*B 103 CH3
an] '-sojg pao|Xv<)
UNIVERSITY Ol TEXAS
EXTENSION SERIES 40
NOVEMBER 22, 1913
SIMPLE COOKING OF WHOLESOME FOOD
FOR THE FARM HOME
JESSIE P. RICH
DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION
DIVISION OF HOME WELFARE
Published by the University six times a month and entered as
second-class matter at the postoffice at
The benefits of education and of
useful knowledge, generally diffused
through a community, are essential
to the preservation of a free gov-
Cultivated mind is the guardian
genius of democracy. ... It is the
only dictator that freemen acknowl-
edge and the only security that free-
""* ', Mirabeau
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food 1^
For the Farm Home
No subject on the farm at the present time is receiving so
much attention as the proper feeding of the farm animals. The
cows are given a measured amount of meal, and succulent ma-
terial, and the pigs a carefully estimated ration intended to de-
velop a pig best suited to its intended use. How is it with the
boys and girls on the farm? Is their food as carefully studied
and administered as that of the farm animal ? Is it prepared in
a way to give the greatest amount of nourishment for the least
expenditure of bodily energy? No farm asset is as valuable
as its boys and girls, and yet they are more neglected, when it
comes to the question of proper food and cooking, than the
less important asset the stock.
USES OF FOODS IN THE BODY.
A human being without a well built body of bony structure
and firm muscle is limited in its usefulness. A person unable
to move or work is equally limited. Without food, or properly
balanced food, a good skeleton or firm muscles and strength to
move and work is impossible. Food is expressly taken into the
body to make for usefulness and eificiency. It is to build up
or repair tissues and to furnish energy either as heat or power
to do muscular work.
FOOD MATERIALS AND THEIR SPECIFIC USES.
The food materials are of great variety, but an analysis of
these materials shows that all are but varying combinations
of a few simple food substances, just as all of our various Eng-
lish words are made of twenty-six letters. These basic food
substances are carbohydrates which include starch, sugar, pro-
teins, fats, and mineral salts. The starches are well known sub-
stances and occur in such vegetables and cereals as potatoes,
rice, wheat, corn, and oats. Sugar is largely used in the com-
mercial form, but occurs also in fruits and vegetables and even
in some animal products in small quantities. These substances
are especially suited to furnish the heat and energy required
by the body. The protein materials are found especially in the
4 Bulletin of the University of Texas
egg, the lean of meat, milk, nuts, fish, etc. This is the substance
necessary to build the muscular tissue of the body. The fats
are easily recognized and are obtained mainly from cream, but-
ter, salad gil, nuts, and the fat of meats, and furnish heat and
energy. The mineral salts are found in many foods, especially
milk, green vegetables, cereals, and fresh fruits. They are par-
ticularly necessary to the growth of the bones and teeth, and
are necessary constituents to the blood and body fluids.
NECESSITY OF COOKING FOOD.
Man is defined as the cooking animal, and many of his foods
are cooked to make them more palatable, easier of assimilation,
and to destroy parasites. Many foods are, however, spoiled by
cooking and largely because of the fact that these different food
substances require different degrees of heat for their best prepa-
ration. People are as a rule ignorant both of the substances
composing food materials and of the temperature at which each
of these substances should be cooked.
TEMPERATURE BEST SUITED TO COOK THE FOOD SUBSTANCE
For the best preparation of protein, starch and fatty foods,
there is a desirable range of temperature. In the case of eggs
and cheese, typical examples of protein or tissue building sub-
stances, the cooking demands a knowledge of the effects of
different temperatures on proteins. To determine the effect of
heat on egg, put a slightly beaten egg into a buttered sauce pan
and place over a slow fire, stirring constantly until the mass is
like a soft jelly. Now allow more heat to reach the egg and
notice the result. The egg becomes hard and tough. The same
is true of cheese. A high temperature applied to all forms of
protein causes them to toughen and harden and become difficult
to digest, while a lower temperature a temperature below the
boiling point gives a delicate, easily digested food. Though
recipe books still speak of boiled eggs and boiled custards, the
method of preparation should not be by boiling, but by the use
of heat which is below the boiling temperature. The reason
custards curdle is because the egg has been cooked at too high
On the other hand, starches and foods containing starch re-
quire a high temperature in order to break up the starch grains
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 5
and make them ready for digestion. This temperature in moist
heat would be what we call the boiling point, 212 degrees Fahren-
heit, or long cooking below the boiling point, or in dry heat,
what we term a hot oven, from 350 to 430 degrees F. From this
we see that potatoes and cereals must be cooked at a high tem-
perature. On the other hand, fats must not be cooked at too
high a temperature as in this case the fat splits up and changes
into substances which are irritating to the lining of the stomach.
A dark coloring of the fat indicates this splitting. Therefore
browned butter or very crisp-brown bacon isj hard to digest.
It is because of this fact, that we find one of the great objections
to fried foods or other foods fried in fats.
The object of this bulletin is to take up the simple every-day
foods (especially those found in the rural home), indicate their
composition, and give ' the methods of preparation which will
best fit these foods for consumption. For further details on
Use of Foods and Meat Cookery, see Bulletins Nos. 276-278 is-
sued by the Home Welfare Division of the Extension Depart-
ment, University of Texas, and the Farmers' Bulletins.
MILK AND CHEESE.
Milk Hot Milk. If milk is to be cooked or served hot, it
should not be brought to the boiling point, but only to 140-
180 F. A convenient method of heating it is in the double-
Cottage Cheese Made from Milk. Use freshly soured clab-
bered milk, or clabbered buttermilk. Pour milk in a bag to drip
or heat slowly in a double boiler or on the back of the stove,
stirring occasionally from the bottom. If cooked it must not
get too hot as it is a protein substance. When the curd is set,
pour into a bag and allow to drip for some minutes. Then re-
move the cheese from the cloth and soften with cream or melted
butter and season with salt. This may be served as a cheese
or with salad dressing as a salad.
Cottage Cheese Pudding. Two cups of cheese curd as made
by the above recipe, a half cup of sugar, and half cup of English
currants, one-fourth cup of bread crumbs, one-fourth cup of
melted butter, two eggs lightly beaten. Stir together all these
materials and bake as a custard in a slow oven.
6 Bulletin of the University of Texas
American Cheese. Cheese on toast. (A protein substance.)
Cut one-half pound of cheese in small pieces and put into a
double boiler. When this is melted, add one-half cup of heated
milk, one-half teaspoon of salt, and stir. Then add three eggs
well beaten, and cook lightly until the consistency of custard.
Serve at once on hot toast or crackers.
Cheese and Rice. Boil one-half cup of rice until thoroughly
tender in salted boiling water. (Rice is a starchy food.) Drain.
Now make a cream sauce, using one pint of milk, four table-
spoons of butter and four tablespoons of flour. Heat the but-
ter, stir in the flour, and cook a few minutes (be careful not to
burn), then add the milk, heated. Boil for three minutes and
season with one teaspoon salt. Put bits of butter in the bottom
of a baking dish or pan, add about half the rice, a generous
sprinkling of grated cheese, and about half the cream sauce.
Reapeat this, beginning with the butter, rice, cheese, and cream
sauce. Cover with bread crumbs and brown in a hot oven
Serve at once.
EGGS. (PROTEIN FOODS.)
Soft and Hard Cooked Eggs. Put on the stove a st'ew pan
containing as many cups of water as there are eggs to be cooked.
When the water is boiling, put the eggs in carefully with a
spoon, cover stew pan, and set on back of stove where it will
keep hot but not boil. Leave from five to seven minutes for
soft-cooked eggs, from forty to forty-five minutes for hard-
cooked. If the eggs are very cold when put into the water they
take longer to cook than if they are not. In this way eggs are
cooked at a low temperature, and are more digestible than if
Poached Eggs. It is easiest to poach only two or three eggs
at a time. Have ready a shallow pan two-thirds full of boiling
salted water, allowing one-half teaspoon of salt to one quart of
water. The eggs should be very carefully slipped into the water
so as to have good shape when cooked. The water should cover
the eggs. When there is a film over the top, and the white
is firm, remove with perforated skimmer to pieces of buttered
toast, and let each person season his own egg. Only fresh eggs
can be poached successfully.
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 1
Omelet. To four eggs add four tablespoons water, one-half
teaspoon salt, and one-eighth teaspoon pepper. Mix all thor-
oughly. Heat a perfectly smooth frying pan. Put in a table-
spoon of bacon grease or butter, When hot pour in eggs. As
soon as they have begun to cook, lift from bottom and sides of
pan with a spatula or knife, allowing the uncooked parts to run
under the cooked. Never allow to stick or burn. When evenly
cooked, but not hard, remove from fire. Run the knife along the
edge, lessening the omelet from the sides of pan. Taking the
handle of the pan in the left hand, and tilting the pan from you,
begin to roll the omelete with the knife from the side on which
the handle is. When the omelet is rolled, hold the knife over it,
and by inverting pan over the platter, let it fall gently to
platter. Milk, cream, or left-over gravy may be used instead of
water in omelet. Milk tends to make a tough omelet. The
same may be used to make scrambled eggs, which are better if;
they have water or milk added than if the eggs are used alone..
Omelet may be covered with 'grated cheese or finely chopped
chicken before being rolled. Peas or asparagus may be heated
in white sauce and served on the same platter with omelet, or-
tomato sauce may be poured around.
Rich Omelet. Two and one-half tablespoons flour, three-
fourths teaspoon salt, three tablespoons butter, one cup milk,
Melt butter, add flour and cook two minutes, being careful not
to burn. Add heated milk gradually, stirring continually. Boil
three minutes and cool. Separate eggs, add salt to whites and
beat until stiff.' Fold in yolks and cream sauce. Cook slowly
as any omelet, occasionally picking through with a fork to allow
the uncooked top to reach the bottom.
Stuffed Eggs. Cut four hard cooked eggs in halves, cross-
wise, remove yolks, mash, and add to them two tablespoons
grated cheese, one teaspoon vinegar, one-fourth teaspoon mus-
tard ; salt and pepper to taste. Add enough melted butter to
make the mixture the right consistency to shape. Make balls
size of original yolks and refill whites. Arrange on serving dish
and garnish with parsley. If desired hot, arrange in shallow
8 Bulletin of the University of Texas
baking dish, pour over them one cup white sauce, and reheat.
Do not bake, as the eggs will become very indigestible.
(For fuller detail in cooking tough meat, see Bulletin No.
278, Extension Department, University of Texas.)
Time Required for Cooking Meats.
Kind of meat Weight Boiling Baking
Ibs. (about) Hours Hours Minutes.
Mutton (leg) 5. 2-3 1 45
Ham 12-14 4-5
Corned beef 5 3-4
Turkey 9 3-3y 2 2i/ 2 -3
Chicken (spring) . . . 2% 1 1-1%
Chicken (old) 4 3-4 2-3
Roast beef (rare) 5 1 5
Roast beef (well done) 5 1 20
Four General Methods. There are four general methods of
cooking meat : roasting, broiling, boiling and frying. The proper
method to use depends on the cut of the meat and the result
desired. In broiling and roasting the object is to retain in the
meat all of its juices. This is accomplished by cooking it for a
short time at a high temperature to sear the outside so as to hold
in the juices, and then finishing the cooking at a lower temper-
ature to soften the connective tissue. Meat may also be boiled
for a few minutes to sear the cut surface and then cooked at a
lower temperature. Or it may be put into cold water and slowly
brought to the boiling point for -soup stock. In the latter case
the object is to get the juice out of the meat into the water.
Broiled Steak. Steak that is to be broiled should be tender.
Trim off the outside skin and superfluous fat, and wipe the steak
with a cloth wrung out of cold water. Grease a hissing hot
griddle with a very little of the fat from the steak. Place the
steak on the griddle and turn every few seconds for the first
minute. Do not stick the fork into the lean, juicy part, as the
juice will leak out of the hole thus made. After the steak has
begun to brown, reduce the heat and finish cooking with a slow
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm- Home 9
fire, turning occasionally. Steak one inch thick will require six
minutes if liked rare, seven or longer if liked well done. Sprinkle
with salt on both sides and pepper if desired, place on a hot
platter, spread with butter, and serve on warm plates. Steak
may be broiled on a broiler directly over a bed of live coals, or
under a gas flame.
To Cook Tough Steak. Take a round or other tough steak of
an inch or more in thickness, trim, clean, and lay on meat board.
Gash with a knife, sprinkle with salt, and pour on it one-half
cup of flour. With the edge of a kitchen plate work the flour
in the meat. Heat a skillet, rub with a little fat, and brown
the steak on both sides. Then add a cup of boiling water and
cover skillet with a close-fitting lid. An iron or other heavy
object may be put on the lid to keep it on tight so that the steam
will not escape. Let steak cook slowly, but not boil, for an hour,
or until tender. Serve with the gravy on a hot platter. Onion
may be added with the water if desired.
Hamburg Steak. Chop finely one pound lean raw beef; sea-
son highly with salt, pepper, and a few drops of onion juice or
one-half shallot finely chopped. Shape, cook, and serve as meat
Cakes. A few gratings of nutmeg and one egg slightly beaten
may be added.
Roast. Wipe off meat with cloth wrung out of cold water,
rub in salt and pepper, and dredge with flour. Place in roaster
or pan and put in oven hot enough to cook the outside very
quickly, or sear it on top of stove and then put into the oven.
Reduce heat and baste every ten minutes with fat that is tried
out. If the roast is very lean it may be necessary to add fat.
When meat is half done, turn it over and dredge with flour
that this side may be uppermost for final browning. If there is
danger of flour burning, add a little water. A five-pound roast
requires one hour and twenty minutes to be well done. When
roast is done take up on hot platter. Pour off all grease from
pan but about four tablespoons. To this add four tablespoons
flour, mix thoroughly, and add one and a half cups boiling water.
Boil well, season with salt and pepper.
Pot Edast. Prepare meat as above. Heat an iron pot, and
10 Bulletin of tlie University of Texas
rub with a little fat. Brown meat on all sides in the pot, add
an onion and a cup of boiling water. Cover the pot closely and
cook very slowly (below the boiling point) until meat is tender.
A four-pound roast requires three to four hours. Turn the roast
once during the cooking and add more water if necessary. Make
gravy as above. After such a roast is seared, it may be finished
in a fireless cooker instead of as above directed.
Mutton Stew. Wash and cut into pieces two pounds of neck
or shoulder pieces of mutton. Put meat and bones into kettle
w r ith two quarts of water, and bring quickly to the boiling point.
Remove to back of stove and cook slowly for 1% to 3 hours,
or until the meat is tender. Add carrots, turnips, onion and
potato, cut into small pieces. Cook until the vegetables are
tender. Thicken the liquid with flour mixed with water. (2
cups flour to each cup liquid.) Season and serve.
Boiled Leg of Mutton. Remove entirely the thin outer skin
but not the fat from the mutton. Place in kettle, and cover with
boiling water. Bring quickly to boiling point, boil five minutes,
and skim. Set on back of range and simmer until tender.
When half done add one tablespoon of salt. If desired brown,
take out of water when tender, put in a hot oven for a few
minutes and serve as roast. If not browned, serve with a white
sauce. In making the sauce, instead of using milk, use one-
half milk and one-half mutton stock (the water in which the
mutton was boiled) . Into the sauce put two finely chopped hard
Liver and Bacon. Cut liver one-fourth to one-half inch thick,
let lie in cold water a few minutes, scald, drain, and remove skin
and veins. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and dredge with flour.
Brown in a little bacon grease. Add one small onion chopped
fine and three-quarters of a cup of boiling water. Cover and let
simmer fifteen minutes. Serve with bacon cut thin and cooked
crisp, but not too brown.
Chicken Pie. 1. Dress, clean, and cut a good-sized fowl.
Put in a stew pan, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly
until tender, having added a lump of butter and salt and pepper
to taste. Place the stewed chicken in a baking dish, add two
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 11
tablespoons of butter in small pieces, a bit more salt, and a
teaspoonful of chopped parsley leaves if liked. Make a batter
with a cup of milk and two tablespoons of flour. Pour this into
the liquor in the stew pan in which the chicken was cooked and
bring to the boiling point. Pour this gravy on the chicken in
the baking dish. Sift a pint of flour, a half teaspoon of baking
powder, and a teaspoon of salt. Mix with this a cup of lard,
add enough milk to make a soft dough. Roll one-fourth inch
thick, cut into diamonds, place over the contents of baking dish,
bake quickly and serve.
Chicken Pie. 2. Pick the left-over chicken off the bone.
Make a cream sauce (two cups milk, four tablespoons butter and
four tablespoons of flour), add any left-over chicken gravy and
the chicken. Heat, season, and turn into a baking-dish. Cover
with a baking powder biscuit dough crust about one-eighth inch
thick, allowing the crust to rest on the edges of the pan. Cut
two slits through the top of the crust to allow the steam to
Recipe for Crust. One pint of flour, four teaspoons baking
powder, two to four tablespoons of fat, one-half teaspoon salt,
three-fourths cup liquid. Mix as for baking-powder biscuit.
Braised Beef. Three pounds beef from lower part of round
or face of rump, two thin slices of fat salt pork, one-half tea-
spoon peppercorns, carrot, turnip, onion, celery (one-fourth cup
each, cut in dice), salt and pepper.
Try out pork and remove scraps. Wipe beef, sprinkle with
salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and brown entire surface in
pork fat. When turning meat, avoid piercing with fork or
skewer, which allows the inner juices to escape. Place on rack
in deep granite pan or in earthen pudding dish, and surround
with vegetables, peppercorns, and three cups of boiling water;
cover closely, and bake four hours in very slow oven, basting
every half hour, and turning after second hour. Throughout
the cooking, the liquid should be kept below the boiling point.
Serve with gravy made from liquor in pan.
Irish Stew with Dumplings. Wipe and cut in pieces three
pounds of mutton from the fore-quarter. Put in kettle, cover
with boiling water, and cook slowly two hours or until tender.
12 Bulletin of the University of Texas
After cooking one hour, add one-half cup each of carrot and
turnip cut in one-half inch cubes, and one onion cut in slices.
Fifteen minutes before serving add four cups potatoes cut in
one-fourth inch slices, previously parboiled five minutes in boil-
ing water. Thicken with one-fourth cup flour, diluted with
enough cold water to form a thin smooth paste. Season with
salt and pepper. Serve with dumplings.
Dumplings. Two cups flour, four teaspoons baking powder,
three-fourths cup' milk, one-half teaspoon salt, two teaspoons
butter. Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add butter and milk
gradually, using a knife for mixing. Drop by spoonfuls on top
of stew, being careful that the dumplings rest on meat and
potato and do not settle into the liquid.
To Stuff Poultry. Put stuffing by spoonfuls in neck end,
using enough to sufficiently fill the skin, that bird may look
plump when served. Where cracker stuffing is used, allowance
must be made for swelling of crackers, otherwise skin may
burst during cooking. Put remaining stuffing in body; if the
body is full, sew skin ; if not full, bring skin together with a
Stewed Chicken with Onions. Dress, clean, and cut in pieces
for serving, two chickens. Cook in a small quantity of water
with eighteen tiny young onions. Remove chicken to serving-
dish as soon as tender, and when onions are soft drain from stock
and boil stock down to one and one-half cups. Make sauce of
three tablespoons butter, four tablespoons flour, the stock and
one-half cup heavy cream ; then add yolks three eggs, salt, pep-
per, and lemon juice to taste. Pour sauce over chicken and
Roast Chicken. Dress, clean and stuff chicken. Place on its
back on rack in a dripping pan, rub entire surface with salt,
and spread breast and legs with three tablespoons butter, rubbed
until creamy and mixed with two tablespoons flour. Dredge
bottom of pan with flour. Place in a hot oven, and when flour
is well browned, reduce the heat, then baste. Continue basting
every ten minutes until chicken is cooked. For basting, use
one-fourth cup butter, melted in two-thirds cup boiling water,
and after this is gone, use fat in pan, and when necessary to
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 13
prevent flour burning, add one cup boiling water. During cook-
ing, turn chicken frequently, that it may brown evenly. If a
thick crust is desired, dredge bird with flour two or three times
during cooking. If a glazed surface is preferred, spread bird
with butter, omitting flour, and do not dredge during baking.
Cook until tender. A four-pound chicken requires about one
and one-half hours.
Stuffing. One cup dry bread crumbs, two teaspoons butter,
one-fourth cup boiling water, salt and pepper.
Melt butter in water, and pour over crumbs to which season-
ings have been added. Onion juice, sage, summer savory, or
chopped celery may be added.
Baked Ham. Cut a slice across the thick part of the ham
about one inch thick. Put in pan or skillet. Cover with milk
and bake in a moderate oven one to one and one-half hours, or
until the meat is tender. The milk should not be hot enough
to boil during the cooking.
Boiled Ham. Wash well a smoked ham. Soak over night in
water to which some milk has been added. Remove from water,
cover with cold water, bring to a boil and boil 25 minutes. Put
on back of stove where water will not boil and cook 15 minutes
for each pound of ham. * Uncover and. allow the ham to get
cold in the water in which it was cooked.
Ham Pie. Use cold chopped ham. Put bits butter in the
bottom of a baking dish. Add layers of mashed potato and ham,
alternately, beginning and ending with the potato. Brown in
oven and serve. Rice may be used in place of the potato, in
which case a little moisture should be used milk, water with
a little butter, or stock.
Ham for Sandwiches. Chop the cold boiled ham. Add cooked
salad dressing and chopped pickle. Use for sandwich filling.
Bacon. Cut bacon into thin slices. Put in heated frying pan
and panbroil until it is a very light brown. It should not get
very brown and crisp as that makes it indigestible. ' The fat
which fries out can be used in other cooking.
14 Bulletin of the University of Texas
Pork Sausage (Home-made). Grind up the shoulder of pork
and some lean of beef. Use 1 pound beef to every 3 pounds
pork. Season with salt and shape into flat cakes. Panbroil.
Pork Loaf. One-half pound boiled salt pork cut into small
cubes. Two cups breadcrumbs, two eggs, one cup milk, or enough
milk to moisten the mixture, one teaspoon salt. Mix together
and bake in a moderate oven. Serve hot or cold.
Pigs in Blankets. Cut boiled salt pork into thick slices. Roll
in crumbs, dip in egg, roll in crumbs and fry in deep fat, or bake
until brown in the oven.
There are many palatable ways of using left-over meat. It is
well to remember that cooked meat does not require further
cooking, but merely reheating. Cooked-over food is less digest-
ible than freshly cooked.
Baked Hash. Grind or chop pieces of left-over meat, mix
with gravy, tomato sauce, or white sauce, and put into a buttered
baking-dish which has been lined with mashed potatoes or rice.
Set dish in pan of hot water, heat in a moderate oven. Serve
Hasli on Toast. Instead of baking v heat hash in gravy or
sauce and serve on toast.
Chicken Bone Soup. Wash the chicken bones, break the heavy
ones, and cover well with water. Cook slowly for several hours.
One may also use the feet and legs of chickens which have been
scalded and skinned. Bits of dried bread, onions, and toma-
toes may be added for flavor. When the soup is well cooked,
strain and add cooked rice or noodles, and serve.
How to Make Meat Soup. In using meats to make soup we
wish to extract all the juices from the meat. To do this, cut
the meat into small pieces, soak in cold water one hour, put the
meat in this same water over the fire, bring very slowly to the
boiling point, set on back of stove and let simmer until meat
drops to pieces. If meat is allowed to boil, the proteins are
hardened on the outside, the juices cannot be extracted, and the
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 15
soup will lack flavor. Vegetables, spices, and salt should be
added the last hour of cooking, potatoes the last half hour.
Soups made in this way can be very successfully cooked in the
fireless cooker after being brought to the boiling point on the
Formula for three pints of standard stock (beef, veal, chicken,
mutton, or game) : four pounds meat (one-fourth bone), four
pints cold water, one and one-half teaspoons salt, ten or twelve
peppercorns, sprig parsley, one-fourth of a sweet pepper, one
and one-half tablespoons each chopped carrot, onion, celery,
turnip. Make according to directions above.
Seasonings and vegetables may be varied to suit individual
tastes. If allowed to cool, the fat is easily removed by laying
gently a piece of tissue paper over the surface. The fat will
adhere to the paper. This stock may be strained and kept for
a short time, usually not more than a day in summer. When
desired to use add whatever vegetables are liked.
Cream Soups. A cream soup consists of a combination of
meat or vegetable pulp and white sauce thinned as desired.
Almost any vegetable, fish, or chicken may be used in a cream,
soup. When vegetable is cooked tender rub through a sieve,
moistening now and then with water in which it was cooked
to make it go through strainer faster. Flour is used to bind the
vegetable pulp and the liquid, thus giving the soup a smooth
consistency. If butter is not used, the flour may be mixed with
a little of the cold liquid, and added to the hot soup. If butter
is used, cream it and the flour together and then add to the
soup. In either case the soup should be boiled after the flour
Cream of Tomato Soup. One pint tomatoes, two teaspoons
sugar, one-eighth teaspoon soda, one quart milk, one-third cup
butter, one slice onion, four tablespoons flour, one teaspoon salt,
one-eighth teaspoon pepper.
Heat tomatoes and rub through- a sieve. Add sugar, soda,
flour and butter rubbed into a paste. Boil five minutes. Scald
milk with onion in it, remove onion, and add to the thickened
tomato. Reheat, but do not boil. Salt just before serving.
16 Bulletin of the University of Texas
Baked Bean Soup. Three cups cold baked beans, three pints
water, two slices onion, one and one-half cups stewed and
strained tomatoes, two stalks celery, two tablespoons butter, two
tablespoons flour, one tablespoon chili sauce, salt, pepper.
Put beans, water, onion, and celery in sauce pan ; bring to boil-
ing point and simmer thirty minutes. Rub through a sieve ; add
tomato, chili sauce, season to taste with salt and pepper, and
bind with the butter and flour cooked together. Serve with
Corn Soup. One can corn, one pint boiling water, one pint
milk, one slice onion, two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons
flour, one teaspoon salt.
Chop the corn, add water, and simmer twenty minutes; rub
through a sieve. Scald milk with onion in it, remove onion, and
add milk to corn. Bind with butter and flour cooked together.
Potato Soup. Three medium sized potatoes, one quart milk,
two slices onion, three tablespoons butter, one and one-half tea-
spoons salt, two tablespoons flour.
Cook potatoes in boiling salted water ; when soft, rub through
a strainer. Scald milk with onion in it, remove onion, and add
milk slowly to potatoes. Melt the butter, add dry ingredients,
stir until well mixed, then stir into boiling soup; cook one
minute. Season and serve.
GENERAL DIRECTIONS VEGETABLES.
The cooking of vegetables depends largely upon their composi-
tion. For example, potatoes contain such a large amount of
water that they have sufficient in them to swell starch grains and
cook the starch thoroughly. They may be cooked, therefore,
as in baking, without the addition of any water. Rice, on the
contrary, contains only a very small per cent of water, and it
is necessary to add a very large amount while cooking it. Old
vegetables contain a tough, woody fibre, and they require long
cooking to soften this fibre, while young vegetables have very
tender fibre which is easily softened and broken down by heat.
Dried vegetables usually require longer cooking than fresh
ones. They should be thoroughly washed and soaked overnight
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 17
before cooking. They should then be cooked in the water they
have been soaked in.
All vegetables should be carefully picked over, the bruised
and decayed spots discarded, and vegetables thoroughly washed
before cooking. The fresher the vegetables the better the flavor.
When possible, gather young green vegetables just before cooking
so they will not become wilted.
It is better to wash the pods of green peas before shelling,
instead of washing the peas. More of the flavor is retained in
this way. A handful of fresh young pods added to the peas
while cooking gives them a delicious flavor. They should be
removed before the peas are served.
Cabbage and cauliflower should be soaked for an hour in salt
water or in water to which a little vinegar has been added before
cooking. If there are any worms or other insects in them they
will crawl out.
Potatoes should be pared as thinly as possible. The most valu-
able mineral in the potato lies just beneath the skin, and this
is entirely lost when a thick paring is removed.
All vegetables should be put into boiling water and then boiled
or simmered until tender. Potatoes and cauliflower should be
boiled gently, as rapid boiling is likely to break down the outside
before the center is done.
Strong-flavored vegetables, such as cauliflower, cabbage, onions
and mustard greens, should be cooked with the cover entirely
removed from the vessel, and allowed to cook just below the boil-
ing point. There is no odor to cooking vegetables when cookevl
Green peas and beans should be boiled gently until practically
all the water in which they were cooked has evaporated. Much
of the valuable mineral matter in vegetables is dissolved in
water. If the water is poured off, the mineral is wasted.
It is essential that all vegetables be cooked thoroughly done.
Some vegetables are digestible raw, most are digestible when
thoroughly done, but none are digestible when half or two-thirds
Salt and melted butter make the best seasoning for most veg-
etables, but by way of variety a white sauce may be used on
almost any vegetable peas, beans, carrots, potatoes, cauliflower,
18 Bulletin of the University of Texas
cabbage, asparagus, etc. Vegetables cooked for long hours in
the pot with pork (as pork and cabbage, pork and string beans)
and served with the grease over them are indigestible, because
they become coated with a film of fat which interferes with the
digestion of the stomach.
White Sauce. Two tablespoons butter, two tablespoons flour,
one cup milk, one-half teaspoon salt.
Melt butter, add flour, and cook for two minutes. Be careful
not to burn or brown. Add heated milk, and bring to boiling-
point. Add salt. Thick sauce is made by using four table-
spoons flour, and a thin sauce by using one tablespoon of flour.
Tomato Saiwe. This is made in the same way as Avhite sauce,
except that a cupful of tomato juice made by cooking and
straining tomatoes, is used instead of milk.
Boiled Rice. Pick over a cupful of rice. Wash in several
waters until water is clear. Have on stove a large vessel con-
taining two quarts of boiling salted water. Add rice slowly so
as not to stop the boiling. Boil from fifteen to thirty minutes,
or until rice is tender. Do not stir while cooking. Drain in
coarse strainer, and pour through rice one quart of hot water,
return to stew pan in which it was cooked, cover with a eloth,
place on back of range to dry. In this case the rice kernels
should be distinct. Rice may be started in boiling water and
after a few minutes milk added and the cooking finished in a
double boiler. In this case the kernels will not be distinct, but
the rice will be richer in nutritive value.
Grits. They should be started in boiling water, one cup of
grits to four cups of boiling water, directly over the fire, and
finished in the double boiler, or by setting the stew pan in a
vessel of boiling water. In this way there is no danger of its
Baked Rice. One cup of cooked rice, three-quarters cup of
white sauce, or sauce made from meat stock, two tablespoons
grated cheese. Mix, put in a buttered baking dish, sprinkle
with more grated cheese. Heat in moderate oven. Serve in
Waldorf Potatoes. Cut cold boiled potatoes into cubes and
mix one cup of potatoes with half a cup of white sauce, having
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for ike Farm Home 19
previously mixed in the same sauce four tablespoons of grated
cheese. Put in a buttered baking dish, cover with bread crumbs,
heat in oven until crumbs are light brown. Serve in baking dish.
To butter crumbs, melt a little butter and put crumbs into it.
Don't heat to a high temperature. (Two teaspoons butter to one
Potato Omelet. Prepare mashed potatoes, turn in hot omelet
pan greased with one tablespoon butter, spread evenly, cook
slowly until browned underneath, and fold as an omelet.
Escalloped Potatoes. Wash, pare, soak, and cut four potatoes
in one-fourth inch slices. Put a layer in buttered baking dish,
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and dot over
with, one-half tablespoon butter. Repeat, put in a few slices
of onion, if desired. Add hot milk until it may be seen through
top layer, bake one and one-fourth hours or until potato is soft.
Glazed Sweet Potatoes. Wash and pare six medium-sized
potatoes. Cook ten minutes in boiling salted water. Drain, cut
in halves lengthwise, and put in a buttered pan. Make a syrup
by boiling, three minutes, one-half cup sugar, four tablespoons
water, and one tablespoon butter. Brush potatoes with syrup
and bake forty minutes, basting twice with remaining syriip.
Left-Over Vegetables are not as desirable as left-over meats.
They lose much of their value by standing. The best way to
use them is in salad. Almost any left-over vegetable makes a
good salad. See page 20 for salads.
TABLE FOR COOKING THE COMMON VEGETABLES.
Kind. Time of Cooking.
Asparagus . About 30 minutes.
Lima 1-1% hours
String 2-3 hours
Young , 1 hour
Old ; 3-4 hours
Corn, green 10-15 minutes
Carrots, young 30 minutes to 1 hour
Cabbage 30-40 minutes (simmer)
20 Bulletin of tlie University of Texas
Kind. Time of Cooking.
Cauliflower ; ,20-30 minutes (simmer)
Onion 45-60 minutes (simmer)
Okra ; 20-30 minutes
Potatoes 20-30 minutes
Celery .20-30 minutes
Spinach 25-30 minutes
Peas, green 30-40 minutes
Squash . . 30-40 minutes
Turnips 1-1% hours
Tomatoes / 10 minutes
Made of Left-Over Vegetables. Left-over vegetables such as
peas, beans, carrots, asparagus, etc.. should have the butter rinsed
off and be served cold as salads. Peas and carrots or peas and
beets mixed make good salads. Cover with French dressing or
Lettuce may be served with either French or boiled dressing.
It can be varied by sprinkling with grated raw carrots. Lettuce
and hard-cooked eggs with either dressing make a good salad.
Coleslaw. One-half small head of hard cabbage, one cupful
cooked dressing. Soak cabbage in cold water thirty minutes.
Shred fine and mix with dressing.
French Dressing. One-half teaspoon salt, one-fourth teaspoon
pepper, six tablespoons olive oil, two to four tablespoons vinegar
or lemon juice, a few grains cayenne.
Mix dry materials, add oil, and when mixed add the acid a
little at a time. Beat until an emulsion is formed. Pour over
the vegetables with which it is to be used, and mix same until
dressing is distributed. A few drops of onion juice or finely
chopped onion may be added to dressing if desired.
Cooked Dressing, I. One-fourth teaspoon salt, one-fourth tea
spoon mustard, one-fourth teaspoon sugar, two egg yolks, two
teaspoons butter, three-fourths cup thin cream or milk, two
tablespoons vinegar, a few grains cayenne.
Mix dry ingredients, add egg yolks, beat until well mixed, add
butter and milk. Cook over hot water, stirring until thickened
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 21
slightly, then add gradually the vinegar, stirring all the while.
Set aside to cool.
Cooked Dressing, II. Three tablespoons butter, two table-
spoons flour, one cup milk, three eggs, one teaspoon salt, one
teaspoon sugar, one teaspoon mustard, one-half cup vinegar.
Make cream sauce of milk, butter and flour. Scald vinegar
and pour over the seasonings. Beat the eggs and add the heated
vinegar and seasonings. Combine this with the cream sauce and
cook until it thickens over hot water. Cool.
Hot Potato Salad. Wash six medium sized potatoes, and
cook in boiling salted water until soft. Cool, remove skins, and
cut in very thin slices. Cover bottom of baking dish with pota-
toes, season with salt and pepper. Sprinkle with finely chopped
celery, then with finely chopped parsley. Mix two tablespoons
each tarragon and cider vinegar and four tablespoons olive oil,
and add one slice lemon cut one-third inch thick. Bring to
boiling point, pour over potatoes, cover, and let stand in oven
until thoroughly warmed.
jCold Potato Salad. Cut cold boiled potatoes into small cubes.
Dress with French dressing or a dressing made of three table-
spoons of melted butter, one tablespoon of vinegar and one-half
teaspoon salt. Chill. Cut celery, cucumber and hardcooked
eggs into small pieces and add to ttie potato. Add a generous
quantity of boiled salad dressing and mix .all carefully, using
a fork. Shredded cabbage, green pepper, onion, etc., may be
added or substituted in the salad.
Essentials of Bread-Making. Four things are essential to good
bread-making- : good flour, good yeast, careful mixing and knead-
ing, and careful baking. In selecting flour for bread choose a
creamy rather than a snow white one. It should have a gritty
feeling when rubbed between the fingers.
How Bread Is Made Light. The rising of bread is caused by
the setting free of carbon dioxide gas within the dough. This
gas, as it is formed, expands and stretches the dough. The
yeast should be evenly distributed through the dough. This is one
22 Bulletin of the University of Texas
reason why the dough should be kneaded well. The. carbon
dioxide may be produced by the fermentation caused by yeast,
or by chemical action resulting from bringing together two
such substances as soda and sour milk. The yeast which is used
in making bread is a microscopically small plant called a fungus.
A number of yeast fungi are put into dough and kept warm so
that they will multiply, act on the dough, and generate the car-
bon dioxide. When enough yeast plants have been developed and
gas produced to make the dough light, it is cooked to kill the
Bread. One cup scalded milk, one cup boiling water, one
tablespoon lard, one and one-half teaspoons salt, one cake of
compressed yeast dissolved in one-fourth cup luke-warm water,
one tablespoon sugar, six or more cups sifted flour.
.Dry yeast may also be used. It is prepared as follows:
Dissolve the yeast cake and sugar in luke-warm water. Put
butter and salt in a perfectly clean pan or bowl, and add the
milk and water, or all water may be used. Cool to luke-warm,
add dissolved yeast cake, and sift in part of the flour, beat until
the batter is light and porous-looking ; this will save time in
kneading. Add the remainder of the flour, mix well, and, unless
the dough can be gathered in a ball on the end of a spoon, more
flour is necessary. Turn out on a floured bread board and knead
well. The object in kneading bread is to make the gluten in the
flour elastic and distribute the yeast evenly. Bread is kneaded
sufficiently when it is elastic to the touch, has bubbles on the
surface, and does not stick to the board. Press the finger lightly
in the dough; if elastic it will spring back into place when
pressure is removed.
Put the dough in a clean bowl, lightly buttered or dampened
with cold water, and brush a little water over the top to prevent
a crust forming, cover with a clean cloth kept for that purpose,
and set in 'a warm place to rise. When it has doubled its
original size, remove to the board, again knead for a few minutes,
and divide into loaves. Put each loaf in a greased pan, cover,
and let it rise until it has again doubled in size. If it rises too
long, it is likely to be sour and be full of large holes. If it does
not rise enough, it will be heavy and soggy. It is always better
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for tine Farm Home 23
to bake each loaf in a separate pan. This will insure thorough
baking and brown crust on all sides. The quantity given in this
recipe will make two medium-sized loaves. It can be made and
l>aked in five hours. By starting the bread early in the morning,
the bread can be made and baked by the time dinner is over.
If it is made up at bedtime, and allowed to rise over night, one
yeast cake will make twice the amount given in the recipe. In
warm weather, however, there is danger of the bread rising too
rapidly and of souring.
Baking Bread. Bread is baked to kill the yeast plant and
stop fermentation ; to cook the starch, so that it will be thoroughly
digestible ; to improve the flavor ; and to form a brown crust.
The oven should be hot when the bread is first put into it. Turn
the pans frequently the first six or eight minutes, so that the
loaves will be even. At the end of fifteen minutes the loaves
should begin to brown. Reduce the heat gradually. At the end
of a half -hour the loaves should be well browned. Let them
remain for another half hour, but have a very moderate oven to
complete the baking. Remove from the pans at once and stand
on end until thoroughly cold. If bread is covered while warm,
the crust will be soft instead of crisp. When thoroughly cold
put away in a tightly covered jar or tin box.
Some of the dough may be removed .after the first rising, made
into rolls, and baked for dinner or supper. They must rise until
very light, but if they are ready to bake before it is time to use
them, put them in the ice box or in a cool place to prevent the
further growth of the yeast.
Dry Yeast. Yeast foam or magic yeast is also used in bread
making. The dry cake is soaked in warm water, and added to
the following mixture : Dice or mash four potatoes, add one cup
flour and enough hot water in which the potatoes were boiled tc
make a soft paste. Cool to luke-warm and add yeast. Allow it
to stand and ferment. This takes from four to six hours. This
yeast is best made at noon if bread is to be sponged at night or
made at noon or at night if bread is sponged in the morning.
The one cake of dry yeast is equal in strength to one cake of
compressed yeast. When light it may be added to the bread
sponge or kept in cool place until needed.
24 Bulletin of the University of Texas
Muffins. One-fourth cup butter, one tablespoon sugar, one
egg, one cup milk, two cups flour, four teaspoons baking powder,
one teaspoon salt. Cream butter with stiff-handled tablespoon.
Cream it until the butter feels like wax. Add sugar and beat
to a creamy mass. Add beaten egg and blend well with butter
and sugar. Add milk gradually. Sift dry ingredients, add
gradually. Beat until smooth. Butter muffin pans well and fill
them three-fourths full. Bake twenty-five minutes in an oven
that is hot enough to brown paper in eight minutes.
Biscuits. Two cups flour, four teaspoons baking powder, one
teaspoon salt, two to four tablespoons fat, three-fourths cup
sweet milk and water, or all water or all milk.
