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Full text of "Simple cooking of wholesome food for the farm home"

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BULLETIN 



OF THE 



UNIVERSITY Ol TEXAS 

1 L 



No. 3O6 



EXTENSION SERIES 40 



NOVEMBER 22, 1913 



SIMPLE COOKING OF WHOLESOME FOOD 
FOR THE FARM HOME 

Compiled by 
JESSIE P. RICH 



DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION 
DIVISION OF HOME WELFARE 




Published by the University six times a month and entered as 

second-class matter at the postoffice at 

AUSTIN, TEXAS 



The benefits of education and of 
useful knowledge, generally diffused 
through a community, are essential 
to the preservation of a free gov- 
ernment. 

Sam Houston. 



Cultivated mind is the guardian 
genius of democracy. ... It is the 
only dictator that freemen acknowl- 
edge and the only security that free- 
men desire. 

""* ', Mirabeau 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food 1^ 
For the Farm Home 

No subject on the farm at the present time is receiving so 
much attention as the proper feeding of the farm animals. The 
cows are given a measured amount of meal, and succulent ma- 
terial, and the pigs a carefully estimated ration intended to de- 
velop a pig best suited to its intended use. How is it with the 
boys and girls on the farm? Is their food as carefully studied 
and administered as that of the farm animal ? Is it prepared in 
a way to give the greatest amount of nourishment for the least 
expenditure of bodily energy? No farm asset is as valuable 
as its boys and girls, and yet they are more neglected, when it 
comes to the question of proper food and cooking, than the 
less important asset the stock. 

USES OF FOODS IN THE BODY. 

A human being without a well built body of bony structure 
and firm muscle is limited in its usefulness. A person unable 
to move or work is equally limited. Without food, or properly 
balanced food, a good skeleton or firm muscles and strength to 
move and work is impossible. Food is expressly taken into the 
body to make for usefulness and eificiency. It is to build up 
or repair tissues and to furnish energy either as heat or power 
to do muscular work. 

FOOD MATERIALS AND THEIR SPECIFIC USES. 

The food materials are of great variety, but an analysis of 
these materials shows that all are but varying combinations 
of a few simple food substances, just as all of our various Eng- 
lish words are made of twenty-six letters. These basic food 
substances are carbohydrates which include starch, sugar, pro- 
teins, fats, and mineral salts. The starches are well known sub- 
stances and occur in such vegetables and cereals as potatoes, 
rice, wheat, corn, and oats. Sugar is largely used in the com- 
mercial form, but occurs also in fruits and vegetables and even 
in some animal products in small quantities. These substances 
are especially suited to furnish the heat and energy required 
by the body. The protein materials are found especially in the 



4 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

egg, the lean of meat, milk, nuts, fish, etc. This is the substance 
necessary to build the muscular tissue of the body. The fats 
are easily recognized and are obtained mainly from cream, but- 
ter, salad gil, nuts, and the fat of meats, and furnish heat and 
energy. The mineral salts are found in many foods, especially 
milk, green vegetables, cereals, and fresh fruits. They are par- 
ticularly necessary to the growth of the bones and teeth, and 
are necessary constituents to the blood and body fluids. 

NECESSITY OF COOKING FOOD. 

Man is defined as the cooking animal, and many of his foods 
are cooked to make them more palatable, easier of assimilation, 
and to destroy parasites. Many foods are, however, spoiled by 
cooking and largely because of the fact that these different food 
substances require different degrees of heat for their best prepa- 
ration. People are as a rule ignorant both of the substances 
composing food materials and of the temperature at which each 
of these substances should be cooked. 

TEMPERATURE BEST SUITED TO COOK THE FOOD SUBSTANCE 

For the best preparation of protein, starch and fatty foods, 
there is a desirable range of temperature. In the case of eggs 
and cheese, typical examples of protein or tissue building sub- 
stances, the cooking demands a knowledge of the effects of 
different temperatures on proteins. To determine the effect of 
heat on egg, put a slightly beaten egg into a buttered sauce pan 
and place over a slow fire, stirring constantly until the mass is 
like a soft jelly. Now allow more heat to reach the egg and 
notice the result. The egg becomes hard and tough. The same 
is true of cheese. A high temperature applied to all forms of 
protein causes them to toughen and harden and become difficult 
to digest, while a lower temperature a temperature below the 
boiling point gives a delicate, easily digested food. Though 
recipe books still speak of boiled eggs and boiled custards, the 
method of preparation should not be by boiling, but by the use 
of heat which is below the boiling temperature. The reason 
custards curdle is because the egg has been cooked at too high 
a temperature. 

On the other hand, starches and foods containing starch re- 
quire a high temperature in order to break up the starch grains 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 5 

and make them ready for digestion. This temperature in moist 
heat would be what we call the boiling point, 212 degrees Fahren- 
heit, or long cooking below the boiling point, or in dry heat, 
what we term a hot oven, from 350 to 430 degrees F. From this 
we see that potatoes and cereals must be cooked at a high tem- 
perature. On the other hand, fats must not be cooked at too 
high a temperature as in this case the fat splits up and changes 
into substances which are irritating to the lining of the stomach. 
A dark coloring of the fat indicates this splitting. Therefore 
browned butter or very crisp-brown bacon isj hard to digest. 
It is because of this fact, that we find one of the great objections 
to fried foods or other foods fried in fats. 

The object of this bulletin is to take up the simple every-day 
foods (especially those found in the rural home), indicate their 
composition, and give ' the methods of preparation which will 
best fit these foods for consumption. For further details on 
Use of Foods and Meat Cookery, see Bulletins Nos. 276-278 is- 
sued by the Home Welfare Division of the Extension Depart- 
ment, University of Texas, and the Farmers' Bulletins. 

MILK AND CHEESE. 

Milk Hot Milk. If milk is to be cooked or served hot, it 
should not be brought to the boiling point, but only to 140- 
180 F. A convenient method of heating it is in the double- 
boiler. 

Cottage Cheese Made from Milk. Use freshly soured clab- 
bered milk, or clabbered buttermilk. Pour milk in a bag to drip 
or heat slowly in a double boiler or on the back of the stove, 
stirring occasionally from the bottom. If cooked it must not 
get too hot as it is a protein substance. When the curd is set, 
pour into a bag and allow to drip for some minutes. Then re- 
move the cheese from the cloth and soften with cream or melted 
butter and season with salt. This may be served as a cheese 
or with salad dressing as a salad. 

Cottage Cheese Pudding. Two cups of cheese curd as made 
by the above recipe, a half cup of sugar, and half cup of English 
currants, one-fourth cup of bread crumbs, one-fourth cup of 
melted butter, two eggs lightly beaten. Stir together all these 
materials and bake as a custard in a slow oven. 



6 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

American Cheese. Cheese on toast. (A protein substance.) 
Cut one-half pound of cheese in small pieces and put into a 
double boiler. When this is melted, add one-half cup of heated 
milk, one-half teaspoon of salt, and stir. Then add three eggs 
well beaten, and cook lightly until the consistency of custard. 
Serve at once on hot toast or crackers. 

