
to ftand upon. When Kings rife higher than they 
fhould, they exhale Subjects higher than they would : 
if the Primum Mobile fhould afcend one foote higher 
than it is, it would hurry all the nether wheeles, and 
the whole world on fire in 24 houres. No Prince ex 
ceeds in Soveraignty, but his Subjects will exceed as 
f arre in fome vitious Liberty, to abate their grief e ; or 
fome pernicious mutiny, to abate their Prince. 

The crazy world will crack, in all the middle joynts, 
If all the ends it hath, have not their parapoynts. 

Nor can I beleeve that Crownes trouble Kings 
heads, to much as Kings heads trouble Crowns : nor 
that they are flowers of Crowns that trouble Crowns, 
but rather fome Nettles or Thiftles miftaken for 

To fpeak plainer Englifh, I have wondred thefe 
thirty years what Kings aile : I have seen in my time, 
the beft part of twenty Chriftian Kings and Princes ; 
Yet as Chriftian as they were, fome or other were ftill 
fcuffiing for Prerogatives. It muft be granted at all 
hands, that Prcerogativa? Regis are neceffary Suppor 
ters of State : and ftately things to ftately Kings : but 
if withall, they be Derogativce Regno, they are but lit 
tle things to wife Kings. Equity is as due to People, 
as Eminency to Princes : Liberty to Subjects, as Roy 
alty to Kings: If they cannot walk together lovingly 


AGGAYVAM in America. 49 

hand in hand,panpo//w, they muft cut girdles and part 
as good friends as they may: Nor muft it be taken 
offenfively, that when Kings are hailing up their top 
gallants, Subjects lay hold on their slablines ; the head 
and body muft move alike : it is nothing meet for me 
to fay with Horace, 

Ut tu fortunam, fie nos te Car le feremus. 
But I hope I may fafely fay, 

The body beares the head, the head the Crown; 
If both beare not alike, then one will down. 

Diftracting Nature, calls for diftracting Remedies; 
perturbing policies for difturbing cures: if one Ex- 
treame fhould not conftitute its Anti-Extreame, all 
things would foon be in extremo: if ambitious windes 
get into Rulers Crownes, rebellious vapours will in 
to Subjects Caps, be they ftopt never fo clofe: Yet 
the tongues of Times tell us of ten Preter royall U- 
furpations, to one contra-civill Rebellion. 

Civill Liberties and proprieties admeafured, to 
every man to his true fuum, are the prima pura prin- 
cipia, propria quarto modo, the fine quibus of humane 
States, without which, men are but women. Peoples 
proftrations of thefe things when they may lawfully 
helpe it, are prophane proftitutions ; ignorant Ideo- 
tifmes, under-naturall noddaries; and juft it is that 
fuch as underfell them, fhould not re-inherit them in 
hafte, though they feek it carefully with teares. And 
fuch ufurpations by Rulers, are the unnaturalizings of 


50 The Simple Colter of 

nature, disfranchifements of Freedome, the Neronian 
nullifyings of Kingdomes: yea, I beleeve the Devill 
himfelfe would turn Round-head, rather then fuffer 
thefe Columnes of Common- wealths to be flighted : 
as he is a creature, he fears decreation ; as an Angell, 
dehominations ; as a Prince, dif-common-wealthings ; 
as finite, thefe pen-infinite infolencies, which are the 
moft finite Infinites of mifery to men on this fide the 
worlds diffolution; therefore it is, that with Gods 
leave, he hath founded an alarm to all the fufque deques 
pell-mels, one and alls, now harrafing fundry parts 
of Chriftendome. It is enough for God to be Infinite, 
too much for man to be Indefinite. He that will flye 
too high a quarry for Abfoluteneffe, fhall ftoope as 
much too low before he remounts his proper pitch: 
If Jacob will over top his Brother out of Gods time 
and way, we will fo hamftring him that he fhall make 
legs whether he will or no, at his brothers approach : 
and fuch as over-run all humane meafure, fhall feldom 
return to humane mercy: There are fins befides the 
fin against the Holy Ghoft, which fhall not be expia 
ted by facrifice for temporall revenge : I mean when 
they are boyled up to a full confiftence of contumacy 
and impenitency. Let abfolute Demands or Com 
mands be put into one fcale, and indefinite refufalls 
into the other: All the Goldfmiths in Cheapefide, can 
not tell which weighs heavieft. Intolerable griefes to 
Subjects, breed the Iliaca pafsio in a body politick 
which inf orces that upwards which f hould not. I fpeak 
thefe things to excufe,what I may, my Countrymen in 
the hearts of all that look upon their proceedings. 
There is a quadrobulary faying, which paffes cur 

AGGAVVAM in America. 5i 

rent in the Wefterne World, That the Emperour is 
Xing of Kings, the Spaniard, King of Men, the French 
King of Affes, the King of England, King of Devils. 
By his leave that firft brayed the fpeech, they are pret 
ty wife Devils and pretty honeft; the worfe they doe, 
is to keep their Xings from devillizing, & them felves 
from Affing: Were I a Xing (a fimple fuppofall) I 
would not part with one good Englif h Devil, for fome 
two of the Emperours ivings, nor three of the Spani 
ards Men, nor foure French Affes; If I did, I fhould 
think my felfe an Affe for my labour. I know nothing 
that Englifhmen want, but true Grace, and honeft 
pride; let them be well furnifht with thofe two, I feare 
they would make more Affes, then Spaine can make 
men, or the Emperour Kings. You will fay I am now 
beyond my latchet ; but you would not fay fo, if you 
knew how high my latchet will ftretch; when I heare 
a lye with a latchet, that reaches up to his throat that 
firft forged it. 

He is a good King that undoes not his Subjects by 
any one of his unlimited Prerogatives: and they are 
a good people, that undoe not their Prince, by any 
one of their unbounded Liberties, be they the veiy 
leaft. I am fure either may, and I am fure neither 
would be trusted, how good foever. Stories tell us 
in effect, though not in termes, that over-rifen Kings, 
have been the next evills to the world, unto fallen An 
gels; and that over-franchifed people, are devills 
with fmooth maffles in their mouthes. A King that 
lives by Law, lives by love; and he that lives above 
Law, fhall live under hatred doe what he can. Sla 
very and knavery goe as feldome afunder, as Tyran 
ny and Cruelty. H I 

52 The Simple Cotter of 

I have a long while thought it very poffible, in a 
time of Peace, and in fome Kings Reigne, for difert 
Statefmen, to cut an exquifite thred between Kings 
Prerogatives, and Subjects Liberties of all forts, 
fo as COB far might have his due, and People their fhare, 
without fuch fharp difputes. Good Cafuifts would 
cafe it, and cafe it, part it, and part it; now it, and 
then it, punctually. Aquinas, Suarez or Valentia, 
would have done it long ere this, had they not beene 
Popifh, I might have faid Knaviljh; for if they be fo 
any where, it is in their Tractates of Priviledges. 
Our Common Law doth well, but it muft doe better 
before things do as they fhould. There are fomeMaa;- 
imes in Law, that would be taught to fpeake a little 
more mannerly, or elfe well Anti-Maxim *d: wee fay, 
the King can doe a Subject no wrong; why may wee 
not fay the Parliament can doe the King no wrong ? 
We fay, Nullum tempus occurrit Regi in taking wrong; 
why may wee not fay, Nullum tempus fuccurrit Regi 
in doing wrong ? which I doubt will prove as good a 
Canon if well examined. 

Authority muft have power to make and keep peo 
ple honeft; People, honeftly to obey Authority; both, 
a joynt-Councell to keep both fafe. Morall Lawes, 
Roy all Prerogatives, Popular Liberties, are not of 
Mans making or giving, but Gods: Man is but to 
meafure them out by Gods Rule : which if mans wif- 
dome cannot reach, Mans experience muft mend: 
And thefe Effentialls, muft not be EphoriZed or Tri- 
buned by one or a few mens difcretion, but lineally 
f auctioned by Supreme Councels. In pro-re-nafcent 
occurrences, which cannot be forefeen; Diets, Parli 

AGGAVVAM in America. 53 

aments, Senates, or accountable Commiffions, must 
have power to confult and execute againft interfilient 
dangers and flagitious crimes prohibited by the light 
of Nature: Yet it were good if States would let Peo 
ple know fo much before hand, by fome fafe woven 
manifefto, that groffe Delinquents may tell no tales of 
Anchors and Buoyes, nor palliate their prefumptions 
with pretence of ignorance. I know no difference in 
thefe Effentialls, between Monarchies, Aristocracies, 
or Democracies; the rule will be found, par-rationall 
fay Schoolemen and Pretorians what they will. And 
in all, the beft ftandard to meafure Prerogatives, is 
the Plough ftaffe, to meafure Liberties, the Scepter: 
if the tearms were a little altered into Loyall Prero 
gatives and Royall Liberties, then we fhould be fure 
to have Royall Kings and Loyall Subjects. 

Subjects their King, the King his Subjects greets , 
Whilome the Scepter and the Plough-ftaffe meets. 


But Progenitors have had them for four and twen 
ty predeceff ions : that would be fpoken in the Nor 
man tongue or Cimbrian, not in the Englifh or Scot- 
tifh: When a Conquerour turnes Chriftian, Chriftia- 
nity turns Conquerour: if they had had them time out 
of minde of man, before Adam was made, it is not a pin 
to the point in foro rectce rationis: Juftice and Equity 
were before time, and will be after it: Time hath nei 
ther Politicks nor Ethicks, good nor evill in it; it is 
an empty thing, as empty as a New-Englifh purfe, and 
emptier it cannot bee: a man may break his neck in 
time, and in a leffe time then he can heale it. 

H 2 But 

54 The Simple Cotter of 

But here is the deadly pang, it muft now be taken 
by force and dint of fword: I confeffe it is a deadly 
pang to a Spirit made all of flefh, but not to a morti 
fied heart: it is good to let God have his will as hee 
pleafe, when we have not reafon to let him have it as 
we fhould; remembring, that hitherto he hath taken 
order that ill Prerogatives gotten by the Sword, 
fhould in time be fetcht home by the Dagger, if no 
thing elfe will doe it : Yet I truft there is both day and 
means to intervent this bargaine. But if they fhould, 
if God will make both King and lingdome the bet 
ter by it, what fhould either lofe ? I am fure there is 
no great caufe for either to make great brags. 

Pax quo carior, eo charior. 

A peace well made, is likelieft then to hold, 
When tis both dearly bought and dearly fold. 

I confeffe, he that parts with fuch pearles to be paid 
in old iron, had need to be pityed more by his faithfull 
friends, than he is like to be by his falfe flatterers. My 
heart is furcharged, I can no longer forbear. 

MY Deareft Lord, and my more than dearest King; I 
moft humbly befeech you upon mine aged knees, 
that you would pleafe to arme your minde with pati 
ence of proofe, and to intrench your felfe as deepe as 
you can, in your wonted Royall meekneffe; for I am 
refolved to difplay my unfurled foule in your face, 
and to ftorme you with volyes of Love and Loy 
alty. You owe the meaneft true Subject you have, 


AGGAVVAM in America. 55 

a clofe account of thefe open Warres: they are no 
Arcana imperil. Then give me leave to inquire of 
your Majefty, what you make in fields of blood, 
when you fhould be amidft your Parliament of peace : 
What you doe fculking in the fuburbs of Hell, when 
your Royall Pallaces ftand defolate, through your 
abfence ? What moves you to take up Armes againft 
your faithfull Subjects, when your Armes fhould bee 
embracing your mournfull Queen ? What incenfes 
your heart to make fo many widdowes and Orphans, 
and among the reft your owne ? Doth it become you, 
the King of the ftatelieft If land the world hath, to f or- 
fake your Throne, and take up the Manufacture of 
cutting your Subjects throats, for no other finne, but 
for Deifying you fo over-much, that you cannot be 
quiet in your Spirit, till they have pluckt you downe 
as over-low ? Doe your three Kingdomes fo trouble 
you, that they muft all three be fet on fire at once, that 
when you have done, you may probably runne away 
by their light into utter darkneffe ? Doe your three 
Crownes fit to heavy on your head, that you will 
break the backs of the three bodies that fet them on, 
and helpt you beare them fo honourably ? Have your 
three Lamb-like flocks fo molefted you, that you muft 
deliver them up to the ravening teeth of evening 
Wolves ? Are you fo angry with thofe that never 
gave you juft caufe to be angry, but by their to much 
feare to anger you at all, when you gave them caufe 
enough? Are you fo weary of Peace, that you will 
never bee weary of Warre ? Are you fo willing to 
warre at home, who were fo unwilling to warre a- 
broad, where and when you fhould ? Are you fo wea 

56 Tie Simple Caller of 

ry of being a good King, that you will leave your 
felfe never a good Subject ? Have you peace of Con- 
fcience, in inforcing many of your Subjects to fight 
for you againft their Confcience ? Are you provided 
with Anfwers at the great Tribunall, for the deftructi- 
on of fo many thoufands, whereof every man was as 
good a man as your Selfe, qua man ? 

Is it not a moft unworthy part for you to bee run 
ning away from your Subjects in a day of battell, up 
on whofe Pikes you may come fafe with your naked 
breaft and welcome ? Is it honourable for you to bee 
flying on horfes, from thofe that would efteeme it 
their greatest honour, to beare you on their humble 
fhoulders to your Chaire of Eftate, and fet you down 
upon a Cufhion ftuffed with their hearts ? Is it your 
prudence to be inraged with your beft friends, for ad 
venturing their lives to refcue you from your worft 
enemies? Were I a King, pardon the fupposall, I 
would hang that Subject by the head, that would not 
take me by the heels, and dragge mee to my Court, 
when hee fees me fhifting for life in the ruined Coun- 
trey, if nothing elfe would doe it; And I would ho 
nour their very heels, that would take me by the very 
head, and teach me, by all juft meanes, to ^ing it bet 
ter, when they faw me un-Kinging my felfe, and 
Kingdome: Doe you not know Sir, that, as when 
your people are ficke of the Kings-evill, God hath 
given you a gift to heale them? fo when your felfe 
are ficke of it, God hath given the Parliament a gift 
to heale you: Hath your Subjects love been fo great 
to you, that you will fpend it all, and leave your chil 
dren little or none ? Are you fo exafperated againft 


AGGAVVAM in America. 57 

wife Scotland, that you will make England your foole 
or f oot-ftoole ? Is your fathers fonne growne more 
Orthodox, then his moft Orthodox father, when he 
told his fonne, that a King was for a kingdome, and 
not a kingdome for a King? parallell to that of the 
Apoftle; the husband is but by the wife, but the wife 
of the husband. 

Is Majestas Imperij growne fo kickifh, that it can 
not ftand quiet with Salus Populi, unleffe it be fette 
red? Are you well advifed, in trampling your Sub 
jects fo under your feet, that they can finde no place 
to be fafe in, but over your head: Are you so inexo 
rably offended with your Parliament, for fuffering 
you to returne as you did, when you came into their 
houfe as you did, that you will ;be avenged on all 
whom they reprefent? Will you follow your very 
worft Councell fo far, as to provoke your very beft, 
to take better counfell than ever they did ? If your 
Majefty be not Popifh as you profeffe, and I am very 
willing to beleeve, why doe you put the Parliament 
to refume the facrament of the Alter in faying, the 
King and Parliament, the King and Parliament ? 
breaking your fimple Subjects braines to underftand 
fuch myfticall Parlee-ment ? I queftion much, whe 
ther they were not better fpeake plainer Englif h, then 
fuch Latine as the Angels can hardly conftrue, and 
God happily loves not to perfe; I can as well admit 
an ubiquitary King as another, if a King be abroad 
in any good affaire ; but if a J^ing be at home, and will 
circumfcribe himfelfe at Oxford, and profcribe or dif- 
fcribe his Parliament at Weftminfter 9 if that Parliament 
will prefcribe what they ought, without fuch para- 


58 The Simple Colter of 

doxing, I fhould think God would fubfcribe a Le 
Dieu le veult readily enough. 

