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Full text of "A simplified grammar of the Polish language"

TRUKNER'S 
1CT70N OF SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS 



fO 

: 

!-D 



THE POLISH LANGUAGE 



W.R.MORFILL. 



PG 

6111 

In?: 

|c. 1 
ROBA 



TRUBNER'S COLLECTION 

OP 

SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS 

OF THE PRINCIPAL 

ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 

EDITED BY 

REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., Pn.D. 



XL 

POLISH. 

BY W. R. MORFILL, M.A. 



TRUBNER'S COLLECTION OF SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS OF THE 
PRINCIPAL ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, 

EDITED BY REINHOLD ROST, LL.D.. Pii.D. 



I. 

HINDUSTANI, PERSIAN, 
AND ARABIC. 

Br THE LATE 

E. H. PALMEE, M.A. 
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II. 
HUNGARIAN. 

BY I. SINGER. 
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III. 

BASQUE. 
BY W. VAN EYS. 

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IV. 

MALAGASY. 

BY G. W. PARKER. 

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V. 
MODERN GREEK. 

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VI. 
ROUMANIAN. 

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VII. 
TIBETAN. 

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X. 

SWEDISH, 

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XI. 
POLISH. 

BY W. R. MORFILL, M.A. 
P -ri.ee 2s. Qd. 



Grammars of tlie following are in preparation : 

Albanese, Anglo-Saxon, Assyrian, Bohemian, Bulgarian, Burmese, 

Chinese, Cymric and Gaelic, Dutch, Egyptian, Finnish, Hebrew, 

Khassi, Kurdish, Malay, Pali, Russian, Sanskrit, Serbian, Siamese, 

Singhalese, &c., &c., &c. 

LONDON; TJJt'BXER A. CO., LUDGATE HILL. 



SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR 



OP THE 



POLISH LANGUAGE 



BY 

, M.A. 



LONDON : 
TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 

1884. 
[All riyhts reserved.] 



LONDON : 

GILBEET AND EIVINGTON, LIMITED, 
ST. JOHN'S SQUARE, CLEBKENWELL EOAD. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

PHONOLOGY. The Polish Alphabet .... 1 



CHAPTER II. 

THE DOCTRINE OF FOBMS . ... . , 5 

Nouns ........ 5 

Adjectives ........ 12 

Numerals 15 

Pronouns . ....... 19 

Verbs . 22 

CONJUGATION or AUXILIARY VERBS . . . . 29 

Bye, ' to be.' 29 

Miec, ' to have.' 33 

CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS .... 36 

First Conjugation ....... 30 

Second Conjugation 39 

Verbs ending in qc . . . . . 41 

Verbs ending in ec, uc . . . . . 42 

Third Conjugation .... . . 45 

Fourth Conjugation ...... 47 

Passive Voice . . ... 49 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PREPOSITIONS . 51 

ADVERBS: Primary, Derived, and Compounded . . 53 

Of Time, Place, and Manner . . . 54 

Interrogative and Affirmative ... 5^ 

CONJUNCTIONS 55 



CHAPTER III. 

SYNTAX : Cases of Nouns 56 

Adjectives ....... 58 

Pronouns and Verbs . .... 59 

Arrangement of Words in a sentence . . 60 



PREFACE. 



THE following short Grammar is the first attempt of 
the kind in English. It is to be hoped that it may 
be instrumental in furthering the study of Polish, a 
noble language, which is still spoken by about ten millions 
of people. I have consulted with advantage previous 
works on the subject, written in Polish, German and 
French. 'I have found the " Comparative Grammar " of 
Miklosich, the " Historico-Comparative Grammar " of 
Malecki (2 vols., Lemberg, 1879), and the works of Orda 
(Paris, 1856) and Rykaczewski (Berlin, 1861) very useful. 
Following the plan of the " Simplified Grammars," I have 
only given an outline of the language, but this outline will 
be found to contain all the chief rules, which I have 
endeavoured to make as plain as possible. The student 
of comparative philology will thus be able to form a 
correct idea of the structure of the language, and it may 
serve as a rudimentary handbook to any one who is anxious 
to road the works of such authors as Mickiewicz and 
Krasinski in the original. 

W. R. MORFILL. 

Oxford. 



NOUNS. 7 

Example 3 : kon, ' the horse/ 
Singular. Plural. 

N. kon konie. 

G. konia koni (6w). 

D. koniowi koniom, 

A. konia konie. 

V. koniu konie. 

I. koniem koniami-(konim). 

L. koniu w koniach. 

Among peculiar forms belonging to this declension may 
be mentioned the noun Bog, ' God/ which makes the 
dative Bogu, instead of Bogowi, and also the vocative Boze; 
czlowiek, 4 man/ has in the vocative both czlowieku and 
czlowiecze ; xiqdz, * priest/ has the genitive xi$ze. 

SECOND DECLENSION. v 

Feminine substantives are those ending in the vowels a 
(except a few implying the offices of men) and i, and most 
of the substantives ending in one of the soft consonants <?', 
dz, sc, z, z. 

Example 1: pani, 4 the lady/ 

Singular. Plural. 

N. pani panic. 

G. pani pan. 

D. pani paniom. 

A. pani^ panic. 
Y. pani panic. 

I. pani$ paniami. 

L. pani paniach. 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



Example 2 : praca, ' labour/ 



Singular. 


Plural. 


N. praca 


prace. 


G. pracy 


prac. 


D, pracy 


pracom. 


A. prae . 


prace. 


V. praco 


prace. 


I. prac^ 


pracami. 


L. praey 


praeach. 


Example 


3 : zona, ' the wife/ 


Singular, 


Plnral. 


N. zona 


zony. 


G. zony 


zon. 


D. zonie 


zonom. 


A. zon 


zouy. 


V. zono 


zony. 


I. zoni| 


zonami. 


L. zonie 


zonach. 


Example 


4 : cz$sc, ' the part/ 


Singular. 


Plural. 


N. czsc 


czejsci. 


G. czsci 


czcjsci. 


D. cz^sci 


2zsciom. 


A. cz^sc 


cz^sci. 


V. cz^sci 


cz^sci. 


I. czscij| 


cz^sciami. 


L cz^isci 


cz^sciach. 



NOUNS. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 
Neuter Substantives. 

To this declension belong all the neuter substantives 
ending in <?, , o. These neuter nouns differ from mas- 
culines, with the same termination ; in the neuters the 
nominative, accusative and vocative are the same in both 
numbers : in the plural these cases end in a. 



Example 


1 : pole, ' the field.' 


Singular. 


Plural. 


N. pole 


pola. 


G. pola 


pol. 


D. polu 


polom. 


A. pole 


pola. 


V. pole 


pola. 


I. polem 


polami. 


L. polu 


polach . 



Example 2 :ciel$, ' the calf/ 
Singular. Plural. 

N. ciel ciekjta. 

G. cielejcia ciel^t. 

D. ciel^ciu ciel^tom. 

A. ciel ciel^ta. 

V. ciel ciel^ta. 

ciel^tami. 

ciel^tach. 



L. ciel^ciu 



10 POLISH GRAMMAU. 

Example 3 : imie, ' the name/ 

Singular. Plural. 

N. imie imicma. 

G. imienia imion. 

D. imieniu imionom. 

A. imie imiona, 

V. imie imiona. 

I. imieniem imionami. 

L. imieniu imionach. 

To this declension belong 1 the verbal substantives in ie, 
but, as a rule, they are only used in the singular. 

Many other substantives are also used only in the sin- 
gular, especially when a collective idea is implied; as, zyto, 
'barley;' jazda^ 'cavalry/ dziatwa, * children/ Others 
are only used in the plural ; as, chrzciny, ' baptism / lowy, 
4 hunting/ Substantives can also be modified into diminu- 
tives and augmentatives ; as, Jcrowka, ' a little cow / mies- 
cisko,'& great ugly town/ In some substantives in the 
last syllable in the locative a and o are changed into e, as 
gniazdo, ' the nest,' w gniezdie ; siodlo, ' the saddle/ w 
siedle ; jezioro, ' the lake/ w jezierze ; zelazo, ' the iron/ 
w zelazie. 

The following- substantives are also irregular : oko, 'the 
eye / ucho, ' the ear/ in the plural ; tciqze, ' prince/ is 
irregular in the singular in the plural it is declined like 
ciel$ta, ' calves/ 



ADJECTIVES. 



15 



tanszy, ' cheapest/ The superlative of pre-eminence is made 
by placing bardzo, ' very/ before the adjective, as bardzo 
dobry, ' very good/ 



NUMERALS. 
Cardinal. 



1. Jeden. 

2. Dwa. 

3. Trzy. 

4. Cztery. 

5. Pic. 

6. Szesc. 

7. Siedm. 

8. Osm. 

9. Dziewi^c. 
10. Dziesiejc. 



11. Jedenascie. 

12. Dwanascie. 

13. Trzynascie. 

14. Czternascie. 

15. Pi^tnascie. 

16. Szesnascie. 

17. Siedemnascie. 

18. Osmnascie. 

19. Dziewi^tnascie. 

20. Dwadziescia. 



Dziescie, or dziesci, is added to the numerals from twenty 
to fifty, pi$dzttsiqt ; from fifty to one hundred, chiesiat 
being added. Thus, czterdziesci, ' forty/ dziewi$c-dziesiqt, 
' ninety.' The smaller numerals follow the greater as in 
English ; as trzy dziesci pi$6, k thirty-five / csmdziesiq.t siedm' 
'eighty-seven/ 



100. Sto. 
200. Dwiescie. 
300. Trzysta. 
400. Czterysta. 
500. Preset. 



600. Szescset. 
700. Siedemset. 
800. Osmset. 
900. Dziewiejcset. 
1000. Tysit|c. 



16 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



The arrangement of the greater and smaller numerals is the 
same as in English : thus, sto dwadziescia siedm, ' one 
hundred and twenty- seven/ Jeden, jedna, jedno are declined 
after the manner of adjectives. 



Dwaj, 'two/* 



N. dvvaj (a), dwa (b). 

G. dwoch. 

D. dwom. 

A. dwoch (a), dwa (b). 

I. dwoma. 

L. dwoch. 



N. dwie (c). 
G. dwoch. 
D. dwom. 
A. dwie. 
I. dwiema. 
L. dwoch. 



Trzej,' 1 three.' 

N. trzey (a), trzy (d). 

G. trzech. 

D. trzem. 

A. trzech (a), trzy (d). 

I. trzema. 

L. trzech. 



Czterej, 'four/ 

N. czterej (a), cztery (I). 

G. czterech. 

D. czterem. 

A. czeterech (a), cztery (d) 

I. czterema. 

L. czterech. 



* Following the example of Rykaczewski, and in order to secure 
brevity in the above tables, letters have been used for, (a) men, 
(b) animals of the masculine gender, and inanimate objects masc. and 
neuter ; (c) women, and all feminine substantives ; (c?) substantives of 
whatsoever gender they may be, except signifying men. According to 
their position with these, the numerals are modified. 



ADJECTIVES. 17 

Pi$ciu } ' five/ 

N. pi^ciu (a], pi^c (d). A. pitjciu (0), piec (d). 

G. pi^ciu. I. pie,ci<|. 

D. pi^ciu. L. pi^ciu. 

Jeden^ divaj, diva, dwie, trzej, trzy, czterej, cztery are 
considered as adjectives, and in consequence the substantive 
goes with them in the nominative case. Dwaj, trzej, and 
czterej, however, are only so used when they precede their 
nouns ; if they follow them the noun is put in the genitive, 
as m hist dwa, 'two cities/ Pigc and the rest up to tysiac 
are substantives, and take a genitive case after them. 
Jedenastu, 'eleven/ 



N. jedenastu (), jede- 

nascie (U). 
G. jedenastu. 
D. jedenastu. 



A. jedenastu (a), jede- 

nascie (d). 
I. jedenastq,. 
L. w jedenastu. 



Piqciudziesiqt, ' fifty/ inflects the word pi^ciu (as given 
previously) : the word dziesiqt remains unaltered. All the 
numerals till czterdjiesci are declined like jedenascie, and all 
the others till dziewi$cdziesiqt like pigcdziesiqt. 

Stu, ' a hundred/ 

Singular. Plural. 

N. stu (a), sto (d). sta. 

G. sta or stu. set. 

D. stu. stom. 

A. stu (), sto (d). sta (d). 

I stem. sta mi. 

L. stu. stach. 



18 POLISH GRA.MMA.R. 



Dwustu, 'two hundred.' 



N. dwustti (0), dwiescie (d). 
G. dwochset. 
D. dwomset. 



A. dwochset (#), dwiescie (d). 
I. dwomaset, dwiemaset (c) . 
L. dwochset. 



For the others, e.g. 500, take the wordpigc, as previously 
declined, and add in each case set. 

Tysiqc, ' a thousand/ 

Singular. Plural. 

N. tysi^o. tysiq,ce. 

G. tysi^c a tysi^cy. 

D. tysi{|cu. tysi^com. 

A. tysi^c. tysiq,ce. 

I. tysi-^cem. tysi^cami. 

L. tysi^cu. tysit|cach. 

The ordinal numbers are not given here, as they are in- 
flected like adjectives, and can be easily learned from a 
dictionary. In the Slavonic languages we also find collec- 
tive numerals, as czworo, 'a collection of four/ pied oro 
dzieci, ' a band of five children/ Cf. English, f a dozen/ 
' a score.' These collective numerals take for the most 
part the genitive case after them. 



PRONOUNS. 



19 



I. 



THE PRONOUNS. 


PERSONAL. 




Singular. 




Ja, ' I/ 




Ty/Thou/ 


N. ja. 


N. ty. 


G. mnie. 


G. ciebie. 


D. mnie, mi. 


D. tobie, ci. 


A. mnie, mi. 


A. ciebie, ei. 


V. ja. 


V. ty. 


I. mn^. 


I. tobjfc. 


L. mnie. 


L. tobie. 


Plural. 




N. my, 'we.' 


N. wy, 'you/ 


G. nas. 


G. was. 


D. nam. 


D. warn. 


A. nas. 


A. was. 


V. my. 


V. wy. 


I. nami. 


I. wami. 


L. nas. 


L. was. 


Singular. 




>n, f he/ ona, ' she/ 


ono, ' it' 


Q go> g> niego. jej, niej. 


jego, go, niego. 


emu, mu, niemu. jej, niej . 


jemu, mu, niemu 


ego, go, niego. j^, ni^. 


je, nie. 


lira. nijj. 


niem. 


dm. niej. 


niem. 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



Plural 



For Men. 
N. oni, 'they.' 
G. ich, nich. 
D. im, nim. 
A. ich, nich. 
I. nimi. 
L. nich. 



For all except Men. 
one, e they.' 
ich, nich. 
im, nim. 

je. 

niemi. 
nich. 



The abridged forms of the pronouns are only used after 
verbs, and cannot be employed after prepositions, or when 
emphasis is to be laid upon the pronoun. 

The pronoun niego is sometimes changed into n in the 
genitive and accusative, and is united with the preposition, 
as dlan for ' him ;' so also the pronoun ci is changed into 
c, and is attached to a previous word ending in a vowel. 

The pronoun siedie, si$ is reflexive : it is used to express 
the singular and the plural of all three genders, and may 
refer to all three persons. 



G. siebie, sie.. 

D. sobie. 

A. siebie, si. 



I. soba,. 
L. sobie. 



The POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS are declined like adjectives, as 
n/6j, ' my/ 1w6j, ' thy;' for the third person the genitive 
singular and plural of the personal pronoun is used, as 
jego, ich. 



PRONOUNS. 



21 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 
Ten, 'this. 1 






Singular. 




N. 


ten, 


ta, 


to. 


G. 


tego, 


tej, 


tego. 


D. 


tern, 


tej, 


temu 


A. 


tego, ten, 


t, 


to. 


I. 


tym, 


t'4, 


tern. 


L. 


tym, 


tej, 


tern. 



Plural. 



Men. 
N. oni. 
(T. onych. 
D. onym. 
A. onych. 
I. onymi. 
L. onych. 



For all others. 
one. 
onych. 
onym. 
one. 
onerai. 
onych. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Klo, co, ~ktory, Jctora, ktore are both relatives and inter- 
roi^iitives. Kto refers to masculines and feminines ; co to 
animals and inanimate things : they have no plural. 
Ktory is declined like an adjective, the only irregularity 
being Ittorzy for the masculine nominative plural. 



22 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

The NEGATIVE PRONOUNS when employed with verbs re- 
quire also the use of the negative particle. Several letters 
and words may be added to pronouns^ which have the effect 
of modifying their meanings, as s, ~kolwick, li, lito, z, ze, 
zeto : s and kolwiek are added only to pronouns, as Titos, 
jakis, Ittokolwiek, &c. ; li, lito, z, ze, zeto are added not 
only to pronouns but to adjectives. 

THE VERBS. 

Since a great object has been simplification as much as 
possible, I shall here only enumerate the chief divisions 
of the verbs : 

1. Active. 

2. Passive. In reality there is no independent form of 
the passive voice in Polish. It is made, as in most modern 
European languages, by the auxiliaries and the past parti- 
ciple. See, however, on p. 49 as to the various ways of 
expressing this voice. 

3. Neuter. 

4. Impersonal. 

5. Perfect, sometimes called Completive Verbs, which 
express the action as finished; e.g., zjadlem, f l have 
ceased eating/ 

6. Imperfect, or Continuative Verbs, which express the 
duration of the action ; e.g., jem, ' I continue to eat/ 

7. Incentives, which express an increasing action; as 
sfarzejg si$, ( I grow old.' 



VEEBS. 23 

8. Frequentatives, which express an action continually 
repeated, as jadam, f I eat frequently/ Both active and 
neuter verbs may be either dokonane or niedokonane, perfect 
or imperfect. The perfect verbs have no present tense nor 
any present participle.* The mark of the perfect verb is 
the future anterior, as it is called, which is conjugated like 
the present of the imperfect verbs ; e. g., zgadn$> ' I shall 
have guessed / przyczytam^ ' I shall have finished reading/ 

Many perfect verbs are characterized by being com- 
pounded with a preposition, which gives the idea of com- 
pletion ; others by changes in the letters. Perfect verbs are 
sometimes formed out of imperfect by changing the 
termination ac into id or q.6. The two forms, perfect and 
imperfect, make a complete conjugation in Polish. We must 
ascertain to which of these two classes a verb belongs by 
looking into a good dictionary. Frequentatives, as a rule, 
form the present in warn, the perfect in wal, and the infinitive 
in wac. The four last of these divisions are termed by 

. 

Slavonic grammarians ' aspects/ The constant use of the 
aspects amply atones for the poverty of tenses in the modern 
Slavonic verb, in Polish the palseo-Slavonic aorist being 
lost. 

The following are the chief prepositions which enter into 
the composition of the Polish verbs : 

Do which implies carrying the action to the extremity ; 
as dobic, ' to beat utterly/ 

* MaJecki, i. 263. 



24 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

Na expresses direction towards a certain place, as ply- 
ivac ' to sail/ naplywac^ ' to sail towards/ 

Nad expresses excess, as dac, ' to give/ naddac, ' to 
give too much/ 

Od expresses distance from a place, &sjec/iac, ' to depart/ 
odjechac, ' to go from a place/ 

Po expresses continuation of an action, as bielic, ' to 
make white/ pobielic, f to continue to make white/ 

0, ob, obe express the accomplishment of an action, as 
siodlac, ' to saddle/ osiodlac, ' to finish saddling a horse/ 

Pod expresses ' underneath/ like the Latin sub, as 
piaac 3 c iQ write/ podp isac, 'to sign/ 

Prze express the thorough accomplishment of the action, 
Latin per, as czytac^ ' to read/ przecyta6> ' to read from 
beginning to end/ 

Przy expresses f nearness,' as biedz, ' to run/ przybiedx, 
f to run by the side of/ 

Roz expresses different directions, as pisac, ' to write/ 
rozpisac, ' to write in different directions/ 

U expresses thoroughness, as smiac si$, ' to laugh/ 
u'smiac si$, ' to laugh out and out/ 

W expresses direction of a thing within, as cfiod&ic, ' to 
go/ wc/wdzic, ' to go in/ 

Wy expresses 4 out/ as prosic, * to entreat/ wypro&id, ' to 
obtain from a person by entreaty/ 

JP, icz expresses ' on high/ as nosic, Ho carry/ wznosic, 
'to carry on high/ 



VERBS. 25 

Z, ze expresses the perfect accomplishment of an action, 
a,sjesc, ' to eat/ zjesc, i to eat entirely/ 

# expresses * over/ as mowic, ' to speak/ zamowic, ' to 
talk a person over/ 

The tenses are, (1) the Present, as czyni$, id$, &c. (2) The 
Perfect ; as czynilem, ' I did / really a past participle with 
certain suffixes, as will be shown afterwards, and hence it is 
inflected according to gender. (3) The Pluperfect, rarely 
used ; as czynilem byl, ' 1 had done/ (4) The Future, which 
may be expressed in two ways, either by the auxiliary 
and the participle, as b$d$ czynil, or the auxiliary and the 
infinitive, czynic b$d$ this is the simple future ; when some- 
times the present is used as a future (e.g. in the perfect 
verb), it is called the future anterior. 

The perfect, imperfect, frequentative verbs, &c., are 
arranged under the four conjugations according to their 
terminations. 

In Polish there are four conjugations and six moods : 
(1) the Infinitive ; (2) the Indicative ; (3) the Imperative ; 
(1) the Subjunctive, which is expressed by adding zeby t azeby 
and izby to the participial form, as zebym liochal, ' that I 
may love/ In reality no Slavonic language has an inde- 
pendent form of the subjunctive. (5) The Conditional, 
implying a condition : this mood is expressed in Polish in 
two ways, (a) with by, gdyby, aby y with the participial form 
of the verb bye, ' to be -/ or (b) by the addition of by to the 
participial form of the verb in ^, but the particle by must 
then take the personal terminations, as Isochal bym, ' I 
should have loved/ (6) The Optative, which is made by the 



26 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

conjunction obym with the participial form in /, as obym list 
odebral, { Oh, that I could receive the letter ! ' Thus 
we see that in reality there are only three moods in 
Polish of independent form : the last three are made by 
particles. 

The reader will observe the following elements of the 
Polish verb : 

The mark of the 1st per. sing, is m, which sometimes by 
a phonetic law becomes g; parallels to these two forms 
being found in all the Slavonic languages. Sometimes 
both forms are found in the same verb, as wydzMywam 
and wydziubujg; the latter, however, is the more common. 
Of the second s, or sz; of the first person plural smy, of the 
second scie* These may enter into various combinations, 
and by paying attention to their positions the acquisition 
of a knowledge of the verbs may be much simplified. These 
suffixes are in reality, as might be imagined, merely muti- 
lated parts of the present tense of the verb ' to be,' which 
oldest form was as follows : 



esm 

jes jescie 

jest. s^. 



* The original suffix for the third person singular was t ; this, how- 
ever, though preserved in Kussian, is lost in the West-Slavonic 
languages. The suffix of the third person plural is n; this, however, 
by its coalescing with the bindevocal, becomes a. 



VERBS. 27 

The explanation of the form now in use will be given a 
little further on. 

But these particles can be used not only with verbs but 
with other words, so as to cause the sentence to be shaped 
in many different ways, and this peculiarity of the Polish 
language is deserving of careful consideration ; thus we 
may say either dobrze pisalem, or dolrzem pisal, ( I have 
written well/ ja pilny jestem, or jam pilny jest, ' I am in- 
dustrious/ wczora rano byles w ~kosciele } or wczora ranos byl 
w ko'sciele, ' Thou wert early at church yesterday/ So also 
my bylismy, or mysmy byli, ' We were / wy byliscie, or 
wyscie byli, ' Ye were / glosno spiewaliscie, or glosnoscie spie- 
wali, ' You have sung loudly / &c. They may also be 
added to particles, as Bom nie przyszedl wzywac sprawiedli- 
wycJi ale grzesmych do polcuty, 'I came not to call the 
righteous but sinners to repentance/ (Matt. ix. 13.) So 
also Ale abyscic wiedzieli, iz ma moc syn czlowieczy, * But 
that ye may know that the Son of man hath power/ 
(Matt. ix. 6.) This gives extraordinary flexibility and 
variety to the sentence. 

The following are the suffixes of the Imperative : 
Singular ... 2 pers., /. 

Plural . PP erS " ** 
( 2 pers., icie. 

The suffix of the Perfect is 2, which is added immediately 
to the stem, as gral, pield. The only exceptions are M61, 
prol, where the o is the connecting vowel (lindevocal). This 



28 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

is properly a participle, as is shown by the feminine and 
neuter terminations and the plural form. 

The suffix of the Infinitive is 6 t which is generally added 
immediately, but in some instances with a lindevocal ; from 
the fusing- of k with 6 we get <?, and from g the combination 
dz. The spelling of the termination of the infinitive in some 
cases in dz is censured by Miklosich as inaccurate (iii. 450). 

The suffix of the Active Participle is qc. The suffix is 
originally nc, and the addition of a bindevocal makes it ac ; 
e. g. piekqc, trac. When the participle is used adjectively 
it is declined like an adjective -piekqcy, -a -e, trcycy -a -e. 

The suffix of the Perfect Gerund is szy ; but this is not 
added immediately to the stem, but after the /of the per- 
fect, as upieltlszy (u-piek-l-szy) ; or with the addition of w, 
e. g. wygrawszy (wy-gra-w-szy) : this, however, is only 
another form of I, which is frequently pronounced as w in 
Slavonic dialects. 

The suffix of the Passive Participle is either -n, or -/, 
which is declined like an adjective, either -ny, -na, -ne, or 
~ty, -ta, -te. 

The Verbal Substantive is derived from the Passive 
Participle by adding ie to n or t ; e. g. bity, bide. If 
the bindevocal before ny has become o, it is changed 
again into e before nie ; e. g. pieczony, pieczenie, niesiony, 
niesienie. 

The Indicative Mood has the following tenses: the present, 
in perfect verbs the future anterior, the pluperfect, and the 
future. The Subjunctive, Conditional and Optative have 
only the perfect tense. 



CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 

Conjugation of Auxiliary Verbs. 

bye, ' to be/ 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 





Singular. 




Jestem 


jestes. 


1 Jest. 




Plural. 




Jestesmy 


jestescie. 


1 1. 




Perfect. 






Singular. 




Masc, 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Bylem. 
Bvles. 
Bji 


by lam. 
bvlas. 
byla. 


by lorn, 
bylos. 
bylo. 



Plural. 



Bylismy. 


bylysmy. 


bylysmy. 


Byliscie. 


bylyscie. 


bylvscie. 


Byli. 


byly. 


byly. 



30 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



Pluperfect (but little used). 

Singular. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

Bylem byl. I bylam byla. I bylom bylo. 

And so on, adding byl to the masculine, byla to the feminine, 
and bylo to the neuter, in all the different persons. 



Plural. 


Bylismy byli, 


bylysmy byly, 


same 


adding byli 


adding 


as 


to the other 


byly. 


feminine. 


persons. 







I shall be.' 



Be.dziemy. 



Future. 

Singular. 
b^dziesz. 

Plural. 
b^dziecie. 



bejdzie. 



CONDITIONAL. 

The Conditional Mood is formed from the participial 
form in I and the particle by ; after which are added the 
letters and combinations m, s 9 smy, scie, to designate the 
persons. There is no present tense. Thus the perfect 
(1st. pers.) would be bylbym, bylabym, bylobym. 



CONJUGATION OP AUXILIARY VERBS. 31 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

This Mood is formed by the participial form in I (byf), 
before which is used the conjunction zeby ; to which the 
letters and combinations m, s, smy, scie are added, as zebym 
byl, 1st person, zebys byla (feminine). There is no present, 
and the pluperfect is omitted here as being so little used. 

OPTATIVE. 

This resembles in form the Conjunctive, with the dif- 
ference that oby is used instead of zeby, and takes the same 
terminations to mark the persons. The perfect is the only 
tense used. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Singular. 

B^dz, ' be thou/ Bi|d#cie. 
Niech. or niechaj bq,dzcie ( let him be/ 

To niech and niechaj, the suffix ze is sometimes added. 

Plural 

B^dz'my. I b^dz'myz. 

B^dzcie. | b^dz'ciez. 

Niech or niechaj 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. 
Masc. Fern. Neut. 



Past. 
Byly. byla. bylo. 

Future. 

Majj|cy bye. maj^ca bye. majt|ce bye. 

Btjdt|c, ' being ;' by wszy, ' having been/ 

These two last are not inflected. 

The modern form of the present tense of the verb bye is 
merely a corruption, and arose from adding to the third 
person of the old form the pronominal suffixes. This re- 
sulted from false analogy, as the suffixes had become fused 
with the participial form byl, byla, bylo, and made a past 
tense; thus byljesm had become bylem, bylijesmy, bylismy. 

The particle by, which is used in Polish and other Slavo- 
nic languages to express condition, was originally the third 
person singular of the old perfect of the verb bye, a tense 
which is now lost. This particle has at the present time 
something like the use of the Greek av. We also find it 
in composition as aby, zeby^ azeby, with which we may com- 
pare Greek oiav and av in other combinations. 



CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 



Sing. . . Mam. 
Plnr... Mamy. 



Miec, 'to have/ 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
masz. 
maeie. 



ma. 





Perfect. 




Masc. 


Singular. 
Fern. 


Neut. 


Mialem. 
Miales. 
Mial. 


mialam. 
mialas. 
miala. 


mialom. 
mialos. 
mialo. 




Plural. 




Masc. 
Mielismy. 


Fern. 
| mialysmy. 


Neuter. 
| mialysmy. 



(In the second person add the usual suffix: the third 
person has no suffix.) 



Pluperfect. 

The same as the preceding tense, adding byl to the 
sing., byla to the fern., and bylo to the neuter ; byli ibr 
masc. plur., and byly for fern, and neuter. 

D 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



Masc. 
mial or 
miec. 
B^dziesz. 
B^dzie. 

B^dziemy mieli 

or miec. 
B^dziecie. 



Masc. 
Mialbym. 



Future. 

Singular. 
Fern. 

bd miala or 

miec. 
b^dziesz. 
b^dzie. 

Plural. 
b^dziemy mialy. 

b^dziecie mialy. 
b^dq, mialy. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Perfect Tense. 

Fern, 
mialabym. 



Neuter. 
bd mialo or 

miec. 
b^dziesz. 
b^dzie. 



Neuter. 
mialobym, 



Add the regular suffixes to the first and second persons 
as above, and add the suffixes to the plural, which will be 
mietoby for the masc., and mialyly for the fern, and neut. ; 
thus, mielobismy, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Add zeby, with suffixes for each of the persons, to the 
ordinary past tense mial, in its various mutations of gender 
and number. 

OPTATIVE. 

Add oby, with the same suffixes. 



CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARY VERBS. 



35 



IMPERATIVE. 

Singular. 

Miej, ' have thou/ Miejze. 

Niech or niechaj (with addition sometimes of suffix 
ze) ma. 

Plural. 
Miejmy. 
Miejcie. 
Niech or niechaj maj^. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Present. 

Fern. Neuter. 

maji|ca. | maja,ce. 

Perfect. 

miana. | miane. 

Future. 
maj^ca miec. | majj|ce miec. 

Note. The verb mam (I have) is frequently used with 
merelv a future signification, as wydanie ma bye ozdolionc 
trzema portretami, 'The edition will be furnished with three 
portraits/ 

GERUNDS. 
Maj{|c, ' having/ 

, ' having had.' 



Masc. 
Maj^cy. 

Miany. 
Maji|cy miec. 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

The mark of the conjugation is the second person singular 
present of the verbs niedokonane, or the future anterior 
of the verbs dokonane, which of necessity have no present, 
as I have previously stated. 

The characteristic of the first conjugation is the letter a 
in the second person singular of the present. 

INFINITIVE. 
Kochac, *' to love.' 







INDICATIVE. 








Present Tense. 




Kocham. 
Kochamy. 


Ikochasz. 
kochacie. 


kocha. 
kochaj^. 



Perfect. 

For the masculine, add the suffixes for the first and 
second persons, with the bindevocal e to the participial form 
in /, and add them also to the feminine kochala and the 
neuter koc/ialo. For the plural masculine, add the suffixes 
to kockali, and for the feminine and neuter to koc/ial?/, thus 
kochalem, hochalam, kochalom, &c. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. ^7 

Pluperfect. 

To form this tense, add to the perfect byl for the mascu- 
line singular, and byli for the plural; byla for the feminine 
singular, and bylo for the neuter ; and byly for the plural of 
both genders. 

Future. 

Put the auxiliary b$d$ inflecting it regularly, as in the 
form given under the verb bye, ' to be/ before kochal for 
the masculine singular, and Icochali for plural ; kochala for 
feminine, and kochalo for neuter singular ; and kochaly for 
the plural of both, according to the invariable rule. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Kochaj. 

Niech or niechaj kocha. 

Kochaj my. 

Kochajcie. 

Niech or niechaj kocha 'tj,. 

It will be observed that the characteristic letter of the 
imperative is/, to which the terminations of the plural are 
added, e. g. ~kocha-j-my. 

I have not given at length another form of the impera- 
tive included in some grammars : it is formed by adding 
the enclitic z or ze to the simple form 



38 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Made by adding the pronoun suffixes to -by, which is 
appended to the participial form, as kochalbym. In the plural 
we have the usual kochali and kochaly, with the personal 
suffixes. 

The pluperfect is formed by adding to the perfect byl, 
which is inflected in the manner previously shown. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Perfect. 

This is aby, with the usual personal suffixes appended to 
the inflected participial form in I. 

OPTATIVE. 
The same, oby being added instead of aby. 



Pres. kochaj$|cy. 
Past, kochany. 
Put. maja,cy kochac. 



PARTICIPLES. 

kochaj^ca. 
kochana. 
maja^ca kochac. 



kochaj^ce. 
kochane. 
maj^ce kochac. 



GERUND. KocJi.ajqc, ' loving/ 

The tenses, which are wanting to the imperfect verb 
kochac, are supplied by the perfect verb ultochac. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 39 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 

The characteristic of this conjugation is iesz or esz in the 
second person singular present. 

Grzebac, ' to bury/ 
Present. 



Grzebi. 
Grzebi^my. 



grzebie^sz. 
grzebi^cie. 



grzebi. 
grzebi^. 



Perfect. 

Formed from the participial form grzelal, with the addi- 
tion of the suffixes, as in the preceding verb. The same 
remarks apply to the pluperfect and future. 

IMPERATIVE. 
Grzeb. 

Niech or uiechaj grzebi. 
Grzebmy. 
Grzebcie. 
Niech or niechaj grzebiq,. 

Also another form with the addition of the enclitic ze. 

CONDITIONAL. G-rzebalbyui. 

Cf. the former under Itochac, also the pluperfect on the 
same model. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Abum qrzebal. . 

Cf. with kochac. 



OPTATIVE. Oli/m grzelal 



bal.} 



40 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present . . . Grzebi^cy, &c. 

Past G rzebany, &c. 

Future ... Maj^cy grzebac. &c. 

GERUND. Grzebiqc, 'bringing/ 

Other tenses are supplied to this verb by the perfect or 
complete form pogrzebac. Verbs belonging to this conju- 
gation which end in owac, iwac and yivae, and are gene- 
rally derivatives, change their termination into vj$, uje-sz, 
i'je, &c., in the present. 

The following rules may help to ascertain how the verbs 
ending in ac belonging to this conjugation form their 
present, this being in reality the only difficulty in the 
Polish verb : 

When the final consonant of the stem is b, w,p, the 
vowel i must be added before the personal suffixes ; as, 

Lami, ' I break/ from lamac. 
Lami^sz. 



Lami^my. 
tami^scie. 
Lamiq,. 

When the final consonant is s or w, preceded by another 
consonant, the i is only added to the second and third 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 41 

persons of the singular, and the first and second of the 
plural ; thus 



I call.' 



Zw-i-esz. 
Zw-i-e. 



Zw-i-emy. 

Zw-i-ecie. 

Zw-tj. 



If the final consonant of the stem is s, preceded by a 
vowel, as pi-sac, ' to write,' this hard consonant is changed 
into the soft sz, as pisz$, 1 1 write/ So also other hard 
consonants which precede ac are changed into the soft 
consonants corresponding to them ; as Igac, * to lie,' lz$ ; 
plakac, ' to weep/ placz$. When the termination of the 
stem is sk, it becomes szcz, as glaskac, ' to pat with the hand/ 
glaszczf, so also r is changed into rz, t into c, and z into f. 

In the monosyllabic verbs, brae, f to take/ prac, 'to wash 
linen/ and the verbs compounded from them, io is inserted 
between the first and final consonants of the stem in the 
first person singular and third person plural ; as, bior$, 
bierzesz, bierze, bierzemy, bierzecie, biora. 

Verbs ending in ^c. 

When the root consonant is d, in the inflections m must 
be put after it, with the vowel i in all the persons, except 
the first and last, as dqc, f to breathe/ 

Dm. Dmiemy. 

Dmiesz. Dmiecie. 

Dmie. Dnuj,. 

When the final consonant of the stem is n, an / must be 
added to all the persons of the present except the first sin- 



42 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 



gular and the third plural, as pragnac, ' to be thirsty / the 
present of which is thus inflected 



Pragn. 

Pragniesz. 

Pragnie. 



Pragnie my. 
Pragniecie. 
Pragn^. 



The present tense of the verbs ciqc, f to cut/ giq,6, ' to fold/ 
is thus inflected 



Tniemy. 
Tniecie. 



Tn. 

Tniesz. 

Tnie. 

The t for c here being altogether irregular. 

In many verbs ending in nqc, the n disappears entirely 
in the inflection of the perfect, as rosnqc, * to grow/ 

Roslem. Roslismy. 

Rosles. Rosliscie. 

Rosl. Rosli. 



Verbs ending in ec, uc. 

Verbs terminated in this way, as dec, ' to flow/ piec, ' to 
cook/ change the consonant c into k in the present, in the 
first person singular, and third plural. 



Pieke.. 

Pieczesz. 

Piecze. 



Pieczemy. 
Pieczecie. 
Piek^. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 



43 



Verbs ending in ic take j after i in the present; 
e. g., from bid, ' to fight.' 



Bijemy. 
Bijicie. 



Bjjfc 

Bijesz. 
Bije. 

The same is the case with verbs in ud and ye, as czuc, ' to 
feel/ zyd, ' to live.' 

The following verbs belonging to this conjugation are 
very irregular: 

Jesd, ' to eat.' 



Present. 



Jem, ' I eat.' 

Jesz. 

Je. 



Jemy. 
Jecie. 
Jedz^. 



Perfect. 



Jadlem, < I ate.' 

Jadles. 

Jadl. 



Jedlismy,/! jadiysmy. 

Jedliscie. 

Jedli,/. jedly. 



Future 
(borrowed from perfect form of verb). 



Zjem. 
Zjesz. 
Zje. 



Zjemy. 

Zjecie. 

Zjedz^. 



44- 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 
IMPERATIVE. 



Jedz. 

Niech je. 



Idziesz. 
Idzie. 



Jedzmy. 
Jedzcie. 
Niech jedzq,. 



to go on foot/ 



Present. 



Idziemy. 
Idziecie. 
Id*. 



Perfect. 
Masc. 



SzedJem, ' I went/ 

Szedles. 

Szedl. 

Fern. 
Szlam, szlas, szla. 

Neut. 
Szlom, szlos, szlo. 



Future. 



Przyjd, ' I shall come/ 

Przyjdziesz. 

Przyjdzie. 



Szlismy. 
Szliscie. 
Szli. 

Plural 
(for both genders). 

Szlysmy. 
Szlyscie. 
Szly. 



Przyjdziemy. 

Przyjdziecie. 

Przyjdi|. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 



45 



IMPERATIVE. 

Idz. Idzmy. 

Niech idzie. Idz'cie. 

Niech ida,. 

It has been thought advisable to give the chief tenses of 
these verbs on account of their being so much in use. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 

The characteristic of this conjugation is that the 2nd 
pers. sing, present ends in isz. 

Verbs belonging to this conjugation, which terminate in 
the infinitive in ac, as bac si$, ' to fear/ change in the 
present and future a into oj 9 in the first person of the singular 
and the third person of the plural : in the other persons they 
change a into oi ; e. g. stac, ( to stand,' present. 

Stoimy. 



Stofe 

Stoisz. 
Stoi. 



Stoicie. 
Stoj* 

Spac, f to sleep/ changes a into i 
Spimy. 
Spicie. 
Spia, 



Spisz. 
Spi. 



They preserve in all the persons of the past tenses a 
before I or I; e. g. balem si$. 

If the stem of a verb ends in I, as myslec, c to think/ 
the present is thus inflected : 



Mysl. 

Myslisz. 
Mvsli. 



Myslimy. 
Myslicie. 
Mysla^ 



46 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

The softening 1 of the final consonants for euphony is 
shown in the treatment of verbs ending in ic, in the first 
sing, and third plural, as follows : When a hard con- 
sonant ends the stem, the i of the infinitive is preserved, 
as zi^bic, 6 to cool/ zi$bi$ y ' I cool,' ziebiq,, < they cool / 
but when a soft consonant goes before, the i is not pre- 
served. All these verbs keep in the past tenses their 
characteristic vowel i before I and I ; e. g. prosilem, prosi- 
lismij) &c., ' I entreated/ 

Palic 9 ' to burn/ 

INDICATIVE. 
Present Tense. 

Pale,, palisz, pali. 

Palimy, palicie, palj|. 

Perfect. 

Palilem, palilam, palilom, 

and the other persons as before. 

In the plural, add the pronominal suffixes to the plural 
forms, masc., fern., and neut. of the participle, as pre- 
viously. 

The Pluperfect, same as the form in kochac. 

Future. 
palil, &c., as before. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 47 

IMPERATIVE. 
Pal. 

Niech or niechaj pali. 
Palmy. 
Palcie. 
Niech or niechaj palq,- 

CONDITIONAL. 
Palilbym, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Abym palil, &c. 

OPTATIVE. 
Obym palil, &c. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present^ paisley, palt|ca, palace. 

Past, palony, palona, palone 

Future y majq,cy palic, maj^ca palic, maj^ce palic. 

GERUND Pal^c, 'burning.' 

Some tenses are supplied to this verb by the perfect 
form, spa lie. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

The characterictic of this conjugation is that the 2nd 
pers. sing, present ends in -ysz. 




POLISH GRAMMAR. 

Styszec, f to hear/ 
INDICATIVE. 

Present. 

Slysz slyszysz slyszy. 

Slyszymy slyszycie slyszy. 

Perfect Slyszalem . 

Formed in the same way as given in the previous 
paradigms. 

Pluperfect Same as before. 

Future Bde, slyszal, &c. 

IMPERATIVE. 
Slysz. 

Niech or niechaj slyszy. 
Slyszmy. 
Slyszcie. 
Nieeh or niechaj slyszy. 

CONDITIONAL Slyszal bym 
The pluperfect as in previous paradigms. 

SUBJUNCTIVE Abyrn slyszal. 

OPTATIVE Obym slyszal. 

PARTICIPLES. 



Present, Slysz^cy, -a, -e. 
Past, Slyszany, -a, 
Future y Maj^cy slyszec, &c. 



Past, Slyszany, -a, -e. 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. -19 

GERUND Slysz^c, 'hearing/ 

Tenses wanting to this verb are supplied by the perfect 
form, itslyszee ; e. g., wslyszaleni, ( I have heard/ 

All verbs in the fourth conjugation end in the infinitive 
in ec or yc. Verbs which make the infinitive in ec have 
in the past tenses a before I, and e before I, as j$czalem 9 ' I 
groaned ? jgczelismy, ( we groaned/ Those verbs which make 
the infinitive in y, preserve it throughout the perfect tense. 

PASSIVE YOICE. 

There is no separate form for the Passive Voice .in 
Polish. It may be expressed by the auxiliary bye and the 
passive participle; but this method is rare in Polish, which 
prefers to represent the passive either by a reflexive 
verb, or by changing the mode of expression and using 
the active ; or employing the third person of the pre- 
sent, or the past participle used impersonally with the 
accusative of the pronouns ja, ty, on, /////, icy, oni, or ;i 
substantive ; thus, instead of saying oni hi/li zalijttiii, ' they 
were killed/ it is more in accordance with the Polish idiom to 
say zabijano ick : this is by an idiom of the Polish language, 
by which, even in the case of a neuter verb, although it has pro- 
perly no past participle passive, yet one may be employed in 
an impersonal use, as skakano, ' they were leaping' (literally, 
it having been leapt) ; zicwano, ' they \vero yawning/ Cf. 
Mickiewicz Pan Tacleusz, Book X. Ze wuie Jackowi c^anui 
podano polewk$, 'That the black soup was given to me, 
Jaczek/ 

E 



50 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

The reflexive verb, however, cannot be used for the passive 
when any ambiguity might arise ; thus we cannot say, Cezar 
zabil si$ dnia pietnastego Dlarca, ' Csesar was killed on the 
fifteenth of March/ The following enclitics are suffixed to 
verbs, li (which implies a question), and z after vowels, ze 
after consonants. The two latter add emphasis to the 
expression. Similar particles are found in the Russian and 
Bohemian languages. By an idiom of the Polish language 
the infinitives widac, slychac, may be used alone in an 
impersonal sense, without adding wozna, (it is possible) ; 
so also in the past tenses we have bylo widac, just as in 
English, ' there was to be seen/ 

Sometimes, instead of lyl, zostal is used with the past 
participle as an historical perfect, as stat-ek zaniesiony zostal 
az ku brzegom Danii (Baliriski), f the vessel was brought to 
the coast of Denmark/ Both jest and byl can be omitted by 
an idiom common to all the Slavonic languages. Every 
verb has its substantive, as bity, ' beaten/ bide, ' the act 
of beating ' proszony, ' entreated/ proszenie, ' the act of 
entreating / these substantives are all of the neuter gender, 
and have no plural. The verbal noun in Polish can take 
with it the reflexive pronoun ; as nieudanie si$ powtorney 
eleclicyi Leczynskiego, ' the failure of the second election of 
Leczynski/ 

IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Of these there are many in Polish, as lywa, f it happens ' 
qrzrn'), 'it thunders/ All verbs maybe made impersonal 
l>y adding the pronoun si$ to the third person of the 



CONJUGATION OF REGULAR VERBS. 51 

present and future of the active verb, and to the third 
person neuter of the perfect, as mowi si$, ' it is said/ //?<>//</ 
si$, 'it has been said/ 

PARTICIPLES. 
There are four participles 

Present. 

1st. The undeclined, called sometimes the gerund, czy- 
tajac. 

2nd. The declined, czi/tajq.cy, ' reading/ 

Past. 

1st. Undeclined or gerund, dawszy, ' having given/ 
2nd. Declined, przeczytany , ' having been read/ 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Prepositions which govern the genitive : 
Bez, ' without.' 
Dia, ' for/ 
Do, < to/ 
0~kolo, ' around.' 

Krom, okrom,procz, oprocz, 'outside of/ 
Miasto, zawiasfy l in place of/ 
Od, < from/ 
Pod/e, ' near/ 



Wedluff 



, > faccord; , 

, ) 



POLISH GRAMMAR. 

} < in the midle of/ 
W srod, j 

U, ' with ' (cf. the French chez). 
Also the following adverbs used as prepositions : 

BlizkOj 6 near.' 

Niedaleko, ( not far/ 

Ohok, ( by the side of/ 

Poprzek, ( across/ 

Wewnqtrz, ' within/ 

Zewnqfrz, ' without/ 

WzdluZy ' along 1 / 
Prepositions which govern the dative : 

Gwoli. ") , r i . , 

C ' for, according to. 

T/~ T \ " 

Kwoli, 3 
AX ' forward/ 

pi, ) <againsti) 

Preciwko, ) 

W brew, ' against, in contempt of/ 

Przez, ( by/ governs the accusative ; przy, ' near/ the 
locative. 

Naprzcciw, naprzeciwko, ' against/ ' opposite/ govern the 
genitive or dative. 

Mi/no, ponnnio, 'in spite of/ ' notwithstanding/ govern 
the genitive or accusative. Mi-mo, however, when it means 
' near/ always governs the genitive. 

Z takes the genitive when it marks the place from 
which the movement comes, the cause, the material out of 
which a thing is made ; but when it signifies e together 
with/ it must take the instrumental. 



ADVERBS. 

The prepositions mi$dzy, pomigdzy, * among ;' 
' upon ; pod, f under / przed, ' before ;' za, f beyond/ 
govern the accusative when motion is signified, but the 
instrumental when rest is implied. The prepositions mt, 
1 on ' o, ( about ;' po, ' after / w, ' in,' govern the accusative 
when the verb with which they are used marks motion to 
a place. On the other hand, they govern the locative 
when the verb with which they are used implies rest. 

ADVERBS. 

I can only find room here for the principal adverbs : the 
rest can be learned from the dictionaries. 

PRIMARY 

Gdzie, ' where/ 
Tn, ' here/ 
Wnetj ( soon/ 
, ' as. J 



DERIVED. 
Dobrze, < well/ 
Dlf i go , 'long/ 
Slabo, ( weakly/ 
Mocno, ' strongly/ 

COMPOUNDED. 

Nazajutrz, ' the following day/ 
W czas, ' at the right time/ ' punctually/ 
Przedlem-, ' previously/ 
Niegdys* ' once/ 



54 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

ADVERBS OF TIME. 

Zawsze, 'always.' 
Nigdy, 'never.' 
Teraz, 'now/ 
Dawno, ' long since/ 

OF PLACE. 

Na gorze, ' above/ 
Na dole, ' below.' 
Napodal, 'from afar.' 
Najprzeciw, ' from opposite/ 

OF MANNER. 

Po polsku, ( in the Polish manner/ 
Zewnqtrz, ' from without.' 
Ustnie, c by word of mouth/ 
Cichavzem, ( quietly/ 

INTERROGATIVE. 
Kiedy, 6 when ?' 
Zkqd, ( from whence ?' 
Gdzie, ( where ?' 

whither ?' 



AFFIRMATIVE. 
Koniecznie, ' certainly ;' ba, ( yes/ 

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by changing the 
termination of the adjective into e or o ; for example, 
li/, ' gay/ ivesolo, ( gaily/ 



CONJUNCTIONS. 55 

Adverbs ending in ie are formed from adjectives which 
have a hard consonant in the last syllable but one, as 
pewne, ' sure/ pewnie, ' surely/ 

Some adverbs have a double termination, as smialo, or 
smielg } ' boldly/ 

.Many adverbs are formed in Polish by the use of sub- 
stantives, either alone or with prepositions, as na bakier, 
6 across ;' najaw, ' evidently ;' na oslep, l blindly ;' poprzek, 
6 across / pogotowiu, ( in readiness ;' wewnqtrz, ' within ;' 
icet za wet, 'tit for tat/ So also substantives alone, as 
ollazem, ' in a body ;' raptem, f suddenly / ukradkiem, 
' secretly / rankiem, ' in the morning ;' pospolu,, { to- 
gether/ 

The comparative of adverbs is formed by adding j or ej 
to the stem ; as, skromnie, f more modestly ;' smielej, ' more 
boldly/ For the superlative add naj to the comparative 
adverb ; as, pi$kniej, c more beautifully ;' najpi$kniej\ ' most 
beautifully/ 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Of these there are different sorts : some join sen- 
'tences together, as a, i, ' and ;' takze, fez, ' also ;' oraz, 
linhiez, ( so that ^ nie tylko-ale, 'not only/ 'but;' 
<//// ani, 'neither/ A when employed between two ad- 
verbs strengthens the expression of the adverb, as wszyxi'i/ 
a wszyscy, ' all without exception ;' nic a nic, ( absolutely 
nothing/ 

Alternative conjunctions, allo, Inb albo, Inb, or 

z badz , 'whether' , or czy, ' if ' czyli, or 

czy, 'whether it be that/ &c. Conjunctions of 



5(> POLISH GRAMMAR. 

comparison, jalto tals-, as, tak ze, ' so that / niz 

nizeli (after the comparative), raczej niz, ' rather than.' 

Adversative conjunctions, such as acz, aczkolwiek, 
'although/ ale, lecz, 'but/ cJwc, cJwciaz, although/ zas, 
' but/ which latter, like the Latin quoque, is never put as 
the first word in a sentence. Conditional conjunctions are 
l>yle, ' provided that,' cliyba, 'unless/ Conjunctions of time 
are gdy, ( when/ j'ak tylko, 'as soon as/ Optative con- 
junctions, bogdaj oby, ' God grant that/ used to express 
the optative mood. 



CHAPTER III. 
Syntax, 

As brevity has been aimed at in this Grammar, I shall 
allow myself to omit those points of Syntax which are not 
peculiar to Polish, but are shared in by the majority of 
languages. 

CASES OF NOUNS. 

1. The genitive is used after many adjectives and parti- 
ciples : of these a few are here specified the rest must be 
learned by practice ; as, godzien nagrody, ' worthy of recom- 
pence;' potrzebujqcy wsjxtrcia, ' having need of assistance/ 

2. After all the cardinal numbers beginning with pi$c, 
1 five/ (See page 17.) 

3. The genitive is always used after the verb when it 
goes with a negative ; as uie czyta listu, ' he does not read 
the letter/ 



SYNTAX. 57 

Ale serce u molojcow, 

Niezl^knie sie Turkow. (Siemienski.) 

f But the hearts of the young men do not fear the Turks/ 

4. After the impersonal verb, niemasz or niema, niebylo, 
< there is not/ ( there was not ;' as nie ma zgody, ' there is 
no agreement/ 

5. After active verbs where they have a partitive sense ; 
as daj mi wody, ( Give me some water.' 

6. Verbs compounded of the prepositions do, od, na, nad, 
przy, u, take the genitive; as nazrywac fatnat6w, ( to gather 
flowers/ 

7. The genitive is used after adverbs implying abun- 
dance, or want, as in other languages. 

8. Also to express quality or character ; as czlowiek wy- 
sokiego wzrostu, ' a man of tall stature/ 

9. Also to express point of time ; as Dwadziestego dzie- 
wiqjego stycznia roku tysiqcznego osmsetnego osmdziesiajego 
czwartego, f January 29, 1884/ 

A great number of verbs take the genitive, but these 
must be learned by the help of a good dictionary. 

The Dative. Many adjectives take the dative, aspos- 
/HXZHI/, ' obedient/ Verbs compounded with do take the 
dative, and many others which can be learned from the 
dictionary. 

The Accusative is, as in most languages, the ordinary 
case after the verb. The price of a thing is put in the 
accusative, also duration of time, distance, height and 
length (with these four last compare the Latin use). 



58 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

The Instrumental. Many verbs take this case ; as mia- 
nowac go wodzem, 'to name him leader/ 

It is sometimes employed idiomatically with the verb ' to 
be ;' as jest-em gospodarzem, ' I am the master/ And the 
same is the case with zostawac, ' to become ;' as zosial 
pielyrzymem, ' he has become a pilgrim.' The following 
examples will, it is believed, clearly illustrate the various 
uses of this case, which is often peculiarly employed 
in the Slavonic languages : -jechal nocq, ' he travelled 
during the night ;' jadl tyzkq, ' he ate with a spoon;' 
zlapal zajqca zywcem, f he has caught a hare alive ; } nazywal 
mnie przyjacielem, 'he called me friend/ 

The Locative expresses in what place, or when, except the 
days of the week, when point of time is marked by the 
accusative ; as we czwartek, ( Thursday/ 

ADJECTIVES. 

The adjective agrees in number, gender, and case with 
its substantive. When an adjective refers to the names of 
a man or a woman, or a man and an animal, it is put in 
the plural of the more worthy gender ; but when the 
adjective is placed with several names of inanimate things, 
of whatever gender they may be, it is used in the neuter 
plural. In sentences where the two subjects of the verb 
are connected by the preposition ~, the verb may be put in 
the singular or the plural ; as, ojciec z synem zyl w zgodzie, 
or ojciec z synem zyli w zgodzie, ' the father lived peaceably 
with his son/ 



SYNTAX. 59 

Collective substantives ending in stwo require the verb 
in the plural. With collective numerals the verb is put in 
the third person singular, and when in a past tense with the 
singular neuter ; as, dwoje dzieci umarto, ' two children are 
dead/ 

PRONOUNS. 

Co, ( what,' is often used instead of ktory, when it refers 
not to the subject, but to the whole previous sentence. 

Comparison of Adjectives. If a superior thing is com- 
pared with an inferior, the adverbs niz, nizli, nizeli, anizeli, 
must be used ; as Drozsze jest zycie anizeli majajek, ' Life is 
more valuable than goods/ But if superiority is attributed 
to the thing which is the object of the comparison, the 
adverb jak is placed after the comparative; as, Nie ma nic 
lepszego jak spokojne sumienie, ' There is nothing better 
than a quiet conscience/ Instead of the adverbs niz, nizli, 
nizelij anizeli, the preposition od may be employed with 
the genitive, or nad with the accusative : Jajestem mlodszy 
od ciebie, ( I am younger than thou/ 

VERBS. 

The preposition do is employed after verbs when it is 
desired to express an approximate number; as Bylo tu do 
trzy dziestu ludzi, ' There were here almost thirty men/ 
Od is used to designate the place or the time after which a 
thing is begun; as, od piqtego roJcu, ' from the fifth year/ 
Od is used after passive participles and neuter verbs, to 
express the agent or instrument ; as kochany od przyjaciol, 



60 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

' loved by one's friends / umiera od zahi, f he is dying of 
grief.' Z is also used to express the instrument or agent ; 
as mdleje z slabosci, f he faints from weakness:' so also 
przez thus we may equally say wylrany od wojsJca, or 
wylrany przez ivojsko, ( elected by the army/ 

Nad is used with the instrumental after verbs implying 
pity, grief, astonishment, or vengeance. The occasions on 
which the preposition w are employed remind us of the 
difference in Latin between the uses of in with the accusative 
and with the ablative ; as zamienic w chleb, 'to change into 
bread ;' oblec w szat^ ' to surround with a garment.' 

The preposition z governs the genitive of substantives 
to express material, as dom z drzewa, ( a house of wood/ 
which can also be expressed by the adjective, as dom drzew- 
niany also to imply motion from, as in English ; and it is 
the ordinary case after the superlative, as najpilniejszy z 
nic/i, ( the most industrious of them/ 

ON THE ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE. 

Owing to the Polish language being in a highly syn- 
thetic state, great licence is allowed in this respect. Much 
must depend upon the taste of the writer ; and, in order to 
get a good style in composition, good works should be read, 
such as Lelewel's " History of Poland," or the " Ballads " 
of Mickiewicz, which would be useful for the beginner. It 
may be remarked, however, that a preposition cannot be sepa- 
rated from the noun which it governs, and the adverb must 
be put either immediately before or after the word which it 
qualities. Any conjunction may begin a sentence, except 



SYXTAX. . 61 

zas and loiciem. The verb is frequently put at the 
end of a sentence. The adjective and participle can be 
separated, by many words, from the substantives with 
which they agree. Thus, Domowe mi$dzy nast^pcami Karola 
Witlkego w wzdzielonem cesarsfwie rozruchy, ' The domestic 
troubles among the successors of Charles the Great in his 
divided empire/ 



In order to convey to the reader a fair idea of the con- 
struction of a sentence, the following 1 lines are given, 
selected from " Lelewel's History of Poland," Dzieje Polski, 
page 58. (Leipzig, 1837) : 

Pomimo oplakanego polozenia w jakim si Polska 
In spite of the melancholy condition in which herself Poland 

znajdowaia, nie mozna powiedziec aby miala bye biedn^ 
found, not is possible to say that she found herself poor 

i zndzioni|, tylko w niej ladu i publicznego zycia niedos- 
and miserable, only in her of order and public life was 

tawato, ktore umial obudzic Lokietek. Ludnosc Polska 
not which understood how to stimulate Lokietek. The people Polish 

widocznie wzrastata, liczba wsi i miast pomnozyln si<;, 
visibly increased, the number of villages and cities augmented itself 

i wielu Polakow szlo w Litw i na Rus, fortuny szukac. 
and many Poles went to Lithuania and to Russia,, fortunes to seek. 

Licznych ksiestw stolice podnoz^c si poci^gnt|ly za 
Of many principalities, the capitals raising themselves, drew after 

sob{| wzrost wielu innych miast. Murowano koscioly 
them the growth of many other cities. They built of stone churches 

i klasztory a w miastach i domy. Po dworach szla- 
and convents, and in the cities also houses. In the abodes belong- 



f)2 POLISH GRAMMAR. 

checkicb i znamienitszych wiejskich domach, mozna 

ing to gentlemen, and notable country houses possible 

bylo widzic piece i w scianie pomieszczone z wyprowad- 
it was to see stoves, and in the wall placed with built 

-zona, nad dach szyj^ kominy, co nie malo, do wygody 
up above roof projection chimneys, which not a little to convenience 

i zdrowia przyczynilo. Okna byly niewielkie, ale szklanne. 
and health contributed. The windows were small, but made of glass. 

Szklo rozpowszechnialo si. Obok dawnych drzewnianych, 

(The use of) glass spread itself. By the side of old wooden, 

glinianych lub metalowych kubkow i baniek stawaly 
earthen or metallic goblets and cups stood 

skleniee i butelki. Polevvaiie gliniane naczynia, coraz w 
glasses and bottles. Glazed earthen vessels, always in 

lepszym gatunku upowszechniaiy si. Do ubioru 
the best style developed themselves. For the furniture 

i mieszkan, wi^cej bylo potrzeba kobiercow, wybor- 
also of the dwellings more was need of carpets, most 

niejszego sukna i jedwabnych materyj rownie po dworach 
excellent linen and silk materials, equally at the courts 

jak przez mieszczan uzywanych. 

as among the burghers used. 

Tbe following points of syntax in this passage seem' 
worthy of special attention: 

Nie mozna, used impersonally, as explained on page 50.' 
With this may be compared lylo potrzeba, like the Latin 
ojji/x /'nit, a few lines further on. 

"By 6 biednq : this construction, very much used in the 
Slavonic languages, is explained on page 58. 



SYNTAX. 63 

Zijcia niedostawalo : observe genitive with the negative, 
page 56. 

fPsi, gen. plural of the somewhat irregular fern, noun 
wies, ' a village/ 

Pomnozyla si$ : observe the dislike of the Polish language 
to the ordinary passive form. 

Wielu Polakow szlo, page 59, a curious idiom. 

Murowano : this idiom is explained on page 49. 

Pomieszczone kominy : observe the arrangement 

of these words, and compare with remarks on page 6] . 





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