Cheese and Rice. Boil one-half cup of rice until thoroughly 
tender in salted boiling water. (Rice is a starchy food.) Drain. 
Now make a cream sauce, using one pint of milk, four table- 
spoons of butter and four tablespoons of flour. Heat the but- 
ter, stir in the flour, and cook a few minutes (be careful not to 
burn), then add the milk, heated. Boil for three minutes and 
season with one teaspoon salt. Put bits of butter in the bottom 
of a baking dish or pan, add about half the rice, a generous 
sprinkling of grated cheese, and about half the cream sauce. 
Reapeat this, beginning with the butter, rice, cheese, and cream 
sauce. Cover with bread crumbs and brown in a hot oven 
Serve at once. 

EGGS. (PROTEIN FOODS.) 

Soft and Hard Cooked Eggs. Put on the stove a st'ew pan 
containing as many cups of water as there are eggs to be cooked. 
When the water is boiling, put the eggs in carefully with a 
spoon, cover stew pan, and set on back of stove where it will 
keep hot but not boil. Leave from five to seven minutes for 
soft-cooked eggs, from forty to forty-five minutes for hard- 
cooked. If the eggs are very cold when put into the water they 
take longer to cook than if they are not. In this way eggs are 
cooked at a low temperature, and are more digestible than if 
boiled. 

Poached Eggs. It is easiest to poach only two or three eggs 
at a time. Have ready a shallow pan two-thirds full of boiling 
salted water, allowing one-half teaspoon of salt to one quart of 
water. The eggs should be very carefully slipped into the water 
so as to have good shape when cooked. The water should cover 
the eggs. When there is a film over the top, and the white 
is firm, remove with perforated skimmer to pieces of buttered 
toast, and let each person season his own egg. Only fresh eggs 
can be poached successfully. 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 1 

Omelet. To four eggs add four tablespoons water, one-half 
teaspoon salt, and one-eighth teaspoon pepper. Mix all thor- 
oughly. Heat a perfectly smooth frying pan. Put in a table- 
spoon of bacon grease or butter, When hot pour in eggs. As 
soon as they have begun to cook, lift from bottom and sides of 
pan with a spatula or knife, allowing the uncooked parts to run 
under the cooked. Never allow to stick or burn. When evenly 
cooked, but not hard, remove from fire. Run the knife along the 
edge, lessening the omelet from the sides of pan. Taking the 
handle of the pan in the left hand, and tilting the pan from you, 
begin to roll the omelete with the knife from the side on which 
the handle is. When the omelet is rolled, hold the knife over it, 
and by inverting pan over the platter, let it fall gently to 
platter. Milk, cream, or left-over gravy may be used instead of 
water in omelet. Milk tends to make a tough omelet. The 
same may be used to make scrambled eggs, which are better if; 
they have water or milk added than if the eggs are used alone.. 

Omelet may be covered with 'grated cheese or finely chopped 
chicken before being rolled. Peas or asparagus may be heated 
in white sauce and served on the same platter with omelet, or- 
tomato sauce may be poured around. 

Rich Omelet. Two and one-half tablespoons flour, three- 
fourths teaspoon salt, three tablespoons butter, one cup milk, 
three eggs. 

Melt butter, add flour and cook two minutes, being careful not 
to burn. Add heated milk gradually, stirring continually. Boil 
three minutes and cool. Separate eggs, add salt to whites and 
beat until stiff.' Fold in yolks and cream sauce. Cook slowly 
as any omelet, occasionally picking through with a fork to allow 
the uncooked top to reach the bottom. 

Stuffed Eggs. Cut four hard cooked eggs in halves, cross- 
wise, remove yolks, mash, and add to them two tablespoons 
grated cheese, one teaspoon vinegar, one-fourth teaspoon mus- 
tard ; salt and pepper to taste. Add enough melted butter to 
make the mixture the right consistency to shape. Make balls 
size of original yolks and refill whites. Arrange on serving dish 
and garnish with parsley. If desired hot, arrange in shallow 



8 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

baking dish, pour over them one cup white sauce, and reheat. 
Do not bake, as the eggs will become very indigestible. 

MEATS. 

(For fuller detail in cooking tough meat, see Bulletin No. 
278, Extension Department, University of Texas.) 

Time Required for Cooking Meats. 

Kind of meat Weight Boiling Baking 

Ibs. (about) Hours Hours Minutes. 

Mutton (leg) 5. 2-3 1 45 

Ham 12-14 4-5 

Corned beef 5 3-4 

Turkey 9 3-3y 2 2i/ 2 -3 

Chicken (spring) . . . 2% 1 1-1% 

Chicken (old) 4 3-4 2-3 

Roast beef (rare) 5 1 5 

Tongue 3-4 

Roast beef (well done) 5 1 20 

Four General Methods. There are four general methods of 
cooking meat : roasting, broiling, boiling and frying. The proper 
method to use depends on the cut of the meat and the result 
desired. In broiling and roasting the object is to retain in the 
meat all of its juices. This is accomplished by cooking it for a 
short time at a high temperature to sear the outside so as to hold 
in the juices, and then finishing the cooking at a lower temper- 
ature to soften the connective tissue. Meat may also be boiled 
for a few minutes to sear the cut surface and then cooked at a 
lower temperature. Or it may be put into cold water and slowly 
brought to the boiling point for -soup stock. In the latter case 
the object is to get the juice out of the meat into the water. 

Broiled Steak. Steak that is to be broiled should be tender. 
Trim off the outside skin and superfluous fat, and wipe the steak 
with a cloth wrung out of cold water. Grease a hissing hot 
griddle with a very little of the fat from the steak. Place the 
steak on the griddle and turn every few seconds for the first 
minute. Do not stick the fork into the lean, juicy part, as the 
juice will leak out of the hole thus made. After the steak has 
begun to brown, reduce the heat and finish cooking with a slow 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm- Home 9 

fire, turning occasionally. Steak one inch thick will require six 
minutes if liked rare, seven or longer if liked well done. Sprinkle 
with salt on both sides and pepper if desired, place on a hot 
platter, spread with butter, and serve on warm plates. Steak 
may be broiled on a broiler directly over a bed of live coals, or 
under a gas flame. 

To Cook Tough Steak. Take a round or other tough steak of 
an inch or more in thickness, trim, clean, and lay on meat board. 
Gash with a knife, sprinkle with salt, and pour on it one-half 
cup of flour. With the edge of a kitchen plate work the flour 
in the meat. Heat a skillet, rub with a little fat, and brown 
the steak on both sides. Then add a cup of boiling water and 
cover skillet with a close-fitting lid. An iron or other heavy 
object may be put on the lid to keep it on tight so that the steam 
will not escape. Let steak cook slowly, but not boil, for an hour, 
or until tender. Serve with the gravy on a hot platter. Onion 
may be added with the water if desired. 

Hamburg Steak. Chop finely one pound lean raw beef; sea- 
son highly with salt, pepper, and a few drops of onion juice or 
one-half shallot finely chopped. Shape, cook, and serve as meat 
Cakes. A few gratings of nutmeg and one egg slightly beaten 
may be added. 

Roast. Wipe off meat with cloth wrung out of cold water, 
rub in salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. Place in roaster 
or pan and put in oven hot enough to cook the outside very 
quickly, or sear it on top of stove and then put into the oven. 
Reduce heat and baste every ten minutes with fat that is tried 
out. If the roast is very lean it may be necessary to add fat. 
When meat is half done, turn it over and dredge with flour 
that this side may be uppermost for final browning. If there is 
danger of flour burning, add a little water. A five-pound roast 
requires one hour and twenty minutes to be well done. When 
roast is done take up on hot platter. Pour off all grease from 
pan but about four tablespoons. To this add four tablespoons 
flour, mix thoroughly, and add one and a half cups boiling water. 
Boil well, season with salt and pepper. 