Is your Advifera fuch a Suavamen to you, that 
hath been fuch a Gravamen to Religion and Peace ? 
Shall the cheife bearing wombe of your Xingdome, be 
ever fo conftituted, that it cannot be delivered of its 
owne deliverance, in what pangs foever it be, without 
the will of one man-midwife, and fuch a man as will 
come and not come, but as he lift: nor bring a Par 
liament to bed of a well-begotten Liberty without an 
entire Subfidy? Doe not your Majefty being a 
Schollar, know that it was a truth long before it 
was fpoken, that Mundus eft unus aut nullus, that 
there is Principium purum unum, which unites the 
world and all that is in it; where that is broken, things 
fall afunder, that whatfoever is duable or triable, is 
fry able. 

Is the Militia of your Kingdome, fuch an orient 
flower of your Crowne, which all good Herbalifts 
judge but a meere nettle, while it is in any one mans 
hand living? May not you as well challenge the ab- 
folute difpofall of all the wealth of the Kingdome 
as of all the ftrength of your Kingdome ? Can you 
put any difference? unleffe it bee this, that mens 
hearts and bones are within their skins, more proper 
and intrinfecall, their lands and cattell more externall : 
dare you not concredit the Militia, with thofe to 
whom you may betruft your heart, better then your 
owne breaft ? Will they ever harme you with the 
Militia, that have no manner of Malitia againft you, 
but for mif-imploying the Militia againft them by the 
malitia of your ill Counfellours ? What good will 


AGGAVVAM in America. 59 

the Militia doe you when you have wafted the Realm 
of all the beft Milites it hath ? May not your Majefty 
fee through a paire of Spectacles, glazed with inch- 
board, that while you have your Advifera in one 
hand, and the Militia infthe other, you have the necks 
of your Subjects under your feet, but not your heart 
in your owne hand ? doe you not knowe that malum 
eft, poffe malum? 

Hath Epifcopacy beene fuch a religious Jewell in 
your State; that you will fell all or moft of your Co 
ronets, Caps of honour, and blue Garters, for fix and 
twenty cloth Caps ? and your Barons Cloakes, for 
fo many Rockets, whereof ufually twenty have had 
fcarce good manners enough to keepe the other fix 
fweet ? Is no Bifhop no King, fuch an oraculous 
Truth, that you will pawne your Crowne and life up 
on it ? if you will, God may make it true indeed on 
your part: Had you rather part with all, then lofe a 
few fuperfluous tumours, to pare off your monftrouf- 
neffe ? Will you be fo covetous, as to get more then 
you ought, by loofing more then you need ? Have you 
not driven good Subjects enough abroad, but you wil 
alfo f laughter them that ftay at home ? Will you take 
fuch an ill courfe, that no prayers can faften that good 
upon you we defier ? Is there not fome worf root than 
all thefe growing in your Spirit, bringing forth al this 
bitter fruit ? Againft which you fhould take up Arms, 
rather then againft your harmeleffe Subjects ? Doe 
you not forefee, into what importable head-tearings 
and heart-fearchings you will be ingulfed, when the 
Parliament fhall give you a mate, though but a 
Stale ? 

I Methinkes 

60 The Simple Colter of 

Methinkes it fhould breake your heart, to fee fuch a 
one as I, prefume fo much upon your clemency & too 
much upon your Majefty, which your felfe have fo 
eclipfed by the interpofall of your Selfe between your 
Selfe and your Selfe, that it hath not ray s enough 
left, to dazle downe the height of my affections to the 
awe of my Judgement. 

Tref-Royall Sir, I once againe befeech you, with 
teares dropping from my hoary head, to cover your 
Selfe as clofe as you may, with the beft fhield of 
goodneffe you have: I have fomewhat more to fay, 
which may happily trouble not your Selfe, but your 
followers, more than what is already faid. There li 
ved in your Realme and Reigne two whom I may 
well tearme Prophets, both now in a better Xing- 
dome; whereof one foretold two things concerning 
your Majefty, of thefe very proceedings, long before 
they began; which being done and paft fhall bee bu 
ried in filence : the other made this prediction about 
the fame time. 

Charles will joyne himselfe to bitter Griefe, 
joyne to God, and prove a Godly Chiefe. 

His words were in profe thefe, Xing Charles will come 
into fetters, meaning ftrong afflictions, and then prove 
as good a Xing, as fuch a good Xing of Ifrael, whom 
he then named, but I need not : he was as inwardly ac 
quainted with the minde of God, as fervent and fre 
quent a Beadfman for your welfare, and had as reli 
gious Opticks of State, as any man I know: foure 
other Predictions he made, full as improbable as this, 


AGGAVVAM in Amtrica. 61 

whereof three are punctually performed. A good 
Chriftian being fometime in conflicts of Confcience, 
hurried with long tentations, ufed this fpeech to my 
felfe, I am now refolved to be quiet, for I plainly fee, 
God will fave me whether I will or no: If your Ma- 
jefty would be pleafed to thinke fo in your heart, and 
fay fo with your mouth, all the good Subjects you 
have, would fay, Amen, till the heavens rang, and I 
hope you have few fo bad, but would fay, So be it. 

Much lamented Sir, if you will pleafe to retire your 
Selfe to your Clofet, whither you may moft fafely 
come, and make your peace with God, for the vaft he 
ritage of finne your Intombed father left upon your 
fcore, the dreadfull Imprecation he poured upon the 
heads of his tender pofterity in Summerfets and Over- 
buryes Cafe, publifhed in Starchamber by his Royall 
command; your own finful mariage, the fophiftication 
of Religion and Policie in your time, the luxury of 
your Court and Country, your connivence with the 
Irifh butcheries, your forgetfull breaches upon the 
Parliament, your compliance with Popifh Doegs, 
with what elfe your Confcience fhall fuggeft: and 
give us, your guilty Subjects example to doe the like, 
who have held pace and proportion with you in our 
evill wayes: we will helpe you by Gods affiftance, 
to poure out rivers of tears, to wafh away the ftreams 
of blood, which have beene fhed for thefe heavy ac 
counts; wee will alfo helpe you, God helping us, to 
beleeve, that there is hope in Ifrael for thefe things ; 
and Balme enough in his Gilead to heale all the bro 
ken bones of your three kingdomes, and to redouble 
your honour and our peace: His Arme is infinite; to 

12 an 

62 Tie Simple Colter of 

an infinite power all things are equally faifible, to an 
infinite mercy all finnes equally pardonable. The 
Lord worke thefe things in us and for us, for his com- 
paffions fake in Jefus Chirft. 

Sir, you may now pleafe to difcover your Selfe 
where you think meet; I truft I have not indangered 
you: I prefume your Ear-guard will keepfarre enough 
from you, what ever I have faid : be it fo, I have dif- 
charged my duty, let them looke to theirs. If my 
tongue fhould reach your eares, which I little hope 
for; let it be once faid; the great King of great Bri- 
taine, took advife of a fimple Cobler, yet fuch a Cob- 
ler, as will not exchange either his blood or his pride, 
with any Shoo-maker or Tanner in your Realme, nor 
with any of your late Bifhops which have flattered 
you thus in peeces : I would not fpeak thus in the eares 
of the world, through the mouth of the Preffe for all 
the plunder your plunderers have pillaged; were it 
not fomewhat to abate your Royall indignation to 
ward a loyall Subject; a Subject whofe heart hath 
been long carbonado d, des veniam verbo, in flames of 
affection towards you. Your Majefty knowes or may 
know, time was, when I did, or would have done 
you a better peece of fervice, then all your Troopes 
and Regiments are now doing. Should I heare any 
Gentleman that followes you, of my yeares, fay hee 
loves you better than I, if it were lawfull, I would 
fweare by my Sword, he faid more then his fword 
would make good. 

Gracious Sir, Vouchfafe to pardon me my no other 
fins, but my long Idolatry towards you, and my lo 
ving you too hard in this fpeech, and I will pardon 


AGGAVVAM in America. 63 

you your Treafon againft me, even me, by commit- , 

T >n * p. 01 ir TII IT- termed of Di- 

tmg Ireafon againlt your belie my JLord and King; v i n it yn otof 
and your murther, in murthering me, even me, by Law and am 
murthering my deare fellow Subjects, bone of my ve dthatiam 
bone, and flefh of my flefh, and of yours alfo. If you forcedto fuch 

. T MI i <- i< i 11 nece f far v over- 

Will not pardon me, 1 will pardon my lelte, dwell m\ 

my owne clothes as long as I can, and happily make 
as good a fhift for my proportion, as he that hath a 
lighter paire of heeles: And when you have done 
what you pleafe, I am refolved to be 

As loyall a Subject to your Majefty when I 
have never a head on my fhoulders, as 
you a Royall King to me, when you have 
your three Crownes on your head, 

Theod: de la Guard: 


I Cannot give you over thus; I moft earneftly im 
plore you, that you would not deferre to confide r 
your felfe throughly, you are now returned to the 
brinke of your Honour and our Peace, ftand not too 
long there, your State is full of diftractions, your 
people of expectations, the importune Affaires of 
your Kingdome perplexedly fufpended, your good 
Subjects are now rifing into a refolution to pray you 
on to your Throne, or into your Tombe, into Grace 
with your Parliament and people, or into Glory with 
the Saints in Heaven; but how you will get into the 
one, without paffing firft through th other, is the rid 
dle they cannot untye. If they fhall ply the Throne 


64 The Simple Cotter of 

of Grace hard, God will certainely heare, and in a 
fhort time mould you to his minde, and convince you, 
that it had and will bee farre eafier to fit downe 
meekely upon the Rectum, than to wander refolutely 
in obliquities, which with Kings, feldome faile to 
diffembogue into bottomleffe Seas of forrowes. 

Deareft Sir, be intreated to doe what you doe fin- 
cerely; the King of Heaven and Earth can fearch and 
difcover the hiddeneft corner of your heart, your Par 
liament underftands you farre better then you may 
conceive, they have many eares and eyes, and good 
ones, I beleeve they are Religioufly determined to 
re-cement you to your Body fo exquifitely, that the 
Errors of State and Church, routed by thefe late ftirs, 
may not re-allee hereafter, nor Themfelves be made a 
curfe to the iffue of their own bodies, nor a Scoffe, to 
allJPolitique Bodies in Europe. The Lord give your 
Majefty and all your Royall Branches the fpirit of 
wifedome and under f landing, the Spirit of knowledge 
and his feare, for His mercy and Chrift his fake. 

I would my skill would ferve me alfo, as well as 
my heart, to tranflate Prince Rupert, for his Queen- 
mothers fake, Eliz. a fecond. Mifmeane me not. I 
have had him in my armes when he was younger, I 
wifh I had him there now: if I miftake not, he pro- 
mifed then to be a good Prince, but I doubt he hath 
forgot it: if I thought he would not be angry with 
me, I would pray hard to his Maker, to make him a 
right Roundhead, a wife hearted Palatine, a thank- 
full man to the Englifh; to forgive all his finnes, and 
at length to fave his foule, notwithftanding all his 
God-damne mee s: yet I may doe him wrong; I am 


AGGAVVAM in America. 65 

not certaine hee ufeth that oath; I wifh no man elfe 
would; I dare fay the Devills dare not. I thank God 
I have lived in a Colony of many thoufand Englifh 
thefe twelve years, am held a very fociable man; 
yet I may confiderately fay, I never heard but one 
Oath fworne, nor never faw one man drunk, nor e- 
ver heard of three women Adultereffes, in all this 
time, that I can call to minde: If thefe finnes bee a- 
mongft us privily, the Lord heale us. I would not bee 
underftood to boaft of our innocency; there is no 
cause I fhould,our hearts maybe bad enough, and our 
lives much better. But to follow my bufineffe. 

Profecutions of Warres between a King and his 
Parliament, are the direfull dilacerations of the w r orld, 
the cruell Cataftrophes of States, dreadful! to fpeak 
of ; they are nefanda & n agenda: I know no grounds 
can be given of them but two: Either upon Reafon 
founded upon fome furmifall of Treafon, which my 
reafon cannot reach: I could never conceive why a 
rationall King fhould commit Treafon againft a rea- 
fonable Parliament; or how a faithfull Parliament a- 
gainft their lawfull King: the moft I can imagine, is 
a mifprifion of Treafon, upon a mifprifion of Reafon. 
He that knows not the fpirit of his King, is an Atheift. 
Our King is not Charles le fimple fometime of France: 
he understands not our King that underftands him not 
to bee underftanding. The Parliament is fuppofed 
Omnifcient, becaufe under God they are Omnipo 
tent : if a Parliament have not as much knowledge and 
all other Vertues, as all the kingdome befide, they are 
no good Abridgement of the Common-wealth. I be- 
leeve Remonftrances have demonftrated enough con- 


66 The Simple Colter of 

cerning this point of Reafon, to give fatisf action to 
fuch as fatisf action will fatisfie. 

Or upon Will. 

The Will of a King is very numinous; it hath a 
kinde of vaft univerfality in it, it is many times grea 
ter then the will of his whole kingdome, ftiffened 
with ill Counfell and ill Prefidents : if it be not a foot 
and half leffer than the Will of his Councell, and 
three foot leffer than the Will of his Parliament, it is 
too big. I think it were well for a King if hee had no 
will at all, but were all Reafon. What if he commit 
ted his morall will to Divines, that were no Bifhops ? 
his Politicall, to his Parliament, and a Councell cho- 
fen by Parliament ? that if ever it mifcarry, they may 
blame themfelves moft, and him leaft. I fcarce know 
any King that hath fuch advantage as ours; his three 
kingdomes lye fo diftinct and entire, that if he pleafe, 
he might keep them like three gardens without a weed, 
if he would let God keep his will, without wilfulneffe 
and rafhneffe. 

I have obferved men to have two kindes of Wills, 
a Free-hold will, fuch as men hold in Capite of them 
felves; or a Copy-hold will, held at the will of other 
Lords or Ladies. I have read almoft all the Com 
mon Law of England, and fome Statutes; yet I ne 
ver read, that the Parliament held their will in fuch 
a Capite: their Tenure is Knight- fervice, and good 
Knight- fer vice too, or elfe they are to blame. And 
I am fure, a King cannot hold by Copy, at the will of 
other Lords; the Law calls that bafe tenure, incon- 
fiftent with Royalty; much more bafe is it, to hold 


AGQAVVAM in America. 57 

at the will of Ladies: Apron-ftring tenure is very 
weak, tyed but of a flipping knot, which a childe may 
undoe, much more a -King. It ftands not with our 
Queens honour to weare an Apron, much leffe her 
Husband, in the ftrings; that were to infnare both 
him and her felf in many unfafeties. I never heard our 
King was effeminate: to be a little Uxorious per- 
fonally, is a vertuous vice in Oeconomicks; but Roy 
ally, a vitious vertue in Politicks. To fpeak Englifh, 
Books & Tongues tell us, I wifh they tell us true, that 
the Error of thefe Wars on our lungs part, proceeds 
only from ill Counfellours. 

Ill Counfellours, are very ill Gamefters; if they fee 
their own ftake a lofing, they will play away King, 
Queen, Bifhops, knights, Rooks, Pawnes, and all, be 
fore they will turn up the board; they that play for 
lufts, will play away themfelves, and not leave them- 
felves fo much as a heart to repent; and then there is 
no Market left but Hell; if the cafe be thus, it is to no 
end to look for any end, till one fide make an end of 
the other. 

They that at /take their Crownes and Honours fet, 
Play la/ting games, if Luft or Guilt doe bet. 


IF God would vouchfafe to give his Majefties Re 
ligion and Reafon, power to fling his Wills head o- 
ver the Wall, in matter of Composition, and his Sub 
jects ftrength to throw their lufts after it, Arms would 
be foon laid down, and Peace foon taken up. They 
that are not at peace with God, are not at peace with 

K them- 

68 The Simple Coller of 

themfelves, whatever they think; and they that are not 
at peace with themfelves, cannot be at peace with o- 
thers, if occafion provokes, be their nature never fo 

So farre as I can conjecture, the chiefe impediment 
to a generall and mutuall Ceffation of Armes, is, a de- 
fpaire of mutuall and generall forgiveneffe. If ever 
England had need of a generall Jubile in Heaven and 
Earth, it is now. Our King and Parliament have been 
at great ftrife, who fhould obtaine moft Juftice: if 
they would now ftrive, who fhould fhew moft Mer 
cy, it w r ould heare well throughout the world. Here 
alfo my fpeech muft be twofold and blind-fold. It is 
now nine Moneths arid more fince the laft credible 
New r s was acted: it is poffible by this, the Parlia 
ment may be at the Kings mercy: Did I fay a .Kings 
mercy ? what can I fay more ? no man on earth, can 
fhew more mercy then a King, nor fhall need more, 
when he comes to give an Account of his Kingdome : 
Nor did ever any Parliament merit more mercy than 
this, for they never finned, that I know, I mean againft 
the Common and Statute Law of England: it is pity 
they who have given fo many general pardons, fhould 
want one now. 

If our King hath loft his way, and therby learned to 
looke to his path better hereafter, and taught many 
Succeffors to King it right for many Ages; Methinks 
it fhould impetrate a Royall Redintegration, upon a 
Royall acknowledgement and ingagement. But how 
fhould an erring King truft a provoked Parliament ? 
Surely he may truft God fafe enough; who will never 
truft that State more with a good King, that will doe 
ill to a Xing that is turned fo good. Me thinkes thofe 


AGGAVVAM in America. 69 

paffages of Scripture, Efa. 43. 24, 25. chap. 57. 17, 18. 
The ftrange illation, H of. 2. 13,14. fhould melt a heart 
of fteele into floods of mercy. 

For others, were my head, one of the heads which 
firft gave the King Counfell to take up thefe Armes, 
or to perfift in them, when at any time he would have 
disbanded, I would give that head to the Kingdome, 
whether they would or no; if they would not cut it 
off, I would cut it off my felfe, and tender it at the Par 
liament doore, upon condition that all other heads 
might ftand, which ftand upon penitent hearts, and 
will doe better on than off; then I would carry it to 
London-Bridge, and charge my tongue to teach all 
tongues, to pronounce Parliament right hereafter. 

When a kingdom is broken juft in the neck joynt, in 
my poore policy, ropes and hatchets are not the kind- 
Heft inftrurnents to fet it: Next to the fpilling of the 
blood of Chrift for fin, the fparing of the blood of fin- 
ners, where it may be as well fpared as fpilt, is the beft 
way of expiation. It is no rare thing for Subjects to 
follow a leading King; if he will take his truncheon 
in his hand, it is to be expected many will put their 
f words in their Belts. Sins that rife out of miftake of 
judgement, are not fo finfull as thofe of malice ordi 
narily: and when multitudes fin, multitudes of mercy 
are the beft Anodines. 

-gratia gratis data, gratifsima. 

Grace will di/folve, but rigour hardens guilt: 
Break not with Steely blows, what oyle fhould melt. 

K 2 In 

70 The Simple Colkr of 

In Breaches integrant, tween Principalls of States, 
Due Juftice may fuppreffe, but Love redintegrates. $ , 

Whofoever be pardoned, I pray let not Britanicus 
fcape, I mean a pardon. I take him to bee a very fer- 
viceable Gentleman; Out of my intire refpect to 
him, I fhall prefume to give him half a dozen ftitches 
of advife: 

I intreat him to confider that our King is not onely 
a man, but a King in affliction; Kings afflictions are 
beyond Subjects apprehenfions ; a Crown may hap 
pily ake as much as a whole Common- wealth. 

I defire him alfo to conceale himfelf as deeply as he 
can, if he cannot get a fpeciall pardon, to weare a La- 
titat, about his neck, or let him lie clofe under the Phi- 
lofophers ftone, and I le warrant him for ever being 

If he be dif covered, I counfell him to get his head 
fetion fafter than our New-England Taylors ufe to fet 
on|Buttons; Kings, and Kings Childrens memories 
are as keen as their Subjects wits. 

If he fears any fuch thing, that he would come over 
to us, to helpe recruite our bewildered brains: we will 
promife to maintain him fo long as he lives, if he will 
promife to live no longer then we maintain him. 

If he fhould bee difcovered and his head chance to 
be cut off againft his will, I earneftly befeech him to 
bequeath his wits to me and mine in Fee-fimple, for 
we want them, and cannot live by our hands in this 

Laftly, I intreat him to keep his purfe, I give him 


AGGAVVAM in America. * 71 

my counfell gratis, conf effing him to be more then 
my match, and that I am very loath to fall into his 

^ O lj 


IF Reformation, Compofition, Ceffation, can finde 
no admittance, there muft and will be Profecution : 
to which I would alfo fpeake briefly and indifferently 
ftill to both fides ; and firft to that, which I had rather 
call Royalifts then malignants; who if I miftake not, 
fight againft the Truth. 

Foolifh Cowardly man (I pray patience, for I 
fpeak nothing but the pulfe of my owne heart) dreads 
and hates, nothing in Heaven or Earth, fo much as 
Truth: it is not God, nor Law, nor finne, nor death, 
nor hell, that he feares, but only becaufe hee feares 
there is Truth in them: Could he de-truth them all, 
he would defie them all: Let Perdition it felfe come 
upon him with deadly threats, fiery fwords, difplay- 
ed vengeance, he cares not; Let Salvation come cap 
in hand, with naked Reafon, harmleffe Religion, 
lawny imbracements, he will rather flye or dye, than 
entertaine it: come Truth in what fhape it will, hee 
will reject it: and when hee can beat it off with moft 
fteely proweffe, he thinkes himfelfe the braveft man 
when in truth it is nothing but exfanguine feeble exili 
ty of Spirit. Thy heart, faith the Prophet Ezek. 16. 
30. is weake, like the heart of an imperious whorifh 
woman: a man would thinke, the heart of an impe 
rious whore, were the very pummell of Scanderbergs; 
fword; alas, fhee is hen-hearted, fhee dares not looke 
Truth in the face ; if f he dared, fhee would neither bee 

K 3 who- 

72 Tie Simple Ccbler of 

whorifh, nor imperious, nor weake. He fhewes more 
true fortitude, that prayes quarter of the leaft Truth, at 
a miles diftance, than hee that breakes through and 
hewes downe the moft Theban Phalanx that ever 
field bore. Paul expreffed more true valour, in faying, 
I can doe nothing againft the Truth, than Goliah, in 
defying the whole hofte of Ifrael. 

Couragious Gentlemen, Yee that will ftab him 
that gives you the lye; take heed yee fpend not your 
bloods, limbes and foules, in fighting for fome un 
truth: and yee that will fling out the gantlet to him 
that calls you Coward, difhonour not your felves 
with fuch Cowardife, as to fight againft Truth, meer- 
ly for feare of it. A thoufand pities it is fuch gallant 
Spirits fhould fpend their lives, honours, heritages, 
and fweet relations in any Warres, where, for ought 
many of them know, fome falfe miftake commands 
in Cheife. 

Honoured Country men, bee intreated to love 
Truth : if it loves not you againe, and repaires not all 
your loffes, then inftall fome Untruth in its room for 
your Generall. If you will needs warre, be perfwa- 
ded to contend lawfully, wifely and ftedfaftly againft 
all errours in Divinity and Policy: they are the cur- 
fed Counter-mures, dropt Portcullifes, fcouring 
Angi-ports, fulphurious Granado s, laden murthe- 
rers, peevifh Galthropes, and rafcall defparadoes, 
which the Prince of lyes imployes with all his skill 
and malice, to maintaine the walls and gates of his 
kingdome, when Truth would enter in with grace and 
peace to fave f orlorne f inners, and diftreffed common- 
wealthes; witneffe the prefent deplorable eftate of 
fundry States in Europe. Give 

AGGAVVAM in America. 73 

Give me leave to fpeake a word more: it is but 
this; Yee will finde it a farre eafier field, to wage 
warre againft all the Armies that ever were or will be 
on Earth, and all the Angels of Heaven, than to take 
up Armes againft any truth of God: It hath more 
Counfell and ftrength than all the world befides; and 
will certainly either gaine or ruine, convert or fubvert 
every man that oppofes it. I hope ingenuous men 
will rather take advice, then offence at what I have 
faid: I had rather pleafe ten, than grieve one intelli 
gent man. 

If this fide be refolute, I turne me to the other. 

Goe on brave Englifhmen, in the name of God, go 
on profperouf ly, becaufe of Truth and Righteoufnes : 
Yee that have the caufe of Religion, the life of your 
Kingdome and of all the good that is in it in your 
hands: Goe on undauntedly: As you are Called and 
Chofen, fo be faithfull: Yee fight the battells of the 
Lord, bee neither def idious nor perfidious : You ferve 
the King of Kings, who f tiles you his heavenly Re 
giments, Confider well, what impregnable fighting 
it is in heaven, where the Lord of Hofts is your Ge- 
nerall, his Angels your Colonels, the Stars your fel- 
low-fouldiers, his Saints your Oratours, his Promifes 
your victuallers, his Truth your Trenches; w r here 
Drums are Harps, Trumpets joyfull founds; your 
Enfignes Chrifts Banners; where your weapons and 
armour are fpirituall, therefore irrefiftable, therefore 
impierceable ; where Sun and wind cannot dif advan 
tage you, you are above them; where hell it felfe can 

74 The Simple Cotter of 

not hurt you, where your fwords are furbufhed and 
fharpened by him that made their metall, where your 
wounds are Tbound up with the oyle of a good Caufe, 
where your blood runs into the veynes of Chrift, 
where fudden death is prefent martyrdome and life; 
your funerals refurrections your honour glory; where 
your widows and babes are received into perpetuall 
penfions; your names lifted among Davids Worthies; 
where your greatest loffes are greateft gaines; and 
where you leave the troubles of war, to lye down in 
downy beds of eternall reft. fH 

What good will it|doe you, deare Countrymen, to 
live without lives, to^enjoy England without the God 
of England, your Kingdome without a Parliament, 
your Parliament without power, your Liberties with 
out ftability, your Lawes without Juftice, your ho 
nours without vertue, your beings without wel-being, 
your wives without honefty, your children without 
morality, your fervants without civility, your lands 
without propriety, your goods without immunity, the 
Gofpel without falvation, your Churches without 
Miniftery, your Minifters without piety, and all you 
have or can have, with more teares ana bitterneffe of 
heart, than all you have and fhall have will fweeten 
or wipe away? 

Goe on therefore Renowned Gentlemen, fall on 
refolvedly, till your hands cleave to your fwords, your 
fwords to your enemies hearts, your hearts to victory, 
your victories to triumph, your triumphs to the ever- 
lafting praife of him that hath given you Spirits to 
offer your felves willingly, and to jeopard your lives 
in high perils, for his Name and fervice fake. 


AGGAVVAM in America. 75 

And Wee your Brethren, though we neceffarily a- 
bide beyond Jordan, and remaine on the American 
Sea-coafts, will fend up Armies of prayers to the 
Throne of Grace, that the God of power and good- 
neffe, would incourage your hearts, cover your heads, 
ftrengthen your arms, pardon your finnes, fave your 
foules, and bleffe your families, in the day of Battell. 
Wee will alfo pray, that the fame Lord of Hofts, 
would dif cover the Counfels, defeat the Enterprizes, 
deride the hopes, difdaine the infolencies, and wound 
the hairy fcalpes of your obftinate Enemies, and yet 
pardon all that are unwillingly mifled. Wee will 
likewife helpe you beleeve that God will be feen on 
the Mount, that it is all one with him to fave by ma 
ny or few, and that he doth but humble and try you 
for the prefent, that he may doe you good at the lat 
ter end. All which hee bring to paffe who is able to 
doe exceeding abundantly, above all we can aske or 
thinke, for his Truth and mercy fake in Jefus Chrift. 
Amen. Amen. 

A Word of IRELAND: 

Not of the Nation univerfally, nor of any man in 

it, that hath fo much as one haire of Chriftianity or 

Humanity growing on his head or beard, but 

onely of the truculent Cut-throats, and 

fuch as /hall take up Armes 

in their Defence. 

THefe Irifh anciently called Antropophagi, man- 
eaters: Have a Tradition among them, That 

L when 

76 The Simple CoUtr of 

when the Devill f he wed our Saviour all the Xing- 
domes of the Earth and their glory, that he would 
not f hew him Ireland, but referved it for himfelf e : it 
is probably true, for he hath kept it ever fince for 
his own peculiar; the old Fox forefaw it would ec- 
clipfe the glory of all the reft : he thought it wifdome 
to Keep the land for a Boggards for his unclean fpirits 
imployed in this Hemifphere, and the people, to doe 
his Son and Heire, I mean the Pope, that fervice for 
which Lewis the eleventh kept his Barb or Oliver, 
which makes them fo blood-thirfty. They are the ve 
ry Offall of men, Dregges of Mankind, Reproach of 
Chriftendom, the Bots that crawle on the Beafts taile 
I wonder Rome it felf is not afhamed of them. 

I begge upon my, hands and knees, that the Ex 
pedition againft them may be undertaken while the 
hearts and hands of our Souldiery are hot, to whom 
I will be bold to fay briefly: Happy is he that fhall 
reward them as they have ferved us, and Curfed be he 
that fhall do that work of the Lord negligently, Cur- 
fed be he that holdeth back his Sword from blood: 
yea, Curfed be he that maketh not his Sword ftarke 
drunk with Irifh blood, that doth not recompence 
them double for their hellifh treachery to the Englifh, 
that maketh them not heaps upon heaps, and their 
Country a dwelling place for Dragons, an Aftonifh- 
ment to Nations : Let not that eye look for pity, nor 
that hand to be fpared, that pities or fpares them, and 
let him be accurfed, that curfeth not them bitterly. 

AGGAVVAM in Anerica. 77 


A word of Love to the Common people 

of EngUnd. 

IT is, your, now or never, to mufter up puiffant Ar 
mies of prayer to the mercy Seate; your Body Re- 
prefentative, is now to take in hand, as intricate a 
peice of worke, as ever fell into the hands of any Par 
liament in the world, to tye an indiffoluble knot upon 
that webb which hath been woven with fo much coft 
and bloud, wherein if they happen to make one falfe 
maske, it may re-imbarque themfelves and you all 
into a deadly relapfe of fcorne and calamity. It is the 
worke of God not of man, pray fpeedily therefore, 
and fpeedingly, give him no reft till your reft be 
throughly re-eftablifhed, Your God is a God whofe 
name is All-fufficient, abundant in Goodneffe and 
Truth, on whom the Sonnes of lacob never did, nor 
fhall call in vaine, you have a Throne of Grace wher- 
to you may goe boldly; a Chrift to give you a leading 
by the hand and liberty of fpeech, an Interceffor in 
Heaven to offer up your prayers wrapp d in his 
own; a large Charter aske and have, a Spirit to helpe 
all your infirmities in that duty, a fure Covenant 
that you fhalbe heard, and fuch late incouragement as 
may ftrengthen your feeble hands for ever. If you 
who may command God concerning the work of his hand, 
fhall faile to demand the workemanfhip of his hand 
in this worke, your children will proclaime you un- 

L 2 thrifts 

78 The Simple Cotter of 

thrifts with bitter teares to the worlds end. 
If you fee no caufe to pray, read 
Jer. 18. 1. 10. 

Be alfo intreated to have a continuall and con- 
fcientious care not to impeach the Parliament 
in the hearts one of another by whifpering com 
plaints, eafilier told then tryed or trued. Great 
bodyes move but flowery, efpecially when they 
move on three leggs and are over-loden with weighty 
occafions. They have now fate full fix years without 
intermiffion to continue your being, many of their 
heads are growne gray with your cares, they are the 
High Councell of the J^ingdome, the great Gilead of 
your Balme, the Phifitians of all your fickneffe; if a- 
ny of them doe amiffe, blame your f elves, you chofe 
them, be wifer hereafter; you cannot doe the State, 
your felves, your pofterity a more ungratefull office 
then to impaire them with difparagements and difco- 
ragements who are fo ftudious to repaire your al- 
moft irreparable ruines. 

Be likewife be feeched, not to flight good minift- 
ers, whom you were wont to reverence much, they 
are Gods Embaffadours, your Ephods, your Starres, 
your Horfe-men & Chariots, your Watchmen, & un 
der Chrift your Salvation, I know no deadlier Sym- 
ptome of a dying people than to undervalue godly 
Minifters, whofoever defpifeth them fhall certainly 
be defpifed of God and men at one time or other. 

AGGAVVAM in Amfiric*. 

A mod humble heel-piece. 

Moft Honourable Head-piece 

Parliament of England. 

I Might excufe my felfe in Part, with a fpeech 
Lycurgus ufed in the like exigent of State, fene- 
ctute fio audacior, publica neceffitate loquacior, but it 
much better becomes mee with all lowlineffe and 
uprightneffe, wherein I have failed to pray pardon 
on both my knees, which I moft humbly and wil 
lingly doe; only, before I rife, I crave leave to pre- 
fent this fix-fold Petition. 

That you would be pleafed 

To preferve the Sacred reputation of Parliaments, 
or, wee fhall have no Common- wealth. 

To uphold the due eftimation of good Minifters, 
elfe, wee fhall have no Church. 

To heale the fad dif location of our Head, through 
ly, prefectly, or, wee fhall have no King. 


so The Simple Colter of 

To oppugne the bold violation of divine Truths, 
elfe wee fhall have no God. 

To proceed with what zeale you began, or what 
you began can come to little end. 

To expedite worke with what fpeede you fafely 
may, elfe ignorant people will feare they fhall 
have no end at all. 

Hee that is great in Counfell, and Wonderfull in 
Working, guide and helpe you in All things, that 
doing All things in Him, by Him, and for Him, 
you may doe All things like Him. 

So be it. 

AGGAVYAM in America 

A refpeftivc word to the Minifters 

FARRE bee it from mee, while I dehort others 
to flight you my felfe, or to defpife any man 
but my felfe, whom I can never defpife enough: 
I rather humbly intreate you to forgive my bold- 
neffe, who have moft juft caufe to judge my felfe 
leffe and leffe faithfull than the leaft of you all, yet 
I dare not but bee fo faithfull to you and my felfe, 
as to fay 

They are the Minifters of England, that have loft 
the Land; for Chrifts fake, put on His bowels, His 
wifdome, His zeale, and recover it. 

I pray 

82 The Simple Coller of 

I pray let me drive in half a dozen 
plaine honest Country Hobnails, such as 
the Martyrs were wont to weare; to 
make my work hold the surer; and I 
have done. 

1. r I ^ Here, lives cannot be good, 
_A_ There, Faith cannot be Jure, 
Where Truth cannot be quiet, 
Nor Ordinances pure. 

%. No King can King it right, 
Nor riqhtly [way his Rod; 

u / / / 

Who truely loves not Chrift, 
And truely fears not God. 

3. He cannot rule a Land, 

As Lands fhould ruled been, 
That lets him/elf be rul d 
By a ruling Romane Queen. 

4. A 7 o earthly man can be 

True Subject to this State; 
Who makes the Pope his Chrift, 
An Heretique his Mate. 

5. There Peace will goe to War, 

And Silence make a noife: 
Where upper things will not 
With nether equipoyfe. 

6. The 

AGGAVVAM ia Amtrka. 83 

6. The upper world fhall Rule, 

While Stars will run their race. 
The nether world obey, 

While people keep their place. 

The Clench. 

IF any of thefe come out 
So long 9 s the world doe laft: 
Then credit not a word 
Of what is /aid and paft. 


84 The Simple CoUer of 




NOW I come to rubbe over my work, I finde five 
or fix things like faults, which would be mended 
or commended, I know not well which, nor greatly 

1. For Levity , read, Lepidity, - - and that a ve 
ry little, and that very neceffary, if not unavoydable. 

Mi fee ftultitiam Con/iliis brevem 
Dulce eft defipere in loco. Horat. 

To fpeak to light heads with heavy words, were to 
break their necks: to cloathe Summer matter, with 
Winter Rugge, would make the Reader fweat. It is 
mufick to me, to hear every Dity fpeak its fpirit in its 
apt tune : every breaft, to f ing its proper part, and eve 
ry creature, to expreffe it felf in its naturall note : f hould 
I heare a Moufe roare like a Beare, a Cat lowgh like 
an Oxe, or a Horfe whiftle like a Red-breaft, it would 
fcare mee. 

The world s a ivellftrung fidle, mans tongue the quill, 
That fills the world with fumble for want of skill, 

When things and words in tune and tone doe meet, 
The univerfall fong goes fmooth and fweet. 

2. For 

AGGAVVAM in America. 85 

2. For audacity, read, veracity, or Verum Gallice 
non libenter audis. Mart. Flattery never doth well, but 
when it is whifpered through a paire of lifping teeth; 
Truth beft, when it is fpoken out, through a paire of 
open lips, Ye make fuch a noyfe there, with Drums 
and Trumpets, that if I fhould not fpeak loud, ye 
could not hear me. Ye talke one to another, with 
whole Culvering and Canon; give us leave to talk 
Squibs and Piftoletto s charged with nothing but 
powder of Love and f hott of Reafon : if you will cut 
fuch deep gafhes in one anothers flefh, we must fow 
them up with deep ftitches, elfe ye may bleed to death : 
ye were better let us, your tender Countrymen doe it, 
than forraine Surgeons, who will handle you more 
cruelly, and take no other pay, but your Lives and 

- A/pice vultus, 

Ecce meos, utinamque oculos in pectorepoffes 
Infer ere: & patrias intus deprendere Our as. Ovid. 


He that to tall men fpeakes, muft lift up s head, 
And when h hath done, muft fet it where he did: 

He that to proud men talkes, muft put on pride; 
And when h hath done, tis good to lay t afide. 

3. For, Yes, but you fpeak at three thoufand miles di- 
ftance, which every Coward dare doe, read, if my heart 
deceives me not, I would fpeak thus, in the Prefence 
Chamber or Houfe of Commons; hoping Homer will 
fpeak a good word for me. 

yap avrjp ev TTCLGIV 

M 2 Omnibus 

86 The Simple Colter of 

Omnibus in rebus potior vir fortis & audax 
Sit licet hofpes, & e longinquis venerit oris. 

When Kings are loft, and Subjects caft away, 

A faithfull heart fhould f peak what tongue can fay: 

It skils not where this faithfull heart doth dwell, 
His faithfull dealing fhould be taken well. 

4. For, affected termes, read, / hope not - - If 

I affect termes, it is my feebleneffe; friends that know 
me, think I doe not: I confeffe, I fee I have here and 
there taken a few finifh ftitches, which may haply 
pleafe a few Velvet eares ; but I cannot now well pull 
them out, unleffe I fhould feame-rend all. It feemes 
it is in fafhion with you to fugar your papers with 
Carnation phrafes, and fpangle your fpeeches with 
new quodled words. Ermins in Minifer is every mans 
Coat. Yet we heare fome are raking in old mufty 
Charnel books, for old mouldy monefyllables ; I wifh 
they were all banif ht to Monmouthfhire, to return when 
they had more wit. 

Multa renafcentur quoe jam cecidere, cadentque 
Quce nuncfunt in honor e vocabula,fi volet ufus. Hor. 

I honour them with my heart, that can expreffe 
more than ordinary matter in ordinary words: it is 
a pleafing eloquence; them more that ftudy wifely 
and foberly to inhance their native language; them 
moft of all, that efteem the late fignificant fpeech, the 
third great bleffing of the Land; it being fo enriched, 
that a man may fpeak many Tongues in his Mothers 


AGGAVVAM in dmtrica. 87 

mouth and an uplandifh Ruftick, more in one word 
than himfelfe and all the Parifh underftands. Affe 
cted termes are unaffecting things to folid hearers ; yet 
I hold him prudent, that in thefe faftidious times, will 
helpe difedged appetites with convenient condiments, 
and bangled ears, with pretty quicke pluckes. I fpeak 
the rather becaufe, not long fince, I met with a book, 
the beft to me I ever faw, but the Bible, yet under 
favour, it was fomewhat underclad, efpecially by 
him w r ho can both excogitate and expreffe what hee 
undertakes, as well as any man I know. 

The world is growne fo fine in words and wit, 
That pens muft now Sir Edward Nich las it. 

He that much matter /peaks, /peaks ne V a whit. 
If 9 s tongue doth not career t above his wit. 

5. For, You ver/e it /imply, what need have we of your 
thin Poetry; read, I confeffe I wonder at it my felf , that 
I f hould turne Poet : I can impute it to nothing, but to 
the flatuoufneffe of our diet : they are but sudden rap 
tures foone up, foone downe. 

--Deductum dicere Carmen, is highly commended by 

Virgil himfelf faid, 

Agre/tem tenui meditabor arundine mu/am. 

Poetry 9 s a gift wherein but few excell; 

He doth very ill, that doth not pa//ing well. 
But he doth pa//ing well, that doth his beft, 

And he doth beft, that paffeth all the reft. 

M 3 6. For 

88 Tie Simple Colter of 

6. For, tedioufneffe, read, I am forry for it We 

have a ftrong weakneffe in N. E. that when wee are 
fpeaking, we know not how to conclude: wee make 
many ends, before we make an end : the fault is in the 
Climate; we cannot helpe it though we can, which is 
the Arch infirmity in all morality : We are fo near the 
Weft pole, that our Longitudes are as long, as any 
wife man would wifh, and fomewhat longer. I fcarce 
know any Adage more gratefull: than Grata brevitas. 

Verba confer maxime ad compendium. Plaut. 

Coblers will mend, but fome will never mend, 
But end, and end, and end, and never end. 

A well-girt houre gives every man content, 

Sixe ribs of beefe, are worth fixe weeks of Lent. 

For, all my other faults, which may bee more and 
greater than 1 fee, read, I am heartily forry for them, 
before I know them, leaft I fhould forget it after; and 
humbly crave pardon at adventure, having nothing 
that I can think of, to plead but this, 

Quifquis inops peccat, minor eft reus. Petron. 

Poore Coblers well may fault it now and then, 
They r ever mending faults for other men. 

And if I worke for nought, why is it faid, 

This bungling Cobler would be foundly paid? 


AGGAVVAM in America. 89 

So farewell England old 

If evill times enfue, 
Let good men come to us, 

Wee / welcome them to New. 

And farewell Honor d Friends, 

If happy dayes enfue, 
You 9 1 have fome Guefts from hence, 

Pray welcome us to you. 

And farewell fimple world, 

If thou It thy Cranium mend, 

There is my La ft and All, 
And a Shoem-Akers 



IN March, 1633, a little company of settlers, led by John 
Wirithrop, Jr., eldest son of the Governor, invaded the 
wilderness and began the formal settlement of Ipswich. 
The young leader was a scholarly and noble-minded man, 
and a singularly refined group was attracted at once to 
the new town. For the work of the ministry, came Nath 
aniel Ward, and Nathaniel Rogers, both excommunicated 
by Laud and deposed from the ministry in England, and 
the young John Norton, brilliant in scholarship and des 
tined for high place in the Colony. Thomas Dudley, retir 
ing from the Governorship, sought a new home here, and 
with him came his daughter, Ann, with her husband, Simon 
Bradstreet, the future statesman, and Patience and her 
husband, Daniel Denison, renowned for his military skill 
and political prominence. Dr. Giles Firmin, son-in-law of 
Ward, and Richard Saltonstall, son of Sir Richard, a man 
of fine intellectual parts, called at once to places of politi 
cal preferment, were numbered among the earliest settlers. 
fWinthrop had been a student at Trinity College, Dublin, 
ard, Rogers, Norton, Saltonstall, and Firmin were all 
Cambridge graduates. Bradstreet and Dudley were men 
of fine intelligence, and Ann Bradstreet was already reveal 
ing marked poetical gifts. 

HjWilliam Hubbard took his bachelor s degree in 1642 with 
the first class that graduated from Harvard, and became 
the minister of the Ipswich church. Ezekiel Cheever, the 
famous schoolmaster, came in 1650, and taught for ten 
years as Master of the Grammar School. Samuel Symonds 
grew into fame and influence in political life, Samuel Apple- 
ton won renown as Commander-in-chief during King 
Philip s War, and in the fiftieth year from the settlement 
of the town, John Rogers was called to the presidency of 
Harvard. A few years later, Ipswich gained a notable 
place in the annals of resistance to tyranny by her refusal 
to choose the tax commissioner ordered by Sir Edmund 

From this brilliant group, came notable contributions to 
the literature of New England. Ann Bradstreet, inspired 



by such an atmosphere, wrote the poems which were 
hailed with rapture as the work of the Tenth Muse. Will 
iam Hubbard compiled his History of the Indian Wars. 
Nathaniel Ward revealed his great gifts in the preparation 
of The Body of Liberties and The Simple Cobler. He was 
the most striking figure perhaps in this illustrious company. 
His career in England had been noteworthy. He had 
taken his degree of Bachelor of Arts at Emmanuel College 
in 1600 and his Master s degree in 1603, but chose the legal 
profession, though his father and two brothers were clergy 
men. He "read almost all the Common Law of England 
and some Statutes/ he remarks in The Simple Cobler (p. 66) , 
then travelled widely in Europe and spent some time in 
Heidelberg. There he came in contact with the famous 
theologian, David Pareus, and was influenced by him to 
abandon the law and enter the ministry. 

While rector at Stondon-Massey, near London, he became 
conspicuous for his Puritan practices, and was summoned 
before Archbishop Laud. Refusing to comply with the 
ecclesiastical requirements, he was roughly excommuni 
cated. Deprived of his home by the death of his wife and 
deposed from the ministry, he sought a new home and work 
in the New World, although he was at least fifty-four years 

He came to Ipswich in 1634, the year 01 his arrival, and 
began his work at once. Mr. John Ward Dean, in his 
excellent Memoir of Mr. W^ard, states that he preached not 
more than two or three years, and that he was moved to 
resign his pastorate, partly on account of impaired health, 
but principally from a preference for literary employments. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Nathaniel Rogers in Febru 
ary, 1637/8, and turned at once to other and varied labors. 

His house was built near the present site of the Col. Wade 
mansion. His sons, James and John, were often with him, 
and his daughter, Susan, wife of Dr. Giles Firmin, lived on 
the adjoining lot, where the parsonage of the South Church 
now stands. On the opposite side of the road, within a 
few rods of Mr. Ward a door, Richard Saltonstall and Mr. 
Rogers reared their dwellings. John Norton, Gov. Dudley 
and Simon Bradstreet dwelt within easy walking distance. 
Congenial society was never lacking. 

In April, 1638, he was appointed a member of a committee 
to prepare a code of laws for the Colony. His legal attain- 


ments fitted him pre-eminently for this work, and the code 
which he prepared is generally recognized to be identical 
with The Body of Liberties, which was eventually ratified 
and adopted as the written law of the Colony. It has 
been commended by men of high judicial attainments as 
a work of fine legal quality. The General Court granted 
Mr. Ward six hundred acres of land at Pentucket, now 
Haverhill, in 1641, as compensation for this service. 1 
[^In 1643, fears were prevalent of entanglement with 
French colonial affairs at St. John on account of Gov. Win- 
throp s favorable action upon the request of La Tour to 
hire ships in the Colony. A Remonstrance 2 was drawn up 
signed by Richard Salt ons tall, Simon Brads tree t, Samuel 
Symonds, Nathaniel Ward, Ezekiel Rogers, Nathaniel 
Rogers, and John Norton. The first three were magis 
trates. Ezekiel Rogers was minister at Rowley. This 
document may have contributed to the defeat of Gover 
nor Winthrop at the following election. It is natural to 
conclude that the conferences incidental to the formulating 
of this Remonstrance may have been held in Mr. Ward s 
house, as the oldest of the group and most delicate in 

In the year 1645 3 he was already at work on The Simple 
Cobler, which was completed in the following year and 
sent to London for publication. He bade farewell to Ips 
wich in the winter of 1646/7, and sailed for England, where 
he spent his declining years, and died in 1653. 

During these twelve years he had tasted the bitterness of 
poverty. The pathos of that letter written on December 24 
of 1634 or 1635 to Governor Winthrop will never be for 
gotten. "I heare Mr. Coddington hath the sale and dis- 
posall of much provision come in this shipp. I intreate 
you to do so much as to speake to him in my name to reserue 
some meale & malt & what victuals els he thinks meete till 
our Riuer be open our Church will pay him duely for it 
I am very destitute I have not above 6 bushells corne left 
& other things answerable. ; 

With grim humor, he remarks of Time in The Simple 

1 See an estimate of this code in " Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony," page 47. 

2 Printed in full in the Hutchinson Papers, with Gov. Winthrop s 

3 Simple Cobler, p. 18: "Materia millessima sexcentesima quadra- 
gesima quinta." 

9 4 


Cobier (p. 53), "it is an empty thing, as empty as a New- 
English purse, and emptier it cannot bee;" and there is 
a touch of bitterness in his observations on the financial 
support of ministers, "nor can an Elder be given to hos 
pitality, when he knowes not what will be given him to 
defray it: it is pity men of gifts should live upon mens 
gifts" (p. 41). "The seeds of the Bay-sickness," caused 
much physical pain and weakness, so that he realized his 
unfitness for a removal to the new plantation at Pentucket, 
though the project was often deliberated by the family 
group, and.. .his son John removed thither, and became 
the minister of the new settlement. 

No house ever built in our town has such associations 
as that in which he dwelt and wrought out The Body of 
Liberties and struck off The Simple Cobier, while in the 
humor, brooding often upon his poverty and weakness. 
It was standing some years after his departure. Cotton 
Mather, in his "Parentator, Memoirs of Remarkables in 
the Life and Death of his father, Increase Mather," pub 
lished in 1724, remarked, quoting perhaps his father s words : 

"An Hundred witty Speeches of our celebrated Ward 
who called himself The Simple Cobier of Agawam [and over 
whose Mantle-piece in his House, by the way, I have seen 
those three Words Engraved, SOBRIE JUSTE PIE and 
a Fourth added which was L^ETE] have been reported. 
But he had one Godly Speech. / have only Two Comforts 
to Live upon: The one is, in The Perfections of CHRIST: 
The other is in The Imperfections of all CHRISTIANS." 

No deed of conveyance was recorded. It was sold un 
doubtedly to Jonathan Wade and Firmins house became 
the property of Deacon William Goodhue. 1 

The Simple Cobier was published in January, 1646/7, and 
attained great popularity. Four editions were printed 
within a few months. A reprint of the fourth London 
edition was published in Boston in 1713, and David Pulsi- 
fer, of the Ipswich family of that name, made a reprint of this 
edition in 1843. This reprint is from a copy of the fourth 

1 See a full account of land transfers in " Ipswich in the Massachu 
setts Bay Colony," p. 470. Mr. John W. Nourse has discovered, in the 
Commoners Record, the entry 

" Mr. Jonathan & ) claim equal 

Mr. Thomas Wade ) rights in y e several 

comonages, one by Mr. Nath 1 Wards Entry 16-41 deed d to y r Grand 
father in 1646." 


London edition, presented to the Ipswich Historical Society 
by the late Daniel Fuller Apple ton, Esq. The title page 
and the two following pages have been reproduced. The 
page divisions and the general appearance of the book have 
been preserved as far as possible throughout the work. 
The original punctuation, capital letters, and spelling have 
been adhered to faithfully. 

The title page is ingeniously worded. The author s 
name appears thinly disguised under the pseudonym, 
Theodore de la Guard, Theodore being the exact Greek 
equivalent of the Hebrew, Nathaniel, and de la Guard an 
easy French rendering of Ward. The mingling of classical 
quotations with acute and amusing English paraphrases 
is an admirable prelude to the method of the whole essay. 
The fiction of the Cobler is maintained in the prefatory 
note, To the Reader, and in the title repeated on page 1, 
but it is abandoned instantly with the discussion of his 
theme, reappearing only in his setting on of " the best peece 
of Soule-leather I have" on page 32, in the snatch of song 
he puts in the mouth of the Cobler on pages 45 and 46, 
the humble heel-piece on pages 79 and 80, and the num 
erous finishing touches of the Errata, with which the book 

A few vigorous sentences portray the confused and criti 
cal condition of public affairs. "Sathan is now in his 
passions, he f eeles his passion approaching : hee loves to fish 
in royled waters." "The finer Religion grows, the finer 
hee spins his Cob webs " (p. 2). 

The healing of l these comf ortlesse exulcerations, " is a 
difficult task, but he endeavors to make some contribution 
to this end. Resenting the charge that the New England 
colonists are a Colluvies of wild Opinionists, swarmed into 
a remote wildernes to find elbow-roome for our phanatick 
Doctrines and practises:" he proclaims in the name of the 
Colony "that all Familists, Antinomians, Anabaptists and 
other Enthusiasts shall have free Liberty to keepe away 
from us, and such as will come to be gone as fast as they 
can, the sooner the better, and he avers, that God doth 
no where in his word tolerate Christian States, to give 
Tolerations to such adversaries of his Truth, if they have 
power in their hands to suppresse them (p. 3). This is the 
keynote of his teaching. Intolerance of every false opin 
ion or practise is the duty of the Puritans of England, 


in their conflict with error. He has heard of a compact 
made by some planters in the West Indies, which * firmly 
provides free stable-room and litter for all kinde of con 
sciences, be they never so dirty or jadish; making it action 
able, yea, treasonable, to disturbe any man in his Religion, 
or to discommend it, whatever it be/ but he rejoices that 
"God abhorring such loathsome beverages, hath in his 
righteous judgement blasted that enterprize" (p. 4). Four 
things he detests: "The standing of the Apocrypha in the 
Bible; Forrainers dwelling in my Countrey, to crowd out 
native Subjects into the corners of the Earth; Alchymized 
coines; Tolerations of divers Religions, or of one Religion 
in segregant shapes" (p. 5). "To authorise an untruth/ 
he affirms, " is to build a Sconce against the walls of heaven, 
to batter God out of his chaire" (p. 6). He brings all 
his arguments to establish the truth of his position. " Au- 
gustines tongue had not owed his mouth one penny-rent 
though he had never spake word more in it, but this, Nullum 
malum pejus libertate errandi" (p. 8). (No evil is worse 
than liberty to teach falsely.) The Scriptures teach, he 
affirms, that "nothing makes free but Truth, and Truth 
saith, there is no Truth but one" (p. 9). If there is room 
in England for the Errorists whom he catalogues on page 11, 
then there is room for the mythical and unclean sprites he 
mentions over against them, "In a word room for Hell 
above ground. ; 

Lest any one may misunderstand his position he reaf 
firms it. " It is said, That Men ought to have Liberty of 
their Conscience and that it is persecution to debarre them 
of it: I can rather stand amazed then reply to this: it is 
an astonishment to think that the braines of men should 
be parboyl d in such impious ignorance; Let all the wits 
under the Heavens lay their heads together and finde an 
Assertion worse then this (one excepted) I will petition 
to be chosen the universall Ideot of the world " (p. 12). 
Hence Parliament should enact some peremptory Statu 
tory Act" against Error, and every prophet should preach 
against it. All infants should be baptized, "though their 
Parents judgements be against it" (p. 17). He gives 
warning of a "new sprung Sect of phrantasticks, which 
would perswade themselves and others, that they have dis 
covered the Nor-west passage to Heaven. These wits of the 
game, cry up and downe in corners such bold ignotions of a 


new Gospell, new Christ, new Faith, and new gay-nothings, 
as trouble unsetled heads, querulous hearts, and not a little 
grieve the Spirit of God. " " Blasphemers, he calls them, 
"a, late fry of croaking frogs." "I cannot imagine why 
the Holy Ghost should give Timothie the solemnest charge, 
was ever given mortal man, to observe the Rules he had 
given, till the comming of Christ, if new things must be 
expected " (p. 19). 

There is so much power in false doctrine, "that the 
least Error, if grown sturdy and pressed, shall set open the 
Spittle-doore of all the squint-ey d, wry-necked, and brasen- 
faced Errors that are or ever were of that litter" (p. 21). 
It is impossible, he maintains, to allow all religions their 
liberty, and secure regular justice and moral honesty in 
one and the same jurisdiction, and he expresses this in 
another extraordinary declaration : " If the whole conclave 
of Hell can so compromise, exad verse, and diametricall con 
tradictions, as to compolitize such multimonstrous maufrey 
of heteroclytes and quicquidlibets quietly; I trust I may 
say with all humble reverence, they can do more than the 
Senate of Heaven" (p. 22). 

This is the climax of his argument for Intolerance, and 
he makes at this point a whimsical digression from the 
development of his theme to make an attack upon the 
undue regard of women for the latest fashion and men s 
wearing of long hair. Quoting a line from Horace, * What 
is to hinder one from telling the Truth laughingly?" he 
proceeds with bitter sarcasm to deride the "nugiperous" 
[light-minded] Gentledame, who inquires what dresse the 
Queen is in this week : what the nudius tertian [day before 
yesterday] fashion of the Court; ... I look at her as the 
very gizzard of a trifle, the product of a quarter of a cypher, 
the epitome of Nothing, fitter to be kickt, if she were of 
a kickable substance, than either honour ; d or humour J cl. " 

The ordinary resource of language fails him utterly and 
he betakes himself to a vocabulary of extraordinary vio 
lence. Their fashionable garb transclouts them into 
gant-bar-geese, ill-shapen-shotten-shell-fish, Egyptian Hye- 
roglyphicks" (p. 26). He is sick of seeing the "gut- 
f oundred goosdom, wherewith they are now surcingled and 
debauched. He derides tailors for spending their lives 
"in making fidle-cases for futulous womens phansies: 
which are the very pettitoes of Infirmity, the giblets of 


perquisquilian toyes" (p. 27). With a parting gibe at 
these 1 1 light-heel d beagles that lead the chase so fast, 
that they run all civility out of breath, against these Ape- 
headed pullets, which invent Antique foole-fangles, meerly 
for fashion and novelty sake" (p. 29), he devotes a few 
sentences to the enormous sin of men in wearing long hair, 
and then returns to the further discussion of the great 
questions of the time. 

Four possible schemes of securing peace and harmony 
between King and people are discussed under the heads 
of Reformation, Composition, Cessation, Prosecution, and 
for the most part with dignity and moderation. He de 
clares that he agrees neither with Presbyterian nor Inde 
pendent nor Separatist, but advocates some middle course, 
that shall secure pure and undefiled religion. He calls for 
personal purity and sincerity in Christian living. 

His discussion of the scheme of Composition, by which 
both Majestas Imperil and Salus Populi may be secured, 
leads him to some strong speech. No Prince exceeds in 
Soveraignty, but his Subjects will exceed as farre in some 
vitious Liberty, to abate their greife; or some pernicious 
mutiny, to abate their Prince" (p. 48). His personal ad 
dress to the King, with which this section closes, is respect 
ful and even humble in its tone, but pointed and plain. 
Though he means l to storme you with volyes of Love and 
Loyalty " (p. 54), he asks leave to inquire of your Majesty, 
what you make in fields of blood, when you should be 
amidst your Parliament of peace : What you doe sculking 
in the suburbs of Hell, when your Royall Pallaces stand 
desolate, through your absence?" (p. 55). He feels the 
critical condition of affairs, and implores the King to be 
ware of pressing his subjects too hard. There is an uncon 
scious prophecy of the end, we feel, in his warning words, 
"your good Subjects are now rising into a resolution to 
pray you on to your Throne, or into your Tombe, into 
Grace with your Parliament and people, or into Glory with 
the Saints in Heaven (p. 63). Events had moved rapidly 
since those words were penned, and when The Simple 
Cobler appeared in print, the King was already a prisoner. 
"It is now nine months and more since the last credible 
News was acted: it is possible by this the Parliament may 
be at the King s mercy." 

Two personal reminiscences afford an interesting digres- 


sion. Prince Rupert, nephew of King Charles First, was 
in the field, the roystering leader of the cavalry. Some 
where on the Continent, Mr. Ward had met his mother, 
Elizabeth, daughter of James First and wife of the Elector 
of the Palatinate, and the little Rupert. I have had him 
in my armes when he was younger, I wish I had him there 
now : if I mistake not, he promised then to be a good Prince, 
but I doubt he hath forgot it : if I thought he would not be 
angry with me, I would pray hard to his Maker, to make 
him a right Roundhead, a wise hearted Palatine, a thank- 
full man to the English; to forgive all his sinnes, and at 
length to save his soule, notwithstanding all his God-damne 
mee s: yet I may doe him wrong: I am not certaine hee 
useth that oath; I wish no man else would: I dare say 
the Devills dare not. I thank God I have lived in a Colony 
of many thousand English these twelve years, am held a 
very sociable man ; yet I may considerately say, I never 
heard but one Oath sworne, nor ever saw one man drunk, 
nor ever heard of three women Adulteresses, in all this time, 
that I can call to minde" (pp. 64, 65). 

Under the final division, Prosecution, he appeals to his 
countrymen to love Truth, and pursue it at any cost. Drop 
ping his puns, he exhorts with stirring and sonorous words, 
"Goe on brave Englishmen, in the name of God, go on 
prosperously, because of Truth and Righteousness (p. 73). 

The thrilling eloquence of this prolonged appeal, the 
grandeur of its imagery, the loftiness of its tone, reveal the 
power of the author. The final passage, beginning "And 
Wee your Brethren, though we necessarily abide beyond 
Jordan, and remaine on the American Sea-coasts, will send 
up Armies of prayers to the Throne of Grace," is a noble 
climax and end (p. 75). 

Several appendices of different sorts follow. In A Word 
of Ireland" (p. 75) the author lapses into brutal ferocity 
of speech and purpose against ( the truculent cut-throats. ; 
He heaps upon them the foulest epithets and prays that 
the expedition then being fitted out to avenge their murder 
of the English in 1641, may be undertaken "while the 
hearts and hands of our Souldiery are hot." "Cursed be 
he that holdeth back his Sword from blood," he cries. 
1 Cursed be he that maketh not his Sword starke drunk 
with Irish blood, that doth not recompence them double 
for their hellish treachery to the English, that maketh them 


not heaps upon heaps, and their country a dwelling place 
for Dragons, an Astonishment to Nations; Let not that 
eye look for pity, nor that hand to be spared, that pities or 
spares them, and let him be accursed that curseth not them 
bitterly " (p. 76). 

A few more addresses, half a dozen plaine honest Coun 
try Hobnailes, ; as he styles some verses which follow, and 
the "Errata at non Corrigenda/ ? a burlesque upon the Errata 
with which books commonly ended, in his characteristic 
style, complete the work. 

Judged by twentieth century standards, The Simple 
Cobler maybe called a sad example of bigotry and pedantry, 
a senseless jargon of meaningless words, better forgotten 
than brought once more to remembrance. Yet to the 
thoughtful student of the Past, The Cobler is still a work 
of increasing value. 

It was the product of the Puritan age, of which Carlyle 
wrote: "The Age of the Puritans is not extinct only and 
gone away from us but it is as if fallen beyond the capabili 
ties of Memory herself; it is grown unintelligible, what 
we may call incredible. Its earnest Purport awakens now 
no resonance in our frivolous hearts. We understand 
not even in imagination, one of a thousand of us, what it 
ever could have meant. It seems delirious, delusive, the 
sound of it has become tedious as a tale of past stupidities. m 

The age of the Puritans was one of great significance in 
the history of humanity, and The Simple Cobler opens to us 
an impressive picture of that time. Its literary style is 
illustrative of the period. The Puritan scholar had only 
his Bible and the classics. The drama was an abomination 
to him. Though Shakespeare had anticipated Mr. Ward 
more than twenty years, with his cobbler in the first act 
of Julius Caesar, our Ipswich sage probably knew nothing 
of it. But Puritan learning was profound and exact, 
within its limit. The extraordinary fluency hi apt and 
striking quotations from many classic authors reveals a 
thorough and loving acquaintance with the ancient masters 
of style. Indeed, our author is not content to quote his 
Bible and his classics. His vocabulary abounds in words 
that are Latin and Greek, under slight disguise. A Latin 
lexicon affords a better clew to his meaning than Webster ; s 
Unabridged. In Mercurius Anti-Mechanicus, a book often 

1 Oliver Cromwell s Letters and Speeches, 1: 15. 


attributed to Mr. Ward, the writer observes, "The truth 
is I have been so much habituated and half natured into 
these Latins and Greeks, ere I was aware, that I neither can 
expell them, nor spell my own mother-tongue after my old 
fashion. " 1 It was not intentional pedantry, we may well 
believe. Many words, also, have grown obsolete in the lapse 
of two centuries and a half, and obscurity has appeared 
where there was none. 

Yet, in his own time, Mr. Ward s style was peculiar to 
himself in large degree. His love for eccentric and "new 
quodled words " makes his meaning often uncertain. His 
wearisome antitheses lead him to strange liberties with 
his mother tongue. His wit becomes forced, his puns are 
sometimes coarse and even vulgar. His metaphors defy 
all rules. In the same sentence the State is a tabernacle 
and a ship. "We hoyse up sails" is followed by "to 
walk on by twylight. Nevertheless there is such piquancy 
and freshness, such fine sentiment, such tones of thunder, 
that many readers have found much to admire. Carlyle 
might have sat at his feet. Robert Southey, the Poet- 
Laureate, owned a copy of The Simple Cobler, marked 
throughout with marginal pencillings of the passages that 
appealed to him. 2 The least Truth of Gods Kingdome, 
doth in its place, uphold the whole Kingdome of his Truths; 
take away the least vericulum out of the world, and it 
unworlds all, potentially, and may unravell the whole tex 
ture actually, if it be not conserved by an Arm of superi- 
ordinary power/ is one passage thus designated (p. 21). 
Another was the noble sentence, worthy of Milton, it has 
been said, Non senescet veritas, No man ever saw a gray 
haire on the head or beard of any Truth, wrinckle or mor- 
phew on* its face: The bed of Truth is green all the yeare 
long" ( P : 22). 

The ungallant criticism by The Cobler of women s dress 
was only the echo of the common thought of the time. In 
1634, and again in 1639, the Great and General Court con 
demned the wearing of laces and ribbons, ruffs and cuffs, 
and in 1651 it was enacted that no one whose estate did 
not exceed 200 should wear silk or tiffany hoods or scarfs. 
The wearing of long hair by men was likewise a matter of 
common grief to the godly minded. 

1 John Ward Dean, Rev. Nathaniel Ward, p. 105. 

2 Ehiyckinck, Cyclopaedia of American Literature, vol. 1 : p. 24. 


The sharp arraignment of tolerance was the common 
sentiment of New and Old England. Nathaniel Ward and 
his friends and neighbors, Gov. Dudley and John Norton, 
agreed well in this. Dudley wrote: 

"Let men of God in courts and churches watch 
O er such as do a toleration hatch," 

and Norton declared that for the putting down of error 
"the holy tactics of the civil sword should be employed." 1 

His fierce outburst against the Irish was in line with 
the preaching to which every Puritan congregation listened 
with delight. Thomas Hooker proclaimed to sinners: 

"Judge the torments of hell by some little beginning of 
it, and the dregs of the Lord s vengeance by some little 
sips of it; and judge how unable thou art to bear the whole, 
by thy inability to bear a little of it. ... When God lays 
the flashes of hell-fire upon thy soul, thou canst not en 
dure it. ... If the drops be so heavy, what will the 
whole sea of God s vengeance be?" 2 

Thomas Shepard of Cambridge described the condition 
of the sinner : Thy mind is a nest of all the foul opin 
ions, heresies, that ever were vented by any man ; thy heart 
is a foul sink of all atheism, sodomy, blasphemy, murder, 
whoredom, adultery, witchcraft, buggery ; so that if thou 
hast any good thing in thee, it is but as a drop of rose-water 
in a bowl of poison. ... It is true thou feelest not all 
these things stirring in thee at one time . . . but they 
are in thee like a nest of snakes in a hedge. ;3 

They exulted in the imprecatory Psalms, in the Mosaic 
Law, in the lake of everlasting torment. Their pulpits were 
begirt with thunderings and lightnings. 

John Milton closed his second i Defence of the People of 
England " with the prayer: "look upon this thy poor and 
almost spent and expiring church ; leave her not thus a prey 
to these importunate wolves, that wait and think it long, 
till they devour thy tender flock; those wild boars that have 
broken into thy vineyard, and left the print of their pollut 
ing hoofs, on the souls of thy servants. 0, let them not 
bring about their damning designs, that stand now at the 
entrance of the bottomless pit, expecting the watch-word 

1 M. C. Tyler, Hist, of Amer. Literature, 1 : 108. 

2 M. C. Tyler, Hist, of Amer. Literature, 1 : 200. 

3 M. C. Tyler, Hist, of Amer. Literature, 1 : 208. 


to open and let out those dreadful locusts and scorpions, 
to reinvolve us in that pitchy cloud of infernal darkness, 
where we shall never more see the sun of thy truth again; 
never hope for the cheerful dawn ; never more hear the bird 
of morning sing. 

Oliver Cromwell wrote his friend Col. Walton of the death 
of his oldest son on the battlefield : There is your precious 
child full of glory, never to know sin or sorrow any 
more. . . . Before his death he was so full of comfort 
. . . he could not express it, i It was so great above his 
pain. A little after he said, One thing lay upon his spirit. 
I asked him, What that was? he told me it was. That God 
had not suffered him to be any more the executioner of 
His enemies/ 1 

In his letter from Dublin, Sept. 16, 1649, Cromwell wrote : 
t It hath pleased God to bless our endeavors at Drogheda. 
He wrote more particularly the next day : l Divers of the 
Enemy retreated into the Mill Mount, a place very strong 
and of difficult access; being exceedingly high, having a 
good graft, and strongly pallisadoed." 

"The Governor, Sir Arthur Ashton, and divers considerable 
Officers being there, our men getting up to them, were 
ordered by me to put them all to the sword. And indeed, 
being in the heat of action, I forbade them to spare any 
that were in armes in the Town, and I think, that night, 
they put to the sword about 2000 men : divers of the offi 
cers and soldiers being fled over the Bridge into the other 
part of the Town, where about a hundred of them possessed 
St Peter s Church-steeple, some the West Gate and others 
a strong Round Tower next the Gate called St. Sunday s. 
These being summoned to yield to mercy, refused. Where 
upon I ordered the steeple of St. Peter s Church to be fired, 
when one of them was heard to say in the midst of the 
flames God damn me, God confound me ; I burn, I burn. 

"From one of the said Towers, notwithstanding their 
condition, they killed and wounded some of our men. 
When they submitted, their officers were knocked on the 
head; and every tenth man of the soldiers killed; and the 
rest shipped for the Barbadoes." 

"I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of 
God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbrued 
their hands in so much innocent blood. 

1 Carlyle, Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 1 : 196. 


And he concludes this letter: "And now give me leave 
to say how it comes to pass that this work is wrought. It 
was set upon some of our hearts, That a great thing should 
be done, not by power or might, but by the spirit of God. 
And is it not so clearly? That which caused your men 
to storm so courageously, it was the Spirit of God, who 
gave your men courage and took it away again ; and gave 
the Enemy courage, and took it away again; and gave your 
men courage again, and therewith this happy success. And 
therefore it is good that God alone have all the glory. n 

Such was the spirit and temper of the Puritanism of the 
seventeenth century, in New England and Old England, 
in the study of the scholar, in the pulpit of the preacher, on 
the battlefield, where Oliver and his Psalm singers, rising 
from their knees in prayer, slew their enemy without pity. 
The intolerance, the violence, the savageness of The Simple 
Cobler is made intelligible, in a degree, by such an agreement 
of men of godly mind in such speech and action. 

1 Carlyle, Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 1 : 462, 463 
















DECEMBER 5, 1904. 




88AM .M3JA8 ,.OO 


The Annual Meeting of the Ipswich Historical Society 
was held December 5, 1904, at the House of the Society. 
The following officers were elected. 

President. T. Frank Waters. 
Vice Presidents. John B. Brown, 

Francis R. Appleton. 
Directors. Charles A. Sayward, 

John H. Cogswell, 

John W. Nourse. 
Clerk. John W. Goodhue. 

Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer. T. Frank Waters. 
Librarian. John J. Sullivan. 


Mrs. John J. Sullivan, Miss Lucy Slade Lord, . 

Mrs. Chas. A. Say ward, Miss C. Bertha Dobson, 

Mrs. Edward F. Brown, Mrs. Frank H. Stockwell, 

Mrs. Cordelia Damon, Mrs. Joseph F. Ross, 

Miss Susan C. Whipple, Mrs. Frank W. Kyes. 

It was voted that the Social Committee be authorized to 
fill vacancies in its membership. 



Our Society was organized on April 14, 1890, and as its 
fifteenth year is well advanced, a summary of the year may 
have especial interest. The Reports already read indicate 
a healthy and vigorous life. The Register of our House 
bears the names of 854 visitors, recorded during the year 
ending December 1st, 1904. It may occasion surprise that 
this is the smallest registration since the Society entered its 
present home, the lowest number recorded previously being 
1008 in 1901. This decrease is not to be taken seriously, 
however. It is simply the result in part of that inevitable 
fluctuation in the tide of summer visitors, which is always 
to be reckoned on, and in part, as well, of certain easily 
discovered causes. 

The total number of our Ipswich citizens registered is 41, 
while the number registered last year was 173. This dis 
crepancy is due largely to the fact that in 1903, and for 
several years before, the Woman s Club gave a social, which 
was largely attended by its local members, whose names 
were duly recorded. This custom was not observed in 1904. 
A Midsummer Tea and other social functions found place 
in 1903, which were not attempted this year. There is 
evident, moreover, an increased disregard of the slight 
trouble of recording their names on the part of members 
who come to the House with friends. Naturally, too, the 
House has ceased to be a novelty, and the fee of twenty- 
five cents may debar our townsfolk, who are not members, 
from frequent visits. We trust, however, there may be no 
diminution in the number of Ipswich visitors. We hope 
that members will exercise to the uttermost their privilege 
of bringing friends to the House, and that none will be sen 
sitive in the matter of repeated visits. 

As no registration is made on social occasions, which our 
citizens generally attend, many who are not members have 
an opportunity to see the House and taste its good cheer. 
We may well consider the desirability of increasing the 
number and variety of these special gatherings, which 


appeal to many who are not interested especially in his 
torical pursuits. Our Society is doing good service to the 
community when a supper is served, and the ancient rooms 
are filled by young and old from the representative families 
of our old town. The Woman s Club affords a common 
rallying ground for the women of the town. It remains 
for the Historical Society to do like service for the men 
and the families of the whole community. In this way, 
interest in the House and the Society will naturally be 
increased, a new pride in the rare and beautiful old building 
will be kindled and gradually our townsfolk will come to 
feel that the Historical Society is a Town institution, where 
in there are no lines of distinction, nor grades of privilege, 
and that its membership should include one representative 
at least of every Ipswich family. Our ideal of the Ipswich 
Historical Society will not be attained until this broad and 
comprehensive membership shall be reached, and our 
House shall be thronged with goodly numbers of Ipswich 
people, who will come, with their children and friends, to 
these ancient hearthstones, again and again. 

It is gratifying in this connection to note that while the 
number of visitors from other states fell from 402 in 1903 
to 306 in 1904, the number of residents of our own Common 
wealth, outside of our town, increased from 403 to 502. 

The courtesies of the House have been extended to the 
Convention of the Epworth League, April 19th; the Meth- 
uen Historical Society on July 13th; the Daughters of Re 
becca on July 27th; the Art Class on August 8th; and the 
Hovey Family on August 24th. The Class in Architecture 
in the Institute of Technology with their instructor, Mr. 
Ross Turner, the eminent water-color artist, spent a whole 
day in the study of the House on October 15th. 

The financial condition of the Society is very satisfactory. 
The receipts from the House, though less than last year for 
reasons already noted, have been sufficient to pay all the 
running expense, the insurance on the property, and a small 
balance toward the interest account. By the purchase 
of the remainder of the lot in which the House stands, the 
mortgage indebtedness was raised to $3500, and the interest 
on the mortgage amounted to $111.08, in 1903. Through 
the payment of the legacy bequeathed by Mrs. Elizabeth 
M. Brown and the use of a small surplus, the mortgage has 
been reduced this year to $2800, but the interest has made 


large demands. One hundred and thirty-five dollars were 
required to meet this account. Fortunately another con 
siderable reduction of the debt can be made on January 1st, 
and a corresponding reduction in the expense for interest 
in the coming year. The assured income from the con 
stantly enlarging membership and the steady current of 
visitors will soon reduce our indebtedness to a compara 
tively small sum. 

The hearty thanks of the Society are due Mr. and Mrs. 
Washington P. Pickard for their efficient and enthusiastic 
services as Curators. They have had a fine regard for the 
interests of the Society in admitting visitors at almost any 
hour, and have shown a commendable desire to make their 
visits interesting. The high reputation of the House as a 
clean and inviting dwelling has been well sustained. Mr. 
Pickard has had full charge of the grounds, and has kept 
them in excellent fashion. The modest charge he has made 
for these extra services has been well earned. 

Our Publications have attained now to Number XIII. 
The title of the last issue was " Fine Thread, Lace and Hosiery 
in Ipswich by Jesse Fewkes, and Ipswich Mills and Facto 
ries by T. Frank Waters. ; It has been well received and a 
considerable number has been sold. Frequent requests for 
these pamphlets come from large libraries, notably from 
the Free Public Library of Birmingham, England, and 
from individuals who are interested in the Town of their 
forbears. Number X, The Hotel Cluny of a New England 
Village, has been an exceptionally popular issue, and 
many copies are sold every year. 

By the loan of our half-tone plate of the monument which 
stands before the Meeting House of the South Church, the 
Society has contributed aid to the publication by Miss 
Elizabeth Porter Gould, of Boston, of her admirable book 
"Ezekiel Cheever, Schoolmaster. Mr. Cheever gained 
high renown by his ten years work as Master of the 
Ipswich Grammar School. 

We may hope that a new era in the history of our Society 
has been marked by the election of two of our citizens to 
life membership, upon payment of fifty dollars each, and 
the payment of the first legacy the Society has received 
from the estate of a deceased member. 

This new form of membership, hitherto held only by a 
lady of an old Ipswich family, by which all the privileges 


and benefits of active membership are secured perpetually 
without further assessment, may thus be brought to the 
favorable notice of other friends of the Society. Such 
gifts are opportune and valuable. They increase our finan 
cial strength, rouse fresh confidence and encourage us to 
look forward to such a regular increase of resources that a 
larger work may be possible and wise. 

The payment of the legacy may suggest to philanthropic 
friends of our Town, and of the Historical Society, a wise 
testamentary gift. Already generous provision has been 
made for our Public Library and for the Manning School. 
The Historical Society comes now to public notice as an in 
stitution, already beyond the stage when its permanence 
and usefulness may seriously be questioned. It is already 
in its fifteenth year, with a large and growing member 
ship, a unique and valuable property, a sound financial 
condition, and a record of service to the community of 
which none need be ashamed. It is in a condition to re 
ceive and use a large endowment. 

A Memorial building, of which frequent mention has 
already been made, would be a worthy monument to the 
men and women whose names are honored and loved, and 
would afford the opportunity for an enlargement of our 
collections and for a broadening of our scope of usefulness. 
Such a building would be a grand supplement to our ancient 
House. Upon its walls, without and within, might be 
carved the names of the wise and good of many genera 
tions. It would provide room for a large and well ar 
ranged historic museum, for the library, which is yet in 
embryo, of a special, historic character, and for a hall of 
moderate size, which would be of great value to the Town 
as well as to the Society. Through such a building, the 
noble history of our Town would make inspiring appeal to 
the present generation, and other generations that are to be. 
The erection of such a building and its endowment would 
require less than the cost of a single beautiful residence of 
the kind which are now being reared in our midst. May 
not some generous lover of a noble ancestor, by a munifi 
cent gift, or a group of large-minded and far-sighted men 
and women by their bequests make this vision a thing of 
brick and stone, for beauty and for use, for education and 


for the year ending December 1, 1904. 

Total number of visitors registered, ----- 854 
Ipswich residents, ----------- 41 

From other towns and cities in Massachusetts, - 502 
From outside the State, ---------311 

Total registration, ------- 1899 1,134 

" - - 1900 1,513 

1901 1,008 

1902 1,052 
" - - - - 1903 1,097 



T. Frank Waters in account with Ipswich Historical 


Membership Fees, 
Legacy, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Brown, 
Receipts from the House, 
Door Fees, - 

Sale of publications, ----- 
" " pictures, 

" " stationery, ----- 
Entertainment of Methuen Historical Society, 
Supper, Nov. 30, 1904, - 

Balance in treasury, Dec. 1, 1903, 


Paid on Mortgage, 

for Interest, - 

" " Printing, 

" Insurance, ______ 

" " Stationery and postage, - 
" " Incidentals, 

" " House account, running expenses, 
Furniture, ______ 

Repairs and care, 


Photographs, two years, 

Cash in treasury, 

The mortgage upon the property is now $2800. 



















DECEMBER 1, 1904. 

mon on the Utility of a Permanent Ministry by David 
T. Kimball. Ipswich, 1839. 

BENJ. H. CONANT. Wenham Town Report. 

Miss ROXANA C. COWLES. Circular Leather Valise, owned 
and carried by her father, Prof. John P. Cowles, on his 
horseback journeys in Ohio, and his Leather Sermon 
Case. Two reels, one with clock attachment. Spin 
ning wheel. Celestial globe, 1818, and terrestrial globe, 
owned and used by Miss Zilpah P. Grant, purchased 
by Prof. Cowles. Pencil Drawings of County House 
and Kimball Manse. Two guns, one with flint lock. 
Cartridge-box. Tin kitchen. Toaster. Gridiron. 


ESSEX INSTITUTE, Salem. Publications. 

MRS. JONATHAN E. GOODHUE, Newark, N. Y. The Good- 
hue Family. 

JAMES GRIFFIN. Wasps nest. 

D. R. JACK, St. John, N. B. Publications of the New 
Brunswick Historical Society. No. 5. Acadiensis. iv, 
2, 3, 4. 


Miss ESTHER PARMENTER. Epaulet, worn by an ances 
tor in the war of 1812. Three chairs and a footstool 
made by her step-father s grandfather. 

B. F. SOUTHWICK, Peabody. Set of Province Laws. 

JULIA NOYES STICKNEY, West Newbury. Poem on Lake 

TOWLE MANUFACTURING Co. Outline of Life and Works 
of Col. Paul Revere. 

FRANCIS H. WADE. Morse s Universal Geography. 


Membership in the Ipswich Historical Society involves 
the payment of an annual due of $2, or a single payment of 
$50, which secures Life Membership. Members are entitled 
to a copy of the regular publications of the Society, in pam 
phlet form, without expense, free admission to the House 
with friends, and the privilege of voting in the business 

There are no restrictions as to place of residence. Any 
person, who is interested in the Society and desires to pro 
mote its welfare, is eligible to membership. We desire to 
enlarge the non-resident membership list until it shall include 
as many as possible of those, who trace their descent to our 

Names may be sent at any time to the President, but the 
election of members usually occurs only at the annual meet 
ing in December. 



The Animal meeting of the Ipswich Historical Society 
was held on Monday, December 4, 1905, at Whipple House. 
The following officers were elected. 

President T. Frank Waters. 
Vice Presidents. John B. Brown, 

Francis R. Appleton. 
Directors. Charles A. Say ward, 

John H. Cogswell, 

John W. Nourse. 
Clerk. John W. Goodhue. 

Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer. T. Frank Waters. 
Librarian. John J. Sullivan. 


Mrs. John J. Sullivan, Miss Lucy Slade Lord, 

Mrs. Chas. A. Sayward, Miss C. Bertha Dobson, 

Mrs. Edward F. Brown, Mrs. Frank H. Stockwell, 

Mrs. Cordelia Damon, Mrs. Joseph F. Ross, 

Miss Susan C. Whipple, Mrs. Frank W. Kyes. 

The Committee was authorized to fill any vacancies that 
may occur in its membership, and enlarge it, if occasion 


ENDING DEC. 1, 1905. 

Our survey of the past year reveals stable and gratifying 
prosperity, as the good fortune of our Society. The list of 
members shows a steady gain, and every year more of our 
townsfolk, of the summer residents, and of non-residents, 
who have an ancestral connection with our town, are en 
rolled. Thus our Society serves as a bond of union between 
the friends of Ipswich, wherever they are found. 

The Report of the Curator shows that the registered 
number of visitors at Whipple House has again passed the 
thousand mark. As was remarked in the last Annual 
Report a surprisingly small number of our townspeople, 
though they are members of the Society, seem willing to 
record their names. Only seventy-three were registered 
last year, but our Curator reports that many more have 
called. Though it is a matter of regret, that we may not 
know how many of our citizens show their interest in the 
House by coming with their friends, it is gratifying that 
so large a number of visitors, who inspected these rooms 
during the year were from other towns and cities of the 
Commonwealth and nearly four hundred from other States. 
Thus the good name of the Society and its House is spread 
abroad, and it frequently happens, in my own experience 
and no doubt in yours, that in the most unexpected places 
chance acquaintances are met, who dilate with enthusiasm 
upon their visit to this ancient dwelling. As in other years, 
societies of various kinds seeking the most inviting locality 
possible for a summer holiday have bethought themselves 
of Ipswich. The Boston Tea Party Chapter and the Old 
Newbury Chapter of the D. A. R. rallied here on June 9, 
and the State Chapter on June 28. The Hovey Family held 
its annual reunion, and the Art Class of Mr. Dow gathered 
en masse for an evening lecture, by the President by can 
dlelight in the quaint old rooms. A goodly number of the 
members of the Gloucester Scientific and Historical So 
ciety came on a bright August day, and in September some 



good women of Marblehead, of Unity Rebekah Lodge, 
and the Holmes Outing Club of Haverhill drifted hither. 

The newly organized society for lace-working met during 
the early summer months in the airy bed-chamber, and an 
elaborate and beautiful display of laces was made in the 
exhibition and sale arranged by them in these rooms. 

Financially we stand well with the world. The single 
item of membership fees netted $480, and the receipts from 
the House from door fees, sales of publications and the 
entertainment of visiting societies amounted to $205.75. 
Early last spring the Ipswich Mills Corporation bought the 
Peatfield estate adjoining our property and established a 
lumber yard. The Superintendent very courteously au 
thorized me to proceed with any scheme of shrubbery or 
ornamental gardening that might seem advisable to take 
off the rawness of the lumber piles. A spruce hedge 
seemed the best screen, and the trees were purchased and 
set out. When they were delivered, their appearance was 
not prepossessing and though carefully planted, all but six 

This account has not been settled, and the sum paid by 
the Mills remains in the treasury, exct pt that which was 
paid for the tree setting. 

The expenditures included a payment of $300 on the 
mortgage, reducing it to $2500, and $106.33 for interest. 
The receipts from the House furnished a surplus of nearly 
$40, after all expenses incident to the House and grounds 
were met. A balance of $290.60 remains in the treasury. 

It will be noticed that no expense for printing has been 
incurred this year. The demands upon my time by the 
book, Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which 
was issued in September, were so great in the early months 
of the year, that no attention could be given to the usual 
publication. At a later time, the manuscript was pre 
pared and sent to the printer, with the expectation of 
distributing it in November. Unavoidable delays arose, 
however, and now it seems best to issue the pamphlet at 
once, with the proceedings of this meeting appended. 

It may be a fortunate way of meeting the expense of a 
rather costly publication by dividing it thus between two 
years. This work which is nearly complete is a reprint of 
"The Simple Cobler of Aggawam" by our famous min 
ister, Nathaniel Ward. The late D. F. Appleton Esq. 


gave the Society a copy of the 4 th edition, printed in 
London in 1647. Facsimiles have been made of the title- 
page, preface, head-lines and ornamental initials, the an 
tique form of the letter s has been used, the exact spelling, 
punctuation and page division has been followed, and a 
very near approach has been made to a reproduction. An 
Essay on Nathaniel Ward and The Simple Cobler has been 
appended. A portion of the edition will be issued in the 
usual form but a considerable number of copies will be 
bound in book form, in the hope that book-lovers may es 
teem it a volume worth purchasing. 

Though the recently issued, Ipswich hi the Massachu 
setts Bay Colony bears the imprint of the Ipswich Histor 
ical Society, the Society has been involved in no expense 
in its publication, and has gained prestige as a publisher of 
historical works. 

The principal addition to our furnishings is an ancient 
desk, which was put in perfect condition, and presented by 
Mr. Francis R. Appleton. The Secretary of the Common 
wealth, with the co-operation of Mr. Tillinghast, the State 
Librarian, has very kindly presented the Society a full set 
of the Vital Statistics so far as published, and ihe new issues 
are sent as they appear. The very valuable Record of the 
Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution, which is given by 
the State, is approaching completion. 

Very recently, the Librarian of the State Library of Con 
necticut, Mr. George S. Godard, made a request for a file of 
our publications, and in return, has sent nineteen volumes 
of the State Manual, from 1887 to 1905, with the very 
kindly remark that " Ipswich has a tender place in the 
hearts of Connecticut people," because of its gift of John 
Winthrop Jr. 

The thanks of the Society are due Mr. and Mrs. Pickard 
for their regard for the interests of the Society and the 
good name of the House. Visitors always find a cordial 
welcome. House and grounds are always well kept and 


During the year, December 1, 1904 to December 1, 1905, 
1041 names of visitors have been registered. 

73 were residents of Ipswich. 

594 were residents of other towns and cities in Massa 

376 were residents of other States. 

Jane 9, The Boston Tea Party Chapter, and The Old 
Newbury Chapter, D. A. R. visited the house. 

June 28, The State Chapter of D. A. R. 

August 1, The Hovey Family held its reunion at the house. 

August 2, The Gloucester Historical Society. 

August 7, The Art Class of Prof. A. W. Dow. 

Sept. 13, Unity Rebekah Lodge, I. 0. .F. of Marblehead. 

Sept. 18, The Holmes Outing Club of Haverhill. 






T. F. Waters in account with the Ipswich Historical Society. 


To Membership fees, 

" Contribution from Ipswich Mills, for shrubbery, 
" Receipts from Whipple House, 

Door Fees, ...... $134.20 


Sale of Publications, .... 

" " Pictures, 

" " Stationery, 

Entertainment of the Boston Tea Party 

Chapter, D. A. R., 

Entertainment of the Gloucester Historical 

Balance in treasury, Dec. 1, 1904, 







Paid on Mortgage, 
" for Interest, 

" " Stationery and expressage, 
" " Books, 
" " Incidentals, 
" " House account, 


Table ware 

Water bills, 



Supper no 













. . . . 7.77 

bices, etc., . . . . 5.50 


ubbery, 9.00 

d care of house and grounds, . 60.86 




y, Dec. 1, 1905, 



The mortgage is now $2500. 




Mrs. Alice C. Bemis 
James H. Proctor 
Charles G. Bice 

Colorado Springs, Col. 
Ipswich, Mass. 


Dr. Charles E. Ames, 

Mrs. Susan A. R. Appleton, 

Francis R. Appleton, 

Mrs. Frances L. Appleton, 

James W. Appleton, 

Randolph M. Appleton, 

Miss S. Isabel Arthur, 

Dr. G. Guy Bailey, 

Mrs. Elizabeth H. Baker, 

Mrs. Ellen B. Baker, 

John H. Baker, 

Miss Katharine C. Baker, 

Charles W. Bamford, 

George E. Barnard, 

Miss Mary D. Bates, 

John A. Blake, 

James W. Bond, 

Warren Boynton, 

Albert S. Brown, 

Albert S. Brown, Jr., 

Miss Annie Gertrude Brown, 

Charles W. Brown, 

Edward F. Brown, 

Mrs. Carrie R. Brown, 

Henry Brown, 

Mrs. Lavinia A. Brown, 

Robert Brown, 

Ralph W. Burnham, 

Mrs. Nellie Mae Burnham, 

Fred F. Byron, 

Miss Joanna Caldwell, 

Miss Lydia A. Caldwell, 

Miss Sarah P. Caldwell, 

Charles A. Campbell, 

Mrs. Lavinia Campbell, 

Edward W. Choate, 

Philip E. Clarke, 

Mrs. Mary E. Clarke, 

Miss Lucy C. Coburn, 

Sturgis Coffin, 2d, 

John H. Cogswell, 


Theodore F. Cogswell, 
Miss Harriet D. Condon, 
Brainerd J. Conley, 
Rev. Edward Constant, 
Miss Roxana C. Cowles, 
Rev. Temple Cutler, 
Arthur C. Damon, 
Mrs. Carrie Damon, 
Mrs. Cordelia Damon, 
Everett G. Damon, 
Harry K. Damon, 
Mrs. Abby Danforth, 
Miss Edith L. Daniels, 
Mrs. Howard Dawson, 
George G. Dexter, 
Miss C. Bertha Dobson, 
Harry K. Dodge, 
Rev. John M. Donovan, 
Mrs. Sarah B. Dudley, 
Mrs. Charles G. Dyer, 
Miss Emeline C. Farley, 
Mrs. Emma Farley, 
Miss Lucy R. Farley, 
Miss Abbie M. Fellows, 
Benjamin Fewkes, 
James E. Gallagher, 
John S. Glover, 
Charles E. Goodhue, 
Frank T. Goodhue, 
John W. Goodhue, 
William Goodhue, 
John J. Gould, 
David A. Grady, 
James Grafium, 
Mrs. Eliza H. Green, 
Mrs. Lois H. Hardy, 
George Harris, 
Mrs. Kate L. Haskell, 
George H. W. Hayes, 
Mrs. Alice L. Heard, 
Miss Alice Heard, 



John Heard, 
Miss Mary A. Hodgdon, 
Mrs. Louise S. Hodgkins, 
Miss S. Louise Holmes, 
Charles G. Hull, 
Miss Lucy S. Jewett, 
Miss Amy M. Johnson, 
Miss Ida B. Johnson, 
John A. Johnson, 
Miss Ellen M. Jordan, 
Albert Joyce, 
Charles M. Kelly, 
Mrs. Caroline Kenyon, 
Fred A. Kimball, 
Robert S. Kimball, 
Mrs. Isabella G. Kimball, 
Miss Bethiah D. Kinsman, 
Miss Mary E. Kinsman, 
Mrs. Susan K. Kinsman, 
Dr. Frank W. Kyes, 
Mrs. Georgie C. Kyes, 
Curtis E. Lakemau, 
J. Howard Lakeman, 
Mrs. G. F. Langdon, 
Austin L. Lord, 
George A. Lord, 
Dr. Sidney A. Lord, 
Miss Lucy Slade Lord, 
Thomas H. Lord, 
Mrs. Lucretia S. Lord, 
Walter E. Lord, 
Mrs. Mary B. Main, 
James F. Mann, 
Joseph Marshall, 
Everard H. Martin, 
Mrs. Marietta K. Martin, 
Miss Abby L. Newman, 
Mrs. Amanda K. Nichols, 
William J. Norwood, 
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Norwood, 
John W. Nourse, 
Charles H. Noyes, 
Mrs. Harriet E. Noyes, 
Rev. Reginald Pearce, 
I. E. B. Perkins, 
Miss Carrie S. Perley, 

Augustine H. Plouff, 
Mrs. Frances Richardson, 
James S. Robinson, Jr., 
Mrs. Anna C. C. Robinson, 
Miss Anna W. Ross, 
Frederick G. Ross, 
Mrs. Mary F. Ross, 
Joseph F. Ross, 
Mrs. Helene Ross, 
Dr. William H. Russell, 
William S. Russell, 
William W. Russell, 
Daniel Safford, 
Angus Savory, 
Charles A. Say ward, 
Mrs. Henrietta W. Say ward, 
George A. Schofleld, 
Amos E. Scotton, 
Nathaniel Shatswell, 
Mrs. Harriet G. Shaw, 
Dexter M. Smith, 
Mrs. Olive P. Smith, 
Mrs. Elizabeth K. Spaulding, 
George W. Starkey, 
Dr. Frank H. Stockwell, 
Mrs. Sadie B. Stockwell, 
Miss Lucy Belle Story, 
Edward M. Sullivan, 
John J. Sullivan, 
Mrs. Elizabeth M. Sullivan, 
Arthur L. Sweetser, 
Samuel H. Thurston, 
George W. Tozer, 
Miss Ellen R. Trask, 
Jesse H. Wade, 
Miss Nellie F. Wade, 
Miss Emma E. Wait, 
Luther Wait, 
Rev. T. Frank Waters, 
Mrs. Adeline M. Waters, 
Miss Susan C. Whipple, 
Frederick G. Whittier, 
Mrs. Marianna Whittier, 
Miss Eva Adams Willcomb, 
Chester P. Woodbury. 


Frederick J. Alley Hamilton, Mass. 

Mrs. Mary G. Alley 

William F. J. Boardman Hartford, Conn. 

Albert D. Bosson* Chelsea, Mass. 

Mrs. Alice C. Bosson* " " 

Mrs. Mary P. Bosworth New York, N. Y. 

John B. Brown* Chicago, 111. 

Mrs. Lucy T. Brown* " " 

* Summer home In Ipswich. 


Frank T. Burnbam So. Framingham, Mass. 

Rev. Augustine Caldwell Eliot, Me. 

Eben Caldwell Elizabeth, N. J. 

Miss Florence F. Caldwell Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Luther Caldwell Lynn, Mass. 

Miss Mira E. Caldwell 

Rufus Choate Essex, Mass. 

Alexander B. Clark Peabody, Mass. 

Mrs. Edward Cordis Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Dr. Richard H. Derby New York, N. Y. 

Joseph D. Dodge Lynn, Mass. 

Mrs. Edith S. Dole Newbury, Mass. 

Arthur W. Dow* Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Joseph K. Farley . . . Lihue, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Sylvanus C. Farley Alton, 111. 

Edward B. George Rowley, Mass. 

Dr. J. L. Goodale* Boston, Mass. 

Dr. E. S. Goodhue . . . Wailuku, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

Samuel V. Goodhue Salem, Mass. 

Dr. F. B. Harrington* Boston, Mass. 

Rev. Horace C. Hovey Newburyport, Mass. 

Miss Ruth A. Hovey Lake Mohonk, N. Y. 

Gerald L. Hoyt* New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. May Hoyt* " " " 

Miss Julia Hoyt* 

Lydig Hoyt* MM 

Albert P. Jordan Fresno, Cal. 

Arthur S. Kimball Oberlin, Ohio. 

Rev. John C. Kimball Greenfield, Mass. 

Rev. Frederic J. Kinsman NewYork, N. Y. 

Mrs. Mary A. Lord* Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Frances E. Markoe Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Anna Osgood* Orange, N. J. 

Rev. Robert B. Parker* Providence, R. I. 

Moritz B. Philipp* New York, N. Y. 

Bowen W. Pierson " " . " 

Frederick H. Plouff Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Jessie W. P. Purdy Reading, Penn. 

A. Davidson Remick 

James E. Richardson ...... Salem, Mass. 

Dr. Mark W. Richardson* Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Lucy C. Roberts Cambridge, Mass. 

John B. Shearer Byfleld, Mass. 

Mrs. E. M. H. Slade New York, N. Y. 

Edward A. Smith ....... Salem, Mass. 

Miss Elizabeth P. Smith " " 

Henry P. Smith Brookline, Mass. 

Mrs. Caroline P. Smith " " 

Rev. R. Cotton Smith* Washington, D. C. 

Dr. E. W. Taylor* Boston, Mass. 

Rev. William G. Thayer* Southboro, Mass. 

Andrew S. Thomson, Wenham, Mass. 

Dr. Harvey P. Towle* Boston, Mass. 

Dr. Chas. W. Townsend* " " 

Miss Ann H. Treadwell Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Bayard Tuckerman* New York v N. Y. 

Mrs. Ruth A. Tuckerman* 

Charles H. Tweed " 

* Summer home In Ipswich. 




Miss Laura B. Underbill* 
Mrs. Margaret Wade 
Wallace P. Willett* 
Mrs. Elizabeth Willett* 
Frederic Winthrop 
Robert D. Winthrop 
Chalmers Wood* 

. New York, N. Y. 

Newton, Mass. 

East Orange, N. J. 

. Hamilton, Mass. 
. New York, N. Y. 


John Albree, Jr. 
Miss Caroline Farley 
Frank C. Farley 
Mrs. Katherine S. Farley 
Mrs. Eunice W. Felton . 
Jesse Fewkes . 
Reginald Foster 
Augustus P. Gardner 
Charles L. Goodhue 
Miss Alice A. Gray 
Miss Emily R. Gray 
Arthur W. Hale 
Albert Farley Heard, 2d . 
Otis Kimball 
Mrs. Otis Kimball . 
Miss Sarah S. Kimball 
Frederick J. Kingsbury 
Miss Caroline T. Leeds 
Miss Katherine P. Loring 
Mrs. Susan M. Loring 
Mrs. Elizabeth R. Lyman 
Josiah H. Mann 
Miss Adeline E. Manning 
Henry S. Manning 
Mrs. Mary W. Manning 
George von L. Meyer 
Miss Esther Parmenter 
Mrs. Mary S. C. Peabody 
Richard M. Salton stall 
Denison R. Slade 
Joseph Spiller 
Miss Ellen A. Stone 
Harry W. Tyler 
Albert Wade 
Edward P. Wade 
W. F. Warner 
George Willcomb 

Swampscott, Mass- 
Cambridge, Mass. 
So. Manchester, Conn. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Newton, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Hamilton, Mass. 

Springfield, Mass. 

Sauquoit, N.Y. 

Winchester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 

Water bury, Conn. 

Boston, Mass. 

Brookline, Mass. 

Ipswich, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

New York, N. Y. 

St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Chicopee, Mass. 

Ipswich, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Center Harbor, N. H. 

Boston, Mass. 

East Lexington, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Alton, 111. 


St. Louis, Mo. 
Boston, Mass. 

*Summer home in Ipswich. 



President of the Ipswich Historical Society 


I Primeval Agawam, a study of the Indian life . . pp. 1-6 

II The Coming of the English 7-20 

III Homes and Dress 21-44 

IV Some notable Settlers. John Winthrop, Jr., Thomas 

Dudley, Richard Saltonstall, Simon and Ann Brad- 
street, Rev. Nathaniel Ward, John Norton . . 45-55 
V The Development of our Town Government . . 56-67 
VI Common Lands and Commonage .... 68-74 

VII Trades and Employments 75-86 

VIII The Body Politic 87-106 

IX The Sabbath and the Meeting House .... 107-118 

X The Early Military Annals 119-127 

XI The Charter in Peril. Samuel Symonds, Daniel Deni- 

son, John Apple ton . .... 128-145 

XII The Grammar School and Harvard College. Ezekiel 
Cheever and his successors, and many famous pupils 

of the Grammar School 146-158 

XIII King Philip s War ; contains Major Samuel Apple ton s 
military letters and a complete list of the soldiers in 

that war 159-224 

XIV Ipswich and the Andros Government. A careful study 
of the attitude of Ipswich men in this critical period, 
with many documents, warrants for arrest, deposi 
tions, records, etc. Rev. John Wise, Major Samuel 
Appleton, John Appleton, Jr., Thomas French, Wil 
liam Goodhue, John Andrews, Robert Kinsman . . 225-273 

XV Laws and Courts 274-286 

XVI Witchcraft 287-300 

XVII War of William and Mary and other Indian troubles, 

with a list of soldiers so far as known .... 301-313 



The material for this work has been derived, by original 
research, chiefly from the Town Records, the Records of the 
old Ipswich Quarter Sessions Court and other Court Records, 
the Massachusetts Bay Records, the Massachusetts Archives, 
and contemporaneous published works, so far as possible. 
It is illustrated with facsimiles of ancient documents and 


is a study of the original land grants for house lots on all the 
ancient streets and lanes, and the successive owners to the 
present generation, with diagrams, maps, and photographs of 
many ancient dwellings. 

The dates of the erection of houses are noted in many 
instances, and all transfers are accompanied with citations of 
the Book and Leaf of the ancient Ipswich Deeds (5 volumes), 
and the Records of the Essex County Registry of Deeds and 
Registry of Probate. Some eighteen hundred citations are 
made from the original sources, and these constitute the sole 
authority for this record of locations, ownerships, and the 
probable age and identity of dwellings. 

Besides this, there are seven appendices to the volume, 
giving important historical material under the following heads : 
A summary of the names of the first settlers from 1633 to 
1649; Some Early Inventories; The Letters of Rev. Nathan 
iel Ward; The Letters of Giles Firmin; The Letters of Sam 
uel Symonds; The Valedictory and Monitory Writing left by 
Sarah Goodhue ; The Diary of Rev. John Wise, Chaplain 
in the Expedition to Quebec. There is also a copious Index. 

The book will be of particular interest and importance to 
those who are of Ipswich ancestry, but all who dwell in Ips 
wich, or make their summer homes there, will find it a read 
able and attractive record of many events, places, and 



(By Bayard Tuckerman, Lecturer in English at Princeton University}. 

Ipswich is one of the oldest and in some respects one of the most inter 
esting and typical of the English settlements in America. The difficulties 
to be encountered by the early colonists in subduing the wilderness, in 
wringing a livelihood from an unfruitful soil, in building up a civilization 
in which comfort and education were sought together, were nowhere greater 
and nowhere surmounted with more courageous energy. The institution 
of town government and the intelligent practice of the principles of political 
liberty are well exemplified in the history of Ipswich, while the bold resist 
ance of her citizens to the tyranny of the English government in the time 
of Governor Andros has given her a claim to the title of the "Cradle of 
American Liberty" Mr. Waters has told this story with historical insight 
and literary skill, and has given us besides a mass of information regarding 
local customs, transfers of land and resident families, which make his work 
of personal interest to everyone whose ancestors have lived in the township. 

As we turn the leaves of this scholarly work, the chapter headings 
indicate a variety of interesting subjects. Political history is studied 
under "The Development of our Town Government" "The Body Politic" 
"The Charter in Peril" "Ipswich and the Andros Government." Under 
the heads of "The Coming of the English" "Homes and Dress" "Some 
Notable Settlers" "Trades and Employments," we find a rich fund of 
information regarding the early inhabitants and the lives they led. In 
the chapter dealing with "The Sabbath and the Meeting House" with 
the melancholy accompaniment of "Witchcraft," the austere religious 
life of the early times is depicted. The relations of the settlers to the Indians 
are described under "Primeval Agawam" "King Philip s War" and the 
"War of William and Mary." The determination of the colonists to 
provide education for their children is shown in the article on "The Gram 
mar School and Harvard College." Other interesting chapters deal with 
the "Laws and Courts" and with the curiousjnstitution of the "Common 
Lands and Commonage. 

The second portion of the work contains an account of the ownership 
and transfer of lands and houses which is the fruit of research, of remarkable 
industry and accuracy. No one whose family has owned property within 
the bounds of Ipswich can fail to find facts of interest to him here. The 
names of early settlers are given in full and there are a number of inven 
tories illustrative of the character of personal property held and transmitted. 
The letters of Rev. Nathaniel Ward, of Dr. Giles Firmin, and of Samuel 
Symonds, the writings of Sarah Goodhue, and the narrative of the Rev. 
John Wise, all of great antiquarian interest, are given in the Appendix. 

Thirty-five excellent illustrations, and an Index which forms a com 
plete guide to all the names and subjects mentioned, add greatly to the 
value of the work. 


This history of Ipswich is the result of such painstaking and intelligent 
research, and is written in so attractive a style, that it cannot fail to appeal 
to all persons who have any connection with the town. Whoever lives 
in Ipswich or whose ancestors lived here, should have a copy among his 
books. He will find pleasure in reading it, and profit in possessing it for 


(From the Boston Transcript.) 

A most important addition to the literature of New England history 
is made by Mr. Thomas Franklin Waters in this volume. Ipswich the 
Agawam of 270 years ago is one of the most picturesque towns in the 
Commonwealth, and aside from its attractions of location and scenery, is 
particularly rich in historical associations. No town in its early conditions 
more accurately typifies early New England life, and in the narrative of 
its struggles and development may be read that of a score of other settle 
ments of the same period. I have tried, says Mr. Waters in his preface, 
"to tell accurately, but in readable fashion, the story of the builders of 
our town, their homes and home life, their employments, their Sabbath- 
keeping, their love of learning, their administration of town affairs, their 
stern delusions, their heroism in war and in resistance to tyranny." To 
anyone familiar with the beautiful old town the book will have all the 
fascination of a romance. 

(From a Review by the New York Daily Tribune.) 

The president of the Ipswich Historical Society has prepared in this 
volume a model of its kind. He tells in thoroughly entertaining fashion 
the history of this early Colonial town the Agawam of Indians and 
he adds in Part II such a detailed account of its houses and lands as must 
ever be of value to all connected by ties of blood or property with Ipswich. 
Photographs of the many ancient houses which survive, together with 
maps, diagrams and facsimiles illustrate and elucidate the text. 

The story of the town holds so much of the struggle, the tragedy and 
the quaintness of seventeenth century life in the colony that it would have 
been difficult to make it other than interesting. 

The services of Ipswich men in King Philip s War and their sturdy 
protest against the usurpation of the Andros government are chronicled 
here, and are not to be forgotten by Americans. In the resistance to what 
she considered an unjust tax, Ipswich may claim a high place among the 
earliest supporters of the right of self government. 

(From a letter, written by C. B. Tillinghast, State Librarian of Massachusetts). 

"The story of the founders of Ipswich which you have told with so 
much detail and skill in the first half of the volume, is of course in large 


degree the story of the early life of the settlers in other parts of the Colony 
and this study, which you have founded with such pains-taking accuracy 
largely upon original and documentary sources of information makes the 
volume of the widest general interest to all, who have an interest in the 
early settlers and their mode of life. This feature of the book it seems to 
me, is unequalled by any other available publication and should commend 
it to the favorable attention of all libraries. 

The topographical study which forms the latter portion of the book, 
is a model of what such a study should be, and in this respect, Ipswich 
territory is of special interest. 

"You have made in this volume a contribution to the local, the funda 
mental history of the Commonwealth, which few, if any volumes equal 
and none excel." 

(From George H. Martin, Secretary of the State Board of Education of 

Massachusetts . ) 

I have examined with care the whole of your new book on Ipswich, 
and I have read with increasing interest as much as time would allow. It 
is a great book and will prove of immense service to all students of early 
colonial history. 

I do not think I have found anywhere so vivid a picture presented of 
Puritan town life in all its phases as you have given. The thorough way 
in which you have handled the matter of land grants is a model for all 
local historians. 

I congratulate you heartily upon having made an addition to the local 
history of New England, which: is unsurpassed in the choice of matter, and 
in the felicity of its presentation. 

(From The Nation, New York.) 

In one feature, at least, this ample and handsomely printed work 
surpasses any other town history that we have ever encountered. We 
refer to that portion of the second half which deals with "Houses 
and Lands," and which, with the aid of a diagram, traces the for 
tunes of each dwelling and lot of the original settler nominatim not 
only to 1700, but to the present day. This enormous labor is for 
tified by the citation of wills and deeds, and the result is a firm base 
for all future researches. It is supplemented by a summary of the 
names of the settlers from 1633 to 1649, with the year in which each 
n;ime first occurs in the town records, and by some sample inventories 
of personal effects. Other remarkable lists of the early inhabitants have 
been constructed for the chapter entitled "The Body Politic;" and show 
that out of an enrolled male population in 1678 totalling 508, there were 
220 commoners and 125 freemen (17 of these not being commoners). The 
freemen alone were entitled to vote for the officers and magistrates of 



the Colony and to speak and vote in town meeting ; the commoners might 
vote on all questions relating to the common lands ; the residue, so-called 
Resident, were eligible for jury duty and to vote for selectmen. 

Mr. Waters s historical treatment is episodical and is very pleasingly 
manifested in the opening chapters on the aborigines as described by 
the first Englishmen and on home and dress. These themes are in 
vested with a really fresh interest, and set forth with noticeable literary 

Much remains to be said or sayable, but we must stay our hand. 
Mr. Waters s work, which we hope he will follow up for later times, as he 
half promises, takes its place in the front rank of its class, and can 
hardly be praised too highly for diligent research, candor, taste, style and 

It will be found to be of particular value to the New England fami- 

lies bearing the 

names of 














































and many others. 

Price. Five dollars, net. Postage, Thirty-six cents. 

-i-o T0 :&*v^ 


- _ 

o 7