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LIFE OF LIEUT-GENERAL THE HON. 

SIR ANDREW CLARKE 
G.C.M.G., C.B., CLE. 



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LIFE OF LIEUT.-GENERAL THE HON. 

SIR ANDREW CLARKE 

G.C.M.G. C.B. CLE. 

COLONEL-COMMANDANT OF ROYAL ENGINEERS 
AGENT-GENERAL OF VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA 

EDITED BY COL. R. H. VETCH C.B. 

FORMERLY DEPUTY INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 
AUTHOR OP ** Gordon's campaigns in china," ^lifi op 

LIEUT.-GINIRAL SIR GIRALD GRABAM/* ETC 



WITH A PREFACE BY COLONEL SIR G. S. CLARKE 

K.CM.G^ F.R.S., LATi R.E. 
SECRETARY DEFENCE COMMITTEE, SOMETIME GOVERNOR OF VICTORIA 

ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1905 



PREFACE 

AN accidental meeting, in the spring of 1880, with 
J~\ the late Mr. Cashel Hoey at Englefield Green led 
to my long association and warm friendship with Sir 
Andrew Clarke. I never saw him, however, till just 
before leaving England at the end of July, 1882, to 
carry out the work at Alexandria for which he had 
nominated me. Soon after my return he appointed 
me to his office, and then began a close intimacy, which 
lasted for more than twenty years. 

Until Sir Andrew retired, in 1886, I served directly 
under him, seeing him every day, frequently accom- 
panying him on tours of inspection, and receiving his 
fullest confidence. Subsequently, until his death, we 
maintained an unbroken correspondence, ranging over 
most questions of public importance, and, to me at least, 
full of interest and profit. There is perhaps no greater 
help to clear and logical thought than a frank inter- 
change of opinions between two minds dilBFerently 
constituted and seeing dilBFerent points of view. Such 
an interchange is an educating force, powerful though 
unconsciously operative. 

Sir Andrew was keenly anxious that I should go to 
Victoria, the colony for which he cherished the warmest 
ajGfection, and we hoped that he would be able to visit 
us at Melbourne, to see the astonishing developments 
which have taken place since the granting of the Con- 



VI PREFACE 

stitution of 1855. This hope could not be realised, and 
when, ill and sufifering, he bade us farewell at Charing 
Cross station in November, 1901, we knew that it was 
the last. At the little country railway station of 
Macedon, I received a telegram saying that he had 
passed away. 

Those who had the privilege of close association with 
Sir Andrew Clarke can best appreciate the qualities 
which enabled him to exercise an influence, too little 
recognised, upon affairs, and which at the same time 
endeared him to his subordinates. 

His training when he was appointed to the high post 
of Inspector-General of Fortifications had been of the 
most varied and, for a military ofiBcer, the most excep- 
tional nature. It was the kind of training which our 
empire alone can provide for its sons, and to the value 
of which Lord Cromer has recently paid a striking 
tribute. 

The appointment was sharply criticised. There were 
actually persons who believed that Sir Andrew hap- 
pened to be looking over a hedge somewhere in 
Victoria when Mr. Childers either stole a sheep or 
committed a murder — the story varied — and that the 
Inspector-Generalship was the reward of silence. So 
far may the minds of estimable people be perverted I 

The appointment was not of the accustomed conven- 
tional type; but there was, at the time, no possible 
candidate who possessed the qualifications of Sir 
Andrew, and the fact of his close friendship with Mr. 
Childers was of great advantage to the public service. 
The Secretary of State for War and the Inspector- 
General, the one possessing cool judgment and great 
firmness when his mind was made up, the other of 
more sanguine temperament and imbued with the 



PREFACE vu 

idealism traceable to his Irish origin^ were exactly 
calculated to supplement each other's characteristics. 

Sir Andrew went to the War Office with a world-wide 
experience behind him. He had played a part in the 
early struggles of Tasmania and Victoria. At the 
Admiralty he had undertaken engineering works on a 
large scale, and had learned to understand naval re- 
quirements and naval modes of thought. In the 
Straits Settlements he had supplied a solution of 
native problems of much complexity and had laid the 
foundations of an almost unique commercial develop- 
ment. On the Viceroy's Council he had been brought 
into contact with the needs of India and with high 
imperial questions. As Commandant of the School of 
Military Engineering he had dealt with technical 
military education and had been in close touch with 
the Corps of Royal Engineers. 

Thus we who served under him in the old Horse 
Guards building found a chief who was the exact 
antithesis of the stereotyped official. Sir Andrew was 
only fifty-eight when he became Inspector-General, and 
the receptivity of his mind was absolutely unimpaired. 
We used to feel that he was as young as we were, 
and as ready as the youngest of us for any innova- 
tion which held out hopes of progress. Once con- 
vinced that a step was necessary and right, he 
advocated it with enthusiasm and a rare pertinacity. 
The trammels of red tape and the allurements of the 
** official channel," which have destroyed the power of 
initiative in the British Army and have crippled the 
usefulness of many promising military careers, were 
scorned by Sir Andrew Clarke, whose direct methods 
sometimes shocked the bureaucratic sentiment inherent 
in a great public office. That he wielded exceptional 



viii PREFACE 

influence in affairs of the most varied nature is un- 
doubted; that he occasionally failed to get his own 
way was inevitable. 

From the first he succeeded in infusing a new spirit 
throughout the ofl&ce of the Inspector-General. Forti- 
fication in this country had become highly conven- 
tionalised. The plain lessons of the Crimean Campaign 
had been ignored, and in matters of coast defence pure 
theory had usurped the place of induction based on 
the experience of war. The fleet attack on the forts 
of Alexandria supplied a wholesome corrective, which 
Sir Andrew Clarke quickly applied. The functions 
of the Navy were taken into account, and the teaching 
of history was brought to bear upon the subject of 
national defence. A naval ambassador was installed 
at the Horse Guards, with the best results, and this 
once daring innovation is now, I trust, a permanent 
institution. With the office of the Director-General 
of Artillery relations were somewhat strained, and the 
Royal Regiment had too little voice in regard to the 
armaments which it would have to fight. Sir Andrew 
Clarke obtained the services of an artillery officer as 
adviser, and the establishment of a Joint Works 
Committee secured practical co-operation between the 
scientific corps. 

Such administrative changes may well seem small 
and obvious. They have, however, borne good fruit 
in many parts of the empire. The obviously right 
course is not invariably taken where wrong traditions 
prevail, and all honour is due to the man who not 
only sees what is needed, but is willing to break with 
the past by carrying it into effect. 

The forcible exposition of opinions tending to upset 
dogmas comfortably established rarely conduces to the 



PREFACE ix 

personal advantage of a public official. "Govern- 
ments," as Sir John Gorst once said in a moment of 
inspiration, "hate and discourage original talent." 
Sir Andrew was, however, a generous disputant, who 
never carried professional differences into personal 
relations, and his genial nature went far to disarm 
rancour. He was probably regarded in some quarters 
as a dangerous innovator; but time has proved the 
correctness of many of his cherished ideas. 

Memories thickly bestrew the strenuous years from 
1882 to 1886, when, in addition to carrying out the 
many current works of the office, Sir Andrew Clarke 
was engaged in advocating with admirable persistency 
the course which he believed to be best for the empire, 
or in combating vigorously measures of which he dis- 
approved. The number of important questions which 
were thus handled was large, and it may be said that 
many did not fall within the scope of a fortification and 
barrack department. There was, however, no proper 
machinery for dealing with them elsewhere, and Sir 
Andrew Clarke, with his wide outlook upon afiEairs, 
felt naturally impelled to supply the deficiency. The 
result was much controversy, which sharpened our wits 
and necessitated careful thought and study. 

The so-called "battle of the routes" was a notable 
case in point. 

On November 5th, 1883, the hapless force of Hicks 
Pasha, which had been permitted to wander off into 
Kordofan, was annihilated, and near the shores of the 
Red Sea, Egyptian troops had suffered three disasters. 

"The appalling massacre" at Kashgil, in Major 
(now Sir R.) Wingate's words, "took place so far 
away from Cairo that it was not understood aright," ^ 

^ Mahdism and thg £^pHan Sudan. 



X PREFACE 

and as late as December 3rd all responsibility for 
operations in the Soudan was declared to rest with 
the Egyptian Government. There were those, how- 
ever, who realised that the honour of Great Britain 
was already involved and that intervention had become 
inevitable. To the practical mind of Sir Andrew 
Clarke the question presented itself as essentially 
one of communications, and before the end of 1883 
he was convinced of the necessity for constructing 
a railway from Suakin to Berber. How earnestly 
and how persistently he urged this view readers 
of his life will partly understand, but the com- 
plete history of the vicissitudes of the prolonged con- 
troversy will never be written. I can state only that 
no effort was spared, no argument omitted, and no 
opportunity lost. The trials of the unjust judge were 
small compared with those of the authorities, to whom 
Sir Andrew appealed in season and out of season ; but, 
in this case, the vox clamantis did not prevail. There 
were, it is true, some few halcyon days when the star 
of the Suakin-Berber route appeared to be in the 
ascendant. Then the clouds rolled across the scene, 
and our hopes were blighted. By sheer importunity 
Sir Andrew Clarke succeeded in obtaining permission 
to organise a base equipped with a light railway at 
Suakin ; but when, in February, 1885, it was at length 
discovered that a line to Berber would be '' invalu- 
able," Khartoum had fallen and General Gordon was 
dead. 

What might have been if Sir Andrew's plan, which 
was strongly supported by expert authorities outside the 
War Office, had been adopted, if the Berber route had 
been opened up after the action of Tamai on March 
14th, 1884, as was urged, and if the railway had then 



PREFACE xi 

been pushed forward as rapidly as possible from 
Suakiiiy we cannot know. 

What happened we remember. The Red River 
scheme was accepted, and the vote of credit was taken 
on August 7th, 1884. By December 25th a force 2,200 
strong, of which little more than one-third had been 
conveyed in the boats which had supplied the justifi- 
cation of the scheme, was assembled at Korti, where 
the alternative was either to navigate the Nile for 
480 miles, including its most difficult and least known 
rapids, or to strike across a desert route of 175 miles 
to reach the river 100 miles below Khartoum. There 
were no grounds for hope that Khartoum could hold out 
beyond the end of the year, and its relief had become 
obviously impossible. A most gallant attempt was, 
however, made at great risk to ** communicate with 
Gordon," and at length, on January 26th, two steamers, 
which his foresight had provided, carrying 20 British 
soldiers in red coats, with about 240 Soudanese, and 
towing one nugger laden with dhura to supply the 
needs of 25,000 starving people, reached Khartoum, 
which had fallen two days previously. 

The fine body of British troops which formed the 
Nile expedition gave splendid proofs of endurance and 
of generous eflfort, but failure was, from the first, 
inevitable. 

One episode during the period of the *' battle of the 
routes " is indelibly fixed in my memory, but I inexcus- 
ably omitted to record the date, which was, I believe, 
towards the end of May, 1884. 

Acting at that time as aide-de-camp, I took Sir 
Henry Gordon into my chiefs room, returning there 
directly he left. Sir Andrew spoke to me almost exactly 
in the following words: *^Sir Henry Gordon came to 



xii PREFACE 

tell me that he had just been with Mr. Gladstone, who 
said that if he thought his brother in danger, all the 
means at our disposal should be employed to rescue 
him. Sir Henry told Mr. Gladstone that he did not con- 
sider his brother to be in any danger, and I said to him, 
'Then you have killed your brother.'" Sir Andrew 
then believed General Gordon to be in a position 
of rapidly growing peril, and the words quoted were 
exactly what I should have expected him to say in the 
circumstances. 

Sir Andrew's intervention in the question of the Suez 
Canal was another interesting episode among many 
that I recall. I do not know whether, if he had not 
fought hard for the widening of the waterway, the 
alternative plan of a second narrow canal would have 
been adopted. I well remember, however, that this 
plan found powerful advocates, and that it succumbed 
to the array of opposing arguments marshalled at the 
Horse Guards. 

One lesson he impressed upon us young officers, 
both by example and precept. We learned to take 
responsibility, to act first and always to act, to write 
about it afterwards. This was salutary teaching, of 
which there is abundant need in the British Army. 

His quick Irish sympathy and imagination, together 
with his early associations, made Sir Andrew a strong 
Imperialist in days when the term was not in every 
mouth. Naturally sanguine, he had aspirations for 
the future of the empire which it is well to cherish. 
It was as an Imperialist that he became a Home Ruler. 
Early recollections of famine and eviction in Ireland 
in 1845 had deeply impressed him, and later he had 
seen discontent and disturbance in Victoria allayed by 
the free gift of self-government. The mental process 



PREFACE xiii 

was a natural one ; but it was not understood by some 
of his friends, who viewed the question from a different 
standpoint, and he strongly resented the imputation of 
being an advocate of disintegration. 

To the last his keen interest in the empire never 
flagged, and he died in the service of his old colony, 
Victoria, of whose affairs I used to tell him in weekly 
letters. 

Sir Andrew, whose particular heroes were Stamford 
Raffles, John Nicholson, and Gordon, was essentially a 
man of action. Criticism and academic exposition did 
not satisfy him ; he was always craving to accomplish 
something, and when he failed to secure the free hand 
in which he delighted, he suffered from depression for 
the short time that his sunny disposition would permit. 

He made for himself a career by strenuous work, 
which was perhaps allowed at times to become too 
absorbing. Ambitious he undoubtedly was. This was 
natural in one to whom the affairs of the empire were 
all-engrossing and who was fired with the zeal of the 
reformer. Towards the end of his life, I think that his 
work in the Malay Peninsula — too little known because 
the fruits were reaped in after years — gave him most 
satisfaction. In common with nearly all men who 
have greatly striven, he sometimes felt that he had 
not achieved all that lay within his powers. 

*' The ample proposition, that hope makes 
In all designs begun on earth below, 
Fails in the promised largeness ; checks and disasters 
Grow in the veins of action highest reared." 

Readers of this volume will recognise a life of ex- 
ceptional public usefulness worthy of record, and they 
will not fail to realise the intensity of interest and the 
wide scope of the careers which our empire can bestow 



xiv PREFACE 

upon its favoured sons. Those who knew Sir Andrew 
Clarke will never forget his great kindliness and broad 
sympathies. Those who served under him will cherish 
the memory of a chief who was always considerate, 
always inspiring, and always open-minded. In the 
intensely complex affairs of our national life he played 
a notable part, and it is by reason of labours such as 
his — often unknown and unrewarded — that we move, 
however slowly, towards the light 

G. S. CLARKE. 
May^ 1905. 



TinSk 



NOTE BY THE EDITOR 

TO the many old friends of Sir Andrew Clarke who 
have so kindly rendered assistance in the prepara- 
tion of the record of his life I wish to express not only 
my own acknowledgments, but also the warm thanks 
of Sir Andrew's daughter, Mrs. Sueter, who has taken 
the deepest interest in this tribute to her father's 
memory. 

Two maps of the Straits Settlements and Malay 
States will be found at the end of the book. They are 
intended to show the difference between the country in 
1875 ^"d to-day. The first map belonged to Sir 
Andrew Clarke when he was at Singapore, and, 
although it was not quite up-to-date, it shows suffi- 
ciently well how little known and how wild the 
peninsula then was. The other embodies the latest 
information, and illustrates the development that has 
taken place consequent upon Sir Andrew's efforts to 

open up the Native States. 

ROBT. H. VETCH. 

June, 1905. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

FAMILY HISTORY AND EARLY LIFE. TO 1 847 

Clarke family — Scottish orig'in — Settled in North of Ireland — John 
Clarke, of Grange, Co. Tyrone — His grandson, Dr. Andrew 
Clarke, of Trinidad — Brigadier-General of Militia— Friendship 
with three successive Governors, and quarrel with the fourth — 
His family — His eldest son, Andrew, enters 46th Regiment — 
Present at capture of Guadaloupe — Serves in Australia and 
India — The Doctor returns to Ireland — Marriage of Captain 
Andrew Clarke — Birth of the subject of this memoir — Captain 
Andrew Clarke becomes Lieutenant-Colonel, Governor of St 
Lucia, and, later, of Western Australia— Childhood of Sir 
Andrew— Death of the Doctor— Education of Sir Andrew- 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich — Receives a commission in 
the Royal Engineers— Stationed at Chatham, then at Fcrmoy — 
Sails for Van Diemen's Land— Sir William and Lady Denison — 
Death of Lieutenant-Colonel Clarke . . . p€^ i 

CHAPTER II 

VAN diemen's land AND NEW ZEALAND. 1 847- 1 853 

Lieutenant Clarke's work in Van Diemen's Land— Wishes to leave — 
Sent to New Zealand — Road-making — Makes himself useful to 
his Colonel and the Governor — Accepts offer of private secretary- 
ship to Sir William Denison — Returns to Van Diemen's Land — 
Letters to his uncle, Mr. William Hislop Clarke, describing his 
work and life from 1850 to 1853 — Distinguished visitors: Lord 
Robert Cecil, Mr. Henry Loch, and the Hon. E. Stuart- Wortley— 
Offer of a Government appointment at Melbourne — Advice of 
Sir William Denison— Lieutenant Clarke becomes Surveyor- 
General of Victoria — Appreciation of his services by Sir William 
and Lady Denison — Interest taken in him by Sir William . pc^ 20 

CHAPTER III 

SURVBYOR-GBNBRAL OP VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. J853-1858 

Lieutenant Clarke enters upon his new duties at Melbourne — 
Advice of Sir William Denison— Sudden short visit to Van 

h xvii 



xviii CONTENTS 

Diemen's Land — Seat in Legislative Council — Draft of new 
Constitution for Victoria — Lieutenant Clarke promoted to be 
Captain— Resignation of the Governor — The Colonial Secretary 
administers government — Letter of Captain Clarke to the Duke 
of Newcastle— Crimean War— Captain Clarke eager to serve — 
New Governor, Sir Charles Hotham, opens Exhibition at Mel- 
bourne — Captain Clarke's share in the Exhibition — He is chosen 
first President of the Philosophical Society of Victoria — Addi- 
tional Municipal Authorities Act, known as Clarke's Act — 
Disturbances at the Ballarat mines — Captain Clarke solicited 
to accept colonial secretaryship, but declines to allow himself 
to be nominated — The goldfields of Victoria — Captain Clarke 
persuades his uncle, Mr. James Langton Clarke, to go out to 
Melbourne — Chairmanship of Railway Board in New South 
Wales offered to Captain Clarke — Declines it— Royal assent to 
new Constitution — Proclamation of the Act — Captain Clarke 
becomes member of Parliament for South Melbourne — Enters 
the Cabinet — Retires from the Government, but retains seat as 
private member, and continues to be Surveyor-General — Rail- 
ways and telegraphs— Opposes and defeats the Government on 
a measure for the protection of minorities — Is called on to 
form an Administration — Declines to do so without a dissolu- 
tion — Is anxious to obtain the gfovemorship of Moreton Bay 
(Queensland) — Pays a visit to Sir William Denison at Sydney 
— Mr. H. C. E. Childers consults him as to his future— Captain 
Clarke, on return from Sydney, determines to go to England — 
Resigns his seat in the Assembly — Is entertained by the Free- 
masons as Grand Master of the Province . . page 41 



CHAPTER IV 

SERVICE AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST. 185&-1864 

Leaves Australia — Travels home by easy stages — Stays in Rome — 
Posted to Colchester command — Efforts to obtain the govern- 
ment of Moreton Bay unsuccessful— Mr. Gordon Gairdner of 
the Colonial Office — Mr. (afterwards Sir) George Bowen — 
Routine at Colchester dull and tedious — Advice from Sir William 
Denison — Takes up work for the colony of Victoria — Purchase 
of war material — Difficulties and abuse by some Melbourne 
politicians — Defended by Prime Minister — Transfer from Col- 
chester to Birmingham— Offer of post of aide-de-camp to Sir 
John Burgoyne falls through — North American Telegraph and 
Inter-Colonial Railway — Pleasant society — Makes many friends 
— Sent to the Gold Coast— Writes a report— Fever— Returns 
home — Acts temporarily as Agent-General for Victoria — Ap- 
pointed Director of Works at the Admiralty • . patrc 68 



'J^' 



CONTENTS xix I 



I 



CHAPTER V 

DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY. 1864-1873 

Captain Clarke succeeds Colonel Greene, R.E., at the Admiralty 
at a time of great activity — Tour round the dockyards — Visit to 
Malta— Energy and tact— The "Owls"— Meets Colonel C. G. 
Gordon and forms a great friendship with him — Works at Dover 
— New public offices — Captain Clarke submits designs — North- 
umberland Avenue — Promoted Lieutenant-Colonel — Photo- 
graphs of the Sultan of Turkey and the British Royalties at 
the Royal Naval Review — Colonel Clarke's marriage to Miss 
MacKillop — Letters of congratulation from Sir W. Denison and 
Colonel C. G. Gordon— Gordon's "King^s"— A week-end on 
board H.M.S. Victory — Mr. Charles Du Cane's farewell— ^Ber- 
muda Floating Dock launched — Visit to Wilhelmshaven — 
Boulogne Harbour— Created C. B. , civil division — Term of ser- 
vice at Admiralty extended for a second period of five years — 
Visit to Egypt to report on Suez Canal— Suggestion to the 
Government to buy it up — Scheme for manning the Navy — 
Criticism of Admiralty Works finance in House of Commons — 
Colonel Clarke writes to his Conservative friends in the late 
Government — The loss of H.M.S. Ca//am — Death of Sir 
William Denison — New Dock at Malta opened — Some of the 
Portsmouth new Docks formally opened — Breakwater and 
Dock at Cape Town— Aldemey Breakwater — Portland Break- 
water—Dover Harbour — Lieutenant -Colonel Clarke promoted 
full Colonel and created K.C.M.G. — Congratulations — Applies 
for a colonial governorship— Accepts that of the Straits Settle- 
ments — Serious state of affairs on the Gold Coast — Sir Andrew 
Clarke consulted — Advice not accepted — Memorials at Green- 
wich and Chatham — Farewells . . . . p€Lge 87 

CHAPTER VI 

GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 1 873- 1 875 

Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke leave England — Sir Andrew's dis- 
appointment on reaching Brindisi to find he was not to command 
the troops at Singapore — Arrival at Singapore — Mission to 
Siam — Protection of the coolies and Chinese — Resignation of 
Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet — The Dutch war in Achin — Visitors to 
Government House — The RafHes Institute — Dispute between the 
First and Second King^ of Siam — Sir Andrew appointed a member 
of the Viceroy of India's Council — Retains the Straits govern- 
ment until the arrival of his successor — Visits Siam accompanied 
by Admiral Ryder — Arranges a settlement of the dispute to the 
satisfaction of the two Kings and the Senabodee — Returns to 
Singapore . , . . pa^e 119 



XX CONTENTS 



CHAPTER VII 

OOVBRNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 1973-1875 
THE MALAY NATIVE STATES 

The condition of the Native States — Lord Kimberley's instructions 
to Sir Andrew Clarke. Perai : Three troublesome problems — 
The Chinese faction lighting- — The disputed succession — The 
status of the Mantri of Larut — Boundary questions — Action 
taken by Sir Andrew Clarke — Meeting of the chiefs—Conference 
with the Governor — The Pangkor Engagement — Faction fighting 
stopped— Abdulla acknowledged as Sultan — The status of the 
Mantri settled— A British Resident appointed — The Engagement 
of Pangkor highly approved at Singaporcr-Sir Andrew had 
exceeded his instructions in the public interest — Lord Carnarvon 
had succeeded Lord Kimberley at the Colonial Office. Selangor : 
Civil war and piracy — Sir Andrew visits Selangfor with the 
Admiral and fleet — He takes with him the captured pirates, 
and insists that the Sultan shall try them — They are tried and 
executed by the Sultan — The civil war is stopped— A British 
Resident is appointed — Sir Andrew's appreciation of naval assist- 
ance — Lord Carnarvon's approval of Sir Andrew's proceedings 
and defence of them in the House of Lords . page 144 



CHAPTER VIII 

GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 1873-1S75 
THE MALAY STATES 

Sungei Ujong and Rembau: Agreement entered into with Klana 
of Sungei Ujong — Sir Andrew visits the Linggi River and 
destroys the stockades erected by the Dato Perba of Rembau — 
Arranges a settlement with him — One of his chiefs, the Bandar 
of Linggi, refuses to recognise his authority, and opposes the 
arrangement with the Straits Government— Sir Andrew sends 
Mr. Pickering on a mission to him— Mr. Pickering attacked — 
Sends for aid— Sir Andrew Clarke hastens with troops and 
police from Singapore — Before they arrive Mr. Pickering defeats 
the Bandar, and behaves very gallantly— Sir Andrew recom- 
mends him for the V.C., but it is not given — The Bandahara 
surrenders, and is sent to Singapore. Johore and Pahang: 
The Maharaja of Johore appeals to Sir Andrew on the murder 
of his headman on the River Endau — Sir Andrew takes action— 
Visit to the Bandahara of Pahang — Courteous reception—A Com- 
mission appointed to investigate the murder— Not brought home 
to the Pahang Government — A better feeling established between 
Johore and Pahang. Captmn Speedy, Assistant Resident for 
the Larut district — Mr. Birch sent on a tour of inspection of the 
Native States— The Pangkor Engagement approved by the 
Crown — Sir Andrew issues a Proclamation to inform the chiefs. 



CONTENTS xxi 

and styles the Queen Empress of India— Mr. Birch sent to the 
Salama River to put down a rising under Mat Saman — He is 
successful, and is appointed Resident by Sir Andrew at Perak 
— Sir Andrew keeps a tight control over the Residents — He is 
overworked — ^After his return from Siam he visits Penang to 
meet the chiefs— Arrival of Sir William Jervois — Successful 
administration and popularity of Sir Andrew — Great regret at 
his departure — Addresses and entertainments — Sir Andrew 
Clarke leaves Singapore — Affairs of the Native States after his 
departure— Sir Andrew Clarke's policy — Sir William Jervois's 
policy — Murder of Mr. Birch — Captain Innes killed — Reinforce- 
ments from India — Munshi's letter to Sir Andrew describing 
murder of Mr. Birch — Sir William Jervois's letter on the same 
subject — Believes one cause of the war was putting Abdulla on 
the throne, another Mr. Birch's impetuosity — Sir Andretv defends 
his appointment of Abdulla as the only possible appointment, and 
speaks highly of Mr. Birch — Perak War— Murderers of Mr. Birch 
punished— Sir Andrew befriends Abdulla in later years . pc^ 165 



CHAPTER IX 

MEMBER OP COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OP INDIA. 1875-1880 

Arrival at Calcutta — Goes to Simla— Prince of Wales's visit to 
India — The Maharaja of Johore — Arrival of the Prince of Wales 
at Calcutta — H.R.H. honours Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke 
with his company at dinner— Lord Lytton succeeds Lord North- 
brook as Viceroy — Preparations for the Durbar to proclaim the 
Queen Empress of India — Sir Andrew's scheme for an Indian 
House of Lords— The King of Siam invited to the Durbar— He 
writes to Sir Andrew — The King's brother visits Sir Andrew — 
Prospects of famine— No money available for public works — 
Sir Andrew's views on famine policy — Simla — The Viceregal 
residence — The construction of roads and drives about Simla — 
Sir Andrew made a CLE. on the institution of the Order — Sir 
Andrew establishes the Indian Defence Committee — He reports 
on Madras Harbour — He visits the gold regions of the Wynaad 
valley and advises the employment of an expert to report on 
them — The Viceroy approves Mr. Brough Smyth, of Melbourne, 
on Sir Andrew's recommendation — Reports on the assured future 
of the Wynaad as a gold-bearing district — The opening of the 
bridge over the Sutlaj at Adamwahan — The Queen orders it 
to be called **The Empress's" Bridge — Frontier policy and 
Afghanistan — Sir Andrew ineffectually advocates a telegraph 
line through Afghanistan to Persia, and a line of railway from 
Sakkar to the Bolan Pass— His letter to Mr. Hutton on the 
Russian advance to Kixil Arvat — He continues to press the im- 
portance of a railway to Quetta— He nominates the Command- 
ing Royal Engineers and their stafiBi for the several columns 



xxH CONTENTS 

for Afghanistan — Letter to Mr. Childers on the frontier policy 
and the Persian Gulf— Sir Andrew proposes a short surface 
railway from Sakkar to Shahpur — The Viceroy in Council does 
not approve — Sir Andrew's remonstrance — Murder of Sir Louis 
Cavagnari — Sir Andrew instructed to press on with his pro- 
posed railways — The battle of the gauges — Correspondence 
with the Viceroy — Official relations between Sir Andrew and 
Lord Lytton somewhat strained— Personal feeling between them 
unaffected — Lord Lytton recommends Sir Andrew for a K.C.S.L 
— No vacancies — Sir Andrew goes home on leave and is enter- 
tained at Calcutta before his departure — Shipwrecked on the 
way home off Otranto — Makes his head-quarters at Bath— Goes 
to Pontefract to assist Mr. Childers at the General Election, 
1 860— Lord Ripon appointed Viceroy of India — Sir Andrew 
accompanies him to India — Colonel C. G. Gordon goes out with 
them as Private Secretary to the Viceroy — Letters from Sir 
Andrew and Colonel Gordon on the subject of Colonel Gordon's 
resig^nation and his departure for China — Sir Andrew's term of 
service in India expires and he leaves India for good — Birth of 
a daughter at Bath — Arrives in England in July, 1880 . page 193 



CHAPTER X 

COMMANDANT OF THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY ENGINEERING, 
CHATHAM. 1881-1882 

Leave of absence to 31st March, 1881 — Nominated for the Engineer 
command at Woolwich, then appointed Commandant of the 
School of Military Engineering at Chatham — His interest in the 
various schools, especially that of submarine mining — Visit of 
Mr. Childers, Secretary of State for War, to Chatham — Portraits 
of Sir William Denison and of Sir Lintom Simmons — The 
Channel Tunnel — Sir Andrew a member of Sir A. Alison's 
Committee — Sir Andrew is nominated to succeed General 
Gallwey as Inspector-General of Fortifications, passing over 
several candidates for that office — Congratulations from Lord 
Ripon, Sir Frederick Roberts, and General Gordon — Sir Andrew's 
short command at Chatham beneficial to the school — His con- 
nection with the Brennan torpedo . . . page 222 



CHAPTER XI 

INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICAi'IONS. 1882-1886 

Campaign in Egypt — Lord Carnarvon's Commission on Defence of 
Coaling Stations — Lord Morley's Committee on Defence of 
Mercantile Ports — The revision of the defences of imperial 
fortresses at home and abroad — Inspection of R.E. for Egyptian 
Campaign — The bombardment of Alexandria — An object lesson 
for the military engineer — Selection of an officer to report on it 



CONTENTS xxiii 

— Sir Andrew's gift of selecting- good men — Captain G. S. 
Clarke's report — Harmlessness of the bombardment — The mur- 
der of Professor Palmer, Captain Gill, and Lieutenant Charring- 
ton — Sir Andrew recommends that Colonel Warren should be 
sent to trace the party — Military Railway Corps— Naval Adviser 
appointed to the Inspector-General of Fortifications, also an 
Artillery Adviser — Sir Andrew's Memorandum on the recom- 
mendations of Lord Carnarvon's Commission approved by the 
Defence Committee and the Secretary of State — Sir Andrew 
examines the mercantile ports to be defended — The Newcastle 
Volunteer Engineers and submarine mining — The Coast Brigade 
for submarine mining — Sir Andrew's Report upon the proposals 
of Lord Morley's Committee for the Defence of Mercantile Ports 
— The Clyde defence — The defence of coaling stations begun — 
Aden, Hong Kong, Singapore — Inchkeith and Portland Bill ex- 
periments — Sir Andrew's Draft Memorandum on the principles 
of defence — Opinions of Sir A. Cooper Key, Lord Napier of 
Magdala, and General Brialmont — Nordenfelt submarine boat — 
Meetings at the Royal United Service Institution and Willis's 
Rooms — Sir Andrew's view of the r61e of the Navy — His reforms 
in his own branch of the Service — Australian defence — Promoted 
to the Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George for his 
services at the War Office . . . ptige 234 

CHAPTER XII 

INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS. 1882-1886 

The Suez Canal — Sir Andrew a member of Lord Granville's Com- 
mittee on the international status of the Canal — His visit to 
Egypt in 1882 — His Report on the widening of the Canal — 
Vice-President of the International Committee of 1884 on this 
subject — Mr. Childers leaves the War Office for the Exchequer 
— His son becomes A.D.C. to Sir Andrew— Sir Andrew's fear 
of retirement — Declines the governorship of Jamaica — Letter 
from General C. G. Gordon—Ceremonial function at Chatham 
— Destruction of Hicks Pasha and his army — Sir Andrew 
suggests that General Gordon should be sent to the Soudan — 
General Gordon wants to go to the Congo and sends in his 
papers — Sir Andrew uses his influence successfully to prevent 
the acceptance of his resignation — Correspondence between 
them — Defeat of Baker Pasha's force and fail of Sinkat — 
Despatch of Sir Gerald Graham's first expedition — Sir Andrew 
urges the construction of a railway from Suakin to Berber 
— Expedition to Khartoum decided upon— Sir Andrew strongly 
supports Suakin-Berber route — He is opposed by the Ad- 
jutant-General — Hesitation of the Government — Final decision 
in favour of Lord Wolseley and the Nile route— Work at 
Suakin — Sir Andrew continues to press for a column to 
be sent from Suakin to Berber — Sir Gerald Graham agrees 



xxiv CONTENTS 

with him — Death of Gordon — Second expedition to Suakin — 
Suakin-Berber railway and water supply — Bechuanaland — Sir 
Andrew's Memorandum^He recommends Sir Charles Warren 
for the conunand — His speech at the dinner of the London 
Chamber of Commerce — His approval of the conduct of the 
expedition and endeavours to obtain a medal for the force — The 
confusion between Sir Andrew Clarke and the physician, Sir 
Andrew Clark — ^Visit of the Maharaja of Johore to Engrland — 
Banquet at Chatham to Sir Charles Wilson and the R.E. officers 
who served in Egypt and the Soudan — Sir Andrew appointed 
temporary Agent-General for Victoria — His despatch on the 
New Hebrides question, and his efforts in support of the 
colonial view — Appreciation in Australia and thanks of the Vic- 
torian Government — Sir Andrew's retirement under the age 
clause of the Royal Warrant — Dinner at Chatham and visit to 
Fort Tw3rdall— War Office anecdote . . page 255 

CHAPTER XHI 

AFTER RETIREMENT. 1886-1895 

Sir Andrew stands unsuccessfully for Chatham as a Home Ruler — 
For six years he nurses the borough and is again unsuccessful 
in 1892 — The Corporation of Liverpool confer the freedom of the 
city upon Sir Andrew for his services in connection with the dam 
at Vymwy Waterworks — He presides at the annual meeting of 
the Cabdrivers' Benevolent Association — Mr. E. Onslow Ford 
executes a bust of Sir Andrew for Singapore and another for 
the R.E. mess at Chatham — Sir Andrew presides at the dis- 
tribution of prizes to the ist Liverpool Volunteer Engineers — 
He becomes a director of various commercial undertakings — 
Visits Siam on behalf of a railway enterprise—Warm reception 
by the Kang — Entertained at Singapore on his return from Siam 
and visits the Maharaja of Johore — Returns to England — Fire 
at his residence in Portland Place — Criticism of our military 
administration — On naval supremacy— A candid critic but a 
true friend to the Navy — Sir Andrew's views on barracks — The 
R.E. Gordon Memorials — Unveiling of the Camel Statue of 
General Gordon by the Prince of Wales — Sir Andrew again 
acts as Agent-General for Victoria — His paper on Defence for 
the Australian Colonies — His action in the Australian financial 
crisis of 1893 — Correspondence with Admiral Sir G. Phipps 
Hornby ...... p€^ 380 

CHAPTER XIV 

LAST YSARS OF A BUSY LIFE. 1895* 1902 

Cheery letter from Sir Algernon Borthwick — Death of Lady Clarke 
— Beautiful sarcophagus by Mr. E. Onslow Ford in Locksbrook 
Cemetery, Bath— Death of the Rt Hon. H. C E. Chikkrs— 
Great fn^idship between Mr. Chikiers and Sir Andrew — Seeks 



■'A 



CONTENTS XXV 

solace for grief in work — Desires to take up again the agency 
for Victoria — Letter from Mr. James Service — Sir Andrew is 
made an hon. member of the Institution of Civil Engineers — 
Appointed Agent-General for Victoria in January, 1897, and 
continues to hold this appointment for the remainder of his life — 
Letter from Sir C. Gavan Duffy — He acts also as Agent-General 
for Tasmania — Colonial Preference — Letter from Mr. Chamber- 
lain — Entertains the Victorian Premier at the Diamond Jubilee 
— The King of Siam honours Sir Andrew with sin audience and 
with his company at dinner — The King's proclamation on his 
return to Siam — Sir Andrew Clarke and the banquet at Liver- 
pool to the Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain— Lord WhamclifFe's 
death — Sir Andrew's contributions to the daily papers and the 
magazines — He reads papers before the London Chamber of 
Commerce and the Royal Institution — His scheme for the paci- 
fication of the Philippine Islands — He visits North America 
as an Australian representative to the International Commercial 
Congress at Philadelphia — He represents Australia on the 
Board of Directors of the Pacific Telegraph Cable — He takes 
part in the deliberations on the Commonwealth Bill — He pre- 
sides over the casting of the Gordon Statue for Khartoum — It 
is again proposed to confer the freedom of Dover upon him, but 
the ceremony is postponed until it is too late — Last public act : 
Reading the address of welcome from the representatives of the 
colonies in London to the Prince and Princess of Wales on their 
return from their colonial tour-7 Appointed a Colonel-Command- 
ant of the Corps of Royal Engineers — Death of Sir Andrew 
Clarke— Military funeral — Memorial service in St. Marylebone 
Church — Buried beside Lady Clarke at Bath — Review of his 
life — Selection from official appreciations of his services . page 299 

APPENDICES 
I. Family Genealogy ..... page 321 
II. Inscription on the tomb of Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Clarke, 

K.H., Governor of Western Australia . . . 32a 

III. Diary of the voyage of the Bermuda Floating Dock across 

the Atlantic . . . ... 323 

IV. Scheme for Naval Reserves proposed by Sir Andrew Clarke . 326 
V. Engagement of Pangkor . . ... 329 

VI. Proclamation of the Engagement of Pangkor . . . 333 

yil. Mr. Childers's Submission Paper to the Queen on the appoint- 
ment of Sir Andrew Clarke as Inspector-General of Forti- 
fications . . . . ... 335 

INDBX . . • • • 337 



2i 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL THE HON. SIR ANDREW CLARKE Frontispiece 

From a photograph by Messrs. Elliott & Fry. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ANDREW CLARKE (SIR ANDREW'S 

FATHER) . . ... 7b face page 7 

MRS. CLARKE (SIR ANDREW'S MOTHER) . . . „ 1 8 

COTTAGE BY THE DERWENT, HOBART TOWN, TASMANIA, 
IN WHICH SIR ANDREW LIVED WHEN PRIVATE 
SECRETARY . . ... 

COTTAGE AT MURRI-MURRI CREEK, MELBOURNE, VIC- 
TORIA, WHERE SIR ANDREW LIVED . 

SIR ANDREW CLARKE, WHEN SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF 
VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA . ... 

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, SINGAPORE 

MONUMENT, PBRAK WAR . ... 

SIR ANDREW CLARKE IN HIS OFFICE AT THE HORSE 
GUARDS . . . ... 

BRONZE BUST OF SIR ANDREW CLARKE (NOW AT SINGA- 
PORE), BY MR. E. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. . . 

BRONZE SARCOPHAGUS AT LOCKSBROOK CEMETERY, 
BATH, BY MR. E. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. 

MAP OF THE MALAY PENINSULA IN 1875 . 

MAP OF THE MALAY PENINSULA IN 1904 . 



»» 


32 


>» 


SO 


)» 


64 


»» 


130 


»l 


192 


If 


278 


»l 


284 


l» 


300 


At the end 


At the end 



SIR ANDREW CLARKE 



CHAPTER I 
FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

TO 1847 

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL Sir Andrew Clarke, 
-/ G.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., Colonel-Commandant of 
the Corps of Royal Engineers, and Agent-General 
for the colony of Victoria, Australia, was born at 
Southsea, Hampshire, on the 27th July, i824* He 
was the eldest son of His Excellency Lieutenant-Colonel 
Andrew Clarke, k.h., formerly of the 46th South 
Devonshire Regiment, Governor of Western Australia; 
and grandson of Dr. Andrew Clarke, of Trinidad, in 
the West Indies, and of Belmont, Co. Donegal. 

Sir Andrew's great - great - grandfather was John 
Clarke, of Grange, Co. Tyrone, whose Scottish ances- 
tors settled in the North of Ireland in the seventeenth 
century. John Clarke's eldest son, Andrew, about 
1760, married Miss Flora Lindsay, by whom he had a 
large family. Of this family the eldest son, John, 
became an army surgeon, and served in the West 
Indies, where he and the second son, Andrew, married 
sisters. John returned to Ireland soon after his mar- 
riage and lived at Grange. A younger son, James, 
stayed at home, and in course of time bought the 

B 



2 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

property of Port Hall^ near Li£ford, now owned by his 
grandson. 

It is with Andrew, the second son of this family, 
that we are concerned. He was the grandfather of 
Sir Andrew, and a well-known man in the West Indies 
in the early part of the nineteenth century. Born in 
1764, he entered the medical profession, and in 1782 
served on board H.M.S. Dublin. Later he went to the 
West Indies, where his elder brother John was serving, 
and was attached to a regiment of foot. He married at 
St. Kitts, in 1790, Louisa Downing, daughter of 
Anthony Johnston, of Annandale, and remained in the 
island for some years after his marriage. When Trini- 
dad was captured by Abercromby in 1797, Dr. Clarke 
moved there and became a planter, and the owner of a 
considerable estate. He was a keen and active officer 
of the local Militia, and in course of time succeeded 
to the command of the battalion to which he belonged. 

With Brigadier-General Sir Thomas Picton, who 
was Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Trinidad 
when Dr. Clarke arrived, he established a particular 
friendship.^ He was also on intimate terms with Sir 
Thomas Picton's successors in the Government — Sir 
Thomas Hislop and Colonel William Monro. The 
former stood godfather to his third son, William 
Hislop Clarke, and the latter showed his appreciation 
of the Doctor's services in command of his Militia 
Battalion by selecting him for the command of the 
ist Militia Division with the rank of Brigadier-General. 

^ Many years after, Dr. Clarke wrote from Trinidad to ask Sir Thomas 
Picton to use his inflnence to obtain a commission in the Army for 
a nephew, little thinking that his old friend had already met with a 
soldier's death. The gallant Picton fell at the head of his division 
at Waterloo, on the 18th June, 1815, and Dr. Clarke's letter was not 
written until the 4th July. 



TO 1847] FAMILY HISTORY 3 

Dr. Clarke's family were all born in the West Indies, 
three boys and a girl surviving childhood. His eldest 
son Andrew, born in 1793, was the father of our Sir 
Andrew. The other sons were James Langton,^ born in 
1800, and William Hislop,^ born in 1806. The boys 
were sent home, as they arrived at school age, to the 
care of their father's sister, Mrs. Lindsay, who lived at 
Strabane, Co. Donegal. Andrew went to a school in 
England and his brothers to one at Raphoe. A 
daughter, Eliza, was born to the Doctor in 1810, 
who married Mr. William Coghlan of Cork and left 
descendants. 

The Doctor's eldest son, Andrew, was commissioned 
when quite a boy (1806) as an ensign in the 46th South 
Devonshire Regiment (now the 2nd Battalion of the 
Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry), which was then 
serving in the West Indies. Four years later he took 
part in the gallant capture of Guadaloupe from the 
French, and in 181 1 he accompanied the regiment to 
England. In 1813 he was promoted captain and went 
with the 46th to New South Wales. After serving there 
for three years he was given two years' leave to go to 
England, and when he rejoined the regiment in 1818 it 
had been moved from Australia to Madras. 

^ James Langton Clarke was educated for the Army, and g^azetted to 
the 70th Foot in 1820, but alarmed at the stagnation in promotion at that 
time, he exchanged the profession of arms for that of the law, and was 
called to the Bar. Eventually he went out to Australia, where he became 
first a stipendiary magistrate, and then a county court judge. 

' William Hislop Clarke was also educated for the Army, but followed 
his brother's example and became a barrister. He enjoyed good practice 
at the Chancery Bar. He lef^ an only son, Marcus Andrew Hislop 
Clarke, bom in 1846, who went out to Victoria, Australia, where he 
established a literary reputation. He was the author of a History of the 
Continent of Australia and the Island of Tasmaniaf and of other works 
on the Antipodes. He also wrote several novels, one of which. Far the 
Term of his Natural Life, was very i uccessfuL He died early, leaving a 
family. 



4 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

In the meantime his father in Trinidad had been 
greatly vexed by the high-handed proceedings of a new 
Governor, Sir Ralph Woodford, who arrived in 1813. 
The Doctor tells his grievance to his eldest son in a 
letter dated 20th January, 18 14, from which the 
following is an extract : — 

From Dr. Clarke. 

** I have been very unfortunate since the arrival here 
of our new Governor, he having seized my house, 
which I purchased from Mr. Whitmore in 1808 for two 
thousand guineas, as well as nine months' rent due to 
me at the time of the seizure, 30 August last year. 
Since then, I have been trying by a suit at law to get 
it back, but hitherto without effect The Attorney- 
General says that Mr. Whitmore is indebted to the 
Government one hundred thousand pounds sterling, 
and that by law his title to the house was not good, as 
from the time he accepted the situation of Commissary 
or Receiver of public money everything he possessed 
was held mortgaged to the Crown for the due and 
faithful discharge of the trust reposed in him. Thus 
you see an honourable man is robbed of his property 
by a villainous quibble of law. 

** I mean to go home in the first fleet in April, and 
will memorialise the Lords of the Treasury, for surely 
they will not sanction an old servant to be defrauded of 
his property, who has been serving his country for 
more than thirty years, half of which time I have 
spent in this country drilling Militia, for which I have 
never received sixpence." 

Whether Dr. Clarke ever received any compensation 
or reparation for the seizure of his house by the 
Government does not appear. 

In 1817 Dr. Clarke had made up his mind to leave 
the West Indies for good, and wrote to his son Andrew, 
then in England on leave of absence, begging him to 
effect an exchange to the depdt in order that they 



TO 1847] DR. ANDREW CLARKE . 5 

might meet the following year. But this could not be 
arranged, and Captain Clarke went to India. In the 
meantime the Doctor continued to look after his Militia 
Division in Trinidad with unabated zeal, and Mr. John 
Neilson wrote to one of the Doctor's sons: **Your 
father is as bad as ever with the Militia. He gives us 
devilish severe drillings the first Sunday in every 
month, which is brigade day." When the gallant 
Doctor left the island the Commander-in-Chief issued a 
complimentary general order testifying to Brigadier- 
General Clarke's successful organisation of the Militia 
for many years, and tendering his acknowledgments 
and thanks for the valuable assistance he had rendered 
to successive commanders-in-chief. 

Accompanied by his wife and daughter. Dr. Clarke 
went home in 1818, and resided at Strabane. Two 
letters from the Doctor to his eldest son tell of his 
home-coming, his wife's illness and death, and other 
family news: — 

From Dr. Clarke. 

** Strabane, 9 January ^ 1819. 

** My dear Andrew, 

**I left the West Indies with your mother and 
Eliza the i6th July last year, arrived in England after 
a tempestuous passage the 3rd Septeml)er, and came 
here the loth October, where I have taken a small 
house next door to Mrs. Lindsay, and where I believe I 
shall remain till I build one on the property I purchased 
some years since near LifFord. Since our arrival here 
your mother has almost constantly been confined to the 
house with a cough and pain on the chest. . . . 

** Your letter to your mother astonished both her and 
myself not a little. It is an extraordinary circumstance 
that at your age and with your prospects you should 
desire to quit the service. . . . You say much upon 
the subject of religion, and from the style you write in 
upon that subject I am afraid you have got acquainted 



6 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

with some designing Methodist parson. Surely a gooc^ 
man may be as good a Christian in the Army as in th^ 
Church, as Corporal Trim says in Tristram Shandy, 
which I am sure is very possible. • • • 

** Always, my dear Andrew, 

" Your afifectionate father, 

*' Andrew Clarke." 



From the same. 

''Belmont, near Lifford, 
2P January^ 1820. 

" My dear Andrew, 

''I wrote you last on the 6th April giving you 
the melancholy intelligence of the death of your ever to 
be regretted mother, since when I have received your 
letter of the 6th July, which gave me infinite pleasure 
for many reasons. The first and principal was that 
you were reconciled to your profession, and the second 
that, although you had been ill of fever, you had 
recovered. . . . You do perfectly right in retaining 
your name for purchase, which you must continue to 
do, and I shall instruct the Messrs. Earles, should a 
vacancy happen, to be prepared to pay the money. 

** I removed to this place from Strabane, where I 
had lived twelve months with James and Will, the 
I St November last. Although the house is not finished 
it is much better and warmer than the house we left. 

tames went before the Board of Commissioners at the 
Military College last Midsummer, and passed the 
Board with some credit. He was first in fortification 
and third in mathematics. He is now the first on the 
Board list for a commission, and expects to be gazetted 
daily. He is an uncommon fine, honourable bK)y, and 
remarkably well informed generally. Will is at school 
with the Rev. Mr. Rolston, who takes only ten boys, 
and those only the sons of gentlemen of the first class. 
He breakfasts with Mr. Rolston and rides home to 
dinner and to sleep. He is a first-rate scholar for his 
age, is reading Lucan, Terence, and the Greek Testa- 
ment My dear girl Eliza I took to Dublin last Sep- 
tember, and placed at school in Stephen's Green with a 




(:>o/r'nr/ . 'ui(irc4t^ C^hirke ^KJH . 




C^clrrtri . 'Ui{Jn'4t' n/ai-Jkr .'^J7{. 



TO 1847] FATHER AND MOTHER 7 

lady who was strongly recommended to me, a Mrs. 
Dumoulin. I hear from the child once a month. She 
writes me she is very well and happy. I shall go up to 
them in April or May to see her and see what improve- 
ment she has made. . • . 

**This is a disagreeable country for a stranger to 
settle in — no society that is good. I am heartily tired 
of it, and had I not spent so much money upon the 
house and grounds I would leave it. It has cost me 
four thousand pounds and there is much to do yet. 

** James and Will beg their love to you, and I have 
nothing more to say but that I am always your affec- 
tionate father, « i Andrew Clarke. " 

The recipient of these letters came home from India 
on leave three years later, and on the 24th August, 
1823, married at Teignmouth, Devonshire, Frances, 
daughter of Philip Lardner, Esq., and widow of the 
Rev. Edward Jackson, Chaplain to the Honourable 
East India Company, by whom she had had two 
children. Captain Clarke's first child, the subject of 
this memoir, was born the following year, and went to 
India with his parents for a time. Captain Clarke 
obtained his majority in 1825, and served for another 
eight years in India. He returned to England with his 
regiment in 1833, and was quartered with it in the 
North of Ireland at the time of his father's death in 
1836.^ Created a Knight of the Royal Hanoverian 
Guelphic Order in 1837, ^.nd succeeding to the com- 
mand of his regiment in 1839, Colonel Clarke served 
with it at home and at Gibraltar, and in 1842 he took 
it to the West Indies. There he was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of St. Lucia, and on leaving the 
colony in 1844 was presented with a public address. 



^ Dr. Clarke was buried beside his wife in Grange Cemetery, and 
there is a tablet to their memory in LifFofd Church. 



8 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

In April, 1845, he wrote to his eldest son from 

Cork :— 

From Lieutenant-Colonel A. Clarke. 

" My affair is so far settled that I have this day made 
application for half-pay, to enable me to accept the 
Governorship of Western Australia, which Lord Stanley 
has placed at my disposal. The salary is small — ;^8oo 
a year and a very good furnished house, but it may 
lead to something better." 

Accompanied by his wife and stepdaughter. Miss 
Fanny Jackson, he sailed in October, 1845, for Perth, 
to take up the government of Western Australia, or 
the Swan River Colony. 

Having briefly referred to Sir Andrew's grandfather, 
the Doctor and Militia Brigadier-General, and to his 
father, the Soldier and Colonial Governor, it is time to 
turn to Sir Andrew Clarke himself. The story of his 
life is the record of a man who from his first start in 
the world was determined to succeed ; who felt that he 
had in him the ability to get on ; who seized the oppor- 
tunities that offered themselves, and by his strenuous 
character made a name for himself in a succession 
of very diverse services to the State. 

The materials for the story are almost wholly con- 
nected with the busy official life he led. They consist 
of his own letters and letters to him, all bearing mainly 
on the work he had in hand at the time, together with 
official minutes and reports innumerable. Very little 
is available to show the man apart from his official life. 
But Sir Andrew's occupations were so varied and the 
energy he threw into each, as one succeeded another, 
so conspicuous, that he may be seen in many lights, 
and usually as a moving spirit in affairs that have 
more than a passing interest. 

Andrew Clarke was the eldest of four sons. His 



TO 1847] CHILDHOOD AND EDUCATION 9 

brothers were: James George, born in 1827, who joined 
his father's regiment, the 46th Foot, in 1844, served 
with it in the Crimean War, and died in the seventies ; 
Hislop, born in 1830, died in 1851 ; and John Lardner, 
born in 1831, who entered the Royal Artillery in 1851, 
served in the Crimea, retired as a major, and died in 
1879, leaving an only son, now Lieutenant-Colonel 
John de Winton Lardner Clarke, of the Royal Garrison 
Artillery. 

Owing to their father's absences from home on 
military duties, the elder boys were brought up under 
the care of their grandfather, Dr. Andrew Clarke, and 
of their uncles, James Langton Clarke and William 
Hislop Clarke. 

Sir Andrew Clarke's earliest recollections were of 
his return from India to the old country, and of his not 
being able to make himself understood in his own 
language. His grandfather's house at Belmont became 
his home, and he was always warmly attached to it, and 
to the neighbourhood. Writing after his father's death 
from the Antipodes he referred to the old home in the 
following terms : — 

** The only wish I have is that Belmont should not 
be sold. Strange how my heart goes back to that big, 
square house, and speaks to me with a thickening 
tongue of one or two sad and many happy hours of my 
boyhood. If possible do not sell it. I hope yet some 
day to redeem it all myself." 

On another occasion he wrote that he had the most 
vivid associations with Lifford Church ; it was the first 
church he remembered to have been in. 

Educated at the King's School, Canterbury, and at 
the well-known Portora School at Enniskillen, he spent 
his holidays at Belmont. A memorable occasion is 



lo FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

recorded when he dined there with his grandfather and 
£ather and two cousins. Only these five were present, 
and the name of each was Andrew Clarke I 

At the age of fifteen he was placed with Mr. Paul, of 
Shooter's Hill, Woolwich, to be prepared for the 
entrance examination for the Royal Military Academy. 
He passed it successfully in the following year. During 
his four years' residence at the "Shop," as it is called 
by the cadets, his high spirits led him into frequent 
small scrapes, and his diary while a **neux" (fag) 
contains several entries of being ** under arrest" for 
trifling irregularities. The only exciting incident is 
one recorded by himself after he had become a senior 
cadet and had been made a corporal. This was a 
fight with the late General Sir Michael A. Shrapnel 
Biddulph, G.C.B., Colonel-Commandant of the Royal 
Artillery. The story is told with a brevity of ex- 
pression and a dry conciseness which is not without 
humour : — 

^^ Tuesday J 8 March. — Biddulph impudent to me at 
drill. Kicked him. 

^^ Friday, nth. — Biddulph made corporal. 

^^ Mandayj 14/A. — Biddulph challenged me for what 
occurred on Tuesday. Refused to fight on this score, 
but allowed him any other. Struck me on the stairs. 
We met in the Fourth Racket Court. First two 
rounds I got the best, but my wind did not do so well 
the other two. Hammer and tongs work. Separated. 
Biddulph apologised. Shook hands. Done up. 

** Tuesday J 15/A. — Went into hospital as my face was 
very much swollen. By-the-by, Buck was my second. 

" Thursday, 17/A.— Rather better. Had an invitation 
from Uncle William to spend Saturday and Sunday 
with him. Refused of course. 

''Friday, i8th.— Nearly well." 

Of his instructors at the Royal Military Academy, 



TO 1847] JOINS THE ROYAL ENGINEERS 11 

Professor Faraday made the most impression on him. 
His simple and lucid lectures had a wonderful fascina- 
tion about them that caused them to live in the 
memories of all the cadets of the period. 

During his cadet service at Woolwich Clarke spent 
one of his vacations with his parents at Gibraltar, where 
his father was at the time quartered, in command of 
the 46th Foot. He had a delightful holiday, and his 
studies at Woolwich lent a special interest to the 
frowning batteries and underground gun-galleries of 
that famous fortress. 

Clarke came out first of his batch in the final examina- 
tion at Woolwich, and received a commission as second 
lieutenant in the Royal Engineers on the 19th June, 
1844. In the autumn he joined the Corps at Chatham 
for the usual courses of professional instruction, but, 
although he was well reported upon, he did not profit 
much by his stay there. In after life he always main- 
tained, with reason, that it was the wrong time to send 
young officers to Chatham. He argued that it was too 
great a tax upon young men who had passed some 
years in going through the mill at Woolwich to make 
them undergo a further course of study at Chatham. 
Just emancipated from a state of pupilage and invested 
with the dignity of their sovereign's commission, they 
were inclined to resent having to go to school again, 
and consequently derived small benefit from the pro- 
fessional instruction provided for them at Chatham. 
A much better arrangement, he thought, would be to 
send them straight from Woolwich for a year to an out- 
station, where their work would be both soldiering and 
engineering. They would then soon find out their 
deficiencies, and be ready to seize the opportunities of 
professional study which Chatham afforded. 



12 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

From Chatham Clarke was sent to the Fermoy 
district in Ireland at the worst period of the famine of 
1845. Troops were moved about from one station to 
another, as the authorities deemed necessary for the 
preservation of order, and while Clarke was at Fer- 
moy two battalions were unexpectedly ordered to the 
station. 

The only accommodation for the second battalion 
was a long-unoccupied barrack which had been much 
neglected. Presumably it was not anticipated that its 
occupation would be necessary, and no funds had been 
provided for its proper upkeep. Window-panes were 
broken, doors unhinged, staircases rickety, and the 
sanitary arrangements imperfect. The troops could 
not go in, and were billeted in the town, their com- 
manding ofScer making unfavourable comments on the 
Royal Engineers. Andrew Clarke was nettled. He 
undertook, if the commanding officer of the battalion 
would give him a large fatigue party, to have the 
barrack fit for occupation in forty-eight hours. He 
was as good as his word. But the materials and 
tradesmen's labour cost ;f 34, and when the bills reached 
the Commanding Royal Engineer at Cork, Lieutenant 
Clarke was not only told that he must pay the bills 
himself, but was reprimanded for the action he had 
taken. 

His conduct at Fermoy, however much it may have 
displeased the Commanding Royal Engineer at Cork, 
did not prevent General, afterwards Field-Marshal, Sir 
John Burgoyne, then Inspector-General of Fortifica- 
tions, nominating Clarke a member of the Oregon 
Boundary Commission, but the receipt of the following 
letter from his father turned his thoughts into another 
channel and he declined the appointment : — 



TO 1847] WESTERN AUSTRALIA 13 

From Lieutenant-Colanel Clarke. 

** Government House, Perth, W.A., 
** 17M Februaty^ 1846. 

** My dear Andrew, 

** We arrived safely at Perth on the 26th of last 
month. . . . Prospects are anything but bright — great 
want of population, greater want of money or credit, 
no probability of being better, the local Government in 
debt, the taxes too high to admit of our placing addi- 
tional ones to clear us, a complete hand to mouth 
system from the crippled state of our finances. No 
public events going on, bad roads and bad buildings, 
no money to improve them. This house is miserably 
planned and in a state of dilapidation. It will require 
a thousand pounds to make it a proper residence. 
This, however, is out of the question. . . . 

'^I must confess I am glad you did not come out 
with me. You would have been completely lost here. 
The only appointment I could have given is the Private 
Secretaryship, or Confidential Clerkship as it is called. 
This is one hundred a year. . . . 

**We expect an Engineer officer from Sydney or 
Van Diemen's Land to examine and report upon the 
fortifications necessary for the defence of this place. 
If they sanction anything of the nature, I presume we 
shall have a resident Engineer officer, when there 
would be an opening for you, and you would have 
plenty to do in the construction of the works. I shall 
watch this and give you the earliest intimation. A 
little money laid out in this way would be of great 
advantage to this poor colony. 

'' I thmk we shall like the climate, though at present 
it is awfully hot, more so than St. Lucia. Ten months 
in the year they say it is pleasantly cool, and it is 
always healthy. The greatest trial is the little inter- 
course with England. . . . 

** Ever your affectionate father, 

** Andrew Clarke. 

** P.S. — If you could be ordered to New South Wales 
or Van Diemen's Land, they are as good quarters as 
any other, and you would be in the way of coming 
here should the arrangement I speak of take place." 



14 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

With the definite idea before him of obtaining 
employment in his profession at some future date under 
his father's eye, Clarke applied to be sent to New 
South Wales or Van Diemen's Land. He was pro- 
moted to be Lieutenant on ist April, 1846, and in July 
of that year he was fortunate enough to obtain his 
wish. He was given the command of a small detach- 
ment of Royal Sappers and Miners for service in Van 
Diemen's Land, and was ordered to embark in the 
same ship that was to take out the new Governor, 
Colonel Sir William Denison. 

His uncle James wrote to him : ** I wish you joy in 
going to Van Diemen's Land, and under a Governor 
of your own Corps. It may lead to your being a 
Governor out there at no very distant period, i.e. before 
you are forty." The following was his farewell letter 
to his uncle William, full of solicitude for his brother's 
prospects and of gratitude to his uncle. That these 
expressions of gratitude were real and heartfelt, and 
not merely conventional compliment, will be well 
understood by those who knew Andrew Clarke.^ 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

"Army and Navy Club, 

**26 September, 1846. 
** Dearest Uncle, 

** I have been several times to Pall Mall, but the 
Marquess* has not yet returned to town. I forward you 
a copy of Paget's* letter, which although ^r from being 
a good one gives me some slight hope, if I shall be 
able to see him before I leave England, as we have a 
respite from the 30th to the 2nd." 

' Many years afterwards, when his uncle's health suddenly broke 
down, Andrew Clarke sent his uncle's only son Marcus out to Australia 
at his own expense and gave him a start in life. 

' The Marquess of Anglesey, Master-General of the Ordnance. 

' Captain P. L. C. Paget, nephew of the Marquess. 



TO 1847] SENT TO VAN DIEMEN'S LAND 15 

[Then follows a copy of a letter from Captain Paget 
regretting that he could not help him in getting 
a brother into Woolwich Academy, and saying that 
he would be only too glad if he could assist him, 
but the authorities would not alter the existing arrange- 
ments for candidates. It concludes as follows : — 
**I must try to get a sight of you at Portsmouth. 
Let me have a line to say where you put up there. I 
can't tell you how sorry I am for your brother, but if he 
fails in getting called up at Woolwich let him try 
Sandhurst."] 

"This is his letter, now what do you think about 
trying Sandhurst? Preparation for the Army gener- 
ally unhinges boys for other professions. However, I 
do not despair, and shall let you know about it. If I 
could get an interview with Lord A., or if you could on 
your return, it mi^ht be beneficial. His father's absence 
ought to assist him. A letter written from you as his 
guardian might have some eflfect, or I may do it. 
• **I have written to Hislop and trust my letter may 
have effect on him. He is one easily led and easily 
convinced ; but enough of subjects with which indeed 
you have already too much to do for your own comfort 
and health. A great debt of gratitude does my father 
and his house owe you for the unceasing care and kind- 
ness you have shown to us, and my prayer is that 
never may it be my lot or anyone's to guard yours as 
you have done his, and that never may the father be 
separated from his children ; but rest assured that if it 
be otherwise decided I swear to emulate you in your 
kind deeds towards us, and strive to repay towards 
yours as mine the deep and heartfelt debt of gratitude 
that stands against me. As I shall not leave town till 
Wednesday or Thursday I trust that I may again see 
you. I hardly wish it, however. We have already felt 
our adieus, and parting is too painful to pray for any 
repetition. I hope you are seeking quiet rest and that 
enjoyment which has been so bountifully dispensed on 
your own happy hearth ; may it long be preserved to 
you. 



i8 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

friend much esteemed and beloved by me was restored 
to me, and I looked forward to many years of happy 
intercourse in this distant land. Your poor mother 
and sister bear up well under the loss, and I trust will 
continue to do so. a Yours, *« p. C. Irwin." 

In a letter from Mrs. Irwin, she tells how his father 
sent for his son Andrew's portrait and gazed at it with 
tears, and how he delighted to tell her about his Wool- 
wich days. ** I think," she says, " I can see him now 
sitting in his easy-chair, his face beaming with affection 
for his absent child." 

Clarke's first thought on receipt of the news was to 
go at once to his mother at Perth, then there was a pro- 
posal that she should join him in Tasmania, but other 
arrangements were made, and Mrs. Clarke and her 
daughter. Miss Jackson, returned to England. Mrs. 
Clarke died on the i6th January, 1855, while her son 
was still at the Antipodes. Miss Jackson married 
Mr. George Fletcher Moore, who died in 1887, having 
outlived his wife many years. 

The following letter of sympathy from Lady Denison 
to Andrew Clarke may close the first chapter of his 
life :— 

From Lady Denison. 

** I was very glad that you have made up your mind 
to go to New Norfolk, as I think the quiet and change 
of scene will be both better for you and pleasanter than 
it would be to remain here. I wish I could express to 
you how truly and deeply we have all sympathised with 
your sorrow, and how often I have wished that it had 
been in my power to be of use to you ; but human com- 
fort can do little or nothing on such occasions, and we 
can only be thankful for ourselves and our friends that 
there is better consolation to be looked for. I am 
rejoiced that you have given up the idea of a voyage to 
Swan River, which it is too probable would only have 



i6 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

*' I am delighted to sav that my ship appears to be a 
good one, with a gooa captain, and I have a good 
berth. I shall drop you a line the day we sail from 
Portsmouth. ... I left Uncle James last evening all 
well. Adieu, my dearest uncle. . . . 

^* Your affectionately attached nephew, 

'* Andrew." 

Andrew Clarke embarked at Portsmouth on the 13th 
October, 1846, on board the ship Windermere y com- 
manded by Captain Ross. Besides Sir William and 
Lady Denison and their family there were Captain 
C. E. Stanley, r.e. (private secretary) and his wife, 
Captain C. A. Denison, 52nd Foot (aide-de-camp), and 
other members of the Governor's staff. The voyage 
was uneventful, and the Windermere anchored oflF 
Hobart Town on the 26th January, 1847, after a sail 
of three and a half months. 

It was no small advantage for our young subaltern to 
enjoy for so many weeks the close intimacy with the 
Denisons which such a voyage afforded. The new 
Governor of Van Diemen's Land, or Tasmania, as 
it was soon afterwards called, was a distinguished 
member of a distinguished family. His eldest brother 
became Speaker of the House of Commons, another 
brother was Bishop of Salisbury, and a third was 
the well-known Archdeacon and Vicar of East Brent, 
Sir William had himself already won distinction 
as head of the Works Department of the Admiralty. 
Both he and his wife, a daughter of Admiral Sir 
Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, were highly cultured and 
deeply religious. They got to know Clarke, and 
he to know them, during the voyage in a way that 
never could have happened under ordinary circum- 
stances. Clarke not only learned to esteem the eminent 



TO 1847] DEATH OF HIS FATHER 17 

qualities of Sir William, and to admire his character, 
but he began to feel a sincere affection for him and for 
Lady Denison. The Governor, on his part, was at- 
tracted by his bright and handsome young brother- 
officer, and became interested in him and in his future 
career. 

Andrew Clarke had hardly been six or seven weeks 
in his new home when he heard of his father's death in 
Western Australia. Letters met him on his arrival 
with tidings of his father's illness, but he did not 
anticipate that he was so near his death. Colonel 
Clarke was only fifty-four years of age, but long 
service in tropical climates had told on his constitu- 
tion ; his health gave way soon after he reached 
Western Australia. He died on the nth February, 
1847, and the sad news was communicated to his son 
in Tasmania, by his old friend and brother-officer. 
Major F. C. Irwin, who became Acting Governor of 
the colony on Colonel Clarke's death.^ 

From Major F. C. Irwin. 

"Perth, x^th Fehnmryy 1847. 
** My dear Andrew, 

''It is with deep feelings of sorrow I have to 
announce an event which your sister, I believe, has 
already prepared you for, the lamented death of your 
dear father, who departed this life on the nth instant, 
after a long and painful illness, in which he exhibited 
a bright example of Christian faith and hope — indeed, 
for weeks latterly his earnest prayer and hope was that 
if it were God's will he might not recover, but depart 
to be with Christ, which, with the apostle, he deemed 
'far better.' To myself the loss has been a very 
severe one. After twenty years' separation a Christian 

^ Colonel Clarke was buried in the cemetery at Perth, Western Aus- 
tralia. A copy of the inscription on his tomb will be found in the 
Appendix. 
C 



i8 FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE 

friend much esteemed and beloved by me was restored 
to me, and I looked forward to many years of happy 
intercourse in this distant land. Your poor mother 
and sister bear up well under the loss, and I trust will 
continue to do so. u Yours, «« p. C. Irwin." 

In a letter from Mrs. Irwin, she tells how his father 
sent for his son Andrew's portrait and gazed at it with 
tears, and how he delighted to tell her about his Wool- 
wich days. '* I think," she says, '* I can see him now 
sitting in his easy-chair, his face beaming with afifection 
for his absent child." 

Clarke's first thought on receipt of the news was to 
go at once to his mother at Perth, then there was a pro- 
posal that she should join him in Tasmania, but other 
arrangements were made, and Mrs. Clarke and her 
daughter. Miss Jackson, returned to England. Mrs. 
Clarke died on the i6th January, 1855, while her son 
was still at the Antipodes. Miss Jackson married 
Mr. George Fletcher Moore, who died in 1887, having 
outlived his wife many years. 

The following letter of sympathy from Lady Denison 
to Andrew Clarke may close the first chapter of his 
life :— 

From Lady Denison. 

'* I was very glad that you have made up your mind 
to go to New Norfolk, as I think the quiet and change 
of scene will be both better for you and pleasanter than 
it would be to remain here. I wish I could express to 
you how truly and deeply we have all sympathised with 
your sorrow, and how often I have wished that it had 
been in my power to be of use to you ; but human com- 
fort can do little or nothing on such occasions, and we 
can only be thankful for ourselves and our friends that 
there is better consolation to be looked for. I am 
rejoiced that you have given up the idea of a voyae^e to 
Swan River, which it is too probable would only nave 




it'? Glarke 




lir (rta^e 



TO 1847] LADY DENISON'S SYMPATHY 19 

ended in disappointment, and I think I need not say 
that if your mother should come here, as I hope she 
may, it will be a real pleasure to us if we can in any 
way be of use to her. I hope you will not hurry back 
from New Norfolk in order to be here by Sir William's 
return, for I am sure he would not wish it as long as 
you are more comfortable in remaining there." 



CHAPTER II 

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND (TASMANIA) 
AND NEW ZEALAND 

1847- 1853 

THE hope of getting professional employment at an 
early date in the colony of which his father was 
Governor had led Clarke to apply for service in Aus- 
tralia. Now that his father was dead this consideration 
had ceased to exist, and there was no inducement for 
him to remain in Tasmania in charge of a small detach- 
ment of Sappers, which was employed in superintend- 
ing petty works carried out by convict labour. The 
station was far away from home, and he was cut 
off from his Corps and from the interests of his pro- 
fession. He longed to get away, but for a time he had 
some special work to do, and he threw himself into 
this. He made a survey of Hobart Town and the 
neighbourhood, and designed such wharf accommoda- 
tion as was likely to be required in the near future. 

When this work was completed early in 1848, he 
wrote to his friend. Captain Patrick L. C. Paget, of 
the 54th Regiment, who was Aide-de-Camp to the 
Marquess of Anglesey, Master-General of the Ordnance, 
asking him to ascertain from the authorities what 
chance there was of his being ordered home, and 
whether an application to go to some ordinary foreign 
station would be likely to receive favourable considera^ 

20 



1847-53] WANTS A CHANGE OF STATION 21 

tion. But the gossipy and belated reply, dated from the 
Ordnance Office, Pall Mall, on the ist July, 1848, an 
extract from which is given below, lay for six months 
in the writer's desk, and failed to give the information 
asked for: — 

From Captain P. L. C. Paget. 

*' And now I come to your letter of the 20th February 
last, which I have read and reread with the greatest 
possible interest. I will answer it by degrees, and in 
the meantime I will endeavour to recollect something 
of what has passed since we last met. At that time 
you were waiting to sail from Spithead, the weather 
was very boisterous, and being somewhat seedy myself 
I never ventured so far, which I have since often re- 
gretted, as it would be but natural to suppose that one 
would like to see the last of an old friend, especially 
when he was going such a prodigiously long way off; 
but, however, that time has now passed. 

** After being some wretched two months or so on 
leave I rejoined at Kinsale, where the depot was 
stationed, but I was only there for about three months 
when my poor brother was taken so very ill (in the 
very room in which I am now writing) that Horse 
Guards' leave was sent me to Ireland and I have never 
been there since. . . . 

*'My brother resigned the A.D.C.-ship here, and 
Lord Anglesey forthwith appointed Brevet - Major 
Thurlow of the 90th and myself his joint aides-de- 
camp. The Master-General being only entitled to 
one A.D.C. he told us that we must divide pay, forage, 
etc., equally between us. Of course we hit it off 
together uncommonly well. This arrang^ement at once 
kept me on full pay, and afforded me uie opportunity 
of being a great deal with my family, which was exactly 
my object. . . . 

** About three weeks ago I went down to the Artillery 
ball at Woolwich. It was the first I ever was at and I 
enjoyed it very much indeed. The mess-room is cer- 
tainly a magnificent ball-room. There were 960 people 
at the ball, and I was surprised to meet so many friends 
and acquaintances at it* Among them Leopold Paget 



22 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

and his wife, and Bob Spencer, of the Horse Artillery, 
and his wife, who is a cousin of mine. When I was 
last in town I heard that duck of an angel Jenny Lind 
in the Sonnambula, She is quite the most extraordinary 
singer / ever heard, and I don't believe anybody 
living has ever heard a finer or so fine a singer. But 
you will not care about anything of this sort, as I 
recollect you never had the least turn for music, but, 
on the contrary, used to hate my big fiddle, which I 
still stick to most perse veringly. . . . 

** I went into the Engineer Office this morning to see 
what old Matson^ had to say about your coming home, 
but unfortunately he was away. ..." 

Long before this letter reached Clarke a new sphere 
of activity had opened for him. The first Maori War 
was over, and the Governor of New Zealand, Sir George 
Grey, seized the opportunity afforded by the quiet time 
that succeeded it to start road-making in the Maori 
country, with the view of obtaining a better control of 
the district by means of improved communications. For 
this work he wanted more officers of Engineers and more 
Sappers, and he applied to the Governor of Tasmania 
for the loan of the services of Lieutenant Clarke and his 
detachment of Sappers. As there was no urgent need 
for their retention in Van Diemen's Land the request 
was readily granted, much to Clarke's delight. 

He arrived in New Zealand in September, 1848, and 
joined the staff of Colonel David Bolton, the Com- 
manding Royal Engineer. He was first employed in 
making the Keri-Keri to Okaihou road, and he made 
himself very useful to his chief, who was overburdened 
with work. He was also employed by Sir George Grey 
in an endeavour to reconcile the Maoris to British 
neighbourhood and rule, and was entrusted with a 

^ Colonel Edward Matsoa, Deputy Adjutant-General for Royal 
Engineers at Head-quarters. 



1847-53] SENT TO NEW ZEALAND 23 

special mission to Heki and the Bay of Islands. There 
was, at this time, a proposal to establish the European 
Church of England Settlement at the Bay of Islands, 
where Clarke thought its close proximity to the Maoris 
might possibly lead to another outbreak. He made a 
strong protest to the Governor against the proposal, 
and he suggested that the settlement should be placed 
instead on Middle Island, where there were very few 
natives. This sensible suggestion was approved by 
Sir George Grey, and the Canterbury Settlement was 
formed at Port Cooper. 

The following letter from Mr. Gordon Gairdner, of 
the Colonial Office, a friend of the Clarke family, 
was written soon after Clarke's transfer to New Zealand 
was known in England, but could not have reached 
Clarke till he was back again in Van Diemen's Land : — 

From Mr. Gordon Gairdner. 

** Downing Street, 

** 2%th February^ 1849. 

**Dear Mr. Clarke, 

'* It has often been on my mind that I omitted to 
acknowledge and to thank you for a kind letter which 
I received from you shortly after your arrival in Van 
Diemen's Land. I was very glad to hear that your 
position had been made so agreeable to you there and 
that you had met with so much kindness from Sir 
William Denison. 

*'I have just heard from your uncle that you have 
been removed to New Zealand. I am sorry that I did 
not know of the intended move sooner, or I would at 
once have written to my very much valued friend. Sir 
George Grey, and asked him to make your position as 
agreeable to you as he could on your first arrival. By 
this time you have, of course, become well known to 
him, and I hope that your intercourse has been agree- 
able. Your change of position must have entailed 
some sacrifice^ but it would also give you the oppor- 



24 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

tunity of seeing a new country, and of studying a new 
race, and one which appears to afford a great oppor- 
tunity for curious investigation. 

** With regard to society, I suppose that beyond your 
own and the naval profession there is not very much. 
I have mentioned to Sir George Grey my regard and 
esteem for your father and the obligation which I 
should feel for any kindness which he might show to 

y^^* " Yours sincerely, 

''Gordon Gairdner." 

While Sir George Grey thought well of Clarke, and 
would gladly have retained him in New Zealand, Sir 
William Denison wanted him back in Van Diemen's 
Land. The sudden death of Captain Stanley, r.e., on 
13th August, 1849, had left vacant the post of Private 
Secretary to the Governor, and Sir William offered 
the billet to Clarke. Mr. (afterwards Sir) F. C. Smith, 
Solicitor - General, Tasmania, wrote to Clarke from 
Hobart Town: "Sir William looks cruelly like a fish 
out of water, and wants you, I think, desperately." 
Clarke decided to accept the offer, and had no difficulty 
in obtaining leave to do so from Colonel Bolton and 
General Dean Pitt. The exact circumstances of his 
appointment, and his experiences as the Governor's 
Private Secretary and as a member of the Van Diemen's 
Land Legislature, are told in his own words in the 
following series of letters written to his uncle, Mr. 
William Hislop Clarke, and spread over several 
years : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

"Government House, Hobart Town, 
** 10 January, 1850. 

''I wrote to you from New Zealand early irt March 
last, after my return from an expedition to the interior, 
and again later in the same year, announcing the 



i847'S3] BACK TO TASMANIA 25 

intended change from New Zealand back to my old 
station in this country. . . . 

**I wish, in the first instance, instead of going to 
Chatham I had been sent abroad. When will the 
good folk in Pall Mall see the great advantages that 
would accrue from sending the young officers of 
Engineers abroad at once, and let them then, on their 
return, serve for a year under the School of Instruction 
in Chatham? Chatham has ruined and spoiled ten 
times more good officers than it has taught their 
service and duty. It will be left for me when I am 
Adjutant-General or Inspector-General to create this 
change I . . . 

** When I last wrote I told you of the death of poor 
Stanley, the Private Secretary, and a captain in the 
Corps. His death was most sudden. He was one of 
the best and finest fellows that ever lived. • . . On 
poor Stanley's death Sir William offered the secretary- 
ship to me. This I accepted, subject, at my own 
request, to its refusal first by Alfred Denison, a brother 
of Sir William's, resident in New South Wales. 
Much inclined as A. D. was to accept, he found it 
impracticable to leave his affairs in N. S. Wales in 
other hands, so I am now regularly established as 
permanent Private Secretary. Lord Anglesey also, 
through my interest with Capt. P. Paget, his nephew, 
confirmed my appointment in the first instance as aide- 
de-camp. I never felt quite sure that this would have 
been done, more especially from New Zealand, one of 
the most difficult places in the world to be allowed to 
leave. Indeed, General Wynyard, Commander-in- 
Chief in this part of the world, felt that he was acting 
beyond his power in allowing me to proceed from 
Sydne)r hither, even after General Pitt, the senior 
officer in New Zealand, had allowed me to leave that 
country. However, some way or other, I worked 
through them all, and much to the astonishment, even 
of Sir William himself, who certainly took a great deal 
of trouble about it, my confirmation came out three 
months back. To Colonel Bolton I am indebted 
most, for as my own chief in New Zealand the least 
obstacle from him would at once have detained me. 
This was more especially kind and considerate of 



26 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

him as I was the only officer he had in the Northern 
Province. 

**The work is pretty severe. I am in office hardly 
without exception from half-past nine in the mornine^ 
till five in the afternoon, and most frequently at work 
again at night ... I have besides been compelled to 
continue in charge of the Mounted Police, not much to 
do in itself, but still some little trouble and interruption 
to other work. . . . The most troublesome part of my 
work is the reception of applicants for office, etc. ; these 
claimants are most numerous, and I have to listen 
patiently to all they say. I flatter myself I am growing 
very diplomatic, but the confinement knocks me up a 
bit." 

To the same. 

"Government House, Hobart Town, 
''Zl^tMay, 1850. 

**. . . You tell me to seize the golden opportunity 
to save for the rainy day. I am much afraid that I do 
not know how to do this ; but even if I did, this is not 
the office — I mean that on a personal stafif— which 
presents many opportunities of practising the virtues 
of self-denial, were one ever so much inclined. But 
although I am not now able in the manner you have so 
kindly pointed out to seize the golden moments by 
placing its golden particles in my pocket, I hope I am 
not deceiving myself, but I am tryincf to seize the 
golden opportunities and lay hold of the advantages 
which may lead ultimately not alone to wealth, but 
what I prize still higher, the establishment of a name 
and character. 

^^You may smile at your wild and scatter-brained 
nephew deluding himself with such visions or such 
hopes, but added to a long yearning since a boy to 
push ahead, the want of direction or continued applica- 
tion, the consequence to a great extent of itinerating 
and to a still greater extent of Irish (I had said breed- 
ing) education, has been my obstacle. The want of 
which I spoke just now I am studying and working 
hard to rectify. I have fortunately been thrown across 
one who is now my guide, and from whose example 
and precepts I try to benefit very much. It was the 



1847-53] SHOOTING AND HUNTING 27 

luckiest day of my life in which I first met my present 
chief and friend, Sir William Denison. Had it not 
been for him I should have been but a mere drudging 
sub. of Engineers, still dreaming on and still castle- 
building ; now I find myself, it is true, but at the lowest 
rungs of the ladder, but the ladder is there. . . . 

** Sir William is very fond of shooting and hunting, 
and rarely misses a meet of hounds when in a good 
country and within reasonable distance. Although I 
date from Hobart Town, I am at this moment sitting 
opposite to him at a small table in a small country inn 
in the little village of Bothwell at eleven o'clock at 
night, having come upwards of thirty miles to hunt 
ten miles further on still. Sir William avoids on these 
occasions going to the country houses. He finds it 
more independent and comfortable to be at an inn, and 
the inns in general in this colony are wonderful, many 
of them equal to those on the Great North Road, and 
far superior to any you meet in Ireland. 

** To-morrow, after the hunt, we go to a large landed 
proprietor's house, a Mr. Reid, of Ratho, stay there 
Sunday, next day ride to Lake Crescent to visit the 
great irrigation works in progress there, back to Ratho 
the same day, hunt again Tuesday, on to a Mr. Birder's 
at Hutton Park on Wednesday, and Thursday home. 
. . . What would you in the old country think of such 
work? But you must remember that this cannot be 
done for nothing. I have of mine own up here two 
horses and a groom, besides a troop horse and a 
personal orderly, so you can easily imagine that it is 
easier to spend than to save. It is true, that as I com- 
mand the Body Guard, or as they are called here the 
Mounted Guides, or Orderlies, I receive a small allow- 
ance whilst travelling. But with somewhat increased 
means comes increased and apparently unendable 
expenditure. I hope, however, that by the time I re- 
turn home I shall have a good balance with Cox. This 
is at present a mere pleasant dream. I have often 
thought what a splendid effort it must have been on 
the part of my dearest father, subduing that apparently 
innate failing of all our characters — not knowing cor- 
rectly the measure of our cloth for the coat we intend 
to wear. . . . 



28 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

**Here there is really nothing for C . I have 

at this moment some two or three hundred names of 
educated men and gentlemen in the colony, applicants 
for even the most subordinate offices, upon my candi- 
dates book." 

To the same. 

** Government Cottage, Hobart Town, 
** 30 September y 1850. 

**. . . As I am now regularly settled to work, per- 
haps a short sketch of my duties may not be uninterest- 
ing, and show you that your * scatter-brained ' nephew 
may some day do some good. It will also give you 
some little idea of the life and duties of an active, 
ener|[etic, and talented Colonial Governor ; we will say 
nothmg of his Secretary. 

** You must know I do not now live at Government 
House, but in a pretty cottage consisting of four rooms, 
kitchen, servants' rooms, stable, etc., and located close 
to the big house in a pretty garden overlooking the 
harbour in one direction, the other being towards the 
main street. I breakfast invariably at home, and get 
to my office about half-past nine. His Excellency goes 
into his room at ten. All the letters by post for him 
and myself I then open. Petitions and memorials on 
colonial matters, if I require any information about 
them, I send to the Colonial Secretary before submitting 
to the Chief; on convict matters to the Comptroller- 
General ; applications for offices or situations, after 
entering in my private record patronage book for 
H.E.'s future consideration, are recorded also in the 
other two offices, testimonials copied and returned, etc. 
All anonymous correspondence I burn, sometimes un- 
read by myself, but never read by H.E. . . . All 
minutes of consequence giving the head or subject- 
matter are then copied into a mmute book by a clerk, 
sometimes by myself, but not often, as just then 
(eleven o'clock) comes the Colonial Secretary or the 
Comptroller-General of Convicts, two officers indepen- 
dent of each other, through whom all correspondence 
with other functionaries and the public is conducted. 
This generally runs away with the time till twelve or 



^847-53] PRIVATE SECRETARY'S WORK 29 

one o'clock. Perhaps in the meantime the Commandant, 
the Bishop, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, the 
Collector of Customs, the Chief Police Magistrate, the 
Surgeon-General, Director of Public Works, cum multis 
aliis^ wish to see the Governor or myself; for, except 
the two big officers first named, no one during office 
hours can see the Chief except through me on business, 
or the aide-de-camp on pleasure and subjects uncon- 
nected with the State. 

** After all this, my real work begins — that is the 
management, the heading and tailing, counting, filling 
in statistics, collecting mformation from old records, 
entering pr6cis, drafting despatches, examining all 
enclosures to accompany them, seeing that no state- 
ments are inconsistent with previous statements, no 
rules infringed, and the other hundred matters con- 
sequent on keeping up correspondence with the Home 
Authorities ; and this under the present dynasty here is 
much greater than it ever was before, for it is one of 
Sir William's principles that he shirks no responsi- 
bility, and generally, in fact always, acts for himself, 
leaving the Colonial Office little detail to do or say 
beyond approval. At the same time, to enable them to 
answer every question that may be put to them, either 
in the House of Commons or elsewhere, so that they 
may never want the most full and accurate information, 
he spares no pains or trouble in putting them in 
possession of every fact and circumstance — authentic 
and accurate — with all the reasons and inducements 
that have led him to act and decide in any case. . . . 

** They have made this a colony for receiving military 
pensioners, and already some 150, with their families, 
have arrived as guards from England. They came 
most unexpectedly upon us, with the most extra- 
ordinarily contradictory instructions from home, and the 
most extravagant hopes and expectations, few of which 
can be fully realised. Yet on the whole they are doing 
well. As I had had some little experience of the work- 
ing of the system in New Zealand, Sir William handed 
over the charge to me. I have, I think, been fairly 
successful. I have got employment for all, and have 
given each man a lot of ground (this was one of the 
orders from home), also A 15 each, in aid of hutting 



30 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

themselves. This I mean to pay, not to the man, but 
to the contractor who builds the hut, etc. . . . 

**It is a great relief to me that Sir William is very 
fond of hunting, and as the A.D.C. is a married man, 
and has lost a leg, he does not ride, so I still accom- 
pany H.E. on all the excursions he takes." 

To the same. 

"Government Cottage, Hobart Town, 
** 13/A December^ 1850. 

** Public afifairs here are going on smoothly. We 
are in daily expectation of receiving a new Constitution. 
It is not improbable that I shall have a seat in the new 
Legislature. I should rather like it than otherwise. It 
will give me certain facilities and practice in the 
management of public affairs. . . . The Colonial 
Secretary here is an old man, and will be glad to have 
someone who will share with him some of the badger- 
ing. . . . 

**This has been a fortunate season for the colony 
both in wood and oil. The latter alone gives us 
;£^i 20,000 in this market. Van Diemen's Land is now 
second only to the United States in her whale fisheries. 
We have thirty-five square-rigged whalers out of this 
port, besides smaller ones, and our timber is coming 
rapidly into notice, and is in great demand* The 
beautiful ship, the Derment^ that takes this home, was 
built here in the river she is named after. If you are 
curious in these things, I must ask you to pay a visit 
to the docks some day to see her. She takes home 
about fifty tons of our contributions towards the 
Industrial Exhibition. I have had an active part in 
their collection, more especially the woods. I am 
rather in hopes they may not arrive in time, as they 
will then be exhibited by themselves. I would call 
your attention to the woods, wools, wheat, barley, 
hops, oils, glues, leather, furniture, tallow, soap, 
cheese, etc., which may be equalled, but not excelled 
in any part of the world ; and then when you recollect 
all this is the produce of a colony not forty years old, 
you will be astonished. The Dervoent is made entirely 
of native woods, and has been classed Ai, and above 



1847-53] DISCOVERIES OF GOLD 31 

the ordinary run of English-built ships. I send you 
an outline of a strawberry that I have had the curiosity 
to weigh, and which gives 7 oz. They are not, I 
think, equal in flavour to English-grown ones, but they 
are very fine and handsome. These are called * British 
Queen.* They have not been long imported. They 

§row in great profusion, and are most prolific bearers, 
ir William has a very extensive bank of them." 

To the same. 

**Van Diemen's Land, 

** 2nd February^ 1852. 

** I wrote last shortly after the extraordinary dis- 
coveries of gold had been made in New South Wales. 
We were informed of this at Government House just as 
the Lady Leigh was sailing. I hoped to have heard 
that you were one of the first to have known in England 
of these almost inexhaustible fields of gold. . . . Few, 
if any, of the statements you see in the public prints, 
especially if given from the colonial Press, are over- 
coloured or exaggerated. . . . New South Wales has 
felt it less socially than Victoria, and labour has there 
neither become so high or scanty as was first antici- 
pated. N. S. Wales has a tolerably effective and 
well-organised police ; her institutions and her social 
relations have been long established, and her goldfields 
are not so accessible or so productive as those of 
Victoria. On the whole, N. S. Wales was in every 
way better prepared to hear the startling intelli- 
gence of her enormous wealth than her young and ill- 
settled offshoot Port Phillip. ... Of course, the scenes 
of wild and mad debauchery that disgrace the streets 
can easier be fancied than described. The military 
force at Victoria is but 100 men, and the population 
increasing at a rate hardly credible — 1,400 landed in 
one day. ... I am now hard at work as military 
secretary, arranging to send 200 of the enrolled pen- 
sioners, who are here as military emigrants, as a small 
reinforcement for their police. 

** Everybody is looking with anxiety and interest to 
what the English Ministry will do. A great increase 
to our naval force is the principal cry here. Soldiers 
are but little wanted." 



32 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

To the same. 

**Van Diemen's Land, 

''January, 1853. 

** For my own part I should be well pleased at Sir 
William's promotion, more especially if it took him to 
Europe. Added to my anxiety and solicitude to return 
to you all, Van Diemen's Land in honour or office, 
except, of course, in its Chief, can afiford me nothing 
more. . . . You may smile at my vanity and egotism, 
but when you remember that now for some time I have 
occupied an office that naturally gives me both voice 
and interest in the local executive, and that, added to 
that, I have now a seat in the Legislature, where I do 
not think I have disappointed the hopes of those who 
urged my being sent there, in saying that Van 
Diemen's Land has little of honour or office now to 
offer me I do not say too much, or am culpably vain 
and self-sufficient. 

** You may see from the local papers I from time to 
time send you, meagrely and miserably as the debates 
in our little *St. Stephen's' are reported, that your 
hopeful nephew takes a fair share of the work. Three 
questions of some little moment which have been 
entrusted to me by the Government I have succeeded in. 
One, the accusation brought against the officers on 
board the Sappings in an imeute of a serious character. 
I took the conduct of the defence of the officers, and 
carried by a large majority a committee of inquiry 
instead of a condemnatory resolution, and eventually 
succeeded in exculpating my clients. I defended with 
signal success the present system of carrying on 
public works. . . . My chief opponent, in reply, with- 
drawing, as he said, for the present, his motion 
'after the clear explanation and admirable speech 
of the Private Secretary.' And lastly, but not with 
the success I could have wished (but here I had a 
strong religious and sectarian feeling arrayed against 
me), on the system of education, more especially in 
defence and support of the establishment of the Normal 
School. I was unable, but this I was well aware of 
from the first, to obtain a permanent recognition of 
such an establishment, but eventually secured means 




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I847-S3] VISITORS FROM ENGLAND 33 

to carry it on until June next, when I hope to try it 
again. On this subject I have worked hard and 
thought much. I know Sir William is most anxious 
in the matter of placing, before leaving the country, 
the education of the people on a secure and broad 
basis. That night I created some little impression. 
I spoke at considerable length warmly and passion- 
ately. The Press, with one exception, have since taken 
up the subject favourably to the views of Government. 
One journal has been good enough to say that my 
speech on the occasion was the most effective ever 
delivered in their legislature, and another called it 
eloquent and impassioned. Both these journals are in 
opposition to Sir William generally. Forgive me thus 
dwelling so long on myself. To whom can I write such 
things but you ? " 

From time to time visitors from England passed 
through Hobart Town and were guests at Government 
House. In 1852 Clarke made the acquaintance of Lord 
Robert Cecil, afterwards Marquess of Salisbury, who 
was visiting the colonies to study their early political 
development, and contributing articles on the subject 
to the Saturday Review. During his stay at Hobart 
Town he was taken ill and moved to the Private 
Secretary's cottage, where he was nursed by Clarke's 
housekeeper until he recovered. More than thirty years 
later Sir Andrew Clarke met Lord Salisbury at some 
public function in London and asked his lordship if 
he remembered him. **Of course I do," said the 
Marquess; **I have followed your career, Sir Andrew, 
for some time. Did I not send you to India ? " ** Ah ! 
that is not what I mean," rejoined Sir Andrew. ** I see 
you do not remember the cottage by the Derwent in 
Tasmania." **What!" exclaimed Lord Salisbury, 
**you don't mean to say you are that Clarke?" 

Other visitors were Mr. Henry Loch, afterwards the 
first Lord Loch, and the Hon. Edward M. Stuart- 



34 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

Wortley, afterwards the first Earl of Wharncliflfe, who 
were travelling together. With these two men Clarke 
formed a friendship which lasted for the rest of their 
lives, nearly half a century. From Hobart Town they 
went to Sydney, and from that place Mr. Loch sent 
Clarke the following letter: — 

From Mr. Henry B. Loch. 

** Sydney, ii February^ 1853. 
** My dear Clarke, 

** We arrived here after a very tolerable pass- 
age last Wednesday week. We made a splendid run 
to within seventy miles of the Heads, and expected to 
have got in on Sunday morning, but the wind headed 
us. We found Augustus Fitzroy not at all well. The 
doctors have ordered him to New Zealand for change of 
air, so he accompanies us there. We expect to get 
away about next Sunday week, but there is so much 
uncertainty in the sailing of the ships, it is impossible 
to know when they will ^o. . . . 

** We arrived just in time for the Government House 
ball here. It went oflf very well. The rooms are large 
and good, and there were many pretty faces — about 
350 people. They have, however, none of the fresh 
colour of the Van Diemen's Land young ladies, but 
have more the pretty whity-brown look of English 
ladies in India. Sir Charles^ has kindly asked us to 
stay at Government House. Arthur Denison is in town 
at present and I have met him frequently. . . . 

"Troops were started off to the diggings a few 
days a|[o ; the new regulations the Council introduced 
have given great dissatisfaction, and a large number of 
diggers have armed themselves and say they intend to 
resist by force their being enforced. But when they see 
the red-coats I have no doubt they will change their 
tune. . . . ** Ever yours very sincerely, 

•'Henry B. Loch." 



^ Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy was then Governor of New South 
Wales, 



1847-53] MEMBER OF LEGISLATURE 35 

During the years 185 1 and 1852 Clarke had been an 
active member of the Legislature — **our new and not 
over docile Chamber," as he called it — and as the 
mouthpiece of the Governor he gained the attention 
and respect of the whole Assembly by a sympathetic 
treatment of popular questions. He was a tactful 
mediator between the Governor and the community, 
and as such was reco|[nised as a power in the 
colony. 

But he fully realised the limitations of his position, 
and that the appointment he held in Tasmania could 
not, in itself, lead to anything higher. He wanted 
a wider field for his energies and a goal for his 
ambition. The opportunity soon occurred, and is 
referred to in a letter to his uncle : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

*' Government House, Hobart Town, 
''^rdMay, 1853. 

** In March last I received a confidential communica- 
tion from a member of the Victorian Government 
sounding me as to my views of taking ofBce with it. 
I consulted my present chief on the matter, though 
I then hardly contemplated for an instant leaving him. 
Our connection, at least on my part, has been of a 
nature not easily to be broken, however seducing 
might be any other prospect apart from Sir William 
Denison. It requires no ordinary struggle to leave 
one who has done so much for me and to whom cannot 
but be due all I have obtained. 

"The office which I was told was open to my accept- 
ance, and which the Victorian Government were good 
enough to express an anxiety I should go over at once 
to occupy, was that of Surveyor-General, with a seat in 
Council. It was added I might name my income, but 
in any case it would not be less than ;f 1,500 a year. 
Sir William Denison, who was absent from town at the 



36 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

time, wrote to me in reply to my letter asking his 
advice in the matter : * Touchincf the confidential com- 
munication to you from Victoria, deeply as I should 
regret parting with you, I would have no hesitation in 
advising you to accept it, I feel certain that you would 
be more competent than any other man they can get*' 
This ended in my expressing my readiness to under- 
take the office, provided I had sole charge and control 
of the department, and was permitted to report directly 
and personally to the head of the Executive on all 
matters. . . . 

" I was then led to understand that my conditions 
were acceded to, but that some hitch had taken place 
in the attempt to remove the present Surveyor-General, 
and it ended in a formal offer to me of the post of 
Inspector-General of Public Roads and Bridges with 
i^i,200 a year. This offer I at once declined. I need 
not now enter into my reasons at length for this 
decision, but Sir William approved my doing so. I 
may mention that the appointment is under a late local 
Act, and its duties and officers are controlled by a 
Board partially nominated by the Crown, and partly 
elective. It is true I was assured I should have its 
chairmanship, but I still think one master is better than 
ten. The Board, without aiding me, would only have 
fettered me. 

**I thought the matter had ended, when last week 
I received an intimation urging my proceeding at once 
to Melbourne, with the view of making arrangements 
with Mr. Latrobe^ to take the Surveyor-Greneral s office, 
as it was again at my disposal. This intimation not 
coming directly to me, I did not quite like the method 
proposed, as I was not desirous of appearing a seeker 
of office elsewhere. I placed the matter in Sir 
William's hands, who wrote to Mr. Latrobe at once 
telling him he need not hesitate out of any delicacy 
to him taking me from this Government, for though he 
would regret my loss, yet he would not stand in the 
way of my entering so wide a field, etc. Thus the 
matter stands. Whatever may be the result, I feel 
I have acted properly. ..." 

* Governor of Victoria. 



1847-53] NEW APPOINTMENT 37 

By the end of May, 1853, all difficulties had been 
arranged, and Clarke had accepted the post of Surveyor- 
General of Victoria, subject, of course, to its ratification 
by the Colonial Office and the Board of Ordnance. Sir 
William Denison wrote to him officially : — 

From Sir William Denison, 

**In accepting your resignation, I desire to convey 
to you the high sense I entertain of your services in the 
Legislative Council, and my warm acknowledgments 
for the support you have given my Government. 

This official letter was followed by a private one 
containing the warm personal thanks of the Governor 
and of Lady Denison : — 

From Sir William and Lady Denison. 

** Government House, 21 June. 
" My dear Clarke, 

** We (for I write for my wife as well as myself) 
cannot allow the close and familiar intercourse which 
has existed between us for so many years to terminate 
with a mere ordinary expression of goodwill, or of 
wishes for your happiness and prosperity. We owe 
too much to you, to the interest which you have ever 
exhibited in everything in which we were concerned, 
to the zeal with which you have laboured in our behalf, 
to allow you to leave us without some testimonial of 
our gratitude to you, and of our wish that you should 
have something in your possession to recall us to your 
memory when we ourselves may be far away. You 
will therefore allow us, we hope, to offer you some 
little present, not as a return for your kindness, but as 
a testimony of our regard for you, and as we cannot 
procure in Van Diemen's Land such a present as we 
should wish to offer, we propose to send to England for 
something which may be worth your acceptance. In 
the meantime you will not doubt the interest which we 
take in your happiness, nor the pleasure we shall feel 



38 VAN DIEMEN»S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

in hearing of your success in the new career now open- 
ing before you. 

** Believe us your sincere friends, 

'*W. Denison, 
*' C. L, Denison." 

Writing the same month to the Duke of Newcastle, 
Sir William said : — 

From Sir William Denison. 

**I could not, of course, though sorry to lose the 
services of Lieut. Clarke, both as Private Secretary and 
as a member of the Legislative Council, object to his 
acceptance of an office for which he is peculiarly well 
qualified, not merely on the ground of professional 
knowledge, but from his thorough acquaintance with 
the operations of the land regulations of these colonies, 
a knowledge which he has acquired during the time he 
has held office as my Private Secretary." 

There were also public manifestations of goodwill 
and respect. Regret at his departure was mixed with 
good wishes for his future advancement. A public 
address was presented to him, signed by a large body 
of residents headed by the Bishop of Tasmania. The 
local Press praised the zeal and energy with which he 
had furthered the Governor's plans for the benefit of 
the colony, and the straightforwardness and tact which 
had enabled him to carry on his multifarious duties with 
so much success and popularity. 

The six years that Andrew Clarke passed in 
Tasmania in close contact with Sir William Denison 
were years of education, which he always regarded as 
the foundation of his subsequent success. To the end 
of his life he averred that Sir William Denison was the 
man who had done more thaii anyone else to form his 
character and to start him in life on a sure basis. The 



1847-53] SIR WILLIAM DENISON 39 

following letter, which Sir William sent him after he 
had left Van Diemen's Land, shows the deep concern 
he took in his young friend's life, and the delicacy with 
which he used any influence he might have acquired 
with him : — 

From Sir William Denison. 

"Government House, Hobart Town, 
" 2nd September^ 1853. 

*' My dear Clarke, 

** In your last letter to me you alluded to the 
interest which I take in you and the influence I have 
over you. Will you pardon me if I show this interest 
and strive to exert this influence with relation to a sub- 
ject upon which I have often wished to talk to you, but 
have been prevented by a feeling that my motives 
might be misconstrued, and b^ a natural disinclina- 
tion to do that to others which I might not wish 
others to do to me? The subject I allude to is that of 
religion. I never spoke to you on the subject, partly 
in consequence of the motives explained above, and 
partly from a feeling that in such communications 
antagonistic feelings very often spring up, which 
neutralise any good which the discussion might other- 
wise produce, but these objections do not apply to a 
written document, and I have only to claim the privi- 
lege of friendship in order to excuse my addressing you 
on a matter which relates entirely to yourself. 

'* I do not wish to dogmatise or to enter into the dis- 
cussion of any peculiar forms of worship, or of the 
tenets of any particular church ; but I wish to persuade 
you to think seriously on the subject, to read and 
think for yourself, and not to content yourself with a 
smattering of knowledge in a matter of which it is of 
the utmost importance you should have the most 
thorough and intimate acquaintance. Do not allow 
yourself to be led away bjr mere assertions on the part 
of those whose interest it is to deny the obligations 
which religion imposes, because their lives are in such 
direct opposition to the rules which religion lays down 
for our guidance. Do not allow yourself to judge of 
religion in the abstract by the follies and weaknesses of 



40 VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND NEW ZEALAND 

some of those who profess to act in accordance with its 
dictates, but go to the fountain-head. Try yourself 
(not others) by the rules and example of our Saviour, 
and then decide whether you are such as you ought to 
be, or whether it would not be wise in you to follow the 
course which our Saviour prescribes for those who are 
sick. 

*' Few things would give me greater pleasure than to 
hear that you had ceased to be indifferent on the sub- 
ject of religion, that you had commenced an earnest 
examination of yourself by the standard of God's 
Word, and that the result of such an examination had 
been such a conviction of the necessity of a change of 
heart and life as to induce you to seek by prayer the aid 
of God, that aid which He has promised to grant to all 
who ask for it faithfully. That such may be the result 
is the prayer of your sincere friend, 

'*W. Denison." 

In another letter about the same date Sir William 

wrote : — 

From the same. 

** You may safely reckon upon the continuance of 
my interest in you. You have two anchors out, both 
pretty good ones. In the first place, there is my esprit 
de corpSj which makes me take an especial interest in 
the sayings and doings of a brother-officer ; and in the 
second place, I have that feeling towards yourself 
individually which has been fostered by so many years 
of kindly intercourse. 

** You may always feel certain that any advice which 
I may give you is based upon a desire for your success 
in the arduous position in which you are placed." 



CHAPTER III 

SURVEYOR^ENERAL OF VICTORIA, 
AUSTRALIA 

1853-1858 

E;UTENANT CLARKE'S move from Hobart 
Town to Melbourne was not merely a transfer 
to new surroundings and a larger sphere of action, but 
it was the beginning of independent responsibility. A 
Private Secretary to a Governor, however able and 
gifted he may be, is only the mouthpiece of the 
Governor, and his exertions win him little reward 
beyond the approbation of his chief and the apprecia- 
tion of the community. Hitherto Clarke had occupied 
a position sheltered and therefore overshadowed by 
that of the Governor. Now he found himself at the 
head of a public department, for which he was respon- 
sible to the Government and to the public. An un- 
grudging devotion to his late chief had won for him at 
an unusually early age a position of considerable inde- 
pendence, to fill which his fitness by character and 
ability was still to be tested. How it came about that 
so important a post was given to a subaltern of Royal 
Engineers is set forth in the following extract from a 
despatch sent by Mr. Latrobe, Governor of Victoria, 

4« 



42 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

to the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, on 7th July, 1853: — 

From Mr. Latrobe. 

** In making selection of Lieut. Clarke to fill a post, 
which is felt on all hands to be of the greatest public 
importance in the present circumstances of this colony, 
I have had in view the expediency of obtaining the com- 
mand of qualities which cannot be looked for in men 
who have grown grey in the service and become giore 
or less strongly attached to old prejudices and usages, 
however respectable, capable, or experienced in the 
ordinary discharge of professional duty. I have judged 
it proper to seek the assistance of one whose age, 
powers, and character would favour his discharge of the 
more active as well as the more passive duties of 
the office, and whose powers might be hoped to ex- 
pand with the growing necessities and capabilities of 
the colony. In this view, and in making the selection 
of Mr. Clarke, I have been guided by the opinion and 
ready testimony of Lieut.-Governor Sir William 
Denison, who, I am aware, has made no slight per- 
sonal sacrifice in forwarding my wishes." 

The ratification of Clarke's appointment did not 
reach Melbourne until May in the following year, and 
was coupled with the condition that after two years of 
office he would be placed on the seconded list of his 
Cijrpn. The salary was ;^ 1,200 a year, but with house- 
rent much higher than Mayfair rates, and other 
expenses in proportion, the emolument was by no 
means so good as it sounded. Soon after Clarke 
r#;a^;hed Melbourne he received a letter from his late 
chief full of friendly and wise counsel : — 

From Sir William Denison. 

** Government House, Hobart Town, 

- Mv imAU Clarkk, "»^^ ^^-^^ ^^53- J 

'M send you a letter which I have just received j 
tnm Alfred congratulating you on your appointment. J 




i 



1853-58] MEMBER OF COUNCIL 43 

I got your account of your interview with Haddle [the 
previous Surveyor-General] and of your first introduc- 
tion to office. My advice to you is not to start at too 
great a pace. Take up one part of your business, and 
after making yourself thoroughly master of that, bring 
forward your scheme of amendment and so gradually 
sweep away all the cobwebs ; but if you begin slashing 
away with your broom in all directions you will only 
make a dust which will blind you, and which will all 
settle again in some corner or other, so that your work 
will never end. Then another piece of advice, which 
you may safely trust to as being the result of experience 
gained by my own failures, is that you do not attempt 
to do everything yourself. Bear in mind that you are 
the ultimate referee, and see that you have a thorough 
knowledge of everything that goes on, but try to estab- 
lish some subordinate authorities to whom you can look 
in the first place. . . . The difficulty will be to get 
some effective second man not tied down to the absurd 
routine which has hitherto been followed. . . . 

** I agree with you in your opinion of Boards. They 
are in general used for the purpose of shuffling oflF 
individual responsibility, and as in the case of corporate 
bodies a Board has no conscience, the work is done or 
the decision come to without the guarantees which 
attend it when an individual only has charge. A Board 
may be of some use to collect evidence to enable an 
individual to form an opinion, but as an executive body 
it is a farce. If Tyler^ comes out, tell him that I shall 
be glad to ^ive him the benefit of my experience in any 
matters which he may wish to refer to me. 

** Yours truly, 

*'W. Denison." 

The new Surveyor-General was nominated by Gover- 
nor Latrobe to a seat in the Legislative Council. But 
he had hardly settled down to his work before he was 
unexpectedly called upon to visit his old colony once 
more. At the end of August there were symptoms of 
trouble at the gold diggings in Victoria that could not 

^ Afterwards Captain Sir Henry Tyler, R.E. 



44 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

be disregarded, and Clarke was sent off in hot haste to 
Tasmania by the Governor to obtain from Sir William 
Denison all the reinforcements he could lay hands on 
for the maintenance of order at the diggings. 

Clarke reached Hobart Town on the 7th September, 
and remained there five days. He amazed his old chief 
and Lady Denison with the stories he had to tell of his 
new home. There were wonderful political revelations 
that savoured of red republicanism, while his own 
domestic economy was no less startling. The rent of 
two rooms in Melbourne cost him ;t5oo a year, and he 
found it cheaper to throw away his soiled socks and 
buy new than to get them washed. 

Sir William Denison sent off at once all the troops 
he could spare, some 200 bayonets in all, and wrote 
that he hoped to be able to send 200 or 300 pensioners 
if they could be enrolled. Clarke was indefatigable in 
his exertions to raise Pensioner Volunteers, and took 
back with him a respectable levy. For the time the 
reinforcements sent to Mr. Latrobe were sufficient to 
maintain the authority of the law at the diggings, but 
there was further trouble a year later. 

One of the earliest duties upon which Clarke was 
engaged as a member of the Government was the 
preparation of a draft Bill for a new Constitution for 
the colony, giving it representative self-government. 
At the second reading of the Bill in the Legislative 
Council, early in 1854, Clarke spoke at some length, 
and his speech contained two prescient passages : one 
was a reference to the establishment of a Common- 
wealth, a term which nearly half a century later 
obtained a larger significance in the Act of Federation; 
the other was an assertion that the way for England 
to secure the support of the Australians against her 



1853-58] NEW CONSTITUTION BILL 45 

external enemies was to give them *'the full control of 
their own afifairs," a prediction that was verified by the 
action of the Australasian Colonies in the British wars 
of the Soudan, China, and South Africa. The second 
reading of the Bill was carried without a division, and 
the Bill was sent home for submission to the Queen. 

In the spring of 1854 ^^- Latrobe resigned the 
government of Victoria and returned to England. 
During the interregnum that ensued before the arrival 
of the new Governor (Captain Sir Charles Hotham, 
R.N.) the Colonial Secretary administered the govern- 
ment. Under the new Constitution the Colonial Sec- 
retary was to be the Prime Minister^ and unless, before 
it became law, some new arrangement were made for 
the temporary administration of the Government during 
an interregnum, the head of a political party might, 
under similar circumstances to those then existing, 
be the acting Governor. Captain Clarke^ was so 
struck with the necessity for some other arrangement 
that he addressed the following letter to the Duke of 
Newcastle, then Secretary of State for the Colonies : — 

To the Duke of Nemcastle. 

** Melbourne, Victoria, 

**26 May^ 1854. 
'*My Lord Duke, 

'* Existing circumstances have forced upon my 
attention the fact that the Constitutional Act which your 
Grace will have received from this colony, whilst it alters 
the character of the Executive Council, suggests no 
provision for a successor to the Government appointed 
by the Crown in case of death or other contingency 
depriving the colony of his presence. 

*' Should the present Royal Warrant nominating the 
Executive Council remain unchanged, or be only 

^ He was promoted to be captain on the 17th February, 1854. 



46 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

modified in accordance with the proposed Act, the 
Colonial Secretary for the time being will, under 
the contingency to which I have alluded, become the 
Administrator of the Government, thus creating the 
leader of a political party the Representative of 
the Crown ; a dangerous experiment when his own 
party are in power, a still more questionable one when 
his party have been forced from power on a change in 
the feeling of the legislature or of the country. 

** There are other still graver reasons, which, with an 
eight years' service and an intimate acquaintance with 
the phases of political life in these colonies, strike me 
as rendering it requisite for British interests and the 
welfare of these colonies that the event I allude to 
should be avoided, but with which I will not now 
trouble your Grace. 

** To provide an effectual remedy for this not improb- 
able casualty is, I am aware, a matter of some little 
difficulty, but I would humbly suggest that the practice 
which has worked well in similar cases in other colonies 
might be now extended to this, viz. that the Senior 
Military Officer should assume the government, pro- 
vided he be of the rank of a Field-Officer, or in default 
of this the Chief Justice, thus securing for the country 
the presence of either one or other of two^men who 
would almost invariably be found unconnected with any 
political party, and would thus, by their neutrality, be 
better able to preside impartially at the head of the 
Government. Trusting that the importance of this 
subject will be a sufficient excuse for my presumption 
in addressing your Grace, 

** I have, etc., 

** Andrew Clarke." 

Captain Clarke's suggestion was adopted by the 
Home Government, and on the sudden death of Sir 
Charles Hotham in December, 1855, Major-General 
Mc Arthur, commanding the forces, assumed the govern- 
ment of Victoria. 

The news of a definite break with Russia, and the 
declaration of war by Great Britain and France on the 



J: 



1853-58] THE CRIMEAN WAR 47 

28th March, 1854, ^^^ "^^ reach Melbourne until some 
months later, and when it arrived, kindled in the heart 
of the young Surveyor-General a burning desire to 
serve his country in the field. He wrote at once to his 
uncle William : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

* * I would wish you to see Colonel Matson ^ and tell 
him that I am still attached to my Corps and its duties, 
that my ambition is with it, not apart from it, that no 
subaltern doing barrack duty in the dullest quarter in 
Ireland would more cheerfully obey his order to proceed 
on service than I would. My first thought, which has 
never changed, was to become a good soldier, and I 
have no wish to pass through life a mere pretender to 
it. Tell him I have not forgotten my profession, and 
that I believe I am better now than when he did me. the 
great gratification of telling me, on the report of Sir 
F. Smith, that I had been attentive to my duties at 
Chatham. Tell him that in some eight weeks after the 
order reaches me I can be in the East. Tell him, lastly, 
that here or there I will strive to do my duty and ever 
attempt to study the honour of the Corps." 

But there were plenty of officers at home and nearer 
the seat of war who were doing ordinary military duty 
and had prior claims to Clarke to be sent on active 
service, and he remained at Melbourne to win the 
laurels of a more peaceful campaign in the Victorian 
Parliament. 

During the Crimean War, Victoria and other 
Australian colonies made offers of military assistance 
to the mother country, and the offer was referred to by 
Lord John Russell in his despatch approving the new 
Constitution in terms of generous appreciation. Sir 
Andrew Clarke pointed out in 1861 to the Committee on 
Colonial Military Expenditure that the offer was the 

* Colonel (afterwards Major-General) Edward Matson, R.E., then 
Deputy Adjutant -General at headquarters. 



48 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

origin of the Victorian Volunteer force, and during 
the South African War he called attention to what the 
Victorian Government, of which he was a member, had 
oflfered to do forty-five years earlier, at the time of the 
war with Russia. 

The itew Governor of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham, 
on landing in Melbourne in July, 1854, found its 
citizens preparing for an exhibition, at which all the 
articles intended for the Paris International Exhibition 
were to be displayed, as well as local products and 
curios. Captain Clarke was honorary secretary to the 
exhibition committee, and had undertaken to design 
and superintend the construction of the exhibition 
building, and when it was formally opened by Sir 
Charles Hotham in the following October, Captain 
Clarke had the satisfaction of knowing that his exer- 
tions had contributed to a great success. It was about 
this time that he assisted in founding the Philosophical 
Society of Victoria — to which a Royal Charter was 
subsequently granted — and was chosen to be its first 
president. 

In the autumn of this same year. Captain Clarke 
introduced into the Legislative Council **The Addi- 
tional Municipal Authorities Bill." Its main provisions 
were to enable the inhabitants of any locality, not less 
than a hundred in number and not spread over a greater 
area than thirty-six square miles, to institute a munici- 
pality for their district, with power to regulate licences, 
cemeteries, water supply and sanitary requirements, 
public libraries, museums, and places of amusement, 
and to establish tolls, markets, wharves, etc. The Bill 
was well received, passed into law, and became of the 
utmost benefit to the colony. It is known to this day 
as Clarke's Act. 



1853-58] TROUBLE AT THE MINES 49 

The condition of affairs at the mines, which had 
been so serious just after Captain Clarke's arrival at 
Melbourne, had again, in the autumn of 1854, assumed 
a threatening aspect. The Eureka Hotel at Ballarat 
was set on fire by the diggers, who built a stockade 
and set law and order at defiance. The military were 
called in to put down the rebellion and capture the 
stockade, which was only done with considerable loss 
of life. The following letter, dated 3rd January, 1855, 
from Captain Clarke to his uncle William, tells of the 
proposal to make him Colonial Secretary, and also 
refers to the Eureka stockade incident : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

*^With the colonists I stand well, so well that, 
though I say it that shouldn't, when the other day the 
colonial secretaryship was vacant, I was not only 
named by the Press and people outside, but a deputa- 
tion from the Chamber df Commerce — the most influen- 
tial body here — came to press on me the advisability of 
obtaining the position. I replied that I felt the mark 
of confidence, but I must decline. After this, some 
of the members of the Opposition in Council, with 
whom I have had more than one fight, in an interview 
with Sir Charles Hotham, suggested my nomination as 
the most acceptable one to the Council and the country. 
I was then sent for. I had, however, been put on my 
guard and I had made up my mind not to accept such 
an offer. You may fancy I am wrong ; hear Sir 
William Denison : * I think you acted quite wisely in 
keeping yourself clear of the secretaryship. Stick 
closely for the present to your existing office. You 
will yet be able to take a higher line than you could 
have done. I have no doubt of your ultimate success, 
but in the state in which matters now are, I think you 
would have been most foolish to have jumped at the 
shadow and renounced the substance.' Sir William 
alludes to the pension of ;{^8oo a year to which, on the 
establishment of the new Constitution, I am entitled. 
This I should have lost had I taken the other office. . . . 



so SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

** You will see from the papers I sent you that at the 
mines the troops have had to fire on the diggers, and 
some seventy were killed. The disaffection was very 
considerable, and the sympathy in Melbourne — not 
confined alone to the mob, but extended to the middle 
classes— was very considerably with the diggers. The 
attack on the Eureka stockade by the troops was not 
anticipated, and the organisation, which was spreading 
rapidly, was for the time stopped. This was owing to 
the consummate judgment shown by Thomas, a captain 
in the 40th Regiment, who commanded at Ballarat" 

The discontent of the diggers was finally removed by 
the withdrawal of the licence tax and the substitution 
of a gold export duty. So that at a later date Captain 
Clarke was able to write :— 

**Not only were the goldfields peaceful, but there 
was a remarkable absence of serious crime. I used 
to drive all over the colony tandem fashion, or ride, 
and was never interfered with, though I only had one 
servant with me. As for bushrangers, there were none 
in my day. I had no adventures worth talking about, 
though I was about day and night. I had one or two 
interesting mementoes of the goldfields. Some time 
in 1854 Count Rosales gave me the first * button ' of 
gold from the first quartz reef worked in Ballarat. It 
was in the Black Hill lead. A civil engineer, named 
Pollard, who was simultaneously opening up the 
Bendigo reefs, sent me a block of auriferous quartz 
from the first reef opened in Eagle-hawk Gully. It 
was fashioned as a door-block, and I sent it home for 
presentation to the Emperor of the French ; but by 
some accident it found its way into the Jermyn Street 
Museum, where it can still be seen." 

It was in 1855 ^hat Clarke induced his uncle, Mr. 
James Langton Clarke, to go to Australia to practise at 
the Melbourne Bar. Writing to his uncle William on 
the loth of March, he says : — 




The Illustrations of The Cottage at Metri Mcrri [not 
Murri Murri] Creek; Government House, Singapore; and 
The Monument, Perak War, are from photographs taken 
by Mrs, SUETER, 





so SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

** You will see from the papers I sent you that at the 
mines the troops have had to fire on the diggers, and 
some seventy were killed. The disaffection was very 
considerable, and the sympathy in Melbourne — not 
confined alone to the mob, but extended to the middle 
classes— was very considerably with the diggers. The 
attack on the Eureka stockade by the troops was not 
anticipated, and the organisation, which was spreading 
rapidly, was for the time stopped. This was owing to 
the consummate judgment shown by Thomas, a captain 
in the 40th Regiment, who commanded at Ballarat" 

The discontent of the diggers was finally removed by 
the withdrawal of the licence tax and the substitution 
of a gold export duty. So that at a later date Captain 
Clarke was able to write : — 

**Not only were the goldfields peaceful, but there 
was a remarkable absence of serious crime. I used 
to drive all over the colony tandem fashion, or ride, 
and was never interfered with, though I only had one 
servant with me. As for bushrangers, there were none 
in my day. I had no adventures worth talking about, 
though I was about day and night. I had one or two 
interesting mementoes of the goldfields. Some time 
in 1854 Count Rosales gave me the first * button' of 
gold from the first quartz reef worked in Ballarat. It 
was in the Black Hill lead. A civil engineer, named 
Pollard, who was simultaneously opening up the 
Bendigo reefs, sent me a block of auriferous quartz 
from the first reef opened in Eagle-hawk Gully. It 



so SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

'* You will see from the papers I sent you that at the 
mines the troops have had to fire on the diggers, and 
some seventy were killed. The disaffection was very 
considerable, and the sympathy in Melbourne — not 
confined alone to the mob, but extended to the middle 
classes— was very considerably with the diggers. The 
attack on the Eureka stockade by the troops was not 
anticipated, and the organisation, which was spreading 
rapidly, was for the time stopped. This was owing to 
the consummate judgment shown by Thomas, a captain 
in the 40th Regiment, who commanded at Ballarat*' 

The discontent of the diggers was finally removed by 
the withdrawal of the licence tax and the substitution 
of a gold export duty. So that at a later date Captain 
Clarke was able to write : — 

''Not only were the goldfields peaceful, but there 
was a remarkable absence of serious crime. I used 
to drive all over the colony tandem fashion, or ride, 
and was never interfered with, though I only had one 
servant with me. As for bushrangers, there were none 
in my day. I had no adventures worth talking about, 
though I was about day and night. I had one or two 
interesting mementoes of the goldfields. Some time 
in 1854 Count Rosales gave me the first 'button' of 
gold from the first quartz reef worked in Ballarat. It 
was in the Black Hill lead. A civil engineer, named 
Pollard, who was simultaneously opening up the 
Bendigo reefs, sent me a block of auriferous quartz 
from the first reef opened in Eagle-hawk Gully. It 



li 



I f 



\' 



^ - 



i8S3-S8] SYDNEY RAILWAY BOARD 51 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

" I am now in hourly expectation of seeing Uncle 
James. . . . The Bar does not stand high here in 
point of ability. There is a magnificent opening, and 
more especially for a chamber lawyer and conveyancer. 
It requires but a little industry and determination, 
supposing, of course, a man has a fair share of ability 
and a knowledge of his profession, to enable him to 
step into a practice of a couple of thousand a year. 
T. A'Beckett, the brother of the Chief Justice, assured 
me, when inquiring as to the prospect at the Bar for 
Uncle James, that no better opportunity will ever be 
afforded to a man who is prepared to stick to his 
work.^ . . . 

** I breakfast every morning at eight o'clock, some- 
times sooner, and am at my ofiBce* by nine. I live 
some four miles out of town on a small farm, a portion 
of which is my own, though the cottage I have on 
lease. I pay £^y^ a year for it, which is considered 
cheap. A couple of rooms in Melbourne would cost 
me £>%QO or £boo a year." 

In the summer of 1855 a project for extensive railway 
construction in New South Wales had been brought 
forward, and Sir William Denison, who had been 
transferred from the government of Tasmania to that 
of New South Wales, arranged that the direction 
should be placed in the hands of a Board of Superin- 
tendence. He offered the chairmanship to Clarke, 
who, with a great desire to be once more with his 
old chief, was more than half inclined to accept the 
oflFer. It was probably the following letter from his 

^ In course of time Mr. James Clarke became a stipendiary magistrate 
and eventually a county court judge. In a letter written at the time of 
his appointment to the judgeship. Captain Clarke said : **^ I am happy to 
say that I was in opposition, not in office, at the time, so that they cannot 
say I perpetrated a job ! " 

^ The house still exists opposite the Mint, but is no longer the Sur- 
veyor-General's office. 



52 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

friend, Mr. Childers, then Collector of Customs in 
Victoria, that deterred him : — 

From Mr. H. C. E. Childers. 

** Melbourne Custom House, 

''17 July, 1855. 
**My dear Clarke, 

** Surely you are not going to leave us. I see 
by my Sydney correspondence that there is a rumour 
of your accepting the Railway Superintendence just 
voted. If you will take my advice, do not think of it. 
You have the best opening (for any man of our age) in 
this colony which you could get anywhere, and believe 
me, too many changes do not help a man in this life. 

**I know your affection for Sir William Denison, 
and fully appreciate it. But you should not let your 
private feelings interfere with your duty to yourself 
and to your country, and after all, you have had more 
to do with the prosperity of Victoria than perhaps 
anyone. I write this in haste, and I fear not very 
grammatically. I remember the old maxim : * Always 
distrust first impressions, as they are sure to be right ^^ 
and pray do the same. . . . 

''Very sincerely yours, 

''Hugh C. E. Childers." 

The royal assent was given to the new Constitution 
Bill for Victoria in July, 1855, ^"^^ the Act was officially 
proclaimed in that colony in the November following. 
By the abolition of the old form of government, in 
which the principal members of the Executive held 
their offices for life. Captain Clarke was relieved of his 
appointment so that the first Cabinet might be formed 
on party lines. On the loss of their appointments 
these officials became entitled to pensions as compen- 
sation for disturbance. Captain Clarke's pension was 
£%oo a year whenever his active employment in the 
service of the State terminated and left him without a 



i8S3-S8] MEMBER FOR S. MELBOURNE 53 

salary. As a matter of fact this did not happen during 
his stay in Australia, and the right to pension did not 
come into operation until after his return to Europe. 

Some time before the new Constitution came into 
force the selection of candidates to represent the 
constituencies in the Legislative Assembly began. 
Captain Clarke was invited to be one of the first two 
representatives of Bendigo, not only because he was 
** ready in debate," but also because he was **well in- 
formed on those scientific subjects upon which the 
advancement of the goldfields depends." He felt 
obliged to decline this invitation because he could not 
allow himself to be dependent upon the votes of those 
who might be affected by his official decisions. 

Instead he offered himself as a candidate for the 
suffrages of South Melbourne, a constituency consisting 
of the townships of Sandridge and Emerald Hill. His 
opponent, Mr. David Blair, was a man of great energy 
and a powerful platform orator, but the result of the 
poll gave Captain Clarke twice as many votes as Mr. 
Blair. The warmth with which the contest had been 
fought left no unpleasantness behind, as it too often 
did in those early days of representative institutions, 
and Captain Clarke and Mr. Blair remained on friendly 
terms. Many years later Mr. Blair wrote to congratu- 
late him as Governor of the Straits Settlements on his 
successful career, and expressed the hope that he might 
live to see him ** Governor of Victoria with Mr. Blair 
as one of His Excellency's advisers." 

This election cost Captain Clarke £^oo. He was 
selected by Mr. Haines, the new Prime Minister, to be 
a member of his first Cabinet, and was reappointed 
Surveyor-General and Commissioner of Lands. 

In the following letter to his uncle William Captain 



54 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

Clarke gives some particulars of the Cabinet he had 
joined : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

"Melbourne, 12 November, 1856. 

** When last I wrote to you I was in the middle of all 
the turmoil and excitement of my election. This has 
passed, and I am now the representative of South 
Melbourne, a constituency similar to Westminster in its 
character. I had a hard fight for it, though eventually 
I polled two votes to one of my opponent, a man of 
very considerable ability, who was put forward as the 
representative of the ultra-democratic and separation 
party. I was the representative of the liberal and 
progress sections. The election was an interesting 
one. Parties are about equal. We have a majority 
in the Council, or Upper House, but in the Assembly, 
or Lower House, it is uncertain. There are one or two 
sections who will oppose us, but cannot unite to form a 
Ministry of their own. 

**The Cabinet at present consists of W. C. Haines 
(m.a. Cantab.), a man of about forty, of good indepen- 
dent property, the recognised voice of the agricultural 
or country party, English, Premier, or Chief Secretary ; 
W. F. Stawell (Trin. Coll., Dublin), Attorney-General, 
about thirty-eight or forty, member for the city of 
Melbourne ; Charles Sladen (m.a. Cantab.), solicitor, 
person of large property, member for the town of 
Geelong, Treasurer; Captain Charles Pasley, r.e., a 
contemporary of mine at Woolwich, is one of the 
members for the metropolitan county, and is Commis- 
sioner of Public Works ; H. C. E. Childers (Oxford), 
about thirty-three, has acquired property, member for 
Portland, a seaport of some 5,000 population, is Com- 
missioner of Trade and Customs ; T. H. Fellows 
(Oxford), Solicitor-General, member for a Melbourne 
suburb ; and myself. How long we are to remain 
Ministers is another matter." 

An important measure with which Captain Clarke 
was associated during his parliamentary career at 
Melbourne was the inauguration of railways in the 



i853-SS] VICTORIAN RAILWAYS 55 

colony. On the i6th December he brought his railway 
resolutions before the Assembly. They embodied a 
proposal to construct 185 miles of railway at once, 
beginning with two lines, one from Melbourne to 
Castlemaine and Sandhurst, the other from Geelong to 
Ballarat, as the trunk lines of Victoria. These resolu- 
tions were carried in the following year. In the 
meantime, on the 27th January, 1857, he wrote to his 
uncle : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

'' People at home cannot realise the magnitude and 
importance of this country, and consequently the 
anxieties and responsibilities incidental to anyone who 
has to take a large part in the direction of its affairs. I 
have now on hand the subject of our internal communi- 
cations, including railways. This I am fighting through 
our Parliament. The land and squatting question is 
also on my shoulders. These I have now a sanguine 
hope, though agitating us for the last ten years, are 
settled, and on terms which both the squatters and the 
country seem willing to accept. 

** If I finally place these questions at rest my mission 
here has been completed, and I hope those who watch 
events at home will not overlook me. You say that 
Gairdner said that some day or other I might be a 
Colonial Governor if I liked. Now I do like, and do 
not wish it postponed until I am so old that it will not 
be worth the having. I would not refuse Moreton Bay 
[Queensland], but f would not accept the smaller West 
Indian posts. Of Moreton Bay I have a high opinion, 
and am confident that I could make it in no very great 
time assume an important position in this great Austra- 
lian family." 

Mr. Gordon Gairdner wrote to him on the 9th March, 

1857 :— 

From Mr. Gordon Gairdner. 

** With regard to your own position, you appear to 
have been fortunate. You have obtained a permanent 



56 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

remuneration for the loss of your office with the privi- 
lege of still adhering to your own profession. If you 
can still hold on to these two advantages a government 
would be a good thing ; otherwise I cannot understand 
any reasonable man giving up a permanent provision 
for the very uncertain contingencies of continued 
employment as a Governor. A man incurs expenses 
in his outfit which hamper him during the greater 
portion of the duration of his government, and then, 
at the end of six years, he is high and dry." 

The following letter from Captain Clarke to a friend 
gives some particulars of his Cabinet experiences, and 
tells how his office ceased to be a party appointment, 
and, in consequence, he continued to hold it as a 
permanent Civil Service billet, while he was at the 
same time a private member of the Legislative 
Assembly : — 

To a friend. 

"Melbourne, Victoria, 

"27 May^ 1857. 

** Your good Treasury or Post Office folks in England 
manage affairs with respect to us Australians in not the 
most business-like or earnest way. . . . When this 
province alone, setting the first example of a colony 
doing it, gives England a subsidy of ;f 100,000 a year 
for postal service, it was to be hoped the parent state 
might be induced to take a small modicum of trouble in 
the matter. . . . You will want some of us Australian 
reformers to show you * how to do it.* Since writing 
the above one of my colleagues for Melbourne, Mr. 
Service, has given notice of a motion on this sub- 
ject. . . . 

** You are aware that in November, 1855, by the new 
Constitution responsible government was established 
here. . . . Among the first Ministers composing the 
Cabinet of November, 1855, I was included. Whilst 
in committee on the Electoral Regulation Bill we were 
beaten on the adoption of the ballot in lieu of open 
voting, and consequently resigned. Mr. Nicholson, 



1^53-58] CABINET EXPERIENCES 57 

the mover of the amendment, failed to form a Ministry, 
so the old Ministers returned to power. 

'*Here I may remark, seeing the working of the 
ballot, its independent action on the minds of voters, 
and, above all, its conservative tendency, I have 
become, with most others who then strongly opposed 
it, one of its admirers. . . . 

**In the rest of that session, a long one, we were 
able to carry all our measures, and even our worst foes 
admit that the country was well governed, quiet, and 
prosperous. A dissolution took place, and a general 
election, in which the whole of the old Ministers were 
returned by large contituencies. Stawell, the Attorney- 
General (now Chief Justice), and myself for Melbourne, 
Childers for Portland, a rising seaport, etc. In 
November, 1856, we met the new Legislature, and till 
March, 1857, carried on, though actively opposed by a 
very strong minority hungry for office. 

**Just then Stawell was elected to the Bench, the 
Solicitor-General was promoted, Childers left to 
become Agent for the province in England. While 
several of our supporters were away, February and 
March being busy months, we were taken by surprise 
and beaten on a finance question — twenty-nine to 
twenty-three. Haines, our chief, a man whose temper 
is a little warmer than most men's, resigned. 
O'Shanassy, a man of very considerable talent and 
the proposer of the motion against us, was entrusted 
with the formation of the new Administration, which 
he did. Three out of the new Ministers were rejected 
by their constituents, and O'Shanassy met the 
Legislature with four Ministers only, and on the 
first night Fellows, the Attorney-General of a former 
Cabinet vice Stawell, gave notice of a motion of want 
of confidence. This was debated, and after three 
nights' discussion, carried by thirty-four to nineteen. 
O'Shanassy then resigned, and Haines formed a new 
Ministry. 

*Mn the Departments of Public Works and Crown 
Lands, even in the short interval of five weeks, when no 
longer presided over by professional men, much con- 
fusion and derangement had ensued, and it was felt 
desirable that their chiefs should no longer be subject 



58 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

to the action of parliamentary or responsible govern- 
ment, as every change, and these changes might be 
many, would end in thorough disorganisation. It has 
therefore been proposed that Pasley and myself should 
retire from the Government, and become, with the 
same emoluments, their permanent heads. ... As 
a Minister I rarely got home till two or three o'clock, 
and then had often to look over papers. The change 
therefore suits me well. ... I send you my Report on 
Victorian Railways. It has been attacked, of course, 
but I have been, by even my enemies, acknowledged 
victorious." 

Undeterred by Mr. Gairdner's discouraging observa- 
tions as to the uncertain advantages of a governorship, 
and conscious of his own powers, Clarke continued to 
aspire to be the first Governor of Moreton Bay, so 
soon as it should be detached from New South Wales ; 
and Mr. Gairdner not only promised to forward his 
views, but wrote to Sir William Denison suggesting 
that he should propose Captain Clarke's name for the 
post. 

Writing to his uncle on the 15th September, 1857, 
Clarke refers to this, and goes on to say : — 

To Mr. WiUiam Hislop Clarke. 

''You will see from the papers I am hard at work 
in the Assembly. My scheme of railways has been 
adopted in its integrity after a ten months' fight over 
it, and the Ministers bitterly regret they did not get me 
to carry on my new land scheme also. It is not im- 
probable that I shall have to do this last yet. . . . 

'* I see that some of the English papers connect my 
name with Moreton Bay. This has annoyed me, as 
Gairdner may think I have talked about it. This is not 
so. . . ." 

In another letter he gives an account to his uncle of 
a trip to the Murray River, and refers to the telegraphic 
communications of the colony : — 



1853-58] A TRIP TO THE FRONTIER 59 

To the same. 
** Melbourne, i6th November^ 1857. 

**I have just made a trip to the frontier, taking 
advantage of a recess in the session, to Wodonga. 
Have you a map of Victoria? For if not you should 
call on Wyld and tell him that, though I acknowledge 
his attention in having placed my name on the large 
map of this country, I should have been better pleased 
had he answered my communications and the correc- 
tions I have sent him from time to time. Wodonga is 
the extreme settlement on our North-Eastern boundary, 
separating us from New South Wales, and situated on 
the Murray River. I paid a visit to ascertain for myself 
the best site for a bridge which the two countries are 
about to erect. 

** After the close, hard work of this last Parliament 
this trip has been most delightful. A Circuit Court 
had just been proclaimed for Beechworth, the capital 
of the North-Eastern Mines, and I accompanied Mr. 
Justice Redmond Barry, a Judge of our Supreme Court, 
who took the first commission there. We travelled 
en prince^ and you will be astonished to hear that we 
went the whole distance in the Judge's private carriage, 
a regular, London -built britzska, drawn by four horses, 
travelling some eighty miles a day, changing horses 
every ten or fifteen miles. This alone will convey to 
you some impression of the progress this country is 
making. The morning of the day on which we re- 
turned, at a distance of seventy miles from Melbourne, 
we sent from our breakfast-table at Seymour a message 
to Melbourne by electric telegraph that we should be in 
Melbourne by six, and the Judge directed certain dishes 
for dinner at seven. . . . 

**In August, 1853, when I proposed the establish- 
ment of electric telegraphs in this colony, I was thought 
a visionary and at first laughed at, and I had great 
difficulty in obtaining their trial as an experiment on 
a short line of some ten miles between Melbourne and 
the port of Williamstown. Now they are extended to 
the South Australian frontier on the one side, and New 
South Wales on the other. Every one of the mines 
and inland towns are now connected with Melbourne 



6o SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

by telegraph. New South Wales and South Australia 
are taking the matter up, and meeting us from their 
chief towns. Tasmania, aided by us, lays down a cable 
from our southern extremity to her northern headland, 
by which she will receive, simultaneously with us, the 
last Eastern news. 

**Some four years ago you may remember my writ- 
ing to you on the subject of municipal or local govern- 
ment, which, in face of a very strong opposition, I had 
succeeded in establishing. This measure has now 
borne its fruit, and its extension is prayed for. Already 
some twenty towns have been incorporated under it, 
and on *the principles of Captain Clarke's Act' the 
other colonies are now legislating for their local govern- 
ments. Simple and democratic in its character, this 
Act has done more to establish order and good govern- 
ment and to create a healthy conservative feeling than 
even I ever anticipated." 

For some time during the session of 1857-8 Cap- 
tain Clarke was in opposition to the policy of Mr. 
Haines, who had brought in a measure for the pro- 
tection of minorities. Captain Clarke took the popular 
line of unfettered universal suffrage, and, bringing in 
an amendment to that effect, he defeated Mr. Haines' 
Government by twenty-six votes to seventeen. Mr. 
Haines at once resigned. After endeavouring to effect 
a compromise. Sir Henry Barkly, the new Governor, 
sent Captain Clarke the following note: — 

Frtym Sir Henry Barkly. 

** Saturday^ half -past 3 p.m, 
*'My dear Captain Clarke, 

**So long as it seemed to me practicable to re- 
inforce the late Ministi^ to the extent requisite to enable 
them to carry through the relnaining business of the 
session, I did not &ink it for the advantage of the 
country to try and construct a new Cabinet ; but having 



1853-58] MINISTERIAL CRISIS 61 

altogether failed in this attempt, it becomes my duty to 
apply to you, as the mover of the amendment on the 
occasion, to advise me as to the formation of a new 
Government, and if you will call upon me at Toorak 
either this evening or to-morrow morning I shall be 
glad to see you. a i remain, etc., 

''Henry Barkly." 

Captain Clarke saw the Governor the next morning, 
when Sir Henry Barkly asked him if he was prepared 
to form a new Administration of which he would be the 
chief. Mr. Haines had been refused a dissolution, and 
Captain Clarke, in a letter to his uncle, dated 9th March, 
1858, describing this ministerial crisis, gives his reasons 
for declining the Governor's offer : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

** Now as in the minority that had voted against me 
were included not only many men with whom I had 
been accustomed to act, but the leaders or best men on 
both sides of the House, and as the majority contained 
but few men of any great parliamentary weight or 
aptitude for official life — indeed I was the only member 
of the majority who had ever been a Cabinet Minister — 
and as I felt that I could not seek colleagues from the 
minority, any Administration selected from the majority 
or from outside the walls of Parliament would have 
much to contend with. My own position, too, would 
have been a difficult one, and the labour and anxiety 
thrown upon me of no small amount. With time to 
train my men, to develop my policy, and to show 
the energy and efficiency of a new Administration, 
I would have had no tear of the result, and was 
ready to go on. But to do this I required to throw my- 
self on the country and to appeal directly to it. Simply 
to return to the House and present my undrilled 
army to it, would have hazarded more than I felt I 
should be right in doing. But as Sir Henry Barkly 
had refused Mr. Haines a dissolution, he, justly I think, 
declined it to me. So to be Prime Minister for a month 



62 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

or two was not a sufficient temptation, nor did I desire 
to be the agent in exposing the country to repeated 
changes in its Government. I therefore declined the 
responsibility of attempting to form an Administration." 

On the loth March, 1858, Captain Clarke made a 
statement in the Assembly to the same effect, and soon 
afterwards he quitted Melbourne for a two months' visit 
to Sir William Denison at Sydney. He had practically 
decided to return to England, but before committing 
himself, wished to take counsel with his old chief. 

It was at this time that Mr. James Langton Clarke 
wrote from Melbourne to his brother William : — 

From Mr. James Langton Clarke. 

"Sir William Denison has recommended Andrew 
for the government of Moreton Bay and he is very 
anxious to get it. He seems to fear that when you and 
Gairdner put your heads together you both forget the 
lapse of time, and consider him the youth you both 
knew him, instead of the long-bearded man who has 
been on a footing of equality, and in many cases of 
superiority, for years past with bald or grey Attorneys- 
General and Chief Secretaries, members of Legislative 
Council and members of Legislative Assembly, etc., 
etc. In fact we all have the propensity of honest old 
John Lindsay, who couldn't help regarding his wife as 
a girl when she was forty, because he had known her 
first as a girl. This is especially the case when we 
have not seen the person for some years. My own 
idea is that Andrew is fitter for a Governor than a 
Minister, and that he is better for a young colony like 
Moreton Bay than an older man." 

Captain Clarke had not started for Sydney when his 
friend Mr. Hugh Childers returned to Melbourne from 
England in May, 1858. When Clarke first came to 
Melbourne Mr. Childers, afterwards the well-known 
statesman, was Auditor-General of Victoria and soon 



1853-5S] MR. H. C. E. CHILDERS 63 

after became Collector of Customs, Captain Clarke 
and he became great friends. They shared the same 
political views, sat in the same Governments as col- 
leagues, and took part together in framing the new 
Constitution. In February, 1857, Mr. Childers was 
sent to London as Agent for the Victorian Government 
for a year, and he now returned to the colony on a 
financial mission from the house of Baring in connec- 
tion with the Victorian railways. Captain Clarke was 
one of the party that went on board the steamer to 
welcome him back to Melbourne. After Captain 
Clarke had gone on his visit to Sydney he received the 
following letter from Mr. Childers, then hesitating 
between a colonial and an English career : — 

From Mr. H. C. E. Childers. 

''Melbourne, 12 June^ 1858. 
** My dear Clarke, 

** I ought to have written to you sooner, but you 
must forgive me. I suppose you have heard of the 
failure of my mission. . . . 

** I have been in great doubt whether to go by the 
July boat or stay until after next session. I believe 
that I could get into the House, and the inclination to 
be in the melee is strong, but I fear that I should be of 
little or no use, and should only be putting myself to 
considerable inconvenience for nothing. I have tried 
to sound several of our old friends, and although all 
profess to wish me to stay, none appear willing to agree 
to act together on the old basis, to bring about which 
would be my main object. Write and tell me your own 
opinion. 

** My view is that the Reform Bill must be managed, 
not opposed ; that as the country is evidently opposed 
to the minority crotchet, those who supported it as one 
counter-balance to democracy under equal electoral 
representation may now give it up and support 
another, and that this may be done if all old constitu- 
tionalists, whether * Haines-cum-Stawell'-ites, * Haines- 



64 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

cum-Michie'-ites, Little Bethel-ites, squatters, Nichol- 
son-ites, or waverers, would agree to compromise diflfer- 
ences before the Houses meet. . . . W^hatsayyou? 

** I do not hear much news just now. I am staying at 
Mr. Henty's, and until we came here we were with the 
Stawells. Pray let me know when you hear an3rthing 
more definite about Moreton Bay. I see that they 
have already provided you with that luxury in a small 
community — a brand-new bishop. 

** Let me have a line from you as soon as you can. 
My wife sends her kind regards. She is unfortunately 
laid up with a sprained ankle. 

** Very sincerely yours, 

**HuGH C. E. Childers." 

From Sydney Captain Clarke wrote to his uncle 
William as follows : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

"Government House, Sydney, N.S.W., 

'^ 6th July, 1858. 

** After considering everything and taking advice 
from Sir William Denison, I have determined to leave 
Australia for England in August next. By the time 
I return I shall have been just twelve years absent from 
home— about the best part of my life, too. However, 
it has not been on the whole unworthily spent, and 
though my prospects in Victoria are, perhaps, at the 
present moment brighter and more full of hope than 
they have ever been from the commencement of my 
career there, I feel a yearning for England, and I gladly 
seize the opportunity (shadowy as the excuse may be) 
to push what small claims or interest I may have made 
at the fountain-head, and even if I do not succeed I 
believe it will be with no slight feeling of pleasure that 
I should return to the ordinary duties of my regiment. 

** There is another contingency not to be lost sight 
of, and that is being called upon by the good folks at 
the War Office to make my election between returning 
to the Corps and its legitimate duties, or remaining in 
the Civil Service of the colonies, minus my commis- 




SIR ANDREW CLARKE, WHEN SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA 

To face page 64 



64 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

cum-Michie'-ites, Little Bethel-ites, squatters, Nichol- 
son-ites, or waverers, would agree to compromise dififer- 
ences before the Houses meet. . . . What say you ? 

** I do not hear much news just now. I am staying at 
Mr. Henty's, and until we came here we were with the 
Stawells. Pray let me know when you hear anything 
more definite about Moreton Bay. I see that they 
have already provided you with that luxury in a small 
community — a brand-new bishop. 

** Let me have a line from you as soon as you can. 
My wife sends her kind regards. She is unfortunately 
laid up with a sprained ankle. 

** Very sincerely yours, 

**HuGH C. E. Childers." 

From Sydney Captain Clarke wrote to his uncle 
William as follows : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

** Government House, Sydney, N.S.W., 

''6th July, 1858. 

** After considering everything and taking advice 
from Sir William Denison, I have determined to leave 
Australia for England in August next. By the time 
I return I shall have been just twelve years absent from 
home— about the best part of my life, too. However, 
it has not been on the whole unworthily spent, and 
though my prospects in Victoria are, perhaps, at the 
present moment brighter and more full of hope than 
they have ever been from the commencement of my 
career there, I feel a yearning for England, and I gladly 
seize the opportunity (shadowy as the excuse may be) 
to push what small claims or interest I may have made 
at the fountain-head, and even if I do not succeed I 
believe it will be with no slight feeling of pleasure that 
I should return to the ordinary duties of my regiment. 

** There is another contingency not to be lost sight 
of, and that is being called upon by the good folks at 
the War Office to make my election between returning 
to the Corps and its legitimate duties, or remaining in 
the Civil Service of the colonies, minus my commis- 




SIR ANDREW CLARKE, WHEN SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA 

To face page 64 



■A 



^8S3-58] RESIGNS HIS SEAT 65 

sion in the Army, or rather be forcecf to retire from the 
service on half-pay. No civil position could equal 
such a sacrifice. 

**I think I leave Victoria, too, at a good time, in 
tolerable favour with the country, my name connected 
with much of its national progress, and I dare believe 
that I may be missed, and that I will not be soon for- 
fifotten. I think, therefore, that on the whole a grace- 
ftil retreat at this moment is my best policy. I shall 
return home armed, I think, with some little character 
and strong letters to some good men at home. Sir 
William Denison has already written about me to 
Sir John Burg^oyne and others connected with my 
Corps. To his own immediate family and relatives 
my name is not wholly unknown. I take letters with 
me from him to the Speaker and his other brothers, 
from Lady Denison to her father, Sir Phipps Hornby, 
with her wish that I may be introduced to her cousins 
the Stanleys." 

When he got back to Melbourne he wrote, on the 

15th July:— 

To the same. 

*M have returned from Sydney, having passed two 
of the happiest months of my life in my old chiefs 
family, making parting from them a bitter trial. Look 
out for me in the early part of October. Indeed, I 
hardly write calmly, but with anxious longing for the 
day I again shall tread Old England." 

Having decided on this step. Captain Clarke re- 
signed his seat in the Assembly and issued a farewell 
address to his constituents of South Melbourne. The 
announcement of his early departure from Australia 
was unexpected, and elicited many expressions of 
regret. A great Masonic banquet was given in 
Captain Clarke's honour on the nth August, 1858, 
and Mr. William Haines, the Minister whose resigna- 
tion he had been instrumental in bringing about by his 



66 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

hostile amendment in the previous March, occupied the 
chair upon the occasion.^ 

The officers of the Field Branch of the Department 
of Public Lands presented Captain Clarke with a hand- 
some piece of plate in token of the high appreciation 
they entertained of his ''scientific ability and genial 
kindness/' 

During his five years' sojourn in Melbourne, Captain 
Clarke had endeared himself to the citizens by the 
interest he had taken in many matters which concerned 
them. Such were the enlargement of the St. Kilda 
Cemetery, the site for the Cathedral, the Botanical 
Gardens and Society, of which he was a member of 
Council, a pure water supply, and the collection of 
Meteorological Statistics, which was carried out under 
his direction by Mr. R. Brough Smyth.* 

The twelve years that had passed since Andrew 
Clarke left England in the ship Windermere had been 
for him years of successful progress. By the greatest 
stretch of the imagination he would not have believed 
it possible, when he landed at Hobart Town in January, 
1847, ^^^^ i" ^ short a time he would have had the 

^ Captain Clarke had been appointed Grand Master of the Province 
of Victoria, when he arrived in Melbourne, by the Eari of Zetland, 
Grand Master of England. In that capacity he had laid the foundation 
stone of CoUingwood Bridge over the Yarra Yarra River at Melbourne, 
in November, 1856, when he was presented with a silver trowel by the 
Municipal Council of East Collingwood. As Grand Master, also, he had 
been associated with many public addresses. One of these was to 
Prince Frederick William of Prussia (afterwards German Emperor) on 
his marriage to the Princess Royal of England. In the very year of 
his leaving Australia, Captain Clarke had issued a stirring appeal to his 
brother Masons of the three-and-twenty lodges of Victoria to subscribe 
liberally for the benefit of the destitute widows and orphans of those 
who were massacred in the Indian Mutiny. 

* In 1856 Captain Clarke induced the Victorian Government to remit 
£sioo to Colonel (afterwards Sir) Henry James, Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey, for a complete set of the latest meteorological instru- 
ments. 



1853-58] LEAVES VICTORIA 67 

refusal of the premiership of Victoria. The record of 
these years at the Antipodes shows how an intelligent 
and energetic young officer, unbacked by any powerful 
influence, but possessed of considerable tact and cama- 
raderie, was able to forge ahead and obtain a front 
place by his own merits and force of character, grap- 
pling not only with the needs and difficulties of a 
young colony in its land developments, surveys, public 
works, railways, telegraphs, etc., but also helping to 
frame its political constitution and to extend its 
municipal government. 



CHAPTER IV 

SERVICE AT HOME AND ON THE 
GOLD COAST 

1858-1864 

EA.VING Australia in August, 1858, Captain Clarke 
travelled homewards by easy stages. He broke 
the journey in Ceylon and again in Egypt, and in 
December he was at Rome.^ W^ith his mind filled 
with the art treasures of the Imperial City, he wrote a 
long letter to Mr. O'Shanassy, the Prime Minister of 
Victoria, suggesting that it would be a good thing if 
the colony expended a certain amount of money in the 
purchase of copies of famous statues and other works 
of art, and thus laid the foundation of an art gallery at 
Melbourne. 

He arrived in London early in the new year, and 
having reported his arrival at the Horse Guards he 
received orders on loth January, 1859, to proceed to 
Colchester to relieve Captain H. Wray, r.e.,^ in com- 
mand of the Royal Engineers in that district. 

He had come home with the avowed intention of 

^ During his stay in Rome Captain Clarke was honoured with an 
audience of the Pope. It so happened that he was admitted to the 
presence of His Holiness, while a large deputation of Roman Catholics 
was waiting in the ante-chambers. These good people wanted to know 
why such marked precedence was g^ven to a Protestant, and were 
informed that Captain Clarke was an Australian statesman who had 
helped to give '* equal rights " to all religions in Victoria. 

2 Afterwards Major-General H. Wray, CM.o. 

68 



1858-64] MORETON BAY (QUEENSLAND) 69 

getting the government of Moreton Bay if he could. 
He therefore lost no time in sending an application to 
the Colonial Office that his name might be noted as a 
candidate, and, in a letter dated 24th January, he gave 
a succinct statement of his services in the colonies 
during the past twelve years. 

Captain Clarke's candidature was well backed. Sir 
William Denison supported it, Mr. Gairdner was a 
friend at Court, and now Sir John Burgoyne, 
Inspector-General of Fortifications, wrote the follow- 
ing letter to Mr. Henry Drummond Wolff, then 
Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, Sir E. Bulwer Lytton : — 

From Sir John Burgoyne. 

** War Office, Whitehall, 

''y Feb., 1859. 

** My dear Wolff, 

**It is understood that Moreton Bay is to be 
created into a distinct colony, and there will be, of 
course, several candidates for the position of its 
Governor. Among them is Captain Clarke, r.e., and 
as Sir Bulwer Lytton will no doubt seek for informa- 
tion regarding the qualifications of the individuals, I 
take the liberty of bearing testimony to those of 
Captain Clarke. 

** He is an officer of considerable repute in the Corps 
for intelligence and professional as well as general 
acquirements, and I would submit that when other 
qualities are found in the individual the specific know- 
ledge of an engineer is peculiarly valuable in a rising 
colony for promoting surveys and the regulation of 
public works of all kinds. But Captain Clarke has 
had an experience that particularl]^ qualifies him for 
this task, for he has held confidential and responsible 
positions in Australia in which he acquitted himself 
entirely to the satisfaction of the principal authorities, 
so much so that Sir William Denison recommends 
him strongly for the situation. Lastly, it is in my 



70 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

mind a strong item in favour of Captain Clarke that, 
conversant as he is with the nature of the Australian 
colonies and of their capabilities, he has the greatest 
confidence in the degree of advancement and prosperity 
that the settlement at Moreton Bay may attain under 
arrangements on which he is capable of reasoning. 

**MydearWolfiF, 

'* Yours very faithfully, 

'*J. F. BURGOYNE." 

But it turned out, as Mr. Gairdner feared, that 
Clarke's name, however well known in Australia, had 
never been brought officially to the notice of the Secre- 
tary of State, with such prominence as would place 
him on a level with men who had served their appren- 
ticeship more immediately under the eyes of the 
Colonial Office. On the announcement that the 
appointment had been given to Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
George Bowen, then Secretary to the Government of 
the Ionian Islands, Mr. Gairdner wrote to Clarke : — 

From Mr. Gordon Gairdner. 

** Downing Strbbt, 

3 May, 1859. 

'^ My dear Clarke, 

** You would probably read in the Times to-day 
the announcement of the appointment of Bowen to 
Moreton Bay. They certainly lost no time in making 
that announcement, for I know that the fact was only 
definitely communicated to him yesterday. I am sorry 
for your disappointment, but for some time past I had 
not very sanguine hopes of your success from what I 
had been informed. 

**You will now, perhaps, have an opportunity of 
active service in a better line, and in whatever course 
you move I wish you every success. It is rather 
curious that I have known Bowen from his boyhood, 
and he has always come to me for advice since he has 
been connected with this department On this occasion 



1858-64] DISAPPOINTMENT 71 

I could not advise him to go in for a non-permanent 
office instead of one which is supposed to be permanent, 
barring contingencies. However, he was otherwise so 
advised, and probably he may be right, for he has a 
good many friends. If you are in town while he is 
here I should like you to see and talk to him. He 
returns to Corfu in about a week to wind up his affairs 
and bring back his wife. Are you likely to be soon in 
town? ** Yours ever, 

** Gordon Gairdner." 

Fivm the same. 

**4o, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood, 

''SMay, 1859. 

'* My dear Clarke, 

**. . . I am sincerely sorry for your disappoint- 
ment, for I can easily understand, after having devoted 
so large a portion of your time, thoughts, and energies 
to that particular line of service, how acceptable would 
have been the pursuit and how much you would regret 
the loss of it. Still you have a fine profession before 
you, and one which to my ideas would be more agree- 
able than colonial politics, of which, perhaps, I have 
had an overdose tisqtie ad nauseam. 

**Many thanks for your oflFer so kindly made to 
indoctrinate G. Bowen. He returns to Corfu probably 
on Thursday, and I have engaged him to dine with me 
on Wednesday after the levee. Will you come at 
seven o'clock and talk things quietly over with him? No 
party. I suppose you would find it more convenient 
to put up nearer St. James's, but I shall be very glad 
to give you a bed if you like. 

''Yours ever, 

**GoRpoN Gairdner.'* 

The disappointment was indeed great. The hope 
Captain Clarke had cherished for two years was 
crushed, and he settled down to the routine of barrack 
life and duties at Colchester, feeling them rather dull 
and tedious after the political problems and the stirring 



72 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

public life with which he had been so long occupied. 
It must be confessed his duties were not very stimulat- 
ing. When the War OfiBce plans for new cavalry 
barracks at Colchester were sent to him, in the usual 
way, for report, that is for any local objections, he took 
the matter too seriously, and found an outlet for his 
energies in metaphorically pulling the War Office 
designs to pieces. But not satisfied with destructive 
criticism, he sketched out new plans for model barracks, 
which he submitted to the War OfiBce. In these he 
not only provided extra lavatories for the men, but a 
separate dining-room for each troop, a luxury which is 
only now being seriously considered by the authorities. 
The War Ofifice acknowledged the zeal which Captain 
Clarke had shown and the trouble he had taken, but 
directed their own designs to be carried out It was 
under these rather depressing circumstances that he 
poured out his heart to Sir William Denison, and 
received the following reply : — 

From Sir William Denison. 

"Government House, Sydney, 

**6 September^ 1859. 
**My dear Clarke, 

** Thanks for your long letter by the last mail. 
I can quite understand your disinclination to fall back 
upon the petty details of barrack duty after your career 
in Victoria, where questions relatively of great im- 
portance, both professional and political, were subject 
to your decision ; but were I you, instead of looking 
backwards I should cast my eyes forward, and while 
doing my best with the duties thrust upon me, should 
take up some other matter, extra professional, per- 
haps, to a certain extent, but which might admit of 
being brought into action hereafter in some of the 
various positions in which an officer of Engineers is 
often called to place himself. However, I will not 



1858-64] COLCHESTER 73 

bore you with advice which one man is so seldom 
qualified to give to another. I may say what I should 
do if I were in your place, but then you and I are 
differently constituted, and that which would work 
kindly with me would be very distasteful to you. . . . 

** Yours very truly, 

'^W. Denison." 

The good advice given by Sir William Denison had 
been to some extent anticipated by Clarke himself, who 
had already taken up work for the colony of Victoria. 
The suggestion he had made to the Victorian Premier 
from Rome had borne fruit, and the trustees of the 
Melbourne Public Library had voted ;^2,ooo to make a 
beginning of an art gallery by the purchase of copies 
of celebrated works of art. Mr. Childers, the Agent- 
General, with whom were associated Captain Clarke 
and others. Was entrusted with the selection. Captain 
Clarke was also commissioned to arrange for the 
Melbourne Exhibition medals with Messrs. Wyon, the 
well-known engravers. 

But in June, 1859, he undertook a more onerous task 
in the purchase of war material for the defence of 
Victoria. The duty was a difficult one because of the 
changes in progress in ordnance and small arms. 
Rifling for both guns and small arms was coming into 
use, and breechloading was proposed. The merits of 
rival manufacturers had to be weighed and great 
caution exercised. Captain Clarke's consignments to 
Victoria were delayed in consequence, and complaints 
were made in the Victorian Parliament in rather strong 
language. 

The circumstances were fully and clearly stated in 
a report by Colonel Anderson, commanding the Vic- 
torian Artillery Volunteers, to the Defence Minister, 



64 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

cum-Michie*-ites, Little Bethel-ites, squatters, Nichol- 
son-ites, or waverers, would agree to compromise differ- 
ences before the Houses meet. . . . What say you ? 

*' I do not hear much news just now. I am staying at 
Mr. Henty's, and until we came here we were with the 
Stawells. Pray let me know when you hear anything 
more definite about Moreton Bay. I see that they 
have already provided you with that luxury in a small 
community — a brand-new bishop. 

**Let me have a line from you as soon as you can. 
My wife sends her kind regards. She is unfortunately 
laid up with a sprained ankle. 

** Very sincerely yours, 

**HuGH C. E. Childers." 

From Sydney Captain Clarke wrote to his uncle 
William as follows : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

*' Government House, Sydney, N.S.W., 

''ethjuly, 1858. 

** After considering everything and taking advice 
from Sir William Denison, I have determined to leave 
Australia for England in August next. By the time 
I return I shall have been just twelve years absent from 
home— about the best part of my life, too. However, 
it has not been on the whole unworthily spent, and 
though my prospects in Victoria are, perhaps, at the 
present moment brighter and more full of hope than 
they have ever been from the commencement of my 
career there, I feel a yearning for England, and I gladly 
seize the opportunity (shadowy as the excuse may be) 
to push what small claims or interest I may have made 
at the fountain-head, and even if I do not succeed I 
believe it will be with no slight feeling of pleasure that 
I should return to the ordinary duties of my regiment. 

** There is another contingency not to be lost sight 
of, and that is being called upon by the good folks at 
the War Office to make my election between returning 
to the Corps and its legitimate duties, or remaining in 
the Civil Service of the colonies, minus my commis- 




SIR ANDREW CLARKE, WHEN SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA 

To face page 64 



J 



i8S3-S8] RESIGNS HIS SEAT 65 

sion in the Army, or rather be forced* to retire from the 
service on half-pay. No civil position could equal 
such a sacrifice. 

**I think I leave Victoria, too, at a good time, in 
tolerable favour with the country, my name connected 
with much of its national progress, and I dare believe 
that I may be missed, and that I will not be soon for- 
gotten. I think, therefore, that on the whole a grace- 
ftil retreat at this moment is my best policy. I shall 
return home armed, I think, with some little character 
and strong letters to some good men at home. Sir 
William Denison has already written about me to 
Sir John Bur^foyne and others connected with my 
Corps. To his own immediate family and relatives 
my name is not wholly unknown. I take letters with 
me from him to the Speaker and his other brothers, 
from Lady Denison to her father, Sir Phipps Hornby, 
with her wish that I may be introduced to her cousins 
the Stanleys." 

When he got back to Melbourne he wrote, on the 

15th July:— 

To the same. 

''I have returned from Sydney, having passed two 
of the happiest months of my life in my old chiefs 
family, making parting from them a bitter trial. Look 
out for me in the early part of October. Indeed, I 
hardly write calmly, but with anxious longing for the 
day I again shall tread Old England." 

Having decided on this step. Captain Clarke re- 
signed his seat in the Assembly and issued a farewell 
address to his constituents of South Melbourne. The 
announcement of his early departure from Australia 
was unexpected, and elicited many expressions of 
regret. A great Masonic banquet was given in 
Captain Clarke's honour on the nth August, 1858, 
and Mr. William Haines, the Minister whose resigna- 
tion he had been instrumental in bringing about by his 



66 SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VICTORIA 

hostile amendment in the previous March, occupied the 
chair upon the occasion.^ 

The officers of the Field Branch of the Department 
of Public Lands presented Captain Clarke with a hand- 
some piece of plate in token of the high appreciation 
they entertained of his ''scientific ability and genial 
kindness." 

During his five years' sojourn in Melbourne, Captain 
Clarke had endeared himself to the citizens by the 
interest he had taken in many matters which concerned 
them. Such were the enlargement of the St. Kilda 
Cemetery, the site for the Cathedral, the Botanical 
Gardens and Society, of which he was a member of 
Council, a pure water supply, and the collection of 
Meteorological Statistics, which was carried out under 
his direction by Mr. R. Brough Smyth.* 

The twelve years that had passed since Andrew 
Clarke left England in the ship Windermere had been 
for him years of successful progress. By the greatest 
stretch of the imagination he would not have believed 
it possible, when he landed at Hobart Town in January, 
1847, ^^^ 11^ ^^ short a time he would have had the 

^ Captain Clarke had been appointed Grand Master of the Province 
of Victoria, when he arrived in Melbourne, by the Eari of 2^tland, 
Grand Master of England. In that capacity he had laid the foundation 
stone of Collingwood Bridge over the Yarra Yarra River at Melbourne, 
in November, 1856, when he was presented with a silver trowel by the 
Municipal Council of East Collingwood. As Grand Master, also, he had 
been associated with many public addresses. One of these was to 
Prince Frederick William of Prussia (afterwards German Emperor) on 
his marriage to the Princess Royal of England. In the very year of 
his leaving Australia, Captain Clarke had issued a stirring appeal to his 
brother Masons of the three-and-twenty lodges of Victoria to subscribe 
liberally for the benefit of the destitute widows and orphans of those 
who were massacred in the Indian Mutiny. 

* In 1856 Captain Clarke induced the Victorian Government to remit 
;£5oo to Colonel (afterwards Sir) Henry James, Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey, for a complete set of the latest meteorological instru- 
ments. 



i8S3-58] LEAVES VICTORIA 67 

refusal of the premiership of Victoria. The record of 
these years at the Antipodes shows how an intelligent 
and energetic young oflScer, unbacked by any powerful 
influence, but possessed of considerable tact and cama^ 
raderie, was able to forge ahead and obtain a front 
place by his own merits and force of character, grap- 
pling not only with the needs and difficulties of a 
young colony in its land developments, surveys, public 
works, railways, telegraphs, etc., but also helping to 
frame its political constitution and to extend its 
municipal government. 



CHAPTER IV 

SERVICE AT HOME AND ON THE 
GOLD COAST 

1858-1864 

EAlVING Australia in August, 1858, Captain Clarke 
travelled homewards by easy stages. He broke 
the journey in Ceylon and again in Egypt, and in 
December he was at Rome.^ W^ith his mind filled 
with the art treasures of the Imperial City, he wrote a 
long letter to Mr. O'Shanassy, the Prime Minister of 
Victoria, suggesting that it would be a good thing if 
the colony expended a certain amount of money in the 
purchase of copies of famous statues and other works 
of art, and thus laid the foundation of an art gallery at 
Melbourne. 

He arrived in London early in the new year, and 
having reported his arrival at the Horse Guards he 
received orders on loth January, 1859, to proceed to 
Colchester to relieve Captain H. Wray, r.e.,^ in com- 
mand of the Royal Engineers in that district. 

He had come home with the avowed intention of 

^ During* his stay in Rome Captain Clarke was honoured with an 
audience of the Pope. It so happened that he was admitted to the 
presence of His Holiness, while a large deputation of Roman Catholics 
was waiting in the ante-chambers. These good people wanted to know 
why such marked precedence was g^iven to a Protestant, and were 
informed that Captain Clarke was an Australian statesman who had 
helped to give "equal rights" to all religions in Victoria. 

^ Afterwards Major-General H. Wray, C.M.O. 

68 



1858-64] MORETON BAY (QUEENSLAND) 69 

getting the government of Moreton Bay if he could. 
He therefore lost no time in sending an application to 
the Colonial Office that his name might be noted as a 
candidate, and, in a letter dated 24th January, he gave 
a succinct statement of his services in the colonies 
during the past twelve years. 

Captain Clarke's candidature was well backed. Sir 
William Denison supported it, Mr. Gairdner was a 
friend at Court, and now Sir John Burgoyne, 
Inspector-General of Fortifications, wrote the follow- 
ing letter to Mr. Henry Drummond Wolff, then 
Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, Sir E. Bulwer Lytton : — 

From Sir John Burgoyne. 

** War Office, Whitehall, 

''T Feb.y 1859. 
" My dear Wolff, 

''It is understood that Moreton Bay is to be 
created into a distinct colony, and there will be, of 
course, several candidates for the position of its 
Governor. Among them is Captain Clarke, r.e., and 
as Sir Bulwer Lytton will no doubt seek for informa- 
tion regarding the qualifications of the individuals, I 
take the liberty of bearing testimony to those of 
Captain Clarke. 

** He is an officer of considerable repute in the Corps 
for intelligence and professional as well as general 
acquirements, and I would submit that when other 
qualities are found in the individual the specific know- 
ledge of an engineer is peculiarly valuable in a rising 
colony for promoting surveys and the regulation of 
public works of all kinds. But Captain Clarke has 
had an experience that particularly qualifies him for 
this task, for he has held confidential and responsible 
positions in Australia in which he acquitted himself 
entirely to the satisfaction of the principal authorities, 
so much so that Sir William Denison recommends 
him strongly for the situation. Lastly, it is in my 



70 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

mind a strong item in favour of Captain Clarke that, 
conversant as he is with the nature of the Australian 
colonies and of their capabilities, he has the greatest 
confidence in the degree of advancement and prosperity 
that the settlement at Moreton Bay may attain under 
arrangements on which he is capable of reasoning. 

** My dear Wolff, 

" Yours very faithfully, 

'*J. F. BURGOYNE." 

But it turned out, as Mr. Gairdner feared, that 
Clarke's name, however well known in Australia, had 
never been brought officially to the notice of the Secre- 
tary of State, with such prominence as would place 
him on a level with men who had served their appren- 
ticeship more immediately under the eyes of the 
Colonial Office. On the announcement that the 
appointment had been given to Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
George Bowen, then Secretary to the Government of 
the Ionian Islands, Mr. Gairdner wrote to Clarke : — 

From Mr. Gordon Gairdner. 

** Downing Strbbt, 

3 May^ 1859. 

'' My dear Clarke, 

** You would probably read in the Times to-day 
the announcement of the appointment of Bowen to 
Moreton Bay. They certainly lost no time in making 
that announcement, for I know that the fact was only 
definitely communicated to him yesterday. I am sorry 
for your disappointment, but for some time past I had 
not very sanguine hopes of your success from what I 
had been informed. 

**You will now, perhaps, have an opportunity of 
active service in a better line, and in whatever course 
you move I wish you every success. It is rather 
curious that I have known Bowen from his boyhood, 
and he has always come to me for advice since he has 
been connected with this department On this occasion 



1858-64] DISAPPOINTMENT 71 

I could not advise him to go in for a non-permanent 
office instead of one which is supposed to be permanent, 
barring contingencies. However, he was otherwise so 
advised, and probably he may be right, for he has a 

food many friends. If you are in town while he is 
ere I should like you to see and talk to him. He 
returns to Corfu in about a week to wind up his affairs 
and bring back his wife. Are you likely to be soon in 
^^wn? ** Yours ever, 

** Gordon Gairdner." 

From the same. 

"40, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood, 

''SMay, 1859. 

'* My dear Clarke, 

'*...! am sincerely sorry for your disappoint- 
ment, for I can easily understand, after having devoted 
so large a portion of your time, thoughts, and energies 
to that particular line of service, how acceptable would 
have been the pursuit and how much you would regret 
the loss of it. Still you have a fine profession before 
you, and one which to my ideas would be more agree- 
able than colonial politics, of which, perhaps, I have 
had an overdose tisque ad nauseam. 

*' Many thanks for your ofiFer so kindly made to 
indoctrinate G. Bowen. He returns to Corfu probably 
on Thursday, and I have engaged him to dine with me 
on Wednesday after the levee. Will you come at 
seven o'clock and talk things quietly over with him? No 
party. I suppose you would find it more convenient 
to put up nearer St. James's, but I shall be very glad 
to give you a bed if you like. 

*' Yours ever, 

''Gordon Gairdner." 

The disappointment was indeed great. The hope 
Captain Clarke had cherished for two years was 
crushed, and he settled down to the routine of barrack 
life and duties at Colchesteri feeling them rather dull 
and tedious after the political problems and the stirring 



72 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

public life with which he had been so long occupied. 
It must be confessed his duties were not very stimulat- 
ing. When the War Office plans for new cavalry 
barracks at Colchester were sent to him, in the usual 
way, for report, that is for any local objections, he took 
the matter too seriously, and found an outlet for his 
energies in metaphorically pulling the War Office 
designs to pieces. But not satisfied with destructive 
criticism, he sketched out new plans for model barracks, 
which he submitted to the War Office. In these he 
not only provided extra lavatories for the men, but a 
separate dining-room for each troop, a luxury which is 
only now being seriously considered by the authorities. 
The War Office acknowledged the zeal which Captain 
Clarke had shown and the trouble he had taken, but 
directed their own designs to be carried out. It was 
under these rather depressing circumstances that he 
poured out his heart to Sir William Denison, and 
received the following reply : — 

From Sir William Denison. 

"Government House, Sydney, 

^' 6 SeptembeTy 1859. 
''My dear Clarke, 

''Thanks for your long letter by the last mail. 
I can quite understand your disinclination to fall back 
upon the petty details of barrack duty after your career 
in Victoria, where questions relatively of great im- 
portance, both professional and political, were subject 
to your decision ; but were I you, instead of looking 
backwards I should cast my eyes forward, and while 
doing my best with the duties thrust upon me, should 
take up some other matter, extra professional, per- 
haps, to a certain extent, but which might admit of 
being brought into action hereafter in some of the 
various positions in which an officer of Engineers is 
often called to place himself. However, I will not 



.i&S 



1858-64] COLCHESTER 73 

bore you with advice which one man is so seldom 
qualified to give to another. I may say what I should 
do if I were in your place, but then you and I are 
differently constituted, and that which would work 
kindly with me would be very distasteful to you. . . . 

'* Yours very truly, 

''W. Denison." 

The good advice given by Sir William Denison had 
been to some extent anticipated by Clarke himself, who 
had already taken up work for the colony of Victoria. 
The suggestion he had made to the Victorian Premier 
from Rome had borne fruit, and the trustees of the 
Melbourne Public Library had voted £2^000 to make a 
beginning of an art gallery by the purchase of copies 
of celebrated works of art. Mr. Childers, the Agent- 
General, with whom were associated Captain Clarke 
and others, Was entrusted with the selection. Captain 
Clarke was also commissioned to arrange for the 
Melbourne Exhibition medals with Messrs. Wyon, the 
well-known engravers. 

But in June, 1859, he undertook a more onerous task 
in the purchase of war material for the defence of 
Victoria. The duty was a difficult one because of the 
changes in progress in ordnance and small arms. 
Rifling for both guns and small arms was coming into 
use, and breechloading was proposed. The merits of 
rival manufacturers had to be weighed and great 
caution exercised. Captain Clarke's consignments to 
Victoria were delayed in consequence, and complaints 
were made in the Victorian Parliament in rather strong 
language. 

The circumstances were fully and clearly stated in 
a report by Colonel Anderson, commanding the Vic- 
torian Artillery Volunteers, to the Defence Minister, 



74 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

Mr. M'CuUoch, dated Melbourne, 17th July, i860. In 
this report Colonel Anderson expressed his opinion that 
if Captain Clarke had been authorised to act indepen- 
dently of the Home Government, he would have been 
able to make arrangements for a supply of arms at an 
earlier date ; but he had been instructed to procure 
them from the War OflSce through the Colonial Office, 
and his control over the funds had been even ques- 
tioned when he refused to sanction the shipment of 
some hundreds of obsolete, service-worn small arms. 
He concluded his report by saying that Captain Clarke 
not only showed great firmness in his endeavours to 
procure a supply of arms that would do credit to his 
selection, but in rejecting, in the face of some pressure, 
the arms which were offered by the War Department. 
The Prime Minister, Mr. O'Shanassy, himself defended 
Captain Clarke in the Victorian Parliament. A copy 
of an indignant report from a brother-officer serving 
in Victoria found its way to the Inspector-General of 
Fortifications, Sir John Burgoyne, who wrote to 

Clarke : — 

From Sir John Burgoyne. 

•* War Office, Pall Mall, 

'*22 June^ 1861. 
'* My dear Captain Clarke, 

''I have just received from Victoria, Australia, 
the copy of a report made by Captain Scratchley, r.e.,^ 
to the Colonial Government, which contains the follow- 
ing passages : * I cannot refrain from alluding to the 
attacks which have been made on the Engineer officer 
at present employed in En|[land in procuring arms and 
stores for the colony. If it were publicly known (and 
it is greatly to be desired that it should be) what diffi- 
culties that officer has had to encounter in carrying out 
the important duty entrusted to him, praise instead of 

^ Afterwards Major-General Sir Peter Scratchley, K.c.if.G. 



1858-64] WORK FOR VICTORIA 75 

censure would be awarded to him. . . . The attacks 
made upon that ofiScer are in my opinion most unjustifi- 
able, and not warranted by circumstances.' 

** Perhaps you are already aware that such attacks 
have been made, I presume in the colony, and that 
Captain Scratchley is defending you. I find, however, 
that in the War Department here it has been stated that 
you had raised all sorts of objections and difficulties to 
proposed supplies of arms and ammunition and stores, 
and if such remarks reached the colony, of course it 
would occasion attacks on you. I only mention these 
matters to you in case you are not aware of them. You 
are no doubt quite prepared to show that you have 
done what was for the best. 

"Yours faithfully, 

'*J. F. BURGOYNE." 

Captain Clarke had done what he believed was for 
the best, and he was as little disturbed by the adverse 
criticism of his action by the Victorian Parliament as 
he was by those of some War Office officials who tried 
to pass on obsolete arms to the colony, but were baffled 
by his firmness. This work for Victoria continued to 
occupy some of his spare time until 1863, and the only 
advantage he derived from it was the deferment of the 
date of his going on foreign service until the end of 
that year, to enable him to close his accounts with the 
Victorian Government. 

Various other interesting subjects outside the scope 
of his official duties engaged his attention at this time. 
In i860 he drew up a scheme for the disposal of the 
Crown lands in British Columbia, which the Duke of 
Newcastle sent to the Governor for his guidance.^ In 
March of the same year, before the Select Committee 
on Corrupt Practices at Elections, he gave evidence 

^ See Blue Book, British Columbia, part iii., i860, p. 179 tt seq. 
Parliamentary Papers, voL xliv., in the British Museum. 



76 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

which was favourable to the purity of elections in 
Victoria in his time. In the following year he was 
examined by the Committee on Colonial Military 
Expenditure, when he explained how the Volunteer 
Force of Victoria had originated in 1854 '^^ ^^^ desire 
to help the mother country at the time of the Crimean 
War. He also expressed the opinion that it would be 
perfectly safe to withdraw the Infantry regiment quar- 
tered in Australia, and to let the Imperial garrison 
consist exclusively of Artillery. 

In June, 1862, Captain Clarke was transferred from 
the Colchester District to the Birmingham District, 
where he took over the R.E. command from Lieutenant- 
Colonel Gother Mann, c.b. He had not been many 
weeks in Birmingham when he helped to found the 
Colonial Emigration Society, and became a member of 
its committee. Mr. Childers, writing to him on the 
2nd September, said: *'I think your Emigration 
Society is likely to be of very great service, and that 
you are quite right in promoting and joining it." 

In the autumn of the year he received the oflFer of 
the post of aide-de-camp to the Inspector-General of 
Fortifications, Sir John Burgoyne, temporarily. As 
it was a staff appointment which would certainly 
keep him at home while he held it, and might have 
the effect of removing his name to the bottom of the 
foreign service roster, he gladly accepted it. But the 
pleasant anticipation of moving to London did not last 
long. The offer had been made to him after objections 
had been raised to the reappointment of Captain the 
Hon. George Wrottesley, r.e.^ These objections 
were unexpectedly removed, and Captain Wrottesley 
was appointed, Sir John Burgoyne sending the 

^ Son-in-law of Sir John Burgoyne, now a Majoi^GeneraL 



1858-64] A GRIEVANCE 77 

following explanatory and apologetic letter to Captain 
Clarke : — 

From General Sir John Fox Burgoyne. 

** War Office, Pall Mall, 

**2i November, 1862. 

•'My dear Captain Clarke, 

'* I am very sorry to think that I may have led 
you into inconvenient arrangements and impressions 
on the subject of your joining me as an aide-de-camp, 
but I did it with the most favourable intentions towards 
you, and for my own satisfaction under the one event of 
my not being able to have Wrottesley. 

** After the Duke had decided that it would be wrong 
to nominate Wrottesley, I at once made a formal appli- 
cation for you. I could not account for the delay in 
making the appointment. It now turns out that Sir 
George Lewis, without any interference on my part, 
direct or indirect, was persuaded that there was no 
sufficient reason for preventing Wrottesley from coming 
to me, and on his own representation to the Duke has 
induced H.R.H. to revoke his first objection, and 
Wrottesley is now permitted to have the appointment. 

** I am really sorry that this issue, in which I cannot 
say that I do not feel a deep interest, should have 
become a cause of embarrassment and uncomfortable- 
ness to you, my dear Captain Clarke. 

** Yours very faithfully, 

'' J. F. BURGOYNE." 

The following letters refer to this disappointment : — 

To Mr. William Hislop Clarke. 

<< Birmingham, Thursday evening. 
*'My dear Uncle, 

** How are you? I see your name now and then 
in Chancery cases in the TimeSy and I conclude from 
that you are tolerably well. 

'M have for the present been sold, and lost the 
A.D.C., but I suppose it will yet be all right ias I have 
now a grievance, a thing I have never been able to get 



78 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

hold of before in my life, and if it comes to the worst 
I must work it. 

** There are to be three or four new judges for India. 
Make a push for one ! I am going to-morrow to Wort^ 
ley, Lord WharncliflFe's, and on Saturday week to 
Cantley, Wallbanke Childers's, and from there I am 
to visit Hickleton, Sir C. Wood's, and if I can drop a 
word I will. 

*'I have just come back from a visit to in 

Northamptonshire. What a lucky fellow he was to 
marry an heiress with such a pot of money. I suppose 
he must have ;f30,ooo a year. In 1855 he was a sub., 
and an ugly one, in a marching regiment of ' Fut.' 

** Yours, etc., 

**Andie." 

The next letter is from Mr. Charles Mills, afterwards 
Lord Hillingdon : — 

From Mr. Charles Mills. 

**67, Lombard Street, 

^^ December ist^ 1862. 

*'My dear Clarke, 

** I had been inquiring your whereabouts for 
some days before I received your letter, which reached 
me yesterday, as I wanted to write to you, not however 
as I must now, to assure you of my sincere sympathy in 
your disappointment in obtaining the sta£F appointment 
to Sir John Burgoyne. It does seem very hard to can- 
cel it when matters had gone so far. . . . 

^^ It is curious that you should mention the telegraph 
across the North American continent, as that was the 
subject upon which I was going to write to you. The 
matter is at present only in limine^ and appears sur- 
rounded by obstacles, almost insurmountable, in the 
shape of the Hudson Bay Company, who are opposed 
to all innovations. If it goes on I had intended to 
have asked you to form one of the Board, as it is 
deemed very desirable to have an officer of Engineers 
to look into the thing, and if necessary to e^o out and 
see that all is properly done. At present, however, it 
does not look much like succeeding. 



1858-64] THE BIRMINGHAM DISTRICT 79 

'^The intercolonial railway is going on, and deputies 
from Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia are 
over here to arrange matters with the Duke of New- 
castle. I conclude the line will be constructed under 
some Engineer officer, as the English Government are 
to guarantee the interest on the capital, taking the 
Provincial Bonds as security. Perhaps if you think 
more of it it would be as well to put in a word at the 
Colonial Office. At this moment I fancy there is a little 
fight going on, as the delegates want to make the inter- 
colonial railway do instead of arming themselves, the 
force of which argument the English Government do 
not appear to recognise. I hope we may meet before 
long and talk over these matters. 

** Believe me, yours very truly, 

** Charles H. Mills." 

In the beginning of 1863 Captain Clarke had serious 
thoughts of going to India to join the stajff of his old 
chief, Sir William Denison, then Governor of the 
Madras Presidency, and Mr. Childers, who had been 
consulted, wrote on the 24th February: *' I have come 
to the conclusion that I think it will be for your interest 
to go to Madras " ; but the idea was abandoned because 
Sir William Denison's term of service at Madras was 
drawing to a close. 

In the meantime Captain Clarke's time at Birming- 
ham passed pleasantly enough. His official duties 
were not too arduous. He was a frequent visitor at 
Four Oaks, the seat of Sir William Cradock-Hartopp, 
and he often went over to shoot at Packington, the 
Earl of Aylesford's place near Coventry. But it was at 
Wortley Hall, near Sheffield (which was in his district), 
where Lord Wharnclifie lived, that he was most at 
home, and where he formed many friendships, notably 
that with Captain F. Beauchamp Seymour, r.n., after- 
wards Lord Alcester. The owner of Wortley lost no 



8o AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

opportunity of showing Captain Clarke attention, and 
week-ends, shootings, and race parties there introduced 
him to many well-known people. The following note 
is one of many such : — 

From Lord Whamcliffe. 

" WoRTLEY Hall, Sheffield, 

''March i6th, 1863. 
'* My dear Clarke, 

*' I hope you will come here on Thursday before 
Good Friday and stay on over Easter week. We shall 
have rather an interesting party here — Duke of Somer- 
set, Sir F. and Lady Grey, Captain Maury, Count 
Strzlecki, George Tomline, Captain Ryder, and I hope 
Lord Clarence Paget. One of your cottages is occupied, 
the other not quite finished. 

*' Yours very truly, 

** Wharncliffe." 

In the following September Captain Clarke was at 
Wortley for the Doncaster races, when the house-party 
included the Marchioness of Drogheda, the Hon. Penn 
and Mrs. Curzon, Mr. Charles and Lady Louisa Mills, 
Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Loch, the Hon. Mr. and Mrs. 
Egremont Lascelles, Captain Beauchamp Seymour, and 
others. But an end was put to these gaieties by orders 
he received for the West Coast of Africa, the Gazette 
announcing that he was to have the local rank of major 
while serving there. 

His friend, Mr. H. B. Loch, wrote to him from 
Government House, Isle of Man, on the i6th October, 
1863:— 

From Mr. H. B. Loch. 

** I do trust, old fellow, that your stay on the Coast 
may not be a long one, and that you will soon return to 
reap the advantage of having gone, for it must give you 



1858-64] CAPE COAST CASTLE 81 

an additional claim to your existing ones. I think 
things look so like war that probably you will have to 
return as soon as you ^et out. The question connected 
with Denmark looks like one that may bring about un- 
pleasant results. Mrs. Loch joins with me in good 
wishes for your voyage, and God grant you a safe 
return." 

A note from Captain Beauchamp Seymour said : — 

From Captain F. Beauchamp Seymour^ R.N. 

** I wrote ten days ago to my old shipmate and friend, 
Captain Battiscombe, of the Snipe^ and asked him to 
look after you in the event of your falling in with him. 
. . . Come back in time for the next St. Leger, when I 
hope we may meet at Wortley." 

At Cape Coast Castle Major Clarke found that al- 
though a state of war existed with the King of 
Ashanti, the only step taken by the Government to 
support Mr. Richard Pine, the Governor, was to send 
him four stajBF officers, of whom he himself was one, 
and some additional companies of a West India 
Regiment, bringing up the troops to 800 bayonets. 
No supplies, no transport, no hospital comforts, no 
means of carrying on war in a dangerous climate 
were sent, and sickness deprived the country of many 
valuable officers and men. Instead of a British in- 
vasion of Ashanti, the British Protectorate was invaded 
by the enemy, who after ravaging the country with- 
drew.^ 

Major Clarke's principal duty at the Gold Coast 
was to prepare barracks for the reinforcements which 
were never sent. In addition, he made himself gener- 

* See Ashanti and the Gold Coast, by Vice-Admiral Sir John Dal- 
rymple Hay. London, 1874. 
G 



82 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

ally useful to the Governor, acting as Chief Justice, and 
filling various offices vacant by sickness or death. He 
occupied himself mainly with the preparation of a report 
on the Coast and collected a great deal of valuable 
information. This report, which is full of interesting 
matter, was published in July, 1864, after his return 
home, and was regarded as the best description of the 
Coast in existence up to the time of the Ashanti Expedi- 
tion of ten years later. 

While at Cape Coast Castle Major Clarke had a bad 
attack of fever, and was given up by the medical officer 
attending him. A brother-officer who lived in the next 
room to the sick man received a case of champagne 
from England for Christmas, and he asked the doctor 
if he might give Major Clarke some. *'Oh, you can 
give him a bottle," said the doctor, *'for he won't be 
alive to-morrow." Major Clarke overheard the remark 
and called out, ^'Give me the champagne; I don't 
mean to die yet." The next day he was moved on 
board a man-of-war, probably the Snipe^ and taken for 
a short cruise. The sea air braced him up, and he 
threw oflF the fever, but, as is generally the case with 
this West African fever, he suflfered from occasional 
returns of it in after life. 

Shortly after his recovery Major Clarke went home, 
in spite of the efforts which Colonel Edward Conrad, 
commanding the troops on the Gold Coast, made to 
induce him to remain **to see the end of our little 
war." There was a bigger business going on in 
Europe, and it was quite on the cards that Great Britain 
might take part with Denmark against Prussia and 
Austria, and Major Clarke did not care to be out of 
the way. 

His report on the Coast was carefully considered by 



1858-64] REPORT ON THE GOLD COAST 83 

Ministers, and on the i8th June, 1864, Lord de Grey,^ 
War Secretary, wrote to Captain Clarke: — ^ 

From Lord de Grey. 



a 



Mr. CardwelP and I have been considering the 
state of matters on the Gold Coast, and it is very 
probable that we may consider it desirable to request 
you to return there by the next mail for a short tour of 
inspection. I have asked Seton* to write and beg you 
to come and see me on Monday, but I think it best to 
let you know what is passing in Mr. Cardwell's mind 
and mine." 

It turned out to be unnecessary for Captain Clarke to 
make another visit to the Gold Coast, and, shortly after, 
he was appointed Director of Works at the Admiralty, 
a post which had been usually held by an officer of 
Royal Engineers, among others by his old chief. Sir 
William Denison. 

Some months before this post was oflFered to him 
an opportunity occurred of again serving his old colony, 
Victoria, and this happened just after he arrived 
home from Cape Coast Castle. His friend, Mr. Hugh 
C. E. Childers, M.P. for Pontefract and Victorian 
Agent-General, had met with no ordinary success in the 
House of Commons, and in April, 1864, was appointed 
Junior or Civil Lord of the Admiralty. This appoint- 
ment to the Government obliged him to relinquish 
the Agency for Victoria, and Captain Clarke became 
locum tenens pending the arrival from Australia of a 
successor to Mr. Childers. While he was so acting 

^ Now Marquess of Ripon. 

* Major Clarke reverted to the rank of captain on his return from the 
Gold Coast 

' Mr. Cardwell was Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

^ Sir Bruce Maxwell Seton, Bart, Private Secretary to the Secretary 
ofSUteforWar. 



84 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

Agent-General for Victoria the postage from home to 
Australia and New Zealand was doubled, and he at once 
took up the cudgels on behalf of the colonies in a 
correspondence with the Postmaster-General from which 
the following extracts are taken : — 

From Captain Clarke to the Postmaster-GeneraL 

^* . . . Having taken an active part in Victoria in 
arranging the principles on which was settled the 
postal service between the two countries, I know that 
the changes contemplated by the new order will give 
rise to a serious and very angry feeling on the part both 
of the local Legislatures and of the people. 

**The arrangement as hitherto existing was made by 
agreement between the Government and the local 
Governments, approved of by their Legislatures, and it 
was regarded as a virtual compact that neither could 
depart from without a fresh agreement and consent. . . . 

**The chief feature of the agreement was that pay- 
ment was compulsory, the rates similar, and that each 
side should take its postage and pay one half of the 
contribution. . . . 

'* I may mention that the Post Oflfice, early in i860, 
without notice or consulting the colonies, raised the 
postage on newspapers to 2d. from id, on the ground 
of the cost of transit across the Isthmus. Mr. Cnilders 
at the time protested against this course, and the old 
rate was restored, the colonies, however, taking their 
share of the expense of transport, and, in the present 
instance, there is no doubt that^ if reasonable grounds 
are shown for an increase to their subsidy, they will 
cheerfully grant it, but they will not quietly submit to 
an increase of the rates." 

The Postmaster-General replied that the order was 
made with a view to carry out an increase in the trans- 
oceanic postage commenced in i860 with Buenos Ayres 
and Brazil, continued in 1862 to Hong Kong and Chinai 
and in 1863 to the West Indies and the Cape of Good 
Hope, and that it was quite inconsistent to have the 



1858-64] AUSTRALIAN POSTAGE 85 

postage to the more distant colonies of New Zealand 
and Australia at 6rf. when the postage to these other 
places was raised to is. He pointed out that the cost 
of these trans-oceanic packets was very much larger 
than the revenue derived from the postage, and that 
great complaint had always been made of its cost to the 
Imperial revenue. 

He went on to say that he believed there never was 
any agreement as to the amount of the postage — all that 
was agreed was that the Colonial and Imperial Govern- 
ments should each pay half the expenses. The Imperial 
Government retained the right of imposing any amount 
of postage thought proper, and the Colonial Govern- 
ment could impose any postage on letters leaving 
Australia. 

The Postmaster- General's defence was obviously 
weak, and Captain Clarke had no difficulty in showing 
that it was so. The following are a few extracts from 
his rejoinder : — 

To the Pastmaster-GeneraL 

''The agreement between this country and Australia 
was finally determined in 1856, four years before the 
trans-oceanic postage arrangements of i860 alluded to 
by the Postmaster-General, and had nothing in common 
with it. 

'' The instances his lordship quotes of Buenos Ayres, 
Brazil, Hong Kon^, China, and the West Indies are, 
it is quite true, 'inconsistent* when compared with 
Australia, for the latter divides with England the cost 
of the service, England bearing the burden of the 
whole expenditure in the case of the other countries 
named, and suffers no doubt a loss by doing so. But 
this is no reason why she should repay herself by taxing 
the correspondence with Australia. Besides, there is no 
complaint that at the present lower charges the revenue 
from postage with Australia has provea less than the 
expenditure. • • • 



86 AT HOME AND ON THE GOLD COAST 

^' It is unnecessary to allude again to the breach of 
faith directly involved in this increase. The rates were 
paraded by the Home Government as an integral por- 
tion of the entire scheme. The arrangement of each 
side taking its own postage was solely to avoid 
accounts, and had no reference to altering the rates. 
True no reserves were made^ but it was understood 
then by those agreeing to the scheme that, as would be 
usual, if changes were necessary all original parties to 
the agreement should be first consulted.^' 



CHAPTER V 

DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 
1864-1873 

CAPTAIN CLARKE succeeded Colonel G. T. 
Greene, c.b., r.e., as Director of Engineering 
and Architectural Works at the Admiralty on the 
loth August, 1864, at a period of unusual activity in 
the department. The recent creation of an ironclad 
fleet and the rapid increase in the size of battleships 
made new dock accommodation a pressing need. 
The existing docks were not only insufiBcient in 
number, but, owing to their small size, they were 
useless for many of the new ships. The Govern- 
ment had therefore decided to make large exten- 
sions of the dock accommodation at Chatham and 
Portsmouth, and to construct first-class docks at Cork 
Harbour, Keyhafn, Malta, and Bermuda. Subsidies 
were also to be granted for the construction of harbours 
and docks at colonial stations on condition that they 
were made available for H.M. ships. The total esti- 
mate for the works was six millions. The provision of 
these requirements, in addition to the ordinary routine 
work of his department, occupied the greater part of 
Captain Clarke's time during the nine years he was at 
the Admiralty, but the details of the work are of too 
technical a character to interest the ordinary reader and 
can only be referred to here in a general way. 

87 



88 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Ten days before the date fixed for Captain Clarke to 
enter on his new duties he ascertained that the Lords 
of the Admiralty had begun their annual tour of inspec- 
tion of the dockyards. This was too good an opportu- 
nity to be lost, and he obtained permission to join 
them. In this way he was able to see the home 
dockyard requirements and to obtain their lordships' 
views in regard to them almost before he came into 
office. 

No sooner was this tour over than he was off to 
Malta, a fortnight in advance of the First Lord,^ to see 
for himself into the vexed question of the site of the 
new dock to be constructed there. He selected a safer 
and more convenient site than the one that had been 
proposed, and by the exercise of a little tact and 
patience speedily overcame the objections that had 
been raised by the Maltese mercantile community to 
the appropriation of French Creek in the grand harbour 
to the navy. He found another suitable anchorage for 
the merchant shipping, and by undertaking to build 
new wharves before a yard of soil was excavated for the 
Admiralty dock, completely won over the Maltese 
opponents to his side. When the Duke of Somerset 
arrived he found the question settled to everybody's 
satisfaction and only awaiting his own approval. 

So it was with the other big works to be carried out 
Energetic action, adroit diplomacy, tact, and never- 
failing good temper smoothed down all difiBculties 
and brought the new Director of Works successfully 
through, not only the preliminary preparations and 
designs for the works, but their subsequent execu- 
tion. 

^ The Duke of Somerset was First Lord, Sir Sydney Dacres and Sir 
Alexander Milne, Sea Lords, and Mr. Childers, Civil or Junior Lord. 



1864-73] COLONEL C. G. GORDON 89 

While immersed in official work Captain Clarke 
thoroughly enjoyed the recreation of mixing in London 
society, and it was soon after he went to the Admiralty 
that he joined a new and select coterie called **The 
Owls," whose members dined together on Mondays at 
clubs and private houses. It was founded by Mr. 
Algernon Borthwick, now Lord Glenesk,i and issued 
a publication, The Owl, at irregular intervals. Among 
the **Owls" Captain Clarke found many old friends — 
the Wharncliffes, Childers, Du Canes, Mr. Montagu 
Corry, Mr. H. D. WolflF, Lord Henry G. Lennox, and 
others — and made many new ones. 

In 1865 Captain Clarke for the first time met 
his brother-officer Brevet-Lieutenant-Colonel Charles 
George Gordon, who had lately returned from the 
command of the ** Ever Victorious Army" in China 
and taken up duty at Gravesend. Gordon entered the 
Corps in 1852, a year before Clarke left Tasmania for 
Melbourne, and there had been no previous oppor- 
tunity of their meeting. No two men could have been 
more unlike in disposition, tastes, and pursuits, and 
yet, or, perhaps, in consequence, they took to one 
another from their first meeting, and became fast 
friends. 

Soon after this friendship began the New Zealand 
Government proposed to have a colonial force of its 
own, and it occurred to Major Du Cane that Gordon 
was just the man to command it. He wrote to Captain 



^ The founder says of it : "It was a social institution, and, like its 
namesake, did not mix with others which were and are essentially 
different No one can describe the mirth of the dinners and the happi- 
ness of 'Owl ' nights. It was a great success, and only stopped when all 
the members became too busy to give the time and care demanded for 
carrying it on."— Zj/Sr of the Right Hon, Hugh C £» Childers^ voL L 
p. 146. 



90 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Clarke on the subject for the reasons stated in his 
letter : — 

From Major E. F. Du Cane. 

'' 45, Parliament Street, 

"25 August^ 1865. 

^* Dear Clarke, 

'' If I did not really think you do like to put for- 
ward a good specimen of the Corps when you have a 
chance, I should be afraid of your calling me a bore. 
I have now a new case in whicn I am recommended by 
Childers, who has been very kind in the matter, to ask 
you to lend a hand. . . . 

'* The Home Government have acceded to a proposal 
of the New Zealand Ministry to form a local force, but 
it is not yet clear whether this will be a colonial army, 
or under the Horse Guards (though a local force) like 
the Cape Mounted Rifles. 

^^The man to command such a force and to stamp 
out for ever the Maori rebellion is Charlie Gordon, 
whose exploits in China (only paralleled by those of 
Sesostris) you know all about. He is in some respects 
a born general. 

**The appointment rests with the New Zealand 
Ministry, and Childers tells me that a strong recom- 
mendation from you to Weld^ would have great e£Fect. 
Hence this letter. 

'^Gordon is a good engineer, and as road-making 
and war go together in these places the selection 
becomes still more appropriate. 

'* Yours very truly, 

'*E. F. DuCane."« 

Nothing came of the suggestion, and Gordon re- 
mained for some years in a position of comparative 
obscurity at Gravesend. It was during these years that 

^ Mr. Weld was at that time Premier of New Zealand, where Ci^tain 
Clarke had met him many years before. He became Sir Frederick A. 
Weld, o.c.ii.0., and a Colonial Qovemor. 

' Major Du Cane was afterwards Major-Oeneral Sir E. F. Du Cane, 
K.C.B., Inspector of Prisons. 



1864-73] DOVER HARBOUR 91 

Captain Clarke had frequent opportunities of meeting 
him and cementing their friendship. 

The year before Captain Clarke entered the 
Admiralty a proposal was made to extend the Admiralty 
Pier at Dover for another 600 feet, at a cost of 
;£'200,ooo, but was not sanctioned by the Government 
on account mainly of the cost. Captain Clarke had a 
strong opinion of the importance of a harbour at 
Dover, and was most anxious that the continuation and 
completion of the original scheme should be approved, 
but for the time he contented himself with endeavour- 
ing to get the west pier extended. He revised the pro- 
posal of the previous year, and submitted a less costly 
scheme to the Government. Lord Palmerston, then 
Prime Minister, was opposed to spending any large 
sums on Dover, but on the suggestion of the Duke of 
Somerset, he consented to hear what Captain Clarke 
had to say for the project before vetoing the inclusion 
of a vote for it in the Naval Estimates. After an inter- 
view with him at Cambridge House (Lord Palmers- 
ton's residence, now the Naval and Military Club) the 
Prime Minister was persuaded that Captain Clarke's 
view was right and sanctioned the insertion of the 
vote. 

A matter outside Captain Clarke's duties at the 
Admiralty occupied some of his spare time in 1865 
and the following years. The general question of the 
accommodation of the public departments had been 
under consideration for some years, but arrangements 
were only then being made to provide new Foreign 
and India Offices. In 1866 a Royal Commission, pre- 
sided over by Lord John Manners, now Duke of 
Rutland, was appointed to report on the provision 
of accommodation for the other departments, and to it 



92 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Captain Clarke submitted a scheme which he had 
drawn up in the previous year. A block plan and 
explanatory memorandum are to be found in the 
Report of the Commission presented to Parliament 
in 1868. He designed a magnificent pile of buildings 
for a site between the Treasury Buildings in Whitehall 
and Spring Gardens, in which he concentrated the 
public offices, with residences for some of the Ministers. 
A model of the design was exhibited at the Albert Hall, 
and later at the Bethnal Green Museum. A serious 
objection to his proposal was that it involved the 
removal of the Horse Guards, a building whose 
simple and well-proportioned fa9ades London could ill 
afford to lose. 

Mr. Ruskin expressed a very favourable opinion of 
Colonel Clarke's designs. Sir William Denison wrote : 
''I like your plan better than that recommended by 
the Commission "; and Mr. W. Sang, who went 
carefully into the merits of the scheme as com- 
pared with that submitted by Mr. Gilbert Scott,^ r.a., 
wrote : — 

*' Colonel Clarke's ideas admit of superior accommo- 
dation, possess more stateliness and symmetry, and 
therefore will, if carried out, produce an infinitely 
superior architectural effect. Colonel Clarke's plan 
appears on the face of it a better digested and more 
comprehensive scheme than the other, and with trifling 
additions and slight alterations bids fair to be by far 
the most beautiful and practical arrangement amongst 
the many proposals hitherto submitted." 

Another London improvement to which Colonel 
Clarke gave some attention was the new road to be con- 

^ The distinguished Gothic architect, afterwards Sir Gilbert Scott. 




18^4-73] LONDON IMPROVEMENTS 93 

structed from Charing Cross to the Embankment. He 
submitted a plan for this road which avoided the 
demolition of Northumberland House, and the Duke of 
Northumberland wrote to thank him for his effort to 
save an historic house from destruction, observing that 
^^Our public authorities show no consideration for the 
rights of individuals, or for the value of old associa- 
tions." 

Captain Clarke had been promoted to be regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on the 6th July, 1867, and a few days 
later he took part in the festivities on the occasion of 
the visit of the Sultan of Turkey to Queen Victoria. 
He had arranged to go down to the great naval review 
at Spithead, and to take photographs of the royalties 
in the Queen's yacht from another vessel, and the 
captain of the royal yacht wrote to give him particulars 
of the movements of the Queen and the Sultan on the 
17th July :— 

From Captain H.S.H. Prince Leiningen. 

"Portsmouth, ii July^ 1867. 
'^ My dear Clarke, 

'*The Queen receives the Sultan on board the 
yacht at eleven a.m. on 17th (which would be a good 
opportunity for shot No. i) in Osborne Bay. We 
then go through the fleet and proceed as far as the 
Bullock Patch Buoy outside the Nab. There we stop, 
and the fleet, having weighed in the meantime, will 
pass the y^acht in two columns. This would be a good 
opportunity for shot No. 2. The only question is 
whether you will be able to get there in time in the 
old EchOf supposing you were to be present first at 
the meeting in Osborne Bay. From Portsmouth to 
Osborne the Sultan proceeds in the Osborne y and I 
suppose will land from her after the review, unless we 
take him into harbour in this vessel. I will mention 
the photographing business to Her Majesty, so that 



94 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

perhaps she may go on the bridge when she comes on 
board at Osborne. 

'* I remain in haste, sincerely yours, 

**lilNINGEN. 

**The Queen returns straight to Osborne from 
Spithead probably in Alberta.*^ 

The photographs appear to have been successful, for 
the late Duke of Teck and other royalties wrote to Sir 
Andrew to send them copies and to thank him. 

Two months later Colonel Clarke married Mary 
Margaret, elder daughter of Charles William Mac- 
Killop, Esq., formerly of the Indian Civil Service, 
and of Dorcas Mary, his wife, daughter of Hay 
Tweedale Stewart of Appin and Mary Margaret of 
the Irish family of Mahon. The wedding took place 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, on the 17th Sep- 
tember, 1867, and the rite was solemnised by the 
Rev. E. L. Walsh, Chaplain to the Forces, whose 
friendship with Colonel Clarke dated from the time 
they were together at Colchester. 

Of the many letters of congratulation that Colonel 
Clarke received, none gave him greater pleasure than 
the following few lines from his old chief, Sir William 
Denison : — 

From Sir William Denison. 

"United Sbrvicb Club, 

" 26 September, 1867. 

'^ Hail Benedict, the married man I You have been 
some time thinking about it, my dear Clarke, but 
better late than never, and, take my word for it, that 
a man is but half a man without a wife. Pray say 
everything to Mrs. Clarke which may most assure her 
that I take an interest in your and her happiness. 

** Believe me, yours very truly, 

**W. Denison." 



1864-73] MARRIAGE 95 

There was one other letter that was equally valued, 
and that was from Colonel Gordon, ** Chinese" 
Gordon, as he was then called. It was accompanied 
by a book of family prayers,^ and ran as follows : — 

From LieutenanUColonel Charles G. Gordon. 

**Gravesbnd, 28 July, 1867. 

*' My Dear Clarke, 

** I feel a degree of diffidence in writing to con- 
gratulate you on your approaching marriage, but I 
must do so, believing that you will take my remarks in 
a kind way, and as written by a friend who likes you 
beyond the short span of time which constitutes life on 
this earth ; it is not a very lasting friendship which 
cares only for the next fifty or sixty years and has no 
heed whether a man may be with his friend after that 
period. 

**We all know too well from our hearts that this 
fleeting world is not our rest, and that let us have what 
we will it does not satisfy, and we must look to the 
slowly advancing but inevitable hour when we will 
stand face to face with that great question (which even 
sometimes now presents itself). To what is all this 
tending ? ' For what hath man of all his labour, and 
of the vexation of his heart, wherein he hath laboured 
under the sun ? For all his days are sorrows and his 
travail grief; yea, his heart taketh not rest in the night.' 

** But, my dear Clarke, my object is not to make you 
sad in writmg to you. You are happy now, and my 
inmost wish is to increase (with God's help) that happi- 

* Family Prayers, by the late Henry Thornton, Esq., m.p., 
44th edition, Hatchard, London, 1866. On the flyleaf Gordon had 
written the following: texts : ** Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, I 
have called thee by My name, thou art Mine. When thou passest 
throug'h the waters I will be with thee, and through the rivers they 
shall not overflow thee, when thou walkest throug'h the fire thou shalt 
not be burned, neither shall the flame kindle on thee. For I am the 
Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour. Thou sbalt not 
be afraid for the terror by night, nor for the arrow which flieth by day, 
nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness, nor for the destruction 
that wasteth at noonday. A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten 
thousand at thy right hand, but it shall not come nigh thee." 



96 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

ness, and that you and your future wife may have 
more and more of that peace which passes all under- 
standing. This peace is to be had only in believing in 
Christ Jesus, who was given to us that whosoever 
should believe in Him should not perish but have 
everlasting life. 

** And now I will conclude with a few words which 
I would earnestly ask you to bear in mind, even if you 
do not agree in what I have written (I need, perhaps, 
scarcely say that I feel what I say) : 

** Whenever you turn to think much of these matters, 
do not believe the dictates of your own heart with 
respect to God. He is a kind, loving Father, more, 
much more willing to forgive than we are to seek His 
forgiveness. He yearns over His creatures and pleads 
with them — 'Turn ye, turn ye ! Why will you die?' 

* Come now, and let us reason together ; though your 
sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow ; 
though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.' 

* Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters ; 
buy wine and milk without money and without price.* 

* Come unto me ye weary and heavily laden with sin 
and sorrows, and I will give you rest, everlasting rest, 
which no man can take from you.' 

** These are but a few of the entreaties which the 
God of mercy makes to you and me and to all who will 
listen. We have to bring nothing with us. He wants 
nothing from us but our hearts. Many say. Do this 
and thou shalt be saved. He does not say so. He 
knows we cannot do anything of ourselves, and know- 
ing our infirmities, tells us to trust in what He has done, 
to believe in His Son and have eternal life. 

** Perhaps you may think it very strange that I 
should write thus to you, but I have, through the know- 
ledge of the Lord, been brought from the state of *a 
troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up 
mire and dirt,' to that of a peaceful calm, and if any 
word I might speak could give or increase peace in my 
friend's heart, I should be unkind if I did not o£Fer it. 
To the world your marriage is an ordinary event, to 
you and your future wife nothing could be more mo- 
mentous ; it far surpasses in importance the setting up 
or throwing down of kingdoms. 



1864-73] COLONEL GORDON'S LETTER 97 

** I send you, my dear Clarke, a small book of family 
prayers, the use 01 which will bring a blessing on your 
household. Do not answer my letter, and do not be 
offended with a Yours very sincerely, 

'^C. G. Gordon. 

** P.S. — I may add that this emanates not from my 
last meeting with you, for you have been daily in my 
thoughts for months, and I am sure there are few who 
more earnestly desire your happiness now and for 
ever and ever and ever. You will not mind your wife 
reading this. We may never see one another on this 
earth, but it is my trust our Lord will make us to know 
one another in those realms of light where we will 
have our minds free from mists and clouds, and shall 
know even as we are known." 

A note from Colonel Gordon, asking Colonel Clarke's 
assistance for one of the lads whom he called his 
*' kings," is also preserved. 

From Lieutenant-Colonel C. G. Gordon. 

'^Gravbsend, 30 November ^ 1867. 
" My dear Clarke, 

'* Would you kindly tell me what course I should 
pursue to place on board the training ship Wellington 
a lad of sixteen years of age, by name Henry Muirhead, 
height five feet? He has been accustomed to a sea- 
faring life, and is an active, likely young fellow. The 
Duke of Wellington is at Portsmouth, but I do not 
know any of her officers. I think there would be no 
difficulty in gettincf the lad entered if you would give 
me the recommendation of someone in the Admiralty. 
I hope you are well. I have not yet had time to visit 
you since your marriage. 

** Yours sincerely, 

*'C. G. Gordon." 

In January, 1868, there was some talk of putting up 
Colonel Clarke to contest Chester in the Liberal interest 
at the general election of that year, but the proposal 



98 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

was abandoned when it was ascertained that he could 
not keep his appointment at the Admiralty if he entered 
the House of Commons. 

Amid the many activities and engagements of his 
life during the London season of 1868 it was a pleasant 
break to run down for the week-end with his wife to 
Portsmouth, in response to an invitation from Captain 
Beauchamp Seymour couched in the following terms: — 

From Captain F. Beauchamp Seymour, R.N. 

" H.M.S. Victory, 

" S May, 1868. 
•*My dear Andy, 

*' What are you going to do Saturday and Sun- 
day ? Will you and Mrs. Clarke do me the honour of 
coming to me from Saturday to Monday, either this 
week or next? I can really put you up very well, and 
Mrs. C.'s maid shall be made love to by my coxswain 
(who is lonely par parenthese\ and if we have fine 
weather the jaunt will do Mrs. Clarke and you a great 
deal of good. You may tell Mrs. Clarke, with my 
respectful compliments, that the Victory does not lay 
in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. 

** Ever yours sincerely, 

**F. Beauchamp Seymour." 

In the autumn of this year Mr. Charles Du Cane, the 
Civil Lord of the Admiralty in Sir John Pakington's 
administration, accepted the government of Tasmania, 
and wrote Colonel Clarke the following farewell : — 

From Mr. Charles Du Cane. 

**8, Chestbrfibld Strbet, Maypair, 

"4 October, 1868. 
'*My dear Clarke, 

<'I have been living in hope of getting one 
more glimpse of you before starting, but Uie last day 
has arrived, and we actually leave London to-morrow 



1864-73] BERMUDA FLOATING DOCK 99 

morning at nine o'clock, and Plymouth at daybreak 
the next day. Let me at all events tell you that I shall 
carry away a most pleasant and grateful memory of the 
time we were associated together at the Admiralty, 
together with a strong conviction that the Board have 
a most able Director of Works, and that no department 
of the Admiralty is in a better state of organisation, 
or gives its superintending Lord so little trouble. 

'^ I hold you in no slight measure responsible for my 
acceptance of my present appointment. I can only 
hope that on my arrival I shall realise that life of 
otium cum dignitate jrou painted so vividly, and that 
I and my future subjects may take mutually to each 
o^n^r- *' Ever yours sincerely, 

''Charles Du Cane." 

The first of Colonel Clarke's great works to be com- 
pleted was the Bermuda Floating Dock. It was 
finished in the course of the summer, and launched 
in the autumn of 1868. Although a small business in 
comparison with the gigantic works at Chatham and 
Portsmouth, it attracted more public attention, and 
made Colonel Clarke's name, in some ways, better 
known than the more important undertakings. There 
was nothing new in the idea ; other nations had float- 
ing iron docks ; but this one differed in several respects 
from all others that had hitherto been constructed. 
Moreover, it was capable of receiving an ironclad of 
the Minotaur class, and was shaped like a ship with 
cutwaters, to enable it to be towed across the Atlantic. 

The launching of the Bermuda Dock took place at 
North Woolwich on the 3rd September. The cere- 
mony was performed by Mrs. Clarke, assisted by Miss 
Campbell, a daughter of the contractor. The first 
attempt to move this huge structure, weighing nine 
thousand tons, was a failure, but at the second effort 
the dock glided easily down the ways into the Thames, 



loo DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

and was towed round to the River Medway. The con- 
struction of this dock was not so difiScult an enterprise 
as the task of navigating it to its destination. This 
was, however, safely accomplished in a voyage of six 
weeks' duration in June and July, 1869, when it was 
towed out across the Atlantic by a succession of H.M. 
ships.^ 

In 1869 Colonel Clarke paid an official visit to the 
new Prussian dockyard at Wilhelmshaven, and wit- 
nessed the opening ceremony. The Prussians were 
already beginning to look forward to the possession of 
sea-power, and Colonel Clarke reported that, as a war 
harbour, Wilhelmshaven was a great success. He 
found that two of the dry docks were as large as those 
he was building at Chatham, but he did not consider 
their section as good. He also visited the harbour of 
Boulogne, at the invitation of the Municipality, to 
advise as to the works which were desirable to improve 
the harbour for the cross-channel passenger traffic. 

The term of five years for which Colonel Clarke had 
been appointed to the Admiralty expired in August of 
this year, but his services were too valuable to be dis- 
pensed with. He was not only reappointed for a 
further term of five years, but he was created a Com- 
panion of the Bath, Civil Division, in acknowledgment 
of the good work he had already done. 

In the following November the Suez Canal was 
formally opened by the Emperor of the French, 
Napoleon III. The British Admiralty was represented 
on the occasion by Admiral Sir Alexander Milne, who 
reported that it was ''a work of vast magnitude, re- 
flecting the highest honour on the intelligent persever- 
ance and energy of M. Ferdinand de Lesseps ... of 

^ See Appendix for particulars of this voyage. 



1864-73] THE SUEZ CANAL loi 

which he and the French nation may be justly proud. "^ 
The Admiralty decided to send two experts to obtain 
the fullest information about the Canal and to report to 
what extent it might be expected to be available for the 
purposes of Her Majesty's naval service, including 
the transport service to the East. Colonel Clarke and 
Captain G. H. Evans, Hydrographer to the Navy, 
were selected for the mission.^ They left England on 
the 13th January, 1870, and, at the special request of 
the Italian Government, Colonel Clarke spent two days 
at Brindisi on his way out to inspect and report upon 
its harbour and works. Arrived in Egypt, more than 
a fortnight was occupied in the careful examination of 
the Suez Canal and the works for its maintenance. On 
the return of the Commissioners to London, they pre- 
sented a joint report, in which they expressed their 
opinion that the Canal was available for the transit of 
H.M. ships employed in the Eastern seas, except large 
ironclads and transports, and that the cost of its main- 
tenance should not be excessive. They emphasised 
the point that want of breadth alone prevented the 

^ Without in any way depreciating the credit due to M. Ferdinand de 
Lesseps, it is well to point out that the conception of the Canal was a 
British one. As far back as 1840, Captain James Vetch, R.E., F.R.S., 
proposed a scheme not essentially different from that eventually carried 
out, and published a work in 1843 entiUed Inquiry into the Means of 
Establishing a Ship Cantil between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. He 
laid his proposals before Lord John Russell's Administration in 1846, 
but the attitude of Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, was so 
absolutely opposed to the policy of the canal between the two seas, as 
one fraught with danger<lo British interests in the far East, that Captain 
Vetch was unable to proceed further in the matter. Nine years later, 
after visiting Egypt and discussing the Canal with the Khedive, M. de 
Lesseps published in Paris in 1855 The Isthmus of Sues Question, 
Submitted to the Public Opinion of England, in which he quoted at some 
length Captain Vetch's work in favour of his own plan. 

' Colonel Clarke had already had something to do with Eg3rpt, for in 
1868 he was sole arbitrator in a dispute between the Egyptian Govern- 
ment and Messrs. Bladean and Abemethy. 



I02 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Canal being a complete success as a permanent navi- 
gable route for the largest ships from sea to sea, and 
declared that to widen it would be ''a most feasible 
undertaking, the cost of which could be calculated with 
accuracy." 

This visit to Egypt nearly produced a result of which 
the public has no knowledge to this day. Colonel 
Clarke was so struck with the advantages of the Canal 
that he thought it ought to be under British control. 
He strongly recommended that the Canal should be 
bought up by an English company formed for the pur- 
pose. His proposal was supported by Mr. Childers, 
then First' Lord of the Admiralty, who brought the 
matter before the Cabinet.^ M. de Lesseps and the 
French shareholders were then by no means opposed 
to being bought out at a good price, as the chance of 
dividends seemed remote. The outbreak of the Franco- 
Prussian War interfered with the project, and on the 
24th August, 1870, Lord Granville wrote from Walmer 
Castle : '' Gladstone and Lowe do not like the proposal 
to have anything to do with the purchase of the Suez 
Canal, and it certainly would not be an easy moment 
to concert anything on the subject with France." 
Writing the next day to Colonel Clarke, Mr. Childers 
said : '^ I am sorry, and have done my best. Granville 
was with me, Cardwell and Lowe the other way. 
Gladstone at first was my way." 

When Lord Beaconsfield, in 1875, purchased the 
four millions' worth of Suez Canal shares, those who 
denounced the transaction little knew that some of their 



^ There is a vague reference to this on page 230, volume i. of Mr. 
Childers's Life. Apparently Mr. Childers did not preserve the papers 
on the subject, but Sir Andrew Clarke did. The year was not 1869, as 
stated in the footnote, but 187a 



1864-73] MANNING THE NAVY 103 

own leaders were in favour of a more extensive pur- 
chase in 1870. 

Soon after the outbreak of the Franco-German War, 
Colonel Clarke drew up a scheme for the increase of 
the personnel of the Navy to i So, 000 men ; of this 
number 60,000 were to be on the Establishment and 
120,000 in the Reserve.^ The boldness of the proposal 
may be gathered from the fact that the returns for the 
previous year showed an Establishment of 40,000 and a 
Reserve of 15,000. A small departmental committee, 
over which Captain George Willes, r.n., c.b.,^ presided, 
and of which Colonel Clarke was a member, investi- 
gated the subject, but its report with the evidence was 
pigeon-holed at the Admiralty. Long afterwards Sir 
Andrew Clarke used to cite the treatment accorded to 
the work of this committee as a typical illustration of 
the bureaucratic ideal : ** Inquire, collect information, 
hear evidence, formulate opinions, and then bottle it all 
up so that no one shall be any the wiser." 

To turn from this fruitless effort on behalf of the Navy 
to the more prosaic duties of Colonel Clarke's depart- 
ment. During the parliamentary session of 1870, the 
increased cost of Chatham dockyard extension had 
given rise to criticism, and a motion for an inquiry by 
a select committee was made by Mr. Cawley in the 
House of Commons on the 31st May. The motion was 
supported by some members of the late Conservative 
Government who were responsible for the increase, but 
Mr. Corry, the former First Lord, remained silent. Mr. 
G. O. Trevelyan spoke for the Admiralty, and declared 
in the course of his remarks that the present Director 

> An outline of Sir Andrew's scheme for manning the Navy is s^ven 
in the Appendix. 

* Afterwards Admiral Sir George Willes, O.CB. 



I04 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

of Works had a strong hand and showed it by never 
exceeding his estimates.^ The motion was defeated, 
but Colonel Clarke was not at all pleased with the 
attitude of his Conservative friends. He wrote warmly 
to Captain Stanley,^ who spoke in the debate, and to 
Mr. Corry,* who remained silent. 

The former was at some pains to explain that his 
speech had been misreported in the Times newspaper, 
and offered, if Colonel Clarke wished, to write to the 
editor about it, and undertook, in any case, to see that 
the report in Hansard was corrected. Mr. Corry replied 
that he was disappointed at having been prevented by 
the lateness of the hour (another minute would have 
made it too late to divide) from explaining the reason 
of his vote, and that, had he spoken, he would have 
expressed his confidence in Colonel Clarke's supervision 
of the expenditure. He went on to say : " I was perfectly 
aware, two years ago, that it would be necessary largely 
to increase the original estimate, and that any responsi- 
bility incurred by the present Board in this respect was 
shared by mine. But for this very reason I wished for 
inquiry. ... I thought the public should be satisfied 
by the fullest investigation, and it was on that ground 
alone that my vote was given." 

This letter from the late First Lord, who was respon- 
sible for all the arrangements made, seemed very un- 
satisfactory to Colonel Clarke, and he wrote again to 
Mr. Corry on the subject : — 

To the Rt. Hon. H. T. Corty. 

** I confess the only thing that troubled me the least 
in the debate on Tuesday was your and Sir John 

^ See Hansard, vol. cci. 

^ Captain the Hon. Frederick Stanley, now sixteenth Earl of Derby. 

» The Rt. Hon. Henry Thomas Corry, M.P. for Co. Tyrone, 



1864-73] CRITICISM IN PARLIAMENT 105 

Pakington's silence, for not a single step was taken in 
regard to the Chatham Extension Contract without 
your and his full knowledge and approval. . . . The 
present Board have no responsibility further than in 
their confirmation of your proposal . . . and the alle- 
gations made by Mr. Cawley and Mr. Samuda, cheered 
by Sir John Hay, were, if true at all, reflections on your 
administration. 

** Placed in possession of the facts with which you 
had refreshed your memory, and which you told me on 
Monday seemed to you to require no investigation, the 
Government were satisfied that no inquiry was neces- 
sary, and thus indirectly expressed their confidence in 
me, and they accepted, as a whole, the responsibility of 
all past transactions good or bad. 

*' If this view is right, I fail clearly to see why you 
should have thought inquiry necessary on Tuesday 
night, as inquiry, demanded in the way it was, however 
triumphantly I, and those under whom I have acted, 
would have come out of it, implied reproach and the 
absence of confidence. It is this feeling, though I am 
very glad to have received your note, and thank you 
much for your expressions of kindness and faith in me, 
that makes it difiScult for me to reconcile them with your 
silence and vote on Tuesday." 

In the early autumn of this year a calamity befell the 
British Navy that was sufiiciently sad in itself, but 
which also shook public confidence in our naval con- 
struction. H.M. new ironclad turret-ship Captain^ 
designed by Captain Cowper Coles, and commanded 
by Captain Hugh Burgoyne, capsized in a heavy 
squall ofif Cape Finisterre at 12.15 a.m. on the 7th 
September, 1870, when 469 persons found a watery 
grave. Captain Coles was on board, and was lost. 
Captain Burgoyne and Mr. Childers's son, a middy, 
were also among those who went down in the ill-fated 
vessel. 

Any matter that affected the reputation of Mr. 



io6 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Childers as First Lord of the Admiralty was of moment 
to Colonel Clarke, and the foundering of the Captain 
was likely to lead to severe criticism on the administra- 
tion that was responsible for her construction ; but, at 
first, the sad loss that his friend had sustained was 
uppermost in his thoughts, and he sent ofiF a special 
messenger, with his condolences and friendly support, 
to intercept Mr. Childers, who had started on a holiday 
tour on the very day of the catastrophe, and replied to 
Colonel Clarke's letter on the 12th September from 
Basle :— 

From the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

*' My dear Clarke, 

*^Our deepest thanks for your kind note of 
sympathy. It has been a very great blow, especially 
to my poor wife, who was always thinkinc^ about the 
dear boy, and was so proud and fond 01 him. We 
little thought, when we got up that stormy Wednes- 
day morning to prepare for a rough passage to 
Calais, that the cruel storm had taken from us our dear 
child. 

''But after all, our loss is small compared with that 
of many others. Poor Mrs. Coles, Mrs. Burgoyne, or 
that good old man at the head of your Corps, ^ and the 
two or three hundred widows of the men. 

** It was very good of you to send Carmichael out. 
We intercepted him here to-day, and as you will have 
heard from Dacres, we have taken your advice to go on 
to the mountains to-morrow, hoping to be next Sunday 
at St. Moritz, and perhaps the following one either in 
the Tyrol or at Constance. If you write please continue 
to do so through the Foreign Office, under care of Mr. 
Bonar. 

'' We got here on Saturday night. At noon that day 
we were in sight of Strasburg, and watched the bom- 

^ Field-Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, Bart., G.aB., the father of 
Captain Hugh Burgoyne, who commanded the Captain. 



18^4-73] LOSS OF H.M.S. CAPTAIN 107 

bardment and blazing of the town. We could see the 
shells burst quite clearly, and the fires, especially one 
near a church, not the cathedral. I had the previous 
evening a long talk with Count Harcourt, one of 
MacMahon's aides-de-camp, who was captured (before 
the capitulation) at Sedan. He told me among others 
two things: One, that MacMahon received positive 
orders from Paris (he took them to MacMahon in bed) 
to make the advance via Sedan towards Metz ; that 
from the first he knew it was hopeless, but that the 
orders were positive. The other was that Wimpflfen 
told the Emperor that he could cut his way out of 
Sedan, but with the certain loss of half the army, and 
that the Emperor declined to make such a sacrifice. 
He says the Emperor appeared quite well, and rode 
about for hours. 

''The sight of the thousands and tens of thousands 
of wounded and of French prisoners has been very 

^^- ''Ever yours, 

" Hugh C. E. Childers." 



The verdict of the court-martial on the loss of the 
Captaifiy which was delivered on the 8th October, prac- 
tically blamed the Admiralty Board of 1866 for having 
constructed an unseaworthy ship. Mr. Childers at 
once prepared to return to London, and Colonel 
Clarke, who was in Scotland at the time, received a 
note from an Admiralty official, dated 8th October, 
saying : " Mr. Childers returns in a day or two, and I 
beg you to return at once, as it is not right that he 
should be left alone. He is very vexed at R.'s evi- 
dence. R. blusters about open fight, and everyone 
seems afraid of him." Colonel Clarke responded to 
the summons, and was at Mr. Childers's right hand 
through this trying time, and assisted him in the pre- 
paration of the famous minute on the Captain. 

On the 19th January, 187 1, Colonel Clarke received 



io8 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

a short note from Mr. Alfred Denison: **I know you 
will be grieved to learn that my brother William died 
to-day at 2.15, just as I was entering the door of 
his house. He had only been ill a few days." The 
death of his oldest and most revered friend was a great 
blow to Colonel Clarke. Of all the men with whom he 
had been associated during his service, none exercised 
so great an influence over him as Sir William Denison, 
and whenever he referred to him it was always as '* My 
old chief." 

In the following month the new dock at Malta was 
completed, and the opening ceremony was performed 
on the 15th February by the daughter of Vice- Admiral 
Sir Hastings Yelverton, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Mediterranean Fleet, who wrote about it to Colonel 
Clarke : — 

From Vice-Admiral Sir Hastings Yelverton. 

** Malta, zoth February^ 187 1. 
**My dear Clarke, 

*' I must write one line to tell you of the success- 
ful opening of your great work, or at least one of your 
great undertakings. You are no doubt aware that I 
asked Mr. Childers to allow the new dock to be called 
after the Duke of Somerset. This was granted by 
Admiralty letter, and accordingly, last Thursday, the 
15th, at three p.m., the ceremony of placinc^ the last 
stone in its place was performed by my child, and the 
dock was declared complete and named the Somerset 
Dock. 

'*The day was fine, and all the arrangements made 
by Admiral Key very judicious, so that the Caledonia 
steamed straight in from her moorings amidst the 
cheers and acclamations of, I may safely say, all 

Malta. 

«i Believe me, yours most truly, 

**H. R. Yelverton." 



1864-73] SOMERSET DOCK, MALTA 109 

The following letter from the Admiralty to the 
Colonial OflBce conveyed their Lordships' appreciation 
of Colonel Clarke in official terms : — 

From the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

** Admiralty, I'jth March^ 1871. 

**SiR, — I am commanded by My Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty to transmit to you herewith for the 
information of the Earl of Kimberley a copy of a letter 
dated 22nd February last from Vice-Admiral Sir H. 
Yelverton, reporting the successful opening of the new 
dock at Malta, which has been named the Somerset 
Dock. 

"The selection of the present site for this dock 
is due to the engineering skill of Colonel Andrew 
Clarke, r.e., c.b., the Director of Engineering and 
Architectural Works of this department, who recom- 
mended it to their Lordships at a time when it was 
proposed to construct the dock on another site, where 
My Lords believe it would not have succeeded to the 
same extent, even if it had not proved a failure, and in 
spite of great difficulties Colonel Clarke has carried 
out this great undertaking without a deviation from his 
original plans. 

**My Lords desire to bring under the Earl of 
Kimberley's notice the special services rendered both 
to the Navy and the colony by Colonel Clarke, to 
whom the proposals which have been so successfully 
carried out are solely due. 

'*I have, etc., 

** Vernon Lushington." 

In August of the same year another great work was 
partially finished, and some of the Portsmouth docks 
were formally opened. Mr. Childers, writing to con- 
gratulate Colonel Clarke on the successful completion 
of the undertaking, said : " Don't mind waiting a little 
for honours. They will come with a run when the time 
comes." This prophecy, however, did not come true. 



no DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Colonel Clarke's old friend, Rear-Admiral Beauchamp 
Seymour, now in command of the detached squadron, 
kept up a correspondence with him, and the following 
letter refers to the harbour and dock at Cape Town, to 
the cost of which the Admiralty were largely contribut- 
ing :— 

Frcmi Rear-Admiral F. Beauchamp Seymour. 

"Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, 

** 25 February^ 1872. 

'*My dear Andy, 

** I remember when Hornby first started that you 
were on pins and needles for fear that his squadron 
would not keep company, and that they would reach 
the Cape one after the other at convenient intervals. 
He managed to keep his lot together, and we have 
done the same, although we had our share of bad 
weather between Rio and the Cape. We arrived on 
the 14th, and I sail to-morrow for Bombay. 

'* I went to Cape Town on Wednesday last in con- 
sequence of a request from the Harbour Commissioners 
that I would look over the breakwater works and the 
site of the proposed dock. In my opinion it is a case 
of the cart before the horse, as I think that before 
beginning a dock the breakwater should have been 
lengthened 400 yards in an easterly (by compass) 
direction, which would then have afforded shelter to 
large vessels at anchor in Table Bay in a gale from 
any point between N.W. and N.N.E., which it does 
not now, and the strong inset along the south jetty, 
which now is dreaded even in a strong breeze, could 
not take place. The Harbour Commissioners, however, 
are all for the dock first. Its dimensions are staked 
out, and the convicts are already at work digging 
down the hillside, which is to be removed to make way 
for it. 

**We are getting on verjr well in the squadron, 
and only five men (four ordmaries and a bandsman) 
have given us the slip here. The police arrange- 
ments are good. Write me a line and tell me your 
news. 



1864-73] DOCKS AND HARBOURS 11 1 

'*I think you are doing wisely in giving ;f30,ooo 
towards the dock, but do put it on alx)ut 3ie break- 
water, which at present is nearly useless, so far as 
large vessels are concerned. Inconstant and French 
ship Jean Bart got no protection from it when they 
were in Table Bay last week. 

*• Good-bye, old man. My kindest remembrances to 
the lovely Lady A. C. 

^* Ever yours most sincerely, 

<'F. B. Seymour." 

During the year 1872 Colonel Clarke was much 
occupied with the condition of Alderney breakwater. 
Commenced in 1847, large sums had been spent upon 
it by the Admiralty and upon defences to protect it 
by the War Department. The breakwater had been 
repeatedly damaged by storms, and Colonel Clarke 
had visited it several times, and taken measures to 
repair the damage. In 187 1, in conjunction with Sir 
John Hawkshaw, he drew up a valuable report on this 
harbour. The winter storms of 187 1-2 had occasioned 
such serious further damage that the question arose 
whether it would not be better to abandon it rather 
than go on spending annually large sums in mainten- 
ance, and a select committee of the House of Lords 
was appointed to advise. Colonel Clarke gave evidence 
before this committee on several occasions. He pointed 
out that over a million and a quarter sterling had been 
spent on the breakwater, and that if it were abandoned 
it must be demolished, otherwise what was left of the 
harbour would afford a base to an enemy ; he estimated 
that the demolition would be a very expensive matter. 
He advocated maintaining the breakwater at an annual 
cost of £6yO0O or £TjO0O a year, and in 1873 the 
Government adopted his view. 

In August, 1872, the last stone of Portland Break- 



112 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

water, of which the first stone had been laid by the 
Prince Consort in July, 1849, was laid by the Prince of 
Wales, now H.M. the King, and bore the inscrip- 
tion : *' These are imperial works and worthy kings." 
Colonel Clarke had already arranged with the Great 
Western Railway Company to connect their line with 
Portland, so as to facilitate the coaling arrangements 
of the fleet. 

In the following year he and Sir John Hawkshaw 
made a joint report on Dover Harbour. They pro- 
posed a plan to combine naval and military require- 
ments with a commercial harbour, for which the Dover 
Harbour Board had brought in a Bill, and the plan 
recommended is substantially the same as that now 
carried out. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Clarke became a full colonel in 
the Army on the 6th July, 1872, and in the following 
April he was created a Knight Commander of the 
Order of St. Michael and St. George in recognition of 
his services. Mr. Goschen, then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, wrote to him : — 

From the Rt, Hon. G. J. Goschen. 

**Your eminent public services, and the untiring 
devotion which you have shown in carrying out the 
great works entrusted to you, well merit the bestowal of 
the honour in question, and the colonies having derived 
conspicuous advantages from your services as an 
engineer makes it very appropriate that you should 
receive this colonial distinction. I congratulate you 
very cordially upon it." 

From the fact that Colonel Clarke was already a C.B. 
it seems to have been very generally thought that his 
knighthood was also in the Order of the Bath. The 
Press so telegraphed the news to the Antipodes, and 



1864-73] RECOGNITION OF SERVICES 113 

under this misapprehension his old colleague at the 
Admiralty, Sir Charles Du Cane, Governor of Tasmania, 
wrote to him : — 

From Sir Charles Du Cane. 

''The enclosed telegram in our local Mercury will 
give you an idea of the rapidity with which news 
reaches us here nowadays, and will also serve to show 
you how great a man you are now become. Pray 
accept my best congratulations on being made a 
K.C.B., though they will not reach you quite so 
speedily as the intelligence has come to us. Long 
may you live to wear the collar of the Order which has 
been so worthily bestowed on you/* 

Even in the Lord Chamberlain's department there 
was some confusion, for when Colonel Clarke proposed 
to be presented at the next levee as *' Sir Andrew," Sir 
Spencer Ponsonby Fane informed him that as he had 
not yet been knighted by the Queen he had put him 
down in the levee list as Colonel Clarke, k.c.b., and 
told him to put that on his card I 

No one was more active and disinterested in helping 
others to honours than Sir Andrew, and of many 
letters acknowledging his kind advocacy of claims an 
extract may be quoted from one from Admiral Sir 
William King Hall in 187 1 :— 

From Admiral Sir William King Hall. 

'* I must express my sincere thanks to you before 
anyone, for I feel so sure that to your most warm, 
persevering, and disinterested friendship and advocacy 
of my services I am indebted for the K.C.B. that it 
amounts to a moral certainty. I can assure you that if 
any circumstance would have added to my pleasure it 
would have been seeing your eminent public services 
recognised at the same time. But I do hope that 
justice will speedily award it." 



114 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

It is almost needless to say that when Colonel Clarke 
got the K.aM.G. Sir William King Hall was one of 
the first to send his felicitations, while another old and 
trusted colleague at the Admiralty, Sir Sydney Dacres, 
wrote: *'Well, my dear friend, I am glad this shabby 
Government have at last shown sufficient appreciation 
of your strong claims on the country as to pay you the 
first instalment of their long debt to you." 

As some of the more important works under his 
direction were either finished or were approaching 
completion, Colonel Clarke turned his thoughts once 
more to the colonial service. He confided his wishes 
to his friend, Lord Henry Gordon Lennox, who wrote 
to him : — 

From Lard Henry Gordon Lennox. 

•'Of course, my dear Andrew, I would do anything 
to further your wishes. I only deeply regret the 
thought of so long a separation. I am grieved to hear 
of Mrs. Clarke's illness, and was about to write and ask 
you and her to look in here and meet the Duke of 
Cambridge on Friday evening between ten and eleven. 

••Yours, Henry." 

In 1872 his name was duly entered on the Colonial 
Office List of Candidates for Governorships, and in 
May of the following year Lord Kimberley offered 
him the government of the Straits Settlements, which 
he accepted. 

No sooner had he been appointed to the post than he 
was called upon, on account of his knowledge of the 
Gold Coast, to advise the Secretary of State for War, 
Mr. Cardwell, on the Ashanti question, which during 
the year had assumed grave proportions ; and for a time 
it seemed possible that his services might be required 
at the Gold Coast instead of Singapore. 



1864-73] MEMORANDUM ON ASHANTI 115 

He drew up a memorandum (accompanied by an 
itinerary to Kumasi), in which he stated the measures 
he thought necessary. He deprecated the employment 
of a British expedition, and considered that a sufficient 
force was already on the Coast, should the measures he 
suggested be adopted. He offered his services to pro- 
ceed to the Gold Coast and carry out his own scheme, 
if he were given a free hand to arrange the difficulties 
that had arisen with King Koffee. His recommenda- 
tions were at first favourably considered, but eventually 
the Government decided that they were of too tem- 
porising a character, that the situation called for 
sharper methods, and that a punitive expedition from 
this country was necessary. Another adviser was called 
in. This was Sir Garnet Wolseley, who had won his 
laurels in the Red River Expedition two years before, 
and was at the time Assistant Adjutant-General at 
Head-quarters, and to him was given the command of 
the expedition. Sir Andrew was thanked officially for 
his advice and assistance, and suffered to depart for the 
Malay Peninsula, where, he was informed, ''matters 
were much more critical and the situation more difficult 
than on the African coast." 

In closing the narrative of Sir Andrew's time at the 
Admiralty, reference must not be omitted to two 
memorials in which he took a warm and most active 
interest. One was an obelisk erected in the grounds of 
the Royal Naval College at Greenwich, opposite the 
Ship Hotel, to the memory of the naval officers and 
bluejackets who fell in New Zealand during the Maori 
wars. The other was a monument to the French 
prisoners who died in the hulks at Chatham in the 
wars of 1802 to 18 14, and were buried on St. Mary 
Island. The burial-ground was required for one of the 



ii6 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

new docks, and Sir Andrew caused the remains to be 
reverently reinterred in another spot on the island, and 
a monument to be erected to the memory of the dead.^ 
On leaving the Admiralty in September, Sir Andrew 
received an official acknowledgment of his services 
from the Board, and also a letter from the First Lord, 
Mr. Goschen. They ran as follows : — 

From the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

** Admiralty, iSth September^ 1873. 

** Sir, — I am commanded by My Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty to inform you that they cannot allow 
you to vacate the office of Director of Admiralty Works, 
which you have so long filled, without conveying to 
you their appreciation of the very able and important 
services you have rendered to this department. 

"My Lords recall with pleasure the great engineer- 
ing works, such as the dock extensions at Chatham and 
Portsmouth, now approaching completion, which are 
due in a very great measure to your direction and 
supervision, and the Somerset Dock at Malta, and the 
floating dock at Bermuda, which you planned. These 
alone would testify to your engineering talent and skill, 
and the great activity and success with which you have 
discharged your office. 

"My Lords also wish to record their sense of your 
valuable services as an administrative officer. They 
refer especially to the sound financial management of 

^ The following fine epitaph was composed by Sir Stafford Northcote, 
afterwards first Earl of Iddesleigh : — 

" Here are gathered together 

The Remains of many Brave Soldiers and Sailors, 

Who, having once been the foes and afterwards the captives of 

England, 

Now find their rest in her soil, 

Remembering no more the animosities or the sorrows of 

imprisonment. 

They were deprived of the consolation of closing their eyes 

Among the countrymen they loved, 

But they have been laid m an honourable grave 

By a nation which knows how to respect valour 

And to sympathise with misfortune." 



1864-73] LEAVES THE ADMIRALTY 117 

the works which you have undertaken, and to the able 
conduct of your extensive and scattered staff. 

''Mjr Lords beg that you will accept the expression 
of their entire satisfaction at the manner in which you 
have fulfilled the numerous duties which have been 
entrusted to you. *M am, etc., 

'* Vernon Lushington." 

From the RU Hon. G. J. Goschen. 

** Admiralty, 20 September^ 1873. 

*' Dear Sir Andrew Clarke, 

^* I cannot deny myself the pleasure of repeating 
in writing what I expressed to you when we parted on 
Thursday, that in losing your services at the Admiralty 
I feel that we are sustaining a heavy loss, and that 
personally I shall be most sorry to miss you from 
amongst us at Whitehall. I have been greatly im- 
pressed by your conspicuous devotion to the public 
service, and by the energy which you throw into every- 
thing you undertake. 

'*I will not repeat what has been stated in our 
official letter to you as to the sense entertained of your 
engineering ability, and the great works which have 
been constructed under your auspices. Let me only 
say that you have most worthily filled what was a most 
important post when you first succeeded to it, but which 
you have rendered still more conspicuous and useful to 
the State by the way in which you dealt with it. Wish- 
ing you every success in your future career, 

" I remain, yours very truly, 

** George J. Goschen." 

If those under whom Sir Andrew Clarke served 
were more than satisfied with him, those over whom he 
was placed were of the same opinion. The staff of the 
Works Department presented him with a handsome 
silver-gilt ewer and dish in token of their personal 
regard and esteem and in appreciation of the uniform 
kindness andtx)urtesy they had received from him. 



ii8 DIRECTOR OF WORKS, ADMIRALTY 

Sir Andrew's old friend and correspondent, Mr. 
Gordon Gairdner, who had retired on a pension and 
settled at St. Leonards, wrote to Sir Andrew in June : — 

From Mr, Gordon Gairdner. 

'< We were so sorry that we were out when you and 
Lady Clarke were so kind as to ascend our hill. . . . 
When you have leisure will you just write me a line to 
say when you are likely to leave England? for six years 
is a long time to look forward to at my time of life, and 
I should like to see you before you go. . . . They 
ought to give you more pay to enable you to stand in 
your proper position amongst the rich Indian mer- 
chants." 

Before he left England Sir Andrew was able to meet 
his old friend and say what proved to be a last good- 
bye, for Mr. Gairdner died before Sir Andrew returned 
from the East. 

This chapter may be fittingly closed by a farewell 
letter from Mr. Childers : — 

From the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

**Cantlev, Doncastbr, 

" 17/A September, 1873. 
*' My dear Clarke, 

'* This will find you all but on the wing. God 
bless you, old boy ! n you have time on your hands 
as you go out I wish you would write me a memo- 
randum of your views about the West Coast — not so 
much as to the war, which will, I fear, cost us much 
life and credit — but as to what should be done when it 
is over, assuming that we must keep the Dutch settle- 
ments, or at any rate not restore them. . . . 

** Ever yours, 

*'HuGH C. E. Childers." 



CHAPTER VI 

GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS 
SETTLEMENTS 

1873-1875 

SIR Andrew and Lady Clarke left England on the 
20th September, 1873, and, making a tour through 
Italy, arrived at Brindisi on the 5th October. Here 
Sir Andrew met with a great disappointment, which 
forms the topic of the following correspondence : — 

To the Rt. Hon. G. /. Goschen. 

"Oriental Hotel, Brindisi, 

** 5/A October, 1873. 

*' My dear Mr. Goschen, 

**At the very instant of leaving England your 
note of the 20th ultimo was put into my hands, and I 
had proposed writing from my new Eastern home to 
tell you how gratified I am by it, but I am led to 
anticipate doing so by my having received a communi- 
cation on my arrival here, which prompts me to ask 
you to use your good offices on my behalf. 

'* The facts are these : — Immediately on my receiving 
Lord Kimberley's note offering me the Straits, indeed 
before seeing you on it, having been sent for on other 
matters by the Duke of Cambridge, I took that occasion 
of submitting to him the proposal that had been made 
to me, and asking him if, in the event of my accepting 
it, H.R.H. would give me the military command of the 
troops on the station. H. R. H. immediately and without 
reserve assured me that he would do so, prefacing it by 
stating that I was a full colonel. He at the same time 

119 



I30 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

alluded to the position he was p^ood enough to say I 
had taken at home, and advised me to remain where 
I was. 

** You are fully aware how I hesitated before accept- 
ing Lord Kimberley's offer, but this promise of H.R.H. 
had so great an influence with me, as at once restoring 
me to the active duties of my profession — an event 
which any brother-officer of my Corps will readily 
appreciate—that it decided me to go. 

** I learn now definitely that though both Lord 
Kimberley and Mr. Cardwell, with Sir H. Storks, 
desire that I should unite the civil with the military 
authority in the Straits, H.R.H. has represented that 
I am, though thirty years in the service, too low down 
on the list of colonels, most, if not all, of whom are 
my juniors in the Army, to hold the command, as it 
might be regarded as a hardship by them. 

" This decision is not only a bitter disappointment, 
but it relegates me to the Reserved List, and may 
eventually close my profession to me for ever. ... It 
is just possible that H.R.H. might be induced to 
reconsider my case, and though I feel I am asking 
much of you, yet I venture to do so, and would urge 
you to see the Duke for me with this view. 

''Ever yours faithfully, 

*'A. Clarke." 

From the RL Hem. G. /. Goschen. 

** 13 November^ 1873. 

''Dear Colonel Clarke, 

" Before receiving your letter of the 5th October 
from Brindisi, I had happened to be present at the 
War Office on other business when the difficulty as to 
your wanting the command of the troops with the 
cfovernorship turned up. The Duke of Cambridge and 
Lord Kimberley were present, and I heard the whole 
discussion, in which I may say there was every possible 
friendliness towards you. 

"Some little time afterwards I received your note 
and also heard from Childers. We had a discussion 
together as to what had best be done, and we agreed 
that Childers should see the Duke first and see how the 



1873-75] A GREAT DISAPPOINTMENT 121 

land lay, my having been present at the previous dis- 
cussion making it more desirable that a new influence 
should be set in motion to draw out the Duke's opinion. 
The Duke would have referred me to the opinions he 
had formerly expressed, while Childers would treat the 
matter entirely fresh, as if he knew nothing of the 
Duke's previously expressed opinions. 

*' Childers has now seen the Duke. He will no doubt 
write to you himself as to what passed between them. 
The upsnot of the matter was that the Duke recom- 
mended you should do nothing now, but raise the 
question again in a year or two, and Childers himself 
thought that this would be the best course. I cannot 
think that it will be satisfactory to you, but it would 
probably be of little avail to push the point harder now. 
If I have an opportunity I will sound again, but 
without making a special visit to the Duke about it 
now that I know what he said to Childers. 

*'I hope that except for this great disappointment 
you found things to your satisfaction at Singapore. 

'*The Dover business^ will, I fear, not be carried out 
by the Admiralty direct. The clause of the Act which 
was passed places the work in the hands of the Harbour 
Board under the Admiralty, and as there are great 
parliamentary difficulties in the way of any other 
course, I expect that we shall not have the sole re- 
sponsibility for the work. . . . 

*• Believe me, yours very truly, 

*' George J. Goschen." 

Mr. Childers also wrote to Sir Andrew telling him of 
a long talk he had with the Duke, who admitted having 
said that he should be glad that Sir Andrew should 
have the command, but insisted that the real objection 
was his being so low on the list of colonels. His Royal 
Highness twice begged Mr. Childers to tell Sir Andrew 

^ The harbour and breakwaters, in which Sir Andrew had been very 
active. The Corporation of Dover so much appreciated his exertions in 
this matter that they proposed to confer upon him the freedom of the 
Cinque Port| but his departure for Sing^apore prevented him receiving it. 



122 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

that personally he was anxious to do all he could for 
him, and said this ^^vety graciously." 

The new Governor landed at Singapore on the 
4th November, and on the same day took the oaths 
of oflBce. Mr. H. M. Mills was appointed acting Private 
Secretary, and Lieutenant M. C. Brackenbury, r.e., 
Aide-de-Camp. The principal members of the Legisla- 
tive Council were Mr. J. W. Birch, Colonial Secretary, 
Mr. T. Braddell, Attorney-General, and Major F. J. A. 
McNair, r.a., Colonial Engineer. The colony of the 
Straits Settlements at this time included the island of 
Singapore, Malacca, Penang, Province Wellesley, and 
Pangkor, or The Dindings, and its Government main- 
tained semi-political and commercial relations with 
the neighbouring Native States of Perak, Selangor, 
Pahang, Sungei Ujong, Rembau, etc., all more or less 
in a state of anarchy. Of more civilised neighbouring 
Native States there were Johore and the kingdom of 
Siam, while European countries were represented by 
the Dutch in Sumatra and the French in Cochin 
China. 

With the Governor-General of the Netherland Indies 
and the French Governor-General at Saigon Sir 
Andrew exchanged official courtesies by cable. He 
also sent a special mission, consisting of Mr. Birch, 
Major McNair, and Lieutenant Brackenbury, to Bang- 
kok to represent him at the coronation on the 17th 
November of His Majesty Chulalonkorn, the present 
King of Siam. Some extracts from a diary kept by 
Lieutenant Brackenbury give an interesting account of 
the scene: — 

" We were towed to the landing-place of the palace 
in ship's boats, and there received by Siamese officials 
in their gala dress. Indeed, they looked very smart in 



>*:-*. 



1873-75] SIAMESE CORONATION 123 

their single-breasted tunics of Indian cloth of gold, 
fastened at the waist with a gold belt with a diamond 
clasp, bright blue sarongs, or kilts, white silk stock- 
ings, patent leather shoes, and black felt helmets with 
gold bands and brass spikes. 

"Our guides conducted us into the courtyard of the 
palace, where we found the Siamese army drawn up to 
receive us— about 800 men, at open order, armed with 
the old Brown Bess, dressed in French tunics, blue 
with red facings, for headdress a shako with a long, 
light infantry plume of red and orange, short white 
trousers, and bare feet. As we approached, this copper- 
coloured army presented arms in a flabby sort of way, 
the word of command being given in English. 

**At the entrance to the coronation-room we found 
assembled the consuls of the other nations, and the 
officers of the French gunboat Antilope^ which had 
come up from Saigon for the ceremony. 

**The Reg^ent shortly after made his appearance and 
ushered us into the throne-room, a room about eighty 
feet long, forty feet broad, and, say, twenty feet high, 
papered with a dusky red paper. Each side of the 
room was filled by Siamese noblemen, all crouching on 
the ground, and we stood upright in the centre of the 
room, the Second King being on our right front and 
the Regent on our left front. The farther end of the 
room was shut off by a golden curtain. 

** A bell tinkles, the royal trumpeters outside sound a 
shrill blast, the bands clang out the Siamese Anthem, the 
gold-embroidered curtain draws apart and reveals His 
Majesty the King of Siam seated on a throne raised 
about five feet alx)ve the ground. He seems a dapper 
little man about five feet five inches high, with a 
copper-coloured complexion, a small black moustache, 
and teeth coloured black by betel. He is dressed in a 
lilac coat, richly embroidered with gold, with a sarong 
of brocade of gold and white silk stockinets; a tall 
pafi^oda-shaped crown is on his head, and a heavy 
golden necklace on his shoulders. The Sword-of-State 
— the sabre de mon phre — is by his side. His nobles and 
bodyguard crouch all around him. Three sharp taps, 
like Uiose given by a bandmaster when he calls his 
band to attention, are sounded by the Master of the 



124 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Ceremonies, and the whole audience falls flat on their 
faces, saving ourselves." 

Some friendly correspondence between the newly 

crowned King of Siam and the new Governor of the 

Straits Settlements followed on the return of the mission 

to Singapore, and in one of his letters the King 

wrote : — 

From H.M. the King of Siam. 

**Only by the support of a powerful country can a 
weak one be rapidly developed, and therefore we beg 
that Your Excellency, appointed by H.M. Queen 
Victoria to govern a British colony which is very close 
to Siam, will suggest and advise us as to whatever is 
likely rapidly and largely to develop our resources." 

Sir Andrew always held that a great opportunity of 
increasing British influence in Siam was lost at this 
time by the apathy of the British Government. The 
King of Siam was most desirous to enter into intimate 
political relations with Great Britain, but his overtures 
were ignored, in spite of Sir Andrew's representations, 
with the consequence that France gained a political 
position that has proved dangerous to the indepen- 
dence of Siam and inimical to the influence of this 
country. 

Nothing occurred to call Sir Andrew's attention again 
to Siam until near the close of his rule at Singapore. 
The main feature of his activities as Governor of the 
Straits Settlements was neither with the neighbouring 
kingdom of Siam, nor with the Dutch colony of 
Sumatra on the other side of the strait, nor even with 
Singapore and its dependencies, but with those so- 
called independent Native Malay States lying to the 
north of Jobore, which were always, more or less, in 
a state of anarchy. The policy he was successful in 



"873-75] CHINESE AND COOLIES 155 

carrying out in regard to these States was the great 
feather in his cap, and perhaps the work with which 
his name will be most honoured and remembered by 
future generations. But the subject is one that is 
better treated separately, and it is so important that it 
requires a chapter or two to itself ; so for the present we 
turn to the other matters which occupied Sir Andrew 
during his governorship of the colony. 

First among these was the protection of the Chinese 
and of the coolies. The Chinese were very numerous 
in Singapore and throughout the peninsula, and Sir 
Andrew had at his right hand to assist him in looking 
after them an official designated the Chinese Interpreter 
to Government, at that time Mr. W. A. Pickering, a 
very able public servant, well versed in the ways and in 
the language of the Chinese. The special work of this 
officer was to enforce the registration of the Chinese 
secret societies and to keep in touch with the keepers 
of the kong-see houses in Singapore. Sir Andrew in- 
creased his powers and altered his title to ** Protector 
of the Chinese." But while the Governor was prepared 
to protect the well-behaved Chinese, and even to adopt 
a tolerant attitude towards their secret societies in 
Singapore, where they were absolutely under control, 
he did not scruple to suppress them elsewhere, because 
he was fully alive to their dangerous character. 
Writing to the Assistant Resident at Larut in July, 
1874, he said : — 

To Captain Speedy. 

** Put your foot down on the Chinese secret societies. 
Do not allow them to exist for a second. I would 
simply prohibit them, making it death to have any- 
thing to do with them. A just and intelligent severity 
at this moment will, in the end, be mercy and true 
kindness." 



126 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

On the I St December, 1873, barely a month after his 
arrival in the colony, unpleasant news arrived from 
Colonel (afterwards General Sir) Archibald Anson, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, who reported that on 
two or three of the estates in Province Wellesley many 
of the coolies had been shamefully neglected when sick, 
and had been sent to the Government hospital only in 
time to die. On one estate he suspected that coolies 
were forced into re-engagements and otherwise badly 
treated. Sir Andrew ordered an inquiry to be held, 
with the result that the manager of one estate and the 
agent for some others were brought to trial, convicted, 
and sentenced to imprisonment. In consequence of 
revelations made at the trial, which attracted public 
attention, and were noticed in English newspapers and 
in Parliament, Government supervision of coolie labour 
was made stricter, and regulations issued to ensure that 
the coolies should be better fed and protected. Writing 
to the Colonial Office in the following April, Sir Andrew 
was able to say : ** I am gradually getting all we want 
for the Indian coolies without making a fuss about it" ; 
and two months later, after visiting those estates which 
had attained an unenviable notoriety, he reported 
officially : — 

"I have just returned from a visit to the sugar estates 
in Province Wellesley, and have examined carefully into 
the treatment by the planters of their Indian coolies. 
From all I could gather, any ill usage must have been 
exceptional, and in all I saw there was every appearance 
of the coolies being well cared for and contented." 

Before Sir Andrew had been many months at Singa- 
pore, Mr. Gladstone's Government was replaced by a 
Conservative Administration, and his friend, Admiral 
F. Beauchamp Seymour, wrote to tell him the news : — 



1873-75] CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT 127 

From Rear- Admiral F. Beatichximp Seymour. 

'' \%th February, 1874. 

*'My dear Andy, 

** Gladstone resigned yesterday, and to-day the 
Rt. Hon, Benjamin goes to Windsor, so in a week or so 
we shall all be in the street, proving you a true prophet, 
for I remember your telling me before you left that by 
February we should all be out of office. 

'^ It is needless to blink the matter, or to say that I am 
not sorry to find myself relegated to an idle life, but I 
have no reason to complain, and I have been very 
fortunate in having been so continuously employed as 
I have been since 1853. Of course, I shall do all I 
possibly can to get the China command. . . . 

**I have some sort of idea that there was a split in 
the Cabinet before the dissolution, caused by Goschen 
having asked for seven hundred more men in the yards, 
and money to build five corvettes of the Modeste type. 
They appear to have been anything but a happy family 
for some months before the break up. There will be 
the most infernal row about the state we are leaving the 
Navy in, and I look forward to a Royal Commission — 
for all the boilers nearly are worn out, and we have no 
ironclads to send into the First Reserve. . . . 

" I wish I could think we were likely to meet in 
September. a Ever yours sincerely, 

'*F. Beauchamp Seymour. 

** P.S. — If by good luck I have to come out we might 
make a wholesale sweep of the Malay and Sumatrian 
' pilongs. * " 

Another friend, Mr. Montagu Corry (afterwards Lord 
Rowton), also wrote about the change of administration 
and alluded to an incident at the general election, when 
Mr. Disraeli referred to the Straits of Malacca in his 
speech at Aylesbury, suggesting the lines : — 

" The farmers of Aylesbury sat down to dine, 
They'd plenty of cheer and very good wine ; 
And after the dinner they took to their bacca, 
And the gist of their talk was the Straits of Malacca." 



128 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

From Mr, Montagu Corry. 

** RowTON Castle, Shrewsbury, 
''Sth April, 1874. 

** My dear Clarke, 

'* I well remember our last talk on the subject of 
the ballot and our prospects — you with your elbows on 
the iron railing in Rotten Row. What things have 
happened since then I I shall see my chief again on 
Monday, but I am sending on your letter to him by 
this post. 

'*I conclude (from some inverted commas) that you 
wrote knowing all the chaff, etc., which in February 
taught every English coalheaver that your straits 
existed, and were * important.* I am glad to find you 
think the chief was justified in his teaching the latter. 
If ever you wish anything brought privately to his 
notice, perhaps writing to me will prove the best 
means, and I shall at any time be delighted to do any- 
thing I can for you in this or any other respect. . . . 

** Things privately and socially seem to me much as 
when you left, and as to public matters, all is so smooth 
and happy that no one at first sight would dream that 
such a dire event as a tumble into the ditch had be- 
fallen *the Great Liberal Party.' 

**Ever yours, 

** Montagu Corry." 

The proximity of the theatre of war between the 
Dutch and the Achinese in Sumatra made the Gover- 
nor and the people of Singapore take a lively interest 
in the struggle. At the end of 1873 many Dutch men- 
of-war and transports passed, carrying reinforcements 
to Achin, and returned later on laden with sick and 
wounded. The success of the Dutch expedition was 
slow. The first victories were succeeded by disasters. 
The capture of the Kraton,^ the Achinese stronghold, 

* The Maharaja of Johore sent word to Sir Andrew of this incident 
in the following note: **The Achinese having cut a tunnel from one of 
their earthworks, situated about six or seven hundred yards away from 



i873-7Sj ACHINESE WAR 129 

by the Dutch, was followed by its recapture and the 
expulsion of the Dutch with heavy loss. 

When Sir Andrew's attention was called to the state 
of affairs in Achin, he became anxious to see the 
troubles settled in such a manner that the Dutch colony 
might enjoy peace, without the extermination of a 
brave and manly race which could alone enable the 
island to be efficiently developed. 

It so happened that an Achinese envoy, who had 
been sent to Constantinople to enlist the help of the 
Porte, by name Syed Abdulrahman bin al Zabir, 
arrived at Singapore, and through the Maharaja of 
Johore asked for an interview with the Governor. Sir 
Andrew consented to receive him on the distinct under- 
standing that the meeting was purely complimentary, 
and had no political significance attached to it. At 
the same time the Consul-General for the Netherlands, 
Mr. W. H. Read, in a conversation with Sir Andrew, 
alluded to the arrival of the envoy, and sounded the 
Governor as to whether British friendly intervention 
was possible. He led him to think that the Governor- 
General of the Netherlands and the Civil Government 
were sick of the war and not over Sanguine as to its 
results, and that its continuance was only due to the 
Dutch Commander-in-Chief and the military element. 

the Kratofii until they approached so near as to be able to hear voices 
overhead, decided on a certain night to surprise the Dutch. All arrange- 
ments having been made, a small hole was pierced at the end of the 
tunnel sufficiently large to allow a man to ascend, and everything being 
found quiet, a very short time was sufficient to admit a large number of 
Achinese within the Kraton. Upon the cry of 'Amok' being raised, 
they immediately fell upon the Dutch troops, who were so unprepared 
for such an attack that they had to beat a retreat, and in doing so it is 
thought lost about 1,000 men. The remainder, some 500, fled to the 
Campong Maraksa, the inhabitants of which are favourable to the 
Dutdi, leaving everything behind them — ammunition, clothing, stores, 
guns, etc. The Achinese are now in possession of the Kraton." 
K 



I30 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Sir Andrew cautiously answered that he could make 
but one reply, and that was to repeat the words used 
by Lord Granville in his despatch— that both the 
Dutch and the Achinese could always rely upon the 
friendly efforts of Great Britain to promote the restora- 
tion of peace and tranquillity. 

From an unofficial interview with the envoy, Sir 
Andrew gathered that the friendly offices of Great 
Britain as a peacemaker would be welcomed both by 
the Dutch and the Achinese, and he wrote to Lord 
Carnarvon towards the end of April, 1874, giving him 
particulars of these conversations, and of all the in- 
formation he had received on the subject. Sir Andrew 
asked that he might be instructed whether he was to 
remain wholly inactive, or, if pressed either by the 
envoy or by the Dutch Consul, he should accept any 
offices whatever in relation to their afifairs, subject, of 
course, to keeping Lord Carnarvon fully informed. 
Sir Andrew told the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
that his own impression was that the Achinese chiefs 
would readily accept and abide by any award of Great 
Britain, even if it involved a surrender of their country 
to the Dutch, but a very large and influential section 
was so much opposed to treating directly with the 
Dutch, that they would prefer death or exile. Sir 
Andrew feared that without the mediation of some 
Power the struggle would be long protracted, inflicting 
very serious injury on our trade, and keeping alive the 
spirit of Muhammadan fanaticism, as the sympathy of 
the whole Malay peninsula was with the Achinese. 

Lord Carnarvon replied to Sir Andrew that person- 
ally he should not be indisposed on the score of 
humanity and, as he considered it, of true policy in the 
Eastern seas, to bring about a cessation of hostilities 




D 
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Ed 

55 

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1873-73] VISITORS TO SINGAPORE 131 

and a pacification, but he found that there was a very 
considerable disinclination on the part of the Foreign 
Office to take any step or to incur any risk. 

One comment, and one alone, shall be made. The 
war, which Sir Andrew was so anxious to stop, has 
continued till to-day, and his advice was given thirty 
years ago. Had it been followed, how much bloodshed 
and misery might have been avoided I 

Lying on the route to China, Singapore is a stopping- 
place for many travellers, and in 1874 there was a con- 
tinuous succession of guests at Government House. 
So large was the number sometimes that the Hotel de 
TEurope had to be requisitioned as an annexe to Govern- 
ment House. There was the French Mission to Peking 
under the Count de Rochechouart, and the Burmese 
Embassy to Paris travelling under French auspices. 
Count Marescalchi, aide-de-camp to Marshal Mac- 
Mahon and a relative of Earl Granville, having charge 
of it. Then there was a delightful Dane, General 
Raastofif, who had been Minister of War at Copen- 
hagen. He was on his way to Peking, and brought 
letters to Sir Andrew from an old friend. Sir Charles 
Lennox Wyke, British Minister at the Court of 
Denmark. He corresponded with Sir Andrew after 
his arrival at Peking, and confided to him his belief 
that the downfall of the Manchu dynasty was probable, 
and that with a new Chinese imperial family the capital 
would be moved to some place on or near the Yangtse, 
where the true heart of the country is to be found. 
Under the gracious hospitality of Lady Clarke, Govern- 
ment House was the social centre of the community of 
Singapore. 

Of the several institutions of Singapore one par- 
ticularly appealed to Sir Andrew, and that was the 



132 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Raffles Institute. When Sir Andrew took over the 
Government he announced his intention of following 
in the footsteps of Sir Stamford Raffles, and he was 
pleased to do anything in his power to promote the 
success of an institution founded by that distinguished 
man. Speaking at the annual meeting of the trustees 
of the Institute in March, 1874, he said : — 

**More than half a century has elapsed since Sir 
Stamford Raffles conceived the idea of establishing an 
institution in Singapore for the cultivation of the 
languages of China, Siam, and the Malay Archipelago, 
and for the improvement of the moral and intellectual 
condition of the inhabitants of those countries. His 
idea — which for the grandeur and comprehensive- 
ness of its design has seldom been excelled — Sir 
Stamford Raffles submitted to a public meetinp^ in the 
form of a minute which would endure in the literature 
of these settlements, a lasting memorial of their illus- 
trious founder." 

Sir Andrew then mentioned that a scheme would 
shortly be laid before the Legislative Council to extend 
the use of the Institute, and to hold out inducements to 
native princes and rajas to send their sons there for 
education, while it was contemplated adding to the 
Institute a public library and a natural history museum, 
and in course of time to hold classes in literary and 
scientific subjects. Nine months later he presided for the 
last time at the Raffles Institute on the occasion of the 
presentation of prizes to the students, when he dwelt 
upon the importance of their all learning some trade 
or handicraft, and said he had a scheme in view for 
erecting workshops for the purpose. One of his last 
official acts in Singapore was to lay the foundation- 
stone of the Institute for Malay Princes. 

It was in January, 1875, that Sir Andrew's attention 



i873-7S] THE TWO KINGS OF SIAM 133 

was again called to Siam by reports of serious trouble 
in that kingdom. The first intimation was contained 
in a telegram from Mr. Newman, the British Acting 
Consul-General at Bangkok, on the 5th, stating that 
it was expected that the First King would attack the 
Second King, and asking that a gunboat might be sent 
to protect British interests. A similar request was sent 
by the French Consul to Saigon. H.M.S. Charybdis 
was sent off to the Menam River from Singapore, and 
later accounts revealed that the Second King had taken 
refuge in the British Consulate. 

On the 19th January the Viscount de San Jannuario, 
Portuguese Governor of Macao, arrived at Singapore 
from Bangkok, bringing a letter from King Chula- 
lonkorn to Sir Andrew, which expressed anxiety that 
the Governor should know the real facts and that he 
should extend his sympathy to the King in his difficult 
position. Accompanying the letter was a memo- 
randum, signed by the King, in which the details of 
the dispute with the Second King were set forth. The 
closing paragraph of the King's letter ran thus : — 

From H.M. the King of Siam. 



a 



' Another matter — I have been engaged in plans for 
the reform and improvement of my country, hoping so 
to gain fame. This is a good object, and there are many 
other matters proposed for the benefit of the country 
and trade, which cannot be all completed in the time I 
have to devote to them. How shall I devise harm to 
Wangna (the Second Kin^) in this base way and lose 
my reputation? I am willing to have it settled in any 
way that will end it properly. I am not desirous to 
have all my own way." 

Sir Andrew telegraphed full particulars to the 
Colonial Office and asked for instructions, pointing 
out that if we did not intervene France would. Lord 



134 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Carnarvon directed him only to go to Bangkok if he 
was urgently requested to do so by the Consul. 

The situation at Bangkok did not improve. The 
Second King continued to prefer the security of the 
British Consulate to the danger of his own palace, and, 
emboldened by the belief that he was under British 
protection, he rejected all overtures made by the 
First King for a settlement, and proposed a counter- 
arrangement of his own, which contained a clause that 
the agreement to be made should be signed by the 
British and French Consuls, an unwarrantable en- 
croachment on the sovereign rights of the supreme 
King of Siam. 

Matters were at a deadlock when Mr. Newman, 
acting on the provisional authority he had received 
from Lord Derby, then Foreign Secretary, wrote on 
the 9th February asking Sir Andrew to come to 
Bangkok as soon as he conveniently could, because 
'* there is little likelihood of a settlement being effected, 
and trade and commerce are in a great measure 
stopped." 

But Sir Andrew had just received a telegram from 
home which very much affected his own future. Lord 
Salisbury, then Secretary of State for India, had 
offered him a seat on the Council of the Viceroy of 
India, as the head of the Public W^orks Department, 
and Sir Andrew accepted the offer as a distinguishing 
mark of approval of his services. Then Lord Salisbury 
asked him to go to India as soon as possible, and it 
was proposed that he should hand over the government 
to Colonel Anson, the Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, 
until his successor should arrive. However, after some 
telegraphic correspondence between Sir Andrew and 
the home authorities, it was finally arranged that he 



I873-7S] VISIT TO SIAM 135 

should remain at Singapore until Major-General Sir 
William Jervois, who was to succeed him, should 
arrive in the colony in the following May. So when 
this was settled he was free to go to Bangkok.^ 

At that moment Admiral Ryder happened to be 
anchored ofiF Fort Canning at Singapore on his way to 
take up the command of the China station. He placed 
his flagship, H.M.S. Vigilant^ at Sir Andrew's dis- 
posal, and consented to associate himself with the 
Governor's mission to Siam. As he required the 
Vigilant to continue his voyage to China, it was 
arranged that the Governor should return to Singapore 
from the Menam in H.M.S. Chatybdis. 

Sir Andrew, accompanied by Major McNair, Lieu- 
tenant Brackenbury, and Dr. Randall, arrived in the 
Menam on the i8th February, and Mr. Newman, the 
Acting British Consul-General, came on board the 
Vigilant to report that there had been no change in the 
situation. He was evidently on the side of the Second 
King, and thought that the Second King should be 
supported, even though it were prudent to give him a 
safer place of residence than Bangkok, say in some 
remote province on the borders of British Burma. It 
did not seem to have occurred to anyone that the 
natural and proper solution of the difficulty was to 
place the authority of the First King, as the supreme 
ruler, beyond question. The whole atmosphere was 
impregnated with the belief that King Chulalonkorn 
was too inexperienced and too feeble in health to carry 
out any good intentions he might have, and that the 
Second King was the coming man. 

^ The account of Sir Andrew Clarke's visit to Siam is based upon an 
article which he contributed to the Coniemporary Review of February, 
1902, two months before his death, by the kind permission of the Editor. 



138 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

but whom the Governor had purposely avoided meet- 
ing until he had seen the supreme King. On Sir 
Andrew's invitation the Second King sent a statement 
of his case, and at the same time asked that an inter- 
view should be arranged between him and the Sena- 
bodee on board the Vigilant. In his letter he observed: 
*' Some foolish men, wishing to change the customs and 
usages of the country, had turned the First King 
against him." Sir Andrew gathered that he was for 
old Siam and opposed to innovation, and that, prob- 
ably, the efforts the First King— a young, intelligent, 
and well-meaning prince — was making to change and 
reform these same old customs and usages had more 
to do with the quarrel than the question of the Second 
King's guard and revenues. 

Sir Andrew agreed to the interview demanded by 
the Second King, provided the First King approved. 
He then got all the foreign consuls together, and told 
them how he proposed to effect a prompt reconciliation 
between the two kings, a consummation so desirable 
in the interests of the commerce of all countries. He 
was gratified to find that his solution of the ques- 
tion was unanimously and warmly approved by all 
of them. 

Having secured the support of the consuls. Sir 
Andrew wrote to the First King, mentioning the re- 
quest for an interview made by the Second King, and 
adding that he and Admiral Ryder had made them- 
selves thoroughly acquainted with the questions at 
issue between the two kings. Sir Andrew submitted a 
draft decree which they recommended King Chulalon- 
korn to sign, as it embodied, in their opinion, all that 
was needed to enable them to advise the return of the 
Second King to his palace, and, at the same time, 



1873-75] DRAFTS A DECREE 139 

placed beyond doubt or cavil His Majesty's authority 
over the armed forces of the kingdom, and assured to 
His Majesty the exclusive right of controlling and 
regulating its finances. 

By the decree the Second King was to have the right 
to maintain an armed force not exceeding 200 men, but 
limited to his residence, wherever it might be, and the 
authority of the First King over all the forces and 
ships of the kingdom, as well as over the finances, was 
fully set forth. The First King sent an immediate 
reply, thanking Sir Andrew and the Admiral for the 
draft, and asking them to visit him again. He sug- 
gested that the Second King's visit to the Vigilant 
should be postponed, and, as a matter of fact, it be- 
came unnecessary. 

Sir Andrew and the Admiral went at once to the 
King, who invited them and an American missionary, 
Mr. Chandler, whose services as interpreter were most 
useful through all the interviews, to go upstairs with 
him. After a long discussion, in which the King 
showed marked intelligence, the draft decree was 
accepted as it stood, and a Commission^ appointed on 

^ The Commission was composed of the King's uncle, Prince Bamrap, 
the ex-Regent Suriwongse, and the members of the Senabodee. An 
incident may be mentioned in connection with Prince Bamrap. This 
prince had taken observations of the transit of Venus in the previous 
December, and gave the record of them to Sir Andrew. He forwarded 
them to Sir George Airy, the Astronomer Royal, thinking he would be 
interested to hear of the pursuit of astronomical science in Siam. Sir 
George Airy does not seem to have been much impressed, however, with 
the accuracy of the record, to judge from his reply : — 

<< Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 

" 29 ApHl, 1875. 
"My dear Sir Andrew, 

"I have received and am much interested in the original record 
which you have sent of the observations of the transit of Venus by the 
Prince, the uncle of the King of Siam. 
"As an astronomer, I would point out two circumstances that require 



I40 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

his behalf to sign the arrangement with the Second 
King. The warrant to the Commissioners concluded 
with the following declaration : — 

" I beg you, who sign these Articles of Reconciliation, 
to have Full faith in me that I will assuredly devise no 
mischief whatever to Krom Phra Rachawang [the 
Second King], which would be unjust, and I will keep 
to these Articles in every respect." 

These preliminaries were arranged on the 22nd 
February, and the next two days were devoted to 
sight -seeing. Among other things, after taking 
luncheon with the ex-Regent, Sir Andrew and his 
party were taken to see the cremation of Prince 
Suriwongse's daughter-in-law. She had died two 
months before, but in Siam the dead body goes 
through a drying process before it is cremated on the 
funeral pyre. 

On the evening of the 24th the Governor and the 
Admiral dined at the British Consulate and met the 
Second King. After dinner the proclamation or decree 
was discussed. The Second King, finding that he 
could not get anything better, and that the hospitality 
of the British Consulate could not be extended to him 
indefinitely, after a good deal of quibbling, gave his 

explanation. One is that though in the diagram both phases are pictured 
as of external contact, the first is described in the legend as * internal 
contact, probably a merely clerical error. The other is that the source 
of time determination is not given. 

" I can quite understand the taste for astronomy which you ascribe to 
the upper classes of the Siamese. I look upon the oriental mind as 
essentially acute, and in speculative matters highly refined ; and I think 
if we could send them a few of our hard-headed Cambridge mathe- 
maticians to pin them in some measure to the severities of the science, 
we should produce an incomparable race of astronomers. 

** Yours very faithfully, 

"O. B. Airy." 



1873-75] EFFECTS OF A RECONCILIATION 141 

assent. The same night the First King wrote to Sir 
Andrew : — 

From H.M. the King of Siam. 

** Royal Palacb, Bangkok, 

** 24 February ^ 1875. 
"My good Friend, 

*'My private secretary has reported his con- 
versation with Your Excellency. I am glad to agree 
that my cousin shall return to his palace quietly in the 
early morning, and come to me at eleven o'clock, when, 
as I must meet the wishes of my own people, I think it 
better that only Siamese should be present at our re- 
conciliation, u Your faithful friend, 

**Chulalonkorn R." 

The reconciliation passed off exceedingly well in 
the presence of the leading nobles of Siam, and its 
terms were faithfully observed on both sides. In 
the afternoon royal carriages conveyed Sir Andrew 
and his party to the palace, where they were to be 
the guests of the King for a day and a night. Every- 
thing was comfortably arranged — ten bedrooms, two 
ante-rooms, a suite of drawing-rooms furnished in 
yellow satin, a dining-room, and even a billiard-room 
was fitted up in an adjoining building. The King 
gave a state dinner in the evening, and conversed 
freely and well. 

After everybody had retired to their own apart- 
ments, the King went round at midnight to Sir 
Andrew's room and poured into his ear his hopes and 
fears for his country, declaring that he wished to leave 
''a freed people on a freed soil," and expressing his 
earnest desire that he might always count on the 
friendly advice and protection of the British Govern- 
ment. 



I40 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

his behalf to sign the arrangement with the Second 
King. The warrant to the Commissioners concluded 
with the following declaration : — 

" I beg you, who sign these Articles of Reconciliation, 
to have full faith in me that I will assuredly devise no 
mischief whatever to Krom Phra Rachawang [the 
Second King], which would be unjust, and I will keep 
to these Articles in every respect." 

These preliminaries were arranged on the 22nd 
February, and the next two days were devoted to 
sight -seeing. Among other things, after taking 
luncheon with the ex-Regent, Sir Andrew and his 
party were taken to see the cremation of Prince 
Suriwongse's daughter-in-law. She had died two 
months before, but in Siam the dead body goes 
through a drying process before it is cremated on the 
funeral pyre. 

On the evening of the 24th the Governor and the 
Admiral dined at the British Consulate and met the 
Second King. After dinner the proclamation or decree 
was discussed. The Second King, finding that he 
could not get anything better, and that the hospitality 
of the British Consulate could not be extended to him 
indefinitely, after a good deal of quibbling, gave his 

explanation. One is that though in the diagram both phases are pictured 
as of external contact, the first is described in the legend as * internal 
contact, probably a merely clerical error. The other is that the source 
of time determination is not given. 

** I can quite understand the taste for astronomy which you ascribe to 
the upper classes of the Siamese. I look upon the oriental mind as 
essentially acute, and in speculative matters highly refined ; and I think 
if we could send them a few of our hard-headed Cambridge mathe- 
maticians to pin them in some measure to the severities of the science, 
we should produce an incomparable race of astronomers. 

" Yours very foithfiilly, 

"O. R Airy." 



1873-75] EFFECTS OF A RECONCILIATION 141 

assent. The same night the First King wrote to Sir 
Andrew : — 

From H.M. the King of Siam. 

" Royal Palacb, Bangkok, 

** 24 February^ 1875. 
"My good Friend, 

"My private secretary has reported his con- 
versation with Your Excellency. I am glad to agree 
that my cousin shall return to his palace quietly in the 
early morning, and come to me at eleven o'clock, when, 
as I must meet the wishes of my own people, I think it 
better that only Siamese should be present at our re- 
conciliation. II Your faithful friend, 

" Chulalonkorn R." 

The reconciliation passed off exceedingly well in 
the presence of the leading nobles of Siam, and its 
terms were faithfully observed on both sides. In 
the afternoon royal carriages conveyed Sir Andrew 
and his party to the palace, where they were to be 
the guests of the King for a day and a night. Every- 
thing was comfortably arranged — ten bedrooms, two 
ante-rooms, a suite of drawing-rooms furnished in 
yellow satin, a dining-room, and even a billiard-room 
was fitted up in an adjoining building. The King 
gave a state dinner in the evening, and conversed 
freely and well. 

After everybody had retired to their own apart- 
ments, the King went round at midnight to Sir 
Andrew's room and poured into his ear his hopes and 
fears for his country, declarmg that he wished to leave 
"a freed people on a freed soil," and expressing his 
earnest desire that he might always count on the 
friendly advice and protection of the British Govern- 
ment. 



142 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Writing to Lady Clarke from Bangkok, Sir Andrew 

said : — 

To Lady Clarke. 

*'The King is really sharp and clever, and I believe 
means well. McNair has been of great use, and of 
course Brackenbury is invaluable. The Consul, New- 
man, is a very nice fellow, and I like him much. The 
Siamese are a very c^entle race, and with good temper, 
a little patience and tact one could do anything with 
them." 

On the 4th March Sir Andrew was back in Singa- 
pore, and sent the following telegram to the Colonial 

Office :— 

To the Colonial Office. 

'* Arrived to-day from Siam, having effected recon- 
ciliation between the kings. Second King has left our 
Consulate with his former privileges guaranteed by de- 
cree of First King and Senabodee. Public confidence 
seems restored." 

This visit to Siam was the beginning of a personal 
friendship between Sir Andrew and the King, which 
lasted throughout Sir Andrew's life. The King fre- 
quently consulted him as one on whose judgment he 
could depend, not only while Sir Andrew was in India, 
but after his return to this country. 

A few weeks after the visit Sir Andrew received the 
following letter from His Majesty : — 

From H.M. the King of Siam. 

** Royal Palace, Bangkok, 

^'2% March, 1875. 
** My dear Friend, 

'*I am very sorrjr you are going away from 
Singapore, for I should like to have an English friend 
near to me. We have been very quiet since you left. 
. . . The United States Consul has asked to have a 



1873-75] FRIENDSHIP WITH THE KING 143 

collection for the exhibition in America sent separately, 
but that will not in any way reduce the collection I 
have commanded to be sent to you for exhibition in 
Australia. 

** Can you obtain for me the services of an officer of 
Roval Engineers to train the engineers of my guard 
ana any other en^^ineer corps I may form, and to assist 
with his advice in other engineering matters? ... I 
am thinking of forming a Geological Department, also 
one or two farms and plantations for acclimatisation, 
and for the training of planters and gardeners. 

** I learn that the collection of clay figures has not 
yet been sent. The books are nearly ready. Two or 
three of the officers whose duty it is to attend to these 
matters have been, and are, unwell, which will account 
for the delay. 

'*I was sorry that as Governor of Singapore you 
only permitted me to give you so trifling a souvenir of 
your visit to Bangkok. On your resignation of your 
governorship my Consul will hand you a small casket,^ 
which I wish you to accept as more fit to show your 
friends, both as an example of gold work done in my 
palace, and a souvenir of 

*' Your very good friend, 

**Chulalonkorn R." 

^ This casket for betel nut was made of fine gold and ornamented 
with precious stones. In further token of King Chulalonkom's regard 
and esteem for Sir Andrew, he sent him some of the ashes of his queen, 
who died a few months before. The Second King presented Sir Andrew 
with a cigarette-case and Lady Clarke with a Siamese lady's toilet-set, 
of Siamese workmanship, as a memento of the Siam visit Sir Andrew 
sent His Majesty Chulalonkom portraits of Lady Clarke and himself in 
return. 



CHAPTER VII 

GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS 

SETTLEMENTS 

1873-1875 

THE MALAY NATIVE STATES 

WHEN Sir Andrew Clarke arrived in Singapore 
the position of affairs in the Malay Native 
States, and especially in Perak, had been for a long 
time very unsatisfactory. The Malay chiefs, who 
lived at ease upon their rents and taxes, did nothing 
to keep order in the country or to give good govern- 
ment to the people. The Chinese, who were most 
numerous in the mining district of Larut in the State 
of Perak, were divided into two hostile factions — the 
See Kwans and the Go Kwans. They were always 
fighting one another, either for the possession of 
claims in the valuable tin mines, or to gratify the 
private feuds of Malay chiefs, who sided sometimes 
with one faction and sometimes with the other. 
Mercenary '* braves" were brought from China by 
the headmen of the secret societies, and were paid by 
the miners to fight their battles for them, while they 
themselves remained at work in the mines. 

The Chinese ** braves" fought at sea as well as on 
land. They were the pirates of the coast, and even 
interrupted communication between Singapore and 

144 



i»73-7S] THE MALAY NATIVE STATES 145 

Penang, The lawless ruffians were not too careful in 
their dealings with the Malays, and when a trader fell 
in their way they made short work of his goods, and if 
he resisted, cut his throat. They even showed fight to 
the boats of British men-of-war, which were unable to 
follow them where they ran for shelter, up the shallow 
creeks and mangrove swamps that line the coast.^ 
The feuds extended to Penang itself, where the secret 
societies took up arms and had even threatened the 
authority of the Government by attacking a police- 
station in Province Wellesley. 

In Perak a war of succession was going on between 
two rival claimants for the Sultanate. In Selangor 
civil war raged and piracy flourished on its coast. 
Near Malacca a feud was being fought out between 
the States of Sungei Ujong and Rembau. In the 
River Linggi embargoes were laid on trading boats 
navigating the river, and along 500 miles of coast 
the pirates suspended the sugar industry and the 
fisheries. Anarchy, in fact, reigned supreme. 

The instructions given to Sir Andrew by Lord 
Kimberley aimed at ameliorating this deplorable con- 
dition of the Native States by a more permanent and 
continuous process than the spasmodic despatch of an 
expedition to chastise the offenders. The Secretary of 
State for the Colonies deserved credit for taking a wider 
view than had hitherto prevailed at the Colonial Office. 
He suggested a new departure, which was a real step 
forward, and Sir Andrew, in consequence, found him- 
self more favourably placed for dealing with the Native 
States than any of his predecessors. Lord Kimberley's 

^ A month after his arrival Sir Andrew pressed upon the Colonial 
Office the need of light-draught steam-launches to cope with the pirate 
boats. 

L 



1^6 QOXTMXOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

uisarocckxDs od this siib}eci cootaioed the following 
cixaiofDS Tcs pregnant passages : — 

/V«w Ijo^ Kimbtrky, 

*^ It is aa isopofftant part of the duties of the Governor 
of the Straits Settksoents to conduct the relations 
b e tme iC M the Biiti^ Government and the States of the 
Malay peninsula which are not tributary to Siam. . . . 
^* The anarchy which pieTails and appears to be in- 
cneasini^ in parts of the peninsula, and the consequent 
injury to trade and British intoiests generally, render it 
necessary to consider seriously whether any step can be 
taken to improve this condition. . . . 

•• H,M, Government hare, it need hardly be said, no 
desire to interfere in the internal affairs of the Malay 
States. But looking to the long and intimate connec- 
tion between them and the British Government, and 
to the well-being of the British settlements themselves, 
H.M. Government find it incumbent upon them to em- 
ploy such influence as they possess with the native 
princes to rescue, if possible, Uiose fertile and produc- 
ti\'e countries from the ruin which must befall them if 
the present disorders continue unchecked. 

** I have to request that you will carefully ascertain, 
as far as you are able, the actual condition of aflEEiirs in 
each State, and that you will report to me whether there 
are, in your opinion*, any steps which can properly be 
taken by the Colonial Government to promote the 
restoration of peace and order, and to secure protection 
to trade and commerce with the native territories. I 
should wish you especially to consider whether it would 
be advisable to appoint a British officer to reside in any 
of the States. Such an appointment could, of course, 
only be made with the full consent of the Native 
Government, and the expenses connected with it would 
have to be defrayed by the Government of the Straits 
Settlements." 

On taking up his post Sir Ao^ "^ lost no time in 
letting it be known that he attach <%mount imports 

ance to this question of the Nati^. j^ and th at bis 




1873-75] PERAK 147 

policy would be to continue the work of Sir Stamford 
RafBes. He turned his attention first to Perak (pro- 
nounced Pera). 

PERAK 

Here three troublesome problems seemed to admit of 
no delay in their solution : (i) the Chinese faction 
fighting and piracy ; (2) the disputed succession to the 
Sultanate of Perak ; and (3) the status of one of the 
Perak chiefs, the Mantri of Larut, who claimed to be 
independent of the Sultan. There were in addition 
some old standing disputes as to certain boundaries 
between Perak and the British territories of Province 
Wellesley and the Bindings, which it was desirable to 
settle at the same time. 

The Chinese faction fighting and piracy have already 
been referred to, but the disputed succession to the 
Sultanate and the Mantri's claim of independence 
require a few words of explanation. 

The dispute as to the succession to the Sultanate had 
arisen in this way : When Sultan Ali died in 187 1, his 
astute old Minister, the Raja Bandahara Ismail, 
assumed the government, and was acknowledged as de 
facto Sultan by the Lieutenant-Governor of Penang. 
Subsequent information showed that not only had the 
Raja Muda (Prince Royal) Abdulla been set aside, but 
Ismail had never been invested with the regalia, 
although it was in his possession. The rival claimants 
were fighting in 1873, and it was doubtful which would 
prove the stronger. Suspicions as to the capabilities 
of Abdulla had been rife among his people, and it was 
uncertain whether, if he gained the day, he would be 
recognised by the chiefs whose duty it would be to 
install a new Sultan. 



148 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

The Mantri of Larut, Ngah Ibrahim, claimed his 
independence on the ground that he had been granted 
by the late Sultan in 1862 full powers to govern the 
district of Larut with the advice of the Laksamana. 
Raja Muda Abdulla, on the other hand, claimed that 
the special powers granted to the Mantri were merely 
delegated powers, which lapsed on the late Sultan's 
death. 1 

Sir Andrew Clarke had good reason to believe that 
the Chinese were getting sick of the constant faction 
fighting, which was not only ruining the country of 
Perak, but also impoverishing themselves. He, there- 
fore, took the first step in his Native States policy by 
sending the OiBBcial Chinese Interpreter to Govern- 
ment, Mr. Pickering, to open negotiations with the 
headmen of the Chinese factions in Perak, but with 
instructions to do so as if acting on his own authority, 
and not as delegated by the Governor. 

Mr. Pickering was not only a fluent speaker of 
Chinese, but he was a man of both energy and tact. 
He left Singapore for Perak in the steamer /ohorey and at 
once set to work to find out whether the chiefs of the 
two parties could not be brought to settle their differ- 
ences. His mission proved most successful. He 
gained the confidences of the headmen, and on the 
4th January, 1874, was able to telegraph to Sir Andrew 
that the chief headmen of both factions had agreed to 
submit their claims to the arbitration of the Governor, 
and to enter into an undertaking to surrender their 
rowboats, to dismantle their stockades, and to give up 
their arms. 

^ This grant of special powers to the Mantri was made in considera- 
tion of his having paid a fine for the Sultan, which had been demanded 
by the British Governor as compensation to one of the Chinese factions 
for losses inflicted by another faction with which the Mantri had sided. 



I873-7S] VISITS PERAK 149 

In the meantime Sir Andrew had discussed the Perak 
succession question with Mr. W. H. Read/ an old 
resident in the colony, and a Member of Council, to 
whom the Raja Muda Abduila was personally known. 
Through Mr. Read's instrumentality Sir Andrew, in 
due course, received a letter from AbduUa, properly 
signed and ''chopped,"^ in which he made the follow- 
ing report : — 

From Raja Mtuia Abduila. 

*'We and our great men request the Governor, who 
is now arbitrator and mediator, to aid us by inquiring 
into these disturbances with authority, so that they 
shall cease, and be settled properly and with justice. 
And if all these dissensions are brought to an end and 
set right, and the country is restored to peace, we and 
our great men desire to settle under the sheltering pro- 
tection of the English flag. 

** Further, we and our great men wish to make a new 
treaty of lasting friendship with the English Govern- 
ment, which will benefit both sides. And we, together 
with our ^reat men, to show our good faith, ask of our 
friend, Sir Andrew Clarke, for a man of sufficient 
abilities to live with us in Perak, or at any fit place not 
far from us, and show us a good system of government 
for our dominions, so that our country may be opened 
up and bring; profit, and increase the revenues as well 
as peace and justice. ..." 

Having received Mr. Pickering's telegram and 
AbduUa's letter. Sir Andrew decided that he would 
himself go to Perak, and endeavour personally to 
settle, there and then, with the Perak chiefs all the 
questions at issue. He fixed the 14th January for 
the conference, and he selected Pulo Pangkor, at the 

^ Mr. W. H. Read was also Consul-General for the Netherlands. He 
had been In the colony since 1841* He wrote Play and Politics^ 
RecoiUdians of Malaya^ by An Old Resident, published in 1903. 

* ** Chopped," i«. sealed The Chop is the official seal. 



ISO GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Dindings, as the rendezvous. Anticipating that there 
might be some difficulty in collecting the chiefs, he 
sent Major McNair and Captain Dunlop (Inspector of 
Police) to Penang with letters to all the principal 
chiefs, and he directed Mr. Pickering to assemble the 
Chinese headmen. 

Accompanied by Lady Clarke and a large suite, 
which included Mr. Braddell (the Attorney-General), 
Mr. A. M. Skinner (a Member of Council), and Lieu- 
tenant Brackenbury, Sir Andrew left Singapore on 
board the Pluto on the i ith January, and arrived at the 
Dindings on the 13th. The Johore brought the Raja 
Muda Abdulla, two other members of the Royal Family, 
the Mantri, the Laksamana, and other chiefs to Pangkor 
on the 15th. They had come with the greatest readi- 
ness to meet the Governor. On the following day Sir 
Andrew received Abdulla, and was agreeably surprised 
to find that he was a man of considerable intelligence. 
He looked well in health, alert, more than ordinarily 
sharp for a Malay prince, and was frank and ready in 
his replies to the Governor's questions. He was quite 
confident of his ability to maintain his position if he 
were once placed in Perak as its legitimate ruler. All 
the chiefs, save the Mantri of Larut and his party, 
expressed their willingness to support him. 

It was made quite clear to Sir Andrew that the 
Mantri had no claim to be an independent ruler, but, 
was simply the Governor of the territory or district 
of Larut, and, on his own admission, owed allegiance 
to the Sultan ; while the special powers conferred on 
him in 1862 were, as Abdulla maintained, delegated 
powers which ceased when Sultan AH died. Sir Andrew 
found that Abdulla, if he were confirmed and acknow- 
ledged as Sultan, was quite ready to ratify Ibrahim's 



1^73-75] THE PANGKOR ENGAGEMENT 151 

appointment as Mantri of Larut, on the understanding 
that he was in no sense independent but was merely 
the representative of the Sultan. 

The Bandahara Ismail, the rival claimant for the 
Sultanate of Perak, did not put in an appearance at 
the conference of the chiefs with Sir Andrew. At 
successive meetings Sir Andrew discussed with them 
all the matters in dispute, and arrived at an amicable 
settlement. A final meeting was held on the 20th 
January, at which all the principal chiefs except Ismail 
were present, and Sir Andrew drew up a draft treaty, 
or engagement, as it was officially termed, the text of 
which, as the most important result of Sir Andrew's 
efforts to introduce peace and progress into the Native 
States, is given in the Appendix. 

Undoubtedly the most important clause of this 
engagement was that providing for a British repre- 
sentative as Resident at the Sultan's Court at Perak, 
with another British officer as Assistant-Resident at 
Larut, the expense being a first charge on the revenues 
of Perak, because it was to the advice and guidance of 
these officers that Sir Andrew looked for the gradual 
regeneration of the State. 

The engagement was duly signed and ** chopped" 
on board the Pluto^ and a salute of eleven guns was 
fired in honour of the recognition of Abdulla as Sultan 
of Perak. It was proposed that the coronation should 
take place at Bandar Bharu in the presence of the 
Governor in the following month, and that the Sultan 
should send to Ismail in the meantime for the regalia. 
On the 2ist January Sir Andrew steamed up the river 
in the Pluto to Bandar Bharu, where salutes were 
fired and the Sultan Abdulla received by his people 
apparently with every demonstration of satisfaction. 



152 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Immediately after the engagement was signed Sir 

Andrew wrote the following letter to the Bandahara 

Ismail : — 

To the Bandahara Ismail. 

** We write to inform our friend Raja Ismail that the 
regalia, now in our friend's hands at Sungei Kinta, 
should be surrendered to Raja Abdulla, who was ap- 
pointed Raja Muda in the late Sultan Ali*s reign ; for 
on this day, the 20th January, the great men of Perak 
have assembled at Pulo Pangkor, and Raja Abdulla 
has become Sultan of Perak and its dependencies, and 
a definite agreement has been made by them with our 
approval. Our friend will therefore do well to follow 
our advice in this matter, and surrender the regalia at 
the approaching festival, the 27th January. 

**On the 7th January we sent a letter to our friend, 
notifying that tne affairs of Perak were about to be 
settled, but our friend did not appear. Now in Article II. 
of that agreement the following arrangement was made 
rej^arding the title, etc., to be enjoyed by our friend: 
'That the Raja Bandahara Ismail, now acting Sultan, 
be allowed to retain the title of Sultan Muda, with 
a pension, and a certain small territory assigned to 
him.'" 

Although the old Bandahara eventually gave in his 
adherence to the terms of the Pangkor Treaty, he had 
not given up the regalia when Sir Andrew quitted the 
Straits. But this did not affect the practical working 
of the treaty, of which the most important feature was 
the introduction of the Resident system. 

Sir Andrew held a long conference with the Chinese 
headmen on both sides. They prayed that the British 
Government would take over the country, or at least 
appoint a British officer to reside in the district and 
protect them. They exhibited the utmost readiness to 
accept the decision of the Governor, and their faith in 
Sir Andrew was fully demonstrated by their subsequent 
conduct On the very day the Pangkor Treaty or 



'^3-75] TRANQUILLITY SECURED 153 

Engagement was signed both factions of the Chinese 
surrendered a large quantity of arms, a number of 
rowboats, and many junks, together with twenty-seven 
guns, one of which was a Krupp, and Sir Andrew sent 
H.M.S. Avon and th^Johore with Captain Dunlop and 
Mr, Skinner to search the rivers for more. The leading 
Chinese, many of them men of large property in 
Penang, entered into a bond to keep the peace with 
each other and with the Malays, to disarm their 
followers, and to destroy the stockades, under a penalty 
of 50,000 dollars, and this engagement was signed by 
the headmen on the same day as the treaty. 

But Sir Andrew found that the claims of the rival 
factions in the tin mines were too complicated to settle 
off-hand, and that women and children had been taken 
captive and detained in slavery. He therefore appointed 
a Commission^ to settle these mining claims, to enforce 
the surrender of arms and boats, to destroy all stock- 
ades, and to endeavour to discover and to restore to 
their own people the captured women and children. 

By the tact and activity of the Commissioners their 
work was satisfactorily completed without resort to 
force, and in spite of obstruction on the part of the 
Mantri. The tranquillity of the mining district was 
secured by laying down a line dividing the localities 
and . claims of the rival factions. At the end of a 
month Mr. Swettenham was able to conclude his 
journal with the following observations : — 

"The country, as we came down this morning, 
looked very different to what it was a month ago. 
Everyone is as quiet as possible, some are respectnil, 

^ The CommissioQ consiated of Captain S. Dunlop, R.A., Mr. 
Pkkeringr, and Mr. F. A. Swettenham, now Sir F. A. Swettenham, 
K.C.M.O., lately Governor of the Straits SettlemenU. 



154 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

and a few even polite. There are no signs of stockades 
or arms, and Chinese^ Malays, and Klings are walking 
all over the country." 

Sir Andrew was delighted, and telegraphed to the 
Colonial Office : — 

** Commissioners returned from Perak, having rescued 
fifty-three women, disarmed belligerents, razed all 
stockades, and settled mines. Immigration and capital 
setting in." 

On his return to Singapore after making the Pangkor 
Engagement he wrote to Mr. Childers : — 

To the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

**I have nominated Captain Speedy Acting Resident 
of Larut. In doing this I went, no doubt, beyond my 
instructions, but all I had done would have come to 
nothing had I not left someone in the country to see 
the engagement carried out and a proper police 
organised. I feel I have done a good stroke ; in short, 
all the people here say that nothing has been done so 
complete and equal to it since Raffles's time. . . . 

** The Colonial Office may say that I might have sub- 
mitted my scheme to them for their approval before 
putting it into force, but the only chance of success I 
had was to do what I did rapidly, so that not a soul 
knew my plans until I had almost pulled them through. 
The Chinese were moving and had no idea who was 
moving them. I had got hold of the heads of both 
parties, and neither knew that I knew the other. 

** I sent a steamer for the Malay chiefs telling them 
to come to see me at the Bindings, giving them no 
time to hesitate, nor telling them what I wanted them 
for, nor aflfbrding them time to send for their lawyers — 
nearly all Malay chiefs have Penang or Singapore 
lawyers retained by them. I was assured I could not 
get them together under six weeks or two months. I 
collected them in a week, and they were without their 
lawyers. One alone, the Mantri of Larut, had one ; but 
as none of the others had, I would not assent to his 
putting in an appearance." 



I873-7S] HIS ACTION APPROVED 155 

The engagement made by Sir Andrew at Pangkor 
was greatly appreciated at Singapore. Mr. Birch, the 
Colonial Secretary, declared it to be **the very best 
stroke of policy that has occurred since the British flag 
was seen in the Archipelago." The Chamber of Com- 
merce passed a resolution expressing its entire approval 
of the measure, and trusted His Excellency would con- 
tinue to pursue the just, firm, and conciliatory policy 
then inaugurated until all the independent Malay States 
were brought under similar control. 

In concluding the Pangkor Engagement and appoints 
ing even temporary Residents to the Native States, Sir 
Andrew had gone beyond his instructions. In his 
despatch of the 20th September, 1873, already quoted. 
Lord Kimberley had indicated the direction in which 
Sir Andrew might move to remedy the intolerable state 
of afiEairs in these States, but this was no warrant for 
taking decisive action without reference home. Sir 
Andrew's letter to Mr. Childers shows that he was fully 
aware of this; but the favourable opportunity had 
ofifered, and he was not the man to let it pass unutilised 
on account of the letter of his instructions. He was 
quite ready to take the full responsibility of exceeding 
these instructions, provided he was clear, as he was in 
this case, that he was acting in their spirit and was 
carrying out their policy with the greatest advantage to 
the interests committed to his charge. 

By the time the despatches reporting his action 
reached London, Lord Kimberley was no longer 
Colonial Secretary, but in a letter he wrote to Sir 
Andrew in April, 1874, he said : — 

From the Earl of Kimberley. 

**With regard to Perak, not having seen your 
despatches I am not in a position to form an opinion 



iS6 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

on the details of your arrangements, but, as far as I 
was able to judge from your telegraphic despatches 
which I received before I left office, I anticipated that I 
should have approved generally the course you had 
taken." 

SELANGOR 

Having made a successful start with the afifairs of 
Perak, Sir Andrew next turned his attention to the 
large Malay State of Selangor, lying south of Perak. 
Civil war and piracy made some sort of intervention 
imperative, and a particularly atrocious act of piracy 
committed on a trading boat from Malacca in Novem- 
ber, 1873, at the mouth of the Jugra River, afforded 
sufficient pretext for interference. One survivor from 
the massacre, a British subject, escaped, and was able 
to identify some of the pirates, who were arrested and 
taken to Penang for trial. Following this incident 
an attack had been made on the lighthouse at Cape 
Rachado, so Sir Andrew decided to take prompt 
measures. Taking advantage of the presence of the 
Admiral commanding on the China station with his 
squadron, he consulted with Sir Charles Shadwell, 
and organised a demonstration which might enable 
him to carry out his policy in Selangor. 

He arranged to take the pirates then in custody at 
Penang with him to Selangor, and insist that the ruler 
of the State should accept the responsibility of their 
acts and punish them himself if, after a fair trial, they 
were found guilty. He hoped thus to bring home to 
the natives that piracy would meet with punishment 
from their own ruler, with an effect that no sentence 
of a British court, executed on the evil-doers out of 
sight of their fellow-countrymen at Penang by British 
authority, could possibly have. 



»S73-7S] SELANGOR 157 

The following letter, dated nth February, 1874, ^^ 
Mr. Childers, describes what took place : — 

7b the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

** I write a few lines to tell you that I am returning to 
Singapore, having laid, as I trust, the foundation of a 
speedy return of peace and prosperity in this portion of 
the Malay peninsula. The piratical outrages had cul- 
minated in an attack on the lighthouse at Cape 
Rachado, and communication with the lightship at 
the North Sands having been threatened, I took occa- 
sion of Sir C. Shadwell being in the Straits with his 
fleet to ask him to make an earnest effort to co-operate 
with me in putting a stop to what was going on, 
sketching out my policy, and giving him a suggestive 
plan of operations. 

**I left Singapore last Wednesday, ostensibly on a 
visit to Malacca, but had arranged that on the follow- 
ing day the Admiral, being then with his fleet at 
Penang, should come south and meet me at One- 
Fathom Bank with all his force. This was done, and 
blockading the entrances of three separate rivers with 
H.M.S. Thalia^ Rinaldo^ and Avon^ and leaving the 
Iron Duke (the flagship) at Kualla Klang, we steamed 
up the Langat River with the Frolic and Midge and 
a small colonial gunboat called the Matta MattUy and 
reached the stockaded town of Langat, the residence of 
the Sultan of Selangor and the pirates' head-quarters. 

"I dropped the men-of-war a little down the river 
and out of sight of the forts of Langat, and I then 
steamed up and laid the Pluto close alongside the 
principal fort, and went with all my party to breakfast 
on deck, where we could look up the muzzles of some 
big guns which were within a few feet of us. The fort 
itself, both inside and outside, was covered with some 
hundreds of very villainous-looking Malays armed to 
the teeth. 

** After breakfast I sent a letter to the Sultan telling 
him what I had come about, and asking him to come 
off and see me. Up to this not a soul had come near 
us. I sent the letter by Major McNair, my Surveyor- 
General, and he was received respectfully by the chiefs, 
but their followers looked alarmed and savage. He 



iS8 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

was taken to the palace and saw the Sultan, who said 
he had never left his country and could not break 
through etiquette and come on board to me. After 
some three hours' waiting, he said he would come down 
and look at me and the steamer from the shore. This 
he did, but someone telling him the day was unlucky, 
he quickly disappeared. 

** Braddell, my Attorney-General, then landed alone, 
smoking a cigar, as if for a stroll, lounged through 
the bazaar and town, passed the sentries, and stepped 
quietly into the Sultan's palace. Braddell speaks 
Malay better than a Malay, and knows their customs. 
It ended in his getting at the Sultan, who at last con- 
sented to come on board, provided the steamer was 
attached to the shore by ropes, and that he might walk 
on board over a temporary jetty which was improvised 
on the spot, and on board he came with several hundred 
fellows. He is a jolly, good-natured opium-eater, but 
looked on piracy, as he said, as a young man's affair, 
and did not bother himself about it. 

**This went ofif well enough, and the Admiral and 
I then landed and went to the palace. After the com- 
plimentary interview in public I told him I wanted to 
see him alone with only a few of his great men. Of 
course to this there was much objection, but I stuck to 
the point, and at last he assented. I was taken with 
the Admiral, the Attorney-General, Surveyor-General, 
and aide-de-camp into a small place where the Sultan 
was with his three sons and some eight or ten chiefs. 

**I opened on the subject of my mission, told him 
how much better for him, his family and country, it 
would be if he would support his son-in-law, the Vice- 
roy, against the pirates, and that I wanted to settle 
matters peacefully, without asking the Admiral to step 
in, who had the power to sweep him and all the 
pirates off the face of the country. After a couple 
of days, passed in negotiations, he assented to every- 
thing, swore to keep his treaty engagements, issued 
an order to try all offenders, and engaged to burn and 
destroy his strongholds. 

**As I am leaving the gunboat here to see that he 
carries out his promises, including the hanging of 
some sixteen men caught in one of their boats with the 



1873-75] VISIT TO SELANGOR 159 

plunder of a trading boat from Malacca, whose crew had 
been murdered, I have every hope of the success of 
my scheme, which is to compel the Native Government 
to punish crime, instead of leaving us to do so, as 
formerly. . . . 

**I fear that the Colonial Office will not easily be 
made to think that I have done well, but I know I have, 
and time will show it." 

The diaries of Lieutenant Brackenbury and Mr. 
Braddell give a full account of all these proceedings, 
and the following extracts supplement Sir Andrew's 
account in the above letter : — 

*^ 8th February. — . . . The Sultan has hitherto borne 
the reputation of being a confirmed opium-eater, but he 
did not strike our party as being in any way lethargic. 
On the contrary, he seems very sharp and intelligent 
enough, only showing a certain weakness of character 
by an indecisive manner of walking up and down when 
he is required to make up his mind and fidgeting with 
his headdress, which he constantly takes on and puts 
on again. In appearance he is a man of some fifty 
years, with a quantity of iron-grey hair and plaintive 
brown eyes, with which he gazes at one appealingly 
when any decisive action is required of him. His 
attire was extremely light— a reddish sarong, a queer 
silk baju, which he slips from his shoulders as soon as 
he can get rid of it, a yellow silk sash, and a brown 
handkerchief round his head. In the evening at about 
8.30 the Queen of Selangor sent off a basket of fruit, 
twelve slabs of tin, and three tin circular boxes as a 
present to Lady Clarke. 

**9/A February. — At 7.30 a.m. the Queen sent off 
another present to Lady Clarke, a few vases and ever- 
lastings, neatly arranged on a silver plate covered with a 
leaf, and wrapped up in a handkerchief. . . .*' 

Alluding to the audience in the Sultan's palace. Lieu- 
tenant Brackenbury continues his account : — 

** McNair came out and told us to go off and bring 
Tunku Kudin from the Midge. Now Kudin was the 



i6o GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Sultan's son-in-law, and a very good fellow to boot, 
and had been high in the Sultan's favour until one fine 
day he had gone off to the wars in Ulang, and while 
he was away the rascally sons of the Sultan had doubt- 
less been backbiting, and so for a couple of years he 
had not ventured to come up to Langat, which origin- 
ally had been given to him to rule over. I was much 
taken with him after my first introduction. Captain 
Grant told me that the Tunku had been far from easy 
in his mind all the morning, and he saw that there was 
something in the wind at once on seeing us. * Tunku,* 
said Captain Grant, * the Governor wants you to come 
off and see him and the Sultan.' * Where, on board 
his ship or on shore?' *On shore,* said Captain 
Grant. 'Very well,' said friend Tunku, after a 
moment's hesitation, 'then let me take the revolver.' 
However, Grant did the Civts Romanus sum business, 
and assured him that he would take him off and bring 
him back again in safety." 

Mr. Braddell takes up the narrative : — 

''When Tunku Kudin reached the audience-room 
the Sultan beckoned him and took him behind the 
curtains where the ladies were, and in a little time they 
both returned looking quite pleased. Soon after this 
the audience ended, and Sir Andrew invited Tunku 
Kudin to accompany him on board the Pluto^ as he 
wished to make his acquaintance. The Tunku, it 
appeared, was a brother of the Raja of Kedah, and 
in 1868 the Sultan of Selangor gave him his daughter 
in marriage, and made him Governor of Langat. . . . 
He made a great reputation by overthrowing all the 
rebels against the Sultan, and at the same time 
incurred the jealous hatred of that potentate's sons, 
his own brothers-in-law. In his interview Tunku 
displayed much intelligence, and made an excellent 
impression on the Europeans." 

Tunku Kudin was shortly afterwards nominated by 
the Sultan President of a Court, summoned in accord- 
ance with the custom of the State, for the trial of the 
captured pirates. The men were convicted, sentenced 



1^73-75] EXECUTION OF PIRATES i6i 

to death, and executed at Kualla Permona, or **the 
place of execution at the river's mouth," in the presence 
of Major McNair and Mr. Davidson. The kris, or 
sword, used on this occasion by the executioner was 
presented to Sir Andrew Clarke by the Sultan of 
Selangor, with the assurance that he would dis- 
countenance piracy, and take the strongest measures 
against those who practised it. 

Sir Andrew appointed Mr. Davidson to advise the 
Sultan of Selangor, and later he sent Mr. Swettenham 
to him, with very happy results. In August, 1874, 
Sir Andrew received a letter from the Sultan, in which 
that chief said : — 

From the Sultan of Selangor, 

** We are very much obliged to our friend for the 
officer whom our friend has chosen. He is very clever. 
He is also very clever in the customs of Malay govern- 
ment, and he is very clever in gaining the hearts of 
the rajas and sons of rajas with soft words, delicate 
and sweet, so that all men rejoice in him as the per- 
fume of an opened flower." 

The sincerity of the Sultan's thanks was proved by 
his sending a thousand dollars and voluntarily offering 
to send the same amount every month to pay the 
expenses of the Resident. 

Sir Andrew had scored another success, and the 
British colony warmly approved his action. He 
seems to have carried the community with him from 
the first, and his relations with his Legislative Council 
were most harmonious. On the 14th January Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Robert G. W. Herbert, of the 
Colonial Office, wrote to him : ^' I am glad to hear 
from all quarters (including unofficial) expressions of 
great satisfaction with what your people have seen 



i62 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

of you," and Sir Andrew's spirited action at Pangkor 
and Langat increased this feeling. The Penang 
Chamber of Commerce wrote to the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, giving expression to their ** profound 
satisfaction " with the political settlements made by 
their Governor with these Native States, and hoping, 
as the Singapore Chamber had done, that he would 
be encouraged to similar vigorous action in regard 
to the other Native States. 

No one was more ready to appreciate the services of 
the Navy than Sir Andrew, and he represented in the 
warmest terms to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies the assistance he had received from Sir 
Charles Shadwell in the Selangor business. In due 
course Lord Carnarvon acknowledged this service, 
and Sir Andrew communicated the acknowledgment 
to the Admiral, who in reply wrote : — 

From Rear^Admiral Sir Charles Shadwell. 

<< < MODESTB,' AT SHANGHAI, 

** /{th November^ 1874. 

**...! beg to express my cordial thanks to you for 
the gratifying terms in which you have conveyed to me 
the approval of the Secretary of State, and for the words 
you have added on your own behalf. I shall have 
much pleasure in communicating to Captain Wooll- 
combe and to Commanders Grant and Powlett the 
approval of the Secretary of State, and in acquainting 
them with the handsome manner in which you have also 
expressed your personal recognition of their services. 

**I have likewise to thank you for having already 
made these communications to the ships present in the 
Straits of Malacca, viz. Chatybdis and Hart. 

**I remain, etc., 

** Charles F. A. Shadwell." 

On the 6th March, 1874, ^^^ ^^'^ Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, Lord Carnarvon, wrote his first brief 



1^73-751 APPROVAL OF GOVERNMENT 163 

official despatch to the Governor of the Straits Settle- 
ments, in which he gave a qualified approval of Sir 
Andrew Clarke's proceedings. On the 19th May, 
Lord Stanley of Alderley moved a resolution in the 
House of Lords condemning the policy pursued at the 
Straits Settlements. Lord Carnarvon defended him- 
self and the Governor, saying that **Sir Andrew 
Clarke had shown remarkable energy, ability, and 
discretion, so far as he was able to consider all that 
had been done." He went on to endorse the policy of 
appointing Residents to the Native States, and thought 
that if they confined themselves to their proper and 
legitimate duties they would be of the highest value to 
the country and to the rajas. Lord Kimberley, the 
late Colonial Minister, spoke in the same sense, and 
the motion was negatived. Ten days later Lord 
Carnarvon wrote officially to the Governor: **I will 
not delay the assurance that H.M. Government ap- 
preciate the ability and energy which you have shown 
in dealing with affairs so complicated and difficult." 

At the same time Lord Carnarvon wrote semi- 
officially to assure him of the interest with which he 
watched Sir Andrew's action in the peninsula. He 
told him he was not disposed to quarrel with an exten- 
sion of English influence rightly and easily developed, 
but he added the caution that we were entering upon 
new ground and relations of a somewhat delicate 
nature in our dealings with the Native States, and that 
though British Residents are an undoubted benefit to a 
State, yet through them we become much more closely 
connected than heretofore with things and persons and 
political combinations, that may easily lead us further 
than we intend to go. He impressed on Sir Andrew 
that this new phase of colonial policy needed careful 



i64 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

watching by those on the spot, and would be easily 
jeopardised by precipitancy or immature ambition, and 
therefore much depended upon the personal character 
and ability of the Resident in each place. His anxiety, 
he said, was that a policy so well begun should be 
continued on the same lines. 

Sir Andrew was in complete accord with the views 
expressed by Lord Carnarvon. The extension of 
British influence, he thought, should be very gradual, 
free from sensational development, inexpensive, and 
peaceful. No doubt some of his subordinates fa- 
voured stronger and more energetic measures, and 
were impatient at the slow development which was 
the Governor's policy, but Sir Andrew kept a tight 
control, and watched everjrthing that went on in the 
Native States with a vigilant eye. 



CHAPTER VIII 

GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS 

SETTLEMENTS 

1873-1875 

THE MALAY NATIVE STATES 

HAVING dealt with the two large Native States 
bordering on the Straits of Malacca — Perak and 
Selangor — Sir Andrew turned his attention to two 
small States also bordering on the Straits, which lie 
to the north of the Linggi River, between Selangor 
and Malacca, and are known as Sungei Ujong and 
Rembau. He induced the Klana or Chief Ruler of 
Sungei Ujong to enter into an agreement in April, 
1874, by which he bound himself to carry on his 
government with justice, to oflFer protection to traders, 
to prevent fighting, and to place the river, from Sem- 
pang as far as Permatung Pasir, under the control of 
the British Government, and on the other hand he 
was to be assisted by the British Government to defend 
his country. 

The Chief of the other State, Rembau, who was 
known as the Dato Perba of Rembau, was frequently 
at war with the Klana of Sungei Ujong, contending 
for supremacy on the Linggi River, He had erected 
stockades on its banks, and one of them at Bukit Tiga 
was reported to be very strong. Outrages had been 

16s 



i66 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

frequent, and a recent attack on a police-boat ofifered 
Sir Andrew a favourable opportunity to take action. 

Requesting the Klana of Sungei Ujong and the 
Dato Perba of Rembau to meet him at the mouth of 
the Linggi River, Sir Andrew left Singapore on the 
30th April in H.M.S. Chatybdisy Captain T. E. Smith, 
to keep the appointment. He was accompanied by 
Mr. Braddell and Lieutenant Brackenbury, and was 
joined at the Linggi River by Captain Shaw, the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Malacca, and by H.M.S. Avon. 
The Klana was there, and agreed to accompany the 
expedition up the river, but the Dato Perba did not 
put in an appearance. 

On the 4th May, a flotilla of boats pulled up the 
stream to Bukit Tiga, where a formidable stockade was 
found, which had only been abandoned that morning. 
Sir Andrew ordered it to be destroyed, as well as 
another stockade which commanded the navigable 
channel, and when this was done the force withdrew, 
and Sir Andrew returned to Singapore. Thither, some 
months later, came the Dato Perba of his own accord, 
and saw Sir Andrew. He told the Governor that he 
wanted his country opened up, but did not wish the 
Klana to interfere with him. He promised to promote 
trade, and draw up a reasonable scale of custom duties. 
He complained that the Bandar of Linggi refused to 
recognise his authority, but only that of the Klana. 
Sir Andrew assured him that if he made a treaty with 
the British Government no one would interfere with 
him, and the Dato Perba promised to conclude one. 

Both these States made arrangements by which they 
undertook to keep peace and encourage trade, but the 
Bandar of Linggi, one of the most influential chiefs 
of the Klana, openly expressed his disapproval of the 



1873-75] SUNGEI UJONG AND REMBAU 167 

engagements entered into, and threatened to attack 
the Klana if he attempted to fulfil them. In Septem- 
ber, 1874, ^^^ Klana represented the state of affairs 
to Sir Andrew, and begged the assistance of H.M. 
Government, In the following month Sir Andrew sent 
Mr. Pickering from Malacca with a body of sixty 
native police, to see that the treaty provisions were 
carried out, and he entrusted him with a letter to 
Che Kari, the Bandar of Linggi, impressing upon that 
chief the necessity of submitting with a good grace 
to the new arrangement and living peaceably with 
his overlord. 

The Bandar was an old intriguer, and had been 
mixed up with many Malay troubles ; and Raja Mah- 
moud, who led his fighting men, was a notorious pirate, 
and, as Mr. Birch said, ''the most thorough-going old 
scoundrel in the peninsula." Mr. Pickering found the 
Bandar in a truculent mood. He declared he was as 
good as the Klana, that he had never asked the 
Governor's assistance, was very comfortable as he was, 
and his country was in no trouble. Unexpectedly 
meeting Mr. Swettenham, who had come across from 
Selangor, he insolently exclaimed, '* What ! another 
European I You travel about my country as if it were 
your own." He refused to have anything to do with 
the arrangement or treaty, and retired to Kapayang. 
Mr. Pickering went backwards and forwards several 
times between the Bandar and Sir Andrew, who with 
much patience vainly endeavoured to persuade the 
Bandar by letter to be more reasonable. But the 
Bandar had got together a considerable force under 
Mahmoud, and meant fighting. 

Unfortunately, the Klana showed himself to be a 
poltroon, while his Malay followers were arrant cow- 



i68 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

ards. The Bandar captured the Klana's stronghold of 
Rassa, and the Klana's men began to desert him. 
Mr. Pickering was left with his small force of native 
police in a somewhat precarious situation. He wrote 
to Malacca for some European troops, because, as he 
said in his letter to the Lieutenant-Governor : — 

''The Klana's men have given up every place, and 
have run away with their arms. Mahmoud is within 
two miles of this, and by all accounts intends attacking 
to-night. The Tunku Klana is a cur, but we don't like 
to leave him. We will do our best and wait for your 
help. We are surrounded here, and only ourselves and 
the Arabs will do an3rthing." 

Mr. Pickering's letter of the 19th November reached 
Malacca on the 21st. Only thirty men of the loth Foot 
were available, and these Captain Shaw, the Lieutenant- 
Governor, sent oflf under Lieutenants H. W. Palmer 
and G. B. Paton with a small police force in addition. 
He also sent an express to Singapore with the news. 
Sir Andrew received the message on the evening of 
the 23rd, and at once arranged with Colonel J. P. H. 
Crowe, V.C., commanding the garrison, for twenty 
men R.A. and a seven-pounder gun, under Captain 
W. J. Tatham, Royal Artillery, and fifty men of the 
loth Foot, under Lieutenants H. C. Huntley and 
R. G. Warton, to embark with their officers in 
H.M.S. Charybdis^ while fifty native police and an 
inspector went in the tug Pilot Fishy with jungle 
equipment. Sir Andrew himself, with Lieutenant 
Bracken bury, accompanied the troops, who were landed 
at Lukut on the 26th, and, reinforced by forty blue- 
jackets and twenty marines, with their officers, from 
H.M.S. Chatybdisy the combined force under Captain 
S. Dunlop, R.A., marched the next morning for Am- 



1873-75] TAKES TROOPS TO LUKUT 169 

pungun, the Klana's residence. The following letter 
from Sir Andrew to Lady Clarke from Lukut, on the 
27th, carries on the story : — 

To Lady Clarke. 

*• * Charybdis,* off Lukut River, 

^^ 2^th November^ 1874. 

''Had a letter this morning at five o'clock from 
Captain Shaw, sending on one from Mr. Pickering, 
dated 23rd November, from Sungei Ujong, saying he 
was safe ; had had some hard fighting, in which he had 

S>t by far the best of it, and had killed a good many of 
e enemy. Pickering still thought English troops 
were needed, so last night some thirty of the loth would 
have got to him, and Dunlop, with Tatham and 150 
more men, will reach him to-night, and I trust the day 
after to-morrow to hear that the affair is all over. 

<<We got to Malacca on Wednesday at noon, and 
sailed the same afternoon for this place. After putting 
the troops and stores on shore, and arranging for their 
marching oflF this morning, I started to Langat in the 
Hart to visit the Sultan of Selangor, and see if Swetten- 
ham was safe ; went up the Jugra River in the Malta 
Matttty and got there by five in the afternoon, having 
captured on the river Mahmoud's father. We saw the 
Sultan and Swettenham, had a very satisfactory inter- 
view with them, and arranged with them to send oflF 
people to watch certain places by which the enemy 
might escape. 

** Got back to Charybdis at three this morning, having 
had a hard but very satisfactory day of it. I thought 
we need not go on, and I think Brackenbury is much 
disappointed, but he is invaluable. Get Braddell to 
show you Pickering's letter. He is a rare good fellow 
and made of real stufif." 

A further letter from Mr. Pickering to Sir Andrew, 
dated 26th November, removed all cause for anxiety : — 

From Mr. W. A. Pickering. 

''After having been deserted by all the Malays, and 
being surrounded and threatened by Che Kari, the 



I70 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

Bandar, and Mahmoud, thanks to Providence and 
the bravery of Sergeant Kiernan and the Arabs, we 
managed to turn the tables on them before assistance 
arrived, and to create in the minds of both Malays and 
Chinese a wholesome fear of the British Government. 

'*Kapayang is now the only place left, but I don't 
want to attack it till well prepared, and rockets would 
be very useful. The present force of Europeans is 
sufficient for all that remains to be done, but I should 
feel much obliged if they could receive orders to assist 
the Klana, and to remain until the country is disarmed 
and peace made sure in Sungei Ujong. 

" I beg to forward my journal to date. I have sent 
it with all its imperfections, as I have not time to correct 
them, but I trust Your Excellency will excuse it." 

Mr. Pickering's journal records that after he had sent 
to Malacca for assistance he captured, with the help of 
Sergeant Kiernan and the Arabs, a stockade held by 
the Bandar near the Klana's position. This success 
somewhat restored the confidence of the Klana's 
followers, who began to rally to him again. On the 
23rd November Mr. Pickering attacked and recaptured 
Rassa, which was strongly stockaded and defended by 
Malays armed with rifles and two guns. He and Ser- 
geant Kiernan led the way in. The handful of British 
troops under Lieutenant Palmer from Malacca arrived 
on the 25th, and the main body from Singapore under 
Captain Dunlop on the 28th, when Kapayang was 
attacked and evacuated by the enemy. Only one 
European — a bluejacket — ^was killed. The Bandar and 
Mahmoud fled into the jungle. The fort was burned 
to the ground, and a proclamation issued by the Klana 
that the Bandar was deprived of all authority, and that 
anyone siding with him would be treated as a rebel. 

In spite of every effort the Bandar and Mahmoud 
could not be caught. Sir Andrew wrote to Captain 



1873-75] SUCCESSFUL FIGHTING 171 

Dunlop : ** Do not venture too far into the jungle after 
the runaways, as it is not worth the risk of a torn 
pair of breeches " ; and on the 2nd December he recalled 
the expedition. 

At the end of the month the Bandar and Mahmoud 
both gave themselves up and were sent to Singapore. 
The sale of the Bandar's tin-plates, which he had 
attempted to carry ofif, realised sufficient money to pay 
the cost of the expedition. 

Sir Andrew was so pleased with the gallantry and 
devotion displayed by Mr. Pickering that he recom- 
mended him for the Victoria Cross, but nothing came 
of the recommendation, as the gallant service of the 
Protector of the Chinese did not come within the four 
corners of the statutes of the Order. 



JOHORE AND PAHANG 

The State of Johore lies at the back of Singapore 
on the northern side of the narrow strait that sepa- 
rates it from Singapore Island. Its ruler was an 
enlightened prince to whom Sir Andrew and Lady 
Clarke paid a visit in March, 1874, when the basis was 
laid of a friendship that lasted until the death of the 
Maharaja. 

Pahang, the largest of the Native States, borders on 
the China Sea to the north of Johore, from which it is 
separated by the Endau River. The relations between 
the two States had frequently caused anxiety to the 
Government of the Straits Settlements, because, in the 
event of disputes, it was bound by treaty to intervene. 

When, therefore, the Maharaja of Johore informed 
Sir Andrew on the 28th of August, 1874, that one 
Inche Jawa, one of his headmen on the River Endau, 



172 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

with another man had been murdered by Pahangs, and 
that he was apprehensive of a recurrence of the old 
hostile feeling between the two States, Sir Andrew lost 
no time in taking action. 

He obtained the co-operation of the senior naval 
officer and, on the 17th September, left Singapore in 
H.M.S. Chatybdisy accompanied by H.M.S. Hart and 
Avon^ the Maharaja's gunboat Puler and his steam- 
launch. He had with him Messrs. Braddell and Read, 
and hoped that a personal interview with the Banda- 
hara of Pahang, with whom he had most friendly 
relations, would enable him to set matters right. 
Arriving at the Endau River on the 19th, he sent 
Mr. Read in the Pluto to Pekan, the capital of Pahang, 
situated some way up the Pahang River, to invite the 
Bandahara to an interview on board the Chatybdisj at 
the mouth of the river. The Bandahara expressed his 
regret that his health would not permit him to leave 
Pekan, and Sir Andrew, waiving etiquette, left the man- 
of-war on the 2 1 St and, steaming up the Pahang River 
for three hours in a launch, reached Pekan. He was 
met at the landing-place by the Bandahara, who con- 
ducted him with every mark of respect to the hall of 
audience. 

About 250 Pahangs were present, and after a few 
preliminary observations the Bandahara took the 
Governor into an inner chamber, where his wives and 
children were assembled, and only his leading chiefs 
were admitted. After some discussion the Bandahara 
agreed to appoint three Commissioners to make a 
searching inquiry, and desired that Mr. Read should 
accompany them to the scene of the murder. 

On taking leave Captain Smith, r.n., invited the 
Bandahara on board the Charybdis^ and his confidence 



1873-75] JOHORE AND PAHANG 173 

was sufficiently restored the next day to permit him to 
go on board with the three Commissioners. When he 
had taken leave and returned to Pekan, these Com- 
missioners and Mr. Read went in the Pluto to make 
their investigation and the Governor returned to 
Singapore. 

A stockade was discovered up the Endau River near 
the dwelling of the Pahang headman who was suspected 
of the murder. This stockade was destroyed, the two 
guns found in it confiscated, and the Pahang headman 
made a prisoner. A little farther up the river the 
jungle had been cleared for another stockade, but no 
signs were discovered of any attempt to take possession 
of the Johore bank of the river. The Governor came 
to the conclusion that there was no evidence to show 
that the Pahang Government was in anyway implicated 
in the murder, which seemed to be a private act of 
vendetta. 

With his usual tact Sir Andrew wrote to the 
Bandahara suggesting that after he had seen Mr. Read 
and the Commissioners, and had made himself fully 
acquainted with their views, he should himself com- 
municate the result to the Maharaja of Johore. He 
wished to establish friendly intercourse between the two 
princes, believing that many of the difficulties that had 
arisen in late years were due to want of such kindly rela- 
tions. His eflforts were successful, and he was able to in- 
form the Colonial Office in October that there were fair 
grounds for hoping that his visit to Pahang would 
gradually lead to the establishment of an entente 
cordiale between the two rulers. He was also gratified 
to learn that the Bandahara, in writing to his principal 
Chinese agent in Singapore, had alluded to the 
Governor's visit to him and, acting on Sir Andrew's 



174 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

advice, wished to encourage immigration by giving 
foreigners favourable terms for settlement in Pahang, 
and assuring them of everj- protection for their lives 
and property. 

Immediately after the Pangkor Engagement had been 
signed in January, 1S74, Sir Andrew appointed Captain 
Speedy to be Assistant Resident for the Larut district, 
but he made no appointment to the higher post of 
Resident for Perak. Mr. J. W. Birch, the Colonial 
Secretary, was anxious to have this billet, and in 
February he sent an application for it to the Governor 
in which he said : — 

Frvm Mr, J, W, Birth. 

" 1 iK'lieve I can really be of use. My whole life 
has been spent in opening up new country and in 
improving and enriching a countr}', and in teaching the 
native chiefs good government." 

Hut Sir Andrew was not going to be hurried in so 
im|K)rtant a matter, and until his actions lui-l '^•'•en 
otVicially approved he only appointed si: :■ 
were absolutely necessary to pr. \ : r 
undone. He gave Mr. nirrli. 
to visit some of the Naiixr "^ 
acter and repv»rt t /• V'-- 
this tour Mr. ^■ 
ex-Suli.in I 
him .1 ; 
if XV. 
s» ■ 

\\v :.;.. 

thr insi^iii- 
In Aumist 



I873-7S] PROCLAMATION OF TREATY 175 

Andrew issued a proclamation^ to the Malay chiefs ''to 
make known to them the good wishes of the great 
Queen of England." In his desire to impress the chiefs 
with the greatness of his sovereign he used the style 
^'Empress of India" in this proclamation, antici- 
pating by eighteen months its proposal by Mr. Disraeli 
and its adoption by Parliament. 

In the month of September, 1874, there were dis- 
turbances in Perak, and reports, vague and untrust- 
worthy, were rife as to meetings of chiefs for the 
restoration of Ismail ; but early in October precise 
news reached Singapore that one Mat Saman was 
levying blackmail at Salama, in the north of Perak. 
Sir Andrew sent Mr. Birch to inquire into the matter, 
and ascertain what could be done, and, at the same 
time telegraphed to Colonel Anson ''to get additional 
police and a dozen good soldiers equipped for jungle 
work." 

From Salama Mr. Birch wrote to Sir Andrew on the 
loth October that he and his party had got up the 
Salama River with some difficulty, owing to its swift 
current, and to the snags and rafts of timber that they 
had encountered. On the way they had been nearly 
ambushed by Mat Saman and his men, who were 
armed with rifles, but a party of police sent to intercept 
Mat Saman captured sixteen of his followers. " There 
is no fear now," Mr. Birch said, "of a row," and four 
days later he wrote to Sir Andrew : — 

From Mr. /. W. Birch. 

"We have worked our way with all our men to the 
source of the Krian and Salama rivers, which both 

^ See Appendix. 



176 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

come through a curious gorge in the mountains. . • . 
Speedy joined me last night with fifty men. He heard 
as he came along that Mat Saman had run away. He 
is now a fugitive. He nearly ran down on our en- 
campment two nights ago, but he got warning just in 
time. He is being hunted by about 200 of the Che 
Karim's men. . . . 

'* Everything is quiet, and we have shown them this 
time that we do not mean to be played with. The 
sixteen prisoners we took Speedy will march away 
to-morrow to Larut, where he will keep them for a few 
days, and then bail them out never to return. We met 
a big wha-wha last evening with a young one — a 
beauty — in her arms, which we are rearing by hand. 
We have no casualties and no sickness, lots of rain, 
and very cool at night." 

Mr. Birch's mission had been successful, and Sir 
Andrew felt himself justified in appointing him to be 
the first British Resident at Perak, Captain Speedy 
retaining the post of Assistant Resident at Larut. A 
letter from Sir Andrew to Mr. Birch shows with what 
care and personal attention the Governor watched the 
working of the new system : — 

To Mr. J. W. Birth. 

'' Singapore, 16 November^ 1874. 
'*My dear Birch, 

'*...! must now content myself with saying 
that so far vou seem to have done right well. I hope 
before you nave got to Ismail you will have seen Yaha. 
Keep him with you, and make much of him, but be 
sure of him. 

'* Do not bother about the regalia, or any ceremony 
of making Abdulla sultan, and above all things I hope 
you will not forget to show every gentleness and defer- 
ence to Ismail. Do not hurry him to any settlement of 
his own affairs, or to giving up anything. Interest 
him in inducing him to live where Abdulla will live, 
with a separate house, grounds, etc., and with all 



I873-7S] OVERWORKED 177 

the honours of a sultan. Interest him in planting 
sugar, tobacco, etc. Swettenham has in this direc- 
tion managed his old Sultan very well. The sooner 
you can get people to look at the land in Perak the 
better. ... 

'*You will have to watch the Mantri with all your 
ejres, and urp^e Speedy to do the same. Speedy will 
still believe in him. • . . What is still more difficult 
for the Mantri to accept is that he could not have been 
in the position he is had we not interfered . . • and so 
in the same language you must gently but firmly tell 
Abdulla that I could never have given him any per- 
mission about the Krian or its revenues. I might 
have told him, and you can repeat it, that if he accepts 
in its entirety our advice, and by it rules his country 
justly, and keeps the peace to all and with all, what 
may be lost to him in the Krian will be more than 
made up elsewhere. I should make him, I mean indtu:e 
him, to go with you everywhere. Tell him the Sultan 
of Selangor is doing it with Swettenham ; that his 
doing so will make him stronger in his country, etc. 
In short, organise a regular 'progress' with him, you, 
of course, taking care to be A i and the prominent 
figure. ''Yours, 

"A. C. 

"P.S. — Why not make Abdulla his own Commis- 
sioner to settle boundaries with you ? " 

Sir Andrew had not spared himself in the initiation 
of his new policy in the Native States, and by the 
summer of 1874 the strain and anxiety had begun to 
tell on his health. News of this found its way to the 
Colonial Office, and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert 
Herbert sent him a caution in August: — 

From Mr. R. G. W. Herbert. 

" I hear you are overworking yourself, and I suspect 
there is truth in it. Now that you have done so much 
that needed to be done, remember that your first duty 
to the Crown is to take care of yourself." 



178 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

At the end of the year Mr. Herbert wrote even more 
strongly : — 

From the same. 

'* Many people tell me you are doing a great deal too 
much*work, and will knock yourself up. You ought to 
receive a despatch severely censuring you, if such is 
the case. You should get away for a spell occasion- 
ally. I shall recommend a very liberal arrangement, 
and you will not find Lord Carnarvon unreasonable." 

But, as already mentioned, not long after the begin- 
ning of 1875 Sir Andrew was appointed a member of 
the Council of the Viceroy of India, and his connection 
with the Colonial Office was soon to cease. After his 
return to Singapore from the visit to Siam in March, 
1875, already described in chapter vi., Sir Andrew 
arranged before quitting the government of the Straits 
Settlements to pay a farewell visit to Penang, and get 
the Sultan and chiefs of Perak to meet him there. 
His time was getting short, and the visit had to be a 
more hurried one than he had intended. It was paid 
at the end of April, but AbduUa made an excuse, and 
did not come. He was, in truth, afraid to meet the 
Governor, as he had been doing several things of which 
Sir Andrew disapproved. After the Governor's visit 
was over, however, Abdulla sent the Laksamana, Raja 
Dris, with another chief, as a deputation to Singapore. 
Sir Andrew received the deputation just before the 
arrival of the new Governor, and listened to AbduUa's 
excuses and grievances. He had drafted a reply to the 
deputation when Sir William Jervois arrived, two days 
earlier than he was expected. Sir Andrew ceased to be 
Governor, and the matter was taken out of his hands. 

During the eighteen months Sir Andrew held the 
government of the Straits Settlements, his attention 



1873-75] THE RESIDENT SYSTEM 179 

had been engrossed with the pacification of the Native 
States and the initiation and development of the Resi- 
dent system. It is for this policy that his short govern- 
ment is remembered in the East, and that he is 
honoured with a place next to Sir Stamford Raffles in 
public estimation, as the author of progress in the 
Malay peninsula. The wonderful development that 
began in 1874, ^nd has continued since his policy was 
adopted, is shown in the revenue statistics. In 1874 
the revenue of the two Native States, Perak and 
Selangor, was 100,000 dollars, which went into the 
pockets of the Malay chiefs for their own selfish in- 
dulgence. In 1900 the revenue of these two States had 
risen to 13,500,000 dollars, and paid for an administra- 
tion which promoted the peace and prosperity of the 
country. 

Sir Frederick Weld, when Governor of the Straits 
Settlements in 1891, wrote to Sir Andrew: *'I wish 
you would come here and pay me a visit to see the 
results of the seed you sowed " ; and another Governor, 
Sir Clementi Smith, speaking in London in 1902, at 
the first '* Straits" dinner after Sir Andrew's death, 
said: ''In the history of the Straits Settlements the 
name of Sir Andrew Clarke would always be writ 
large." Major McNair, to whom frequent reference 
has been made in these pages, in his book entitled 
Perak and the Malays^ published in 1878, attributes 
Sir Andrew's influence with the native chiefs to his 
personal sympathy. ''He was possessed," he says, 
"of a wonderful faculty of dealing with natives, whom 
he won to his side by his frankness and openness of 
manner, through which though there always shone 
firmness of character, mingled with a high sense of 
justice, and that which is due -from man to man." 



i8o GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

As the date for the departure of Sir Andrew and 
Lady Clarke from Singapore drew near, expressions 
of regret were heard on all sides. Mr. Birch wrote 
from Perak to Mr. Braddell : '^ I do so deplore losing 
the Chief, I could cry over it ; he has so gained my 
afifection and gratitude, as well as respect and esteem." 
Mr. Swettenham wrote from Langat to Sir Andrew : 
** I think few people will be more sorry to lose Your 
Excellency than I, probably because few have received 
so much kindness as I have. No one can favour your 
policy more than I do, and I feel sure it will succeed." 
Such was the general feeling, addresses flowed in from 
various bodies, but only one need be alluded to, as it 
was particularly pleasing to Sir Andrew. It was from 
^'the Chinese of Singapore, Penang, Malacca, and the 
newly opened States," and was presented by some lead- 
ing Chinese merchants of Singapore, headed by Ho 
Ah Kay, better known as the Hon. Mr. Whampoa, a 
member of the Legislative Council, and Mr. Kim 
Ching, a Justice of the Peace. The following is an 
extract from this address : — 

"Since Your Excellency took up your duties here, 
you have truly exhibited your talents and powers of 
governing by the manner in which you have established 
new laws, reviewed and settled old cases, cherished the 
people as if they were your own children, and restored 
peace and prosperity in the neighbouring States. By 
the exercise of these talents the whole state of the 
colony has been transformed, and we all are saturated 
with the benefits springing from Your Excellency's 
virtues. . . . The news of Your Excellency's departure 
fills the whole of the Chinese population, great 
merchants and small traders, with sorrow mingled with 
joy. . . . We feel glad because Your Excellency is 
going away to receive high promotion in rank and 
mcrease of emolument, but we are all grieved that you 
cannot remain in office here. • . . We would also 



1873-75] LEAVES SINGAPORE 181 

reverently express our appreciation of the liberality, 
sympathy, and love shown to us by Your Excellency's 
Lady ; the Chinese have in great numbers continually 
been invited to Government House, and Lady Clarke 
has not only never placed any obstacle in our way, but, 
on the contrary, has always received us most cordially, 
and treated us with the greatest ceremonial politeness ; 
truly we feel this great goodness, and now wish to 
express our gratitude for the great favours we have 
received, by af&xing our names to this farewell eulogy 
and address, and we all pray that increase of happiness 
and longevity may attend you both." 

Before their departure Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke 
were entertained at a ball and supper given in the 
Town Hall. At the supper their toasts were proposed 
by the Hon. Thomas Scott, member of the Legislative 
Council, who expressed the general satisfaction of the 
community with Sir Andrew's administration, and 
their regret at his departure, and he paid a graceful 
tribute to Lady Clarke's many quiet and unobtrusive 
acts of kindness, her sympathising friendship, and the 
grace and tact with which she had presided over the 
hospitalities of Government House, lending herself to 
no party and no clique, but treating all with equal 
courtesy and kindness, so that they all felt in losing 
Lady Clarke they were losing, not so much the 
Governor's wife, as a personal friend. 

Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke left Singapore for 
Calcutta on the 26th May, 1875, on board the P. and O. 
steamer China^ amid the cheers and good wishes of 
the whole community. 

Before leaving altogether the subject of Sir Andrew's 
connection with the Straits Settlements and the Malay 
States, a few words must be said about the events 
which occurred towards the end of the year 1875, ^^y 



i83 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

six months after he had taken up his appointment in 
India. The murder of Mn Birch and the war that 
followed caused a sharp controversy as to the respective 
policies of Sir Andrew Clarke and his successor, Sir 
William Jervois. Both Governors were very able men, 
and did their duty to the best of their judgment. But 
their policies were essentially difiPerent and may be 
briefly stated as follows : — 

Sir Andrew's policy was very gradually to prepare 
the Malay States for coming into the British Empire 
by giving them British advisers, under the name of 
Residents, who should guide the chiefs, but not dictate 
to them, and while pointing out their duty and en- 
deavouring to get them to perform it, should interfere 
as little as possible with their authority. 

In Sir Andrew's instructions to Mr. Birch he said : — 

To Mr. J. W. Birch. 

^^ Limit all your efforts to the sea-coast and navigable 
waters, never mind the regalia, now and then have 
Ismail quietly told that he was losing money by hold- 
ing back, but do not bother about the upper rivers 
where there are only Malays. Have patience with 
them. Debt-slavery is a bad thing, but until we are 
prepared to compensate in full and to show a better 
system to secure credit, let it for the present alone." 

Again in writing to Mr. Childers in October, 1875, 
Sir Andrew said : — 

To the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

^* I hear the new policy is to annex. This is foolish. 
The Resident system is far better ; till each State pays 
we must be patient, and not hasten too much the ideas 
of how things should be done. Let us know the 
country well, and having established our police posts, 
our advance, when we make it, will be easy. If you 
annex you must be prepared to spend money and lose 
many hves." 



1873-75] A NEW POLICY 183 

On the other hand. Sir William Jervois on visiting 
Perak in September, 1875, formed a very low opinion 
of the Malay chiefs. He considered them an illiterate, 
opium-smokingi indolent, self-indulgent lot. He found 
debt*slavery and other evils rampant, and he came to 
the conclusion that while the British Government had 
in every respect fulfilled their part of the compact under 
the Pangkor Engagement of 1874, ^^^ had incurred con- 
siderable pecuniary liabilities in so doing, the Perak 
chiefs had not met their treaty obligations. His policy 
was to hasten the development of the Native States by 
making them protected States, or, as he himself put it : — 

** My proposal, therefore, is to govern the country in 
the name of the Sultan by means of officers to be styled 
Queen's Commissioners and Assistant Queen's Com- 
missioners. I consider it very desirable that the 
change of policy from one of mere advice to one of 
control should be marked by a change in the titles of 
the British officers." 

We have here a policy absolutely distinct from, and 
opposed to, that of Sir Andrew Clarke, and the con- 
troversy centred on the question whether the evils that 
existed in the Malay Native States could be patiently 
endured long enough to allow Sir Andrew Clarke's 
policy to succeed, and these Native States to be gradu- 
ally absorbed into the Empire under their own govern- 
ments ; or whether it was necessary to start the drastic 
and coercive policy of Sir William Jervois. As the 
sequel showed and as Sir Andrew maintained, to 
attempt to hasten annexation meant not only the ex- 
penditure of much money, but the loss of many valu- 
able lives. 

In consequence of Sir William Jervois's new policy, 
the Malay chiefs were required to enter into agree- 



i84 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

ments to accept his proposals ; this they did, and on 
the 15th October a proclamation was issued by the 
Governor's command establishing the new order of 
things in the Malay States. To Mr. Birch was 
entrusted the duty of distributing copies of it in Perak, 
and while engaged on this service he was murdered by 
a Malay. The news reached Sir Andrew Clarke on the 
7th November, when he was travelling on a tour of 
inspection in the Punjab. Four days later Colonel 
F. S. Roberts, Quartermaster-General in India (now 
Field-Marshal Earl Roberts), wrote from Umballa to 
Sir Andrew ; — 

From Colonel F» S. Roberts. 

** Before this reaches you, you will no doubt have 
heard of the disturbances in Perak. A telegram has 
come from the Government of India saying that our 
troops have sustained a serious reverse, and that re- 
inforcements will probably have to be sent from India. 
Lord Napier has recommended a British regiment, a 
regiment of Goorkhas, and a mountain battery beinj^ 
despatched. We are all somewhat in the dark regard- 
ing that part of the world, and Lord Napier has desired 
me to write and tell you what has occurred, and ask you 
for any suggestions you can make as to the equipment 
of the troops, means of transport, etc., in fact for in- 
formation on any points you may think useful. His 
Excellency will be greatly obliged if you can spare 
time to do this." 

A letter dated 12th November, 1875, from his old 
munshi, Muhammad Syed, gave Sir Andrew a graphic 
account of the tragic incidents at Perak. This hitherto 
unpublished letter runs as follows : — 

From Muhammad Syed, Munshi. 

^^ I beg to inform you that on the 2nd instant Mr. 
Birch went to Upper Perak with his interpreter and a 



1873-75] MURDER OF MR. BIRCH 185 

few sepoys and peons together with the Captain of 
H.M.S. Fly and six English guards. After he 
placards the proclamation of the 15th instant he came 
to a village called Pasir Sala. There he ordered his 
men to cook their rice, and he ordered the munshi 
or interpreter to placard the proclamation, and he went 
to a bath-shed, which are floated along the villages, 
each one or two. He gets into one of these, about 
fifteen or twenty miles from the British Residence, and 
from the mouth of the river to the British Residence is 
about forty or fifty miles. 

** Now when the munshi posted the proclamation a 
Malay came and tear it. He informed this to Mr. 
Birch, who said, *Go and put another so.' The 
munshi put it again, and the Malay again tear it, and 
said, 'I have told you not to put the proclamation 
here, for we are not Sultan Abdulla's men. We belong 
to Sultan Ismail.' When he put another proclamation 
to the post the Malay stab him in the right cheek round 
to the ear, and the munshi ran from him and said, ' I 
am a servant, I do as my masters told me.' The Malay 
ran after him and stabbed him again. He cried for 
help and jumped into the river. Two sepoys came and 
took him into a boat. There he died. 

'* At the time that the munshi got the first stab, a 
few Malays got into Mr. Birch's boat and took away all 
his arms, and then a few of them, well armed, waited 
at the door of his bath. When Mr. Birch heard the 
munshi cry for help (about fifty yards on the bank) he 
hastened himself to come out and opened the door. 
When he came out the Malays chopped him with their 
knives. They cut him in pieces and began to fire on 
all British subjects ; one sepoy was killed, two of the 
H.M.S. Fiys men, one peon, and three Malays miss- 
ing, about eight wounded, one boatman had a ball in 
his cheek. All this occurred at five p.m., and they ran 
down to the British Residency the same evening. 

**The Penang Lieutenant-Governor sent up a few 
guards on the PlutOy and Captain Innes as an Acting 
Commissioner. After consulting on the 6th instant 
he went with two hundred peons, sepoys, Malays, and 
others to attack them. Before they arrived at the spot 
the Malays had already come below this village and 



i86 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

hid in the bushes. When the Malays saw a new Eng- 
lish coming with his troops they first fired with their 
lilas (blunderbusses). I am very sorry to inform you 
that poor Captain Innes was struck on the right breast 
and fell dead. The disturbance went on and, on our 
side, all returned to the Residency. Altogether there 
were fifteen dead, including Mr. Birch, twenty-five 
seriously wounded, and ten slightly wounded. The 
Lieutenant-Governor arrived in Perak at eight p.m. 
on the 8th, anchoring above Bata Rabit. Sultan 
AbduUa, Laksamana, and Dato Bandar came to see 
His Excellency on board steamer. 

**On the 2nd day of November, Mr. Swettenham 
was nearly killed at Blanja. Fortunately he took the 
wicked Raja Mahmoud from Singapore by Pluto when 
he left on the 23rd October. This wicked Mahmoud 
saved his life, for the Blanja men knew Raja Mahmoud, 
so they dared not to do harm to the youn^ ofl&cer. His 
Excellencvr the Governor blockades the River Perak by 
H.M.S. Ply and Thistle till he send troops and strong 
guard to Perak." 

Sir Andrew also received the following letter from 
Sir William Jervois: — 

From Major-General Sir W. F. D. Jervois. 

"'Pluto,' Pbnang, 

*« 26 November ^ 1875. 

" My dear Clarke, 

** You must have been grieved to hear of poor 
Birch having been murdered. The event occurred at 
Pasir Sala (the place of Maharaja Lela), a few (about 
five) miles above the Residency at Bandar Bharu. I 
received two telegrams on the evening of the 3rd, one 
from Birch, saying everything was quiet and expressing 
great confidence; the other from Penang, giving 
account of his murder. At first I did not believe the 
statement, but on telegraphing two or three times, 
making inquiry at Penang, I found it was only too 
true. 

**On the ist November Birch had been down the 
river to Kota S'tia, and had issued a proclamation of 



1^73-75] CAPTAIN W. INNES KILLED 187 

mine and two proclamations of Abdulla's with reference 
to the future administration of the Government of 
Perak. This was done without the least incident all 
the wa)r up to Pasir Sala, It was also done by Swetten- 
ham without incident from about Bota up to Kualla 
Kangsa. Birch slept in his boat at Pasir Sala, shook 
hands with Maharaja Lela and Dato Sagor (who lives 
at Camponj Gaja, opposite Pasir Sala), and in the 
evening Arshad, his interpreter, put up some proclama- 
tions. The proclamations were torn down, whereupon 
Arshad struck a Malay with a stick. The Malay imme- 
diately stabbed Arshad, and a rush was made at Birch, 
who was bathing in a bath close to the shore. Of his 
escort (ten men) and boatmen, who were attacked at the 
same time with him, two were killed and two wounded. 
Lieutenant Abbot, r.n., who had been shooting on the 
opposite shore, had a narrow escape. He met the Dato 
Sagor, who advised him to go into the jungle. Abbot 
would probably have been murdered if he had not had 
a ^un in his hand. He wisely jumped into a boat, 
wim one man who had attended him whilst shooting, 
and reached Bandar Bharu, after paddling down the 
stream exposed to fire from both sides. 

**I telegraphed on the 4th to say I was going up 
at once to Perak, but, unfortunately, before my telegram 
arrived a detachment of sixt^ of the loth Regiment 
from Penang, with thirty police and about fifty Sikhs, 
made an attack on Pasir Sala which failed, and poor 
Innes, r.e., was killed. In this attack the mistake 
was made of not having a gun or guns on a boat or 
boats in the river to fire into the stockades before the 
infantry on land advanced. On the 15th, however, a 
thoroughly successful attack was made, four very strong 
stockades taken and six guns captured without loss. 

'^ Meanwhile Davidson has been greatly harassed 
in Selangor, and reports of bodies of armed Malays 
coming upon him in several directions alarmed him a 
good deal. Davidson has been in the field with a 
mixed force of Chinamen, trusty Malays, and others, 
and has taken one of the malcontents, named Soulan 
Riasa, but things are in a very unsettled condition in 
Selangor. Some of the States about Malacca have also 
lately been uneasy. 



i88 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

''Some think, but I myself do not think so at all, 
that a general rising is contemplated in the Malay 
peninsula. I believe such an idea has no foundation 
to rest upon. It must be admitted, however, that 
matters have assumed a threatening aspect, and it is 
generally believed that the long duration of the war in 
Achin has had a bad effect on the Malay peninsula. 

'* The settlement of the Perak difficulty is no easy 
matter, and it cannot be effected without occupying the 
country with a military force. We have punished 
Pasir Sala and burnt it, but the murderers of Birch and 
the instigators must be got hold of, if possible, and 
military occupation is essential to enable us to enforce 
this. 

''It is not improbable that there may be no more 
fighting, and I want to avoid creating a war. I am 
trying to do as much as possible by negotiation, and 
have just received a friendly letter from Ismail, but 
this, though only received by me yesterday, is dated 
November 2nd, before Ismail knew of Birch's murder. 
Some reports say that Ismail has called out the Ulva 
people, and that he is bringing I don't know how many 
thousand men into the field to turn the British out. I 
myself do not believe anything of the sort, but amidst 
the reports one receives and the difficulties of obtaining 
correct information, it is necessary to be prepared both 
for peaceable settlement, supported by display of force, 
and for actual hostilities, should negotiations be found 
impracticable. I expect to be able to bring about a 
settlement of difficulties by diplomacy. 

" I am deluged with work now, and it would take me 
too long to go into the causes of the state of things in 
Perak, but I hope to be able to tell you what I think on 
this on a future occasion. 

"I can, however, now say that I believe one cause 
was the putting of Abdulla on the throne, another, poor 
Birch's impetuosity. 

"Yours sincerely, 

"W. F. Drummond Jervois.*' 

The last paragraph of this letter called in question 
the judgment of Sir Andrew Clarke in acknowledging 



i873-7S] DEFENCE OF OLD POLICY 189 

Abdulla as Sultan of Perak, and in selecting Mr. Birch 

as British Resident at Perak. Writing to his friend, 

Mr. ChilderSy on the loth December, 1875, Sir Andrew 

says : — 

To the RU Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

** I believe in every way I was right in putting up 
Abdulla. Had I taken the other man, I could not 
have secured the peace of the coasts, or the lower parts 
of the rivers, my first object, as Abdulla and his party 
are strong there, while Ismail and his followers are 
high up the river where we have no trade, and where 
we need not go for years. . . . No doubt Abdulla is a 
weak, vain fool in some things, but he was ten times 
better than old Ismail." 

And again in the succeeding year he justified his 
selection of Abdulla in the following words : — 

**To those intimately acquainted with the manners 
and customs of Malays, it would be evident that 
Ismail, a foreigner, a man of no family in his own 
country — a mere Sumatrian parvenu in short — ^who had 
never been anything beyond a servant — a good and 
useful one perhaps, but still a servant — ^to former 
sultans, could never have been allowed to govern 
Perak." 

As to his selection of Mr. Birch to be British Resi- 
dent at Perak, in writing on the subject to Mr. Evelyn 
Ashley, m.p., Sir Andrew said : — 

To the Hon. A. E. M. Ashley. 

** Poor Birch, it is said, was impetuous and hot- 
headed, and that I was to blame for selecting him. He 
was energetic, zealous, and loyal, and as long as I kept 
him to a policy of patience and conciliation all went 
well." 

Shortly after Sir William Jervois wrote to Sir 
Andrew the letter of the 26th November, the rein- 



I90 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

forcements for which he had telegraphed on the 7th 
to Hong Kong and to India began to arrive. Major- 
General Col borne, ^ with 300 men of the 80th Regi- 
ment, came from Hong Kong, Brigadier-General 
Ross, ^ with 1,250,* from Calcutta, and Naval Brigades 
were formed from H,M. ships which arrived on the 
station. 

Three columns were formed. The first, under 
General Colborne, ascended the Perak River in boats, 
and, after five days' travelling, landed at Blanja. 
General Colborne left a small force there, and marched 
on Kinta, the principal town of the country, experi- 
encing some opposition on the way and much difficulty 
in transporting his guns, ammunition, and stores over 
an almost impassable jungle. Kinta was occupied on 
the 17th December after slight resistance. 

The second column, under General Ross, disem- 
barked at the mouth of the Larut River, and marched 
to Kualla Kangsa. From that place, which is on the 
Perak River, General Ross sent Colonel Philip Story, 
with 250 men, down the river to Blanja, whence they 
joined General Colborne at Kinta on the 21st Decem- 
ber. General Ross himself, on the 4th January, 1876, 
successfully attacked, though with some loss, the 
hostile village of Kota Lama, long the haunt of the 
worst-disposed and most turbulent Malays. He also 
made expeditions against other disaffected villages in 
the neighbourhood with equally satisfactory results. 

The third column, under Colonel Clay, operated in 

^ Major-General the Hon. Francis Colborne commanded the troops 
at Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements. He was afterwards General 
the Hon. Sir Francis Colborne, K.C.B. 

^ Afterwards General Sir John Ross, K.C.B. 

' The force was composed of a mountain battery R.A., the 3rd Buf&, 
the I St Gurkhas, and a company of Madras sappers. 



i873'7S] THE PERAK WAR 191 

Sungei Ujong, where the Malays occupied a very 
strong position in a narrow defile between two jungle- 
covered hills, called the Bukit Putus Pass, which they 
had fortified with formidable stockades and other 
obstacles. Colonel Clay attacked the pass on the 
20th December, 1875, captured the stockades, and, 
after some fighting, carried the position and put the 
Malays to flight. The enemy were completely cowed 
and disheartened by this defeat. 

After nearly a year's military occupation of the 
Native States the troops were withdrawn and replaced 
by a native police force chiefly composed of Indians. 

A reward had been offered for the apprehension of the 
murderers of Mr. Birch. Some, including Maharaja 
Lela, were captured in February, 1876, and either 
executed or punished with life sentences of imprison- 
ment. Ismail surrendered at Penang in March with the 
greater part of the regalia, and was handed over to the 
charge of the Maharaja of Johore, who referred to him 
in a letter to Sir Andrew, dated May, 1876 : — 

From the Maharaja of Johore. 

^^ Ismail has at last come in. My officers drove him 
to the boundary of Kedah, where he submitted to the 
Sultan. He is now here on parole, and will remain 
here until the pleasure of the British Government is 
known. A few days ago I was successful in obtaining 
from him his ' chop' as Sultan of Perak. This is worth 
more to the British Government than the whole of the 
regalia." 

Ismail died in Johore in September, 1889. Abdulla 
was deposed from the sultanate of Perak and, with 
three of his chiefs, the Laksamana, the Mantri, and the 
Shahbandar, brought to trial at Singapore, found 
guilty, and deported to the Seychelles Islands. In 



192 GOVERNOR OF THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

1894 Abdulla's case was reconsidered, mainly at the in- 
stance of Sir Andrew Clarke, and he was allowed to 
return to Singapore. In his exile he learnt English, 
and when he came to London he saw and conversed 
with Sir Andrew on several occasions. On his return 
to the Seychelles to arrange for his departure for Singa- 
pore he wrote a letter, dated 15th of February, 1895, 
expressing his gratitude to Sir Andrew Clarke for his 
kindness to him. 




MONUMENT, PERAK WAR 



To face page 19a 



^ 



CHAPTER IX 

MEMBER OF COUNCIL OF THE 
VICEROY OF INDIA 

1875-1880 

WHEN it was decided at the end of 1874 to 
enlarge the Indian Public Works Administra- 
tion, and to place at its head an additional member of 
the Viceroy's Council, Lord Salisbury, who was then 
Secretary of State for India, had good reason to believe 
that a large and increasing portion of the revenue 
might be advantageously assigned to productive public 
works. He selected Sir Andrew Clarke for the post 
on account of his successful administration of the 
Admiralty Works Department during a time of ex- 
pansion, and Sir Andrew went to India, looking for- 
ward to a period of activity in developing the resources 
of the country by improved communications and other 
beneficial public works. 

He arrived at Calcutta on the 4th June, 1875, and 
was welcomed on behalf of the Viceroy by Mr. Justice, 
now Sir William, Markby. Lord Northbrook was, of 
course, at Simla for the summer months, and thither 
Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke made their way without 
loss of time. On reaching Simla, Lord Napier of 
Magdala, then Commander-in-Chief in India, invited 
them to stay with him until they could settle themselves 
comfortably, but they had already accepted a similar in- 

O 193 



194 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

vitation from Mr. Arthur Hobhouse, the Legal Member 
of the Viceroy's Council, and before long they got into 
a house of their own, Kennedy House, which they 
occupied during the summer stay of the Government 
in the hills during the five years they spent in India. 

An important event which the Government and 
people of India were looking forward to when Sir 
Andrew arrived was the approaching visit of the Prince 
of Wales, now His Most Gracious Majesty King Edward 
VII. Sir Andrew interested himself in bringing the 
Maharaja of Johoreto meet the Prince, and the Viceroy 
invited His Highness to attend the chapter of the Star 
of India to be held on New Year's Day, 1876. The in- 
vitation was accepted, and the sensible Maharaja, writ- 
ing to Sir Andrew on the subject of his visit, said: 
^^ As the grandeur of the Indian maharajas will quite 
eclipse a Malayan's, perhaps the more unostentatiously 
I travel the better." The presence of this Malay chief, 
whose attitude to the British Government had been con- 
spicuously cordial, and who entertained a personal 
friendship for the late Governor of the Straits Settle- 
ments, provided an additional feature of interest at the 
Durbar, and was particularly agreeable to Sir Andrew. 

The Prince landed in Bombay on the 8th November, 
and after a tour in Southern India and Ceylon, arrived 
at Calcutta a few days before Christmas. Sir Andrew 
and Lady Clarke took part in all the festivities that 
marked the occasion of the Prince's visit to the seat of 
government in India, and, on the 30th December, His 
Royal Highness honoured them with his company at 
dinner. The Prince left India in March, 1876, and in 
the following month Lord Northbrook was succeeded 
as Viceroy by Lord Lytton, whom Mr. Childers, in 
a letter to Sir Andrew telling him who was to be the 



i87S-8o] AN INDIAN HOUSE OF LORDS 195 

new Viceroy, described as ** a man of genius who has 
to win his spurs in administration." 

Hardly had the Prince of Wales left India when the 
proclamation of the Queen as Empress of India, at 
a g^eat Durbar to be held at Delhi on the first day 
of 1877, began to occupy the attention of the Govern- 
ment. Sir Andrew greatly desired that the occasion 
should be seized to institute an Imperial Indian Senate, 
in which the principal princes and chiefs of India would 
be associated with the great oflScers of the paramount 
power in an Indian House of Lords, and he unfolded 
his scheme in the following letter to Mr. Montagu 
Corry, then Private Secretary to the Prime Minister : — 

To Mr. Montagu Corry ^ afterwards Lord Rowton. 

** Simla, 18 May, 1876. 

**My dear Corry, 

**One line to suggest to you to support the 
extensions of what has been commenced, and to take 
advantage of the present moment and give now to the 
princes and people of this country some recognition 
that they have a political and national existence. 

** If done now, you will consolidate and strengthen 
the English power in this peninsula and call a true 
Empire into life and vigour. Neglect it, and you will 
give form and force to what has not as yet gone beyond 
the state of vague doubt, as to whether the recent visit 
and the new title are to India but a mockery and 
a deceit. Extend to the nationalities of India the 
manifest responsibility of having a share in directing 
its destiny, and you surround the Imperial Crown with 
a triple line of defence. 

**A11 this can be for the time, and with wisdom 
for all time, secured by the creation of a Diet, Imperial 
Senate, call it what you will, of the principal chiefs of 
India associated with the great officers of the paramount 
power and the representatives of English commerce and 
industry. 

^' In this body, peers of parliament, whilst in India, 



196 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

can take their seats, and Indian princes belonging to 
it should, on the other hand, when in England, have 
the rights and privileges of peers. The annual session 
of this bodv should be limited by law to a certain 
number of davs, and it should not meet twice running 
in any one ot the great cities of India. The Viceroy 
should open and close the session, communicating by 
message, but not presiding or taking a part in its 
deliberations. The presiding officer should, for the 
time being, be the Chancellor of the Empire, and, as a 
rule, the men you have sent as Law Members of Council 
have been above the average of good men, and I 
should entrust the office to them. 

^^ The present Supreme Council should have the con- 
trol of all its business, which should be purely consult- 
ative and legislative, on the direct motion or assent of 
the Crown. The several local British administrations 
should be represented both in their judicial and execu- 
tive or administrative branches, and the European 
commercial and planting industries should have inde- 
pendent representatives. 

''Certain of the great feudatories should have per- 
manent seats, and the minor ones, grouped in electoral 
colleges, should nominate to each session its represent- 
ative. So, with the great heads of families, now 
altogether British, some mi^ht have hereditary^ seats, 
whilst others would only sit for limited periods as 
representatives of their several orders and provinces. 

'' Such is the skeleton of a body which, when clot±ied, 
would give to India a new national life, and to the 
sovereignty of England a crown covering a real and 
autonomian Empire. u yours, etc., 

*^A. Clarke." 

It is said that Lord Lytton was not absolutely averse 
to the idea thus presented by Sir Andrew, but ex- 
pressed a fear that when the Indian people got their 
House of Lords they would want their House of 
Commons too, which, said he, ''would be the ruin 
of all things.'* Nothing further can be traced in 
reference to the proposal. 



i87S-8o] THE KING OF SIAM 197 

It was at Sir Andrew's suggestion, a suggestion with 
which Lord Lytton readily fell in, that the King of 
Siam was invited to be present at the Delhi Durbar. 
The King wrote to Sir Andrew : — 

Fr(>m H.M. the King of Siam. 

" Royal Palace, Bangkok, 

'* 27 November^ 1876. 

" My dear Sir, 

"I have just now received your letter, and 
I thank you sincerely for the good wishes and kind 
offers therein contained. I am especially pleased that 
the Government of India should think well of my 
efforts to improve matters in Siam ; that will encourage 
me to proceed farther. 

**It has been impossible for me to accept the 
Viceroy's invitation. I could not leave my Govern- 
ment for so long a time without long prearran^ement, 
but I hope that my being represented by His Highness 
Somditch Chao Phraja Paramaha Sri Sirujawongse, 
as my ambassador, will be appreciated by the Govern- 
ment of India. His Highness bears a letter to you in 
which I have asked for much assistance from you. . . . 
His Highness is of high dignity and honour. During 
my minority His Highness governed as Regent, and 
to this day he is considered and treated as exalted in 
the land. . . . His Highness takes great interest in 
engineering, and has himself carried out many works 
of that nature. He will be naturally attracted by the 
great engineering works which are under your control, 
and which I beg you will give him favourable oppor- 
tunities of inspecting. . . . 

** I am very much gratified by your promise of assist- 
ance and advice, for it will be of great service to me 
to have at times the advice of one who is, by his high 
position, raised above all personal consideration and 
above the jealousy and ill-feeling so abounding even in 
good men in Bangkok. 

*'The course of internial politics in Siam has been 
very quiet ever since your departure, the only excep- 
tion being an invasion of a part of Upper Siam by 
Haw Chinese, who were conquered and quelled by our 



198 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

forces. I have felt it better to defer the prosecution 
of further plans of reform until I shall find some 
demand for them among the leaders of my people. I 
have not relinquished them, but act according to my 
opportunities. 

**My health has been good. Each year I grow 
stronger, and when at times I feel fatigued and not 
very well, a few days spent in the country or on the 
coast makes me strong and well again. 

**I send you herewith my photograph just taken, 
which I beg you to accept as a memento of me. 

** I am your very good friend, 

" Chulalonkorn R." 

The King kept up a regular correspondence with 
Sir Andrew during his service in India, and discussed 
with him at some length matters relating to forest 
disputes on the frontier of Siam bordering on Burma. 
He complained much of the conduct of the British 
Consul-General, who was evidently not a persona grata 
to His Majesty. Some time after the Delhi Durbar 
was over, the King of Siam*s brother, Prince Kaphia, 
came to India on a mission, and Sir Andrew enter- 
tained him, and took some trouble to get his wish to 
be attached to one of our cavalry regiments gratified.^ 
He served with it for six months, and then returned 
to Siam, where he died not long after. 

In the meantime. Sir Andrew's activity as head of 
the Public Works Department had received a check. 
Before Lord Lytton's arrival, the exchange value of 

^ On this occasion the King of Siam made a very handsome present 
to Lady Clarke. He had intended to send her a beautiful mat made of 
fine plaited ivory, which was in a temple at Bangfkok, and was the only 
mat of its kind in the world ; but the priests and dignitaries objected, 
because, in accordance with an old custom, every Siamese king had to 
sleep on it the night before his coronation, and on this account it was 
regarded as national property. King Chulalonkom, therefore, had an 
esuict copy made of the ivory mat for Lady Clarke, and it was sent to 
her in January, 1878. 



1875-80] GLOOMY PROSPECTS 199 

the rupee had begun to fall, and, much to Sir Andrew's 
chagrin, Lord Northbrook had found himself obliged 
seriously to curtail the Public Works Estimates for the 
ensuing year. At the same time gloomy prospects of 
bad harvests opened in more than one province of 
India, indicating scarcity of food, if not actual famine. 
The consequence was that the funds which it was 
assumed would be available for productive public 
works were required for other purposes, and the 
policy of developing the resources of the country by 
such works was strangled almost at its birth. 

As regards famine. Sir Andrew held the conviction 
that the proper way to combat scarcity of food was a 
large expenditure on public works of utility, especially 
railways, because not only was employment thus given 
to the people, and wages to buy food, but at the same 
time the country was opened up, and the transport of 
food and fuel made easier in future. The convictions, 
however, of a Member of Council are of little avail 
unless he can carry a majority of his colleagues with 
him, and especially the Finance Minister, who, like 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer at home, holds the 
purse-strings and controls expenditure. This he was 
at first unable to do. 

In July, 1877, ^he extent of famine in the Madras 
Presidency raised some apprehension, and Lord L3rtton 
went to Madras to see the state of affairs for himself. 
He left Sir Andrew at Simla to devise a scheme of 
public works in Oude and the North- West Provinces, 
with a view to mitigate the evils of famine, should it 
come to those parts, as seemed likely. Sir Andrew 
had offered to accompany the Viceroy to Madras, but 
his presence at Simla was so much required that Lord 
L3rtton felt himself obliged to dispense with Sir 



200 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

Andrew's personal assistance, which he did in his 

inimitable way : — 

From the Viceroy. 

"It is with a good deal of reluctance and very real 
regret that I have resisted the temptation of your most 
friendly ofifer to accompany me. Your assistance and 
companionship would have been not only very helpful 
to me in a variety of official ways, but also a great 
social comfort/' 

As Sir Andrew could not accompany the Viceroy, he 
took some trouble to smooth his way in Madras, and 
Lord Lytton, writing to Sir Edwin Johnson, said : — 

From the Viceroy. 

"Will you kindly tell Clarke how gratefully I ap- 
preciate his helpful co-operation in all the matters 
which brought me to Madras? It has been most 
advantageous, and has greatly eased my difficulties." 

Upon the Viceroy's return from Madras, Sir Andrew 

addressed a letter to him setting forth some of his views 

of famine relief, from which a very short extract is 

made : — 

To the Viceroy. 

"Practically what up to this date I had been con* 
tending for was that if public treasure was to be ap- 
propriated in order to save life and mitigate the horrors 
of Uie widespread failure of harvests . • • the remedy 
... was to find the people the means of earning sub- 
sistence for themselves, and this, I ur|^ed, could best 
be done by Public Works Agency, which was to vary 
from its ordinary procedure as little as possible. . . . 

* * Now, however, in Madras and Mysore, the system 
which has been adhered to in Bombay, namely, that of 
the Public Works Agency, has been adopted so as to 
deal with the crisis, and, no doubt, should that which 
is now threatening us in Northern India become a 
reality the same policy would obtain." 



1875-80] FAMINE POLICY 201 

In February, 1878, in a published report of a speech 
delivered in Council, the following observations occur 
on the extension of railways, which he so strenuously 
advocated : — 

** Whatever views may be held on the subject of 
railways, there is this justification for their extension, 
that since October, 1876, they have carried into the 
heart of the afflicted districts upwards of one and a 
quarter million tons of food grains, representing the 
supply of seven and a half millions of people for twelve 
months at one pound per head a day. ... I claim for 
the Public Works officers of the State that to them 
should, very early in a campaign against famine, be 
entrusted the agencies to fight it. Operations should 
not be postponed till to scarcity and lack of means are 
added disease and emaciation among the people, to 
say nothing of the inseparable demoralisation. This is 
the more essential in this country, where it is not from 
a total absence of food within the country itself that 
men perish, but from the absence of means of acquir- 
ing it." 

The soundness of these views cannot be questioned, 
and they describe the policy in famine matters pursued 
ever since by the Government of India. 

Reference has been made to Simla as the summer 
seat of the government of India, but, as a matter of 
fact, Simla was not officially recognised as the second 
administrative capital of the country until 1876, the 
year after Sir Andrew's arrival in India. At that time 
the Viceroy lived in an ordinary bungalow named 
Peterhoflf, which was rented from its owner, and the 
communications about this hill-station consisted of 
mere bridle-paths. Until something definite was 
settled there was a natural indisposition to spend 
public money on the station, but when once it was 
officially decided that Simla was to be the seat of 



202 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

government for half the year, Sir Andrew was able to 
take the matter in hand. Both Lord Lytton and he 
took personal interest in the development of the place, 
and particularly in the important work of laying out 
new roads as carriage-drives about the neighbourhood 
in lieu of the bridle-paths. After careful consideration 
it was decided that Sir Andrew's proposal to recon- 
struct and enlarge PeterhoflF as a vice-regal residence 
at a cost of ;f8o,ooo was both the most satisfactory and 
the most economical of the many proposals, and it was 
adopted.^ 

On the ist January, 1878, the most eminent Order of 
the Indian Empire was instituted by the Queen-Em- 
press of India, and Sir Andrew Clarke was declared 
one of the official Companions of the Order under the 
statutes. It was in this year that Sir Andrew suc- 
ceeded in establishing the Indian Defence Committee, 
which has done so much good work. The Navy was 
represented on it by Rear-Admiral John Bythesea, 
v.c, and the Committee took up with energy the 
question of defences at Aden, Karachi, Bombay, the 
Hugli, and Rangoon. Sir Andrew also had the as- 
sistance of Admiral Bythesea, who was the official 
adviser of the Indian Government on naval matters, 
in examining the works for a harbour at Madras, which 
he visited in February, 1878, and upon which he made 
a very thorough and valuable report. 

From Madras Sir Andrew went to see the gold region 
of the Wynaad valley. Many traces of gold had been 
found and some encouraging assays made, but the 
resources of the prospectors were nearly exhausted, and 
the time allowed for prospecting was drawing to a close. 

^ It is a curious fact that no deodar was used in the reconstruction of 
Peterhoff, because the smell of this wood always made Lord Lyiton ill. 



1875-80] WYNAAD GOLD DISTRICT 203 

Under the circumstances, Sir Andrew wrote to Lord 
Lytton on 7th March, 1878: — 

To the Viceroy. 

** It would be only fair for the Government to give 
this industry a chance. The promoters of the com- 
panies have hitherto been persons who have hesitated to 
embark much capital, and the whole of the operations 
therefore have been spasmodic. The first thing I 
would advise being done is to obtain the services of 
a thoroughly scientific and practical miner to prospect 
the whole of the auriferous reefs in this part of the 
country." 

Sir Andrew recommended that Mr. R. Brough 
Smyth, late Secretary and Chief Inspector of Mines in 
Victoria, who had served under him at Melbourne 
twenty years back, should be asked to report on the 
goldfields of the Wynaad, and Lord Lytton approved 
the recommendation. In October of the same year 
Mr. Smyth reported: **I have now got on the 
run of gold, and there is no doubt as regards 
the future of the Wynaad." Early in the following 
month the reports were more definite. One reef yielded 
fifty-six ounces per ton, and when the Duke of Buck- 
ingham was present a cake of gold was produced that 
indicated probably four or five hundred ounces per 
ton. On receiving these reports Sir Andrew at once 
wrote to the Viceroy : — 

To the Viceroy. 

** Simla, 6/A November^ 1878. 
*^My dear Lord Lytton, 

** After leaving Council to-day I received a note, 
of which I enclose an extract, from my old Mining 
Surveyor, Brough Smyth,^ whom you allowed me to 

^ Mr. Brough Smyth returned to Austraria, and died near Melbourne 
in 1889. 



204 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

bring up from Australia to prospect the Wynaady after 
my visit there last February, If one-half or one-tenth 
be true and be confirmed by further experience (for in 
Australia three dwts. to the ton pays), we have * struck 
ile' indeed, and we may hope to see the rupee at 2.6 
again, whilst the elimination of loss by exchange from 
our annual estimates will remove all anxiety about a 
possible Afghan Bill I I shall be anxious to hear what 
the Duke writes to you. u Yours, etc., 

**A. Clarke." 

To this Lord Lytton made reply : — 

From the Viceroy. 

^' Thursday Evening. 
**My dear Clarke, 

^' I must apologise for not having sooner thanked 
you for the excellent and important news contained in 
your letter of last night, for which I am very much 
obliged. The possession (if Mr. Smyth's present im- 
pressions be confirmed) of extensive 'gold-diggings 
down south ' cannot but have very important economic 
effects upon India. What those effects may ultimately 
be, will doubtless depend much on the manner in which 
so great and sudden an accession to the mineral wealth 
of India is dealt with, and what that should be is a 
question not easy to answer off-hand. But I think that 
Mr. Smyth's letter to you fully justifies the strong im- 
pression that we really have 'struck ile,' and this 
opportune discovery may be of incalculable importance 
to the solution of our financial difiSculties. . . . With 
renewed thanks, a Yours, etc., 

" Lytton." 

The development of the gold industry in the Wynaad 
owes something to the action of Sir Andrew Clarke, 
and although it did not appreciably a£fect the exchange 
value of the rupee, it did bring a considerable amount 
of British capital into India, and made Indian under- 
takings attractive to the general investor. 

Among the most remarkable engineering achieve- 



x87S-^] FRONTIER POLICY 205 

ments of this period was the bridging of the River 
Sutlaj at Adamwahan. The bridge was 1,050 feet in 
lengthy and it crossed the Sutlaj by sixteen spans, the 
foundations of the piers being 100 feet below the bed of 
the river. Sir Andrew considered that the completion 
of a work of such magnitude, and carried through by 
his department under many difficulties, and in a 
malarious district, deserved some special notice. He 
suggested to Lord Lytton to telegraph to the Queen, 
informing Her Majesty of the opening of the bridge, 
and asking permission to name the bridge **The 
Empress." This was done, and a gracious reply 
received that the bridge should be called ** The Em- 
press's," 

As a member of the Viceroy's Council, Sir Andrew 
had something to say at the Council Board on the 
subject of the frontier policy, and the relations of the 
Government with Afghanistan. In 1876 he advocated 
the construction of a line of telegraph following the 
caravan route from Shikarpur through the Bolan Pass 
to Quetta, thence via Kandahar and Girishk, to Herat, 
and on to Meshed, joining the Indo-European system 
at Teheran. Such a line, he believed, would afford a 
favourable pretext for negotiations with the Afghan 
Amir, who might be induced to allow Kabul to be 
connected with the system by a line under his own 
management and control. As it would pass through 
Afghanistan it would be important in the interests of 
trade and commerce, and worth an effort to enlist the 
goodwill and support of the Amir. 

Another proposal he brought before the Council was 
the immediate survey for a line of railway from the 
Indus at Sakkar to the Bolan Pass. But he was unable 
to carry either project. 



2o6 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

In the following year he explained his views on the 
Russian advance to Kizil Arvat in a letter to the late 
Mr. James Hutton, the journalist : — 

To Mr. James HutUm. 

** Simla, 27 /wn^, 1877. 

•*My dear Mr. Hutton, 

**I see a paragraph in your paper deprecating 
the hysterical anxiety that Government is said to feel 
with regard to the Russian advance upon Kizil Arvat. 
You point out that Kizil Arvat is 400 miles from Merv, 
and that this latter place is more easily accessible from 
Bokhara via Charjui. It is on this latter point that I 
write a few lines. 

** Between Bokhara and Merv the physical obstacles 
are undeniably considerable. Desert tracts have to be 
traversed, and the Oxus has to be crossed. From 
Kizil Arvat to Merv, on the contrary, there is said to 
exist already a good road, which could easily be made 
available for the passage of wheeled trafl&c and artillery. 
There are no physical obstacles to be overcome, and 
there is said to be abundance of good water along the 
whole route. 

'^ But this is not by any means to my mind the only 
important feature of this advance. It has always struck 
me that Russia, though able to maintain a force in 
Turkestan sufficient to overawe the Central Asian 
tribes, could never mass any large body of troops in 
that quarter. The distance from her base at Orenburg 
is enormous. The Orenburg-Tashkent line is precarious 
for the passage of large bodies of troops. 

^^ Russia has discovered this, and she wishes to avoid 
these obstacles by establishing some other line of com- 
munication that would enable her to concentrate her 
vast resources. The line to Kizil Arvat will enable 
her to do this, for the harbour of Ashurada, which she 
already possesses, would be in direct steam communi- 
cation with Central Russia, and with the Army of the 
Caucasus, moving along the line Poti-Tiflis-Baku. 

^^\ grant that to establish a position at Kizil Arvat 
on a sufficiently extensive scale to be of use to a large 
force must be a question of time. Still, I think that 



1875-80] THE AFGHAN WAR 207 

when once the Army of the Caucasus is set free by the 
cessation of the struggle in Asia Minor, we shall have 
grave cause for anxiety if Russia has been allowed, in 
the meantime, to commence a fortified post between 
Krasnovosk and Merv. a Yours sincerely, 

*^A. Clarke." 

Sir Andrew continued to press on the Viceroy and 
Council the importance of a railway to Quetta. Major 
(afterwards Sir) James Browne was engaged under his 
instructions in exploring routes for turning the Bolan 
either by Sibi or by a direct route from Dera Ghazi 
Khan, via Chotiali and Thai. This officer succeeded 
in gaining an extraordinary influence over the warlike 
Kakar tribes, and Sir Andrew proposed to utilise this 
influence to enable him to get a railway survey made 
of the last-named route, but his recommendations 
passed unheeded. 

When the Mission of Sir Neville Chamberlain was 
prevented entering Afghanistan by an armed Afghan 
force, and British troops were ordered to invade the 
country, Major-General Roberts wrote to Sir Andrew 
on the 23rd September, 1878:— 

From MajaT'General F. S. Roberts. 

**You will, of course, nominate the R.E. officers 
for the several columns. The Commanding Royal 
Engineer I would prefer is Colonel Perkins,^ but if 
there is any difficulty about his getting away from 
his present work, I should be glad to have Colonel 
Hichens,* who could perhaps be more easily spared. 

** There is a junior officer I should much like to have 
on account of his knowledge of Persian and his general 

^ The late General Sir iEneas Perkins, K.C.B. He was appointed 
Commanding' Royal Engineer to Major-General Roberts's column, and 
remained with him until the end of the war. 

* The late Major-General William Hichens, CB., was Commanding 
Royal Engineer with the Quetta column. 



2o8 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

intelligence — Captain Pierson,i now working under Sir 
Alexander Taylor. Would there be any chance of my 
getting him? ... Of all the junior officers I would 
prefer Captain Pierson." 

General Sir Samuel Browne wrote to Sir Andrew : — 
From Sir S. Browne. 

**No more Council for me. Pm off to Peshawar. 
My nomination to the command of the ist Division 
Peshawar Field Force was most unexpected and un- 
solicited. I am hard at work packing and writing at 
the same time, so excuse a scrawl." 

In November, 1878, Sir Andrew wrote to Mr. 
Childers from Simla: — 

** I myself never had any hope that the Chamberlain 
Mission would be allowed to pass. . . . What I want 
is a British Agent with a strong escort at Balkh and 
Faizabad, dominating the valley of the Oxus, the 
armed occupation of Herat and Kandahar, and the 
acceptance by us of the protectorate, or whatever it 
may be called, of the tribes of the Suleiman range, 
who in turns have given their allegiance to us and to 
Kabul, on condition of their being paid by one or the 
other. Of late years Kabul has paid them, so the 
Amir claims authority over them, and hence one of our 
present difiSculties and muddle. 

**The universal topic of conversation in all native 
society, though suppressed, is — 'Is the English rule 
coming to an end, and are we going to pass under that 
of the white Czar?' You ask then what the dessous des 
cartes really is. The answer is that our influence, if 
we are to keep in India, even from a sentimental point 
of view, must be paramount in Afghanistan ; from 
a practical point of view, if we do not know what is 
going on beyond the Suleiman range, it will pass 
a^rciy. ... 

^ The late Major WiUiam Henry Pierson, R.B., one of the roost 
talented officers in the Army. He was Military Secretary to Lord Ripen 
in i88a He died in 1881, when Commanding Royal Engineer in the 
Mahsud Waziri campaign. 



i87S-8o] RAILWAY TO QUETTA 209 

**We made a great mistake in 1873; we made a 
greater one in 1876. Our Cabinet at home neglected 
to warn off Russian generals from interference in 
Kabul. In 1877 we told the Home Government that 
interference in Afghan matters . . . had become the 
subject of high Imperial policy which the Cabinets of 
London and St. Petersburg alone could determine. 
Our remonstrances and warnings were laughed to 
scorn. Then came the realisation of our fears. ..." 

We have seen how eager Sir Andrew was in 1876 
and 1877 to start a railway to the Bolan. When war 
became imminent in September, 1878, he brought the 
question again to the notice of the Viceroy. But Lord 
Lytton did not see his way to sanction the proposal, 
and the matter was again shelved. Then Sir Andrew 
suggested a short surface railway from Sakkar to 
Shahpur, but this Lord Lytton opposed, on the ground 
that it could not be completed in time to facilitate the 
army transport service to Quetta. Sir Andrew, how- 
ever, as usual hammered away, and on the i8th 
January, 1879, he wrote to the Viceroy : — 

To the Viceroy. 

** At the risk of exposing myself to being charged 
with contumacy and insubordination, I feel that betore 
accepting as hopeless and final any reopening of the 
decision given against going on at once with a military 
surface line of railway from Sakkar across the desert 
to the nearest hills on the route to Quetta, I must offer 
a few more words for your consideration. ..." 

Sir Andrew then in a few cogent paragraphs showed 
that if he had been allowed to proceed with this line 
when he proposed it, the railway would have been then 
completed as far as Guranari, and have been of the 
greatest use ; he quoted the important part played by 
even the short length of 250 miles of the Indus Valley 



2IO COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

Railway, and mentioned that had he not pressed on the 
Sutlaj Bridge, completing it in seven months instead of 
two years, the troops which were then at Kandahar 
would barely be entering the pass. He concluded 
with great earnestness : — 

** Forgive me, my dear Lord, for my importunity in 
this matter. ... If I have gone further than our 
relations would justify in this remonstrance of mine 
against a decision which, so far as I can gather, has 
been arrived at on imperfect and defective data, and on 
which issues, wholly foreign to the original object, 
have been raised and may have prejudiced that decision, 
I have done so because I feel convinced that if events 
which are probable, however much I trust they may be 
avoided, do occur, I would have been guilty, had I 
remained silent, of neglecting my duty to yourself." 

There was no immediate result of this appeal, but in 
July, 1879, Lord Lytton himself drafted a note on 
frontier communications, in which, among other works 
to be constructed during the coming cold season, was 
" laying a line from Sakkar to the foot of the Bolan pass, 
if our funds admit of it." Shortly after came the news 
of the massacre of Sir Louis Cavagnari and his stafif 
at Kabul, and Sir Andrew was instructed to press on 
with the Sakkar-Bolan line with all despatch. 

Writing on the 8th September to Mr. Childers about 
the sad news of the massacre. Sir Andrew said : — 

To the Rt. Han. H. C. E. Childers. 

" We do not know yet what has become of the Amir, 
or even if he is alive. In his last to us (Thursday) he 
said he was left with only five followers. There has 
been no doubt of Yakub's loyalty. . . . Herat, I sup- 
pose, we must now have. I quite agree with you. My 
views are recorded, and will come out some day, that 
when we first heard of the Russian Mission in July, 
last year, if we had sent then clear and specific terms 



i87S-«o] INDIAN RAILWAY GAUGES 211 

to Shir Ali, telling him that we would do for him what 
we have now done for Yakub, he would have thrown 
himself back into our arms. ... I too am anxious 
about Persia and Russia. Russia on the Persian Gulf 
will be a bad day for us in India.*' 

During the five years that Sir Andrew held office in 
India there was one subject of controversy with which 
his department was much concerned ; this was the 
question of the gauge of the railways. The battle of 
the gauges was fought as keenly in India as it had 
been at home. Writing in 1879 to Mr. Edward 
Stanhope, then Under Secretary of State for India, 
Sir Andrew said : — 

To the Rt. Hon, Edward Stanhope. 

**If our railway questions come under your notice, 
though I stand alone, I hope you may be able to 
support my view that we are unwise in constructing 
the Bombay and Delhi Railway on the metre gauge, 
and that orders may issue to revert to the origins^ly 
sanctioned broad £^auge for the Ahmedabad-Palanpur 
section. See my dissent in Railway Despatch No. 24 
of this year. 

**The two Stracheys are my great opponents, and 
they have committed themselves past redemption to the 
metre gauge, and as they hold the purse-strings, I am, 
of course, helpless here. I admit I never did believe in 
the efficiency of the metre gauge, but as an economic 
agent I was content to see fair play given to it, and 
would not have been sorry to see it a success. But 
admitting that certain defects may yet be worked out, 
the fact stands now beyond dispute that in order to 
make a narrow-gauge system pay, the rates for 
fares and freights must be double those on a broad 
gauge. ..." 

There is a voluminous correspondence between Lord 
Lytton and Sir Andrew Clarke. Much of it is of a 
confidential character, and furnishes evidence of cordial 



212 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

regard and mutual esteem, although they did not 
always see eye to eye on matters of policy. In fact, as 
time went on, and proposal after proposal made by 
Sir Andrew was rejected by the Viceroy, official rela- 
tions between them became somewhat strained. But 
the following note from Lord Lytton to Sir Andrew 
is an instance of the charming manner in which the 
Viceroy could write when some question had arisen in 
which he had disagreed with Sir Andrew : — 

From the Viceroy. 

"My dear Colleague, 

**Your letter makes me most unhappy. In 
writing the one to which it is a reply there was one 
feelin^^ uppermost in my mind, it was a grateful and 
affectionate recognition of the loyal, valuable, and su|^- 
gestive support I have hitherto received from you in 
the treatment of every important question. That to a 
colleague so esteemed and trusted as yourself my letter 
should, even for a moment, have appeared to imply 
reproach or complaint is a matter of the deepest regret 
and distress to me. I can only assure you that nothing 
could have been further from my heart than such a 
sentiment when I wrote. 

** Sincerely yours, 

" Lytton.'* 

To this Sir Andrew responded : — 

To the Viceroy. 

** If I have erred on the side of over-sensitiveness, it 
has arisen from a heartfelt desire to relieve you of all 
anxiety as to the interests entrusted to my charge." 

Towards the end of October, 1879, Sir Andrew 
thought of returning home on leave for the winter on 
account of his own and Lady Clarke's health. In the 
ordinary course his term of service in India would 
expire in the following summer, but there was some 



i87S-8o] RECOMMENDED FOR K.C.S.I. 213 

doubt as to whether his appointment came under the 
five years' rule. In any case, in order to secure his 
half-pay during furlough it would be necessary for him 
to return to India. Lord Lytton very kindly offered to 
arrange with the Secretary of State that in case Sir 
Andrew did not wish to return to India the difficulty 
about his pay should be overcome, and he concluded 
his letter as follows : — 

From the Viceroy. 

** Although our ofiicial relations have not always 
been such as I could have wished, this does not affect 
my personal feelings towards yourself, nor diminish my 
desire to meet your wishes or promote your interests 
after you leave India by any means that may be practi- 
cally in my power." 

Lord Lytton further submitted Sir Andrew Clarke's 
name to the Queen for the honour of a Knight Com- 
mandership of the Star of India by telegram, '^so that 
if possible," as he wrote to Sir Andrew, ** the Gazette 
which notifies your leave may also announce your 
admission to the Order." Unfortunately, there were no 
vacancies and the Queen objected to make an extra 
knight, although Lord Lytton pressed it as a personal 
favour. So the matter fell through, and with the 
resignation of Lord Lytton a few months later was 
dropped altogether. 

Sir Andrew eventually decided to postpone his 
departure on leave until the end of January, 1880, and 
in the meantime to make a month's tour round the 
coast of India before sailing from Bombay, Lord 
L3rtton very kindly taking over the work of the depart- 
ment himself. 

Sir Andrew had gone to India anticipating an 
expanding policy in public works, which nobody could 



ai4 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

have directed better than himself. Instead, deprecia- 
tion of silver, apprehension of famine, and frontier 
wars forced upon the Government of India a policy of 
severe retrenchment and economy during the whole 
term of his ofiBce. 

Owing to this state of a£Eiairs, Sir Andrew's Indian 
Public Works record consists mainly of great schemes 
formulated, carefully examined, and recommended in 
able minutes, but precluded from execution at the time 
for want of money. Long after he had left the Council 
some of his proposals were carried out on the lines 
he had contemplated, and his name will always be 
associated with the reorganisation of the department 
over which he presided, and the establishment of a 
distinct Military Works Branch, by which many diffi- 
culties were solved and anomalies done away with. 

Before he left Calcutta Sir Andrew received several 
proofs that his work in India had been appreciated. 
Three of his colleagues on the Viceroy's Council, Sir 
Alexander Arbuthnot, Sir Edwin Johnson, and Sir C. 
Rivers-Thompson, gave a dinner in his honour at the 
United Service Club on the 15th January, 1880, and on 
the following evening his brother officers of the Royal 
Engineers entertained him at a farewell banquet, at 
which the late General J. T. Walker, Surveyor-General 
of India, presided. The chairman alluded to Sir 
Andrew's 

'^ valuable labours and minutes on Indian harbours 
in fireneral and the Madras harbour in particular, which 
had loivg been the bete nair of engineers, but which, 
thanks^ to <fais fostering care, promises soon to become 
an accomplished fact ; on railway operations in India, 
and the adaptation of Indian rolling stock to military 
purposes ; on the reorganisation of the eng^neerinc^ 
establishment in this country; on the Aden and 



i87S-8o] LEAVES INDIA 215 

Bombay defences and the general proceedings of the 
Indian Defence Committee ; on the subject of technical 
and industrial training for the poorer classes of 
Europeans and Eurasians; and last, assuredly not 
least, on frontier communications and frontier railways, 
such as the line now being carried with marvellous 
rapidity from Sakkar to Sibi and into Afghanistan." 

Colonel Walker coupled with the name of Sir Andrew 
that of Lady Clarke, 

''of whose kindness, brightness, and genial hospitality 
we must ever," he said, ''retain most pleasing and 
grateful recollections." 

Sir Andrew was much touched with the reference to 
Lady Clarke, and, in concluding his remarks in return- 
ing thanks for the honour done him, he said : — 

" Lady Clarke has always thoroughly identified her- 
self with the Corps and its traditions ; she invariably 
talks of its officers as So-and-so, of 'Ours'; when she 
hears from me to-night of the toast that has been 
drunk, she will, I know, be most deeply gratified at the 
kind expression of the feelings of my brother officers 
towards us both." 

The Representatives of the Guaranteed Railways pre- 
sented Sir Andrew with an address expressing their 
"high appreciation of bis broad and liberal policy," 
and acknowledging their obligations for the "improved 
relations between the Government of India and the rail- 
way companies which have been established under 
your auspices. '' 

After their trip round the Indian coast Sir Andrew 
and Lady Clarke sailed from Bombay in the P. and O. 
steamer Bokhara on the 21st February, i88o. On 
arriving at Suez they took train across the Delta to 
Alexandria, where they joined the ill-fated Trcpoancore^ 



2i6 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

and three days after leaving Egypt were wrecked o£F 
Otranto. For a time they were in the greatest peril, 
but eventually the passengers were all rescued. 

Mrs. Childers wrote from Pontefract on the i6th 
March to Sir Andrew : — 

From Mrs. H. C. E. Childers. 

" Hugh is very busy now canvassing. We were very 
sorry to hear of your shipwreck, but are delighted that 
you do not think Lady Clarke has greatly suffered. 
We hope soon to hear of your arrival in London, and 
if our house can be of any use to you we shall be 
delighted if you will make use of it. The election ^ here 
will be on the ist or 2nd April." 

On arriving in London on 19th March Sir Andrew 
and Lady Clarke went to stay with Lord WharnclifiFe 
in Curzon Street for a few days, and then went down 
to Bath to Mr. McKillop, Lady Clarke's father. Sir 
Andrew made Bath his head-quarters until his return to 
India on the 13th May, but he managed to spend two 
or three days with Mr. Childers at Pontefract during his 
canvass of the constituency. 

When Lord Beaconsfield resigned office, Lord Lytton 
sent in his resignation of the viceroyalty, and the 
Marquess of Ripon, who, as Earl de Grey, had been 
Secretary of State for War when Sir Andrew was sent 
to the West Coast of Africa in 1864, was appointed to 
succeed him. It was arranged that Sir Andrew should 
return to India by the same steamer that took out the 
new Governor-General, in order that he might give him 
the advantage of his Indian experience. Lord Ripon 
left London on the 13th May to catch the Teheran at 
Brindisi, and with him went not only Sir Andrew 

^ This was the memorable general election of 1880, which resulted in 
the resignation of Lord Beaconsfield. 



i87S-8o] RETURNS TO INDIA 217 

Clarke, but also Colonel (afterwards Major-General) 
Charles George Gordon, who, in a weak moment, had 
accepted the appointment of Private Secretary to the 
Viceroy, a position for which he was quite unfitted.^ 
The Viceroy and his party landed at Bombay on the 
31st May, and on the evening of the 2nd June Colonel 
Gordon resigned the private secretaryship. The follow- 
ing extracts from Sir Andrew's letters to Lady Clarke 
tell the story of the voyage out and Colonel Gordon's 

resignation : — 

'* To Lady Clarke. 

"Off Crete, P. & O. S.S. * Teheran,' 

** Tuesday, \%th May, 1880. 

" The only letter I got on reaching Brindisi was one 
from Probyn, sent on by Lord Lyons from Paris, 
telling me that the Prince of Wales would have wished 
to have seen me, was sorry that he had not, and that he 
wished me a prosperous voyage and speedy return to 
you. . . • 

'^ I have a comfortable cabin ofiF Lord Ripon's saloon, 
and a nice quiet place to read and write in. Yesterday 
and this morning I have had lon^ talks with him, and 
have also written a good deal for him. . . . Lord Ripon 
has talked to me much about his staff and domestic 
plans. I think he will be an attentive host, and enter- 
tain well and much. I do not think he will have cliques 
or favourites. . . . 

'^Charlie Gordon is always near me. He is a very 
fine fellow, but is thrown away as a Private Secretary. 
I don't think he will remain very long in India unless 
he gets much interested in it and in the work. . • . 

'' Barrington Foote, who is the most amusing, comical 
fellow I ever met, is keeping Lord Ripon and the 
others in roars of laughter on deck. Gordon is 
looking very angry, though at times he cannot help 
laughing." 

^ Writing* on the 5th May to Sir Andrew, Colonel Gordon said : ' ' I have 
to be at Lord Ripon's from ten to three p.m. Transition from a comet 
to a satellite is not over pleasiu^ble to yours sincerely, C. G. Gordon." 



2i8 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 



To the same. 

** Viceroy's Camp, Khundwar, 

''\June, i88a 

^^Frorn the time we left England Charlie Gordon 
chafed at the duties and work of a Private Secretary even 
to a Viceroy. He had been a big man himself, had 
commanded armies, and had indeed power and author- 
ity never exercised even by an English Viceroy. The 
white lies that are told in official correspondence, the 
shams of Court etiquette and ceremony, were not to his 
liking, nor indeed was the necessary subordination of 
his own will and judgment to those of another man 
agreeable to him. In a word the office did not suit him, 
or he it. Still I was anxious to save what would look 
like a public scandal by his giving up so soon his con- 
nection with Lord Ripon, and I hoped some work, 
a special mission, would turn up more congenial to 
him, and which he would take up, and to this course he 
had really assented on Wednesday afternoon (2 June) 
last, when I left him to drive with Lord Ripon. So you 
can fancy my astonishment when just as we were sitting 
down to dinner Gordon told me, with a beaming face 
and in high glee, that he had done the deed, and sent 
in his irrevocable resignation to Lord Ripon I 

** After the dinner party broke up Lord Ripon asked 
me to go with him'to his room, where we considered the 
pros and cons, and what should best be done. Of 
course, to Lord Ripon it was a painful and distressing 
episode at the commencement of his career as Vicero}r, 
and much evil and mischief might be done him if 
inaccurate or false stories got coined and circulated as 
to what Colonel Gordon's conduct was due to; for Lord 
Ripon had in no way given offence, and he liked 
Gordon very much, and had all alon^ been ready to 
yield much to Gordon's ideas and position. 

''How then was the rupture to be made with the 
least chance of its being the cause of blame or evil to 
anyone? and certain cfeneral ideas were laid down by 
Lord Ripon and myself to secure the result, and then I 
went to Grordon. At first he was very hard and uncom- 
promisingi though on some points he felt deeply and 



i87S-&>] COLONEL GORDON RESIGNS 319 

was terribly distressed. So after a long talk I left him 
late at night, or rather in the small hours. 

''I went to him again at six in the morning, when I 
found him altogether in a better mood. He then saw 
Lord Ripon for a few minutes, and returning to my 
room, dashed off the letter you will have read. Of 
course, in his letter he went much further than was 
wanted in taking blame to himself, and in his testimony 
to Lord Ripon. But he entreated me to let him write 
as he himself thought best, and when he had written he 
would listen to no change nor alteration in it. 

** It has been a sad thing, and I am very sorry for it. 
He is a grand, honest fellow ; the world would be better 
if there were a few more like him, enthusiast and 
fanatic as some would call him, and as he may be." 

The following letters were written by Colonel Gordon 
to Sir Andrew a few days after his resignation : — 

From Colonel C. G. Gordon. 

'' My dear Clarke, " Bombay, 7 A«^, 1880. 

**The evening after you left me at 8.30 p.m. 
came a telegram from Chinese Government Agent in 
London, asking for my address. It was dated noon, 
4th June ; my resignation had appeared in papers that 
morning. I sent my address, and at 3 a.m. on 6th June 
came an offer from Chinese Government to come to 
China. I have accepted i^and leave on nth June. I 
had before thought of Zanzibar. Now I am all right in 
China and feel (juite free. Twenty years ago in June I 
passed Galle going to China ! 

'M am so glad to get out of that fearful atmosphere 
of twaddle and worry. How are ^ou getting on ? I 
hope you will not waste your time in this land, it is not 
worth it. 

*' People will say that I left Lord Ripon because I 
heard of China, but the telegram from China is dated 
somewhere about 12 or 14 May, and takes some fifteen 
days to reach London. The Agent of the Chinese 
Government saw my resignation in papers and then 
telegraphed me. a Believe me, yours sincerely, 

'•C. G. Gordon." 



220 COUNCIL OF THE VICEROY OF INDIA 

From Colonel C. G. Gordon. 

" Bombay, Sthjune, 1880. 

" My dear Clarke, 

'' Tell Lord Ripon that a Russian Resident with 
him and an English Resident with Kaufmann would 
prevent any row,^ provided Lord Granville's line of 
demarcation was kept. 

**The Moscows will catch it. They have not many 
Russian troops ; those they have are exiles for the most 
part (at least most of those in the Caucasus were) ; the 
ofiBcers ill-treat and rob them, and do not pay or look 
after them. If it comes to a crisis the Chinese should 
never meet them in a pitched battle ; they should harry 
them and encourage desertion, and carry the war into 
their country. No troops can march like the Chinese, 
or feed on less. No Geneva Convention exists. Yet if 
I can do anything I will avoid war, for it does not pay. 

**I have prepared telegram if English Government 
refuse permission : ^ Arrange mv retirement, commute 
pension, pay Cox, rank General aeprecated, tell brother, 
telegraph amount.' It was a wonderful thing that I 
fell so quickly on my legs. 

'' The Russians cannot blockade the seaports, or they 
will fall foul of the British on account of the opium 
trade. There is only one place, which is known only to 
me, where troops can land near Taku, and which is not 
fortified. Pehtang and Taku are fortified very strongly, 
and are impregnable from the front. The place I allude 
to is not fortified. I had kept my information to myself 
up to this time, and now shall tell Li Hung Chang. 

''9.6.80. To-day Grant* telegraphs: 'Must state 
specifically the position and purpose you go to China.' 
I mean to return no answer till I start on the nth Tune, 
when I will reply : ' Now ignorant, will write when I 
know.' Good-bye. " Yours sincerely, 

"C. G. Gordon. 

"P.S.— Read Gazette of India^ part i. page 534, 
Simla, 7th July, 1879, No. 160, and smile." 

^ This had reference to the Kuldja question. 

^ Colonel J. M. Grant, Deputy Adjutant-General, Royal Ent^eers, 
Horse Guards. 



1875-80] HOME FOR GOOD 221 

On the loth June Colonel Gordon telegraphed to Sir 
Andrew: **Have written twice, leave for China Friday, 
will continue writing." 

Sir Andrew's term of service in India expired soon 
after his arrival at Simla with Lord Ripon, who wrote 
to him on 17th June, 1880: — 

From the Viceroy. 

*'My dear Sir Andrew, 

**I have received your resignation consequent 
upon the termination of your appointment. Though 
I have not had the good fortune to have you for long as 
my colleague in India, I cannot help seizing this oppor- 
tunity of thanking you for your varied services to this 
Government. . . . <* Yours very sincerely, 

'* Ripon." 

There was nothing to detain Sir Andrew any longer 
in India, and as Lady Clarke had given birth to a 
daughter on the 12th June at Bath, he was naturally 
anxious to get back home as quickly as possible. He 
caught the Indus from Bombay on the 26th, and, visit- 
ing Malta and Gibraltar^ en route^ reached England on 
the 23rd July. 

In a letter to Mr. Childers written on the 9th July on 
his way home he says : — 

To the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

'' I am glad you did not accept Charlie Gordon's 
resignation. I was angry with him, but it will all come 
right, and we shall all be still more proud of him. The 
Arabs say, * He is no man, he is a god ' — homage to 
his truth and purity." 

^ Entry in Diary, Gibraltar, i8th July, 1880 : *< Went to see the house 
now occupied by the Adjutant-General, near the cathedral, in which 
I spent my July holidays in 1841 with my father and mother. House 
little altered." 



CHAPTER X 

COMMANDANT OF THE SCHOOL OF 

MILITARY ENGINEERING 

CHATHAM, 1881 AND 1882 

ON arriving home from India Sir Andrew Clarke 
reverted to the position of a Colonel of Royal 
Engineers on the home establishment. His long ser- 
vice abroad) with only the hurried run home in the 
spring, entitled him to some rest, and he was granted 
leave of absence until the 31st March, 1881. 

In due course he was nominated Commanding Royal 
Engineer of the Woolwich District, but, before his 
leave expired, the more important post of Commandant 
of the School of Military Engineering at Chatham, 
about to become vacant on the ist April by the transfer 
of Colonel Sir John Stokes, k.c.b., to the Head- 
quarters Staff of the Army, as Deputy Adjutant- 
General, Royal Engineers, was offered to him and 
accepted. 

Sir Andrew found the School of Military Engineer- 
ing a very different place from what he remembered it 
as a young officer in the forties. The varied duties 
of the Corps had made a great expansion necessary, 
and the schools had increased in number as new 
scientific methods in war required specialisation. The 
advantages derived by the Royal Engineers from the 



i88i-83] SUBMARINE MINING 223 

instruction given at Chatham had begun to be desired 
by the rest of the Army, and the school was thrown 
open to selected classes from the other arms of the 
service. Thus classes of Artillery, Cavalry, and 
Infantry of the regular Army, and of Militia and 
Volunteers, were continually passing through the 
hands of the instructors, and, on their return to their 
regiments, disseminating the knowledge they had ac- 
quired to the various units. In this way the efficiency 
of the instruction at Chatham affected the whole 
Army and entailed a heavy responsibility on the 
Commandant. 

One of the first matters to engage Sir Andrew's 
attention was submarine mining. He took great in- 
terest in this very technical subject, and was delighted 
to find the electrical and submarine mining schools in 
a high state of efficiency. But to his dismay there 
was no settled organisation by which the most could 
be made of the trained men in time of war. With 
the assistance of his expert advisers,^ he drew up 
a memorandum, dated 21st August, 1881, in which 
he laid down an organisation for submarine mine 
defence at home and abroad, both as to personnel and 
matMelj which formed the basis of future develop- 
ment. 

In the autumn of 1881 he invited Mr. Childers, who 
had become Secretary of State for War after winning 
his election at Pontefract in the previous year, to pay 
him a visit at Chatham, and Mr. Childers took the 
opportunity to make a thorough inspection of the 
school. Sit Andrew brought him to dine at mess, and 
after dinner took him out to the Lines to see the electric 

^ The late Colonel (then Major) R. Y. Armstrong, C.B., and Lieuts. 
R. M. Ruck (now Cokmel), and G. A. Carr (now Lieut -Colonel), R.E. 



224 THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY ENGINEERING 

searchlight, then a novelty, thrown on the siege trenches 
in front and on skirmishers advancing in the open. 
Next morning he showed him round all the schools, and 
in the afternoon Sir Andrew carried him off to Hoo Fort, 
and introduced him to the mysteries of a submarine 
mining test-room fitted with the latest improvements, 
where, by pressing a button, he was able to explode 
a mine of lOO pounds of gun-cotton in the Medway 
minefield. 

Sir Andrew's great affection for Sir William Denison 
has been frequently referred to in these pages. When 
he came to Chatham he was surprised to find that the 
only memorial of his old chief was an engraving which 
hung in one of the mess ante-rooms. He at once 
formed a committee to consider how the founder of the 
Corps Libraries and the Corps Professional Papers 
could be most suitably honoured. The outcome was 
a portrait in oils painted by Mr. Charles Lutyens, 
from old prints and photographs, which now hangs 
in the Chatham mess. Sir Andrew was a great sup- 
porter of Corps memorials, particularly of portraits 
of distinguished officers, and at the Annual Corps 
Meeting in London next year he spoke in support 
of a proposal that General (afterwards Field-Marshal) 
Sir Lintorn Simmons should sit for his portrait, and 
added his ^'testimony to the general feeling of ad- 
miration for Sir Lintorn felt by the whole Corps." 
He became chairman of the committee to carry out 
the proposal, and the result was the masterpiece 
by Mr. Frank Holl, r.a., executed in half a dozen 
sittings, which was exhibited in the Royal Academy 
Show of 1883, and now hangs in the R.E. mess at 
Chatham. 

In the autumn of 1881 a Bill was lodged by the South 



i88i-82] THE CHANNEL TUNNEL 225 

Eastern Railway Company to obtain powers to make 
a tunnel under the English Channel for railway com- 
munication between France and this country. Sir 
Andrew gave the scheme his hearty support and wrote 
a long letter to the daily papers on the 13th February, 
1882, explaining his views and maintaining that there 
need be no difficulty in making such a tunnel secure 
against hostile attack, while the commercial benefit 
would be enormous. He was appointed a member of 
Major-General Sir Archibald Alison's Committee to 
consider what steps should be taken to make the tunnel 
harmless in case of war. The Committee did not 
report until after Sir Andrew had left Chatham, but he 
continued to be a member until the Committee was 
dissolved in the autumn of 1882. The Bill was thrown 
out because it violated some of the stipulations of 
the Committee. Strong opposition to the scheme 
was shown on all sides, and the Press was generally 
hostile to it. Sir Andrew's views were not shared 
by most military experts, and the opposition has not 
decreased as years have passed. The silver streak 
that surrounds the old country is still maintained 
inviolate. 

In the spring of 1882 Lieutenant-General (afterwards 
Sir) Thomas Gallwey, Inspector-General of Fortifica- 
tions, accepted the government of Bermuda and pro- 
spectively vacated the appointment he held. There 
was considerable discussion as to the officer who would 
probably be selected to succeed him. The office of 
Inspector-General of Fortifications was an ancient one, 
and, since its name was changed from Chief Engineer 
of England in 1787, had always been filled by a general 
officer. The holder was practically the head of the 
Corps, although the nominal head was its Colonel, 
Q 



226 THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY ENGINEERING 

H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, The position was a 
prize which it was the highest ambition of the ablest 
and most distinguished officers who had reached the 
qualifying rank to attain. Of the seven generals then 
eligible for the post, four were already holding special 
appointments, but the remaining three were at the time 
unemployed and waiting for some vacancy to occur. 
Two of them were decorated with the Victoria Cross 
and the insignia of the Bath, while the third was an able 
administrator and an expert in engineering and build- 
ing construction. Speculation therefore concentrated on 
which of these three would be chosen. 

Then came a bolt from the blue. It was announced 
that Colonel Sir Andrew Clarke was to be the new 
Inspector-General of Fortifications and Director of 
Works. He was then only fifth on the list of colonels, 
and of course there was a howl that a job had been 
perpetrated by Mr. Childers in putting his friend into 
this important position over the heads of others. To 
the Secretary of State the nomination presented itself 
in a,/ery different light. He knew that an important 
epoch was approaching when large problems of defence 
must be dealt with, and he wanted a man who, from 
his wide range of thought, his knowledge of political 
difficulties, his fecund brain, and his personal intimacy 
with himself, would be a help and support to him in 
a way that no other could be.^ There was no question 
that Sir Andrew Clarke had already had successful 
experience in equally high positions to that to which he 
was now nominated, and while there might be others as 
well qualified to undertake the general superintendence 
of large schemes of defence involving heavy expendi- 

* Mr. Childers's submission paper to the Queen on the subject of Sir 
Andrew Clarke's appointment is given in the Appendix. 



1881-82] A HIGH APPOINTMENT 227 

ture, Sir Andrew so entirely possessed the confidence 
of Mr. Childers that it was not unnatural he should be 
selected. As to the two distinguished soldiers who 
had won the Victoria Cross, there was this to be said — 
they had been originally some years junior to Sir 
Andrew Clarke, and had been promoted over his head 
for war service, and as they were also a good deal 
younger they could aflFord to wait. 

Congratulations on his good fortune poured in on 
Sir Andrew. Lord Ripon wrote from Simla on 22nd 
May, 1882 :— 

From the Marquess of Ripon. 

** I cannot let a mail go since I received the intelli- 

fence of your appointment as Inspector-General of 
ortifications without sending you a few lines to say 
how much I rejoice at your selection for so high and 
important a post. I do not know whether you prefer it 
to a civil appointment, but at all events it places you at 
the head of your own profession, and in a position which 
must gratify all your friends. I hope that now you are 
at the War Office you will not forget the interests of 
India. We generally get no money and very little 
justice from that department." 

Major-General Sir Frederick Roberts also wrote from 
Ootacamand, India : — 

From Sir Frederick Roberts. 

**We were so glad to read in a recent Reuter that 
you have been appointed Inspector-General of Fortifica- 
tions. . . • The post is such an important one, and the 
work must be so interesting, that I don't think you will 
wish to go abroad again. It would be very pleasant to 
have you here as Governor, but you are so well placed 
at the head of the Royal Engineers in England that I 
would not wish you elsewhere, even to have you and 
Lady Clarke in this Presidency. We hope that you 
are both very well, and that Miss Clarke is flourishing." 



228 THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY ENGINEERING 

General Gordon's congratulations came some months 
later : — 

From Major^General C. G. Gordon. 

" QUEENSTOWN, CaPE COLONY, 

*'2 October, 1882. 
** My dear Clarke, 

** Thanks for your note of i8th August received 
yesterday. I never have had a letter since I left for 
Mauritius from you. / always answer letters as soon as 
I get them. I hope you and Lady Clarke are well and 
happy. I am glad you have got the place you have, 
and hope ^ou like it. As for me, I am here with a 
weak Ministry who will take no action. I report to 
them the defects of the Native Government, the bad 
magistrates, etc., which drive natives into rebellion. 
They do nothing ; so I say, as I am not a colonist, I 
will not be used to fight natives goaded into rebellion. 
You ought to try for the Cape Government. It is a 
fine field for a man of activity. . . . If H.M. Govern- 
ment do not stir themselves they will have a Dutch 
Government in ere long. For myself I shall get away 
as soon as I can, for I can do no good. I only stay for 
decency's sake. Kind regards to Lady Clarke. 

** Believe me, yours sincerely, 

**C. G. Gordon." 

During the fifteen months that Sir Andrew Clarke 
was Commandant of the School of Military Engineer- 
ing at Chatham he smartened it up a great deal. It 
was impossible for such a restless brain, always 
brimming over with some new ideas, not to have a 
stimulating influence on the selected officers who 
formed his staff. Field-Marshal Sir Evelyn Wood, 
who for a part of this time commanded the Chatham 
Garrison as a Brigadier-General, was loud in his 
praises of the improvement effected during Sir 
Andrew Clarke's rule. The Assistant Commandant, 



i88i-83] GOOD WORK AT CHATHAM 229 

the late Colonel C, E. Harvey, r.e., wrote in 
May, 1882:— 

*' I fear your removal from Chatham draws near. I 
am truly sorry for it, as you have already pulled up the 
school so much in your short reign." 

Another officer, writing from Calcutta about the same 
time, said :— 

" Officers who have gone from India and come back 
speak glowingly of the liberal spirit which you have 
established at Chatham, and for which you receive full 
credit." 

No narrative of Sir Andrew's service at Chatham 
would be complete that did not refer to his connection 
with the Brennan torpedo. Within a few months of 
his coming to the School of Military Engineering, he 
became acquainted with the inventor, Mr. Louis 
Brennan, a young man who came to England from 
Melbourne in response to inquiries from the Admiralty 
about his torpedo. The Admiralty, after arranging 
for some experiments from a Government vessel, rather 
abruptly decided not to proceed any further in the 
matter, and Mr. Brennan was put in communication 
with Sir Andrew Clarke at Chatham. 

To Sir Andrew the invention seemed so ingenious 
that he not only took it up warmly himself, but 
impressed upon Mr. Childers the importance of a 
weapon of such promise. At the end of January, 
1882, the torpedo was run in the River Medway in the 
presence of Sir Andrew and some of his officers, who 
were all struck with its capabilities. Not long after- 
wards Sir Andrew invited Sir George Bowen and 
some other friends to come down to Chatham to see a 
run of the torpedo. Something went wrong, and the 



230 THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY ENGINEERING 

fish sank. Much upset, Mr. Brennan went to Sir 
Andrew to apologise for the contretemps, and to ex- 
plain how it had probably occurred. He looked so 
dejected that Sir Andrew felt his disappointment more 
acutely than his own. The inventor relates how 
touched and cheered he was by the kind way in which 
Sir Andrew received his explanation. Putting his 
hand on Mr. Bren nan's shoulder, Sir Andrew said to 
him, *' Never mind, my dear fellow, it will be all right 
next time. If you are not engaged, come and dine 
with us to-night and tell us all about it." 

At a later date, when the Adjutant-General, or some 
other high official from the War OflSce, saw the torpedo 
run, it was arranged that instead of seeing it from the 
shore he should go out in a launch and witness it from 
the river. When the party in the launch had reached 
the appointed station, the torpedo was started. To 
their sur{ffise it made straight for the launch, and as it 
continued rapidly to approach them some alarm was 
expressed for their safety. Just as it seemed inevitable 
that the launch would be hit, the torpedo was turned 
round and made for the shore. Such a perfect com- 
mand over the movements of the weapon was convinc- 
ing evidence of its dirigibleness. 

Although encroaching chronologically on succeeding 
chapters, it may be as well to complete here the story 
of Sir Andrew Clarke's connection with the torpedo, 
and of the further development of the invention. 

Shortly after Sir Andrew became Inspector-General 
of Fortifications an agreement was entered into upon 
his recommendation with Mr. Brennan and his partner, 
Mr. J. R. Temperley, by which the inventor engaged 
to superintend the construction of the torpedo for three 
years. At the end of that time the Grovernment was 



1881-82] THE BRENNAN TORPEDO 231 

to be free to decide whether they would buy the in- 
vention or not. When the three years were over Sir 
Andrew was still in office, and on his strong recom- 
mendation the Government bought the invention. 

The justification of Sir Andrew's courageous support 
of the Brennan torpedo was fully demonstrated when 
the first installation was completed for the defence of 
the Solent. The late Mr. Edward Stanhope was the 
Secretary of State for War, and with a large party of 
members of Parliament, officers of the head-quarters 
staff, and ladies and gentlemen from Portsmouth and 
the Isle of Wight, including the late Lord Tennyson, 
the Poet Laureate, who lived close by, assembled to 
see the sight. 

A powerful tug towed a large old wooden vessel with 
a very long tow-rope down the Channel with the tide. 
It was a lovely summer morning, warm and bright ; 
there was no wind, and the sea was quite calm. As the 
tug, with the doomed vessel some distance behind her, 
approached, the excitement became intense. The in- 
ventor himself steered the torpedo from the shore. 
Suddenly there was a cry, **She has gone!" and 
the big fish was seen to run down the ways into the 
sea and then sink below the surface, leaving only 
the steel mast with a small flag visible. The ripple 
caused by the mast cutting the water marked the 
course of the torpedo, but the mast and the ripple 
were more difficult to see as the torpedo moved 
further away. Then as the tug and the ship came 
swinging along on the top of the tide, it seemed 
to those on shore as if the fish had started too late 
and would go astern of the hulk. There was con- 
sternation, and cries of ** She has missed I " Then 
suddenly the mast with the little foam ripple, which 



232 THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY ENGINEERING 

was astern of the ship, turned and pursued the hulk. 
Running, as it seemed, parallel with it, the fish 
gradually gained upon the vessel, and when it had 
got abreast of the forward part, like a greyhound over- 
taking a hare, the fish turned sharp in and bit into the 
ship amidships, blowing her to pieces with a loud re- 
port. Amid a volume of smoke rose a great column 
of water and debris of the hulk. Great was the cheer- 
ing and many the congratulations offered to the inventor 
from Melbourne. 

Even as early in the history of the torpedo as 
September, 1885, Sir Andrew Clarke had considered 
its use from shipboard for the defence of harbours. 
He suggested to the Minister of Defence of Victoria, 
for the protection of Port Phillip entrance, two fast 
rams, which might carry half a dozen Brennan tor- 
pedoes, to deter an enemy's cruisers from hovering 
about the entrance, intercepting merchant steamers and 
cutting communications. Seven or eight years later a 
small vessel was fitted by the War Department with a 
Brennan torpedo installation, and experiments carried 
out near Sheerness. Many distinguished naval officers 
were present, and recognised how successful they 
were, but the fact of a torpedo being attached by 
wire to a ship in motion condemned it for naval use. 
The objection may be valid enough if an ordinary 
warship be used, but it does not seem to apply to 
a vessel constructed especially for the purpose. A 
dirigible torpedo, completely under control from the 
ship, in spite of shorter range and less velocity, 
possesses great advantages over even the improved 
Whitehead, and would be most useful for harbour 
defence. 

An amusing incident occurred at Chatham during 



1881-82] AN AMUSING INCIDENT 233 

the time Sir Andrew was Commandant, which is re- 
lated by his daughter, in connection with the well- 
known illegibleness of his signature : — 

Two friends of Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke were 
given tickets bearing the Commandant's signature to 
admit them to special seats at some sports which were 
taking place on the Lines. On arriving at the entrance 
they were refused admittance, because the tickets had 
"cancelled" written across them. After some trouble 
and annoyance, an officer was able to put matters right, 
and explain to the ticket collector that the word sup- 
posed to be "cancelled" was really the Commandant's 
signature, "And. Clarke." Apologies followed, and 
the bearers of the tickets found their way to Lady 
Clarke, when there was much chafif as to the signature 
with a double meaning. 



CHAPTER XI 

INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

1882-1886 

SIR ANDREW CLARKE was gazetted Inspector- 
General of Fortifications and Director of Works 
on the loth June, 1882, and was given the temporary 
rank of Major-General, but he did not succeed to the 
establishment of general ofiBcers until the 21st May, 
1884. No sooner had he assumed the duties of his 
new office than he became immersed in the prepara- 
tions for a campaign in Egypt, and, at the same time, 
several weighty measures of defence, that had been 
incubating for years, suddenly became living, practical 
problems. 

First came the defence of coaling stations for the 
Navy. This question had been discussed and written 
about for a quarter of a century. In 1862 Lord 
Carnarvon had drawn attention in the House of Lords 
to the urgent nature of the problem of colonial defence, 
and for many years he and a few far-seeing statesmen 
and naval and military experts had persistently brought 
pressure to bear upon the Government of the day to 
induce them to move in the matter. At last, in 
1879, a Royal Commission was appointed, with Lord 
Carnarvon as chairman, to report upon ''the Defence 
of British Possessions and Commerce Abroad," and 
the final report was rendered the month after Sir 

334 



1882-86] DEFENCES OF THE EMPIRE 235 

Andrew went to the War Office. The Royal Com- 
mission emphasised the paramount importance to the 
British Empire of secure coaling stations for the Navy, 
and their proposals included the defence of Sierra 
Leone, Ascension, St. Helena, Table Bay, Simon's 
Bay, Mauritius, Colombo, Trincomali, Singapore, 
Hong Kong, King George's Sound, Thursday Island, 
Esquimau, St. Lucia, Jamaica, and Aden. 

Almost at the same moment Lord Morley's Com- 
mittee on the Defence of Mercantile Ports of the 
United Kingdom made their report. This Committee, 
which had sat for a year, was also the outcome of many 
years of repeated representations to Government, and 
their report was dated July, 1882. The localities re- 
commended for defence were : Aberdeen, Dundee, the 
Firth of Forth, the Tyne, Sunderland, Hartlepool, the 
Humber, and the Downs, on the East Coast; Fal- 
mouth, oh the South Coast ; and Belfast and Dublin, 
in Ireland. 

These two reports were referred to Sir Andrew for 
his consideration and advice ; and simultaneously the 
revision of the defences of the imperial fortresses at 
home and abroad became a pressing matter. The 
ammunition, magazines, and the guns were alike in- 
sufficiently protected, owing to the increased power of 
penetration of projectiles, while the armament left 
much to be desired. 

Thus pari passu with the new defences of coaling 
stations and mercantile ports schemes had to be pre- 
pared for the revision of the old defences of Harwich, 
the Thames and Medway, Dover, Portsmouth, Port- 
land, Plymouth, Milford Haven, and Cork Harbour at 
home ; and of Halifax (Nova Scotia), Bermuda, Gib- 
raltar, and Malta abroad. 



236 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

While these defence proposals were crowding in, 
the bombardment of Alexandria by the British fleet 
took place on the nth July, 1882, and the despatch 
of Sir Garnet Wolseley's expedition to suppress the 
rebellion of Arabi occupied everyone's attention. Sir 
Andrew, accompanied by his aide-de-camp, Captain 
G. W. Addison, visited Chatham on the 2nd August 
to inspect the Royal Engineers ordered to Egypt, 
and a week later went to Gravesend to see them 
embark. 

The bombardment of Alexandria happened at a most 
opportune moment as an object lesson of practical utility 
to the military engineer. There had not been anything 
precisely of the kind since Lord Exmouth bombarded 
Algiers in 18 16 with a wooden fleet armed with smooth- 
bores, and in view of the large schemes of harbour 
defence proposed to be undertaken, it was of import- 
ance to know, as precisely as possible, what was the 
effect produced upon shore batteries by the big guns 
of a powerful modern fleet. Sir Andrew determined to 
send an officer to Alexandria to make a detailed exam- 
ination of the effect of the bombardment and to furnish 
a full report. Whom should he send ? 

The late Sir Henry Cole, k.cb., Superintendent of 
the South Kensington Museum, was once called **that 
astute detector of useful men," and the same might be 
said of Sir Andrew Clarke, who certainly had the 
faculty of putting his hand on the right man for any 
particular work he wanted done. It so happened that 
in the previous year he had been struck with the merit of 
a volume of the R.E. Professional Papers, written by a 
senior subaltern of the Corps, who was at the time an 
instructor at the Royal Engineering College at Cooper's 
Hill. This volume contained a very able account of 



1883-86] BOMBARDMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 237 

the operations at Plevna, in the Russo-Turkish War 
of 1877-8, and was, in fact, the first complete history 
of the defence of Plevna that had appeared in any 
language. Sir Andrew was unacquainted with the 
author. Lieutenant G. S. Clarke,^ who, although bear- 
ing the same name, was in no way connected with Sir 
Andrew's family, and who, at the time of the bombard- 
ment of Alexandria, was serving as a captain at Gibral- 
tar. **Here," thought Sir Andrew, *'is the man I 
want." So Captain Clarke was sent from Gibraltar 
to Alexandria to report on the effect of the bom- 
bardment. 

In a letter to the Commander-in-Chief, covering 
Captain Clarke's report (published as a blue book in 
1883), Sir Andrew, after pointing out that the selection 
of Captain Clarke for this duty had been amply justi- 
fied by the report he had made, called attention to the 
harmlessness of the attack on Alexandria, considering 
its nature and the character of the defences attacked. 
He pointed out that the fleet was much more powerfully 
armed than the defence, that it had a much superior 
personnel^ and fought under favourable conditions. 
The sea was not rough, the fleet was in possession of 
the harbour, the defence had no submarine mines nor 
torpedo-boats, and beacons and buoys had not been 
removed. The general conclusions were that the effect 
of modern heavy gunfire on earthworks had been over- 
rated, that earthworks should be employed for coast 
defence where space was available, and should be 
placed on high rather than low sites, and made as little 
visible as possible. Sir Andrew was so impressed 
with the ability of the report that he arranged for the 

* Now Colonel Sir Georg-e Clarke, K.C.M.O., Secretary of the Council 
of Imperial Defence, and late Governor of Victoria. 



238 INSPECTOR^ENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

transfer of Captain Clarke to the War Office, and two 
years later made him secretary of the newly formed 
Colonial Defence Committee.^ 

About a month after the bombardment of Alexandria 
news came from Suez of a rumoured disaster having 
befallen a party consisting of Professor Palmer, the 
Arabic scholar, Captain Gill, R.E., the traveller, and 
Lieutenant Charrington, r.n., Flag-Lieutenant to Rear- 
Admiral Sir W. Hewett, who had gone to Nakhl in 
the Arabian Desert to buy camels for the Indian con- 
tingent of Sir Garnet Wolseley's force. Inquiries were 
set on foot with no result, and the Government feared 
the worst. Again Sir Andrew was ready with a man 
who, he recommended, should be sent at once to trace 
what had become of the party. This was Lieutenant- 
Colonel Charles Warren,^ c.m.g., who had been on Sir 
Andrew's sta£Fat Chatham, and who was well acquainted 
with Arabs and their ways. He succeeded in tracking 
the murderers of the party and in capturing eight of 
them, who were brought to trial, convicted, and hanged. 
In January, 1883, Sir Andrew wrote to Colonel Warren : 
^^You are doing your mission right well; we are all 
proud of you." In the following April, Sir Andrew 
represented the Corps at the burial, in the crypt of 
St. Paul's Cathedral, of the remains of the murdered 
Englishmen, which had been brought home by Colonel 

^ This Committee was formed in 1885, when war with Russia was 
imminent, on the initiative of Sir Andrew Clarke, the late Sir Robert 
Herbert, Permanent Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, and the 
Hon. Robert Meade, Assistant Under Secretary, in order to bring the 
Colonial Office into touch with the military services on questions con- 
nected with colonial defence. The Inspector-General of Fortifications 
was ex^fficio president The Colonial Permanent Under Secretary was 
a member, and there were also three members from the War Office, one 
from the Admiralty, and one from the Treasury. 

* Now General Sir Charles Warren, O.C.M.O., K.C.B. 



i883^ MILITARY RAILWAY CORPS 239 

Warren, who was created a K.C.M.G. by the Queen 
for his services. 

In connection with Sir Garnet Wolseley's short and 
brilliant campaign in Egypt, Sir Andrew organised 
a military railway corps to take over the abandoned 
Egyptian railways, and construct a line from the base 
at Ismailia to supply the army as it advanced. He 
secured the services of Major W. A. J. Wallace,^ manager 
of the Northern Bengal Railway, who happened to be 
at home on leave from India, as Director of the Railway 
Corps, and put the 8th Company, R.E., commanded 
by Captain Sidney Smith, at his disposal, obtaining 
permission from the London, Chatham, and Dover, and 
the London and South Western Railway Companies 
for the 8th Company to have the run of their lines and 
workshops, and pick up as much as they could of 
railway working, plate laying, engine driving, etc., until 
they embarked for Egypt. 

This corps did good work in Egypt, and Mr. Childers 
decided to have a nucleus of a permanent military railway 
corps. In the session of 1882, in reply to a question in 
the House of Commons, he said: '^I am considering 
the feasibility of converting one or more companies 
of Royal Engineers into a railway corps, with perma- 
nent cadres which could be rapidly expanded when 
required for active service, but the details have not been 
worked out." In the following year they had been 
worked out, and in July, 1883, the Adjutant-General, 
Lord Wolseley, wrote to Sir Andrew: *M have read 
your railroad company scheme with great interest. . . . 
I am most anxious to forward the establishment of a 
railroad corps, so you can depend upon my aid." Sir 
Andrew's initiative, and the success of the railway 

^ The late Colonel W. A. J. Wallace, C.I.B., r.e. 



240 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

work in Egypt, combined to establish the R.E. Rail- 
way Companies, of which there are at present three. 

In considering the various questions of defence at 
home and abroad which came before him as soon as he 
assumed office, one of the first steps Sir Andrew Clarke 
took was to apply for the assistance of a naval officer. 
He was fortunate in obtaining the services of Captain 
T. S. Jackson, r.n.,^ and, so useful did he find this 
naval assistance that, on his suggestion, the post of 
Naval Adviser to the Inspector-General of Fortifications 
was created. Captain Jackson was the first to occupy 
a position on the War Office sta£F which has since been 
held by many distinguished naval officers.' 

Sir Andrew also arranged that an officer of Royal 
Artillery should be attached to his staff to advise him 
on artillery questions, and to keep his office in touch 
with all the latest developments in gun-mountings, etc. 
The first officer to hold the appointment of Artillery 
Adviser to the Inspector-General of Fortifications was 
Major (now Major-General) D. T. O'Callaghan, c.v.o., 

R.A. 

In June, 1883, Sir Andrew submitted a memorandum 
on the recommendations of Lord Carnarvon's Commis- 
sion. Adopting generally the views of that body, he 
proposed a less costly scheme, which was considered 
sufficient by the Defence Committee,* and approved by 
the Secretary of State for War as the basis for action. 

' Vice- Admiral Sir Thomas Sturg^es Jackson, K.cv.o. 

* Of these may be mentioned Vice-Admirals Sir C. C. Druiy, K.C.S.L, 
E. S. Poe, C.V.O., and Sir W. H. Fawkes, K.C.V.O. ; Rear-Admiral 
H.S.H. Prince Louis of Battenberg, O.CB., etc.; and Captain G. A. 
Callaghan, C.B., and others. 

* The Defence Committee had existed for many years. It was 
presided over by the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, and was 
composed of the First Naval Lord of the Admiralty and the Director of 
Naval Ordnance, the Adjutant-General, the Quartermaster-General, the 



i88a-86] MERCANTILE PORTS DEFENCE 241 

Sir Andrew spent part of the autumn of 1883 in a 
careful examination of the commercial harbours which 
Lord Morley's Committee had recommended for de- 
fence, and early in January, 1884, he paid a special 
visit to Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he was the guest of 
Lieutenant-Colonel (afterwards Sir) Charles M. Palmer, 
Bart., M.P., and the officers of the ist Newcastle and 
Durham Volunteer Engineers. He seized the occasion 
to urge the importance of submarine mines for the 
defence of mercantile ports, and advocated the employ- 
ment of local Volunteers, with a nucleus of Royal 
Engineers at each defended port. He intended, he 
said, to try this organisation at the Tyne as an experi- 
ment, and hoped in a few months' time to be able to 
say to the Secretary of State for War that what had 
been done in the Tyne could be done at all other 
mercantile ports. Sir Andrew's opinion that the 
auxiliary forces intended for the defence of ports should 
be local forces trained at their own door — Submarine 
Miners in waters that they knew ; Artillery, instead of 
being brought from the North of Ireland to man the 
defences of Milford Haven and Spithead, raised and 
trained at those places — was most sound. It is this 
employment of local Volunteer Engineer Corps, with 
the assistance of the R.E. Coast Brigade, that made 
Sir Andrew's organisation of submarine mining defence 
at mercantile ports such a success, and the efficiency of 
this nature of defence at the Tay, the Forth, the Tyne, 
the Tees, the Humber, the Clyde, the Mersey, the 
Severn, and Falmouth is a tribute to his judgment. 



Inspector-General of Fortifications, the Director of Artillery, and the 
Deputy Adjutants-General for Artillery and Engineers, with the Deputy 
Inspector-General of Fortifications, at the head of the Fortification 
Branch, as Secretary. 



242 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

Sir Andrew submitted his report upon the proposals 
of Lord Morley's Committee in January, 1884, He 
advised the omission of the defence of the Downs and 
that Holyhead should be substituted. He advocated 
the defence of the Clyde at a line at or above Gourock, 
and objected to the proposal to attempt to make a 
defence at the Cumbraes. The Defence Committee 
accepted his recommendations except as regards the 
Clyde, but eventually Sir Andrew's views on this point 
also were adopted, and the defence above Gourock 
approved.^ 

The preliminary stages of the defence of the coaling 
stations necessarily took some time. The funds were 
provided partly by contributions from the colonies and 
partly by parliamentary votes, and there was much 
correspondence between the War Office, the Colonial 
Office, and the Treasury, which delayed the beginning 
of the works. Aden and Hong Kong were the first 
coaling stations to be put in hand. Sir Andrew sent 
Captain (now Colonel) J. F. Lewis to Aden in 1883 to 
survey sites and design the works which were begun 
the following year. The Earl, afterwards Marquess, 
of Dufiferin, on his way out to India as Viceroy, 
stopped at Aden and wrote to Sir Andrew after he 
reached Calcutta on the ist January, 1885 : — 

From the Earl of Dufferin. 

** I stopped at Aden and went carefully over all the 
fortifications. Everybody there seemed perfectly satis- 

^ In a long" letter, full of instructive matter, to Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Thomas Sutherland, dated ist July, 1885, and subsequently published in 
the TimeSf Sir Andrew gave his reasons for preferring the upper line. 
He showed that, owing to the width and depth of the channel west 
of the Cumbraes, a satisfactory defence at that point was impossible. 
The heaviest gun armament would not prevent ships passing through, 
and submarine mining defence in such deep water was impracticable. 



i882^ COALING STATIONS DEFENCE 243 

fied with your plans for their improvement. The only 
suggestion made by General Blair was that if a defen- 
sive barrack were placed at the head of the Gold Mohur 
Valley, it would serve the double purpose of a sana- 
torium and a protection to Steamer Point more effectu- 
ally from the east than the proposed block-house. As 
far as I can learn, the Government of India is quite 
contented with your plans, and has no suggestion to 
make." 

From Hong Kong Sir George Bowen, the Governor, 
hearing that the defence works were about to be taken 
in hand, wrote to Sir Andrew in 1884 : — 

From Sir George Bowen. 

** Many thanks for your exertions to procure some 
additions to the so-called defences of this now practi- 
cally defenceless Gibraltar of the East. We have been 
practically at the mercy of the French Admiral, who 
has been here for the last seven months with a powerful 
squadron, with which he could any day, during the 
prolonged absence of our Admiral in Japan, have landed 
3,000 troops from Tonquin and quietly taken posses- 
sion. Our garrison consists of only about 600 effective 
English solders, and there are only four open batteries, 
into which anyone can march from the rear. As French, 
German, and Russian officers have said to me, if either 
of their nations seized Hon^ Kong, they would put 
5,000 troops into it and make it a real Gibraltar." 

At the end of 1883 Sir Andrew had sent Captain 
(now Colonel Sir) Herbert Jekyll to Singapore to 
survey the sites for the defence works there, and in 
March, 1885, Sir Andrew arranged with the Colonial 
Office that Captain McCallum,^ r.e.. Colonial Engineer 
of the Straits Settlements, should take charge of the 
execution of the works. The following extracts from a 
letter dated 12th April, 1885, to Sir Andrew Clarke 

' Now Colonel Sir Henry McCallum, O.C.M.O., Governor of Natal. 



244 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

from Mr. Pickering, whose name will be recalled in 
connection with Perak affairs in 1874-5, tell how serious 
was the anxiety at Singapore on account of the un- 
protected condition of the port : — 

From Mr. IV. A . Pickering. 

*< We are now expecting every hour to hear of war ^ 
beingf declared with Russia, and perhaps that France 
is joining her against us. We have the Curofoa and 
Cleopatra^ with a gun-vessel Espoir to defend us, and 
some Russian men-of-war are supposed to be outside 
in the Archipelago waiting to hear of hostilities being 
declared. I don't think we need be afraid of any 
Russian force, but the French fleet combined with them 
would give our blue-jackets all their work, though I 
suppose, in spite of armour and machinery, the men 
will tell nowadays as they did of yore. . . . 

'*I have no doubt that we can defend ourselves if 
we only put up a stiff back, and I am glad to say that 
McCallum, who is in charge of our de^nces, is every- 
thing any Englishman could wish. . . • 

**Some four weeks ago a telegram came from the 
Secretary of State asking about getting Chinese labour 
for the Suakin Railway. It arrived on Sunday, and 
I went to the head of the strongest society, and in 
twelve hours he promised 500 men at twelve dollars a 
month per head if I would go with them. McCallum 
and I both volunteered to organise, equip, and conduct 
the contingent." 

However, it is not our purpose, nor have we space, 
to enter into the details of the unpreparedness for war 
of our foreign possessions and colonies, or of the active 
steps taken while Sir Andrew Clarke was Inspector- 
General of Fortifications to begin the construction of 
adequate protection for them. It will be more to the 
point to call attention to the earnestness with which 

^ On account of Uie Penjdeh incident 



i88a-86] INSTRUCTIVE EXPERIMENTS 245 

he endeavoured to lay down principles for the guidance 
of his officers in designing the new works. 

In the summer of 1884 Sir Andrew arranged for a 
series of very instructive experiments which were 
carried out at Inchkeith, in the Firth of Forth. The 
Admiralty allowed H.M.S. Sultan to be temporarily 
detached from the Channel Squadron to attack a 
battery on Inchkeith Island, and the results of fire from 
machine and quick-firing guns, and the effects of 
shrapnel shell from heavy guns, were carefully tabu- 
lated. Dummy figures were placed in the gun em- 
placement on shore to represent the gun detachment 
serving the gun. Experiments of a similar kind were 
afterwards carried out at Portland Bill, the results 
showing the hopelessness of naval attack on dis- 
appearing guns. Many important problems were 
solved by these practical trials, and Sir Andrew felt 
he was on sure ground when he prepared a draft memo- 
randum embodying the principles he proposed to lay 
down, which were to a great extent the outcome of the 
Report on the Bombardment of Alexandria, already 
referred to, and of these Inchkeith and Portland Bill 
experiments. 

In his draft memorandum he pointed out how 
dififerent were the data of presumed attack from those 
that existed when the defence of our naval bases at 
home was last undertaken. He showed that to meet 
the attack of modern ships of war, high sites should 
be adopted for the shore batteries when possible, and 
the heavy guns dispersed so as to bring a concentrated 
fire on a hostile ship, which could only attack one or 
two such batteries at a time. He dwelt much on the 
value of background as influencing the accuracy of 
hostile fire, and on the importance of concealing the 



246 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

defence works by planting trees and shrubSi and by 
many other devices. He laid stress on the advantage 
of high-angle fire from concealed howitzer batteries in 
order to prevent the enemy anchoring their ships ; and 
he advocated the use of earthworks, where space per- 
mitted, and the employment of sand, when available, 
for the parapets. 

Before issuing this paper as a War Office memoran- 
dum, Sir Andrew sent copies of his draft for criticism 
to many eminent authorities. 

Admiral Sir A. Cooper Key wrote to him on 3rd 
November, 1884: — 

From Admiral Sir A. Cooper Key. 

** I thoroughly agree with your Memorandum on 
Coast Defence. It recos^nises and inculcates principles 
which I have advocated for many years, viz. : (i) the 
dispersion of guns for coast defence ; (2) placing 
them on a heignt withdrawn from the shore ; (3) that 
batteries alone will never stop a ship from running past 
them. . . . 

'* In many places vertical fire will entirely deny an 
anchorage to an enemy with no risk whatever to the 
howitzer." 

Field-Marshal Lord Napier of Magdala wrote on 
7th November: — 

From Field-Marshal Lord Napier of Magdala. 

'*Pray forgive my delay in replving to your note 
and most interesting instructions, which appear to me 
excellent. I have made one or two pencilled notes for 
your consideration and correction by your better judg- 
ment. Very many thanks for letting me see the in- 
structions." 

The distinguished Belgian engineer, the late General 
Brialmont, whose defence works at Antwerp, Li6ge, 



1882-86] MEMORANDUM ON DEFENCE 247 

Namur, and also at Bucharest are well known, and 
whose writings on fortification have a world-wide 
reputation, wrote to Sir Andrew from Brussels on 7th 
January, 1885 : — 

From General A. H. Brialmont. 

**I received your study on the protection of heavy 
guns for coast defence at the moment when I was 
occupied in writing on the same subject. I learn with 
pleasure that my ideas on the defence of coasts do not 
sensibly differ from yours. The principles which you 
lay down are excellent, but before adopting all your 
conclusions as regards open batteries, I should like to 
know the type which you propose to apply. . . • 

'* I also am a partisan of the dispersion of batteries, 
but I wish that each battery should be sufficiently 
strong to repulse attacks de vive force by landing 
parties. This is, in fact, the way by which sailors will 
seek to seize guns which they cannot silence by the 
artillery of their ships. ..." 

And three weeks later General Brialmont wrote 

again : — 

From the same. 

* * Your memorandum on Coast Defence very satis- 
factorily completes that which you previously sent me, 
and it permits me to say that you have, in my view, 
laid down the * true principles * of coast defence. . . . 
Accept, my dear General, all my thanks for sending me 
your very interesting notes, which I ask your permis- 
sion to reproduce in part in my book in course of pub- 
lication." 

Always ready to welcome any proposal, however 
novel, that showed not merely ingenuity, but also some 
likelihood of practical utility in matters of defence, Sir 
Andrew Clarke was one of the first to press upon the 
Government the advantage to be derived from tor- 
pedoes and from submarine vessels for harbour 



248 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

defence. We have seen how he fostered Mr. 
Brennan's invention of a dirigible torpedo. The 
Admiralty had taken up the Whitehead invention, but 
the submarine vessel was left alone, in spite of Sir 
Andrew's advocacy, until its adoption and development 
by foreign navies forced our Admiralty to reconsider 
their decision. 

As an instance of Sir Andrew's prescience may be 
quoted his Memorandum of April, 1885, when our 
relations with Russia were strained, and war seemed 
imminent. In this paper, after taking stock of our 
defences and making various suggestions, Sir Andrew 
strongly recommended, in addition to all his other 
proposals, that ;^20,ooo should be provided for a sub- 
marine boat. 

The late Mr. T. Nordenfelt had recently invented a 
submarine vessel, and Sir Andrew regarded the inven- 
tion as one likely to revolutionise naval tactics. With 
some of the officers on his staff he attended the Nor- 
denfelt submarine boat experiments, carried out in 
September, 1885, by order of the King of Sweden and 
Norway. The trials took place at Landskrona, in 
Sweden, on the Sound, and although they proved in 
some respects inconclusive, they undoubtedly gave a 
great impetus to submarine navigation. On his return 
from Landskrona, Sir Andrew recommended the 
Government to buy Mr. Nordenfelt's boat and make a 
thorough investigation of the question of submarines by 
searching and systematic experiment. To this recom- 
mendation the Government turned a deaf ear; but Sir 
Andrew was always persistent in any proposal he 
thought good for the service. So we find him on the 
5th February, 1866, presiding at an influential meeting 
of the members of the Royal United Service Institu- 



i882-86> THE SUBMARINE BOAT 249 

tion, when Mr. Nordenfelt lectured on his submarine 
boat. Admiral H.R.H. the late Duke of Edinburgh 
was present, and took a prominent part in the dis- 
cussion that followed the lecture, in which many other 
distinguished naval officers joined. 

The retirement of Sir Andrew in the following 
summer turned his thoughts into other channels. 
Nothing was done for the next fifteen years. Then the 
success achieved by France and other countries com- 
pelled the British Government to move in the matter. 
Once started, indeed, our naval officers have lost no 
time, and have done excellent work. But if Sir 
Andrew had had his way in 1886, there is no saying 
how much further advanced the submarine boat might 
have been by this time. 

In the spring of 1885 Sir Andrew spoke at a 
meeting at Willis's Rooms, under the presidency of 
Earl Cowper, on the defence of our commercial 
ports. Sir Andrew attributed the sense of insecurity 
generally prevailing as to our mercantile ports, of 
which the meeting was a practical expression, to 
the inadequacy of the strength of the Navy for 
the work it had to do. He went on to say that the 
Navy was, and must ever be, the ofifensive arm of 
the Empire, and must be free to carry the might of 
England across the world. To tie the Navy to our 
ports would be to paralyse its action and enfeeble the 
conduct of a war. He pointed out that submarine 
mines constituted a most valuable defensive arm. He 
hoped to see the day when the defences of our ports 
would be so well provided in matiriel and personnel 
that it would be merely necessary to telegraph to the 
great ports in order to call their defensive energies 
into life. Each port, he said, should and might be so 



250 INSPECTOR4>ENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

completely organised for defence that on the outbreak 
of war the local forces would fall simply and naturally 
into their places. 

And here it should be noted that while no one was a 
more thoroughgoing and staunch supporter of a strong 
Navy than Sir Andrew, no one resisted more resolutely 
the suggestion of some ultra-marine reformers that the 
defence of our naval bases and coaling stations should 
be handed over to the Navy. He strongly objected to 
hampering the Navy with questions of harbour defence. 
In his view the role of the Navy was attack, and 
that the Army should relieve the Navy of all anxiety 
as to the security of their naval bases and coaling 
stations. 

The Australasian colonies, and particularly Sir 
Andrew's old colony, Victoria,^ looked to the Inspector- 
General of Fortifications for advice on defence questions. 
This he was always ready to give, taking the greatest 
pains to explain his views, and going into the details 
with great thoroughness. The following extracts from 
a long letter to Colonel the Hon. (afterwards Sir) 
Frederick Sargood, Minister of Defence for Victoria, 
written in September, 1885, show not only his care as 
to details, but that he never lost sight of the broader 

^ Sir Andrew's old friend, Sir Henry Loch, had been appointed 
Governor of Victoria in the spring of 1884, much to Sir Andrew's 
pleasure, and wrote to him before leaving: — 

**44, Elm Park Gardens, S.W., 

"^Apriit 1884. 
" My dear Andrew, 

*' A thousand thanks for congratulations. It seems very strange 
going, after thirty yters' interval, to those parts where we were together 
as young men. I trust I may succeed, both for the colonists and for 
myself. I shall be delighted to have a talk with you upon all subjects, 
and I will look in upon you for that purpose some day after Easter. 

" Ever yours, 

" Henry B. Loch." 



i882^ MILITARY COLLEGE, VICTORIA 251 

issues that would conduce to the future strength of 
the colony, such as his suggestion of a military college 
for the colony : — 

To Colonel the Hon. F. Sargood. 

*' Before replying to your letter of 8th June I 
referred the questions which you laid before me to a 
committee of members of my staff, representing naval, 
mining, and artillery views, as well as those of pure 
fortification. I send you the report ... in which I 
concur. . . . 

*' I would again draw your attention to the desirability 
of keeping the guns at good intervals, and hiding their 
whereabouts by planting, and by leaving the foreground 
as much as possible in a natural state. Do not be too 
much afraid of landing parties. The best defence 
against them is ... to keep a small infantry force en- 
trenched in a good central position. . . . Comparatively 
slight entrenchments, with a liberal use of wire en- 
tanglements, will suffice against any landing party you 
will have to resist. 

'*The committee have recommended the employment 
of howitzers. ... I have long held the opinion that 
curved fire has a great future before it, and that its 
employment for coast service will soon be universal. . . . 

'* In conclusion, I would strongly advise that your 
future expenditure on defences should be devoted rather 
to the perfection and increase of your land forces and 
the increase of your fleet than to a multiplication of 
batteries and forts. The former I regard as specially 
important, not merely as the real backbone of your 
defence, but because the military training you give is 
a part of the education of your manhood, and it will 
exercise a great moral and physical e£Fect over the future 
of the colony. . . . 

'* There is one other subject which I would like to 
see your Administration connected with, and that is the 
establishment at Melbourne of a military college, similar 
to the college at Kingston, Canada, which has been 
such a marked success, and where a most excellent and 
practical education in Civil Engineering is combined 
with a soldier's training. 



2S2 INSPECTOR^ENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

''The course of Civil Engineering at Kingston is so 
good that the graduates of the college have no difficulty 
in finding employment, indeed they are sought for, not 
only in Canada, but in the United States. The loyalty 
to their engagements, and integrity in their profession, 
and accuracy in the details of their work, engendered 
by their habits of discipline, and the general tone of 
their college life, strongly recommends them for posts 
of trust and responsibility. I have several young 
officers from Kingston College serving under my com- 
mand (one is now my aide-de-camp) who have received 
direct commissions from the college into the Royal 
Engineers, and recently under my advice, to remedy 
the dearth of young officers in the Corps, eleven 
graduates have been gazetted to the Royal Engineers, 
while others have been posted to the Artillery and 
Infantry. Apart from the military needs you have in 
Australia for such an institution, which should be self- 
supporting, the college fees covering its cost, the 
demand for engineers, architects, electricians, mechani- 
cians, must be now becoming so great throughout 
Australia that there would be a certain field open for 
their employment. 

"I regard the Canadian Military College as one 
of the best of its class in the world ; the training and 
results are in every way of a high order, and the 
Americans themselves, I understand, say better than at 
West Point. 

** There is no reason why Australia should not have 
a military college equally good. It only requires to be 
started, and now seems as favourable an opportunity as 
is likely to occur." 

In his own branch of the service Sir Andrew 
managed, during his tenure of office, to effect some 
salutary reforms and improvements; such were the 
better training of the Pontoon Troop ; the organisa- 
tion of a troop of Mounted Engineers^ who were 
instructed in hasty demolition and provided with 
a special equipment to enable them to destroy 
bridges, railways, etc. ; the organisation of Balloon 



i88a-86] SALUTARY REFORMS 353 

Sections^ for service in the field ; the practical training 
of a few specially selected young officers of Royal 
Engineers, who showed a taste for mechanics, in 
mechanical engineering at the Eliswick Works, New- 
castle-on-Tyne ; and of others in railway work under 
one of the great railway companies. 

The reader will recollect how strongly Sir Andrew 
Clarke, in his young days, expressed himself on the 
system by which young officers of Engineers on first 
getting their commissions were sent straight to Chat- 
ham to go through further professional instruction, and 
how he looked forward to a time when he might be in a 
position to make his voice heard with some effect, and 
be able to make a change in this system, which would 
be beneficial to his brother officers. Now that he had 
arrived at that position he endeavoured to obtain his 
object. He quite carried the Adjutant-General with 
him, and on 5th August, 1884, Lord Wolseley wrote to 
him : '* I think you had better come and see H.R.H. 
yourself to-morrow about the Chatham course. I go 
entirely with you on the subject, and I should be very 
glad to send ten subalterns of R.E. at once to Egypt." 
But H.R.H. saw a good many difficulties in carrying 
out what was proposed, and no alteration was made. 

Inspired also by his own experiences at Colchester 
and Birmingham, Sir Andrew made a successful effort 
to give District Officers of Engineers a freer hand in 
the application of funds at their disposal for the works 
in their charge. It is true that neither the finance 
branch of the War Office nor the Treasury would go as 

^ Balloon sections were sent with the Bechuanaland expedition in 
1884, and with Sir Gerald Graham's expedition to Suakin in 1885, and 
were very favourably reported upon. When the papers were submitted 
to Queen Victoria, Her Majesty wrote on the margin, ** Why was not 
this done before ? " 



254 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

far as he wished to go in the matteri but a beginning 
was made of giving increased financial responsibility, 
and with it increased interest in the work, which has 
since developed until now the cry of decentralisation 
meets with approval in high quarters. 

On the 6th June, 1885, Sir Andrew Clarke was 
rewarded for his War Office services by promotion to 
the Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George, of 
which order he had been made a knight thirteen years 
before. 



CHAPTER XII 

INSPECTOR^ENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

1882-1886 

IN the last chapter Sir Andrew Clarke's work as 
Inspector-General of Fortifications in respect to 
the most important of all his duties — the defences of the 
Empire — was related. In the present chapter some 
of the many other subjects with which he had to do 
during his term of service at the War Office are touched 
upon, such as the Suez Canal, General Gordon and the 
Soudan, the Suakin-Berber Railway, the Bechuana- 
land Expedition, and the political question of the New 
Hebrides and the Australasian Colonies. The particu- 
lars of General Gordon's resignation of his commission, 
and the part Sir Andrew Clarke took in inducing the 
War Office authorities to reconsider their decision to 
accept it, and to give him permission to go to the 
Congo while still serving on the active list of the 
Army, it is believed have not been published before. 

Among other matters which the campaign in Egypt 
in 1882 had brought into prominence was the status of 
the Suez Canal. The importance of the Canal had 
grown with the years that had passed since Sir Andrew 
inspected it on behalf of the Admiralty in 1870. His 
proposal to purchase it had been accepted in principle 
by Lord Beaconsfield, when the British Government 
purchased the Khedive's shares for ;f4,o8o,ooo in 1875, 

255 



256 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

and secured the presence of British directors on the 
Board of Management. 

The international character of the Canal and its future 
status in war time were referred to a Committee, of 
which Lord Granville was president, and Mr. Childers, 
Sir Charles Dilke, Sir Julian (afterwards Lord) Paunce- 
fote, and Sir Andrew Clarke were members.^ Shortly 
after this Committee made its report. Sir Andrew was 
sent on a special mission to Egypt to look into the 
condition of the barracks, and to inquire as to the sani- 
tary arrangements for the comfort and health of the 
British troops of the Army of Occupation. Mr. Childers 
wrote on the loth November, 1882, to Lord Dufferin, 
who had just gone to Cairo, telling him that Sir 
Andrew was going to Egypt, **to confer with and 
assist Sir Archibald Alison about military buildings." 
He added: *'I think you know him well, and all I 
need say is that on this, and indeed on all subjects, he 
has my entire confidence, and that of the Duke of 
Cambridge. His stay will be very short, but he will 
be able to get through a good deal of work." 

The result of Sir Andrew's visit to Egypt was the 
adoption of measures which conduced to the diminution 
of mortality among the British troops and the improve- 

^ The Committee recommended that the Canal should be free for the 
passage of all ships in any circumstances ; that in time of war a time 
limitation as to the ships of war of a bellig'erent remaining* in the Canal 
should be fixed, and no troops or munitions of war should be disem- 
barked in the Canal ; that no hostilities should take place in the territorial 
waters of Egypt, even in the event of Turkey being one of the belligerents; 
that any Power whose vessels of war do any damage to the Canal 
should repair such damage as prompUy as possible ; that Egypt should 
take all measures within its power to enforce the observance of the con- 
ditions imposed on the transit of belligerent vessels in time of war ; but 
that no fortifications should be erected on the Canal or in its vicinity, and 
that the territorial rights of the Government of Egypt should in all 
circumstances be respected. 



i88a-86] THE SUEZ CANAL 257 

ment of the health of the Army of Occupation.^ He 
was also able to examine again the Suez Canal. The 
traffic through the Canal had developed to such an 
extent that its enlargement or duplication had become a 
necessity. Sir Andrew's examination led him to the 
conclusion that of the two alternatives the widening of 
the existing canal was far preferable to the construction 
of a second canal, and in the following August (1883) 
he wrote a memorandum giving his reasons for the 
preference at some length. 

In order to complete the narrative of his connection 
with the Suez Canal, reference must be made to the 
appointment of the International Committee in 1884 ^^ 
advise the Suez Canal Company on this very point. 
Sir Andrew was nominated by the Government to be 
one of the British representatives on the Committee. 
Some exception was taken to the Government nominees 
by Mr. Magniac in the House of Commons on the 23rd 
June, 1884, when Mr. Gladstone stated that every pains 
had been taken to secure the very best choice of repre- 
sentatives, and that Sir Andrew Clarke was appointed 
after consultation with the Colonial Office and with the 
Agents-General of the Australian colonies. 

"Sir Andrew had not merely," he said, *'been 
Governor of the Straits Settlements and a member of 
the Viceroy of India's Council, but he was nominated 
by the Admiralty as one of the persons commissioned 
to report on the Suez Canal in 1870. He had since 
studied the question of the enlargement of the Canal, 
and his presence on the Committee as an English 

^ Sir Andrew persuaded Uie Khedive to allot one of his palaces as a 
hospital for British troops by telling him that Queen Victoria would not 
hesitate to give up Buckingham Palace for such a purpose, were it 
necessary. On Sir Andrew's return home, he told the Queen what he 
had said, and Her Majesty was very pleased. 
S 



258 INSPECTOR-GENfERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

member would be of special value. The Committee 
was not a standing Committee, but was appointed to 
advise upon the enlargement or the duplication of the 
existing canal." 

At the first meeting of the International Committee 
in Paris on the 19th June, 1884, Sir Andrew was chosen 
Vice-President of the Committee, which consisted of 
eight English and eight French members and one 
member from each other Power. The eventual decision 
arrived at was in general accordance with the views 
expressed in Sir Andrew's memorandum of August, 
1883. 

To return to the end of 1882. Sir Andrew came 
back from Egypt in December to find that a change 
had taken place in the Government. His friend, Mr. 
Childers, was no longer at the War Office, having 
become Chancellor of the Exchequer, and his place at 
the War Office was filled by the Marquess of Hartington, 
now Duke of Devonshire. Mr. Childers's son, Spencer,^ 
an officer of Royal Engineers, at whose wedding in 
April, 1883, Sir Andrew and Lady Clarke were present, 
was gazetted aide-de-camp to the Inspector-General of 
Fortifications on his return from leave of absence in the 
following month. 

Shortly after Mr. Childers left the War Office, Sir 
Andrew seems to have been worried as to the effect in 
his own case of the age clause of the Royal Warrant 
on Promotion and Retirement. In the following July 
he would attain the age limit for colonels, fifty-nine 
years, and he was only a colonel, although holding the 
temporary rank of major-general. He was also anxious 
about his wife's health, and he thought once more of 

^ Now Brevet-Colonel £. S. E. Childers, C.B., R.B., the author of the 
Life of the Right Hon. Hugh C E. Childers. 



i88a-86] SAVED FROM RETIREMENT 259 

a colonial governorship. It so happened that the 
government of Jamaica became vacant about this time, 
and Lord Derby, Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
offered it to Sir Andrew Clarke *' in the most flattering 
terms." Sir Andrew then took steps to obtain an 
authoritative pronouncement as to the operation of the 
Royal Warrant, and was officially informed that the 
temporary rank of major-general would save him from 
retirement until he was sixty-two years old.^ He there- 
fore decided to remain at the War Office, and declined 
the government of Jamaica. 

The following letter from General Charles Gordon 
appears to have been written in reply to one from Sir 
Andrew sent when he was still undecided as to his 
future : — 

From Major-General C. G. Gordon. 

"Jerusalem, 22 May^ 1883. 
''My dear Clarke, 

'* Thank you for your letter, but I was sorry to 
hear that Lady Clarke does not like London, for where 
could you possibly go to and hold as good an appoint- 
ment as you have got, which is virtually independent, 
and where, from all accounts, you are doing good 
work? I thought at last that you had found your 
equilibrium, and would now stay quiet. I hope I 
shall hear no more about it. You can get abroad every 

^ After his fifty-ninth year had passed and Sir Andrew continued 
Inspector-General of Fortifications, Mr. Tottenham asked a question on 
the subject in the House of Commons on the 13th August, 1883, to which 
the Marquess of Hartington replied that there was a warrant exempting 
officers holding temporary rank from the operation of the age clause of 
the Promotion and Retirement Warrant to which the hon. member had 
referred. Moreover, he said, the Government considered it desirable in 
the interests of the public service that Sir Andrew Clarke should continue 
to be their adviser, until further progress had been made with the very 
important questions in connection with the defences of coaling stations 
and commercial harbours, to the consideration of which Sir Andrew had 
already given a great deal of time and labour. 



26o INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

year. As surely as you have the post you are in, you 
will not get another like it, and I am often a prophet in 
these things — vide Tewfik. 

*' You ask what I am doing; well, very happy, beauti- 
ful climate, country full of deepest interest, and lots of 
work ; no necessity of wearing a mask^ can live with 
two horses well on ;£'20 a month, no dreadful long 
dinner parties, etc., and no efforts needed to square 
one's ideas with those of others. It may be a selfish 
life, but I cannot do anything else. . . . 

'* Yours sincerely, 

"C. G. Gordon." 

A few days before Christmas, 1883, Sir Andrew, in his 
official capacity, attended a great function at Chatham. 
At his invitation Lord Napier of Magdala unveiled the 
great west window of the nave and the west windows 
of the nave aisles of Rochester Cathedral. These 
windows had been filled with stained glass by Messrs. 
Clayton and Bell, as the Corps memorials of the Royal 
Engineers who fell in the Afghan and South African 
campaigns of 1878 to 188 1. A large company from 
London, Aldershot, and other garrisons was present, 
and all the troops in garrison attended the ceremony. A 
special service was drawn up by the late Dean Scott, and 
the R.E. band assisted the cathedral choir and organ. 
The anthem ''The trumpet shall sound" (Handel) 
was finely rendered, and, after an eloquent address by 
the late Bishop Thorold, the hymn '* Ten thousand 
times ten thousand " was sung by the whole congrega- 
tion to the accompaniment of the full band. The effect 
was most impressive, and an officer who was present 
wrote to Sir Andrew : — 

''It was indeed a splendid climax, and few of those 
taking part in the service will easily forget the last 
exulting notes of that strain of joy over the conquest 



1882.^] FUNCTION AT ROCHESTER 261 

of sin and death, and the attainment of the victor's 
reward : — 

' Fling open wide the golden gate 
And let the victors in.*" 

After the ceremony at the cathedral, Sir Andrew and 
Lady Clarke received the guests at Brompton Barracks, 
and presided over a luncheon given by the Corps in 
the Garrison Gymnasium, the only place that could be 
found to seat so large a gathering. 

In the autumn of 1883, public attention in this 
country had again been forcibly called to Egyptian 
afiEairs. The defeat of the Egyptian Army at the battle 
of Kasghil, in Kordofan, by the Mahdi, in October, 
when Hicks Pasha was killed and his whole force 
destroyed, laid the country south of Khartoum at the 
mercy of Muhammad Ahmed. In England the situation 
was regarded with some anxiety, as it was recognised 
that Egypt had not sufficient means, either in money or 
troops, to put down the Mahdi. Sir Andrew received a 
letter at this moment suggesting that Major-General 
C. G. Gordon should be sent to the Soudan with a 
force from India of two European and four or five 
native battalions, and that he should advance from 
Suakin to Berber, 270 miles. Sir Andrew sent this 
letter to Mr. Childers with the following note : — 

To the Rt. Hon. H. C. E. Childers. 

** 24 November y 1883. 
''My dear Chancellor, 

*' I send you the enclosed. ... I need not say 
that if England is to intervene, my advice would be 
to place the whole affair without reserve in Gordon's 
hands. 

'' If the Mahdi is a prophet, Gordon in the Soudan is 
a greater. He will be here in a day or two, as he is en 
route to the Congo. How well I recollect his telling 



262 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

Baring, when we were passing with Lord Ripon 
through Egypt, that the action of the Cairo Government 
would lead to grief in the Soudan. 

** Yours ever, 

*'A, Clarke. 

'*P.S. — I was gratified to hear Wolseley the other day 
speak in stronger terms of admiration and respect for 
Gordon than even I would do." 

When Sir Andrew wrote the above, General Gordon 
was still in Palestine, but was about to return to Europe 
to conclude arrangements with the King of the Belgians 
for entering H.M.'s service as head of the Congo State, 
in fulfilment of an old promise. General Gordon be- 
lieved that the British Foreign Office had sanctioned his 
taking this step, but on reaching Brussels he learned 
that there had been a mistake in their telegram to him, 
and that the authorities at home declined to allow him 
to accept the government of the Congo State as long 
as he was on the active list of the Army. He at once 
decided to send in his papers, and wrote the following 
letter to Sir Andrew Clarke : — 

From Major-General C. G. Gordon. 

'< Bellevue Hotel, Brussels, 

^^ ^January y 1884. 
'*My dear Clarke, 

*M am going to retire, and am going to the 
Congo on the 5th February. Try and get my step. 

** You saw the peasants dragged off in chains to fight 
the Mahdi ; what could you expect but their defeat ? 
Kindest regards to you and Lady Clarke. 

** Yours sincerely, 

**C. G. Gordon. 

**P.S. — I shall be at Southampton in a few days' 
time." 



i88a-86] GORDON AND THE CONGO 263 

On receiving this letter Sir Andrew at once wrote 
to Sir Edmund Whitmore, the Military Secretary, as 
follows : — 

To LieutenanUGeneral Sir E. A. Whitmore. 

** Whitehall, 6 January^ 1884. 
" My dear Whitmore, 

"General C. G. Gordon writes to tell me he has 
sent in his resignation, and asks me to support its 
acceptance. Of course I have no voice in the matter 
one way or the other, but may I be allowed to express 
a hope that a way may be found to avoid accepting 
his resignation ? a yours sincerely, 

"A. Clarke." 

General Whitmore replied expressing his regret at 
General Gordon's resignation, and explaining the 
clauses of the warrant that rendered it impossible 
for him to proceed to the Congo, and at the same 
time retain his commission in the Army. 

Sir Andrew was not convinced by this argument, and 
made the following rejoinder on the i ith January : — 

To Lieutenant-General Sir E. A . Whitmore. 

'* Many thanks for your letter. If my reading of the 
Warrant be correct, by articles 91 and 107 Gordon may 
retire on pension two years before he must retire, should 
he remain unemployed for five years, i.e. after three 
years as Major-General. This will be in March, 1885, 
or in fourteen months' time. 

** Surely there can be no objection to his being 

§ ranted leave for fourteen months to go to Africa, 
uch a course has often been resorted to before. The 
Government can have no objection to his going to the 
Congo. Members of the Government who have spoken 
to me on the subject think this a most natural way out 
of the dilemma." 



264 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

Before a final decision had been given General 
Gordon arrived in England and wrote to Sir Andrew : — 

From Major-General C. G. Gordon. 

** 5, RocKSTONE Place, Southampton, 

** \2 January^ 1884, 

** Mv DEAR Clarke, 

** Thanks for those letters which I received as I 
came back from Exeter. The deed was done on 7th 
January, resigning my commission, so I cannot help 
It. I also promised the King and I cannot break my 
word. 

** Things are too mixed in the Soudan and Egypt for 
me to think of it, and you know this well enough. As 
to Tewfik, I could never serve him, for he would never 
forgive my letter, so there is an end of that. I say dis- 
tinctly H.M. Government are quite right and justified 
in not employing me, so there is an end of that. 

^' I hope you will get the step. I am hunted to death 
by correspondents. However, I mean to hide till the 
1 8th, when I will come to town, and if my resignation 
is accepted I shall go to Brussels on the 25th January. 
If not I shall go to Capri to be alone and get out of the 
way. I never read the newspapers and do not know 
what the Pall Mall Gazette said. 

'* I would not have written it, or said what I did, had 
I thought H.M. Government had made up their mind, 
but I did not know it when the Editor of the PaU Mall 
came to me. Our Lord will work out His will, and it 
is unpatriotic to say any more. 

** Kindly excuse me to Mr. Childers. You know I 
never go out, and with kind regards to Lady Clarke 
and yourself, u Believe me, yours sincerely, 

**C. G. Gordon. 

** P.S. — To me there are three courses : (i) evacuate 
Egypt and keep Canal ; (2) annex Egypt ; (3) arrange 
witn France, who neutralises all we do. Of this No. 3 
is best." 

When, three days later. General Gordon visited the 
War Office he was told his resignation had not been 



i88a^ SUAKIN-BERBER RAILWAY 265 

accepted and that he had permission to go to the 
Congo. 

It is unnecessary to repeat here the story of the 
Khartoum Mission, or to narrate the circumstances 
under which General Gordon set out for the Nile 
instead of the Congo, and left London on the i8th 
January, 1884, to carry out the evacuation of the 
Soudan. 

The news that General Valentine Baker Pasha's 
force of 4,000 Egyptian soldiers had been cut to pieces 
at El Teb, in the Eastern Soudan, by Osman Digna on 
the 4th February, 1884, following so closely on the 
disaster to Hicks Pasha, and succeeded a few days later 
by the fall of Sinkat, induced the British Government 
to send orders for an expedition from Egypt, under 
Major-General Sir Gerald Graham, to undertake the 
defence of Suakin and the relief of Tokar. When 
these orders had been despatched Sir Andrew Clarke 
drew up a paper upon the situation, in which he urged 
the immediate construction of a railway between Suakin 
and Berber. 

This memorandum evinced both courage and diplo- 
macy. Sir Andrew's political friends were in office and 
were dead against any step that would commit them to 
a policy of preserving the Soudan provinces to Egypt. 
Sir Andrew was careful to argue on the supposition 
that we had no direct but only indirect interests in the 
Soudan. He dwelt on the impossibility of allowing a 
strong Muhammadan power to grow up on the south of 
Egypt and on the western shores of the Red Sea, or a 
foreign power to establish itself at Khartoum and com- 
mand the Upper Nile ; he pointed out the burden taken 
by this country in the interests of humanity to put a 
stop summarily to the slave trade. He showed that the 



266 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

fate of Egypt could not be arbitrarily divorced from 
that of the Northern Soudan at least, and that to leave 
Egypt merely able to govern herself, while the Soudan 
was either in a state of anarchy or abandoned to adven- 
turers, was to provide no suflScient guarantee for the 
interests of England, and to make further military 
operations a certainty at no distant date. He concluded 
a very able paper in the following words : — 

'*To satisfy the many conditions of the Egyptian 
problem, there is but one way, and that way has been 
clearly pointed out by Lord Dufferin in his famed 
report, by General Gordon, by Sir Samuel Baker, and 
by Ismail Pasha. The railway from Suakin to Berber 
must be made, and it should be made by England, and 
at once. . . . Telegraph to Gordon that England has 
decided to hold Suakin for the present and to commence 
this railway at once. Leave the rest to him, with the 
new position and power which the mere announcement 
will carry with it. Suakin held by Marines and Indian 
troops relieved at short intervals will form a convenient 
base, furnishing such guards as may at first be neces- 
sary along the route. Sappers and pioneers can 
superintend the construction of the railway. ... In 
less than a year the 280 miles of line will be complete, 
and at any time it will be possible for England to grip 
the heart of the Soudan. ..." 

No notice was taken at the time of Sir Andrew 
Clarke's proposals. Even after Sir Gerald Graham had 
won the battle of Tamai and dispersed Osman Digna's 
forces, the Government declined to allow him to reach 
out a hand to Gordon by the Suakin-Berber route, 
although Sir Evelyn Baring supported that proposal 
and General Gordon had suggested it. Sir Gerald 
Graham subsequently wrote that after the battle of 
Tamai ''the road from Suakin to Berber was open for 
British or Indian troops, and the opportunity for 



1882-86] BATTLE OF THE ROUTES 267 

rescuing Gordon and for saving Berber and Khartoum 
was actually within England's grasp.** 

When at length popular sentiment compelled the 
Government to contemplate some action for the relief 
of Gordon, two plans were before them : one an 
expedition up the Nile, supported by Lord Wolseley, 
then Adjutant-General of the Forces, and Sir Evelyn 
Wood, commanding the Egyptian Army ; the other an 
expedition by the Suakin-Berber route, advocated by 
Sir Andrew Clarke, Sir Gerald Graham, and Lieuten- 
ant-General (afterwards General Sir) Frederick C. A. 
Stephenson, commanding the British Army of Occupa- 
tion in Egypt. 

In the middle of May, 1884, it was almost decided 
that the Suakin-Berber route should be followed, that 
a railway should be made, and that Sir Andrew should 
himself proceed to the Eastern Soudan. On the 19th 
May Sir Andrew submitted his proposals for the rail- 
way, and assumed that it was to be begun at once. 
On the 6th June he submitted detailed proposals for 
beginning the work, and represented that it was of 
'* vital importance that no time should be lost in taking 
these preliminary steps, as at least a month of valuable 
time will be saved." 

By the end of July the pendulum swung the other 
way. Sir Andrew Clarke stuck to his guns, and held 
out strongly for the Suakin-Berber route, but Lord 
Wolseley gained the day, and the Nile route was 
finally decided on in the middle of August. As every- 
body knows. General Stephenson was superseded, and 
Lord Wolseley took command of the expedition. 
Throughout the autumn Sir Andrew continued to urge 
that a column should be sent from Suakin to Berber, 
and in the meantime, at his suggestion, the R.E. work 



268 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

at Suakin, the construction of piers and storehouses and 
narrow-gauge railways between them, etc., was pushed 
on. Sir Andrew was very proud of what the officers 
and men of the Corps accomplished in this fiery furnace 
in the Red Sea, and the work so done proved invalu- 
able in the following year. 

When news arrived in November, 1884, that Gordon 
could not hold out at Khartoum for more than forty 
days. Sir Andrew again pressed that an attempt should 
be made to relieve Khartoum by the Suakin-Berber 
route, and the following extracts from letters to him 
from Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham show how 
thoroughly these two were in agreement : — 

From Sir Gerald Graham. 

** Devonshire Villa, East Cowes, I. of W., 
•• 12 October^ 1884. 

'*My dear Clarke, 

**I am staying here till the end of the month, 
and am rather out of the way of news. Can you tell 
me if there is any intention of sending an expedition on 
the Suakin-Berber line ? If this is not done immediately 
I fear there is little hope of rescuing Gordon. By 
Power's^ letter {Times^ 29th September) his supplies 
could only last to the end of September, and his action 
in sending on Stewart* while he returned to Khartoum 
is too much like that of a captain of a sinking ship to be 
reassuring. . . . 

*' I am sorely disappointed at being left out of all 
share in the attempt to rescue Charlie Gordon, and 
wish I could give up my last promotion, and take out a 
flying column to Berber organised in the way I sketched 
in the paper I sent you. I do not believe in the possi- 
bility of any force being able to relieve Khartoum by 
the Nile route before the end of January, if then. 

** Sincerely yours, 

** Gerald Graham." 

^ Mr. Frank Power, British Consul at Khartoum. 
' Lieutenant-Colonel Donald Stewart. 



i882-«6] SUAKIN EXPEDITION, 1885 269 

From the same. 

"WoRLABYE House, 

Upper Richmond Road, S.W., 

** 25 November^ 1884. 
*^My dear Clarke, 

•'• . . I firmly believe now that it would not 
have been necessary to have carried water further than 
Wadi Haratriy and that had I been given 300 more 
camels and allowed to go on to Es Gebit, as I proposed, 
the road to Berber would have been opened, as I would 
have pushed on to Haratri, found plenty of water be- 
tween that and Ariab, and then sent on a squadron 
with Mounted Infantry to Obak, where Gordon's 
Egyptians would have been waiting for me. . . . 

** Sincerely yours, 

** Gerald Graham." 

It was not, however, until the tragedy was ended, 
until Khartoum had fallen and Gordon had been killed, 
that the **too late" Government definitely decided to 
break the power of the Mahdi, to send an expedition 
to Suakin to crush Osman Digna, and to make a 
railway from Suakin to Berber. Sir Gerald Graham 
was selected to command the expedition and, as Her 
Majesty the Queen very neatly expressed it at Sir 
Gerald's farewell audience, to go to Suakin again to do 
what he could so easily have done in the previous 
spring. 

On Sir Andrew Clarke devolved the arrangements 
for the railway and the water supply. He was strongly 
in favour of a metre gauge railway of the Indian 
pattern, and urged that the work should be carried 
out by Indian labour under the Indian Public Works 
Department, by whom he proposed the materials and 
plant should be supplied. He had, in fact, made pre- 
liminary arrangements with this organisation in view, 



270 INSPECTOR^ENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

but Sir Arthur Haliburton (now Lord Haliburton), 
who was at that time Director of Supplies and Trans- 
port at the War Office, was as strongly in favour of 
doing the work by contract. The Indian Government 
was not too anxious to undertake the task, as it would 
interfere with railway work in hand in India, and so, in 
the face of the opposition of the Inspector-General of 
Fortifications and of the General commanding the 
expedition, it was decided to go to contract. A con- 
tract was entered into with Messrs. Lucas and Aird 
to construct the railway of English narrow gauge, 
the sole control and superintendence being under the 
General commanding the expedition, Sir Gerald 
Graham. 

The loth Company of Royal Engineers, one of Sir 
Andrew's railway companies, went to Suakin, and with 
it Sir Andrew sent some forty men from the Newcastle 
and Durham and ist Lancashire Engineer Volunteers, 
whose trades were all suitable for railway work. Large 
condensers were shipped, and miles of water-pipes 
to run alongside the railway, and a contract entered 
into with Messrs. Edwards and Tweedle to lay the 
water-pipes and provide all the pumps, engines, 
tanks, etc. 

But although Osman Digna was crushed and Sir 
Gerald Graham ^ again victorious, the expedition and 
the railway came to a sudden and untimely end. The 
anticipation of a possible war with Russia over the 
Penjdeh incident caused the cessation of all offensive 
operations and the withdrawal of the troops both from 

^ In commemoration of these victories, Sir Andrew Clarke was ap- 
pointed chairman of a committee to obtain a portrait of Sir Gerald 
Graham to be hung in the Chatham mess. The portrait was painted by 
Sir E. J. Po3mter, P.R.A., w^ exhibited at the Royal Academy Show, 
and is now at Chatham. 



1882-86] BECHUANALAND EXPEDITION 271 

the Nile and the Eastern Soudan. Sir Andrew's 
dream of a Suakin-Berber railway remained for twenty 
years unaccomplished, and has only recently been 
revived. 

During the autumn of 1884, while the Nile Expedi- 
tion was dragging its weary way past the Cataracts, 
and the silence of Khartoum sat like a nightmare on 
the people at home, the state of affairs at the other 
end of Africa gave cause for uneasiness. A Conven- 
tion had been arranged with the Transvaal Govern- 
ment in the early part of the year by which the frontier 
boundary lines on the west of the Transvaal were 
settled; but the Boers paid no heed to the terms of 
the Convention, and raiding freebooters, supported by 
the Transvaal Government, plundered and cruelly 
oppressed the natives of Goshenland. Sir Andrew 
drew up a memorandum on the situation for the 
Government, and made specific recommendations 
which may be briefly summarised as follows : — 

*' The acquisition of Bechuanaland up to the Molopo, 
either by concessions from the native chiefs or by 
annexation, in order to give us a legal status. 

''The issue of a clear declaration of policy by H.M. 
Government, setting forth the illegal position occupied 
by the freebooters with respect to the Convention of 
1884. 

'' The issue of a proclamation that all claims to land 
outside the western frontier of the Transvaal as fixed 
by the Convention were null and void ; that the per- 
sonal property of all persons who had seized land 
beyond this frontier would be confiscated after a fixed 
date ; and that all resistance after annexation would be 
treated as rebellion. 

''Instant preparation to carry out the proclamation 
by an irregular force operating from Griqualand West, 
and supported by an infantry regiment stationed on 
the Hartz River, beyond the northern portion of 



272 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

Griqualand. The whole operation to be entrusted to 
an imperial officer of proved experience." 

The Government decided to appoint a Special Com- 
missioner with a sufficient force at his disposal to 
enable him to remove the filibusters from Bechuana- 
land, to restore order in the territory, to reinstate the 
nativei^ on their lands, and to hold the country until 
its future was decided. On Sir Andrew's recom- 
mendation Sir Charles Warren, who had an intimate 
knowledge of the people and the country, was selected 
to be the Special Commissioner and given the com- 
mand of a force of 5,000 men, especially raised and 
equipped locally, which was supplemented by regular 
troops from home and Methuen's Horse. 

At a farewell dinner given to Sir Charles Warren on 
the 5th November by the London Chamber of Com- 
merce, Sir Andrew Clarke said : — 

''At the beginning of the year, when dark clouds 
were rising on the N. W. frontier of our South African 
colonies, I suggested to Lord Derby and urged upon 
Sir Hercules Robinson the employment of Sir Charles 
Warren for the removal of those difficulties. More 
recently still, when General Gordon was first considered 
to be needing help, I advised that Sir Charles Warren 
should be permitted to exercise the influence he had 
acquired over the wild Bedouins of the Libyan desert 
in organising and leading friendly Nubian levies to 
the relief of Khartoum. I confidently believe that had 
my advice been followed the country would, at the 
present moment, have been free from anxiety for the 
safety of my brother officer, Charlie Gordon. Now 
that my recommendation with regard to the appoint- 
ment of Sir Charles Warren to settle the South African 
troubles has been accepted, I feel sure that under his 
able management, both as an administrator and soldier, 
the clouds now hanging over our South African frontier 
will be dispersed." 



1882-86] SIR CHARLES WARREN 273 

At another City dinner in the following May (1885) 
Sir Andrew referred in warm terms to the masterly 
manner in which Sir Charles Warren and his force, 
by the rapidity of their movements and the skill with 
which they had carried everything before them, had 
accomplished their mission in South Africa. **That 
force," he said, ** composed mainly of volunteers 
raised chiefly on the spot, ruled by a hand of steel 
covered with velvet, was at that moment, according 
to accounts he had received, in the highest state 
of health and discipline. Sir Charles Warren had 
proved himself not only a good and skilled soldier, 
but also an enlightened and broad-minded states- 
man, and it was due as much to these latter qualities 
as to those of a soldier that he had carried our 
flag to honour, and he hoped restored the prestige 
which we had, perhaps, for a moment lost in South 
Africa." 

Sir Andrew did his best to obtain the issue of a 
medal for the force that had achieved this admirably 
executed but bloodless campaign, but the absence of 
a butcher's bill seemed to the authorities an insuper- 
able objection. 

When Sir Andrew Clarke left Chatham in 1882 he 
took up his residence in Portland Place, occupying, 
first of all, No. 52, and moving successively to 42 and 
finally to 31, where he died. It so happened that his 
namesake, the celebrated physician, Sir Andrew Clark, 
lived hard by in Cavendish Square, and the similarity 
of names sometimes led to confusion. Letters and tele- 
grams intended for the one went to the other. On one 
occasion an important cypher message for the General 
from the Victorian Government was delivered to the 
Doctor in Cavendish Square, and the mistake gave the 



274 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

Doctor an opportunity of writing the following playful 
little note of regret : — 

From Sir Andrea) Clark. 

** i6, Cavendish Square, W., 

** Saturday y 7 February ^ 1885. 

**Dear Sir Andrew Clarke, 

" I am very sorry to be the cause of so much 
inconvenience to you, but I can't yet wholly efface my- 
self and go away. The only solution of the difficulty 
is that you should be sent into the House of Peers 
under the coming new regime. The telegram is not for 
me. I have no cypher correspondent anywhere. 

** Faithfully yours, 

''Andrew Clark." 

In 1885 the Maharaja of Johore, with whom Sir 
Andrew had maintained a friendship since their first 
acquaintance at Singapore, visited England. At a 
dinner given in his honour on the 17th June by the 
merchants of the Straits Settlements in London, Sir 
Andrew was a guest, and his health was proposed by 
Mr. Paul Tidman, who referred to his administration of 
the government of the Straits Settlements in 1874-6 
as the '* brightest memory of the colony." 

In returning thanks Sir Andrew attributed any 
success he had achieved at Singapore to the assistance 
given to him by the English residents, and in a still 
more marked degree to the invaluable advice and uni- 
form support he had received from the Maharaja, ^^a 
friend," he said, *' of whom any man might be proud." 
He went on to say that if those who were acquainted 
with the Maharaja only by name as an Eastern prince 
could see, as he had seen, the fruit of the Maharaja's 
good government in the opening up of the Malay 
Peninsula, and the peace and contentment of his 



i882-^] SIR CHARLES WILSON 275 

people, they would understand the enthusiasm with 
which he had been received that evening. 

On the i6th July, 1885, Sir Andrew went down to 
Chatham, and presided at a banquet given by the 
Corps to Colonel (now Major-General) Sir Charles 
Wilson and the R.E. oflBcers who had recently re- 
turned from active service in Egypt. In proposing 
the toast of Sir Charles Wilson, Sir Andrew quoted 
the high praise of his conduct under most difficult 
and trying circumstances by H.R.H. the Colonel of 
the Corps. He then pointed out that when General 
Wilson started with the column across the desert from 
Korti to Metammeh on a forlorn hope, he was neither 
the second nor yet the third senior officer present, and 
yet he suddenly and unexpectedly found himself in 
command. Sir Andrew impressed upon his brother 
officers, especially the younger ones present, never to 
lose sight of the fact that they might at any time be 
called to command, and to seize every opportunity of 
preparing themselves for it. 

The occasional connection of Sir Andrew Clarke with 
the colony of Victoria in an official capacity as Acting 
Agent-General has been referred to in previous chapters. 
He had held this position at various times, and on the 
31st March, 1886, he again received permission from 
the Commander-in-Chief to act as Agent-General on 
the retirement of Mr. Murray Smith and pending the 
arrival in this country of his successor. During the 
short time that intervened Sir Andrew was occupied 
with a very burning question — that of the New 
Hebrides. 

Australian opinion insisted that these islands, de- 
clared part of New Zealand by the Charter of 1840, 
should never be allowed to become exclusively French. 



276 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

During the years 1884 and 1885 the question assumed 
increased significance from the adoption of measures 
by France which showed an intention to annex the 
islands. The outburst of colonial feeling became vol- 
canic in its violenfce, and checked any tendency on the 
part of the Foreign Office to come to terms with France 
on the basis of her acquisition of the New Hebrides, 
even though she undertook to discontinue the trans- 
portation of criminals to any part of the Pacific. 

While Sir Andrew was Acting Agent-General he 
had to reply to a letter from the Colonial Office in 
which the cession of the New Hebrides to France was 
again broached. In accordance with instructions he 
received from the Committee of Ministers of the Federal 
Council of Australasia, Sir Andrew referred the Gov- 
ernment to the previous telegram from Australia object- 
ing to the cession on the terms proposed. He then 
pointed out that the Australian Ministers spoke in their 
own full sense of the powers conveyed to them by the 
** Act to constitute a Federal Council of Australasia," 
which distinctly referred for the consideration of the 
Council "the relations of Australia with the islands of 
the Pacific." This, he said, did not appear to be fully 
realised by statesmen in this country, and the contem- 
plation of any cession of the New Hebrides to the 
French Republic after the unanimous expression of the 
Federal Council's opinion would be a contravention of 
the spirit and terms of the Act. In a long and able 
letter, dated 30th April, Sir Andrew reviewed the 
whole question. He showed that Australia was not 
unreasonable ; that to compromise the matter assumed 
rights on the part of France that she did not possess ; 
that she had no better rights than England; and that 
the suggested compromise, by which France would 



1882-86] THE NEW HEBRIDES 277 

promise to send no more convicts to the Pacific and 
would cede Rapa to England, was of no value in com- 
parison with the New Hebrides, Transportation to the 
Pacific, in any case, must soon cease, because New 
Caledonia could not receive many more convicts. 

Not content with writing this letter. Sir Andrew 
saw both Mr. Herbert Gladstone and Sir James Car- 
michael, with the object of getting them to impress on 
the Prime Minister the depth of colonial feeling on the 
subject. When news came early in May that the 
French were sending a man-of-war on account of some 
alleged outrage at Espiritu Santo Island, Sir Andrew 
recommended that a squadron should be sent from the 
Australian station to look after British interests and to 
guard the natives under the protection of our mission- 
aries. This measure was taken, and did more to con- 
vince the French Government that we were in earnest 
than reams of despatches. 

The result of Sir Andrew's efforts appeared in Lord 
Rosebery's despatch of the 7th July, in which it was 
stated that H.M.'s Government must be mainly guided 
in this matter by the opinion of the Australian colonies, 
and that as this opinion was strongly opposed to any 
other arrangement than the existing agreement to respect 
the independence of the New Hebrides, H.M.'s Govern- 
ment were unable to acquiesce in any departure from it. 

Sir Andrew's action in the matter was highly ap- 
preciated in Australia. The Victorian Premier, Mr. 
S. Duncan Gillies, wrote on the 25th June, 1886 : — 

From the Hon. S. Duncan Gillies. 

**I take the opportunity of conveying to you the 
cordial thanks of the Government for the eminently 
satisfactory manner in which you represented the 
colony when Acting Agent-General during the interval 



278 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

between Mr. Murray Smith's departure and the arrival 
of the Hon. Graham Berry. I have more especially to 
express the high sense entertained by myself and col- 
leagues, and I am sure by the community generally, 
of the promptitude and vigour with which you pressed 
upon the attention of the Imperial authorities the views 
of these communities with regard to the recent action 
of France in the New Hebrides. I feel that the repre- 
sentations which you made not only to the Secretary of 
State, but to the Prime Minister personally, on the 
subject carried great weight at a critical juncture, and 
the Australasian colonies as well as you yourself are to 
be congratulated upon the large measure of success 
which attended your able advocacy."^ 

On the 19th June, 1886, Sir Andrew Clarke received 
official intimation that his retirement with the honorary 
rank of Lieutenant-General would be gazetted on the 
27th July, when he attained the age of sixty-two years. 
But his retirement from office was precipitated by his 
standing as a candidate for the parliamentary repre- 
sentation of Chatham, and he resigned the post of 
Inspector-General of Fortifications on the 25th June, 
1886. 

On his retirement Sir Andrew was invited by Colonel 
Edwards,^ Commandant of the School of Military 
Engineering at Chatham, to a farewell dinner, and in 
sending him the invitation Colonel Edwards proposed 
to put him up for the night and *' go and see your fort 
the next morning." This was an allusion to the Twy- 
dall Redoubt, a new type of semi-permanent fortifica- 
tion which had been designed in the office of the 

^ In an unofficial letter to Sir Andrew, Mr. Gillies alludes to the "inter- 
estingr proceedings in search of a British Minister who i;nshed to keep 
the New Hebrides/' of which Sir Andrew had told him. Sir Andrew 
used to tell a story of an interview he had at this time with Lord Rose- 
bery, who thought he took too warm a view of the question, and begged 
him to be calm. 

' Now Lieutenant-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, k.cm.g., cb. 




Q 



278 INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF FORTIFICATIONS 

between Mr. Murray Smith's departure and the arrival 
of the Hon. Graham Berry. I have more especially to 
express the high sense entertained by myself and col- 
leagues, and I am sure by the community generally, 
of the promptitude and vigour with which you pressed 
upon the attention of the Imperial authorities the views 
of these communities with regard to the recent action 
of France in the New Hebrides. I feel that the repre- 
sentations which you made not only to the Secretary of 
State, but to the Prime Minister personally, on the 
subject carried great weight at a critical juncture, and 
the Australasian colonies as well as you yourself are to 
be congratulated upon the large measure of success 
which attended your able advocacy."^ 

On the 19th June, 1886, Sir Andrew Clarke received 
official intimation that his retirement with the honorary 
rank of Lieutenant-General would be gazetted on the 
27th July, when he attained the age of sixty-two years. 
But his retirement from office was precipitated by his 
standing as a candidate for the parliamentary repre- 
sentation of Chatham, and he resigned the post of 
Inspector-General of Fortifications on the 25th June, 
1886. 

On his retirement Sir Andrew was invited by Colonel 
Edwards,^ Commandant of the School of Military 
Engineering at Chatham, to a farewell dinner, and in 
sending him the invitation Colonel Edwards proposed 
to put him up for the night and *^go and see your fort 
the next morning." This was an allusion to the Twy- 
dall Redoubt, a new type of semi-permanent fortifica- 
tion which had been designed in the office of the 

^ In an unofficial letter to Sir Andrew, Mr. Gillies alludes to the "inter- 
esting: proceedings in search of a British Minister who wished to keep 
the New Hebrides/' of which Sir Andrew had told him. Sir Andrew 
used to tell a story of an interview he had at this time with Lord Rose- 
bery, who thought he took too warm a view of the question, and b^^ged 
him to be calm. 

' Now Lieutenant-Qeneral Sir J. Bevan Edwards, k.c.m.g., CB. 




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1882-86] RETIREMENT 279 

Inspector-General of Fortifications after a good deal 
of discussion, and will be always associated with the 
name of Sir Andrew Clarke. 

The four years that Sir Andrew spent at the War 
OflBce were years of good work. He was a first-rate 
chief of an important ofiice, and he loved the Corps of 
which he was the head, and always had its honour and 
success at heart. 

In his office he was the most accessible of men, and 
although occasionally hasty was full of good humour 
and kindness. The following story is not only 
amusing, it is also true : — 

Several officers of his staflf were gathered together 
in the aide-de-camp's room, waiting their turns for an 
interview with Sir Andrew, who was engaged in his 
own room adjoining. Presently the bell of the tele- 
phone in the aide-de-camp's room, which connected the 
office of the Secretary of State for War in Pall Mall 
with that of the Inspector-General of Fortifications 
at the Horse Guards, began to ring. Sir Andrew 
was informed, and came to the instrument in the 
aide-de-camp's room. Whether it was that there 
was some defect in the telephone or that the officers 
were talking too loudly. Sir Andrew could not make 
out what the Secretary of State was saying to him, 

and, without turning round, he called out, **D 

you, can't you be quiet?" He had forgotten he was 
speaking into the telephone, and was surprised to find 
that the Secretary of State had left the instrument. 
Later in the day he met the Private Secretary, who 
was very inquisitive as to some unparliamentary 
language that had astonished his chief that afternoon. 
No one enjoyed the joke more than the unconscious 
perpetrator. 



CHAPTER XIII 

AFTER RETIREMENT 
1886-1895 

AS soon as Sir Andrew Clarke satisfied himself that 
-iV the Royal Warrant would be strictly enforced in 
his case, and that he would be retired by the age 
clause in the summer of 1886 without completing the 
usual five years' tenure of his appointment, his 
thoughts turned once more to a political life. As far 
back as 1868, it will be remembered, he had thought of 
standing for Chester, and again in 1883 he had been 
urged to stand for Chatham by the Liberal whip. Lord 
Richard Grosvenor, but as he could not do so without 
resigning his appointment at the War OflBce, he 
replied to Lord Richard that he must '' abandon for 
a time trying for the Chatham seat." That time was 
now on the point of expiring, and he was ready to 
court the Chatham electorate. 

It was a curious coincidence that just at the moment 
when he was about to retire from the active list of his 
profession, an opportunity occurred of appealing to the 
Chatham electorate for their suffrages. On the 7th 
June, 1886, Mr. Gladstone was defeated in the House 
of Commons on the second reading of the Home Rule 
Bill, Parliament was dissolved, and a general election 
took place. Sir Andrew had no time to lose. His 
retirement was not to take place until the 27th July, 

280 



1886-95] CANDIDATE FOR CHATHAM 281 

when he became sixty-two years old, and he had there- 
fore to resign his appointment as Inspector-General of 
Fortifications some five weeks before his time was up, 
and go on half-pay. He issued his election address 
on the 22nd June, and entered the lists as a follower 
of Mr. Gladstone and an ardent Home Ruler. There 
were only twelve days before the polling day in which 
to win the constituency from the old member. Sir John 
Gorst Not even a telegram ^ from Mr. Gladstone was 
of much avail. Chatham was opposed to Home Rule, 
and remained faithful to Sir John Gorst, who was 
returned with practically his old majority. 

From 1886 until the summer of 1892 Sir Andrew 
Clarke sedulously nursed the borough, and at the 
general election of 1892 he had greatly improved his 
position.* He had become well known to the con- 
stituency, and his advocacy of the rights of labour, his 
support of the eight hours movement, and his argu- 
ment that the State should show itself a model em- 
ployer of labour, all made him popular in a dockyard 
constituency. Then his chance of success at the poll 
had been increased by Sir John Gorst leaving Chatham 
to stand for Cambridge University, and his opponent 
being a new man. Again, however. Sir Andrew sus- 
tained a defeat, although he had the satisfaction of 
reducing the Conservative majority by one-half. He 
then decided to give up his intention of entering 

^ The telegram was as follows : '* Familiar as I have been officially 
with your high distinction as the wise and able head of a most important 
military department, I rejoice in the prospect of your entering Parlia- 
ment, where you will not, like your opponent, run down Lord Spencer 
for his brave and manly government of Ireland, nor yet will you with- 
hold from a struggling nation its reasonable and safe demands. 

" Gladstone.'* 

• In October, 1888, Sir Andrew Clarke was elected a member of the 
Eighty Club. 



284 AFTER RETIREMENT 

horses and cabs somewhere in the middle of my old 
colony, Victoria." 

It was in this same year, 1887, that three gentlemen ^ 
of Singapore, interested in the various uses to which 
the metal aluminium could be put, proposed to Sir 
Andrew that his bust should be modelled by a good 
sculptor, cast in aluminium bronze, and then sent to 
the Melbourne Exhibition of 1888, after which they 
proposed to present it to the Chamber of Commerce of 
Singapore as a memorial of Sir Andrew's government 
of the colony. Sir Andrew agreed, and the late Mr. 
Edward Onslow Ford, r.a., was commissioned to 
execute the bust in colossal size. It was cast in 
Webster's aluminium bronze, and it now adorns the 
building in which both the Club and the Chamber of 
Commerce are accommodated at Singapore. 

About the same time Mr. Onslow Ford was com- 
missioned to model a life-size bust of Sir Andrew by a 
number of Sir Andrew's friends and brother officers of 
the Royal Engineers. It was an excellent likeness, 
and the bronze cast was presented to the R.E. mess at 
Chatham. 

In the autumn of 1887, at the invitation of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Rigby, Sir Andrew presided for the third time 
in succession at the annual distribution of prizes to the 
ist Liverpool Volunteer Engineers. As a retired officer 
Sir Andrew was able to speak with a freedom which he 
could not have used on the previous occasions on which 
he had addressed them. After saying how proud he 
felt to be able to speak to them as a freeman of Liver- 
pool, he told them he regarded the continual improve- 

^ Messrs. James Guthrie, William Mactaggart, and Paul T. Tidman, 
all now dead. 



1886-95] CABDRIVERS' ASSOCIATION 283 

active interest in the cabdrivers, and in the course of 
his remarks he said : — 

**When Mr. G. Stormont Murphy, your honorary 
secretary, asked me to preside at this meeting I was 
somewhat surprised, and inquired, * Why do you come 
to me ? ' and was answered, * Because you are one of 
the oldest Supporters of the Institution 1 ' I felt then I 
must comply with the request. It gives me unqualified 
pleasure to be present, for I entertain a very favourable 
opinion of the cabdriver, having had reason to know 
how honest they are. I will tell you an incident which 
occurred many years ago. 

** I managed to lose a sovereign through putting it 
by mistake into the wrong pocket. I never carry a 
purse, for you know that if you lose your purse you are 
left entirely without money for the time being. I 
therefore make a rule to put gold in one pocket and 
silver in another. I alighted from a cab at a railway 
station and gave the cabman what I believed to be 
three shillings — his fare was half-a-crown. I was 
bound for Colchester, and on arriving there discovered 
that I had a sovereign — or rather nineteen shillings — 
less than I ought to have had, and after cogitating a 
little I decided that I had given the cabman who 
brought me to the station a sovereign instead of a 
shilling. Of course, I at once mentally wrote it off as 
a loss. About three months afterwards I was walking 
along Pall Mall, having just come out of my club, 
when a cabman looked very hard at me, and thinking 
he wanted a 'fare,' and not requiring a cab just then, 
I rather avoided him, and looked another way — you 
know how one looks when desirous of evading the eye 
of a cabman — but my friend the cabman would not be 
evaded, and he acted, as I thought, in a very extra- 
ordinary manner. He got off his driving-box, and 
having taken a sovereign out of his mouth, said, * You 
are the gentleman I have been looking for for the last 
three months. Here is the sovereign you gave me in 
mistake.' Of course I told him I had written it off my 
books as a loss, and therefore could not think of altering 
them. That driver's name was James Hutton, and 
when last I heard of him he was the owner of many 



284 AFTER RETIREMENT 

horses and cabs somewhere in the middle of my old 
colony, Victoria." 

It was in this same year, 1887, that three gentlemen ^ 
of Singapore, interested in the various uses to which 
the metal aluminium could be put, proposed to Sir 
Andrew that his bust should be modelled by a good 
sculptor, cast in aluminium bronze, and then sent to 
the Melbourne Exhibition of 1888, after which they 
proposed to present it to the Chamber of Commerce of 
Singapore as a memorial of Sir Andrew's government 
of the colony. Sir Andrew agreed, and the late Mr. 
Edward Onslow Ford, r.a., was commissioned to 
execute the bust in colossal size. It was cast in 
Webster's aluminium bronze, and it now adorns the 
building in which both the Club and the Chamber of 
Commerce are accommodated at Singapore. 

About the same time Mr. Onslow Ford was com- 
missioned to model a life-size bust of Sir Andrew by a 
number of Sir Andrew's friends and brother officers of 
the Royal Engineers. It was an excellent likeness, 
and the bronze cast was presented to the R.E. mess at 
Chatham. 

In the autumn of 1887, at the invitation of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Rigby, Sir Andrew presided for the third time 
in succession at the annual distribution of prizes to the 
I St Liverpool Volunteer Engineers. As a retired officer 
Sir Andrew was able to speak with a freedom which he 
could not have used on the previous occasions on which 
he had addressed them. After saying how proud he 
felt to be able to speak to them as a freeman of Liver- 
pool, he told them he regarded the continual improve- 

^ Messrs. James Guthrie, William Mactaggart, and Paul T. Tidman, 
all now dead. 




BRONZE BUST OF SIR ANDREW CLARKE (NOW AT SINGAPORE) 
BY MR. E. ONSLOW FORD, R.A. 

To fac« pas* 384 



i886-9Sj COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISES 285 

ment of the Volunteer force of England as a matter 
requiring the most serious and anxious attention of the 
Government, that any reorganisation of the force must 
be in the direction of its affiliation with a national army. 
He mentioned how he had himself been able in his four 
years at the War Office to bring Volunteer Engineers 
into closer connection with the Engineers of the regular 
Army, and he said he should like to see that system 
extended to the Volunteer Artillery and Volunteer 
Infantry also. He thought facilities should be given 
to Volunteer officers to perfect themselves in their train- 
ing, and that there should be colleges for the instruction 
of non-commissioned officers in their profession. He 
was glad, he said, to think that Volunteers could become 
efficient soldiers, ready to take the field, while at the 
same time they earned their own living at their own 
work, and that Englishmen were able to show that con- 
scription and forced military labour were unnecessary. 

On his retirement from the service Sir Andrew 
devoted some of his energies to the furtherance of 
various commercial enterprises. He joined the Boards 
of Direction of the Palmer's Shipbuilding Company at 
Jarrow-on-Tyne, the Colonial Mutual Life Assurance 
Society, the Maxim-Nordenfeldt Gun Company, and 
was Chairman of the Delhi - Umballa Railway 
Company, which owed much to his wise rule and 
personal knowledge of Indian railways. He was par- 
ticularly helpful at the time it secured the extension to 
Kalka, which he believed would become, in course of 
time, the trunk line into Tibet. He was also a Director 
of the British North Borneo Company, and to com- 
memorate his valuable services on the Board a province 
of British North Borneo was named Clarke Province 
after Sir Andrew. 



286 AFTER RETIREMENT 

Sir Andrew was much interested in the development 
of Siam, and, at the end of 1887 he undertook to visit 
that kingdom on behalf of a railway enterprise, and to 
arrange preliminaries with the Siamese Government for 
surveys for the line. On arriving at Singapore he 
received from the residents a hearty welcome ** back to 
the regions where your name is still a household word." 
The Maharaja of Johore, whose title had recently been 
altered to ** Sultan," wrote : — 

From the Sultan of Johore. 

'^ I cannot tell you how pleased I am at the idea of 
seeing you again, especially out here, where I least 
expected to meet you. I have a double object in avail- 
ing myself of this opportunity to write to you : first, to 
be one of the first to welcome you ; and second, to ask 
if you will tiffin with me at the club to-morrow, the day 
of your arrival here." 

Sir Andrew could not at that time loiter in Singapore, 
and pursued his voyage to Bangkok, which he reached 
on the 14th January, 1888, and the next day he received 
a letter of welcome from the King : — 

From H.M. the King of Stam. 

''Grand Palace, 

''iSfanuaty, 1888. 
**My dear Sir Andrew, 

** I am glad to receive the announcement of your 
arrival in Siam from you directly, but I am sorry to 
say that your note reached me very late, so I have not 
been able to send my welcome to you earlier. I do 
indeed reciprocate the hope of meeting you again after 
the long interval of thirteen years. ... I shall be very 
glad to receive you to-morrow afternoon at five o'clock, 
when we can realise the pleasure of our meeting. 
Believe me, a Yours faithfully, 

''Chulalonkorn R." 



1886-95] REVISITS SIAM 287 

Princes Devawongse and Damrong also sent him a 
cordial welcome. At the interview with the King, His 
Majesty declared himself strongly in favour of rail- 
ways, but expressed some apprehension as to the con- 
sequences of entrusting the work to English companies. 
The King asked Sir Andrew if he would himself under- 
take the task of railway construction in the kingdom 
as head of a Siamese railway department. This Sir 
Andrew was unable to do, although many years after- 
wards he used to say he regretted that he had not 
accepted the offer of the King. After a two months' 
stay in Siam Sir Andrew obtained a decree giving his 
nominee, Messrs. Punchard and Co., the right of carry- 
ing out railway surveys in Siam and permission to 
begin work at once. 

On Sir Andrew's return to Singapore he was enter- 
tained at a complimentary dinner at the Club by a 
large number of old friends, among whom were the 
Sultan of Johore, Sir T. Sidgreaves (chairman). Colonel 
Dunlop, Mr. Pickering, and Messrs. Whampoa and 
Kim Ching. In replying to the toast of his health, he 
referred to his administration of the government four- 
teen years before, when he received invaluable assist- 
ance from many there present, and alluded in feeling 
terms to Mr. Birch, who was murdered, and Captain 
Innes, r.e., who met a soldier's death. He expressed 
his pleasure at the flourishing condition of Selangor, 
from which he had just returned, and bid them go on 
gaining the goodwill of the natives in their business 
relations, and then they need have no fear of the pros- 
perity of the Native States. He also referred to the 
defences, complimenting Majors Jekyll and MacCallum, 
R.E., on their share in these works, and the colonists 
on being the first to find the money for defence out 



288 AFTER RETIREMENT 

of their own pocket. Finally he alluded to his visit 
to the Monarch of the White Elephant, which, he said, 
had not been without success, and if the system of 
railways was carried out on honourable principles and 
not on mere concessions, the best results would be 
secured, a great route to China would be opened up, 
and the trade of the south-west provinces developed. 

On the day after the banquet Sir Andrew was driven 
over to Johore, where he was the guest of the Sultan at 
the Istana, and shortly after he returned to England. 
He had not been long at home again when a serious 
fire occurred at his house in Portland Place, and both 
he and his family were in some danger. Fortunately 
they escaped safely, but lost many valuable souvenirs, 
which were destroyed in the fire. 

Sir Andrew Clarke was a frequent contributor to the 

Times and other daily papers, and in the month of 

May following his return from Siam he was moved to 

express himself rather strongly in a letter to the Times 

in criticism of our military administration. His letter 

drew from Lord Wolseley the following sympathetic 

letter ; 

From Lord Wolseley. 

''129, Marine Parade, 

** 19 May, 1888. 
**Dear Clarke, 

** I have read your letter in the Times with the 
most intense satisfaction. Although you don't agree with 
me in the danger of invasion, I entirely agree with you 
in your views as to the sweeping reforms required in 
our system of military administration. I am afraid, 
however, we shall never secure what is necessary until 
the nation has realised that England is, and will be for 
some years, open to invasion if any disaster should ever 
occur to our fleet. I did not know you had returned. 
I am glad you have, for as one outside the War Ofiice, 
)and aware of what goes on inside that building, you 



1886-95] NAVAL SUPREMACY 289 

can do a great deal to press forward the need there is 
for a thorough investigation of what the objects are for 
which we keep up both an Army and a Navy. 

** Very truly yours, 

** WOLSELEY." 

In February, 1889, Sir Andrew again wrote to the 
TinieSy and on this occasion his subject was Naval 
Supremacy. His reference to army corps in the 
following extract might have been written the other 
day in allusion to Mr. Brodrick's scheme : — 

'^ . . . The first condition of national existence is 
naval supremacy. Germanised army corps are the 
mere luxuries of military ambition, and their possession 
is perfectly compatible with the utter disorganisation of 
the great force which ought to be made available for 
home defence. We can begin to discuss these army 
corps when the question of the Navy is settled. 

'^ Instead of preaching impossible conscription and 
idly seeking to defend the greatest city of the world by 
cheap expedients, let us sink party spirit, departmental 
prejudices, even personal aims, in one great effort to 
create and maintain such a navy as will alone enable us 
calmly to face the unknown future, and to bear our- 
selves once more with dignity in the councils of 
Europe." 

Because Sir Andrew Clarke was anxious for a power- 
ful navy he was ever a candid critic of its shortcomings. 
After the naval manoeuvres in the summer of 1889, 
there appeared in the Times of the 17th September a 
scathing criticism from his pen of the doings of the 
Achill Fleet, in which he ridiculed the vast amount of 
British shipping claimed to have been destroyed, the 
towns bombarded, the ransoms exacted, the docks with 
the shipping in them destroyed. He pointed out that 
this sort of thing was to make an absurdity of the 
manoeuvres, 
u 



390 AFTER RETIREMENT 

^^ If these things are practicable, the military spirit 
of the nation," he said, ** must indeed be dead. Wick, 
Aberdeen, Peterhead, Edinburgh, Leith, Seaham, 
Shields, Hartlepool, Whitby are all popularly sup- 
posed to be in ashes or to have meekly paid their 
ransoms. The great establishment at Elswick has 
ceased to exist, having been totally destroyed by one 
or two shells, fired at a range of about eight miles, on 
a compass bearing. All this is simply ludicrous. . . . 
If the proceedings of the Anson and Collingwood result 
in the protection of the great mercantile ports, the 
gross exaggeration of the object lesson may well be 
pardoned. . • . Moderate coast defences, properly 
equipped and organised for war, are a necessary part 
of the national armour, but by the Navy the empire 
must stand or fall." 

When the Barracks Loan was proposed in 1890 Sir 
Andrew strongly opposed it, circulating, at his own 
expense, a pamphlet in which he marshalled at length 
his objections to the system of which barrack life 
forms an essential part. While admitting that the 
aggregation of large numbers of troops at Aldershot 
and other camps of exercise was necessary for the 
training of all ranks, he thought such aggregations 
need only be for the summer months. He agreed that 
under certain circumstances barracks were a necessary 
evil, but he thought these circumstances existed only 
in a modified form in connection with the training and 
discipline of troops in the United Kingdom. At home 
he considered the discipline of the barrack-yard arti- 
ficial and hurtful, that it could bear no strain, and 
would collapse when coercion ceased, and that a 
higher discipline, that of the family and civil life, of 
the factories and workshops, springing from reason, 
self-denial, and self-reliance, was wanted. Such dis- 
cipline, he contended, was of natural growth, and 



1886-95] THE GORDON STATUE 291 

developed as the permanent and lasting attribute of 
the man whose character it elevated. Holding these 
views, he wished to dispense with the barrack system 
as much as possible, and to resist the proposed 
extension on the ground of principle as well as of 
waste of money. Until some definite policy of 
Imperial Defence was declared, he argued that no case 
existed for a great development of the barrack system ; 
and further, that if such a policy were laid down in 
accordance with our real needs, it would be found 
that the extension of the barrack system was not merely 
wasteful, but baneful to the interests of the country. 

In May, 1890, Sir Andrew attended the unveiling of 
the statue of General Gordon, in front of the R.E. 
Institute at Chatham. As he had a good deal to say 
to the origin of this statue, we must go back some five 
years to the time when Sir Andrew was Inspector- 
General of Fortifications. 

In the year that General Gordon was killed at 
Khartoum a committee was formed to carry out Corps 
memorials of him, and Sir Andrew presided over this 
committee ex officio until he retired. After he ceased 
to be chairman, he continued to be an active member 
of the committee, regularly attending all its meetings, 
and taking the greatest interest in the progress of the 
various memorials. The chief memorial, it was decided 
by the committee, should be a statue at Chatham, and, 
on the suggestion of Sir Andrew, the late Mr. Edward 
Onslow Ford, r.a., who had been so successful with 
the bust of Sir Andrew, was selected as the sculptor. 
Never was a committee more fortunate in its choice of 
an artist. He threw himself into the work con amore^ 
and thought of nothing but getting as near as possible 
to his ideal. 



293 AFTER RETIREMENT 

After making some sketch models of Gordon in 
British uniform of the conventional type, Mr. Ford 
had an inspiration. This was to seat General Gordon, 
dressed as Governor-General of the Soudan and Field- 
Marshal in the Egyptian Service, on a camel, and to 
depict him in the act of overawing Suleiman and the 
Arab slave dealers by his sudden and solitary appear- 
ance at Shaka and by the personality of his command- 
ing presence. There was some hesitation on the part 
of the committee at this bold proposal and departure 
from conventionality. Some thought the camel would 
draw attention from the man, others that there was no 
precedent for a camel statue, but, backed by the 
support of Sir Andrew Clarke and an enthusiastic 
secretary, Mr. Onslow Ford's brilliant idea prevailed. 
Opposers and hesitators gave way, and the beautiful 
bronze statue of Gordon on the camel was the result 
There were other memorials carried out by Sir 
Andrew's committee: the bronze medallion in West- 
minster Abbey,^ the bronze busts in the R.E. mess 
at Chatham and the R.A. mess at Woolwich, and 
the silver shield* for Miss Gordon, all the work of Mr. 
Onslow Ford. 

It was as a member of this committee that Sir 
Andrew went down to Chatham on the 19th May, 1890, 
to see H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, now H.M. the 

^ The medallion, with Gordon's bead in high relief, is at the west end 
of the north aisle of the Abbey, over the belfry doorway, and adjoining 
the memorials of two other officers of Royal Engineers, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sir Richard Fletcher, Bart, and Blajor James RennelL 

* The stiver shield presented by the Corps of Royal Engineers to Miss 
Gordon as a memorial of their affection for her brother is a beaatifol 
work of art. St. Michael and the Dragon are represented in high relief 
in an oval centre, surrounded by cherubs, and with groups at top and 
bottom representing Love and Faith. A bronze replica, the only one, 
was exhibited at the Royal Academy. 



i886-9Sl NATIONAL DEFENCE 293 

King, unveil the statue. There was a brilliant as- 
sembly, and the Prince, accompanied by H.R.H, the 
Duke of Cambridge, Colonel of the Corps and Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and attended by the Right Hon. 
Edward Stanhope, Secretary of State for War, and 
the Head-quarters StaflF of the Army, was received by 
the committee, who presented H.R. Highness with an 
address. The Prince then unveiled the statue, the 
R.E. band playing Gordon's favourite hymn. Miss 
Gordon, the sister to whom General Gordon was so 
much attached, and Mr. Onslow Ford were presented 
to the Prince, who was afterwards entertained at 
luncheon at the mess. 

In December, 1891, Sir Andrew Clarke was again 
called upon to act as Agent-General for Victoria. He 
occupied the post for four months, and before leaving 
it drew up a paper, dated 31st March, 1892, for the 
benefit of the Australian colonies, entitled ''Sugges- 
tions for an Improvement in the Means of Dealing 
with Questions of National Defence." In this paper 
Sir Andrew gave much sensible advice, and strongly 
recommended that the agents-general of self-govern- 
ing colonies should be placed in communication with 
the Colonial Defence Committee, and enabled to attend 
its meetings whenever they wished to bring forward 
any question on which advice was desired. The Gov- 
ernment of Victoria considered that the memorandum 
would **very much strengthen the hands of the indi- 
vidual governments in dealing with the matter of 
combined Australian defence." 

In Nbvember, 1892, Sir Andrew once more occu- 
pied the same post, and on this occasion he remained 
the representative of the colony in London until 
the end of April, 1894. The period was a particu- 



294 AFTER RETIREMENT 

larly trying one, owing to the financial crisis in 
Victoria and also in New South Wales, and a 
number of Australian banks were compelled to sus- 
pend payment. At the time of panic in 1893 Sir 
Andrew was untiring in his efforts to uphold Aus- 
tralian credit, and he went so far as to invoke, on his 
own responsibility, the intervention of the Imperial 
Government. That Government was unable to comply 
with his request, for the reasons given in the following 
letter, dated 20th April, 1894, from Sir Andrew Clarke 
to Sir James Patterson, then Premier of Victoria, The 
delay in communicating to the colony the substance 
of the negotiations with the Home Government was 
due to Lord Ripon's desire that, in the interest of the 
Australian colonies, nothing should be said at the 
time of the matter having been in any way under the 
consideration of H.M/s Government. 



To Sir James Patterson. 

, '*The time has now arrived when I can with pro- 
priety give you the details of a proposition I submitted 
in ^lay last year to Her Majesty's advisers in this 
country and of the manner in which it was received. 
The position, you will remember, was one of unparal- 
lelled financial difficulty. Week by week we had to 
arrange for drafts that would be dishonoured, as bank 
after bank went, and though my statement in the 
enclosed letter to Lord Ripon that we had arranged in 
six cases was absolutely true, it had almost been falsi- 
fied a little later by the indisposition of one of the 
English judges to ratify the arrangements made with 
one or two of the banks. It was therefore matter of 
daily and urgent anxiety to me to place the payment of 
our interest beyond doubt. 

** At the time I first entertained the idea of asking 
Her Majesty's Government to guarantee us, the Cape 
had not made its spirited though carefully guarded 



1886-95] AUSTRALIAN CRISIS 295 

offer.i Still it seemed to me that the case was one in 
which the Government of a great country might make 
its own precedent. I strengthened myself with the 
favourable opinion of Mr. Childers before I took ac- 
tion, and he was so kind as to sound Lord Ripon on 
the subject unofficially. 

*'The guarded reply of Lord Ripon to my letter, 
though it shows that the matter received the very 
earnest consideration of the Imperial Cabinet, scarcely 
does justice to the amount of support which my pro- 
position received. I have reason to know that the 
Colonial Office adopted it cordially and that the 
Premier was willing to concur if a sub-committee of 
his colleagues advised it. Two reasons were, however, 
after much discussion, considered to be decisive against 
Imperial intervention. One was that ministers shrank 
from giving a guarantee, which might be urged as a 
precedent in more ambiguous cases. Then, again, it 
was understood that the Bank of England had given 
private assurances of support to the three banks still 
standing, and it was concluded accordingly that the 
danger was already passed. I have thought it right at 
this distance of time to let you know of an important 
act that I took on my own initiative and that was, I hope, 
justified by the crisis." 

In connection with this financial crisis, the Victorian 
Board of Advice passed a minute on 30th April, 1894, 

^ On 23rd May Sir Charles Mills, Agent-General for the Cape, sent 
Sir Andrew Clarke and his colleague, Sir Saul Samuel, Agent-General 
for New South Wales, the following telegram that he had received from 
his Government : — 

" The Government here have the deepest sympathies with the Aus- 
tralian colonies in their present financial distress, while at the same time 
we have the fullest confidence in their stability. Being animated b^ these 
sentiments, it is our wish that you should put yourself in communication 
with the agents-general and ascertain whether, in their opinion, it would 
help to restore public confidence if this Government invest in the securi- 
ties of those two colonies, either in the open market or in an unissued 
loan, whichever would be of most service.' 

Sir Andrew conveyed the cordial acknowledgments of his Govern- 
ment for this ''generous and considerate offer," which he did not, 
however, think it advisable to accept. This action was endorsed by the 
Victorian Govenunent, which renewed its representative's thanks. 



396 AFTER RETIREMENT 

recording ** their sense of the eminent ability which Sir 
Andrew Clarke has shown in discharging the func- 
tions of Agent-General for Victoria during times of 
unprecedented difficulty, and also of his unfailing 
courtesy towards them individually." Mr. Gillies, who 
had become Agent-General for Victoria, in a letter 
covering this communication, wrote: *' Although you 
have troops of friends, this record will no doubt be 
very agreeable to you." 

A correspondence took place in 1894-5 between Sir 
Andrew and Admiral Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, and 
the following letters of the Admiral contain matter of 
some interest on manning the Navy and on the forma- 
tion of a sheltered anchorage at Malta : — 

Fnmi Admiral Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby. 

**LORDINGTON, EmSWORTH, 

'' izJune, 1894. 

'* My dear Clarke, 

*' Thanks for your letter of the loth instant. I 
should like to see your scheme of manning of 1871.^ 
Not, I fear, that it would help us much now, but the 
cause of the difference would probably appeal to the 
House of Lords and to the few statesmen, like Goschen 
and Chamberlain, that are left in the Commons. 

**That difference is that in 1871 there was a large 
number of the old trained seamen in the mercantile 
marine. Now, except among the officers, who are^very 
good, there are none. I know how good the men were 
then, because in 1869 I hoisted my flag in Leith Coast- 

fuard ship, when Childers called out the Naval Reserve, 
was very much taken with that crew, they were quite 
of the old sort I was ordered to inspect the Reserve 
men. I found the Hull and Thames men as £^ood as those 
of the Forth. The Liverpool men looked better still, 
but I am a Lancaster man, so I thought I might be 

^ S«e Appendix for Sir Andrew Clarke's scheme of manning the 
Navy. 



1886-95] MANNING THE NAVY 297 

prejudiced. At last I got to the Westcountrymen and 
these beat the whole lot. Ncrso none such are to be 
found. 

*' I went to Liverpool some four years ago to give 
prizes in the training ship, and all the shipowners were 
asking me could nothing be done to provide seamen. 
It cannot be done by the mercantile marine. It might 
be done by the Royal Navy almost as easily as soldiers 
are made in Germany. I know of no authority who 
can say that a seaman can be made in less than seven 
years. A soldier, I believe, may be made in three. 
We ought to go to work in the same way that the 
soldiers do, viz. by keeping the teachers and the 
learners together in permanent bodies. At present, for 
no earthly reason, we prefer to pull our crews to pieces 
every two or three years. 

** I would like to know how you proposed to train. . . . 
A ' National Navy ' is what we want, and the men in it 
should be available for the Queen's service as much as 
for that of the merchants. 

'* Yours very truly, 

**G. Phipps Hornby." 

From the same. 

**LORDINGTON, EmSWORTH, 

** \^th January y 1895. 

** My dear Clarke, 

** We want a harbour in the Mediterranean badly 
that can compete with Toulon ! Has your attention as 
an engineer ever been drawn to the two Comino Chan- 
nels, between Malta and Gozo, and the possibility of 
making a large harbour out of one or other of them by 
throwing out breakwaters at either end so as to 
shelter ships from the Gregal6 and S.W. winds? The 
latter seldom blow hard, and it would be a question 
whether a S.W. breakwater would be necessary. But 
the length of Toulon Bay must be seven or eight miles. 
Of course only part is sheltered from the S.W. 

**The longer, that is the Western, Comino Channel 
must be a good five miles. As to depth of water, the 
ironclads run through to practise torpedoes, so there 
must be plenty of water. A harbour open to the sea at 



300 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

fellow, says, * How few of us^ left 1 ' But thank God it's 
the other way on . There's himself. There are the three, 
Evelyn, Lochiel, and L There's Wharncliffe and you, 
Calcraft, Rowton, and Wolfif. We have worn well in 
the thirty years, and all young at heart and glad of 
each other's successes. Do you remember how we all 
said we should get on ? 

**Ever thine, 

"Algernon Borthwick." 

But the next few months proved to be very sad ones 
for Sir Andrew. Lady Clarke died on the 8th Novem- 
ber, 1895. Sh^ ^^s buried in the Locksbrook Ceme- 
tery at Bath, and over her grave was erected a beautiful 
sarcophagus in bronze, on which was a figure of the 
Recording Angel with the open book. This work of 
art was one of the last commissions executed by the 
late Mr. E. Onslow Ford, r.a. 

The death of Lady Clarke was succeeded within 
three months by that of Sir Andrew's old friend, the 
Right Hon. Hugh C. E. Childers, also a recent 
widower, who died on the 29th January, 1896. Sir 
Andrew's friendship with Mr. Childers, dating from 
the beginning of their political careers at Melbourne, 
had lasted without a break for over forty years. 
Whenever Sir Andrew was away from home on foreign 
service, whether on the West Coast of Africa, in the 
Straits Settlements, or in India, he kept up a constant 
and regular correspondence with Mr. Childers, seldom 
allowing a mail to pass without writing. Extracts 
from many of Sir Andrew's letters to his friend are 
published in the ''Life" of the statesman, and some 
have been printed in this volume. 

Mr. Childers was the staunchest of friends, and on 

1 "OwU." 




X 
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300 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

fellow, says, * How few of us^ left 1 ' But thank God it's 
the other way on. There's himself. There are the three, 
Evelyn, Lochiel, and L There's Wharncliffe and you, 
Calcraft, Rowton, and Wolfif. We have worn well in 
the thirty years, and all young at heart and glad of 
each other's successes. Do you remember how we all 
said we should get on ? 

**Ever thine, 

'* Algernon Borthwick." 

But the next few months proved to be very sad ones 
for Sir Andrew. Lady Clarke died on the 8th Novem- 
ber, 1895. She was buried in the Locksbrook Ceme- 
tery at Bath, and over her grave was erected a beautiful 
sarcophagus in bronze, on which was a figure of the 
Recording Angel with the open book. This work of 
art was one of the last commissions executed by the 
late Mr. E. Onslow Ford, r.a. 

The death of Lady Clarke was succeeded within 
three months by that of Sir Andrew's old friend, the 
Right Hon. Hugh C. E. Childers, also a recent 
widower, who died on the 29th January, 1896. Sir 
Andrew's friendship with Mr. Childers, dating from 
the beginning of their political careers at Melbourne, 
had lasted without a break for over forty years. 
Whenever Sir Andrew was away from home on foreign 
service, whether on the West Coast of Africa, in the 
Straits Settlements, or in India, he kept up a constant 
and regular correspondence with Mr. Childers, seldom 
allowing a mail to pass without writing. Extracts 
from many of Sir Andrew's letters to his friend are 
published in the ''Life" of the statesman, and some 
have been printed in this volume. 

Mr. Childers was the staunchest of friends, and on 

1 "OwU." 




X 
H 
< 
PQ 

>-" 

(4 
H 
H 

u 
u 

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o 



1895-1902] BEREAVEMENTS 301 

several occasions was able to render his old Melbourne 
colleague a service, as, for instance, when he brought 
him into the War Office as Inspector-General of 
Fortifications in 1882, On the other hand, Sir Andrew 
exercised no little influence over Mr. Childers, who 
placed the greatest reliance on his judgment, often 
consulting him on questions of high politics as a wise 
counsellor and trusty friend. The death of so close 
and intimate a companion, following so quickly on 
that of Lady Clarke, was a great shopk to Sir Andrew. 
His brothers, all younger than himself, were already 
gone to their rest, and he alone was left. True, he 
had one child,^ the daughter born at Bath when he 
was leaving India. She was to him as the apple of 
his eye, and on her he lavished all the love of his 
afiiectionate nature. 

As the spring of 1896 passed away. Sir Andrew 
endeavoured to find solace for his grief in work, and he 
wrote to Mr. James Service,* expressing a wish to take 
up again the agency for Victoria. He received the 
following reply: — 

From the Hon. James Service. 

** Kilwinning, Balaclava, 

** 31J/ Mayy 1896. 
**My dear 'Sir Andrew, 

'^ It gave me pleasure to see your old fist again, 
and to learn that your health and faculties were so 
good that you not only were ready to take up the old 
post again, which you have frequently held temporarily, 
but that you were prepared to pay a visit to this side of 
the world, if such a visit would promote the object you 
have in view. . • . 

> Elinor Mary de Winton Clarke, married on loth June, 1903, to 
Lieutenant (now Commander) Murray F. Sueter, R.N. 
' A foremost Victorian statesman, who died in 1896. 



302 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

*^l had a quiet and pleasant chat with the Premier 
on the subject, and showed him your letter. Like 
everybody else, he at once acknowledged your great 
fitness for the post, and if the rule were ' the post for 
the best man,' you would probably head the poll. . . • 

** I dilated on your valuable services in regard to the 
New Hebrides at a critical time, when there was every 
appearance of the Imperial Government yielding to 
France, and I was strong in pointing out that where 
anything was to be done outside of your own special 
knowledge, nobody could beat you in quickly determin- 
ing where to apply and to whom to turn for information. 
I instanced, as a small example, what you did in regard 
to that group of statuary in Rome, when I was deputed 
by the Ballarat people to examine and approve of it 
for their public gardens.^ Perhaps you have forgotten 
the little matter, but it was highly appreciated by me 
at the time, and by the Ballarat people, whom I took 
care to inform of the whole matter. . . . 

** Yours very truly, 

** James Service." 

In the following October Sir Andrew was made 
an Honorary Member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, of which he, in common with so many 
of his brother officers, was already an Associate. He 
had during his life had a great deal to do with civil 
engineering works — for nine years at the Admiralty 
and for five years in India — and he had always shown a 
marked appreciation of the work of those civil engineers 
with whom he had been associated. In making reports 
to Government he had frequently had the assistance of 
such distinguished members of the profession as Sir 
John Hawkshaw and Sir John Coode, and he greatly 

' The incident referred to occurred in 1886, when Sir Andrew Clarke 
put Mr. Service into communication with the British Ambassador at 
Rome, Sir Clare Ford, who took a great deal of trouble in forwarding 
the wishes of the people of Ballarat to possess copies of some antique 
Roman sculpture. 



1895-1902] AGENT-GENERAL, VICTORIA 303 

appreciated the compliment paid to him by the Institu- 
tion. 

On the ist January, 1897, Sir Andrew's desire to 
serve the colony of Victoria again was gratified by his 
appointment to be Acting Agent-General, From this 
time forward to the end of his life he continued to 
represent Victoria in the capital of the empire. Two 
years later the qualification of ** Acting" was dropped, 
and he was confirmed in the appointment as Agent- 
General.^ An old Australian statesman then wrote to 
him: — 

From the Hon. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. 

** 12, Boulevard Victor Hugo, Nice, 

** 17M March^ 1899 {St. Patrick's Day). 

**My dear Sir Andrew, 

^^ I read with great satisfaction in an Australian 
newspaper that you were at length appointed Agent- 
General, a long-^ielayed piece of justice. 

**I have often thought that to write the history of 
responsible government in Australia ought to be an 
easy and pleasant task to you. The men who knew 
the early period will soon be all |fone, and there 
will be no one competent to tell a highly interesting 
story. You may inquire why I don't do it myself 
but in another month I shall have commenced my 
eighty-fourth year, and the buoyancy and self-con- 
fidence which carried me successfully through many 
an enterprise has grown very small. 

**Has anything ever been done to bring out an 

^ The hesitation in taking* this step shown by the Executive at 
Melbourne was due entirely to party warfare in the Victorian Legislative 
Assembly. One section of politicians wished to abolish the agency- 
general, another to make it the prize of the successful politician, while 
the Government steered a middle course by utilising Sir Andrew Clarke's 
services in an acting capacity, at a saving to the Victorian revenue of 
;£8oo a year. This represented Sir Andrew's pension as Surveyor- 
General, which he did not draw when he held the post of Agent-GeneraL 



304 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

English edition of Marcus Clarke's ^writings ? . . . He 
was a man of undoubted genius. 

'* Why do you not, like so many Englishmen, some- 
times take your holiday by a run to the South? I 
should be very glad to see you here, as I have no 
hope of seeing you anywhere else. I do not think 
I shall ever make another visit to London. 

** Very faithfully yours, 

**C. Gavan Duffy." 

Victoria was not the only Australian colony that Sir 
Andrew represented in London. On several occasions 
he acted also as Agent-General for Tasmania, the 
colony with which he had been first associated half a 
century before, and while holding this post temporarily 
in 1898-9 he received the following letter from Sir 
Edward Braddon, the Tasmanian Premier, which is 
of some interest at the present time : — 

From Sir E. Braddon. 

^^ 2<^h January^ 1899- 
**My dear Sir Andrew, 

'^It has been and is my intention to introduce 
next session a revised customs tariff, with a substantial 
preference as to all produce and products of the British 
Empire. But I have noted that there seemed a disposi- 
tion on the part of the British Government to enter into 
a new treaty with Germany that would preclude any 
preference being given to British possessions over that 
country. 

**The course I propose to take is one that was 
agreed to at the Conference held in London with the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1897, but I do 
not want to take any action thereupon that shall be 
embarrassing to the Home Government, and I shall 
be obliged if you will ascertain from Mr. Chamberlain 
what his present wishes are in this respect. 

** Yours very sincerely, 

**E. Braddon." 

^ Sir Andrew's cousin. See page 5. 



1895-1902] COLONIAL PREFERENCE 305 

This letter Sir Andrew sent on to Mr. Chamberlain, 
who replied : — 

From the Rt. Hon. J. Chamberlain. 

** Colonial Office, 

** 15 Marchy 1899. 

"Dear Sir Andrew Clarke, 

** I have received your note enclosing a copy 
of Sir Edward Braddon's letter to you on the subject 
of the Revised Customs Tariff, which he intends to 
introduce in the Tasmanian Parliament. Sir Edward 
Braddon asks for an expression of my views. Please 
tell him that nothing has changed since the Conference 
of Premiers in 1897, ^^^ that it is certainly not the 
intention of H.M. Government to do anything in 
the way of treaties with foreign Powers which would 
interfere with such a voluntary preference as he 
suggests. The concession of such a preference would, 
as in the case of Canada, be highly appreciated in 
this country as a testimony of friendship and goodwill, 
and a recognition of the liberal treatment am)rded by 
the mother-country. 

** I am, yours very faithfully, 

"J. Chamberlain." 

Always most hospitable to Victorians visiting the old 
country. Sir Andrew, as Agent-General, welcomed the 
Victorian Premier, Sir George Turner, and Lady 
Turner at 42, Portland Place, on their arrival to repre- 
sent the colony at the late Queen's Diamond Jubilee 
festivities ; and subsequently, among other entertain- 
ments, he gave a very successful garden party in 
their honour at the Botanical Gardens, Regent's Park. 
Lord Brassey, Governor of Victoria, writing to Sir 
Andrew from Melbourne at the end of the autumn, 
said : ** I hear, on all hands, how well you do your work 
as Agent-General." 

The King of Siam was also a visitor to London in 



3o6 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

the Diamond Jubilee year. Sir Andrew had an audi- 
ence with His Majesty at Buckingham Palace, and 
writing to a friend about it next day, he said : — 

** I had a most kind and cordial reception from the 
King. I was pleasantly surprised at this, for from his 
not replying to my letters of late years I feared that he 
had forgotten the service I rendered him and Siam in 
1875. B^t ^^^ thing was significant and suggestive — 
the warm way in which he spoke of the friendship 
which existed between him and the Czar of Russia, and 
his marked allusion to the Czar's goodwill and interest 
in his country." 

His Majesty subsequently honoured Sir Andrew 
Clarke with his company at dinner. On the King's 
return to Siam he issued a proclamation to his people, 
calling upon them to be as true to him in the troubles 
he saw ahead as he would be to them. Captain Loftus, 
who held an ofiBcial position in Siam and was known 
there as Phra Nehtate, sent Sir Andrew a copy of this 
proclamation and asked him his opinion on it. In a 
long letter to **Dear Phra Nehtate," dated 42, Port- 
land Place, 1 8th April, 1898, Sir Andrew replied : — 

To Captain JLoftus. 

** It may be mere imagination, or an impression born 
of knowledge, but I seem to recognise a note of pathos 
in his (the King's) words indicating some regret, if not 
disappointment, clouding his life's work and aspirations. 
Such a feeling I can understand and almost share, for 
I recall to memory the overtures he made, and the 
counsels then tendered in their support, to the Govern- 
ment of Great Britain. Had those overtures been 
accepted. His Majesty's aspirations for the establish- 
ment of an enfranchised people on the free soil of an 
unmutilated Siam would, I believe, have been fully 
realised, whilst British commerce and British merchants 
would have found easy access to the crowded marts of 



1895-1902] TRIBUTE TO MR. CHAMBERLAIN 307 

Southern and Middle China by the valleys of the 
Menam and Mekong. 

** No one can view the recent development in the Far 
East without anxiety. A new chapter of history has 
opened, and the end cannot be foreseen. Whatever 
may be the issue of events, I trust that the prosperity 
and the integrity of Siam will be assured, and that His 
Majesty will be long preserved to carry out his en- 
deavours for the good of his people." 

On the i8th January, 1898, a banquet was given by 
the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce to the Right 
Hon. Joseph Chamberlain in connection with the 
Jubilee celebrations of the previous year, and it was 
arranged that Sir Andrew Clarke should reply to the 
toast of the colonies. Unfortunately he was in bad 
health, and at the last moment his doctor forbade him 
to go to Liverpool. He greatly regretted being unable 
to take part in this tribute to Mr. Chamberlain, and 
he wrote a letter to the Secretary of the Chamber of 
Commerce, Mr. T. H. Barker, in which he said : 
**The keynote of the Jubilee celebration was the 
essential unity of the British people. . . . We have, 
I believe, now learned the great lesson that the growth 
and prosperity of the empire depends upon a generous 
and sympathetic administration on the part of the 
parent State, a mutual understanding which has happily 
increased in recent years, and the provision of adequate 
strength, naval and military, to uphold the honour and 
just rights of our people in every part of the world." 
Sir Andrew then paid a graceful tribute to the late 
Sir Robert Meade, whose funeral he had attended the 
previous week, and by whose death the State had lost 
a devoted servant and the colonies a warm friend. He 
pointed out that the inception of the Colonial Defence 
Committee and its establishment on a permanent basis 



3o8 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

were mainly due to Sir Robert Meade. He concluded 
his letter with an appreciation of Mr. Chamberlain, 
who, he said, had shown himself fully alive to the vital 
importance of national defence, using the term in its 
widest meaning, and who, he believed, would do all 
in his power to create a truly national organisation, 
alike worthy of the empire and adequate to its far-reach- 
ing requirements. 

In the autumn of the Jubilee year Sir Andrew's very 
old friend. Lord Wharncliflfe, sent him a pressing in- 
vitation to pay him a visit at Wortley and bring his 
daughter. ** We are obliged," he said, **to live very 
quietly here in consequence of my inability to shoot 
or take much exercise myself. But still friends do 
come occasionally, and we may be able to ofifer you a 
little pleasant society. I should like Miss Clarke to 
see a place of which you are so fond, and for Lady 
Wharncliflfe to have the chance of making the ac- 
quaintance of your daughter." In little over a year 
from this time Lord Wharncliflfe had passed away. 

In spite of advancing years Sir Andrew continued to 
show undiminished activity. His work at the Victoria 
Agency, which would have sufiKced for the energy of 
most men of his age, represented only a part of his 
daily engagements. He followed the course of political 
events with close attention, and frequently contributed 
letters to the daily papers, principally the Times. He 
read a paper on **The Economic Development of the 
Malay Peninsula'' before the London Chamber of Com- 
merce, and another on <<Sir Stamford RaflSes and the 
Malay States" before the Royal Institution. As late 
as January, 1902, Sir Andrew contributed an article 
to the Nineteenth Century and After on ** Our Naval 
Position in Eastern Seas," and in the following month 



1895-190^] UNDIMINISHED ACTIVITY 309 

he described his visit to Siam in 1875 ^^ ^^^ pages 
of the Contemporary Review^ 

He sent a copy of the Malay paper to Colonel John 
Hay, the United States Ambassador, and suggested a 
scheme for the pacification of the Philippine Islands on 
the basis of what he had done in the Malay Peninsula 
in 1874. In acknowledging the receipt of the pamphlet, 
Colonel Hay said: **I have as yet no idea of the 
ultimate intention of my Government in the matter of 
the Philippines ; but I cannot help wishing we had at 
our disposition a few men of wisdom and experience 
equal to yours." Sir Andrew developed his scheme 
for the Philippines in a long letter to an American 
gentleman, Mr. F. B. Forbes, who took a great interest 
in the subject, and brought the letter to the notice 
of the United States Government. It was printed as a 
White Paper by order of the Senate. 

In the autumn of 1899 Sir Andrew paid a visit to 
North America as one of the Australian representa- 
tives at the International Commercial Congress held 
at Philadelphia. It was the first time he had been 
in the United States, and he greatly enjoyed the 
novelty of his stay in that progressive country. 

He took a lively interest in the establishment of the 
Pacific Telegraph Cable from the first inception of 
the idea of an '^all red" line of telegraph to connect 
up the scattered parts of the empire without entering 
foreign territory ; and this interest was now increased 
by his appointment as one of the two Australian 
representatives on the Board of Directors. 

While engaged in promoting cable communication 
across the Pacific to the Antipodes, he was no less 
active in working up the trade of Victoria with the 
mother-country and with South Africa ; and when the 



3IO LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

war with the Boers began he succeeded in securing a 
number of contracts from the Imperial Government for 
produce of all kinds from Victoria. 

But the great question in regard to Australia which 
occupied Sir Andrew at this time was that of Colonial 
Federation. After ten years of negotiations there 
resulted, in the autumn of 1899, ^^e Commonwealth 
Bill of the five colonies — New South Wales, Victoria, 
South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania. Ad- 
dresses to the Queen were sent home by these colonies 
praying for its enactment, but as some alterations were 
deemed necessary, Mr. Chamberlain telegraphed to 
Australia for delegates to advise and assist the Govern- 
ment during the passage of the Bill through Parliament. 
The delegates arrived in March, 1900. 

Owing to failing health the delegate for Victoria, the 
Hon. Alfred Deakin, was obliged to leave England, 
and Sir Andrew Clarke was appointed delegate in his 
place. He was thus most unexpectedly enabled to par- 
ticipate in the final act of the settlement. The end was 
only reached after a very anxious time between the 
delegates and the home Government in discussing the 
clauses of the Bill relating to the appeals to the Privy 
Council. Sir Andrew was such an ardent Imperialist 
that he personally looked with disfavour upon any abro- 
gation of the right of every citizen of the empire to 
appeal to the Sovereign in Council ; and the final com- 
promise arrived at, by which- an appeal on a con- 
stitutional question to the Privy Council was made 
dependent on a certificate to be granted at the direction 
of the Commonwealth High Court, did not meet with 
his entire concurrence. No other amendment of any 
consequence (except a provision for the inclusion of 
Western Australia as an original State^ provided she 



1895-1903] AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION 311 

so agreed before the issue of the proclamation) was 
made by Parliament in the Bill, which became an Act 
of the Imperial Parliament on the 9th July, 1900.^ 

To celebrate this important event in the history of 
the colonies and the date of their federation. Sir 
Andrew addressed a letter to the leading newspapers 
on the very day the Act was passed, comparing the 
new political development with the grant of self- 
government to his old colony, Victoria, half a century 
earlier. As the sole survivor of the framers of the Con- 
stitution of Victoria in 1854, ^^ ventured to prophesy 
that as the ties of the colony to the mother-country had 
been then strengthened by the bestowal of self-govern- 
ment, so the new Commonwealth would prove the 
beginning of still closer relations between Great Britain 
and Federated Australia, 

In the spring of 1901, nearly eleven years after Sir 
Andrew had attended the unveiling of the Gordon 
statue at Chatham, he was asked by Mr. Onslow Ford 
to preside at the casting of a replica of that statue to be 
erected at Khartoum by subscribers to the Morning 
Post. 

When the day arrived (13th March) Sir Andrew was 
ill in bed, but with that strong will and undaunted 
spirit that characterised him he determined not to dis- 
appoint his friends, and insisted on leaving his bed to 
be present. He drove with his daughter to Parlenti's 
Albion Foundry at Parson's Green, where a small com- 
pany was assembled. Sir Andrew looked dreadfully 
ill. The furnace was not at the right heat, and there 
was a long wait in a draughty shed on a bleak March 
day. 

^ Western Australia joined the Commonwealth before the proclamation, 
and was incladed in it on the 17th October, 190a 



312 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

At IsLStf when all was ready^ the late Hon. Oliver 
Borthwicky in the name of the subscribers, asked Sir 
Andrew to perform the ceremony. Sir Andrew took the 
String by which a plug could be removed that would 
enable the molten metal to enter the moulds, but he was 
too ill to address the company, and General Sir Richard 
Harrison said a few words for him. Then Sir Andrew 
pulled the string, and the fiery current flowed into the 
moulds. The casting proved a complete success, and 
the statue, after being publicly exhibited in St. Martin's 
Place, was sent to Khartoum, where it now stands 
looking over the Nile and the desert, a perpetual me- 
mento of the man who loved and died for his black 
Soudanese people. 

As far back as 1873, when Sir Andrew Clarke was 
leaving the Admiralty to take over the government 
of the Straits Settlements, the municipal authorities of 
Dover had contemplated conferring the freedom of 
their town on him in recognition of the services he had 
rendered them in 1865, ^^^ again in 1873, in connection 
with Dover Harbour.^ But Sir Andrew's departure for 
Singapore prevented the suggestion taking definite 
shape. More than a quarter of a century later the pro- 
posal was revived, and the freedom of the Cinque Port 
was to have been conferred upon him at the same time 
that Lord Roberts received it. Lord Roberts stipulated 
that the ceremony should be postponed until the war 
was over. By that time Sir Andrew had gone to his 
rest. 

His last public act was to read the address of welcome 

from the colonial representatives in London to their 

Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, 

on their return from their tour round British Dominions 

^ See note, pAg« tai. 



1895-1902] DEATH 313 

beyond the seas in November, igoi. On the 8th 
January, 1902, he was appointed a Colonel -Com- 
mandant of the Corps of Royal Engineers, a return to 
the Regimental List which gave him great pleasure ; 
but his health had been breaking for some time, and he 
did not live long to enjoy the distinction. He died at 
31, Portland Place on the morning of Easter Eve, 2gth 
March, 1902, in his seventy-eighth year. 

The remains of Sir Andrew Clarke were buried 
beside those of his wife at Locksbrook Cemetery, 
Bath, on Thursday, 3rd April, and received the 
honours of a military funeral on their passage from 
Portland Place to Paddington Station. The coffin, 
covered with the Union flag, and bearing Sir Andrew's 
cocked hat and sword, was carried on a gun-carriage, 
detachments of the 2nd Life Guards and of Royal En- 
gineers furnishing the escort. Besides other relatives 
and friends who followed were Major Lardner Clarke 
(nephew) and Colonel Filgate. The Deputy Adjutant- 
General, Royal Engineers (Sir William Salmond, 
K.C.B.), and the Commandant of the School of Military 
Engineering (Sir Thomas Eraser, k.c.b., c.m.g.) at- 
tended as representatives of the Corps to which Sir 
Andrew had always been so proud to belong. Mr. 
W. B. Robinson, c.m.g., and Mr. A. W. Arkill repre- 
sented the Victorian Agency, and the former placed a 
wreath on the coffin with the following inscription : — 
''The Speaker and Legislative Assembly of Victoria 
deeply regret the death of Sir Andrew Clarke, and 
bear grateful testimony to the valtiable services which 
for many years he rendered to the State of Victoria." 

At the same time as the burial at Bath a memorial 
service was held at St. Marylebone Parish Church, at 
which the Secretary of State for the Colonies was 



314 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

represented by Mr. Bromley, and the Agents-General 
of the colonies and other distinguished men attended, 
while a numerous body of brother officers and friends 
filled the church. 

In reviewing the life of Sir Andrew Clarke one is 
struck with its variety and with the energy and pertin- 
acity that he displayed in so many different callings. 
Whether as a colonial politician, a dock and harbour 
engineer, a member of the Viceroy of India's Council, 
the head of a great military school, the chief of a dis- 
tinguished Corps and a principal officer of the War 
Office, or the Agent-General for a self-governing 
colony, there is always the same interest in his work, 
the same untiring energy in pushing his views, and 
the same pertinacity in endeavouring to achieve his 
object. One great feature of the nun was his quick- 
ness in picking out men of ability and giving them 
opportunities of showing what they were worth, and 
not a few owe their success in life to the opportunities 
so given. 

Sir Andrew made many friends, and the friends that 
he made stuck to him through life, and he to them. 
With a strong political bias, he was a popular man, 
even in Melbourne, where party feeling ran high fifty 
years ago, and both sides spoke well of him. So it 
was at home : he had as many friends in the Conserva- 
tive as in the Liberal party. Those who knew the man 
and differed from him condoned the extreme views he 
held on some points, because they were so eminently 
characteristic of him ; and ^' Andy Clarke," as he was 
called by his intimates, would not have been ^^Andy 
Clarke" had not the vivacious spirit that displayed 
itself in a stimulating treatment of even ordinary sub- 
jects sometimes rushed into excess. A genial manner 



1895-1902] REVIEW OF HIS LIFE 315 

and a kind heart always ready to serve a friend were 
attractions that few could resist. As a public man he 
was an able and hard-working servant of the State. 

The story of his life may be fittingly concluded with 
a selection from the numerous letters of sympathy and 
condolence received by his daughter after his death. 
This selection is confined to a few of the official and 
semi-official appreciations of the services he had ren- 
dered to his country and the loss sustained by his 
death. 

In a letter dated 3rd April, 1902, from the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies to the Agent-General for 
Victoria, acknowledging with deep regret the receipt 
of the news of Sir Andrew's death, he writes : — 

** Through a long lifetime Sir Andrew Clarke ren- 
dered many distinguished services to the Government 
in this country, in India, and in the colonies, and his 
loss will be widely felt not only in Victoria, which he 
served so well, but in every part of the empire to which 
he devoted his life." 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies also wrote to 
Miss Clarke : — 

From the Rt Hon. J. Chamberlain. 

**4o, Prince's Gardens, S.W., 

'* 2 AprUy 1902, 
^' Dear Miss Clarke, 

**I have heard , with sincere sorrow of your 
father's death, and I desire to ofifer to you my great 
sympathy in your irreparable loss. 

** My official relations with your father and my know- 
ledge of his long and distinguished career have enabled 
me to appreciate his services to the empire, and to 
recognise his great ability and self-denying devotion 
to its interests. 

*' I trust that even in the midst of your grief it may 



3i6 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

be some consolation to you to know how highly your 
£iither was esteemed by all who had the opportunity of 
knowing him. He had the great satisfaction of seeing 
his principles generally accepted, and he must have felt 
that he had contribxited to their success. This is, after 
ally the reward for which all honourable and conscien- 
tious public men most earnestly strive, and I am glad 
to think that it was not denied to him in the closing 
years of his life. 

''My wife desires to join with me in sincere con- 
dolences, and I beg you to believe that I am 

** Yours truly, 

**J. Chamberlain." 

The Commander-in-Chief, Earl Roberts, expressed 
his great regret and deep sympathy through the 
Deputy Adjutant-General, r.e., who added a few 
words on behalf of the Corps. 

H.E. Colonel Sir G. S. Clarke, Governor of Vic- 
toria, telegraphed to Miss Clarke : — 

** Deeply grieved by sad news. Government feels 
great loss to victoria. Our warmest sympathy." 

He also wired to the Secretary of State : — 

** General regret felt here death Sir Andrew Clarke, 
and warm appreciation of his eminent services to the 
empire and State Victoria." 

The following letter from the Premier of Victoria, 
with its enclosures, testifies to the general feeling of 
loss felt in the Australasian colonies : — 

From the Han. A.J. Peacock. 

** Prbmibr's Office, Mblbourns, 

^' 2 Aprils 1900. 
'^ Dear Miss Clarke, 

*' It was with real sorrow that I received on the 
30th ultimo the telegraphic news of your Other's death. 
My telegram of the 31st idem, expressive of the sym- 



1895-1903] OFFICIAL APPRECIATIONS 317 

pathy of the Government in jrour bereavement and of 
the loss sustained by Victoria in his decease, will have 
been communicated to you, 

** But I write to add a few lines to state how not only 
this Government, but I am sure the people of Victoria, 
feel that a real friend has been taken from us. 

** I need not refer to Sir Andrew Clarke's long and 
honourable imperial service, but I cannot refrain from 
saying that after his having for so many years identified 
himself with the interests of Victoria, so ably and inde- 
fatigably served her in his ofiScial capacity as Agent- 
General, and through his having laid himself out in 
every way to facilitate the objects of all the colonists 
who sought his aid when in England, he has left behind 
him a name which will be always honoured and cher- 
ished, and that his decease has created a blank which it 
will be scarcely possible to fill, 

** As indicating how general is the sense of the loss 
which has come to us all through Sir Andrew's death, 
and of the respect in which he was held, I send you 
copies of telegrams on the subject which I have received 
from — 

The Rig^ht Hon. the Secretary of State for the 

Colonies ; 
His Excellency the Governor of Victoria ; 
The Right Hon. E. Barton, Prime Minister of the 

Commonwealth ; and 
The Right Hon. R. J. Seddon, Premier of New 
Zealand. <« Believe me, etc., 

**A. J. Peacock." 

Enclosure to above. 

From the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the 
Governor of Victoria: — **I have received with deep 
regret news of the death of Sir Andrew Clarke, Agent- 
General for Victoria, on March 30th.— <;;hamberlain." 

From the Governor of Victoria from Macedon to the 
Premier of Victoria: — ** Grieved deeply to hear of 
death of Sir Andrew Clarke. He was an Imperialist 
of the finest type, and his services have been invaluable. 
Victoria has lost a most devoted representative and I 
my best friend. — G. S. Clarke." 



3i8 LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

From the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth from 
Sydney to the Premier of Victoria: — **The Federal 
^!inistry deeply sympathise with the Government of 
Victoria in the loss they have sustained by the death 
of Sir Andrew Clarke. These valuable services will 
be sadly missed.— Edward Barton." 

From the Prime Minister of New Zealand at Nelson, 
N.Z., to the Premier of Victoria: — ** New Zealand 
sympathises very sincerely in the great loss which your 
colony has sustained in the death of your able and 
esteemed Agent-General, Sir Andrew Clarke. — R. J. 
Seddon." 

From the Agents-General for Tasmania and Natal 
came the following letters : — 

From the AgenUGeneral for Tasmania. 

**5, Victoria Street, Westbhnster, 

** London, S.W., 2 Aprils 1902. 
''Dear Miss Clarke, 

** I have received a cable message from the 
Premier of Tasmania (the Hon. N. E. Lewis, c.m.g.) 
asking me to tell you how deeply he and his colleagues 
sympathise with you in your sad loss. My Govern- 
ment will ever remember the valuable services rendered 
by Sir Andrew to Tasmania. 

'' If anything could afford consolation at such a time 
as this, surely it would be the recollection of the long 
and useful life that Sir Andrew was permitted to lead — 
a life devoted to the cause of the empire. 

** His career was marked by conscientious work and 
distinguished ability, and his name is a synonym for 
all that is good, true, and noble. Well indeed has he 
earned his long rest. 

**Will you permit me to express on my own behalf 
my deep sympathy, and to add that I keenly regret Sir 
Andrew's loss? 

**On several occasions I had the privilege of con- 
sulting him and drawing upon his large and varied 
store of knowledge and experience, and I always found 



1895-1903] ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE 319 

in him a true and sympathetic friend and a wise 
counsellor. Believe me to remain, 

** Yours sincerely, 

** Alfred Dobson, 

'' Agent'GeneraV 

From the AgenUGeneral for Natal. 

"26, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W., 

** 3nf Aprily 1902. 
''Dear Miss Clarke, 

** I was very sorry to hear on my return from 
the Riviera of the serious illness of my most esteemed 
friend, your father; and it was a great shock to me 
when I called last Monday to hear that he had passed 
away* • • • 

**This morning I have a cable message from Sir 
Henry McCallum asking me to express to you his 
warmest sympathy along with that of Lady McCallum. 

** Believe me, etc, 

** Walter Peace." 

Finally the Secretary of the Royal Colonial Institute, 
Mr. J. S. O'Halloran, c.m.g., forwarded a resolution of 
condolence unanimously adopted by the Council on the 
proposal of Lieutenant-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards, 
K.C.M.G., C.B., seconded by Sir Henry E. G. Bulwer, 
G.C.M.G., on the 15th April, 1902, to the following 
effect : — 

**The Council of the Royal Colonial Institute lament 
the death of Lieutenant-General Sir Andrew Clarke, 
R.E., G.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., Agent-General for Victoria, 
who joined the Institute when it was founded in 1868 
as one of its first Fellows, and served his country in 
various capacities, both at home and beyond the seas, 
with conspicuous ability and success. He rendered 
important services in bringing the Malay States within 
the sphere of British influence. The Council oflFer the 
expression of their sincerest sympathy to Miss Clarke 
and the other members of the family in their great loss." 



V 



f i. 



i:i 



r.. 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 



FAMILY GENEALOGY 



John Clarke, 
m. Miss 
Johnston. 



John Clarke, of Grange, Co. Tjrrone. 
Andrew Clarke, tn. Miss Flora Lindsay. 



Dr. Andrew 

Clarke (1764-1836), 

of Belmont, 

tn. Miss Johnston 

in 179a 



WiUiam Clarke. 



James Clarke, 

of Port HaU, 

now represented 

by his grandson, 

James Clarke, 

Esq., J. P., 

of Port Hall, 

Strabane. 



Lieut -Colonel 

Andrew Clarke, k.h. 

(1793-1847), 

of Belmont, 

Governor of 

Western Australia, 

fif. Frances Jackson, 

nie Lardner. 



Lanfi 



James Laneton 

(ft. 1800T, 

of Victoria, 

Co. Court Judge. 



William Hislop 
(ft. 1806), 
barrister. 



Eliza 
(ft. 1810). 



Lieut. -General 
Sir Andrew Clarke 

(1824-1902), 
m, M. M. MacKillop. 



Major James 

George Clarke 

(1827-1872), 

46th Foot. 



William 

Hislop Clarke 

(1830-1851) . 



Elinor Marv de ^^^ton Clarke, 
m. Commander M. F. Sueter, R.N. 

Moira de Winton Sueter. 



r 



1 

Major John 
Larcmer Clarke, 

R.A. 

(1831-1879). 



John de Winton Lardner Clarke, 
Lieut. -Colonel R.A. 



321 



APPENDIX II 

INSCRIPTION ON THE TOMB OF SIR ANDREW CLARKE'S 

FATHER » 

(Coat of Arms). 

Underneath this tomb 

Are interred the mortal remains 

Of 

Lieut. -Colonel Andrew Clarke, 

Late Commanding the 46th Regiment, 

Knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphlc Order, 

Governor, 

Commander-in-Chief, and Vice-Admiral 

Of 

Western Australia and its Dependencies. 

Devoted from an early period of life to the service 

Of his country, 

He succeeded under the varied trials 

Of climate, of difficulty, and of danger 

In securing to himself by singleness of purpose. 

By persevering firmness, by fidelity 

And wise discretion, 

The marked approbation of his Sovereign, 

And 

The respect and esteem of all who knew him 

In the discharge of his Military and Civil Duties : 

And whilst his urbanity of demeanour and 

placidity of disposition 

Won for him the regard of the stranger. 

And endeared him in no common degree 

To his family and friends. 

It was the distinguished excellence of his life. 

That faith unfeigned and piety unaffected. 

Gave consistency to all his actions. 

And at once embellished and completed his character 

As a Christian Soldier. 

He departed this life, 

After a public service of forty years. 

On the nth day of February, 1847, 

In the 54th year of his age. 

^ This copy of the inscription on Colonel Clarke's tomb in the cemetery 
at Perth, Western Australia, was kindl3Mprocured by the Rigrht Hon. Sir 
John Forrest, K.aM.O., for Sir Andrew Cflarke's daughter, Mrs, Sueter. 

322 



APPENDIX III 

DIARY OF THE VOYAGE OF THE BERMUDA FLOATING 
DOCK ACROSS THE ATLANTIC 

IN A LBTTSR TO SIR ANDRBW CLARKE FROM A MEMBER OF HiS STAFF 

<' Bermuda Dock, nth July ^ 1869. 

" Lat. 2f 46' N., long. 29' 58' W. 

** You will see (from my official account) that we had got 
on so far without accident or misadventure, and that is, I 
think, what you will most care about. Here we are a week 
from Porto Santo and about a fortnight from Bermuda, that 
is if we have as good wind and weather as have accompanied 
us thus far. We go along about 120 miles in the twenty- 
four hours, the towing-ships with studding sails set, and the 
N.E. trades driving them on gaily. They (the Warrior and 
Black Prince) are only burning thirty-six tons of coal per 
diem. I am glad to have still the same account to give of 
our progress, viz. that nothing could be more satisfactory. 
The trip has been very uneventful, and it is difficult to make 
any sort of story out of it. The Warrior's people have paid 
us more attention than the Northumberland's did. Captain 
Boyes sent us a hindquarter of mutton the other day, and 
the wardroom officers gave us a piece of beef and some 
onions on Thursday. They sent these delicacies by a line 
hove over their ship's stern and fastened to one on board the 
Dock. We have done some rolling, but never more than 
thirteen degrees, eight rolls to the minute. The Warrior 
and Bkick Prince jump about a good deal more than we do, 
and dip their studding-sail booms with nearly every roll. 

''Sunday, iSth July, lat. 26' 42' N., long. 43' 5/ W., 
about 1,300 miles from Bermuda. — Nothing strange has 
taken place during the week. The runs have gradually 
decreased for the last few days ; 107 miles were made on 
Thursday, 104 on Friday, 95 yesterday, and only 85 to-day. 

323 



324 APPENDIX III 

The weather has been splendid, and as there is not much 
fear of a gale before August, it does not matter if we do not 
get in quite as soon as we thought this day last week. I 
think it would have been better if the Northumberland and 
Agincourt had come on with us for another 600 miles or so 
before transferring us to the Warrior and BUick Prince. 
We have only seen one ship this week. We had a sharp 
squall on Friday. The Dock did not mind the wind much. 

** Sunday, 2$ihjuly, lat. 28"* 50' N., long. 59° 12' W., about 
358 miles from Bermuda. — We have knocked along much 
as usual this week. The weather has been rainy and 
squally. The towing-ships began to put on a spurt yester- 
day, and increased the consumption of coal to forty-eight 
tons. I think there is no doubt of our being safe in port on 
Wednesday, and if we do we shall have done the voyage in 
five weeks, and may congratulate ourselves upon having had 
a wonderfully fine time of it. The Dock showed a tendency 
to go broadside on to the towing-ships on Tuesday night, 
and again on Friday to a greater extent. The wind was 
very strong at the time, and canted her head round won- 
derfully. The Terrible^s weight astern was wanted to coun- 
teract it. Hope to be at Bermuda on Wednesday. The 
Lapwing has gone on. She parted company at three 
o'clock. 

** Wednesday, 2Sth July, off Bermuda. — We sighted the 
lighthouse at i.io this morning, and the land a little after 
four o'clock. At 6.20 we were off the entrance to the 
Narrows, and had the Warrior shortened her hawsers a 
little and gone straight on with us, the Dock would have 
been safe in Grassy Bay long ago. However, the Spitfire 
came out with an order that we were to stay where we were. 
The Spitfire, Viper, and Vixen were to take the Dock in. 
The two latter are small composite gunboats with twin 
screws, perfectly useless for the service, and the first is a 

dockyard tug. The representations of led to a change 

of plans, and the Terrible was ordered to take us in tow. 
The Dock, however, insisted on going in exactly the opposite 
direction to that in which she was towed. The Lapwing was 
astern to steer us, but her weight was no use whatever. A 
regular mull was made of the whole proceeding, and here we 



APPENDIX III 325 

are about five or six miles from the land for the night. It 
has been a most disappointing day. 

** Thursday, — The official log will give the exact time at 
which we started for port. We got along very well, although 
we had a narrow squeak for it if we did not touch the bottom. 
After rounding Catherine Point we were all clear, and got 
into Grassy Bay all right. Everyone here seems afraid of 
the Dock, and undecided what to do with her. 

''^Friday. — There was a good deal of excitement this 
morning. I was up all night finishing my work for the 
mail, and at four o'clock saw the Dock was drifting. 

**I have reported fully in the log all that then occurred. 
To Hains is due the credit of getting her up yesterday, and 
keeping her from going ashore to-day." 

Some time later the Dock was moored safely from its first 
position in Grassy Bay to inside the Camber at Ireland Island, 
where it remained until 1902. A new dock with accommoda- 
tion for larger ironclads was sent in that year to replace the 
old one. 



3IO LAST YEARS OF A BUSY LIFE 

war with the Boers began he succeeded in securing a 
number of contracts from the Imperial Government for 
produce of all kinds from Victoria. 

But the great question in regard to Australia which 
occupied Sir Andrew at this time was that of Colonial 
Federation. After ten years of negotiations there 
resulted, in the autumn of 1899, ^he Commonwealth 
Bill of the five colonies — New South Wales, Victoria, 
South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania. Ad- 
dresses to the Queen were sent home by these colonies 
praying for its enactment, but as some alterations were 
deemed necessary, Mr. Chamberlain telegraphed to 
Australia for delegates to advise and assist the Govern- 
ment during the passage of the Bill through Parliament. 
The delegates arrived in March, 1900. 

Owing to failing health the delegate for Victoria, the 
Hon. Alfred Deakin, was obliged to leave England, 
and Sir Andrew Clarke was appointed delegate in his 
place. He was thus most unexpectedly enabled to par- 
ticipate in the final act of the settlement. The end was 
only reached after a very anxious time between the 
delegates and the home Government in discussing the 
clauses of the Bill relating to the appeals to the Privy 
Council. Sir Andrew was such an ardent Imperialist 
that he personally looked with disfavour upon any abro- 
gation of the right of every citizen of the empire to 
appeal to the Sovereign in Council ; and the final com- 
promise arrived at, by which^ an appeal on a con- 
stitutional question to the Privy Council was made 
dependent on a certificate to be granted at the direction 
of the Commonwealth High Court, did not meet with 
his entire concurrence. No other amendment of any 
consequence (except a provision for the inclusion of 
Western Australia as an original State, provided she 



189S-1903] AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION 311 

so agreed before the issue of the proclamation) was 
made by Parliament in the Bill, which became an Act 
of the Imperial Parliament on the 9th July, 1900.^ 

To celebrate this important event in the history of 
the colonies and the date of their federation, Sir 
Andrew addressed a letter to the leading newspapers 
on the very day the Act was passed, comparing the 
new political development with the grant of self- 
government to his old colony, Victoria, half a century 
earlier. As the sole survivor of the framers of the Con- 
stitution of Victoria in 1854, he ventured to prophesy 
that as the ties of the colony to the mother-country had 
been then strengthened by the bestowal of self-govern- 
ment, so the new Commonwealth would prove the 
beginning of still closer relations between Great Britain 
and Federated Australia. 

In the spring of 1901, nearly eleven years after Sir 
Andrew had attended the unveiling of the Gordon 
statue at Chatham, he was asked by Mr. Onslow Ford 
to preside at the casting of a replica of that statue to be 
erected at Khartoum by subscribers to the Morning 
Post. 

When the day arrived (13th March) Sir Andrew was 
ill in bed, but with that strong will and undaunted 
spirit that characterised him he determined not to dis- 
appoint his friends, and insisted on leaving his bed to 
be present. He drove with his daughter to Parlenti's 
Albion Foundry at Parson's Green, where a small com- 
pany was assembled. Sir Andrew looked dreadfully 
ill. The furnace was not at the right heat, and there 
was a long wait in a draughty shed on a bleak March 
day. 

^ Western Australia joined the Commonwealth before the proclamation, 
and was included in it on the zyth October, 190a 



338 APPENDIX IV 

provided they carry one gun, not less than a 32-pounder, a 
Gunner or Gunner's Mate with an Excellenfs Certificate, and 
not less than ten men of the Reserve, who may be exempt 
from joining a man-of-war for training for three years on 
receiving a certificate of competency from an Inspecting 
Officer. 

XIV. The same to apply to a Merchant Vessel or Yacht 
commanded by an Officer of the Naval Reserve, but limited 
to one year. 

XV. The Guns and ceitain amount of Ammunition for 
above to be supplied by the State. 

XVI. Rifles, revolvers, cutlasses, pikes, and ammunition 
for the men of the Reserve Service, as above, to be issued 
to Owners of Ships, on their undertaking to make good if 
lost or damaged by neglect. 

XVII. The present system of assigning maximum pensions 
on continuous service to be modified to meet the New Scheme, 
the deferred pensions being somewhat higher. 

XVIII. Present Pensioners, men and boys, to be permitted 
to remain as they are, or to elect to New System. 

XIX. That any Seaman of the Reserve may claim to enter 
and take his month, or longer, training on board any of Her 
Majesty's Ships, when a Training or Reserve Ship is not 
available. 

XX« When afloat in a man-of-war, to receive pay and be 
treated in all ways as a regular man-of-war's man. 

XXI. Broken time, or incapacity to fulfil, by ill health or 
wounds — special regulations. 

XXII. This Scheme to be combined with regulations so as 
to localise, as far as practicable, the Men on shore in Reserve, 
giving them first claim to employment in the several Govern- 
ment Establishments. 



APPENDIX V 

ENGAGEMENT ENTERED INTO BY THE CHIEFS OF PERAK 

(COMMONLY CALLED THE TREATY OF PANGKOR), 

DATED 20TH JANUARY, 1874 

Whereas, a state of anarchy exists in the Kingdom of 
Perak owing to the want of settled government in that 
Country, and no efficient power exists for the protection of 
the people and for securing to them the fruits of their 
industry, and, 

Whereas, large numbers of Chinese are employed and 
large sums of money invested in Tin mining in Perak by 
British subjects and others residing in Her Majesty's Posses- 
sions, and the said mines and property are not adequately 
protected, and piracy, murder, and arson are rife in the said 
country, whereby British trade and interests greatly suffer, 
and the peace and good order of the neighbouring British 
Settlements are sometimes menaced, and. 

Whereas, certain Chiefs for the time being of the said 
Kingdom of Perak have stated their inability to cope with 
their present difficulties, and together with those interested 
in the industry of the country have requested assistance, 
and, 

Whereas, Her Majesty's Government is bound by Treaty 
Stipulations to protect the said Kingdom and to assist its 
rulers, now. 

His Excellency Sir Andrew Clarke, icc.m.g., c.b.. 
Governor of the Colony of the Straits Settlements, in com- 
pliance with the said request, and with a view of assisting 
the said rulers and of effecting a permanent settlement of 
affairs in Perak, has proposed the following Articles of 
arrangement as mutually beneficial to the Independent 
Rulers of Perak, their subjects, the subjects of Her Majesty, 

3*9 



330 APPENDIX V 

and others residing in or trading with Perak, that is to 
say: — 

I. First — That the Raja Muda Abdulla be recognised as 
the Sultan of Perak. 

II. Second. — That the Raja Bandahara Ismail, now Acting 
Sultan, be allowed to retain the title of Sifltan Muda with a 
pension and a certain small Territory assigned to him. 

III. Third. — That all the other nominations of great 
Officers made at the time the Raja Bandahara Ismail re- 
ceived the regalia be confirmed. 

IV. Fourth. — That the power given to the Orang Kay ah 
Mantri over Larut by the late Sultan be confirmed. 

V. Fifth. — That all Revenues be collected and all appoint- 
ments made in the name of the Sultan. 

VI. Sixth. — ^That the Sultan receive and provide a suitable 
residence for a British Officer to be called Resident, who 
shall be accredited to his Court, and whose advice must be 
asked and acted upon on all questions other than those 
touching Malay Religion and Custom. 

VII. Seventh. — That the Governor of Larut shall have 
attached to him as Assistant Resident, a British Officer 
acting under the Resident of Perak, with similar power and 
subordinate only to the said Resident. 

VIII. Eighth.— That the cost of these Residents with 
their Establishments be determined by the Government of 
the Straits Settlements and be a first charge on the Revenues 
of Perak. 

IX. Ninth. — That a Civil list regulating the income to be 
received by the Sultan, by the Bandahara, by the Mantri, 
and by other Officers be the next charge on the said 
Revenues. 

X. Tenth. — That the collection and control of all Revenues 
and the general administration of the country be regulated 
under the advice of these Residents. 

XI. Eleventh.— That the Treaty under which the Pulo 
Dinding and the islands of Pangkor were ceded to Great 



APPENDIX V Ml 

Britain bavio^ betft misundtnt^odk and ii li#ii^ d<Mual4<^ to> 
readjust the same^ so a» to carry into eflK^t ih# mt^mtioii ol 
the Framers therwf^ it is her^Y dtdat^ ih^t ttM» Bouiniari^ 
of the said Territory so ceded shall be rectified tus (UK>w«, 
that is to say : — 

From Bukit Sigari. as laid down in Charl Sheet Nvv K 
Straits of Malacca* a tracing of which is mmexe^U^ n>arked 
A» in a strai|^t line to the sea> thence aloi^^f the ^tea ix^ast to 
the South* to Pulo Katta on the West, and fWun Pulo Katta 
a Une running North^East about five miles* and thence North 
to Bukit Sigari, 

XI K Twelfth.— That the Southern watersheil of the Krtan 
River* that is to say* the portion of land drainln||[ into that 
Ri\-er from the South* be declared British Territory* as a 
rectification of the Southern Boundary* of Province Welleslev* 
Such Boundary to be marked out by Commi)i)iloner)i ; iM>e 
named by the Go>^mment of the Straits Settlements, \M\i\ 
the other by the Sultan of Perak. 

XIIL Thirteenth.— That on the cessation of the preneiu 
disturbances in Perak and the re-establishment of peace aiul 
amity among the contending factions in that Country, immo* 
diate measures under the control and supervision of one or 
more British Officers shall be taken for restoring a« far as 
practicable the occupation of the Mines, and the posse«sion 
of Machinery, eto., as held previous to the commencement 
of these disturbances, and for the payment of compensatlun 
for damages, the decision of such olllcer or officers Mlmll be 
final in such case. 

XIV. Fourteenth. — The Mantri of Larui engages to ac- 
knowledge as a debt due by him to the Government of the 
Straits Settlements, the charges and expenses Incurred by 
this intervention! as well as the charges and expenses to 
which the Colony of the Straits Settlements and Great 
Britain have been put or may be put by their efforts to 
secure the tranquillity of Perak and the safety of trade. 

The above Articles having been severally resd and ex* 
plained to the undersigned who having understood the same, 

* Net reproducsd. 



332 APPENDIX V 

have severally agreed to and accepted them as binding' on 
them and their Heirs and Successors. 

This done and concluded at Pulo Pangkor in the British 
Possessions, this Twentieth day of January, in the year of 
the Christian Era one thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
four. 

Executed before me, 

ANDREW CLARKE, Chop of the Sultan 

Governor, Commander-ifi'ChUf, of Perak.^ 

and Vict' Admiral of the 

Straits Settlements. 

^ The treaty also bears the ''chop" of the Bandahara Ismail, the 
Mantri, and five other great Malay Princes. 



APPENDIX VI 

PROCLAMATION OF THE GOVERNOR OF THE THREE 
SETTLEMENTS, SINGAPORE, PENANG, AND MALACCA, 

TO THE MALAY RAJAS, ELDERS, AND PEOPLE, TO MAKE KNOWN TO 
THEM THE GOOD WISHES OF THE GREAT QUEEN OF ENGLAND 

Whereas disturbances existed in several of the Malayan 
States in the neighbourhood of the Straits Settlements, and 
the Chiefs and Rulers of the said States being unable them- 
selves to keep the Peace and protect the people under their 
rule, applied to this Government for assistance and protec- 
tion, and this Government intervened to settle such dis- 
turbance and to aid the said Chiefs and Rulers to govern 
their respective countries, and arrangements were made 
with them for that purpose, and whereas the said matters 
were referred to the Government of the Great Queen in 
England. Now this is to make known to all that a letter 
has been received from the Right Hon'ble Earl of Car- 
narvon, of Highclere Castle, Newbury, High Steward of 
the University of Oxford, Constable of Carnarvon Castle, 
Doctor of Civil Law, Principal Secretary of State to Her 
Most Gracious Majesty VICTORIA, of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, and Empress of India,^ 
Minister of the Great Queen, in which the Minister giving 
the orders of the Great Queen's Government, says, in that 
letter about the Engagement entered into at Pulo Pangkor in 
Perak on the 20th January, 1874, that the Engagement is 
approved by the Great Queen ; and, the Minister charges the 

* This is the first occasion on which the style "Empress of India" 
was officially used, and there does not appear to have been any authority 
for its use. In his desire to impress the Malay chiefs with the greatness 
of his Sovereigrn, Sir Andrew anticipated the adoption of the style by 
Parliament by some eighteen months, and of the Proclamation of Queen 
Victoria as Empress of India at the Delhi Durbar of ist January, 1877, 
by more than two years. 

333 



334 APPENDIX VI 

Governor of the three Settlements, to acquaint the several 
Chiefs who have entered into these agreements that Her 
Majesty's Government have learnt with much satisfaction 
that they have now combined under our advice to put a stop 
once for all to the reign of anarchy and piracy which has 
unhap(Mly so long been allowed to prevail, and which 
naturally resulted in the cessation of all legitimate trade and 
the impoverishment of the country, and at the same time to 
inform them that Her Majesty's Government will look to the 
exact fulfilment of the pledges which have now been volun- 
tarily given, and will hold responsible those who violate the 
Engagement which has been solemnly agreed upon. 

The Minister of the Great Queen stlso says that it is to be 
hoped that the wealth and material prosperity of the Malay 
Peninsula may largely increase, and that the Chiefs and 
People may gradually be led to understand that their true 
interests are best served by the natural and unrestricted 
growth of commerce which will surely follow upon the main- 
tenance of peace and order within their respective Territories, 
and this we make known to all the Rajas, Chiefs, and 
People that they may be made acquainted with the wishes of 
the Great Queen's Government. 

By His Excellency's Command, 

T. BRADDELL, 
Colonial Sbcrbtarv's Officb, Acting Colonial Secrttary. 

SiNOAPORB, zndNovimhert 1874. 



APPENDIX VII 

SUBMISSION PAPER 1 

Mr. Childers, with his humble duty to Your Majesty, has 
the honour to submit that Colonel Sir Andrew Clarke, r.e., 
C.B., K.C.M.G., be appointed Inspector-General of Fortifica- 
tions and Director of Works, in succession to Lieutenant- 
General Gallwey, who has been appointed Governor of 
Bermuda. His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge 
concurs with Mr. Childers in this Submission. 

Under ordinary circumstances, as this appointment includes 
military duties, the Submission would have been addressed 
to Your Majesty by the Commander-in-Chief with other 
Military Submissions. But in point of fact almost the whole 
of the duties of the Inspector-General relate to matters of 
engineering and building ; and the office is not placed in the 
Army List as in the Military Department under the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, but in the Ordnance Department under the 
Surveyor-General. At the present time it is peculiarly neces- 
sary that this officer should have had great experience in the 
higher field of administration, and should be an Engineer 
of undoubted ability. Proposals are about to come before 
Your Majesty's Government for the expenditure of several 
millions on fortifications and works in Your Majesty's 
Colonies, and for the defence of Commercial Harbours in 
the United Kingdom. Sir Andrew Clarke is especially well 
fitted to advise on questions of this character and to design 
the necessary works. He was for nine years Director of 
Works at the Admiralty, where under the Duke of Somerset 
he designed the great works at Portsmouth, Malta, and 
Bermuda, and to a great extent at Chatham. He was also 
for five years Public Works Member of the Council of the 
Governor-General of India, having had charge of both 

^ Initialed by Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
335 



336 APPENDIX VII 

Fortifications and Civil Works, and having practically per- 
formed the duties of Adjutant-General of Royal Engineers. 

Except Colonel Sir John Stokes, who is a year junior in 
the Army to Sir Andrew Clarke, no senior officer of 
Engineers has qualifications for the office of Inspector- 
General approaching to those of Sir Andrew Clarke, whose 
appointment therefore Mr. Childers has no hesitation in 
humbly submitting for Your Majesty's approval. 

War Office, 
26 May^ 1882. 




I, ^i:ur£<t^,Arbenuirlf9 Si-fW. 



336 APPENDIX VII 

Fortifications and Civil Works, and having practically per- 
formed the duties of Adjutant-General of Royal Engineers. 

Except Colonel Sir John Stokes, who is a year junior in 
the Army to Sir Andrew Clarke, no senior officer of 
Engineers has qualifications for the office of Inspector- 
General approaching to those of Sir Andrew Clarke, whose 
appointment therefore Mr. Childers has no hesitation in 
humbly submitting for Your Majesty*s approval. 

War Office, 
26 J/irv, 1882. 



t0- ' 40- 104" • . 



tP 





i R 




4#' 164 



336 APPENDIX VII 

Fortifications and Civil Works, and having practicany per- 
formed the duties of Adjutant-General of Rojal Engineers. 

Except Colonel Sir John Stokes, who is a year junior in 
the Army to Sir Andrew Clarke, no senior oflfoer of 
Engineers has qualifications for the office of Inspector- 
General approaching to those of Sir Andrew Clarkei whose 
appointment therefore Mr. Childers has no hesitation in 
humbly submitting for Your Majesty's approvaL 

War Office, 
26 May^ 1882. 



M' ' 104' 



tP 





< R 




49* 164 



336 APPENDIX VII 

Fortifications and Civil Works, and having practicaUy per- 
formed the duties of Adjutant-General of Royal Engineers. 

Except Colonel Sir John Stokes, who is a year junior in 
the Army to Sir Andrew Clarke, no senior officer of 
Engineers has qualifications for the office of Inspector- 
General approaching to those of Sir Andrew Clarke, whose 
appointment therefore Mr. Childers has no hesitation in 
humbly submitting for Your Majesty's approval. 

War Office, 
26 May^ 1882. 







103 



X04 



:>cjnarlc SI ,W. 









!■ 




102 



103 



^■P^x^>°rf 



104 



ly^Albcjtiarlc SV,W. 






V 

> 



INDEX 



Abbot, Lieut, R.N., 187 

Abdulla, Raja Muda (afterwards 
Sultan), i47-Sa» i74» 176-8, 185-9, 
I9h 192, 330, 332 

A'Becket, Mr. T., 51 

Abercromby, Sir FLalph, a 

Aberdeen, 235, 290 

Abemethy, Mr., loi 

Acclimatisation Society of Queens- 
land, 136 

AchiU Fleet, 289 

Achin, 128-31, 188 

Adamwahan, 20c 

Addison, Captain G. W., 236 

Aden, 202, 214, 235, 242, 243 

Afghanistan, 205, 207, 208, 215 

Agincourty H.M.S., 324 

Ahmedabad-Palanpur Railway, 211 

Airy, Sir G. B., 139, 140 

AlbertOy royal yacht, 94 

Alcester, iJord {see Seymour) 

Aldemey, iii 

Aldershot, 260, 290 

Alexandria, 215, 236, 237 

Alexandria, bombardment of, 236- 
8,245 

Alp^ers, bombardment of, 236 

Ah, Sultan, 147, 150, 152 

Alison, Sir Archibald, 225, 256 

Amir of Afghanistan, 205, 208, 211 

Ampungun, 168, 169 

Anderson, Colonel, 73, 74 

Anglesey, first Marquess of, 14, 
15, 20, 21, 25 

Anson, Sir A., 126, 134, 175, 185, 186 

Ansony H.M.S., 290 

Antilopey French gunboat, 123 

Antwerp, 246 

Arabi Fasha, 236 

Arbuthnot, Sir Alexander J., 214 

Ariab, 269 

ArkUl, Mr. A. W., 313 

Armstrong, Colonel R. Y., 223 

Arshad, interpreter, 187 

Artillei^ Adviser, 240 

Ascension Island, 235 



Ashanti, 81, 114, iij 

Ashanti and the Gold Coasts 81 

Ashley, the Hon. Evel3rn, 189 

Ashurada, 206 

Australasia, Federal Council of, 
276 

Australia, 20, 50, 53, 68-70, 84, 85, 
143, 203, 252, 276-8, 303, 300; 
Commonwealth, 44, 310, 31 1 ; de- 
fence, 293 ; federation, 44, 45, 310, 
311 ; financial crisis, 294-6; offer 
of military assistance, 48, 76 

Avon, H.M.S., 153, 157, 166, 172 

Aylesbury, 127 

Aylesford, Earl of, 79 

Baker Pasha, General Valentine, 

265 
Baker, Sir Samuel, 266 
Balkh, 208 

Ballarat, Victoria, 49, 50, 55, 302 
Balloon sections, military, 253 
Bamrap, Prince, 139 
Bandahara of Pahang, 172, 173 
Bandar Bharu, 151, 186, 187 
Bangkok, 122, 124, i33-43» i97> 

198, 286 
Banquet at Chatham, 275 
Baring, Sir Evelyn (suterwards 

Loixl Cromer), 262, 266 
Barker, Mr. T. H., 307 
Barkly, Sir Henry, 60, 61 
Barracks at Colchester, 71, 72 ; in 

Egypt* 256, 257 

Barracks Loan, 290, 291 
Barry, Mr. Justice Redmond, 59 
Barton, the Right Hon. £., 317, 

318 
Basle, 106 

Bath, 216, 221, 300, 301, 313 
Battenberg, H;S.H. Prince Louis 

of, 240 
Battiscombe, Captain, 81 
Battle of the routes, 266, 267 
Bay of Islands, N.Z., 23 
Beaconsfield, Earl 6i {see Disraeli) 



33 



338 



INDEX 



Bechuanaland, 253, 255, 271-3 
Beechwortb, Victoria, 59 
Belfast, 23J 

Belmont, Co. Donegal, i, 6, 9 
Bendigo, Victoria, 50, 53 
Berber, 261, 266-9, ^7* 
Bermuda, 87, 225, 235, 323, 324, 335 
Bermuda Floating Dock, 99, 100, 

116, 323-S 
Berry, the Hon. Graham, 278 
Bethnal Green Museum, 92 
Biddulph, Sir Michael Shrapnel, 10 
Birch, Mr. J. W., 122, 155, 167, 

I74r7, 180, 182, 184-91, 287 
Birder, Mr., 27 
Birmingham, 76, 77, 79, 253 
Black Prince, H.M.S., 323, 324 
Blair, General, 243 
Blair, Mr. David, 53 
Blanja, 174, 186, 190 
Boer Convention, 271 
Bokhara, 206 

Bokhara^ P. and O. S.S., 215 
Bolan Pass and Railway, 205, 207, 

209, 210 
Bolton, Colonel David, 22, 24, 25 
Bombay, no, 194, 200, 202, 213, 

215, 217, 219-21 
Bombay and Delhi Railway, 211 
Bonar, Mr., 106 

Borthwick, Sir Algernon (after- 
wards Lord Glenesk), 89, 299, 

300 
Borthwick, the Hon. Oliver A., 312 
Bota Rabit, 186, 187 
Bothwell, Tasmania, 27 
Boulogne harbour, 100 
Bowen, Sir George, 70-1, 229, 243 
Boyes, Captain, 323 
Brackenbury, Lieut, (afterwards 

Colonel) M. C, 122-4, i35» i42» 

iSo» 158* »59» 166, 168, 169 
Braddell, Mr. T., 122, 150, 158-60, 

166, 169, 172, 180, J34 
Braddon, Sir Edward, 304, 305 
Brassey, Lord, 305 
Brazil, 84, 85 

Brennan, Mr. Louis, 229-32, 248 
Brennan torpedo, the, 229-32, 248 
Brialmont, General A. H. , 246, 247 
Brindisi, loi, 119, 120, 216, 217 
British Columbia, 75 
British North Borneo, 285 
Brodrick, the Right Hon. W. St 

John, 289 
Bromley, Mr., 3 id 
Brompton Barracks, 261 
Browne, Sir James, 207 



Browne, Sir Samuel, 208 

Brussels, 247, 262, 264 

Bucharest, 247 

Buckingham Palace, 257, 306 

Buckingham, the Duke of, 203, 204 

Buenos Ayres, 84, 85 

Bukit Putus Pass, 191 

Bukit Sigari, 331 

Bukit Tiga, 165, 166 

Bulwer, Sir H. E. G., 319 

Burgoyne, Captain Hugh, 105, 106 

Burgoyne, Mrs., 106 

Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, 12, 65, 69, 

70, 74-8, 106 
Burma, British, 135, idS 
Burmese Embassy to Paris, 131 
Busts of Sir Andrew Clarke, 284 
Bythesea, Rear-Admiral J. , 202 

Cabdrivers' Benevolent Associa- 
tion, 282-4 
Cairo, 256, 262 

Calcutta, 190, 193, 194, 214, 229 
Caledonia, H.M.S., 108 
Callaghan, Captain G. A. , 240 
Cambridge, H.R.H. the Duke of, 
77, 114, 119-22, 226, 253, 256, 



275» 293. 335 
/ambr 



Cambridge House, Piccadilly, 91 

Campaign in Perak, 190, 191 

Campbell, Miss, 99 

Camponj Gaja, 187 

Camponj Maraksa, 129 

Canada, 252, 305 

Canterbury Settlement, N.Z., 23 

Cantley, Doncaster, 78, 118 

Cape Coast Castle, 81-3 

Cape Colony, Agent-General for, 

Cape Fmisterre, 105 

Cape of Good Hope, 84, 1 10, 228 

Cape Rachado, 156, 157 

Cape Town harbour and docky 

no, III 

Capri, 264 

Captain, H.M.S., 105-7 

Cardwell, the Right Hon. E., 83, 

102, 114, 120 
Carmichael, Mr., 106 
Carmichael, Sir James, 277 
Carnarvon Commission, 234, 240 
Carnarvon, fourth Earl of, 130, 134, 

162-4, ^78, 234» y^ 
Carr, Lieut -Colonel G. A», 223 
Casket for betel nut, 143 
Castlemaine, Victoria, 55 
Cavagnari, Sir Louis, 210 
Cawley, Mr., Bf.p., 103, 105 



i>i 



INDEX 



339 



Cecil, Lord Robert (afterwards 
Marquess of Salisbury), 33 

Ceylon, 68, 194 

Cfaiamberlain, Mission of Sir Neville, 
207, 208 

Chamberlain, the Right Hon. 
Joseph, 296, 304, 305, 307, 308, 

^310,315-17 

Chaadler, Mr., 139 

Channel Tunnel, the, 225 

Charjui, 206 

Charrineton, Lieut, 238 

Charybdis^ H.M.S., 133, 135, 162, 
166, 168, 169, 172 

Chatham, 11, 12, 25, 87, 99, 100, 
US, 116, 222-33, 236, 238, 253, 
260, 261, 270, 273, 275, 278, 280-2, 
284, 291-3,311 

Chatham dockyard, 87, 99, 103-5, 
116 

Che Kari, Bandar of Ling-gi, 167, 
169 

Che Karim, 176 

Chester, 97, 280 

Childers, Colonel E. S. E., 258 

Childers, Life of the Right Hon, 
H, CE,, 89, 258, 300 

Childers, Mr. Wallbanke, 78 

Childers, Mrs. H. C. E., 216 

Childers, the Right Hon. H. C. E., 
52, 54. 57» 62-4, 73, 76, 79, 83, 
84, 88-90, 102, 105-9, 118, 120, 
121, 154, 155, 157-9, 182, 189, 
194, 208-11, 216, 221, 223, 224, 
226, 227, 229, 256, 258, 261, 264, 
295, 296, 299-301, 335, 336 

China, 45, 84, 85, 89, 127, 131, 132, 
i35» '56, i7i» 219, 220, 221, 288, 
307 

China, P. and O. s.s., 181 

Chotiali, 207 

Chulalonkom, H.M. King, 122-4, 
133-43. i97» 198* 286-8, 305-7 

Clark, Sir Andrew, M.D., 273, 274 

Clarke Family — 

— Andrew, Dr., i-j, 321 

— Andrew, Lieut. -Colonel, i, 3-10, 

i3» '7» i8» 321, 3" 

— Lieut. -General Sir Andrew : — 

Chap. L — Birth, i ; childhood 
and education, 9 ; R. Military 
Academy, 10, 11; visit to Gibral- 
tar, II ; commission in R.E., 11 ; 
Chatham and Fermoy, 11, 12; 
Oregon Boundary Commission, 
12 ; promoted Lieutenant and 
ordered to Van Diemen's Land, 
14-16 ; voyage out with the 



Denisons, 16, 17; death of father 
and mother, 17, 18 

Chap. II. — New Zealand, 22* 
4 ; Private Secretary to Governor 
of Tasmania, 24 et seq. ; life 
and work in Tasmania, 26-38; 
member of Council, 32 ; forms 
lifelong friendships, 34; Sur\*cyor- 
General of Victoria, 35 et seq,\ 
the Denisons, 38-40 

Chap. III. — Legislative Coun- 
cil, 43 ; revisits Tasmania, 43-4 ; 
New Constitution for Victoria, 
44, 45 ; promoted Captain, 45 ; 
Crimean War, 46, 47 ; Mel- 
bourne Exhibition, 48 ; Addi- 
tional Municipal Authorities Act, 
48 ; trouble at the diggings, 49, 

fa ; Melbourne Bar, 51 ; New 
outh Wales Railway Board, 51, 
52 ; member for South Melbourne, 

53 ; parliamentary experiences, 

54 et seg.; visit to the Murray 
River, 59, 60 ; defeats Govern- 
ment, but declines to form an 
Administration, 60-2 ; candidate 
for government of Moreton Bay, 
55» 56» 58* 62, 64 ; visits Sydney, 
62 ; friendship with Mr. H. C. E. 
Childers, 63 ; resigns his seat 
and decides to go home, 65 ; 
Grand Master of Freemasons, 
65,66 

Chap. IV. — Rome and the 
Pope, 68 ; Colchester, 68 et seq. ; 
candidate for Moreton Bay 
government, 69-71 ; work for 
Victoria, 73-5 ; Birmingham, 76 
et seq. ; offer of post of A. D.C. to 
Sir John Burgoyne, 76-8; recrea- 
tions, 79-80 ; the Gold Coast, 80 
etseq.; work and illness, 81, 82 ; 
Report on Gold Coast, 83 ; Di- 
rector of Works, Admiralty, 83 
et seq, ; Acting Agent-General for 
Victoria, 83-0 

Chap. V. — Visits home dock- 
yards and Malta, 88 ; becomes 
an "Owl," 89; friendship with 
Colonel C. G. Gordon, 89 ; Dover 
harbour, 91 ; London improve- 
ments, 91-3 ; promoted Lieut. - 
Colonel, 93 ; naval review, 93, 
94 ; marriage, 94-7 ; Bermuda 
floating dock, 99^100 and Ap- 
pendix ; Wilhclmshaven, icx) ; 
Boulogne, 100; Companion of 
the Bath, 100 ; Suez Canal, 



340 



INDEX 



IOI-3 ; scheme for mannine the 
Navy, 103 and Appendix ; Chat- 
ham dockyard extension, 103- 
5; loss of H. M.S. Captain^ 105- 
7 ; death of Sir W. Denison, 
108 ; Somerset Dock, Malta, 108, 
109; Portsmouth docks, 109; 
Cape Town harbour and dock, 
1 10, III; Aldemey breakwater, 
III; Portland breakwater, iii, 
112 ; Dover harbour, 112 ; 
promoted Colonel and made 
K.C.M.G., 112-14; Governor, 
Straits Settlements, 114 ^^ S9q,\ 
the Ashanti question, 11 4, 1 15 ; 
memorials at Greenwich and 
Chatham, 115, 116; appreciation 
of Admiralty services, 116, 117 ; 
farewells, 118 

Chap. VI. — A disappointment, 
1 19-22 ; arrives at Singapore, 
123; King- of Siam, 122-4; 
Chinese and coolies, 125, 126 ; 
chanee of home (Government, 
126-8 ; Achinese war, 128-31 ; 
^sitors to Government House, 
131 ; the Raffles Institute, 132 ; 
quarrel between the two Kings 
of Siam, and visit to Bangkok, 

133-43 

Chap. VII.— The Malay Native 
States, 144 et seg.; Perak, 147- 
56; Engagement of Pangkor, 
151 and Appendix; Selangor, 
156-62 ; proceedings approved, 
162-4 

Chap. VIII. — Sungei Ujong 
and Rembau, 165-71 ; Jonore 
and Pahang, 17 1-4; Residents 
for Native States, 174; procla- 
mation of Pangkor Treaty, 175 
and Appendix; disturbances in 
Perak, 175, 176 ; overwork, 177 ; 
appointed member of Council 
of Viceroy of India, 134, 178; 
work at Straits Settlements, 178, 
1^9; leaves Singapore, 180, 181; 
his Native State policy called in 
question, 188, 189 

Chap. IX. — Arrival in India, 
193 ; visit of the Prince of Wales, 
194 ; an Indian House of Lords, 
195, 196 ; the King of Siam, 
197-8 ; gloomy prospects and 
famine policy, 199-301 ; Simla, 
201, 202; made CLE., 202; 
Indian defences, 202 ; Madras 
harbour and Wjmaad gold dis- 



trict, 203-4 ; the Empress's 
Bridge, 205 ; frontier policjr, 
205-7 ; Afghan War and rail- 
way to Quetta, 207-10 ; railway 
gauges in India, 211 ; relations 
with Viceroy, 211-13 ; recom- 
mended for l(.C.S.L, 213; leaves 
India, 214, 215 ; wrecked in 
s.s. Travancorty 21^, 216; short 
stay at home, 210; return to 
India with new Viceroy, 217 ; 
birth of a daughter at Bath, 

221 ; leaves India for good, 221 
Chap. X. — Commandant of 

School of Military Engineering, 

222 et seg,; submarine mining, 
223 ; visit of Mr. Childers, 223, 
224; R.E. portraits, 224; Com- 
mittee on Channel Tunnel, 225 ; 
appointed Inspector-Greneral of 
Fortifications, 225-8; good work 
at Chatham, 228-9 > Brennan 
torpedo, 229-32 ; illegible signa- 
ture, 233 

Chap. XL — Defences of the 
Empire, 234-5 > bombardment 
of Alexandria, 236-8; Colonial 
Defence Committee, 338; Mili- 
tary Railway Corps, 339; Naval 
and Artillery Advisers, 340 ; Lord 
Carnarvon's Commission, 340; 
Lord Morley's Committee, 341, 
342 ; submarine mines for mer- 
cantile ports, 241 ; defence of coal- 
ing stations, 343-4; instructive 
experiments and memorandum 
on defence, 3^5-7; submarine 
boat, 347-9 * advocates a strong^ 
navy, 349-50 ; defence of Victoria 
and proposed Military College, 
350-3 ; salutary reforms, 353-4 ; 

Promoted to Grand Cross of St. 
lichael and St. George, 3C4 
Chap. XIL— The Suez Canal, 
355-8; saved from retirement, 
250-9 ; a function at Rochester, 
360, 361 ; Gordon and the Cong^, 
361-5; Suakin-Berber Railway 
and Suakin Expeditions, 365- 
71; Bechuanaland, 371-3; the 
Maharaja of Johore, 374 ; ban- 
quet at Chatham, 375; the 
New Hebrides, 375, 378 ; retire- 
ment, 378, 370 

Chap. XIIL— Candidate for 
Chatham, 380-3; Freedom of 
Liverpool, 383; Cabdrivers' As- 
sociation, 383-4; busts by Mr. 



INDEX 



341 



E. Onslow Ford, 284 ; Liverpool 
Volunteer Engineers, 384, 285; 
oouunercial enterprises, 285^286; 
visit to Siam, 286-8 ; criticisms 
on militfuy administration, 288 ; 
naval supremacy, 289 ; Barracks 
Loan, 290 ; memorials to General 
Gordon, 291-3 ; national defence, 
293; financial crisis in Australia, 

^hhsLp. XIV.—Death of Lady 
Clarke, 300; death of Mr. 
Childers,300,30i ; Agent-General 
for Victoria, 301, 303; Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers, 302 ; 
Acting Agent-General for Tas- 
mania, 304, 305 ; Diamond Jubi- 
lee, 305-8; King of Siam, 305-7 ; 
tribute to Mr. Chamberlain, 307, 
308 ; contributions to magazines 
and newspapers, 308, 309; the 
Philippine Islands, 309; Inter- 
national Commercial Congress 
at Philadelphia, 309; Pacific 
Telegraph Cable, 309; Austra- 
lian Federation, 310, 311 ; the 
Gordon statue for Khartoum, 

311, 312; Freedom of Dover, 
312 ; Prince and Princess of 
Wales return from colonial tour, 

312, 313; Colonel-Commandant, 
Royal Engineers, 313 ; death, 

3»3 
Clarke, Andrew, of Grange, i, 321 

— Elinor M. (Mrs. Sueter), 221, 
227» 233» 301,308, 31 1, 315-^9. 321 

— EUza (Mrs. Coghlan), 3, 5, 6, 
3»i 

— Frances {nde Lardner) 7, 18, 321 

— Hislop, 9, 15, 321 

— James George, Major, 9, 321 

— James Lan^on, Judge, 3, 6, 7, 
9, 14, x6, CO, 51,62,321 

— James, of Port Hall, LiiTord, i, 
2,321 

— John, Army Surgeon, i, 321 

— }ohn de Winton Lardner, Lieut - 
Colonel, 9, 313, 321 

— John Lardner, Major, 9, 321 

— John, of Grange, i, 321 

— Marcus Andrew Hislop, 3, 14, 

304 
-^ Mrs. (afterwards I«ady), 94, 98, 
99, 1x1, 114, 118, 119, !«, 142, 
143. 150/ iS9» ^69, 171, 180, 181, 
193. 194. 198, 2x2, 2X5rX9, a2X, 
2«7, 228, 233, 258, 259, 261, 262, 
264, 282, 300, 301, 321 



Clarke, William Hislop, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 

10, 14, 24-33, 35. 36, 47» 49-51 » 
53-5. 58-62, 64, 65, 77, 78, 321 

Clarke Province, British North 
Borneo, 285 

Clarke, Sir George Sydenham, 
337» 238, 282, 316, 317 

Clarke's Act, 48, 60 

Clay, Colonel, 190, 191 

Clayton and Bell, Messrs., 260 

Cleopatra^ H.M.S., 244 

Clyde, the, 241, 242 

Coaling stations, 234, 235, 242-4 

Coast Brigade, R.E., 241 

Coast Defence Memorandum, 245-7 

Cochin China, 122 

Coghlan, William, 3 

Colbome, General the Hon. F., 190 

Colchester, 68, 71-3, 76, 94, 253, 
283 

Cole, Sir Henry, 236 

Coles, Captain Cowper, 105 

Coles, Mrs. Cowper, lois 

Colleges, Military and Naval : 
Kingston, Canada, and West 
Point, U.S. A., 252; proposed 
for Melbourne, 251 ; Sandhurst, 
6,15; R.M.A., Woolwich, 10, 

11, 15; Greenwich, 115 
CoUin^fDoodj H.M.S., 290 
Colombo, 2^^ 

Colonial Deience Committee, 238, 

^293,307 

Colonial Emigration Society, 76 

Colonial Institute, Royal, 319 

Colonial Military Expenditure 
Committee, 47, 76 

Colonial Mutual Life Assurance 
Society, 285 

Colonial preference, 304, 305 

Colonial Secretaryship, Victoria, 
45,46,40 

Comino Channels, Malta, 297, 298 

Commandant, School of Military 
Engineering, 222-33, 278, 313 

Command of troops. Straits Settle- 
ments, 119-22 

Congo, the, 255, 261-5 

Conrad, Colonel £. , 82 

Constantinople, 129 

Consul^General for the Nether- 
lands, 129, X49 

OmUmporaty Review, 135, 309 

Coode, Sir John, 302 

Cooper's Hill, 236 

Copenhagen, 131 

Corfu, 71 

Cork, 3, 8, X2, 235 



343 



INDEX 



Cork harbour and dock, 87, 235 
Coronation of King of Siam, 122-4 
Correspondence : — 
AbduUa, Sultan, 149 
Admiralty, Secretary to the, 109, 

116, 117 
Airy, Sir G. B., 139, 140 
Ashley, the Hon. A. Evelyn, 189 
Barker, Mr. T. H., 307, 308 
Barkly, Sir Henry, 60, 61 
Barton, the Rieht Hon. £.,318 
Birch, Mr. J. W., 174-7, "82 
Borthwick, Sir Alg-emon (after- 
wards first Lord Glenesk), 299, 
300 
Bowen, Sir George, 243 
Braddon, Sir Edward, 304 
Brialmont, General A. H., 247 
Browne, Sir Samuel, 208 
Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, 69, 70, 

74, 75» 77 
Carnarvon, the fourth Earl of, 

163, 164 
Chamberlain, the Right Hon. 

Joseph, 305, 315-^7 
Childers, Mrs., 216 
Childers, the Right Hon. H. C. 
E., 52, 63, 64, 102, 106, 107, 
109, 118, 121, 122, 154, 157-0, 
182, 189, 208-11, 221, 261, 262 
Clark, Sir Andrew, M.D., 274 
Clarke, Dr. Andrew, 4-7 
Clarke, Lady, 142, 169, 217-19 
Clarke, Lieut -Colonel Andrew, 

4-8.13 
Clarke, Mr. James Langton, 62 
Clarke, Mr. William Hislop, 14- 
16, 24-33, 35, 36, 47, 49-51, 54, 
55. 58-62, 64, 65, 77, 78 
Clarke, Sir G. S., 316, 317 
Colonial Office, the, 126, 142, 154, 

315. 317 
Corry, Mr. Montagu (afterwards 

Lord Rowton), 128, 195, 196 
Corry, the Right Hon. Henry 

T., 104, 105 
De Grey, Earl (afterwards first 

Marquess of Ripon), 83 
Denison, Ladv, 18, 19, 37, 38 
Denison, Sir William, 37-40, 42, 

^43, 72, 73, 94 ^ 
Dobson, the Hon. A., 318, 319 
Du Cane, Sir C, 98, 99, 113 
Du Cane, Sir £. F., 90 
Dufferin, the Earl of (afterwards 

first Marquess), 242, 243 
Dufiy, the Hon. C. G., 303, 304 
Fnend, a, 56~8, 3^ 



Gairdner, Mr. Gordon, z^t 24, 55, 

56, 70, 71, 118 
Gillies, the Hon. S. Duncan, 

227, 278 
Gladstone, the Right Hon. W. 

E., 281 note 
Glenesk, Lord (see Borthwick) 
Gordon, Major-General Charles 

George, 95-7, 219, 220, 228, 

259, 260, 262, 264 
Goschen, the Right Hon. G. J, 

(afterwards first Viscount), 1 1 2, 

117, 1 19-21 
Graham, Sir Gerald, 268, 269 
Hall, Sir William King, 113 
Harvey, Colonel C. E., 229 
Herbert, Sir Robert G. W., 161, 

177. 178 

Hornby, Sir G. Phipps, 296-8 

Hutton, Mr. James, 206, 207 

Irwin, Major F. C, 17, 18 

Ismail, Bandahara, 152 

Jervois, Sir William F. Drum- 
mond, 183, 186-8 

Johore, the Maharaja (after- 
wards Sultan) of, 128-9 note, 
191, 286 

Key, Sir A. Cooper, 246 

Kimberley, the first Earl of, 146, 

T ^55,^156 

Latrobe, Governor, 42 

Leiningen, H.S.H. Prince, 93, 

94 
Lennox, Lord H. G., 114 
Loch, Mr. H. B. (afterwards 

first Lord), 34, 80, 81, 250 
Loflus, Captain (Phra Nehtate), 

306,307 
Lytton, Lord (afterwards first 

Earl), Viceroy of India, 200, 

203, 204, 209, 210, 212, 213 
Mills, Mr. Cf. H. (afterwards 

first Lord Hillingdon), 78, 79 
Muhammad Syed, 184-6 
Napier of Magdala, first Lord, 

246 
Newcastle, the fifth Duke of, 38, 

42, 45, 46 
Paget, Captain Patrick L. C, 

15, 21, 22 
Patterson, Sir James, 394, 295 
Peace, Sir Walter, 1x9 
Peacock, the Hon. A. J., 316, 317 
Pickering, Mr. W. A., 168-70, 

244 
Postmaster-General, the, 84-6 
Ripon, the first Marquess of, 83, 

321, 227 



INDEX 



343 



Roberts, Sir F. S. (afterwards 
first Earl), 184, 207, 208, 227 

Sargood, the Hon. Sir Frederick 
T., 251, iS2 

Seddon, the Right Hon. R. J., 

318 
Selangor, the Sultan of, 161 
Service, the Hon. J., 301, 302 
Seymour, Sir F. Beauchamp 
(afterwards first Lord Alces- 
ter), 81, 98, no, 1x1, 127 
Shadwell, Sir Charles, 162 
Siam, the King of, 124, 133, 136, 

«37. »4i-3> »?7» 198, 286 
Speedy, Captain, 125 
Stanhope, the Right Hon. Ed- 

ward, 211 
Sutherland, Sir Thomas, 242 
Swettenham, Sir F. A., 153, 154 
Whamcliflfc, the first Earl of, 80, 



hitmorc. Sir Edward A., 263 

Wolseley, Lord (afterwards Vis- 
count), 239, 253, 288, 289 

Yelverton, Sir Hastings, 108 
Corrupt Practices at Elections, 

Select Committee, 75 
Corry, Mr. Montagu (afterwards 

Lord Rowton), 89, 127, 128, 195, 

196, 300 
Corry, the Right Hon. Henry T., 

103-5 
Council of the Viceroy of India, 

134, 178, 193-221, 257, 314, 335 
Cowper, seventh Earl, 249 
Cradock-Hartopp, Sir W., 79 
Cremation of Siamese Princess, 140 
Crimean War, 9, 47, 76 
Cromer, Earl {see Baring) 
Crowe, Colonel J. P. H., 168 
Cumbraes, the, 242 
Curttfoa, H.M.S., 244 
Curzon, the Hon. Penn and Mrs., 

80 
Czar of Russia, 208, 306 

Dacres, Sir Sidney, 88, 106, 1 14 
Damrong, Pnnce, 2iB7 
Dato Bandar, 186 
Dato Perba of Rembau, 165, 166 
Dato Sagor, 187, 
Davidson, Mr., 161, 187 
Deakin, the Hon. Alfred, 310 
Defence Committee, the, 240-2 
Defence Committee, Colonial, 238, 

^^93.307, 

Defence Committee, Indian, 20a, 

215 



Defence Memorandum, 245-7 

Defence of coaling stations, 234, 
235, 242-4, 250, 335 ; of mercan- 
tile ports, 235, 241, 242, 335; of 
Victoria, 232, 250-2, 293 

De Grey, Lord {see Ripon) 

De Lesseps, M. Ferdinand, 100-2 

Delhi, 195 

Delhi Durbar, 195, 197, 198, 333 

Delhi-Umballa Railway, 285 

Denison, Archdeacon, 16 

Denison, Captain C. A. , 16 

Denison, Lady, 16-19, 37» 38. 44» 
65 

Denison, Mr. Alfred, 25, 42, 108 

Denison, Mr. Arthur, 34 

Denison, Sir William, 14, 16, 17, 
19, 22-5, 27-33, 35-40, 42-4, 49. 
51, 52, 58, 62, 64, 65, 69, 72, 73, 
79» 92, 94» 108, 224 

Denison, the Right Hon. Speaker, 
16,65 

Denmark, 81, 82, 131 

Dera Ghazi Khan, 207 

Derby, fifteenth Earl of, 134, 259, 
272 

Derwent River, Tasmania, $$ 

Derwent, ship, 30 

Devawongse, Prince, 287 

Diamond Jubilee, Queen's, 305-8 

Dilke, Sir Charles, 256 

Dindings, the, 122, 147, 150, 154, 
330 

Disraeli, the Right Hon. Ben- 
jamin, 102, 127, 175, 216, 255 

Dobson, Mr. Alfred, 3x9 

Docks and Harbours Extension 
Scheme, 87 {see also Bermuda, 
Cape, Chatham, Cork, Dover, 
Portsmouth) 

Dover, 91, 112, 121, 235, 312 

Dover, Freedom of, 121, 312 

Dover Admiralty Pier, 91 

Downs, the, 235, 242 

Dris, SLaja (see Laksamana) 

Drogheda, Marchioness of, 80 

Drury, Sir C. C, 240 

Dubhn, 6, 54, 235 

Dublin, H.M.S., 3 

Du Cane, Sir Charles, 89, 98, 99, 

Du Cane, Sir E. F., 89, 90 
DufFerin, the Earl "(afterwards 

Marquess) of, 242, 243, 256, 266 
Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan, 303, 

304 
Duktof Wellington^ H.M.S., 97 
Dumoulin, Mrs., 7 



344 



INDEX 



Dundee, 2J5 

Dunlop, Captain (aftenvards Colo- 
nel), ISO, 153, 168-71, 387 

Eagle Hawk Gulhr, Victoria, 50 

Earles, Messrs., 6 

East CoUiog-wood, Victoria, 66 

Eastern Soudan, 265, 267, 271 

Echo, H.M.S., 93 

Edinburgh, 290 

Edinbui^h, H.R.H. the Duke of, 

249 . 
Edwards and Tweedle, Messrs., 

270 
Edwards, Sir J. B., 278, 319 
Egypt, 68, loi, 102, 216, 234, 236. 

239. 240, 253, 255-8, 261, 262, 

264-7, 269, 275 
Eightieth Foot (Staffords), 190 
Eighty Club, the, 281 
El Teb, 265 
Electoral Regulation Bill, Victoria, 

56 
Elswick Works, 253, 290 
Emerald Hill, Melbourne, 53 
Emperor Frederick, the German, 

66 
Emperor of the French, the, 50, 

100, 107 
Empress of India, the Queen, 175, 

195. 202, 333 
Empress's Bridge, the, 205 
Endau River, 17 1-3 
English, Major T., 282 
Epitaph to French prisoners at 

Chatham, 116 
Epitaph to Lieut. -Colonel A. 

Clarke, 322 
Es Gebit, 209 
Espiritu Santo Island, 277 
Espoir, H.M.S., 244 
Esquimalt, 235 
Eureka Hotel and stockade, Balla- 

rat, 49, 50 
Evans, Captain G. H., loi 
Exmouth, Lord, 236 

Faizabad, 208 

Falmouth, 235, 241 

Family Fraytn^ by H. Thornton, 

95 
Fane, Sir Spencer Poosonby, 1x3 
Faraday, Professor Michael, 1 1 
Fawkes, Sir W. H.» 240 
Fellows, Mr. T. H., 54, 57 
Fermoy, 12 

Fife, Major-Genend J. O., aSa 
Filgate, Colonel A. JUi 3x3 



Fitzroy, Sir C. A., 34 

Fletcher, Sir R., 292 

Fly, H.M.S.. 185, 186 

Foote, Captain F. O. Barrington, 

217 
Forbes, Mr. F. B., 300 
Ford, Mr. Edward Onslow, 284, 

29»-3. 3«>» 3" 
Ford, Sir Clare, 302 
Forrest, the Right Hon. Sir John, 

322 
Fort Canning, Singapore, 135 
Forth, Firth of, 235, 241, 2^5, 296 
For the Term of his Natural Life, 3 
Fortieth Foot (Somersets), 50 
Forty-sixth Foot (South Devons), 

I. 3»7»9>" 
Four Oaks, 79 
France, 46, 102, 124, 225, 249, 264, 

276-8, 302 
Franco-German War, 102, 103 
Fraser, SirT., 313 
Freemasonry, 66 
French Creek, Malta, 88 
French Mission to Peking, 131 
Frolic, H.M.S., 157 
Funeral of Sir Andrew Clarke, 

Gairdner, Mr. Gordon, 23, 24, 55, 

56, 58,62,69-71, 118 
Galle, 219 

Gallwey, Sir T. L., 225, 335 
Geelong, 54. 55 

Genealogy of Clarke Family, 321 
Gibraltar, 7, 11, 221, 235, 237, 243 
Gill, Captain W., 238 
Gillies, the Hon. S. Duncan, 277, 

278, 296 
Ginshk, 205 

Gladstone, Mr. Herbert, 277 
Gladstone, the Right Hon. W. £., 

102, 126, 127, 257, 277, 280, 281 
Glenesk, Lord {see Borthwick) 
Go Kwans, i^ 

Gold Coast, the, 80-^, 1 14, 115 
Goldfielda of Australia, 3i> 43, 44, 

49» SO 
Goldfields of Wynaad, 201-4 
Gold Mobur Valley, Aden, 243 
Gordon, Major-Guieral C» G.^ 89, 

9o» 95-7» ai7-«i. «^ «5S. aS9- 

69, 272, 291^3 
Gordon, .memorials of General, 

291-3 
Gordon, Miss, 292, 293 
Gordon's '* Kings," 97 
Gordon statue, 291-3, 3x1 



INDEX 



345 



Gorst, Sir John, 281 

Goschen, the Ri§^t Hon. G. J. 
(afterwards Viscount), 112, 116, 
117, 1 19-21, 127, 296 

Goshenland, 271 

Gourock, 242 

Government House, Singapore, 131, 
181 

Governor-General of the Nether- 
land Indies, 122, 129 

Gowan, Dr., 136 

Gozo, Malta, 297 

Graham, Sir Gerald, 253, 265-70 

Grange, Co. Tyrone, i, 7 

Grant, Colonel J. M. , 220 

Grant, Commander, x6o, 162 

Granville, second Earl, 102, 130, 
131, 220, 256 

Grassy Bay, Bermuda, 324, 325 

Gravesend, 89, 90, 97, 236 

Great Western Railway, 112 

Greene, Colonel G. T., 87 

Greenwich, 115 

Grey, Sir F. and Lady, 80 

Grey, Sir George, 22-4 

Griqualand West, 271, 272 

Grosvenor, Lord Richard, 280 

Guadaloupe, capture of, 3 

Guranari, 209 

Gurkhas, the First, 190 

Guthrie, Mr. James, 284 

Haddle, Mr., 43 

Haines, Mr. w. C, 53, 54, 57, 60, 

61, 63, 65 
Hains, Mr., 325 
Haiiburton, Sir Arthur (afterwards 

first Lord), 270 
Halifax, N.S., 235 
Hall, Admiral Sir William King, 

ii3» "4 
Harcourt, Count, 107 
Harrison, Sir Richard, 312 
Hart, H.M.S., 162, 169, 172 
Hartington, Marauess of (now 

Duke of Devonshire), 258, 259 
Hartlepool, 235, 290 
Hartx Kiver, 271 
Harvey, Colonel C. E., 229 
Harwich, 235 

Hawkshaw, Sir John, 111,1x2, 302 
Hay, Colonel John, 309 
Hay, Sir John Dalrymple, 81, 105 
Heki, N.Z., 23 
Henty, Mr., 64 
Herat, 205, 208, 210 
Herbert, Sir R. G. W., 161, 177-8, 

338 

z 2 



Hewett, Admiral Sir W., 238 
Hichens, Maior-General W. , 207 
Hickleton, 78 
Hicks Pasha, 261, 265 
HiUingdon, Lord {see Mills) 
Hislop, Sir Thomas, 2 
History of the Continent of Aus- 
tralia and Island of Tasmania, 

3 
Ho-Ah-Kay, or Mr. Whampoa, i8o 
Hobart Town, 16, 20, 24-44, ^ 
Hobhouse, Mr. Arthur (afterwards 

Lord), 194 
Holl, Mr. Frank, 224 
Holyhead, 242 
Home Rule, 280, 281 
Hong Kong, 84, 85, 190, 235, 242, 

243 
Hoo Fort, Chatham, 224 
Hornby, Sir Geoffrey Phipps, 16, 

65, no, 296-8 
Horse Guards, the, 21, 68, 90, 92, 

279 
Hotham, Sir Charles, 45, 46, 48, 49 
House of Commons, 29, 83, 98, 103, 

196, 239, 257, 259, 280, 296 
House of Lords, iii, 163, 196, 234, 

274, 296 
Hudson Bay Company, 78 
Hugli, the, 202 
Hull, 296 

Humber, the, 235, 241 
Huntley, Lieut H. C., 168 
Hutton, Mr. James, 206, 207 
Hutton, James, a cabman, 283 

Iddesleigh, first Earl of {see North- 
cote) 
Inche Jawa, 171 
Inchkeith experiments, 245 
Inconstant, H.M.S., 11 1 
India, Empress of, 175, 195, 202, 

Indian Defence Committee, 202, 

Indian famine prospects and meas- 
ures, 199-201 
Indian Guaranteed Railways, 215 
Indian ** House of Lords," V95, 196 
Indian Public Works Department, 

i34> 193-22X, 269, 335 
Indus, P. and O. s.s., 22 x 
Indus River, 205 
Indus Valley Railway, 209, 2x0 
Innes, Captain W., X85-7, 287 
Inquiry into the means of Jtstab- 
tishing a Ship Canal between the 
Mediterranean and Red Sea, lox 



346 



INDEX 



Inspector-General of Fortifications, 
", 25, 69, 74, 76, 225-7, 2w, 234- 
79, 281, 291, 301, 335, 336 

Institute for Malay Princes, 132 

Institute, R.E., 2^1 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 302, 

303 

International Commercial Con- 
gress, Philadelphia, ^09 

Ireland Island, Bermuda, 325 

Iron Duke, H.M.S., 157 

Irwin, Major and Mrs. F. C, 17, 
18 

Isle of Man, 80 

Isle of Wight, 231 

Ismail Pasha, 266 

Ismail, Raja Bandahara, 147, 151, 
152, 174-6, 185, 188, 189, 191, 

, 330».332 
Ismailia, 239 
Istana, the, 288 

Jackson, Mrs., 7 

Jackson, Miss Fanny, 8, 18 

Jackson, Rev. £., 7 

Jackson, Sir T. S., 240 

Jamaica, 235, 259 

James, Sir Henry, 66 

Jannuario, Viscount de San, 133 

Japan, 243 

Jarrow-on-Tyne, 285 

Jean Barty French man-of-war, 
III 

Jekyll,SirH.,243, 287 

Jerusalem, 259 

Jervois, Sir W. F. D., 135, 178, 
182, 183, 186-9 

Johnson, Sir E. B., 200, 214 

Johnston, Miss Louisa Downing, 
2, 321 

Johnston, Mr. Anthony, of Annan- 
dale, 2 

Johore, 122, 124, i7i, 173, 191, 288 

Johore, Maharaja (afterwards Sul- 
tan) of, 128, 129, 171-3, 191, 194, 
274, 286-8 

Johorey S.S., 148, 150, 153 

Jugra River, 156, 169 

Kabul, 205, 208-10 
Kakar tribes, 207 
Kalka, 285 

Kandahar, 205, 208, 210 
KaplL^rang, Malaya, 167, 170 
Kaphia, Prince, 198 
Karachi, 202 
Kasgfatl, Kordofan, 261 
Kaufmann, General C, 220 



Kedah, 160, 191 

Kennedy House, Simla, 194 

Keri-Keri, N.Z., 22 

Key, Admiral Sir A. Cooper, 108, 

246 
Key ham, 87 
Khartoum, 261, v265, 267-9, 271, 

272, 291, 311, 312 
Khedive of Egypt, the, loi, 255, 

257 
Khundwar, 218 
Kieman, Sergeant, 170 
Kimberley, first Earl of, 109, 114, 

119, 120, 145, 146, 155, 156, 163 
Kim Ching, Mr., 180, 287 
King George's Sound, 235 
King of Sweden and Norway, 248 
King of the Belgians, 262, 264 
King's School, Canterbury, 9 
Kingston, Canada, 251, 252 
Kinsale, 21 
Kinta, Malaya, 190 
Kizil Arvat, 206 

Klana of Sungei Ujong, 165-70 
KofTee, King, 115 
Korti, 275 
Kota Lama, 190 
Kota S'tya, 186 
Krasnovosk, 207 
Kraton, the, Achin, 128, 129 
Krian River, 17^, 177, 331 
Krom Phra Rachawang, or Wang*- 

na. Second King of Siam, 123, 

133-43 
Kualla Kangsa, 187, 190 
Kualla Klang, 157 
Kualla Permona, 161 
Kuldja, 220 
Kumasi, 115 

Lady Leigh, ship, 31 

Lake Crescent, Tasmania, 27 

Laksamana, the (Raja Dris), 148^ 
150* i78» 186, 191 

Lancashire, First Engineer Volun- 
teers, 270 

Landskrona, Sweden, 248 

Langat, Malaya, 157-62, 169, 180 

La^oif^y H. M. S. , 324 

Lardner, Mr. Philip, 7 

Lardner, Miss Frances, 7 

Larut, Malaya, 125, 144, 147, 148, 

ISO. x$i» 154. i7o» 330» 331 
Larut River, 144, 190 
Lascelles, the Hon. Mr. and Mrs. 

Egremont, 80 
Latrobe, Governor, 36, 41-5 
Leiningen, H.H. Prince, 93, 94 



INDEX 



347 



Letth, 290, 296 

Lela, Maharaja, 186, 187, 191 

Lennox, Lorci Henry Gordon, 89, 

114 
Leiffds, Colonel J. F., 242 
Lewis, Sir George Comewall, 77 
Lewis, the Hon. N. E., 318 
Li^e, 246 
Linord Church, 7, 9 
Liflfbrd, Co. Tyrone, 5, 6 
Li Hung- Chang, 220 
Lind, Jenny, 22 
Lindsay, Miss Flora, i, 321 
Lindsay, Mrs., 3, 5 
Linggi, Bandar of, 166-71 
Linggi River, 145, 165, 166 
Liverpool, 282, 284, 296, 297, 307 
Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, 

307 

Liverpool, First Engineer Volun- 
teers, 284, 285 

Liverpool, Freedom of, 282 

Loch, Mr. H. B. (afterwards Lord), 
33» 34» 80, 81, 250 

Loch, Mrs. (afterwards Lady), 
80, 81 

Locksbrook Cemetery, Bath, 300, 

Loftus, Captain (Phra Nehtate), 
306,307 

London and South Western Rail- 
way, 239 

London Chamber of Commerce, 
272,308 

London, Chatham, and Dover Rail- 
way, 239 

London improvements, 91-3 

Lowe, the Right Hon. Robert, 102 

Lucas and Aird, Messrs. , 270 

Lukut, Malaya, 168, 169 

Lukut River, 169 

Lushington, Mr. Vernon, 109, 117 

Lutyens, Mr. C, 224 

Lyons, Lord, 217 

Lytton, first Earl of, 194, 196-205, 
209-13 

Lytton, Sir E. Bulwer (first Lord 
Lytton), 69 

Macao, 133 

Mc Arthur, Major-General, 46 

McCallum, Colonel Sir H., 243, 

244* ^7» 319 
M'CuUoch, Mr, J., 73, 74 
Macedon, Victoria, 317 
Mackillop, Mr. C. W., 94, 216 
Mackillop, Mrs., 94 
Mackillop, Miss, 94, 321 



Maclean, Mr., loi 
Macmahon, Marshal, 107, 131 
McNair, Major J. F. A., 122, 135, 

142, 150, 157, 159, 161, 179 
Mactaggart, Mr. W., 284 
Madras, 3, 79, 199, 200, 202 
Madras harbour, 202, 214 
Magniac, Mr., 257 
Mahdi Muhammad Ahmed, 261, 

262, 260 
Mahmoud, Raja, 167-71, 186 
Mahsud Waziri Campaign, 208 
Malacca, 122, 145, 156, 157, 159, 

165-70. 180, 187, S3S 
Malay Native States, 122-25, 144- 

92, 3o8f 3091 3*9* 329-34 
Malta, 87, 88, 108, 109, 116, 221, 

235» 296-8, 335 
Malta Dock {see Somerset Dock) 
Mann, Colonel Gother, 76 
Manners, Lord John (now Duke of 

Rutland), 91 
Manning the Navy scheme, 103, 

296, 326-8 
Mantri of Larut, the, 147, 148-51, 

<53. iS4i 177. 19'. 330-2 
Maori War, the, 22, 90, 115 
Marescalchi, Count, 131 
Markby, Sir William, 193 
Masonic banquet, Melbourne, 65 
Masonic lodges, Victoria, 66 
Mat Saman, 175, 176 
Matson, Major-General E., 22, 47 
Matta Matta, colonial gunboat, 
,/57.i69 
Mauritius, 228, 235 
Maury, Captain, 80 
Maxim-NordenfeldtGun Company, 

285 

Meade, the Hon. Sir R., 238, 307, 
308 

Medway, the, 100, 224, 229, 235 

Mekong, the, 307 

Melbourne, 36, 41-67, 68, 73, 89, 
203, 229, 232, 2-51, 300, 301, 303, 
305» 3i4» 310; Art Gallery, 
68, 73 ; Botanical Gardens and 
Society, 66; Cathedral, 66; 
Chamber of Commerce, ^; 
exhibitions, 48, 284 ; exhibition 
medals, 73; St. Kilda Cemetery, 
66 

Memorials, 115, 116, 224, 260, 261, 

291-3 
Menam, the, 133, 135, 307 
Mercantile ports, 235, 241, 242, 



MtTCV 



^ercury^ Tii^ (Tasmahian), 113 



348 



INDEX 



Mersey, the, 241 

Merv, 206, 207 

Meshed, 205 

Metammeh, 275 

Methuen's Horse, 272 

Metz, 107 

Middle Island, N.Z., 23 

Midge, H.M.S., 157, 159 

Milford Haven, 235, 241 

Military Works Branch, Indian 

P.W.D., 214 
MiUs, Mr. H. M., 122 
Mills, Lady Louisa, 80 
Mills, Sir Charles (afterwards Lord 

Hillin^don), 78-80 
Mills, Sir Charles (Agent-General 

for Cape Colony), 295 
Milne, Sir Alexander, 88, 100 
Minotaur y H.M.S., 99 
ModesUy H.M.S., 127, 162 
Molopo, the, 271 
Monro, Colonel William, 2 
Moore, Mr. George Fletcher, x8 
Moreton Bay (Queensland), 55, 58, 

62, 64, 69, 70 
Moreton Bay, Bishop of, 64 
Morley Committee, 235, 241, 242 
Morie^, third Earl of, 235 
MomtngPost, The, 3x1 
Muhammad Syed, munshi, 184-6 
Muirhead Henry, 97 
Murphy, Mr. G. Stormont, 283 
Murray River, the, 58, 59 
Mysore, 200 

Nai To, 137 

Nakhl, 238 

Namur, 247 

Napier of Magdala, first Lord, 

184, 193, 246, 260 
Natol, 243, 318, 319 
Natal, Aeent-General for, 3x9 
Naval Adviser, 240 
Naval manoeuvres, 289, 290 
Naval Reserves, scheme for, 103, 

396,326-8 
Naval supremacy, 289 
Navy, rdle of the, 250 
Neilson, Mr. John, 5 
Nelson, N.Z., 318 
Netherlands Con8ul*General, 129, 

149 
New Brunswick, 79 
New Caledonia, 377 
New Norfolk, x8, 19 
New Hebrides, 355, 275-8, 302 
New South Wales, 3, 13, 14, 25, 

Zh 34f Sh 5*-^ 394» 310 



New South Wales, Agent-General 

for, 29s, 310 
New Zealand, 22-5, 29, 34, 84, 85, 

89,90, 1x5, 275,317,318 
Newcastle, the fifth Duke of, 38, 

42, 45, 46, 75, 79 
Newcastle and Durham Volunteer 

Engineers, 241, 270 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 241, 253 
Newman, Mr., X33-5, X42, 198 
Ngah, Ibrahim (see Mantri of 

Larut) 
Nicholson, Mr. W., 56, 64 
Nile, the, 265, 267, 268, 271, 312 
Nineteenth Century and After, The, 

308 
Nordenfelt, Mr. T., 248, 249 
Nordenfelt submarine boat, 248, 

249 
North American Telegraphs and 

Railways, 78, 79 
North Sands Lightship, Malaya, 

157 
Northbrook, the first Earl of, 193, 

i94« 199 
Northcote, Sir Stafford (afterwards 

Eari of Iddesleigh), i x6 
Northern Bengal Railway, 239 
Northumberland House, 93 
Northumberland, Duke of, 93 
Norikumherlandy H.M.S., 323, 324 
N.W. Provinces, India, 199 

Obak, 269 

Observatory, Greenwich, Royal, 139 

0'Callaghan,Major-GeneraiD. T., 
240 

O'Halloran, Mr. J. S., 319 

Okaihou, N.iS., 22 

One-Fathom Bank, Sumatra, 157 

Ootacamand, 227 

Orang Kayah, Mantri, 330 

OrdersofSt.MichaelandSt.George, 
1x2, 114, 239, 254 ; the Bath, too, 
1X2, 113, 326; the Indian Em- 
pire, 202 ; the Royal Hanoverian 
Guelphic, 7, 3221 the Star of 
India, X94, 213 

Oregon Boundary Commission, 12 

Orenburg-Tashkent line, 206 

Osborne, 93, 94 

Osborne, royal yacht, 93 

O'Shanassy, the Hon. J., 57, 68, 74 

Osman Digna, 365, 166, ^£9, 270 

Otranto, 316 

Oude, 199 

Owl, The, 89 

" Owls," the, 89, 300 



INDEX 



349 



Oxusi the, ao6, 208 

Pauufic Tet^rraph Cable, 309 
Packington, near Coventiy, 79 
Pasret, Captain P. L. C, 14, 15, 

20-2, 25 
Packet, Lord Clarence, 80 
Pahas^, Bandahara of, 172, 173 
Pahang, Malaya, 122, 17 1-4 
Pakin^on, Sir John, 98, 104, 105 
Palestine, 262 
PallMaU GoMttU, 264 
Palmer, Lieut H. W., 168, 170 
Palmer, Professor, 238 
Palmer, Sir C. M., 241 
Palmer's Shipbuilding Ca , 285 
Palmerston, Lord, 91, ioi 
Pangkor Engagement, or Treaty, 

151-6, 174, 175, 183, 3^9-34 
Pangkor, Pulo, 122, 149, 150, 152, 



Paris, 



iS5» 162, 330, 332, 

•aris, 48, 107, 217, 258 
Parlenti's ** Albion" Foundry, 311 
Parliamentary criticisms, 103-5, 

163, 257» 259 
Pasir Sala, Malaya, 185-8 
Pasley, Major-General C, 54, 58 
Paton, Lieut G. B., 168 
Patterson, Sir James, 294, 295 
Paul, Mr., 10 
Pauncefote, Sir Julian (afterwards 

Lord), 25i5 
Peace, the Hon, Walter, 319 
Peacock, the Hon, A. J,, 316-18 
Pehtang, 220 
Pekan, Malaya, 172, 173 
Peking, 131 
Penang, 122, 126, 134, 145, 147, 

150, i53» ^54. i56» i57i »62, 178, 

180, 185-7, 191, 333 
Penang Chamber of Commerce, 

162 
Penjdeh, 244, 270 
Perak, Sultan of, 147-52, 178, 189, 

i9"» y^^ 
Perak, British Resident at, 151, 

17A, 176, X82, 189, 330 
Penuc, Malaya, 122, 144-5^ "6S» 
^i7S-9» 180. i?3-9»> 344, 329-34 
Perak and the Maia^s, 179 
Perak River, 186^ 190 
Perkins, Sir ^SUieas, 2fyj 
Perm^ung Pasir, Malaya, 165 
Persian Gulf, 211 
Perth, Western Auatralia, 8, 13, 17, 

i8, 322 
Peshawar Field Porce» 208 
Peterhead, 290 



Peterhoff, Simla, 201, 202 
Philippines, the, 309 
Philosophical Society of Victoria, 48 
Photographing Royalties, 93, 94 
Phra Nehtate {see Loftus) 
Pickering, Mr. W. A., 125, 148-50, 

^S3^ 167-71, 244, 287 
Picton, Sir Thomas, 2 
Pierson, Major W. H., io8 
Pilot Fish, tug, 168 
Pine, Mr. Richard, 8x 
Pitt^ General Dean, 24, 25 
Play and Politics^ Recollections of 

Malaya, 149 
Plevna, 237 
Pluto, S.S., 150, 151, 157, 160, 172, 

i73» 185, 186 
Plymouth, 99^ 235 
Poe, Rear-Admii^ £. S., 240 
Pollard, Mr., 50 
Pontefract, 83, 216, 223 
Pope, His Holiness the, 68 
Port Cooper, N.Z., 23 
Port Hall, LifTord, 2 
Port Phillip, 31, 232 
Portland, Dorset, 235 
Portland Bill experiments, 245 
Portland breakwater, iii, 112 
Portland, Victoria, 54, 57 
Porto Santo, 322 
Portora School, Enniskillen, 9 
Portsmouth, 15, 16, 87, 93, 97-9, 

231,235,335 
Portsmouth docks, 87, 109, 116, 

335 

Postal service, England and Aus- 
tralasia, 56, 84-6 

Poti-Tiflis-Baku line, 206 

Power, Mr. Frank, 268 

Powlett, Commander, 162 

Poster, Sir E. J., 270 

Pnnce Consort, H.R.H. the, 1x2 

Prince and Princess of Wales's 
colonial tour, 312, 313 

Prince of Wales, H.R.H. the, X12, 
i94» i95> 2*7i 2Q2, 293 

Princess Royal of England, the, 66 

Probyn, Sir D., 217 

Proclamation of Pangkor Engage- 
ment, X75, A33, 334 

Province WeUealey, Malaya, X22, 
X26, X4<, 147, 33X 

Prussia, 82, 100 

Public Works Department, India, 
134, 2x4, 269 

Puler, Johore gunboat, 172 

Pulo Dinding (<«« Dindings) 

Palo KatU, 331 



350 



INDEX 



Pulo Panekor {see Pangkor) 
PuncbarcT and Ca, Messrs., 287 
Punjab, 184 

Queen's Commissioners, Malaya, 

183 
Queensland, 55, ij6, 310 (see also 
Moreton Bay) 

eueenstown, Cape Colony, 228 
uetta, railway and telegraph to, 
205, 207, 209 

RaastofT, General, 131 

Raffles Institute, Singapore, 132 

Raffles, Sir Stamford, 132, 147, 

i54» i79» 308 
Railway Board of New South 

Wales, 51, 52 
Railway Companies, R.E., 239, 

240, 270 
Railway corps, 239 
Railway gauges, 211 
Randall, Dr., 135-7 
Rangoon, 202 
Rapa, 277 
Raphoe, 3 

Rassa, Malava, 168, 170 
Read, Mr. W. H., 129, 149, 17a, 173 
Reid, Mr., of Ratho, Tasmania, 27 
Rembau, Malaya, 122, 145, 165 
Rennell, Major James, 2^2 
Residents in Malay Native States, 

British, 146, 151, 152, 155, 161, 

163, 164, 174, 176, 179, 182, 189, 

330 
Rigby, Colonel W. A., 284 
Rinaldoy H.M.S., 157 
Rio, no 
Ripon, the first Marquess of, 83, 

208, 216-21, 227, 262, 394, 29s 
Roberts, Earl, 184, 207, 227, 312, 

316 
Robinson, Mr. W. B., 3x5 
Robinson, Sir Hercules, 272 
Rochechouart, Count die, 131 
Rochester Cathedral, 260, 261 
Rolston, Rev. Mr., 6 
Rome, 68, 73, 302 
Rosales, Count, 50 
Rosebery, Earl of, 277, 278 
Ross, Captain, 16 
Ross, Sir John, 190 
Rowton Castle, Shrewsbury, 128 
Rowton, Lord [see Corry) 
Royal Academy, 224, 270, 292 
Royal Artillery, 9, 10, 21, 22, 76, 

137. 168, 190, 240, 241, 252, 292 



Royal Engineers, x, xi, 12, 14, 20, 
22, 25, 27, 41, 47, 65, 68, 72, 76, 
^Z, X20, 143, 207, 208, 214, 222, 
224, 225, 227, 23(6, 238, 239, 241, 
2S2f 253» 358. 260, 267, 268, 270, 
275, 284, 287, 291-3, 2^2^ 3x6, 
336 

Royal Institution, 308 

Royal Military Academy, Wool- 
wich, xo, XI, X5 

Royal Warrant on promotion and 
retirement, 258, 259, 263, 280 

Ruck, Colonel R. M., 223 

Ruskin, Mr. John, 92 

Russell, Lond John (afterwards 
Earl Russell), 47, xoi 

Russia, 46, 48, 206, 207, 209, 2x1, 
220, 238, 244, 248, 270 

Russian Mission to Kabul, 2x0 

Russo-Turkish War, 237 

Ryder, Admiral, 80, X35, x 38-40 

Saigon, 122, 123, X33 

St George's Church, Hanover 

Square, 94 
St Helena, 235 
St Kitt8,W.r, 2 
St Leonards, xx8 
St Lucia, W.I., 7, X3, 235 
St Marylebone Cliurch, 313 
St Mary's Island, Chatham, 1x5 
St Paul's Cathedral, 238 
St Petersburg, 209 
Sakkar, 205, 209, 2x0, 2x5 
Sakkar-Bolan Railway, 205, 2x0, 

2'5 
Salama River and village, X75 
Salisbury, Bishop of, xo 
Salisbury, third Marquess of, 33, 

«34> 193 
Salmond, Sir W., 3x3 
Samuda, Mr., icp., X05 
Samuel, Sir Saul, 295 
Sandhurst, 6, 15 
Sandhurst, Victoria, 55 
Sandridfife, Victoria, 53 
Sang, Mr. W., 92 
Sappers and Miners, Ro3ral, 14, 20, 

22 
Sappers, Madras, X90 
Sappings, ship, 32 
Sarcophagus at Bath, 300 
Sargood, the Hon. Sir Frederick, 

Saturday Review^ 33 

School of Military En^^eering, 

Chatham, 222-33, ^'fit 3^3 
Scott, Dean^ 260 



rS 



INDEX 



351 



Scott, Sir Gilbert, 92 

Scott, the Hon. Thomas, 181 

Scratchley^ Sir Peter, 74, 75 

Seaham, 290 

Sedan, 167 

Seddon, the Rigrht Hon. R. J., 317, 

318 
See-Kwans, 144 
Selangor^ 122, 145, 156-62, 165, 

167, 179, 187, 287 
Selangfor, Queen of, 159 
Selangor, Sultan of, 157-61, 169, 

Sempan&r, 165 

Senabodee of Siam« 137-9/ 142 

Service, the Hon. James, 56, 301, 

302 
Seton, Sir Bruce Maxwell, 83 
Severn, the, 241 
Seychelles Islands, iqi, 192 
Seymour, Captain F. Beauchamp 

(afterwards Lord Alcester), 79, 

80, 81, 98, no. III, 126, 127 
Seymour, Victoria, 59 
Shadwell, Sir Charles, 156-58, 162 
Shahbandar, the, 191 
Shahpur, 209 
Shaka, 2^2 
Shanghai, 162 

Shaw, Captain, 166, 168, 169 
Sheemess, 232 
Shields, 290 
Shikarpur, 205 
Shir Ali, 211 

Shooter's Hill, Woolwich, 10 
Siam, 122-4, i33-43» ^7^* i97» 198, 

286-8, 30S-7 
Siam, the First King of {see Chula- 

lonkom) 
Siam, the Second King of (see 

Krom) 
Sibi, 207, 215 
Sidgreaves, Sir T., 287 
Sierra Leone, 235 
Simla, 193, 195, 199, 201-3, 206, 

208, 220, 221, 227 
Simon's Bay, 100, 1 10, 235 
Simmons, Sir J. L. A., 224 
Singapore, 114, 121, 122--81, 191, 

192, 235, 243, 244, 274, 284, 286, 
^.287,312,333,334 
Singapore Chamber of Commerce, 

15s, 162, 234, 284 
Sinkat, 265 
Sirujawongse, Prince (see Suri- 

wongse) 
Skinner, Mr. A. M., 150, 153 
Sladen, Mr. Charles, 54 



Smith, Captain Sidney, 239 

Smith, Captain T. E., 166, 172 

Smith, Mr. Murray, 275, 278 

Smith, Sir Clementi, 179 

Smith, Sir F. C, 24 

Smith, Sir J. F., 47 

Smyth, Mr. R. Brough, 66, 203, 

204 
Snipe^ H.M.S., 81, 82 
Somerset I>ock, Malta, 87, 88, 108, 

109, 116 
Somerset, the twelfth Duke of, 80, 

88, 91, 108, 335 
Soudan, the, 45, 255, 261, 262, 264- 

6, 292, 312 
Soulon Riasa, 187 
South Africa, 45, 272, 309 
South Austrsilia, 59, 60, 310 
South Eastern Railway, 224, 225 
South Melbourne, 53, 54, 65, 66 
South Western Railway, 239 
Southampton, 262, 264 
Southsea, x 
Speedy, Captain, 125, 154, 174, 176 

177 
Spencer, fifth Earl, 281 



&f>itfire, H.M.S., 324 

Spithead, 21, 93, 94 

Stanhope, the Right Hon. Edward, 



211, 231, 293 

Stanley, Captain C. E., 16, 24, 25 

Stanley, the Hon. Fred, (now six- 
teenth Earl of Derby), 104 

Stanley, Lord (afterwards four- 
teenth Earl of Derby), 8 

Stanley of Alderley, third Lord, 
163 

Stawell, Chief Justice W. F., 54, 

^57,63,64 

Steamer Point, Aden, 243 

Stephen's Green, Dublin, 6 

Stephenson, Sir Frederick C. A., 
267 

Stewart of Appin, Mr. Hay Twee- 
dale, 94 

Stewart, Lieut • Colonel Donald, 
268 

Stokes, Sir J., 222, 336 

Storks, Sir Henir, 120 

Story, Colonel Philip, 190 

Strabane, Co. Donegal, 3, 5, 6 

Stracheys, the two, 211 

Straits of Malacca, 127, 162, 165, 

33» 
Straits Settlements, 114, 119-92, 
i94» 243, 257, 274, 300, 312, 329 

-34 
Strasburg, 106 



352 



INDEX 



Strzlecki, Count, 80 

Suakin, 253, 261, 265-70 

Suakin-Berber route and railway, 

^ 244, 2^5, 261, 265-71 

Submarine mine defence, 223, 241 

Submarine vessels, 247-9 

Submission Paper for appointment 
of Inspector-General of Fortifi- 
cations, 226, 335, 336 

Sueter, Commander and Mrs. F. 
Murray, 301, 321, 322 

Suez, 215, 238 

Suez Canal, 100-3, 255-8 

Sues Question, The Isthmus of, 101 

Suleiman Mountains, 208 

Suleiman, son of Zebehr, 292 

Sultan, H.M.S., 245 

Sumatra, 122, 124, 128 

Sunderland, 235 

Sungei Kinta, 152 

Sungrei Ujong, 122, 145, 165-71, 191 

Suriwongse, or Siruiawongse, 
Prince (ex-Regent of diam), 137, 

139* «40, 197 
Surveyor-General, of India, 214 ; 

of Straits Settlements, 157; of 

Victoria, 3S-67» 303 
Sutherland, Sir Thomas, 242 
Sutlaj, the, 205, 210 
Swan River Colony, 8, 18 
Swettenham, Sir F., 153, 161, 167, 

169, 177, 180, 186 
Sydney, N.S.W., 13, 25, 34, 52, 

62-5, 72» 318 
SyedAbdulrahmanbinalZabir, 129, 

130 

Table Bay, no, in, 235 

Taku, 220 

Tamai, 266 

Tasmania, 16-40, 44, 51, 60, 89, 
98» iX3> 310; Agent^eneral of, 
304> 305* 3j8» 319 ; Bishop of, 29, 
38 ; new Constitution, 30 

Tatham, Captain W. J., 168, 169 

Tay, the, 241 

Taylor, Sir Alexander, 208 

Teck, H.H. the Duke of, 94 

Tees, the, 241 

Teheran, Persia,. J05 

Tehtran^ P. and O. t.t., 316, 217 

Teignmouth, 7 

Tel^mphs in Australia, 59, 60; 
in North America, 78 

Temperley, Mr. J. R., 230 

Tennyson, Lord. 231 

Tenth Foot (the Linoolnf), 166, 169, 
187 



.103 



Terrible, H.M.S., 324 

Tewfik Pasha, Khedive, 260, 264 

Thai, 207 

Thcdia, H.M.S., 157 

Thames, the, 99, 235, 296 

Third Foot (the Buffs), 190 

ThUtle, H.M.S., 186 

Thomas, Captain, 50 

Thompson, Sir C. Rivers, 214 

Thorold, Bishop, 260 

Thurlow, Major, 21 

Thursday Island, 235 

Tibet, 285 

Tidman, Mr. P. T., 274, 284 

Times, The, 70, 77, 104, 242, 268, 

288, 289, 308 
Tokar, 265 

Tomline, Colonel Geoige, 80 
Tonquin, 243 
Toorak, 61 
Tottenham, Mr., 259 
Toulon Bay, 297 
Transit of Venus, 139 
Transvaal, the, 271 
Travancore, P. and O. S.S., 215 
Treaty, or Engagement of Pang- 

kor, 151, i«, 174, x/c, 329-34 
Trcvelyan, Mr. (now Sir) G. O., ic 
Trincomali, 235 
Trinidad, i, 2, 4, 5 
Trinidad Militia, 2, 4, 5 
Tunku Klana, 168 (see also Klana 

of Sungei Ujone) 
Tunku Kudin, Chief of Langat, 

159, x6o 
Turkestan, 206 
Turkey, Sultan of, 93 
Turner, Sir G. and Lady, 305 
Twydall Redoubt, 278, 279 
Tyler, Sir Henry, 43 
Tyne, the, 235, 241 

Ulang, Malaya, 160 

Ulva people, the, 188 

Umballa, 184 

United Service Institution, Royal, 

248,249 
United States of America, 252, 309 
Universal suffrage, 60 

Van 13iemen's.Land, 13, 14, 16-40 

{s£e.ako Taagiania) 
Vetch, Cajptaln James, loi 
Viceroy of India, the, 193-205, 207, 

209-i3» 2i6-ai,.243,.257 
Victoruk, Australia, i» 3» 311 35-7 

41-67, 68, 7»-6, 83, ao3, S17, 

250, JSi, S7S-8, 393-6, 301, 3P3- 



INDEX 



353 



S>.309-"» 3i?» 3iS-«S; Ad- 
ditional Municipal Authorities 
Act, 48, 60; Aeent-General, i, 
57» 63, 73, 83-6, 2JS-S, ^3-6, 
301, 303-19; Board of Advice, 
295 ; defence of, 73, 23a, 250-2, 
293; Legislative Assembly, 53, 
54, 65, 303; new Constitution, 
44-7i 49> 5«, 53> S^* 3" J rail- 
ways, 54, 55, 58, 6j ; Surveyor- 
General of, 37, 41-07, 303 ; tele- 
graphs, 59, 60 ; Volunteer Force, 
48,76 

Victoria Cross, 171, 226^ 227 

Victoria, H.M. Queen, 93, 94, 113, 
124, 136, 175. 195, 205, 213, 239, 
^537 257. 269, 305, 310, 333, 335, 
336 

Victory, H.M.S., 98 

Vigilant, H.M.S., 135, 137-9 

Vtper, H.M.S., 324 

Vixen, H.M.S., 524 

Voyage of Floating Dock to Ber- 
muda, 100, 323-5 

Vymwy Waterworks, 282 

Wadi Haratri, 269 

Walker, Colonel (afterwards 

General) J. T., 214, 215 
Wallace, Colonel W. A. J., 239 
Walsh, Rev. E. L., 94 
Warren, Sir Charles, 238, 239, 272, 

273 
Warrior, H.M.S., ^2^^ 3*4 
Warton, Lieut R. G., 168 
Waterloo, 2 

Webster's aluminium bronze, 284 
Weld, Sir Frederick A., 90, 179 
West Coast of Africa, 80, 115, xi8, 

216 
West India Regiment, 81 
West Indies, 1-5, 7, 55, 84, 85 
West Point, 252 
Western Australia, i, 8, 13, 17, 

310, 311, 322 
Westminster Abbey, 292 
Whampoa, Mr., 180, 287 
Whamcliffe, first Earl of, 33, 34, 78- 

80, 89, 216, 300, 308 



Whamcliffe, Lady, 308 

Whitby, 290 

Whitehead torpedo, 232, 248 

Whitmore, Mr., 4 

Whitmore, Sir E. A., 263 

\rick, 290 

Wilhelmshaven dockyard, 100 

Willes, Sir George, 103 

Williamstown, Victoria, 59 

Wilson, Sir Charles, 275 

Wimpffen, General, 107 

Wtnaermere, ship, 16, 66 

Windsor, 127 

Wodonga, Victoria, 59 

Wolseley, Sir Garnet (afterwards 

\Tscount), 115, 236, 238, 239, 253, 

262, 267, 288, 289 
Wolff, Mr. (afterwards Sir) H. 

Drummond, 69, 70, 89, 300 
Wood, Sir Charles (afterwards first 

Lord Halifax), 78 
Wood, Sir Evelyn, 228, 267 
Woodford, Sir Ralph, 4 
Woollcombe, Captain, 162 
Woohvich, 10, II, 15, 18, 21, 54, 



137, 222, 292 
Vorka D 



Works Department, Admiralty, 

16,87-117, i93>335 
Wortley Hall, 78-81, 308 
Wortley, the Hon. E. M. Stuart 

(see Whamcliffe) 
Wray, Captain (afterwards Major- 

General), 68 
Wreck of S.S. Travancare, 215, 216 
Wrottesley, the Hon. G., 76, 77 
Wyke, Sir C. Lennox, 131 
Wyld, Mr.,59 
Wynaad Goldfields, 202-4 
Wynyard, General, 25 
Wyon, Messrs., 73 

Yaha, 176 

Yakub, Amir, 210, 211 

Yang^se, the, 131 

Yarra Yarra, the, 66 

Yelverton, Sir Hastings, 108, 109 

Zanzibar, 219 

Zetland, the second Earl of, 66 



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