Pot Edast. Prepare meat as above. Heat an iron pot, and 



10 Bulletin of tlie University of Texas 

rub with a little fat. Brown meat on all sides in the pot, add 
an onion and a cup of boiling water. Cover the pot closely and 
cook very slowly (below the boiling point) until meat is tender. 
A four-pound roast requires three to four hours. Turn the roast 
once during the cooking and add more water if necessary. Make 
gravy as above. After such a roast is seared, it may be finished 
in a fireless cooker instead of as above directed. 

Mutton Stew. Wash and cut into pieces two pounds of neck 
or shoulder pieces of mutton. Put meat and bones into kettle 
w r ith two quarts of water, and bring quickly to the boiling point. 
Remove to back of stove and cook slowly for 1% to 3 hours, 
or until the meat is tender. Add carrots, turnips, onion and 
potato, cut into small pieces. Cook until the vegetables are 
tender. Thicken the liquid with flour mixed with water. (2 
cups flour to each cup liquid.) Season and serve. 

Boiled Leg of Mutton. Remove entirely the thin outer skin 
but not the fat from the mutton. Place in kettle, and cover with 
boiling water. Bring quickly to boiling point, boil five minutes, 
and skim. Set on back of range and simmer until tender. 
When half done add one tablespoon of salt. If desired brown, 
take out of water when tender, put in a hot oven for a few 
minutes and serve as roast. If not browned, serve with a white 
sauce. In making the sauce, instead of using milk, use one- 
half milk and one-half mutton stock (the water in which the 
mutton was boiled) . Into the sauce put two finely chopped hard 
cooked eggs. 

Liver and Bacon. Cut liver one-fourth to one-half inch thick, 
let lie in cold water a few minutes, scald, drain, and remove skin 
and veins. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and dredge with flour. 
Brown in a little bacon grease. Add one small onion chopped 
fine and three-quarters of a cup of boiling water. Cover and let 
simmer fifteen minutes. Serve with bacon cut thin and cooked 
crisp, but not too brown. 

Chicken Pie. 1. Dress, clean, and cut a good-sized fowl. 
Put in a stew pan, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly 
until tender, having added a lump of butter and salt and pepper 
to taste. Place the stewed chicken in a baking dish, add two 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 11 

tablespoons of butter in small pieces, a bit more salt, and a 
teaspoonful of chopped parsley leaves if liked. Make a batter 
with a cup of milk and two tablespoons of flour. Pour this into 
the liquor in the stew pan in which the chicken was cooked and 
bring to the boiling point. Pour this gravy on the chicken in 
the baking dish. Sift a pint of flour, a half teaspoon of baking 
powder, and a teaspoon of salt. Mix with this a cup of lard, 
add enough milk to make a soft dough. Roll one-fourth inch 
thick, cut into diamonds, place over the contents of baking dish, 
bake quickly and serve. 

Chicken Pie. 2. Pick the left-over chicken off the bone. 
Make a cream sauce (two cups milk, four tablespoons butter and 
four tablespoons of flour), add any left-over chicken gravy and 
the chicken. Heat, season, and turn into a baking-dish. Cover 
with a baking powder biscuit dough crust about one-eighth inch 
thick, allowing the crust to rest on the edges of the pan. Cut 
two slits through the top of the crust to allow the steam to 
escape. 

Recipe for Crust. One pint of flour, four teaspoons baking 
powder, two to four tablespoons of fat, one-half teaspoon salt, 
three-fourths cup liquid. Mix as for baking-powder biscuit. 

Braised Beef. Three pounds beef from lower part of round 
or face of rump, two thin slices of fat salt pork, one-half tea- 
spoon peppercorns, carrot, turnip, onion, celery (one-fourth cup 
each, cut in dice), salt and pepper. 

Try out pork and remove scraps. Wipe beef, sprinkle with 
salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and brown entire surface in 
pork fat. When turning meat, avoid piercing with fork or 
skewer, which allows the inner juices to escape. Place on rack 
in deep granite pan or in earthen pudding dish, and surround 
with vegetables, peppercorns, and three cups of boiling water; 
cover closely, and bake four hours in very slow oven, basting 
every half hour, and turning after second hour. Throughout 
the cooking, the liquid should be kept below the boiling point. 
Serve with gravy made from liquor in pan. 

Irish Stew with Dumplings. Wipe and cut in pieces three 
pounds of mutton from the fore-quarter. Put in kettle, cover 
with boiling water, and cook slowly two hours or until tender. 



12 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

After cooking one hour, add one-half cup each of carrot and 
turnip cut in one-half inch cubes, and one onion cut in slices. 
Fifteen minutes before serving add four cups potatoes cut in 
one-fourth inch slices, previously parboiled five minutes in boil- 
ing water. Thicken with one-fourth cup flour, diluted with 
enough cold water to form a thin smooth paste. Season with 
salt and pepper. Serve with dumplings. 

Dumplings. Two cups flour, four teaspoons baking powder, 
three-fourths cup' milk, one-half teaspoon salt, two teaspoons 
butter. Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add butter and milk 
gradually, using a knife for mixing. Drop by spoonfuls on top 
of stew, being careful that the dumplings rest on meat and 
potato and do not settle into the liquid. 

To Stuff Poultry. Put stuffing by spoonfuls in neck end, 
using enough to sufficiently fill the skin, that bird may look 
plump when served. Where cracker stuffing is used, allowance 
must be made for swelling of crackers, otherwise skin may 
burst during cooking. Put remaining stuffing in body; if the 
body is full, sew skin ; if not full, bring skin together with a 
skewer. 

Stewed Chicken with Onions. Dress, clean, and cut in pieces 
for serving, two chickens. Cook in a small quantity of water 
with eighteen tiny young onions. Remove chicken to serving- 
dish as soon as tender, and when onions are soft drain from stock 
and boil stock down to one and one-half cups. Make sauce of 
three tablespoons butter, four tablespoons flour, the stock and 
one-half cup heavy cream ; then add yolks three eggs, salt, pep- 
per, and lemon juice to taste. Pour sauce over chicken and 
onions. 

Roast Chicken. Dress, clean and stuff chicken. Place on its 
back on rack in a dripping pan, rub entire surface with salt, 
and spread breast and legs with three tablespoons butter, rubbed 
until creamy and mixed with two tablespoons flour. Dredge 
bottom of pan with flour. Place in a hot oven, and when flour 
is well browned, reduce the heat, then baste. Continue basting 
every ten minutes until chicken is cooked. For basting, use 
one-fourth cup butter, melted in two-thirds cup boiling water, 
and after this is gone, use fat in pan, and when necessary to 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 13 

prevent flour burning, add one cup boiling water. During cook- 
ing, turn chicken frequently, that it may brown evenly. If a 
thick crust is desired, dredge bird with flour two or three times 
during cooking. If a glazed surface is preferred, spread bird 
with butter, omitting flour, and do not dredge during baking. 
Cook until tender. A four-pound chicken requires about one 
and one-half hours. 

Stuffing. One cup dry bread crumbs, two teaspoons butter, 
one-fourth cup boiling water, salt and pepper. 

Melt butter in water, and pour over crumbs to which season- 
ings have been added. Onion juice, sage, summer savory, or 
chopped celery may be added. 