Mix dry ingredients and sift. Work in fat with the tips of
fingers; add gradually the liquid, mixing with a knife or a
wooden spoon to a soft dough. It is impossible to state the
exact amount of liquid required, owing to differences in flours.
Toss on a floured bread board, pat, and roll lightly to one-half
inch thickness. Shape with a biscuit cutter. Place on buttered
pan,' and bake in hot oven twelve or fifteen minutes. If baked
in too slow an oven the gas will escape before it has done its
work, and biscuits will not rise sufficiently. If sour milk, soar
cream, or buttermilk is to be used, use one-half teaspoon of soda
to each cup of liquid, and one teaspoon of baking powder.
Steamed Custard. One quart milk, six egg yolks, two-thirds
cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoon salt, one teaspoon vanilla.
Scald milk. Beat yolks slightly, add sugar, beat thoroughly.
Dilute with a little of the milk, and add to the remainder of
milk. Cook over hot water until the mixture will thinly coat
a spoon. Stir while cooking; add vanilla. Cool. The whites
of three eggs may be beaten stiff and folded in just before
taking from fire, if desired.
Baked Custard. One quart milk, three to five eggs, two-
thirds cup sugar, one-fourth cup sugar, one-fourth teaspoon salt,
one teaspoon vanilla, grating of nutmeg.
Beat eggs until yolks and whites are well mixed, add sugar,
salt, nutmeg and milk. Strain into buttered baking dish or in-
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 25
dividual cups. Set dishes in pan of boiling water while baking.
When done a silver knife stuck into the custard will come clean.
Dried Fruits. Canned fruits and dried fruits, such as prunes,
apricots, peaches, apples, should be used in winter freely. The
dried fruit should be washed, picked over, always soaked over
night in water, and cooked until tender in the same water, sugar
being added just before taking the fruit up. If the fruit is
cooked long in the sugar it becomes tough. If the fruit is not
soaked before cooking, it will not be so plump and tender.
Wholesome Substitutes for Unwholesome Pies. 1. Rice and
Fruit. Line a bowl with left-over rice that has been slightly
sweetened. Cover rice with apple sauce or other fruit sauce or
stewed fruit. Serve with cream, plain or whipped, or boiled
Blackberry Fool. Trim crust from some good bread, slice,
spread thinly with butter. Put a layer of bread in a bowl, cover
with blackberries which have been stewed in enough water to
cover until ready to fall to pieces and sweetened to taste. Add
another layer of bread, cover with berries as before, using all
the juice. Let stand for an hour before serving. Serve with
cream. Other fruits may be used in the same way.
Cookies. One-half cup butter, one cup sugar, one egg, one-
fourth cup milk, two teaspoons baking powder, three cups flour,
or enough to make dough easily rolled out, one-half teaspoon
vanilla, nutmeg. Sift flour and other dry ingredients together.
Cream butter and sugar thoroughly. Add yolk slightly beaten,
then a little milk, and vanilla, and a part of the flour. Add
milk and flour alternately till both are used. Fold in the egg
white beaten stiff. When dough is stiff enough to roll, turn out
on a floured board, and with a floured rolling-pin roll one-fourth
inch thick. Sprinkle with nutmeg; cut with biscuit cutter and
place in shallow pans. Bake fifteen minutes in hot oven.
Indian Pudding. Five cups scalded milk, one-half cup Indian
meal, one-half cup molasses, one teaspoon salt, one teaspoon
Pour milk slowly on meal, cook in double boiler twenty min-
utes, add molasses, salt, and ginger; pour into buttered pudding
26 Bulletin of the University of Texas
dish and bake two hours in slow oven; serve with cream. (If
baked too rapidly it will whey.) Ginger may be omitted, if
Poor Man's Pudding. Four cups milk, one-half cup rice, one-
half cup molasses, one-half teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon cin-
namon, one tablespoon butter.
Wash rice, mix ingredients, and pour into buttered pudding
dish; bake three hours in very slow oven, stirring three times
during first hour of baking to prevent rice from settling.
Bread Pudding. Two cups stale bread crumbs, one quart
scalded milk, one-third cup sugar, one-fourth cup melted butter,
two eggs, one-half teaspoon salt, one teaspoon vanilla or one-
fourth teaspoon spice.
Soak bread crumbs in milk, set aside until cool; add sugar,
butter, eggs slightly beaten, salt, and flavoring; bake one hour
in buttered pudding dish in slow oven; serve with vanilla sauce.
In preparing bread crumbs for puddings avoid using outside
crusts. With a coarse ,grater there need be but little waste.
Bread Pudding. One cup flour, one teaspoon baking powder,
one teaspoon soda, one-half cup sugar, one pint dry bread
crumbs, one cup molasses, one teaspoon melted butter, two lightly
beaten eggs, one cup hot water, one-half cup currants or raisins.
Sift flour, soda and baking powder and add remaining ma-
terials in order given. Steam one hour. Serve with the fol-
lowing sauce :
Hard Sauce. One cup powdered sugar, one egg white, one
tablespoon butter. Mix thoroughly together.
Bread and Butter Apple Pudding. Cover bottom of a shal-
low baking dish with apple sauce. Cut stale bread in one-third
inch slices spread with softened butter, and cut in triangular
shaped pieces ; then arrange closely together over apple. Sprinkle
generously with sugar, to which is added a few drops of vanilla.
Bake in a moderate oven and serve with cream.
Cottage Pudding. One-third cup butter, two-thirds cup sugar,
one egg, one cup milk, two and one- fourth cups flour, four tea-
spoons baking powder, one-half teaspoon salt.
Cream butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well beaten; mix
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 27
and sift flour, baking powder, and salt; add alternately with
milk to first mixture; turn into buttered cake pan; bake thirty-
five minutes. Serve w r ith vanilla or hard sauce.
Peach or Apple Short Cake. Fill a deep pie tin with sliced
peaches or apples. Make a baking powder crust using one cup
flour, two teaspoons baking powder, one-half teaspoon salt, two
tablespoons lard or butter, three-eighths cup milk.
Sift together baking powder, salt and flour, rub in the fat and
add the milk, stirring as little as possible. Toss on a board and
roll out large enough to fit the outside edges of the pan. Cut
openings at the top to allow the steam to escape. Bake 20-25
minutes. Serve with butter and sugar or cream and sugar.
Cereal Pudding. Two cups cooked cereal (use left-over cereal),
one egg beaten, one ounce chocolate (melted), two tablespoons
butter, one-third cup sugar, one cup milk (possibly more).
Mix together the materials and bake in a buttered baking-dish
about 20 minutes (cream of wheat, wheatina, malt or any of the
fine cereals are suitable for the pudding). Serve with cream.
The pudding is good without the chocolate and it may be omitted
to make a more economical dessert.
In general cereals should be cooked as follows :
Have the water rapidly boiling. Add one teaspoon of salt
for each cup of cereal. Sprinkle the cereal slowly into the
water, stirring till it is well mixed, and boil for five minutes.
Continue the cooking without stirring either in a double boiler
or with a piece of asbestos under the sauce pan. A double boiler
may be made by fitting together two sauce pans nearly the same
size, putting the larger one on top.
The fireless cooker is excellent for cereals. Add cereal to boil-
ing salted water. Boil ten minutes. Put in cooker and allow
to stand over night.
Dates, cooked prunes or other fruit cut into small pieces may
be stirred into the cereal before serving.
Bulletin of tlie University of Texas
TABLE FOR COOKING CEREAL.
Cook 5-10 minutes on fire, remaining time required in
or over night in fireless cooker.
Steam cooked and rolled oats
1 cup lf-2 cups 1 to 2 hours
Steam cooked and rolled
Old grist mill
Rice (steamed) 1 cup
Rice (boiled) 1 cup
Indian meal 1 cup
Oatmeal (course) 1 cup
Hominy , 1 cup
Cream of Wheat J- 1 cup
1 cup li-1* cups
to li hours
RECIPES FOR FIRELESS COOKER.
General directions for using the fireless cooker:
1. Prepare the food to be cooked in the ordinary way.
2. Put it into the fireless cooker pail.
3. Cook over the fire until thoroughly heated, from 20 minutes
to 1 hour, depending on the food, and put at once into the cooker.
4. The following gives the time for cooking some of the
Over the Fire.
Cereals )10 minutes
Ham 60 minutes
Corned beef 45 minutes
Stew . ., 20 minutes
Dried fruits.. , .10 minutes
In Fireless Cooker
2-3 hours or over night
Cereals that are to be served for breakfast are best when left
over night in the cooker ; they are then ready to be served in the
Split Pea Soup. Wash and put one pint of split peas in the
kettle, add 2 pounds beef, and a few bones, half tablespoon salt,
Simple Cooking of Wholesome Food for the Farm Home 29
and sufficient water to cover all ; set over the fire. As soon as it
begins to boil, add a handful c'elery and 2 onions ; cook 20 min-
utes, place the kettle in the cooker and cover quickly. Three
hours later run the soup through a sieve into a saucepan and re-
turn it to the fire. Melt a tablespoon butter, add 1 tablespoon
flour, stir two minutes, add it to the soup, cook a few minutes,
add the necessary salt and 1 tablespoon each of fine chopped
parsley and fine chopped celery. Serve with small croutons.
Corned Beef. Wash and soak 6 pounds corned beef in cold
water for a few hours. Place the kettle with enough water to
cover the corned beef on the fire ; when it comes to a boil, put the
corned beef in the kettle. After boiling 30 minutes, place the
kettle into the fireless cooker, cover quickly and let stand five
hours. If cabbage is to be cooked with the corned beef, cut a
cabbage into quarters and put it in the kettle with the corned
Boiled Tongue. Soak a smoked tongue over night in cold
water, and next morning put the tongue in the kettle, cover with
cold water, place over fire and boil 30 minutes, then place the
kettle in the cooker and cover quickly. Six hours later take out
the tongue, free it from skin, return it to the kettle and let it
cool in the broth.
Boiled Fowl. Put a well cleaned fowl in the kettle, cover with
boiling water, add 2 onions, 1 teaspoonful pepper, 1 tablespoonful
salt, and boil 20 minutes, set the kettle in the cooker, cover
quickly, let stand for about four hours. Serve with the follow-
ing sauce: Melt 2 tablespoonfuls butter, add 2 heaping table-
spoonfuls our, add to the liquor in which the chicken was cooked,
stir and boil till smooth, strain, season if necessary with salt,
and serve with the chicken. Young chicken will cook in two
Boiled Mutton. Put the kettle, with enough water to cover
the mutton, over the fire. When it boils put in leg of mutton,
add 1 tablespoonful salt, and 2 onions, boil 20 minutes, place
the kettle in the cooker, let it remain 5 hours, serve with gravy
made by thickening the liquid.
30 Bulletin of the University of Texas
Baked Beans. Soak 1 quart dried beans in cold water over
night. Put them in the kettle, add 1 pound salt pork, and cover
with cold water. Place the kettle over the fire, boil 20 minutes,
then put the kettle in the cooker; cover quickly; let stand 5
hours ; lift out the kettle, turn the beans into a pan, add 3 table-
spoonfuls molasses, one-half teaspoonful salt, one-fourth teaspoon
pepper, mix all together with a fork, gash the pork rind and lay
in the center of dish. Set the pan in hot oven and bake half
an hour or until brown.
Boiled Ham. Wash well a smoked ham of 12 pounds in
weight, put the kettle with enough water to cover the ham over
the fire; when it comes to a boil, put the ham into the kettle,
boil 25 minutes, then place the kettle in the cooker, cover
quickly and let stand 5 hours. (A ham of 16 pounds will re-
quire 6 hours.) Uncover and let the ham cool in the water.
Smoked hams are better when soaked in the water over night.
Prunes. Wash prunes, and soak for several hours in cold
water. Add more water if necessary to cover prunes and bring 1
to a boil. Boil 10 minutes. Then place the pot in the cooker.
Let stand 2 hours or longer. Remove and sweeten if desired.
Stewed Apricots. Soak one pound dried apricots for several
hours in cold water. Cook as directed for prunes. All dried
fruits should be soaked, cooked in the same water, and then
sweetened. This prevents the skin from becoming tough.
DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION
Edwin Du Bois Shurter, Ph. B., Acting Director of the Depart-
Sam C. Polk, Secretary of the Department.
Division of Correspondence Instruction:
Leonidas Warren Payne, Jr., Ph. D., Head of the Division,
W. Ethel Barren, Registrar of the Division.
Division of Child Welfare :
Alexander Caswell Ellis, Ph. D., Head of the Division.
Division of Home Welfare :
Mary E. Gearing, Head of the Division.
Gertrude Louise Blodgett, B. S., Lecturer.
Franc B. Hancock, M. A., Lecturer.
Minerva Lawrence, B. S., Lecturer.
Division of Public Discussion :
Edwin Du Bois Shurter, Ph. B., Head of the Division.
Morgan Vining, A. B., LL. B., Assistant Director of the
Edwin Sue Goree, Extension Librarian.
Division of Public Lectures and Publicity :
John Avery Lomax, M. A., Head of the Division.
Division of Public School Improvement :
Raymond George Bressler, M. A., Head of the Division.
Edward Everett Davis, B. A., Lecturer.
Amanda Stoltzfus, L. I., Lecturer.
Newman Leander Hoopingarner, M. A., Manager of
Division of Public Welfare :
George Simon Wehrwein, B. S., Head of the Division.
RETURN CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT
TO * 202 Main Library
LOAN PERIOD 1
ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS
1 -month loans may be renewed by calling 642-3405
6-month loans may be recharged by bringing books to Circulation Desk
Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days prior to due date
DUE AS STAMPED BELOW
FORM NO. DD6. 60m
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
1/78 BERKELEY, CA 94720
THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY