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Full text of "A simplified grammar of the Gujarati language : together with A short reading book and vocabulary"

A 

SIMPLIFIED GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

u JAR ATI LANGUAGE 

AND FOCABULART 



REV. WM. ST GLAIR TISDALL 

M.A., C.M.S. 




D. B. TARAPOREVALA, SONS, & CO. 
BOMBAY 




THUBNER'S COLLECTION 

OF 

SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS 

OF THE PRINCIPAL 

ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 

EDITED BY 

REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., Pa.D. 



XXII. 
GUJAKATI. 

BY THE 

KEY. WM. ST. GLAIR TISDALL, 3I.A., C.M.S. 



TIMER'S COLLECTION OF SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS OF THE 
PRINCIPE ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 

EDITED BY REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., PH.D. 



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XXII. GUJARATI. BY THE REV. WM. ST. CLAIR TISDALL, M.A. 



Grammars of the following are in preparation : 
Anglo-Saxon, Assyrian, Bohemian, Bulgarian, Burmese, Chinese, 
Cymric and Gaelic, Dutch, Egyptian, Finnish, Hebrew, Kurdish, 

Malay, Russian, Siamese, Singhalese, &c. &o. 
LONDON : KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. 




A 

GBAMMAE 

OF THE 

GUJARATI LANGUAGE 



. A 

SIMPLIFIED GEAMMAE 



OF THE 



GUJARATI LANGUAGE, 

TOGETHER WITH 

A SHORT READING BOOK 

AND VOCABULARY. 



BY THE 

REV. WM. ST. GLAIR TISDALL, M.A., C.M.S., 

FOBilEKLY PRINCIPAL TBAIMJTG COLLEGE, AMEITSAE ; LATELY MISSIONARY IN 

CHAKGE C.M.S. 1IUHAMMAUAN MISSION, BOMBAY; AUTHOR Of "i. SIMPLIFIED 

GBAMUAB OF THE PANJAB1 LANGUAGE"; "THE T11IGLOTT 

GOSPEL OF 8T. JOHN;" ETC. 



LONDON : 

KEG AN PAUL, TREXCH, TRUBNER & CO. LTD., 
PATEENOSTEB HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD. 
1892 



[The right of translation and of reproduction is reserved.] 



TO 

THE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

IRISH PRESBYTERIAN MISSION, GUJARAT, 

WHO HAVE DONE SO MUCH FOB 

GUJARATl LITERATURE, 

THIS LITTLE VOLUME IS, WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE, 
DEDICATED. 



2004671 



PBEEACE 



THE Series of Simplified Grammars to which the present 
volume belongs is too well known to make it necessary 
for me to say much now in the way of preface. I 
must, however, record my obligations to two vernacular 
Grammars, the Ohj/^lrfl. <HIHI^ e2US3.V^ of the 
Rev. J. van S. Taylor, B.A., and another small book of 
the same title by Sir T. C. Hope, late Educational In- 
spector, Northern Division. When I had already made 
good progress in writing the present work, I met with 
" A Handbook of Gujarat! Grammar," by P. M. Bhatt, 
from which I was able to borrow a few useful hints. 
But a perusal of the Grammar now offered to the public 
will show that I have not followed any of these works 
in a servile spirit. 

There seems at present to be a great dearth of English 
works on the Gujaratl language. When I began to 
study that language in Bombay a few years ago, I found 
it impossible to procure a single copy of any of the earlier 
Grammars. Nor should I have derived much assistance 



10 PREFACE. 

from them if I had, owing to the great improvements 
which have of recent years taken place in Gujarat! spelling. 
I trust that students of GujaratI will find that this little 
book supplies a real need. The transliterational system 
employed in the Grammar is an exact one, so that no 
confusion can arise from the use of English letters to 
represent GujaratI words. 

I hope but few errors of the press will be found to have 
escaped detection, and that the system of transliteration 
that I have adopted will prevent those few from causing 
the student any real inconvenience. 

W. ST. C. T. 
LONDON, Jan., 1892. 



INDEX. 



Page 

PART I. Gujarat! Accident, etc. 

PAUT II. Gujarat! Reading Lessons . . 107 

PART III. Gujarat! Vocabulary . . 155 



PAKT I. 
GUJARAT! ACCIDENT, &c. 



o 

z 



C$ G ._ 

s 

F ->59 



a* 

? 

r 



^ 



.< 



r 



cc? 



o 



Q S 

^ OQ 

o 9 

o " 

C! 

u. ^ 

O - 

CO 

z 

UJ 



i- 






O 

UJ 

Q_ 
CO 



THE ELEMENTS OF THE GKAMMAR 



OF THE 



GUJARAT! LANGUAGE. 



THE Gujarat! language belongs, like the Marathi, Hindi, 
Panjabl, Oriya, and many other Indian dialects, to the 
Aryan family, being a daughter of the Sanskrit. Its 
closest affinities are with the Western Panjabi on the one 
side, and the Braj Bhasha, an old form of Hindi, on the 
other. Besides various local dialects of Gujarat!, there are 
three main varieties of the written and spoken language. 
First, Hindi Gujarat!, which is that adopted and rightly 
so by the Government as the standard, and taught in the 
schools. Second, Pars! Gujarat!, the language as spoken 
and written by the Parsis. This differs from ordinary 
Gujarat! in that it admits pure Persian words in con- 
siderable numbers, especially in connexion with religious 
matters, besides a host of Arabic and other words taken 
from the Urdu language, and that its grammar is in a 
very unfixed and irregular condition. Thirdly, Muham- 
madan Gujarat!, which, like Pars! Gujarat!, employs a 



16 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

great number of words borrowed from the Hindustani (and 
through it from Persian and Arabic). But, though the 
vocabulary of the language varies considerably according 
as the speaker is a Hindu, a Parsi, or a Muslim, yet its 
grammar when spoken correctly is practically one and 
the same. "We have taken Hindi Gujarat! as our standard 
in this Grammar, for, if that is learnt, the few variations 
of form used in the other dialects will present no difficulty, 
especially as they are to a great degree mere matters of 
spelling. 



GUJARAT! PARADIGMS. 



I. NOUNS : 



(1) Ending in -o 

Sing. Plur. 
Abs. o d 

>_/Ml " ' '" "'" CV ....... 



(a) Masculine. 

(2) Otherwise :- 
Sing. 



Abs. 
Obi. 



Plur. 
(o) 

(o) 



(b) Feminine. 

Sing. Plur. 

Abs. o 

Obi. o 



(1) Ending in -w/l 

&'y. Plur. 

Abs. w/1 a/l(o) 

Obi. d n(o) 



(c) Neuter. 

(2) Otherwise:- 
(Siw^. 

Abs. 

Obi. 




II. VERBS : 



(a) Regular. 

Active Stem, 

Pass. Stem, d 

Causative Stem. ~ ] a . 

La 



dd 

dva 



Infinitive, -vun. 

Gerundive, -vo, vi, vun. 

Present Part., -to, tl, tun ; td, tl, tdn. 

Past Part., -yo, I, yun; yd, I, dn. 

Connect. Part., -ine. 

Agential j? e f n " - nar ~> +> ~ un ' 
( indecl., -nar. 

Pluperf. Part., -el : el-o, -i, -un. 
Imperative, -, -o. 

Aorist, H personal endings. 

Present Indie. = Aorist + pres. of \/chha. 

Future, f- -is, -se, -se : -isun, -so, -se. 

Future Prec., 3rd Sing, and 2nd PL, -jo. 
Imperat., 2nd Sing, and 2nd PI., -je, -jo. 



18 



GUJARATI PARADIGMS. 



PERSONAL ENDINGS. 







Aorist. 




Optative, 
3 


I 


g 


3 


Sing., 
Plur., 


-un 

-Iti 


-e 

-0 


-e 
-e 


-0 
-0 



(1) 



(b) Auxiliaries Irregular. 
N/ clika, to be 



Indecl. Pres. Part., chhatdn 
Present : chh-un, -e, -e ; -le, -o, -e. 
(2) Hovim, to be. 

Past, hat-o, -i, -un, &c. 
Aorist, ho-un, -y, -y ; -le, 

-o, -y- 

Fut., hals, hois, &c. 
Prec. Fut., hojo. 

III. PRONOUNS : 

(a) Relative : 

Sing. Plur. 
Abs. je jeo 
Obi. je jeo 
Agent, jene jeoe 

(d) Personal : 
s Sing. 

1st, Jmn, mane, men, mare, mdro 
2nd, tun, tane, ten, tare, tdro 
3rd, te, tene, tene, teno. 



Negative, 
naihl. 



(3) Javun, to go, and Tha- 

vun, to become. 
Aorist : jdun { jay, jay ; 

jale, jdo, jay. 
thaun, thdy, thdy; thaie, 

ihdo, thdy. 
Future : jais, &c. 
thais, &c. 



(b) Interrog. : 
Sing, fy Plur. 
Abs. kon 
CTco- 
Obl. 1 Jce- 
[kona 


(c) Reflexive : 
Sing. 4" Plur. 

Abs. pote 
Obi. potd 



Plur. 

ame, amne, ame. amdro 
tame, tamne, tame, tamdro 
teo, teone (temne),teono, &c. 



1st Pers. Indus, plur. pronoun : 

Apane, dpanne, dpane, dpano, dpandthi, &c. 



IV. SIMPLE POSTPOSITIONS: 

~ne = to, ace. 
-e = agent, at. 
-thi = from, with. 



-no, -m, -nun = of. 
-77? an, = in. 

-par = upon. 



( 19 ) 

CHAPTER I. 

THE ALPHABET. 

THE Gujarat! Alphabet is derived from the Sanskrit, to 
which it still bears a considerable resemblance. The dif- 
ference consists mainly in the omission in Gujarat! of the 
head line used in joining together most of the Devanagari 
characters. Like the Sanskrit, Gujarat! is written from 
left to right. 

Letters (varn) are divided into Vowels (svar) and 
Consonants (vyanjan, often pronounced venjan). 

. 1. When initial, that is, when they begin a 
syllable, the vowels are as follows : 

2*1 = a pronounced as u in but* 
2>ll = a ,, a in army. 

y = i i in A/i^butoftenlength- 

ened in sound. 

$ = I ee in heel. 

@ = u oo in hood. 

Ol = u oo in fool. 

3*1 = e e in iefe, sometimes al- 

most as'e in led. 
^ . . 

3>t = ai ai in aiste. 

o ,, o in ocean: always long. 

au ozy in 



* As this vowel C6 occurs far more frequently in Gujarat! than any 
other vowel, it is most important that the student should pronounce 
it correctly, otherwise his conversation will be quite unintelligible. 

B 2 



20 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

Or, briefly, the vowels as used by us in transliterating 
are to be pronounced as in Italian, except that a (^t) 
is to be carefully given the indistinct or dull sound 
indicated above. 

When these vowel sounds are not initial, they are 
represented in accordance with the subjoined table. 
It is to be observed that the first vowel (^t) is sup- 
posed to be inherent in every consonant, except : (1) 
when that consonant is followed by some other vowel : 

(2) when virdma ( ) is written or understood under it : 

(3) when that consonant is the first portion of a compound 
letter. Therefore, when this sound a (^t) is not initial, 
it possesses no written sign. 

NON-INITIAL VOWELS. 

Guj. Equiv. Name of the character. 

I = , as ^t I = &... kano. 

P ~ i) r*i = hi hrasva-ajju. 

1 = *, 4 6* dirgha-ajju. 

;> = , "1 = bu . . . hrasva-varadun. 

^- = u, H bu . . . dirgha-varadun. 

* s ?* 

~ = e > )> **i = &e . . . ek matra. 
= ai, 1 = bai ... be matra. 
^ = o, v\\. = bo . .. kano matra. 
I = au } "^Hl = ban . . . kano be matra. 
~i ri> }, \ = bri (sounded as brii : this ri 

is considered a vowel.} 

It will be noticed that the sign for short i (\) is always 
written before the consonant which begins the syllable in 



THE ALPHABET. 



which it (when not initial) occurs. (The reverse of this 
takes place in the English termination -l>le, and seems 
equally strange to a foreigner.) 

2. Simple Consonants. 



CHARACTER. 



CHARACTER. EQUIV. 



. ^ 


Ij 


ka 


M H 






^ 


"^1 


kha 


ll 

g i' 


u 


ga 
gha 


A 


s-t 


n' 


x-x 


H 


ch 


. I 1 "" 






S 2 


&P or ^9 


chh 


<! 


> ^ 




*< tn 


/ 


j 


1' 


Oj>* 


jh 


s -' 


^ t 


n 


^ 


^ 


t 


S 3 


S 


th 


PH ' rj 

pa '5 

W """" 


s 


d 


N 'S 


<s> 


dh 


u ^ 






J, 


^ 


n 


^A 


(^ 


t 


s 


^ 


th 


H-4-3 
O2 


<^ 


d 


ft | 


k 


dh 


03 






S 


"\. 


n 





H 


P 


'3 

02 IC8 




or J^3 


f 

(Some 
pronounce 
itasj>A.) 


M 3 






ea o3 


^H 


b 


o 


^L 


bh 




n 


m 


^ 


H 


y 


1 "1 


^. 


r 


O 1 <S 


<H 


1 


s "a 






cj 








H 


V 






f 


OQ 


<l 


s 


H ^3 


^ 


sh 


S 02 


^1 


s 




6 


h 


<3 p 






M S 


(n 


1 


W o> 






O 







* 0"} is used to transliterate the Persian j (z) : note the inserted 
dot. 

t The characters marked thus (f) are rarely used in Gujarati 



22 GUJABATI GEAMMAB. 

Some of the characters above given require two con- 
sonants to represent them in transliteration, and yet they 
all represent simple and uucompounded sounds. The fol- 
lowing require some explanation of their pronunciation : 

^i Jch, as in ink-horn, but as if the Jc were part of the 

second syllable. 
OL g, is always hard, as in go. 
U gh, is a slightly more guttural sound than simple g. 

The Cerebrals are produced by turning the point of the 
tongue upwards to touch the top of the palate. The letters 
& (th) and (J (dh} are somewhat more emphatically 
pronounced than the simple 2 (t) and (d). The 
dental t and d (f\ and <c) are softer than the English 
equivalents, being formed by applying the point of 
the tongue to the point of the upper teeth. Be care- 
ful not to give 1 (th) and H (dh) the sound of English 
th in thought and that of th in thou respectively. 
Bh (<H) is a more emphatic sound than simple b (v\) . 
^ or y is /, and not (as the corresponding letter in 
Sanskn't) ph. 8 (^.l) and (^,) sh have in Gujarat! 
the same sound, but are vulgarly confounded with 
simple s (^l). N before the aspirates has always a 



never but in the case of some not properly naturalised Sanskrit 
words. Those acquainted with Sanskrit will observe that the order 
and arrangement of the letters in Gujarat! closely follow those of 
the mother-tongue. Gujarat! adds but one character, cerebral I 
((/I), to represent a sound not used in classical Sanskrit, though 
its equivalent 95 is found in the Rig Veda. 



THE ALPHABET. 23 

nasal sound (as in the French mon] . H, when it 
comes between two vowels, has a very slight sound, 
and is often omitted both in speaking and writing. 
When it is the first letter in a compound consonant 
also, it is hardly audible. V (H) has a sound midway 
between the English v and w, but is neither. 

Instead of 3. and /l respectively, the signs B (ru) 
and 4?3 (^7) are used. So also ja is written **!, and 
6Q is ju : and 3? i 3 ru - 

Nasal n is written with a dot above the line, as in 
(chhokntti). In this Grammar we represent it 
by n. The dot is called anusvdr. 

When n immediately precedes 6 or p it is pro- 
nounced as m. 

The sign : is called visarga, and is a final h. 

The sign o is used to denote contraction ; as y o 
% o = i. s. isavl san, = " Christian Year." 

R, when the first member of a compound, is written 
over the following consonant in the form ' , as in 
2*1^ = artlie. When it is the second member of a 
compound, it assumes the form of a simple stroke, 
as o\ = bra. 

Students acquainted with Arabic or Persian must 
be careful not to give tl (gli) and ^t (kli) the sounds 
of c and ^_ respectively. 



24 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

3. Compound Letters. 

These are formed by compounding into one, two or 
more simple characters. The necessity for their use 
is because of the rule given above, that **(. () is in- 
herent in the sound of every consonant. The com- 
pounds are generally easily recognised and read. The 
most important are given below. The two most diffi- 
cult are | = kslia, and S^jna (pronounced gnya). 



OH = 



). EQT7IV. 


COMPOUND. EQtTIT. 


COMPOUND. EQT7IV. 


= Ma 


X^H pva 


^H = lima 


= Tina 


3^\ = sta 


^*l = ghna 


= kma 


3^?l = stra 


^*t = glima 


= Ttya 


^1 = sra, 


2. = tta 


= kra 


&i = sma 


1 = tlitlia 


gva 


Q{ sya 


<r = dda 


a 


^H = sva 


*3:<"1 = nsta 


= tna 






= tma 


^ = lira 


1 




^ = dva 


c2{ ^ vya 


= tya 








di ^ diicb 


o ^ slit a 


= tra 


* j 




= tva- 


<*., /<c = dra 


<jj = /jya 


= pta 


& = ddha 


^ = dri 


= pna 


%{ = sclia 


<Sr^{ = 7ya 


= pma 


^>t = sma 


cv^l = ^V a 


= pya 


^ = sra 


^lor|J= Ha 


= pra 


9* = Sva 


c^{ = 6?^i/a 



THE ALPHABET. 25 

When any of these compound consonants is followed 
by any vowel sign, the inherent ^H (a) is of course 
rejected, as in the case of simple characters. 

Dv, tv, and other compounds of which v forms the final 
member, are pronounced almost like dd, tt, the v having 
the effect of apparently adding emphasis to the sound of 
the first member of the compound, but being itself very 
slightly pronounced. 

4. The Orthography of the Gujarat! language is, in 
some points, still unsettled, though the preparation and 
use in schools of Government class-books tend to fix it. 
In works printed a few years ago, for example, we find 
vdhdnn for vahdn, lidt for Tidlh, Idhdr for bahdr, etc. So 
also ndhdno is now generally written, and perhaps always 
pronounced ndno ; and we now have moto for mohoto, 
dahddo (in Parsi-Gujarati pronounced ddro) for dahddo. 
There is still great uncertainty about i and u, the long and 
short forms of these being often used as of equal value. 

Such forms as rahyo, Ttdhyun, etc., are pronounced almost 
as if written raiyo, kaiyun, owing to the feeble sound of h. 



( 26 ) 

CHAPTER II. 
PAIITS OP SPEECH. NOUNS. 

1. There are eight parts of speech, as in English. Of 
these the Noun (ndni), the Pronoun (sarvanam), the Adjec- 
tive (viseshan), and the Verb (kriydpad) are capable of 
inflection (dkhyey) : the rest being indeclinable (avyay) . 

NOUNS (Nam). 

Nouns are Proper (viseshanam) , Common (sdmdnyandm), 
and Abstract (bhdvavdchakandm). They admit of Gender, 
Number, and Case, 

2. GENDER (Jdti). 

There are three Genders in Gujaratl; masc. (narajdti), 
fern, (ndrijdti), and neut. (ndnyatar). 

The Gender of a word is determined either (1) by its 
meaning, or (2) by its termination. 

Among names of living creatures, those clearly denoting 
males are masc., those denoting females fern., while those 
which are common to both sexes are generally neuter. 
E.g. purush a man, a male (vir) is m. : strl a woman is 
fern., mdnas a human being (homo) is neut. : so also chhokro 
a boy, masc. ; chhokri a girl, fern. ; chhokrun a child, neut. 
(Cf. German bd ftitlb, and our habit not confined to 
bachelors of speaking of an infant as it.) 

The names of the days of the week, of months, of moun- 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 27 

tains, the heavenly bodies, oceans, seas, winds, divisions of 
a country, are masculine. 

Names of Rivers (except e.g. Brahmaputra, Sindhunad, 
which are m.), the Earth, Lunar days (except padavo, ra.), 
divisions of the day (except pahor, m., a watch, vigilia), 
and the following members of the body, viz., dnkh, eye ; 
jdng, thigh ; nas, vein ; pdnpan, eyelid ; khdndh, shoulder ; 
ux&jibh, tongue, are feminine. 

Names of classes of animals, villages, cities, districts, 
the points of the compass, and most names of fruits, are 
neuter. 

3. Gender as fixed by terminations. 

Most nouns ending in -o are masculine.* 

-I or -a are feminine. -\- 

All -u/7 are neuter.% 

Nouns derived from the stems of prepositional verbs in 
Sanskn't, as vikdr (fr. \/ kn') , change; vichdr(ir. v'char, 
to think), thought : and reduplicated onomatopoeic nouns 
ending in -at (as gadgaddt, a rumbling), are masculine. 

* Except : juo, f. or n., gambling ; chho or chhoo, f., mortar; dho, 
m., washing. 

f Except : (1) when the I = Sk. iyam, Ijam, &c. ; e.g. pdni, n., 
water ; lohl or lol, n., blood ; man, n., pepper ; Hi, n., seed ; ghl, n., 
' ghee,' clarified butter. (2) When the *i is a term, denoting a calling, 
trade, or indicating in some way a male : e.g. Pars!, m. ; hdthl, m., 
a male elephant ; dliobi, m., a washerman. (3) A few nouns in -a 
are masc. : e.g. dtmd, spirit ; mahimd, glory ; devatd, a god, fire. 

J Except ghaun, m., wheat. 



28 GUJAKATI GEAMMAR. 

All abstract nouns ending in -dl, as, -k, van, vat, vad, 
tit, td ; and Arabic or Persian words ending in -at or -as, 
are feminine. 

Most words ending in -e } -i, or -s } are also feminine. 

All abstract nouns having the terminations -an, -an, 
-pan, -man, van, tva, and most nouns ending in -n,* are 
neuter, as are also names of countries ending in -stdn. 

Nouns derived from Sanskrit generally speaking preserve 
the gender they had in that language. Thus if we know' 
that ghar, house, is the Sanskrit griham, n., we at once 
know that ghar too is neuter. (But vastu, a thing, is/., 
as in Hindi and Panjabi, though n. in Sanskrit.) 

Words derived from Hindustani, and through it from 
Arabic or Persian, usually retain the gender they had in 
Hindustani; as, jam In, ground, f. (Urdu, ,^x<; /)> tasdl, 
annoyance,/. (Urdu, jj^aJ/) 

It is impossible to fix the gender of all words by any 
number of rules, but the apparent difficulty thus caused 
disappears with practice in the language. 

More commonly there are two forms, one masc., denoting 
a larger, and one /em., meaning a smaller thing; as, chopdo, 
an account book, a large volume ; chopdl, a book, a small 
ordinary book. 

A few nouns have three forms, one of each gender ; as, 
chhokro, m., a boy; chhoTcrl, /., a girl; chholcrun, n., a 
child. 

* Except, e.g. an, ' an oath,' /. 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 29 

4. NUMBER (Vachan). 

In Gujarat! there are two numbers, Singular and Plural 
(called ekavachan and bahuvachan or anehavachan re- 
spectively). The plural termination is universally -o } 
though this ending is not always required to denote plu- 
rality. A few classes of nouns (see under Declension) 
undergo a slight change before taking this affix. 

Some nouns, as tal, mag, adad, mari, are used only in 
the plural. 

Such nouns of materials as retl, sand, val t hair, ru, 
cotton, mail, soil, earth, dhdnya, corn ; also names of 
metals, as sunun, gold, rup u ~i, silver; and moreover all 
abstract nouns, as nydy, justice, satyatd, truth, suddhatd, 
purity, pap, guilt, etc., are generally used only in the 
singular. The plural is, however, used when either 

(1) different kinds of the thing specified are meant, or 

(2) when something special is implied. Thus dhdnyo means 
' various kinds of corn/ Of. in English, "in deaths oft": 
i.e. ' in different kinds of peril of death/ Ex., " Amardn 
pdp ghandri, chhe," ' our sins are many/ Here pap is 
plural, as its adjj. show, though it has not assumed a plural 
ending. 

When a cardinal numeral (two, three, etc.), or an adjec- 
tive denoting all or many, precedes a noun, and when 
plurality is in this way sufficiently indicated, the noun 
commonly remains in the singular form, though with a 
plural meaning. E.g., Tamdre gher vis mdnas (for manaso) 
dvase, ' twenty men will come to your house/ But when 



30 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

a noun ends in -o, masc,, or -uTi, neut., in the singular, it 
must take the plural form in such a case. 

Sometimes a noun of material has a plural with a dif- 
ference of meaning- : e.g. lugdun, cloth ; lugddfi, clothes, 
garments ; lodhun, iron ; lodhdn, tools. 

A noun often occurs in the plural when the meaning is 
singular, in order to show respect. This, however, is the 
case only with nouns signifying persons. Ex., mdrd pydrd 
bdp sard chhe, e my dear father(s) is (are) good.' If the 
noun so used is feminine, its adjective is put in the plural 
neuter, as mdrdn beheno avyan hatdn, ' my sister (s) had 
come ' (vide p. 36, 4). 

5. DECLENSION (RupdJchydn) . 

With regard to declension, nouns in Gujarat! are divided 
into two classes : (1) those that end in -o, masc. and 
-un, neut. ; and (2) those that do not. 

The former class have two forms, the Absolute and the 
Oblique. The Oblique is formed from the Absolute by 
changing the -o or -un into -a ; and is used before all post- 
positions, and also as the Vocative. 

As nouns belonging to the second class do not end in -o 
or -un, it is evident that they remain unchanged in the 
singular, 

In the plural of all nouns the Absolute and the Oblique 
cases are one and the same in form. 

Nouns ending in -o, masc., take as their plural -d instead; 
the plural thus corresponding in form with the Oblique 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 



31 



Singular. To this, -o may be added as a further sign of 
plurality. 

Neuters in -un change this ending in the Plural into -an, 
to which they may add -o. 

All other nouns may have the plural of the same form as 
the singular. Feminines in -I, however, almost always 
add -o to form the plural ; and other nouns also may do so 
when any plural sign is required. 

We have, therefore, the following scheme : 



Class I. 



Masc. 




Sing. 
Abs. dikr-o 
Obi. dikr-d 


Plur. 
dikrd-(o) 
dikrd-(o) 



Neut. 

Sing. Plur. 

lugd-un lugd-dn-(o) 
lugd-d* lugd-dn-(o) 



Class II. 



Masc. 

Sing. Plur. 

Abs. punish purush-(o) 
Obi. purush purush-(o) 



Neut. 



Sing, 
ndm 



Plur. 
ndm-(o) 
ndm-(o) 



Feminine. 



Abs. 
Obi. 



Sing, 
dikrl 

dikrl 



Plur. 
dikrl-o 
dikm-o 



* Some -writers prefer to write the oil. neut. with a nasal, e.g. 
lugddn, both in nouns and adjectives, but it seems best not to do so. 



32 GUJAKATI GEAMMAE. 

Instead of the cases* of the Sanskrit, Gujarat! expresses 
the relation of the nouns to the other words in a sentence 
by certain small words corresponding to our English pre- 
positions. The only difference is that (1) these words 
follow instead of preceding the nouns which they govern, 
and are hence styled postpositions : and (2) that they are 
united in writing to their nouns, forming one word with 
them. The postpositions are attached to the oblique form 
of the noun. Those most commonly used are : 

ne, to (also expresses the direct object). 

e, by, at. no, Hi, nun, of. man, in. 

tliaki, vati, or ihl, from, with (instrument). 

In Nouns of Class L, the -a of the Oblique form is 
usually omitted before the addition of -e : we have there- 
fore both dikrd-e and dikre to mean 'by a son/ With 
this class of nouns, -e means only 'by/ denoting the Agent : 
but with nouns of Class II. it also means ' at/ and in this 
case may be compounded with thl, as nisdlethi. 

The termination -no-ni-nunrf agrees in number, gender 

* The native Grammars conform to the Sanskrit system and 
arrange the nouns and these postpositions into seven (or in some books 
eight) cases (mbJiaJcti). This is, however, alien to the spirit of the 
Gujarat!, quite as much as a similar scheme would be to that of the 
English language. It has, nevertheless, the advantage (?) of making 
difficult what is easy. 

f When a postposition beginning with a consonant is attached to a 
noun ending in one, the two consonants do not coalesce to form a 
compound letter. This is because, according to theory, the inherent 
vowel -a follows the last consonant of the noun. Thus dev, a god, is 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 33 

and case with the noun following, really turning its own 
noun into an adjective ; as, a mdnasna. dikrdne, ' to this 
man's son;' e rdjdni dikrl, 'that king's daughter.' (Vide 
Adjectives.} 

More than one postposition may be attached at the same 
time to a noun ; as, nisdl, ' a school ; ' nisdletlii or nisdl- 
mdnthi, 'from in the school ' or ' from at school ; ' gJiar- 
mdnni chholcri, ' the girl of in the house.' i.e. ' who is in 
the house.' 

The Absolute form may be used as the object of a verb, 
and very commonly is so when the noun denotes a thing 
without life. The Oblique with -ne more commonly ex- 
presses the object when it is a noun denoting a living 
being, or when it is desired to emphasize the object. 

The Absolute is sometimes used instead of the oil. with 
a preposition to denote point of time ; as, te dahado marl 
dikri gal, ' that day my daughter went.' 

It is also used to express measure, where we in English 
use 'of; as, tran lota pan! dpo, 'Give three vessels of 
water.' (Of. German (Sin IaS SBein, etc.) 

supposed to end in a (and to be deva). But as this inherent vowel in 
such instances is never heard, it would merely mislead the learner to 
write devane and expect him to pronounce it devne. 



( 34 ) 

CHAPTER III. 

THE ADJECTIVE (Viseshan). 

In Gujarat!, adjectives precede the nouns which they 
qualify. 

1. Adjectives are of two kinds : (1) Declinable (vikari), 
and (2) Indeclinable (avikari). To the former class belong 
all adjectives which have the termination -un in the neut. 
absolute. The masc. abs. of these ends in -o, and the 
fern. abs. in -4, as rat-o, -I, -un. These are declined pre- 
cisely on the model of chhohro, chJiokrl, chholcrun, i.e. the 
m. as dikro, the /. as dikri, and the n. as lugdun. 

When the adjective is declinable, the noun which it 
qualifies (called its viseshya) does not necessarily assume 
the -o of the plural if it belong- to Class II. of nouns, the 
plurality being sufficiently indicated by the adj., as ghandn 
ghar or ghandn gharo, ' many houses/ 

Adjectives that do not end in -un in the neut. abs. 
sing, remain unaltered when affixed to a noun, as lal, 
sufed. 

2. When declinable, the adj. agrees with its noun in 
gender, number and case; but the postpositions are not 
affixed to adjectives when they qualify nouns expressed* 

* This shows that these postpositions are not in Gujarat! case- 
endings, otherwise they would be affixed to adjectives too, as the case- 
endings are in Sanskrit, Latin and Greek. The only exception to 
this rule is in the case of the postposition -e, in certain instances. 
(Vide Cap. VI. ii. 6, nos. (3) and (4), pp. 83 and 84.) 



THE ADJECTIVE. 35 

If, however, the noun is understood, the adj. is used as 
a noun, and takes the postpositions accordingly. 

The plural term, -o is not generally added to plural 
adjectives when followed by plural nouns; hut may he 
added to them when the noun is feminine, e.g. ndnl dikrlo 
or ndnio dihrio, ' little daughters.' 

A noun with the affixes -no, m., -ni, f., -nun, n., when 
followed hy another noun, practically becomes a declinable 
adjective and is treated as such : as, a chhohrdnun pustak, 
' this boy's book ; ' d chhokrdna pustaTc man, ' in this boy's 
hook/ Te dungrone raste dvyo, ' he came by way of the 
mountains.' Here ne does not mean ' to/ but is formed 
from -?io, just as chliokre is from chhoTcro, and agrees with 
raste. (Vide note on preceding page.) 

"When one adj. qualifies two nouns of different genders, 
it is put in the neuter plural ; as, bhaldn md pdp, ' good 
parents/ This is so when the adj. is the predicate also, 
as tamdrd bhdi tathd tamdrl beheno ghanan chlie, 'your 
brothers and your sisters are numerous/ 

3. For the sake of clearness we add an example of 
(1) a declinable, and (2) an indeclinable adj. attached to a 
noun with postpositions affixed : 

(1) Declinable. 
Singular. 

Abs. mo to mendho .... a big ram. 
Obi. mo id mendhd .... 

moid mendhdne ... to 

etc. 

motd mendlie .... by 
c 2 



36 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

Plural. 

Abs. motd mendhdo . biff rams. 

O 

Obi. motd mendhdo ... 

moid mendhdone . . to 

etc. 

motd mendhdoe ... by 

(2) Indeclinable. 
Singular. 

Abs. and Obi. sufed ghar .... a white house. 
sufed ghare .... at 

sufed gharthl . . . from ,, 

Plural. 

Abs. and Obi. sufed ghar(o) . . . white houses. 
sufed gharoman . in 

sufed gharothl . . from 

4. "When an adjective qualifies a fern, noun plural, 
which denotes a person or persons, the adj. is generally 
put in the NEUTER plural to imply respect ; as, martin ma, 
sdrdn chJie, 'my mother is good. 3 (Here ma is in the 
1 plural of respect/) So also in addressing females, 
mdrdn pyardn leheno, ' my dear sister ' or ' sisters/ 

If one adjective qualifies (not both but) either of two 
nouns, which follow it, and are of different genders, the 
adj. agrees with the noun nearest to it; as,/o ihdn, doso 
purush he strl hoy, 'if any old man or woman be here.' 
The same rule holds good if the adjective in such an 



THE ADJECTIVE. 37 

instance be the predicate ; as, cjdij ke ghodo langdo hoy, ' if 
the cow or the horse be lame/ 

When a declinable adj. is used as an adverb to qualify 
another adj. attached to a noun, it agrees with the noun 
in gender, number and case ; as, A ghodo ghano rdto (or 
lal] chhe, ' this horse is very red/ 

When a declinable adj. is used adverbially to qualify a 
verb, it agrees with the subject of the verb ; as, te sipdl 
dhlmo hinto hato, ' that sepoy was walking slow,' (i.e. 
slowly}: d gliodl ghani dodl, 'this mare ran much.' 
5. Degrees of Comparison. 

No change in the form of an adjective occurs to express 
the Comparative and Superlative Degrees. But the posi- 
tive denotes the comparative when it is preceded in the 
same sentence by a noun or pronoun with the postposition 
-kartdfi, or -till attached to it; e.g., mdnas pasukartdn 
buddhimdn chhe, ' a man is wiser than a beast/ 

When the adj. is preceded by a word denoting all, to 
which the before-mentioned postpositions are affixed, it 
denotes the superlative relation ; as, Mdrun gliar badhdn- 
thl sdrun chhe, ' my house is the best of all/ 

6. The Numeral ek, ' one/ is added to adjectives de- 
noting many, or any definite or indefinite number, to make 
a slight change in their significance. In such cases the 
numeral may drop its vowel. Thus we have, from ghanun, 
' many/ nom. pi. m. ghand + ek = ghanaek or ghandk, ( a 
good number ; ' fem. ghaniek or ghamk ; neut. ghandnek 
or ghandnk. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE PKONOUN (Sarvandm). 
]. Personal Pronouns. 

These are slightly irregular in declension, but will be 
easily learnt from the following tables : 
1st Person. 



Sing. 
Hun, I. 

mane, me, to me. 
men, or me, by me. 
mdre (with sdru, &c.), (tor) 

me. 
mdr-o, m., -\ 

*, f., my. 

im, n., ) 

mdrdthl, from me. 
mdrdmdn, in me. 



P/wr. 
ylwie, we. 

amne, us, to us. 
awe, by us. 

amdre, (sdru, &c.), (for) 
us. 



amdr-o, m., 

*, *'., 

zw n. 



our. 



amdrdthi, from us. 
amdrdmdn, in us. 

2nd Person. 



TwE, thou. 

tone, thee, to thee. 

ten or ie, by thee. 

tare (sdru, &c.), (for) thee. 

tHr-o, m., } 

-U', thy. 
ww ; n., ) 

tdrdthl, from thee. 
tdrdmdn, in thee. 



Tame, you. 

tamne, you, to you. 

tome, by you. 

tamdre (sdru, &c.), (for) you. 

tamdr-o, m., 

i, f., J. your. 



n. 



tamdrdtht, from you. 
tamdrdmdTi, in you. 



THE PKONOUN. 



39 



Sing. 

Te, he, she, it. 
tene, him, to him, &c. 
tene, by him. 
tene (sdru), (for) him. 

te-no, -\ 

nl, ( of him, her, &c. 

-nun, ) 



3rd Person. 

Plur. 

Teo, they. 

teone, temne, them, to them, 
teoe, temne, by them. 
teone, temne (sdru}, for them. 

teono, &c., ) 

or C their. 
temno, &c., ) 

teomdn, ") . 

f 11 
temnamau, ) 



in them. 



tethl, tendtlii, from him. 
temdn, tenaman, in him. 

In the First and Second Persons there is no distinction 
of Gender. In the Third,* tenle is often used for the /em., 
' by her/ and less commonly temne for ' to her,' and tenmo, 
etc., for ' of her/ 'hers ': the other forms, however, may be 
used as feminine too, and are said to be more correct. 

Wherever ma or mdrd occurs above, muj may be used 
instead in the 1st Person, and similarly in the 2nd Person 
tuj instead of ta or tdrd; but these forms are not used in 
writing and are not considered so correct. 

In the Plural, we may have amo instead of ame (in the 
Agential amoe), and tamo (Agential tamoe) for tame. 

Ame is used for we when the person addressed is not 
included, and may be called the exclusive pronoun. When 
the person or persons addressed are included in the ' ive* 

* The pronouns tevan, m. and tenl f ., for ' he ' and ' she,' are much 
used in Parsi-Gujaratl. Vide some examples in Part V. of the sub- 
joined Beading Lessons. 



40 GUJARAT! GRAMMAR. 

another pronoun, Apane, is employed instead. It is de- 
clined thus: Apane, we; dpanne, us, to us; apane, by 
us, dpandtM, from us; dpandmdn, in us; dpano, -I, -un, 
our (poetically dpado, -I, -un). 

2. Honorific Pronoun. 

Ap is used sometimes in addressing a superior, never as 
in Urdu in speaking to an equal. It is declined as if it 
were a noun, the postpositions being added quite regularly ; 
as, dp-no, -ni, -nun, ' of your honour ' dpthi, ' from your 
honour/ etc. It is plural, and of the 2nd Person, (not, as 
in Urdu, of the 3rd). 

The usual word for 'you' is iame, which is used just as 
the corresponding English word. Tun, is rarely used but 
in addressing children, except in the villages, where the 
country-people address one another by this pronoun. 

3. Reflexive Pronoun. 

The Reflexive Pronoun is pote, Obi. potd. It is used 
for all three genders and both numbers, and signifies ' him- 
self/ ' herself/ ' itself/ ' themselves/ being of the third 
person. The Agential corresponds with the Absolute in 
form, and for potdtlii, ( from himself/ &c., we may also 
have potdndtlu, with the same meaning. A reduplicated 
form, potpote, is also used with a distributive sense, f each 
himself/ E.g. while te logo potdne glier gayd means 
' those people went to their own home/ implying that 
they had one home in common, te logo potpotdne gher 



THE PRONOUN. 41 

gayd would mean 'those people went each to his own 
home/ (Glier is for ghare, i.e. ghar + the termination -e 
meaning in or at, here to.} Another reflexive pronoun 
is pande, ' himself/ 'self 5 ; as, Rdjd pande bhanelo hato. 

It is necessary to call attention to the fact that pote, 
in the possessive form potdno, potdnl, potdnun, is not used 
with regard to the 1st, and hardly ever with reference to 
the 2nd person. Therefore, instead of saying, as in Urdu, 
main apni Jcitdb parhtd liun, in Gujarat! we say Tiun marl 
chopdl vdnchun cliliun. But we say : Hun pote chdlyo, 
' I myself went ; ' tun pote jose, ' thou thyself shalt see ; ' 
teo pote dvyd, ' they themselves came : ' also, Hun potdno 
nydya karto nathi, ' I judge not myself, 5 because nydya 
Tcarvo is a verb. 

Instead of potpotdno, sau sauno (sau =' each 5 ) may 
be used ; as, tame sau saunljagde besijdo, 'go ye and sit 
down, each in his own place.' 

4. Interrogative Pronouns. 

1. Kon, ( who?' is of both numbers and is of all three 
genders. In its declension it has three forms for the 
Oblique, viz. kona, Ito and lie, otherwise it is regular, being 
declined like a noun of Class II. by the addition of the 
proper postpositions, as konane, Ttone, or kene, ' whom ? ' 
' to whom ? ' Like other pronouns it allows the possessive 
to be used, instead of the simple oblique, before -man and 
-ihl, as Ttonihi, Jiondtlu, or kendthi, 'from whom?' 

2. Kayo, m., kal } f., kayun, n., = 'which? 5 (Urdu 



42 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



It is declined like an ordinary adjective of its class. 
Another form is Myo, Jcel, Idyun. 

3. So, m. } st, f., sun, n., = ' What ? ' is declined regu- 
larly, except that (1) in the sing-, it has two forms of the 
oblique, sa and se, m. and n.j and (2) that its agential 
form, after the manner of the personal pronouns, prefixes n 
to the postposition -e, becoming sane or sene, ' by what ? ' 
The neut. is used as a pronoun, 'What?'; the word is 
rather an interrogative adjective than a pronoun in other 
respects ; as, teo si rite e Team Jcare chlie, ' in ivhat manner 
do they do this work ? ' (The s in this word is almost 
universally pronounced as if it were s.) 

5. Relatives and Indefinites. 

1. Kol, 'any one,' 'some one/ with a negative c no one,' 
is also a relative adj. When a pronoun it takes the affixed 
postpositions. The Oblique is the same as the Absolute 
form ; e.g., a rotU koine dpo, ' give this bread to some one/ 
When koi may mean either a male or a female, its verb is 
generally neuter; as, koijantuH nahatun, 'no one knew/ 

2. Je, ' who,' ' which/ ' that/ is of all three genders. It 
is declined on the model of Te. Whenever je occurs in a 
sentence, if it is not preceded by te, the latter must follow 
it ; as, Rajde tene marl nankhyo, etle je sipdi men Tcdlo 
ditho, tene, ' The king killed him, i.e. the soldier whom I 
saw yesterday, him.' 

1 Whoever,' ' whosoever/ ' whatever,' is expressed by the 
reduplication of je, and consequently of the accompanying 



THE PRONOUN. 43 

te ; as, Je je tliekdne dhartl rasdl dlthi, te te thekane teo 
vasyd, ' Wherever they found the ground fertile, there they 
dwelt/ 

Kam or Icdin is the indefinite pronoun denoting an un- 
certain amount or quantity = ( some ' (Urdu j^} as, 
' Give me some tea,' mane Ttaln did dpo. It is therefore 
generally used for inanimate things. 

6. Demonstratives. 

These are more properly adjectives than pronouns, but 
are entered here because, when used apart from nouns, 
they become pronouns. The principal are: A, this; E, 
that ; Te, that ; Pelo, -I, -un, that ; Olyo, -, -un, that ; 
Faldno, -1, -un, a certain. The last three are declined as 
regular declinable adjectives, the first three when used as 
demonstratives are indeclinable. 

From A, E, Te, Je, Ke, a number of very useful demon- 
strative, relative, and interrogative adjectives are formed, 
as will be seen from the appended list : 



A, this. 

duo, such as this. 
dtlo, as much as this. 
dvado, as big as this. 



E, that. 

ero, such as that. 
etlo, as much as that. 
evado, as big as that. 



Te, that. 

tevo, such as that. 
tetlo, as much as that. 
tevado, as big as that. 



44 GU JAR ATI GRUJMAR. 

The forms from Je and Ke are produced by putting / 
and K respectively in plac3 of T in the last column. These 
words are all regularly declined ; as, Jcevo, m. ; Icevl, f. ; 
kevun, n. If united to a preceding noun they require the 
oblique form of it; as, tobrd jevun moil, 'a, somewhat 
angry face/ ' puffed cheeks/ 

The enclitic j is often attached to pronouns (as also to 
nouns) in Gujarat! to add emphasis, being used just as is 
-tza (^) in Marathi and 111 in Urdu. So we have tej = 
'he indeed/ 'that very/ tevoj, ' just such as that/ &c. If 
a postposition is added to the noun, j follows the post- 
posijiion ; as, d nisolmtinj , ' in this very school/ 



( 45 ) 

CHAPTER V. 

THE VERB (Kriydpad). 

The Gujarat! Verb is conjugated very simply, there 
being only one conjugation which is employed for all 
verbs. A few verbs (vide 11), form their past tense 
irregularly, but when formed it is conjugated just as in all 
other verbs in the language. 

1. The Stem (mill) of the Verb is its simplest form, 
and is used as the 2nd Sing. Imperat. also, e.g. utar, 
' descend/ 

The Infinitive is formed by affixing -vun to the stem ; 
as, utar-vun, ' to descend/ This is the part of the verb 
given in dictionaries. 

The Present Part, changes the -vun of the Infinitive into 
-to, -tl, -tun, (e.g. utar-to), and is declined as a regular 
adjective. 

The Preterite is formed by adding -yo, -1, -yun to the 
stem for m.,f. and n. } respectively; as, utar-yo, c he de- 
scended/ 

The Aorist is formed by adding to the stem the remains 
of the original Sanskrit pronominal terminations. In 
Gujarat! these are : 



Sing. 


Plur. 


1st, -un 


-ie 


2nd, -e 


-0 


3rd, -e 


-e 



46 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

The Future is formed by adding- to the stem the fol- 
lowing affixes : 



Sing 
1st, -is. 

2nd, -se (vulg. ~je). 
3rd, -se. 



Plur. 

-Isun (also -asun and -isun). 
-so (vulg. jo). 



-se. 



There are three Primary Tenses the Aorist, the Future, 
and the Preterite. From the first and last of these, and 
from the declinable participles, compound tenses are formed 
with the assistance of the auxiliary Verbs, */chha and 
hovun, * to be/ 

The Passive Voice is formed from the stem by adding -a 
to it, and then affixing the terminations already mentioned ; 
as, lakh, ' write thou ; ' lakh-d-vun, ' to be written ; ' 
lakhdse, ' it will be written/ &c. 

If the stem have an intransitive signification, three or 
more forms may spring from it; as, marvun, 'to die/ 
mdrvun, f to strike/ mardvun, 'to quarrel/ mardvavun, 
' to cause to be beaten : ' so also karvu~i, ' to do/ ' to make ; ' 
Jcardvun, ' to be done ; ' hardvavun, ' to cause to be done/ 
although Jcarvun, is transitive. 

The two great classes of Verbs are : (1) Transitives 
(SaTcarmak), and (2) Intransitives (Akarmak). It is only 
in the use of the Preterite, and of the tenses derived from 
it, that any difference between the two classes is noticeable 
as far as conjugation is concerned. "We take the latter 
first : 



THE VERB. 



47 



2. Intransitive Verb. Active Voice (Karmak Bhed 
or Mul Bhed). 

I. Simple Tenses. (1) Primary, 
(a) Aorist (AniyamitavartmdnJcdl). 



Sing. 
1st Pers., hun utar-un, I 

may descend. 
2nd Pers., tun utar-e, thou 

mayest descend. 
3rd Pers., te utar-e, lie may 

descend. 



Plur. 
1st Pers., ame utar-le, we 

may descend. 
2nd Pers., tame utar-o, you 

may descend. 
3rd Pers., teo utar-e, they 

may descend. 



(&) Imperative. 
2nd Pers., Sing., utar ; Plur., utaro. 



(c) Future (BhavishyaJcdfy. 



Sing. 
1st Pers.j 7m ft utar-is, I shall 

descend. 
2nd Pers., tun utar-se, thou 

wilt descend. 
3rd Pers., te utar-se, he will 

descend. 



Plur. 
1st Pers., ame utar-isun, we 

shall descend. 
2nd Pers., tame utar-So, you 

will descend. 
3rd Pers., teo utar-se, they 

will descend. 



48 



GUJAEATI GRAMMAR. 



(d) Preterite (Bhf<talcd!).lst, 2nd, 3rd Person. 



Sing. 

m., utar-yo,* (I, thou, he) 
descended. 

f., utar-i, (I, thou, she) des- 
cended. 

n., utar-yun, (I, thou, it) 



Plur. 
m., utar-ya, we, &c. 

f., utar-l, we, &c. 
n., utar-ydn, we, &c. 



descended. 

To these forms the pronouns are prefixed, as hun, tun, 
te utaryo, if the subject is mase. ; hun, tun, te utart, if 
fern.; and hun, tun, te utaryun, if it is neuter. 



3. I. Simple Tenses. (2) Secondary, 
(a) Past Subjunctive (Saiiketabhuialidl] . 

This has only one form for both numbers and all three 
persons. 

1st, 2nd, and 3rd Person. 



Sing. 

utar-at, (If I, &c.) were or 
would be. 



Plur. 

utar-at, (If we, &c.), were 
or would be. 



(For the use of this tense, see examples under the Past 
Subj. of the auxiliary Tiovun.) 



* Sometimes the y of the preterite is omitted in the old style of 
writing, and we have utaro, gao, Jcaro, for utaryo, gayo, Tcaryo, &c. 
At others e is put instead of y, as dveo for dryo. 



THE VERB. 49 

(b) Past Indefinite (Aniyamitabhutakdl). 

This is the Present Participle used as a finite Verb. It 
therefore agrees in gender also with its subject. 

1st, 2nd and 3rd Person. 



Sing. 
m., utar-to, I, thou, he, used 

to descend. 

f., utar-tl, I, thou, she, &c. 
n., utar-tun, I, thou, it, &c. 



Plur. 
utar-td, we, you, they, used 

to descend. 

utar-tl, we, you, they, &c. 
utar-tun, we, you, they, &c. 



The pronouns are prefixed quite regularly to these 
tenses. 

(c) The Precative. 

This is the same as the Aorist, except that in the 3rd 
Pers. Sing, and PI. the termination -o is used instead of -e ; 
as, te, teo utaro, 'may he, they descend.' Ex, Kirpd 
tamdre sdthe thao (fr. tliavun), ' Grace be with you/ It is 
especially used in blessing or cursing. Another Precative 
(Future Precative) is formed by changing the -se of the 
3rd Sing, and 3rd Plur. into -jo ; as, tamdrun bhalun 
thajo, ' may you good be,' i.e. ' may you be blessed ; ' Te 
srdpit thdo, ' may he be cursed/ 

Hence we have : te utar-jo, sing. ; teo utar-jo, plur. 



(d) Future Imperative. 



Sing. 

2nd Pers., tun utar-je, thou 
shalt descend. 



Plur. 



tame utar-jo, you shall de- 
scend. 



50 GUJAKATI GRAMMAR. 

4. II. Compound Tenses. 

These are formed by combining with the Aorist, the 
Preterite, and the declinable Participles and Gerund (or 
Gerundive), certain tenses of the substantive verb. We 
therefore give here (1) the Participles and Gerund 
(Gerundive, Infinitive, &c.) of the ordinary verb, and 
(2) the conjugation of the Auxiliary. 

(a) Participles, &c. (Kndanf). 



Infinitive, utar-vun. 

Pres. Participle, utar-to, -tl, 

-tun. 
Connective Participle, utar- 



Ine. 



Gerundive, utar-vo, -til, -vun. 
Past Participle, utar-yo, -I, 

-yun. 

PI up. Participle, utar-elo, -, 
-un, (also utarel, indecl.). 
Agential (declinable), utar-ndr-o,-i, -un; (indecl.) utarndr, 
' a descender/ 

The Infinitive when declined is treated like a neuter 
noun ending in -un, and makes its oblique in -vd ; as, 
te vanchvane avyo, or vdnchvd dvyo, ' he came to read/ 

The Gerundive is an adjective, declined quite regularly, 
and agrees with the noun it qualifies ; as, mare d chopdl 
vdnchvi, ' hie liber mihi est legendus/ f I must read this 
book ; ' tene e Jcdm karvun, ( illi id opus faciendum/ ' he 
must do that work/ The verb 'to be y is generally 
omitted in such sentences. 

"When used impersonally the Gerundive is neuter ; as, 
tare ramvun, ' thou must play/ It is then a kind (often 
a polite kind) of imperative. 



THE VEEB. 51 

The Present, Past, and Pluperfect Participles are de- 
clinable Adjectives. The declinable form of the Agential 
Participle is also regular. The indeclinable Agential 
Participle is generally a noun. 

The Connective Participle is like our Perfect Participle 
Active, as utarine, ' having descended.' It is indeclinable, 
and has a shorter form (utarl] also. 

The Neuter Plural of the Present Participle is often 
counted as an independent Participle. It is used to 
denote ' in the state of/ as utartdri, ' in the act of descend- 
ing/ * This form of the participle is also used in such 
constructions as the following: Tene chopdl vdTichtda 
sikhvun, 'he must learn to read a book.' 

5. (6) The Substantive (Auxiliary) Verb. 



(1) Root ^/chha. Present Tense. 



Sing. 
1st Pers., hun chhun, 



am. 



2nd Pers., tun chhe, thou art. 
3rd Pers., te chhe, he is. 



Plur. 
ame chhie(va.]g. chhaiye),\ve 



are. 



tame chho, you are. 
teo chhe, they are. 



(The negative of this is ' nathi,' which is used for all 
three persons and both numbers.) 

Pres. Part. Neut. Plur. chhatdn, being. Inf. caret. 



* Equivalent to utarte hue, in Urdu, 
D 2 



GUJAKATI GRAMMAE. 



(2) Root Y//IO, ' to be ' or ' to become.' 
Aorist. 



Sing. 

1 st Pers., huTi houn, I may be. 
2nd Pers., tun hoy* thou 

may'st be. 
3rd Pers., te hoy, lie may be. 



Plur. 

ame how, we may be. 
tame ho, you may be. 

teo hoy, they may be. 



Present. 

The present is formed by adding the present of 
to the above; as, hun houn chhun, 'I am being/ ' I am 
becoming/ &c. The negative is hun hoto nathi, &c. 



Infinitive, hovun. 

Pres. Part., hot-o, -I, -un. 

Connective Part., home. 



Gerundive, hov-o, -?, -un. 
(Past Part., hav-o, -I, -un.) 
Imper., 2nd sing 1 , and pi., ho. 



Agent. Part, dec!., Jionaro, -, -un; indecl., liondr. 

Precative Future, hojo. 

Fut. Imperative, tun hoje ; tame Jiojo. 

Future. 



Sing. 

1st Pers., hais, hols, I shall 

be, &c. 
2nd Pers., tun hase, hoe } 



Phir. 
ame halsun, holsun. 

tame haso, hoso, (hojo). 
?, hols, (hoje). 
3rd Pers., te hase, hose. teo hase, hose. 

The forms in j are vulgar, and not used in written com- 
position. 

* In all verbs of which the stem ends in a vowel, the termination y 
takes the place of -e wherever the latter would otherwise occur, just as 
is the case in Hindi. 



THE 



53 



Past. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Person. 
Sinff. Plur. 



TO., Jiato (havo, vulgar). 
f'., hatl (Jiavl }. 
n., hatuii (havufi }) ). 



hatd (hard, vulgar) 
liatl (havl ) 
hatdrt (havun ) 



When the negative na is prefixed, this tense becomes 
nalioto, &c. 

Past Subjunctive. 

In all persons and both numbers, . . . hot (vulg. hat}. 
' (If) I, &c., were : ' e.g., Jo hurt, sdro hot, to mdrd mittro 
pan bhald hot, ' If I were good, my friends would be good 
also ; ' Jo tame dndhld hot, to tamne pdp na hot, ' If ye 
were blind, ye had not had sin/ 



6. Compound Tenses of Utarvun, ' To descend.' 
Indicative Mood (Nischayarth). 
(a) Present Tense (Vartmdn). 



Formed by adding the present of ^/chha to the aorist. 



Sing. 
1st Pers v hun utar-un chh-u~i 

I am descending. 
2nd Pers., tun utar-e chh-c, 

thou art descending. 
3rd Pers., te utar-e chh-e, 

he is descending. 



Plur. 
ame utar-le clui-le, we are 

descending. 
tame utar-o chh-o, you are 

descending. 
teo utar-e chh-e, they are 

descending. 



This tense has also the meaning, ' I descend/ &c. In 



54 GUJARAT! GRAMMAR. 

the Negative, the Present Participle with natlii is used 
instead of the tense as above given ; as, hun utarto (-, 
tun) nathl, ' I do not descend.' 

(6) Imperfect (Vartmdn Shut). 

Formed by adding the Past Tense of hovun. to the 
Present Participle. 

1st, 2nd, and 3rd Person. 



Sing. 

m., ~kun, &c., utarto hato. 
f., hun, &c v uiaril hail. 
n., hun, &c., utartun hatun. 



Plur. 

ame, &c. } utartd liatd. 
ame, &c., utartl hati. 
ame, &c., utartdn hatdTi. 



Meaning 'I, &c., was descending/ 
Negative hun, &c., utarto nahoto, ' I was not descending.' 

(c) Future Gerundial (Bhavishyavartmdri). 

Formed from the Gerund or Infinitive by adding the 
postposition -no, m. ; -nl, f. ; -nun, n., to the oblique form, 
and appending the present of 

Sing. 

1st Pers., m., hun utarvdno 
chhuii, I am about to 
descend. 



Plur. 
ame utarvdnd chhle, &c. 



The rest of the persons are formed quite regularly, in a 
similar way. r^ 



THE VERB. 



55 



(d) Past Gerundial (Bhcwishyabh&t). 

Formed by adding the past tense of Jtovun to the posses- 
sive form of the gerund, as in the preceding tense. 

1st, 2nd, and 3rd Person. 



Sing. 
m., hun utarvdno hato, &c. 



Plur. 

ame utarvdnd lied d, &c. 



Meaning ' 1 was about to descend/ &c. 
(e) -Present Perfect (Bhutavartmdri) . 



Formed by adding the present of *J chlia to the Past 
Participle. 



Sing, 

1st Pers., m., hun utaryo 
chhun, I have descended. 

2nd Pers., m., tun utaryo 
chhe, thou hast descended. 

3rd Pers., m., te utaryo chhe, 
he has descended. 



Plur. 
ame utaryd chhie, we have 

descended. 
tame utaryd chho, you have 

descended. 
teo utaryd chhe, they have 

descended. 



For the fern, and neut., the utaryo becomes utarl and 
utaryuTi respectively in the Sing., and utarl and utarydn 
in the Plur. (With this and the Pluperfect tense compare 
the French ' Je suis alle/ and our ' I am come/ for ' I 
have come/) 

(/) Pluperfect (Dvitvabhut}. 

Formed by adding the Past of liovun to the Past Par* 
ticiple. 



56 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

1st, 2nd and 3rd Person. 



Sing. 

m., hun, &c., utaryo hato. 
f., hun, &c., utarl hati. 
n., hun, &c. t utaryuTi hatun. 



Phir. 

ante, &c., utaryd liatd. 
ame, &c., utarl hati. 
ame, &c., utarydn hatcln. 



Meaning ' I had descended,' &c. 

((/} Second Perfect (Viseshalhiltavartmdri). 
Formed from the Pluperfect Participle by adding the 
Present of */chha. 

Sing. 
1st Pers., m,, hun, utarelo 

chhun. 
2nd Pers., m., tun utarelo 

chhe. 
3rd Pers., m., te utarelo chlie. 



Plur. 
ame utaield ckJiie. 



tame utareld chho. 



teo utareld chhe. 



The Fern, and Neut. are formed by changing the termi- 
nations of the Participle as above in (e). 

Meaning ' I am in-the-state-of-having-descended ; ' 
i.e., ' I have descended/ &c. 

(h] Second Pluperfect Tense 
(Dvitvavi$eshabhfdavartmdn*). 

Formed as the Second Perfect, substituting hato, &c., 
for chhiin. 

* When expressing in language strong, if not courteous, his admira- 
tion (?) for these ponderous names (the analysis of which is, however, 
easy), I trust the student will remember that I am not guilty of 
inventing them. They may help him if he is reading with a native 
Pandit. 



THE VERB. 57 



1st, 2nd and 3rd Person. 



Sing. 
m., huTi, &c., utarelo hato. 



Plur. 
ame, &c., utareld hatd. 



The Fern, and Neut. are formed quite regularly, by the 
usual change of gender. 

Meaning ' I had descended/ &c. 



7. Subjunctive Mood (Sansayarth or Sanketarth). 

For each of the above eight Compound Tenses in the 
Indicative, there is a corresponding tense in the Sub- 
junctive. The formation of these is very easily understood. 
It consists in putting the Aorist of JiovuTi wherever the 
Present of N/ chha occurs in these Indicative tenses (except 
in the Present, which see), and the Past Subjunctive of 
hovun wherever hato is found in them. We have there- 
fore : 

1. Present Hun utarto JiouTi, &c. 

2. Imperfect hot, &c. 

3. Future Gerundial . . utarvano liouTi, &c. 

4. Past Gerundial .... hotj &c. 

5. Present Perfect .... utaryo houTi, &c. 
6 Pluperfect hot, &c. 

7. Second Perfect .... utarelo houTi, &c. 

8. Second Pluperfect . . hot, &c. 



6 8. Use of Tenses. 

*l 

The use of most of the Tenses is quite evident from their 



58 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

meaning 1 ?, as already given. A few, however, are used in 
more than one acceptation, and need perhaps a few words 
of explanation. 

1. The Aorist is so called because of its indefiniteness. 
It is very much more ' unlimited ' in its use than is the 
tense in Greek, from whence the English word is derived. 
Generally, the Gujarat! Aorist means may, as Hun avun, 
' I may come.' It also asks a question, in which we would 
translate it by the form of the English Future, as Hun, 
niklun un ? ' Shall I ' or ' May I go out ? ' It moreover 
implies a wish ; and, when (as frequently) followed by to or 
some similar particle, may be translated by the subjunctive 
with if-, as, Te jay, to hun avis, ' If he go, then I shall come/ 

But it very frequently, especially in the historical style, 
has a, past sense, generally meaning ' used to/ and denoting 
a state of things continuing for some time, or more fre- 
quently a regularly repeated action. In this case some 
past tense before the Aorist shows that it has this sense. 
E.g., in the following sentences, in which the Past Inde- 
finites, which precede, fix the meaning of the Aorists : 

E adhikdrio rdjdne sdru Jchedutpdsethi vaje vasul karta, 
veparipaseihi malupar jakdt leta .... Raja sarvupar 
uparlpanun raklune, prajdno insdf kare ; khun kare, tene 
suUe chadave ; ane chorndn Jcdnddn kape, pan halkd gunlid 
karndrpdsethi dandoj le. ' These officials used to collect, 
on the king's behalf, the revenue from the husbandmen, 
exact custom-dues from the traders .... The king, re- 
taining the oversight over all, did (i.e. used to do) justice 



THE VERB. 59 

towards his subjects ; (it* any one) committed murder, he 
would hang him on a stake (impale him), and he used to 
cut off the hands of thieves at the wrist; moreover, he 
exacted a fine from those who committed slight offences.' 

2. The Past Indefinite might also be called the Con- 
tinuative, since its general use is to show a long continued 
action. This also is well exemplified in the above sentence. 

3. The Neut. sing, of the Past and Pluperfect Participles 
are often used as nouns; as, tdrun Ttahelun (or Jcahyun) 
sarun cfihe, ' what thou hast said (thy saying) is good/ 

4. The Connective Participle is like our Part, in ' having / 
as, Raja tone jolne nikli gayo, 'the king, having seen him, 
went out.' When two finite verbs are in English con- 
nected by ' and/ the first of them is often expressed by this 
Participle in Gujarat!, the conjunction being omitted. 

9. Negatives attached to Verbs. 

It is convenient to treat these Adverbs here. The 
Negatives in Gujarat! are Man, nd, na, nathi, and nahi 
(also written nahin). 

Man or md is prohibitive, and is used after the Impera- 
tive Present and Future ; as, Biho md, f fear ye not. ' 

Nd = our ' No/ in answering a question in the negative. 
(But nd kehevi is 'to refuse/) 

Na is prefixed to the Aorist and 2nd Future ; also to the 
Past Tense of hovun, in which case the two words are 
written as one, and na + hato becomes nahoto very fre- 
quently, though not necessarily. 



60 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Nathl is used as the negative of chhitn, dike, &c. It is 
used only with the Pres. and Pres. Perf., and then changes 
the verb in the way shown in the annexed examples : e.g., 
te vanche clihe, ' he is reading ;' te vdnchto nathi, ' he is 
not reading : ' tame chdlyd chko, ( you have walked ; ' tame 
chdlyd natlii, ' you have not walked.' 

Nahi may be used everywhere except in the Present and 
Present Perfect tenses, and generally follows the verb. 
When prefixed it gives particular emphasis, and often 
gives to the Aorist a future negative signification. In the 
same vraynathi may be prefixed in the Present and Present 
Perfect tenses to strengthen the negative ; as, hnn d vinantf 
Jfarun chhun, ' I make this request ; ' hun d vinantl nathl 
Ttario, 'I do not make this request;' Kolno vinds nathl 
thayo, ' No one at all has perished.' 

10. The Transitive Verb. 

This is conjugated exactly according to the model given 
under Intransitives, except that (with a few exceptions) * 



* The principal of which are : 
Advun, to impede. 
Adakvun, to touch. 



,\ 



Babadvun, 

or [ to prate. 

Badbadvun 
Bhanvun, to learn. 
Bhulvun, to forget. 
Bhetvun, to embrace. 
Bolvun, to say. 



Jitvun, to conquer. 
Jamvun, to eat. 
Lavuii, to bring. 
Malvun, to get. 
Pdmvuii, to gain. 
Samajvun, to understand. 
Slkhvuii, to learn. 
Vadvun, to adore. 
Valaffvun, to embrace. 



Chukvun, to finish. 
These verbs, though transitive, retain the Subject in the Absolute 
form. 



THE VERB. 61 

the Subject of the verb, in the Preterite and all tenses 
formed from it, is put in the Agential form, i.e. has the 
postposition -e attached to its oblique state. In these 
tenses the verb agrees in gender and number with the 
logical olject, and in case too, unless the object be governed 
by the postposition -ne. 

Taking as our example, therefore, the verb Rdkhvun, ' to 
keep/ we have in these tenses : 



(a) Preterite. 



Sing. 



1st Pers., men, rdkhyun, I 

kept. 
2nd Pers., ten rdkhyun, thou 

kept. 
3rd Pers., tene rdl'hyun, he 



Flu 



r. 



ame rdkhyun, we kept. 
tame rdkhyun, you kept. 
teoe rdkhyun, they kept. 



kept. 

Example : Tene nagar vasdvyuTi, ' He built a city ' (or 
literally, ' He caused a city to be inhabited '). 

The Past Participle in Transitive Verbs has really a 
Passive signification, and we might perhaps understand 
the construction better if we rendered the sentence, ' The 
city was built by him/ But the form of this Participle, 
agreeing as it does with that of Intransitive Verbs, and 
differing from that of all formations from the Passive Stem 
(fide 12, p. 67), as well as the fact that the Agential form 
of a noun or pronoun cannot be used with the passive, all 
this compels us to call this and similar tenses active. 



62 GUJARAT! GRAMJIAR. 

The Subject of the Verb in this construction is put in 
the oblique form, and has the postposition -e attached to it. 
The Object is generally (unless when at a distance from the 
verb) in the Absolute form if it denotes a thing : if it 
implies a living creature, but not a person, it frequently 
remains in the Absolute form, but not uncommonly is put 
in the Oblique with -ne : if it is the proper or common 
name of a person, the Object is usually in the Oblique form 
with -ne attached. As the postposition -ne also denotes 
the indirect object, in some sentences it occurs with both 
meanings. 

A study of the following examples will probably make 
the practical application of this clear. 

(1) Verb agreeing with object in gender, number and 
case : 

E bale vagaddmdTi daliddd Jcahddyd, ' That lady passed 
her days in the wilderness.' Here kahadyd is Absolute, 
pi. m., to agree with daliddd. 

Again : E nagarmdn tene rdjdhdni haw, ' In that city 
he fixed the seat of government.' Here the verb Jcarl is/., 
to agree with the logical object rdjdhdni, which is Abs., 
sing. fern. 

(2) Verb agreeing in gender and number with the object, 
but not in case : 

Tene e rdjde pdkadyo, * That king seized him/ Here 
pakadyo is niasc. sing., to agree with tene, *him,' but is in 
the Absolute, while tene is in the Oblique form with -ne. 

Again : Tene Rdnlne r tinman nasd^l mukl, ' He removed 



THE VERB. 



63 



the queen into a forest.' Here the verb mukl (the finite 
portion of the compound) is in the fern, sing., agreeing 
with the object Rdm in this, though not in case, as Rani 
is in the oblique with -ne. 

(3) \ r erb in neuter impersonal, the object being a 
sentence : 

Rajde vichdryun Ice have to vakJiat dvyo, ' The king 
thought that now the time was come.' Here the sentence 
Have to vakhat dvyo is the real object, and it is treated as 
a neuter. 

(6) Present Perfect. 



Sing. 
1st Pers., men rdkhyun chhe, 

I have kept. 
2nd Pers., ten rdkhyun chhe, 

thou hast kept. 
3rd Pers., tene rdkhyun chhe, 

he has kept. 



Plur. 
artie rdkhyun chhe, we have 

kept. 
tame rdkhyun chhe, you have 

kept. 
teoe rdkhyun, chhe, they have 

kept. 



The construction is exactly similar to that just explained, 
(c) Pluperfect. 



Sing. 

1st Pers., meTi rdkhyun ha- 
tun, I had kept. 

2nd Pers., ten rdkhyun h-i- 
tun, thou hadst kept. 

3rd Pers., tene rdkhyun ha- 
tuTi, he had kept. 



Plnr. 
ame rdkhyun hatun, we had 

kept. 
tame rdkhyun hatun, you 

had kept. 
teoe rdkhyun hatun, they 

had kept. 



GUJARAT! GRAMMAR. 



11. Irregular Verbs. 

The Irregular Verbs in Gujarat! are very few indeed, 
and the only irregularities in even these that really need 
attention are in the formation of the Past Participle (in- 
cluding the tenses formed from it). The following list 
contains all such verbs : 



Infinitive. 


Past Participle. 


Pluperf. Part. 


Besvun, to sit . 


betho, -i, -un . . 


bethel-o, -i, -un. 


Bihivun, to fear 


biny-o,-i,-un (& bldho) 


binel-o, -i, -un. 


Dekhvun, to see . . 


dithoy &c 


dithelo, &c. 


Devlin,* to give 
(Conn. Part, daine.) 

Hovun, to be . 


didho, &c 


didhelo, &c. 


Javun, to go . . . 
(Conn. Part, jalne.) 


gayo, gal, gayun\ . 


gayelo, &c. 


Karvun, to do . . 


Tcidho, &c. (or regular) 


kidhelo (orreg.). 


Khdvun, to eat . . 


Ifhddho, &c. 


khddhelo, &c. 


Levun, to take . . 
(Conn. Part, lame.) 


Udho, &c 


tidhelo, &c. 


Marvun, to die . . 


muo, &c 


muelo (or reg.). 


Ndsvun, to flee . 
Pesvun, to rush in . 


ndtho, &c 
petho, &c. .... 


tidtlielo, &c. 
pethelo, &c. 


Pivun, to drink . . 


pidho, &c 


pidhelo, &c. 


Suvun, to sleep . 


suio, &c 


suelo, &c. 



* Fut. hun dais, &c. 

t But^) te jaya Jcare chhe, ' Le is accustomed to go : ' see Fre- 
quentatives (p. 76, II., 1). 



THE VERB. 65 

More trifling irregularities occur in the aorist of certain 
verbs, of which the stems end in vowels. 

(1) If the stem end in -d, the termination -e added after 
it becomes changed into -y ; as, thavun, to become, 3rd 
Sing. Aor. thdy (for thde). 

(2) If the stem ends in -e, the -e when added coalesces 
with it, as levun, to take, 3rd Sing. Aor. le (for le-e). Be- 
fore the termination -o, the -e of the stem may remain, or 
it may be omitted, or again, it may become y ; as, leo, lo, 
or lyo, ' (you) may take/ 

(3) If the stem ends in -, the termination of the 1st 
Plur. Aor. loses its I, and so we have ame pie (for ame 
pile), ' we drink,' from plvun. 

(4) If the stem ends in -o, this vowel becomes -w before 
the terminations -e and -o ; as, jovun, 'to see;' te jue, 
tame juo (instead of joe and joo), 'he sees,' 'you see/ 
HovuTt, ' to be/ and kohovun, ' to be rotten,' make Tioij 
and Icohoy respectively. (The Pluperf. Part, of the latter 
verb is Jcohelo, &c. 

The slight irregularities of the following verbs will be 
observed from their paradigms : 

(a) Thavun, ' to become.' The stem is thd. 

Aorist. 



Sing. 

1st Per?., thaun or tlidiin 
2nd Pers., thai/ 
3rd Pers., thdy 



Plur. 
thaw 
thdo 
thdy 



Future, 
thais, thase, &c. 



66 



GUJARATl GRAMMAR. 



(&) Javun, 'to go.' Stem,ya. 
Aorist. 



Sing. 

1st "Pers.fjdun 
2nd Pers., jay 
3rd Pers., jay 



Plur. 
jute 
jdo 



Future. 



&C. 



(c) The Defective Joie, ' it is needful/ 

Aorist, both numbers, all persons, jole. 
Fut. joUe. 

Past Subj. ,, joiyat. 

Pres. Part., joU-o, -i, -un, &c. 
Imperfect, jolto hato, &c. 

The construction of sentences with this verb is as in the 
example, ' Mare a chopdl joie,' = ' I want this book/ or 
' This book is needful to me/ 

(d] Kahevun or Kehevun, &c. 

Kehevun, Ho say;' and Rehevun, or Rahevun, 'to re- 
main/ make in the Aorist Kehe and Rehe &c. respectively, 
and in the Past Part. Kahyo &c. and Rahyo &c. 

It should also be noticed that, if the stem of a verb ends 
in s, this letter is changed to s (^ to l) whenever it is 
followed by * or y ; as, besvun, ' to sit/ Conn. Part, lesme; 
vasvun, ' to dwell/ Past Part. va$yo ; ndsvun, ' to flee/ 
Connl Part, nd&ne (though ndslne is also found), &c. 



THE VERB. 



12. Passive Voice (Sakyabhed or Sahyabhed). 

The general rule for the formation of the Passive is to 
add -a to the stem of the Active to form the Passive stem, 
and then attach to the new stem thus produced the same 
terminations as are employed in the Active. E.g., lakh- 
vun, ' to write/ Active stem, lakh ; Passive stem, lakh-d : 
1st Pers. Sing. Aorist Passive, lahhdun, &c. 

But for the sake of euphony, and to secure ease in articu- 
lation, this rule undergoes a few slight modifications in 
certain instances : 

(1) If the vowel d occur in the ultimate or penultimate 
syllable of the Active stem, this long vowel is shortened 
into a before the addition of the Passive stem-affix -d ; as, 
Vdpar-vun, ' to use ; ' Passive stem, vdpard-. 

(2) If the stem of the Active end in a vowel, or in h 
preceded by a vowel, the syllable -vd is added, instead of 
merely -d, to form the Passive stem ; as, pi-vun, ' to drink/ 
stem pi- ; Passive stem pivd-. If, however, the final 
vowel of the Active stem be -d, this is shortened (in agree- 
ment with Rule 1) before the addition of the vd; as, gavun, 
' to sing/ Active stem gd, Passive stem gdvd. 

The logical subject of Passive verbs, i.e. the doer of the 
action implied by them, is put in the oblique case followed 
by -thi (NEVER in the oblique followed by -e) ; as, RdjatM 
e ham Icardyun, ' that work was done by the Raja." 

E 2 



68 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



I. Passive of the Transitive Verb. 
Infinitive Act. DekhvuTi, 'to see;* Stem, Act. Dekh-. 

Aorist. 
Sing. 



1st Pers., Tiun deWidun, I 
may seem, or may be seen. 
2nd Pers., tun deJchdy* &c. 
3rd Pers., te dekhay,* &c. 



Plur. 

ame deklidie, we may seem, 

or may be seen. 
tame dekhdo, &c. 
teo delchdy,* &c. 



Present. 



Sing. 



1st Pers., Tiun dekhaun. 



chhun, &c. 



Plur. 



ame dekJidle chliie, &c. 



Future. 



Sing. 

1st Pers., Tiun deJchdU. 
2nd Pers., tun dekhdse or 
diS, &c. 



Plur. 
ame deJchdisun, &c. 



Preterite. 1st, 2nd, 3rd Pers. 



Sing. 

M., deklidyo', f., dekhdi', 
n., deJchdyun. 



Plur. 
dekhdyd, dehhdi, 



\ * See above, 5, p. 52, no. (2), and note ; also p. 65, (1). 



THE VERB. 69 

Infinitive .... dekhdvun. 

Past Part dekhd-yo, -l y -yua.* 

Present Part. . . dekhdt-o, -I, un. 

Agential Part. . dekhdndr-o, -i )t -uTi; and indecl., 

dekhdndr. 

Gerundive .... dekhdv-o, -, -un. 
Pluperf. Part. . . dekhdyel-o,-5,-unQTdeklidel-o, 

-I, -w/Lf 
Connective Part, dekhdine, delchdl. 

It is unnecessary to give paradigms of all the tenses at 
Isngth, as their formation will now be readily understood. 

Instead of the Preterite Passive, one of two circum- 
locutions may be used. (1) The Past Participle of the 
Active, followed by the Preterite of javun, 'to go ; ' as, 
te mardyo or te mdryo gayo, ' he was killed' or ' struck.' 
(2) The Oblique Infinitive with man, followed by the 
Present or Past, &c., of the verb dvavun, ' to come ; ' as, 
E vastu jovdmdn dm, l that thing was seen/ literally, 
came into seeing. This latter construction may be used 
with all tenses; as, A vat kehevdmdn dc&e, 'this story 
will be told/ It is very frequently met with in Parsi- 
Gujaratl. 

13. II. Passive of the Intransitive Verb. 
Intransitive verbs are not unfrequently used in the 

* Dialectically dekkanun. This form (ra. no, f. ni, neut. nun) 
is also used in the Preterite. 

t As in the Active, the indeclinable form (dekhdel) is also used. 



70 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

passive voice. This will not appear strange to the classical 
student who has, in his boyhood, had his ambition roused, 
let us hope, by such phrases as, " Sic itur ad astra." As 
in Latin, however, the Intransitive Verb exists in the 
Passive only in the third person singular. With this 
exception, the Intransitive Verb forms its Passive just as 
does the Transitive. E.g. 

(Act. Infin., Avavun, ' to come ; ') 
Pass. Infin., Avavun. 

Aorist Avdy. 

Present .... Avdy chhe. 

Present Participle . Avd-to, -ti, -tun. 

Past Participle . . Avd-yo, -I, -yun. 

Future Avdse. 

Pluperf. Participle . Avdel-o, -I, -un. 

Agent. Participle . Avdndr-o, -l y -un, &c., &c. 

(This verb does not shorten the d of the Active stem.) 

Of course some of these tenses and forms are very rarely 
used. The tense of most frequent occurrence is the 
Preterite. 

The Passive of Intransitives has generally, especially in 
the negative, the idea of possibility or the reverse ; as, 
marathi javdyun nahi, ' It was not gone by me/ = ' I 
could not go.' But this meaning is also frequent with 
the passive of Transitives also. 
_J Sometimes also the negative passive implies that a thing 



THE VERB. 71 

ought not to be; as, Evun kahevdy ndhi, = ' one should 
not say so/ 

14. The Causative Verb (Prekarbhed). 

The Causative Verb is very common in Gujarat, as it is 
in every Indian language of Sanskrit origin. Its meaning 
and use may be illustrated from the scanty remains in our 
own language of similar forms. For instance, from 'to 
sit,' we form the Causative ' to set,' i.e. ' to cause to sit ; ' 
from 'to fall/ the Causative is ' to fell/ i.e. f to cause to 
fall ; ' from ' to rise/ we have the Causative ' to raise/ 
80 in Gujarat!, from besvun, ' to sit/ comes besddvun, ' to 
cause to sit;' from lakhvun, '' to write,' we have lakhd- 
vavu n, ' to cause to write/ ' to dictate/ 

The rules for the formation of the Causative stem (for, 
when the stem is known, we conjugate the verb quite 
regularly) are the following : 

( I ) If the stem of the simple verb is intransitive and 
monosyllabic, and if its vowel is a, two causatives may be 
formed from it: one by lengthening the into a this 
merely renders the verb transitive : the other by adding 
the termination -ava* 



* The final d is, native grammarians would say, existent at the 
end of the stem of the simple verb too in the infin., and before all 
consonantal endings except those of the Past Participle. According 
to them we should have lakhavun, lakhato, &c. But, while omitting 
the a, in such cases, I have inserted it here, because it is audible 
between the two v's of the Caus. Infin. 



72 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

E.g., val -run, st. val, 'to turn,' intr.: 1st Cans, val- 
vini, ( to bend/ trans. ; 2nd Caus. valdva-vun, 'to cause to 
turn/ 

If such a verb is originally transitive, it takes only the 
second form of the Causative; as, Idkh-vaTi, 'to write;' 
( to cause to write.' 



(2) If the stem of the simple verb have in its last syllable 
the vowel d, this is shortened to a before the causative 
affix, which is frequently in such cases -dva, but may also 
be dd; as, jdn-vun, 'to know;' janava-vun, 'to cause to 
know;' chdhh-vun, 'to taste;' chakltdd-vun, 'to cause to 
taste/ 

(8) If the stem of the simple verb has any vowel except 
a or d in its last syllable, its Causative is usually formed 
by adding -dd, but sometimes -vardva or -dva. The first 
of these terminations becomes -vdd when the last letter of 
the stem is a vowel. E.g., lesvun, ( to sit/ caus. besdd- 
vun; le-vun, 'to take,' caus. levdd-vuTi or levardva-vun* 

From some causatives a second causative may be formed 
by reduplicating the causative ending and observing rule 
(2) above; as, Tear-win, 'to do/ caus. Jcardva-vun, 'to 
cause to do;' 2nd caus. learavdva-vvn [i.e., Tear + dva 



* This last term, -vardva is really a double causative, i.e. it is 
composed of -vdd (with the d changed to r) -f- the term, -dva, the 
of the former being shortened by rule (2) above. The term, -dd is 
the same which sometimes occurs as -Id in Urdu (bithldna for bithdna), 
and as -dl or -dl in PanjabI (bithdlnd). 



THE VERB. 73 

+ fiva + run with the first long a shortened by rule (2)]. 
Such forms are, however, rarely used. 

The Passive of Causatives is formed regularly, in accor- 
dance with the rule already given ; as, tapdvavun, ' to 
cause to warm ; ' Passive, tapdvavun, 

15. Irregular Causatives. 
Simple Stem. Caus. Stem. 

ad- (to impede) . . . addtf- 

Ihal- (to be mixed) . . bhelav(a)- 

far- (to turn, intr.) . . ferav(a}- 

m,al- (to meet, be got) . melav(a)- 

pl- (to drink) .... pd- 

thar- (to be fixed) . . thardv(a)-, therav(a)- 

uchhar- (to grow up) . uchhardv(a)- ) uchherdv(a)~ 

16. The Compound Verb (Sanyukta Kriyapad). 

Compound Verbs, that is verbs compounded of two 
simple verbs, play an important part in Gujaratl, as in 
most other Indian languages of the Sanskrit stock. They 
may be said to supply the place of verbs compounded with 
prepositions in Latin and Greek, or that of such particles 
as on, down, away, united to verbs in English. We may 
divide Compound Verbs into two classes : (1) those 
properly so called, and (2) those less entitled to the appel- 
lation. 

I. True Compounds. 

In these the two verbs are so united as to convey but 



74 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

one idea. The signification of the second part of the com- 
pound is practically lost, but its use strengthens that of 
the first portion. The compound is formed by taking the 
shortened form of the Connective Participle* of the first 
verb and attaching to it one of the following auxiliaries, 
ndnkhvun, devun, dpvun, javun, padvun, padvun, sakvun, 
chukvun, rehevun, kddhvun, levun, dvavun, valvun, vdlvun, 
according to the sense required to be expressed. They 
may be tabulated in the following manuer : 

1. Potential. Formed by attaching sakvun to the 
shortened Connective Participle; as, laJfhvun, ( to write/ 
Conn. Part., laklii-ne ; Compound, lakhi saltvun, f to be 
able to write/ So also jovun, ' to see ; ' jol sakvun, ' to 
be able to see/ &c. E.g., te ndno chhokro vaachl sake 
chhe sun? 'Can that little boy read?' SaJcvun may be 
used in the passive when necessary; as, Temthl pdchhun, 
dm sakdyun nahi, 'they could not return.' 

2. Completive. Formed by adding chukvun, ' to finish,' 
to the same part of the principal verb; as, Jchdvun, ' to eat ; ' 
Jchdl chukvun, ' to finish eating ; ' samjdvavun, ' to cause 
to understand;' samjai chukvun, 'to finish explaining/ 
E.g., mdro hutro te mans khdi chuJcyo chhc, ' my dog has 
finished eating that meat/ 

3. Intensitive. These are formed in the same way as 
the preceding, but the second part of the compound may 

* As in Braj Bhasha and Western PanjabT, not the stem of the 
verb as in Hindi. 



THE VERB. 75 

be devun, dpvun, ndnkhvun, kddhvun, vdlvun, pddvun, 
levun, as the meaning to be expressed may require. For 
example, mdrvun is ' to strike/ but marl ndnkhvun (Urdu 
li!!<i.U) is 'to strike down/ i.e. 'to kill;' pdvun, 'to cause 
to drink ; ' pdl devun, ' to give to drink ; ' mukvun, e to 
put ; ' mukl ndnkhvun, ' to put down at once/ * throw 
down/ &c. When devun or dpvun are used in the second 
part of such compounds, the idea of doing something for 
some one, doing a kindness to some one, is generally im- 
plied. When levun is used, the sense of taking for one's 
own advantage is understood in English ; as, Te bddsdh 
Hindustan JITI LEVANE dvyo, ' That king came to conquer 
(and take possession of) India.' 

Similar compounds are formed with intransitive as well 
as transitive auxiliaries. For example, Te rdnl rogl thai 
gal chhe, 'That queen has become ill;' Tdro ghodo 
saglun pdnl pi gayo, * Thy horse drank up all the water.' 
(The idea underlying such compounds will be best seen by 
translating idiomatically thus, ' That queen has gone and 
got ill ; ' ' thy horse has gone and drunk all the water.) 
The use of dvavun is somewhat similar; as, Te chopdl 
lakhdvi dvo, ' having caused that book to be written, come/ 

II. False Compounds. 

These are of various kinds, but the most important are 
those mentioned below. They cannot be regarded as true 
compounds, because the two verbs do not become one in 
meaning as in the examples given above. 



76 GUJARATI GRAMTIAS. 

1. Frequentatives. Formed by affixing karvun, 'to 
make/ ' to do/ to the oblique form of the Past Participle,* 
as in Urdu. The latter remains unchanged throughout, 
while the auxiliary is conjugated in the usual manner. 
Example : bolydkarvuti, 'to be in the habit of speaking ;* 
marya karvun, ' to be in the habit of beating/ E.g., Te 
mehetdji sadd chhokrdone bhandvyd kare chhe, 'That 
schoolmaster is always in the habit of teaching the boys/ 

2. Continuatives. Formed by adding to the Present 
Participle of any verb any part of the verbs javun, dvavuu, 
or rehevun, as the case may be ; as, bolto (m., -i f, -un n.) 
rekevun, ' to keep on talking ; ' vdTichto (-i, -un) dvavun, 
' to come along reading : ' as, A sansdr jato rahe chhe, 
1 this world is passing away ; ' Te chdlto joy chhe, ' he is 
going off.' 



* In reality the form used is an indeclinable gewind, but for con- 
venience the above method cf describing it may be permitted. 



( 77 ) 



CHAPTER VI. 

INDECLINABLES (Avyay). 

In Gujarat!, Adverbs, Postpositions, Conjunctions and 
Interjections do not admit of declension. 

1. I. Adverbs (Kriyaviseshan). 

The adverb, as a general rule, precedes the word which it 
qualifies ; as, Te mdnas ihafi rahe chhe, * that man dwells 
here/ 

As in German, any adjective may become an adverb in, 
use, i.e. may be used adverbially, but in such cases it 
generally agrees with the subject of the verb in yender, 
number and case, if it belongs to the class of Adjectives 
which admit (Cap. III., 1) of declension. Example: 
A chhokro saro vdnche chhe, pan tenl behen sari vdachtt 
nathi, ' This boy reads well, but his sister does not read 
well.' Occasionally, however, the adjective in such sen- 
tences is put in the absolute singular neuter and is used as 
an ordinary adverb. 

From the Pronouns A, E, Je, Te, Ke, Adverbs are formed 
denoting manner, place and time, in the following way : 



78 GUJAEATI GRAMMAR. 

A, This. dm, in this way. j anhi, here. dj, to-day. 
E, That, em, thus. \oMft, fey aw, here. atydre, then. 

Je, Who. yem, jyam, in jydn, where. jy^ f ^i when. 

which way. 

Te, That. em, tyam, thus. ?/?!., there. tydre, then. 

.Ke, Who? kyam, kern, how? fc^/aE, where? kydre, when ? 



Others formed from the same Pronouns are : TdTilidn, 
Tallin, ' there;' Kdnhdn, Kahin, 'where?' &c. 

Such adverbs, and more especially those of place and 
time, are often governed by the postposition -no, m. ; -nl, 
f. ; -nun, n., and the compound thus formed is used as a 
declinable adjective ; e.g., Teo tyafina lokomdn mall gayd, 
( They mingled among the people (of there) of that place.' 
[Cf. 01 vvv avdpwrroi, 6 ael /3a<rtXei;<?, in Greek, and in 
English, ' The then King of France made a decree/] 

2. Adverbs, like Adjectives in Gujarat!, do not undergo 
any change to express the Comparative and Superlative 
degrees, but these are denoted in the same way as with 
adjectives. 

' The more . . . the more ' (Latin, tanto . . . quanta ; 
eo . . . quo) is expressed by Jem jem . . . tem tern,; as, 
Jem jem niche utartd jale, tem tem jhadl vadhdre dvatl 
jay chhe, ' The farther down one goes (we go), the more 
abundant does the brushwood become/ 

The word karlne, Connective Participle of the verb 
karvun, 'to do/ is often used in an adverbial sense; as, 
ghanun Itarme, 'often;' tene karine, 'therefore;' hdthe 



INDECUNABLES. 79 

Marine, 'manually,' 'by hand/ The following use of the 
word may conveniently be inserted here : Teno palielo 
raja Vikrdm kaiine thai gayo, ' Its first king was called 
Vikram/ Te desne hamnd Malabar karlne kalie dike, 
' That country they now name Malabar/ 

Foreign (chiefly Arabic and Persian) phrases are, in a 
corrupted form, introduced into Gujarat!, and there treated 

as simple adverbs; as, beldsak (CJl^ 1>), f doubtless;' 

f ^ 

bmgunhe (S sli^o)/' sinlessly/ 

3. I may be allowed in this place to notice a somewhat 
curious usage of the negative adverb nohi. It is well 
exemplified in the following sentence : Panjdb desnd 
lokond satyagunnl vat temnd granthomdnthij mdlum 
pade chlie, etlufij nahi, pan bija desona loko te desnl 
solhd jovd sdrun dvatd hatd, ' The report of the excellence 
of the people of the country of the Panjab is known not 
from their own books (lit. falls known through their books, 
not so, but), but [from the accounts of] people of other 
lands [who] used to come for the sake of seeing the beauty 
of that region.' Sentences similar to this in their use of 
the negative asserting a thing for the purpose of strongly 
contradicting the assertion immediately after and thus 
strengthening the negative are common. 

The adverb jydre, ' when/ is frequently and elegantly 
omitted (vide under Conjunctions) ; as, te rdjd marl gayo, 
tyare tend Widie rdj kidhun, ( When that king died, then 
his brother reigned/ 



80 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



4. II. Postpositions (Namyogi). 

Except the simple and genuine Postpositions, -ne, -e, 
-till, -thaki, -vatl, -no -nl -nun, -man) all the rest were 
originally nouns in the locative case. In consequence of 
this they (1) possess gender, and (2) require the oblique 
case of -no, -nl, -nun, to interpose between them and the 
noun they govern. Frequently, however, this possessive 
postposition may be omitted, though when not expressed 
it is understood. E.g., sdthe, 'along with;' te sipdi-m 
sdthe, ' along with that sepoy ; ' d rlti-m. pramdne, or a 
rlti pramdne, ' according to this method/ 

The gender of some postpositions varies in different parts 
of Gujarat. 

The subjoined lists will show which of the Postpositions 
require -nd (m. and n. obi. of -no) before them, which -nl (f.), 
and which -ne (m. and n. locative of -iw}. If the same 
postposition occurs in more than one list, it will show 
that both usages are allowable. 

Requiring -nd. 

Jcartdn sot sudhi vishe lagan 

vade suddhdn sarlthun vate par 

vand samet mallne vagar upar 

vind samip sivdy lagl haste 

sahit sambandhi 



INDECLINABLES. 



81 



agdu 

agddl 

drpdr 

dgal 

andar 

dspds 

kane 

gode 

jode 

pachhvdde 

pdchhal 



Requiring -nl, 


pdse 


sdmun 


pethe 


sdmdn 


pachhl 


sdthe 


par 


liastok 


p a thai 


haste 


puthe 


bdbat 


paheldn 


bahar 


mele 


lilianl 


vachche 


bardbar 


vdnse 


upardnt 


sdmo(a.dj.) 


sangdte 



mdrafat 

mdfak 

pramdne 

hethe 

hethal 

niche 

tale 

gam 

tner 

taraf 



same 
sdJcshdt 
sanmukh 
chotaraf 
fartun 
vachmaTi 
mahln 
mdnhe 
madhye 
vdnsal 



Requiring -ne. 
hdje mate Udhe vdste sdru(n) badle Jcdrane 

5. Several postpositions are often affixed together to a 
noun, as in the following sentences: (1) Te gr/mrmanthi 
lioi dvse nahi, ' From that house (lit. from in that house) 
no one will come ;' A desmanna loko rogi chhe, ' The people 
of (of in) that country are ill ; ' Ejhddpaxthi mevo lai dvo, 
' Bring fruit from off (lit. f from on ') that tree.' Some- 
times the long words thus formed look quite formidable, 
but they will be found easy to resolve into their component 
parts. E.g., Paschimbhamna balvdn desomdti temni dolat- 
vishe bahu vdto chatti, ' Many stories were current in 
powerful western lands regarding their wealth/ The first 
word iii this sentence is thus compounded, Paschim, ' the 

If 



82 GUJARATl GRAMMAR. 

west;' bhani, 'direction,' 'towards/ and nd, pi. obi. of wo, 
agreeing with deso. It might have been even longer, 
Pa$chimnibhanind. Sometimes such compounds of a 
noun and a postposition receive the adjectival [cap. viii., 
1, p. 92 (o)], termination -lo, -U, -lun ; as, Pachhi Yurop- 
khandmanhela YundndeSno SiJcandar bddsdh samdre savd 
le Tiajdr varaspar Hindustan jltl levdne dvyo, ' Formerly, 
two-and-a-quarter thousand years ago in number, Alexan- 
der, king of the land-of-Greece, which-is-in-the-continent- 
of-Europe lit. king of the Europe-continent-within-(ac?/. 
term.) Greece-land came to conquer India/ 

In a sentence denoting motion to a place, there is no 
postposition required; as, Te ghnr gayo, 'he went to the 
house/ If the noun denoting the place to which motion 
occurs ends in a consonant, in -o or in -I, its form undergoes 
no alteration ; but if it end in -d or -u, these terminations 
are changed to -e ; as, Te loko Khanddle gayd chlie, ' those 
people have gone to Khandala/ 

6. Use of the simple Postpositions. 

The simple or proper Postpositions, besides their general 
and obvious uses, which require no remark, are employed 
idiomatically in some instances, as will be seen from the 
examples given below. 

(1) -No (-nl f -nun) often denotes the material of which 
n thing is composed ; e.g., A ghar Idkddnun bandhdelun 
chhe, ' this house is built of wood.' 

It is also occasionally employed to denote the time of an 



INDECLINABLES. 83 

action ; as, Te raja savdrno jdge chhe, ' that king awakens 
in the morning.' (Cf. Greek VVKTOS and German 2Jorgen3.) 

It is used as of in English in such phrases as Sindhno 
mfdak, ' the country of Sindh.' 

Also in such constructions as, A pandit buddhino chdldk 
chhe, ' This Pandit is quick of comprehension/ 

(2) -Thi, besides denoting from in all its meanings, also 
denotes than in comparison ; 'as, Te chhokro mdrd bhdit\n 
mofo thayo, ' That boy grew bigger than my brother/ 
Also the instrument with which a thing is done ; as, 
bhdldthi, 'ivith a spear/ Also cause through, which; us, 
7'7 bdidl dhiipthi rogl thai gal, ' That woman became ill 
through the heat/ Also the agent after a passive verb ; 
as, Tendthi e des badho jltdyo nahi, ' All that country was 
not conquered by him/ It also means since; as, Trait 
varasihl te a nagarmdn vase chhe, ' He has lived in this 
city for the last three years/ -Thl is also used with verbs 
of fearing ; as, Hun rdjdthi bldho, ' I feared the king/ 

(3) -Man, besides meaning in and into, has also the 
sense of on ; as, Mugat tend mdthaman. hato, ' The crown 
was on his head/ The difference (when there is any) 
between -man and -e in its locative sense is that the 
former means in or into and the latter at, though the 
latter has also the meaning of in. (In nouns of Class I., 
however [eh. ii., 5, p. 32], this termination never has 
any but an agential meaning.) 

(4) -E. Except in the case mentioned above, this termi- 
nation has two senses, (1) a locative, and (2) an agential. 



84 GUJA.RATI GRAMMAR. 

In the former instance it is doubtless derived from the 
Sanskrit locative, in the latter from the Sansk?-it instru- 
mental case, which in nouns of the 1st Class m. terminates 
in -ena (e.g., Sivas, nom., sivena, loc.). Hence some 
Gujarat! scholars write the postposition -e as -en in this 
agential significance. 

When the termination -e is locative, or denotes anything 
but the agential relation, if the noun to which it is attached 
be preceded by a declinable adjective or a noun with the 
postposition -no, m. (or -nun, n.), this is also put in fhe 
locative; as, Temne Jcabje, 'in their grasp;' &/e varase, 
' next year/ 

But when the -e is agential this does not take place ; 
as, Prabhuna, dute mane kahyun, 'The angel of the Lord 
said unto me ; ' Bdbame tens, bdpe bhandvyo hato, ' His 
father had taught Babar.' 

This postposition -e has a large number of varieties of 
significance, some of which will be learnt from the following 
sentence * : Men mare liatlie tene mdtlie paghdi bandhi, 
' I with my own hand bound the pagri on his head.' It 
denotes instrument, cause, measure of time, price, location, 
&c. When it denotes at or in it may, like man, be followed 
by -tin; as, te nisdleihi nikalyo, 'he came out of school.' 

7. III. Conjunctions (Vakyayogi or Ubhayanvayi). 
These require little remark, though some few of them 

* Quoted from Taylor's ' Gujarat! Bbashanun Vyakaran,' p. 37, 



INDECLINABLES. 85 

have peculiarities of use. For instance, Ice and athvd both 
mean ' or/ but the former is used between nouns or single 
words, the latter between sentences; as, Raja, ke rant, 
'the king- or the queen ;' but Te d Jcdm kare, athva,/<> 
karl na akse, to rnarljase, f He will do this work, or, if he 
cannot, then he will die/ 

Instead of ane, ' and/ the shorter form ne is often used. 
This latter is distinguished from the postposition of the 
same form by the fact that the conjunction is not attached 
to the preceding word in writing and does not, of courisse 
require the oblique form of the word which precedes it. 

If the former of two sentences connected with one 
another begins with jo, ' if,* expressed or understood (for 
it, like jijdre, 'when/ is often understood] , the latter 
sentence must begin with to, ' then ; ' as, (Jo) te civse, to 
hun jals, ' If he comes, then I shall go/ So also, if the 
former sentence contains such a word as Icaddpi, Jeaddchit 
(kaddch), ' perhaps/ the latter must begin with to, tathdpi 
or topan, ' then/ ' yet/ 

Ke, ' that/ is used in quoting the words of a speaker, 
and is followed by the oratio recta. 

8. IV. Interjections (Kevalprayogi). 

These require no special remark, being used in Gujarati 
much as such words are in other languages. A few of the 
most common are : 0, e, re, are, ere, oy } all, alyd, vdh, 
vhdvd, chhl, dh, lid, hdhd, he, &c. 



CHAPTER VII. 

NUMERALS. 

The numerical signs in Gujarat! are : % 3., 3, V, 
H> *v O, , tf, 'Jo, = I, 2, 3, &c. Fractions are 
written thus: i = ol ; ^ = oil ; | = olll ; as H = "HI ', 

1. The Cardinals are : 

35. pdntrls 

36. chhatris 

37. sddtils 

38. ddtris 

39. oganchdlig 

40. chdlls 

41. ektdlis 

42. befalls 

44. chunvdll* 

(chunmdlis} 

45. pis tails 

46. chhetdlls 

47. sudtdlis 

(sadtdlis) 
48 adtdlis 
49. oganpwhds 



1. efc 


18. arddh,adhar 


2. Z/e 


19. oyanis 


3. ira 


20. ws 


4. cArfr 


21. eA"y*.y 


5. pcinch 


22. feaws 


6. c/i^a 


23. ire vis 


V. sa< 


24. chovis 


S. /A 


25. pachls 


9. MOV 


26. chhavis 


10. das, das 


27. satidvls 


11. aijidr 


28. ath(th)dvfo 


12. fear J 


29. oganvls 


1 3. <e/- 


30. Ms, ^s 


14. chaud 


31. ektris 


15. pandar 


32. batris 


16. 50/, SO? 


33. tetris 


17. satar, sal tar 


34. chotrls 



NUMERALS. 



87 



50. pachas 

51. ekdvan 

52. bdvan 

53. trepan 

54. chopan 

55. panchdvan 

56. chap pan 

57. sattdvan 

58. alhthdvan 

59. ogansdth 

60. sa/7i 
6.1. eJfsath, 

ekseth 
02. bdsath, 

-seth, (&c.) 

63. <resa/& 

64. chosath 

65. pdnsath 

66. chhdsath 

67. sadsath 

68. adsath 

69. aganoter 

(aganoter) 
70. 



71. iltoter 

72. 6/ioter 

(bohoter) 

73. <o<er 

(tohoter] 

74. chunmoter 

75. panchoter 

76. chhoter 

77. sattoter 

(sitloter] 

78. aththoter 

(iththoter) 

79. agnoensl 

(oganydsi) 

80. ew^, hensi 

81. efom, 

-asi, (&c.) 

82. 6asi 

83. trdsi, tydsl 

84. chora&i 

85. panchdsi 

86. chhdsi 

87. sattd&i 

88. aththdsl 



89. nevd&l 

(nevyiisi) 

90. nevun 

91. ekanun 

92. bdnun 

93. trdnun 

94. chordnun 

95. panchdnun 

96. chhannun 

97. sattdnun 

98. aththdnun 

99. navdnun 

(navydnun) 

100. sow, -so 
200. fcaseri 
300. transvn 
400. chdrsen 
500. pdnchsen 
1,000. efe haidr 
2,000. fee 
100,000. 
1,000,000. das 

IdJch 
10,000,000. A-aro</ 



It will be noticed that in some instances more than one 
form is used. 



88 GTJJARATI GRAMMAR, 

2. Ordinals. These are: 1st, pehelo, -I, -uTi; 2nd, 
bljo ; 3rd, trijo ; 4th, chotho ; 5th, pdncho ; 6th, chhatho ; 
7th, sdtmo ; 8th, dthmo ; the ordinals after the 6th being 1 
formed by attaching the ending -mo, -m, -mun, to the 
cardinals. The ordinals are regular declinable adjectives. 

Multiplicatives. The formation of these will be clear 
from the following examples : bamanun, ' double ; ' tra- 
manun, ' treble ; ' choganun, ' fourfold ; ' cTihaganun, ' six- 
fold/ These (the forms I have given being neut), are 
declined regularly ; as, dasgan-o, -I, -un, ' ten-fold/ &c. 
Another series is formed by adding -vadun to the cardinal ; 
as, bevado, -I, -un, ' double ; ' trevado, -I, -un, ' triple/ &c. 

Fractions. One quarter, pa ; one half, addho or ardho ; 
three quarters, pono ; one and a quarter, savd ; one and a 
half, dodh or dohod; one and three quarters, pond be ; two 
and a quarter, savd be; two and a half, adhl or liaM', 
three and a quarter, savd tran ; three and a half, sddd 
trail ; four and a half, sddd char, &c. So also 75 may be 
expressed by pono so (i.e. f of 100) ; 250 by adhlseu 
(2| hundreds), &c. 

The addition of -e to a numeral denotes ' all ' ; as, tran, 
' three ; trane, ' all three/ ' Both ' is denoted by beu, and 
also by bandhe and banne. Eke means 'just one/ 

'And' between numerals which form part of one number 
is omitted in GujaratI ; as, ek son tran, ' one hundred and 
three/ 



NUMERALS. 



3. The following are a few nouns denoting number 

Belun, 'a couple.' 
toko, ' a triad/ 

chok, a number containing four. 
panchak, 'five. 

chhak, }) six. 

sdtun, ,, seven. 

dthun, eight. 

navak, ,. nine. 

" dasaJc, ten. 

Ttoti, 
Jcunti, 
sainJcun, 
seJcdun. 



score. 



' ft la 

intl, ) 

inJcun, ) 

> one hundred. 
:aun, ) 



90 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
FORMATION OF WORDS : COMPOUNDS. 

1. The great majority of words in the Gujarat! 
language are derived from the Sanskrit. It would be out 
of place here to explain the formation of Sanskrit com- 
pounds, information which the student may easily obtain, 
if he pleases, from Monier Williams' " Sanskrit Grammar/' 
ch. viii., sect. 1. But some words are in Gujarat! formed 
by certain Gujarat! affixes, the principal of which necessarily 
find a place here. 

(a) To denote f state/ -pan or -panun is added to adjec- 
tives or nouns; as, sagpan, 'relationship;' bdlpan, 'child- 
hood;' uparipanun (from up art, 'overseer'), 'superin- 
tendence ; ' ndddnpanun, ' ignorance/ 

(b) To the stems of some verbs and adjectives -al is 
added ; as, murkhdi, ' folly ; ' chaturdi, f cleverness/ ' cute- 
ness.' 

(c) The^termination -I has many meanings, as will be 
seen from the following examples : rogi, ' sick ' (from rog, 
' disease ') ; ghadidli, ' a watchmaker ' (from ghadidl, ' a 
watch, clock ') ; Hindustani, ' a native of Hindustan/ 

(d) The affix -iyo, w, yo, aiyo, forms adjectives and 
nouns; as, bhukhyo, ' hungry ' (from bhukh); bhomio, 'a 
guide; ' gavaiyo, ' a singer/ 



COMPOUNDS. 91 

(e) At, -dto, -vat, -vato ; as, gamrdt, 'confusion;' jha- 
pfito, ' a blast ; ' sdchvat, ' truthfulness ;' bhogvato, ' sensual 
pleasure/ 

(/) -Van, -vant, denote ' possessing ;' as, balvdn, 
' strong ; ' dhanvant, ' wealthy.' 

(</) The addition of -do, -di, -dun, forms substantives 
and adjectives, originally (and still in many cases) diminu- 
tives ; as, ndv, f a ship ' (n. in Gujarat!, though f. in San- 
skrit, Latin and Greek) ; ndvdi, ' a boat ; ' ndvdun, ' a 
large vessel : ' lodhun, ' iron ; ' lodhi, ' an iron bread-pan : ' 
gdmdun, ' a small village.' 

(h) -Td, -tva, form abstract nouns ; as, pavitratd, ( holi- 
ness ; ' ddstva, ' slavery.' 

(i) -Vdl denotes 'keeper;' kotvdl, 'commander of a 
fort,' ' police-officer/ 

(j) -Vdlo, -vail, -vdlun, forms nouns and adjectives ; 
as, vichdrvdfo, ' thoughtful; ' topivalo, 'hat-wearer (Euro- 
pean) ; &c. This affix is often added to the latter of two 
words closely united together in a sentence; as, soneii 
sajvdla hdthio, ( elephants with golden trappings;' mdthd 
p-irindmvdll, rudhw, 'corrupt idioms/ 

(k) The usual termination added to the verbal stem to 
denote the ' agent ' is -ndr ; as, bechndr, ' a seller.' 

(1) Another (Sanskrit) is ok ; as, pdlak, ' supporter ' (from 
ptilvun, 'to nourish, rear'); getdpdlak, 'shepherd/ 

(w) The Persian affix -ddr ('possessor') is sometimes 



92 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

added to Gujarat! words; as, vahivatddr, ' officer/ 'col- 
lector' (from vahwat). 

(w) -til, -dlo (-*, -un\ forms adjectives ; as, rasdl, 'juicy,' 
' sappy/ ' fertile ' (from ras, ' juice ') ; retal, ' sandy/ for ret, 
' sand;' muchhdlo, 'a. man with a long- mustachio' (from 
mwhh, 'mustache'). So also, Sundar pichhaldli pakslil, 
' beautifully feathered birds/ 

fo) -lu is used somewhat similarly ; as, daydlu, ' merci- 
ful ' (from dayd, ' mercy '). -Lo, -tt, -lun, is another termi- 
nation to form adjectives ; as, Sindhmdnheld loko, ' people 
in Sindh.' 

(p) -at and -ail added to the root of verbs form nouns ; 
as gamat, 'amusement' (from gamvun, 'to approve of); 
ganoii, l numbering' (from ganvun, 'to count'). 

(q) -nd forms a few nouns; as, sucJind, ' a suggestion ' 
(from sf/chavavun, 'to suggest'). 

(r) ddi is added with the meaning of etc.; as, Krislin, 
Devi, Sivddi, ' Krishna, Devi, Siva, &c/ 

2. Feminine nouns are often formed from masculines, 
denoting living beings, by the change of the masculine 
termination or the addition of one peculiarly feminine. 

(a) If the masc. noun ends in -o, the fern, takes -I ; as, 
chhokro, ' a boy/ chhokri, ' a girl ;' ghodo, ' a horse/ gkodl, 
' a mare ; ' beto, ' a son/ beti, ' a daughter.' Also dev, ' a 
god/ devl, ' a goddess.' 

(6) When the masc. ends in I or a consonant, the termi- 



COMPOUNDS. 93 

nation fern, is -an, -en, -anl or -ant ; as, moclii, 'a boot- 
maker/ mochan, ' a bootmaker's wife ; ' bhdl, ' a brother/ 
behen, ' a sister ' (irreg.) ; eth, ' a merchant, &c., Sethdiw, 
'a merchant's wife;' patel, 'headman of a village/ patel- 
am, ' a Patel's wife ; ' pisdch, ' a goblin/ pisdchani, ' a 
female goblin.' 

Another fern, termination is -dl; as, chdkar, 'a man- 
servant/ chakardl, ' a female servant;' tindar, 'a rat/ 
nndardi, 'a female rat;' BMl, 'a Bhil/ Bhiltfi, 'a female 
Bnilj' guldm, 'a, slave,' guldnidi,'a. female slave' (con- 
temptuously). 

(c) Somewhat irregular are : nar, ' male/ nari, ' a 
female;' rdjd, 'a king/ ram, 'a queen;' brahman, 'a 
Brahman/ brdhmam, 'a female Brahman;' vdnio, 'a shop- 
keeper, vdnlen, ' a shopkeeper's wife.' 

3. Compounds. 

Gujarat! compounds (as distinguished from Sanskrit 
compound words introduced into the language) are 
generally formed by the mere juxtaposition of the simple 
words. They will be best illustrated by a few examples. 
E.g :- 

Rdjdarbdr, ' a royal court/ ' a levee ; ' fr. raj or rdjd and 

darbdr. 
GharMm, ' housework ; ' fr. ghar, ' house/ and Jcdm, 

' work.' 
Ritbhdt, ' manners and customs/ 



94 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

Kav 'tar-up, ' poetical.' 
Yuropkhand, 'the continent of Europe/ 
Fdyubhareli mashak, 'an air-filled water-skin/ 
Hlrdmdneke jadeldn tathd motindn, gharendn puhere 
chhe, ' They wear ornaments set with diamonds-and- 
rubies and made of pearls/ Here the first word is 
composed of hlrd, pi. of lilro, ' a diamond ;' mdnek, ' a, 
ruby,' and the postposition -e. 

A slightly different kind of compound is formed by in- 
serting o between two repetitions of the same word ; 
as, decodes, ' from country to country ; ' hajdrohajdr, 
' thousands of thousands.' 

Not a few nouns and verbs are formed by adding an 
unmeaning word to one which has the meaning to be ex- 
pressed ; as, farvun, 'to turn;' farvun harvun, 'to walk 
about/ (Cf. Panjabi, piini-wdni, rotl-wotl ; Urdu, shor- 
bhor; Persian, db-mdb ; French, pele-mele ; English, shilly- 
shally.) 



CHAPTER IX. 

Syntax. 

Much of the Syntax of the language has already been 
introduced where it seemed likely to be most easily re- 
membered. In this chapter we deal with the few points 
which still remain to be elucidated, but omit a detailed 
account of those common to most Indo-European tongues, 
regarding which error is almost impossible. 

1. In Gujarat!, the usual order of words in a sentence 
i?, (1) Subject; (2) Indirect Object; (3) Direct Object; 
(4) Predicate : but this may be altered for the sake of 
emphasis. 

When a number of nouns, all in the same case and 
governed by one and the same postposition, occur in a 
sentence, the postposition is generally attached only to the 
last noun, though they are all in the oblique form. As, 
Te rdjde bahu loko, purusho, strio ne chkokrdnone marl 
ndnkhydn, ' That king killed many people men, women 
and children/ 

But in such sentences it is a common practice to put the 
whole of the nouns in the absolute state, and then place 
the oblique plural of the pronoun e or te after them, adding 
the postposition required to the pronoun only. As, Mara 



96 GUJARAT! GRAMMAR. 

pita, mdrd mitro ne mdrd dlkrdo, teoe a kdm Itidhun; 
1 My father, my friends and my sons, they did this work/ 

If two or more nouns of the same gender have a common 
predicate, that predicate is plural, but agrees with the 
subjects in gender. But if the subjects be of different 
genders, the predicate is put in the neuter * plural. As, 
(1) Mdro dlkro ane teno mitr sara chhe, 'My son and 
his friend are good.' But (2) Mdro dlkro ne marl dllirl, 
saraS. chhe, ' My son and my daughter are good.' Sulochani 
ne teno bhdi nagarbhani hindyan, ' Sulocham and her 
brother walked towards the city/ 

2. The predicate, whether it be a verb or an adjective, 
may be put in the plural to show respect, even if the sub- 
ject be in the singular. In such cases, if the subject be 
masculine the predicate is also masculine ; but if the 
subject be feminine, respect requires that the predicate be 
NEUTER plural. As, (1) Edjd avya chhe, ' the king has 
come ;' but, (2) temnl sdthe rani pan avyafi chhe, ' with 
him the queen has also come.* 

If there be in a sentence several subjects of different 
genders joined by the disjunctive conjunctions vd, dthvd, 
ke, the predicate agrees in gender and number with that 
nearest to it; as, teno ghodo ke tenl gay marl gal, ' his 
horse or his cow died/ 

When an impersonal verb is put in the passive, the noun 
which was the subject of the verb is put in the oblique 

* This strange idiom occurs also in the Icelandic language. 



SYNTAX. 97 



form with -tht, and the verb becomes impersonal neuter ; 
as, Him betho, ' I sat/ which becomes mdrdthl besdyun. 

3. The Infinitive and Gerundive when used as subjects 
require the agent, if a noun, to be put in the oblique form 
with -e ', and if a pronoun, in what we may call the dative 
(mare, tamdre, &c.) ; as, Strioe d chopdi vdnchvl chile, 
' Women ought to read this book ; ' mare e kdm karvufi 
nathl, ' I must not do that/ If the Infinitive when used 
as a subject governs any object, then it must agree with 
its object in gender and number, though not in case ; as, 
Hdnase amne Devnd marmond kdrbhdrlond jevd ganva, 
' Men should account us as stewards of the mysteries of 
God/ In such sentences the verb to be is often omitted. 

The infinitive may be declined exactly as a noun, and 
the gerundive as an adjective. The oblique singular of 
the infinitive, with or without -ne, is used after another 
verb to denote purpose, &c. ; as, tene hidn rehevd dyo, ' let 
him stay here;' te bddsdh des jltl levd(ne) dvyo, 'that 
king came to conquer the country/ 

4. The preterite of a verb, both active and passive, 
may be used as a gerund by affixing any postposition and 
changing the absolute form of the verb into the oblique ; 
as, tejandyo,'he was born;' te jandya vagar, ' after he 
was born ; ' Paramesvanu stuti kidhd paclihi, ' after having 
praised God ;' maran pdmyd peheldn, ' before having died/ 
paisd tidhd vind, ' without having taken the money/ A 
very slightly altered construction is seen in Sikandarnd 
mud pachhl, ' after Alexander's having died/ 

G 



98 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

* 

The 1st Plural Aorist is used quite indefinitely in many 
cases; as, Niche avie, tydre meddnmdn elf mo tun Jcot dekli 
-dse, ' When we (i.e. one comes) come down, then a large 
fort will be seen in the plain/ 'We' is sometimes 
used in English in this sense, but we more commonly say 
' you ' or ' one/ 

5. The Gujarat! language can express several varieties 
of meaning in the Imperative : 

(1) The simple Imperative is used when it is desired 
that the command be immediately executed; as, tame d 
chopdl vdncho, ' Read this book/ 

(2) If the command is intended to be obeyed after some 
interval, the/ forms of the Future are employed; as, tame 
a chopdi vdnchjo, ( you will read this book/ 

(3) If a polite injunction is intended, the ordinary 
Future is employed; as, tame d chopdl vanchso, 'you will 
(kindly) read this book/ 

(4) To imply duty, the Gerundive is employed; as, 
tamdre d chopdl vanchvl, ' You should read this book/ 

6. The negative of the simple imperative is formed by 
adding md or man after it ; as, tame d chopdl vdncho md, 
' Don't read this book/ 

That of the second form above given the Future Im- 
perative is formed by placing the verb in the present 
participle and adding nahi; as, tame d chopdl v audit d 
nahi, * You shall not read this book/ 

The verb devun is used with the oblique infinitive of 



SYNTAX. 99 

another verb to imply permission (as dend is in Hindi and 
Urdu) ; as, Tane e kdm karvd hun dais nahi, ' I shall not 
permit thee to do that work/ 

7. Idiomatic Phrases. 

In Gujarat! the 1st Personal Pronoun precedes the second, 
and the second the third, as in Latin. Thus instead of 
saying ' He and I/ we say in Gujarat!, ( I and he ' (hun 
ne te). 

Instead of saying 1 , ' Neither my friend nor his daughter 
has gone,' we more commonly say, 'My friend or his 
daughter, no one has gone,' (mdro mitr Jce tenl dikrl, Itoi 
gayun nathi}, the ~koi taking a neuter participle because it 
refers to either of two subjects, one of which is masculine 
and the other feminine. In similar sentences, when things 
are mentioned instead of persons, Tea/in is used instead of 
koi. 

As the oratio obliqua is unknown in Gujarat!, the oratio 
recta is used instead. Such a sentence therefore as, * The 
queen said that she would go home/ would be rendered 
thus, Ednle Tcahyun Ice, hun gher jaU, (literally, "The 
queen said that, ' I shall go home ' "). 

When the subject in a sentence is a subordinate sentence, 
as, ' I heard that he had gone/ it is often better to put the 
subordinate sentence first, and then to place e or te after 
it ; as, Te gayo hato, e men sdmbhalyun (literally, f He 
had gone, this I heard '). 

A title in Gujarat!, as in most Sanskn'tic languages 
G 2 



100 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

follows the proper name to which it is attached; as, 
Edmdds Seth, almost = ' Mr. Kamdas/ 

In interrogative sentences no change in the order of the 
words occurs, but sun, ' what ? ' is placed either before or 
after the sentence ; as, Sun te dvyo chhe ? ' What ? has he 
come ? ' or, te dvyo chhe un ? Frequently ke takes the 
place of sun at the end of such a sentence, and sometimes 
both are used together ; as, tea chdti gayd chhe ke sun ? 
' Have they gone away ? ' (literally, ' Have they gone 
away, or what ? ') 



APPENDIX A. 



There are many words in Gujarat! which occur in other 
languages also in a more or less varied form. Some of 
these are pure Gujarat! words derived from the Sanskrit ; 
others are taken from Arabic, Persian, &c. A few obser- 
vations upon the forms which words of both classes assume 
in Gujarat! may perhaps be found useful, especially to 
those acquainted with any of the languages above 
mentioned. 

While Hindi shows a preference for the sound b, 
Gujarat! prefers v. Hence in many instances a vocable 
beginning with b in Hind! has v as its first letter in 
Gujarat!. E.g., Hin. bannia, Guj. vdnio : Hin. bikhai, 
Guj. vise: Hin. bind, Guj. vind: Hin. parbbat, Guj. par- 
vat, &Q. Here Gujarat! resembles the Sanskrit more 
closely than spoken Hindi. 

Gujarat! also prefers d to a : hence mdkJian for Hin. 
makkhan : Guj. mdkhi for Hiu. makklii. 

But ai becomes e, au becomes o in Gujarat! ; as, Guj. 
pedd for Urdu and Pers. Ijuo : besvun for Hin. baithnd : 
pesvun for Hin. paithnd : Guj. oldd for Arab. Sfy : 
Guj. mot for Arab. ci;^o : Guj. tobd for Arab. 
Guj. londl for Hin. laundl. 



102 GUJARATI GRAMMAE. 

And e in Hin. sometimes becomes a, in Guj. ; as, Hin. 
mera, Guj. mdro : Hin. terd, Guj. tdro. 

Uis usually unchanged, but sometimes becomes a ; as, 
Hin. turn, Guj. tame : Hin. tumhdra, Guj. tamdro. 

Hindi r becomes d, and rh becomes dh in Guj. ; as, dod- 
vun for daurnd; chadkvun for charhnd. 

Hindi th sometimes becomes s ; as, Hin. paitlmd, Guj. 
pesvun. 

Such words as have i in the stem in Hindi have 
generally a instead in Gujarat!; as, Hin. bigarnd, Guj. 
vagadvun : Hin. Ukhnd, Guj. lakhvun : Hin. milnd, Guj. 
malvun. But -i in Arabic and Persian words is generally 
represented by e (pronounced somewhat short} in Guj. ; 
as, Guj. saheb for Arab, t *%&-L : Guj. hdkem for Arab. 



A before h in Arabic words is changed into e in 
Gujarat! ; as, Guj. sehelo for Arab. <J$*w : Guj. vehem 

(and contracted vem) for Arab. ^ . Similarly, Pers. 
i becomes in Guj. seA.er and saher : Arab, and Pers. 

becomes Guj. mehnat : Arab. +s~j becomes Guj. 
rehem. 

Sanskrit vy (Hindi by}, followed by a vowel, often be- 
comes ve; as, Guj. vehevdr = Hin. vyavahdr: Guj. vepdr 
for Hin. byupdr. 

Arabic ^ (q) becomes Tth if it occurs after a vowel ; 



APPENDIX A. 103 

as, Guj. vcCkliat, Arab. c^Jij. Otherwise it is generally 
changed into k ; as, Guj. kabul, Arab. J^AJ'. 

The z sounds of Urdu and Persian (and of the 
letters j ^ li in words introduced from Arabic into 

those languages) become j in Gujarat!; as, julam for 

<^t 

JL& : jakdt for S& . 

W &' t 

The double letters in such words as ^5-, t\^=r, 
ei;^, &c., when introduced into Gujarat!, become 
single ; as, liak, Maliamad, mudat (or mudad) . 

Sometimes letters are transposed ; as, Guj. gunlul 
for Pers. slx : Guj. tipvun for Hin. pltnd. 

Gujarat! has a preference for the sounds of I and n after 
long vowels, in this resembling Panjabi rather than Hindi. 
T) sometimes takes the place of the Panjabi Z; as, Panj. 
uthdlnd, Guj. uthddvun. 

Sometimes an extra long vowel a is inserted in Gujarat! 
in words borrowed from Persian; as, Guj. sahajado and 
sdlijddo for Pers. sjjjali. : Guj. bdhdduri for Pers. 



The Arabic letters c and _ when they occur at the 
end of a word without a long vowel prefixed become 
a and e respectively in Gujarat!; as, ^+*- } Guj. jamd : 

Jus, Guj. fate. 

" W in Hin. sometimes becomes m in Guj. ; as, Hin. 
pdTichwdn, Guj. pdnchmo : West Panjabi pdwand, Guj. 
pdmvun. 



104 GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 

In adverbial terminations, the Urdu yun (Old Hin. yon) 
becomes -em in Guj. ; as, Old Hin. tyon, Hin. and Urdu 
tyuTiy Guj. tern. 

In Gujaratl, u and I are frequently substituted for u and 
*, and vice versa. 

If a word taken from another language ends in -a or -a, 
this generally becomes -o in Guj., but occasionally changes 
to -un ; as, Guj. mevo, from Pers. s*j>.<i : Guj. sdlidjddo 

*"Ox^ 

for Pers. *>l}5$w : but Guj. parandun for Pers. Wo-J. 
Many words are formed by reduplicating the stem ; as, 
mdrdmari, ' quarrel,' from mdrvun, ( to strike/ 



( 105 ) 



APPENDIX B. 



TRANSLITERATION. 

In order to give the student practice in transliteration 
before proceeding- to the Second Part, we here append a 
few lines of Gujarat! with a transliteration in accordance 
with the system adopted in this Grammar. 



Sdro pavan joine pachhi ame Bornio betmdnthi 

4*5 u*U, H13J. anUl'A *UMl ctX^K UoiHl *US^- 

ntkalyd, pan dgal chalian tofdn lagva madyun. 



fcfclSl 

Ketldk dahddd lagl to amUruii vahdn uchhaltuiif 



faJhyun. Chhevate pavan narm padyo, ane dariyo jard 



dhimo thayo, etle bahu chhete ame ek machhvo dabakdn 

^iinl Asl. |=i{kiU[L ^ nx^tfj a^KMl 

khdto (Lltlio. Durllnmauthi joyun to ketldnk ddml 



a 

dithdil, ane te duhklinl nisanino vdvato 



106 GUJARATl GRAMMAR. 



cliadhavatan hoy evdii jandydn. Tetlil a/me 

Hfcusi a^^^ ?W ai*u H<51 ^f\^ti 

vahan temtaraf let gayd, pan dariyani lhare 

^l<nln fettR oHl Hl^LXl^l a >L^ c lL>lI^nL 

chholone lldhe tydn pahonchlne te machhvamdnhena 

<Hl?sn ^-nUL C^LC^>H^ 5l<li U^ HR Hloft. 

lokne amdra jhajhpar letdii gham var Idgl. 

an^ HL^ ^L^'KL nt, a>il >ii<?i ^ts /v^n/ 

Tepar punch admi hatdii, temd!i matr ek jannej 



&uddhi hatt. 

" Finding the wind favourable, we then left the island of 
Borneo, but as we went forward a storm began to come on. 
For some days accordingly our vessel continued to toss 
about. At last the wind fell (' fell quiet '), and the sea 
became somewhat calm ; then very far off we saw a boat 
rolling. When looked at through the telescope, my father 
saw (in it) several persons, and they were perceived to be 
flying the distress signal-flags. Therefore we brought our 
vessel towards them, but on account of the heavy sea- 
billows much time was spent in arriving there and taking 
the people in the boat on board our own ship. There were 
five persons on board it, and among them only one had 
sufficient consciousness to speak." 



PAKT II. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

I. Muhammad 1(J9 

II. Muhammadan Invasions of India . . 125 
III. Akbar and Aurangzeb . . . 1 33 

IV. Haidar'AlI 144 

V. Newspaper Extracts . . . .147 



( 109 ) 

GUJABATI BEADING LESSONS, 

4 

I. MUHAMMAD. 

ni>t4 



ant 






H^<HL ^^HL am ^HOII^U an\ 
a4 MI H an 



an i iL^ini ^ii <w R.^ HSM. 



* The contraction for this is y . % . 



110 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 

am 



a4 
"i 
an HHR ii>i ^ft-n. a 



HSL^I 



%KI 



5*1% H^rd^H si^X i^^, a^l 
ni >Ti^ni ^@^ nnRi nd, 
H(H<?I 



* In this sentence supply jdre (jydre) because of the tare following 
(Gr. Cap. VI. 3, fin.). Examples of this continually occur. 



GUJARATI READING LESSONS. Ill 



. a 

a 



HQL 



>tUL. 



112 GUJARAT! BEADING LESSONS. 



>IUL 



ant HHi^nl "ni^i ritf l ^>tit% Sinl >tul 

am 



a4 

am /cr>i 

fi nu. Hl<iini tusi 



an 



ri\5X-l 

ni k 

pt?i an oinin >i. a 



GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 113 

>U* iltf 



clot 



PlMR ^LcMl H^I 0.^. ^IL 

"i fc 

HS^\, 
Hlll4 

a 



? iltf ^iR?? i-^inl flsi 
a4 HinX aoi 



* The words from fe to man are all considered as one, ' in the " to- 
the-40th-year-of-his-life (time)." ' 
f Supply dsd, ' hope,' or some similar word. 

H 



114 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 



a |a 

a 



, a 
." a 



<ni>i 



* Feminine because agreeing with rat, in the next line hut one. 

t Vide Gram., Cap. V. 12 and 13, pp. 67 and 70. 

J " Through whom holding the pen must be learned." Vide Gram., 



Cap. V. 4, fin. (p. 61.) 



GUJARAT! READING LESSONS. 115 

a Hi^iX an ^"H^H^, au 



a 

ni>tni 
a Hin >Li4, H a 



Cist 



HtiA 



a4 mtf4 ^n anl 



* Suratu'l 'Alaq (Sura 96, w. 1-5). 

f Neut. because qualifying two nouns of dissimilar gender : Gram., 
Cap. III. 2. 



116 GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS. 

x a au 



<H\*Tl 

am 



^L l^. H^lLl ^ 



an 



an 

HL- 
@H- 

an 



an 



* Fern, to qualify sattd in sattaddr. 



GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 117 



aii 



S^.LH 



a4 



ni 



118 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 






a4 



an 
a 



am 



i ii<i, a na <| 
ant 



. a4 

u ^ildl ^L^R ?{l- 
a<ni 



For the const, see Gr., Cap. V., 10, note *. 



GUJARATI READIKG LESSONS. 119 



an 
an =n*ta 

an 



(3.1*0 

a, 



c u^i ^M |a\n 
n 
H3. 

H 
Sltf nlii >UQi.*in 



an ^ 

ini ^. 
sltf 



8 ^to stands for ^t't^CL^C, ' chapter," i.e. Sura of the Qur'an. 



120 GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS, 



nX 



a 

H19L 



aq 



." (=no 



GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 121 



? <i^, nstt ^ni, au 
i 



a 
an R?5>u 



122 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 



ant 



tioiwini 



a 

i^-" ^l ^H^Hl^?! ^n Hl- 

an i^ni m"5: a ninl 
4WU 



GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS. 123 

HSS&. "iiy. fctli 



fl> H-n^ a a^lin 

m 
, Mi 

. H 
l ^ 
, HQj. 



g\.n, nXn^ 



* Or, more idiomatically, 



124 GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS 

a 



a4 
a 



>un nm ^i^ini^ii H^L 



HL^Jl 



@ a4 

Hla o^^l ^,fl an 



GUJAKAT! BEADING LESSONS. 125 

II. MUHAMMADAN INVASIONS OF INDIA. 

tf. *i. HOO "n 



HA 
if. %. 



tf. *l. H^ ML 

tf. %. u -nl 
Hd^t 



5tiRi>l 
ft^u, n 

HOI. 



c\ 



126 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 



)<1\ ^^l^dn HI- 



Establishment of the Ghaznavite Dynasty. 



HL- 






Ht'4 



GUJAKATI HEADING LESSONS. 127 

a4 

l, 

30 



"HI 






-HL 
n cli H^ILHR. 

HiS^l. 



a ' 

Hl<"UU 3.153.1 in3lHl<'ll "t^lfl. Hl?t 



HI- 
(1% 



128 GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS. 



ML 



vO 



GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 129 

iltf s 



id; 



id 



c\ 



id 



id, *>A ^l^ ^nfh 
" ^HLfrft, =n 

HU'flJHR. HlfH^ln, anl <Hpl*l Ml- 



130 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 



Sitf 



< 



(01^4 



GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 131 



nun HL>HI, 

HSL. Pi 0^)44 OL 

H\- 



cfn4 

Mlfl nt 

M.nL ^.Ifi/MMl MUl 






ul^Lni 



tf 



132 GUJARAT! READING LESSONS. 

The Gliori Dynasty. 









a 



GUJAEATI BEADING LESSONS. 183 



>i 

IL>1 ^.L^l^Lrfl. 



nt 

R Hifl M"H? ^s/^U ^ 

(n>(l 



III. AKBAE. 

"HI 



* 'All united,' i.e. in all, altogether. 



134 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 



>t^L < n>ti ^fn an 
tf. ^i. rnH'v Ruk^ HQJ. 



MlHl, iRQ "^ =>1 31 



%l>ll 



* Y. Gr., Cap. VI., 3. f V. Gr., Cap. VI., 5, p. 82. 



GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 135 



(PnnU) ni 



uojl >i 



l, HOI 

6/oHinl 



For the nasal n added to these two words, V. Gr., p. 31, note *. 



136 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 



MLMI, 






^Clsi id niST- Hia 

lt =>>i 

dn>tt 



/>t 

^H 



GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 137 



"HI 



"HI "H Hl>^l, ^l (3) 
"Hi 

n 



JAHANGlR, 



* ' In their presence,' ' when they were looking on.' 
t ' With this object in view that,' etc. 



138 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 



.1^1, HOI. 
n. tf. %. 






a4 
an ^Cl^^niin nmni =>t5s 



aoj ^fn^n^il; HV51 



ao[l ^l^n ns 



^ts Ssi4, HOI a 

^ni 

a i nt 
<? 
nt 



GUJAEATI READING LESSONS. 139 



%ML 



%&{L>1 

^I ni 

/ HO?, si^l i^tl am, 



140 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 



a 
a "HL^in Hlni4 



kofl 



AURANGZEB. 
Ml *U/&1 U MlCl HSHl, 



GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 141 



"HL 



a u^l 'H^nin Sl^Jl, >tU 
HS^ll; H^ <H^5.n cl 

a ^Iniatt, a>t<r/ nfl 



/n 



"HI 

an pi ^^ tf-nRn *&, a 



142 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 

Hi- 






"Hi an >iL^L 



a 

ML 






GUJARAT! READING LESSONS. 143 



tf. %. I*/ 9 !- 

Q>vn- 



^; HOI 



a>t- 



>i 



* Notice that this ae/. swo requires theye/w. gen. (-ni) before it 



144 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 



HLH 

"HI 



<HSHl 
tf>lt 



IV. HAIDAR 



* ' For a long time since.' 

t ' Up to the time he died,' i.e. f as long as he lived.' 

J ' Mounted on horseback.' 



GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS. 145 



vi^tn 

, an 



H\a 
3 

H^IL 



"Hi] 
^LHHL HS^IU 

drltf 5lHL^. plMR 



a>tn 



* ' To give precisely a year and a day's allowance (of notice). 

K 



146 GUJARATI READING LESSONS. 



>U a&J&M fclSl^ML MAU 



H^l- 

^t^ 4 
MM, 



H\ai4 

n ^ 
HL^L Oiafl. in^rl nML ^.4 ^ll'Hl 



ML 

L ^HL^l- 
Ufcl<UO, M ML^L ^ iilH 



an ^leal, ^n am 

?H.Vl. ^L HOI 3, 
ML Hlai4 I* 



GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 



147 



Y. EXTRACTS FROM A GUJARATI NEWSPAPER. 

[These extracts are written in ParsI-Gujaratf, but, except 
that (1) they contain a few more Arabic' and Persian words 
than ordinary Gujarati, (2) that Z continually takes the 
place of /, and par- of pra-, and (3) that y is occasionally 
omitted in the preterite of verbs, need little remark.* The 
English words and proper names which occur in them are 
not inserted in the Vocabulary. But, as the student may 
perhaps find them troublesome to recognise in their Guja- 
rat! dress, we append a list of them here in the order in 
which they occur. 



Freiicli= French. 
Yurop = Europe. 
Valsray = Viceroy. 
Keneda = Canada. 
Depyntesan = Deputation. 
Frenchmen = Frenchman. 
Lard Granvil = Lord Granville. 
Perls = Paris. 
Brit!s = British. 

Frans = France. 

( Edinburgh 
Edmbaro Rivyu= ^ Review 6 

Ml. Henri Rlv = Mr. Henry Reeve. 

TV T T> jc j C Duke of 
Dyukov Bedford = 



Sar Charlas DIlk = 



( Sir Charles 



{ Dilke. 
Setarde RIvyu Saturday Review. 
Sentsbar! = Saintsbury. 



Lard SalsbarT = Lord Salisbury. 
Lard RozbarI=Lord Roseberry. 
Lard Jyarj } _ ( Lord George 
Herniltan) " Hamilton. 

Lard Blkansflld = f B Lord fi 

^ Beaconsfield. 

Majistret = Magistrate. 
Ml. Knpar = Mr. Cooper. 
Polls = Police. 
Kanstebal = Constable. 
Nelmas =Nelmes. 
Sollsitar = Solicitor. 
Mi. Lltal = Mr. Little. 
Aspltal = Hospital. 
List = list. 
Karonar = Coroner. 
Sesans kamlt \ _ ( to commit to 
(karvuii) y ~ ^the Sessions. 
Kalake = o'clock.] 



* But we may also notice that such phrases as (1) " amo jatdn 
Tint an " etc. for ame jatd hatd, and also (2) " agarjo mane Tchabar 
hate to Jcadi It hun tydn . . . sute nahl" for jo mane Tchabar hot, to 
kadi pan hun tydn . . . suti nahok, are Pars! peculiarities. In the 
fii>t phrase the verb is not neuter but masc. with a nasal sound 
attached. 

K2 



148 GUJARATI BEADING LESSONS. 



HHW. 

i|\HL2(L, 

a ' 



a=nl 



>L>Ll e ll 



/is 
uoil 



GUJAKATI BEADING LESSONS. 149 



, 






anoi. 

a >un ni Hid 



tl?i $ n anni 



150 GUJARAT! BEADING LESSONS. 



Hlfl, 






01 tf 



u Hid 



2 
01 tf H3/n 3A C LSL 



"HL 



GUJAKAT! HEADING LESSONS. 151 

rft. a 



<j/u>u Cls<il 



"(I <t*u Cn^nR) >tLil 



OILS! 



HL^l 

6^.0, ^>L n Hisl 
a ^LOIVL^ 

" oi i$l 



152 GUJAKATI READING LESSONS. 



, a -nUl *uii asl UHI oils! 

4 
as 
^. 
. =n>t\ 



ast 



, a H^ii3>i ^IsiHmi^i 'S'H >ii<l a 
>t ^i'n&ft. itt. a H^II^I aslnl 



HS! ^.nH^ii asl 



CUJARATI READING LESSONS. 153 



<ni 



n^tt, 






n 

5 ^1^.4% 
n 4. <| an 



PAET III. 

GUJARATI VOCABULARY TO THE 
READING LESSONS. 



CONTRACTIONS. 



Ar. = Arabic. 

Eng. = English. 

G. or Guj. = Gujarat!. 

H. or Hind. = Hindi. 

P. or Pers. = Persian. 

Sk. or Sansk. = Sanskn't. 

U. or Urd. = Urdu. 

m.,f., n. = masculine, feminine, neuter. 

adj. = Adjective. 

adv. = Adverb. 

pr. n. = Proper name. 

<c. gr. = See Grammar. 

postp. = Postposition. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



VOCABULARY. 



A and A 



and 



A, dem. adj., this, these (v. gr.). 
Abdul Fat LodI, TO., (Pers. ? 

,_j.jy ^iUll), pr. n. of a chief of 

Multan. 
Abdnl Fazl, TO. (Pers. J-a!l Jut), 

pr. n. of the Vazir of King 

Akbar. 
Abdul Khan, TO. (Pers. ^'H o-e), 

pr. n. of a Muhammadan chief, 
Abdulla, TO. (Ar. JJ1 J-P), pr. n. of 

an Arab. 
Abdul Malik, TO. (Ar. dUl Jut), 

pr. n. of a man. 
Abdul Motaleb, TO. (Ar. t-.&.n J^), 

pr. n. of an Arab, 'Abdu'l Mut- 

talib. 

t Cttf ' 

Abdul Reheman, ?n. (Ar. 4^*=-^! J-e), 

pr. n. of an Arab, 'Abdu'r Rah- 

man. 

Abhiman, n., pride, arrogance. 
Abriida^ad/^Pers.jtaj^jl), honor- 

able. 
Abii Bakar, m. (Ar. JG y\), pr. n. 

of an Arab, Abu Bakr. 



x 11 ' 

Abul Husen, TO. (Ar. <s - f ^^ y\) 

pr. n. of a man, Abu '1 Husain. 
Abu Taleb, w. (Ar. t_JU^l), pr.n. 

of an Arab, Abu Talib. 
Adam Khan, TO. (Pers. d li f*\), 

pr. n. of a Hnharnmadan chief. 
Adbhnt, a(Z;., wonderful, strange, 

marvellous. 
Adekhai, /., envy, jealousy ; a., 

karvi, to envy. 
Adhik, adj. and adv., more. 
Adhikar, TO., power, authority ; 

right. 
Adhipati, TO., Editor (of a paper) ; 

ruler, master. 
Adilsah, TO. (Pers. ili J^ 1 *), pr. n. 

of a man. 
Afganastan, n. (Pers. ,.,L,liUl), 

Afghanistan. 

Agal, postp., before, in front of. 
Agamaj, adv., before, previously. 
Agar, con/., (Pers.^1), if. 
Agarjo, conj., (Pers. f\ and Guj. 

jo), if. 
Agatya, /., importance, need : 

agatya-no, (ni, -nun), important. 



158 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Agiarm-o, -T, -un, num. adj., 

eleventh. 

Agl-o, -I, -un, adj., former. 
Agnl, /., fire. 

Agra, n, the city of Agra. 
Ahmad nagar, n., the city of Ah- 

madnagar. 
Ame Akbarl (Pers. phrase 4-51 

,jj\}, Mirror of Akbar. 
Ajaeb, n. (Ar. PI. t_JU= from ^^), 

wonders, wonderful things, 

miracles : ac?;' , wondrous. 
Ajan-o, -I, -un, adj., ignorant, (of 



Ajim, m. (Ar. Jk^), pr. n. of a son 
of Aurangzeb. 

Ajmer, n., the city of Ajmere. 

Akar, m., form, shape. 

Akas, n., the sky, heaven ; the 
aether. 

Akbar, in., (Ar. j^\), pr. n. Em- 
peror Akbar. 

Akhare, adv. (Ar. ^\ and Guj. 
term, e), at last, finally. 

Akh-o, -I, -un, adj., the whole, all. 

Alamglr, m. (Pers. j/"^), pr. n. 
and title of Aurangzeb. ('Alam- 
g!r = ' World-seizer.') 

Ala uddin, m. (Ar. ^jJl ^c), pr. n. 

of a man, 'Ala u'ddin. 
Alaukik,ac?/., extraordinary, novel, 

unusual. 

AIT, m. (Ar. (J*), pr. n., 'Alf. 
Al Kadr (Ar. jJ^l), namo of the 



night (called in full jjd\ ii--! , 
i.e. ' night of power or of fate '), 
on which the Quran began to 
be revealed. 

AlptagTn, TO., pr. n. of a chief 
(Turkish). 

Al-siddik, in. (Ar. JJ.J-B!!, the 
truthful), pr. n. of an Arab. 

o*m 

Al-zobair, m. (Ar. j*>j>\), pr. n. of 

an Arab, Az-Zubair. 
Ame, p. pron., we (v. gr.). 
Amaldar, m. (Pers. j1jis), officer, 

official, governor. 
Amarkot, n., pr. n. of a town. 
Amburgadh, n., pr. n. of a town 

and fort. 
ArnTna, /., (Ar. f*1), Amina, pr. n. 

of Muhammad's mother. 
Amir, m. (Ar. ^!),a nobleman. 
Amo, p. pron., we (v. gr.). 
AnakanI,/., reluctance, hesitation; 

a. karvz, to hesitate. 
Anangapal, m., pr. n. of a son of 

Jaipal. 
Anavavun, v. tr., to cause to bring; 

viSvds an., to cause to believe, 

cause to accept. 
Andar, postp. (Pers. jJal), within, 

inside. 

Andhl-o, -T, -uu, adj., blind. 
Ane, conj., and. 
Angikar, n., acceptation; a. /jar* 

VUH, to accept. 
Anglf, /., a finger, a toe. 



VOCABULARY. 



159 



m., an ill omen. 



Angrej, m. (Urdu j->j&\), an En- 
glishman. 

Angrejl, adj., English. 
Anjanpanun, n., ignorance, want 

of intention. 
Ankh, /., an eye. 
Antahkaran, n., the heart, con- 
science. 

Anubhav, TO., experience. 
Anvnn, v. tr., to bring. 
Apaman, n., dishonour, insult. 
Apann-o, -I, -un, adj. pron., our, 

ours (inch, v. gr.). 
Apasagan 
Apasakun 
Apavas, m., a fast, fasting. 
Apavavun, v. tr., to cause to give 

(fr. apvun). 
Apavun, v. (pass, of apvun), to be 

given. 

Apne, p. pron., we (incl., v. gr.). 
Apn-o, -I, -uu, pron. adj., our, ours 

(incl., v. gr.). 

Apvuii, t. tr., to give: (with oblique 
infin. of preceding verb), to 
permit. 
Arab, m. (Ar. w^t), an Arab ; Arab 

lok, Arabs. 
Arabastan, n. (Pers. ^bu^c), 

Arabia. 

Arabl, adj., Arabian, Arabic. 
Araj, /. (Ar. u^c), a request, re- 
presentation. 

Arakan, m., pr. n. of a province. 
Arambh, in., beginning. 



Arop, m., accusation, charge. 
Aropi, m. t accused, defendant 

criminal. 

Asal ~i adj. (Ar. J-1), 

Asal-n-o, -I, -un ) original, old, 

ancient. 

Asare, adv., about, nearly 
Ascharya, n., surprise, marvel; 

adj., wonderful, strange. 
Asof Khan, TO., pr. n. of a brother 

of Nur Jahan. 
Aspas, postp., near, close to, at 

hand. 

Asuddh, adj., impure, unclean. 
Atas, m. (Pers. ^\), fire. 
Atasbeheratn, TO., a fire-temple. 
Ath, num. adj., eight. 
Athm-o, -I, -un, adj., eighth. 
Athva, conj., or. 
Ati, adv., very, extremely. 
Atik, m. (Ar. j-^, lib crated slave), 

pr. n. 

Atkav, mi. /., obstruction, hind- 
rance. 
Atkavavun, v. tr., to prevent, 

hinder ; refuse. 
Atma, in., a spirit, soul. 
Atre, adv., here, hither. 
Aurangjeb, i. (Pera. L-jjJo,j1), pr. 

n., Aurangzeb. 
Avaj, TO. (Pers. Urdu j\j], /.) 

voice, sound. 

Avakar, 7)!., a courteous recep- 
tion. 



160 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Avasar, m., opportunity, occa- 
sion ; period. 

Avastha, /., state, condition. 

Avavun, v. intr., to come. 

AvisvasI, adj., unbelieving; swbs. 
m., unbeliever. 

Avjav, m., coming and going, 
traffic. 

Av-o, -I, .nfl, adj., like this, such, 
so. 

Ayarkut, m., pr. n. of a man. 

Ayaz, m., pr. n. of a man. 

Ayodhya, TO., Province of Oude. 

B and Bh (<H and <H). 

Bachav, m., preservation, de- 
liverance. 

Bachpanuii, n., childhood. 

Bachvun, v. intr., to escape. 

Bad, adv. and postp. (Ar. o*j), 
after, afterwards. 

Badh-o, -I, -nn, adj., all. 

Bahadur, adj., brave, gallant ; 
m., a hero (Pers. j^). 

Bahadur!, /., bravery, courage 
(Pers. ,4,^)- 

Bahannn, n., excuse, pretext. 

Bahar, m., district of BShar. 

Bihar > adv., out, outside ; b. pad- 

Baher ) vun, to issue, happen, re- 
sult, turn out. 

Bahu, adj., many, much. 

Bahvnfi, v. intr., to flow, pour. 

Baidi, /., a lady, a woman, a wife. 



Bajar, n. (Pers. jljl), street, mar- 
ket, bazar. 

Baju, /. (Pers. jjU), side ; adv., to 
one side, aside ; b. thavun, to go 
aside, get out of the way. 

Bakhedo, m., tumult, quarrel, 
contention. 

BakI, /., the remainder (Ar. ^V) ; 
adj., remaining. 

Bal, n., power, strength, might. 

Balak, n., a child, a boy. 

Baluchistan, n., Baluchistan (Be- 
loochistan). 

Balvun, v. intr., to be on fire, to 
burn, be burnt. 

Balvun, v. tr.,to set on fire, barn ; 
iniens., b. nankhvun. 

Banaras, n., city of Benares. 

Banav, m., event, accident ; ac- 
cord. 

Banavat,/., an invention. 

Banavavun, v. tr., to do, make. 

Band, n., rebellion, insurrection; 
b. uthavavuu, to stir up rebel- 
lion. 

Bandhavun, v. (pass, of Bandhvun, 
q. v.), to be bound, to be built ; 
Bandhai gaeld lohtthi, from clot- 
ted blood. 

Bandhe, adj., both. 

Bandhvun, v. tr., to tie, bind ; 
to build, to set up. 

BandTkhanun, n. (bandl + Pers. 
*>U.), prison. 

Bandlvau, m,, a prisoner. 



VOCABULARY. 



161 



Bangala, in., Province of Bengal. 
Banne, adj., both (also Bandhe). 
Banvufi, r. intr., to come to pass, 
to happen, take place ; to be 
made, to be done. 
Bap, MI., father. 
Bar, num. adj., twelve. 
Barabar, adj. (Pers _^]/). right, 

exact, equal, adequate. 
Barm-o, -I, -uu, num. adj., twelfth. 
Barobar, adj. (v. barabar), equal. 
Baaro, pr. n. (Ar. i^), the city of 

Basra. 
Batiivarufi, v. tr., to explain, state, 

show. 
Baydi, /. (vide Baidl), a woman, 

wife. 
Be, adj. num., two ; be be, two 

each, two by two. 
Bedarkari, /. (Pers. i/j^ijO, i n * 

difference, carelessness. 
Bed!, /., a fetter, manacle. 
Bed nor, n., pr. n. of a place. 
Began), /. (Pers. JQ), woman's 

title, wife of a beg, princess. 
Beher-o, -I, -ufi, adj., deaf. 
Beram, m. (Pers. j.|^>), pr. n. of 

last king of Ghazm. 
Besadvun, v. tr., to cause to sit, 

seat, set. 
Besvun, v. intr., to sit down (v. 

irreg. vv.). 
Beti, /., a daughter. 
Bevakuf, adj. (Pers. "-J/j^), sense- 
less, silly. 



Bhadun, ., hire, fare, rent. 

Bhag, m., part, portion, division, 
share. 

Bhagl, /., a girl's proper name. 

Bhagvandas, m., pr. n. of a king 
of Jaipur. 

BhagvuS, v. tr., to break, shatter ; 
intent., bhiigl ndukhvuu. 

Bhal, in., brother, cousin. 

Bhakti, /., prayer, adoration, wor- 
ship. 

Bhandol, m., capital, stock, fund. 

BhangTuu, r. tr., to break, shatter. 

Bhani, postp., towards, -ward. 

Bhaujghad | /., intricacy, discus- 

Bhanjgad / sion, altercation. 

Bhanvuii, v. tr., to learn. 

Bharavatio, MI., a beam of wood. 

Bhare, adj., heavy. 

Bharmal, m. , pr. n. of a King of 
Jaipur. 

Bharoso, ., hope, confidence ; 
tene ... 6. betho, he had con- 
fidence. 

Bhartar ) 

, , > m.. a husband. 

Bharthar ) 

Bharvun, v. tr., to fill. 
Bhasa,/., speech, language. 
Bhasan ~\ n., a speech, an ad- 
Bhashan 3 dress. 
Bhatia, n., pr. n. of a town. 
Bhatrijo, m., a brother's son, 

nephew. 

Bhay, m., fear, dread ; danger. 
Bhet,/., an interview. 

L 



162 



GUJAEATI GKAMMAR. 



Bhetvuu, v. tr., to meet, to em- 
brace. 

Bhevad, n., pr. u. of a city. 

BhTkarl, m., a beggar. 

Bhlkh, /., beggary, begging ; b. 
indgvl, to beg. 

Bhlmdev, m., pr. n. of a Hindu. 

BhimI, /., pr. n. of a woman. 

Bhomiyo, m , a guide. 

Bhul, /., a blunder. 

Bhulchuk, /., error and omission. 

Bhut, m., an evil spirit, goblin, 
ghost. 

Bl, cow;'. (Urdu ^), also, too. 

Bijapur, n., pr. n. of a town. 

Bijo, -I, --an, num. adj., second, 
other. 

Bilkul i adv. (Ar. Jfclj), alto- 

Bilkull) gether. 

Bina, /., circumstance, event. 

Bokhara, m., the district of Bu- 
khara (Pers. IjU:). 

Bol, in., a word. 

Bolavavun, r. tr., to call, summon. 

Bolvim, v. tr. and infr., to speak, 
to say. 

Brahman, m., a Brahman. 

Bum, /. (Pers. e^Jl; , often pro- 
nounced bung'), a noise, shout, 
cry ; 6. marvl or b. padvl, to 
cry out, shout. 

Ch and chli (*l and {$) . 
ChadhaT, /., an ascent, assault, 
incursion. 



Chadhvnn, v. intr., to ascend, 
mount up; intens.,-javun, dcavuil. 

Chakar, m., a servant (Per s.y=U). 

Chakarl, /.(Pers. ^^.U.), service, 
position. 

Chal, /., gait ; conduct, walk. 

ChalakT, /., cleverness, cunning 
(Pers. ^L). 

Chalavavnu, v. <r., to cause to go, 
send off, fire (a gun), set going, 
circulate. 

Chali, /., a number of houses 
(small) in one block (chawl). 

ChaJTs, num. adj., forty. 

Chalkat, m., brightness, bril- 
liancy. 

Chalu, adj., in motion, moving; 
current. 

Chalvufi, v. intr., to go, walk ; to 
keep on, to last ; to be cur- 
rent ; chalto mahino, the present 
month. 

Chamatkar,m.,a miracle, a wonder. 

Chamund, n., pr. n. of a city. 

Chandblbl, /., pr. n. of a queen of 
Ahmadnagar. 

Chandr, m., the moon. 

Changam, n., name of a place. 

Charitra, n., narrative, memoir. 

Chaud, num. adj., fourteen. 

Chelo, m., a disciple, follower. 

CherkulT, n., pr. n. of a place. 

ChetavanT, /., a caution, a warn- 
ing. 

Chhan-o, -I, -ufi, secret, private. 



VOCABULARY. 



163 



Chhata, /., style (<>f speaking). 
Chhatadar, m., one possessed of 

style. 

Chhathth-o, -i, -ufi, adj., sixth. 
Chhe, v., is, are (3rd sing, and 

pi. and 2nd sing, of \/chha, 

q. v. gr.). 
Chhedo, TO., limit, boundary, 

end. 

Chhek, adv., at length, quite. 
Chhell-o, -I, -un, adj., the last. 
Chhluavavnn, v. tr., to snatch 

away (intens. chh. levuii). 
Chhodayavun, v, tr., to deliver, 

rescue. 
Chhodvun, to leave, abandon, 

cease ; chhodi devuii, intensative. 
Chhokr-o, m., -i, -nfl, a boy (girl, 

child), son (daughter). 
Chhnn, v. (1st sing, of \/chha, v. 

gr.), am. 
Chhut-o, -I, -un, adj., free ; chh. 

mukvuii or karvun, to set free. 
Cfahutvnn, v. intr., to get free, be 

delivered, escape. 
Chlchari ^ /., a scream, yell ; c. 
Chichlarl ) padv'i, to scream. 
Chirvuu, v. tr., to tear, rip; chin 

naiikhvun, to rip up, intens. 
Chitod, n., pr. n., Chitore (town). 
Chittakarshak, adj. , heart-attract- 
ing. 
Chohan, m., name of a family of 

Rajput kings of Ajmere. 
Chokas, adj., precise, exact. 



Cbokasfr, /., caution, care, care 

fulness; exactness, precision. 
Choth-o, -I, -uii, adj., fourth. 

D soft and dh (fc and k). 

Dado, m., a paternal grandfather. 
Dago, m. (Ar. tc.s), deceit, treach- 

ery, perfidy. 
Dahado ) 



DahTr, m., pr. n., Dahlr. 

Dakhal, adj., entering (Ar. J*'- 1 ) ; 

dakhal thavuii, to enter ; d. kar- 

vun, to cause to enter. 
Dakhan, /., the south, the Deccan. 
Dakshin, /., the south ; the Dec- 

can : adj., southern. 
Damaskas, n., pr. n., the city of 

Damascus. 
Daniyal, m., Daniel, pr. n. of 3rd 

son of Emperor Akbar. 
Dant, m., tooth. 
Dara, m.. pr. n. of one of Anrang- 

zeb's brothers. 
Darbar, /., a levee, audience, (at 

court). 
Darek, adj. (Pers. "s^-i), each, 

every. 

Daria, /., the sea. 
DariaT, adj., marine. 
Darudlo, m. , a drunkard. 
Darust, adj. (Pers o->,j), correct, 

right. 
Darvajo, m. (Pers. *j r jj~), a door, 

a gate ; a doorway. 

L 2 



164 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Das } ten ; das kalalce, at ten 

Das ) o'clock. 

Das, in., a slave, a servant. 

Dasm-o, -T, un, tenth. 

Dattak, m., an adopted son. 

Datvun, to bury. 

Daya, /., mercy, pity. 

Dayalu, adj., merciful. 

Dekhadvnii, v. tr.,to cause to see, 

to show. 
Dekhaitun, adj. n., apparent, 

visible. 
Dekhav, in., appearance, sight, a 

vision. 
Dekhvufi, v. tr., irregular (v. gr.), 

to see, perceive. 
Deheruii "i 
Debarun.) 
Des, in., country, land. 
Dev, in., a deity, a god. 
Devalnagar, n., pr. n., old name 

of Karachi. 
Devavam, /., a divine voice, a 

(heathen) oracle. 
Dhani, in., master, owner. 
Dharan, n., market price; holding; 

taking up : d. karvuu, to adopt 

(a title), assume. 
Dharm, in., religion. 
D harm guru, m., religious teacher, 

priest. 
Dharo, in., law, rule ; custom, 

manners : dharo padyo, the law 

(custom) was established. 



n., & temple, pagoda. 



Dharvuu, v. tr., to set, fix; to 
think, consider. 

Dharti, /., the earth. 

Dhartikanp, i., an earthquake. 

Dhikkar, TO., disdain, scorn ; 
hatred. 

DhTre, adj., slowly. 

Dhob(h)T Talav, name of a part of 
Bombay, Dhobi Talao. 

Dhyan, n., attention ; d. aprun 
( upar), to pay attention to. 

Didh-o, -I, -ULL (part, of Devuii), 
15. gr., irregular verbs. 

Dlkro, Ti.., a son. 

DTkrT, /., a daughter. 

DilhT, n., the city Delhi. 

Din, in., a day. 

Disa, /., state, condition. 

Dith-o, -I, -uii, IT. (part, of Dekh- 
vnii, q. v.), seen. 

Divan-o, -I, -un, adj. (Pers. *iiyj), 
mad ; dtvieno, subs, m., a mad- 
man. 

Divas, TO., a day. 

Dodvun, v. intr., to run. 

Dolat, /., wealth (Ar. sl^j). 

Dravya, n., wealth, property. 

Duhkh (i:^), n., pain, suffer- 
ing, distress. 

Duniyau ~\ . . . , J N , , 

/ /. (Ar. LJJ), the world, 
Duniya > 

V the present world. 
Dunia ) 

Dur, adj., distant, far. 

Dusman, m., enemy (Pers. ia *^^. 



VOCABULARY. 



165 



Dut, in., a messenger, an angel. 

Duval, /., prayer, blessing (Ar. 
Uo) ; d. feravavuu, to hare 
prayers offered for himself in 
the mosques, as sign of his 
being emperor. 

D hard and dh ($ and <), 

Dab-o, -I, -un, adj., left (side, 
hand). 

Dhaglo, m.,a large heap, accumu- 
lation. 

Dhab > /., style, air, method ; 

Dhap ) idiom. 

Dhongi, in., religious pretender, 
hypocrite. 

Dolo, M., eye ; sight. 

E (30. 

E, demonst. adj., that. 

-e, postp. (see gr.), in, afc, by 

(agent.), 
e, affix, sometimes adds emphasis, 

as eke, ' even one ; ' ' just one : ' 

trane, 'all three,' &c. 
Ebn Hareth, )., pr. n. (Ar. 

^ J O 

ki^L ^1), Ibn Harith, sarnaine 
of Zaid, q. v. 

Ek, num. adj., one; a, 

Ekant, /., a private place, pri- 
vacy: ekdntno (n~i,nun), private. 

Ekanti, adj., belonging to privacy, 
private. 



Ekdam, adv. (ek + Pers. ..j) , at 

once, instantly. 
Ekmek, adj., mixed, mutual ; one 

another. 
Ekth-o, -I, -nn, adj., together, col- 

lected ; karuun, to collect. 
ElchT, m. (Turk. ^-^), an ambas- 

sador. 

Em, adv., thus, so, in this way. 
Etle, particle, then, that is to say. 
Etlo, -I, -uii, adj., so much, thus 

much : etldman, meanwhile : etle, 

then ; that is to say, viz. 
Ev-o, I, -mi, adj. pr., such as this ; 

thus. 



F 



or 



Fakat, adv., only, simply (Ar. 

Uii). 

Fariad "i /., complaint, supplica- 
Fariyad) tion, (Pers. *\j>). 
Farlthi, adv., again, once more. 
Farvun, v. intr., to turn, to move 

about, to travel, perambulate. 
Fateh, /. (Ar. j. >), victory. 

Favavun, T. intr., to succeed ; to 

find convenient. 
Felavavufi, v. tr., to spread, cause 

to spread, cause to extend. 
Feravavuii, v. tr., to cause to turn, 

to turn ; to circulate, to run a 

trap (for hire). 
Firdosi, m., pr. n. of the great 



166 



QUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



lj., Ghaznavite. 



Persian Poet (author of Shah- 
nameh). 

Foj, /., army (Ar. ^y) ; Polls foj, 
police force. 

G and gli (31 and y.). 

Gabhravun, v. intr., to be con- 
fused. 

Gadi, /., a throne. 

GadT, /., a carriage (of any sort). 

Gaznavl "i 

Gajhnavi ) 

Gakhkar, m., name of a mountain 
tribe in the north of the Panjab. 

Gall, /., a lane. 

Gam, n., a Tillage. 

Gamdun, n., a small village, ham- 
let. 

Game, conj., even if, although. 

Ganavuu, v. (pass, of ganvun, q.v.), 
to be accounted. 

Ganan, n. (corr. fr. jnan), know- 
ledge. 

Ganvun, v. tr. t to count, reckon. 

Garhasth, m. (v. grihasth), a 
gentleman. 

Garib, adj. (Ar. V4, poor, 
humble. 

Garvisht, adj., proud, haughty. 

Gayo, gal, gayun, v. (past of javun, 
irreg.), v. gr. 

O' 

Gera-upayog, m. (Hybrid, Ar. j 

+ up.), uselessness. 
Gervajabi, adj. (Ar. 

improper. 



Ghamkvar, adv., pretty often, 

several times. 

Ghan-o, -I, -uii, much, many. 
Ghan-o khar-o, adj., very many. 
Ghanto, n., a belt. 
Ghar, n., a house; household. 
Ghard-o, -I, -nfi, adj., old, aged, 

advanced in years. 
Ghardavardao, in. pi., ancestors, 

forefathers. 
Ghusvufi, v. intr., to push one's 

way in. 
Gher (for ghare), in, to a house; 

home, at home. 
Ghodavalo, m., a horsekeeper, 

groom, driver. 
Ghodo, m., a horse : ghode, on a 

horse. 

Ghor, m. (Pers J} i, wild ass), ap- 
pellation of Bahrain, king of 
Ghazni. 

GhorT, adj., belonging to, descen- 
dant from Bahrain Ghor. 
Ghutan, m. ^ a knee : ghutnie pad- 
Ghutnl, /. ^ vun, to fall on one's 

knees, to kneel down. 
Gijhnl, the city of (^ GhaznT. 
Govalkonta, n., name of a fortress 

in the Deocan. 
Gnf a, /., a cave. 
Grihasth, n., a gentleman. 
Gujarat, n., name of a city and 

province. 

Gujarvuu, v. tr., to cause to pass, 
to cause to come upon. 



VOCABULARY. 



167 



Galam, m. (Ar. j."^c),a male slave. 
Gulamdl, /., dim., a female slave. 
Gun, m., qualities, attributes, 

virtues. 
Gusse, adj. (Hind. <*e. from Ar. 

S-ac), angry. 
Gvaliyar, n., the city of Gwalior. 



HabsT- 



Haidrabad, ., city of Haidarabad. 
Hajar, adj. (Ar. ^t), present, 

in attendance. 

Hajar, num., a thousand (P.j|>)- 
Hajrat, m. (Ar. s^^), word used 

to show respect among Muham- 

madans, as S'ri among Hindus, 

His Highness, Saint. 
Hakem, tn. (Ar. ^.U.), ruler, 

governor. 
Hal, adv. (Ar. JU, state), at pre- 

sent, now. 
Halat, /./ state, condition (Ar. 

av). 

Halve, adv. (often doubled), 
gently, gradually, slowly. 

Hame, pron., we, v. gr. (ame is 
the better form in Guj.). 

Hamnan, adv., now, at present. 

Ham ) 

> /., loss, injury, damage. 
Hani ) 

Hafikvun, v. tr., to drive, urge ; 
H. kddhvun, expel. 



Hafisal (corr. from Ar. J-U) kar- 

vuS, v. tr., to gain, acquire, 

attain to. 
Har, /., a defeat ; h. kltdvi, to be 

defeated. 
Harakat,/. (Ar. i&p.), hindrance, 

diificulty. 

Harakh, m., joy, rapture. 
Haravavun, v. tr., to defeat. 
Harlf, tn. (Ar. < ioj*.\ rival. 
Harvun, v. intr., to be defeated. 
Hase, v., 3rd sing. fut. of hovuti, 

to be, v. gr. 

Hasim ") m., proper name of an 
Hasem ' Arab, Hdshim. 
Hasvnn, v. intr., to laugh. 
Hath, m., hand ; authority. 
Hath, /., obstinacy. 
Hat-o, -I, -un, v. intr., was (from 

hovuii, q. v.). 
HathI, m., an elephant. 
Have, adv., now, at this time. 
Hemu, m., pr. n. of a wazir. 

9Z 

Himat, /. (Ar. i*), boldness ; 

courage. Himat Iharelo vichdr, 

a bold thought. 
Hindu, m., a Hindu. 
Hindustan, .,pr. n., India, Upper 

India. 
HTra, pr. n. (Ar. el^.) of a cave 

near Mecca. 
Hisab, m. (Ar. w>l-*-), account, 

reckoning. 
Hokins, m., Captain Hawkins. 



168 



GUJABATI GRAMMAR. 



Holvavuu, v. tr., to extinguish, 
put out. 

Holvavuu, v. pass., to be extin- 
guished : h.javuii (intens.). 

Hot (see hovun and gr. s. v.). 

Hot-o, -I, uii, v. intr., was (form 
of hato sometimes used after 
neg. na, v. gr.). 

Hovuu, v. intr. aux., to be, to be- 
come, v. gr. 

Humayuii, m., pr. n. of an em- 
peror, father of Akbar. 

Hukumat, /. (Ar. .u^G..), rule. 
Hukm, m. (Ar. *&>), command, 

order. 
Humlo, m. (Ar. JU*), an attack, 

assault. 

Hnu, pers. pr., T (v. gr.). 
Hannar, m. (Pers. Jm), au art, 

skill. 

I, and I (y and tf). 

Ichchha, /., a wish, desire. 

Ija, /., injury, trouble (Ar. lil). 

o '* 

Ijan, n. (Ar. ^i'), au invitation. 

Iman, n. (Ar. ^Wl), faith, belief. 
Imarat,/. (Ar. ,Ue), a building. 
Ingland, n., pr. n., England. 
InsafI, adj. (from Ar. i-Luj), just. 
Iran, m., pr. n., Iran, Persia. 
Irani, adj., Persian. 
Isa, m., pr. n., Jesus (Ar. ^f-). 
Isavl, adj. (ey-^), Christian : Isavi 



san (or ^~_ -H.)> Christian 

Year, = A.D. 
Isu, m., pr. n., Jesus (Ar. 
Isvar, ni., God. 
Isvarl, adj., divine. 

J and Jh (/ and 

J, affix, adding emphasis, equiva- 
lent to indeed or to italicisation. 

to , 

Jabrlyel, m., pr. n. (Ar. JtU?0 

the angel Gabriel. 
Jabr-o, -i, -ufi, adj. (Ar. ^.), 

mighty, powerful, great. 
Jadu, n., sorcery, witchcraft, 

magic. 
Jadugar, m., sorcerer, magician 

(Pers. Jf)*). 

1 

Jagya 

Jahankhaii, m. , pr. n. of a man. 

Jahafisuz, m. (Pers. ;^-J^), ap- 

pellation of 'Ala 'uddln Ghorl. 
Jajlavero, m. (Ar. i>_j*. -)- Guj. vero, 

a tax), the Jazi'a-tax. 
JalfiluddFn, m., pr. n. of Akbar 

(Ar. ^IJV). 
Jamabandl, /., revenue, land- 

assessment. 
Jamai, m., son-in-law. 
Jamin,/. (Pers. &-)), land, ground. 
Jamin, m. (Ar. ^U), a baillor, 

guaranteer, one who gives bail 

or security for. 



/., (Old Pers. poet, 'J^L, 
UrdQ ^.), a place. 



VOCABULARY. 



169 



Jamna,/., name of river, Jamna. 
Jamn-o, -I, -on, adj., right (of the 

hand). 
Jan, m. (Pers. ?), life ; j. levo,to 

slay. 

Jan, in. and n., person. 
JaiihaSgTr, in. (Pers.^J^lf?.), name 

of SalTm, eldest son of Akbar, 

Emperor JehiingTr. 
Janam") n., birth ; janm dharvun, 
Janm ) being born. 
Janm charitra, n., biography. 
Janmvuii, v. intr., to be born. 
Janankhanun, n. (Pers. iiU.Ail|j), 

seraglio, zenana. 
Janavavuri, v. tr., to cause to 

know, state, inform. 
Janavuu, v. (pass, of janvnfi, q.v.), 

to be known. 
Janvufi, v. tr., to know. 
Jara, adj. and adv. (Ar. ;3), a 

little, some, (with neg.), at all. 
Jarl, adj. (Ar. g?,U), flowing, cur- 
rent ; jari rdkhvun, to support 

(a custom, &c.). 

Jasvantsinh, m., pr. n. of a 

general and king of Jodhpur. 
Jat, /., a tribe; castf ; kind, sort. 
JatT, /., gender; adj., natural. 
Javab, TO., an answer, reply (Ar. 

M&). 

Javaher") n. (corr. of Ar. pi. 
Javahir/ ylj?-), a jewel. 
JaranT, /., youth. 



Javufi, v. intr., irreg. (v. gr.), to 

go. 
Jay a (gerund, from javuii, . gr. 

irreg. verbs), jay a karto, used 

to go. 

Jaychand, m., Prince of Kanoj. 
Jaypal, m., pr. n., Jaipal, name of 

two kings of Lahore. 

,,f/ai , * 

JazTrat-ul-Arab(Ar. vyJl ^j*-))the 
Arabian Peninsula. 

Je, rel. pr., who, which, that; je 
kain, whatever, whatsoever. 

Jems, TO., pr. n., James (I. of 
England). 

Jepnr, n., town of Jaipur (Jey- 
pore). 

Jev-o, -I, ufi, adj., such. 

Jhad, n., a tree, a plant. 

Jhajh-o, -I, -ufi, adj., much, very, 
more. 

Jherl, adj. (Urdu L?/J), poisonous. 

Jhurabandh, adj., mortifying, sor- 
rowful, sad. 

JindagT,/. (corr. from Pers. ,_/Jj;)> 
life, period of life. 

Jit, /., a victory. 

Jltnar, m., conqueror, victor. 

JItTufi, v. tr., to overcome, con- 
quer ; jiti levuii, to capture (a 
city). 

Jivavuil, v. intr., to live, remain 
alive. 

Jnan, n., knowledge. 

Jo, con;'., if ;jo Tie, although. 



170 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Jode, postp., -with. 

Jodhpur, n., town of Jodhpore. 

JoTe, v. defect, (v. gr.), it is neces- 
sary, must. 

Jor, n. (Pers.jjj), strength, power, 
violence. 

JOT an, v. tr. (v. gr.), to see, be- 
hold. 

Jubani (Per s. &{}), oral evidence, 
speech, word of mouth. 

Jud-o, -I, -tin, adj. (Pers. !>?), 
separate, different. 

Julam, m. (Ar. JU), tyranny, 
cruelty. 

Jun-o, -I, -un, adj , old, ancient. 

JusrI ) 

,, -</, yke, sway. 

Jhusri) 

Jnthapanun and Juthanun, n. , a 

lie, a fabrication. 
Juth-o, -I, -un, false. 
Juthnn, n., a lie. 
Jyafi, adv., where. 
Jyare, adv., when. 



K andKh (b and "i). 

Kabul, n., pr. n. of a city of 

Afghanistan. 
Kabul, adj. (Ar. J^), accepted ; 

k. karvun, to accept, receive ; 

agree (to do). 
Kachadvun, t. tr., to crush, to 

tread down, trample, run over ; 

k. nankhvuii, intens. 



Kachdavufi, v. (pass, of kachnd- 

vun), to be crushed. 
Kadhvun, v. tr., to take out, drive 

out, extract, draw out ; kadhi 

mukvuii. to drive out, intens. ; 

vakht kadhvuft, to spend time. 
Kadi, adv. (with neg.), never ; 

kadi kadi, sometimes, at times. 
Kadlja, /. (Ar. iaiJ), pr. n., Kha- 

dija, Muhammad's first wife. 
Kadko, m., a piece, bit, fragment. 
Kafalo, m. (Ar. sll), a caravan ; 

dariydno k., a fleet. 
Kafar, m. (Ar.^li'),an unbeliever. 
Kagal, m., paper, a letter (Pers. 

JitT). 
Kahadvufi,.ir. totakeout(=kadh- 

vnn, q. v.). 

Kahani, /., a story, fable, tale. 
Kain"| n.pron. (v. gr.), some,some- 
Kaifi ) thing, any. 

<3' - 

Kajio, m. (Ar. *^), a quarrel, a 

lawsuit. 
Kajva, ?i., pr. n. of a town about 

thirty miles from Allahabad. 
Kakdo, m., a piece, bit. 
Kako, m., a paternal uncle. 
Kal, m., time, period ; teno kal 

thayo, his time was up, he died. 
Kalak, /. (Eng. clock), an hour ; 

das kalake, at ten o'clock. 
Kalam, /. (Ar. Js) a reed-pen, a 

pen. 

Kalikat, m., town of Calicut. 
Kalinjar, n., city of Kalinjar. 



VOCABULARY. 



171 



Kalpana, /., fancy, imagination. 
Kam, n,, work, deed. 
Kambaksh, m. (Pers. l jiii-'V), pr. n. 

Kambakhsh, a son of Aurang- 

zeb. 
Kampani, /., the (East India) 

Company (Eng.). 
Kan, adv., why, wherefore ? 
Kan, n., the ear. 
Kandahar, n., city of Candahar. 
Kanoj, n., Kanoj (Canodge). 
Kanya, /., a maiden, a princess. 
Kanya Kumari, n., pr. n., Cape 

Comorin. 
Kapad, n., cloth. 
KiipvuS, v. tr., to cut ; intens., 

kapi naiikhvuji, to cut off, cut 

down. 

Kar, m., tax; usage. 
Karan, n., cause, reason ; kdran 

ke, because. 
Karanchi, n., city of Karachi 

(Kurraches). 
Karavun, v. (pass, of karvuii), to 

be done. 

Karbharl, in., manager, officer. 
Karine, v. (connective part, of 

karvun) ; postp., on account of ; 

by means of, v. gr. 
Karnal, m., (Eng.) colonel. 
Karnal Smith, Col. Smith. 
Karnal Bell, Col. Bailey. 
Karnatak, m., the Carnatic. 
Karod, num. adj., a erore, ten 

millions. 



Kartan ^ postp. (orig.part. of kar- 

Karttan ) vun), than (used in 
comparison). 

Karvun, v. irreg. tr. (v. gr.), to do, 
to make. 

Kr.sT, n., the city of Banaras 
(Benares). 

Kasi, adj. pron. (Pars! Guj., from 
Urdu ( j~^ any. 

Kasim, m., (Ar. .-^s), pr. n., 
Qasim, of a man. 

Kasmlr, m., the country of Kash- 
mir (Cashmere). 

Katha, /., a tale, story, narrative. 

Katko, m., a piece, bit, portion. 

Katto, I, -ufi, adj., bitter, fierce, 
mortal (enemy). 

KavT, m., a poet. 

Ke, con?., that ; or. 

Ked, m., (Ar. oJ>), imprisonment ; 
k. kan-un, to imprison. 

Kehen, /. and m., a message. 

Kebenaro, m., a relator, narrator. 

Kehevavun, v. (pass, of keherun), 
to be called ; to be said, to be 
told. 

Kehevun, v. tr. irreg. (v. gr.), to 
say, speak. 

Kem, adv., how? in what way ? 

Keptan, m., (Eng.) Captain. 

Kethe, adv., anywhere; whence ? 

Ketl-o, -I, -ufi, adj., how much ? 
how many ? ketldek or ketldk, 
m., a good many, some con- 
siderable number (or length) of. 



172 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Kev-o, -I, -un, adj., what sort of? 

Khabar, /., news, information, 
tidings. 

Khabardar, adj. (Pers. jl^), 
careful, on one's guard. 

KhabardarT, /. (Pers. v/>>.), 
care, carefulness. 

KhachTt, adv., sure, certain ; adv., 
certainly. 

KhadTja,/. (vide Kadija). 

Khali, adj. (Ar. ^U), empty. 

Khallfo, m. (Ar, ), a Khalif 
(Caliph). 

Khalsa, m , state land, govern- 
ment land ; k. karvuil, to con- 
fiscate to the state. 

Khamvun, v. tr., to suffer, endure. 

Khan, m. (Pers. ^U), master, lord. 

KhanagI, adj. (from Pers. *Ai.), 
private. 

Khandani, /., tribute, fine. 

Khanzaman, m. (Pers. ^Uj ^U.), 
pr. n. of a Muhammadan chief. 

Kharab, adj. (Ar. vl^I), bad, 
evil ; adv., ill. 

Kbarekharun, adv., truly, as- 
suredly. 

Kharekhat, adv., assuredly. 
Khar-o, -I, -un, adj., true real, 

good. 

Khatab, m. (Ar. vUi), title, appel- 
lation. 

Khatun, n., account, department, 
province. 



Khavadun, v. tr., to cause to eat ; 

hdr Teh., to inflict a defeat. 
Khavnfi, v. tr. irreg. (v. gr.), to 

eat ; to suffer. 
Khenchavun, v. (pass, of khench- 

vun), to be pulled, dragged, etc. 
Khenchvufi, v. tr. y to pluck, pull, 

drag; khenchtkddhvun,v.intens., 

to pluck out. 

Khorak, /. (Pers. i2)1,, food. 
Khorasan, m., the country of 

Khurasan. 

Khot-o, -I, -un, adj., false, untrue. 
Khovun, v. tr., to lose, destroy. 
Khubsurat, adj. (Pera. 

beautiful. 
KhubsuratI, /. (Pers. 

beauty. 
Khull-o, -I, -un, adj., open, free, 

plain, clear. 
Khun, n. (Pers. o^-), murder; 

koinun k. karvuii, to murder 

any one. 

Khuno, m., a corner, angle. 

j 
Khus, adj. (Pers. Jiji.), pleased. 

KhusI, /. (Pers. ,/>), pleasure. 
Khusru, m. (Pers. jj~>y), Khusrau, 

pr. n. of a son of Bahrain. 
Khusru Malek, m. (Pers. islL^^i.), 

Khusrau Malik, grandson of 

Bahrain. 
Kldh-o, -T, -uii, a part of Karvufi 

(r. gr. irr. w.). 

9,0' 

Killo, m. (Ar. i-l>), fort castle, 
fortified town. 



VOCABULARY. 



173 



KlmatT, adj. (Pers. j^*), valuable. 
Kiniiro, m. (Pers. t^UT), shore, 
coast. 

Kitab,/. (Ar. vW), a book. 

x 

Koi, p. pron., some one, any one. 
Kon, interr. pron. (v. gr. ), who ? 
Kon, m., a corner, angle. 
Kores ^ m.( Ar. ^ii/j.the Arabian 
Koresli ) tribe of the Quraish, to 

which Muhammad belonged. 
Kuch, /. (Pers. ^jTj, a march ; 

k. karvi, to march. 
Kul, n , a family, tribe, race. 
Kuruarpal, m. pr. n. of a king of 

Gujarat. 

KuGvar, m., a prince, a youth. 
Kunvar Ray, m., pr. n. of a king 

of Kanoj. 

Kuran, 71. (Ar. & \j), the Qur'an 

(Goran). 
Kusal, adj., happy, healthy, safe ; 

clever. 

ul 

KutubuddTn, m. (Ar. ^ 

pr. n. of a man, Qutb'ddln. 
Kutumb, m., a family. 



Labh, m., profit, gain, advantage. 
Ladvaiyo, m., a fighter, warrior, 

soldier. 

Ladvuu, v. intr., to fight, battle. 
Laek, ad/. (Ar. j5!H), worthy. 



Lagan, n. pi , marriage, wedding ; 

Z. karvuii, to marry ( siithe). 
Lagbhag, adv., nearly, almost. 
Lag!, postp., up to, until, till. 
Lago, part, for Ld'jijn, from Lag- 

vun, q. v. ; also, imperat., 2nd 

pi. of do. 
Lagvun, v. intr., to feel, to be 

produced (fruit), to begin, to 

attach to. 

Lahor, n., the city of Lahore. 
Lame, v., conn, part of levun, q. v. 

(see gr.). 
Lakh, adj. num., one hundred 

thousand. 
Lakhavavnu, v. tr., to cause to 

write, to dictate. 
Lakhnaro, m., (from lakhvuii, 

q. v.), a writer, author. 
Lakhvuii, v. tr., to write, compose. 
Lamb-o, -I, -un, adj., long. 
Lanch, /., a bribe; I. khan, to 

take a bribe; Z. khavadvi, to 

bribe. 
Las, /., corpse (Pers. ju!, Ar. 

,jij, Urdu yiil). 
Laskar, n., army (Pers. > ^-J). 
Lavavuu, v. tr., to bring. 
LayakI, /. (from Ar. jJV), worth, 

worthiness. 
Levuii, v. tr. irreg. (v. gr.), to 

take ; la? javun, to take away, 

go off taking; lal dvavun, to 

bring. 
Lldhe, postp., for the sake of, on 

account of. 



174 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Lidh-o, -T, -nil, r. (part, of levun), 

irr., v. gr. 
Lohl, n., blood. 

Lok, m. and n., people, a nation. 
Luchchal, /., knavery, dissolute 

conduct. 

Lut, /., booty, plunder. 
Lutrun, v. tr., to plunder. 

M 

Ma, /., mother. 

Madad, /. (Ar. j>x.), help, aid, 
assistance ; komi madad Icarvi, 
or koine madad apvl, to aid any 
one. 

Madhava Rav, m., pr. n. of a man. 

9' - 

Madma, n. (Ar. i^J-), the city of 
Medina. 

Madras, n., the city of Madras. 

Magvufi, v. tr., to ask, beg; desire, 
wish. 

Mahamad, n. (Ar. a-**"), Mu- 
hammad ; also used in Gujaratl 
for \j*, Mahmud of GhaznI. 
(A common man's name among 
Muslims.) 

Mahan, adj., great; large. 

Mahlno, m., a month. 

Or 

Majlis,/. (Ar. u*W')j an assembly. 

s a - 
Makka, n., (Ar. iX-), city of 

Mecca. 

Makkavalo, m., an inhabitant of 
Mecca. 



Mai, m. (Ar. JU), property, goods, 
Maldev, m., pr. n. of a man. 
Malik Ambar, m., pr. a. of a 

wazlr. 
Malmafca,/., Ar. clx* JU), property, 

possessions. 

Maltio, m., an associate, an ally. 
Malum, adj. (Ar. (y), known ; 

m. padi-un, to become known. 
Malvufi, v. intr., to meet, come to, 

be obtainable. 

Mamaro, m., maternal grand- 
father. 

Man, n., heart, mind. 
Man, n., respect, regard, honour. 
Man, postp., in, into ; manthi, 

from among. 
Manaro, in. (Ar. pl v Lu from /u), 

a minaret, tower, turret. 
Manas, n. (occasionally m.), a 

person, human being, a man. 
Manavuii, v. (pass, of manvun, 

q. v.), to be honoured. 
Mand-o, -T, -uii, adj. (Pers. JJU), 

sick. 
Mandvad, m., sickness (hybrid 

word, Pers. JoU + Guj. term. 

-vad). 
Mandvufi, v. intr., to begin, 

commence. 

Mane (from man, q. v.), in mind. 
Mane, pron.pers. (from hun, q. v.), 

me, to me. 
Mangvun, v.tr^(=mdgvun({. v.),to 

ask, beg, desire. 



VOCABULARY. 



175 



Mafihe, postp. and adv., within, 

among. 
Maiihornauhe, adv., mutually, 

among themselves. 
Manmant-o, I, -nfi, adj., agreeable, 

congenial, enough. 
Mannaro, m., (from mdnvun, g. u.), 

one who respects. 
Manpatar, n. t an address of 

honoar. 

Mais, n., meat, flesh. 
Munsing, m., pr. n. of a prince. 
Manvun, v. tr., to honour, respect, 

observe; confess, acknowledge. 
Hiir, /., a beating; mar khuvi, /., 

to be beaten. 
Maran, n., death ; maran piimvun, 

to die. 
Maretho, n. t Maratha ; adj. (-o, 

-I, -Tin), belonging to the 

Maruthas. 
MarjT, /., (Ar. Pers. Urdu ,$<>,*), 

desire, will, pleasure. 
Mar-o, -I, -ufi, pron. poss., my, 

mino. 
Marnar, m.f.n.. (agent of marvuii, 

q. v.\ deceased. 
Marvad, m., the district of Mar- 

vad (Marvar). 
Marvuij, v. tr., to strike, slay ; 

marl ndnkhiun, to kill ; mart 

nankvun, to be struck dead, 

killed ; intiryo javun, to be 

killed. 
Mas, m., a month. 



Mas!,/., mother's sister, maternal 

aunt. 
Maslal, adj., belonging to one's 

maternal aunt. 
Mastan, adj., wild, excited, mad, 

ungovernable. 
Masud, ?.., pr. n. (Ar. jj__), 

Mas'ud. 

Mat, n., opinion, doctrine, dogma. 
Mata, /., mother. 

Ma^e, postp., and com/., on ac- 
count of, because of; e mate 

or tnute, therefore. 
Math-o, -I, -un, adj., bad, evil, 

wicked, wrong. 
Mathuii, n., head, top. 
Mathura, n., name of a cify, 

Mathura, on the Jamna, eighty 

miles from Agra. 

s^ * 
Matlab, m. (Ar. t_.^)> purpose, 

object, aim. 

Matr, adv., merely, only. 
Medan, n. (Per. ^Ij*.), a plain, 

field of battle. 

u> " 

Mehel, m. (Ar. J*), a palace 
(-. mohol). 

Mehelvuii (also melvun), to put, 
to keep, to leave. 

MeherbanT, /. (Pers. jl^-.), kind- 
ness, favour. 

Mehesul, /. (Ar. Jj--), ax, 
revenue. 

Melvavuu, v. tr., to get, gain 
acquire ; to mix. 



176 



GUJARA1I GRAMMAR. 



Melvuii, v. tr. (mehelvun), to put, 

to leave, to keep. 
Men, pron. pers. (agential of liun, 

v. gr.), by me. 

Mhaisur, n , the town of Mysore. 
Mi. (contr. for Eng. Mister), Mr. 
Mirja Kbau, in. (Pers. ^ \y*), 

pr. n. of a man, Mirzil Khan. 
Mirjumala, m., pr. n. of a man. 
Misar, m. (Ar. j^), Egypt. 
MTthas, /., sweetness, eloquence. 
Mitr, m., a friend. 
Moajim, m. (Ar. J;'>), Mu'azim, 

pr. n. of a son of Aurangzeb. 
Mogal, m. (Pers. ji*>), a Mughul 

(Mogul). 

Moh, n., facination, charm. 
Mohabat KhaUjW. (Pers. c) li ( ^..s*), 

Muhabbat Khan, pr. n. of a 

noble. 

3-, 
Mohol, m., a palace (Ar. J*), 

= mehel. 
Mokalavavun, v. tr., to cause to 

send. 
Mokalelapanun, n., the character 

or office of one sent; apostleship. 
Mokalelo (part.ot molcalvun, q. v.), 

one sent, an apostle, messenger. 
Mokalvufi, v. tr., to send. 

o > 

Mokrib Khaii, m. (Per. ^U. ^j^>), 
Muqrib ^Khan, pr. n. of a man. 

Morad, m. (Ar. ]/), Murad, pr. n. 
of a son of Akbar. 



Mot-o, -I, -ufi, adj., great; large, 

big- 
Mubarak Khan, m. (Pers. ^U. e),L.), 

pr. n. of an Afghan. 

4 u" 

Muddat, /. (Ar. io-.), period of 
time. 

Muel-o, -I, -un (part, of marvun, 
q. v.), dead. 

Mug-o, -T, -un, adj., dumb. 

Mxijab, postp. (Ar. s-?-^), accord- 
ing to. 

o 5 * * 

Mukadamo, m. (Ar. i.Ji-), busi- 
ness, lawsuit. 

Mukavuii, v., (pass, of niuln-vTi, 
q. v.), to be put. 

Mukhi i 

(. adj., chief, principal. 
Mnkhya ) 

Mukvnfi, r>. tr., to part ; to give 
up, let go, release (iJso used 

as aux. v., vide gr.). 
w sii 

Mulak, n. (Ar. ei-U), a country. 

Mulakat, /. (Ar. '^-), an inter- 
view, meeting. 

Multan, n., pr. n. of a town in the 
Panjab. 

Multavi, adj. (Ar. ^^il.), delayed, 
adjourned. 

Mumbal, n., the city of Bombay. 

Mumtajrnahal, /., pr. n. of a queen 
of Shahjahan. 

Mu-o, -I, -un (part, of marvun, 
q. v.), dead. 

Murad, m. (Ar. ^j*), pr. n. of a 
brother of Aurangzeb. 



VOCABULARY. 



177 



MurtI,/., an image, idol, form. 
Murtlpujak, adj., idolatrous; m., 

an idol-worshipper. 
Musa, m. (Ar. ^^), pr. n., Moses. 
Musalman, tn., a Muslim, Masai- 

man (Pers. ^UJL*,, corr. from 

,.,U-_, Pers. pi. of jJL. .). 
Mnsalmani, adj., Muhammadan. 
Muskeli,/. (from Ar. J&), diffi- 

culty. 



Na, adv., not. 

Na, adv., no ; 2. noun. /., refusal ; 

n kahevi (padvi), to refuse. 
Nabl-o, -T, -un, adj., weak, infirm, 

powerless. 
Nadi, /., a river. 

Nadvun, v. tr., to obstruct, hinder. 
Nagar, n., city. 
Nagarkot, n., pr. n. of city, 

Nagarkot. 
Nahan-o, -T, -un (better written 

ndno, &c.), little, small, young. 
Nahasvun "i v. intr.,to flee, escape; 



"i v. i 
) n. j 



Nasvun ) n. javun (intens.). 

Nahi > 

y adv., not, no (v. ST.). 
Nahln > 

Nairutya, adj., south-western. 
NajdTk, postp., near, close (Pera. 

eli^i). 
Nam, 7i., a name ; a noun ; name, 

by name. 

Nam-no, -T, -un, famous. 
Namdar, adj., famous, renowned. 



Namuno, m., example, specimen. 
Nandraj, pr. n. of a man. 
Na(n)khvufi, v. tr., to throw, toss 

(used also as an auz. to 

strengthen meaning). 
Nankhavavun, v. tr., to cause to 

throw. 
Nafikhavun, v. (pass, of nankhvun), 

to be thrown ; marl nankhavun, 

to be killed. 
Napak, adj. (Per. el^ti), impure, 

unclean, defiled. 
Narak, n., Hell (one of the Hindu 

hells originally). 
Narayan Kevarl, m., a Hindu 

(man's) name. 

Narmas, /. (Pers. ^ soft), soft- 
ness, gentleness. 
NaroJ, n., pr. n. of village at the 

S. W. corner of Delhi. 
Nas, TO., destruction ; v. tr., nd!i 

karvo, to destroy. 
Nas, /., vein, artery. 
Nathi, adv. (used for neg. of 

chhe, v. gr.), is not, are not. 
Naval, /., novelty, rarity. 
Navamo, -I, -un, num. adj., ninth. 
Nav-o, -I, ufi, adj., new. 
Ne (contr. from ane), conj., and. 
Ne, postp., to, for (sign of occ.). 
Niche, adv. and postp., below, 

under, down. 

Nikalvun, v. intr., to go out. 
Nimvun, v. tr., to appoint, nomi- 
nate. 



178 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Nipajvufi, v. intr., to result, pro- 
ceed from, spring up. 

Nisani, /. (Urdu ^liJ, Pers. d l^5), 
sign, proof. 

Nizam, m. (Ar. (.Iki), title of a 
ruler (of Haidarabad, Deccan). 

Nizamsah, m., pr. n. (son of Queen 
Chandbibl). 

No, TO. , nl ; /., nun, ., postp. of 
(see gram.). 

Nokari, /., service (Pers. 

Nurjahan, /., pr. n. (Pers. ^ 
of wife of Emp. Jahanglr. 

o 

0, interj., O. 

Oddho, TO., rank, position, station. 

Odhe utarvnn, v. intr., to descend 
hereditarily. 

Olakhvnn,0.ir.,toknow,recognise. 

Olkhavnn, v. (pass, of olkhavun, 
to know), to be known, called. 

Ordo, TO., apartment, chamber, 
room. 

Othman, TO., pr. n. (Ar. ^Uic), 
'Uthman. 

Otlo, TO., a veranda, porch, plat- 
form. 

P(H). 

Pachhal, postp., behind ; pdchhal- 
th, adv., afterwards. 

Pachhl, postp., after ; adv., after- 
wards. 



Pachho, -T, -un, adj., back; as 

te pdchlio dvyo chhe, ' he has 

come back.' 

Pachhun, adv., again, back, back- 
wards ; pachhun farvun, to turn 

back, to retreat. 
Pachls, num. adj., twenty-five. 
Pad, n., dignity, rank. 
Padosi, TO., a neighbour. 
Padsah, TO. (Pers. ilijL), an em- 

peror. 
PadsahT, adj. (Pers. ^li^U) royal, 

imperial. 

Padvl, /., rank, dignity, office. 
Padvun, v. intr., to fall ; happen, 

occur ; tene rehevun padyun, ' he 

had to remain.' 
Padvun, r. tr., to cause to fall, 

throw down, knock down ; 

aux. adds intensity, as todl 

pddvun, to break in pieces ; nd 

padvi, to deny, refuse. 
Pahad, n., a mountain. 
Pahadi, adj., mountain, belonging 

to a mountain. 

Paiso, m., a paisd (' pice,' | anna); 

money. 
Pakadavufi, v. (pass, of pakadcun) , 

to be caught. 
Pakadvnfi, v. tr., to seize, grasp, 

hold. 

Pako, -I, -ufi, ") adj., perfect, 
Pakk-o, -I, -ufl' J complete ; ripe. 



VOCABULARY. 



179 



Paksh, m., a wing ; a side, party, 

kotno paksh karvo, to espouse 

any one's part. 
Palavufi, v. (pass, of pdlvun) to be 

observed, kept. 
Palvun, v. tr., to support ; to keep, 

observe (a law). 
Panivun, v. tr., to obtain, get, 

gain. 
Pan, cow;'., but, also, moreover; 

topan, yet, nevertheless. 
Panch, num. adj., five. 
Panchm-o, -I, -un, adj., fifth. 
Panl, n. t water. 
Pampat, n., pr. n. of a town fifty 

miles north of Delhi. 
Panjab, m., the Panjab, 
Pap, n., sin. 
Papl, in., sinner. 
Par, postp., upon, on. 
Paramdahade -* adv., on the day 
Paramdine ) before yesterday 

or the day after to-morrow. 
Paranavavun, v. tr., to cause to 

marry, give in marriage. 
Parantu, conj., but. 
Paranvun, v. intr., to be married 

(sathe). 

Pardes, m., a foreign land. 
Pardeskhatanno pardhan, m., 

Secretary for Foreign Affairs ; 



tary for Foreign Affairs. 
Pardhan, m. (also pradhdn), minis- 
ter, councillor. 



Pargat, a<lj. (also pragat), clear, 

manifest, evident. 
Parinam, n., result, consequence. 
Parja, /. (also prajd), progeny ; 

subjects. 
ParsI, i., a ParsI; adj., Persian, 

Pars!. 
Parvlz, m. (Pers.jjj^), pr. n. of a 

prince. 

Pasand, adj. (Pers. Xi-i), pleas- 
ing, acceptable ; pasandpadcun, 

' to become pleasing,' ' to turn 

out acceptable.' 
Pasar, /., walking, taking a walk ; 

pasar thavuii, to glide away, to 

pass. 
Pase, postp., near ; up to ; adv., 

near, at hand. 
Pathan, m., an Afghan. 
Pathe,2?osj3.,like; adv., similarly, 

like. 

Paththar, m., a stone. 
Patvikunvar, m., crown prince, 

heir apparent. 
Pautr, 7n., grandson. 
Pavitr, adj., holy, pure. 
Paginal, adj. (Pers. JUVj), trodden 

under foot ; paymdl karvun, ' to 

tread down.' 

Payo, m. (Pers. i/u),base, founda- 
tion ; no pay o ndnkhvo, to found. 
Paytakht, n. (Pers. o^y, capital 

city, seat of government. 
Pegambar, n. (Pers. j , ; . j), a 
prophet. 

u 2 



180 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Pehelafi, postp., before (of time). 
Pehel-o, -I, -un, adj., first. 
Pehelveliel-o, -I, -un 1 adj., very 
Pehelvel-o, -I, -un 3 first, first 

of all. 

Pesavar, n., the city of Peshawar. 
PestanjI Edalji, in., pr. n. of a 

Parsl. 

Pesvo, in. (Pers. \ji~j title of the 
ruler of the Marathas, Peshwa. 
Pet, n., belly, abdomen. 
Pld ")/., pain, anguish, distress, 
Pida ) trouble. 
Pita, m., father. 
Pohonchvun, v. intr., to arrive. 
Pokar, m., exclamation, shout. 
Polilor; n., name of a place. 
Porto Novo, n., name of a place, 

Porto Novo. 
Potan-o, -I, -un (frompote, v. gr.), 

his own, her own, &c. 
Pote,re/Z.^ron.,himself,herself,&c. 
Prabhu, m., a lord, master. 
Prachln, adj., ancient, former. 
Pradhan, m., minister, councillor. 
Pragat, adj., clear, evident. 
Pragatpanun, n., revelation, mani- 
festation. 
Praja, /., progeny, descendants ; 

subjects, a nation. 
Prakaran, n., a topic, subject ; a 

section. 
Prakas, m., brightness, lustre, 

splendour. 
Prakhyat, adj., famous, renowned. 



Pramane, postp., according to. 
Pram, n., living creature, animate 

being. 

Prant, in., a province. 
Prasar, m., spread, diffusion ; 

p. karvo, to spread. 
Pravas, m., travel, travelling, 

journeying. 
Pn'thivl, /., the earth. 
Prithuraj, m., pr. n. of a man. 
Puchhvun, . tr. (with ace.), to 

ask, enquire, question. 
Pur, adj., full, perfect. 
Purush, m., a male, a man. 
Purvadhikarl, m. (piirva, before ; 

adhikarl, heir, owner), former 

official, predecessor. 
Purvun, v. tr., to bury, inter. 
Pushkal, adj., many. 
Pustak, n. , a book, a volume. 
Puthe, postp., behind, after, in 

pursuit of. 
Putr, m., a son. 

B 00. 

Eacharchllun, n., household fur- 

niture. 

Radvun, v. intr., to weep, cry. 
Rahevun, v. intr. (v. rehevun). 

vt ' 

Eaiyat, /. (Ar. s-C|), subjects (of 

king) : a peasant. 
Baj, 7t., a kingdom, a reign ; 

raj karvuii, to reign. 



VOCABULARY. 



181 



Raja, n., a king. 

Raja Todarmal, TO., pr. n. of a 
celebrated Hindu. 

Rajbahadur, TO., pr. n. of a Mu- 
hammadan chief. 

Rajkarbhar, m., affairs of the 
kingdom. 

Rajput, TO., a Rajput. 

Rajsinh, TO., pr. n. of a king of 
Bhevad. 

Rajya, n., a kingdom. 

Rajyachinh, n., emblem of sove- 
reignty. 

Rajyadhanl, /., capital city, royal 
city. 

Rajyaprakaran, n., matters con- 
nected with a kingdom, politics, 
system of government. 

Rajyasatta, /., royal authority, 
kingly power. 

9 * 

Rakam, /. (Ar. Jj), allowance, 

amount, item. 
Rakhdavavun, v. tr., to misguide, 

lead astray, cause to wander. 
Rakhvun, v. tr., to keep, retain, 

preserve ; to place, put. 
Raliyaman-o,-I, -un, adj., pleasing, 

diverting. 

Ramazan, TO. (Ar. u^), the Mu- 
hammadan fast-month, Rarua- 
dha.n. 

Ramsinh, n., pr. n. of a King of 
Jaipur. 

Ran, n., a forest ; a desert. 



Ran!, /., a queen. 

Rano, TO., king (esp. title of a 

ruler of Udaipnr). 
Rasto, m., a road, path, way. 
Rat,/., night. 
Ratbod, TO., pr. n. of a Rajput 

family (Kings of Kanoj). 
Rehevun, v. intr. (v. gr.), to re- 
main, stay, continue. 
RehevasT, TO., inhabitant. 
Resami, adj. (Pers. ^^\) silken. 
Rlt ) /., manner, way, custom, 
Riti } method. 
Roj, m. (Pers. ) }J ), a day. 
Roj, adv., daily, day by day. 
Rokvufi, v. tr., to hinder, prevent, 

stop. 
RotI (Urdu, for rotli), /., bread ; 

rotl Ichdvl, ' to eat bread,' to 

have a meal. 
Rudhi, /., idiom. 
Rupal-o, -I, -un, adj., beautiful. 
Riipiyo, TO., a rupee. 
Rustamjl FardunjT, TO., pr. n. of a 

Parsl. 

S and S' (% and J^l) . 

SabaktagTn, m. pr. n. of a king. 
S'abd, TO., a word, a sound. 
Sabit, adj. (Ar. o^ti), proved, firm. 
SabitT, /. (from Ar. h=*jl>), support, 

proof, correctness. 
Sachal, /., truth. 



182 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Siich-o, -T, un, adj., true, truthful. 
Siid, m.(Ar. J*-.), pr. n. of an Arab. 
Siidharan, adj., common, general. 

Sadhu, m., an ascetic, a (Hindu) 

saint. 
Sadhusahl, adj. (Guj. sadhu 

Pers. ti adj. term. -I), ascetic. 
SadI, /. (Pers. us>x^), a century. 
Saf, adj. (Ar. i-*l-), pure, clean; 

plain, clear; adv., 'clearly, 

plainly. 

Saf 51, /. (Pers. L^-), purity. 
Safaldar, adj., possessed of purity 

(of diction). 
Saganvahalan, n. pi., friends and 

relatives. 
S'agird, m. (Pers. s/*'^), disciple, 

apprentice. 

Saghl-o, -T, -un ^ adj., all, the 
Sagl-o, -I, -un, j whole. 
Sago, m., a kinsman, relative. 
Sag-o, -I, un, adj., akin, closely 

related. 

UtlO J 

S'ahabuddm, <m. (Ar. ^jJl v*-'>), 

pr. n. of a man. 
S'ah Alam, m. (Pers. JJU li) pr. n. 

of a Mughul Emperor, Shah 

'Alam. 

Sahan, n., endurance, patience. 
S'aheriyar, m. (Pers. J le / <i),pr. n. 

of the fourth son of Jahanglr. 
Sahit, postp., along with. 
Sahitya, n., materials, means. 
B'ahjado,m.(Pers, j1j li),a prince. 



S'ahjahan, m. (Pers. o ll li), pr. n. 
of a grandson of Akbar. 

Sakhat, adj. (Pers. o^), hard, 

difficult, severe. 

S'akavun, v.(pass. of sdkvun, q. v.). 
Sakshi, m., a witness. 
S'akti,/., power, might, ability. 
S'akvun, v. aux., to be able. 
Salam, /. (Ar. (.3C), a salutation. 
Sallm, m. (Ar. |L), pr. n. of 

Akbar's eldest son. 
Samachar, m. (often used in pi.), 

tidings, news, a message. 
Samajanval-o, -T, -un, adj., clever, 

intelligent. 
Samajavavufi, v. tr., to cause to 

understand, give to understand. 
Samajavun, v. (pass, of samajvun, 

q. v.), to be understood. 
Samajvun, v. tr., to understand, 

comprehend. 

Saman, postp., in opposition to. 
Samapti, /., end, completion, 

termination. 

Sambandh, m., connexion. 
SambandhT, postp., with regard to, 

regarding, concerning, about. 
Sambhal, /., care, heed. 
Sambhalvun, v. tr., to hear, 

listen to. 
Same, postp., opposite, before, in 

front, against. 
Same, m., time. 



VOCABULARY. 



183 



Sam-o, -I, -mi, adj., opposed, 

hostile, against. 

Samp, m.,uiianimity,union, league. 
Samravavufi, v. tr., to cause to 

adorn, cause to repair. 

5 ' 

San, m. (Ar. i^ ), year (Christian 

calendar) ; age, epoch (Chr.). 
Sandhe, adv., everywhere. 
SandhT, /., union, junction ; 

opportunity. 

Sang, postp., together with. 
Sang, m., pr. n. of a King of 

Udaipur. 

Sanje = sanjhre, q. v. 
Sanjh, /., evening. 
Sanjhre, adv., in the evening. 
Sankal, /., a chain. 
Sanmukh, postp., in presence of, 

before. 
Santan, m. and n., progeny, 

descendants. 
S'anti, /., comfort, rest, peace of 

mind. 

Sar, postp., on, upon, on account of. 
Bar, m. (Eng.), Sir ; Sar Tomas 

Ko = Sir Thomas Roe ; Sar 

Viliyam Noris = Sir William 

Norris. 

Saras, adj., excellent, capital. 
Sarasvati, /., the river Sarasvatl. 
Sardar, m. (Pers. jl-v), chief, a 

noble. 

SarTpathe, adv., well. 
S'arlr, n., the body. 



Sarkar,/. (Pers. j<Cr-), the Govern- 
ment. 

Sarkarl,adj. (Pers. ^1$^-), govern- 
mental, government. 
Sarkh-o,-i,-un,a(j.,like, similar to. 
Sar-o, -I, un, adj., good, well. 
Sarovar, n., a lake. 
Saru, postp., for, because of, on 

account of. 

Sarvasaktiman, adj., Almighty. 
Sarve, adj., all. 
Sat, num. adj., seven. 
Sata, /., authority (=satta). 
Satara, n., pr. n. of a town in the 

Deccan, not far from Poona. 
Satavavun, v. tr., to persecute. 
Sathe, postp., with, along with. 
Sail,/., the custom of satl (suttee), 

or self-immolation of widows. 
Satm-o, -I, -nn, adj., seventh. 
SatramI, m., pr. n. of a man. 
S'atru, m., an enemy. 
Satta, /., authority, influence. 
Sattadar, adj. (sattd Pers.^b), 

powerful, influential. 
Sau, adj., all ; sau kartdn, more 

than all. 

Sava, (Ar. jL), name of a lake, 

the water of which is said to 

have dried up at Muhammad's 

birth. 

Savachet, adj., aware, attentive, 

expectant. 

Saval, m. (Ar. Jl>-), question, 
enquiry. 



184 



QUJAEATI GRAMMAR. 



Savar, m. (Pers.jlj-.), a horseman. 
Savar, /., morning. 
Savare,adv.,in the morning, early. 
S'eher, n. (Pers.^i), a city. 
Semenis, m,, pr. name. 
Sen, v. sub., so. 
Sena, /., an army. 
Senapatl, m., a general. 
Sikandar Adil S'ah, m. (Pers. 

li JoUjjIC), pr. n. of a King 

of BIjapur. 

Sikandar Sur, m., pr. n. of a man. 
S'ikhavavun } v. tr., to teach, 
Sikhavavun ) instruct. 

S'lkhvun ") 

> v. tr., to learn. 
Sikvon J 

Sindh, TO., pr. n., the province of 

Sindh. 

Sindhunadi, /., the river Indus. 
Sipal, TO., a sipalii (sepoy), soldier; 

polls sipal, a native policeman. 
S'ir Afgan, (Pers. ^Uil^i), Shir 

Afghan, pr. n. of a man. 
Siria, m., Syria. 

S'ivae, postp. (Pers. ^!j-), except, 
So, num. adj., a hundred; ekso, 

one hundred. (With higher 

numbers prefixed this word 

becomes sen, as basen, two 

hundred). 
S'o, si, inn, interr. and adj. pron., 

what? 
S'obha, /., ornament, beauty. 



S'obhaeman, adj., ornamental, 

ornamented. 
Sogand, m. (Pers. A^l), an oath; 

s. kJiavt, to swear (ek vastuno, 

by a thing). 

S'olingar, n., name of a place. 
Somnath, n., name of a city. 
Somvar, TO., Monday. 
Sonapur(-por), n., name of a part 

of Bombay. 
Sonun, n., gold. 
S'rapit, ocZj., accursed. 
Stanesvar, n., name of a town, 

50 miles N. of Panlpat. 
Sthapna,/., establishment, found- 
ing. 
Sthapnar, TO., a founder, esta- 

blisher. 
Sthapvun, v. tr., to establish, 

found. 

Strl, /., a woman. 
Subo, TO. (Pers. A>J-I), a province ; 

a petty ruler. 

S'uddh 7 

, ,, I adj., pure, clean. 

Sudh } 

Sudha.ro, m., a reform, an improve- 
ment. 

S'uddha.ta, /., purity, cleanness. 

SudhI, postp., until, as far as, 
up to. 

S'uddhpanun,'n.., purity, cleanness. 

Suja, TO. (Ar. fV") pr. n. of a 
prince. 

S'ukan, n., an omen, portent; 
sukanjondr, a diviner. 



VOCABULARY. 



185 



Sukavavun, v. tr., to dry np. 
Sukavun, v. intr., to dry up, 

wither; sukatjavun, to dry np. 
Sukh, n., happiness, comfort. 
Sukhl, adj., happy, comfortable. 
Sultan, m. (Ar. J^ul), Sultan. 
S'nn, pron. interr. n., what ? (often 

used as the sign of a question). 
Sundar, adj., beautiful, fair. 
Suro, m., a brave man, a hero. 
Suvun, v. intr., to sleep. 
Svabhav. in., nature. 
Svabhavik, ad;'., natural. 
SvadhTn, adj., subject, subjected ; 

s. karvun, to render subject. 
Svapanun, n., a dream. 
Svar, m. (Pers.jl^-), a horseman. 
Svarg, n., the sky, heaven. 
Svarl, /.,an expedition, incursion. 



Svatantrapan, n. ^ 



Svatantrata, /. 



. 
independence. 



T and Th (t\ and 1). 

Tabe, adj. (Ar. }'J), obedient. 

TadbTr, /., plan, device. 

Taiyar, adj. (Urdu jto), ready, 
prepared. 

Taiyarl, adj. (Urdu i/^O) prepara- 
tion. 

Tajmehel, n., the Taj Mahal at 
Agra. 

Tale, postp., under, beneath, below. 

Talvar,/., the sword. 



Tamar-o, -I, -un, poss. pr., your, 

yours. 

Tambu, m., a tent. 
Tame, pron., you (v. gr.). 
Tandarost, adj. (Pers. i=^-,J-j), 

healthy, well. 

Tane, pron., to thee, thee (v. gr. ). 
Tanhan, adv., then. 

Vtr* 

Tapas, /. (Ar. (j-s"), enquiry, in- 
vestigation. 

Tapasvufi, v. tr., to enquire, ex- 
amine into, inspect. 

Taraf, /., direction (Ar. - ; 
postp., towards. 

Tare, adv., then (v. tydre). 

Tare, pron. (form of tun, thou), to 
thee (v. gr.). 

Tareh, /. (corr. from Ar. r^) 
manner, method. 

Tarik (Ar. &j>), method. 

Tar-o, -T, -un, pron., thy, thine. 

Taro, m., a star. 

Tart, adv., at once, immediately 
(also turf). 

Tarthl (tare + thi), from that time. 

Tatar, TO., Tatar (Tartar). 

Tatha, conj., and. 

Te, demonst. TO. /. n., that ; pron., 
he, she, it ; neut. pi., they (V. 
gram., Pronouns) ; tethi, from 
that, on that account (also tethl 
Icartne, id.). 

Tedun, n., invitation ; t. karvun, 
to invite. 



186 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Teko, TO., a prop, support ; teko 

dpvo, to give support, to uphold, 

prove. 

Telicharl, n., name of a place. 
Tern, adv., thus; pron. obl.,them. 
Temaj, adv., thus; conj., just as, 

as well as. 
Teni, she : teni-no, -ni,-nun (v. gr. 

sub. pron. pers.), her, hers. 
Tevan, pron. (Parsi-Guj.), he. 
Tev-o, -I, -nil (correl. to jevo, 

q. v.), as, such as. 
Thanesvar, n., pr. n. of town, 

Thanesvar. 
Thavun, v. intr. aux. (v. gr.), to 

become. 

ThT, postp., from, by, through. 
Thod-o, -I, -un, adj., few, a few. 
Tikh-o, -I, -un, adj., hot, quick- 
tempered ; pungent. 
TikshnabuddhI, /., keenness of 

intellect, sharpness, cleverness. 
Tiraskar, m., contempt, aversion. 
To, particle, then (done), correl. to 

jo, if. 
Todvun, v. tr., to break, fracture; 

todi pddvun. 
Tohomat, /. (Ar. &?), accusation, 

false charge. 

Topan, conj., nevertheless, yet. 
Tran, num. adj., three. 
Trij-o, -I, un, adj., third. 
Trimbak Ray, m., pr. n. of a 

Maratha. 



TrinomalT, n., name of a place. 

Tuvar, m., pr. n. of Rajput family 
(Kings of Delhi). 

Tun, pron., thou. 

Turkastan, n., Turkistan. 

Turki, adj., Turkish. 

Turt, adv., at once, immediately. 

Turtvela, adv. (Pars!), imme- 
diately, at once. 

Tyafi, adv., those. 

Tyare, adv., then (v. tare]. 

Tyarbad, adv. (tyar and Ar. J*j), 
afterwards. 

T and Th (I and ). 

Takav -> 

T IT" \ m " > sta ^^i <; 7> durability. 

Tan t To, m., the leg. 

Thagal, /., defrauding, cheating, 

robbery. 
Thano, m., Tanna, a place not far 

from Bombay. 

Tharilv, TO., decision, resolve. 
Tharavavun, v. tr., to decide, fir, 

settle, appoint. 
Theravavun, v. tr., to fix, resolve. 

appoint. 
Todarmal, m., pr. n. Raja To- 

darmal ; a celebrated Hindu of 

Akbar's time. 

u (u & u) ( S & Si). 

Ubh-o, -T, -un, adj., standing 
upright; ulho thavo,to stand up. 



VOCABULARY. 



187 



Uchar, m., pronunciation. 

Udepur, n., pr. n. of city, Udaipur 
(Oodeypore). 

Udyanaing, m., pr.n. of a prince. 

Ujae, m., light, splendour, lustre. 

Ujjen, n., city of Ujjain. 

Ulatpalat ) adj., across; subs. /., 

TJlatpulat ) revolution ; dropze 
sdkshme ulat pdlat tapdsvani nd 
pddz, the accused refused to 
cross-examine the witness. 

Ult-o, -I, -un, adj., reverse, con- 
trary, opposite. 

Umar, /. (Ar.^c), age. 

Umarav, m. (Ar. t\f\, pi. of jt^), 
a noble. 

Unch-o, -I, -un, adj., high, lofty, 
noble. 

Und-o, -I, -un, adj., deep. 

Unt, TO., a male camel. 

Upaj, /., profits, produce, nett 
gain. 

Upades, m., teaching, doctrine. 

Upar, postp., over, upon. 

Upay, m., resource, remedy. 

Upayog,?n.,use; no upayog Icarvo, 
to use. 

Upl-o, -I, -un, adj., above, above- 
mentioned. 

Uravavun, v. tr., to cause to fly; 
to waste, drive away, repel. 

Utarvufi, v. intr., to descend, 
come down. 

Uthvufi, v. intr., to arise, rise, 
stand up. 



Utpann, adj. (Sk. past part.), 
created ; utpann karvufi, to 
create. 

Uttam, adj., very good, best. 

Uttar, adj., northern ; subs, in., 
the north. 

Uttar, m., answer; uttar devo, to 
answer. 

Uttejan, n., excitement, encou- 
ragement ; u. dpvun, to en- 
courage. 

V (H). 

Vachan, n., word, saying. 

Vachche, postp., between. 

Vadhu, adj., more, greater, fur- 
ther ; vadhu tapds multavi rahi 
hatt, the further hearing of the 
case was postponed. 

Vadhare, adj. and adv., more. 

Vadharvun, v. tr., to add, increase. 

Vadhelo, TO., pr. n. of Rajput 
family (kings of Gujarat) . 

Vadhvnn, v. intr., to increase, 
advance. 

Vadhvun, v. tr., to fight, quarrel. 

Vad-o, -i, un, adj., great, elderly, 
eldest. 

Vadun karvun, to extinguish ; 
vadun thavun, to go out, depart. 

Vagar, postp., without, except; 
vagarbhanelo, untaught. 

Vagere (corr. from Ar.-Pers. 

cj), &C. 



188 



GUJARATI GRAMMAR. 



Vahadya, ni galz, name of a lane 

in Bombay. 
Vaheb, m., pr. n. of an Arab 

(Wahib c-|j). 
Vaihindgadh, n., pr. n. town and 

fort of Vaihindgarh. 
Vajabi, adj. (Ar. t-^-V)), necessary, 

proper, suitable. 
Vajlr, TO. (Ar. j.) t a Wazir, 

minister of state. 
Vakht, m. (Ar. ol/), time. 
Valagvnn, v. tr., to embrace ; to 

possess (of a devil). 
Valan, /., a turn, bend ; v. leroi, to 

turn (intr.). 

ValT, adv., again ; further, more- 
over. 
Vallabhasen, m., pr. n., Crown 

Prince of Chamund. 
Valvun, v. intr. , to be profited, be 

gained, result. 

Valvun, v. tr., to bend, fold, dress. 
Vanchavnn, v. (pass, of vdnclwwn, 

q. v.), to be read. 
Vanchvun, v. tr., to read. 
Vani, /., a voice. 

Vans,m.,lineage, family, pedigree. 
VansavalT, /., genealogy, family 

line, line of descent, genea- 
logical tree. 
Var, /., period of time. 
Varaka, m., pr. n. (Ar. *-5,.j), 

Waraqah. 
Varas, n., a year (v. varsJi), 



Varas, m. (Ar. e^) an heir. 
Varaso, m., inheritance, heritage 

(corr. from Ar. kiijlj, heir, & J} , 

heritage). 
Varevar, adv., from time to time, 

continually. 
Varsh, n., a year (v. varas) ; 

raining. 
Vas, adj., subdued ; v. karvuil, to 

subdue. 
Vasnaro, m., a dweller, inhabitant 

(/. vasvun). 

Vastl,/., abode ; population. 
Vastu, /., a thing. 
Vasvun, v. intr., to dwell. 
Vasul, /., revenue ; (Ar. J^-j), 

vasul karvun, to collect revenue. 
Vat, /., word, matter ; story, 

tale ; conversation. 
Vay, /., age, period of life. 
Vayakaran, n., grammar. 
Vazlr,m. (Ar.^jj), a Wazlr (Vizier). 
Vechvnn, v. tr., to sell. 
Vehem, n. (Ar. ^), imagination. 
Vehemi, adj., imaginative, imagi- 
nary. 

Vehevnn, v. intr., to flow. 
Vela, /., time. 
Ver, n., enmity, revenge ; v. levun, 

to take vengeance. 
Verl, m., an enemy. 
Vero, m., tax, impost, taxation. 
Vepar, m., trading, commerce; 

vepdrdhandho, m., commercial 

business. 



VOCABULARY. 



189 



Vesh, reappearance, aspect, garb. 
Vicbar, m., thought, reflection, 

consideration. 
Vicharvun, v. tr., to think, reflect, 

consider, fancy. 
Vidhva,/., a widow. 
Vidya, /., knowledge, learning. 
Vijayray, m., pr. n., Vijaypay, 

name of a king. 

Vikhyat, adj., renowned, famous. 
Vina, postp., without (sine). 
Vis, num. adj., twenty. 
Vise ) postp., concerning, re- 
Vishe ) garding. 
Vikhervun ~) v. tr., to scatter, 
Vinkhervun j disperse. 
Visvas, m., belief, faith ; visvds 

Idvo, Tcarvo, to believe ( par). 



Tad, /., memory, recollection ; 
tene ydd dve chhe, it occurs to 
his memory; teneyadrelie chhe, 
he remembers (Pers. -jlj). 

Yaddast,/ (Per. c^i-lj^li), memory, 
power of recollection. 

Yadgarl,/. (Pers. v c,^o),memorial 

Yogya, adj., worthy (of = ne). 

Yojna, /., plan, arrangement. 

Yojvun, v. tr., to plan, arrange, 
devise. 

Yukti, /., plan, trick, device. 

Z (95). 

Zaid, m. (Ar. xj), Zaid, Muham- 
mad's adopted son. 



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