Baked Ham. Cut a slice across the thick part of the ham 
about one inch thick. Put in pan or skillet. Cover with milk 
and bake in a moderate oven one to one and one-half hours, or 
until the meat is tender. The milk should not be hot enough 
to boil during the cooking. 

Boiled Ham. Wash well a smoked ham. Soak over night in 
water to which some milk has been added. Remove from water, 
cover with cold water, bring to a boil and boil 25 minutes. Put 
on back of stove where water will not boil and cook 15 minutes 
for each pound of ham. * Uncover and. allow the ham to get 
cold in the water in which it was cooked. 

Ham Pie. Use cold chopped ham. Put bits butter in the 
bottom of a baking dish. Add layers of mashed potato and ham, 
alternately, beginning and ending with the potato. Brown in 
oven and serve. Rice may be used in place of the potato, in 
which case a little moisture should be used milk, water with 
a little butter, or stock. 

Ham for Sandwiches. Chop the cold boiled ham. Add cooked 
salad dressing and chopped pickle. Use for sandwich filling. 

Bacon. Cut bacon into thin slices. Put in heated frying pan 
and panbroil until it is a very light brown. It should not get 
very brown and crisp as that makes it indigestible. ' The fat 
which fries out can be used in other cooking. 



14 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Pork Sausage (Home-made). Grind up the shoulder of pork 
and some lean of beef. Use 1 pound beef to every 3 pounds 
pork. Season with salt and shape into flat cakes. Panbroil. 

Pork Loaf. One-half pound boiled salt pork cut into small 
cubes. Two cups breadcrumbs, two eggs, one cup milk, or enough 
milk to moisten the mixture, one teaspoon salt. Mix together 
and bake in a moderate oven. Serve hot or cold. 

Pigs in Blankets. Cut boiled salt pork into thick slices. Roll 
in crumbs, dip in egg, roll in crumbs and fry in deep fat, or bake 
until brown in the oven. 

LEFT-OVER MEAT. 

There are many palatable ways of using left-over meat. It is 
well to remember that cooked meat does not require further 
cooking, but merely reheating. Cooked-over food is less digest- 
ible than freshly cooked. 

Baked Hash. Grind or chop pieces of left-over meat, mix 
with gravy, tomato sauce, or white sauce, and put into a buttered 
baking-dish which has been lined with mashed potatoes or rice. 
Set dish in pan of hot water, heat in a moderate oven. Serve 
in baking-dish. 

Hasli on Toast. Instead of baking v heat hash in gravy or 
sauce and serve on toast. 

SOUPS. 

Chicken Bone Soup. Wash the chicken bones, break the heavy 
ones, and cover well with water. Cook slowly for several hours. 
One may also use the feet and legs of chickens which have been 
scalded and skinned. Bits of dried bread, onions, and toma- 
toes may be added for flavor. When the soup is well cooked, 
strain and add cooked rice or noodles, and serve. 

How to Make Meat Soup. In using meats to make soup we 
wish to extract all the juices from the meat. To do this, cut 
the meat into small pieces, soak in cold water one hour, put the 
meat in this same water over the fire, bring very slowly to the 
boiling point, set on back of stove and let simmer until meat 
drops to pieces. If meat is allowed to boil, the proteins are 
hardened on the outside, the juices cannot be extracted, and the 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 15 

soup will lack flavor. Vegetables, spices, and salt should be 
added the last hour of cooking, potatoes the last half hour. 
Soups made in this way can be very successfully cooked in the 
fireless cooker after being brought to the boiling point on the 
range. 

Formula for three pints of standard stock (beef, veal, chicken, 
mutton, or game) : four pounds meat (one-fourth bone), four 
pints cold water, one and one-half teaspoons salt, ten or twelve 
peppercorns, sprig parsley, one-fourth of a sweet pepper, one 
and one-half tablespoons each chopped carrot, onion, celery, 
turnip. Make according to directions above. 

Seasonings and vegetables may be varied to suit individual 
tastes. If allowed to cool, the fat is easily removed by laying 
gently a piece of tissue paper over the surface. The fat will 
adhere to the paper. This stock may be strained and kept for 
a short time, usually not more than a day in summer. When 
desired to use add whatever vegetables are liked. 

Cream Soups. A cream soup consists of a combination of 
meat or vegetable pulp and white sauce thinned as desired. 
Almost any vegetable, fish, or chicken may be used in a cream, 
soup. When vegetable is cooked tender rub through a sieve, 
moistening now and then with water in which it was cooked 
to make it go through strainer faster. Flour is used to bind the 
vegetable pulp and the liquid, thus giving the soup a smooth 
consistency. If butter is not used, the flour may be mixed with 
a little of the cold liquid, and added to the hot soup. If butter 
is used, cream it and the flour together and then add to the 
soup. In either case the soup should be boiled after the flour 
is added. 

Cream of Tomato Soup. One pint tomatoes, two teaspoons 
sugar, one-eighth teaspoon soda, one quart milk, one-third cup 
butter, one slice onion, four tablespoons flour, one teaspoon salt, 
one-eighth teaspoon pepper. 

Heat tomatoes and rub through- a sieve. Add sugar, soda, 
flour and butter rubbed into a paste. Boil five minutes. Scald 
milk with onion in it, remove onion, and add to the thickened 
tomato. Reheat, but do not boil. Salt just before serving. 



16 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Baked Bean Soup. Three cups cold baked beans, three pints 
water, two slices onion, one and one-half cups stewed and 
strained tomatoes, two stalks celery, two tablespoons butter, two 
tablespoons flour, one tablespoon chili sauce, salt, pepper. 

Put beans, water, onion, and celery in sauce pan ; bring to boil- 
ing point and simmer thirty minutes. Rub through a sieve ; add 
tomato, chili sauce, season to taste with salt and pepper, and 
bind with the butter and flour cooked together. Serve with 
crisp crackers. 

Corn Soup. One can corn, one pint boiling water, one pint 
milk, one slice onion, two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons 
flour, one teaspoon salt. 

Chop the corn, add water, and simmer twenty minutes; rub 
through a sieve. Scald milk with onion in it, remove onion, and 
add milk to corn. Bind with butter and flour cooked together. 
Add salt. 

Potato Soup. Three medium sized potatoes, one quart milk, 
two slices onion, three tablespoons butter, one and one-half tea- 
spoons salt, two tablespoons flour. 

Cook potatoes in boiling salted water ; when soft, rub through 
a strainer. Scald milk with onion in it, remove onion, and add 
milk slowly to potatoes. Melt the butter, add dry ingredients, 
stir until well mixed, then stir into boiling soup; cook one 
minute. Season and serve. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS VEGETABLES. 

The cooking of vegetables depends largely upon their composi- 
tion. For example, potatoes contain such a large amount of 
water that they have sufficient in them to swell starch grains and 
cook the starch thoroughly. They may be cooked, therefore, 
as in baking, without the addition of any water. Rice, on the 
contrary, contains only a very small per cent of water, and it 
is necessary to add a very large amount while cooking it. Old 
vegetables contain a tough, woody fibre, and they require long 
cooking to soften this fibre, while young vegetables have very 
tender fibre which is easily softened and broken down by heat. 

Dried vegetables usually require longer cooking than fresh 
ones. They should be thoroughly washed and soaked overnight 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 17 

before cooking. They should then be cooked in the water they 
have been soaked in. 

All vegetables should be carefully picked over, the bruised 
and decayed spots discarded, and vegetables thoroughly washed 
before cooking. The fresher the vegetables the better the flavor. 
When possible, gather young green vegetables just before cooking 
so they will not become wilted. 

It is better to wash the pods of green peas before shelling, 
instead of washing the peas. More of the flavor is retained in 
this way. A handful of fresh young pods added to the peas 
while cooking gives them a delicious flavor. They should be 
removed before the peas are served. 

Cabbage and cauliflower should be soaked for an hour in salt 
water or in water to which a little vinegar has been added before 
cooking. If there are any worms or other insects in them they 
will crawl out. 

Potatoes should be pared as thinly as possible. The most valu- 
able mineral in the potato lies just beneath the skin, and this 
is entirely lost when a thick paring is removed. 

All vegetables should be put into boiling water and then boiled 
or simmered until tender. Potatoes and cauliflower should be 
boiled gently, as rapid boiling is likely to break down the outside 
before the center is done. 

Strong-flavored vegetables, such as cauliflower, cabbage, onions 
and mustard greens, should be cooked with the cover entirely 
removed from the vessel, and allowed to cook just below the boil- 
ing point. There is no odor to cooking vegetables when cookevl 
this way. 

Green peas and beans should be boiled gently until practically 
all the water in which they were cooked has evaporated. Much 
of the valuable mineral matter in vegetables is dissolved in 
water. If the water is poured off, the mineral is wasted. 

It is essential that all vegetables be cooked thoroughly done. 
Some vegetables are digestible raw, most are digestible when 
thoroughly done, but none are digestible when half or two-thirds 
cooked. 

Salt and melted butter make the best seasoning for most veg- 
etables, but by way of variety a white sauce may be used on 
almost any vegetable peas, beans, carrots, potatoes, cauliflower, 



18 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

cabbage, asparagus, etc. Vegetables cooked for long hours in 
the pot with pork (as pork and cabbage, pork and string beans) 
and served with the grease over them are indigestible, because 
they become coated with a film of fat which interferes with the 
digestion of the stomach. 

White Sauce. Two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons flour, 
one cup milk, one-half teaspoon salt. 

Melt butter, add flour, and cook for two minutes. Be careful 
not to burn or brown. Add heated milk, and bring to boiling- 
point. Add salt. Thick sauce is made by using four table- 
spoons flour, and a thin sauce by using one tablespoon of flour. 

Tomato Saiwe. This is made in the same way as Avhite sauce, 
except that a cupful of tomato juice made by cooking and 
straining tomatoes, is used instead of milk. 

Boiled Rice. Pick over a cupful of rice. Wash in several 
waters until water is clear. Have on stove a large vessel con- 
taining two quarts of boiling salted water. Add rice slowly so 
as not to stop the boiling. Boil from fifteen to thirty minutes, 
or until rice is tender. Do not stir while cooking. Drain in 
coarse strainer, and pour through rice one quart of hot water, 
return to stew pan in which it was cooked, cover with a eloth, 
place on back of range to dry. In this case the rice kernels 
should be distinct. Rice may be started in boiling water and 
after a few minutes milk added and the cooking finished in a 
double boiler. In this case the kernels will not be distinct, but 
the rice will be richer in nutritive value. 

Grits. They should be started in boiling water, one cup of 
grits to four cups of boiling water, directly over the fire, and 
finished in the double boiler, or by setting the stew pan in a 
vessel of boiling water. In this way there is no danger of its 
burning. 

Baked Rice. One cup of cooked rice, three-quarters cup of 
white sauce, or sauce made from meat stock, two tablespoons 
grated cheese. Mix, put in a buttered baking dish, sprinkle 
with more grated cheese. Heat in moderate oven. Serve in 
baking dish. 

Waldorf Potatoes. Cut cold boiled potatoes into cubes and 
mix one cup of potatoes with half a cup of white sauce, having 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for ike Farm Home 19 

previously mixed in the same sauce four tablespoons of grated 
cheese. Put in a buttered baking dish, cover with bread crumbs, 
heat in oven until crumbs are light brown. Serve in baking dish. 
To butter crumbs, melt a little butter and put crumbs into it. 
Don't heat to a high temperature. (Two teaspoons butter to one 
cup crumbs.) 

Potato Omelet. Prepare mashed potatoes, turn in hot omelet 
pan greased with one tablespoon butter, spread evenly, cook 
slowly until browned underneath, and fold as an omelet. 

Escalloped Potatoes. Wash, pare, soak, and cut four potatoes 
in one-fourth inch slices. Put a layer in buttered baking dish, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and dot over 
with, one-half tablespoon butter. Repeat, put in a few slices 
of onion, if desired. Add hot milk until it may be seen through 
top layer, bake one and one-fourth hours or until potato is soft. 

Glazed Sweet Potatoes. Wash and pare six medium-sized 
potatoes. Cook ten minutes in boiling salted water. Drain, cut 
in halves lengthwise, and put in a buttered pan. Make a syrup 
by boiling, three minutes, one-half cup sugar, four tablespoons 
water, and one tablespoon butter. Brush potatoes with syrup 
and bake forty minutes, basting twice with remaining syriip. 

Left-Over Vegetables are not as desirable as left-over meats. 
They lose much of their value by standing. The best way to 
use them is in salad. Almost any left-over vegetable makes a 
good salad. See page 20 for salads. 

TABLE FOR COOKING THE COMMON VEGETABLES. 

Kind. Time of Cooking. 

Asparagus . About 30 minutes. 

Beans 

Lima 1-1% hours 

String 2-3 hours 

Beets- 
Young , 1 hour 

Old ; 3-4 hours 

Corn, green 10-15 minutes 

Carrots, young 30 minutes to 1 hour 

Cabbage 30-40 minutes (simmer) 



20 Bulletin of tlie University of Texas 

Kind. Time of Cooking. 

Cauliflower ; ,20-30 minutes (simmer) 

Onion 45-60 minutes (simmer) 

Okra ; 20-30 minutes 

Potatoes 20-30 minutes 

Celery .20-30 minutes 

Spinach 25-30 minutes 

Peas, green 30-40 minutes 

Squash . . 30-40 minutes 

Turnips 1-1% hours 

Tomatoes / 10 minutes 

SALADS. 

Made of Left-Over Vegetables. Left-over vegetables such as 
peas, beans, carrots, asparagus, etc.. should have the butter rinsed 
off and be served cold as salads. Peas and carrots or peas and 
beets mixed make good salads. Cover with French dressing or 
cooked dressing. 

Lettuce may be served with either French or boiled dressing. 
It can be varied by sprinkling with grated raw carrots. Lettuce 
and hard-cooked eggs with either dressing make a good salad. 

Coleslaw. One-half small head of hard cabbage, one cupful 
cooked dressing. Soak cabbage in cold water thirty minutes. 
Shred fine and mix with dressing. 

French Dressing. One-half teaspoon salt, one-fourth teaspoon 
pepper, six tablespoons olive oil, two to four tablespoons vinegar 
or lemon juice, a few grains cayenne. 

Mix dry materials, add oil, and when mixed add the acid a 
little at a time. Beat until an emulsion is formed. Pour over 
the vegetables with which it is to be used, and mix same until 
dressing is distributed. A few drops of onion juice or finely 
chopped onion may be added to dressing if desired. 

Cooked Dressing, I. One-fourth teaspoon salt, one-fourth tea 
spoon mustard, one-fourth teaspoon sugar, two egg yolks, two 
teaspoons butter, three-fourths cup thin cream or milk, two 
tablespoons vinegar, a few grains cayenne. 

Mix dry ingredients, add egg yolks, beat until well mixed, add 
butter and milk. Cook over hot water, stirring until thickened 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 21 

I 
slightly, then add gradually the vinegar, stirring all the while. 

Set aside to cool. 

Cooked Dressing, II. Three tablespoons butter, two table- 
spoons flour, one cup milk, three eggs, one teaspoon salt, one 
teaspoon sugar, one teaspoon mustard, one-half cup vinegar. 

Make cream sauce of milk, butter and flour. Scald vinegar 
and pour over the seasonings. Beat the eggs and add the heated 
vinegar and seasonings. Combine this with the cream sauce and 
cook until it thickens over hot water. Cool. 

Hot Potato Salad. Wash six medium sized potatoes, and 
cook in boiling salted water until soft. Cool, remove skins, and 
cut in very thin slices. Cover bottom of baking dish with pota- 
toes, season with salt and pepper. Sprinkle with finely chopped 
celery, then with finely chopped parsley. Mix two tablespoons 
each tarragon and cider vinegar and four tablespoons olive oil, 
and add one slice lemon cut one-third inch thick. Bring to 
boiling point, pour over potatoes, cover, and let stand in oven 
until thoroughly warmed. 

jCold Potato Salad. Cut cold boiled potatoes into small cubes. 
Dress with French dressing or a dressing made of three table- 
spoons of melted butter, one tablespoon of vinegar and one-half 
teaspoon salt. Chill. Cut celery, cucumber and hardcooked 
eggs into small pieces and add to ttie potato. Add a generous 
quantity of boiled salad dressing and mix .all carefully, using 
a fork. Shredded cabbage, green pepper, onion, etc., may be 
added or substituted in the salad. 

BREAD. 

Essentials of Bread-Making. Four things are essential to good 
bread-making- : good flour, good yeast, careful mixing and knead- 
ing, and careful baking. In selecting flour for bread choose a 
creamy rather than a snow white one. It should have a gritty 
feeling when rubbed between the fingers. 

How Bread Is Made Light. The rising of bread is caused by 
the setting free of carbon dioxide gas within the dough. This 
gas, as it is formed, expands and stretches the dough. The 
yeast should be evenly distributed through the dough. This is one 



22 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

reason why the dough should be kneaded well. The. carbon 
dioxide may be produced by the fermentation caused by yeast, 
or by chemical action resulting from bringing together two 
such substances as soda and sour milk. The yeast which is used 
in making bread is a microscopically small plant called a fungus. 
A number of yeast fungi are put into dough and kept warm so 
that they will multiply, act on the dough, and generate the car- 
bon dioxide. When enough yeast plants have been developed and 
gas produced to make the dough light, it is cooked to kill the 
fungi. 

Bread. One cup scalded milk, one cup boiling water, one 
tablespoon lard, one and one-half teaspoons salt, one cake of 
compressed yeast dissolved in one-fourth cup luke-warm water, 
one tablespoon sugar, six or more cups sifted flour. 
.Dry yeast may also be used. It is prepared as follows: 

Dissolve the yeast cake and sugar in luke-warm water. Put 
butter and salt in a perfectly clean pan or bowl, and add the 
milk and water, or all water may be used. Cool to luke-warm, 
add dissolved yeast cake, and sift in part of the flour, beat until 
the batter is light and porous-looking ; this will save time in 
kneading. Add the remainder of the flour, mix well, and, unless 
the dough can be gathered in a ball on the end of a spoon, more 
flour is necessary. Turn out on a floured bread board and knead 
well. The object in kneading bread is to make the gluten in the 
flour elastic and distribute the yeast evenly. Bread is kneaded 
sufficiently when it is elastic to the touch, has bubbles on the 
surface, and does not stick to the board. Press the finger lightly 
in the dough; if elastic it will spring back into place when 
pressure is removed. 

Put the dough in a clean bowl, lightly buttered or dampened 
with cold water, and brush a little water over the top to prevent 
a crust forming, cover with a clean cloth kept for that purpose, 
and set in 'a warm place to rise. When it has doubled its 
original size, remove to the board, again knead for a few minutes, 
and divide into loaves. Put each loaf in a greased pan, cover, 
and let it rise until it has again doubled in size. If it rises too 
long, it is likely to be sour and be full of large holes. If it does 
not rise enough, it will be heavy and soggy. It is always better 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for tine Farm Home 23 

to bake each loaf in a separate pan. This will insure thorough 
baking and brown crust on all sides. The quantity given in this 
recipe will make two medium-sized loaves. It can be made and 
l>aked in five hours. By starting the bread early in the morning, 
the bread can be made and baked by the time dinner is over. 
If it is made up at bedtime, and allowed to rise over night, one 
yeast cake will make twice the amount given in the recipe. In 
warm weather, however, there is danger of the bread rising too 
rapidly and of souring. 

Baking Bread. Bread is baked to kill the yeast plant and 
stop fermentation ; to cook the starch, so that it will be thoroughly 
digestible ; to improve the flavor ; and to form a brown crust. 
The oven should be hot when the bread is first put into it. Turn 
the pans frequently the first six or eight minutes, so that the 
loaves will be even. At the end of fifteen minutes the loaves 
should begin to brown. Reduce the heat gradually. At the end 
of a half -hour the loaves should be well browned. Let them 
remain for another half hour, but have a very moderate oven to 
complete the baking. Remove from the pans at once and stand 
on end until thoroughly cold. If bread is covered while warm, 
the crust will be soft instead of crisp. When thoroughly cold 
put away in a tightly covered jar or tin box. 

Some of the dough may be removed .after the first rising, made 
into rolls, and baked for dinner or supper. They must rise until 
very light, but if they are ready to bake before it is time to use 
them, put them in the ice box or in a cool place to prevent the 
further growth of the yeast. 

Dry Yeast. Yeast foam or magic yeast is also used in bread 
making. The dry cake is soaked in warm water, and added to 
the following mixture : Dice or mash four potatoes, add one cup 
flour and enough hot water in which the potatoes were boiled tc 
make a soft paste. Cool to luke-warm and add yeast. Allow it 
to stand and ferment. This takes from four to six hours. This 
yeast is best made at noon if bread is to be sponged at night or 
made at noon or at night if bread is sponged in the morning. 
The one cake of dry yeast is equal in strength to one cake of 
compressed yeast. When light it may be added to the bread 
sponge or kept in cool place until needed. 



24 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Muffins. One-fourth cup butter, one tablespoon sugar, one 
egg, one cup milk, two cups flour, four teaspoons baking powder, 
one teaspoon salt. Cream butter with stiff-handled tablespoon. 
Cream it until the butter feels like wax. Add sugar and beat 
to a creamy mass. Add beaten egg and blend well with butter 
and sugar. Add milk gradually. Sift dry ingredients, add 
gradually. Beat until smooth. Butter muffin pans well and fill 
them three-fourths full. Bake twenty-five minutes in an oven 
that is hot enough to brown paper in eight minutes. 

Biscuits. Two cups flour, four teaspoons baking powder, one 
teaspoon salt, two to four tablespoons fat, three-fourths cup 
sweet milk and water, or all water or all milk. 

Mix dry ingredients and sift. Work in fat with the tips of 
fingers; add gradually the liquid, mixing with a knife or a 
wooden spoon to a soft dough. It is impossible to state the 
exact amount of liquid required, owing to differences in flours. 
Toss on a floured bread board, pat, and roll lightly to one-half 
inch thickness. Shape with a biscuit cutter. Place on buttered 
pan,' and bake in hot oven twelve or fifteen minutes. If baked 
in too slow an oven the gas will escape before it has done its 
work, and biscuits will not rise sufficiently. If sour milk, soar 
cream, or buttermilk is to be used, use one-half teaspoon of soda 
to each cup of liquid, and one teaspoon of baking powder. 

DESSERTS. 

Steamed Custard. One quart milk, six egg yolks, two-thirds 
cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoon salt, one teaspoon vanilla. 

Scald milk. Beat yolks slightly, add sugar, beat thoroughly. 
Dilute with a little of the milk, and add to the remainder of 
milk. Cook over hot water until the mixture will thinly coat 
a spoon. Stir while cooking; add vanilla. Cool. The whites 
of three eggs may be beaten stiff and folded in just before 
taking from fire, if desired. 

Baked Custard. One quart milk, three to five eggs, two- 
thirds cup sugar, one-fourth cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoon salt, 
one teaspoon vanilla, grating of nutmeg. 

Beat eggs until yolks and whites are well mixed, add sugar, 
salt, nutmeg and milk. Strain into buttered baking dish or in- 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 25 

dividual cups. Set dishes in pan of boiling water while baking. 
When done a silver knife stuck into the custard will come clean. 

Dried Fruits. Canned fruits and dried fruits, such as prunes, 
apricots, peaches, apples, should be used in winter freely. The 
dried fruit should be washed, picked over, always soaked over 
night in water, and cooked until tender in the same water, sugar 
being added just before taking the fruit up. If the fruit is 
cooked long in the sugar it becomes tough. If the fruit is not 
soaked before cooking, it will not be so plump and tender. 

Wholesome Substitutes for Unwholesome Pies. 1. Rice and 
Fruit. Line a bowl with left-over rice that has been slightly 
sweetened. Cover rice with apple sauce or other fruit sauce or 
stewed fruit. Serve with cream, plain or whipped, or boiled 
custard. 

Blackberry Fool. Trim crust from some good bread, slice, 
spread thinly with butter. Put a layer of bread in a bowl, cover 
with blackberries which have been stewed in enough water to 
cover until ready to fall to pieces and sweetened to taste. Add 
another layer of bread, cover with berries as before, using all 
the juice. Let stand for an hour before serving. Serve with 
cream. Other fruits may be used in the same way. 

Cookies. One-half cup butter, one cup sugar, one egg, one- 
fourth cup milk, two teaspoons baking powder, three cups flour, 
or enough to make dough easily rolled out, one-half teaspoon 
vanilla, nutmeg. Sift flour and other dry ingredients together. 
Cream butter and sugar thoroughly. Add yolk slightly beaten, 
then a little milk, and vanilla, and a part of the flour. Add 
milk and flour alternately till both are used. Fold in the egg 
white beaten stiff. When dough is stiff enough to roll, turn out 
on a floured board, and with a floured rolling-pin roll one-fourth 
inch thick. Sprinkle with nutmeg; cut with biscuit cutter and 
place in shallow pans. Bake fifteen minutes in hot oven. 

Indian Pudding. Five cups scalded milk, one-half cup Indian 
meal, one-half cup molasses, one teaspoon salt, one teaspoon 
ginger. 

Pour milk slowly on meal, cook in double boiler twenty min- 
utes, add molasses, salt, and ginger; pour into buttered pudding 



26 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

dish and bake two hours in slow oven; serve with cream. (If 
baked too rapidly it will whey.) Ginger may be omitted, if 
objected to. 

Poor Man's Pudding. Four cups milk, one-half cup rice, one- 
half cup molasses, one-half teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon cin- 
namon, one tablespoon butter. 

Wash rice, mix ingredients, and pour into buttered pudding 
dish; bake three hours in very slow oven, stirring three times 
during first hour of baking to prevent rice from settling. 

Bread Pudding. Two cups stale bread crumbs, one quart 
scalded milk, one-third cup sugar, one-fourth cup melted butter, 
two eggs, one-half teaspoon salt, one teaspoon vanilla or one- 
fourth teaspoon spice. 

Soak bread crumbs in milk, set aside until cool; add sugar, 
butter, eggs slightly beaten, salt, and flavoring; bake one hour 
in buttered pudding dish in slow oven; serve with vanilla sauce. 
In preparing bread crumbs for puddings avoid using outside 
crusts. With a coarse ,grater there need be but little waste. 

Bread Pudding. One cup flour, one teaspoon baking powder, 
one teaspoon soda, one-half cup sugar, one pint dry bread 
crumbs, one cup molasses, one teaspoon melted butter, two lightly 
beaten eggs, one cup hot water, one-half cup currants or raisins. 

Sift flour, soda and baking powder and add remaining ma- 
terials in order given. Steam one hour. Serve with the fol- 
lowing sauce : 

Hard Sauce. One cup powdered sugar, one egg white, one 
tablespoon butter. Mix thoroughly together. 

Bread and Butter Apple Pudding. Cover bottom of a shal- 
low baking dish with apple sauce. Cut stale bread in one-third 
inch slices spread with softened butter, and cut in triangular 
shaped pieces ; then arrange closely together over apple. Sprinkle 
generously with sugar, to which is added a few drops of vanilla. 
Bake in a moderate oven and serve with cream. 

Cottage Pudding. One-third cup butter, two-thirds cup sugar, 
one egg, one cup milk, two and one- fourth cups flour, four tea- 
spoons baking powder, one-half teaspoon salt. 

Cream butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well beaten; mix 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 27 

and sift flour, baking powder, and salt; add alternately with 
milk to first mixture; turn into buttered cake pan; bake thirty- 
five minutes. Serve w r ith vanilla or hard sauce. 

Peach or Apple Short Cake. Fill a deep pie tin with sliced 
peaches or apples. Make a baking powder crust using one cup 
flour, two teaspoons baking powder, one-half teaspoon salt, two 
tablespoons lard or butter, three-eighths cup milk. 

Sift together baking powder, salt and flour, rub in the fat and 
add the milk, stirring as little as possible. Toss on a board and 
roll out large enough to fit the outside edges of the pan. Cut 
openings at the top to allow the steam to escape. Bake 20-25 
minutes. Serve with butter and sugar or cream and sugar. 

Cereal Pudding. Two cups cooked cereal (use left-over cereal), 
one egg beaten, one ounce chocolate (melted), two tablespoons 
butter, one-third cup sugar, one cup milk (possibly more). 

Mix together the materials and bake in a buttered baking-dish 
about 20 minutes (cream of wheat, wheatina, malt or any of the 
fine cereals are suitable for the pudding). Serve with cream. 
The pudding is good without the chocolate and it may be omitted 
to make a more economical dessert. 

CEREALS. 

In general cereals should be cooked as follows : 

Have the water rapidly boiling. Add one teaspoon of salt 
for each cup of cereal. Sprinkle the cereal slowly into the 
water, stirring till it is well mixed, and boil for five minutes. 
Continue the cooking without stirring either in a double boiler 
or with a piece of asbestos under the sauce pan. A double boiler 
may be made by fitting together two sauce pans nearly the same 
size, putting the larger one on top. 

The fireless cooker is excellent for cereals. Add cereal to boil- 
ing salted water. Boil ten minutes. Put in cooker and allow 
to stand over night. 

Dates, cooked prunes or other fruit cut into small pieces may 
be stirred into the cereal before serving. 



28 



Bulletin of tlie University of Texas 



TABLE FOR COOKING CEREAL. 



Cook 5-10 minutes on fire, remaining time required in 
or over night in fireless cooker. 



Kind 
Steam cooked and rolled oats 



Quantity 



double boiler 
Water Time 



Quaker Oats 
Rolled Oats. 
H. O.. 



1 cup lf-2 cups 1 to 2 hours 



Steam cooked and rolled 
wheat as 

Pettijohn 

Rye flakes 

Old grist mill 

Rice (steamed) 1 cup 

Rice (boiled) 1 cup 

Indian meal 1 cup 

Oatmeal (course) 1 cup 

Hominy , 1 cup 

Wheatina 

Cream of Wheat J- 1 cup 

Malt 



1 cup li-1* cups 



3 cups 
8 cups 
(excess) 
3i cups 

4 cups 
4 cups 

4 cups 



45 minutes 
to li hours 

45-60 min. 

30 minutes 
3 hours 
3 hours 
1 hour 

30 minutes 



RECIPES FOR FIRELESS COOKER. 

General directions for using the fireless cooker: 

1. Prepare the food to be cooked in the ordinary way. 

2. Put it into the fireless cooker pail. 

3. Cook over the fire until thoroughly heated, from 20 minutes 
to 1 hour, depending on the food, and put at once into the cooker. 

4. The following gives the time for cooking some of the 
commonest foods: 

Over the Fire. 

Cereals )10 minutes 

Ham 60 minutes 

Corned beef 45 minutes 

Stew . ., 20 minutes 

Dried fruits.. , .10 minutes 



In Fireless Cooker 
2-3 hours or over night 
6-8 hours 
4-5 hours 
4-5 hours 
2-3 hours 



Cereals that are to be served for breakfast are best when left 
over night in the cooker ; they are then ready to be served in the 
morning. 

Split Pea Soup. Wash and put one pint of split peas in the 
kettle, add 2 pounds beef, and a few bones, half tablespoon salt, 



Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 29 

and sufficient water to cover all ; set over the fire. As soon as it 
begins to boil, add a handful c'elery and 2 onions ; cook 20 min- 
utes, place the kettle in the cooker and cover quickly. Three 
hours later run the soup through a sieve into a saucepan and re- 
turn it to the fire. Melt a tablespoon butter, add 1 tablespoon 
flour, stir two minutes, add it to the soup, cook a few minutes, 
add the necessary salt and 1 tablespoon each of fine chopped 
parsley and fine chopped celery. Serve with small croutons. 

Corned Beef. Wash and soak 6 pounds corned beef in cold 
water for a few hours. Place the kettle with enough water to 
cover the corned beef on the fire ; when it comes to a boil, put the 
corned beef in the kettle. After boiling 30 minutes, place the 
kettle into the fireless cooker, cover quickly and let stand five 
hours. If cabbage is to be cooked with the corned beef, cut a 
cabbage into quarters and put it in the kettle with the corned 
beef. 

Boiled Tongue. Soak a smoked tongue over night in cold 
water, and next morning put the tongue in the kettle, cover with 
cold water, place over fire and boil 30 minutes, then place the 
kettle in the cooker and cover quickly. Six hours later take out 
the tongue, free it from skin, return it to the kettle and let it 
cool in the broth. 

Boiled Fowl. Put a well cleaned fowl in the kettle, cover with 
boiling water, add 2 onions, 1 teaspoonful pepper, 1 tablespoonful 
salt, and boil 20 minutes, set the kettle in the cooker, cover 
quickly, let stand for about four hours. Serve with the follow- 
ing sauce: Melt 2 tablespoonfuls butter, add 2 heaping table- 
spoonfuls our, add to the liquor in which the chicken was cooked, 
stir and boil till smooth, strain, season if necessary with salt, 
and serve with the chicken. Young chicken will cook in two 
hours. 

Boiled Mutton. Put the kettle, with enough water to cover 
the mutton, over the fire. When it boils put in leg of mutton, 
add 1 tablespoonful salt, and 2 onions, boil 20 minutes, place 
the kettle in the cooker, let it remain 5 hours, serve with gravy 
made by thickening the liquid. 



30 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Baked Beans. Soak 1 quart dried beans in cold water over 
night. Put them in the kettle, add 1 pound salt pork, and cover 
with cold water. Place the kettle over the fire, boil 20 minutes, 
then put the kettle in the cooker; cover quickly; let stand 5 
hours ; lift out the kettle, turn the beans into a pan, add 3 table- 
spoonfuls molasses, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-fourth teaspoon 
pepper, mix all together with a fork, gash the pork rind and lay 
in the center of dish. Set the pan in hot oven and bake half 
an hour or until brown. 

Boiled Ham. Wash well a smoked ham of 12 pounds in 
weight, put the kettle with enough water to cover the ham over 
the fire; when it comes to a boil, put the ham into the kettle, 
boil 25 minutes, then place the kettle in the cooker, cover 
quickly and let stand 5 hours. (A ham of 16 pounds will re- 
quire 6 hours.) Uncover and let the ham cool in the water. 
Smoked hams are better when soaked in the water over night. 

Prunes. Wash prunes, and soak for several hours in cold 
water. Add more water if necessary to cover prunes and bring 1 
to a boil. Boil 10 minutes. Then place the pot in the cooker. 
Let stand 2 hours or longer. Remove and sweeten if desired. 

Stewed Apricots. Soak one pound dried apricots for several 
hours in cold water. Cook as directed for prunes. All dried 
fruits should be soaked, cooked in the same water, and then 
sweetened. This prevents the skin from becoming tough. 



DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION 

Edwin Du Bois Shurter, Ph. B., Acting Director of the Depart- 
ment. 
Sam C. Polk, Secretary of the Department. 



Division of Correspondence Instruction: 

Leonidas Warren Payne, Jr., Ph. D., Head of the Division, 
W. Ethel Barren, Registrar of the Division. 



Division of Child Welfare : 

Alexander Caswell Ellis, Ph. D., Head of the Division. 



Division of Home Welfare : 

Mary E. Gearing, Head of the Division. 
Gertrude Louise Blodgett, B. S., Lecturer. 
Franc B. Hancock, M. A., Lecturer. 
Minerva Lawrence, B. S., Lecturer. 



Division of Public Discussion : 

Edwin Du Bois Shurter, Ph. B., Head of the Division. 
Morgan Vining, A. B., LL. B., Assistant Director of the 

Interscholastic League. 
Edwin Sue Goree, Extension Librarian. 



Division of Public Lectures and Publicity : 

John Avery Lomax, M. A., Head of the Division. 



Division of Public School Improvement : 

Raymond George Bressler, M. A., Head of the Division. 
Edward Everett Davis, B. A., Lecturer. 
Amanda Stoltzfus, L. I., Lecturer. 
Newman Leander Hoopingarner, M. A., Manager of 
Exhibits. 



Division of Public Welfare : 

George Simon Wehrwein, B. S., Head of the Division. 



RETURN CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT 

TO * 202 Main Library 


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ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 

1 -month loans may be renewed by calling 642-3405 

6-month loans may be recharged by bringing books to Circulation Desk 

Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days prior to due date 

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY 
1/78 BERKELEY, CA 94720 

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY