Skip to main content

Full text of "Sir John Login and Duleep Singh"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 









W. H. ALLEN & Co., 13, Waterloo Place, S.W. 


M 1 N E RV A 

book SH Of 


O -// 

SIMLA. ^ ^ y 













HiB Tbibute 
To THE Memory of his Friend,— 



It is probable I should never have ^"^ "^f <f^ *^ 
take up the Bubject of this volume but for the fa^t^a* 
the inW taken by my late husband -^.s W 
invested it with an interest which has assumed greater 
proportions in consequence of the recent action ofjbe 
Mahaxajah. For many years *l^«Mahaxaj^ lived n 
our house ; he spontaneously adopted Christianity 
under our roof; and he developed many instmcte alike 
generous and calculated to inspire regard. I have 
always taJcen the deepest interest in him. and no one 
has been more grieved than I have been at the line of 
conduct he has lately so heedlessly adopted. Still, 
condemning that conduct as thoroughly as anyone, 
feeling that the world regards it as a base return for 
great kindness, I am anxious that that world should 
know that there is not only something, but a great 
deal to be said on the other side. What that is I 
have told in lihese pages. They contain the story of 
the first connection of the Maharajah with the Bntish 
to the present day. It is only just that, however the 
public may condemn the recent foolish utterances of 


the Maharajah, they should know that his outbursts 
are not the ofi&pring of a mere freak, that' he has real 
wrongs, and that his nature, always quick and sensi- 
tive, has been goaded into action, which, in his cahner 
moments, he would be glad to disavow. The carrying 
out of this task has been rendered the more genial to 
me, in that it has enabled me to show the world what 
manner of man he was to whom the Government of 
India entrusted the earlier training of the young 
Prince. There have been men in India whose services 
have come more before the public, but I am confident 
I shall be borne out by those who knew my husband 
when I state that a truer man, one more imbued with 
sense of duty, and more fearless in the performance of 
it, never served the East India Company than John 
Spencer Login. 

Lena Login. 


JvXy 4tA, 1889. 



... vii 


Ghaptbb I. 

r^ J^AT8.'^i.OUV*i5t/ ... ... ... «.. •.. 

Orkney — Edinlmrgh UiuTeraity — Surgeon's diploma at the age of 
I — Degree of M.D. — Private Physician to Lord Chief-Comnus- 
Adam — Offered a oommiBsion as Assistant Surgeon in H.E.I.C. 
•Farewell to the old Orkney home — Blindman's buff ! — Arrival 
at Oaleattan-Posted to the ''Puffs"— Dinapore- Transferred to First 
Brigade H.A., Dum Dum — ^Major Powney — Selected for post of medical 
oAoer with mission to Persia — Made over to service of Nizam of Hyder- 
abad — Farewell dinner given in his honour by the Corps — Presentation 
— Bluejacket for ever ! — ^Attached to sixth regiment Nizam's Infantry — 
Hengolee — Ellichporc — On active service in Bheel Country — Appointed 
Gvil Surgeon at Howrah — Garrison-Surgeon at Fort William — Sir 
Baoaid Martin— On Lord Metcalfe's personal staff— Two years at Agra 
— Famine Belief and Dispensary — Orphan Asylum at Secundra*- 
Dr{«rtare of Lord Metcalfe — Applied for by Sir Theophilns Metcalfe — 
Appointed Civil Sui^geon and Postmaster at Hooghley — Acting Resi- 
dency-Surgeon at Lucknow — Established the GhaHb-khana, Hospitals, 
Dispensary, and Belief Works — On active service with the Army of the 
Indiu, in medical charge of the H.A. — Complimentary letter from the 
Bcddent — Joins the Army at Kumaul, November, 1838 — Honoured by 
an taabfnee from the King of Oude !— Ferozepore — Henry Lawrence — 
Caadahar — Applie<l for by Major D'Arcy Todd to accompany mission to 


Ghaptbb II. 


HebIt. — 1839-40 22 

Hertft — Shah Eamrdn and Yar Mahomed — The poor of the city 
Login's special charge — Re-establishes manufacture of carpets — Charge 
of Commissariat and Post-office arrangements — Afghan treachery — 
Ofifered appointment of Surgeon to Commander-in-Chief— Mitford's 
description of the life of the mission ^A frequent visitor at the Shah's 
palace in the citadel — An unseen audience — Login's "sister" — The 
first book in Pushtoo— Intercourse with the Merv Turcomaun — 
Inquiries for **Luggan" from Dr. Wolff— Khalipha Ali Bux— Hinghan 
Khan — Public breakfasts — Drunkenness of the Herdti Afghans — * 'There's 
no houz here ! " — Difference between Indian and Afghan Mussuhnauu — 
*' You are a spoon ! " — Letters from Colonel James Abbott and General 
C. F. North— How the latter settled disputes among the servants— The 
Persian style of living adopted — A dinner of ceremony under difficulties 
— ^Treachery and duplicity of Yar l^ahomed — ^The Envoy determines to 
depart from Herdt. 

Ghaptbr III. 
Gandahab and Cabul. — 1840-41 52 

' Beached Ghirishk in safety — A false alarm — Candahar — How to deal 
with men of the stamp of Yar Mahomed — How the Govemment dealt 
with him — Ferrier's opinion — Login proceeds to Cabul — ^Militaxy 
operations against Ghilzies — ^Accompanies Major Pottingcr to Eohistan 
— Boat-sailing matches on the lake at Cabul, Orkney v. Caithness — 
Private secretary to Sir W. Macnaghteu, j)ro iem. — Leaves Cabul with 
Todd, proceeding vid Ehyber Pass to Jellalabad — Letter from Major 
D'Arcy Todd— Letters from Sir Henry Havelock and Bishop Wilson. 

Ghapteb IV. 
LucKNOw. — 1842-48 67 

Residency-Surgeon at Lucknow — Marriage — Life in the zenanas of 
Mohamedans of high rank — Unique opportunities of insight — ^The little 
Begum Wuzeeroolniza — Login's "daughter" — ^The Wuzeer's gratitude 
— Embarrassing presents from grateful patients ! — A wolf-child — James 
Dryburgh Login — ^Tom Login — Wajid Ali Shah, Eing of Oude — Ali 
Buz and Hinghan Ehan again — ^The mad elephant — The Martiniere 
College 'Friendship with Henry Lawrence— Letters from H. Lawrence 
at Ehatmandoo — Login's promotion to grade of full surgeon— Once 
more joins the Horse Artillery on active service in the Punjab. 


Ghapteb V. 


The Sikh religion— N&niik--^oymd— The EhlOsa— Mials— Bunjeet 
Singh — Khnmick Singh— Death of Nao Nehal Singh — Murder of Shere 
Singh — ^Aooeasion of Maharajah Duleep Singh — Ponchayets — l^e 
Jnmmoo Brothers— First Sikh war— Treaty of Bhyrowal — Resident 
invested with supreme powers — Henry Lawrence — Revolt of Moolraj — 
Sir F. Currie — Second Sikh war — Annexation— Terms granted — Mr, 
Elliot's report — ^Login's remarks. 

Chapter VI. 
Lahore. — 1848-49 148 

Letters from Login to his wife, during and after the campaign- 
Helping Lawrence at Lahore — Appointed Governor of the Citadel and 
its contents, including charge of the Maharajah — Description of the 
Toshkhana — ^The State prisoners — Trial of Moolraj — Turning "swords 
into pnming-hooks.** 

Chapter VII. 
Lahore (continued).— 1849 172 

Letters from Login to his ¥rife — ^The Maharajah^s birthday — More 
State prisoners — Conversations with Shere Singh and Chuttur Singh — 
Letter from Robert Adams, describing Login's work — The contents of 
the Toshkhana under his charge — ^The Koh-i-noor —Arrival of the 
Govemor-Gennal — Death of Dr. J. Dryburgh Login — Robbery at the 
Toshkhana — Statement of Misr Makraj with regard to the Koh-i-noor, 
on making it over to Doctor Login, May 6th, 1849. 

Chapter VIII. 
Fi:tcehghc7R. — 1849-50 200 

Removal of the young Maharajah to Futtehghur— Precautious on 
road — Lord Dalhousie's receipt for the Koh-i-noor — Life at Futtehghur 
Piuk— The Shahzadah— The Ranee Duknoo— The gentlemen of the 
suite — ^The Maharajah's education — Correspondence with Lord Dalhousie 
— Matchmaking — ^Lucknow revisited. 

Chapter IX. 
The Nsopbttb. — 1851 241 

Dnleep Singh announces his intention of becoming a Christian — 
OflSdal correspondence on the subject — Testimony of his native atten- 
dsBts Bhajnn Lai — How Duleep Singh broke caste — Matter referred 
to the Court of Directors— Their acquiescence — Visit of Lord and Lady 
Dslhoniie to Futtehghur — Pretentions of the Shahzadah — The Ranee's 
tittle plot ! 


Ghapteb X. 


7hb Baptism. — 1852-54 .:;• 280 

*' Marching " to Mnssoorie — Adyentnresin camp — ^Wolyes — ^Bobbery 
— ^Agra — Delhi — ^Ganges Canal — Hnrdwar — Life at Mnssoorie — ^The 
Maharajah's companions — ^The Shahzadah goes to school — ^Letters from 
Lord Dalhousie — ^Retum to Fnttehghur — ^The Maharajah studies mnsie 
— His baptism — Second season at Mussoorie — Letter from Sir F. 
Onrrie — Correspondence ^th Lord Dalhousie — Visit to England per- 
mitted — Bhajun Lai — Death of Colonel Mountain — The Maharajah's 
desire to enter a public school in England — En route for England — 
Lucknow — Sir W. Sleeman — His letter on the origin of the Jats — 
Benares — Pundit Nehemiah Goreh — Government House, Barrack- 
pore — ^The Banee opposes the Shahzadah's visit to England— Leaves 
Calcntt*— Lord Dalhousie's farewell. 

Ghaptbb XI. 
Englakd.— 1854-56 331 

The homeward voyage— Egypt— Visit to the Pyramids— Royal salutes 
— ^The Maharajah's usual dress— Reception by the Queen and the Prince 
Consort^Duleep Singh's truthfulness — His reception by society in 
London — Lord Shaftesbury — Knighthood conferred on Login — The 
Maharajah's rank and precedence fixed — Once more holds the Koh-i- 
noor in his hand I— The sittings for his portrait at Buckingham Palace 
— Correspondence with Lord Dalhousie — Visit to Osborne — Kindness 
of Her Majesty and the Royal Family— Intercourse with the young 
Princes— Visit to Lord Hardinge— Edinburgh— Dalmahoy—Hickleton 
Hall— Wentworth— Cannizara House, Wimbledon, taken for the 
Maharajah — His education and tutors — Commissions obtained for tho 
Boileaus — Granard Lodge and Ashburton Court, Roehampton — Rents 
Castle Menzies, Perthshire — Crimean |iensioners — Life at Castle 
Menzies — Anecdotes —Letters. 

Chapter XII. 
Italy.— 1856-57 367 

Journal of visit to Italy— ** Mr. Login "— Cannes— The "bhicka- 
moor ! "—The Empress of Russia— Lord Dufferin— Genoa— John Bright 
—Florence— Rome— Story of Lord Macaulay— The studios— Cardinal 
Manning— The Carnival— John Bright at the Carnival— ^Ash-Wednesday 
— Ceremony at theSixtine Chapel— Baron vonOrlich — Art-lecture in the 
Vatican, Mr. Gibson and Mr. Macdonald— Mrs. Beecher Stowe — 
Naples— Venice— Illness of Mr. R. Leslie Melville— Reach Padua- 
Mr. Cawood's troubles with Austrian custom-house ofiicers — Brescia — 
Milan— Turin— Geneva— M. Merle d'Aubigu^. 


Chapteb XIII. 


The Mutiny. — 1867 ... 390 

Annexation of Oude — Letter to Chainnan of Court of Directors 
regarding the Maharajah's affairs — Restriction as to residence removed 
— Oatbreak of the Mutiny — The Queen of Oude in England— Visits of 
the Prince of Wales and Prince Alfred to Ashbnrton Court — Note from 
the Prince of Wales— Lord Canning — Letter from Sir John Kaye about 
supposed correspondence of the Maharajah with his mother — Letters to 
the Pundit Nehemiah Goreh — The Mahangah's property at Futtehghur 
sacked and destroyed by the mutineers — His servants massacred, to- 
gether with Sergeant Elliot and Mr. Walter Guise — Sir John Login's 
correspondence with Sir Charles Phipps with regard to the Maharajah's 
disposition and indifference to the events passing in India — The brave 
Donald!— Letter from John Bright on the Mutiny — Sir J. Login in- 
vestigates the cases of ''mutilation" — The correspondence with Sir 
Charles Phipps on the future government of India and reorganization 
of the Indian army — Ditto with Sir J. Melvill — Quotation from **/-(/<$ 
of <A« Prince Contort " — Last letter from Lord Dalhousie — Letter to 
Mr. Delane, Editor of the Tkne*. 

Chapteb XIV. 

GUABDIANSHIP ENDED. — 1858-63 423 

The Maharajah of age — Shooting trip to Sardinia— Lease of Auch- 
lyne— Letters from Lord Hatherton and Sir Charles Phipps — Letters 
from Duleep Singh to Lady Login— Princess Victoria Gouramma of 
Coorg— Accompanies Sir John and Lady Login to Rome — The Prince 
of Wales there — Sir John Login and the Court of Directors — He resigns 
the H.E.I.C.S. — The baronetcy for Sir H. Lawrence's son — Letters 
from Dr. and Mrs. Bernard and from Sir John Lawrence — Letters from 
Sir C. Phipps and Lord Shaftesbury on the Oude Proclamation —Letter 
from the Duke of Marlborough — The Maharajah goes on a shooting ex- 
pedition down the Danube with Sir S. Baker — Turns up at Rome — 
Appoints Colonel Oliphant as equerry — The allowance gi-anted to the 
Shahzadah— Mulgrave Castle— Nearly bags an Archbishop ! — Death of 
the Rajah of Coorg — Marriage of the Princess Gouramma — The Maha- 
rajah goes out to India — The Maharanee Jinda — Correspondence with 
Mr. Bowring — The power of attorney — The Maharajah's letters from 
Calcutta — Letter from Colonel Ramsay— The Maharajah returns to 
England with his mother— Jinda Koiir— Negotiations with the India 
Office — They refuse to recognize the power of attorney — Death of Mr. 
Cawood — The Maharajah announces his determination of at once re- 
turning to India to devote his life to the evangelization of the heathen 
— His religious opinious in an unsettled state — Death of the Prince 



Consort — Correspondence with Sir C. Phipps — A house taken in 
London for the Maharanee — Letter from Sir John Login to the Maha- 
rajah on his legal rights and duties as a Christian — Hatherop Castle 
purchased— Purchase of Elveden — Sir John Login's last visit to India — 
His first severe illness — Death and funeral of the Maharanee Jinda — 
Death of Sir John Login — The monument in Felixstowe churchyard — 
Letters from Sir C. Phipjjs and John Bright — Later history of the 
Maharajah — His marriage, &c. — Death* of the Princess Gouramma of ' 
Coorg — The Maharajah's willingness to suhmlt his case to the arbi« 
tration of any three English statesmen — After thirty years' negociation, 
with no result, he embarks for India — Death of the Maharanee Bamba 
— The future of Duleep Singh's children — Remarks. 

Ghapteb XV. 
Duleep Singh and the Government. — 1856-86 501 

The afifairs of the Maharajah— Letters and memorandum of Sir John 
Login on the matter — Correspondence with the India Office — After the 
death of Sir John Log^n matters remain. in statu quo — ^The Maharajah's 
letter to the J^mes—The reply — Second letter — Extracts from " The 
Maharajah Duleep Singh and the Government " — Payments actually 
made to the Maharajah — Private estates in the Punjab claimed by the 
Maharajah— Property at Futtehghur destroyed by the mutineers — 


I. Extracts from a letter to John Bright, on the policy of 
our rule in India ... 

II. Extracts from correspondence between Sir John Login 
and Sir Charles Phipps, in August, 1857, on the future 
government of India 

in. The Treaty of Bhyrowal . 



A FEW lines which I wrote on the subject of Duleep 
Singh in the Asiatic Quarterly about a year ago 
procured for me the pleasure of an acquaintance with 
Lady Login, whom I found to be even more interested 
than myself in the conduct and treatment of one who 
had been her husband's ward in the tenderest and most 
impressionable years of his life. I soon foimd that 
whilst Lady Login regretted equally with myself the 
wayward conduct of the Maharajah since he quitted 
England, we both agreed that there were many 
circumstances in his history, a knowledge of which 
would induce a public which judged only from facts 
within its ken to take a more lepient, or, at all events, a 
less prejudiced view of conduct which, without such ex- 
planation, would appear whollyunjustifiable. No living 
being was so thoroughly acquainted with all the circum- 
stances attending the Maharajah's youth, early training, 
development into manhood, and subsequent career as 
Lady Login ; nor could any one tell as accurately the 
history of those monetary relations towards the Govern- 
ment which have influenced so unfortunately the later 
actions of the Maharajah. I respectfiiUy urged, then, 
upon Lady Login the advisability, in the interests of the 
Maharajah, in the interests of truth and justice, of writing 
from the stores of documents in her possession a connec- 
ted history of the Maharajah's life, from the date of the 


connection with him of the late Sir John Login to the 
time of the cessation of that connection. The story 
might, I ventured to suggest, form one of the main 
features of the life of one of the noblest servants of the 
late East India Company — Sir John Login himself. 

The idea commended itself to Lady Login, and she 
at once acted upon it. The result is contained in this 
volume. How admirably Lady Login has performed 
the self-allotted task the public, I am confident, will 
unhesitatingly admit. The great merit of the narrative 
is that it tells " the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth." Lady Login has kept back nothing 
that she was able to tell. The result is a valuable 
contribution to contemporary history, and, what is 
of not less importance, a complete revelation of the 
causes which have influenced Duleep Singh in his 
hostility towards the British Government. 

I have myself always held that the treatment dealt 
out to Duleep Singh after the close of the second Sikh 
war was alike impolitic and unjust. When that Avar 
broke out Duleep Singh was the ward of the British 
Government. He was a child of nine years old, and 
took no part whatever in the administration of the 
country of which the British Government had recog- 
nized him to be the Sovereign, but of which the 
English Resident and a council of native nobles were 
the actual rulers. The revolt of Moolraj, and the out- 
break of Sikh chieftains in the Hazarah which followed 
that revolt, were directed against the actual Govern- 
ment of Lahore, which, as I have said, was presided 
over by an English Resident, and which ruled in the 


name of Duleep Singh. Yet, when those risings were 
suppressed on the field of Gujerat, the British Govern- 
ment, then absolute master of the situation, visited the 
sins of Moolraj and the Hazarah chiefs on their innocent 
ward, deprived him of his kingdom, and, he has always 
asserted — ^though this would seem to be denied^-of the 
estates which his father had accumulated, and consigned 
him to the care of Doctor — ^afterwards Sir John — Login. 

To a truer-hearted, more conscientious, or better 
man it would have been impossible to consign him. 
How thoroughly and how well Sir John, aided in every 
particular by Lady Login, performed his duty towards 
the young Prince is admirably told in these pages. 
The reader who may take up the book for information 
on this point will, I am confident, not lightly lay it 
down. Upon this part of the history I do not propose 
to dwell in this Introduction. There can be no doubt 
— indeed, I had it firom the Maharajah's own lips in 
187 1 — that throughout this period, and at the date also 
of his speaking to me on the subject, he was thoroughly 
happy. I propose, rather, to ask the attention of the 
reader to the circumstances related in the fifteenth 
chapter— circumstances which explain the sudden 
migration from happiness to discontent, fi:om discontent 
to despair, from despair to acts bordering on insanity. 

It would seem that the Maharajah was a man of a 
trustful, generous, and open disposition. Further, 
that he did not care to bother himself with details, 
and that he hated business matters. So long as Sir 
John Login lived he was happy. Though often urged 
to effect a settlement, or rather to insist that the India 


OflSce should make a definite settlement with him, he 
always put it off. He was content to have Sir John 
between him and the India OflSce. After Sir John's 
death, Colonel Oliphant, whom he appointed equerry 
and controller of his household, soon gained an 
ascendancy which produced similar feelings of trust. 
He was then living at Elveden, where he had the best 
shooting in England ; and when I stayed with him 
there in 1871, he told me he was the happiest man in 
the world. When I next saw him, about ten years 
ago, he told me he was the most miserable. His 
words were to the effect that subsequently to Colonel 
Oliphant's death he had discovered that he had been 
cheated out of his kingdom, and out of the private 
estates which his father had possessed, and that he 
could get no settlement from the India OflSce ; that he 
had still hopes that he might ultimately succeed, but 
that the treatment he had received had well-nigh 
broken his heart. He complained bitterly that no 
provision had been made for his family. When at 
Elveden, he said, he was in constant hopes that he 
might receive an English title, and with that title 
such a simi attached to it inalienably as might make 
him forget that he had ever sat on the footsteps of a 
throne ; which hope, he added, was growing dimmer 
and dimmer, till it was weU-nigh extmguished. He 
told me this one evening, the only evening that 1 
dined with him, at the Garrick Club, of which he was 
a member. The time, to the best of my recollection 
was 1879-80. 

The whole story is told, fairly and impartially told 



in the fifteenth chapter. The evil, as Lady Login tells 
us, dates from the time of the annexation oi the 
Pimjab. No settlement, properly so called, was then 
made. But, when Duleep Singh attained his majority, 
Sir John Login pressed upon Sir Charles Wood the 
necessity of coming to a settlement on the terms of 
the Treaty, and suggested Sir John Lawrence as the 
most suitable person to draw up the agreement. Sir 
Charles Wood, after some delay, assented ; and Sir 
John Lawrence agreed to act in the matter on condition 
that Sir Frederick Currie should be associated with 
him. This was conceded. The two men met and 
drew up a report. This report, however, was objected 
to in Council, and was never acted upon, The outcome 
was that somewhat later Sir Charles Wood offered 
" improved" terms to Duleep Singh. The Maharajah 
accepted these terms, with the reservation of his rights, 
as the head of the family, of being allowed to have a 
voice in the apportioning of the fund known as the 
** Five Lakh Fund," and to inspect the accounts. He 
fiirther claimed the repayment of his losses in the 
Mutiny. This was the last transaction. It occurred 
just before Sir John Login's death. 

It is to be regretted that the Indian Council 
set aside the settlement proposed by Sir John 
Lawrence and Sir Frederick Currie. These men 
had been on the spot; they knew all the circum- 
stances of his case; and if their recommendations 
had been attended to, Duleep Singh would still be a 
loyal subject of the Queen, and the "perfect happiness" 
of 1871 would never have been impaired. But not 


only was the recommendation not acted upon, but no 
permanent settlement was ever arrived at. The rela- 
tions between the Maharajah and the India Office can 
be best described as having been from first to last 
hand-to-mouth relations. j 

As a specimen of what these have occasionally been, \ 
I quote firom the last page of this book: — "The Grovem- i 
ment," writes Lady Login, "has never accounted to 
the Maharajah for the money received for the sale of 
the house, nor has he received anything in respect of 
the value of the land, though the papers show that the 
whole was purchased out of his money ; nor any com- 
pensation in respect of the contents of the house which 
were destroyed at the Mutiny." Lady Login proceeds 
to show that during thirty years diflferences arose 
which would have instantly disappeared if the recom- 
mendations to which I have referred had been adopted. 
Since then officials have arisen who had had no part in 
the original treaty— who knew nothing of Duleep 
Singh as the recognized ruler of a powerful state— who 
know him only as a deposed prince, asking, as they 
consider it, tor alms« 

The Maharajah, doubtless, has many faults, and his 
more recent conduct requires the exercise of a large 
amount of charity. But there are few who will rise 
from the perusal of Lady Login's book without 
admitting that he has suffered great wrongs, and 
without asking whether it is yet too late, by a 
generous concession, to bring back the lost sheep to 
the fold he quitted in despair. 

G. B. Malleson. 

July 12th, 1889. 




How often in the history of the British Empire in Chapter 
India, has the unexpected offer of a cadetship or,^* 
commission in the H.E.LC. Service been the means, ^'^^' 
under Divine Providence, of opening a career to some 
young and eager spirit whose lot might otherwise 
have been cast in a less eventful path of life ! 

In no case has this been more singularly exempUfied 
than in that of the young Orkneyman who, in the 
sxmimer of 1831, had just taken his degree of M.D. in 
the University of Edinburgh, and whose early associa- 
tions and ideas were all so connected with the sea 
and its interests, that his highest ambition then was 
to be able to combine his present profession with his 



Chapter desire for a life of adventure, by entering the Royal 

It is just this innate yearning for a wider field of 
action than the narrower life at home can give, that 
has impelled the sons of Scotland forth into all 
quarters of the globe as the pioneers of civilization, 
and engendered in them that adventurous spirit which 
creates the successful colonist, or the brilliant soldier 
of fortune. 

Such names as Livingstone, Clyde, and Gordon, are 
enough to testify that in these later times the race has 
not lost that chivalry and love of adventure which have 
ever been its characteristics ; and if this be true of the 
descendants of the Celts and Anglo-Saxon-Danes who 
people the mainland of Scotland, is it wonderftd that 
the dwellers in those isolated groups — ^known to the 
Romans as "Ultima Thule," that mythical land 
" bordering the unknown," and to us as the Orkney 
and Shetland Archipelago — should feel inspired with 
the spirit of their Norse ancestors, and bum to see 
and conquer other lands ? 

Though these islands form now an integral part of 
the United Elingdom, and are politically considered 
one of the shires of Scotland, their incorporation is, 
comparatively speaking, only of recent date, and their 
inhabitants are totally distinct in customs and origin 
from the rest of their fellow-subjects. 

In the commencement of the eighth century, sea- 
rovers, or Northmen, from Scandinavia descended on 


the Orkney and Shetland Isles, and extirpating what- Chapter 
ever race they found already in possession, colonized ^ 
the archipelago. From this central point of vantagOi 
sheltered in its voes and fiords, their fleets of war-ships 
harried the coasts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and pushed their enterprise down and around the 
shores of the continent of Europe into the Mediterra* 
nean Sea, even up to the walls of Constantinople. 

The Orkneys, therefore, were under the sway of the 
Kings of Norway, and for centuries continued to be so. 
Indeed, it was not until the year 1468 that King 
Christian I. of Denmark mortgaged his rights in these 
islands to James III. of Scotland, as part-payment of his 
daughter's dowry — the right to redeem them being 
retained to this very day by the Danish Crown ; and 
down to modem times their laws and internal regular 
tions have remained peculiar to themselves, and based 
on the old Norse customs and charters, the Norse 
language itself, still preserved in local names and 
expressions, becoming extinct only within the last 

Thus, lineally descended from the old Vikings, the 
Orcadians are essentially men of the sea ; for, roads 
being few, the shortest distances must be done by 
water; and he is of little count among them who 
can neither handle an oar, nor sail a boat skilfully, 
amid the currents, whirlpools, and skerries which 
render these regions so dangerous to mariners. Lying, 
as these islands do, where the opposing forces of two 

B 2 


Cbaptor oceans meet — their shores washed by the failing waters 
ifl/i of the Gulf Stream, along whose borders storm and fog 
continually hover, while the Atlantic billows im- 
ceasingly thunder against the giant cliflfe of Hoy — 
their natives must indeed be a hardy race to battle 
successfully with the terrors of such a coast ; and, in 
fact, as seamen they are unsurpassed for boldness and 

Here, then, was the birthplace of John Spencer 
Login. He was born in Stromness, on the mainland 
of Orkney, on November 9th, 1809. 

The name of Login is peculiar to this one family in 
Orkney, and is believed to be of Norse orififin.* 

Th/foUowing particular of John Logi Ja early days 
are furnished by his brother, the Rev. William 
S. Login : — 

On both father's and mother's side he sprang from a class of 
small proprietors peculiar to Orkney. Small though their hold- 
ings be, they tenaciously cling to them, and pride themselves on 
keeping them intact and handing them on to their sons. Many, 
of them, therefore, can trace their connection with their lands fori 
hundreds of years. > 

Our grandfather was in the service of the Hudson Bay Company^' 
and his son (our father, John Login) was, when a young man, izf 
the merchant navy, but left the sea and settled on his patrimonyJ 
or holding, in his native place, Stromness. Here he became J 

* There are many "Logies" throughout the islands whose ancestors csm 
over originally from Bnchan, in Aberdeenshire, as retainers of Earl Patriij 
Stewart, towards the end of the sixteenth century. 


Bhip-owner and agent, and married Margaret Spence, who came Chapter 
of an old Orkney family on the west mainland, the head of the I. 
house being Spence, of Eirbuster, in the parish of Birsay. 1809-89* 

Oar maternal grandfather commanded a merchantman trading 
to the West Indies from London. He married an " Orkney 
lass" named Groundwater — ^by the way, a great beauty I — a 
daughter of Edward Groundwater, of Groundwater, in the parish 
of Orphir. They had a large family, all of whom were bom in 
London, our mother being one of the youngest. When he left 
the sea, he retired to Orkney, and there ended his days. 

Soon after our father's death a great change came over our 
circumstances. Several vessels, of which he had been part owner, 
were wrecked, and as none of them had been insured (insurance 
was not so common in those days) our means were consequently 
greatly reduced ; but our mother, who was a woman of remark- 
able energy and courage, struggled bravely on under great 
difficulties, winning the respect and admiration of all who came 
in contact with her. Wherever her name was known (and that 
was widely) it seemed to make way for us, her children. She 
had business correspondents in all the principal towns on the 
east coast of Scotland, and as far as Newcastle ; and in all of 
them we found friends to welcome us for her sake. Though she 
has been in her grave for nearly fifty years, her memory is still 
green in Stromness. Her trust in her eldest son John was cer* 
tainly not misplaced. Never did son or brother take upon him 
in early youth such heavy responsibilities with greater con- 

We have all great reason to thank God for such a mother ; it 
is only in after life that we can realize and appreciate all the 
efforts and sacrifices she made on our behalf. 

Stromness was at that time a place largely resorted to by 
merchant ships trading to all parts of the world. The Hudson Bay 
Company's ships and the whale-fishing fleet called there regularly, 
both coming and going ; and ships on long voyages to Australia, 


Chapter the West Indies, or America, called there also for some of their 
L supplies. It was a very usual refuge for vessels disabled by the 

J809-39. storms pf the North Sea, and it was a common practice for 
Eussian and Swedish ships that found themselves too late to 
enter the Baltic, to winter in the harbour of Stromness. 

Our house became the resort, consequently, of ship captains 
and passengers going to and fro ; and, young though I was, I still 
retain a very pleasing recollection of the friendships we then 
formed. On Jo^n, who was ten years liiy senior, the effect of 
seeing mep of that class and hearing their stories of the sea, was 
very great. His youthful enthusiasm was kindled, and he was 
seized with an intense desire to become a sailor. 

Both our father and our mother were decidedly opposed to 
this idea, and did all they could to dissuade him from his purpose. 
They, in the first instance, sent him from home to school at 
Kirkwall, to keep him, as they believed, away from ships and 
boats ; but even there he was more frequently found about the 
harbour and pier than any other part of the . town, and he was 
such a favourite with the seamen in the harbour that he found 
it easy to indulge his passion, spending hours at sea alone in the 
roughest weather, handling a sailing boat with the greatest 
dexterity, or spending his nights at sea with the fishermen. 

As a compromise he was sent to Edinburgh, though yet a mere 
boy— certainly not more than fifteen — to study medicine at the 
University, with a view to become a surgeon in the Boyal Navy. 
He was too young to take full advantage of the classes he had to 
attend in matriculating, and I beheve his first year of attendance 
was spent more in the study of naval history than of any other 
branch of learning I 

He awoke at length to the importance of his medical studies, 
end his undoubted talents attracted the notice of the Professors. 
After studying for three summer and three winter sessions under 
Professor Syme, who showed him much kindness, and at the 
^yal Infirmary as Surgeon-Dresser under Doctors Adam 


Hunter and John Campbell, he received his Diploma as Licentiate Chapter 
of the Boyal College of Sargeons in Edinburgh, June, 1828, when L 
only nineteen years of age. Io09-3A 

In March, 1829 he was appointed House-Surgeon in the Boyal 
Infirmary, the Visiting Surgeons being Listen and Lizars, with 
whom he was brought much in contact. In the winter of 1829-80 
he was appointed permanent Physician-Clerk to the Boyal 
Infiimary, with charge of the medical wards under Doctors . 
James Gregory and Shortt and Professor Chris tison. The 
degree of M.D. he obtained in 1831, having to wait till he reached 
the prescribed age of twenty-one years. 

While pursuing his studies, he was only at home for eight or 
ten weeks in the autumn. It was during these brief intervals • 
alone that I had an opportunity of seeing him. I remember how 
he busied himself in improving the streets of our town; there 
were no rates available for the purpose, so he went about 
collecting subscriptions, and spent the money according to his 
own judgment in making alterations and improvements where 
they were most needed. He hired labourers to carry out his ideas ; 
and not content with merely directing, when the pinch came, 
often lent a hand himself. 

A few weeks before he left home for the last time a terrific 
storm broke over the North of Scotland, and was felt in its 
greatest violence in Orkney. Our harbour was full of ships, a 
number of them were driven from their moorings, and the havoc 
among the boats and jetties was terrible. There were no lives 
lost ; but the destruction of property was considerable, and but 
for the skill and energy displayed by John on this occasion, the 
losses would have been much greater. He roused all the pilots 
and boatmen, and compelled them to follow his leadership in 
defending the piers and jetties against the ships that were driven 
against them; he had such a masterful way with him that he 
carried all before him ! 

It was inamediately after obtaining his degree of 


Chapter M.D. that a career in India was suddenly opened up 
^ to John Login, altering all his previous plans of life. 

Dr. Shortt was asked to recommend a young surgeon 
to take charge of the case of Lord Chief Commissioner 
Adam, who was then suffering from dangerous compli- 
cations, necessitating close and skilful supervision. 
He at once advised that young Login should be asked 
to undertake the case, and for this purpose take up his 
residence at Blair- Adam. 

The proposal was accepted, and the results of his 
care and skill proved so eminently successfiil, that in a 
short time the Lord Chief Commissioner was most 
effectually relieved of his complaint. 

To show in some gratifying form his appreciation of 
the valuable professional services rendered to him, the 
Lord Chief asked and obtained from Mr. Loch (his 
son-in-law, one of the directors of the H.E.LC.) a com- 
mission as assistant-surgeon for young Login, advising 
him to select the Presidency of Bengal, as he could 
supply him with good introductions to influential 
friends there. 

In those days India was a sealed book to all who 
could not command personal interest at the India 
House, therefore this unexpected prospect was most 
welcome, as it opened the way to splendid possibilities 
in the way of travel and adventure, and of usefulness 
to his fellow-men, which amply compensated him for 
having, in deference to his parents' wishes, renounced 
his personal leaning to the sea. 


One more visit Login paid to the old Orkney home, Qwptar 
to take leave of all his fiiends before setting: sail for ^ 


the other side of the world, and (though he knew it 
not) to look for the last time in this world on the &ce 
of that mother to whom he owed so much, and from 
whom he inherited those qualities of indomitable 
energy, perseverance, and sound judgment, which were 
destined to stand him in such good stead in after life. 
Even in those early days he was remarkable for a 
certain persuasive power of "getting his own way," 
and this was amusingly illustrated on the occasion of 
his last visit home. 

His mother had invited a large number of friends to 
a sort of farewell entertainment. All the bigwigs of 
their little community were there — doctors, lawyers, 
baillies, ship captains, the old parish minister and his 
assistant, all much impiessed with the dignity incum- 
bent on their positions, and the sedate gravity which 
it behoved them, as elders, to maintain on an occasion 
so appropriate for parting words of counsel and 
admonition to a young friend about to be launched 
in life. 

Scenting some intention of the sort in the air. Login 
electrified the assembly by proposing that all, young 
and old, should join in a game of " blind-man's buff! " 
Spite of all protests, he carried his point ; and the 
"guid folk "of Stromness had presented to their 
astonished view the unusual spectacle of all those 
" grave and potent seigniors " tearing about in a state 


Chapter of the wildest excitement, like school-boys broken 
^ loose ! 

In another letter his brother William* writes : — 

I was only twelve years old when he left home on the 4th of 
Decemher, 1831, and I never saw him again. Still, the unceasing 
flow of his affection towards us all, which time and distance 
seemed not in the least to abate, kept him as fresh in our thoughts 
and affections as if we had never been separated. Few families 
have been so closely knitted together as we have been, and this 
was largely owing to the strong hold he had on us, and the self- 
denying generosity which he exerted on our behalf. Though 
abundantly prosperous, and flattered with friendly recognition by 
the highest, he never forgot the " auld hoose at hame " and its 
inmates. He left on my youthful mind an impression of one bom 
to command. There was no resisting him ! 

On arrival at Calcutta, in July, 1832, Login found 
himself posted to H. M. Buffs, and in October accom- 
panied the regiment to Dinapore. Here he learnt 
that the Commander-in-Chief had ordered him to be 
transferred to the Ist Brigade of Horse Artillery, and 
he was appointed to take medical charge of the 3rd 
Troop at Dum Dum. At this place he was stationed 
until December, 1833, and here, too, like many young 
officers in the Bengal Artillery, had cause to bless the 
ea.rnest religious influences and true Christian piety 
which pervaded the great headquarter station, and of 

♦ The Rev. William S. Login, for thirty years Presbyterian minister of Sale, 
Gipp*« Laud, Australia. 


which Major — ^afterwards General — ^Powney, of the Chapter 
Bengal Artillery, was the chief centre.* ^ 

John Spencer Login was naturally of a serious and 
earnest disposition ; but it was at this period of his life 
that were chiefly laid the seeds of that deeply-rooted 
piety and strong faith, which were the ruling features 
of his character in after-life, and which so plainly 
governed his every word and action, though he was 
not one to make a parade of his religious convictions : 
indeed, it wm this very dignity of reserve with regard 
to his inmost feelings that impressed those brought in 
contact with him. 

While at Dum Dtun he was selected by Government 
to proceed to Persia as medical oflBicer to the detach- 
ment under Colonel Pasmore, sent to organize the anny 
of Futteh Ali Shah, but was induced to withdraw his 
name in favour of another medical officer who was most 
anxious for the post. 

The appointment of Dr. Login to the Horse Artillery 
at Dum Dum had been in the first instance rather a 
sore point with the Brigadier commanding there (Sir 
C Brown, K.C.B.), he having applied for the post for a 
friend of his own. Login had therefore some natural 
prejudice to overcome on the part of his commanding 
officer ; but in the end his zealous attention to his 
public duties so won the heart of the Brigadier, that 
when in December, 1833, he was made over by Lord 

Se« Kjiye's " Lives of Indian Officers "^'IMajor D'Arcy Todd: 


Chapter William Bentinck to the service of the Nizam of 
QAo Q Hyderabad, the Commandant was among the foremost 
' in expressing the regrets of the community at losing 
him. A silver breakfast service was presented to him, 
and a farewell dinner given in his honour by the 
corps — rather an unusual compliment to a young 

The whole is described by him in a letter to his 
mother : — 

What do you think of your son being honoured with a fare* 
well dinner given by the station, and invitations sent to all my 
friends to meet me, in the name of the Brigadier commanding 
and the officers of artillery — upwards of forty at dinner, the old 
Brigadier in the chair, with your humble servant on his right ? 
After the cloth was removed, the Commandant proposed my 
health in the most flattering terms, toast drunk with honours 
(aye, more than honour, for there was kindness in the maimer 
they did it), the regimental band playing '* Logic o' Buchan " 
(for which I am indebted to some Scotch friends who were pre- 
sent) ; and when I attempted to return thanks, I fairly broke 
down — it was too much for me I When I tell you that 
my breakfast table is now adorned with a handsome silver 
service, and that my old Captain (generally looked upon as a 
miser) sent me before leaving, a cheque for 500 rupees (£50) to help 
my new outfit and uniform, need I tell you that I am sorry to 
part with all my friends here ? I am sure you will not think 
that I tell you this in any boastful spirit, but I cannot withhold 
expressing my feelings to you, besides, I know what pleasure it 
will give you. 

I am quite an artilleryman now. Bluejacket for ever I I have 
been trying my hand at the great guns too, and have made one of 
the best shots, I assure you ! Indeed on the strength of it, I 


think I shall apply for a lieutenant's commission in the Nizam's Chapter 

artillery I !• 


On arrival at Bolarum, Login found himself 
appointed to the medical charge of the 6th Regiment 
Nizam's Infantry, which he continued to hold at 
Hengolee, EUichpore, and on active service with a 
brigade of troops in the Bheel Country, until 
December, 1835, when he saw his name in orders as 
Civil-Surgeon at Howrah, near Calcutta, Proceeding 
at once to join, he marched from the Deccan, vid 
Nagpore and the Nerbuddah, to Mirzapore, and found 
on his arrival there, in January, 1836, that he had 
been transferred to Fort WiUiam as Garrison-Surgeon. 

For these appointments he was indebted to Mr. 
James Eanald Martin — afterwards Sir Kanald Martin^* 
Presidency-Surgeon, who, before Login left Calcutta, 
had expressed his intention of securing his services at 
the Presidency whenever opportunity offered. He 
had not held this post long, when Mr. Martin 
recommended him to Sir Charles — afterwards Lord — 
Metcalfe, as surgeon on his personal staff, when 
proceeding to assume the Government of the North- 
West Provinces. Dr. Login remained with Sir 
Charles in this capacity at Agra for two years, 
occupied to his heart's content in such work as he 
delighted in; for Sir Charles enabled him to set on 
foot a hospital or dispensary for the poor, and he was 
further engaged as superintendent of the Famine 


Chapter Relief Society, the work of which at that period was 

r- extremely onerous, owing to the terrible distress 
1809-39. , : ' "6 


At this time he organized the Orphan Asylum at 
Secundra, which has expanded since into its present 
proportions, and proved such a boon. He here formed 
the lasting friendship of James Thomason, afterwards 
Lieut. -Governor N.W.P., which continued throughout 
his career. Here, also, he learnt to know Henry 
Havelock, Broadfoot, and Edward Sanders, of the 
Bengal Engineers, ever after highly valued friends of 

This was a happy, busy time, under a Chief whom he 
so much loved and respected, and it was a great sorrow 
to him when at length, in December, 1837, Sir Charles 
Metcalfe left Agra to return to England, where he was 
appointed to the post of Governor of Jamaica. Login 
accompanied him to Calcutta, and, loth to say farewell, 
went out with him to sea, returning only with the 
pilot vessel. 

Sir Theophilus Metcalfe (brother of Lord Metcalfe) 
at this period applied for him to be sent to Delhi ; 
but as Dr. Banken elected to return to his duties there. 
Login was appointed to Hooghley as Civil-Surgeon 
and Postmaster, being posted at the same time to his 
old corps — the Horse Artillery, at Dum Dum. He 
was, however, soon to quit this for a locality with 
which he was afterwards much associated, and where 
his name was destined to be widely known amon^r 


Europeans and natives alike^ as the originator of many Chapter 
benevolent and charitable institutions. ^ 

Dr. Stevenson, the Residency- Surgeon, being com- 
pelled to leave Lucknow and proceed to England on 
sick-leave, the acting vacancy was, in April, 1838, 
offered to Login by Lord Auckland, whose interest 
had been specially requested by Sir Charles Metcalfe 
on his behalf Accordingly, in May, he became Acting 
Residency-Surgeon at Lucknow, and was soon after 
appointed Postmaster-General in Oude, in addition to 
his other duties. It might have been thought that 
the work of those two appointments would be sufficient 
to occupy the whole of any one man's time, but such 
was by no means the opinion of Dr. Login, who was 
filled with an eager desire to do his part towards 
alleviating the distress he saw around him among the 
suffering native population. 

The famine which had so terribly prevailed through- 
out the N.W. Provinces, had extended into Oude, and 
driven thousands of poor starving wretches to seek 
relief in the city of Lucknow. A large public sub- 
scription had been raised a little time before he arrived, 
at the instance of Colonel Low, the Resident, and 
Captain Paton ; and as Login had had much experience 
in this work, both at Agra and as a member of the 
Relief Committee in Calcutta, he was asked to super- 
intend the application of the ftmd at Lucknow. With 
characteristic energy he threw his whole so\il into the 
work, and drew up certain proposals on the subject which 


Chapter were unanimously adopted by the Conunittee. An 
^' institution called the " Poor's House/' or " Gharlb- 
* khana/' was thereupon established, where the most 
destitute were received, lodged, and fed. Here they 
were classified according to their needs : the sick, the 
blind, the maimed, and the lame, being placed in 
different wards, while special arrangements were made 
for the comfort of children and families ; and the 
public report says, " Order, cleanliness, and excellent 
arrangements were everywhere manifest, exhibiting a 
well-conducted and most useful institution," The 
whole was under his personal and daily supervision. 

At the same time he was enabled, by the liberality 
of the King of Oude — Mahomed Ali Shah — also to 
provide food, shelter, and clothing for upwards of 500 
infirm persons daily, whUe of those able to work, 
several thousands were employed on the buildings 
then in progress at Hoosainabad, imder Azimoolah 
Khan, Derogah. There was, moreover, in the city of 
Lucknow an old native hospital and dispensary, 
founded by Nusseeroodeen Hyder, the preceding Sove- 
reign of Oude, which had fallen into neglect, and this 
also was reorganized by Dr. Login, and rendered 
capable of treating 140 cases daily. 

These varioxis institutions were in full swing, and 
Login had settled down to a life of hard work, " such 
as his soul loved," with every moment occupied, when 
the Gazette announced that Dr. Stevenson (who was 
still drawing his official salary as Residency-Surgeon 


and also as A.D.C. to the King of Oude) had been pro- Chapter 
moted to the grade of surgeon, which disqualified him ^• 

from holding the appointment any longer. 

On this, knowing how fully satisfied both the Resi- 
dent and the Governor-General were, with the maimer 
in which he had performed the duties of his position, 
Login abstained on principle from making any appli- 
cation for the vacancy, having a conscientious convic- 
tion that the Government ought to be the best judge 
of the man most qualified for any particular post. The 
Resident, as well as the community at large, felt 
certain that he would be confirmed in the appoint- 
ment, and in consequence of this general beUef no other 
medical officer applied for it. Dr. Stevenson, however, 
exerted all his private interest to retain his appoint- 
ment in spite of his disqualification. Owing to Login's 
scruples, he was enabled to do so with success, and it 
was arranged that he should be allowed to return to 
his duties in January, 1839. 

In the meantime, Lord Auckland, in August, 1838, 
oflTered Login the choice of a civil appointment, or 
to go on active service with the army of the Indus, 
then assembling for the invasion of Afghanistan. 
Login, in reply, expressed his willingness to be em- 
ployed in any way in which he might be thought most 
useful, adding that " if appointed to the army, he 
hoped to be allowed to join the artillery again." 

This answer so pleased the Governor-General that 
he himself requested Sir Henry Fane to post Dr. Login 



Chapter to one of the troops of Horse Artillery ordered on active 

^ ^' service, and he was directed to loin the army on the 
1809-39. . 

' frontier, as soon as the return of Dr. Stevenson set him 

free from his duties at Lucknow. Such was his eager- 
ness, however, for service in the field, that when he 
learnt, in October, that the troop of Horse Artillery to 
which he was posted was ordered to the frontier, and 
would have to be placed temporarily in medical charge 
of the doctor of H.M. 16th Lancers, he wrote to head- 
quarters offering to throw up his present well-paid 
appointment and proceed forthwith to join his troop. 
Gratified with such zeal, the Commander-in-Chief 
ordered that his travelling expenses should be paid to 
Kumaul, where he arrived in November, 1838, and 
found himself placed in medical charge of dll the Horse 
Artillery, with an assistant-sui^eon under him. 

Though his residence at Lucknow had been so short, 
barely six months in all, many were the expressions of 
regret and goodwill from all classes of the community 
on his departure ; the subscribers to the Gharib-khana 
especially recording their " unanimous admiration of 
his benevolent zeal and laboured assiduity in personally 
superintending every department of this Institution, 
the numerous sick among them having also received 
daily from Dr. Login the great benefit of his own per- 
sonal medical attendance." 

Colonel Low, the Resident, at the same time 
addressed a most complimentary letter to him, in tl\c 
name of the whole European community, expressive oj 


their admiration for his untiring efforts for their wel- Chapter 

fare, and adding: — ^• 

^ 1809-89, 

I have good evidence of the fact that great numbers of natives 
of this city have expressed, in their own circles of society, their 
admiration of the zeal and kind feeling displayed by you at the 
Hospital, and of the unwearied personal labours which you 
voluntarily took upon yourself during the late sickly season, in 
attending upon your numerous patients; while many of the 
Christian inhabitants have often spoken to myself in the warmest 
terms of the kindness which they and their families have received 
from you, in your medical capacity, at their own houses. 

I sincerely hope that wherever Providence may cast your 
future lot in life, you may enjoy health and opportunities to 
continue the practice of similar acts of benevolence and useful- 
ness to those which you have so conspicuously performed at 
liucknow, and which will ever produce a pleasing reward, in the 
consciousness of possessing talents and energies actively exercised 
for the benefit of your fellow-creatures. 

I have the honour to be, 

The Residency. J- ^w, 

Lucknow, Besident. 

Oct. 22nd, 1838. 

It was also gratifying to Dr. Login to find that the 
improvements he had inaugurated in the Post OflSce 
during his short tenure of office were highly appre- 
ciated, both by the European community and by the 
PcMstmaster- General in Calcutta. 

The following letter to his mother was written from 

c 2 


Chapter Umballa, November, 1838, just after leaving Luck- 

^* now : — ■ 

The Commander-in-Chief was bo kind as to order my ddk to be 
paid, and I was directed to make all possible speed to reach 
Eumaol on the 1st instant. 

The King of Oude sent for me a second time to the Palace 
before I left ; he received me most kindly, and honoured me by 
an embrace ! (which I assure you is considered by no means a 
small compliment) and in other respects treated me most 
liberally, presenting me with a dress of honour, or Khillut, 

He has thus put it into my power to send a small token of my 
gratitude to the kind Lord Chief, Miss and Mrs. Adam, and 
Dr. Shortt, in the form of some handsome shawls which he 
himself put on me ; I hope to be able shortly to send yon a 
sketch of my " dress of State,'' which was, I understand, much 
more valuable than such as is usually given. 

We are on the march to Ferozepore, on the banks of the 
Sutlej, where the whole army is to meet to make a grand 
display before the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Auckland, and 
Bunjeet Singh, preparatory to proceeding on more active service. 
.... I had to walk through at least three miles of tents at 
Kurnaul before finding Tom Drevor, who was encamped at the 
other end of the lines from me. This will give you some idea of 
the force which is to assemble at Ferozepore, for this is only 
two-thirds of it I The number of fighting men, it is true, does 
not exceed 15,000, but of followers there are no less than 150,000 ! ! 

I must now conclude, earnestly entreating that God's abundant 
grace may be vouchsafed to us both. . . . 

Believe me, your most affectionate son, 

J. B. LooiK. 

The bonds of friendship with Henry Lawrence (\rhu 


was there on duty with his troop of Horse Artillery) Chapter 
were drawn very close during that march ; they shared ^ 
the same tent and were constantly together, being of *^"^- 
one mind on every matter which they discussed. 

Henry Lawrence had not long been manied, and 
had to leave his young wife behind, but she joined him 
at Ferozepore, and Login was much with them until 
the army marched for Candahar. 

On leaving Ferozepore, the army of the Indus, under 
Sir Willoughby Cotton, advanced through Scinde and 
Beloochistan to Candahar, where it formed a junction 
with the main body imder Sir John Keane. Login 
accompanied the force, and shortly after he arrived at 
Candahar, in May, 1839, he was asked by Major 
D'Arcy Todd to accompany his mission to Herdt, with 
the option of remaining there, or returning through 
Turkestan to Cabul with Major Eldred Pottinger. 

The military authorities, however, were very un- 
willing to lose his services, and it was only on his 
personal application at Lord Keane's headquarters, 
stating his dasire to join the mission, that leave 
was at last granted. 

On his departure, he received from the Commander- 
in-Chief a most gratifying official letter, testifying to 
his valuable services. 



Chapter ** FoR three or four hundred years/' says ColoDel 

^^' Malleson,* "the valley and city of Herd^t were the 
1839-40 J J 

' granary and garden of Central Asia. In that valley 

and within the walls of that city the desolating 
presence of the A%han was, in those days, never felt. 
The inhabitants, of mixed Persian and Turk! blood, 
were industrious, inventive, energetic, and pains- 
taking. The fertile valley of the Herirdd producecl 
supplies far more than sufl&cient for their simple wants. 
Their city lay on the intersecting point of the roads 
which communicated with the markets of Europe, 
of India, of Bokhdra, and of Persia. 

" Under these circmnstances Herdt soon became the 
most important commercial city in Central Asia. .... 
Her streets were adorned with palaces, with markets, 
with aqueducts, the remains of which even now 
excite wonder and admiration. The courts of her 
ruling princes became centres to which the intellectual 

• i( 

Herdtt*' by Colonel Malleson, C.S.I., pp. 9-11. 

herIt. 23 

aristocracy of Central Asia resorted — ^all who were Chapter 
famous in poesy, in science, in astronomy, in architec- ^^' 
tural acquirements. Her fame was sung by poets, 
and recorded by historians. Nor was the pros- 
perity confined to the city alone. It spread into 
the valleys, to the north, and to the west. To this 
day the valley of the Murghab, even as far as Merv, is 
strewn with ruins of castles and villas which attested 
the prosperity of the parent city. Nor was that pro- 
sperity transient. Conquerors indeed came. and besieged, 
occasionally they even stormed, the city. But those 
conquerors were not Afghans. They did not carry in 
their hands a withering and perpetual desolation. 
After coming to conquer they remained to repair. 
And so inherent were the advantages possessed by the 
city, that after each new conquest she rose again 
almost inmiediately from her ashes, and recovered her 
former prosperity. .... Herdt stiU remained the 
commercial queen of Central Asia .... until the year 
1717 " — ^when the Afghans first captured the city. 

In such glowing and eloquent language does the 
able pen of MaUeson describe the famous city. Some 
idea of its size in former times may be gathered from 
the fact, that when in 1219 it was taken by Chingiz 
Khan, it was found to contain 12,000 retail shops, 
6,000 public baths, caravanserai, and water-mills, 350 
schools and monastic institutions, and 144,000 occupied 
houses. One million and a half of men perished in the 
siege. Again, in the time of Tamerlane (1381), the pro- 


Chapter Verb was universal, "Which is the most splendid city in 
1MQ in *^® world ? If you answer truly you must say Herdt ! "* 
But it is not only on account of its wealth and 
commerce that Herat has such a paramount position 
in Central Asia, and it was chiefly its strategical 
importance, as dominating the road to India, which 
induced Lord Auckland to despatch thither the mission 
under Major D'Arcy Todd. His aim was not only to 
further the commercial interests of the East India 
Company by opening its markets to British trade, but 
also to cultivate amicable relations with the ruler of 
Herd-t, Shah Kamrdn ; and by aiding him with grants 
of money and the support of the English name, enable 
him to maintain his independence, and withstand the 
attacks of Persia, instigated by Russian agents. 

The distress among the starving population was 
great, and the want of confidence in their ruler 
crushed all heart out of the people and prevented 
their making any effort to better their condition. 
Shah Kamrd,n was at this time a perfect cipher in the 
hands of his Wuzeer, Yar Mahomed, but his own 
character for brutality, cruelty, and deceit, was such 
that there was no hope of matters being better con- 
ducted in his own hands. 

He was the son of Mahmoud, the last of the 
Sadoksye Kings of Cabul, and had, in his father s 
lifetime, been made by him Governor of Herdt. When 
— - • - - - ~ 

•See Malleson^s "licnUy 

herIt. 25 

Mahtnoud was driven from Cabul and deprived of his Chapter 
kingdom, he retreated to Herdt, which place still ^^' 
remained faithful to him, and caUing himself " King 
of Herdt," under the suzerainty of Persia, remained 
there until he died by the hand of his son Eamrdn, 
who thereupon proclauned himself King, 

Shah Kamrdn soon proved himself a very trouble- 
some vassal, frequently making raids on the neighbour- 
ing tribes and villages wherever he could obtain spoil ; 
and having constantly to be called to account for his 
filibustering behaviour, he was seldom in favour with 
his suzerain, who was at last provoked into attacking 
him in his stronghold. 

The renowned siege of Herdt by Mahmoud Shah, 
King of Persia, had taken place only two years before 
the mission arrived there, when the brave Eldred 
Pottinger was the instigator and leader of the 
successful defence made by the Herdtis against the 
Persian army. 

The following extract from a letter written by 
Login to his mother gives his fiiast impressions of 
Herdt :— 

July 29th, 1839. 

.... You will be glad to hear that we have reached this 
famed fortress in safety. Oiir political negotiations are, I think, 
going on well, and I hope ere long that British influence may be 
fully established here. The city and its environs have suffered 
severely from the siege, not one-fourth of its former population 
remains. Under a good Government it might in a short time 


Chapter regain its former prosperity, but such Is not Shah Kamrdn's 1 We 
U. expect to be allowed to spend part of the money, we have brought 

1839-40. in repairing the fortifications, giving advances to the cultivators, 
and supporting the poor, of which there are an immense number ; 
but these Asiatics are so jealous of our interference and so sus- 
picious of our motives that there is no certainty as to what we 
may be permitted to do. The people of the surrounding country 
are wild and lawless, but they have a very high opinion of 
individual British skill and prowess, and consequently respect ns 
greatly. I have no doubt that, with God's blessing, much good 
may be done amongst them. I believe it is almost decided that 
I am to remain here for some time. I cannot say that I at all 
dislike the idea of doing so : the country is very fine, climate to an 
European delightful, snow for four months in the year, fruit of 
all kinds in great abundance, ** only man is vile 1 " 

I think I ought to remain here — a wide field of usefulness is 
open to me, and I may, through Divine blessing, be preparing a 
way for a Christian mission in this centre of Asia ere long. 
Colonel Stoddart, who was here lately with Pottinger, is now at 
Bokhdra, sent as an agent from the British Government. The 
Usbegs affected to treat him as a Hussian spy, and put him in 
prison ; but he has found favour with his jailor, and is by no 
means uncomfortable. I believe him to be a sincere Christian ^ 
and who knows but what the city, ** Holy Bokhara," as it is 
called, may yet feel his influence. 

There are several families of Jews here. I had yesterday a 
long conversation with two of them ; they were much delighted 
with part of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Bomans which I reiul 
to them in Persian.* While here my allowance may be about 

* Jews are settled in great numbers over Eastern Persia and Turkestan, though 
only a few families wore then to be found at Her^t, who, however, were well 
affected to the mission. 

Among themselves they use the Persian language, written in the Hebx«w 
cliarteter, and as they appeared much delighted with the small tract wfaicli 

700 nipees per month, but expenses are very great. The poor of Chapter 
the city are to be my special charge. U. 

There is something unique in the idea of our Government 1^39-40. 
strengthening itself by acts of benevolence in the interior of the 
city, while its walls are being repaired without. 

The courier starts inunediately. Grod bless you all. 

Your affectionate son, 


The Her^t Mission was compofied of the foUowiug 
officers : — 

Major D'Abct Todd, Envoy; 
Gapt* Edwabd Sandebs, Bengal Engineers ; 
Lieut. Edwabd Conollt, Bengal Engineers ; 
lieut. James Abbott, Bengal Engineers ; 
Lieut. Bichmond Shakespeab, Bengal ArtLQery ; 
Lieut. GhabiiES F. Nobth, Bombay Engineers; 
Dr. BrrcHiE, Bombay Army ; 
Dr. Loom, Bengal Army: 

joining Major Eldred Pottinger at Herit in August , 

Login had got one of their Bahbis to transcribe for them, he was induced to 
employ the same man on a simihir transcription of Martyn's Persian Testament. 

This was not finishod when the mission left Her^t, so Login took the mana- 
script witii him to Cabul, where he met a son of the old Babbi, just arrired with 
lettera from Stoddart at Bokhara. Him, Login engaged to complete the work, 
lesTing him in the charge of Major Dawes, B.H.A., who took the Jew with him 
to Jellallabad, where the transcription was finished during the siege and sent 
down to Peshawar by the first kaJUa, which traversed the Khyber after Pollock's 
advance. Thirieen years aJUr Login had the happiness of hearing that this 
last-named Jew had through this work been led to enquire into the truth of the 
Gospel, and died a Christian at Bombay. — Ferrier's *^ Caravan Journey ,** 
p. 123. 


Chapter Login undertook the charge of the poor, amounting 

^ ^' to 2,000, who had for some time before the arrival of 
1839-40. ' ' 

' mission been supported by Eldred Pottinger, at the 

expense of the British Government. 

As soon as arrangements could be made by the 
Engineer officers, a portion of the destitute people were 
employed in the fortifications of the city, but a large 
number of females and infirm persons remained to be 
provided for, and continued under charge of Dr. Login 
during the stay of the mission. For those of this 
class, who were unable to earn a livelihood, an asylum 
was established by him, in which employment was 
given to the blind and infirm according to their various 
circumstances, and with a success that was truly 
gratifying. To those able to work at their own homes 
(the custom of the country preventing out-door work 
for females) he endeavoured, with great success, to re- 
establish the manufacture of carpets, for which Herdt 
had always been famed — ^the women being employed 
in spinning the cotton and wool required for the 
purpose, and receiving a supply of food (attah, flour) 
for their labour. 

On the success of these arrangements being reported 
to the Court of Directors, a sum of 700 rupees per 
mensem was ordered to be placed at Dr. Login's 
disposal to carry on this work, and also that of a 
dispensary and hospital which he had established, and 
which was daily attended by crowds of the sick poor 
of the city and surrounding country. 

herIt. 29 

In addition to these duties above mentioned, the Chi^er 
Commissariat and Post Office were placed under Dr. H- 
Login's charge ; the former being of great importance, 
owing to the famine at Herdt after the siege, and the 
necessity of obtaining supplies from a great distance. 
I.e., Seistan and Merv — ^not only for the mission, but 
also for the numerous poor dependent on it ; and the 
latter including the establishment of horsemen for the 
protection of travellers between Herdt and Candahar, 
a distance of 400 mUes. Dr. Login personally inspected 
all the intermediate stations, conciliating the Dourani 
tribes in the neighbourhood (by which the safe passage 
of the mission was afterwards much &cilitated). The 
arrangements on this line were so successful, that the 
members of the mission were able to communicate with 
Candahar in less time than letters took to go from 
Candahar to Cabul, though the distance in the former 
case is greater by 100 miles; while so efficient was 
the protection of the road under the system employed 
— ^viz., that of keeping at each station two or more 
A^han foot-soldiers belonging to the Sir-i-Khail 
(chief of the tribe) of most influence in the neighbom*- 
hood — that during the whole eighteen months only 
two or three trifling robberies took place throughout 
the whole distance. 

During 1840, Login was despatched on a special 
mission to Candahar. His chief object was to convey 
despatches and presents for transmission to England, 
and to bring back the treasure (sovereigns) for use of 


Chapter the mission at Herdt. He made a most successfiil 
^^' loumey, meeting with the utmost courtesy and kind* 

'^'-^- ness at every Kh<.U he passed through ; probably 
owing as much to his control over the guards on the 
road, and his well-armed party of twelve, as to his 
reputation as a Feringhi Hakim. 

At one of his halting-places, however, he was near 
falling a victim to Afghan treachery. He had been 
received by an Afghan chief in the neighbourhood of 
Washeer in a most courteous and hospitable manner, 
and honoured with an istighal in A%han style — 
the eldest son of the chief having been sent out to 
meet him with display of feats of horsemanship. The 
principal men of the tribe were also invited to a feast 
in his honour. 

It was arranged before parting for the night that 
the Khan, with an escort, should accompany Login 
next morning for a short way towards Ghirishk. It 
happened, however, that the latter awoke very early, 
and could not again fall asleep (the Afghan pilau may 
have been indigestible !), so finding the moon bright and 
the weather favourable, he left his little tent which 
was pitched in the courtyard of the caravanserai, and 
walked to the gate, where he found a Pharsevdn 
holding the horse of the sleeping Afghan who was 
supposed to be sentinel. After a little conversation 
with this man, during which he was considerably 
enHghtened as to the character of his host, Login 
determined to wake up his men and proceed on his 

hebIt. 31 

journey to Ghirishk as soon as possible. This was done, Chapter 
and a message sent to the Khan of apology and thanks, '^' 
am,mpanied by a smaU present. The Khan speedily '^'■''^- 
appeared, and endeavoured to dissuade him ; but 
failing in this, ordered out his party to escort him. 
This was civilly declined by Login, who after a trying 
march of nearly fifty miles reached Girishk in safety, 

and was cordially welcomed by Captain E in 

charge of the district. 

On the following day, Captain E 's agents 

brought information that the Khan of Washeer had, 
while entertaining his guest, despatched messages to 
Aktar Khan, a Dourani chieftain then encamped not 
far from Sadaat, urging him to intercept Login, who 
would pass at a certain time, and who would prove a 
valuable prize ! 

Had it not providentially happened that the afore- 
said ** prize" had been induced to start two hours 
earlier than was expected, he might not have reached 
Ghirishk so safely, and a valuable copy of the 
" Shahnameh " presented by Shah Kamrdn to Her 
Majesty, of which he was the bearer, and which he 
afterwards had the pleasure of recognizing in the 
Royal Library at Windsor, might have failed to reach 
its destination. 

Being deeply interested in carrying out his various 
duties, Login, at the earnest desire of the Envoy, 
declined to avail himself of the option given him to 
return to Cabul with Major Pottinger. 


Chapter In the following March, 1 840, he received a letter 

^•^' from the Commander-in-Chief, Sir Jasper NicolV\ 
1839-40 -r ^^ 

* intimating that he had, on the recommendation of 
several medical authorities in Calcutta, appointed him 
as surgeon on his personal staff, hoping he could make 
arrangements to join. On hearing this, the Envoy at 
Cabul represented so strongly to the Govemor-Greneral, 
at the instance of D'Arcy Todd, the great importance 
of Dr. Login's work at Herdt, and the difficulty there 
would be to replace him, that Lord Auckland 
requested Sir Jasper Nicolls to appoint another 
surgeon to officiate for him till he could be spared 
from his present post, intimating to Sir Jasper at the 
same time that he (Lord Auckland) intended giving 
Dr. Login a permanent appointment as soon as he 

After Eldred Pottinger had left, taking with him 
Dr. Ritchie, the number of the mission was still fiirther 
reduced by Conolly s departure to Seistan, and at 
Christmas, Abbott, and later on Shakespear, were sent 
by Todd on a mission to Khiva on behalf of the 
Russian captives. 

The small remnant became entirely dependent for 
news of the outer world on the cossids, or runners, whom 
Login had established on the roads to carry the posts ; 
and their appearance at stated periods was anxiously 
looked for, Mitford's arrival was, therefore, an event 
eagerly welcomed, and as his description of the position 
of affairs at the time, and the life led by the mission 

herIt. 33 

at Herdt, is the most detailed and interesting on the Chapter 
subiect, some extracts from his work are inserted, in ^^• 
spit« of its being akeady so well known. 

• Oct, 27th, 1840. 

Beaching Herdt at sunset, I entered the gate, and made my 
way through a long street crowded with people and strings of 
camels, and proceeded immediately to the Besidence of the 
British Envoy, Major D'Arcy Todd, by whom I was most kindly 
and cordially welcomed. Major Todd's party at this time con- 
sisted of Lieut. North, Bombay Engineers, and Dr. Login, of the 
Bengal Army. I experienced the most assiduous kindness from 
those gentlemen, and once more felt myself at home with country- 
men and friends, most thankful that I had not been marched as a 
slave to Khiva by the Tm*comans. My wardrobe, as may be 
imagined, was in a very precarious condition — my frock-coat was 
dilapidated at the elbows, the buttons had made their escape 
from their cases, and altogether I was scarcely fit to appear in 
civilized society, but by the kindness of these friends I was soon 
furnished with a fresh outfit. 

The British Envoy arrived at Herdt in August, 1839, since 
which time a great change has been effected in the condition of 
the place; the town reviving from its ruins, the population 
returning, the peasantry are restoring their villages, resuming the 
cultivation of their fields, and caravans of Her^tis are daily 
arriving from Meshed and other places where they had taken 
refuge, to re-occupy their deserted homes under the protection of 
the English name. These people had fled, not as might have 
been supposed, from the Persians, but to escape the tyranny of 
the Wuzeer, and actual ruler, Yar Mahomed, the greatest oppressor 
of his own people. He carried on a trade with the Tmrcomans in 

♦ Mitford'8 "Land March.*' 


Chapter slaves, receiving in return horses and cash ; he is said to have 
II. disposed of over 30,000 of his own people in this nefarious way ! 
1839-40. g^u^ nothing but our protection induces the people to return within 
reach of this miscreant 

Dr. Login informed me that when the Envoy first arrived the 
place was full of beggars, the remains of the ruined population 
scarcely amounting to a thousand, but now there is a well-stocked 
bazaar crowded with people, and a beggar is rarely seen. Dr. 
Login has contributed much by his praiseworthy exertions to the 
rising prosperity of the place : he employs the people in various 
works and branches of industry, and has re-estabUshed the carpet 
manufacture for which Herdt was always celebrated.* These 
carpets are very handsome, and the colours bright. I visited 
some of the looms, and was struck with the rapidity with which 
they worked ; they had no pattern to guide them, but worked 
from memory, yet never made a mistake by inserting the wrong- 
coloured worsteds. 

When the Envoy arrived he found no house that he could 
occupy, but was assigned a large garden surrounded by the 
ruins of the Shah's palace in this place, called the Ghar-Bagh ; 
there was not a room entire, and he was forced to pitch his tent 
until a house could be built. There is now abundant accommo- 
dation, the Besidency being large and commodious. Dr. Login 
has also built a pretty house on a more European plan at the 
opposite side of the garden — ^which gives the place a most 
uniform appearance; in the centre of the garden is a large 
square tank, where several broad pathways intersecting the 
garden meet, the different partitions being full of trees aud 

The people of Herdt seem well-disposed towards the English. 

* The Hcriiti carpet is famed above all others for the brilliancy and per> 
maueucy of its colours. They are made in aU sizes aud prices from £1 to ^lOO. 
Gonolly pronounced the best pieces he saw to equal the Turkey carpet, and their 
price to be moderate. — Malleaon's **Htrdt" p. 92. 

herIt. 35 

and well they may, considering the benefits they reap from them. Chapter 
They are protected from tyranny, they are profitably employed, 11. 
as well as assisted by us ; the villagers are advanced money and 1^^9-40. 
grain to plant their fields ; but what reliance can be placed on a 
fickle populace if their chiefs are inimical ? ♦ 

When the Envoy first arrived he had with him a detachment 
of Sepoys. These were sent back to Candahar, as he considered 
himself safer without them. He has a pretty little castellated 
walled village on the Herirud, three miles from the town,t 
where in case of danger he might take refuge and maintain 

himself until events turned in his favour At the 

Residency they have adopted the precaution of giving appropriate 
conventional names to all the people of importance, to prevent 
servants who may know a little English from understanding the 

* Writing so late as 1863, Vamb^ry says, " I find no exaggeration in the 
opinion that the Herdtees long most for the intervention of the English, whose 
feelings of humanity and justice have led the inhabitants to forget the great 
differences iu religion and nationality. They saw during the government of 
Major Todd more earnestness and self-sacrifice with respect to the ransoming of 
slaves than they had ever even heard of before on the part of a ruler." 

t A beautiful garden at Her^t is mentioned in Ferrier's ** Caravan Journey t" 
described as a new one laid out by Yar Mohamed ; this, acconling to Login's 
notes must be ** one which originally belonged to Hajee Ferozeoodeen (grand- 
father of the present ruler). It is situated on the Candahar road, within a short 
distance of the Herirtid. Like all the other gardens in the neighbourhood, it 
had been destroyed by the Persians during the siege, but after the retreat of 
Mahomed's army it was made over to £ldrc<l Pottinger, who expended a small 
5;um in restoring it and repairing the ganlen -house. Major D'Arcy Todd 
continued to keep it up and embellish it, and all our party, especially Major 
James Abbott, while he remained at Herdt, took more or less interest in putting 
it into order. Seeds and plants of various kinds were procured for it by Todd 
from India and England, with a view to make it useful as a nursery for the 
improvement and restoration of other gardens. Besides this garden, which was 
made over to the mission, a farm, at some distance up the valley, of about 200 
acres, was presented to me by Shah Kamr^n, but at my request assigned for the 
support of a dispensary and poor-house that had been established in the city 
during our stay there. The farm was remarkable for its fertility, especially for 
the quality of the melons which it produewl." — .1. S. L, 

D 2 


Ghapter conversation. Shah KamrAn, for instance, living in the " Ark/'* 
II. was given the appropriate name of Noah The 

1839-40. prosperity of the country is now fast reviving, t .... If 
Herdt were occupied hy us, and agriculture encouraged, any 
moderate-sized military force could be maintained here on the 
supplies of the country, and hold its own against all-comers. 

The grapes of the Herdt valley are particularly 
luscious. " The cultivators of this happy valley," says 
ConoUy, in 1831, *' enumerate, if I remember rightly, 
seventeen diflPerent sorts of grapes which they grew." 

During his residence in Herdt, Dr. Login often 
came in contact with the members of Shah Kamriln's 
household, and was in great favour, being constantly 
called upon for professional advice, which he afforded 
willingly to all. This was frequently used merely as a 
pretext to get him to give the news of the outer 
world to those who were kept in seclusion, Shah 
Kamrdn himself often requesting him to come, osten- 
sibly to prescribe for some passing ailment, but more for 
the purpose of getting him to talk of England, its 
power and greatness in contrast with Persia and 
Russia, the Queen, and that very mysterious power 
known as " J4n Kumpany Bahadoor," whose existence 
he marvelled at being permitted by the great 

* Persian for * * citadel. ** 

t The town of Herit, destroyed by the siege of 1838, rose by degrees from its 
ruins, thanks to the gold that the English had so profusely scattered arouml 
them. — Ferrier's ** Caravan Journey,** 

HER^T. 37 

Queen, in case they should rebel against her some Ghaptor 
day ! II- 

On many of these occasions, there would be an un- 
seen, though not unheard, audience, listening in wrapt 
attention to his descriptions, and many were the 
audible " ivah ! wall's! " Kamrdn s favourite wife was 
very intelligent, and full of anxiety to hear all about 
Englishwomen, and especially everything that could 
be told her about her sutei* the Queen ! She always 
called the Hakim Sahib " bhai" or brother, and this 
originated his soubriquet among his colleagues, the 
Begum, at the same time, being known as ** Login's 
sister." The needlework done by the ladies in the 
harem was beautiful, and they were always sending him 
specimens of their skill — embroidered vests, and quilted 
chogas and resais. Covers were made for Login's 
Bible and Prayer Book, and this opportunity was made 
use of by him to send a Persian Testament to have a 
cover made for it ; and when he found it bore marks of 
having been read (by whom he never discovered), he 
offered to exchange it for a volume of Hafiz s poems, 
which offer was eagerly accepted. 

Though the common speech of the people of Herdt 
is Pushtoo, they have no literature in that language, 
it being merely a colloquial dialect or corrupt form of 
the Persian. Consequently, as Login says : — 

The first book in Pushtoo ever seen by Shah Kamrdn and his 
family, or by any other person, I believe, at Herdt, was a New 


Chapter Testament which I had brought from India, and which had 
11- been published by the missionaries at Serampore in the Persian 

1839-40. character. It excited great interest among them, and was read 
by some of their learned men. It was, if my memory serves me 
right, in possession of Shahzadah Mohamed Yussuf, the present 
ruler of Herdt (1856), at the time of the departure of the mission. 
At all events, he had got it from me a short time before. May I 
hope that it has been equally as useful as the Hebrew transcript ! 
After the siege, Eldred Pottinger commenced a translation into 
Pushtoo of a part of the Holy Scriptures, but discontinued it on 
finding I had brought a copy. 

In connection with this, I may mention, that I gave away 
several copies of Martyn's New Testament in Persian to people 
of influence at Herdt, and a Testament in Turki to the Khalifa 
of Merv, a man of considerable sanctity among the Turcomans. 
With this latter I had, perhaps, more intercourse than any other 
member of the mission, from the circumstance of almost everv 
one who came in with kafilas from Khiva and Bokhdra being 
anxious to consult the ''Feringhi Hakim" at the dispensary*, 
either for their own maladies, or for those of their relations ; and 
few of them went away without asking to see the hikmut by 
which the blind were taught to work in the poor-house. 

I must confess, it was not a little gratifying to me to learn 
from Wolffs ** Journal " that kind inquiries were long afterwanis 
made at Merv for a gentleman of the name of ** Luggan," with 
whom Dr. Wolff said he had not the pleasure of being acquainted.* 

The Hindostani servants who had accompanied 
the mission to Herd.t, not caring to remain there for 
an indefinite period, became clamorous to return, and 
they were allowed to depart to Candahar with the first 

♦J. S. L. Notes to Ferricr's ** Caravan Journey ,* p. 18.^i. 

herIt 39 

safe escort, leaving their masters to supply their places Chapter 
as best they could with Hei-dtis. Login was the only ^* 
one unaffected by this move, as his faithful Khalipha, 
Ali Bux, would not desert him ; he said that he had 
been with him from the first, and meant to die in his 
service. He also declared his intention to make him- 
self comfortable in Herdt, and take a Heriti wife, as 
it might be years before he again visited Lucknow, 
where he had left his wife. He found no diflSculty in 
making his selection; and with the consent of her 
family, Fatimah, whom he declared " fair like a Belati 
Bibi" • cast in her lot with the mission, and when its 
departure was decided on, refiised to leave her 
husband, and with her child, accompanied him through 
many dangers and forced marches, proving hei-self a 
fearless rider, t 

Poor Khalipha was not always able to preserve the 
peace between his rival wives when in after life he 
settled down in Lucknow, as Derogah of the Gharib- 

* I.e., European liuly. 

t On one occasion Khaliplia, who was in charge of the baggage animals, saved 
the papers and valuables from loot by maraudere. Solemnly opening one Ik>x he 
displayed a number of terrible-looking surgical instruments (of whicli they 
stand in great awe), and declared that these and some marvellous dawaU (medi- 
cine) formed the sole contents of the boxes, whicb were the property of the 
world-famed Hakim and Wizard who had worked such wonders at Herit, empha- 
sizing his assertion by pointing at the same time to his enchanter's staff which he 
carried in his hand, and to which the wild tribesmen instinctively salaamed witli 
deep rmrerence. The staff was Login's favourite walking-stick, a very formid- 
able bludgeon, a gift from D'Aicy Todd, having a coiled snake around it, and 
being covered with hieroglyphics all carved by him ; it bore also the inscription, 
*' Bhuggut Ram (Todd*s soubriquet), his work." 


Chapter khana, surroiinded by his various belongings ; but to 
^^' the last he was devoted to the " fair Fatimah." 

1 QQQ A(\ 

Hinghan Khan, an orphan boy of good family, one 
of the captives rescued by Eldred Pottinger from the 
Turcomans, used to follow Login about like his shadow, 
sleeping at his door all night, until at last the Hakim 
Sahib took him into his service. He proved himself 
invaluable, adapting himself to all circumstances and 
places. He was, like all his countrymen, a splendid 
rider, and was of great service on several occasions 
Avhen there were difficulties with the tribesmen on the 

With these two servants Login was very independent 
at Herdt, though, of course, the style of living was de- 
cidedly primitive, and the Persian mode was perforce 
adopted. Still, life, with all its attendant roughnesses, 
was thoroughly enjoyed by men who led such a busy, 
well-occupied existence, doing good to their fellow - 
creatures, and by their blameless lives, in the midst of 
debauchery and excess, shedding lustre on the name of 
Englishmen ; and during the whole stay of the mission 
the fanatic Mahomedans had before them a living 
example of Christianity in that band of devoted, self- 
sacrificing soldiers. 

The Envoy kept an excellent Persian cook, to whose abilities 
Englishmen and Afghans, at our morning meals, says Login 
(to quote again from the notes previously mentioned), did ample 
justice, with such knives and forks as may have been used by 

herIt. 4 1 

Abraham ; but we generally ditied alone in the English style, and Chapter 
I think the prudence of this arrangement cannot be doubted. U. 
The Her4ti Afghans are a very drunken lot, and cannot under- 1^39-40. 
stand the self-denial of Christians in declining to drink, when 
wine is not prohibited to them by their religion. 

Shortly after our arrival at Herdt, in walking across the 
garden one dark night after dinner, without waiting for the 
lantern, on my return from the Envoy's to my own residence, I 
struck my foot against the ledge of the hoiiz (cistern surrounding 
the fountain), which happened that day to have been nearly 
emptied for the purpose of cleaning it out, and fell to a depth of 
about eight feet, receiving a severe concussion. It was at once 
supposed by the people of Herat that I had been drunk on this 
occasion, although by habit almost a ''teetotaler! " and all the 
kind condolences with which I was honoured by Shah Kamrdn and 
his family, and Yar Mohamed and his chiefs, were evidently 
offered under this impression. Nujoo Khan, the " topshee bashee,*' 
himself a noted toper, wished me quietly, in confidence, to 
acknowledge that I had taken ** hidrezeadah / " * and it was not 
till my habits were better known that I was exonerated from the 

About a year afterwards, happening to go up to the citadel to 
the King, I found him drinking some Shiraz wine, which he also 
desired the ** athar hashee,'* after I had been seated, to offer to 
me ; and on observing that I merely tasted it, the Shah said, with 
a knowing look, ** Don't be afraid, there is no hoiiz here I '* 

During the Bamazan, the public Afghan breakfast gave place 
to private English ones ; but we were then honoured with the 
presence of Sirdar Sheer Mohamed Khan, brother to the Wuzeer, 
who, to entitle him to the privileges of a traveller ^ had, while the 
fast lasted, pitched his tent outside the gate of the city, and 
came to learn the European mode of eating with knife, fork, and 

* Anglice, " a drop too much." 


Chapter spoon. (Travellers, in Mussulmaun countries, being exempted 
II. from the necessity of observing fasts.) 

It will thus be seen that the Afghans are not altogether rigid 
Mahomedans, as regards the abstention from wine and the due 
observance of fasts, but their hatred to heathen Kafirs^ is verj- 
marked, and they carefully avoid all intercourse with them. 
Consequently, in Afghanistan, the Hindoo servants who had 
followed the mission, found their position towards their Christian 
masters, with respect to caste and purity, exactly reversed to 
what it would be in Hindostan. At Herdt and beyond the Indus 
generally, Christians — as people of the Book — were freely admitted 
to eat with Mahomedans, so long as they abstained from the 
forbidden food ; and we were often asked, '* Why we allowed 
unclean Kafirs, like Hindoos, to be freely admitted into our 
houses ? " 

When travelling between Candahar and Cabul we were met by 
a few horsemen of one of our irregular cavalry regiments — Maho- 
medans from India. Our servants, Afghans and Pharsevans, to 
show their hospitality, offered them a ** kalian*' which had just 
been smoked by Major Todd. 

The Indian Mahomedans asked if they intended to insult them 
by ** offering a pipe smoked by a Kafir '^ " whereupon our people 
retorted, that the Indian Mussulmaun were Kafirs in following 
the customs of Hindoos, and a battle royal would have ensued, 
had we not interfered. 

For eighteen months previous to the arrival of the English 
mission, Shah Kamrdn had never stirred out of the citadel, and 
was only induced to ride, for the benefit of his health, at uiy 
suggestion. One reason he gave for not showing himself in 
public was, that the Wuzeer did not allow him a proper retinue. 
He never rode out during our stay, without asking me to accoin* 


heiuLt. 43 

pany him ;* though whether this partiality for my society arose Chapter 
from any mistaken idea as to my official importance, I cannot ^H. 
say ! 1839-40. 

The influence which the " Hakim Sahib *' has generally exer- 
cised in the British Embassy at Teheran, and the employment of 
such men as Campbell, Jukes, McNeill, Eiach, Bell, Lord, and 
others, in various important duties in those countries, has 
naturally led the chiefs of Her^t to suppose that ** physicians '' 
occupy a higher place in the councils of the English than is 
accorded them, and they attribute much of the prosperity of the 
English nation to their " hikmut" 

There was much personal and social intercourse between the 
members of the mission, and some of the Afghan Sirdars ; and 
amongst those who were fond of being seen in their company 
was Syud Mohamed, the Wuzeer's eldest son. This youth, 
who by no means inherited his father's great abilities, was 
frequently an unconscious source of amusement to the English 

During one of his visits to the Ghar-Bagh, he expressed a wish 
to learn English, upon which a wag of the party offered to 
teach him a sentence ; and under the impression that it was 
merely an ordinary English salutation like *' Khoosh amedeed,^' 
taught him to say ** You are a spoon ! " 

Full of importance of the acquisition — though somewhat doubt- 
ful of the exact meaning— on meeting his father on his return 
home, he accosted him by saying, ** Agir-be-adebi ** (If it be not 
disrespectful !) '* you are a spoon ! " 

There is a certain grim humour in the intense inappropriate- 
ness of such a mild epithet as applied to the ferocious Yar 

* On one of these occasions, Shah Kamnin proposed to exchange horses with 
Login as a seal of friendship. Login named the Turcoman '* Kamrdn,*' and found 
him invaluable on a march — ^Turcoman horses are noted for their power of endu- 


Chapter Mahomed, whose atrocious cruelties — ^practised not only on 
IL criminals, but on his " political opponents " — are past beliel Ho 

1839-40. ig sai^ to have flayed a chief of the Bardooranis alive, and after- 
wards stewed him in a large cauldron ! not long before Pottin- 
ger reached Herdt. 

Colonel James Abbott and General C. F. North are 
the only two living members of the Herit Mission at 
this date. The former writes as follows : — 

Login's fine temper and cheerfulness under difficultieB on the 
march won all our hearts, and he was voted a most important 
acquisition. Though we were beset with constant rumours of 
intended treachery, nothing of the kind actually occurred on that 
usually desert tract, which we traversed by marches, averaging 
twenty miles each. 

On arrival at Herdt, Login obtained permission to set up a 
hospital for native patients, the scanty remnants of the once dense 
population being in the utmost misery from long starvation during 
a siege ot ten months. To his care also were made over the 
children whom Eldred Pottinger had rescued from the Turco- 
mans. He also took charge of oiu: post-office arrangements. He 
was a first-rate man of business, and invaluable to the mission, 
his benevolence equalling his zeal and his capacity. Whatever 
could be done to alleviate the terrible distress and misery in which 
we found the remnants of that once thronged population, the 
Envoy (with Login's loving aid) carried out. The people max- 
veiled that a nation, strangers to them in faith, should thus lavish 
lakhs of rupees and all their energies to alleviate the sufferings of 
wretched beings who could never hope to be even useful citizens. 
They marvelled, but one man execrated what excited wonder in 
the rest. He believed the whole work of benevolence to be part of 
a plot or scheme on our part to render his own detestable conduct 
more abhorrent to the people he ruled I 

herAt. 45 

About Christmas, 1839, the Envoy despatched me on a mission Chapter 
to Ehiva, and I parted from Login, whom I met bat once again, ^* 
and that casually. He, however, remained with the Envoy to 1®3^-^- 
the last, rendering excellent service and retiring with him. The 
Envoy's value for him was very great. 

General North writes : — 

Soon after we got settled in Herdt, Login set himself to work 
to assist the poor, who were in a starving condition. Herdt, 
when in its prosperity, had been famed for the manufacture of 
Persian carpets or large rugs, but at the time of our arrival, there 
were only two or three men who knew anything about it ; but 
this was enough for Lc^in, who at once started a carpet manu- 
factory, giving employment to many people ; and although their 
first productions were coarse they sold well, and he was 
encouraged to persevere, until before we left, the Her^t looms 
turned out articles that vied with the best made in Persia. 
Login also established a dispensary, and was continually 
employed in one way or another in exercising his truly bene- 
volent disposition for the benefit of those among whom he found 

Our Indian servants soon left, and we had to replace them 
with natives of the country. We had a train of baggage mules 
and camels, which required a good many men to look after it. 
About sixty horses were at different times presented to the Envoy, 
and we put men on them and made them into an irregular 
cavalry escort. Besides these there were numerous Pesh- 
kidmuts, or personal servants, and Farrashes, house servants, 
natives of the place. All these were placed under the control of 
the assistant to the Envoy, which office I held after Abbott's 
departure to Khiva, and a very troublesome lot I found them 1 
for as they were half Soonees and half Shiahs, they were always 
quarrelling among themselves — these two sects among Mahome- 


Chapter dans being as inimical to each other a^ Protestants and Roman 
II* Catholics in Ireland. 

1QQQ Ajr\ 

■*^" One day the Envoy asked me, *' North, how .do you manage 
those fellows? Abbott was always asking me to settle some 
dispute, but you never do ? " I replied, " When they come to 
complain against each other, as they lie so abominably that truth 
cannot be arrived at, nor justice done, I just order the Farrash- 
Bashee to put one foot of the complainant and one of the 
defendant in the fullukh (the pole to which feet are tied for 
bastinadoing) and to bastinado them both, and so the right man 
gets punished, and complaints diminish, whatever quarrels do ! *' 
Altogether they are not bad fellows, and we get along very well 
with them. 

When our Indian servants left, we adopted the Persian style of 
living : all meals taken on the floor, no chairs or tables, no knives 
or forks, all food put into the mouth with the fingers and thumb 
of the right hand ; we soon became expert at it, but our first 
attempts at this mode of feeding were rather ludicrous. On 
the occasion of our making our entry into Herdt we were all in 
full-dress uniform, and went to the Palace to pay our respects to 
the King. After our reception Shah Eamrdn sent us a dinner which 
was of course served on the floor. In addition to the officers 
attached to the mission, there were present the Wuzeer, Yar 
Mahomed Khan, and eight or ten of the Sixdars of Her^t. It is 
not etiquette to sit cross-legged like a tailor, but on one's heels in 
a kneeling posture ; the spurs on the heels of our bo^ts prevented 
our doing this with any degree of comfort. The sight of some 
half-dozen tightly buttonod up men, encumbered with swords and 
cocked hats, kneeling around more than fifty dishes spread on 
the floor, and awkwardly endeavouring to get their food into 
their mouths with their fingers, kept us in perpetual stifled bunsts 
of laughter, while the Afghan chiefs stared at us in wonderment, 
keeping grave faces all the time. When the dinner was over it 
was quite a relief to us to be allowed to cross our legs, for which 

herIt. 47 

we begged permission of our host. When Todd explained the Chapter 
cause of our merriment, the Wuzeer said, ** That to see us stooping H* 
over the dishes with our cocked hats and feathers reminded him lo39-40. 
of a lot of fowls picking up gi*ain I " 

The chief dish at a Persian dinner is pillaou — ^rice cooked with 
butter — ^in which is the mutton or fowls, and there are numerous 
small dishes to be eaten with it. At a large entertainment there 
would be a whole sheep stuffed with fowls, and these each stuffed 
with raisins, pistachios, and spices. To cook this, a hole is dug 
in the ground and lined with smooth round stones, a fire of 
wood is made in the hole, and when the stones are very hot 
vine leaves arc laid over them, and the sheep put in, and the 
hole covered over ; the sheep comes out perfectly cooked by the 
steam, and the meat is very tender. 

Owing to the sudden withdrawal of the mission, much valuable 
property, as well as paper, diaries, &c., were sacrificed, as we left 
in light marching order. 

The following was written by Login from Herdt to his 
brother-in-law, John Beatton : — 

HebIt, Nov. 16th, 1840. 

.... We have already had letters by this route (vi^Erzeroum), 
c/oH.M. Charge d' Affaires, in seventy-three days from Paris, though 
for upwards of 700 miles the letters are carried by a single runner 
or " cossid" on foot. As soon as I hear of the return of our mission 
to Teheran, I shall endeavour to get a regular mail established 
between that place and Herdt, and have no doubt that it will 
prove most useful. Within the last few days we have had good 
news from several quarters. From Khiva, of the delivery over to 
the Bussian authorities of all the Russian captives by Captain 
Shakespear, and of the probable settlement of the differences in 
tbat quBfter; from Bokhara, of Col. Stoddart being released 


Chapter from jail, and being entrusted with the command of the Ameer's 
ir. Artillery ; of the surrender of Dost Mahomed to the Envoy 
1839-40. aii^ Minister, at Cabul ; of the defeat of the Belooch Army at 
Dddar ; of the occupation of Kelat, by our troops under General 
Nott ; of the submissive answer of the Sikh Durbar to our demand 
for passage of our troops through the Punjab, and an explanation 
of their treacherous conduct in assisting the rebels in Afghanistan 
— all these providential occurrences have assisted us to strengthen 
our position. 

Within the last month we have lost many promising officers, 
among them Broadfoot of the Engineers, an Orkneyman. Dr. 
Lord, who was in political charge of the northern frontier, a 
distinguished officer, has also been killed in one of our engage- 
ments with the Dost. 

Here we have been very quiet, but had matters not turned out 
as they have done I doubt whether such would have long been 
the case. 

If ever nation has had cause to say *' the Lord has been 
gracious unto us," assuredly we have ; it has not been by the 
power of man that all these things have been brought to pass. 
.... I see little prospect of being allowed to join my appoint- 
ment on the Commander-in-Chief's staff, but I am contented 

Those of our readers who may be interested in the 
general aspect of affairs in Central Asia at the period of 
the First Afghan War, will find an account of the 
causes which led to the despatch of the mission to 
Herdt, and of the political history of that mission in 
notes and appendix to General Ferriers '* Caratxtu 
Journey y' which Sir John Login compiled many years 
after at the request of the author — a portion of which 

herXt. 49 

is also quoted in Kaye's " Lives of Indian Officers" Chapter 
Sir John Login's views are there fifiven on this ^' 
question, and also a description of the duplicity, 
arrogance, and avarice of Yar Mahomed and his nominal 
master. Shah Kamran, which will serve to explain 
Todd's reasons for the sudden withdrawal of the 
mission. Though upwards of nineteen lakhs of rupees 
had been advanced to the Herdt Government* and 
people to assist them against the Persians, Yar 
Mahomed not only demanded more, but continued to 
insult the British Envoy, while he kept up a secret 
correspondence with the Persian Minister, in which he 
declared himself the faithful sei^vant of the Shah-in- 
Shah, that he merely tolerated the presence of the 
English Envoy from expediency, but that his hopes 
rested in the *^ Asylum of Islam ! " 

When this glaring breach of treaty became known 
to Major Todd, he determined to mark his opinion 
of such duplicity by stopping the monthly payment 
of 25,000 rupees until the pleasure of Government 

* A short abstract or memorandum of ezpenditore found amongst Sir John 
Login's papers may give some idea of the amounts expended on the Herdtis. It 
runs as follows : — 

Abstract of expenditure on charitable establishments by the Heritt Mission, for 
six months, Ist Kay to 31st October, 1840, inclusive. 

Total received by J. S. Login ... Rs. 6,878, 8, 4i 

Disbuised on account of hospital, dispensary, pauper establish- 
ment, orphans, carpet-weavers, cultivators, &c Rs. 6,878, 8, 4^ 




should be known, and notified his intention to the 

Finding himself, in consequence of the Envoy's 
resolution, in great straits for money, Yar Mahomed 
ventured on the bold step of declaring that unless money 
was forthcoming the British Mission must depart from 

Shah Kamrdn,* says Login in the " Notes " before mentioned, 
for a long time back had felt that the lives of the EngUshmen 
were in imminent danger, and he told me in August, 1840, that 
such was the case, but that the Sahibdn LigUs need be under 
no apprehension, as he was our friend ; but that had he not pro- 
tected us, not a Feringhi would have been left alive. His 
Majesty was pleased to conclude by asking if he did not *' deserve 
credit for behaving so differently to us from what the Ameer of 
Bokhara had done to Stoddart Sahib ? " 

In reply I thanked His Majesty for his kindness, but said that 
" we were under no apprehension ; that we were conscious of 
having done only good to Herat, and we feared no ill that could 
befall us ; especially as we knew that to pluck even a few hairs 
from a lion's tail was somewhat dangerous." 

At this time it was no secret in Herdt that the Wuzeer was 
only waiting his opportxmity to seize the officers of the British 
Mission. He lived utterly in a state of intoxication ; and the 
prospect of seizing and plundering their property, was seriously 
discussed by himself and his drunken associates, as the easiest 
way of replenishing his coffers. 

The Envoy, seeing that nothing could be gained by remaining 
at Herdt, and that a catastrophe would involve the Grovemxnent 

• See Kaye's '* Ltfe qfiyArcy Todd."" Login's Notes. 

herIt. 51 

in serions complications, decided to retire, and accordingly Chapter 
the mission left, and they had scarcely gone when the Residency 11. 
was sacked and pillaged by a howUng mob, headed by the 1839-40. 
Wiueer'e own soldiers. 

A good deal of private property had been sacrificed ; as a large 
baggage guard could not be provided, many valuable papers and 
diaries were left behind. 

£ 2 



Chapter The departure of the mission from Herdt is thus 
18^41, ^^scribed by Login :— 

Oar party, under Major D'Arcy Todd, consisting (with the 
escort commanded by Sirdar Futteh Ehaji) of about 300 persons, 
passed unmolested through the Her&t territories, by ordinary 
marches, receiving marks of good will and respect from the in- 
habitants, but on reachmg the Candahar frontier we found that 
Aktar Ehan, a Dourani chief, was on the watch to intercept us 
with a considerable force ; we therefore determined to conceal 
our route. 

With this view, we turned out quietly during the night from our 
encampment at Dilaram, and pursued our march. 

Accompanied by Sirdar Futteh Khan, wbo was in the secret of 
our councils, and whose conduct always gave us cause to trust 
him, I pushed on with an advance party of horsemen, a little in 
front of the main body under charge of Major Todd, until eax ly 
dawn, when we made a rapid advance to take possession of the 
first set of wells, which we were apprehensive might be held by a 
party of Aktar Khan's men. 

Finding these, however, unoccupied, the advanced party 
halted there until the main body came up within a sufficient 
distance to secure them, when it again pushed on to occupy 


another small pool in the same way, and thence reached the Chapter 
appointed halting-place, a distance of fifty miles from Dilaram, DI. 
where it waited the arrival of the main body. 1840-41. 

Halting only a sufficient time for a slight refreshment to men 
and animals, the order of march was again formed as on the 
preyious evening; but as it was considered dangerous to show any 
lights for fear of attracting the notice of the Afghans, much 
difficulty was experienced in finding the proper pathway, and 
heavy clouds having for a time obscured the stars by which he 
gnided us, our one-handed cossid — a man well known in these 
parts for his wonderful intelligence as a guide — actually had to 
feel for the trodden path on the surface of the desert, and so 
found it. By occasionally sending back a horseman from the 
advanced party communication was kept up with the main body 
during the night, but as soon as day dawned our advance was 
pushed on more rapidly. 

On approaching some broken ground near the '' Houz," said to 
be a favourite rendezvous of Beloochi marauders, and likely to be 
occupied by Aktar Khan's men, our advance was made witii great 
precaution, covered by files of horsemen in front and on our 
fianks. A signal being made from our right flank, and a horse- 
man riding in to report that a large number of saddled horses 
were to be seen in a ravine near the Houz, we immediately pre- 
pared for action in the Afghan style. Chogas (cloaks) were 
put in saddle-bags, kummerhunds (waist-belts) were tightened, 
turbans firmly bound, loose sleeves turned up, arms bared to the 
elbow, and matchlocks and bucklers unslung ! The signal of the 
horseman had been observed by the main body, about a mile 
distant, and we were shortly joined by a party detached in sup- 
port. They came up at full gallop similarly prepared, each man 
wishing to appear a, very Roostum.* 

Thinking it strange none of our horsemen from the front had 

• Famous Persian hero. 


Chapter fallen back, the broken ground preventing our seeing them, I 
III. proposed to the Sirdar to ride on with hiTn to ascertain the 

1840-41. cause ; and on descending a ravine we came suddenly in view of 
a hafila of o^se^, laden with com and butter from the Helmund, 
on its way to Bukwa, escorted by many Afghans on foot I They 
had just been laden when seen by our vedette, and in the haze of 
the morning mistaken for horses. 

After passing through the ravines, and again emerging on the 
level desert, our main body closed up, and we proceeded together 
to Ghirishk, having safely accomplished a distance of upwards of 
100 miles with only a few hours' halt, though hampered with 
camels and other slow-travelling animals. 

It was afterwards reported that we had got over our difficulties 
only just in time, a detachment from Aktar Khan having been 
sent to intercept us, but arriving too late. 

Lord Auckland blamed Todd for not being concilia- 
tory enough, and thus precipitating a ruptiu'e ; but men 
accustomed to deal with Orientals in a semi-barbarous 
state know that they only respect those they fear, and 
Yar Mahomed naturally thought that want of po^wer 
to punish, was the cause of his insults and treachery 
being rewarded with money. 

From Candahar, Login writes to his sister, Mrs. 
Beatton, as follows : — 

Candahab, April 25^A, 1841. 

.... You will probably see mention of the departure of 
the mission from Her^t in the papers. It has already caused 
much discussion in India, and Lord Auckland is highly displeased 
with Todd for having adopted this measure. It must no doubt 


seem very extraordinary to His Excellency that a man should be Chapter 
so blind to his own interests as to act towards us as Yar IIL 
Mahomed has done ; and I can even understand his being 1840-41. 
doubtful whether Todd, under the circumstances, has been 
sufficiently conciliatory. 

Lord Auckland will, however, find ere long that Yar Mahomed 
knot to be won by conciliation^ that to have influence over him 
we mmt command. Everything which conciliatory manners 
could do towards retaining our position with honour was done. 

To have yielded one single iota more to the demands of such a 
man would have been imworthy of the British name and 
character, and would have lowered us in the estimation of Central 

Lord Auckland may be laudably anxious to avoid the necessity 
of marching troops to such a distance ; but our hesitation to do 
BO after what has occurred will be construed into weakness by 
these people, and make them even more arrogant. 

I have not the least doubt that were 4,000 men and a few 
guns sent at once against Yar Mahomed, he would immediately 
submit, and we should have no more trouble with him. It tries 
one's patience to think of it, when one might so easily put them 
down. I have been waiting here in hopes of a force being ordered 
towards Herdt ; but as there seems now little prospect of it, I 
shall start to-morrow for Cabul on my way to India. 

I have heard from the Besidency at Lucknow that I am to be 
appointed there permanently ; I shall, therefore, endeavour to 
make my way there as quickly as possible. 

.... Let me see 1 Any more news ? Yes 1 You have heard 
&om me of Stoddart's captivity in Bokhara, where he has been 
most cruelly treated by the Ameer. 

He might have made his escape if he wished ; but being a 
chivalrous man and anxious only for his country's honour, he 
would not avail himself of the opportunities purposely offered 
him, and determined, it is said, not to leave the place until ample 


Chapter apologies were made for the insult shown to a British repre- 

in. sentative. 
1840-41. rp]^ig IjqI^ tone on Stoddart's part, the influence which Shake- 
spear has established over the Khan of Khiva, and the friendly 
manner in which ConoUy has been received by the other Turkoman 
(Usbeg) state Eokdn, has brought the Ameer to his bearings, and 
induced him to pay the utmost attention to Stoddart, whom he 
now consults on everything. 

Stoddart, instead of being anxious about his ovm liberty, is 
arranging the release of all the Khan's prisoners (Russian) at 

Nothing you see like working on the fears of these rascals! 
Thrash them first to their heart's content is our only policy, then 
they will be in a fit condition to appreciate conciliation and 
forbearance ! 

If Lord Auckland should, after all, determine on moving a 
force on Herat, I think I shall almost be tempted to return from 
India to join it. We have done our utmost to do these people 
good, and spent money in great abundance for that purpose ; but 
the greatest boon we could confer on Central Asia would be to 
show our 2)ower by removing Yar Mahomed and his myrmidons 
from authority. 

We should then find our efforts at conciliation boiUly appreciated, 
and, without doubt, most successful. However, I doubt Govern- 
ment being prepared for such a bold measure. 

Your most affectionat'C 


As all further attempts at conciliation seemed only 
to have a bad effect on Yar Mahomed, there is no 
doubt that Major Todd adopted a wise course in with- 
drawing the mission before any overt insult had been 


offered, thus leaving Lord Auckland free to adopt any Chapter 
line of policy he might think expedient. For this step, J^* 
however, he was not held excused by the Govemor- 
Greneral, who, before he even received Todd's explana- 
tion of his reasons, declared him unfit for political 
employment, and remanded him with disgrace to his 

When the mission left, Yar Mahomed became 
greatly alarmed ; he had never believed that he would 
be taken at his word, and he now trembled at the 
probable consequences ; but in this extremity his pro- 
verbial good fortune did not forsake him. When he 
expected nothing less than the advance of a brigade of 
British troops across his fi'ontier, he was delighted by 
the receipt of two friendly letters, assuring him of the 
high consideration of the British Government, and of 
their deep regret that anything unpleasant should 
have for a time estranged their very faithful friend I 
To give him a better opportunity to explain his con- 
duct, the Government disavowed all the late proceed- 
ings of Major Todd, and begged that the Wuzeer 
would favour them with his own statement of the case ! 
And greater effect was at the same time given to these 
conciliatory letters, by our small force being withdrawn 
from the Helmund to Candahar, leaving the Dourani 
again at full liberty to renew his rebellious proceedings 
in Zemindawar. 

Satisfied by these conciliatory overtures that he had 
no immediate cause to apprehend an attack, and that 


Chapter the British Government were as anxious as ever to 

^ retain his friendship, Yar Mahomed put the letters 
1840-41. . . . . 

* from the British Government in his pocket, and replied 

that he could give no answer to them until — ^through 

his brother, whom he had sent to Teheran — ^he received 

the commands of the " Impei^atur-i-Rus ! " 

During his stay at Candahar, Login wrote the 

following letter to Todd : — 

Candahab, April, 1841. 

Although aware that any expression of my opinion, as to your 
conduct towards the Wuzeer and chiefs of Herdt, can be but of 
little service ; I consider it a duty, which under present circum- 
stances I owe to the cause of justice and to you, to ofiEer it at 
your request. 

Having had very favourable opportunities during the last 
eighteen months of observing your conduct towards the Her^t 
authorities, I can have no hesitation in stating, that it has been 
marked throughout by the utmost desire to secure their friend- 
ship ; and that your anxiety to gain their good will, has on many 
occasions led you to carry your efforts far beyond the limits 
which, in my opinion, ought to have been assigned them. Judg- 
ing, indeed, from the character of the Wuzeer and his chiefs, it is 
my firm belief that your evident anxiety to conciliate them, and 
the necessity imposed on you of overlooking many just causes of 
offence, have led them to attach too high a value to their friend- 
ship ; and that had a less conciliatory tone and more command- 
ing line from the first been adopted, your efforts to secure British 
influence at Herdt might have been more successful. With 
regard to your personal intercourse with the Wuzeer, it has 
always been of the most friendly nature, and I have frequently 
heard him and his principal advisers express their obligations to 



you for the lenient consideration with which you treated him Chapter 
and your readiness to exculpate any part of his conduct which III. 
appeared dubious. So convinced was he of these obligations, 1840-41. 
that he studiously avoided meeting you for some time before our 
departure from Herdt, lest personal friendship, cls he stated, 
ahoiild induce him to forego all the schemes which false ideas of 
his power bad led him to entertain, or make him acknowledge 
the justice of your advice. 

I cannot conclude without acknowledging my sincere regret for 
having on several occasions expressed myself to you very freely 
on your great leniency to the Wuzeer. The evidences of his 
tyranny, of which my duties made me a daily witness, and the 
knowledge thus acquired of the people's sentiments towards him, 
had led me at an early period to the opinion that the uncontrolled 
power and influence of Tar Mahomed Khan were incompatible 
with the happiness and welfare of his subjects, and had induced 
me to believe that his removal from power would be esteemed 
the greatest benefit which British benevolence could bestow on 
the people of Her&t. In this opinion, I need not say, I am more 
than ever confident. 

J. S. Login. 

In his " Caravan Journey " M. Ferrier gives a very 
amusing account of an interview with Yar Mahomed, 
who was then virtual King after Kamrdn's death. He 
evidently believed M. Ferrier to be an Englishman, 
sent to open up negotiations with him, and he urged 
him to declare his mission as he was quite ready to 
treat. He said that during Todd's mission he had 
lived in fear of his life from the old drunkard, Shah 
Kamrin, (!) whom Todd was instigating against him ; 
but that now all authority centred in himself, and 


Chapter that his view of the matter was *' pay me well, and 

.^TT* . I will be your humble and devoted servant." 
1840-41. -^ 

What I heard and saw in Afghanistan (says General Ferrier) 
gave me the most profound conviction that the moment the British 
flag is seen in an Asiatic State the shameless government in force 
under a native ruler is replaced, if not by abundance, certainly by 
security and justice. However burdensome the taxation of the 
English may be, it is always far less so than that extorted by 

native princes, who add persecution to rapacity The 

Sirdars, Mollahs, Syuds, and soldier classes, who live by plunder- 
ing the industrious inhabitants, were always declaiming against 
the English, because under them they could not practise their 
iniquities. The people were irritated, it is true, because their 
prejudices had been shocked, and rose to shake off their yoke ; 

but now they regret them They remember with graii- 

tude, their justice, their gratuitous care of the sick in hospitals ; 
the presents of money and clothes when they left them cured ; 
the repairs of their public works, and the extension of commerce 
and agriculture .... and after exhausting their praises, they 
would finish up by — ** What a pity they were not Mussulmaun like 
us ! we would never have had any other masters ! " After hearing; 
such expressions, is it not allowable to regret, in the name of 
humanity and civilization, that the British power was not con- 
solidated in Afghanistan, whatever means might have been em- 
ployed to attain that end ? 

Leaving Candahar in April, still in company with 
D'Arcy Todd, Login proceeded towards Cabul, being 
present at some military operations against the 
Ghilzies on the way, and he had the satisfaction of 
affording professional aid to the wounded, amongst 


them his dear friend and comrade^ Edward Sanders, Chapter 
of the BenOT-1 Engineers, who had been with the ^^• 
mission during the first year in Heiit. After a short '^ *'• 
stay at Cabul, being prevented crossing the Punjab by 
orders from Government, in consequence of the disturb- 
ances after the death of Nao-Nehal Singh, Login 
accompanied Major Pottinger to Kohistan, and whilst 
there wrote the following letter to his sister : — 

Chabikab-Eobistan, June 2lst, 1841, 

1 have been detained at Cabal by the Envoy, Government 
having notified to him that passage through Punjab is not safe 
at present ; so I have come out here with Eldred Pottinger, 
being tired of being idle at Cabul. I shall remain some time with 
Maule, an old Artillery friend, who commands a regiment here. 
1 am sitting writing this in an arbour in his beautiful garden ; a 
lovely murmuring stream -flowing round it, and, excepting the flies 
being very troublesome — a big fellow has just settled on my nose — 
exceedingly pleasant. At this moment Purwan Darrah, the site 
of the disgraceful afiair with our cavalry last year, and the places 
rendered most classical by recent events, are tmder my eyes. 
Nor do recent events only contribute to render this place 
historical. Within eight miles are the ruins of a Bactrian city, 
Alexandria, whence coins innumerable are to this day dug up. I 
have been collecting some, but so many have already been sent 
to England that I fancy they are no longer rare. Here, also, are 
places celebrated in the history of Baber, Emperor of Hindostan. 
Altogether, it is a beautiful country. As Alexander Bums said 
to me when describing it one day — ** Above, the Alps, Hindoo 
Koosh! below me, Lombardyl" and certainly it realizes the 

I must confess that were it not for other great advantages 


Chapter Attending an Indian appointment, I should much prefer remaining, 
in. as I might do, at Gabul. Within three miles of the Besidency 

1840-41. and cantonment is a fine large lake, on which there are now ttiro 
boats built by Lieut. Sinclair of H.M. 13th Light Infantry, 
a Caithness man from near Thurso, and considering that no Gabul 
carpenter (mistree) had ever before seen a boat, they are certainly 
most creditable to Lieut. Sinclair as a boat-builder. Sinclair him- 
self was, howeyer, the only man that could manage them until I 
arrived, and, as you may imagine, was not a little delighted to have 
an Orkneyman to cope with. We have had many pleasant 
cruises on this same lake of Gabul ; rather odd that an Orkney 
and Caithness man should be having races and matches in boat- 
sailing in such a place ! Sinclair was bom within sight of Hoy 
Head, has been in Long Hope, St. Margaret's Hope, and Scapa 
Floe, but never in Stromness. He, however, knows the merits of 
the Stromness boats built by the Wards, the Moores, and 
Louttets. He is a great favourite with his regiment 

Login was recalled by the Envoy and Minister to 
Cabul from Kohistan, to take the place of John ConoUy 
as private secretary, p7*o tern. ConoUy was sent to 
Candahar, and Login was fully occupied by Sir W. 
Macnaghteu till he started with Todd for Lidia, 
proceeding by raft down the Cabul river from Jellalabad 
to Attock, and marching across the Punjab in 
September, 1841, very shortly before the insurrection 
at Cabul broke out. 

Before parting from Todd, the following official 
letter was addressed to him by his late chief: — 


Majob D'Abcy Todd, Political Envoy at Herat, 

to J. S. Loom, M.D. 

Camp, keab Attock, Augtist, 1841. 


.... I take this opportunity of thanking you for the very Chapter 
zealous and able manner in which you not only performed your III. 
duties at Her^t, but exerted yourself in carrying into effect the 1840-41. 
benevolent intentions of Government towards the inhabitants of 
that place. Indeed, I may truly say that had it not been for 
your kind assistance I should have found it impossible to give 
full effect in this respect to the views of Government. I have, as 
you are aware, already brought to the notice of the Envoy and 
Minister at Cabul the numerous duties which you took upon 
yourself at Herdt, the main object of which was to apply 
judiciously the means placed at our disposal by Government in 
relieving the wants and alleviating the miseries of the distressed 
inhabitants of Herdt. I need only say there is scarcely an 
individual in that city who has not reason to be grateful for your 
unwearied assiduity ^ kindness , and patience; and the effect of 
your zealous and philanthropic exertions has been to estabUsh in 
Herit, and to' diffuse throughout the neighbouring states, the 
fame of British humanity and liberality. It was from the high 
sense which I entertained of the value of your services, and from 
the difficulty which I felt certain would be experienced in 
supplying your place, that I requested you might be detained at 
Herdt, when in February, 1840, you were appointed to the staff 
of His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief. 

I was aware that your detention at Herdt would entail upon 
you some pecuniary sacrifices, I hoped that this would be made 
up to you by an increase to your salary. I have been disappointed 

64 sm JO]aN login and duleesp singh. 

Chapter in this hope, and I have also to regret the losses which yon have 

III. sustained on the sudden departure of the mission from Her^t. 


I have, &c., 

E. D'Abcy Todd, 

Late Political Agent, Herat. 
J. S. Login, Esq. 

Soon after joining his appointment at Lucknow ajs 
Kesidency -Surgeon, the storm burst in Afghanistan, 
and the insurrection at Cabul thrilled the hearts of all 
the English in India. 

The following letter from Havelock at Jellalabad, 
urging the need of chaplains with the army, is inter- 
esting :— 

Sm Henbt Havelock to Db. Login. 

Jellalabad, Dec, lAth, 1841. 
My deab Login, 

I have just seen it announced in the paper that you had 
arrived at Agra and were to proceed to Lucknow. You will have 
heard that we have had a grand crisis here in Afghanistan, which 
can hardly be pronounced to be over, though the symptoms have 
become decidedly more hopeful. 

I should define the affair to be a struggle of the Chiefs to 
maintain their power to misrule, of which they dreaded the 
annihilation ; of certain tribes, especially the Eastern Ohilzies, 
to revenge the wrong of the reduction of their stipends; and, 
finally, of the whole people to get rid of the Feringhees. 

The facts are, that Sir Bobert Sale's Brigade, with its 


auxiliaries, having been moved down towards Tazeen and Chapter 
Gtmdamnk, with the doable purpose of freeing the passes and I^I* 
retiring to the provinces, that opportunity was seized to spring ^^^^^» 
the mine of a Cataline plot. Sir A. Bumes was assassinated 
with all our adherents in Cabul, and our troops driven by the 
force of a general insurrection to confine their efforts to main- 
taining themselves on the two points of the Bala Hissar and the 
intrenched cantonment. This they are yet successfully doing, 
and I trust, by God's blessing, will continue to do until reinforce- 
ments arrive. 

Sir B. Sale's force, to which I was temporarily attached with 
General England's sanction, fought its way inch by inch to 
Gtmdumuk, and on the news of the general outbreak, retired on 
this place, which it has made too strong for any Asiatic force 
without artillery to get at any price. It has twice saUied, and 
utterly defeated its assailants in open field. 

This is an epitome of things here. Dawes is within these 
walls, and well ; and we have contrived to re-establish ordinances 
amidst the din of arms. And having said this much, I come to a 
subject I have much at heart. Peruse the enclosed letter, and if 
you do not think this voice from Afghanistan will decidedly do 
harm, kindly send it on to his Lordship, whose address or where- 
abouts nobody here can tell us. 

There may yet be time to send a chaplain up with the second 
reinforcement. If he can be spared, let him come at any time 
with troops, and the sooner the better. I trust that Todd has got 
safely through his journey, and that his affairs are prospering. 

Believe me, dear Login, ever truly yours, 

H. Havelock. 

Login forwarded Havelock's letter to the Governor- 
General, and also wrote to the good Bishop (Daniel 


Chapter Wilson), from whom he received the following charac- 

}^^ teristic reply : — 
1840-41. ^ ^ 

Bishop's Palace, Jan, Sth, 1842. 
My deabest Friend, 

I read every word of your interesting letter to the 
Governor-General. The very first opportunity that presents 
itself we must and will send a chaplain. We had one in 
view, a kinsman of the Envoy, but he is uncertain in his move- 
ments, and I am afraid odd in his habit of mind. The Governor- 
General tells me he has given you Lucknow ; there you will have 
a charming station, and when you are settled there, I shall send 
you my subscription paper for 200 rupees per annum for five years, 
which I know you will not grudge as a contributor to my new 
cathedral — but of this hereafter. I have not yet seen your paper 
about Yar Mahomed. You may rely on my doing all I can for 
your friend Todd with the Governor-General. How you could 
imagine, my dear Login, that I could forget you 1 No, no I I 
remember you, and love you as when we first met at Agra. You 
have never been long out of my mind, and I shall always be 

Your affectionate, 
D. Calcutta. 



It was a great delight to Login to resume the Chapter 



old work he had set on foot at Lucknow during hiff 

previous tenure of the appointment of Residency- 
Surgeon. He found that Captain Paton, the first 
Assistant to the Resident, had carried on the work at 
the Gharib-khana on the old lines on which he had 
established it, and he had only to resume the reins. 
Having so lately left Afghanistan, he was deeply 
interested in all that was occurring there, and his friend. 
Sir Robert Hamilton, Resident at Indore, kept him 
accurately informed of the progress of events, forward- 
ing to him all the intelligence that could be ascertained 
of the fate of the prisoners, many of whom were Login's 
personal friends. 

Before the hot weather had fully set in, the 56th 
Native Infantry arrived in Lucknow Cantonment, and 
the commanding officer. Major Hope Dick, was joined 
by his wife and her sister (Miss Campbell), from 
England. The yoimg lady had accompanied her sister, 
on the death of her parents, at her eldest brother's 

F 2 


Chapter request, Captain Charles Campbell, of the 42nd Bengal 
^' Native Infantry, Buxee^ or Paymaster, at Cawnpore ; 
' and she intended to join her brother as soon as her 
sister was settled at Lucknow. But it was otherwise 
ordained, for on July 28th, 1842, John Spencer Login 
and Lena Campbell* were married at Lucknow, her 
brother coming over to give her away. The newly 
married couple settled down at the Residency — in the 
house afterwards famous as the scene of Sir Henry 
Lawrence's death during the memorable siege in 1857 
— ^after having spent their honeymoon at Beebeepore 
Palace, kindly placed at Login's disposal by the King. 

The post which Login held at Lucknow was generally 
considered as one of the "plums" in the medical service 
of the Company, and as being an extremely lucrative 

It was customary for the Residency-Surgeon to 
increase his pay by accepting other employment at the 
native Court, and by taking large fees from natives 
of rank and wealth in return for medical attendance. 
But Login had such a high sense of the dignity and 
honour of the British name, and of the duty which 
devolved upon every officer who held a position under 

* Lena Campbell was the youngest daughter of John Campbell, of Kinloch, 
Perthshire, male representative of the Loudon Campbells ; the title going in the 
female line to Flora Mure Campbell, only child of James, fifth Earl of London. 
Lady Flora married the first Marquess of Hastings, Goyemor-General of India^^* 
See " HUtory of the OampbHls of Me^oH and Kinhch," published by Simmoas 
k Botten, 1882, p. 64, 


the British Government (especially near a native Chapter 

Court), to show himself entirely free from all desire ^• 

. 1842-48 

of gain or hankering after "filthy lucre," that he, 

perhaps, went rather to the opposite extreme, and was 

considered Quixotic in his ideas. 

To his mind, Englishmen in the service of the King 
of Oude, especially if they were at the same time 
officers of the East India Company, were already in a 
false position, and it behoved them to avoid anything 
which could endanger their independence, self-respect, 
or influence for good in the eyes of any native. Hence, 
though he at all times willingly gave gratuitous 
professional advice to natives of all ranks, privately 
as well as at the dispensary and hospitals, he had, 
perhaps, an over-scrupulous dislike to ask fees from 
them, but he often instead took the opportunity to urge 
and encourage his wealthy native patients to assist in 
promoting useful works in their native city and its 
neighbourhood. One native friend, Azimoolah Khan, 
Derogah to the King, who was greatly indebted to him, 
spent a large sum at his suggestion in opening up a 
street from the heart of the crowded bazaar to the old 
bridge of boats over the Goomtee, greatly adding to 
the healthiness of the city. 

Thus, though his professional services were more 
sought after by the nobles than those of any of his 
predecessors, he derived little personal advantage ; still 
he had the honest satisfaction of knowing that, in the 
opinion of those best qualified to judge, he did more 


Chapter for the public good and for the poor of the city than 
J[^- any who had held the appointment before him. 

After his marriage, the eagerness of his native friends 
that Mrs. Login should visit their zenanas was great, 
and her opportunities of insight into the manner of life 
of ladies of the highest rank were unique. 

When she became intimate with the wives of the 
King (Malika Geytee, in particular) a special request 
was always made when they were ill that she should 
accompany her husband, on the ground that she would 
be able to describe symptoms and appearances more 
fully to him from her observations, as of course he was 
not permitted behind the purdah !* 

The scene sometimes was very comical. The patient 
was brought close to the curtain to answer the 
doctor s questions, a large hole being made for the 
purpose of feeling the pulse ; but when it came to the 
operation of getting the lady's tongue through the 
hole, in such a way as not to exhibit her face, it was 
often too much for the gravity of the visitor, in spite 
of the air of solemnity and dignity with which the 
eunuchs supported their mistress, and opened her 

* Login had a great difllike to any underhand way of teaching Christianity in 
the harems, and thought that, unless witli the full consent and approval of thr 
husbands, there should be no tampering ^-ith the religion of their wiveji. Ht 
placed more faith in the effect of a good Ufe, and a character for strict inteigrity 
and truthfulness, in those who bear the name of Christians, and believed that no 
blessing could rest on work, which gained the women of India at the expense of 
the res|)ect of the men. 


mouth for the piirpose, though even their features Chapter 

sometimes relaxed into a broad firin ! .r.}J\^ 
o 1842-48* 

The Wuzeer Ameenoodowlah^s only child (a 
daughter) was supposed to be dying of consumption, 
and her death was daily looked for, all the wise women 
and native hakims having given her over, after trying 
all their cures and spells to no effect. . The Wuzeer 
was in great distress and grief, for although only a girl, 
she was his only child. Dr. Login asked to see the 
little girl, and on closely examining her, he found that 
her whole skin was encrusted with a coat of armour, 
formed by the unguents and ointments that had 
been successively rubbed on by each new adviser 
called in, without removing by washing the previous 
application (washing during illness being looked upon 
as fatal) ; thus the pores of the skin could not act, and 
unless this could be secured it was no use ordering 

He suggested a warm bath first, which terrified 
them all, and a great wailing of women and eunuchs 
ensued! After a time, the Begum, listening to his 
persuasions through the purdah, consented, if only the 
Mem-Sahib would come and see it properly carried 
out in the zenana. 

She came therefore, taking her Mussulmauni ayah 
with her, and a supply of soft towels, scented soap, and 
sponges. The poor child was very weak, and great 
care and tenderness was exercised before the hard shell 
could be softened enough to come away, and show what 


Chapter the little Begum, Wuzeeroolniza, was really like, 

^^' without the husk or shell she had been encased in. 

Poor little mite ! She was a perfect skeleton of thin- 
ness, and so weak there seemed little hope for her life. 

Dr. Login said he could only undertake the case, if 
the child was made over to his care in the cantonments, 
where he was then residing, with a few trustworthy 
servants to carry out his orders. Be knew that in the 
zenana, with such a number of excited slave-girls and 
jealous wise-women to counteract his directions, there 
would be small chance of a cure. The parents eagerly 
grasped at this chance of getting their child restored 
to health ; and a bungalow was taken for her, with a 
retinue of women and eunuchs, as near as possible to 
the house in cantonments where Dr. Login was then 
residing with his family. 

It was rather ludicrous to see the astonishment of 
the Begums and their attendants in the zenana, at the 
large sponge used in the bath operations. They were 
at first alarmed, and shrieked with fright when it filled 
with water, thinking it was an animal that would bite 
the child ! but they were delighted with the gift of it, 
and amused themselves for hours filling and squeezing it 
out again, and throwing it at each other amid peals of 
laughter ! The scented soap was also a great delight to 

The recovery of the child, though tedious, owing to 
her weakened state, was wonderfully rapid when she 
was once removed out of the hot city to the purer air 


in cantonment, and under the doctor's eye as to food, Chapter 
air, exercise, and amusement. ^^• 

It was an amusement to her to learn to read and 
write with the Mem-Sahib, whom she always afterwards 
called her " mother/'* 

The Chota Begum was an object of great curiosity 
and interest, to all the English children in cantonments, 
as she took her daily drives morning and evening in a 
gorgeous chariot, in the form of a peacock, painted to 
represent the bird with tail outspread, under which she 
sat, attended by her zenana guards. 

This most enviable carriage was presented to the 
Login children when the little lady became con- 

One morning there was a great uproar ! A messenger 
airived at the Residency to say that the Prime 
Minister, Nawab Ameenoodowlah, who had been out 
in the district enquiring into a case of a refractoiy 
Zemindar, had been waylaid by dacoits, attacked, and 
murdered, and that his coi'pse was being brought in. 
Login spoke to the excited messenger, who was one of 
the Nawab's horsemen, told him to dismount, go to 
the Nawab's house, and prepare everything to receive 
him. He then put some surgical necessaries in his 
pocket, mounted and galloped off to where the 
Wuzeer's camp was. Had he delayed, the Wuzeer 

• Many years afterwards, when he was in England, Login received a letter from 
the little Be^m in question (then the wife of a Nawab), commencing, " My dear 
Pappa and Mamma^^^ and ending, "your affectionate daughter." 


Chapter must have bled to death from his wounds ; bs it was, 
^' Lofifin met a mournful procession of the Nawab's 
' people, carrying home, as they believed, their master 
dead. He recovered, however, after long and anxious 
nursing and attendance, and was ever after truly 
grateful for his life at Login's hands. His right arm 
had been nearly hacked off, and he was otherwise 
fearfully wounded ; but his arm was saved in the end, 
and, to his delight, he could again use his sword and 

Many were the odd expedients resorted to by some 
of the nobles, to express their gratitude and apprecia- 
tion of Dr. Login's professional services. One morning, 
during her husband s absence, Mrs. Login was informed 
that a messenger from the Palace requested an 
interview. A stately chohedar in the royal liver), 
scarlet and gold, carrying his golden mace {chohe\ 
made his salaam, and pointing to the entrance gates, 
where stood a splendid barouche and pair, informed her. 
with all the graces of Oriental language, that this was 
presented to her by the Wuzeer, by the King's special 
desire, as he thought it was most suitable from its 
style, to carry the wife of so distinguished a gentleman 
as the Doctor Sahib, who was so considerate to all, 
and " the protector of the poor." 

The lady's astonishment and consternation was 
great I Well did she know the equipage in question — a 
distinofuished and much admired feature in all the 
Royal processions, which it invariably headed ! 


No doubt, it was London built, and gorgeously lined Chapter 

with satin and gold ; but it was scarcely such an ^* 

. 1842-48. 

equipage as the doctor's wife would choose for her 

evening drive. The horses were large milk-white 
creatures with pink noses ; and their tails, which 
literally swept the ground, were dyed a brilliant 
scarlet. Their pace was a sort of slow canter, lifting 
their feet very high, as if pawing the air, or rather, as 
if moving along majestically on their hind legs ! This 
remarkable action of theirs was particularly admired 
in the processions — there was something so distingxU 
about it ! The harness, also, was all bound with red 
morocco, and had solid silver mountings. 

It required great diplomacy to avoid offending the 
King and the Prime Minister by declining this present, 
but it \va>s accomplished after making a few ceremonious 
vUite of thanks in this ma^ificent turn-out. by sug- 
gesting to the King that the Royal processions would 
suffer, and be shorn of much splendour, by the absence 
of this admired carriage, and assuring both King and 
Minister, that Dr. Login could actually forego the 
pleasure and delight of seeing his wife driving about in 
this truly regal conveyance, if he could thereby attain 
the object he had long desired of adding to the healthi- 
ness of the city, by the opening up of a new street, and 
by getting the King and Prime Minister to push for- 
ward the scheme for the new road between Lucknow 
and Cawnpore, with its splendid bridge over the 
Goomtee, which had lain in abeyance since 1839, 


Chapter This was now urged on the King by the Resident, 

^^' Mr. Davidson, at Dr. Logins suggestion, and was 

agreed to by the Oude Government, Captain Hugh 

Fraser, Bengal Engineers, being appointed to cany 

out the work. 

Other strange offerings wore presented in lieu of 
fees — for instance, two baby elephants, each attended 
and led by a young negro slave (with nothing but a 
necklace of large bright beads and a waist-cloth as 
clothing), were sent by the King's brother-in-law after 
recovery from an illness. It was represented to the 
Nawab that Englishmen kept no slaves ; but he 
begged that these boys, who had been bom in his 
own harem, should be bred up in close attendanre 
on the Mem-Sahib and her children, for whom thev 
would be ready to die if necessary I 

Although the little elephants, who wei'e gaily 
painted and adorned, were as black as their grinninj^ 
negro attendants, they would have proved veritable 
white elephants to Dr. Login, as in virtue of his office 
as A.D.C. to the King and Superintendent of the 
Royal Hospitals, an elephant establishment wais 
already kept up for him at the King's expense. 

On another occasion, two huge Persian cats, male 
and female, more like small cheetahs, or huntiui: 
leopards, each chained to a separate miniature chari^n/^ 
carried on the head of an attendant keeper, were sent 
by a grateful patient, a cousin of the King's, as plat/- 
maters for the children : As, however, their food w:i<i 


raw flesh, and they were allowed to kill and eat, they Chapter 
would not have been safe companions; indeed, they did ^^' 
not seem much more amiable than tigers ! 

It was surprising how the Ghaiib-khana cleared 
the streets of beggars, who had been a great pest. 
Children were made to see that it was better to 
learn to work for a livehood than to beg. Many 
boys from the Gharib-khana were placed out in 
situations, and made some of the best servants in 
Lucknow and throughout Oude. 

The hospital drew so many patients that Dr. Login 
was obliged to apply for a qualified sub-assistant 
surgeon (native) from Calcutta, to help in the work. 

Cases of snake-bite and of cholera were of constant 
occurrence. The patients were brought in from the 
surrounding districts in numbers, and as they invariably 
preferred to be carried to the Doctor Sahib s house 
first, there was frequently of a morning to be seen 
at the entrance gates, a ghastly assemblage of poor 
wretches writhing in agony in the doolies or on the 
charpoys, on which they had been conveyed from 
distant villages ; sometimes, alas ! expiring before 
they reached their harbour of refuge. 

In Login's time there occurred only one of those 
extraordinary cases of so-called " wolf children " — i.e., 
children carried off by wolves when infants and suckled 
with their cubs— of which there have been several 
known in Oude. 

In this instance, the child, who was found in tlie 


Chapter district near the Tend,* appeared to be about four or 
^* five years old. The body was covered with soft hair, 
' and though undoubtedly human, it was very animal in 
its instincts and ways. It walked and ran on hands 
and feet, and could only utter a sound or cry like an 
animal. Tt was looked after carefully, but still 
managed several times to escape to the woods. In 
spite of all efforts to coax it, it refused food, and soon 
pined and died in captivity. 

Colonel Low, the Resident, Login's kind friend, 
knowing how anxious he was to get his next brother 
an appointment, exerted his influence to this effect, 
and an assistant-surgeoncy was offered him and eagerly 

James Dryburgh Login, after taking his degree 
of M.D. in Edinburgh, had walked the hospitals 
of Paris and Vienna, and was looked upon as a surgeon 
of great promise. He was appointed to an European 
regiment on his arrival in India, and was only able to 
pay a flying visit to his brother en route to the 
frontier, where his regiment was stationed. 

John Login being now able to offer a home to his 
sisters, after their mother'sdeath, which took place while 
he was at Herdt, two of them came out to him, and 
married respectively Colonel — ^afterwards General — 
Joseph Graham, Superintendent of the Thuggee 

* Largo district of jungle and swamps on the confines of Oude and Xo)>al. 
the resort of tigers and all sorts of game. 


Department, and Captain — afterwards General — Alfred Chapter 
Wiatle, Bengal Horse Artillery. His youngest brother ^" 
Tom, after practical training at home as a civil 
engineer, he brought out, and through Mr. Thomason's 
interest got him appointed under Colonel — afterwards 
Sir Proby — Cautly, who was then commencing the 
Ganges CanaL He proved himself to have talents 
of no mean order in his profession ; he rose to great 
distinction as an engineer, and died some years ago 
Superintending Engineer of the Pimjab (Second 

Patrick Vans Agnew was one of the assistants to the 
Resident at Lucknow, and a great friendship grew up 
between him and Login; after he left they corre- 
sponded frequently, until Agnew's melancholy death by 
assassination at Mooltan. 

The King of Oude had several English officers and 
gentlemen in his service, besides those in his military 
employ. Colonel WUcox (Trigonometrical Survey) 
was Astronomer to the King, and Mr. George Beechey 
(son of Sir William Beechey, E.)yal Academician) waa 
his painter, and had to take portraits of the Governors- 
General and Commanders-in-Chief for the King's 

These gentlemen had always been treated with great 
distinction by Mahomed Ali Shah ; but when he was 
succeeded by his son, Wajid Ali Shah — ^who was after- 
wards deposed by Lord Dalhousie — a marked difference 
began to display itself. The young King was anxious 


Chapter to show his courtiers that these Englishmen were 
rv. merely his servants, who could be treated with 

1 ft4.9-.4.ft 

' arrogance and contempt. This was felt very galling 
by the Englishmen, who were unable to t^ke notice of 
it, as they knew it would be seized on by the King s 
favourites as a means of getting rid of them. Mattera 
came to a climax when, instead of the customary 
courteous invitation from His Majesty to attend some 
grand public function at Court, a circular invitation 
was brought, with only the names of the gentlemen 
invited on the outside of the envelope in a column, 
with space opposite each for their signature in token of 

Login's name headed the list, in virtue of receiving 
pay from the King as Superintendent of Hospitals. 
Instead of signing his name, he confiscated the paper, 
and took it straight to the Resident, Sir Greorge 
Pollock, who made a special representation to the King 
on the subject. His Majesty was quite alarmed at this 
unexpected turn of affairs, and ordered an ample 
apology to be made, decreeing that the title of 
"Bahadoor" was henceforth conferred on "Login 
Sahib," and a huge silver seal, set with stones, was 
ordered to be engraved with his name and title, to be 
used as his seal, and always to be attached by him to 
any paper he might send to the King. A day was 
appointed for his reception at the Palace, to have his 
title and seal presented, with a khillut, or dress of 


Instead of losing influence bj this independent Chapter 
course, he was more highly appreciated than ever. ^^' 

The King's public dinners, followed by entertain- 
ments of nautches and fireworks, were always a great 
amusennent to strangers. These dinners were more 
breakfasts or tiflBn, being given during the day. 
Every sort of delicacy was provided, and the King 
himself had some special dish served up for him. It 
was considered a great mark of Eoyal favour to have a 
portion from this dish sent round to some favoured 

On one occasion, after a khillut had been presented 
to Dr. Login, before the dinner, for some special reason, 
the King took it into his head to show a public mark 
of his approval, and taking up a handful (!) of 
kabohs^ and rice, which he was eating, placed it on a 
plate and sent it round with his salaam to Mrs. Login, 
who, it is to be feared, did not fully appreciate this 
delicate attention ! 

The eyes of all the assembly were fixed on her, for 
of course she was expected to eat the dainty thus 
honoured by the royal hand ! 

A crowd of servants stood behind the royal chair, 
each having his separate office. One waved the regal 
choivree over his master's head to keep off the flies ; a 
second, the royal punkah, or fan ; another bore his 
hookah ; a fourth, the golden chillumchee and lota ; t a 

* Small pieces of meat roasted on tiny wooden skewers. f £wer and basin. 



Chapter fifth stood by the King's side to wipe his mouth with 

^^' a napkin after every morsel ; a sixth lifted his glass of 

' sherbet to his mouth ; whilst the seventh held in 

readiness the royal pocket-handkerchief and wiped 

" his royal nose ! " 

It was etiquette that he should not appear able 
even to walk about without support, and he was lifted 
into his carriage like a bale of goods ! This did not 
appear so extraordinary in the case of the old King, 
Mahomed Ali Shah, who was both aged and infirm, 
but it did strike the European community as absurd 
when the young Wajid Ali Sbah, who had prided 
himself on his great activity, suddenly seemed by his 
accession to the throne to have been deprived of the 
use of his limbs. On one occasion alone did he dare 
to set etiquette at defiance. This was on his first visit 
of ceremony to the Resident. He submitted to be 
hoisted up the steps and into the Residency, but on 
taking his leave, to his attendants' dismay, he actually 
ran up the ladder to the howdah of his elephant, amid 
the applause of the Europeans present. Is it surpris- 
ing that this Ufe of inaction so rapidly produces in their 
sovereigns the amount of corpulence which in Oriental 
ideas is essential to the kingly dignity ? 

That Login had the faculty of gaining the hearts of 
his subordinates, is proved by the devotion shown by 
his servants to himself and his family, and the length 


of years they remained in his service, following his Chapter 
fortunes often into stmnge and distant lands. ^' 

^D 1842-48. 

The &ith^ Khalipha Ali Bux, who had been with 

him at Herdt and Cabul, was now made Derogah 

of the Ghaiib-khana. He took up his abode there 

with his ttvo wives, and wajs indefatigable in his 

duties. Fatimah, the fair Herdti, was a great 

favourite with everybody. Khalipha used to compare 

himself to Jacob, with whose history he was quite 

familiar, and would say, with a twinkle in his eye, that 

whenever he saw signs of a little domestic " breeze '* 

getting up, he threatened to send for the Doctor 

Sahib, and that was enough I 

Hinghan Khan, the Herdti boy, had accompanied 
his master to India. He was a light weight, and 
being like most of his countrymen a splendid rider, 
often rode postillion with Mrs. Login's pretty phaeton, 
drawn by a pair of Cabulis. These animals had a 
most inveterate love of fighting, in which they 
frequently indulged, even when in harness. To cure 
them of this habit, an extra rein was fastened to the 
"off" pony, tying his head away from his fellow ; but 
this did not prevent the '* near " horse, when his rider 
was off his guard, making a snatch at his companion 
across the pole — ^and then the fight began. At it they 
went, "tooth and hoof," to the terror of the 
Vjystanders, whether at the bandstand of an evening, 
or on the road ! 

Mrs. Login became so used to it, that she would sit 

G 2 



Chapter patiently till the combatants were either separated or 
1842-48 ^^^^ ^^^> helping Hinghan by pulling the rein that 
held back the "off" pony, in order to stop the 
fight, and save his leg from being crushed against the 
pole. When herself driving these animals, she was 
obliged to have both of them kept apart by reins. 
Strange that this quarrelsome disposition only showed 
itself after they came to India ; at Herdt and Cabul 
they lived together in one stall, and were most 
affectionate . 

Poor Hinghan was devotedly attached to his master s 
children, and his gallantry and presence of mind helped 
on one occasion to save them from an awful peril 

The Kings of Oude used to delight in elephant fights 
at theii" entertainments, and for this purpose a certain 
number of male elephants were kept in a place apart 
from others, where they were trained and made mxist 
(mad or ferocious) to prepare them for these fights. 

One morning, very early, the boy Hinghan Khan 
was out exercising his master's horse. Kamrdn. On 
passing this place he found a terrific battle going on, 
between the mahout* and a large elephant who was to 
fight next day at the Palace entertainment. 

Hinghan only remained long enough to see the poor 
mahout thrown down and trampled to death, while the 
elephant rushed out, quite mad, straight through the 
city. Suddenly it flashed on him, that the two babies 



of the Doctor Salib had started for their early Chapter 



morning airing with the ayah on their elephant, and 

would be now on their way home, right in the track 
of this infuriated beast, whose trurapetting was rousing 
the whole city ! Instead of turning home, therefore, 
the boy gave the rein to the Turcoman he was riding, 
and flew like the wind to give the alarm to the 
children's attendants. He met them retiu-ning about 
a mile and a half away, their elephant already excited 
by the distant roaring of the mad one, and refusing to 
proceed. Instead of obeying the mahout's goad, it 
stood still, quivering with rage, and trumpetting loudly, 
eager for the fmy-for it was a large and powerful 
animal, noted in the shikar after tigers for its courage 
and speed,* and could hardly be induced to turn its 
back on the prospect of a fight. When, therefore, 
Hinghan appeared shouting '* Hatliee ! hathee ! must ! 
must ! " (Elephant 1 mad elephant !), and waved to the 
mahout to leave the road and strike into a by-way, it 
was with the greatest difficulty that the man endea- 
voured to follow his directions. When at length he 
succeeded, the must elephant was almost upon them, 
and then ensued a terrible race for life ! ! 

It requires practice to accommodate oneself to the 
pace of an elephant, even when the animal is only 
walking, and what the motion is like when at a gallop. 

* It was afterwards nearly blinded by a tiger in the Terai, when out on 


Chapter or in a race^ is past description ! Suffice it to say, 
ifUQ^Q ^^^^ *^® mahout managed to outstrip the mad brute» 
' whose » terrific roaring seemed to strike terror into all 
other animals. Hinghan Khan created a diversion in 
every way he could, to distract the must elephant s 
attention, and would liave succeeded better had not 
his poor Turcoman been wild with terror and un- 

Throughout this mad gallop the ayaJiy though* dis- 
tracted with flight, yet bravely seated herself in the 
bottom of the howdah^ clasping the two children with 
one hand, while she held on with the other. The 
children, fortunately, were too young to imderstand 
their danger, and were only indignant at the rude 
treatment and knocking about their " dear ayah " had 
sustained in trying to save them. 

That Login's coolness and determination approached 
stoicism when his own sufferings were in question, was 
sometimes rather curiously illustrated. 

He had been badly bitten by a horse in the hand : 
the brute having seized the whole thumb in his teeth, 
had regularly crunched the bone. Nothing would make 
him let go ; and he kept throwing up his head out of 
reach, so that Login was unable to free himself. For- 
tunately, Mrs. Login, who was with him, had the 
presence of mind to pass her hand into the horst^V 
mouth, behind the teeth, and seizing the animalV 
tongue, to give it a violent twist, at the same time 


startKng him with a blow on the nose. This manoeuvre Chapter 
was successful in making him leave go of his victim ; ^* 
but the injury was already so severe, and in such a 
dangerous position, that it was feared tetanvs must 
supervene. In view of this, Dr. Login himself made 
all the preparations for the amputation of his thumb ; 
as it was his right hand that was wounded he could 
not perform the operation himself, and there was no 
other surgeon to be had. He therefore sent for his 
European apothecary, and gave him the most minute 
instructions how to proceed, and arranged that he 
himself would do all to assist him, short of using the 
actual knife. Mercifiilly the amputation was not 
found to be necessary. 

Greneral Claude Martinets* noble legacy to the City 
of Lucknow, the Martiniere College, was inaugurated 
at this time, and Login was the most active member 
of the Board of Management. 

As Honoraiy Secretary he drew up all the rules of 

*' CUtido Martine, the Founder, was a Frenchman, a true soldier of fortune ; 
he amassed great wealth while in the service of successive Kings of Oude, and at 
his death he left it in equal portions between the cities of his birth and adoption, 
Lyons and Lucknow. His splendid house, or rather palace, named Constautia, 
which he had built near Lucknow, he specially endowed to be a college called by 
his name La Martiniere. Kno^ning that there was a risk that his roaster, the 
King, might choose Constantia as a royal residence when he died, he took the 
precaution to direct in his will that his body should be placed in a mausoleum 
underneath the house, vrith access through it, so as to be actually in the 
building, thus defiling it for Mabomedans. His tomb was one of the sights 
of Lucknow, being quite French or Napoleonic, figures largo as life dressed in full 
uniform guarding the coffin, and a light always burning. 


Chsapter the College, and had the satisfiiction of setting it 
J^' afloat under its first Principal, Mr. Clint — a very 
* learned man sent out from England. He was succeeded, 
on his retirement after a short period, by Dr. Sprenger, 
a much more practical man for a new college on ita 
trial. After Dr. Sprenger s appointment, Login had 
the opportunity he had longed for of securing another 
dispensary for the poor of Lucknow. 

To effect this purpose he generously offered to give 
up his allowance of 100 rupees per mensem for medical 
duties at the College, in order that a well-qualified 
sub-assistant surgeon (native) might be entertained, 
who could perform the duties of a dispensary as well. 
At the same time he offered gratuitously his own 
assistance and advice to the person appointed. In 
proposing this he had in view the suggestion which he 
had submitted to the Secretary to Government two 
years before, and which was approved of, to endeavour 
to attach a medical class to the College as soon as it 
was fairly established, as it would be a great benefit if 
some of the students could have the opportunity of 
being trained in the medical profession. 

On Henry Lawrence being appointed to the post of 
Resident at Nepal, he came with his wife and little 
boy Alick (Tim) to pay the Logins a visit on his way 
to Khatmandoo. Lawrence's energetic character found 
a ready response in Login, and the two friends were 
perfectly happy during this visit in conceiving and 


carrjrmg out all sorts of schemes for improving the Chapter 
condition of the natives, and for stirring up the indolent .^^J' 
nobles and opulent merchants to a sense of their re- 
sponsibility to their poorer brethren.* 

Lawrence at that time was writing articles for the 
Calcutta RevieWy of which Kaye was editor, and he 
urged Login to do the same. Observing that the idea 
of improving the means of carriage for our wounded 
soldiers m the field was exercising his mind, he got him 
to write several articles on that subject.t 

All Lawrences staff of servants were hired in 
Lucknow for the new appointment at Khatmandoo, 
and when he took up his abode there the intercourse 
between the two friends did not slacken. 

Henry Lawrence's faith in Login s powers as a Post- 
master was very great, and they were indefatigable in 
stirring up their respective native Courts, of Oude and 
Khatmandoo, to facilitate traffic by post and dak. 

* Could those two friends hare foreseen, as they sat together over tlieir chota 
futzeret in the verandah, in the delicious cold weather mornings, after their early 
ride, ^t on a day not far distant Henry Lawrence would be carried, amid a very 
hail of bullets, wounded unto death, from the Residency hard by, to die on tliis 
very spot ! 

t Login had seen, when on active service, so much of the suffering expericncetl, 
and borne so patiently, by the sick and wounded, in the wretched doolies in use, 
that he employed his inventive powers (which were great) in perfecting a litter 
which would be comfortable in itself and easily carried by bearers, or on the backs 
of elephants, camels, bullocks, or ponies. It was named " Blcssiere/' and was 
foond so {feasant as a conveyance that it was often used by invalid travellers 
going ddk^ in preference to palanquin or doolie, as it allowed of change of 


Chapter The Lucknow post-oflSce became famous for its speed 
ftiQift and punctuality, and Login received a special letter of 
* thanks from Government, to whom he was recom- 
mended by Thomason, Lieut. -Grovernor of the North- 
Western Provinces, for a special gratuity on this 
account; but there was some rule which prevented 
this being granted, though the recommendation was 

Some letters of Henry Lawrence/s may prove 
interesting : — 

Nepal, Jan. Wth, 1844. 
Mt deab Login, 

I have just written to Thomason about post-office 
matters. I have asked him if the report is true that I hear, that 
he is to appoint a young civilian to the Postmaster-Generalship ? 

I said he ought in justice to the country to give the post to the 
best man in the department, one able to do the duty and willing 
to do it, and who would stick to the berth. I have told him there 
should be three grades — 500, 300, and 200 rupees, and raiae men 
of acknowledged zeal and ability, that the natives would then 
trust their valuable letters to us, which they don't do at present, 
and the post-office funds would soon pay the increased salaries. 

Thomason is a queer fellow, and dislikes interference. If, 
therefore, he values my opinion at all he will take it best in the 
shape I have given it, and I heartily hope soon to see you in office 
as Postmaster-General of the North- West Provinces, for I 
earnestly believe you would do it full justice, and would expedite 
the ddk8 in a manner the slow coaches little think of. You would 
also make the ddk as valuable to the natives as it is to our- 


I have given Thomason nnmeroas instances of how native Chapter 
letteiB are neglected Our love to you both. iy« 


H. M. L. 


Nepal, Dec. Idth, 1844. 
My deab Looin, 

I hear from many quarters that there is every prospect 
of your being our new Postmaster-General. 

I thought Thomason could not be so foolish as to put in a young 
civilian, for then it would only be temporary. 

Tou will make a first-rate head of the department, and work 
up the men under you into something like your own energy and 

Alick has been very ill again. Oh ( I wish we had your brother 
the medico here ; I would have every confidence in him. The 
little fellow is so pulled down, and my wife is so sadly weak, that I 
feel very anxious. The Lucknow ayah is a great comfort. I 
hope you are busy with your *' Beggar " article. Follow your 
own bent, and I doubt not that it will take immensely, and be 
very acceptable to the Review. Please have it ready by the end 
of February at latest, and any information you can give as to 
relief societies, and the effects of the great famine, will be 
very interesting. 

Our Prince here has put down his papa, and has been giving 
me a lot of trouble. Last week they murdered {killed, they call 
it) sixteen of the opposition party, and all hands have now called 
the boy to the throne. Do give me a slight biographical sketch 
of Hakim Mhendi and Agameer, and the Treasurer, or Dewan — I 
forget his name — stating who. and what each of them were. 

Yours sincerely, 

H. M. L. 


Nepal, Feb. llth, 1845. 
Chapter My deab Login, 


1842 48 ^y ^^^® ^^® \>^&^ very ill, so ill that for a week I feared 

for her life. To-day she is better, and I hope out of danger, but 
terribly reduced. 

I am sorry to hear that your dear wife has been so ill. I regvet 
much that you did not make up your minds earlier to spend your 
hot season with us here ; it is now, of course, too late for a deli- 
cate lady to travel through the Terai, but your brother Tom might 
still come if you and he like the idea, and you think it is for his 
good to do so. I shall be right pleased to have him. Write by 
return, and start him off without delay, so as to reach Segowlee 
by the 7th or 8th of March. 

He must travel ddk^ of course, and the less he brings with him 
the better, beyond his clothes. It is not safe to pass through the 
Terai after the 15th March. I repeat my offer to give him 100 
rupees per mensem, and a moonshee to teach him the languages, on 
condition that he gives me (in my own room) his time for two 
hours a day to write letters for me. I have books of every kind, 
and will be glad to assist his studies in any way. My invitation 
is for the whole year for certain* After that we'll launch him, and 
if he is your brother he'll find his own legs ! 

If he agrees, give him a copy of what I have written, that there 
may be no mistake between us. I limit the time to a year, 
because I never feel sure that I will care to remain here longer 
than this year. 

I have heard from Thomason ; he does not like my saying (hat 
his post-office arrangements are not so good as they might be. 
Good as he is, he has crotchets, and not a few. 

He says he finds it very difficult to do always as he would 

My dear wife will gladly undertake the office of godmother to 
the last arrival (remember our compact, that the next boy is to be 
my godson). 


When your wife's letter reached Honoria, she was so iU that I Chapter 

feared much you would have need to apply elsewhere. Her illness rv. 

seems very strange ; certainly Dr. C does not understand it. 1842-48. 

I called in Prince Waldemar's * doctor, and he was so far useful 

in supporting C . 


H. M. L. 

Nepal, Aug. 9th, 1845. 
Mt deab Login, 

I am glad to hear you are all flourishing I was 

pleased that you approved of the Oude article in the Calcutta 
Revmo, If I had known I would have been kept so long 
before printing, I would have sent the manuscript to you for 
revision, to be sure that I had grasped your meaning always ; as 
it is, there are some absurd misprints. You are mysterious in 
what you say about Shakespear's movements. I have no wish to 
get Lucknow unless I were allowed full swing to carry out my 
schemes for the amelioration of the people ; in that case I would 
undoubtedly accept, and as a matter of conscience consent to 
sacrifice my own comfort for the good of the country ; but if I 
were employed in Oude I should certainly stipulate to have the 
benefit of your services. Don't you think we could make some- 
thing of that fine country between us ? I certainly would not 
have men with me who are idle lie-a-beds like . 

I hope your young brother likes his work. I hear from Thoma- 
son that he finds him well " worth his salt " on the Ganges 
Canal. I am very glad, although you would not accept my offer 
to help him. 

How I wish we had your brother James here as doctor, and 
also for companionship, for my rides are very lonely — only fancy 

* ProBsiaii Prinoe then trayeUing in India. 


Chapter never once has ridden with me since he came, though often 

I^* asked! I fancy he and his wife dislike us, at least it looks like it. 

1842-48. They are respectable people according to the fashion of the 
world's respectability, but their hearts are " gizzards." He has 
only three ideas in his head — there is no such thing as poverty 
in England — ^the English Church is purity and propriety personi- 
fied, and — ** Antigua." We have never any disagreement, simply 
we don't milao (assimilate) ; but, my dear old Login, I know 
you hate scandal, and I never meant to write any when I began. 
We don't like to see Tim grow so weedy and nervous ; I don't 
want him to be girlish, but he has lost all courage of late. My 
wife begs I will give you the enclosed description of his state. 
Will you think it all over, and give us directions or prescriptions 
as you think best ? My wife has such faith in you that if you 
take him in hand she will be at rest. 


H. M. L. 

When Lawrence was sent from Nepal tx) Lahore to 
be Resident, he still kept up a friendly correspondence. 
Here is a letter written when preparing to go home on 
leave to recruit his health, sadly broken down, leaving 
the Punjab, as he and Lord Hardinge believed, 
tranquil, if not quite settled down : — 

Lahobb, Nov, 6th, 1847. 
Mt deab Login, 

Many thanks for your kind chit just received. I answer 
in a way at once, lest it get laid aside in the bustle. I want you 
to tell Tom to qualify as a surveyor, for there will be work for 
him hereafter in the Ftmjab. 


Idon't think it would do for Lord Hardinge to do anything just Chapter 
a3 he is leaving ; bat I think that his successor should do much I^* 
what you propose, and I agree with you that John is the best 1842-48. 
man they could get to carry out the arrangement, and I shall tell 
the Court of Directors so when I get home. 

I leave I^ihore on the 1st December, and go down to Calcutta. 
I am better, but very seedy and rickety, and want a thorough 
setting-up. I'll keep your secret, and advise you to write a great 
deal more of same sort for the Delhi Gazette. I thought the 
article very good and very like ^ou— certainly not written by 
Delhi folks. The paper wants a little help ; a little would enable 
it to floor that scoundrel at Meerut. I trust that Mrs. Login's 
health holds out. My kindest regards to her and you. 


H. Lawbence. 

Previous to this Lawrence had succeeded in getting 
Login's brother, James Dryburgh, appointed to be Resi- 
dency-Surgeon at Nepal, where he remained after 
Lawrence was appointed to the Punjab frontier on 
the breaking out of the war. The young surgeon's in- 
fluence over the Minister, Jung Bahadoor, was remark- 
able. He inspired him with a great desire to go to 
England to judge for hunself what sort of people they 
were who ruled India. 

Jung Bahadoor applied for permission to Govern- 
ment, that Dr. James D. Login should be permitted to 
accompany him to England and to visit the Continent 
of Europe. 

The permission was granted ; but before the informa- 


Chapter tioix reached James Login he was dead, having been 

^^' attacked by cholera at Dinapore, and carried off after a 
1842-48. . 

' few hours' iUness. It was brought on by exposure to a 

fierce sun on the river, working and superintending the 

fitting-up of a boat to carry a patient, the wife of 

a friend, to Calcutta on her way to England. 

It is satisfactory to know that although he was not 
permitted himself to carry out his desire to open Jung 
Bahadoor's eyes to the power and greatness of England, 
yet that the visit was productive of great results, and 
that it was the cause of making a friend of that astute 
and wily native, whose friendship proved so useftil in 
the Mutiny. 

It was expected that when Dr. Login's promotion to 
the grade of full surgeon took place that he also (like 
Dr. Stevenson, his predecessor) would be permitted to 
remain in the appointment of Residency- Surgeon until 
there was a vacancy for him as Postmaster-Greneral. 
No doubt this would have been the case had either of 
his former chiefs. Low, Nott, Pollock, or Davidson. 
been the Resident, for they would have applied for 
him. Login himself, on principle, always acting on the 
belief that the Government knew best who was the 
fittest man for a particular office, had made it a rule 
never to ask for anything. It happened however, 
that the Resident and his first Assistant had taken 
offence at Dr. Login, because on public grounds he (as 
a member of the Council of Management and Secre- 
tary) opposed their wish to appoint a very unfit man 


as the Sub- Assistant Surgeon in charge of the Marti- Chapter 



nifere Dispensary. Colonel Richmond took the extra- ' 

ordinary step, as soon as he saw Login's promotion in 
the GazettCy of appointing another Assistant- Surgeon 
till his successor was gazetted, and ordered the native 
Sub- Assistant Surgeon to take charge at once of the 
King's hospitals, thus virtually ousting Dr. Login. 

This appointment, when sent up to the authorities 
for confirmation, brought down a severe rebuke on the 
Resident, who was told by the Governor-General that 
the appointment was a most improper one ; he had, 
therefore, himself to pay to his nominees the allowances 
he tried to deduct from Dr. Login. 

Login had arranged to send home his wife and 
children when he became full smrgeon. And had it not 
been for the disturbed state of the Pimjab at the time, 
he would have taken furlough and gone home with 
them ; as it was, he applied to be sent on active service 
with the army then assembling. 

He was again appointed to the charge of the Horse 
Artillery, and joined the 6th Battalion at Deena- 
nuggur, under Brigadier Wheeler, in the autumn of 



Chapter The Punjab, or Land of the *' Five Rivers,"* was first 
^' known to Western nations as the kingdom of Poms. 
The Greeks under Alexander, who defeated that 
monarch, gave to the country he ruled over the name 
of " India." This name later ages extended to those 
vast territories which lie betwixt the Indus and the 
Irrawaddy, and stretch from Cape Comorin to the 
farthest Himalayas. 

The Punjab itself is about the size of the present 
kingdom of Prussia (including Hanover and Schleswig- 
Holstein), though its population is not quite so dense 
as that of northern Germany, t It enjoys every 
variety of climate, from the drifting snows of Ladakb 
to the dust-storms of Mooltan. J The products of the 

* From panch, ** five ; " d6, " water." 

t The total population of the Punjab, including the Native States, was, in 
1881, 22,712,120. Exclusive of the Native Stotes, it is 18,850,437. The popula- 
tion of Prussia is about 27,000,000. 

X Cunningham's ** Histwy of the Sikhs;* p. 2. 

THB BIKH8. 99 

soil are equally varied^ and though it is not so Chapter 

marvellously fertile as parts of Bengal and the basin of ^* 

the Ganges, even in the days of Runjeet Singh the 

revenues were estimated at two and a half millions 

sterling, while under British rule they have nearly 

doubled!* The wealth of the country, however, is 

largely owing to its trade in shawls, carpets, and silk 

goods (the shawls of Cashmere and carpets of Mooltan 

being almost equally famous), and to its export of salt 

— ^the salt-mines of the Jhelum district forming a 

valuable source of revenue to the British Government. 

The inhabitants are of many races, the most numerous 

in the central plain, about the cities of Lahore and 

Amritsur, being the Jats — ^a tribe of Central Asian 

origin — ^and it was amongst these people that the Sikh 

theism had its birth. 

It must not be forgotten that the Sikhs in origin 

were a religious hodyy and not a race. They were 

banded together, not by the ties of kindred or 

common ancestry, but by the ardour and religious 

zeal of one earnest soul searching for Divine truth, 

who formed them into a brotherhood of enthusiastic 

disciples, sworn to carry on his mission to succeeding 

generations, and bring all who would accept their 

teaching, of whatever tribe, language, or religion, from 

the darkness of idolatry and debased superstition, 

« Gro68 receipts for the year ending March 3l8t, 1884— £4,810,825. 

H 2 



Chapter which disgraced all the creeds of India, to the simple 
• worship of the one Supreme Deity. Unlike the 
followers of Mahomed, the Sikhs made no converts by 
the sword. 

1469. N^uk, the fomider of the Sikh religion, was bom 
in the year 1469. The Adi Grunt'h, or sacred book 
of the Sikhs, which contains his writings, shows that 
the doctrines he taught breathe a high spirituaUty 
and truly exalted moral character. Here and there, 
indeed, they bear a strange and shadowy resemblance 
to some of the precepts of the Christian faith. NAnuk 
taught that God was One, Eternal, Incomprehensible, 
the Creator of all; that all creeds were to be tolerated, 
and all founders of religious systems honoured as 
teachers sent to reveal some portion of Divine truth ; 
but they were on no account to be regarded as deities 
themselves. The Hindoo religion and that of 
Mahomed is thus placed on equal terms. 

1695. Nfijxuk was succeeded by nine GfirQs or teachers, 
whereof Govind* was the tenth and last. Govind 
proclaimed the foimdation of the KhILlsat or sacred 
commonwealth of the Sikhs. Caste was to be done 
away, and all Sikh» were equally to receive the pcJiul^ 

* Govind aasumed the OArCbihip in 1695. 

t Tbe word KkdUa signifiea " pure, special, free." Aooording to the tfrnching 
of GoTind, eTery Sikh, as ench, was equally a member of the Khilea, which w« 
regiided as the depository of Divine authority upon earth, and in whose cxkUecti^v 
body God Himself was held to be mystically present 


or initiatory rite ;* the locks of the faithful were to Chapter 
remain unshorn, and they were told to assume the ^' 
surname of " Singh " (lion). 

Grovind also formed the Sikhs into a military and 1708. 
p<^)litical organization, and when he died, in 1708, told 
his followers that the mission of the appointed '* Ten " 
was fiilfiUed ; and henceforth the GAr&ship was absorbed 
in the general body of the Kh^lsa. 

Politically the Sikhs were divided into a number of 
s**parate " Misls " or confederacies, each headed by a 
Sirdar or chief. These associations are peculiarly 
Sikh institutions, and the name being derived from an 
-rVrabic word signifying " alike or equal," implies that 
they were associations of equals, under chiefs of their 
own selection. The Sirdar's portion being first divided 

• »tf, the remainder of the lands and property acquired 
1 iv these bands of freebooters was parcelled out among 
}-is followers — whether relatives, friends, volunteers, 

• >r hired retainers — ^who had followed his banner in the 
ti*-ld, and who each took his part as co-sharer, and 

»»-H it in absolute independence.f 

itials for this were : Ist. The presence of five Sikhs (disciples). 

'i^briprr five Sikhs are assembled," says Govind, *' there is the Eh41sa." 2nd. 

'-.- •Qj^ar and water stirred together in a vessel with a two-edged dagger or 

• <^r inm weapon. The candidate repeats the articles of his faith, a portion of 

-wmter is sprinkled over him, and he drinks the remainder with the exclama- 

- . " HaO Gttr^ ! " See Cunningham, NbU, p. 76. 

^ PMisep's **nuiofy of the Sikhs,'* p. 28. The principal Misls were twelre in 

•ab^« riz: — 1. Bhungee. 2. Euneia or Ghunneya. 3. Sooker-Chukea. 

4 KAjBgorhea. 5. Phoolkea. 6. Nnkeia. 7. Aloowalea. 8. Duleeala. 

10. Krorea Singhe». 11. Shmleed and Nihung. 12. Fyzool 


Chapter It is in the year 1762 that the name of Churnit 
^' Singh, Chief of the Sooker-Chukea Misl, first rises into 
notice, he having then established a stronghold in his 
wife's village of Goojranwallah, famous in after years as 
the birth-place of his grandson, the renowned Runjeet 

1774. When, in 1774, Churrut Singh was killed by the 
bursting of his own matchlock, and was succeeded in 
his chieftainship by his son, Maha Singh, the revenues 
of his Misl were estimated at three lakhs of rupees 

Maha Singh overthrew and slew Jai Singh, the chief 
of the Kuneia Misl, who had become the most powerful 
amongst the Sikh Sirdars, and married the infant 
grand-daughter of Jai Singh to his only son Runjeet 
Singh. That youth, therefore, on his father s death, hi 

1792. 1792, found himself, at the early age of twelve yeai>;, 
paramount chief of the Sikh nation. 

1799. In the year 1799, in return for services rendered to 
the Afghan Shah Zuman, Runjeet Singh received a 
royal investiture of the city of Lahore. Thus was the 
first step gained towards the establishing of kinjjly 
power in the Punjab, though it was not until ten years 
later, that his predominance over the other Sirdars wa.s 
firmly fixed, and a formal treaty entered into with tht- 
British (April 25th, 1809), in which he was acknow> 
ledged as ruler of all the Sikhs (except those of Mahva 

• PrinBop, p. 39. 


and Sirhind, south of the Sutlej, which were under Chapter 
British protection), and whereby perpetual friendship ^' 
was secured between the British Government and the 
State of Lahore — an engagement fiuthfuUy kept 
throughout his life by the Maharajah. 

Runjeet Singh left at his death (June 27th, 1839) 1839. 
six sons, of whom four were legitimate, or " acknow- 
ledged," viz., (1) Khurruck Singh, bom 1802 ; (2) 
Shere Singh, bom 1807 ; (3) Tara Singh, said to be 
twin-brother of Shere Singh ; (4) Duleep Singh, bom 
September 4th, 1831. hsiS J) ^«^ / • '^ 

There were also two illegitimate, or "adopted," sons, 
viz., Cashmera Singh, bom 1819 ; and Peshawura 
Singh, bom 1823. 

Of the " legitimate " sons, bom of his wives, only 
two, however, Khurruck Singh and Duleep Singh, 
were fully acknowledged as such by the Maharajah ; 
Shere Singh and Tara Singh having always been sup- 
posed by him, and generally believed, to have been 
substituted for a daughter by his first, or principal, 
wife, Mehtab Kour, daughter of Goorbuksh Singh, and 
heiress of the Kuneia chieftainship. To neither of 
them did the Maharajah ever show any parental 
affection.* Shere Singh was commonly reported to be 
the son of a carpenter, and Tara Singh that of a 

* Memorandum drawn up for Her Majuty by Sir John Login. See alao 
CnnningliAxn, p. 186» 


Chapter Runjeet Singh was succeeded by hia eldest son, 
^* Khumick Singh, whose reign lasted barely five and a 
half months. Khumick Singh was of weak intellect, 
and the government rested entirely in the hands of 
his son, Nao-Nehal Singh. This Prince conspired with 
the famous three " Jummoo Brothers " * to murder one 
Cheit Singh, the favourite of the Maharajah, his 
father. The crime was perpetrated at daybreak on the 
8th October, 1839, within a few paces of the terrified 
monarch, who himself died soon after (November 5th), 
prematurely old and careworn. 

That same day retribution overtook Nao-Nehal 
Singh, for, as he was returning from the perform- 
ance of the last rites at the fimeral pyre of his father, 
the masonry of a gateway under which he was passing 
gave way, and he, together with the eldest son of 
GoUb Singh, who was at his side, was crushed under 
the ruins. The Jummoo Rajahs were, of course, 
suspected of causing his death, and it is possible that 
self-preservation may have been their motive, as they 
well knew that Nao-Nehal Singh had determined on 
their destruction. 

For some time the government was assumed by 
Chund Koiir, the widow of Khurruck Singh ; but on 

* Rajahs QoUb Singh (made afterwards Maharajah of Cashmere by the English), 
Dhyan Singh, and Sachet Singh, three brothers, who were powerfnl faTouxites of 
Runjeet Singh. 

t See Cunningham, p. 244; also Smyth's "Heignmg FamUy of Lahort' 
Steinbach. Henry Lawrence's " Adventurer in the Pitr^abt** ^c. 




the 18th January, 1841, through the influence of the Chapter 
Jummoo Rajahs and the army, Shere Singh, the J" 
reputed son of Runjeet Singh, was proclaimed Mahar- 

In 1843, Rajah Dhyan Singh, who was Wuzeer, 1®^- 
finding that his influence with the Maharajah was on 
the wane, conspired with two Sirdars of the Sind- 
hanwallah family,* named Ajeet Singh and Lena 
Singh, to murder both Shere Singh and his 
eldest son, Pertslb Singh, a boy of thirteen or 
fourteen years. Dhyan Singh, however, gained little 
by his treachery, for he was murdered by his 
accomplices within an hour or two of his master. His 
death was avenged by his son, the youthful Heera 
Singh, who made an appeal to the army ; and Ajeet 
Singh and Lena Singh were slain in their tum.t 

Duleep Singh was then proclaimed Maharajah 
(September 18th, 1843), and Heera Singh raised to the 
" high and fatal office " of Wuzeer. I 

Duleep Singh was born in the palace at Lahore on 
the 4th September, 1838, about three months before ^-^ c ' 
the interview at Ferozepore between Lord Auckland 
and the ruler of the Sikhs, which preceded the advance 
of the army of the Indus to Afghanistan. He was at 

* Descendants of Nodha, an ancestor of Runjeet Singh. 

f Smyths " Reigning FamUy of Lahore,** p. 78. 

t Canningham, p. 271. Shere Singh had left a son (Sheo Deo Singh), then an 
infant of four months, and also three adopted sons. — Memo, hy Sir J. Login, 


Chapter once acknowledged by the Maharajah Runjeet Singh 

^- as his son, and much attention and kindness was shown 

to his mother, the Ranee Jinda, or Chunda. After the 

death of the ** Great Maharajah," which occurred when 

the child was about ten months old, and during the 

reigns of Khurruck Singh and Shore Singh, the young 

prince continued to reside in the palace under his 

mother's care, receiving but little notice from either of 

his elder brothers, the reigning princes, or their 


Since the death of Runjeet Singh and the dissolution 
of the Misls, the anny had been the real power in the 
State. Claiming to represent the Kh^lsa itself, it 
took upon it to discuss all national and important 
matters, and to have the selection of the occupant of 
the guddee (throne). It maintained a rigid internal 
discipline in itself, as far as drill and military duties 
were concerned ; but its relation to the Executive 
Government was determined by a council or assemblage 
of committees, composed of delegates from each 
battahon or regiment. These committees were termed 
" Punchayets," from the word pcmch (five), the mj-stic 
number of the Kh^lsa, and the system is a conunon 
one throughout Hindostan, where every section of a 
tribe or district has its punchayet, or village parliament. 

The Maharanee Jinda was made Regent for her son. 
She was a woman of great capacity and strong will, 
who had considerable influence with the Punchavets. 
being a skilful intriguer and endowed with undoubted 


courage, though her moral character left much to be Chftpter 
desired. ^* 

Dissensions soon broke out among the Jummoo 
family. Suchet Singh, the youngest of the three 
" Jummoo Brothers," was mortified at the ascendancy 
of his nephew, Heera Singh, and determined to sup- 
plant him. He broke at length into open rebellion, 
but was overthrown, and died, fighting to the last. 
Suchet Singh left no heirs, and his immense estates 
and wealth were the cause of much dispute later on. 
He had buried about one and a half million rupees' 
worth of treasure at Ferozepore on British territory, 
and this the Lahore Government claimed, both as 
escheated property of a feudatory without male heirs, 
and as the confiscated property of a rebel in arms, 
while the British Government contended that the 
claim must be pleaded and proved in a British court of 

Bajah GolAb Singh had supported his nephew Heera 
Singh. He was the eldest and most crafty of the 
" Jummoo Brothers " ; his wealth and territories were 
enormous, and this overgrown vassal was a source of 
serious embarrassment to the central power. He was, 
however, reduced to submission by the army, and 
obliged to pay a fine of three and a half million 
rupees (£350,000), which was afterwards increased to 
six and three-quarter millions (£675,000). 

* CmminghaiD, p. 278. 


Chapter Jowahir Singh, the brother of the Maharanee, was 
^' now ambitious of power. He conspired against Heera 
Singh, caused him to be put to death, and himself 
became Wuzeer in his place ; but &lling under the 
displeasure of the Punchayets, was himself publicly 
shot by their order, in the presence of his sister and his 
nephew, the little Maharajah. 

In the December of the same year (1845), the Sikh 
army crossed the Sutlej, and there followed what is 
known as the First Sikh War. 

On the news reaching the capital, of the annihilation 
of his army at Sobraon, the young Maharajah set out 
for Kussoor, to oflfer his submission to the Governor- 
General, Sir Henry Hardinge* Some days later, at 
another durbar held at Lahore, Sir Henry asked to be 
allowed to see the famed Koh-i-noor. It was pro- 
duced for his inspection, and afterwards passed round 
to the other Europeans present. Colonel BaJcarres 
Ramsay thus describes the incident : — 

I arrived at the camp at Lahore, just as the Governor-General 
was going out with his cortege to meet the young Maharajah and 
receive his submission. There was a grand durbar afterwards, 
and when the Koh-i-noor was handed round for our inspection, 
Mr. Edwards, the Under-Secretary to Government in the Foreign 
Department, was put in charge of it. He was evidently extremelv 
nervous, and carried it round himself from one staff officer to 
another. Just as he placed it in my hands, Sir Henry Hardinge 

* Afterwards created yxaooimt Hardinge, 

THE 8IKHS. 109 

aaat for him ; I naturally passed it on to the next officer, but Chapter 
when Edwards hurried back and demanded the precious jewel, I V. 
never shall forget the agony depicted on his face, as he rushed 1845. 
down the ranks of staff officers, frantically demanding it ! * 

Sir Henry then, with a pleasant smile, fastened it 
liimself on the arm of the little King, afterwards 
patting him on the back in a kindly manner, t 

On the 20th February, 1846, the British troops 1846. 
entered Lahore, and the whole Punjab lay at their 
feet.+ It was theirs by force of arms and the for- 
tune of war, yet Sir Henry Hardinge had no thought 
of annexation. He contented himself with annexing 
the Jullundur Doab, or country between the Sutlej 
and the Beas, and demanding an indemnity from the 
Lahore State of a crore and a half of rupees (one and 
a half noillion sterling). This sum the Lahore Trea- 
sury was miable to produce, and the Governor- 
General took Cashmere and the Hill States, from the 
Beas to the Indus, in lieu of two-thirds of the in- 
demnity, and transferred this territory to Rajah GoUb 
Singh, as a separate sovereign, for a sum of one million 
sterling. As, however, it was found advisable to retain 

• •• Ltfe of Lord Lavsrence,* ToL i., p. 191. 

t " Mciharajah DtiUep Singh and the OovemmerU,** p. 71. See also " Life of 
Sir Herbert Edwanies,** toI. L, p. 44. 

X The wftr had cost the victors dearly in men and officers. Among fi/ty^six of 
the laUoTt who fell in the hloodj fight of Ferozepore, was the nohle-hearted 
D'Arcy Todd, Login's late chief at Her&t, to whom he was attached by the 
clooest bonds of intimacy and affection. 


Chapter a portion of this territory in the hands of the East- 
' India Company, this latter sum was reduced by one- 
fourth, and the liquidation was rendered still more 
easy to the Jummoo Prince, by considering him as heir 
to the money buried by his brother, Suchet Singh, at 
Ferozepore, and which was already in the possession of 
the East India Company. 

When it is considered, says Cunningham,* that Gol&b Singh 
had agreed to pay sixty-eight lakhs of rupees, as fine to his para* 
mount (and had never done so) . , . . it appears that he ought to 
have paid the deficient million of money into the Lahore Treasury, 
as a Lahore subject, instead of being put in possession of Lahore 

provinces as an independent prince His rise to sovereign 

power excited the ambition of others, and Tej Singh .... 
offered twenty-five lakhs of rupees, for a princely crown and 
another dismembered province.! 

Later on (March 11th), an additional clause was 
added to the Treaty, to the effect that a British force 
should remain at Lahore till the close of the year, to 
protect the Maharajah and his Government while the 
reorganization of the Kh^lsa army was in progress, but 
as the time approached when this force would be with- 
drawn, the uneasiness of the durbar, or council of 
ministers, prompted them to ask the Govemor-Grenoral 
to continue to assist them in the administration of 

* " Hirtory qf tKe Sikhs,'* pp. 831-88. See abo ante, p. 107. 
t His offer, however, wis rejected. 



affidrs, during the minority of the Maharajah, and the Chapter 
Treaty of Bhyrowal (December 16th, 1846) was the ^^• 
outcome of this request.* 

By this new Treaty, the Punjab was placed ''under the 
dictatorship of a British Besident, who was to have full control 
over every department of the State. It provided for the con- 
tinuance of a British force at Lahore until the Maharajah Duleep 
Singh should attain the full age of sixteen, which would happen 
on the 4th September, 1854. The sum of twenty-two lakhs 
annually was to be paid by the Lahore State for the expenses of 
the occupation. The administration of the affairs of the country 
was to be continued, under the direction of the Besident, by a 

Council of Begency The Banee was to be provided with a 

fitting maintenance, but was by this new arrangement to be 
virtually excluded from any share in the govemment."t 

By the selection of Henry Lawrence to fill the 
arduous and delicate position of Resident at Lahore, 
and virtual ruler of the Punjab, Lord Hardinge 
showed at once his foresight and desire to conciliate 
the Sikhs. 

By the terms of the Treaty, the Resident was vested 
with supreme and despotic powers, subject only to the 
instructions of the Governor-General, J Li a letter 
dated 3rd July, 1847, Lord Hardinge reminds the 
Resident that the articles of government ** give to the 

• See •• Trealy of Bhyrowal.** Appendix. 

t Quoted from ** Maharajah Duleep Singh and the OovemmefU," p. SO. 

t " I^ab Papers," 1849, pp. 86, 48, 63. 


Chapter Government of India, represented at Lahore by Ha 
^* Resident, full power to direct and control all matters 
in every department of the State. It is poUtic/' he 
says, *'that the Resident should carry the native 
Council with him, the members of which are, however, 
entirely mider his control and guidance ; he can 
change them and appoint others; and in military 
a&irs his powers are as unlimited as in the civil 
administration ; he can withdraw Sikh garrisons, 
replacing them by British troops, in any and every part 
of the Punjab." * In a subsequent letter Lord Hardinge 
again urged on Hemy Lawrence the advisability 
of keeping a tight hand on all native officials, and 
making his own personality felt in every department 
of the government, t The following extract finom 
another letter of his will show what the real scope of 
the Treaty was, and that the Resident was to be 
entirely responsible for the administration of the 
country : — 

October 23rd, 1847. 

1847. In all our measures taken during the minority, we must bear in 
mind that by the Treaty of Lahore, March, 1846, the Punjab 
never was intended to be an independent State. By the cl^ofie^ 
I added, the Chief of the State can neither make war nor pemoe, 
nor exchange nor sell an acre of territory, nor admit an European 
officer, nor refuse us a thoroughfare through his territories, nor. 
in fact, perform any act (except its own internal administration') 

• «< Punjab Papers,'* 1849, p. 18. f Dated 0otob«r 88i^, 1847. 

TH£ SIELHS. 113 

without our permissioiL In fact, the native prince is in fetters, Chapter 
and under our protection, and must do our bidding. I advert ^* 
hastily to this point because, if I have any difference of opinion 
with you, it consists in your liberality in attempting at too early 
a period to train the Sikh authorities to walk alone ; I wish them 
to feel and to like our direct interference by the benefits con- 

The Resident thus describes the practical working 
of the Council of Regency (August 1847) : — 

On the whole, the durbar gives me as much support as I can 
reasonably expect ; there has been a quiet struggle for mastery, 
but as, though I am polite to all, I allow nothing that appears to 
me wrong to pass unnoticed, the members of the Goimcil are 
gradually falling into the proper train, and refer most questions 
to me, and, in words at least, allow, more fully even than I wish, 
that they are only executive officers — to do as they are bid.t 

Although the Maharajah was too young to share the 
councils of those who ruled in his name, he was always 
present in state at the durbars, and all dignities and 
honours were conferred by his hand. 

It chanced that at a grand durbar held on the 7th 
August, 1847, it was arranged that distinctions should 
be given to various Sirdars who had rendered important 
services. Amongst otherdignities, the title of " Rajah " 
was to be conferred on Tej Singh, Commander-in-Chief 

* ''Life of Sir Henry Lawrence, K.C.B.," vol. ii., p. 100. 
t " Punjab Papers," 1849, p. 82. 


Chapter of the Lahore army, betwixt whom and the Maharanee 
J' Jinda there reigned a bitter enmity. The latter, there- 
fore, delayed her son s arrival at the durbar for upwards 
of an hour, though all the Sikh Sirdars and English 
officers were assembled and waiting. When at length 
he did appear, the Maharajah refused to put out his 
hand to mark the forehead of the new Hajah on his in- 
vestiture, and by Colonel Lawrence's orders the cere- 
mony had to be performed by a Sikh priest. 

The «cene is thus described in a private letter from 
Lord Hardinge to Sir Frederick Currie* : — 

He resolutely played his part, tucked his little hands behiml 
him, threw himself back in his chair, and one of the pries^ts 
performed the ceremony. In the evening she (the Maharauet) 
would not allow the Prince to be dressed to see the fireworks. 
In short she is breeding him up systematically to thwart the 
Govt., and the English connection. I am now in confident »ai 
correspondence with L., and I see no remedy but to remove her 
from Lahore .... Sooner or later it must come to this, a- 
he grows older it is our duty as his Guardians to remove liiiu 
from her evil example. 

For this open insult to the Resident and durlxir, 
for which she was known to be responsible, tlw 
Maharanee was consequently separated from her sol, 
and removed to Sheikopoora, about twenty-five milt-^ 
from Lahore (August 1 9th, 1847). 

♦ Dated August 19th, 1847. Private Papers qfthelaU Sir F. Currk (by ki:. . 
penuissioii of Lady dime. ) 


The constant strain of work at the Lahore Residency Chapter 
was too much for Henry Lawrence's health, and he ^' 
was obliged to return to England on sick leave, in 
company with his friend Lord Hardinge, whose period 
of office had just expired, and who was succeeded as 
Governor-General, by the Earl of Dalhousie, on the 
21st of January, 1848. 

Owing to Henry Lawrence s absence, the post of Re- 
sident at Lahore was temporarily filled by Sir Frederick 
Cume, but as he was not able to assume his duties till 
March, 1848, the affairs of the Punjab remained, in the 
interim, in the able hands of Henry Lawrence's younger 
brother, John. 

Sir Heniy Lawrence had left the Punjab, as he 
>elieved, in a condition of internal peace ; and so little 
mticipation was generally felt of any serious outbreak 
ii that quaxter, that Lord Hardinge had assured his 
accessor, on handing over the reins of government, 
liat, so far as he could see, " it would not be necessary 
) fire a gun in India for seven years to come I " * 
ow speedily ^vas this fair prediction to be falsified, 
id these bright hopes dashed to the ground ! 
'' The thunder-bolt fell, as it were, out of the blue 
v."t Towards the end of April, the Punjab was 
rnncr from end to end with the intelligence of the 
irder of Vans Agnew and Andersonat Mooltan, and 

" Li/e of Lord Lfawreneej* by Bosworth Smith, vol. L, p. 245. 
♦* liuUa under Victoria,'' by Captain Trotter, vol. i., p. 171. 

I 2 


Chapter the revolt of Moolraj , the Dewan and Governor of the 
^' province, who had raised once more the standard of 
the Kh^lsa, calling on all true Sikhs to join him in 
freeing their country from the rule of the foreigner. 

There is no need to tell over again the story of tliat 
revolt. Had the military authorities, either at Lahore 
or Simla, shown only one tithe of the energy displayed 
by Lieutenant Herbert Edwardes, who, with a single 
native infantry regiment, 300 horse, and a couple 
of horse-artillery guns as a nucleus, set about collecting:: 
and raising troops, defeated the Dewan in two pitched 
battles, and finally confined him within the walls of 
his own city and fortress of Mooltan, the whole 
rebellion might have been suppressed as rapidly as 
it rose, and the necessity for the Second Sikh War have 
never existed.* 

Although by the terms of the Treaty of Bhyrowal (s>ee 
Articles vii., viii., Lx.), a British force was speciaUy pr»^ 
vided "for the preservation of the peace of the country/' 
for whose services the Lahore Government vrere 
annually to pay the sum of twenty -two lakhs of rupees,^ 
and although Lord Hardinge had specially arrano\Mi 

♦ Alone, unsupported, he (Edwanles) achieved a result of which a r>n»' i 
army might have been proud. And it is not too much to affirm, that ha«l hf ^» i 
then and there supported by a few British troo])s and guns, placotl under lii.s . I 
orders, he might have taken the fortress, and possibly have uipjMHl the ri^ii..: : I 
the bud.— Malleson's " Decisive BatUes,** pp. 861, 352. 

t If this sum was not jwd annually into the Calcutta Treasury, thr ti. -f i 
was entirely in the hands of the British Resident, who had supreme conti* " . 1 
the revenues and finances of the Punjab. See Articles ii. and vi. of the T- '1 
of niiyrowal. — Appendix. 


for such an emergency, by providing a British movable Chaptei 
brigade to be kept always in readiness at Lahore, Sir ^' 
Frederick Currie hesitated on his own responsibility to 
order the march of that brigade. Sending instead for 
the Sikh Sirdars, he told them that they must put 
down the rebellion and bring the offenders to justice, 
by their own means, as their only hope of saving their 
Government. The astonished Sirdars, " after much 
discussion, declared themselves unable, without British 
aid, to coerce Dewan Moolraj in Mooltan, and bring 
the perpetrators of the outrage to justice."* 

Some little light is thrown on this seemingly un- 
accountable action of Sir Frederick Cmrie, when we 
recollect that, as Foreign Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India and as Member of Council, he was 
doubtless cognizant of many considerations then influ- 
encing the new Cabinet at home, but which were un- 
known to the general public ; and we find from a 
perusal of certain private letters which passed between 
hun and Lord Hardinge,t that, as far back as April, 
1 847, Currie was aware that matters at home pointed 
more and more " decidedly to eventual annexation of 
the Punjab." 

Believing, therefore, that any serious revolt among 
the Sikhs, which should necessitate the employment of 
British arms to suppress it, would only hasten this 

* •• Pttnjdb Paperi,"* 1849, p. 140. 

t UnpuUisked Correspondence of Sir Frederick Currie. 


Chapter measure, Currie, in thus sending for the Sirdars, had 
V« apparently in his mind, the desire to oflfer them another 
chance for the continuance of the native Government, 
so far as it then existed. 

The Sikh Durbar having acknowledged their in- 
capability of coping unaided with the rebellion, Sir 
Frederick Currie strongly urged on the Governor- 
General and Conamander-in-Chief the advisability of 
the interposition of the British Government, and the 
immediate despatch of a sufficient force of troops and 
siege-guns from Ferozepore ; but to this Lord Gough 
would not agree, and the only support given to 
Edwardes was a force of 5,000 Sikh troops, under 
Eajah Shore Singh Atareewalah. 

Meanwhile, on the 8th May, a plot against the 
Resident and British officials was discovered at Lahore, 
in which the Queen-Mother was implicated. Her 
vaked,* Ganga Ram, was one of the chief conspiratoi^^. 
and, together with one Kanh Singh, late a Colonel <-»f 
Sikh Artillery, was convicted and hanged, t On the 
15th of May the Maharanee was removed from the 
fort of Sheikopoora by the Resident's orders, and cdii- 
veyed under escort to Ferozepore on her way t^ 
Benares. Here she remained a State prisoner ii»r 
nearly a year, until removed for greater security t« 
the fortress of Chunar. Not long after her arrival m 
this last place, however, she, on the 18th of April. 

* Ambassador, or accredited agent. f Trotter. 


1849, managed to effect her escape in the disguise of a Chapter 
fakeemeey and took refiige in Nepal, where she came ^• 
under the charge of Dr. James Drybiu-gh Login, who 
was then Acting- Assistant Kesident at Khatmandoo. 

The order for the removal of the Maharanee Jinda 
was signed by three members of the Council of Regency, 
and by GoUb Singh, on behalf of his absent brother, 
Rajah Shere Singh Atareewalah. " The venerable 
Fakeer Noor-ood-deen, personal friend and adviser of 
the late Maharajah Runjeet Singh, and a person greatly 
respected by the Sikhs generally," ♦ personally saw to 
the order being carried out. 

So urgent was Major Edwardes in appealing to 
Lahore for a few regular regiments, heavy guns, &c., 
offering with the help of these "to close Moolrajs 
accounts in a fortnight, and obviate the necessity of 
assembling 50,000 men in October," f that Cume, 
on the 1st July, on his own responsibility, and against 
the advice of the Commander-in-Chief, ordered the 
march of the movable brigade under his orders ; yet 

• "PiOT/oftPapej**," 1849, p. 169, On her removal to Sheikopoora the Ranee's 
stipend had been reduced to 48,000 rupees (£4,800) ; on her banishment to 
BeiMLr^ it was made 12,000 rupees (£1,200). 

t ^'Punjab Papers'" p. 223. I am one of those who believe to this day, and per- 
haps erer shall, that had thai brigade, under a fine soldier like Brigadier Campbell, 
marched AT once upon Mooltan (say on April 25th) the rebellion would have been 
nipped in tlie bud by the escape and surrender of Moolraj. . . . Moolraj did not 
rebel because the Sikhs were ready to back him up. The Sikhs backed up Mooing 
because the British Government did not put him down. . . . The Sikh insurrec- 
tion was created out of the materials collected to put down the Mooltan rebellion. 
-^Remarks of Sir Herbert Edwardes (see his " Life,*' by Lady Edwardes, 1886. 
vol. L, p. 145, 147). 


Chapter SO many delays ensued, owing to want of carriage, and 

^' references back and forwards between Simla and 

Lahore, that it was not until the 24th of the month 

that the brigade left Lahore under General Whifih, 

and it did not reach Mooltan till the 18th August— 

the siege-guns only coming into camp on the 4th of the 

following month. 

On the 14th September the siege was raised, owing 
to the defection of the Durbar troops under Bajab 
Shere Singh,* and was not resumed until the 26th 
December, after more than three months and a half 
of inaction. On the 2nd January 1849 (seven days 
after the siege was undertaken in earnest), the city 
was taken by assault ; while on the 22nd the citadel 
was breached, and Moolraj had surrendered uncon- 

But by this time the Punjab was in a blaze, and 
Shere Singh defiant at the head of 30,000 men ! 

This is not the place to tell over again the history of 
the Second Sikh War, with its surprising blunderings 
and bloody victories — victories won at the point of 
the sword, from an heroic foe driven to desperation, 
the Sikh Khdlsa at bay, and battling for its very 
existence ! Suffice it to say, that on the 1 8 th December 
Lord Gough crossed the Chenab with his army ; that 
on the 13th January, 1849, with 15,000 men, he 

* When Currie consulted the Sirdars, they wameil him then that those troop* 
were disaffected, and not to h$ depended on. — " Punjab Papers,** p 140. 


fought the battle of Chillianwallah, late in the after- Chapter 
noon, with darkness creeping up, and with troops who ^• 
had been under arms since early day-break.* On the 
21st February, having on the previous day been joined 
bj Greneral Whish s force, set free by the fall of 
Mooltan, Lord Gough retrieved all the previous errors 
of the campaign, by gaining the crowning victory 
of Goojerat, driving the Sikh army of 34,000 men, 
totally routed and in confusion, across the Jheliun. 
On the 14th March, Shere Singh, Chuttur Singh, and 
the rest of the Sirdars, gave up their swords, and the 
last remains of the KhAlsa army — to the number of 
16,000 men — flung down their arms at the summons 
of General Gilbert, on the upland plains of Rawul 

Thus ended the Second Sikh War, whose origin and 
motive we must look for in the ranks of that residue 
of the Khalsa army which, contrary to the advice of 
the Sikh Commander-in-Chief, we retained as the 
standing army of the Punjab,? while at the same time 
we took from them the authority and influence they 
had arrogated to themselves in the government of the 

• Trotter. 

t ^lAUeson. Trotter, p 221. See also the description of this scene in Mr. 
Boaworth Smith's ^^ Lift of Lord Lawrence" vol i., p. 276. 

X " Rajah Tej Singh said, two years a^o, and has always adhered to the opinion, 
that it w&s less dangerous, and would prove less embarrassing, to disband them all 
and raise a new army, than to continue a man of them in service," — Sir F. 
Currle to Oovemment, Septvnber, 1848. 


Chapter country, and reduced the pay and privileges they had 
QAA ^^^ accustomed to fix for themselves at their " own 
sweet will." Discontented, sullen, and revengeful, 
they formed a tempting instrument, ready to hand 
for any turbulent and intriguing spirit, desirous of 
upsetting the present state of affairs, and involving 
the Punjab in general confusion for their own 

On this subject Major Edwardes thus wrote to the 
Residentt : — 

The people of the Punjab repose contentedly under the pro- 
tection our courts of justice afford them against the great ; and 
our only enemies are the Sikh army whom we spared in 1846. 

A proof that the discontent was not universal is 
seen in the fact that the rebellion spread very slowly. 
Up to October 4th, no Sirdar had joined Chuttur Singh, 
*' who was in despair at the refiisals he had receive* I 
from the Sikh officers at Peshawur." It was not until 
October, when Moolraj had been six months in 
rebellion, that the troops at Bunnoo and Peshawur 
broke into mutiny. The disaffection was throughout 
mainly confined to the Sikhs, who were dreading the 
extinction of the Khdlsa ; and " a large proportion uf 
the inhabitants, especially the Mahomedans," as Lord 

* June 22nd the Resident wrote : — ^The Sirdars are true, I believe ; the soldi* r< 
are all false, I know. — ** Punjab Papers,** p. 220. 

+ August 27th, 1848. Unpublished Correspondence qf Sir F. Currie, 


Dalhousie says in one of his despatches, ** took no Chapter 


part in the hostilities, and had no sympathy with the • 

KhMsa army." Even among the Sikhs, who form hut 
one-sixth of the populcUion, there were thirty-four 
Sirdars, who with their relatives and dependants took 
no part in the rebellion. Six out of eight members of 
the Council of Regency remained loyal, and one of 
these was Bhaie Nidhan Singh, called in the official 
despatches " head of the Sikh religion." Sirdar Khan 
Singh (whom Vans Agnew was to instal as Dewan 
in Moolraj's place), and Guldeep Singh, the com- 
mandant of the escort, openly defied Moolraj, and were 
put in irons and most cruelly treated ; both died in 
confinement. Several Sirdars and officers of the 
Durbar did good service throughout the war, on the 
British side, notably Sheikh Imam-ood-deen and Misr 
Sahib Dyal, who co-operated with Lord Gough's army, 
the latter being attached to the Commander-in-Chief's 
headquarters as "chief officer on the part of the 
Durbar ; *' * and the Kesident, writing to the Governor- 
General on the 16th August, assured him that "the 
conduct of the Dui-bar, collectively and individually," 
had been "entirely satisfactory in everything con- 
nected with this outbreak, and indeed in all other 
respects for the last two months." 

* ** Pw^ab Papers," p. 444. These Sikh forces are said to have numbered 
20y0O0.— " MaJiarajah DuUep Singh and the Oovemment" 


Chapter Whilst the Second Sikh War was in progress, 
^' matters remained in statu quo at Lahore, the city being 
perfectly quiet and unaffected by the disturbances in 
the northern and western provinces. The Resident 
continued to exercise supreme authority, assisted by 
the Durbar (except that one member who had gone 
into open rebellion), and the little Maharajah remained 
in profound ignorance that any unusual events which 
could affect him or his sovereignty were passing in the 
country without. 

He knew only that Golab Singh, the son of Chuttur 
Singh, and his own personal companion, was suddenly 
removed from his attendance and placed in confine- 
ment, and that later on, the palace itself was guarded 
by a British regiment.* 

The insurgents were proclaimed as rebels " against 
the Government of the Maharajah Duleep Singh," and 
the Resident, on the 18 th November, issued a procla- 
mation (approved by the Governor-General), telling "all 
loyal subjects to the Maharajah" that the British 
army " has entered the Lahore territories, not as an 
enemy to the constituted Government, but to restore 
order and obedience.'' It is addressed " to the subjects. 

* This was in cousetiuence of information received from Mooltan. " L<»k 
well," says Major Rlwanlea, writing on the 29th August to the Resident, " to tkf 
person of the Maharajahf for Shum Shere Singh says, Chuttur Singh will try !•» 
get him carried off while out riding, or at the Shalamar Gardens, and then n\k 
U8 to account for fighting against Duleep Singh^ with whom %0€ made n 
Treaty ! "—Unpublished Correspondence qf the UUe Sir F, Cwrrk. 


servants, and dependents of the Lahore State," and Chpater 
all " who have remained faithful in their obedience to ^ J' 


the Government of the Maharajah Duleep Singh .... 
who are not concerned, directly or indirectly, in the 
present disturbances, are assured that they have 
nothing to fear from the coming of the British 
army." * 

It will serve to give some notion of the contradictory 
opinions, and confusion of theories, then prevailing in 
the official world, if we compare this proclamation with 
a sentence from a despatch of the Secretary to the 
Government of India, written to the Resident on 
October 3rd of the same year, i.e., six weeks previously.! 

I am desired to intimate to you that the Governor-General in 
Council considers the State of Lahore to be, to all intents and 
purposes, directly at war with the British Government, and 
he expects that those who maybe, directly or indirectly, concerned 
in these proceedings will be treated accordingly by yourself and 
your officers. 

At length, on the 30th of March, 1849, from the 1849, 
camp at Ferozepore, the Governor-General issued 
the famous manifesto, which announced that the 
Government of India was now resolved " on the entire 
subjection of a people whom their own Government 
has long been unable to control, and whom no punish- 
ment can deter from violence, no acts of friendship 

« f< 

Pw^ah Papers," pp. 260, 438, 449, 662. t Ibid, p. 374. 


Chapter conciliate to peace ; " and it then became known that 
^' Mr. Henry Elliot, the Secretary to the Government 
of India, had been despatched to Lahore, where he 
arrived on the 28th of the month, commissioned 
by Lord Dalhousie to oflfer terms to the Council 
of Regency, on the annexation of the country to the 
British dominions. 


Lahore, March 29/fc, 1849. 

Terms granted to the Maharajah Duleep Singh Bahadoor, on 
the part of the Honourahle East India Company, by Henry 
Miers Elliot, Esq., Foreign Secretary to the Government of 
India, and Lieut. -Colonel Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence, 
K.C.B., Resident, in virtue of the power vested in them, by the 
Right Honourable James, Earl of Dalhousie, Knight of the 
Most Ancient Order of the Thistle, one of Her Majesty's Most 
Honourable Privy Coimcil, Governor-General, appointed by the 
Honourable East India Company, to direct and control all 
their affairs in the East Indies; and accepted, on the part of 
His Highness the Maiiarajah, by Rajah Tej Singh, Rajah Deena 
Nath, Bhaee Nidhan Singh, Fakeer Nooroodeen, Gundur Singh, 
agent of Sirdar Shere Singh Sindunwallah, and Sirdar Lai 
Singh, agent and son of Sirdar Uttur Singh Kaleewallah, 
members of the Council of Regency, invested with full powers 
and authority on the part of His Highness. 

I. His Highness the Maharajah Duleep Singh shall resign for 
himself, his heirs, and his successors all right, title, and claim to 
the sovereignty of the Punjab, or to any sovereign power 


n. All the property of the State, of whatever description and Chapter 
wheresoever fonnd, shall he confiscated to the Honourable East V. 
India Company, in part payment of the debt due by the State of 1849. 
Lahore to the British Government and of the expenses of the 


in. The gem called the Koh-i-noor, which was taken from 
Shah Sooja-ool-moolk by Maharajah Bunjeet Singh, shall be 
surrendered by the Maharajah of Lahore to the Queen of 


IV. His Highness Duleep Singh shall receive from the Honour- 
able East India Company, for the support of himself, his relatives, 
and the servants of the State, a pension of not less than four, 
and not exceeding five, lakhs of Company's rupees per annum. 

V. His Highness shall be treated with respect and honour. He 
shall retain the title of Maharajah Duleep Singh Bahadoor, and 
he shall continue to receive during his life such portion of the 
above-named pension as may be allotted to himself personally, 
provided he shall remain obedient to the British Government, and 
shall reside at such place as the Governor-General of India may 

Granted and accepted at Lahore on the 29th of March, 1849, 

and ratified by the Right Honourable the Governor-General on 

the 5th of April, 1849. 


Dalhousie — Maharajah Duleep Singh. 

H. M. Elliot — Rajah Tej Singh. 

H. M. Lawrence — Rajah Deena Nath. 

Bhaee Nidhan Singh.* 

Fakeer Nooroodeen. 

GuNDUR Singh 
(Agent to Sirdar Shere Singh, Sindun wallah). 

Sirdar Lal Singh 
(Agent and son of Sirdar Uttur Singh, Kaleewallah). 

Head of thp Sikh religioii. 


Chapter Sir Hemy Lawrence had by this time returned to 
^ his post at Lahore, having hurried out from England 
in hot haste on receipt of the news of the outbreak at 
Mooltan. Landing at Bombay in December, he lost 
no time in joining the camp of the besiegere— was 
present at the capture of the city of Mooltan, and on 
the 9th of January took the news of that event to 
the Governor-General. He then joined Lord Gough's 
headquarters, witnessed the battle of Chillian wallah, 
and proceeded on the 1 8th to take up his duties at 
the Residency. 

It would be affectation to conceal the fact, that 
Lord Dalhousie's views and Sir Henry Lawrence's did 
not coincide as regards the policy of annexation, and 
indeed, the Governor-Generars decision was a sore 
grief to the generous-hearted Resident, and a reversal 
of many cherished hopes and projects. Speaking in 
vindication of this dearly-loved friend of his, in after 
years. Login says : — 

Lawrence acted in the best faith for the interests of both 
Govemments; and so far from desiring the annexation of the 
country, on finding that it could not be avoided, and that all hi^ 
efforts to uphold the native Government were unavailing, he wa> 
only prevented from resigning his high position, and returning to 
his regiment as a Captain of Artillery, by the earnest entreaty of 
his friends. He remained at Lahore with the sole object ct 
exerting his influence to conciliate the chiefs and people of the 
Punjab to our rule.* 

* Ferrier'a ** Caravan Journej/," — Note by J. S. L., p. 859, 


When John Lawrence s counsel was sought as to Chapter 
whether the annexation determined on should be 7* 
carried out now, when the people were depi'essed by 
recent defeat, or later, when th^ had been more per- 
fectly subdued, he gave it without hesitation — " No 
delay ! The Kh41sa must not be allowed again to raise 
it head." 

His advice was taken, and Mr, Henry Elliot was 
sent to announce the decision of the Governor-General 
to the Maharajah and his people. 

We will leave Mr. EUiot to tell, in his own words, 
the manner and purport of his mission* : — 

Immediately on my arrival, he says, I communicated to Sir H. 

M. Lawrence and Mr. J. Lawrence the instructions with which 

I was charged, and regretted to find that both those officers were 

fuJly persuaded that the Council of Eegency would on no account 

be induced to accede to the terms which were offered for their 

acceptance, inasmuch as they had already incurred great odium 

amongst their countrymen for what were considered to be their 

former concessions. I, however, requested that the two most 

influential members of the Council might be at once summoned to 

a private conference at the Residency ; and Rajah Tej Singh and 

Dewan Deena Nath were accordingly sent for. The Rajah, at first, 

excused himself on the ground of sickness ; and I should have, 

consequently, gone to his house, had I not been apprehensive that 

any exhibition of undue eagerness might have been interpreted 

into too great a desire to obtain his concurrence. It was then 

intimated to him that, as my mission was urgent, and could not 

Note and Report by Mr. H. Elliot. 



Chapter be accomplished without him, he should come to the Besidency, 
V. unless he really was seriously ill. Upon this, he came, his looks 
1849. giving no warrant for his excuses, and was accompanied by Dewan 
Deena Nath. 

After the £rst compliments had been exchanged, I explained to 
them the purpose for which I had come, that the Punjab would 
be annexed to the British dominions at all events, but that it was 
for them to decide whether this should be done in an unqualified 
manner, or whether they would subscribe to the conditions which 
I was about to lay before them. 

The Eajah, who was more than usually nervous and garrulous, 
opened out in a strain of invective against Bajah Shere Singh and 
all the rebellious Sirdars, who had brought the CJouncil to this 
pass, acknowledged that the British Government had acquired a 
perfect right to dispose of the country as it saw fit, and recom- 
mended that it should declare its will, without calling upon the 
Council to sign any conditions. I replied that, if they refused to 
accept the terms which the Governor-General offered, the ^laha- 
rajah and themselves would be entirely at his mercy, and I had 
no authority to say that they would be entitled to receive any 
allowance whatever. 

The Dewan, who was much more deliberate and reserved than 
his colleague, commented on the severity of the conditions, and 
particularly on the expatriation of the Maharajah ; and when I 

told him it was intended to exclude also the female relatives of 


the Maharajah from the palace, in order that the citadel might be 
exclusively in British occupation, he remarked that, immediately 
they were relieved from the restraints which their present 
residence subjected them to, they would begin leading licentious 
lives, and bring scandal upon the memory of Eunjeet Singh and 
his descendants. 

After many inquiries from them about the distance to T^hieh 
the Maharajah was to be removed, I observed that his destination 
would not improbably be the Deccan, but, after they had 


requested reconsideration, on account of the remoteness of that Chapter 
country, "where," said they, "God knows whether the people ^• 
are Hindoos or Mahomedans," I promised that the Maharajah 1^^* 
should not be sent anywhere to the east of the Ganges, pointing 
out Hnrdwar, Gurhmnktesir, Bithoor, and Allahabad as being 
all of them places of high sanctity in their religion. They seemed 
to be thankful for this as a concession. But they had no definite 
notion of the exact position of any of these places except 
Hurdwar. The Eajah, indeed, was astonished to discover that 
Lahore was not so far from Allahabad as from Benares. 

They seemed fully satisfied with the personal allowance 
assigned to the Maharajah, which I told them would be about 
10,000 rupees per mensem. 

Other subjects were then discussed, and they enquired anxiously 

about their own future position. I told them that it was not 

intended to deprive them of their jagheers or salaries, and that, 

for this indulgence they would be expected to yield the British 

Goyemment the benefit of their advice and assistance whenever 

they were called upon to do so ; that, if they did not subscribe to 

the conditions, I could not promise that any consideration would 

be shown to them. The Dewan enquired whether the jagheers 

would be continued to future generations. I replied, certainly 

not, unless the grants conveyed a perpetual title ; and that would 

be left to the decision of the officers, who would shortly be 

appointed to investigate the validity of all rent-free tenures. 

After much more parley, during which, while I told them that 
they were at perfect liberty to decline, or to accede to, the 
conditions I had been instructed to lay before them — at the same 
time I convinced them of my resolute determination to yield no 
point, they expressed their willingness to sign the paper, and 
signed it accordingly, not without evident sorrow and repugnance 
on the part of the Dewan. 

Upon this I requested that Fakeer Nooroodeen and Bhaee 
Nidban Singh, the only other members of the Begency resident 

K 2 


Chapter at Lahore, might be sent for ; and upon informing them of what 
V. had passed, they said they would abide by whatever their 
1^*9' colleagues were prepared to do. 

They then affixed their seals and signatures to the paper in 
duplicate, and Sir H. M. Lawrence and myself then added our 
counter-signatures. It was agreed that next morning a Durbar 
should be held at seven o'clock, a.m., in order to promulgate 
the Articles subscribed to, and to obtain the Maharajah's 

The members then took their leave, after the conference had 
lasted about two hours. 

Sir J. Login, commenting on the above report in 
1860, remarks : — 

" It indicates feelings more creditable to the members 
of the Lahore Durbar (whose personal interests were 
separately worked upon) than to the British official, 
who describes the scene with so much undignified 

To continue Mr. Elliot's report : — 

Next day at the appointed hour,* after the troops had been pre- 
pared against possible tumult, I proceeded to the Durbar, accom- 
panied by Sir H. M. Lawrence, K.C.B., and the gentlemen of the 
Residency, and escorted by a squadron of the body-gaard. 
which Major Mayne had brought over by forced marches 
from Ferozepore. We were met by the Maharajah Dulecp 
Singh outside the gate of the citadel. After the usual 

* Report by Mr. Elliot, March 29th, 1849. 


salutations, and giving and taking of presents, we conducted Chapter 
the Maharajah to a seat at the end of the Hall of Audience, ^* 
and took our places on either side of him. The Maharajah, who 1^^- 
is endued with an intelligence beyond his years, and cannot be 
supposed to have been ignorant of the purpose for which the 
Durbar was now convened for the last time, conducted himself 
throughout with cheerfulness and self -composure. 

The hall was filled with spectators, who ranged themselves on 
each side of the centre seats — the Europeans on the right, the 
natives on the left. The latter were in such numbers as almost 
to give cause that, with a view of courting popularity, the Council 
of Regency might refuse to abide by the terms which they had 
signed the evening before. 

After we were seated, the following note, declaratory of the 
intentions of the Government to assume the sovereignty of the 
Punjab, was read out in Persian, and afterwards translated into 
Hindostani, for the comprehension of every one present : — 


Fob many years, while the wisdom of Maharajah Bunjeet Singh 
ruled the people of the Punjab, friendships and unbroken peace 
prevailed between the British nation and the Sikhs. 

The British Government desired to maintain with the heirs of 
Bunjeet Singh the same friendly relations which they had held 
with him. But the Sirdars and Sikh army, forgetful of the policy 
which the Maharajah's prudence had enjoined, and departing 
from the friendly example he had set, suddenly crossed the 
frontier, and, without any provocation, made war upon the 
British power. 

They were met by the British army — four times they were 
defeated — they were driven back with ignominy across the 
Sutlej, and pursued to the walls of Lahore. 


Chapter The Maharajah Doleep Singh tendered there, to the Governor- 
y* General of India, the Bubmission of himself and his chiefs, and 
lo49. implored the clemency of the British Government. 

The Government of India had acquired, by its conquest, an 
absolute right to subvert the Government of the Sikhs, by 
which it had been so grossly injured. But, in that time of 
victory, it showed the sincerity of its declarations, and gave 
signal proof of the moderation and forbearance by which its 
policy was directed. 

The kingdom of the Punjab was spared ; the Maharajah was 
replaced on the throne of Bunjeet Singh ; and treaties of friend- 
ship were formed between the States. 

How have the obligations of these treaties been fulfilled ? 

The British Government has, with scrupulous fidelity, observed 
every promise which was made, and has discharged every obliga- 
tion which the treaties imposed upon it. 

It gave to the Maharajah the service of its troops. It afforded 
him the aid of its treasures in his difficulties. It meddled with 
none of the institutions or customs of the people. By its advice 
to the Council it improved the condition of the army; and it 
laboured to lessen the burdens and to promote the prosperity of 
every class of the Maharajah's people. It left nothing tmdone 
which it had promised to perform ; it engaged in nothing from 
which it had promised to abstain. But there is not one of the 
main provisions of those treaties which the Sikh Government and 
Sikh people have not, on their part, faithlessly and flagrantly 
violated. They bound themselves to pay an annual subsidy of 
twenty-two lakhs of rupees. No portion whatever has at any 
time been paid. 

The whole debt due by the State of Lahore has increased to 
more than fifty lakhs of rupees ; and crores have been added by 
the charges of the present war. The control of the British 
Government, which the Sirdars themselves invited, and to which 
they bound themselves to submit, has been rejected and resisted 
by force. 


The peace and friendship which were promised by the treaties Chapter 
have been thrown aside. British officers in the discharge of their V. 
duty have treacherously been thrown into captivity, with women 1849. 
and children. 

Other British officers, when acting for the Maharajah's interests, 
were murdered by the Maharajah's servants, after having been 
deserted by the Maharajah's troops. 

Yet, for these things, the Government of Lahore neither 
inflicted punishment on the offender, nor made reparation for the 
offence. It confessed itself unable to control its subjects. It 
formally declared to the British Resident that its troops would 
not obey its command, and wotdd not act against the chief who 
had committed this outrage against the Government of India. 

Not only did the army of the State refuse thus to act, but 
il everywhere openly rose in arms against the British. The 
whole people of the Sikhs joined in its hostility. The high 
Sirdars of the State have been its leaders ; those of them who 
signed the treaties of peace were the most conspicuous in 
its ranks ; and the chief by whom it was commanded was 
a member of the Council of Begency itself. They proclaimed 
their purpose to be the extirpation of the British power, and 
the destruction of the British people ; and they have struggled 
fiercely to effect it. 

But the Government of India has put forth the vast resources 
of its power. The Army of the Sikhs has been utterly discom- 
fited ; their artillery has been captured, the allies they invited 
have been driven from the Punjab with shame; the Sikh 
Sirdars, with then: troops, have surrendered, and been disarmed, 
and the Punjab is occupied by the British troops. 

The Government of India repeatedly declared that it desired 
no further conquest ; and it gave to the Maharajah, by its acts, 
a proof of the sincerity of its declarations. 

The Government of India has sought and desires no conquest 


Chapter But when unprovoked and costly war has again been wantonly 
V- renewed, the Government of India is bound by its duty to provide 
lo49. Iqp i^g Q^jj security for the future, and to guard effectually the 
the interests and tranquillity of its own people. 

Punishment and benefit alike have failed to remove the 
inveterate hostility of the Sikhs. Wherefore, the Governor- 
General, as the only effectual mode which now remains of 
preventing the recurrence of national' outrage, and the renewal 
of perpetual wars, has resolved upon declaring the British 
Sovereignty in the Punjab, and upon the entire subjection of 
the Sikh nation, whom their own rulers have long been unable to 
control, who are equally insensible to punishment or forbearance, 
and who, as past events have now shown, will never desist from 
war so long as they possess the power of an independent 

The Governor-General of India unfeignedly regrets that he 
should feel himself compelled to depose from his throne a 
descendant of Maharajah Bunjeet Singh, while he is yet in his 
early youth. 

But the Sovereign of every State is responsible for, and must 
be affected by, the acts of his people over whom he reigns. 

As in the former war, the Maharajah, because of the lawless 
violence of his subjects, whom his Government was unable to 
control, was made to pay the penalty of their offence in the loss 
of his richest provinces ; so must he now be involved in all the 
consequences of their further violence, and of the deep national 
injury they have again committed. 

When a renewal of formidable war by the army and the great 
body of Sikhs has forced upon the Government of India the con- 
viction that a continuance of Sikh domination in the Punjab is 
incompatible with the security of the British territories, the 
Governor-General cannot permit that mere compassion for the 
Prince should deter him from the adoption of such measures 
against the nation as alone can be effectual for the future 


maintenance of pesice, and for protecting the interests of the Chaptor 

British people. V. 

Upon the conclusion of this Manifesto, silence was observed 

for a few minutes, when Dewan Deena Nath observed, that the 

decision of the British Government was just, and should be 

obeyed ; but he trusted that the Maharajah and servants of the 

State would receive consideration at the hands of the British 

Government, and that some allowance would be granted to 

maintain them in comfort and respectability. 

"If France," he observed, "after the defeat and captivity of 

Buonaparte, had been restored to its legitimate ruler, though the 

country yielded thirty crores of revenue, it would be no very 

extraordinary act of British clemency if the Punjab, which yielded 

less than three crores, should be restored to the Maharajah. 

However, let the Govemor-Generars \^all be done." 

I replied, that the ^time of concession and clemency was gone ; 

that I was ready, on the part of the Governor-General, to confirm 

the conditions to which the Council had subscribed yesterday, and 

which should be read out in Persian and Hindostani, for general 


This was listened to with the deepest attention, but it called 

forth no observation. To the former signatures were then added 

those of Gundur Singh, the accredited Agent of Sirdar Shere Singh, 

Si ndun wallah, and Sirdar Lai Singh, Agent and son of Sirdar Uttur 

Singh, Kaleewallah, thus completing the entire nimiber of the 

luenibers of the Council of Regency, who have remained nominally 

faithful to their engagements. The paper was then handed in 

duplicate by Bajah Tej Singh to the Maharajah, who immediately 

affixed his signature, by tracing the initials of his name in 

English letters. The alacrity with which he took the papers 

when offered to him, was a matter of remaxk to all, and suggested 

the idea that, possibly, he had been instructed by his advisers 

that any show of hesitation might lead to the substitution of 

terms less favourable than those which had been offered. 


Chapter When the document had thus been fully ratified, I directed the 

^- proclamation to be read aloud in the native languages. 
1849. J f}^Qj^ handed one copy of the terms to the Maharajah ; and 
having thus fulfilled the object of my mission, I took my leave 
with the usual etiquette, and dissolved the Durbar. 

The whole ceremony was conducted with grave decorum. No 
Sirdar was armed. The costly jewels and gaudy robes, so 
conspicuous in the Sikh Court on other public occasions, were 
now thrown aside. I did not observe the slightest sign of 
wonder, sorrow, anger, or even dissatisfaction, upon the 
countenance of any one present, except that of Dewan Deena 
Nath; and from the nice inquiries he had made during the 
private conference, respecting his own interests, it would not be 
tmcharitable to suppose, that his sadness arose more from the loss 
of the immense influence he possesses in every department of the 
State, than from regret at the subversion of his master's dynasty. 
But neither did I observe any signs of gladness. The whole 
announcement appeared to be received with a degree of indifference 
bordering on apathy, and not a word or whisper escaped, to 
betray the real feelings pervading the hearts of that solemn 
assembly, which had met to witness the ratified dissolution of 
the great empire established by the fraud and violence of 
Bunjeet Singh. 

As I left the palace, I had the proud satisfaction of seeing the 
British colours hoisted on the citadel under a royal salute from 
our own artillery, at once proclaiming the ascendancy of British 
rule, and sounding the knell of the £lh&lsa Baj ! 

" That the annexation of the Punjab was a politic 
measure," says Sir John Login,* " few were inclined to 
question, but, inasmuch as it involved the depositivh 

* Memorandum published (for private oirculatioxi) in 1660. 


of a young Prince whom the British Government had Chaptei 


sclemrdy engaged to protect in his position during his 

minority ^ and who had throughout evinced the utmost 
confidence in us^ it was, to say the least, a harsh pro- 
ceeding, and one which demanded from our Government 
towards the person whom our policy had despoiled, the 
most liberal and generous consideration. 

" Unfortunately, however, in the Maharajah's case, 
there were circumstances which had the effect of placing 
the position of His Highness in unfavourable contrast 
to that of his ministers and chiefs, and which, unless 
ohiiated in a liberal spirit^ necessarily led to the con- 
clusion, that, in accepting the terms offered by the 
British Grovemment, his ministers had consented to 
sacrifice his interests to their own. 

" Having, so far as respects their claims upon him, 
been considered by the British Government, notwith- 
standing the full control exercised by their ofl&cials 
over his person, power, and resources, to be in the 
position of a Sovereign and despotic Prince, every 
article of property in the possession of the Maharajah 
was declared to be State property, and appropriated 
by the British Government, under the terms which 
liad been granted to him ; his Highness being merely 
permitted to retain, by the courtesy of the Govemor- 
Keneral and the local authorities, such articles as were 
X)nsidered necessary for his personal use. 

"He was thus made entirely dependent upon the 
dlowance assigned to him, under Article v., by the 


Chapter British Government, amounting during his minority to 

£12,000 per annum; another portion of the State 

pension being granted to his relatives and dependents, 
at the discretion of the British Government, and a 
balance retained by them for future appropriation. 

"No stipulation was made for the benefit of his 
heirs and descendants, the pension granted to him 
being apparently terminable with his life. He was 
required to remove from the Punjab, and from all his 
early associations, and to reside wherever the Govern- 
ment of India might appoint. 

" To His Highness's ministers. Sirdars, and chiefs, 
the annexation of the Punjab was attended with 
more favourable circumstances. 

"They were relieved from the claims of a Native 
Government, as feudatories of a despotic Prince, liable 
to contributions for State purposes — secured in all 
their private property, real and personal, under British 
laws — confirmed in possession of their several jagheers, 
some in perpetuity, others rent-firee for their own lives^ 
and with deductions of one-half and one-quarter in 
two succeeding generations ; and they were exempted 
fi'om much personal service to their Prince. 

" Having seen that, in 1 846, Gol&b Singh, one of their 
number, was not only made independent of Lahore, 
but was allowed to pTu-chase the Province of Cashmere/ 
the chiefs who remained faithful were naturaUy n«-»t 

* See ante pp, 109-10. 




indisposed to enter into terms with a Government which Chapter 
could act so liberally, and relieve them from demands ^• 
frequently made by their natives princes. 

"To Rajah Tej Singh in particular the arrangement 
must have been very satisfactory, as it secured to him 
and his heirs all his accumulations (amounting in 1846, 
as shown by his offer for an independent territory like 
Gol4b Singh, to not less than twenty-five lakhs of 
rupees), besides confirming him and his family /or three 
generatians in large estates, very lightly assessed, 
it is believed, at two and three lakhs of rupees, and 
yearly increasing in value. 

" In the same manner, the other chiefs had more or 
less cause to be satisfied. Even those who had been 
in arms against us, though deprived of such property 
cw could not be concealed, were doubtless able to 
secure very large sums among their friends. In the 
case of Bajah Shore Singh, the writer of this was 
told, by himself, that such was the case, when he 
wished to obtain permission to go to England, instead 
of being sent to Calcutta. 

" It was not considered expedient at the time to be 
too particular, and I think it will be found, on 
reference to Treasury receipts fi'om forfeited estates, 
that very little was obtained, compared with the 
jieealth of which, a short time before, the chiefs were 
{known to have been in possession. 

"This leniency has not been without its good effects, 
.nd the security with which Sikh chiefs have been 



Chapter allowed to enjoy their wealth, without exaction from 
- *Q Government, has no doubt contributed very greatly 
to reconcile them to our rule. 

"But it must not be overlooked, that all this 
liberality was shown at the expense of the claims 
of their Sovereign Prince, on both feudatories and 

"•Although the young Maharajah could not but 
feel that the terms which had been imposed on him 
were hard and severe, especially when the loss of 
his throne was occasioned by no fault on his part, 
but entirely from the treachery of those whom we 
had placed in power around him, the di£Sculties with 
which he had been surrounded in his precarious 
position, before he was received under the protection 
of the British Government, were too strongly impressed 
on his mind to cause any hesitation on his part to 
retire into private life, and he accordingly submitted 
to the force of circumstances with very becoming 

* Memorandum prepared for Her Majeity by Sir John Login. 


Letters from Dr. Login to his Wife. 

Camp before KaleewaiiLAH, Nov. 22nd, 1848. 

.... With only the-loss of one man killed on our side, we Chapter 
have been able to cnt off and disperse a large body of Sikhs who VI. 
had collected at this place, and were making great depredations. 1849. 
A party of them still hold the fort, and, while I write, are still 
keeping up a fire upon us, but it is expected, as in other instances, 
that they will endeavour to escape during the night, and that in 
the morning we shall find it evacuated. Our guns were ordered 
<iown at half -past three in the afternoon, and opened fire within 500 
yards with good effect for a couple of hours,* but as the 
Brigadier did not wish to expose his men to the danger of an 
assault, or to throw away ammunition uselessly, we were called 
back to camp about seven p.m., intending to resume proceedings 

Many of our young oflScers had hand-to-hand encounters, and 
some narrow escapes were made — ^Westcott Davidson, Sam 

* It -WBB a cnrrent joke among Login's brother officers, that he equally dis- 
tingnislied himself in laying the guns dnnng a fight, as in carrying off the 
woanded afterwards. 


Chapter Fisher, Swinton, Jackson, Christie, and others of the Cavaln-, 
VL and a young lad, Mackell, of the Artillery, have been among the 
1849. most successful. I cannot say that I heard with much pleasure 
the various accounts of how their opponents were " skewered " 
(the favourite slang expression) ; by all accounts, about 200 Sikhs 
were cut up, and a very few made prisoners. To-morrow I trust 
I may be successful in getting hold of some at least of the poor 
wounded wretches, if any have been left aUve, as soon as we get 
possession of the fort, so as to make it possible to prosecute a 
search for them. We came on the Sikhs so as to take them by 


surprise. This could not have happened had the country people 
generally been friendly to them, so as to have given them informa- 
tion. You will be amused at the share of loot that has fallen to 
my lot — a little boy about four, deserted by his parents, found in 
a small hut behind the battery where I was stationed! My 
doolie bearers brought him to me, and I have told them to take 
good care of him for me. 

November 2Srd. Well ; it is as we expected, a shell of ours 
set the place on fij:e ; the men in the fort made off in all direc- 
tions, the darkness favouring their escape; still many were cut up, 
or else severely wounded. At daylight I sent to the Brigadier to 
ask permission to go and pick up all the wounded I could, taking 
all the litters I could collect with me. '' Certainly, certainly, a^n 
excellent proposition I " So off I started, with a train of litter» 
behind me, a supply of water, and some brandy. We soon found 
all that were alive in the fort or village. Some desperately cut- 
up, poor fellows, had been brought into hospital, where Beatsou of 
the Horse Artillery and 1 have been working all day, doing all we 
can for them. We shall take care of them while we remain here, 
and leave them in charge of some villagers when we march. The 
first man I picked up was an Akali in the ditch of the fort 
He had almost bled to death, and when he saw us evidently onl\ 
expected his coup de grdce. He was greatly, and no doubt 
agreeably, surprised when I gave him a little brandy and after- 

LAHORE. 145 

wards water, and, raising him carefally, placed him on a litter and Chapter 
dressed his wounds before he was carried off to our hospital tent. YI 
Some of our people doubt the wisdom or propriety of treating 1849. 
them in this way, but I tell them that we can only teach the 
poor ignorant creatures the difference between Christians and 
Hindoos by showing mercy and kindness to our enemies. I feel 
sure they will not fight against us with such bitter determination 
again. I am glad that, from having so few wounded of our own, 
I am able to look after these poor fellows properly. I must stop, 
as I must go to amputate the arm of one of the Sikhs we 
bronght in. 

I hear that James has passed a good examination, and is 
retoming to Nepal. We have captured a great quantity of 
grain in the fort, and commissariat supplies of all sorts. The 
owner of the fort of Kaleewallah is Goordas Singh, a wealthy 
man ; he has evidently a large family of small children, for it was 
touching to see yesterday, when walking through the place, lots 
of children's toys, swings, horses and carts, all lying as they had 
thrown them down ; it seems he sent them off at once when he 
made up his mind to hold the place against us. 

A good copy of the Grunt'h was found here, and as no one else 
attaches value to it, I shall take it. I have also, as a relic of the 
%ht, my friend the Akali's " quoits," as sharp as a razor ; he had 
them in his turban when I picked him up in the ditch, also a 
jingall ball, which passed close by me and lodged in the doolie, 
I believe that I and my bearers were as much exposed as any, the 
fellows in the fort fired so high that the shots fell among us, but 
happily no one was hit. 

With Wheblbb's Force at Mookbbzan, Jullundub Doab. 

December 2nd, 1848. 

It is past four p.m., and I have only just reached my tent after a 
long inarch from Deena-nuggur ; yesterday we crossed the Bavee 


Chapter and made a long march, Delaspoor to Deena-nuggur, and to-day 
VL we have had an equally long and tedious one to this place. 
1849. The Brigadier is anxious to get to Hoshearpoor, where part of 
the force will halt for some time. 

Since I wrote you last, we have taken and destroyed another 
fort, which had been evacuated just before we arrived by the 
insurgent Sikhs, and an hour after, when our rear guard came up, 
and when all the Sepoys were busy cooking at their chulahs, an 
alarm was given that the Sikhs were upon us. 

The whole force turned out in double quick time, and out we 
marched for nearly two miles in their direction, when we found 
that it was only the fellows who had been in the fort, who had 
ventured near us in the hopes of picking off some of our camels at 
graze. The Irregulars were sent in pursuit, and came up with a 
party, of whom, it is reported, they killed and wounded twenty, 
having five or six of their own men woimded. 

A couple of hospital dooUea had been destroyed by some 
Sikhs, who had hidden themselves in the neighbouring villages 
when the cavalry went past. Dr. Wallich lost his surgical instru- 
ments in them. So we have only my case now to depend on. 

After we crossed the Bavee, Hodson of the Guides followed 
up the chase, and found that they made for some jtmgle in the 
direction of Neroli, where the party broke up and divided, 
dispersing to their homes, leaving their chief with a following 
of only twenty-five horsemen. They are nothing better than 
dacoits. John Lawrence is out in the district after some 
fellow near Noorpoor, who has managed to put the Jullundar 
people in a great fright, and it is in consequence of the aJann 
he has excited that the Brigadier is anxious to get the force 
quietly to Hoshearpoor, to set their minds at rest. This is 
only a night's ddk from Jullundur, and if you recollect, I wrote you 
from here on my way to join the force at Deena-nuggur. Wv 
expect to reach Hoshearpoor in two marches, and it is not 
unlikely that we may afterwards return to Jullundur. 

LAHORE. 147 

I endeavour to make myself quite easy anyway, and to Chapter 
belieye that all is for the best. I am determined never to be ^^ 
a gmmbler, and to try to make gromblers look on the sonny side, ^^9- 
if possible. 

We have just heard that Uttur Singh has given himself up, 
to save Lai Singh, his son, from being hanged, and that aU 
the iosnrgent chiefs, except Ghuttnr Singh, have expressed 
tkemselves ready to come to terms. The answer sent them 
is, that we do not treat with armed rebels 1 

Alt(^ether we are in a very curious position in this country. 
We are supposed, and believed, to represent the Government 
ot the country, and yet the very men who are in arms against 
us are, or rather were, the instruments who were selected by us, 
and by whom we ruled I 

God grant that we act wisely and justly when putting all 
resistance down. You would be amused at the Oude article in 
the Delhi Gazette ; I wrote it hurriedly, but it seems to have 
been approved of. 

Lahore, March ISth, 1849. 

I am only in from Jullundur for a few days, to visit Henry 

Lawrence, and you may be sure he has not allowed me to be idle. 

He is busy enough himself, and I am doing my best to help him. 

He is hard at work arranging his new Gk)vemment in the Punjab. 

Owing to God's good providence, we now have Mrs. George 

Lawrence back safe, with her little ones, from captivity. I have 

just been walking with her in the garden for half an hour. George 

is expected to-day. Moolraj is in jail; Chuttur Singh, Shere 

Singh, and all the other rebel chiefs, on the way to Lahore. 

Forty-one guns and 16,000 stand of arms surrendered to Gilbert 

beyond the Jhelum, and Dost Mahomed and his Afghans are taking 

themselves off to Gabul as fast as they can. No proclamations 

out yet regarding our future policy, but no doubt Lord Dalhousie 

will report all his arrangements to the Court of Directors by this 

L 2 


Chapter mail^so that probably you may know it in England before it is 
VL announced here. I am not, of courBe, at liberty to tell you all I 
^°^^* know, but Lawrence says that as it will be public in England 
soon, I may tell you this much — ^that annexation m determined 
qn by the Governor-General ; a large local force to be raised ; 
Henry is to be Commissioner of the new province, with his brother 
John and another civilian as Eevenue Board and Council ; and 
the whole country parcelled out into districts, as in the Saiigur 
and Nerbuddah territories. Had not the chiefs been permitted 
to come in and submit, on a promise of not being deported from 
the Punjab, I think Lawrence would have sent some of them to 
England under my charge. He is still anxious that some of the 
young lads may go to England, but of course now they could not 
be sent as hostages. Another plan he has, is to get the Punjab 
separated from the North- West Provinces in all that concerns 
Post-office arrangements, and make me his Postmaster-General, 
and see what we can do in this line. But he fears that the 
Governor-General will sanction nothing that would be a risk oi 
expense, as he dreads the Punjab not turning out a financial 

The work on which I am engaged at present, is an estimate of 
miUtary expenditure — several Irregular Cavalry corps to be raised 
at once. I tell him that all the doctors who have been employed 
on active service in the Punjab must be rewarded before he thinks 
of me, such as Dempster, Macrae, and others. He says, '' Never 
fear, something will turn up for which yoti alone are specially 
fitted, which will prevent you running ofif home." I believe this 
will be the case, and if not, I shall feel that it is my best coarse to 
go home. Lady Lawrence not arrived, but expected, vid Mooltan. 
in a few days. 

March 26th, finished Slst. 
.... Still at Lahore with Lawrence. I have had a bu$\ 
time helping him, but I have laid my ddk to return to my duties 
at Jullundur. 


LAHOBE. 149. 

I told you in my last that Lawrence was anxious to get me Qhapter , 
something that would keep me here permanently with him. VL 

I showed both Henry and John the paper I drew up, and of 
which I sent you a copy, and I believe they have come to the 
resolution to recommend me very strongly to Government for the 
charge of the young Maharajah Duleep Singh, when the Punjab 
is annexed to these territories. George Lavnrence has arrived 
since they came to this determination, and strongly supports 
them in their decision that I am the fittest man they know for 
the office ; at the same time George is disappointed, for he came 
full of the resolution to apply for, and get me appointed to civil 
employ with him at Peshawur, and will not give it up imless I 
myself would prefer the charge of the young King. 

The recommendation is to be made when the disposition of 
Daleep Singh comes under consideration, in the meantime I shall 
go back to my military duties at Jullundur. I leave the whole 
matter to be settled, as I know it will be, by One who is wiser 
than I. At the same time, I have put all in training to be ready 
to start for England to rejoin you, and have applied for my leave 
to Calcutta, preparatory to applying for furlough to England. 

If Government decides that I am to be put in charge of the 
young Maharajah, as the best man for the post, I can easily get 
my leave cancelled, if not, then I shall joyfully take myself off on ' 
my homeward journey. 

Had I consulted my own feelings alone, I should at once have 
determined to go home, but I feel it my duty, as long as my 
health continues so good, not to neglect, or rather, decUne, an 
opportunity of making your circumstances more comfortable if I 

I gave John Lawrence, who is a thorough man of business, and 
even more consulted by Lord Dalhousie than Henry, my 
paper to read, with the request in writing that he would give me 
his candid opinion as to whether he thought it likely that I would, 
at the present conjunction, be selected for employmient out of the 


Chapter strict line of my profession (such as my previous duties may have 
VL qualified me for), or whether the probabilities were that my future 
1849. service would be strictly professional, such as I could always 
obtain on returning to India from furlough ? As my standing in 
the profession is high, I am told by those whose opinion is 
worth haying, and who stand at the top of it, such as Ranald 
Martin and others, that unless I get a good opening in the 
political department, I should not give up my chances in the 
medical line. 

I consulted John first, rather than Henry, because I knew 
he was less likely to be influenced by our friendship and 
intimacy, and would be more unbiassed than Henry, who had 
known me so long. I afterwards showed it to Henry, and the 
resolution both have come to is what I mentioned above. I 
know that you vrill agree with me that I have done all that is 
required of me in the matter. I now leave my " sentence 
to come forth from His presence," and am satisfied that He 
will dispose of me as " seemeth best to Him." 

I think that the Governor-General is not unfavourably 
disposed towards me, if I may judge from letters I received 
to-day regarding the balance of my Lucknow pay. I have 
received it in full, instead of part being deducted to pay Dr. 
Glennie, whom Colonel Bichmond appointed to take over charge 
from me. Colonel Richmond's application for these allowances 
has been refused, on the ground that the appointment was an 
improjper one, so he has had to pay Glennie out of his own pocket, 
and pocket the snub instead! 

I thought my proper course was to state my just claims, but 
express my readiness to submit to whatever decision (after due 
consideration) the Civil Auditor might arrive at. 

Goodwyn of the Engineers tells me that Tom has pleased 
Cautley so much by his work and his 2eal on the Ganges CanaK 
that he spoke of him in the highest terms as one of his mosi 
promising engineers. This is a great comfort to me. I no^w can 

LAHOKS. 151 

feel that neither of my brothers have proved one of "John Chapter 
Company's bad bargains." VL 

Last night we heard of the occupation of Peshawar, and the 1^^* 
flight to Cabal of the Dost and his Dooranis. 

I went with Henry Lawrence to visit Moolraj. To-morrow we 
go to see Chuttar Singh and his son. 

I have seen a good deal of Fakeer Nooroodeen and Dewan 
Deena Nath during my stay at Lahore. 

When I think of all the responsibility and anxiety that will 
devolve upon you, in your delicate health, having to arrange all 
about the children's school, &c., I feel inclined to throw it all up, 
and be off to join you. It is only for your sake I care to make a 
name for myself. 

Your brother Charles is appointed Paymaster in the Punjab, 
I am told, and is to remain. 

JuLLUNDUB, April Sist, 1849. 

Left Lahore on Wednesday, and returned here. The day 
before, Mr. Elliot arrived — sent by the Governor-General to 
commanicate to the Uttle Maharajah the intention of Govern- 
ment. I saw Elliot at the Residency, and had some talk with 
him. Well, all is over I the Punjab is annexed, and from the 
Khyber to the Sutlej is now a British province. Strange, is it not, 
that this has been brought about almost against one's wUl ? The 
interview I spoke of in my last, with Chuttur Singh, Shere Singh, 
and the other prisoner chiefs, took place — I saw them with Henry 
Lawrence, and afterwards alone in private. I have, heard all 
they severally had to say. They all declare that the insurrection 
was quite unpremeditated, and only gathered strength as it went 
on, until almost every chief of note in the Punjab had been more 
or less involved. Eajah Tej Singh and old Nooroodeen were the 
only two, I believe, whom Shere Singh spoke of, as not having 
conunonicated with him at some time or other ; and he gave up 


Chapter a letter which he had received from the Banee, which implicates 
VI. her very decidedly, and corroborates two others which had been 
1849, intercepted ; so that you see that if the insurrection had been crushed 
in the bud, — which it might most easily have been, as they them- 
selves admit, — why then, few chiefs would have been compromised or 
implicated, and we could not have annexed the country unth^ut 
great injustice. But what we have looked upon as our reverses 
and mismanagement, have in the end been overruled for good. 
Such is it always with us, even with regard to Peshawur and the 
districts beyond the Indus. Had Dost Mahomed not acted like a 
fool in the matter, they would have been offered to him ; but as 
matters have turned out, we must ourselves take them. 

This I do honestly believe, that there has been a strong desire 
on our part to act justly, and not to grasp this country from the 
Sikhs, as no doubt our enemies will say ; but it has been, as it 
were, forced upon us. I know that Lawrence would give any- 
thing if it could have been averted. 

Now I trust we may look forward to a lasting peace, with, I 
hope, attendant blessings in its train, that is, if we now do our 
duty as becomes a Christian nation, seeking guidance from God in 
all we do. 

Do you remember Herbert of the 18th at Lucknow, coming to 

see Henry L and his wife, when they were with us ? He is 

the man who defended Attok so long. A gallant fellow he is, and 
has proved himself so, and his courage is of the right sort too, 
which is all the more pleasing. 

When he told me at Lahore of all his feelings, and his desire to 
attribute all his confidence to its right soiurce, and his anxiety to 
acquit himself as became a Christian, I was sincerely rejoiced. 

April 2nd, The order for my return to Lahore has just come^ 
the Governor-General having approved of my appointment, and 
I have laid my ddk and start to-morrow. 

I do not yet know exactly how I shall be employed. Hexir\- 
Lawrence intends me to be Governor of the Citadel and all it con- 


tains, including the young King ; but it is possible that he may Chapter 
be removed from the Punjab, and I may have to accompany him ^1* 
elsewhere ; how nice it would be if I were told to take him to 1^"' 
England ! 

I scarcely know what to think of this appointment : may God 
strengthen me to do my duty whatever it may be. I cannot bear 
to give up the hope of seeing you soon 

Besioenct, Lahobe, Easter-day, April 20tk, 1849. 

The service to-day and Holy Communion were very impressive. 
I wish you had been with us, for it is the first time that Holy 
Communion has been celebrated here. It was even the more 
iutpressive from the service being held in the great hall of the 
Besidency, for of course we have no church. The Communion 
Service was of no ordinary character, many of those who par- 
took of it had lately been in great peril. It was the first that 
George Lawrence and his wife, Herbert Edwardes, and others 
with him, had been able to attend since they had passed through 
great dangers, and had been safely delivered from them ; and 
many of those present were about to commence their new 
labours in this new country, where probably many years must 
elapse before every part of these new dominions may hear the 
sound of the Gospel 1 

I know that many of those present were in earnest in seeking 
God's blessing on their work. 

I wrote you that I was installed by Sir Henry Lawrence 
on the 6th, as Governor of the Citadel and its contents; and 
he took me to the Palace, and introduced me in the character 
of his future Governor to the young dethroned King, Duleep 
Singh. The little fellow seemed very well pleased with me, 
and we got on swimmingly. I told him that now you had gone 
to take my Httle ones to England, I was left alone, and wanted 
some one to care for, and be kind to, so that I was all the more 


Chapter disposed to take pleasure in the duty which had been assigned 
VI. me by the Governor-General and Sir Henry Lawrence, 
1849. nn^ would do all in my power to make him happy. 
He seems a very fine-tempered boy, intelligent, and handsome. 
He writes and reads Persian very well, and showed me his 
last copy ; he has also made a little progress in English, which 
I hope to make him like better. After conversing with him 
for some time, I went to look at the place intended for my 
residence — in a very beautiful garden within the Palace, not 
far from the Maharajah's apartments, fine marble baradurries,* 
fountains, &c. ; in fact, far beyond anything of the kind else- 
where at Lahore, and reminding me somewhat of the Shah Monzil 
at Lucknow, only the buildings, being of marble, are richer. 
I then took a glance over the different establishments of the 
little man — enormous they are indeed, and in his fallen and 
altered circumstances will require great reductions, which I 
shall endeavour to manage as well as I can, by finding other 
employment for the people, and conciUating them as far as 
I can by patient inquiry into their cases. I have to commence 
to-day with the establishment of orderlies, or bayas, and go 
on through the whole, recommending reductions in each for the 
approval of Government. 

I trust, with God's blessing, to manage pretty well, tor I 
have had experience to some extent. 

You will see the names of all those who are to have civil 
charge in the papers. No one can say that Lawrence's selec- 
tion is not good. Men of the stamp of Montgomery, Madeod, 
Tucker, Thornton, to be Commissioners I 

I shall be among friends, you see, good, hard-working fellows, 
who have their hearts in the right place — it is no little pleasure 
to be with them. I feel much this separation from you» but 
who knows what may come ? Sir Henry would only be too glad 

* Hall, reception-room. 

LAHOBB. 155 

to haTe the little boy go to England, and Lord Dalhoosie may Chapter 
ordain it.. Lady Lawrence is here, not looking strong. She is ^- 
dways saying she wishes you were here with me. Harry 18*9. 
promises to turn out a strong, sturdy boy, a little like Tim in his 
old-(ashioned ways. Herbert Edwardes is here in the house, from 

CiTADXL OF Lahobb, April 10th. 

I am very busy drawing out my statements and lists, but I fear 
it will be many weeks, if not months, before I can complete them. 
I have to make out a list in English for the Governor-General, of 
all the jewels and valuables belonging to the Sikh Government, 
and now transferred to ours ; among them is the Koh-i-noor. 

Besides this, which is pressing on me, I have to pay up and 
discharge all the old establishments of Bunjeet Singh. I take care 
to look after the interests of my young charge, and, as far as I 
can, see that he has his luxuries and comforts as before ; I have 
also to see that he is not robbed by people about him, who only 
think of themselves in the universal '* burst up " that has taken 

Poor, dear little feUow ! So far, he seems mightily pleased 

with me, and I do hope we shall continue to like each other ; he 

is very lovable, I think. Now that I know what I can keep for 

him out of the accumulated property, I must take care that his 

possessions are not diminished by robbery or pilfering. What he 

does not require to take with him I shall have sold for his benefit, 

and purchase Company's paper for him. His studies at present 

are Persian and English. For amusements, he is passionately 

fond of hawking, and thinks of nothing else. He is busy getting 

up a book on the subject, in Persian, with drawings and paintings 

of all the various species of hawks; this takes up his whole 

attention, and renders him indifferent to all else for the time 

being. The book is to treat of all the most approved ways of 


Chapter training and managing Hawks. He has painters constantly 
VI- employed near him at this work, which he watches with the 
1849. deepest interest, and himself tries to draw and paint a little. I 
want you to send me out for him, a nice paint-hox and materials, 
for his use, and a good book of instructions in the art of drawing 
and painting, till I can get him good lessons. Send also some 
good mechanical toys to amuse him, also geographical puzzles or 
dissected maps, plates of animals, &c., fit for a boy of his age, 
to amuse and interest him. 

I hope the likeness he is having taken for you will be ready to 
go with this, also the sketch of the Palace and its surroundings. 
Strange the vicissitudes of Indian life ! I am now writing in the 
room which Jowahir Singh (the Eanee's brother) always occu- 
pied, and there is a beautiful little garden adjoining the house. 

I have no idea yet whether Lord Dalhousie wishes me to go 
with the Maharajah, if he is sent away from Lahore, or whether 
I am to remain here as Assistant to the Board of Government, 
and to be in charge of all civil pensioners. I have had no time 
to look at a paper, so I know nothing of what is going on around. 

Dr. Sprenger writes from Lucknow, ccmgratulating me on the 
very laudatory article on my appointment, in the editorial of the 
Delhi Gazette I I never saw it. Dr. Sprenger says that since I 
left, B. has not been ** over-bearing," but "beyond bearing!'* 
Hollings is on his way here ; I shall see him shortly. Lucknow 
is nearly denuded of all our old party. The httle Maharajah ha> 
just been in with the portrait of himself, which I am to send you 
with his salaam I He says he wrote his name below, that you 
might know it was genuine. If I remain here for good, I shall 
send for KhaHpha Ali Bux and some of our old servants ; I shall 
then have the pleasure of talking to them of the Mem Sahib ana 
Baba-log. You would be pleased if you saw how gentle ai «1 
patient I am with Meah Jan, poor lad I He was your favoonit 
khidmiitgar, though I always thought him rather slow ; indetxl. 
I am afraid that he will now believe that my temper niu^: 

LAHORE. 157 

be that of a turkey cook (or perhaps a gander!), who only flares Chapter 
ap before his mate and little ones ! I think the Maharajah shows ^I* 
a great desire to hear about England. Sir H. Lawrence wishes 1849. 
he could be educated there^ and not left to grow up idle and de- 
bauched in India, with nothing to do. 

He will surely have as much to live on as any of our nobles, 
considering what he has lost, and we have gained I Why, then, 
should he not be brought up to the life of one ? (in the highest 
sense of the word) — ^he is young enough to mould. 

Citadel of Lahore, April 29th, 1849. 

My occupations continue to multiply. I am now known as the 
" Killah-ki-Malik " — Lord or Master of Lahore Citadel. I have 
just been placing some sergeants of Artillery in charge of the 
magazine under my orders, to write out lists of all the arms of all 
kinds. Another set I have appointed, in the same way, in Bunjeet 
Singh's camp establishment, including ever so many splendid 
Cashmere tents, carpets, purdahs, &c., while I myself take the 
jewel department in the Toshkhana, and overlook the whole. The 
extraordinary way in which jewels of the greatest value are 
packed away would amuse you. Yesterday, when looking over 
some splendid diamond rings, with the Treasurer and his man, 
which were all huddled together in a bag — one of them being a 
very beautiful likeness of Queen Victoria — I suggested that, until 
the velvet rolls I had ordered for them were ready, they 
should tie a label to each with a bit of thread or string, to which 
they agreed. To my amusement, I And that they had misunder- 
stood me, for they strung them all on a string like so many 
buttons, dozen by dozen I The first ring I took out of the bag 
was a diamond valued at 6,000 rupees I and some of them were 
very valuable. 
I cannot yet arrive at a valuation of the jewels (exclusive of 


Chapter the Eoh-i-noor), but I don't think it will be fax short of a 
^» million ! and the other valuable property as much more. 

1849. Lawrence seems to think that Lord D intends, after making 

over what may be thought proper for the use of the deposed King, 
to send the rest to England. If so, I hope under Lawrence's 
charge ; at least, he should have the option. 

With my little charge I get on very well. I have had a 
communication door opened between my room and his apart- 
ments. As soon as he heard the announcement made to me 
that the opening had been made, he proposed to go with me to 
see it, and off we went. The opening could only, as yet, be got 
through by stooping, and then a drop of some feet into my room. 
I leapt down, and he called out to me to catch him, and jumped 
into my arms ; followed, of course, punctiliously, by his whole 
retinue ! some of them elderly stout courtiers, who were quite 
serious about it, looking upon it as all in the way of duty. It was 
a droll scene! I think that he and I shall be very good 

He told me gravely that he won't trust himself among the 
Sikhs again, and declines to go out for a ride or drive unless I 
accompany him. 

There is a rumour current that his mother has escaped from the 
fort at Ghunar. I trust she won't come this way. 

I think Duleep a remarkably intelligent boy, he seems to 
understand thoroughly the characters of all those about him, in a 
way that an English boy would be incapable of doing. When he 
brought me the two pictures finished and ready to send to yon, be 
was quite proud of the signatures on them, one in Persian, the 
other in English. He wishes me to tell you that he did it all 
himself, without any help. I don't think the likenesses are good 
enough, for he is really a handsome little fellow. 

Dryburgh writes me from Nepal that he has been appointeu 
to officiate as first Assistant to the Besident in Cripp's absence, 
and it may probably be permanent. 

LAHOKE. 159 

Strange, is it not ? that we two are the only medicos in political Chapter 

empbyment in India just now, except Campbell at Darjeeling. TL 


Citadel, Lahoee, May 6th and 8th, 1849. 

I continue very busy, paying off all the Darbar establishments, 
taking lists of jewels and treasore collected by Bnnjeet, collecting 
ordnance stores into the magazine in the citadel from all 
quarters, looking over the vast camp-eqnipage of the late rulers 
of the Punjab. I have at last got some European assistants 
under me, Cooke of the Horse Artillery, and two Horse Artillery 
sergeants, and four European writers have been placed at my dis- 
posal, besides ever so many moonshees (writers), and mutsuddies 
(native), to bother me from morning to night. I have wheeled 
them into line, as Todd would say, and now I can get along 

To-day is Sunday, and I have had the little Maharajah over 

with me for a couple of hours ; he brought his Urdu teacher with 

hlnL I have got rid of all other work for the day and enjoy the 

rest, but I feel I am doing a good work to teach him any good I 

can. It is an amusement to him to have an English vnriting 

lesson with me, so I give him a precept to write out and translate, 

** Do unto others as you would they should do xmto you." I 

intend, as I cannot put the Bible in his hands yet, to let him 

have such principles as these to season his studies with, and I 

hope to see more of him as I get rid of duties that are pressing. 

He continues to be very frank and confiding with me, and I am 

getting really fond of him. Hollingg and Drake turned up, just 

as I was engaged superintending the removal of the Eoh-i-noor 

and the State jewels from the old Toshkhana to the place in 

which all the other treasure is kept, in the Motee Munden, so 

they were fortunate in having an opportxmity of seeing them, 

before they were shut up for a time. 

One of the Maharajah's painters has just made a sketch for me 


Chapter of the *' Summun Boorj," aadof my residence in the Eh^b Gha, 

^^* but he has left out the finest part of the building, the marble 

-lo^9. haradurrie which adjoins my rooms, and opens into the garden. 

You would delight in the view, it is magnificent. The racecourse 

and grand parade in front, and the Bavee with its numerous 

lovely gardens in the distance. 

The little Maharajah has been busy collecting for me drawings 
and paintings done by his best painters. Some are very curious 
and interesting indeed, representing domestic life in the Punjab, 
and various trades and professions. He has also selected authen- 
tic likenesses of the great chiefs and men of note. 

I have just had a letter from asking me to set him up 

with some furniture, &c., from the Toshkhana ! I don't think 
he will much relish the reply I have sent him ; indeed, I have 
some hesitation in using these things in my own rooms (though I 
do live in the Palace), and I am most careful not to take any 
advantage of my position in any way, for it is a most delicate one 
with respect to my little charge. 

I have continued to ride my own grey Cabul horse, '* Bobin 
Hood," daily, with plain English saddle, in the midst of the 
gorgeous calvacade, or royal Sowarree, when I accompany the 
little boy; but, as he has stumbled badly several times, I am 
looking out for another horse, as it would not be dignified to have 

The little fellow, and also several of his courtiers, express 
astonishment that I do not order out the best horse in the stable 
for myself, and both Hansel and John Lawrence, who rode with 
me last time, said I was too scrupulous in this matter. Yet I 
have determined that I shall ride a horse of my own. 

The Maharajah sent me yesterday three splendid Arabs i<; 
choose from, and, of course, I was then obliged to order one of 
them to be prepared for me to ride out with him that day, bnt a: 
the same time I have fixed on another horse to purchase, not one 
of those ordered to be sold from the royal stables under mv 

LAHORE. 161 

charge ! I may be too scrapulons, but I feel happier in my incle- Chapter 
pendence. VI. 

I am very indifferent as to my fate. I shall be rejoiced at 1849. 
the opportunity of taking furlough and rejoining you in England, 
but I want to do my duty, whatever it is. 

Many would regret losing such an appointment as this, but 
I have not yet acquired much relish for acting the " Bahadoor/' 
although I have that distinguished rank, thanks to the King 
of Oudel 

You will doubtless see by the papers, that the Banee Jinda 
(Doleep's mother) has made her escape from the fort at Chunar, 
near Benares, where she was imprisoned. I have just heard 
from Dryburgh that she is in his custody at Nepal (I told you 
he was Acting- Assistant Besident). 

He says she arrived there in disguise as a Fakeemee, and 
'Jang Bahadoor at once sent her to the Besident. 

Is it not a strange turn of events that has brought the son 
under my charge, and the mother under his? I trust he will keep 
her safe, so that she won't come here to complicate matters. A 
connection of the Banee's, a brother-in-law, is one of my atten- 
dants. He has just been telling me strange stories about her. 
He says that her affection for the handsome young Bajah Heera 
Singh was the cause of her not offering to perform suttee with old 
Hunjeet, that she made proposals to Heera Singh, which he 
declined^ but recommended Lai Singh to her attention, which 
proposal vras accepted ; that after Heera's refusal, her love 
turned to hate, and she at last composed his death. I daresay 
you remember reading the account of it at the time. 

The Banee Jinda is, even by her own relatives, looked upon 
as exceptionally bad, even among these licentious people. 

Citadel, Lahobe, May 22nd, 1849. 

No more known yet of our future destination. Sir Henry 
tells me that as soon as I can get clear of paying off the Civil 



Chapter Establishment and the Toshkhana, that he wants me to take 
^* the Post-office in hand, as Postmaster-General in the Punjab. 
1849. J ^qU JjJjjj j must get through some of my pressing work 
before I undertake anything new. I am getting a return 
from Bowring of all the lame, blind, old, and infirm in the city, 
so as to give away some of the Maharajah's regular charity 
to them, instead of the indiscriminate almsgiving to professional 
beggars. I wish to show his people whom we consider proper 
objects of his bounty. 

I do so long to join you in England, that I feel quite indifferent 
as to whether this is to be a permanent appointment or not. 
When I feel myself longing for your presence, I try to comfort 
myself by thinking that at aU events you are safe from all the 
discomforts that many other military men's wives are liable to 
here, — ^take poor '* Dismal Johnnie "as an example ! He took 
his wife with him to Wuzeerabad, and was ordered to send 
her back immediately. He writes me in despair, and throws 
himself on my mercy, begs me to take charge of her, and give 
her a room here in the Eh&b 6ha ! I have managed a place for 
her elsewhere. 

I was much amused yesterday, when giving some directions to 
the Havildar of the Guards at the Toshkhana, to find that he 
belonged to the 56th Native Infantry, and had been with Colonel 
Hope Dick at Lucknow, remembered the " Mem-Sahib " and the 
** Mem-Sahib-ki-Bain," who had married the *' Besidency Doctor 
Sahib," — and that she was "essah khoopsurut." I could not 
help wondering if the rogue was poking ^un, but he was as grave 
as a judge, and apparently had no idea that he was fatllHT^g to 
the identical Doctor Sahib, for, as I said before, I amonlyknowii 
here as the '' KiUah-ki-Malik." 

Sir H. and Lady Lawrence, and their dear little boy, have 
started for Simla. I daresay the fate of my little ohaiige \mJ 
soon be known now. The dear little man has just been with nit.- 
for a couple of hours to-day ; he seems always so glad to come, 

■ /• / ' ' • ' r ' 

. . -. ^ ^. C ••- *" r- ^ \ 

■ . f 


that I feel so sorry I haye not more time to spare to receive him Chapter 
oftener, but I am so occupied. I have taken care to select some ^1* 
oi the best tents for his use, before any are made over for sale, 1^^^- 
and I have ordered that those that are to be used for his servants 
aod establishment, be at once pitched on the parade ground in 
&ont, and have given his people a plan of encampment to which 
they ure always to adhere, and of which they highly approve. I 
send you a sketeh of it. 

Now when you are told that the tents for the little man himself 
are all lined, some with rich Cashmere shawls, and some with 
satin and velvet embroidered with gold, semiafuu, cfkpets, purdahs, / 
and floor-cloths to match, and that the tent-poles are encased in 
gold and silver (like a chohedafs mace), you may fancy that we 
shall look rather smart! I should say that for camp-equipage, 
old Bunjeet's camp was the very finest and most sumptuous 
among all the Princes of India. It is very pleasant to look out 
at the pretty little encampment, and feel that we shall soon start 
somewhere — a report is current that the Mahabuleshwar HUls, 
near Poona, is to be the boy's destination. 

I heard from Lamb from Lucknow ; he says it is reported on 
good authority, that Colonel Bichmond was jealous of my 
infinence with the natives, and reported to Government that I 
had influenced them in political matters t 

Citadel, Jwne 10th, 1849. 

I am at present occupied with the pensions and settlements for 
the wives, or rather widows, of Bimjeet Singh ; twenty-two in 
ail — seventeen Hindoo, and five Mahomedan ! 

At first they made all sorts of difficulties as to their communica- 
tions with me, sending their maldas with their messages ; but 
tLey soon gave that up, and I am now overpowered with their 
person^ attentions. My great help and factotum in all matters 
connected with the Banees is old Amlah Singh, a white-bearded, 

M 2 


Chapter tough old Sikh, who has been with every Sikh Maharajah ever 
^» since their commencement. 

1849. ge told me — sitting at my feet the other night — of all that 
occurred at the death, or rather the assassination, of Maharajah 
Shere Singh (Duleep's predecessor), to whom he was actually 
speaking when he was shot by Ajeet Singh six years ago, and also 
of his being one of the five of Heera Singh's party who escaped, 
when that poor lad was cut up. Don't you remember my reading 
an account of it to you at the time ? 

Meah Kheema, the confidential personal attendant of Duleep 
Singh, also occasionally gives me his account of various matters. 
He says he was the only one left with the boy, when his mother 
sent the troops in pursuit of Bajah Heera Singh and his party. 

I wish I had the pen of a ready writer. I might bring out 
some very interesting facts connected with the history of the 
Punjab and Afghanistan during the last fifty years. 

The principal topic of the day is the commencement of the 
trial of Moolraj. I have fitted up the Dewan-i-Aum of the Citadel 
for the occasion, to the admiration and satisfaction of the Com- 
missioners, John Lawrence and Mansel. Herbert Edwardes and 
Montgomery have been in, expressing their delight at the haud> 
some appearance I have contrived to give the building; every- 
thing handsome, and no gaudy display ; it certainly added dignity 
to the solemn occasion for which they were assembled. 

When I was appointed Governor of the Citadel, I found thai 
this included charge of all the State prisoners, and thus Moolra; 
became my ward ; and it would amuse you if you saw me, twice a 
day, walking across the quadrangle of the Citadel, to and from the 
prison to the court, with Moolraj in friendly conversation (but ^ t b 
a European guard close by), when I make him over and receive 
him back. 

I told him that Vans Agnew was my dear friend, and that bi«^ 
death was a great grief to me. He expressed himself as txiortfi 
grieved than ever at the event since he heard this, aad hej 

LAHORE. 165 

solemnly avers he never authorized it. Nor had he ever Chapter 
encouraged his people to attack Agnew« He expressed great VI. 
regret for what had occnrred, but said he was helpless, and so ^^^* 
far I believe the evidence does not implicate him. 

Colonel Hamilton, of the 34th Native Infantry, a Deputy Com- 
missioner here, is appointed to act for him, and takes up the case 
con amore, I do not wonder that Moolraj is loud in his praise of 
our justice and love of fair play, when he sees how Hamilton 
sticks up for him against Bowring, the Government prosecutor. 

I told John Lawrence that if they expect to get a verdict against 
Moolraj, they had made a mistake when they gave him a Scotch- 
man to defend him ! Hamilton comes of a legal family ; Mr. B. 
Hamilton, the Clerk of Sessions, is his uncle. His brother Jock, 
is a great friend of your brother Charles ; they came out as cadets 

Certainly Indian life is full of romance ! I never dreamt of 
having to do with such strange and historic characters as are now 
accumulated under my charge, for I have all the political prisoners 
now. It is very amusing the requests I get from friends and 
acquaintances. One asks me to get him appointed to carry the 
Koh-i-noor to England ; several to get them appointments in 
the Punjab under the Lawrences ; another asks to get a civil engi- 
neer's appointment ; but there is no end to the absurd requests. 
Many I have been able to help to get quarters, for they are very 
difficult to be had. I have been able to take Colonel Hamilton 
and E. Prinsep into the Citadel, as they could get no place any- 
where. My duties are certainly multifarious. I was first 
appointed Governor of the Citadel, and in charge of the Maha- 
rajah ; then Pension Paymaster to all State pensioners. I have 
to pay off and discharge all public establishments of the former 
Government, which I did not think necessary to retain, to recom- 
mend all persons who were to receive pensions and gratuities ; 
then I received charge of all the magazines, receiving all military 
stores, guns, arms, &c., collected throughout the whole country, 


Chapter in consequence of the general disarming. I was formally made 
VI. Keeper of the State Toshkhana, or Treasmy , with the State jewels ; 

• lo49. and the Koh-i-noor was placed in my hands. All the artillery work- 
shops throughout the city, and the guards at the city gates, were 
made over to me; the great stud establishments for breeding 
horses throughout the Punjab also, which entailed a great deal 
of work. But I have forgotten the most troublesome of all, the 
Banees, the wives and concubines of all the Maharajahs ! I am 
now trying to find houses for them, to get them out of the Citadel. 
So if I have not work enough, I am surprised I By-the-bye, I am 
also Postinaster-General of the Punjab, at Henry Lawrence's 
special request; he knows I like the work. I should not 
object, when all these various duties are fulfilled, to remain Post- 
master-General of the Punjab, if Cashmere could be added to 
my beat ! I often wish you were here, to help me with your sug- 
gestions in many things. I would like, ubove all things, to be able 
to show you the gorgeous State jewels, as I have now arranged 
them in the fine box I have had made and lined. 

You would have laughed to see how they were kept before, by 
the native treasurers, rolled up in bits of rags, and stowed away 
in such queer places. 


Lahobe, June llth to 22ytJ. 

The trial of Moolxaj still going on. I don't think ihe old 
fellow is anything of the hero they would make him out to K\ 
but rather a weak, chicken-hearted fellow, afraid to do what ^as 
right, and entirely in the hands of some resolute villains &roun«3 
him. I don't think he really intended any harm to dear Pal 
Vans Agnew ; but he had not moral courage enough to pot tb< 
fellows down. 

LAHORE. 167 

I have not heard yet whether Tom has sacceeded in taming Chapter 
the river from its coarse three-qoarters of a mile, as he has VI. 
underiakea to do ! he does not stick at trifles, and I hear he is ^^^* 
highly thought of at Boorkee, so I think I may consider him 
safely launched, and that he ¥dll prove himself worth the Com- 
pany's salt. Well ; Moolraj's trial is over, poor wretch I Hamil- 
ton made an excellent defence for him, and spoke the sentiments 
of most people who understand the whole matter from the 
beginning. Moolraj is, however, found guilty ; but from having 
been the victim of circumstances is most earnestly " recom- 
mended to mercy." I had a long talk with him the- other day ; 
he spoke highly of the endeavours which had been made to 
ensure him justice. He said it was this love of justice 
which had made us so powerful, and would continue 
to make us more so. Until we came forward, he said, 
and offered him the assistance of an officer qualified to under- 
take his defence, no one had dared to speak a word in his favour; 
bat now he was not a little surprised to find that Colonel Hamil- 
ton had succeeded in getting four witnesses to speak favourably 
for him. He told me that from the day of Agnew's death, he 
had never gone to visit his own family at his own house, though 
some of them had been to speak to him. I daresay we may 
soon look for Henry Lawrence and his wife back from the hills. 
They have both derived benefit from the change, but I fear it 
will be the old thing again with him — ^he will overwork himself 
as before. 

Citadel, Lahobe, JtUy 12th, 1849. 

I wish you were here to enjoy the lovely view from the window 
of my sitting-room, the little garden in front, with its marble 
foantain, the vinery, the gallery leading to the Summun Boorj, 
which would make a splendid conservatory, the marble hall out- 
side, with the fountain in the centre, and its beautiful mosaic 


Chapter pavement. You may form an idea of its beauties, by a remark 
^« I heard from a lady (who was sketching it), to a friend, " It is a 
1849. place jug^ made to pass the honeymoon in 1 " (This was not 
intended for my ear !) I have been far too busy to go out much, 
but Lady Lawrence was determined that I should be with them 
at the only large party she has been able to give in the Residency 
this season, and as I have been unable to return visits or calls, it 
was a good opportunity to meet everybody at once. 

It is very amusing the number of lady visitors I have, they all 
come to call on Mrs, Login, but they are all eager to see the 
pretty things I have to show. Mrs. John Lawrence, Miss 
Willson and Mrs. Napier, came yesterday to help me with their 
advice and assistance, as to the arranging of the State jewels in 
the handsome box I have had prepared for them, and they promise 
to come again till all is finished. 

How amused you would have been with the odd things that 
come under my inspection. Such a queer conglomeration of odds 
and ends has never before been seen, I do believe ! 

I found a fine picture of the Queen in a go-down, among a heap 
of other valuables, all covered with dust, and among other curiosi- 
ties I have unearthed from the same place, were a lot of valuable 
drawings of different kinds and fine old engravings, and a little 
wax-cloth bag, containing a copy of Henry Martyn's Persian Testa- 
ment, presented (so the inscription says) by good *' Lady William 
Bentinck to Joseph Wolff." How came it here ? The medley oi 
articles in that Toshkhana is indescribable 1 

I have told the Uttle Maharajah that I am in anxiety to hear 
from you of your safe arrival, as there are reports of several 
deaths on board your ship on the voyage, and it is nice to sto 
how the little man's sympathy has been aroused, and how e&gerh 
he asks, the first thing, if I have heard of you and Edwy. 

I am overwhelmed with applications by my old writers, Ac, at 
Lucknow for situations. I have been able to give one in my ofiicv 
to Mr. Sequera, but I can do no more. 

LAHORE. 169 

There is every prospect of fine crops this year, better than for Chapti^r 
many years back; this will have more effect in keeping the VI. 
country quiet than an army of 20,000 men, 1849. 

The immense number thrown out of employment by the 
breaking up of the Sikh army, and all the Court establishments, 
was naturally a severe and great anxiety to the Government, and 
endeavours are being made to turn their attention to agricultural 
porsnits as far as possible. Almost the first thing done, on our 
taking possession, was to send out engineers and workmen to 
open canals for irrigation throughout the Doab, and I did all in my 
power to urge it on, by keeping the matter constantly before 
Lawrence and his two coadjutors ; so that I believe it was the 
very first order issued, on assuming full power. In consequence, 
we are now working hard in the magazine, breaking up old arms 
as fast as we can, and converting them into powrahs and pick- 
axes, and already I have supplied Napier with many tons of them, 
for his work on the canals. I had the pleasure of having the first 
swords brought in, converted into capital scythes for mowing the 
grass in the soldiers' gardens, which was coming as near "pruning 
hooks" as circumstances permitted I I am now trying my 
ingenuity in breaking up cannon shot, without going to the 
expense of heating them, and I think I shall succeed pretty well ; 
as they are all made of hammered iron, and beautifully finished ; 
the expense of shot made this way must have been enormous. I 
am setting aside those that may suit our six and nine pounders, 
for trial daring the artillery practice season. I have little doubt 
that the range of hajnmered shot, when well made, will be found 
greater than cast iron. 

I have just sent in to the Governor-General a list of jewels, 
amounting in value to about sixteen and a half lakhs of rupees, and 
I daresay I shall soon have his orders as to the disposal of them. 
By-the-bye, I met a Madras ofl&cer the other day who knew your 
two brothers, John and Colin, there. He told me that on his 
arrival he met an officer, whom, from his extraordinary likeness to 


Chapter John in face, figure, manners, and in every way, even to liis beard, 

^•1* must be a brother of his, whom he heard was here. It turned out 

1849. ^Q ]yQ Herbert Edwardes, of Mooltan celebrity. There mast be, as 

I told Edwardes, a strong resemblance ; his nose is certainly big 

enough for a pair of Campbells ! 

CiTADBL, July 2l8t, 1849. 

Moolraj is always so pleased to see me, when I have time to go 
in and say a kind word to him. I tell him, he can see that it is not 
the wish of our Government to treat him harshly, but that the 
only fear was that, by treating him too leniently others might be 
induced to do as he did, and thus the lives of many of our people 
may be sacrificed. He seemed perfectly to see the justice of this 
view of the matter, and asked me what I thought would be bis 
punishment. I said, probably imprisonment for life. " Oh," 
said he, in true Oriental style, ** under your care that would be no 
punishment 1 " 

I have sent some letters for his son through Mr. Edgworth, the 
Commissioner ; and I supply him with a few books and news- 
papers to read, as well as a Persian Testament, which, with God's 
blessing, may be useful to him. 

He begged me to allow his ''Said" (Hindoo priest) to visit 
him, which I did at once. But the man does not care to repeat 
his visits often. 

Moolraj passes almost his whole time in prayer, and in writing out 
couplets to invoke the Deity, and propitiate Him in the way he 
has been taught. As his mind is so disposed that he only thinks 
of religion, he is anxious I should get him another copy of the 
Testament, in a character he can read more easily than the one 
I gave him, which is the Arabic character. I hope to be &ble to 
do so. He is, for a native of these parts, a well-educated nsan. 
I enclose as a curiosity for you, a paper he wrote and sent to ine 

LuAlHobe. 171 

yesterday, covered over with the word ** Bam-Bam-Bam " which Chapter 

serves as a prayer. His own signature is on the back. VI. 


As soon as the Governor-General's decision on the 
fate of Moolraj waa made known to the Board, Mansel 
wrote to Login as follows : — 

Anabkullah, July 2l8t, 1849. 
Mt deab Login, 

I have just heard by to-day's post from the Governor- 
General, that he has remitted the capital sentence on Moohraj, 
bnt that his punishment will be severe. 

Will you kindly see him (Moolraj), and communicate to 
him privately, that this is the word of the Governor-General : 
" That he wiU not be executed." 

I have received no authority to make it public, but if Moolraj 
is informed of it, he may be expected to tell his friends and visitors, 
and so the matter is no longer a secret. I have not seen you for 
an age. Come to dinner at eight to-morrow, and bring Wakefield. 
If he can't come, not being quite recovered, mind you come 


C. G. Mansel. 



Login to his Wife. 

Citadel, Lahore, Sept. Srd, 1849. 

Chapter I a^a rather anxious about Sir Henry's state of health ; he is far 

VII. from well, and I fear will have to go to the Cape to recruit, for he 

1849. cannot afford to go home. By scraping all together, he cannot 

make more than £700 to live on, for himself, wife, and children, 

and he would feel miserable at having nothing to give away to 


I cannot but feel gratified at the entire confidence reposed in 
me by the Board of Administration (Henry and John Lawrence 
and Hansel). Almost the only instructions I get from them, when 
I appeal to them are, '' Just do what you think right and proper, 
and we will support you." 

Now when you consider how much must be left to my 
discretion in an appointment of this kind, where I am put 
in charge of property of all kinds, of which neither the Govern- 
ment (nor indeed any one else) can have any idea of the value. 
nor any check to enable them to judge of the amount, and 
it is so entirely left to me to make over this or that to the 
Maharajah as being, in my opinion, necessary for his use, — 
I think I may take it for granted that I stand high in 
their opinion for conscientiousness, integrity, and honesty, even 

LAHORE. 1 73 

Lord Dalhoosie, in acknowledging the receipt of the list of Chapter 
jewels, to the amount of sixteen and a half lakhs, which I sent in, VII. 
thinks it necessary to express his sense of the way in which I have ^^"• 
prored myself worthy of the Lawrences' high recommendation. 
He expresses himself also highly pleased with the careful 
manner in which the lists have been prepared. I feel that this 
is greatly owing to Jowahir Misr's assistance, so I do not plume 
myself on this or any other flattering remarks. God knows, I 
shall be right glad when I can get all the property safely made 
oyer, without loss or detriment to Government. I only fear that 
I will find myself a poorer man by having this charge laid on me ; 
if , as I foresee, the accounts may not balance exactly, from the 
innumerable detailed payments that have been made, I shall of 
course be answerable. 

I feel the disadvantage often, of not having been trained to the 
regular work, as civilians are, when cases are brought up to me to 
decide and judge, but on the whole, I think I get on very well, 
and decide the cases impartially. 

Login was very anxious to make his birthday as 
pleasant as possible to the little dethroned King, so 
he proposed to the Lawrences, in the following letter, 
that a sort of fete should be given on the occasion : — 

My dear Lawbencb, 

The little Maharajah's birthday is to take place on Tuesday 
or Wednesday (the Pundits have not yet decided which, as it all 
depends on his star)^ but I will let you know. Don't you think 
it would be proper to make up a party from the Besidency to 
offer him their good wishes ? 

I can have the Summun put in order, to make it look well, and 
if Lady L. and Mrs. John will give me help with khidmutgars, 
you can all have tea in my garden afterwards. We shall not be 


Chapter able to have a very large party, and I should like to nee as many 

VU« children as possible, on the little fellow's account. All the Baaees 

1849. ^Q^ ^Q usual, to pay their respects, and present their nuzzun on 

that day. We can arrange matters easily, if the European party 

comes early, so as not to interfere with them. I think we should 

fix sunrise as the time. 

A little civility and attention shown on this, his first birthday 
since he lost his throne, would be kindly taken. It need not be 
in the least official, merely friendly ; but as the natives will all 
dress in their best to do him honour, I think oar party should 
not sport solah hats and shooting jackets on this occasion 1 

Don't you agree with me ? Tell me what you think of my 
proposal as soon as you can, that I may make arrangements. 

Tours very truly, 

J. S.L. 

August Slst, Citadel, 1849. 

On the back of this letter, in Indian fashion is 
scribbled this characteristic reply : — 

Mt deab Login, 

We are agreeable to all you propose (my brother John in- 
cluded). Let's know the day fixed. 

Yours always, 

H. Lawbbkcx. 

The following letter to his wife written the day 
after the f^te, describes the proceedings : — 

CiTADBii, Sep, 5th, 1849. 

Yesterday was the birthday of the little Maharajah : he is now 
eleven, and entering his twelth year. 

LAHORE. 175 

ETerything was done that was in my power, to give the anni- Chapler 
versary due honour, so that he should feel the difference in his ^^l* 
poddon as little as possible, and not contrast unpleasantly with 1^^- 
the last, when he was a reigning King. No doubt, in spite of all, 
te did see and feel a great difference, poor little man I but never- 
theless he thoroughly enjoyed himself, and was as delighted with 
the fireworks as any boy of his age could be. Luckily the 
eTening was fine, though the deluge of rain in the morning was 
dreadful, and upset all my grand arrangements. 

I had the great pleasure of presenting to the Maharajah, on the 
mormugof his birthday, a lakh of rupees' worth of his own jewels 
horn the Toshkhana which I had been empowered by Government 
to select and present to him. 

He appeared, therefore, dressed most splendidly ; wearing, 
besides other jewels, the diamond aigrette and star I had selected. 
When I congratulated him on his appearance, he innocently re- 
marked, that on his last birthday he had worn the Eoh-i-noor 
on bis arm ! 

The rain was so heavy, that to prevent the poor Banees getting 

drenched in their finery, I ordered the wall of the Palace to be 

broken through, to admit them direct from their apartments, 

instead of going round in the rain to the ordinary entrance. 

They all came early, very smartly got up, to present their nuzzurs 

to their little Sovereign, and to see and speak to him awhile, when 

offering their congratulations. I had purdahs put up to screen 

the Mahomedan ladies from observation ; but the Sikh Banees 

are not so particular, and were quite ready to chat with me. 

The little fellow gave himself up to enjoyment for the rest of 

the day, like a boy as he is. 

I shall be truly glad when it is settled what is to be the future 
destination of Duleep Singh. Sir Henry and Hansel both advise 
his being sent to England at once ; but Lord D. is not fond of 
suggestions, so we all wait for his decision. Sir Henry says 
that the Dhoon, with a large estate or Jagheer, might not be a 
bad thing. 


Chapter Either of these plans would suit me ; but if it is decided to send 
yil. him to some place in Central India, and to bring him up with no 
1849. other expectation than to be a mere pensioner, debauched and 
worthless Uke so many others, then I feel it is no work for me, 
and I'll wash my hands of the charge, take my furlough, and join 
you in England ; but all this is in wiser hands than mine, and I 
leave it there contentedly. 

October ^th, 1849. 


No particular news, except that Ghuttur Singh, Sbere Singh, 
and eight other chief Sirdars, have been added to my collection of 
curiosities in the Citadel. They have been suspected, on pretty 
good evidence, of holding communication with several disaffected 
chiefs who are still in hiding, and of having in this way broken 
through the agreement made with them, when they were allowed 
to return to their homes. Some of them are, I daresay, guilty, 
but against others there is little evidence. However, their arrest 
will be useful in putting down little intrigues which were going on, 
and which have required us to be on the alert. 

Shere Singh wishes to be thought (as indeed he is) a devil-may- 
care sort of fellow, and makes himself quite at home anywhere. 

His first request was for a pack of cards, and something good 
to eat and drink. 

Old Chuttur Singh I feel most for. I shall make them as 
comfortable as I can ; they affect to look upon it as a piece of 
rare good fortune to be sent to me. You see what a good name 
I have got for all sorts of virtues I Knowing me as you do, only 
think how people can be humbugged I I ought to be vain, if 
flattery could make me so, for I don't think anybody has had soch 
a pat of butter administered, as I have lately. Henry Lawrence 
gave me a letter he had received from Macleod, as he said you 
would be pleased to know what such a man said of your husband. 

LAHORE. 177 

It now lies before me, so I shall enclose it. I trust the effect on Chapter 
me will be to make me more humble, and strive to be what such VII. 
a man as Donald Macleod believes me to be already,* 1849. 

CiTADBL, Oct 2ith, 1849. 

There is a report going about since last mail that, much to the 
honour of *'our dear little Queen/' she has declined to accept the 
Koh-i-noor as a gift, xmder the circumstances in which it has been 
offered her ; indeed, I shall rejoice to hear that this is true, and I 
am sure that many of her subjects will rejoice with me. 

I think I told you that I had urged Henry Lawrence to propose 
to Lord Dalhousie that the Queen's subjects all over the Empire 
should be allowed to embrace the opportunity of showing their 
love and goodwill, by offering it to her. I feel certain that it 
would be easy to raise a sufficient sum to purchase it,t and it 
would have more value in her eyes, given her in this way by her 
people, as a token of their respect and honour, the money to be 
spent for the good and benefit of her new subjects here, by making 
the Punjab to bloom like a garden. This may easily be done, by 
giving employment to the 100,000 men who have been cast adrift, 
making roads, bridges, and canals, and establishing schools among 
them, and thus showing that we are above taking anything from 
them in a shabby way. 

This would be one way of converting the possession of the Koh- 
i-noor into a blessing instead of a curse, which the natives say it 

* Extract of a letter from Mr. — afterwards Sir Donald — ^Macleod to Sir Henry 
Lavrrence : — 

Dear Lawrence, 

It is tmly a happy thing that the young Maharajah has heen 
entrusted to one who wiU so favourably impress him in respect to the 
QprightneaB, benevolence, and inteUectual superiority of the European race. 

D. Macleod. 

f " Of course, it would be absurd to fix a price that would be near its intrinsic 
value, bat I think £200, (KK) would meet the purpose."— J. S. L. 


Chapter has been. But there ! I've no doubt you will say that, as usual, 

VII. my romance is running away with me. 

Lahore, Nov. 6th, 1849. 
.... My work is increased just now by the seizure of Shere 
Singh's papers, and those of others, and the inquiries and exami- 
nations of witnesses necessary to be made in consequence, which 
may yet lead to important results. 

I was present at a very interesting conversation the other day, 
between Ghuttur Singh and Shere Singh with John Lawrence and 
Herbert Edwardes.* 

* "In the autumn of 1849 .... in attendance on Mr. John Lawrence, who 
was conducting a political investigation, I had one or two very interesting inter- 
views with the Bajah in confinement ; and in the presence of Mr. Lawrence and 
Dr. Login, the Superintendent of the Palace, I took the opportunity of asking 
the Rajah his reasons for going over to the enemy. He replied, throwing up his 
hands, "My evil destiny i It all took place in one night. My mind was dis- 
tressed by the Sikh force being ordered away from Mooltan. More pressing letters 
than ever came in the very next day from my father, imploring me to join the 
movement ; and / wrote off to Moolrajyfor the first time, to say that I wovkl 
march to him next morning. " 

This is the Rajah's account of his own defection. Now let us have Moolraj k 

Moolraj's religious adviser and private secretary (his Jesuit, in short) was one 
Misr Kool^uss, a high caste Brahmin. This man's trial succeeded his mastcrV, 
and was conducted by me. Amongst other questions, I asked him how long 
Rajah Shere Singh had been in correspondence with Mooing before going over. 
He replied, "That the Rajah never wrote but one letter to the Dewan, all tl.t^ 
time he was at Mooltan, and that was the night before he canne over. We w* it 
astonished ; for, though we knew all the Rigah's soldiers were our frieutL^. wt 
believed the Rajah himself was our enemy. He had previously rejected all over- 
tures, punished all traitors in his camp, and fired upon our troops. When, tber\'- 
fore, all at once he proposed to join us, we suspected treachery, and wonhl not 
' admit him within the walls, but made him encamp under the guns of the U*n ; 
and up to the very day when he marched away again to join his father in Bazaruh. 
the Dcwan and the Rajah never came to a good understanding." 

The power of evidence cannot go further than this ; and impartial history is. in 
my opinion, bound to reconl this verdict : that Rigah Shere Singh Atareew&Il&h 
was opposed to the rebellion of Mooltan and the second Sikh war ; did what 
he could to stop them both ; but failing, sided with his family and nation. 

For my own part, I pity him for giving way at last, as much as I execrate his 
father for leading him astray.*' — From Sir Herbert Edwanles'e " Ytar im ti* 
Punjab" vol. ii., pp. 506-7. 


I had to take notes of all that was said, and shall have to give Chapter 
evidence on the subject when the Governor-General arrives. It VIL 
may possibly result in our settling accounts afresh with our Gash- 1849. 
mere friend, Goldb Singh. 

I shall not be surprised, if certain things are proved against 
him, to see him ordered to countermarch a little, and take up his 
position beyond the Indus, giving him Peshawur and Derajet in 
exchange for Cashmere. He is the sort of man to hold such a 
country, and save us a vast deal of trouble. 

Dr. McCosh is anxious to take daguerreotypes here, and begs 
to be allowed to come to-morrow to take likenesses of all the 
notabilities collected here, myself included among the number, he 
says ! I have told him he cannot take any of the prisoners. 

You would laugh if you saw me in the midst of my work trying 
to snatch a moment to write this. I have moonshees on one side» 
reading purwanas and roohookarees for my edification, old 
pensioners in front receiving their pay ; on the other side, Misr 
Makraj, the Treasurer, asking for and receiving my orders. We 
are all seated in the verandah of the Toshkhana. I must stop 
now, for I am told John Lawrence is in sight, bearing down upon 
me with papers in his hand. Something wanted to be done, no 

Lbtteb from Eobebt Adams. 

Citadel, Lahobe, Nov. 2nd, 1849. 
My dbab Cousik, 

Login will have told you that, through his kind oflSces vrith 
Sir H. Lavnrence, I am here on my way to join the Guide Corps 
at Peshawur, as second in conmiand. I scarcely regret that I have 
been detained here by illness a few days, as it has given me an 
opportunity of seeing all the multifarious wonders, animal and 
mineral, over which your worthy husband keeps guard within 

N 2 



Chapter the Citadel, and of telling you before I leave this, how well 
^^^ his really responsible duties have agreed with him. 

I must try and give you some idea of his daily work and of aU 
he has to look after, but as I shall start by ddk in an hour I have 
little time to do it. To give human nature precedence, there is 
first the httle Maharajah, the care of whose small person is his 
specific appointment. The little bit of Boyalty himself gives Uttle 
trpuble, and he seems much attached to Login, looks on him as 
his ** Ma-Bap," and won't even go out to side in the morning, 
or drive in the evening, unless he will go with him. But the 
establishments of the King, vast and entangled as they were, 
must have cost him no little trouble ; the cutting them down to 
due dimensions, the task of striking out the names of those who 
were entitled to no consideration, fixing the amount of the just 
claims of others, setthng the pensions of all whose services deserved 
to be recognized, and retaining those whose services were 
required, with the preparation of lists, reports, and descriptive 
rolls, must have been very harassing. But the Banees I How 
would you have felt if you had known that he was baaily 
employed Inspecting some hundred of queens and their female 
attendants, examining and noting down all the warts, moles, and 
freckles on their dingy countenances and fingers ? Coaxing the 
dark beauties to unveil their faces to his prying gaze, that be 
might the better write down their portraits, and fix the rates of 
their future allowances! What fascinations they must have 
employed to induce him to take a liberal view of their wants, and 
make the paltry twenty-five a clear half hundred. 

It is said, I know not vrith what truth, that the young and 
pretty Banees have little reason to complain ! I only hope the 
old and ugly have no grounds to bewail their scrimp allowances! 
Moolraj, another of the wild beasts of his menageiie, I was 
introduced to yesterday, and never was more disappointed in any 
man. Prepared to see a weak, attenuated frame, I did expect to 
see something of the hero visible on his face ; but not a bit ! h: 

LAHORE* 181 

looks an ordinary shrewd buniah with little energy* Certainly his Chaptolr 
was not the bold pluck to enter on a contest with the armies of VLI. 
British India, nor was his the endaring fortitude that held l"*^- 
Mooltan against us for so long ; he could only have been the tool 
in the hands of braver men. 

One cannot help being persuaded, when looking at him, that 
however just the sentence of death is on Moolraj as Dewan of 
MooUan, he personally is guiltless of the. blood of. Agnew and 

Login manages to make time to visit him daily, and chats with 
him, and it is only by his kind coaxing that he can be induced 
to take enough to keep body and soul together. Poor wretch! one 
cannot help feeling pity for him, and I am glad he has fallen into 
such kind hands. 

Chuttur Singh, Shere Singh, and ten others of less note, are in 
Login's custody at present, making thirteen State prisoners. 

Login is now hard at work with his staff of assistants, in getting 
the Toshkhana of kingly valuables into order against the coming 
of the Governor-General, which is expected about the 20th. 

I wish you could walk through that same ToAkhana and 

see its wonders ! the vast quantities of gold and silver, the jewels 

not to be valued, so many and so rich I the Eoh-i-noor, far 

beyond what I had ima^ned*; and, perhaps above all, the 

inmiense collection of magnificent Cashmere shawls, rooms 

fall of them, laid out oh shelves, and heaped up in bales — it is 

not to be described I And all this made over to /^tm, without any 

listf or public document of any sort, all put in his hands to set iu 

order, value, sell, &c.; that speaks volumes, does it not, for the 

character he bears with those whose good opinions are worth 

having? Few men, I fancy, would have been so implicitly trusted. 

He will come out of it all none the richer, but probably 

poorer, for his pay is not quite so much as he had at Lucknow. 

I hear he is constantly bothered by people coming to beg he will 

show them the jewels, &c., and he is too kind-hearted to refuse; 


Chapter but now he says he must fix one day in the week to let them 
VII. be exhibited, and thus secure peace on other days. My ddk \a 
1849. ready, I must stop * 

Your affectionate cousin, 

BoBSRT B. Adams. 

P.S. — The enclosed rough memorandum will amuse you.t 

* The writer of this letter, after having served in the Guides (as second in 
command), was made an Assistant-Commissioner by John Lawrence, and after- 
wards Deputy-Commissioner in Hazara. He was assassinated at Peahawur in 
1864, when Deputy-Commissioner of that city, being cut down by a fanatic as 
he was riding near the Cabnli Gate. 

f Memorandum of Memorabilia, under charge ol 

John Spencer Login, 

in the Citadel of Lahore, 

April 6th» 1849. 

The yoimg RuiiER of the Sikhs. 

The FahilIes of Bunjeet Singh and of all the successive Mahangahs of the 

Puigab, including thirty-three Ranees and 130 concubines. 
The Princes of the Abdalee family, rulers of Afghanistan and Cashmere. 

The Court SsiahlUhment of all the Lahore Mahangahs, including six sets 
of courtezans, natives of Cashmere, and five full bands of musicians 

The NawaB8 of Mooltau and their families. 

State Prisoners. 

Mooing, ex-Nazim of Mooltan. 
Rajah Chuttur Singh. 
Rajah Shere Singh. 
Rajah Lai Singh, 
and ten other men of note, including Hakim Rai and his two sons. 
The female attendants of Ranee Jinda, from Chunar, were added to this list. 
The keys and royal seals of the Motee Munden and of Govindghur (royal 

The Diamond (Koh-i-noor). 

The State jewels and treasures in gold, silveri and pi-ecioiu stones ; «)iabM» 
plates, cups, cooking pots, and gurrahs of gold and silver. 

The vast store of CJashmere shawls, cfiogcu, ko. 

LAHORE. 183 

Loom to his Wipe. vn ' 

CiTADBL, Nov. 22nd, 1849. 1®**' 

. . . • Still busy; I shall be glad when I can give a "good 
account of my stewardship." Not that I have any wish what- 
ever that by doing my work well here I may get something 
higher, but merely to satisfy my own conscience that I have done 
my duty. 

I have sent in my pension lists, and was not a little gratified at 
whatBnm told me. The Board sent them up to Government 
with high commendations, and drew attention to the fact (which 
1 did not particularly notice), that by exercising a soond discre- 
tion, and paying off the establishments promptly, with and 
without gratuities, I had saved a large sum to Government. Mr. 
P. Melvill, the new Secretary (who is much in Lord Dalhousie's 
confidence), told me that I am much too useful to part with just 
now, and that I am far more likely to be kept at Lahore by Lord 
Dalhousie, than to be sent away with the little boy. I only teU 
you this because you will be pleased to hear that I give satisfac- 

Bimjeet's golden chair of State ; his silver summer-house, gold and silver poled ; 

tents and camp-equipage of rich Cashmere ; arms and armour, very 

Shah Sooja's State pavilion, gorgeously embroidered. 
Eelics of the Prophet : his shoes, walking-stick, shirt, cap, and pyjamas ; his 

book of prayers in the Eufic character ; several locks of his hair. 

The Kulgee " plume " of the Ust GQra (Govind). 

The sword of the Persian hero Roostum, taken from Shah Sooja by Ru^jeet 

The sword of Wuzeer Fathie Khan, founder of the Baruksye family at Cabul 
and Candahar. 

The sword of Holkar (an old Spanish blade). 

The armour worn by the warriors and Sirdars of note, many of them stained 
with their blood. 

The wedding garment of Maha Singh ; 
besides these, many valuable curiosities and relics of all kinds, too numerous 
to note. 


Chapter tion. I have no desire for distinction ; I am much more anxious 
VIL «« to be content with such things as I have." 
^*^* I am now in my fortieth year, and have seen probably the 
largest half of my pilgrimage ; and while full of health ancl energy, 
would like to devote what remains of it to higher duties than this 
world's ambition ; but God knows what is in store for me, and 
will make all work together for my good, if I only seek Him 

I saw Lady Lawrence yesterday ; she looks better than she has 
done for years. I shall not feel at all surprised if Henry makes 
up his mind to go home and settle down on his £700 a year, and 
bring up his boys. He is harassed and worried a good deal, and 
can't take disappointments easily. 

If he does go, what do you say to my following his example, 
and living in his neighbourhood ? Lady L. and you get on quite 
as well as Sir Henrv and I. We often talk over this idea when 
he gets depressed over his work. 

Lady L. seems much pleased with the composition of the civil 
staff in the Punjab, and hopes great things from them. I still 
expect to see Tucker here, and then with Montgomery, Donald 
Macleod, and Edgworth we shall be excellently well set up with 
Commissioners, whom it would be a real pleasure to work with. 

This is certainly a noble country in climate and productions, far 
beyond any other part of our dominions in Hindostan. The hot 
weather is certainly trying, but the cold weather more than 
makes up for it, and it is dehghtful to see the rosy cheeks of the 
children now. 

I have a large party of officials coming to inspect arrange- 
ments, and must break off. My ideas on the subject of retirement 
are as strong as ever, and I shall not be easily tempted to give 
them up ; it appears to me to be a duty I owe to my children. It 
all resolves itself into contentment with the means we possess. 

I have promised the Maharajah to take him to see the races 

LAHORE. 185 

We have just returned, and I confess that in spite of my telling Chapter 
your brother Charles I hoped he would lose the race -*o make VII. 
him give up racing — as soon as I saw his and your clan tartan ^^^^ 
(Campbell) on his jockey, I could not help wishing it suitcess. 
Duleep Singh was much excited about Charles's horses, and was 
delighted when he won a good race. The General (Gilbert) rode 
his own horse and won his own cup, and was vastly pleased about 
it ; he came up to the carriage after the race and had a long talk 
with me. I try to make the Maharajah imderstand the difference 
between enjoying a race for the sport's sake, and enjoying it for 
the purpose of betting and gambling, but as he has few amuse- 
ments now, I don't hke to refuse him a httle pleasure, and he is 
delighted to come. I am very anxious to get in my lists, and 
statements, and accounts of public property before the Governor- 
General arrives, and thus grudge every moment that is not given 
to my work. I think what I have done will show him that I am 
not idle, and that he has got an industrious and honest man here 
in charge, and one whom as a pubUc servant he must respect. 

The fellows under me work very hard, seeing that I do not 
spare myself. I have now got orders as to where all the State 
prisoners are to be sent, and who are to be let off, and I am 
making private arrangements to carry this out, and enquiring 
among their families as to whom they would like best to have 
with them. Poor wretches ! they are to be pitied after all. I 
rather think if I had been a Sikh I should have been out in the 
'i^/ But still we must take care of ourselves, and not let them 
loose at present. 

Sir Charles Napier is coming next week, and I shall have httle 
peace while he and the Governor-General remain, as I shall have 
to show them all the lions of the Punjab, and answer such heaps 
of questions. The pat of butter from Lord D., which I told you 
of, has been as satisfactory to the Lawrences as it has been to 

It is amusing, going the rounds of the guards, as sometimes I 


Chapter do, to hear the different titles they give me, the {avoorite one is 
VII. Killah-ki-Mahk Bahadoor. The little Maharajah has been to 
1849. pia^y ^ my garden ; he is really a fine boy, and I know you would 
like him much. 

I am having his place of residence put in thorough order before 
the Governor-General sees it, and I think when he does see the 
home the boy has had, he could never have it in his heart to send 
him to a shabby one. 

I am told it is not unlikely that the old Begum Sumroo's palace 
near Meerut (Sirdanah) may be fixed upon. 

I am writing this at four a.m. I cannot for the life of me sleep 
more than five hours, but these I do well, and I am in perfect 

I have just had another addition to my responsibilities, in the 
shape of sixteen women, the Banee Jinda's attendants, whom 
she left behind when she escaped from Chunar ; I must try and 
distribute them among the other Ehaneem. They are mostly 
hill women, and much better looking than the others here. 

Sir C. Napier writes me to show him the litters first, before 


anything else, so I must get them ready 

In the little garden in front of the marble hall, on a handsome 
marble platform, I have erected a silver summer-house, 16 feet 
square, made some years ago for Bunjeet Singh in Cashmeie. 
It is really beautiful work, and it will look perfectly lovely and 
unique, the more so from the excellent site and background I 
have chosen for it. Standing in the marble hall the effect is 
enchanting, with its background of orange trees in full bearing, 
the dark-green foliage, and the sparkling fountains. 

I intend to have a party of children down on Saturday to 
have a little play with the Maharajah, and to eat fruit in it. 
By showing it off in this way, I have some hope that the 
Grovernor-General will make it over to the young Maharajah, 
or, if he will not consent to this, at least allow him to make 
a present of it to the young Prince of Wales, along with some 

LAHORE. 187 

of his handsome Sikh armour and dresses, there bemg some of a Chapter 

splendid description made for himself, and only suitable for a VII. 

young boy. I do not know how the Governor-General may 1849. 

take the suggestion, so I shall say nothing until I see Elliot 
on the subject. 

.Octavius Anson is still with me. I like him very much. A fine, 
gentlemanly, right-minded man. I am glad of the opportimity 
of knowing him, as well as you did his poor young wife. He 
seems to like me also. At this moment he is writing to his 
cousin, Lady Bosebery, to ask her to invite you out to Dalmeny, 
near Edinburgh, for change of air after your illness. He says 
he is sure you would like her, that she is a very pleasant 

At the races this morning the little Maharajah was quite 
excited. Some wag had entered a horse under the name of 
''Dr. Login," which caused much amusement! I could not 
wait till the race was ended, as I had an appointment, but 
the boy was delighted that he was a winner of some small 

Herbert Edwardes announces the approach of the 

Eeswbnct, Lahobe, Nov. 27^^, 1849. 
Mt deab Login, 

WiU you render Fagan any assistance in you power to 
water the roads on which the Governor-General will enter 
to-morrow ? You might spare a party of men for the purpose. 
He is expected at eight a.m. John Lawrence and the Sirdars go 
out about seven a.m. to meet him, and your company is requested, 
but, of course, not your ward's. Please join us on the Parade. 

Yours sincerely, 

Herbert Edwaboes. 


Chapter The followinfi: letter from Loe^n to his wife was 
vn . ... 

1849 ^^i*t®^ under sadder* auspices, he having just received 

the news of the death of his brother James : — 

Lahore, Nov. 26th, 1849. 

You will be little prepared for the sad intelligence I have to 
send you, of the sudden death of my poor dear brother, James ; 
it occurred at Dinapore, on the 13th, from cholera, after 
twelve hours' illness. He had come down from Khatmandoo 
in high health, to pass his examination at Calcutta, and was 

suddenly struck down on his way back, at Dinapore For 

the last two days I have not had a moment's leisiire, preparing for 
the coming of the Governor-General, who arrived this morning. 
If, under the circumstances, I could derive much pleasure from 
any worldly praise, I have heui sufficient to satisfy me. 

I was introduced by John Lawrence to Lord Dalhousie with 
much warmth of commendation. His lordship said that, "he 
had heard on all sides how much satisfaction I had given in 
discharging my duties, which were of no ordinary delicacy, and 
that I had acquitted myself well," He said he wished to have a 
long conversation with me, and appointed twelve to-day. 

I have just returned from him (two p.m.). He told me that, 
after much consideration, it had been determined to remove the 
little Maharajah to Futtehghur, and that he wished much that I 
should continue in charge of him there on my present edlowance^, 
and do all that I could to make him comfortable and happy. 

He said '' it had been quite a relief to the Government, and to 
him, to have me in charge of the Maharajah, and that the way I 
had done my duty towards the Maharajah, and the GovemnQeiii, 
was in every way satisfactory to both." He was really very kind 
and cordial indeed ; told me that he did not wish to restrict me 
to Futtehghur, but that I might take him to Agra or Delhi, or 
any of the neighbouring places, whenever I liked, and eventuti !\' 

LAHORE, 189 

to England in course of a year or two. I then had an opportunity Chapter 
of giving him my ideas regarding the advantages of sending some VII. 
young Sikh nobles to England, and showing them something of 1849, 
our power and resources. And then what came next ? Poor 
Dryburgh was to have been appointed this day to the charge of 
the Nepalese Mission to England 1 I told Lord Dalhousie what 
had occurred, and he was much shocked, and sympathized with 
me most cordially. 

P.S. — ^Lord Dalhousie also approves of an estate for the 
Maharajah after a few years. 

Citadel, Lahore, Dec. 7th, 1849. 

After Lord Dalhousie had inspected all my work in the Citadel, 
and had witnessed how happy the young Maharajah was with 
me, he said that he did not compliment me, but congratulated me, 
most heartily, on the success with which I had performed a most 
delicate and difficult duty, and that I had effected far more than 
could have been expected from any one. He then thanked me, and 
shook hands with me warmly. 

That very night, however, as if to show me the emptiness of 
human praise, and perhaps to bring down any little pride I may 
have felt in showing all my work to the Governor-Oeneral, 
at midnight my Toshkhana was robbed, and property to the 
amount of 20,000 rupees carried off (this out of some 
thirteen or fourteen lakhs was not very much) ; but in 
what way was greater loss prevented? Why, by the 
providential circumstance of the place catching fire acci- 
dentally, by the light brought in by the thieves I Had this 
not occurred and caused the discovery, I should have been ruined ! 
Lnmediately on the fire being discovered I was called, broke 
open the door and got the fire out, which had done little damage, 
and found that a breach had been made in the wall, by which the 
thieves had entered. This, with sentries all around, was rather 


Chapter strange. What if it should turn out that it was with their 
^11* connivance, and that the European sentry then on duty had a 
1849. hanfl i^ jt *f Can any foresight provide against that ? 

The native sentry, it is true, is posted in the same court, but he 
is not exactly in the same position, and the European can 
easily manage to keep him at a distance, when he wishes to 
do so. 

On the discovery being made, I promptly sent orders to all the 
gates not to let a soul pass out without a written pass from me ; 
put all the sentries on the alert ; and commenced a strict search 
all round (it had occurred before one in the morning) in case the 
thieves might still be in hiding ; got the Eotwal and his people 
from the city, and the assistant-magistrates, to set to work, offer- 
ing a reward of 1,000 rupees, diminishing by one hundred daily 
until the property was discovered. 

I also shut up every person in the Citadel in their respective 
quarters, placing sentries to prevent communications, until our 
search was made. Nothing was found until five p.m. on Sunday, 
when a box was brought in which had contained a pistol, and 
bore my Toshkhana mark. This had been detected under some 
rubbish near the European Artillery Barracks. I may mention 
that the Barracks had been searched, but not satisfactorily ; and 
the officer commanding (Money, you remember him at Lucknow) 
had thrown obstacles in the way, for which he has been well 
** wigged.'* 

This, with the circumstance that some lucifer matehes were 
found near the breach in the wall, gave me a clue to further 
discovery, and the result has been, that I have recovered already 
eight-tenths of the articles stolen (chiefly gold vessels), and I hope 
to get the remainder before very long. They have all been dug up 
in the Uttle houses adjoining, and in the loose earth at the road- 

I felt certain that the property must still be within the walls, 
as such prompt action had been taken, and there was no time to 

LAHORE. 191 

carry them off; I kept a strict watch and search at all the Chapter 
gates. VII. 

It unfortunately happened, however, that the Governor-General l^^- 
had fixed to return in State* the Maharajah's visit, and to pass 
n at the gate in procession, and through the Citadel; therefore, 
I had to take measures to prevent any of the Citadel people 
getting out when Lord Dalhousie's party left, or from carrying 
off any property under the jules of the howdahs, in the crowd. 
My measures were crowned with success. I shut up every 
avenue leading to the main street, which the troops were to line, 
an hour before the procession came, gave orders to confine all 
camp-followers to their quarters, and prevented the people in 
the Citadel from joining in the procession, telling them to see as 
mnch as they conld from the house-tops. Well, all went off 
splendidly. The orderly arrangement and the appearance of my 
Durbar was greatly admired; and on accompanying the 
Governor-General to his tent, he expressed again his acknow- 
ledgments, and assured me that, seeing all my arrangements 
were so perfect, no blame could possibly attach to me, 

* Copij of Official NotificcUion of Oovtrncr-OtneraV i Visit. 

On Monday, at four o'clock, the Governor-General will proceed in State, and under 
a salute of twenty-one guns from the artillery in the camp, to return the visit of 
the Maharajah Duleep Singh. The members of the Board, all the secretaries and 
the personal staff will be in attendance. 

Some one on the part of the Maharajah will come to the Governor-General's 
camp, for iHigbal — probably Maharajah Shere Singh's son- 

The Maharajah with his Governor will come out of the fort on an elephant to 
receive and conduct the Governor-General. 

The Governor-General and his party will sit on the right, and that of the 
Maharajah on the left. 

The Governor-General will present.a serwana of 5,000 rupees, as usual After a 
few minutes' conversation, fifty -one trays of articles, with seven horses and one 
elephant with gold howdah, should be presented by the Maharajah, and also 
the usual trays to all the secretaries and aide-de-camps in attendance. 

Uitur will then be served, and the Governor-General will. take leave. 

The Maharajah will conduct His Lordship as far as the place where His Lord- 
!ihip wUl mount his elephant. 

A salate of twenty-one guns to be fired in the fort on the arrival and depar- 
ture of the Govomor-GeneraL 


Chapt I had not then recovered any of the missmg articles, bat felt 

V1I» assured in my own mmd that I should have them before long. 
1849. gg Q^,^ ^yg^ highly of all the steps I had taken, and of the 
reward offei jd. I dined with Lord Dalhousie that evening, and 
attended Lady Dalhousie's reception afterwards. At the con- 
clusion, Lord Dalhousie took me into his private tent for an hour 
to talk over matters. He told me that if he mentioned the 
affair of the robbery to the Court of Directors, it would only be 
with the intention of showing them the debt of gratitude owing 
to me for my wonderful arrangements, which had prevented any 
greater loss than this, which was a mere trifle to what it might 
have been. I asked him to bestow some mark of his approval 
on my great helper and assistant, Misr Makraj, the old State 
Treasurer, as being in my behef an honest man. He has made 
him a noble of the land, and I feel more pleased than if I had got 
honours myself I 

8ir Charles Napier has been very kind indeed, and claimed 
me as an old acquaintance. His daughter, Mrs. McMurdo, has 
been sketching up at my quarters several times with Mrs. Colin 
McKenzie. She managed to take a sketch of the young boy 

I have been with Lord Dalhousie again all this morning, 
taking his instructions regarding the boy, to whom he has taken 
a great fancy, and I am now expecting him here at the Toshkhana. 
as he is coming up quietly for a private view, and again to-morrow 

Since writing the former part of this letter, I have had the 
good fortune to recover more of the stolen property — indeed I 
may say all — and besides I have secured the very men concemeit 
in the robbery, one of them having come to me and voluntarily 
confessed it. They are European artillerymen, I am sorry and 
ashamed to say. Four of them are in custody, and a woman 
connected with the affair is by this time arrested in Ferozepore. 
There will be no difficulty in bringing it home to them, the 
evidence we have is so complete. 

I LAHOBE. 193 

When the Governor-General met me, after he heard of my ('hapter 
success, he clapped me on the back and congratulated me most ^^1« 
heartily 1 (Certainly there is a great deal of cordiality about l®^^. 

When I was with Dnleep Singh at the Garden File given to the 
soldiers by Lawrence, the boy's fancy was much taken by some 
Highlanders in full dress. Lord Dalhousie said, ** Login, tell him 
they are my countrymen." 

I was much amused at his admiration of the way I had turned 
out the Maharajah's equipage ; he declares he has '' seen nothing 
so smart out of England." After all, it is only the old carriage 
with the box taken off, and made to sit gracefully on its springs ; 
he said, ** Why don't you take Lawrence's turn-out in hand I " 

I have taken the Governor-General to visit Moolraj, also Ghuttur 
Singh and Shere Singh, afterwards he came in to call on Duleep, 
in a friendly way. 

I get little time to myself, as he comes again at four p.m., and I 

have to dine with him again ; however, he has told me to bring 

this letter with me to go in his bag, otherwise it will be too late. 

He is writing by this mail to the Queen, an account of his visit to 

the Maharajah, and how pleased he is with everything. Mrs. 

John Lawrence is sending home her children under Herbert 

Edwardes's charge ; mind you go to see them, that I may give her 

your report. Tell me if you think Edwardes like your brother 



So much romance being attached to the famous 
Koh-i-noor, of which Login had charge at this time, 
some account of it here may be of interest. The 
following extract is from the ''Life of Lord Lawrence'' : — 

Shortly before the decree of annexation went forth, Lord 
Dalhousie had written to Henry Lawrence to make every 



Chapter dispoBition for the safe custody of the State jewels, which were 
Vn. about to fall mto the lap of the English. In a letter dated April 
1849. 27th, on the subject of the Maharanee, who had just escaped from 
our hands, he remarks, " This incident three months ago would 
have been inconvenient, now it does not so much signify, at the 
same time it is discreditable, and I have been annoyed by the 
occurrence^ As guardians seem so little to be trusted, I hope you 
have taken proper precautions in providing full security for the 
jewels and Crown property at Lahore, whose removal would be 
a more serious affair than that of the Maharanee." It had, in 
fact, been found more than once on the enrolment of some new 
province in our Empire, which, whether by cession, by lapse, or 
forcible annexation was growing, or about to grow, so rapidly, that 
the State jewels or money had had a knack of disappearing; it is 
amusing to read the expressions of virtuous indignation which 
bubble over from our officers at the extravagance or rapacity or 
carelessness of the former owners, when, on entering a palace which 
they deemed would be stocked with valuables ready for English 
use, they found that the treasury was empty and the jewels were 
gone. Great care was therefore needful, especially as among the 
Punjab jewels was the matchless Koh-i-noor, the " mountain of 
light," which it was intended should be expressly surrendered by 
the young Maharajah to the English Queen. 

The origin of this peerless jewel is lost in the mists of antiquity. 
It had fallen into the hands of the early Turkish invaders oi 
India, and from them it had passed to the Moguls. '* My son 
Humayoun," says the illustrious Baber, one of the most lovable 
of all Eastern monarchs, *' has won a jewel from the Baja, -which 
is valued at half the daily expenses of the whole world." 

A century or two later the Persian conqueror. Nadir Sbah, 
seeing it glitter in the turban of Saber's conquered descendant, 
exclaimed with rough and somewhat costly humour, ••'We \\:J 
be friends, let us change turbans in pledge of friendship/* ar^ 
the exchange of course took place. 

LAHORE. 195 

The Afghan conqueror, Ahmed Shah, wrested it in his turn Chaivter 
from the feeble hand of Nadir Shah's successor, and so it came VII. 
into the possession of Shah Sooja, who was by turn the pen- 1849. 
sioner and the puppet of the English, and the miserable pretext 
of the first disastrous Afghan war. Half prisoner and half guest 
of Bunjeet Singh, he had, of course, been relieved by the one-eyed, 
money-loving Sikh of the responsibility of keeping such a valuable 
treasure. Bunjeet, listening on his death-bed to the sugges- 
tions of a wily Brahmin, had been half disposed, like many other 
death-bed penitents, to make his peace with the other world 
by sending the beautiful jewel to adorn the idol of Juggernaut ; 
but fate reserved it for the ultimate possession of the English 

To this we may add the following statement, 
obtained by Lo^n at the request of Lord Dalhousie : — 

Statement of Misb Makbaj, 

Treasurer to HM. the Maharajah Duleep Singh 

(for upwards of thirty-two years employed in the Toshkhana at 
Lahore), with regard to the Koh-i-noor, from the time that it 

came into BunjeeVs possession. 

Shah Sooja-Ool-Moo]k, at the time the Koh-i-noor was taken 
from him by Bunjeet Singh, was in confinement with his family 
in the house of tke Dewan Lukput Bai, near the Shah Alum 
G*ie, or Putree Durwaza. The Maharajah sent to him Dewan 
Motee Bam, Fakeer Azizoodeen, and others, to demand the 
j^wel from him, and he sent by their hands a large pookraj 
(topaz) of a yellow colour, which the Shah stated to be the 
Koh-i-noor. On this being shown to the Maharajah, who was 
then in the Snmmun, he sent for jewellers to ascertain whether 
this were the Koh-i-noor or not ; and on being told by them it 

O 2 


Chapter was not the Koh-i-noor, he kept the topaz, but Bent immediate 
V1J» orders to place the Shah under restraint (tungai), and to prevent 
lo49. j^jj^ £j.Qjjj eating or drinking until the Koh-i-noor demanded was 
given up, as he had attempted to impose upon the Maharajah 
by sending a topaz instead. After this restraint had been con- 
tinued about eight hours, the Shah gave up the Koh-i-noor to 
the Vakeels above named, who immediately brought it to the 
Maharajah in the Summun, where it was shown to the jewellers 
who had remained with the Maharajah at the palace until the 
return of the Vakeels. The Maharajah had dressed for the 
evening Durbar, and was seated in his chair, when the jewel was 
brought to him. It was brought in a box lined with crimson 
velvet, into which it had been fitted, and was presented to 
the Maharajah, who expressed great satisfaction. 

It was at that time set alone (singly) in an enamelled setting, 
with strings to be worn as an armlet. He placed it on his 
arm, and admired it, then, after a time, replaced in its box, 
which, with the topaz, he made over to Belee Bam, to be 
placed in the Toshkhana, under the charge of Misr Bostee 
Eam Toshkhanea. The Toshkhana being then in the Motee 
Bazaar, at the house of Bamsaker Gurwai (now Lai Singh's 
Toshkhana), who placed it in a chest there. After a little 
while it was taken by the Maharajah to Amritsur under chargie 
of Belee Bam, along with other articles of the Toshkhana, 
and carried along with the Maharajah, wherever he went, under 
a strong guard. 

It was always carried in a large camel trunk, placed on the 
leading camel (but this was knovni only to the people of the 
Toshkhana). The whole string of camels, which generally 
consisted of about one hundred, being well guarded by troops. 
In camp, this box was placed between two others alike, cloee 
to the pole of the tent, Misr Belee Bam's bed very close to it. 
none but his relatives and confidential servants having acee^ 
to the place. 

LAHOR£. 197 

For four or five years it was worn as an armlet, then fitted Chapter 
up as a sirpish for the turban, with a diamond drop of a ^IL 
tolah weight (now in the Toshkhana) attached to it. It was 1^9. 
worn in this manner for about a year, on three or four occasions, 
when it was again made up as an armlet, with a diamond on each 
side, 08 at present. It has now been used as an armlet for 
upwards of twenty years. 

Shah Sooja remained at Lahore after this for ten months 
or a year, and then made his escape with his family, taking 
the guard with him. The £oh-i-noor remained under the charge 
of Belee Bam, as above stated. 

Shortly before the death of Bunjeet Singh, Eajah Dhyan 
Singh, Wuzeer, sent for Belee Bam, and stated that the 
Maharajah had expressed, by signs, that he wished the Koh-i- 
noor to be given away in charity (the Maharajah being then 
speechless). Misr Belee Bam objected, saying, that '' it 
was only fit to be possessed by a king I and to whom could it 
be given in charity?" Bajah Dhyan Singh said "to the 
Brahmins at Juggernaut." But Belee Bam objected to this, 
stating that it ought to remain with the Maharajah's descen- 
dants, and that already twenty-one lakhs of rupees, and jewels, 
and gold, &c., had been given away to the Brahmins. He thus ex- 
posed himself to the greatest emnity on the part of Bajah Dhyan 
Singh, and after the accession of Maharajah Khurruck Singh, and 
the assassination of Cheyt Singh, Bajah Dhyan Singh obtained 
ancontroUed power, and threw Misr Belee Bam into prison, 
where he was kept for four months, the keys of the Toshkhana 
having been handed over to Tej Chund. 

However, on the accession of Maharajah Shere Singh, Misr 
Belee Bam was once again called into office^ and continued 
during his reign. 

On the day after Shere Singh's death, Belee Bam was seized 
by Heera Singh's people and sent to the house of Nawab Sheik 
Imamoodeen, by whom he was disposed of in the Tykhana 


Ohftpter (underground room) of his house, along with his brother, Bam 
Vll« Kissen, and Bhaee Goormukee Singh. 

1849* At the time of Belee Ram's seizure the keys of the Tosh- 
khana and of the jewels were with his nephew, Gunesh Doss, 
who was with his uncle, and from him the keys were taken by 
Bajah Lai Singh, who, at the same time, put him inconfinement, 
along with six others of Belee Bam's family, including Misr 
Makraj,* but still making them perform their duties in the Tosh- 
khana, though the keys were given to Bowanee Doss and Eurmm 

On the death of Heera Singh they were released, and after the 
removal of Lai Singh ^from power, the charge of the Toshkhana 
and Eoh-i*noor again came into the hands of Misr Makraj» 
with whom it has continued without intermission until made oyer 
to the undersigned on 6th May, 1849| when taken possession of 
by the British Government. 

(Signed) J. 8. Login. 

The Koh-i-noor was brought from the old Tosh- 
khana by Dr. Login, and placed with the other 
valuables in the Citadel, under guard. 

The old treasurer, Misr Makraj, gave him every 
assistance, and said ** the relief to his mind was great 
at being free of responsibility." He said that the 
Koh-i-noor had been the cause of so many deaths, 
having been fatal to so many of his own family, that 
he never expected to be spared ! 

♦ Belee Barn's jroungiT brother. 

LAHOBB. 199 

Login foUowed the advice given him by Misr Chapter 
Makraj — ^when showing the jewel to visitors, to keep it .Q.g 
in his oum hand, with the ribbon cords that tied it as 
an armlet twisted round his fingers. It was still 
set, as before described, as an armlet, with a diamond 
on each side of the Koh-i-noor as a contrast of size. 



Chapter That the removal of the young ex-King from the 
lAftn P^^j^'^ ^^s contemplated with no little anxiety by 
the Government at Calcutta ; that most elaborate pre- 
cautions were taken to prevent his abduction on the 
road ; and that the protection of a very strong escort 
of troops was deemed necessary to guard against sur- 
prise, will appear from the following official de- 
spatches : — 

From Sib Henry Elliot, K.C.B., Skcretaby, to the 
Government of India, with the Governor-General; to the 
Board of Administration for the affairs of the Punjab. 

{Dated) Camp Bullokhee, Dec. 11th, 1849. 

The Govemor-General has from the first considered it essen- 
tial that Maharajah Dnleep Singh should not continue to reside 
in the Punjab after its annexation to the British Empire. 

2. The lateness of the season in April last, and His Lordship's 
unwillingness to expose him to the fatigue of a long journey in 
the hot weather, induced the Governor-General to defer his re- 
moval until the end of the year. 


3. The Governor-General having had an opportunity of show- Chapter 
ing all due respect and courtesy to His Highness at Lahore, con- VIII. 
ceives that his departure should no longer be delayed. 1850. 

4. Preparations for this purpose have already been made. A 
residence has been provided for the Maharajah at Euttehghur, 
befitting his rank and station. 

5. The troops which were to escort the Maharajah have been 
provided. A squadron of the Body Guard will arrive at Lahore 
in a few days, and two companies of Her Majesty's 18th Eegi- 
ment are waiting there also. 

6. The Governor-General lately requested His Excellency the 
Commander-m-Chief to give orders for the escort of a regiment 
of native infantry being added to the troops ahready mentioned. 
AppUcation should be made to the Major-General commanding in 
the Punjab for the further arrangements of this escort. His 
Excellency's intentions having no doubt been communicated to 

7. The Governor-General, I am further directed to state, is 
entirely satisfied with the past services of Dr. Login, in the position 
he has occupied towards the Maharajah. His Lordship thinks 
that nothing better could be desired by the Government, and 
nothing could be more advantageous to the future comfort and 
Ixappiness of the boy, than that Dr. Login should continue for 
the present to have charge of him and of all his affairs. 

H. The Governor-General begs that the full approbation of the 
C government for his past services may be conveyed to Dr. Login, 
and His Lordship's confidence that in the future discharge of his 
•iuties he will continue to merit the praise of the Govemmenti 
AT.d ^vill confer lasting and real benefit on the young Maharajah. 

9. Or. Login will continue to draw a consohdated salary of 
1 .200 rupees a month. It is not just that the whole of this salary 
should be defrayed by the Government, and His Lordship considers 
m fair division should be made, and that one-half should be 



Chapter paid by the British Government, the other half defrayed from the 
VIII. annual income of His Highness. 

10. Dr. Login will have entire authority over His Highness's 
household during his boyhood. He will be placed under the direct 
control of the Governor-General, after leaving the jurisdiction of 
the Board of Administration in the Punjab. Monthly diaries or 
reports should be made by him to the Secretary to the Government 
of India in this department, and copies of his accounts should be 
rendered quarterly in the same department. 

11. Doctor Login will, as soon as practicable after his arrival, 
report on the precautions to be taken for His Highness's security' 
in the event — which His Lordship thinks an improbable one — of 
any design being entertained for carrying him off ; and be will 
suggest such measures as he may consider necessary. Care most 
be taken to guard against any intrigues on the part of his mother, 
the Maharanee, who is now residing under guard at Ehatmandoo, 
and who has refused to return to the British territories, but whose 
avowed intention is to regain possession of her son, the 

12. The Governor-General conceives it to be desiraUe to 
remove at the same time from the Punjab the child who is, it is 
believed, the only legitimate son of the Maharajah Shere Singh. 
He can, for the present, occupy the same residence m the 
Maharajah, under such regulations as may be thought right. 
He should b^ treated as a companion of the Maharajah, but as in 
all respects his inferior. 

13. In both cases a very careful selection should be made of 
the attendants who are to accompany them. In the case of the 
child, especially, there can be no reason for taking almoet an% 
servant from Lahore,* and both should be prevented from having 

^ In an official letter to Secretary to Government, dated February 6th, 155»\ 
Login says, that owing to the Shahzadah's tender ago (sir and a half ymr%), at. t 

In forwarding a copy of the above to Dr. Login, 
Major H. P. Bum, Deputy Secretary to the Punjab 
Board of Administration, after some remarks on the 
earlier portion of it, adds by direction of the Board 


No man of doubtful character should be permitted to accom- 
pany the camp. You should keep, he says, two or three trusty 
persons at all times with the Maharajsdi in addition to the armed 
guard. Care should be taken against his being inveigled away at 
night, quite as much as against armed violence. The Board have 
much pleasure in being the medium of conveying to you the 
present handsome tribute of the approbation of the Government, 
ia which they cordially join. 

he suddenness of the order for hia removal, he had thought it advisahle, to pre- 
TDt any appearance of undue harshness, to permit the mother to accompany the 
hild, in the hope that afterwards, "when the hoy could dispense with female 
tt«ndance • . • • she might more easily be induced to leave him " in Dr. Login's 
are, and retom to her own family at Kangra. In thus departing from his 
rjstnictioDS li0 acted with the approval of Sir H« Lawrence. 



any one about them, except such persons as Dr. Login may Chapter 
consider from hia experience to be worthy of trust. ^i^* 

14. The Governor-General finally requests that a report may 
be forwarded of the arrangements made by the Board in 
pursuance of the foregoing instructionSi and of the servants, 

property, &g to be taken, after the departure of the 


I have, &c,f 
H. M. Ellioi^, Sec. to the Government of India, 


Chapter Frcm, Mmob H. P. Bubn, Dejputy Secretary to the Boabd of Ad- 
VIII. MiNisTBATiON, to J. S. LoGiN, Ebq., M.D., Agent to the 

1860. Govebnob-General, in charge of the Ex-Mahabajah ; b^ 

direction of Sir H. M. Lawrence , K,C,B,, President, 

Lahobe, Dec. 21st, 1849 — 7 a.m. 

1. I am directed by the Board to call upon you for a reply 

to my letter of the 14th Inst detailing the arrangements 

you propose to make for the safety of Maharajah Duleep Singh 
during the march to Euttehghur, and forwarding a list of servants 
and estabUshment accompanying the camp. 

2. The Board cannot too strongly impress on you the necessity 
of the utmost watchfulness. The strong escort will prevent all 
chance of open rescue; your chief care should, therefore, be 
against secret abstraction, especially at night. 

3. Major-General Sir Walter Gilbert has been requested to 
inform the officer commanding the escort that you, as Agent of 
the Governor- General, are responsible for the Maharajah, and 
that therefore your instructions are to be attended to. This, of 

course, merely refers to guards, hours of marching, &c and 

will not in any way interfere with the authority of the command- 
ing officer, in the event of the troops being called on to act. Cor- 
diality and free intercourse with the military will, of course, be 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

H. P. BuBNy Major. 

P.S. — 4. Since this letter was written, the President has wit- 
nessed your departure at nine a.m., although the hour of seven 
was fixed. He was surprised to perceive that you were only 
accompanied by twenty of the Body Guard, without an officer. 


5. The Board wish to impress on your mind that your chief Chapter 
^ger is an attempt at rescue on the road, on which account you ^^^* 
ahonld be accompanied on the march by at least one hundred horse- ^^^^* 
men, and a portion of the infantry should be ready to receive you 
on the new ground, and one company or so should leave the old 
encampment, so as to be fallen in with by the Maharajcji's party 
about midway of the march. It is not the attack of an army 
that you have to guard against, but of a hundred or more despe- 
radoes ready to sell their lives. 

6. Lights should be kept in the Maharajah's tent, and a double 
sentry at each door. The Europeans should be saved as much as 
possible during the day, and employed at night. 

H. P. BuBN, Major. 

From Majob H. P. Bxtbm, &c., &c., to Db. Login, &c., &c., 


Lahobb, Dec. 23ri, 1849. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 22nd inst., No. 2, and to inform you that the Board 
consider your arrangements judicious and proper. The plan of 
European orderlies is very good. Your explanation regarding the 
absence of the European officer when leaving Lahore, is satis- 
factory as far as he is concerned, but the Board would observe 
that the whole of the Body Guard, excepting those required with 
their baggage, should march with the Maharajah. 

2. The Board desire me to repeat the expression of their sense 
of the value of your services while employed under them, and 
trust implicitly to your continued attention and good manage- 
ment, for the safety and comfort of the Maharajah on his march 
to Fattehghur. 


Chapter S. Copy of a circular to the Commissioners of Ferozepore, 
Yin. Loodiana, and Umballa is heremth enclosed for your information ; 
1850. Qj^g^ 2Aqo of one to the magistrates of Saharonpore, Mozoffer- 
nuggur, Bolundshuhur, and Furruckabad. 

4. You are requested to briefly post progress daily until you 
cross the Jumna, and then weekly until arrival at Futtebghur. 

I have the honour, &c,, 

H. P. BxjBN, Major. 

The circular referred to requires the above-named 
Commissioners to " attend the camp of Maharajah 
Duleep Singh through their juiisdiction, instruct 
their police to be alert, and themselves take such 
measures as will ensure the comfort and safety of the 
Maharajah and party. Every respect was to be paid 
the Maharajah by all holding intercourse with him, but 
visits and public ceremonies are not to be permitted. 
Salutes of courtesy are (also) not required." The 
magistrates are informed of the approach of the camp 
of the ex-King, and desired to "attend to all the 
requisitions of Dr. Login, and in every way exert them- 
selves for the comfort and safety of the Maharajah." 

Login s own letters to his wife at home, wUl best 
describe the last days at Lahore, the incidents of the 
march, and the daily life and surroundings of the young 
Prince and his nephew, in their new home at 


Jan. 2nd, 1850. Chapter 


• ... It was a great relief to me to get away from Lahore, iu^a 

After Macgregor (who took over charge from me) had given me a 

receipt for the bodies of Moolraj, Chuttur Singh, Shere Singh, and 

Co., it occurred to me that it wonld be a bit of a curiosity in after 

<^ys, if I could get them all to sign their names together on a 

single document as a souvenir. So I drew up a Bazeenama in 

Persian, which they all signed in duplicate with great readiness. 

This gives me a spare copy to give away, as well as one to keep. 

I shall deposit it along with the receipt for the Koh-i-noor, 

which was written by Lord Dalhousie himself, in the presence of 

Sir H, Elliot, Sir H. Lawrence, Mansel, and John Lawrence, 

and countersigned by them all. They also affixed their seals, as 

well as my own, to the State jewels, when I delivered them over. 

This document will be worth keeping I think, and something 

for my children to look at when I am gone. 

On my birthday the Maharajah sent me as his present, a large 

chesnut Arab, a fine powerful animal ; it was much admired by 

everybody. Of course I could not refuse his gift, and shall ride 

him occasionally on the march, paying for his keep myself from 

that day ; but he is, and shall remain, the property of the Uttle 

man to all intents and purposes. I have written Major Scott, 

to ask him to let me have his boy Tommy as companion for the 

Maharajah, and to be educated with him when I can get a good 

tutor sent out from England. I have asked Henry Lawrence to 

consult Dr. Duff when he arrives at Lahore as to the best way to 

set about getting one ; he is sure to be able to help us, as he 

;,'oes to England shortly; in the meantime I must find someone to 

carry on the boy a bit, to fit him for a good tutor. I must not 

forget to tell you that, before leaving, I made over the " Blessieres " 

to Sir C. Napier, after having had him trotted up and down in one ! 

They are to be tried in headquarter's camp, and must sink or swim 

now. Sir Charles is in great admiration of them himself, and he 

is no bad judge. I assisted him at an interesting interview he 


Chapter had with Shere Smgh and his father. Sir Charles questioned 
VUL them closely on various matters, particularly the battles of 
Gujerat and Chillianwallah, and the reasons for this and that 
movement. Not being a military man, I proposed making over 
the office of interpreter to the Commander-in-Chief's interpreter ; 
but he made rather a poor show at the work, so I had to go at it 
a^ain, and was complimented on my success. I am considered a 
good hand at understanding ''these Punjabis;" their dialect is 
a little strange to men unaccustomed to it. 

It is rather amusing to me, to have to receive regular militar}' 
reports from the officers with the escort, with a salute "Any 
change in the guard, sir?" "Have you any fresh orders, sir? '* 
How you would laugh at my demure face I but all the same, we 
have to be very wide awake during the march, as it is well known 
that there are designs on foot to carry off the boy. I think, how- 
ever, that I shall foil them ; at least, if they succeed, it won't be for 
want of vigilance on my part 

Sehabunpoob, Jan. 20t^, 1850. 

.... Just returned from the public gardens here, where I 
took the boy : he has a great love for plants and seeds of all kinds 
for his garden, and I like to encourage the taste. Mr. Kane has 
promised him a good gardener, and some waggon-loads of plants 
and shrubs ; they are to start at once. We have also been to visit 
the Government stud. I am rather thinking of getting a pair 
of strong grey wheelers from here, for the Maharajah's carriage ; 
but people admire it so much as it is, with the four grey Arabs, 
and think it perfect, that t hesitate. I think they are too light ; 
but there is no question of their beauty. We look very amart 
when we are in our show dress at the different stations, with t.Kifc 
smart equipage, escorted by the Governor-General's Body Quard 
and Skinner's '* Canaries." 

We are near Deobund to-day, where we lost my poor Hinghan. 


I don't find this sort of life good for my pocket, though very Chapter 
pleasant. As, of course, the Maharajah's table is quite distinct VUI. 
from mine, I have to entertain constantly ; we have the escort 1®*^. 
officers, of course, and many guests as we go through the stations. 
I have also to provide for young Barlow, and soon I shall have 
Tommy Scott, and a tutor ; and this I shall continue to do till you 
arrive, when we shall take up our abode (as I told Lord Dalhousie) 
in a separate house from the Maharajah. I can then establish a 
separate table for the others, which can be kept up at the Maha- 
rajah's expense. So do come out as soon as you can. 

Mbbbxjt, Jan, 2%th, 1850. (On the road to Futtehghur,) 

Since we crossed the Jumna our escort has been reduced a 

little by the withdrawal of the Horse Artillery guns, but we still 

have — 

A squadron of the Body Guard, 

Wing of 6th Light Cavalry, 

Squadron of Skinner's Horse, 

Party of 18th European Infantry, 

Wing of 50th Native Infantry. 

So we still form rather an imposing camp. We shall pass 
through no other station now till we reach our destination. 

Just received my English box. Am so pleased with the 

iikenesses. The Maharajah is so charmed with the childr^i's, and 

hopes you are to bring them out with you I He is much delighted 

with all the fine things you have sent him, and has begun 

his painting already. I have been purchasing some furniture 

here, and sending it on under Bhugwan Doss's charge; he is very 

anxions to make a good appearance at Futtehghur, as the first of 

the Maharajah's servants to arrive, so I have sent him to the 

Toshkhana to be rigged out smartly. 

February l^th. I met, while at Meerut, Walter Guise, a 
younger brother of Dr. Guise, and he is now travelling with us. 



Chapter I want to try him as tutor tor the young Maharajah for a time, to 

YUI. prepare him for b. better, when I can hear of one. I have written 

1850. ijq England to enquire for a suitable man. I think Guise will be 

able to do all that can be done for the present. Scott writes me 

to say that he will send Tommy as soon as we are all settled. 

The Ganges Canal is not very far from our camp; it is a noble 
work, and I trust if all is well with us, to be able to accept 
Thomason's invitation and go with him to see it opened. It is 
the greatest of our works in India, and any one may be proud of 
having had a hand in it. Tom's whole heart is in the work. He 
now sees that he is better off than any lieutenant in the army as 
to pay and prospects, and thanks me for making him fit himself 
for the position. 
The Maharajah attracts great attention and curiosity among 
. the people at every station, and is much admired ; he certainly 
does look handsome, and rides gracefully. I took him to see the 
the Artillery Beview at Meerut, and he was a great attraction. 
On leaving the ground, a soldierly-looking Field Officer of the 
Boyal Irish rode for some time near the carriage, seeming anxious 
to have a good look at the boy. So I spoke to him, saying how 
much the Maharajah had enjoyed the review. He asked if he 
had the pleasure of speaking to Dr. Login, and then told me that 
he had met you at AUahabEid last year, on your way home ¥nth 
the children. He asked after you all most kindly (as Col. Grattan 
he iiitr<^duced himself). Sir Joseph and Lady ThackweU also 
asked after you. 

Camp, Feb, Ibth, 1850. 

I expect, if all goes well with us, to reach Futtehghur in two or 
three days, and I shall be able to describe to you your future 
home. Your last letters were truly delightful and cheering aa to 
your health. I shall be so miserably disappointed if Ranald 
Martin forbids your returning to me in October. I do so need 
you to assist me. I am anxious to give this young Maharajah 


(and Shahzadah) a fayonrable impression of us as Christians, in Chapter 
our domestic state, and to make him acquire respect for the eha- Vlil. 
racfcer of an English lady. His opinion of them may after- 1«"0.. 
wards haye weight amongst his countrymen, and dispose them to 
think better of onr ladies than they do. Unless yon are with 
me it will be impossible for me to give him any idea of what we 
are in our families ; and we have so few opportunities such as I 
may now have, that I should be exceedingly sorry to lose it. There 
is much in our social habits which, to say the least, must appear 
eqmyocal to any native, and which requires a knowledge of us in 
onr domestic circle, to understand. Just think what their ideas 
of ladies dancing the polka and drinking healths must be, if they 
had no opportunity of knowing them better and acquiring re- 
spect for them 1 So you see, dearest, you have a mission to per- 
form — ^to establish the character of your countrywomen, and to 
acquire respect for them, of which they have little yet, I am 
afraid. Mrs. George Lawrence has certainly done much in this 
way — ^it was quite pleasing to hear her spoken of by the Sikh chiefs ; 
but you may have much more in your power. 

I suppose I must have told you all about the young Shahzadah, 
Duleep's nephew, who was placed under my charge at the last 
moment by the Governor-General, in addition. He would pro- 
bably be looked upon as next in succession, being the only son of 
Share Singh, the last Maharajah. Sheo Deo's mother has elected 
to accompany her son, and is now in our camp. Sh^ is the 
youngest wife of Shere Singh, selected from among the 
Eajpootnees of the hill country after he came to the throne, so 
you may judge if she is not likely to be handsome. I cannot 
describe her to you, as I have not yet bad the pleasure of seeing 
her I 

FUTTBHOHUR, Feb, 91st, 

I am much pleased with the sittuition of the house selected. 
It must have been a very delectable residence in Mr. Shore's 

P 2 


Chapter time (Lord Teignmouth's son), though the grounds are not large 
^^ni. enough for the Maharajah ; but I shall remedy that by buying up 
looO, i)jQ neighbouring bungalows and their compounds, and, throwing 
them all into one, make it like a small park, extending along the 
banks of the Ganges. The drawing-room window is within fifty 
yards of the fine broad stream, with a sloping bank down to it. 
I have not seen in India more undulating grounds or more capable 
of being made picturesque — ^walks in all directions, and some fine 
shady trees, and I shall set about making a beautiful garden ; 
but it looks forlorn and neglected, having been so long empty. 
I must do my best to get it soon to look bright and cheerful, I 
am afraid, however, that we shall have to live among bricks and 
mortar for a long time, until I can get it to look what I wish it to 
be, and what I shall not feel is unsuited for the Maharajah, who 
has lost his own splendid home through no fault of his own. 

The residents here are Allen (Judge), Smith Cunninghame 
(Collector), you remember him at Lucknow; Baikes (Deputy- 
Collector) ; Col. Alexander (6un-Carriage Agency) ; Tucker 
(Clothing Department) ; Padre Carshore, Doctor Gerrard, Hal- 
kett Craigie, Doran, John Bean — all of these are married except 
the last two. 

PuTTBHOHUB, March 6th, 1850. 

I was disappointed at having to leave Lahore before Dr. I>ufir^ 
arrival, after having had so much to do these last few years in 
urging him to take up the Punjab. He was much pleased at my 
sending him my subscription, as it showed him I was in earnest. 

.... A number of the Punjabi servants are to return to 
their homes soon, and I am trying hard to fill their places ^with 
respectable, steady men. I am getting over some few of our old 
people from Lucknow who can be depended on, but I have 
refused a great many who might not be exactly the sort to Ik- 
placed near the young boy. Bhugwan Doss I have got, al:^' 


Gulzar Syed (our Ghajib-khana boy), Davee (Sirdar-bearer), and Chapter 
his brother Nidhan, and good Ehalipha All Bax is coming from VIII. 
the Ghaiib-khana, to be placed in responsible change, and then I ^^M* 
can feel I have a man I can trust. 

Hotspur, the chestnut Arab, carries me well, and deserves to be 

named after your favourite. I am out a great deal in the sun, 

looking after the works, but as I have got into the frontier 

fashion of wearing a large muslin pttggarree round my helmet 

topee, I scarcely feel its power. Do you remember Hollings's 

coachman ? You used to wonder how he kept his turban on, he 

wore it so on the slant and looked so rakish. Well, I have 

niade him coachman of the two mule teams of four-in-hand. 

They are splendid jet-black creatures, very large and handsome. 

The fellow breaks them in splendidly, and they go like the wind 1 

I wish I could make a sketch of them for you, with Hassan Beg 

standing up on the box, holding the reins, and laying on with his 

long whip, his turban clapped on one ear — looking like a very 

fiend with his long beard flying ! I have told him that you will 

never bear the sight of him unless he wears his turban straight, 

and it amuses the two little fellows, Duleep and Sheo Deo, to 

watch his efforts to get it to remain straight. I think his head 

must be a queer shape, for though he starts with it quite straight, 

he always comes back with it in the old position I 

The two lads are very happy together. They had scarcely 
ever seen each other before, and were rather awkward at first, the 
nephew standing in awe of the uncle. They are looking forward 
to the arrival of Tommy Scott, who is expected with his mother 

I shall be glad when you join me, for I cannot expect to have 
more than two or three years in which we can influence the 
young Maharajah's mind favourably towards our domestic life, 
and I must not lose them on any account. He will have an 
opportunity of seeing how we Hve in our homes, and he will be 
one of us, and will look upon you as a mother, and respect and 


Chaptor esteem you. Is it not worth ruiming some risk to health, by 
vili- coming back so soon, when it is to occupy a position of so much 
^^^^' usefulness, towards one who may yet influence so many thousands 
of people ? You can have no idea of the interest shown in him by 
the natives everywhere. Then there is the little Shahzadah, and 
the Banee, his mother, for you to interest yourself in, and occupy 
your time and thoughts. So come away as soon as you feel able, 
and help me, for I need you sorely. You may turn all your 
excellent quaUties to good account here. Thomason wrote me 
the other day, saying that you would now be more than ever a 
helpmeet for me. I was so pleased with the Maharajah on the 
occasion of the grand day of the Hoolie Festival. He showed 
such self-denial and self-restraint in not exhibitiug any desire to 
participate in the undignified and, indeed, objectionable frolics of 
the people, that I arranged something more harmless for hixn in 
the evening, to his great enjoyment and delight. The large 
centre rooms are splendid places for hide-and-seek, blind-man's 
buff, &c. All these games are new to him and the Shahzadah. 
Imagine the scene I The ruler of the Sikhs, the young Shahzadah, 
Sirdar Boor Singh Butaliwallah, Dewan Ajoodea Pershad, 
Fakeer Zehoorudin, Mr. Guise, Mr. Barlow, and myself, all 
engaged in the game. The Maharajah's shouts of glee ringing all 
over the place as each was caught in turn. I was glad indeed 
that you sent him that book of games, '' The Boy's Own Sook." 
It is seldom out of his hand, and it has added to his eagerness to 
learn English. I am prepared to find it the book of all others he 
prefers to study ! 

PuTTBHOHUE, April 21st^ 1860. 

The Governor-General passes through the boundary end ol my 
postal division in a few days, and I have sent a tent out lo 
Kanoge to be ready for me on the 24th, as I wish particnlariv lo 
see him, to ask leave to go to Calcutta to meet yoa« He tmy 


refuse, as he is 80 anxious I should always be on the spot with Chapter 
the Maharajah, in case of any plot ; but I hope I may be able to ^IH. 
persuade him that it will be safe. Allen, the Commissioner, has 18*^- 
promised to look after him carefully in my absence. I wish I 
could give the little fellow a taste for learning — in fact, for study 
of any sort ; but you see he has not been trained to do anything 
of that kind, and it is so difficult to get him to apply his mind for 
even five minutes at a time. Poor Guise has a lively time of 
it, and needs great patience— a virtue he certainly possesses in a 
high degree — and for this reason he is invaluable as a first tutor, 
to coax the boy over the drudgery a little. No man of high 
attainments could be expected to begin at the beginning; and 
such a small beginning too 1 

May Uth, 

I think I told you that I resisted the blandishments of the 
young officers here, and refused to transform the party I had 
issued invitations for, at the Maharajah's house, into a 
ball as they vnshed. I told both Doran and Bean that 
I would not have dancing, but that the arrangements should 
be as elastic and pleasant as could be managed. D. turned 

sulky, and would not come, and silly Mrs. took the same 

course; but her husband had more sense, and approved of my 
reasons. I did my very best to make the Maharajah's first party 
a success ; but I did wish you were here to help me. It went off 
well, and everybody declared it far exceeded their expectations — 
and they had been high — for the station was in great excitement 
about it I The fireworks were splendid ; one feature of them was 
much admired. I called the Ganges to my aid, and had the 
Maharajah's little yacht rigged out with bamboos to represent a 
ship, yards, mast-heads, and ropes all illuminated. She moved 
up and dovm the river gracefully, and had such a pretty effect 
that it delighted everybody. I took some wrinkles from our old 


Chapter Lucknow illuminations, which were so efifective on the Goomtee. 
VIII. I had all the European children of the station — ten in number— 
1860. present, as well as all the grown-ups. I gave this first party to 
celebrate the birthday of the Shahzadah, May 14th, he is four- 
teen days younger than Edwy. The Maharajah was grievously 
disappointed at not getting a letter from you ; he is quite eager 
to keep up a correspondence with you. 

FuTTBHGHUB, May IQth^ 1850. 

Since last writing I have seen the Governor-General, who was 
most friendly, and expressed himself highly satisfied with all I 
had done. He opened his mind very freely, particularly about 
the late transactions in Oude, and the difficulties in which they 
had placed him. He seems much annoyed at what has occurred, 
and which certainly appears to have been brought on most incon- 
siderately. Both Sleeman and Bird stand very low in his books 
at present, and I should not be surprised to hear of some changes 
there. I am very grieved about it all myself. 

All that has been done in the Punjab has delighted him 
greatly during this first year. Again and again he expressed his 
pleasure with it, and John Lawrence stands prime favourite. 
He is not so fond of dear old Henry, as we all know ; bat he 
could not help acknowledging his admiration of his character. 
I have spoken strongly about getting a good tutor looked out for 
in England, for the boy ; but I see that he thinks it would not be 
prudent to get Dr. Duff to recommend one, as it might be mis- 
represented, and people might think it was with the intention oi 
making the lad a Christian, so I must do it through another 
channel. I am sorry Eobert Adams must go home for his health. 
He has been ill, but I think that now he has shown what he is 
worth, there will be no difficulty in his getting a good berth ^c-hen 
he comes back, though I am sorry he has to throw up the Guides. 
Lawrence tells me that Lumsden thinks highly of him, and 


regrets losing him ; so we need not repent bringing him into Chapter 
notice. I see that the newspapers are full of expectation of VUL 
getting the Lahore State property as prize money, and they pro- ^oov. 
pose the Queen's native subjects should purchase the Eoh-i-noor, 
and present it to Her. My idea in another form 1 But I don't 
like it so well as mine. They do not go as far as I do, for they 
do not propose to lay out the money in the improvement of the 
country from whence the Koh-i-noor came. However, Lord Dal- 
hoasie does not like the idea, and would not thank me for origi- 
nating it. He told me that Her Majesty was most anxious to 
see the jewels, and that it was all stuff about Her refusal to accept 

If you see Dr. Duff in Edinburgh, you can explain to him that 
Lord Dalhousie is afraid if he were asked to recommend a tutor 
that it might imply an interference with the boy's religious faith ; 
I trust, however, that God helping us, we shall be enabled, as 
" written epistles," to manifest the spirituality and benevolence 
of a Christian life, if we cannot otherwise preach to him. He is 
a strange Httle fellow, and shows an intelligence at times beyond 
his years. Observing that Guise, Barlow, Tommy Scott, and 
I have morning and evening prayer together, he asked me 
to order his porohut (priest) to come to him also at a fixed hour 
daily to read in his holy book (the Grunt'h). This I think indi- 
cates a devotional feeling, that may hereafter be directed aright ; 
indeed, he shows a strong desire to walk according to the Hght 
which God has given him, and a wish to know His will. 

FuTTEHGHUB, May 19th, 1850. 

With regard to expenses, I told you it is not good for my 
pocket to live as I do ; but having such complete control over the 
Maharajah's estabUshment and expenditure, my first study 
appears to me, to be most scrupulous on the subject of my 
personal expenses, and to set a good example to others. I there- 


Chapter fore keep my own establishment quite separate from the 
YIIL Maharajah's, and intend to continue to do so. At present my 
looU. personal staff of servants cost me fifty rupees per mensem, and I 
have my own separate table and bedroom furniture, bedroom 
candles, &c, I bought Henry Lawrence's horse, and this I 
also keep myself, as well as the chesnut Arab (cost 2,000 rupees) 
which the boy sent me on my birthday, and which, for the sake of 
appearances and courtesy, I could not return ; yet I pay for 
his keep and syce myself. 

The truth is, I am in a position that I must and will show, that 
I am above personal paltry considerations in my anxiety to do 
justice to my charge. So long as I am most careful not to expend 
money of his on my own personal comforts, or those of my family, 
I feel very independent indeed, and can carry matters with a 
high hand. I trust I shall be able to show the Maharajah aud 
his people, in after years, that they have been no losers by falling 
into the hands of a Christian gentleman, and that I have done no 
discredit to the name. 

I have, it is true, all the pleasure which I could desire, from the 
expenditure of the Maharajah's money, quite as much as if 
it were my own. So much has been left to my discretion in 
the way of applying it. After putting his house and grounds 
in order, I intend to get up a school for the children all round 
Futtehghur, in which he can take an interest, and also find other 
w^ays to give him a taste for benefiting the poor, and making 
the people round him happy.* I think it is only by acting ii^ 
this way, and avoiding all thought of self, that I can prove myself 
at all worthy of the confidence placed in me. 
I always forgot to tell you that I sold your Arab, Sultan (or 

** Within the last three months we have started a day-acbool for giris •>( 
re8])ectable caste, as an experiment. The Rev. Gopee Kath Kundy's walooa ai.'i 
exemplary wife and daughter superintend it (vernacular and industrial). I Kx k 
for great results eventually. 


nther John Lawrence did for me), to Brigadier Wheeler for his Chapter 

daughter for 800 rupees. He was a lovely creature, but was too VIII. 

light for my weight. ^*50. 


Yea win probably meet Herbert Edwardes at Clifton, and 

renew your acquaintance with him. You will find that he has 

turned out exactly what you would expect — viz., a clever and 

intelligent man, as little elevated with the honours and attention 

that have been shown him, as it is possible for a young man to be. 

He has a great leaning towards that which will enable him to 

bear worldly honours well, and to count them at their true value. 

As he becomes more confirmed in his Christian course, he will 

lose all the little natural haughtiness of manner which some 

people attribute to him ; I am certain it is only natural to him, 

and not put on. I only wish we had many " Herbert Edwardeses " 


Mrs. Scott brought her son Tom herself, and we are all greatly 
pleased vnih the lad. I think he will be of great use as a 
companion for the Maharajah. 

Dnleep Singh was greatly delighted to receive the 
subjoined from Sir Henry Lawrence, who with his 
native kindhness of heart, although immersed in work, 
took the trouble himself to write it carefully in large 
text-hand, on lines, in the hope that the boy would be 
able to read it without assistance. 

Lahore, Feb. 2Sth, 1860. 
Mt Deab Mahabajah, 

I am glad to hear that you are Khoosh, I hope you like 
your house and grounds, and that *' Gunga Jee " is as near as I 



Chapter told you. I very often think of you; I hope you read and 
VIIL write every day. Wishing you health and all happiness, 

Believe me, your sincere friend, 


This was the first of several from Sir Henry ; Mr. 
John Lawrence also wrote him several times^ evincing 
a warm interest in him. 

In another letter from Futtehghur, July 16th, 1850, 
Login says : — 

• • • . The Maharajah was so pleased to get Edwy's * letter in 
reply to his ; he had heen quite impatient for its arrival. I 
forgot to tell you that I was told by the Governor-General that 
the hint I had thrown out last year, when at Lahore, of the 
Maharajah sending a present to the Prince of Wales, might now 
be acted upon. So I shall pick out something suitable from 
amongst his boyish arms and armour, though I could have had a 
better choice then. (You will remember that I made the sug- 
gestion about the silver summer-house at the same time I) I 
have been making inquiries about a wife for my little boy. He 
says I am his ** Ma-Bap," and he trusts to me to do what may be 
necessary for his happiness. He will have nothing to do, he 
says, with Shere Singh's sister, to whom he was betrothed, so I 
am left quite at liberty to choose for him. I have heard of a 
little daughter of the Eajah of Coorg, at Benares. She is being 
educated like an English child, and her father has asked, and 
obtained permission, to take her to England to have her education 
completed. She is only eight years of age, described as fair and 
good-looking, and also intelligent, with decided marks of good 
blood and lineage about her. The father is not yet aware of my 
inquiries. My informant is Major Stewart, the Govemor-Generai's 

* Login's eldest boy. 


Agent at Benares, who says that altogether he does not think my Chapter 
joung protegS could anywhere get a more soitable wife ! When VIII. 
I have heard from Macgregor and others who know her, I shall ^°^* 
send on my information to Lord Dalhousie privately. Possibly 
matters may be so far arranged by the time you come out, that 
yon may see her as the Maharajah's fiancee as you pass through 
Benares. There will be four years between their ages nearly. I 
have an idea, however, that young Duleep would prefer some one 
nearer his own age, and I may have some difficulty in the matter. 
I am glad to tell you that I have been fortunate enough to engage 
a good EngUsh manservant for the Maharajah, to take charge of 
the stables and the camp-equipage; he is to drive the Maharajah's 
four-in>hand. Thornton is a particularly nice-looking, respectable 
Qian. He came out to India as servant to an officer in one of our 
cavalry regiments, and does not wish to go back vnth him. His 
master speaks highly of him, says he has had charge of his small 
facing stud, and is an honest man. He thoroughly imderstands 
horses, and I trust he will do credit to the Maharajah's establish- 
ment. He came over from Cawnpore to see me, and I have 
engaged him on 150 rupees per mensem ; good wages,^ no doubt ; 
but if he is all they say he is, he is worth it. He is married, and 
his wife is said to be a thoroughly respectable Englishwoman. 

I have just been looking at my account at the Cawnpore Bank, 
and find it rather low. I have had rather unusual expenses since 
you left — ^I mean more than I calculated on. Besides paying 
my necessary subscriptions to the Funds (Bengal Military and 
Orphan), which, as you know, are specially heavy in my case, I 
have had to pay, for instance, — 


Dr. Duffs Mission to Punjab 500 

Brian Hodgson's children (left destitute) 250 

Poor Fagan (when cashiered) 260 

Dr. Atkinson (to save him from dismissal) 500 

liahore Mission ... ... 100 

Church at Lahore .., ... ... •., ••# ••• 150 


Chapter Of coarse, this is besides our variotis subscriptionB as nsaal, 
VIII. such as — 
^°^' The Lawrence Asylum, 

The Free Church Mission, 
The C. M. Society. 

I do not grudge this ; nor will you, I know. I only tell you, that 
you may know all we have to count on. I think it is incumbent on 
us to show that we are no seekers after gain; that it is for 
our national honour, as well as our Christian name, that the little 
Maharajah and his numerous dependents should have rather 
a high standard of honesty and uprightness placed before them, 
from which to form their ideas of the character of their Christian 
rulers ; and that it therefore becomes the more necessary that we 
should exert the utmost vigilance, to avoid the smallest imputa- 
tion of avariciousness from being attached to us. For my own 
part, I would rather prefer that, at the coming of age of the little 
boy, I should make over all his fortune to him, with the conscious* 
ness that I kad fulfilled my stewardship, and was myself a poorer 
man than when I received the charge, than that I should have, in 
the very least degree, advanced my own fortune at his expense. 

But why proceed with this digression ? 

I have had a letter from poor A., to whom, you may 
recollect, I advanced 300 rupees some time ago. He is in sad 
distress. He accepted a bill for 1,000 rupees to save his poor 
brother &om jail, and now is unable to meet it, and asks me, 
with the fear of Sir Oharles Napier and a court-martial before his 
eyes, to lend him 500 rupees. I must help him, though I shall be 
in difficulties by it for a time ; but, for my dear friend Patents 
sake, I shall do what I can. A. is a strange fellow, rather 
foolish, but I believe of good principles, and kind-hearted. I 
feel sorry indeed that I cannot engage the tutor, so highly recom- 
mended by Dr. Duff. I comfort myself for the loss. 

by the knowledge that my charge is not yet quite ready for a 
highly-qualified, tutor,, and one who could only speak English 


to him. He manages to read a little English fairly well, and Chapter 
nnderstands it, but is afraid to begin to speak it ; but I trust Vill. 
he will soon get over that. He is really intelligent, and can 1^^* 
learn his lessons fast enough when he likes, but he has no power 
of application. The wonder is that we get him to do as much as 
he does, considering his former position, and the absence of any 
restraint. I am really fond of him, and we get on famously ; but 
I need to be very firm with him. The other day he became 
rather rebellious, and I had my first difficulty with him. He had 
run out during heavy rain into the garden, and got thoroughly 
(irenched. I wished him to change his clothes, but he first, in 
pUiy, said he would do so at the regular hour for dressing ; and 
when I urged him to change at once, he got stubborn : so it 
became in a small way a trial of will. Who is to yield? 

I gave him half an hour to go to his own room and do it of him- 
self without being obliged ; but he still held out. So I told him 
I very much regretted that he forced me to employ coercion, but 
that I must be obeyed, and I advised him as a friend ^ot to make 
it necessary that I should expose him to it. Poor little fellow 1 
I was so sorry for him I In a few minutes he came himself to 
my room and sobbed at a great rate, and appealed to the Treaty I 
that he was to be allowed to do as he Uked I I told him I did not 
think that was one of the conditions ; that I was placed over him, 
and that at present I was his '* Ma-Bap," and knew what was 
best for him. I think that had you seen us, you would have been 
satisfied that I could come the " suaviter in modo " as well as 
"fortiter in re." I conquered — and from the way I did so, I 
saved his pride, and prevented any annoyance being felt by him - 
as regards exposure before his people, and now we are even 
greater friends than before. Walter Guise is a very good fellow, 
rather slow perhaps, and not altogether the man who would suit 
later on ; but he is very amiable, patient, and attentive, of mild 
manners, and gentlemanly appearance and demeanour, and has, 
I think, been more useful in winning the boy round to apply him- 


Chapter self to study than a more accomplished tutor would have been. I 

^11- should like to find him employment hereafter in charge of the 

looO. Maharajah's zemindaree, when he gets one. I am sure he is a 

most trustworthy man. The English manservant, Thornton, will, 

I think, prove a valuable acquisition. 

I see by the papers that the Koh-i-noor has arrived in England, 
and that Mackeson, not Eamsay, gets all the credit of having 
brought it safely. This will not be exactly as Lord Dalhousie 
wished, as he was rather anxious on that score ; but no doubt the 
Court of Directors had their own ideas about it. I was one of 
the very few entrusted with the secret of its disposal. Indeed, 
they could not have got access to it without my knowledge, seeing 
that it never left my possession from the day I received it in 
charge I I may tell you now that it is safe, that Lord Dalhousie 
came to my quarters before he left Lahore, bringing with him a 
small bag, made by Lady Dalhousie to hold it ; and after I had 
formally made it over to him, he went into my room and fastened 
it round his waist, under his clothes, in my presence. Lord 
Dalhousie himself wrote out the formal receipt for the jewel, and 
there my responsibility ended, and I felt it a great load taken off 
me! All the members of the Board of Administration were 
present, and countersigned the dociunent. The other jewels were 
also sealed up and made over. 

Thus Eunjeet Singh's famous Toshkhana of jewels is a thing 
of the past ! 

Gawnpore, July 27th, 1850. 

I am here on my way back to Futtehghur, after a flying visit 
to Lucknow, and hope to get back to-morrow. 

July 2Sth, — Here I am, finishing my letter in the ddk buxiga- 
low. I came out from Cawnpore by water, in a pretty pleasare- 
boat I am going to buy for the Maharajah's use. I could not 
help being reminded of our little trips in the pinnace in '48 when 



you were so ill. I left the boat at the Magazine QhAt, and came Chapter 
on in one of Thuntee Mull's carriages, for which horses had been Vni. 
laid for two stages ; there I found my own palanqnin with a double 1^50. 
set of bearers, ready to take me on here, forty-five miles, and well 
they did it I think in twelve hours I I shall start this evening, 
when it is cool, for Futtehghur, and in the meantime try to 
give you a full account of my visit to old Lucknow, while it is 
&U fresh in my memory. When I reached the Gh&t, to cross the 
river, I met Mr. Brandon, who accompanied me, giving me an 
account of all that has been done since I left. All as bad as can 
be, between the Palace and the Eesidency, and, by all accounts, 
not much to our credit. On getting near the Ghar-Bagh and 
passing through the city, I recognized all the old places we knew 
so well, and not a few familiar faces. They all recognized me, 
and by the time I reached the Residency I had quite a tail ! 
There the whole Post-office establishment turned out, and after 
hearty greetings and salaams, I drove on towards the canton- 
ments, where I was bound, to visit Lamb, taking a good look at 
OUT dear old home in the Eesidency as I passed. Your dressing- 
room windows seen from the Bailey Guard gate, the portico, the 
drawing-room, all that was visible from the road. Moonshee 
Purshad Naraim was not at the Post-office, but hearing of my 
nsit, he lost sight of his dignity and tore after me a couple of 
iniles along the cantonment road ! The tigers on each side of 
Mohsumoodowlah's gates were a familiar sight, but I cared httle 
for anything till I caught sight of our old home (in cantonments) — 
the place not so well kept as it was. 

Next day I went over all the rooms — drawing-room, your little 
green dressing-room and bedroom. I had your face before me 
as you lay so calmly and resignedly awaiting God's will, and 
there seemed so little earthly hope 1 

The little arbour outside, the dovecot, everything I looked upon 
" forbade me to forget." After visiting one or two of our old 
haunts, I started with Lamb for the city ; could not see much of 



Chapter our house, as Mrs. Bell is laid up. Sadoo, the old carpenter, the 
VIII, blacksmith, and many others patiently waiting to see me ; indeed 
looO*. J ^g^g gQQjj surrouuded by old servants, all asking for you and 
Edwy Baba. Padre Hamilton was out, but I saw Mrs. H. 
The Derogah, Ahmed Ali, and Azimoollah's son were waiting for 
me. I told you, I think, that when at Lahore, I had a letter from 
Liicknow, telling me of my old friend Azimoollah's death ; he had 
written me only a few days before, asking my advice whether he 
should accept an appointment offered him by the King. I 
advised him ** No," that he had plenty already of this world's goods, 
and should now take rest and time to think of and prepare for 
the fate that must befall all men ; that I wished him to compare 
what is written in his own holy books with what our Bible says 
(I had given him one), and ask God to give him light to understand 
and do His vnll. His son tells me that he declined the King's 
offer on getting my letter, and that he died very suddenly soon 
after, good, kind old man ! To resume. In the afternoon 
Nawab Mohsumoodowlah's carriage came to fetch me, as I had 
promised to go to his garden house (half way to the city). Here I 
found quite a posse of royalties and nobles waiting to meet me, 
with my host — Monowroodowlah, Momtazoodowlah, the Prime 
Minister, and others vdth too long names to write, all evidently 
very much pleased to see me again! Next morning, Na^ab 
Ameenoodowlah's carriage came for me to come to his Palace. 
On the way, just opposite the large tree at our gate (in canton- 
ments), I found a crowd of people (native friends) all waiting for 
a mcolaqtuit ; among others Nanuck Chind, the banker, and Ram 
Churn. I had to halt for a while, and afterwards all followed me 
in a long procession through the city, much to my discomfort ! 
but there was no getting out of it without hurting their feelings. 
Arrived at the Minister's, he met me, and was most kind and 
civil. The Begum and our daughter making all sorts of inquiries 
after you and your boy ; the Minister over and over repeating. 
that he owed his life to me, and (what he seemed most grateful 
for) the power of using his rifle arm again in shikar. He had a 



\ splendid breakfast prepared for me, and we (for Lamb was with Chapter 
' me] did ample justice to it after our long drive. The carriage Vni. 

was placed at my disposal for the day — not the famous white 1®^* 

liorses with the red tails I — and I found, waiting beside it, Mr. 

Hyde, my old assistant, and Syed Enayet Hossein, my sub* 

assistant surgeon, anxious to give me their welcome. 

I drove out to Gonstantia (La Martini^re), and went all over it 

with Mr. Crank and Mr. Archer. I recognized in the classrooms 

inany of our old friends among the boys, whom we used to have 

for a holiday. Drove to Beebeepore Palace, where we spent our 

honeymoon, Dil Ehooshar Palace, and then back to the city to 

call on the Begum Malika Geytee, the old King's favourite wife. 

I found her tonjon and bearers ready waiting at the old spot, as 

in old times, to pick me up as I passed. The good Begmn said 

she had not been able to sleep, nor her two boys to eat, since 

they heard of my arrival at Lucknow. They were very kind 

indeed, and I had to sit a long time telling them all about you 

and the Sahibzadah, as they call Edwy. 

Shereefoodowlah, Ahmed All, and Shah Beharee Lai, the 
banker, came to call on me in cantonments before I left. 
Ahmed All told me, with great satisfaction, that at last the ditch 
has been allowed to be cut through the Eesidency kitchen-garden, 
by Colonel Sleeman, as I had proposed and designed when at 
Lucknow, and which Colonel Eichmond and Bird had refused to 
sanction. He says that, in consequence, houses are springing up all 
along the new road, which is now a grand feature in the city. I 
think I have now told you of all my rambles through Lucknow ; 
it was very pleasant and satisfactory, though I heard a good deal, 
not only from the natives, but from Sleeman, the Resident, which 
saddened me, and makes me fear for the future of the little king- 
dom. I fear some of our people have not upheld the honour of 
our nation in the eyes of the natives. By the way, both Nawabs 
ifohsumoodowlah and Monowroodowlah, have promised to pay 
me a visit at Futtehghur after your return. 

Q 2 


Chapter .... Did I say that I had dined at the Residency, the first 

Yin. evening, with the Sleemans, who were exceedingly kind? . . . . 

FxTTTEHGHtm, July 29th, 1850. 

On reaching home last night, I found all well except poor Ehalipha, 
who is in a very doubtful state indeed, and I almost fear he will 
not pull through. He has been suffering for some time from a 
carbuncle on the back, similar to that of which the King of Oude 
died. There seemed every prospect of its going on well when I 
left for Lucknow, but it suddenly increased, and although the 
doctor has done all that was possible, I fear his strength may not 
hold out to carry him through, poor man ! Need I say to you that 
it will be a great grief to me to lose my faithful old friend? How- 
ever, I am not going to despair, but take the case into my own 
hands, and do all that can be done, seeking God's blessing. 

I am so sorry that I did not receive, while at Lucknow, a letter 
which the Httle Maharajah himself wrote me during my absence, 
and which has followed me back. I should have liked to show it 
to the Song's sons (MaUka Geytee's boys), who have not kept up 
their English since I left. 

Dr. Login now urged Lord Dalhousie to provide the 
Maharajah with further educational advantages. He 
said, that though Mr. Walter Guise had up to that 
time been of more use than a more experienced teacher 
ignorant of the vernacular would have been, yet that 
now the Maharajah's knowledge of English was suffi- 
cient for him to derive benefit from a well-qualified 
tutor, who would know how to interest the boy, and 
lead him on to the study of natural science. He asked 




also for instructions about the Maharajah's betrothal, Chapter 
concerning which there was some little anxiety among 
the native gentlemen of his suite. 

In reply he received an official letter (dated April 
13th, 1850), from which an extract is here given : — 

The Govemor-Greneral in Goimcil conceives that it is the duty 
of the British Government to do all that is within its power to 
train up the boy in sach a manner as that when the date of hie 
majority arrives he may take possession of the heritage which has 
heen secured to him* — a well-principled and accomplished gentle- 
man, versed in the knowledge which usually is sought by the 
higher ranks in the East, and instructed also in the English 
language and literature. The same principles which are observed 
in the education furnished by Government to the natives of India 
generally, shoidd, Hig Lordship in Council thinks, guide the 
Government in the training of the young Maharajah, both as 
regards the culture of his understanding and the guidance of his 
moral character. 

These objects, it appears to His Lordship in Council, may 
be secured by the agency of gentlemen in India, without having 
recourse to the expedient suggested by you ; and he therefore 
declines to authorize your applying to Dr. Duff, or sending to 
England at all, for a tutor for the Maharajah. 

Mr. Guise, who is at present affording instruction to His Highness, 
is described by you, His Lordship in Council observes, to be well- 
qualified in many respects, but wanting in experience as a teacher. 
If, on further observation of him, you should still think that 
a gentleman of higher attainments is desirable. His Lordship in 
Council requests that you will address the Government again 

* The italics are not in the originaL 



Chapter upon the subject. His Lordship in Council sanctions the salary, 
yn\ 250 rupees per mensum, which you have proposed for Mr. Guise. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Ebed. Jab. Hallidat, 

Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, 

At the same time Lord Dalhousie writes : — 

My official letter, lately despatched to you, would apprise you 
that I think your plans for the Maharajah are all on too large a 
scale, and that you seem to have contemplated for him a future 
much more royal than is intended. Another letter will have 
informed you that the Court decidedly object to his coming to 
England, and, as they desire that his wish to do so may be dis- 
couraiged, we must hold their instructions in view. Such of His 
Highness's views as have been influenced by the prospect of 
visiting Europe, will therefore, in all probability, undergo a 
change. His education will proceed as far as .His Highness will 
consent to carry it, and a tutor sufficiently qualified should be 
found ; but if Mr. Guise commands his respect and affection, as 
you say, it is very much to be desired that he should continue in 
his present position; and I apprehend that if his acquirements 
are at present insufficient, he would find no difficulty in qualifyixig 
himself as a teacher fully capable of instructing the Maharajah, 
during his boyhood. The marriage of the Maharajah is a more 
difficult matter .for us to arrange. I should object decidedly, 
and do not wish to countenance any relations henceforth between 
the Maharajah and the Sikhs, either by alliance with a Sikb 
family, or sympathy with Sikh feeling. The Maharajah having 
personally desired to break off his betrothal with Chuttur Sink's 
daughter, appears to have opinions of his own as to maiiiago* 



f If he chooses to marry one of the Bajah of C!oorg'& daughters, Chapter 
I after having had everything about her explained to him, I can't see VIU. 
why he should not. There are tvro. One that His Highness ^^^' 
wants to send to England, another about seven or eight, for 
whom he does not propose English education; both are good- 
looking, the second one very ptetty, and, as far as birth is 
concerned, both are his equals and more. 

The first part of this letter refers to Col. Goodwyn s 
(of the Engineers) plans for improvements necessary 
to His Highness's residence at Futtehghur, which Lord 
Dalhousie considered as on too regal a scale ; and also to 
the gi-eat anxiety expressed by the Maharajah to visit 

When making arrangements for the departure from 

Lahore, Login, in order to secure that the personal 

attendants should be men of tried fidelity, suggested to 

the Maharajah that he should himself select them, and 

prove their attachment by explaining that he was 

leaving the Punjab for India, and that only those who 

cared to accompany him should go. The little fellow 

rather entered into the spirit of this sifting process, 

and amused himself at the expense of some of his 

people. In a memorandum on this subject Login 

writes : — 

The effect of this, as I had foreseen, was to detach a great 
many SildiB from attendance on him. His retinue consisted 
principally of Mahomedans; and even the Sikh priests and 
many of the Brahmins, whose duty it was to remain near him 


Gbapter under all circumstances, declined to accompany him, although 
YIII. facilities were offered them for doing so, and accommodation 
looO. provided for them in camp. Accordingly, His Highness left 
Lahore for Hindostan without taking with him a copy of the 
Qrunt'h (their holy hook) or a single reader of it, and with only one 
Brahmin porohut, or family priest, who, before leaving, arranged 
that his tour of duty should not exceed six months, when he was 
to be relieved by one of his brethren. As I was particularly 
careful to explain to the Sikh priests (whose allowances were all 
secured to them by Jageers), that one of the copies of the Grunt'h 
in use at the Palace was at their disposal, and that ample 
accommodation would be provided for them in camp in the event 
of their accompanying the Maharajah, but that I, being of a 
different reUgion from them, would give them no orders on the 
subject, no blame could be attached to us for their indifference 
to the Maharajah's instruction in the tenets of their faith. 

Soon after the Maharajah's arrival at Futtehghur, his old 
servant Meah Kheema, a Mahomedan who had been with him 
ever since his birth, and was much attached to him (the same who 
advised him to sign the Treaty with a good grace), claimed his 
promise to let him return to his family and country ; it became 
necessary, therefore, that I should appoint a trustworthy successor. 
Bhajun Lai, a young Brahmin of Furruckabad, was recommended* 
as being of excellent moral character, and having received a good 
education at one of the schools of the American Mission at 
Furruckabad. He could read and speak English fairly, which was 
a great recommendation to the young Maharajah, who was anxious 
to learn the language. He was therefore installed as confidential 
personal attendant on the boy, who became much attached to 

When I appointed him to the duty, although he had high 
recommendations as to his moral character and steadiness, I "was 
unaware of the depth of his convictions on religious subjects, and 
as he continued to adhere to the ceremonial observances of a 


Brahmin, in all that related to his food and clothing, he was Chapter 

recdyed by all the other Hindoos as perfectly orthodox. VIIL 


It was a strangely constituted household, or rather 
series of households, which Mrs. Login, on her retirni 
from Europe, found living within the confines of 
"Futtehghur Park" — ^the name given to the Maha- 
rajah's small estate. 

The property originally consisted of several bunga- 
lows and residences, belonging to various owners, each 
surrounded by its own compound. The Maharajah, 
the Banee Duknoo, Dr. Login, and the native 
gentlemen in attendance, all occupied separate houses, 
and the mixture of European and Oriental arrange- 
ments was often curious. 

The drawing-room reception of an evening, was an 
amusing sight to a lady fresh from England. During 
the day the young Prince was supposed to be at his 
studies or taking his outdoor exercise ; therefore, the 
gentlemen of his suite were free to follow their own 
devices ; but in the evening the Dewan, Fakeer, Sirdar, 
&c., made their appearance in full dress to pay their 
respects to their little King, and hold themselves at his 
disposal for a few hours. 

Duleep Singh was then to be seen, seated in State on 
a couch or chair, with his attendants grouped around 
him. Each of his suite, as he entered, made low 
obeisance, then stood erect with folded hands, while 
he gave vent to the single word " Maharaj 1 " with the 


Chapter suddenness of a pistol-shot. This was invariably the 
mS salutation given on arrival and departure, the Maha- 
rajah receiving it — ^according to native ideas of 
proper kingly dignity — ^with scarcely any sign of 
acknowledgment. His manner, however, soon took a 
more gracious tone, after a little intercourse with 

Of course, the arrival of an English lady upon the 
scene, was an event to these worthy gentlemen, and she 
became an object of great interest to them. They were 
so courteous, and anxious to hear all she could tell them, 
and so ready to give her information in return, that 
many agreeable evenings were spent in their society. 
Often a round game was got up by the Maharajah and 
his young companions, and the Sikh chie& were 
dragged into it willy-nilly ; but they were so good- 
humoured, that if they did not actually enjoy the 
Maharajah's teazing, they effectually disguised their 
feelings, and entered into the fun like children. 

They used often to express their admiration at the 
consideration shown to the Sikh prejudices by Login, 
who never allowed heef to be used in his own household. 
This delicacy of feeling on his part, they fully 
appreciated, and spoke of the hold it gave him on the 
affections of the Sikhs in attendance. The Dewan, in 
particular, often alluded to the relief they experienced, 
from the confidence that, within his gates, they were 
safe from any outrage to their feelings of religious 
veneration for the sacred animal. 


Mrs. Login's colloquial knowledge of the language Chapter 
gave her great advantage, and was a source of much j~' 
pleasure^ as well as influence. She was able to explain 
to the mother of the Shahzadah all the advantages 
that education would give her boy, and to convince her 
that a system of pampering and indulgence would be 
fatal to mind and body. It was a constant cause of 
amazement to the Ranee, that a mother should be able 
to do as Mrs. Login had done— part from her son for 
ya«8. for hi, ownVd. and leave him among stn>n«ers 

at school. 

Ranee Duknoo was of an old Rajpoot family from the 
Kangra Hills. She had been selected for her beauty by 
Shere Singh — ^Runjeet's adopted son — on his coming to 
the throne, and little Sheo Deo was only a few months 
old when his father was murdered, and Duleep Singh, 
the acknowledged son of the " Great Maharajah," was 
elected by the Kh41sa in his room. 

It is not therefore surprising that the Ranee looked 
upon her boy as a veritable prince, " bom in the 
purple," and was never so happy as when encouraged 
to talk about him. 

Mrs. Login was a frequent visitor at the pretty 
house within the park, where the Ranee resided with 
her faithful uncle and brother, who had shared her 
fortunes, and accompanied her into what, to them, was 

The Ranee herself was indeed a lovely young woman, 
tail and slender, gracefiil and very fair, with a pecu- 


Chapter liarly gentle and winning expression of countenance. 
1860* Clothed, as befitted a widow, in subdued colours, 
without ornament or jewel, the soft white muslin 
doputta draped about her head, its transparent folds 
shrouding the lower part of the beautiful face, while 
her large beseeching eyes wore a look of appeal and 
innocence, she might have passed for a living representa- 
tion of the traditional conception of the Madonna, so 
often to be seen depicted by the old Italian masters. 

The little Shahzadah, at this time, slept at his 
mother's house and took his meals there, but during 
the day was with the Maharajah in study and at play. 
He was a charming little fellow, with very pretty 
manners and great personal beauty, inheriting the 
delicate, refined features and aristocratic bearing of the 
Rajpoots, rather than the coarser beauty of the Sikhs. 

It was very amusing to see him making his daily 
short progress from his mother's house to the Maha- 
rajah's ; to note, on the one hand, the dignified bearing 
of the little Prince, stepping daintily along in his 
beautiful and picturesque national costume, his snowy 
turban fringed with gold (a becoming spot of colour 
being given by the crimson under-turban, which 
confines the knot of long hair peculiar to the Sikhs), 
and on the other, the reverential demeanour of tlie 
uncle and granduncle in attenda7ice^ walking respect- 
fully one step in the rear, answering dutiftJly the 
remarks which the child vouchsafed to them over his 
shoulder, and always careful to address him as '' Shah- 


zadah-jee," while the little man accepted, as his due, Chapter 
the admiration he excited. JJ^ 

He was always ready to escort Mrs. Login on her 
visits to his mother, and made use of her to corroborate 
the wonderfiil stories with which he entertained the 
Banee, regarding all the strange things he saw at the 
English lady's house, and which she had brought with 
her from England. Some of these latter he would 
insist on carrying over for his mother's inspection. 

It was a pleasure to try and cheer the lonely Ufe of 
this young widow, for she seldom or never went out, 
but Hved very quietly and simply with her relatives. 
The Maharajah paid her stated visits, and, as the head 
of her family, was received by her unveiled in the 
presence of her relatives — ^his retinue, of course, 
remaining outside. It was pretty well understood by 
the members of the Maharajah's household, that hopes 
were entertained by the Ranee's people that Duleep 
Singh might take his brother's widow to wife — this 
being permitted by Sikh custom. His behaviour 
certainly gave no colour to this rumour, for, although 
he acknowledged her beauty, he did not seem attracted 
to her, and was chary of his visits. 

One of the prettiest sights at Futtehghur of an 
early morning, or in the cool of the evening, was the 
perfectly-appointed soiuarree* of the young Sikh Maha- 
rajah out for his daily ride. So often in the case of 



Chapter even the best-arranged cavalcades of native Princes, the 
^^' splendour of one attendant is spoiled by the dirty and 
untidy appearance of his fellow. One man is, perhaps, 
mounted on a splendid Arab, while the next is on a 
wretched tat ; the gorgeous dresses of the leaders of the 
party, give place to the squalor of a rag-tag-and-bobtail 
following, so that the good taste which distinguished 
young Duleep Singh's cortege was all the more remark- 
able. He himself looked to great advantage on horse- 
back, and though not what would be called a daring 
horseman, like many of his countrymen, yet he rode 
with ease and grace. When he turned out for his 
customary ride, accompanied by the Shahzadah and his 
English friends, with his retinue of war-like Sikh 
attendants, handsomely-dressed and well-mounted, 
followed by a detachment of the Governor-General s 
Body Guard* in their scarlet, and Skinner's Irregu- 
lars in their safiron uniforms (which gave them their 
cognomen of ** Canaries "), the whole effect was both 
picturesque and brilliant. If, instead, the Maharajah 
went out on his elephant, with its splendid trappings 
and silver howdah, or in his carriage with its four grey 
Arabs, driven by his English coachman, the same finish 
in every detail was observable. 

There were frequent reports from the Nepal Resi- 

* By an oiiier of the Governor-General in Comicil, a detachment of the B« « ! % 
Guard, consisting of ** twenty-five good men and two trusty native office t>*. ' 
remained with His Highness at Futtehghur, *'0O as to lessen the duty of tl, 
Irregular Corps.** 


dent of secret emissaries from the Ranee Jinda, but, Chapter 
as the vigilance was close, her spies were generally -^-^ 
seized and escorted back to the frontier. 

It was known that the Ranee's design was to get 
possession of her son, though the latter showed not 
the least inclination to fall in with her schemes, or 
even to hold any communication with her, as will 
appear from the following extracts from an.oflScial 
letter of Login's : — 

FUTTEHOHUR, Api'il ^th, 1850. 

As far as I can judge, not the least desire exists on the part of 
the Maharajah to communicate with his mother. From all the 
information I could collect at Lahore from those likely to know 
his feelings, he appeared to dislike any reference being made to 
the Banee, and never mentioned her name, though he spoke 
readily of his uncle Jowahir Singh, and his affection for him; 
but BiS I was anxious to ascertain his sentiments on this point 
myself, for my own guidance, I took a favourable opportunity to 
ask him regarding it. He told me he had heard nothiug of her 
since he left Lahore, and that she had only disgraced him, ** Serif 
humka bud nam deah; " and on being asked if she had not been 
kind to him, he said she used to strike him daily I 

.... In explanation of her severity to him, his confidential 
servant told me that he was old enough to be aware of her im- 
proper conduct with Lai Singh, and had remonstrated with her, 

and that this had caused her harsh treatment of him 

Having lately, in the course of reading history with him, met 
with an allusion to his being the acknowledged, though not the 
reputed, son of Eunjeet Singh, I told him that the conduct of the 
Maharanee, and the character she had acquired, exposed him to 


Chapter this imputation; he said ** Ah, yes; it was all too tme I " And 
YIII. he had frequently made up his mind, while at Lahore, that he 
1850. should have his mother killed, that she might not disgrace him ! 

It not yet being considered prudent to allow the 
Maharajah to reside in the hiUs during the hot weather, 
owing to the difficulty of providing for his safety, and 
as the boy seemed rather to suffer from the heat of 
Futtehghur, Login secured for him a change of red- 
dence at the Kukha, about three miles off; and he used 
to go out there for several days at a time, with his 
tutor and companions, taking with him his gun and 
hawks to have some sport. 

His passion for the national sport of hawking was 
great. He entered into aU the details of training and 
feeding the birds with absorbing interest ; but as the 
nZLy procas. antaUed grj cn.elty to anin-d.. it 
was not relished by his young companions, and was, as 
far as possible, discouraged by Login, who dreaded lest 
the indifference to suffering which it engendered, might 
develop that tendency to barbarity which is so in-- 
herent in the Oriental character. 



In November, 1850, Login, who was anxious to be in Chapter 

Calcutta to receive his wife on her landing:, obtained a ^' 

month's leave of absence from the Governor-General, 

with permission to appoint Captain Campbell as his 

substitute pro tern, at Futtehghur. It was whilst 

Login was away from his charge on this occasion, that 

the Maharajah took an important step, by suddenly 

announcing his intention of embra^jing the Christian 


The first intimation of such a resolve on the part of 

the yoamg Prince, was received by Login at Calcutta 

in a letter from the Maharajah himself. 

The whole subject at orice gave rise to an extensive 

official correspondence, of which want of space permits 

only a very few extracts. 

On the 20th December, 1850, Captain J. Campbell 

(7 th Madras Cavalry) thus reports the fact to the 

Government : — 

.... On Sunday the 8th inst., His Highness the Maharajah 
commtinicated to me, through Master Thomas Scott, his desire to 



Chapter become a Christian, as he termed it. In an hour or so after this 
IX« abrupt disclosure, I took His Highness aside, and carefully ques- 
1850. tioned him on the subject ; the substance of his answer was, that he 
had for a long time been convinced of the falsehoods put forth by the 
Pundits, that he could no longer restrain himself from professing 
his belief in our Bible (which he had of late caused one of his 
attendants to read to him), and that he was determined to 
embrace the Christian faith. At £Us Highness's request, I next day 
commimicated the intelligence to Dr. Login. His reply, received 
this morning, is to the effect that he wishes His Highness to make 
no change in his mode of Ufe or religious observances which is 
likely to offend the prejudice of his Sikh attendants, and that any 
declaration of his sentiments at present is altogether premature. 
.... The avowed change in His Highness's religious sentiments, 
I may add, is regarded by the Dewan Ajoodhea Pershad (himself a 
Brahmin, but an honest old soldier) with a most impartial eye. . . . 
I cannot see how, without exercising a restraint over him, which 
I conceive would have been foreign to the declared intention of 
Government — ''always to stand neuter in rehgious matters as 
regards the natives of the country " — I could have prevented his 

expressing and conducting himself as he has done I 

purposely delayed communicating His Highnesses change of 
sentiments, the more surely to ascertain the probability of their 

permanence I have arrived at the conclusion, that he is 

more deeply impressed with the subject than his years would 
seem to render likely. 

On receipt of this intelligence, Sir H. Elliot, the 
Secretary to the Government, desired Login, on 
resuming his duties, to furnish the Government with 
full and explicit information, on all points likely to 
throv^r light on " an act so singular in a boy of such 


tender yearSi and so placed as His Highness the Chaptor 
Maharajah still is." ._. 

The Governor-General desires to be informed, says this 
despatch, whether you have had any reason to suppose, at any 
time since the Maharajah has been under your charge, that His 
Highness gave his attention to matters connected with the Chris- 
tian faith. Whether you or Mr. Guise, or any European person 
who have had charge of, or may have had access to him, have 
introduced the subject of our religion to his notice ; have talked 
to him upon it, or engaged him in any question regarding it ? 
Whether the young gentlemen who have been allowed to reside 
with him as his playfellows (Mr. Barlow or Mr. Scott) have 
talked to him, or been talked to by him thereupon .... 
and where the Bible was procured, which His Highness says has 
been read to him by an attendant, and who that attendant is? 

Letter to Lord Dalhousie from J. S. LoaiN. 

FuTTEHGHXTB, Jan. 20th, 1851. 
My Lobd, 

.... I send for your Lordship's perusal, a statement 1851. 
famished to me by Bhajun Lai, the Maharajah's Brahmin 
attendant, who has been in His Highness's confidence ever since 
he began to entertain any intention of renouncing his own faith, 
and whose account of the circumstances, though rather quaintly 
expressed, may, I believe, be fully depended on. I was at first 
disposed to consider the Maharajah's desire to embrace 
Christianity as a mere sentiment, arising from the feelings of 
friendship and goodwill which he entertains towards us Christians ; 
and I endeavoured to dissuade him by letter, from making any 

R 2 


Ohaiiter changiB in his mode of life with reference to his observance of 
^* caste, which would be likely to give offence to his Sikh attendants, 
*®*^* until he could explain to them fully his reasons for withdrawing 
from them. But from the conversations I have held with him 
since my return to Futtehghur, the shrewdness and intelligence of 
his remarks on religious subjects, as well as from the whole 
account of the manner in which the conviction has arisen in his 
mind, I am now led to think that his impressions are much more 
deeply seated, and I should be incurring a greater responsibility 
than I am prepared, or willing, to undertake, in denying him the 
wished-for instruction in our faith and doctrine. Although only 
a boy in years, and in all the freshness with which he enjoys his 
play and amusements, he is by no means so in judgment and 
understanding ; and it is almost impossible for any one who has not 
had an opportunity of conversing with him, to give the weight to 
his opinions which they deserve. Although this impression of hia 
character is shared by many here, I am anxious that your Lord- 
ship should not incur the risk of being misled by any prejudice 
which I may have been led to entertain towards him, and I would 
therefore respectfully solicit your Lordship to request Mr. 
Thomason, when passing through the station, to take an oppor- 
tunity of conversing with His Highness, and to acquaint you with 
his opinion on the subject. The official report which I am about 
to submit to your Lordship will be accompanied by statements 
of the Dewan Ajoodhea Pershad, the Fakeer Zehooroodeen, and 
Sirdar Boor Singh, regarding the circumstances under which the 
Maharajah's determination to embrace Christianity took place, 
and will all, I believe, tend to prove to your Lordship's satis- 
faction, that no improper influence has been made use of to induce 
him to renounce the religion of his people. 

Lord Dalhousib'b Beply. 

Just received your letter of 20th, enclosing statement of the 
Maharajah's Brahmin attendant. It contains a very singxilax 


norratiye, which will no donbt be (tirther iUnstraied by the official 
papers you mention, bat which have not yet reached me. IX 

I have written to Mr. Thomason, requesting him to visit the *^^ 
Maharajah if he should pass near Futtehghur, but I doobi 
whether he goes in that direction. 

Tours very truly, 


Statement of Lala Bhajun Laii to Db. Login. 

FuTTEHGHUB, Jan. nth, 1861. 

As you want to know the circumstances of His HighnesB 
Maharaj's breaking his caste since you left, I have the honour 
to explain before your honour, what all I have known from the 
time when I was employed in His Highness's service. 

When the Maharaj began to learn out of an English book, by 
name of *' English Instructor," there were some lines at the back 
end of the book with few words about Christian religion. You 
once said to Maharaj, "These are records about our religion; if 
you want to read them, then read, and if you don't want, you can 
leave them ; " but His Highness say to me, '* Never mind, I will 
read them, because I want to know everything;" then they were 
read. As I was with him at all the times, he used to ask me 
questions about our religion (Sudras) : What is the benefit by 
bathing in Gunga Jee ? Would it take us into heaven if we stUl 
do other wicked works and bathe in Gimga ? I replied, and said, 
*' Maharaj, it is written in our Shastras, but I do • not know 
whether we would go into heaven or hell." Then he said, " Yes, 
but it depends on our works." And so on he would speak. 

In the month of Barsakh (May), Maharaj began to have some 
of our religious books read, and in one book there was written 
a paragraph about a Bajah who used to make charity of ten 
thousand cows every morning before taking his breakfast 1 Tbifii 


CRiapter way the said Maharajali used his abns of ten thousand cows 
^^ during the time of his life. But it came to pass, that if any one 
1851. Qf these cows came again or was hought by his servants 
without knowing it, and the Bajah made his ahns of that cow 
again, by this he was cast into hell. Now when the Eatha 
was over, and the Pundit gone, His Highness's servant Jewindah 
said to Maharaj, " See, is it not impossible that now the 
Bajah could get so much new cow every day?" Maharajah 
answered and said, ** Yes 1 it is quite nonsense ; and that's why 
I doubt many things what* the Pundit do say." 

Such conversations had been many times, but I always found 
him very conscious, and of high opinion, and not superstitious, 
and of a reasonable mind. 

Now, Sahib, after some time you went to Calcutta, Maharaj 
saw one copy of Holy Bible into my hand, and asked of me, 
"Will you sell this over to me?" I repUed, and said, "Maharaj, 
I don't want to sell it to you, but I can present you, if you 
can read a chapter out of it without any assistance." So he did 
read, and I presented him my Bible. After some short time, he 
asked me to read to him, and let him hear it, and according to 
his orders I did read. First day I read 6ih chapter St. Matthew, 
and few others during whole week. Sometimes Bible, sometixnes 
a few tricks,* then sometimes out of " Boy's Own Book " ; but I 
am sure I never heard any Englishman, talking or reading him 
any of their religious things. 

After this week, then Maharaj disclosed his designs to Captain 
Campbell and to Mr. Guise, that he approves the Christian religion 
is true, and that of his own is not true. Then the gentlemen Bidd^ 
** Well, Maharaj, if you understand it with your conscience, it 
is far better, and we would be only very happy if you would under- 
stand it." But I well know and can certify that whaterer 

* Legerdemain and improvising tales, were resorted to by his attendants to 
inae him. 

amnse him. 



Maharaj did say or do, he did it by his pleasure and opinion, but Chapter 
not by any man's beguiling. J^ 

When I did ask Maharaj, "Do you really believe, or merely 
joking?" he then answered, and said, *' I really do believe, and I 
will embrace the Christian religion, because long before mine 
designation was to do this." 

After two or three days, on Sunday, I came back from my city 
house at twelve (because I often go to city on Saturday evening, 
and come back on Sunday at midday). Maharaj told to me, 
"Bhajun Lai, I have become a Christian." I then say, " What 
did you eat ? " He answered and said, ** I have not eaten any- 
thing, but my heart is changed. See now, I have not gone to 
play, nor like to play, on this day." But when cool of evening 
came, he went out hawking with his favourite hawk. When he 
came back into the house I asked him, ** Maharaj, how is it 
that you told me that you would no more play on this day, but 
you went and played with your hawks ? " He answered, and said, 
" I forgot, and am very sorry for that." After two days more he 
began to say that he would take tea with Tommy Scott and 
Robbie Carshore. I said, '* Very well, do whatever you like, but 
do only that thing which you well know will do good for you at 
the end." On Wednesday I had some work in the city, and I 
took his leave at twelve and went ; and when I came back at 
evening, I found Maharaj, T. Scott, andB. Carshore, in Maharaj 's 
room, sitting at a table, and all tea plates were arranged 
on the^ table, and he (the Maharaj) was boiling the water. As 
soon as he saw me, he came out of the room, and told me, '' See 
now, I am going to make tea with mine own hands, and then we 
all three take together." I answered, and said, '< Very good, 
Maharaj, do whatever you like ; but I tell you one thing, that 
yoa]must not take tea, or do anything, until Dr. Login Sahib comes 
back." He replied, " That you do not know if Dr. Login will 
allow me to do it, and then I will be very sorry I " After this he 
went and made the tea with his own hands, and took with T. Scott 


Chapter and B. Carshore; but all whatever he did, he did with hia 

^^ . pleaeore, and was very anxious if Dr. Login will like him to do 

^^^- his wilful work. He will be very much pleased and glad, to hear 

if you will allow him to break his caste, and he will be very 

happy in breaking his caste. 

Sir, as far as I know, I have related with justice. 

Your most obedient, humble servant, 

Bhajun Lal. 

Extracts from J. S. Login's Official Beport. 

FuTTBHQHUB, Jan. 27th, 1851. 

.... Previous to my departure from Calcutta, on the 15th 
November last, I had no reason to suppose that His Highness 
had given any attention to matters connected with the Christian 
faith, although I had certainly observed that neither the Sikh nor 
the Hindoo religion had taken any firm hold of his mind. On 
several occasions he has expressed his doubts of the truth of the 
stories read, or related to him, by his Pundits, from their Shastras, 
and made some very shrewd remarks on the superstitious obser- 
vances both of Sikhs and Hindoos, and on the selfishness and 
ignorance of their priesthood. As an indication of the bent of his 
mind, I may particularly mention one instance : — 

About a fortnight before I left for Calcutta, he came to my room 
with his attendant, early one morning, as was frequently his 
custom, while I was reading by candle-light, and the conversation 
happening to turn upon the subject of the position of the earth in 
the solar system, .... he asked me to show him how an eclipse 
of the moon took place. This I attempted to do in a very simple 
way .... and apparently succeeded so much to his satisfaction, 
that he exclaimed in Hindostani, '' Wait for two or three years^ 
until I have learnt all about it. Won't I puzzle the Pundits 1 " 


As I carefally abstained from encouraging or objecting to any Chapter 
remarks of the kind, nothing more was, I believe, said on the ^* 
subject. 1861. 

During my absence at Calcutta, His Highness frequently wrote 
to me, both in English and in Urdu. 

In the note of the 2nd December, herewith submitted* in 
oiiginal, he first made known to me, that his Brahmin attendant, 
Bhajun Lai, had been reading the Holy Scriptures to him, and 
he desired that I would bring him a copy of the Bible. 

On the 7th December, His Highness again wrote to me,t that 

* FuTTEHOHUR, 2nd Dtc.^ 1850. 
My dear good Friend, 

I hope you continue quite well, and that I shall soon receive another letter 
from yon. 

We are all well here. Captain Campbell presided at our examination, and I 
got twenty-three marks ; but Shahzadah only got ten, Tommy seventeen, and 
Kobby eighteen. 

Will you kindly send me a nice Bible, for I like very much to read, because yes- 
terday Bhajun Lai was reading to me ; and also do send me a chest of fine tools, 

for carpenter's work. 

Yours very sincerely, 


P.S. Bhajun Lai's most respectful compliments, may reach to my master's 

t FuTTEHGHUR, Dec» 7th^ 1860. 
My dear good Friend, 

I was very glad to receive your kind letter. I am quite well, and I hope 
that you found Mrs. Login quite recovered, on her arrival in Calcutta. I amuse 
myself every evening by making Bhajun Lai read to me. 
I have begun the Bible, and generally hear one or two chapters. 

Yours very sincerely, 
DuLEEP Singh, 

Bh&jun Lai's best service to his master ; prays for his master's safety and 
good health. Everything is going'on rightly. His attention towards the hawks 
ia not as you left, but it is increasing towards his lessons. 

He has been so much pleased upon his servant, that he has presented a 9c^ah 
^fjhaUtn (muslin turban with gold fringe). 

£zciise me if anything incorrectly written. 


Chapter he continued to hear the Bible read by his attendant, Bhajon 
^^ Lai, and he enclosed a note from the latter on the subject. 
1851. fjijjig ^Q^g followed on the 9th inst. by another note* in his own 
handwriting, in which His Highness declares his determination to 
embrace the Christian religion, as he had long doubted the truth 
of the one he had been brought up in, and was convinced of the 
truth of the religion of the Bible, which he had lately made his 
attendant Bhajun Lai read to him. This note was enclosed in a 
letter from Captain Campbell, acquainting me that a similar 
declaration had been made by the Maharajah to him, and that the 
servants were aware of the avowal. 

In reply to Captain Campbell's letter, I expressed my regret 
that the avowal should have been made known so hastily, and 
before sufficient time had elapsed to ascertain the depth and per- 
manence of the Maharajah's impressions on the subject ; as, from 
the suddenness of the announcement, I couldn't at the time con- 
sider them other than a mere sentiment arising from the feelings 
of friendship and goodwill which he entertained towards us 
Christians. I, at the same time, wrote to the Maharajah, advising 
him to make no change in his mode of life, with respect to the 

* FUTTEHOHUK, Dtc. 9<A, 1850. 
My dear good Fbiend, 

I hope you are quite well, and Mrs Login also. I am well aud happy. Yon 
will be surprised to learn of my determination to embrace the Christian religion. 
I have long doubted the truth of the one I was brought up in, and am connnoed 
of the truth of the religion of the Bible, which I have of late mwle Bhigon Lai 
read portions of to me. 

I have asked Captain Campbell to write to you on this subject. 

Youn very sincerely, 



Bhagun Lai, who acted as secretary to his master, has added, it iiill be 
some quaint postscripts of his own to these letters. Their English is in somewhat 
odd contrast to that of the letters themselves, which were dictated to him by the 


obGenrances of caste, which would be likely to give offence to his Chapter 
Sikh attendants, until he was able fully to explain his reasons for 1^ 
withdrawing from them lool. 

From the conversations I have held with the Maharajah he 
appears from a very early age to have been led to entertain doubts 
of the truth of the Sikh and Hindoo religions, and to have been led 
to consider Mahomedanism or Christianity in a more favourable 
light. As his age increased, and he was brought more into com- 
munication with Christians, his prejudices in favour of their 
religion became gradually stronger, although he was but very 
imperfectly acquainted with the doctrines which they held, and 
indeed had given but little consideration to the subject. 

Since his arrival at Futtehghur these sentiments have continued 
to gain strength, and have certainly not been discouraged by his 
Brahmin attendant, Bhajun Lai, a young man of very respectable 
connections in the city of Furruckabad, who has been educated at 
the public school in the city under charge of the Bev. Messrs. 
Macaulay and Scott of the American Presbyterian Mission, and 
whom, from his intelligence, good character, and knowledge of the 
English language, I was led to place near the Maharajah on the 
departure of his old servant Kurreem Bux Meah Kheema, not 
knowing at the time his sentiments were so favourably disposed 
towards Christianity, as he continued, and still continues, to live 
in the strict observance of Hindooism. 

Although previous to my departure for Calcutta no indications 
had been observed by myself or Mr. Guise, or the native gentle- 
men who are in attendance upon His Highness, of his intention 
to embrace the Christian faith, unless the casual remark made by 
him to Mr. Guise, and his desire to read the portion of his book 
bearing upon the doctrines of Christianity, may be so considered, 
I find that the Maharajah had upwards of a month before, under 
a promise of secrecy, mentioned to his playfellow, Thomas Scott, 
that it was his desire ** to become c^ Christian, as he did not believe 
the Hindoo religion ! and that if I, as his guardian, made any 


Chapter objections just now, he would wait until he embarked for England^ 
I^ when he would tell me, that as his caste had been broken, I could 
1851. j^Q^ refuse him permission I " but up to that time, his mind does 
not appear to have been perfectly made up, and it was only after 
he heard some portions of Scripture read to him by his Brahnun 
attendant, that he was led to declare his desire to adopt the 
Christian faith 

In some respects it is a fortunate circumstance that the Maha* 
rajah's determination should have been expressed at a time when 
his knowledge of the English language was so imperfect as to 
render it impossible for any instruction on religious subjects to be 
conveyed to him through that medium, without being at the same 
time explained in Hindostani, and that the native gentlemen 
who have been in attendance on His Highness, as well as all hie 
native servants, have thus been enabled to judge whether any 
attempts have been made to interfere with his belief in an improper 
way. I therefore enclose statements * written in the vernacular 
by the three native gentlemen in attendance, and by His High- 
ness's own family priest, or porohut, testifying that in their 
opinion no undue influence has been exerted, and His Highness'a 
resolution is entirely spontaneous 

The Brahmin, Bhajun Lai, though still professing Hindooism, 

* In the above report were also enclosed statements from — 

The Dewan Ajoodhea Pershad ; 

The Fakeer Zehooroodeen (Urdu and Persian tutor to His Highness) ; 

The Sirdar Boor Singh ; 

The Porohut Gol&b Rai, family priest of the Mahanjahs of Lahora ; 

Bhajuu Lai, Brahmin attendant of His Highness. 

Mr. Walter Guise, the Maharajah's English tutor, in his statement, remarks 
(after saying that neither he nor any European having access to him had ev^r 
held conversations with him on the subject of the Christian religion) : *' That H» 
Highness was actuated by any such motive as the desire of pleasing those pUcc«.i 
over him, is highly improbable, when it is considered that he studiously sought to 
conceal from them his determination .... long after he had communicated it 
to Master Scott, whom he bound not to reveal it." 


is evidently well disposed towards the Christian faith, and, I Chapter 
beiieye, anxious to speak the truth without reserve. IX. 

The Fakeer Zehooroodeen is equally honest and straight- *^^* 
forward in his statement, and, being a Mahomedan, by no 
means disposed to view the change in an unfavourable light. I 
had made arrangements to allow him to return to his family at 
Lahore, on my return from Calcutta, and he was naturally very 
anxious to rejoin his friends there, one of his children having died 
in his absence ; but in consequence of what has occurred, he has 
voluntarily, and without the least hint from me, requested 
permission to remain for some time longer with the Maharajah, 
in order that he may show the opinion which he entertains on 
the subject. 

The Dewan Ajoodhea Pershad, though also a man of as much 
moral courage and honesty as I have ever met with among 
Brahmins, and certainly by no means bigoted in his creed, still 
continues to profess the Hindoo religion, and it is but natural 
that he should be less disposed to notice the maturity of the 
Maharajah's judgment on such matters, than the Fakeer has been, 
and should be more guarded in his statements 

The Sirdar Boor Singh's statement is as explicit on the subject 
as could be desired. I understand that, when the Maharajah's 
Punjabi servants asked him to join in a petition to Captain 
Campbell, he told them that had any compulsion been used 
towards the Maharajah, in regard to his change of creed, or any 
undue influence been exerted, he would have considered it his 
duty to have remonstrated, but as the declaration had been made 
of the Maharajah's own free will, and his whole heart was set 
upon carrying out his determination, he could not in any way 

It must not, however, be overlooked that the Sirdar, on account 
of liis more intimate connection vsrith the Shahzadah Sheo Deo 
Singh, may not be disposed to regret the step taken by the Maha- 
rajah ; but at the same time, in proof of his confidence that no 



Chapter undue advantage is taken by us, as Christians, in tiie instruction 

IX. of either the Maharajah or Shahzadah, he continues to be in every 

18ol« respect satisfied with the manner in which the latter is instructed. 

In expressing his satisfaction at the manner in which facilities 
have been afforded to him and to the Banee, the mother of the 
Shahzadah Sheo Deo Singh, in the exercise of their religious 
rites, he has, I need scarcely remark, somewhat overstated the 

The Pundit Goldb Bai, the family porohiit of the Maharajahs 
of Lahore, though naturally disappointed at the Maharajah's 
renunciation of Hindooism, bears testimony to the absence of any 
attempt to influence His Highness on the subject. 

From a perusal of the whole evidence, I trust it will appear to 
the satisfaction of his Lordship that no improper influence has 
been used by myself, or any one who has had access to His High- 
ness, to induce him to adopt the Christian faith. 

While I have been fully sensible of the responsibility of my 
position with respect to EEis Blghness, and earnestly desirous that 
he should be educated in such a manner as to reflect no discredit 
upon me as a Christian, I have not been forgetful of the delicate 
nature of the duties entrusted i^ me by the Government, but have 
constantly borne in mind that in his case the principles of 
Christian morality, which it was my desire he should acquire 
during his tender years, could only be set before him by & 
consistent example. This I have endeavoured to do so far as my 
infirmities of temper and judgment have permitted, trusting th&t 
God would do the rest. 

I have often felt the constraint imposed on me in being unable 
to point out the true and only source of every good, and in being 
obUged to content myself with instructing him, so far as I could, in 
the principles of true morality, without reference to the source from 
whence they came. 

I have, I believe, answered briefly and incidentally any questions 
he, or his attendants in his hearing, have casually asked me on 


points connected with the Christian faith, but I cannot recall to Chapter 
mind any particular instance ; and the only occasions on which I IX. 
remember to have touched on the subject of our Scriptures in the 1^51. 
Maharajah's presence were shortly after I received charge of His 
Highness at Lahore, and again about three months since. 

On the former occasion, the Maharajah had come to my room 
with his attendant, Meah Kheema, and other Mahomedan and 
Hindoo servants, one Sunday morning, and the conversation 
happening to turn, on the subject of the extent and greatness of 
the British power and dominions, I took occasion to say that ''it 
was not from any superiority in ourselves, as men, that this took 
place, but solely from the goodness of God towards us, as a nation, 
and that so long as we acknowledged this with all our hearts, and 
acted as men who felt the responsibility of our position, as 
stewards of God's bounty, we should continue to prosper;" and 
with reference to the increase of population in England, as com- 
pared with the Eastern nations, and to our owan particular position 
in India, I pointed out to Meah Kheema and the other Maho- 
medans that the Prophet Noah had said, ** God shall enlarge 
Japhet, he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan shall be 
his servant ; '* and I told them, that I believed it to be in fulfilment 
of that prophecy that we were now among them. I remember 
that those who were present seemed much pleased with the 
conversation, and that Meah Kheema asked to be allowed to 
take the Persian Bible, in which I had pointed out the passage, to 
have it read to him ; but whether he explained any portion of it to 
the Maharajah, who did not understand Persian, I do not 


With respect to the book, the ''English Instructor" men- 
tioned by Bhajim Lai, in which some pages at the end refer to 
the tenets of Christianity, the book in question was one used in 
the school here by Bhajun Lai and his brother. I have also 
allowed the Maharajah, and Shahzadah, to use the books of the 
Scottish School Book Association, along with their schoolfellows, 


Chapter Masters Scott and Carshore, as being extremely well stiited to 
I^* beginners ; and in these also, some portions, having reference to 
1851. Christianity, occur, which the Maharajah has voluntarily read, 
but from all I can learn, up to the time at which he commenced 
having the Bible read to him, he had not paid any attention to 
their purport, and they have not in any way influenced his mind 
towards the step he has taken 

I must confess, however, that had the Maharajah asked my 
permission to read the Bible, I should have offered no objection, 
and that I would have given him equal permission to read 
the Koran, the Orunt'h, the Shastras, or any other book of the 
kind, which is not considered immoral, in the same way as he had 
read the Mahomedan Kureema with his Urdu teacher, before I 
took charge of him 

Considering the relative character and disposition of His High- 
ness, as compared with Master Scott, to whom he first made 
known his intentian of becoming a Christian, I cannot but con- 
sider the latter to have been altogether passive in the matter ; or 
if he did exert any influence over the Maharajah's mind, in leading 
him to adopt the same faith, it could only have arisen from His 
Highness's friendly regard for the boy, and the admiration of the 
honesty and truthfulness of his character, which he has frequently 

In all that relates to the religious ceremonies of His High- 
ness, I have uniformly observed the strictest neutrality, and hare 
left him and his people to the free exercise of their own wishes on 
the subject 

When on one occasion, in May last, £Us Highness expressed a 
wish to have his Pundit to read prayers to him daily, as he ob> 
served was customary with us, this was at once arranged ; and it 
was during the attendance of the Pundit for that purpose that 
the circumstances occurred, which are related by Bhajun 
I had been equally careful to avoid giving ofience to the prejudi 
of the Maharajah and his Sikh attendants, in so far as lay in 


power, in other matters, forbidding the use of beef at my table, Chapter 
or the practice of smoking tobacco near the honse ; and from all ^^ 
I can learn, the care which I had taken in this respect has been ^^^* 
folly appreciated by them. 

I have, on several occasions, proposed to the Maharajah to in- 
quire for a native boy of respectable rank, to be educated along 
with him, but he has uniformly declined any offer of the kind, 
preferring to have only EngUsh boys with him. .... 

Ever since the assassination, in his presence, of his uncle, the 
Sirdar Jowahir Singh, at Meean Meer, by the Sikh soldiery, the 
Maharajah has entertained a dread of his own countrymen, and a 
dislike to their religion and all connected with them. This feeling 
towards them he was, of course, obliged to conceal, until circum- 
stances enabled him to declare his sentiments ; but ever since I 
have taken charge of him, he has spoken out freely on the subject, 
and on every opportunity has shown his prejudice against them. 

For several years past, little care appears to have been taken to 
instruct him in the principles of the Sikh religion ; for, excepting 
what he might pick up when the Grunt'h was read to him occa- 
sionally (to which he gave but Uttle attention), he has been left 
very much to chance for information on the subject. He, how- 
ever, continued to be regular in the observance of such Hindoo 
ceremonies as are customary among the Sikhs, and to hear 
portions of their sacred books read to him by his Pundits. 

After these occasions, it not infrequently happened that 
tbe subject of the stories read to him were discussed in private 
witli his favourite attendant, Meah Eheema, and his son, who 
aa Mussulmaun, could not always conceal their disbelief in them, 
or ftvoid giving encouragement to the doubts which arose in 
HiB Highness's mind on the subject. 

^Wliile his prejudices against his own people and their faith 
•v^ero thus gaining strength, circumstances had occurred in his 
outward position to lead him to consider the English his most 
sineexe friends, and the kindness and consideration which he 



Chapter experienced from Lord Hardinge, Sir Henry Lawrence, Lord 

IX. Gough, and Sir Frederick Gurrie, disposed him most favourably 

1861 • towards them, and to other Englishmen who had access to him ; 

and he fully appreciated their cordiality and friendly feelings, 

although sometimes expressed with less ceremony than he had 

been accustomed to. 

These sentiments of friendly confidence have been confirmed, 
and, I am happy to think, rendered permanent, by the cordial and 
kindly reception which His Highness met with from the Most 
Noble the Governor-General at Lahore, and by the kind interest 
which his Lordship has always taken in his welfare ; and I do 
not think that there is a single person within Her Majesty's 
dominions who is at present more convinced that the annexation 
of the Punjab was forced on us by circumstances than the 
Maharajah, or more satisfied as to the friendly sincerity of the 
English Government towards him. 

By far the greater number of the old servants who accompanied 
him to Futtehghur were Mussulmaun, only a very few Sikhs, 
who were necessary on the establishment, being apparently 
disposed to come. 

Among those who had the option of accompanying the 
Maharajah were the four or five Sikhs priests, OrunVhees^ in 
regular attendance upon His Highness. 

Before leaving Lahore, I sent for them, and explained, that 
they were at liberty to join His Highness if they wished, and 
to take a copy of the Grunt'h with them, which was left in their 
charge for the purpose, and I stated that I would make arrange- 
ments for their comfortable accommodation in the event of tb^r 
doing so. They did not, however, avail themselves of the 
opportimity afforded them, and His Highness left the Punjab 
without any religious attendant of his own sect, or any copy of 
their sacred book, nor had he expressed the least desire» sinoe he 
left Lahore, to have the want supplied. 

One of the four Brahmin porohuts, or family prieBtB» 


however, remain in attendance on His Highness, after making Chapter 
arrangements with the other three — who conjointly hold jagheers ^^ 
for the performance of the duty — ^that they should relieve each Iwl. 
other every six months. On the expiry of that time, the priest in 
attendance, Goldh Bai, wrote to the others to relieve him as had 
heen arranged among them, but they very decidedly refused to do 
so, and he has, in consequence, had to remain in Hindostan, much 
longer than he at first intended. 

.... Ever since the Maharajah's determination has been 
openly avowed, he has been most anxious to obtain Christian in- 
struction, and he has even requested to join us at family prayers, 
which I have not considered myself justified in preventing. 

That his desire to embrace Christianity is ardent and sincere, no 
one who has had an opportunity of conversing with him on the 
subject can have any doubt ; while the manner in which he has 
refused any longer to conform to Hindoo ceremonies, and the 
reasons which he has given for the step he has taken, evince a 
maturity of judgment far beyond his age. 

Though anxious to lay aside all observances of caste, and to 
adopt European customs, he has not done so, in consequence of 
the advice which I gave him in the first instance — ^not to give 
unnecessary ofEence to his Hindoo attendants. But he only 
requires to know that no objection will be offered on the part of 
Government, to do this at once. 

Letter from J. S. Loam to Lobd Dalhousib, accompanying the 

Official Beport. 

FUTTBHOHTJB, Jo/n., 1851. 

My Lobd, 

.... I regret to find that your Lordship supposes, from 
the circumstance that I forwarded Colonel Goodwyn's estimate 
and plans, that I contemplate for the Maharajah a future much 
more royal than is intended. So far as it has been in my power, 

• 8 2 


Chapter I have endeavoured gradually to wean his mind from any desiie 
IX for royal state, and to render him happy and contented under his 
1861. altered circumstances. Under the impression that it was 
desirable to lead His Highness to consider Futtehghur as his per- 
manent residence, and knowing, from my experience at LucknoW| 
that the amount was far below the sum frequently expended by 
private native gentlemen on their residences (the property 
adjoining that of His Highness at Futtehghur, formerly oc- 
cupied by the late Hakim Mhendi, having cost nearly double 
the amount), I certainly so far approved of Colonel Goodwyn's 
designs as to submit them to your Lordship ; but now that your 
Lordship's wishes are made known to me, I have at once pointed 
out to His Highness the kind consideration shown by your 
Lordship, in desiring that no expensive improvements be made on 
his residence at present, in order that he may, when he comes of 
age, have it in his power, without much loss, to change his 
residence, should he choose to do so. 

Regarding the wish of His Highness to visit England, I have, 
in accordance with your instructions, endeavoured to wean him 
from the idea at present, by pointing out to him that during his 
state of pupilage a visit would scarcely be considered voluntary 
by the people of India, and that even among ourselves it would be 
viewed in a much more complimentary light, if postponed until he 
came of age, and able to exercise his own free will in the matter. 
Although he quite agreed in the reasonableness of the objection, 
he is still as eager as ever to carry out his intention, aod 
frequently speaks of his visit ; and no later than yesterday he told 
me of a dream he had on the subject, and described all that had 
occurred to him on landing in England t With regard to the very 
important subject of his marriage, I think that it is likely, owing 
to his altered position, from what has lately occurred, that he xn^y 
be more desirous to consult his own wishes and inclination, on tbe 
subject of the selection of a wife, than he was before, so it may be 
dropped for the present. 


I had the pleasure of seeing the Kajah of Goorg and his Chapter 
daoghter, at Benares, on my way up, and although I did not make -^ 
the least allusion to the connection, I could perceive that it was ^^^« 
not likely to be displeasing to him. The Bajah had just had an 
offer of marriage for her, from Jung Bahadoor, and was rather 
curious to ascertain how he stood in the estimation of the people 
of England ; and from what he said, I did not gather that he was 
favourably disposed to him. 

The Lieut. -Governor N.W.P. (Mr. Thomason) has just arrived 
at this station, and I have asked him to take an opportunity 
of conversing freely with His Highness on the subject of the wish 
he has expressed, to become a Christian. 

I remaiUi 

Yours, etc., 

J. S. Login. 

LoBD Dalhousib to Db. Loom. 

Gamp, Jubbbe, Feb. 10th, 1851. 

I have not been able to reply before. Under all the circum- 
stances, communication must be made to the Court of Directors, 
and until I get their reply, no final instructions can be given you. 
I shall be happy to attend to any proposals that may come for 
building at Futtehghur. Whatever may be done, must be 
regulated by what will be the future amount of the Maharajah's 
income, and not by any reference to what may have been done 
by wealthy gentlemen from Lucknow. With respect to marriage, 
I agree with you, that there is no necessity for haste in concluding 
a betrothal with an unmarriageable child, in the singular circum- 
stances in which the Maharajah now stands. I am glad you 
bave asked Mr. Thomason to see the boy. 


Chapter ^^^'ract from despatch of Secbetaby to Goyebnmbnt acknowledging 
IX« J. 8. Login's Official Beport, 


Gamp, Murum, Feb. 17th, 1861. 

The Governor-General is entirely satisfied by this statement, 
and by the documents transmitted in support of it, that no 
improper influence had, either directly or indirectly, been used 
by you, or by any of the English gentlemen who have been 
connected with His Highnesses establishment, to induce His 
Highness to abjure his original faith and to profess Christianity. 
His Lordship requests that his conviction on this head may be 
made known to yo,u, and may by you be communicated to the 

In a matter of so much moment, and one so singular, as the 
adoption of the Christian faith by a native Prince under our 
immediate guardianship, the final instructions to \^ch the 
Governor-General has alluded, cannot be issued without a 
reference to the Home authorities. A communication will 
be addressed to them by the next mail, and an immediate reply 
will be solicited. 

In the meantime, you will be so good as to acquaint the 
Maharajah, that His Highness's desire to embrace the Christian 
faith has been communicated to the Governor-General. You 
will represent to His Highness, that to relinquish the faith of his 
own people, and to adopt another creed, is a step of so great 
importance, that at his early age it is the duty of the Government 
of India, which is charged with the care and nurture of his 
youth, to see that whatever His Highness may do, shaU be done 
deliberately, and with a full knowledge of the nature and effect 
of his acts. You are to add that, under these circumstances, his 
Lordship desires to acquaint the highest authorities in England 
of the intention which His Highness has expressed, and to obtain 
their instructions for his guidance. 


Until these instractions shall be received, and until they shall Chapter 
be made known to the Maharajah, his Lordship trusts that His ^* 
Highness will not make any public declaration of his wishes, that ^°^^* 
he will not throw aside the restrictions of caste, or needlessly 
disregard the religious observances he has hitherto respected. 

. . . • Should the Maharajah continue to express an earnest 
desire to read the Bible, as a portion of his daily instruction, the 
Grovemor-General does not consider himself justified in directing 
that his wish shall be opposed, if it be manifestly sincere and 
earnest. But instruction in the tenets of the Christian faith 
should not at present be thrust upon him, if he should appear 
indifferent on the subject. For the same reason you will advise 
the Maharajah to discontinue his attendance at worship in your 
family, of which His Highness forms no part. 

You will understand that, in communicating these instructions, 
the Governor-General does not convey any intimation of an 
intention, to oppose the adopbion of the Christian faith by the 
Maharajah, if his Lordship should be left free to proceed on his 
own judgment. The Govemor-Generars object is to prevent the 
risk of His Highness acting in this matter precipitately, and on the 
mere impulse intelligible in a boy of good capacity and strong will, 
who has been placed in the peculiar circumstances which you have 
well described in your statement, now before his Lordship. 

At the same time, the Governor-General feels it his duty not to 
act finally on his own judgment, in a case so important and so 
novel, without submitting it for the consideration of the Honour- 
able Court of Directors in the first instance. 

Extract from a letter to Lobd Dalhousie. 

The Maharajah quite agrees that it is wise and proper that he 
slioiild, at present, make no changes that could possibly offend his 
people, until he has proved the strength and reahty of his con- 


Ghapfcer victions, but he is anxious to show that he can do this, ^ihont 
I^ affecting his desire to become a Chnstian. He had, of his own 
^^1. accord, before the receipt of your Lordship's letter, discontinued 
his attendance at our family prayers, as he said he thought ii 
hypocritical to appear to join in a service which, from hia 
imperfect knowledge of English, he did not sufficiently under- 
stand ; but he continues to read the Bible regularly, and have it 
explained to him. In his determination to discontinue the 
observances of the Hindoo religion, with the .exception of such 
conformity to the restrictions of caste as do no violence to his 
feelings, no change whatever has taken place. 

On the last occasion of the Sinkrat, he distinctly and 
emphatically, in my presence, and that of the Dewan, refused to 
give the usual order to the Brahmin treasurer, to pay his 
customary offering, and desired that the amount (500 rupees) 
should be set aside, on the first of every month, for charitable 

Since he declared his intention to be a Christian, a marked 
change has taken place in his habits ; he tries to apply his mind 
to his studies, and shows a wish to acquire knowledge. No 
desire has been shown by him to attract notoriety by the step he 
has taken; on the contrary, every circumstance connected with 
his determination to embrace Christianity tends to show the 
absence of any unworthy motive in doing so ; and he is equally 
free from any display of his sentiments, as from a desire to 
conceal them, although he does not hesitate to express them with 
sufficient boldness when occasions arise. 

J. S. Li. 

On the 11th June an official letter firom Sir Henry 
Elliot conveyed to Dr. Login the acquiescence of the 
Court of Directors in the desire of the Maharajah, 
which was couched in the following terms :— 


We concur entirely in the yiews expressed by Lord Dalhousie Chapter 
on this occasion, and we authorize him at his discretion, appre- *^ 
ciating most folly the wisdom of his Lordship's resolution, that in ^°^^* 
following ont these views no undue publicity, no ostentatious 
announcement would be permitted. 

Conimenting on this letter of the Court, Sir H. 
Elliot sajrs : — 

It is the Govemor-Generars wish, that if the Maharajah's 
declared desire shall not have been a transient fancy, he should 
henceforth receive every aid and guidance which can be given to 
him in following out the happy choice to which he has been led 
by the light his heart has received. 

But it is his Lordship's positive command, that this object shall 
be carried into effect without any parade or publicity, without 
any circumstances of excitement or notoriety, which may either 
lead the boy to fancy himself an object of extraordinary interest, 
or may admit of his being made so by others among us. 

The introduction of any such circumstances as these, in connec- 
tion with the step which the Maharajah has taken, could only be 
injurious to himself, and tend to qualify our assurance of his 
singleness of purpose, and of the reality of his convictions. 

His Lordship relies on your prudence and judgment for giving 
effect to these views of the Government of India, respecting the 
fature religious education of Maharajah Duleep Singh, by con- 
ducting it in a manner marked only by its earnestness and 
simplicity. There is nothing which requires to be concealed. At 
the same time the Governor-General trusts that all newspaper 
paragraphs, all communications to religious periodicals, which are 
likely to be put forth, announcing the conversion of a native 
Prince, may, so far as in you lies, be discouraged and prevented. 


Chapter It is his Lordship's earnest hope that the boy's spontaneouB 
LS« wish may prove to be rooted and stable, and that he may imbibe 
lool, ^^j;^ eagerness and perseverance that knowledge of Christian 
truth which he has thus early and unexpectedly sought. To that 
end our best and faithful exertions should now be steadily directed. 
We should content ourselves with the consciousness that we are 
labouring for good, and with the hope that it will in the end be 
fully and permanently secured. But in the meantime, his Lord- 
ship enjoins upon all concerned that they abstain from trumpeting 
abroad either the nature of their labours or anticipations of their 

LoBD Dalhousie to Maharajah Duleep Singh. 

Simla, Aug. 2tul, 1851. 

I had the honour of receiving the letter which your Highn4 
addressed to me lately, and learnt, with sincere pleasure^ the 
satisfaction your Highness had experienced, on receiving the reply 
of the Court of Directors to your wish for full instruction in the 
truths of the Christian religion. 

Your Highness will readily understand that my wish to refer 
the subject to the Court of Directors did not proceed from any 
reluctance on my part to meet your views, still less from any 
doubt of the wisdom of the step you wished to take. I was 
desirous only that it should be clearly seen that the act was your 
own, springing from your own heart, and that you had not been 
led into it hastily, and while you were yet too young to have 
deeply considered the importance of your act. I rejoice to learn 
that your Highness remains firm in your desire to be instructed in 
the doctrines of the Bible, and that you have resolved to embrace 
a faith, whose teaching, if duly practised by the help of God» will 
tend to increase your happiness in this life, and will secure it xq 
another that is to come. 


During the next cold weather I propose to return to Calcutta. Chapter 
On my way I hope to have the pleasure of meeting your High- ^^- 
ness again, 'and I will not fail to make known to Dr. Login, when ^^^* 
I am likely to be in the neighbourhood of Futtehghur. Your 
desire to visit Agra and Delhi is very proper ; they are both of them 
noble cities, containing some, works unsurpassed in beauty in any 
country in the world. The sight of them will afford your High- 
ness great pleasure. Your Highness has much to see in your own 
country before the visit to England, which your Highness so 
earnestly desires to accomplish, can be undertaken with full 
advantage to yourself. 

With every good wish for your health and happiness, 

I have the honour to be, very respectfully, 

Your Highness's faithful friend, 


Letter to Lord Dalhousie. 
My Lord, 

At the request of His Hi^mess the Maharajah Duleep Singh, I 
have the honour to enclose an autograph letter to your Lordship's 
address, which the Maharajah has drawn up with the assistance 
of his Brahmin attendant. I have been anxious that the letter 
should be as much as possible his own production, and have left 
him to express his own sentiments as far as he could. I have 
every reason to believe that the satisfaction he has expressed at 
the permission being granted to him to be educated in the 
Christian faith is most cordial and sincere, and that he is fully 
determined, under the blessing of God, to avail himself of 
every opportunity afforded him of acquiring knowledge on the 

Although, as I have already reported, the Maharajah has 


Chapter naturally shown a preference for the ministerial Tisits of the Bev. 

I^- Gopee Nauth Nundy, he has, since I explained to him your 

18ol" Lordship's desire that every ostentatious publicity on the subject 

of his religious instruction should be avoided, requested that the 

chaplain at this station (Dr. Garshore) should be invited to viait 

him, and he has accordingly done so. 

His principal reason for selecting Dr. Garshore, in preference to 
the other clergy here, has been that the latter are supported by 
an American missionary society, and could not well have avoided 
reference to his progress in their periodical reports. There 
is also another advantage in this arrangement, inasmuch as it will 
enable the Lord Bishop, at any time, to select a judicious and 
well-qualified successor to Dr. Garshore, when he leaves Futteh- 
ghur. With reference to the future training of His Highness in 
our Christian faith, your Lordship will excuse me for stating how 
cordially I shall endeavour to act in the spirit of the instructions 
which I have received on the subject, as they are in every respect 
such as I have wished them to be. Your Lordship may rest 
assured that it is my anxious desire to avoid all ostentatious 
publicity in everything relating to the Ghristian education of His 
Highness, and to conduct it in a manner " marked only by its 
earnestness and simplicity," as your Lordship requires ths^t 
it should be done. To enable me, however, to carry out these 
views effectually, it may be desirable that I should in the fixrst 
instance make known to the Lord Bishop the whole circuiTi. 
stances of the case, by sending, for his private perusal, a copy 
of my report and of the commands I have received on the 
subject, and thus ensure his advice and assistance. As I Ixs^ve 
for many years been personally known to the Bishop, 
have frequently corresponded with him, I can do this now 
more easily and without attracting any notice. I shall be gl^d to 
receiFB instructions on this point, as I hear from Dr. Carsliore 
that inquiries have already been made by the Archdeacon an the 


Having requested the Maharajah to state folly all his wishes to Chapter 
yoor Lordship, he has not omitted the opportunity of making ^^ 
known his anxiety to go to the hills next hot season, or his wish ^^^* 
to visit England a short time hence. 

I have tried to restrain his wishes in both these cases ; in the 

former, by telling him that no such comfortable accommodation 

can be available for him at any of the hill stations as he now has 

at Futtehghur, and that if permitted to go, he could only take 

with him a very small establishment. But he readily enough 

makes up his mind to this, as he rather takes pleasure in dispensing 

with a large retinue, and in adopting European habits. The reasons 

he assigns for his wish to go to the hills are, that he can apply 

more steadily to his studies in a cooler climate, and can have 

more English boys for playfellows. Although, in deference to the 

prejudices of his Hindoo attendants, he continues to eat only such 

food as he has hitherto been accustomed to, cooked by his Brahmin 

servants, he is anxious to have it served up in the European 

manner, and has asked me to allow a Mahomedan table-attendsmt 

to instruct his people, and be present to point out what is required 

at his meals. The Punjabi servants who remain in his kitchen, 

show no objections to these innovations, and readily adopt them, 

being much less prejudiced than the Hindostani bearers. 

The Maharajah himself is quite aware that particular rules in 
respect to meats and drinks are not essential to Christianity ; but, 
seeing how much importance is attached to these matters by the 
Hindoos, he does not wish to give them offence unnecessarily, and 
refrains from the use of beef. 

The Maharajah is very anxious to have the opportunity of 
meeting your Lordship, when passing down the country next cold 
season, and hopes you will give him the pleasure of receiving you 
at Futtehghur. 

J. S. L, 


Ghaptor Lord Dalhousib to Db. Loom. 


1851 SmiiA, July Slst, 1851. 

.... The Bishop's advice is all very well, but I pray yoa to 
observe, that I will not allow any authoritative interference in the 
direction of the Maharajah's religious education, either by the 
Chaplain or by the Bishop, whether directly over the boy or over 
you. Whatever is done^ must be done through you, as the 
responsible superintendent of His Highness in all respects, and 
must be reported to Government. 

If His Highness strongly urges going to the hiUs next hot 
weather, I do not know that it need be refused, but he can't have 
such guards and escort there as at Futtehghur, and I should 
certainly object to this station, with its large community. 

I do not know whether my march downwards will bring me 
actually to Futtehghur, but it will give me great pleasure to 
arrange so that I may meet His Highness somewhere. There 
can be no objection to his visiting Agra and Delhi, or travelling 
somewhere next cold season. 

Many letters, at this time, passed between the 
Governor-General and Dr. Login, regarding the Maha- 
rajah's progress, and on Lord Dalhousie notifying^ his 
intention of visiting Futtehghur, in order to meet His 
Highness, preparations were made to receive the 
Governor-General and Lady Dalhousie with due 

Up to that time, Duleep Singh had made no change 
in his custom of having his meals served to him separ- 
ately, but he now expressed a wish to sit at table ^th 


Lord and Lady Dalhousie, on tbe occasion of the ladles Chapter 
and gentlemen of the station being invited to dine at his ^g^j 
house, in order to meet the Viceregal party. He was 
also very anxious to be excused from attendance at 
the public durbar, or levSe, held by the Governor-General 
for the reception of n«itives of rank, as he wished to 
attract as little notice as possible. Special arrange- 
ments were therefore made for him to be received 
privately and without ceremony. 

LoBD Dalhousie to J. S. Loonv. 

Camp, Allahgukoa, Dec. 20/ A, 1851. 
Mt deab Loam, 

I shall be happy to see you in camp on the 24th. On the 
25th (Christmas Day) we shall reach Futtehgbnr. I shall be 
very happy to receive the Maharajah privately, if he prefers it, 
and we shall be equally happy to dine with you as you propose. 
The question of his presence at table I leave entirely to his own 
wishes and feelings ; whatever conclusion he may form, I shall be 
equally content. 

Yours very truly, 


P.S. I expect to meet at Futtehghur, M. Bochussen, late 
Grovemor-General of Java. Lord Stanley may probably be there 
also. If either of them should arrive before me, you would very 
greatly oblige me by rendering them any attention you can. 

Yours, &c., 


Chapter Lobd Dalhousie to the Mahabajah Duleep Singh. 



Gamp, ALiiAHauKGA, Dec. 2Ath, 1851. 

It has given me sincere pleasure to hear from Dr. Login of 
your Highness's good health, and to receive from him the ver^' 
kind and friendly letter which you have done me the favour of 
addressing to me. It vrill afford great pleasure both to Lady 
Dalhousie and myself to dine vrith your Highness on Saturday 
next ; and during the time v^e remain at Futtehghur I shall hope 
to have the honour of seeing you at the time and in the manner 
most agreeable to your Highness, and of visiting the improve- 
ments you have been making around your residence. In the 
hope of soon having the pleasure of meeting your Highness 

I have the honour to be, with much respect. 

Your Highness's very faithful friend, 


It could not fail to have been touching to the 
Governor-General to observe the almost filial confidence 
reposed in him, by the boy whom he now saw dethroned 
and exiled by his decree, and Lord Dalhousie's thought- 
ful care for the comfort and happiness of the Maha- 
rajah, was very perceptible. He inspected, personaUy, 
the various arrangements of the establishment, and 
the laying out of the grounds, &c., . . • . ezpre6slng 
his cordial approval of all he saw. He showed himself 
throughout so thoroughly kind-hearted and genial in 


maimer, that it was hard to realize this was the man Cb^tor 
whom his detractors regard as uncompromisingly frigid ^^ 
and autocratic. 

The Dewan and Fakeer, having received permission 
to return to the Punjab, took their departure, followed 
by the good wishes of alL The Maharajah presented 
the Dewan with a handsome Arab horse, as a mark 
of his favour and recfard, and the Fakeer with a set 
of tents and 500 rupeea The Brahmin porohtU 
(priest) had ah-eady left, by the Maharajah's wish. 

Before leaving, he placed in Login's hands the horo- 
scope, or nativity, which had been cast at Duleep 
s4'B bWh. Jwhich W l«» in hi. charge. 

The Lieutenant-Governor of the North -West Pro- 
vinces (Mr. James Thomason) had visited the 
Maharajah some time previously, and, after several 
conversations with His Highness, had been most 
fevourably impressed with the earnestness of his 
convictions and his steady purpose to be educated in 
the Christian faitL 

During all this time of probation, he continued 
inflexible in his resolve, and never tired of the restraints 
of study, when the subject wds religion ; but his natural 
disposition to shirk anything in the shape of steady 
application was often most amusingly displayed when 
other branches of education were in question. Every 
sort of expedient had to be resorted to in order to keep 
alive his interest ; he would struggle manfiilly for a 
time, gradually grow hopelessly conftised and stupified, 



Chapter and end by suddenly falling sound asleep amongst his 

^ books I 
1851 "^^^'**' 

He had great natural acuteness, and it was wonderful 
how he imbibed information, when he could obtain it 
in a pleasant form, without the trouble of applying his 
mind. To effect this, it became usual to have games 

on general knowledge, history, geography, kc 

in the evenings, when the JVIaharajah was present 
The questions and answers were on cards; whoever 
answered correctly being the winner of a prize. Mra 
Login was provided with constant occupation in the 
preparation of fresh series of these, as the Maharajah 
progressed in knowledge, and the prizes and forfeits 
were a source of much amusement to her visitors and 
guests, some of whom may remember the excitement 
and eagerness of the boy to show his proficiency. 

BeforQ his shyness in speaking English could be got 
over, a system of fines was established for every word 
of Hindostani spoken in his presence by any person, 
the amount to go to some particular charity. The 
Maharajah's boyish delight at this scheme Tvas 
great. To be revenged for the constant fines levied 
on himself at first, he set himself cunningly to entrap 
the unwaiy, by feigning not to comprehend some par- 
ticular word in a sentence addressed to him; the 
Hindostani word was then politely supplied, and the 
victim was only made aware of his slip by the shout 
of laughter and demand for the fine which instctntiv 
followed from the deUghted boy. The amount t.f 


pocket-money allowed to him, and his companions Chapter 


in study, was regulated by the number of marks 

gained, and this natm^y aroused emulation amongst 

When Lord and Lady Dalhousie came to Futtehghm* 
during Christmastide, 1851, it was a great surprise to 
the Govemor-Greneral to observe the change that a 
year had wrought on tljp boy he had seen for the first 
time at Lahore. From constant association with 
English ladies and gentlemen, he had rapidly acquired 
the usages of society, and his chivalrous courtesy to ladies 
became remarkable. The following occurrence is one 
instance in point : — 

There was a subdued excitement among the Banee's 
people when it became noised about that Duleep Singh 
was forsaking the Sikh religion, and seeking to learn 
the new faith ; of course, if it were so, then the Shah- 
zadah would natiirally become of more importance, 
and would be looked upon by all Sikhs as the true 
representative of the KhAfea Raj ! It was reported 
that the Eanee encouraged these ideas, and it was 
observed that the little boy had begun to take upon 
himself consequential airs, and to make remarks 
derogatory to his uncle.* There was an avoidance 

** On its coming to the knowledge of the Govemor-General that the Shahzadah 
had been asenming airs of importance and announcing, imchecked by his relatives 
and attendants, '' that he would be placed on the guddet by the Kh&lsa, as soon 

T 2 


Chapter of his society also perceptible of late, which was very 
- ' unusual. 

The Sikhs attach little importance to the strict preser- 
vation of caste, but the Rajpoots are very punctilious; 
and no doubt the Ranee wished to ascertain for certain 
if the rumours she heard were true, for she had asked 
Mrs. Login more than once why the Maharajah had 
discontinued his visits to her ? 

One day, when on her way to visit the Ranee, Mrs. 
Login met the Maharajah and his party hawking in 
the park. On learning whither she was bent, he afiked 
with some eagerness if he might accompany her, as 
he did not care to go alone. She agreed, and sent a 
chobedar to announce the coming visit. 

They were received, and announced, by the little 
Shahzadah and the Ranee's handsome young brother, 
Meah Ootum. There was unusual constraint observ- 
able during the visit ; even the little Shahzadah 
seemed not at ease, as if expectant of something 
about to happen. The Ranee oflTered refreshments. 

as Duleep Singh went to England as a Christian,*' Sir H. Elliot was directed to 
inform Dr. Login that the Banee must be warned of the consequences of per* 
mitting the child to hold such language. 

" You will inform the Banee that the Riy of the Punjab is at an end for eTer, and 
that any contemplation of the restoration of her son, or of anybody else, to 
sovereignty there is a crime against the State. It is her duty to instruct her son 
accordingly. If on any future occasion, either she or her son is detected in ca< 
pressing or entertaining expectations of restoration to power, or to any oth^ 
position than that which he now occupies, the consequences will be imraedtate 

and disastrous to his interests "—OffidcU Utter, dated Simia, JtUf, 23nf 



and called for finiit-sherbet, for which she was famous. Ch^fter 
The tray appeared with only one glass upon it; this ^^ 
the Ranee filled and offered with deep reverence to her 
Sovereign ; but the Maharajah, who, amongst other 
lessons, had lately learnt courtesy to women, handed 
the glass to Mrs. Login instead. Expecting that a 
second glass would be brought for the Maharajah 
presently, Mrs Login accepted it, drank part of the 
contents, and replaced it on the tray. Lnmediately it 
was refilled, and once more presented by the Ranee to 
the, Maharajah, while significant glances passed be- 
tween the brother and sister. Perceiving at once that 
a premeditated insult was intended, Mrs. Login said 
quietly, in English, " Don't drink it, Maharaj ! " . To 
her surprise he rose, and turning to her with a 
courteous salutation, he took the glass in his hand and 
drank off the contents, then, turning on his heel, he 
abruptly left the house, with the slightest possible 
gesture of farewell to his sister-in-law, who gazed after 
him alarmed at the result of ^er experiment ! 

On taking her leave directly afterwards, Mrs. Login 
found the young Maharajah waiting outside to escort 
her home. She then asked him why he took the glass, 
when he saw that an insult was intended by forcitig 
him to drink after her? " What?" he replied, his feyes 
flashing with indignation, "you would havq me let 
them insult you too ! Now they will see that I honour 
jrou, and am not ashamed to show that I have broken 


Chapter It was truly a great proof, in one of his up-bringing, 
^ of the strength of his convictions, as well as of the 
chivalry of his nature. 

About this time the Maharajah brought to Mrs. 
Login a very queer-looking brass idol, asking her to 
take it out of his sight, as he did not want to see it, 
now that he had given up praying to it. He added, 
with a smile, " If it had been of gold or silver it would 
not have been left so long ; but it is the only one left 
now, all the valuable ones have disappeared one after 
another as they saw I despised them ; but they are 
welcome to them." This same misshapen object 
of worship is still treasiured as a relic of past 

Duleep Singh was anxious to prove that he was no 
longer a Sikh, by cutting off the long tress of hair 
which he, in common with all Sikhs, wore twisted up 
into a ball above the brow, and covered with the bright 
coloured under-turban. This he thought would make 
him more like his English boy companions ; and it was 
much against his will that he was persuaded by Login 
to defer the shearing of his locks until he had been, for 
at least a year, under probation. When at length his 
hair was allowed to be cut off, and he brought it to Mrs. 
Login as a memento, it was long and abundant as a 

By his own request, he, with several of his people, 
was present at the baptism of Login's little son ; 
though he was much disappointed at not being allowed 


to stand proxy for Sir Hemy Lawrence, who was god* Chapter 
father. He did not think it need matter that he was ^' 
not yet baptized himself I 

He was greatly delighted at the prospect of spending 
the hot weather at Mussoorie, and the preceding cold 
weather in visiting A^ra and DelhL 



Chapter The camp of the young Sikh Maharajah was an object 
^' of great interest, both to Europeans and natives, at the 
' various stations it passed through. It formed, in 
effect, a very pretty picture, with its red-and-white 
striped tents pitched in the form of a quadrangle, and 
its Lt-poles, encased in silver, glittelg inle sun. 
The two largest tents, intended for the use of His 
Highness and his Governor, stood opposite to one 
another, and were connected by wide semianaSy or ^ 
awnings, forming a favourite lounging-place for "the ' 
occupants during the hot hours of the day. There 
was a double set of these tents, which made 
"marching" an altogether luxurious mode of pro- 
ceeding. The party were enabled, by this means, to 
start in the morning, leaving the one set in which they 
had passed the night still standing on the ground, 
while after a pleasant ride of nine or ten miles they 
found a duplicate encampment all ready for them, with 
breakfast prepared, and awaiting their arrival 

The favoxu-ite occupation in the afternoon^ in camp. 


was to inspect the horses, and see them groomed and Chapter 
fed ; to walk down the lines where they all stood in jmjTV^ 
perfect order, picketed with head-and-heel ropes, and 
to feed them with pieces of sugar-cane provided for 
the purpose, which they looked for with the greatest 

The elephants, too, had to receive a visit, and be 
oflfered biscuits and lumps of sugar. One of these 
animals was particularly docile, and constantly to be 
found acting nurse to its inahouVs baby, which lay 
asleep between its huge fore-feet. It was curious to 
watch the great beast gently fanning the child, and 
brushing away the flies from its face with a branch it 
had broken off the nearest tree, and which it held with 
its trunk ; while with its fiinny little eyes it meantime 
kept a sharp look-out on the fast accumulating pile of 
enormous chupatttes, which the child's parents were 
engaged in baking, and w^hich it knew well were 
destined for its own supper. Sometimes, if wakeful 
and lively, the baby would crawl away a little distance 
from its guardian, but the latter — aware that its 
allowance of chupatties depended on its attention to its 
duties as nursery-maid — would never allow the little 
one to get beyond reach, but lifted it back to its 
former position with its trunk in the gentlest manner 

A. fine flock of goats which accompanied the camp, 
and were brought up to the tents night and morning 
to be milked, were a great attraction to the boya, and 


Chapter were especial pets of Tommy Scott^ who liked nothing 
^^~* better than to get his companions to go with him 
* exploring the villages adjacent to the encampment^ in 
search of handsome specimens to add to the number. 
By the time the march was over, this flock had conse- 
quently attained considerable proportions. 

The villagers showed great eagerness to see the 
Sikh Maharajah,, but were always perfectly civil and 
respectful. Beggars were kept at a distance, but as it 
was only right that the poor of the districts through 
which he passed should benefit, a sum of money was 
sent, in the Maharajah's name, to the civil magistrate, 
or other authority, for distribution among deserving 

The number of followers with even a small camp is 
astonishing, as each hanger-on is accompanied by his 
whole family. The encampment, therefore, presented 
a lively, busthng aspect in the evenings, when all were 
assembled round the various camp-fires, chattering and 
cooking the last meal, before rolling themselves up for 
the night. 

One evening, after dark, a tremendous uproar was 
heard in camp, and every one rushed out to see what 
was the matter. The word was passed from mouth to 
mouth that a grass-cutter's child had just been carried 
off by a wolf oTof ita moftert ar J Parties ^ 
sent in all directions, and a strict search made all ni&fht. 
with no r^ult ; but at day-dawn, in a neighbooLf 
guUy, the skull of the child was found — picked clean ! 


The mother had heen sitting at the fire baking Chapter 
chupatties, with the infant in her lap, when the ^^ 
wolf, taking advantage of the darkness, came up 
behind her, put his head over her shoulder, and 
seized the infent. It was only the shriek of her 
opposite neighbour, who saw the deed, that told her 
what had happened. 

Next day it was pitifiil to see the poor mother 
trudging along, as before, among her companions, with 
all her household goods on her head, but vnthout the 
child, whom she had been wont to carry also, seated 
astride on her hip. 

For some time after this incident there were 
perpetual wolf-scares in the encampment ; on one 
occasion the whole camp was upset in the middle of 
the night by Mrs. Login's English nurse, who declared 
positively that the Maharajah and Shahzadah had 
been eaten up in their beds by a pack of wolves ^ for she 
had seen several looking out of the door of their tent, 
and licking their lips 1 It was some little time before 
the wolves in question were identified as a pack of 
greyhounds belonging to His Highness, which he, in 
his eagerness to go out coursing early the next 
morning, had privately ordered to be brought before 
dawn into the outer division of his tent. Seen in the 
faint light, under the circumstances, the woman's 
mistake might be excused. 

The Maharajah made a great many purchases from 
the Delhi jewellers, who brought their tempting wares 

284^. sm JOHX Loom akd dttleep singh. 

Chapter to the camp, and not caring to part with his treasures 
J^' to the care of the Toshkhana that evening, he begged 
' Mrs. Login to keep them for him till morning. She 
felt rather nervous at the charge, as some of the rings, 
&c., were of considei-able value ; but,, knowing that the 
sentries were very alert, she agreed, and placed the 
articles in her dressing-case, which she put under her 
charpoy. Before getting into bed, she unfastened the 
long chain of her little black-and-tan terrier from the 
leg of the charpoy y and passed it through the strap of 
her dressing-case. She was awakened by a succession 
of noises — violent barking, shouts, musket shots, and a 
sudden yell, followed by a great commotion ! Her first 
thought was for the dressing-case — it was gone ! but 
there stood the dog, frantic with rage, tugging 
furiously at one end of his chain, the other being in 
some mysterious manner passed out under the tent, 
outside which the box lay safe on the ground. She 
soon knew that a robbery had been attempted, but the 
thief had been foiled, and had made his escape, after 
dropping his prize on discovering its unexpected 
pendant! He had effected his noiseless entrance hv 
crawling under the tightly pegged tent ; the faint 
light burning showed him the dressing-case, but w^t 
the small dog coiled at a distance from it. He had a 
very narro:w escape, for, on rising to his feet, outside the 
tent, he fell over a servant sleeping there, who made a 
grasp at him ; but the miscreant had so plentifully 
anointed his naked body with oil^ that heslipped through 


the hands of the other like a fish. He did not, however, Chapter 
escape unscathed, for drops of blood for some distance ^' 
on the ground showed that the sentry's shot had 
wounded him. 

At Agra, the Maharajah was the guest of Mr. 
Thomason, Lieutenant-Gk)vemor of the North- West 
Provinces. As His Highness was travelling privately, 
by his own request, no salutes were fired, but every 
attention was paid him by the chief military and 
civil authorities. Here he paid a visit to the Taj and the 
Fort, but took most interest in the electric telegraph, 
and the printing and type foundry at Secundra, five 
miles firom Agra, which he visited twice. A break&st 
was given in his honour by the English conmiunity in 
the Tq; itself! 

The rich jewellers' shops in Delhi were a great 
attraction to Duleep Singh, far more so even than the 
Jumna Musjid, or the Palace of the Moguls. He was 
but a boy after all, and took more delight in the divers -" • - / 

at the great tank than in any historical building, 

however magnificent. 

Meerut and Boorkee, the head-quarters of the Ganges 

Canal Works, under Proby Cautley, were reached in 

due time ; here Tom Login took him, for the first time, 

on a railroad down to the works. 

Being anxious to have a peep at the iamed Hurdwar, 
sacred to all Hindoos, arrangements were ma^le for hi« 
doing so incognito^ the number of devotees from the 
Purijab, and of pilgrims from all parts, being so great that 


Chapter the authorities feaxed a demonstration. The carriageB 

-^^*^. and escort were, therefore, sent in one direction, as a 

* decoy to the multitude, while the Maharajah made a 

hurried visit to the Gh4ts on an elephant. He was 

only recognized, when leaving, by a crowd of his 

former subjects, who surrounded his elephant, hailing 

him with enthusiasm. 

Heavy rains having now set in, a rapid march was 
made to Deyra Dhoon, where he encamped for some 
time before proceeding up to Mussoorie, his escort 
remaining below at Deyra, the " lines " of the 
Grovemor-General's bodyguard there being made 
over to them. 

As the object of Duleep Singh's temporary residence 
in the hills was to enable him to pursue his studies 
more effectually. Login did not consider it advisable 
that he should have his mind distracted by the gaieties 
usually going on there. He therefore turned a deaf 
ear to the numerous applications for aid in getting up 

races, theatricals, balls, &c But feeling it right 

to do all he could for the social enjoyment and pleasure 
of the community, he endeavoured to promote pleasant 
out-door meetings, such as picnics, cricket matches, and 
archery meetings, by giving handsome prizes on the 
latter occasions, providing a good band to play on the 
Mall, giving frequent musical parties, prizes to the 
boys' school, getting up a museum of natural history. 
&c. ; during the second visit of His Highnp^yt to 
Mussoorie, he also arranged a series of twenty lectures 


on various subjects/ to be given by qualified lectuieis Chapter 


(many of tbem officers in the service). The small fee 

for each (fifty rupees), given by His Highness, was 
almost invariably applied by the lecturer to scnne 
useful object, such as enlargement of the church, library, 
or dispensary, thus benefiting the station generaUy. 
These lectures were much enjoyed by Duleep Singh. 

At one of the picnics given at a fiivourite spring 
near Mussoorie the cloth was spread on the only piece 
of level ground on the feoe of the Idiud^ but it did 
not lie very smooth, as the grass beneath was rough 
and tussocky. When the guests were seating them- 
selves, and joking over the inequalities of their board, 
sudden consternation was excited by a wriggling 
motion under the cloth, — " Samph ! Scimph ! " t shouted 
the natives, and a stampede took place. Then ensued 
a Airious attack on the table-cloth and dishes, with 
walking-sticks and laities borrowed fi"om the jampaneefs; 
when a Aill-grown cobra made its appearance from 
under the cloth, hissing furiously in a last effort to 
raise its head to strike. At this moment, a well-directed 

• List of Lectukeb: — 

A ati t wom y (8). Chemistzy. 

Fine Arts. Electricity. 

Heteoiology. Ancient Histonr of Ixtdia. 

Katnnl Pfailoeopliy. Zoology of Hmularu. 

KatoFai HIstofy. P^caliaritaes of Englibb Lftogoa^. 

Katoral Theology. litentnre of tiue Pment \Hy. 

Habits of Bees. Botany. 

t Snake. 


Chapter blow from Bhajun Lai broke its neck. Suspended 

.^^' in triumph from the branch of a tree, it was found to 
1852-54. ^ « . 1 1 1 , . 

measure many feet m length, and was an object of great 

curiosity and awe to the children of the party ! 

The snake had been fast asleep in one of the hoUowB 

of the ground, and was only awakened to a sense 

of his novel position by the sound of voices, and by a 

large salad-bowl being suddenly deposited on his head! 

It said a good deal for the nerves of the ladies that 

they were persuaded ta sit down again, and lunch on 

what could be collected of the feast from the dSbris; 

but the meal did not lack gaiety, for all reserve and 

formality had been put to flight. Duleep Singh and 

his companions, proud of their own prowess, made a 

great parade of their latties, which they kept in their 

hands ready for foture emergencies. 

Correspondence between the Govebnob-Genebal and J. S. Logix. 

MussooBiE, May 10th, 1852. 
My Lobd, 

At the request of His Highness, I beg to forward the 
enclosed note. I am happy to say that the Maharajah's portraii 
has at last been finished by Mr. Beechey, and that it has beer 
despatched to Calcutta ; your Lordship will, I hope, be able to 
gratify His Highness's wish to possess your portrait, when a 
favourable opportunity occurs. 

I am glad to say that the Maharajah continues to enjoy his 
residence in the hills greatly. I have availed myself of the 
opportunity of getting a drawing-master and music-master to give 


him lessons, and he really makes good progress. He now speaks Ghapter 
English with fluency, and mach more correctly, and with better 2* 
pronunciation, than natives of Central India generally. He takes 1852-64. 
great pleasure in the society of English boys, of whom a few 
come every Saturday from Mr. Haddock's school to join him 
at play, and I have also been able to secure him constant 
companions in the two sons of Major Boileau, of the Artillery, 
who come to study Urdu with him. They have just arrived from 
England ; and as they are very intelligent lads of fifteen and six- 
teen, who appear to have been carefully educated, and are very 
diligent and attentive to their Urdu studies, I have little doubt 
that their example will be in every way beneficial to Hi^ 

From all that I have seen of the Maharajah's disposition, I am 
the more satisfied as to the great advantage and stimulus of 
example in his case. His disposition is naturally indolent, and 
nothing but his strong good sense, and his desire to be on an 
equality in knowledge and accomplishments with lads of his own 
age, enables him to overcome the natural slothfulness of his 
character. It is on this account that I am so anxious that he 
should be permitted to visit England, as he so earnestly desires 
it, while he is young, and while he can have an opportunity of 
mixing with lads of his own age, and incur less risk of being 
spoiled by too great attention. 

As His Highness's residence is at some distance from Mussoorie, 

he lives as quiet and retired a life as he did at Futtehghur, 

enjoying, however, all the advantages of the delightful climate, 

and the active out-door exercise which it enables him to take. I 

have been able to clear a sufficient level space for a playground 

OQ the Manor HouSe estate, so as to admit of his playing cricket, 

in which he takes great delight. Having overcome the difficulty 

of residing English, he now takes much more pleasure in his 

lessons, and makes greater progress. On the subject of his desire 

to be educated as a Christian, his determination continues 



Chapter unchanged, and his progress in religious knowledge is fully as 
^* great as that of most Christian boys of his age. 

1862-64. ^g ^]^Q distance at which His Highness resides from Mussoorie 
prevents the regular attendance of a clergyman, his religious 
instruction is almost entirely conducted by Mr. Guise ; but I am 
in hopes that the Bev. Mr. Dawson, of Landour, may also be 
able to visit him during his stay here. After we left Futteh- 
ghur, the Maharajah regularly joined us at table, and now 
takes his meals with Mr. Ouise and Master Scott, occasionallv 
inviting Major Boileau's sons and some of Mr. Maddock's pupils, 
and sometimes coming over to our bungalow, at a short distance, 
Jio dine with us. He generally eats the Punjabi dishes to which 
he has been accustomed, but he is evidently acquiring the taste 
of an English boy with great rapidity.* With respect to the 
Shahzadah, I am glad to give a good report. Ever since he came 
under my charge I have observed a certain degree of distrust in 
his manner, and high ideas of his rank and importance. These 
had been rather increased than diminished since the Maharajah 
expressed his determination to be educated as a Christian ; and 
it was pretty evident that these ideas were encouraged, if not by 
his mother (who is really, I believe, very well-meaning acil 
thoroughly respectable), at least by her attendants. I hailed, 
therefore, the opportunity of the Maharajah's temporary resi- 
dence on the hills to separate the boy for a time from sucj 
influences. The manner in which the poor little fellow had froi. 
his infancy been brought up, separated from all companions of bi*^ 
own age, and taught to consider all around him at Lahore as lii^ 
enemies, was of itself sufficient to account for much of the d:> 
trust and selfishness apparent in his character; and as thef* 
feelings, if permitted to gain strength, would, under his peculi.- 

* The Maharajah has never tasted wine in any form, and from his recoU*^^*. 
of the effects of intoxication on his uncle, Jowahir Singh, he appears to ent^it. 
a dread of being habituated to its use. — J. S. L. 


circomstances and position, canse him much nnhappiness as a Chapt^er 
man, and perhaps be productive of other inoonveniences, I con- ^* 
sidered it of great importance to eradicate them if I could. To i^2-64. 
effect this, I have taken a step which I trust your Lordship will 
approve, and which, so far as I can judge from a short trial, is 
likely to be successful. 

As it seemed desirable that young Tommy Scott should have 
the benefit of regular school work and emulation, while at Mus- 
soorie, I determined to allow the Shahzadah also to go for a few 
hours daily, not only to enjoy the benefit of Mr. Haddock's 
exceUent tuition, and to allow Mr. Guise more time to devote to 
the Maharajah, but also to become acquainted with boys of his 
own age, and to join in their sports and amusements. 

As the boys are all sons of gentlemen in the service, and are 
carefully looked after by Mr. Maddock, the Shahzadah's ideas of 
his dignity have not received too rude a shock on being sent 
to school, while the natural feeling of equality on which boys of 
that age meet on the playgroxmd are likely, I think, to have a 
wholesome effect upon him. Mr. Maddock has kindly entered 
into my views with respect to the boy, and is careful to prevent 
any undue deference being shown to him on account of his rank ; 
and as the hours at which he attends are not those when religious 
instruction is given, any objections on that point are obviated. 
The little fellow appears to like the arrangement very much ; he 
makes good progress with his work, enjoys the society of his 
schoolfellows, and joins in their amusements with great delight. 

I may add, that I am more than ever careful to avoid any 
appearance of restraint in his religious observances, and tliat he 
and his people are not in any way interfered with in this rebjiect, 
but, on the contrary, every care is taken to avoid offence to their 
prejudices in any way. It is curious that the priests have never 
taken any trouble to make the boy a Sikh, by adminiHtering the 
Pahul to him, by which alone he could become a Sikh. Tlie 
Kanee has lost caste by marrying a Sikh, and her [K'ople do not 

V 2 


Chapter eat with her in consequence ; nor do they eat with the Shahzadah 
X, — the son of a Sikh. 

1852-54, J foQi g^pQ this absence from his mother will do the boy good; 
he is getting older, and will gain self-reliance. By the time he 
sees her again they will probably have been separated ten months. 

I have, &c., 

J. S. L. 

The Most Noble the Mabqxjis of Dalhousie. 

GOVEBNBiEKT HousE, Jufic 7th, 1852. 

Mt deab Login, 

All that you are doing in regard to the Maharajah seems 
to be very judicious, and considering birth and early habits, 
I think you have very good reason to be satisfied with his pro* 
gress, and with the results of your care of him in all respects. K 
you could only keep down his fat ! But there you don't set the 
best of examples ! 

I see no objection to the line you have taken with the Shah- 
zadah; quite the contrary. It is calculated to do him great 
good, if directed with tact. So far your trip to the hills has been 
very successful. Your friend Fraser * has not only turned up a 
trump, but the ace of trumps. He has gained great distinction in 
Burmah, and will, I have no doubt, achieve more if he has the 

Yours very truly, 


* Colonel Hugh Fraser, Bengal Engineers ; afterwards in militaty oommaiid 
the fort at Agra, when besieged by the mutineers in 1857. 


LoBD DaIiHOUsie to the Mawakajah. 
(On the receipt of the portrait of His Highnees.) 

GOVEKKMENT HousB, JiUy llth, 1852, 

At last, after a long delay upon the river, yonr Highness's Cluster 
portrait has arrived. It is in excellent condition, not at all X« 
injured by the weather. It is very like you, and does great credit 1852-64. 
to Mr. Beechey as an artist. Your Highness has done me really 
a great favour in offering to me this likeness of yourself. If it 
please God that I should live till I am old, I shall look upon it 
with strong feelings long after my connection with this country 
shall have been dissolved, and always with a renewal of the 
interest which I feel in yourself, and in everything belonging to 
your fate and fortunes. You have gratified me, too, by asking 
for my portrait in return. I shall have great pleasure in sending 
one to you as soon as I can get one worthy of your acceptance. 
But Mr. Beechey, I fear, won't come to Calcutta, and there is no 
good artist here. 

On Monday I start for Eangoon, to make arrangements for the 
war.' As I hate the sea and everything belonging to it, and as 
the weather will be very bad, I do not look forward with pleasure 
to the voyage. 

Your Highness will have heard that many of your countrymen 
have volunteered to go to Burmah, and I greatly hope they will 
have an opportunity of meeting the Burmese, and of giving them 
a lesson, which they are very well able to do. 

I beg you to believe me, my dear Maharajah, 

Your Highness's sincere and faithful friend, 


To His Highness the Maharajah Duleef Singh. 


Chapter Finding the companionship of Major Boileau's sons 
■-• most beneficial to the Maharajah, Login proposed that 
they should accompany him to Futtehghur, and pursue 
their studies under Mr. Guise, undertaking to defray 
all their expenses untU they were old enough to enter 
Rborkee College. He had found the experiment of 
allowing the Shahzadah to mix with English boys most 
successful, the only difficulty now experienced being to 
get him away from the playground ! 

LoBD Dalhousie to the Maharajah. 
{On the receipt of a pencil sketch forwarded by Dr. Login.) 

Government House, Sept. 2Ath, 1852. 

The drawing which your Highness was so good as to send to 
Lady Dalhousie shall be given to her as soon as she returns from 
Ceylon, where she has been obliged to pass the hot season from 
ill-health. She will, I am sure, be much pleased by your 
Highnesses attention to her. 

The drawing itself shows a progress most credit&ble to you. I 
cannot advise you too strongly to cultivate the art ; it will be h 
resource to you in many various forms, both in the house and out 
of doors. 

When I was a boy, like yourself, I foolishly neglected the 
opportunities I had of acquiring it, and a thousand times sinct.* 
have I regretted it when I desired to possess a sketch of soir.c 
scene which I admired among the many beautiful and. the in&i;\ 
fatuous places I have visited, and which, if I could have used my 
pencil, I might have preserved by the labour of half an hour« 


I am BO rejoiced to hea)r from Dr. Login that yoa have enjoyed Chapter 
your stay at Mussoorie, and that you are really getting on with X* 
EngHsh, though not quite so well with other studies. Pray 1852-54, 
persevere — you have a great deal to learn yet before you can be 
considered a well-instructed gentleman, and nothing but persever- 
ance will do it. 

Your interest in the conduct of your countryman is very 
pleasing to me. Their volunteering for Burmah gave me great 
satisfaction, and I have been glad to reward them for it by 
allowing two regiments, the 4th Sikh Local Regiment and the 
Loodiana Regiment, to go to Burmah. The first goes im- 
mediately. I have perfect confidence in them. The British 
never had braver enemies than your countrymen, and I am 
confident that they will show the same bravery novi that they 
fight upon our side. 

Shere Singh Attareewallah, who is now confined in Fort 
William, was very anxious to go also. I would not permit him 
to do so. He was an unfaithful and bad servant to your 
Highness, as well as a faithless friend to the British Government, 
and I would, therefore, not allow him to have the honour of 
taking part in a war on our behalf. 

In the hope of hearing again from your Highness by-and-bye, 

I beg to assure you that I am always 

Your Highness's sincere and faithful friend, 

To His Highness the Mahabajah Dctleef Singh. 

Lord Dalhousie to Db. Looin. 

Government House, Sept, 2ith, 1852. 
Mt dbab Login, 

I had the pleasure of receiving your letter of the ninth, en- 
closing one from the Maharajah, to which I now send a reply. 


Chapter The sketch is really nicely done, and if it was, as you say, not 
^« doctored by the master, it does him great credit. All yon say 

18o2-64. q£ 2^g progress, and of the Shahzadah, is more favourable than 
could be looked for. If you cannot make the Maharajah 
industrious or learned, you will, at all events, have given him the 
means of finding interests and occupations for himself, if he chooser 
to have recourse to them. 

I am an advocate for his going to England, and shall do my 
best to persuade the Court to it ; and if it should help to a marriage 
between him and little Coorg, I shall be very glad, for it wiU 
reconcile much which would otherwise be a considerable per- 
plexity both in her case and his. I would not renew the overtures 
for marriage just at present, because it might look as if he had 
been moved to it by the notice taken of her in England. The 
Eajah will return in a few months, and you can then propose it 
to the Government, if the Maharajah wishes to re-open nego- 

I have been greatly disgusted with the notoriety they have 
given to this man in England, though I had carefully provided 
against it here, and had warned them on the subject. It ha< 
been calculated only to turn the girl's head, and his too, for he 
\vill now be more convinced than ever of his accomplishing his 
object of marrying her to an English nobleman. Whether he 
would prefer a Maharajah pucka to a nobleman in prospect, 1 
don't know I nor do I feel sure that the Maharajah would do 
well to arrange any marriage until he has seen the yonn»; 
lady ; for, as he is a Christian, and can't get Banees in duph* 
cate, he may as well see how he Ukes her first! The little 
heathen sister, whom Jung Bahadoor took away with him to 
Nepal, was really very pretty. The orthodox one was rot 
nearly so good-looking 1 

Consider these points, and let me know what you think. 

You are aware that I have been most anxious that there should 
be no fuss or display connected with Duleep's profession of 



Christianity, in order that I might feel satisfied in my conscience Chapter 
that the boy had not been, unintentionally by ns, or unconsciously ^ 
to himself, led into the act by any other motives than that of lo62-64. 
conviction of the truth. To that end your management of the 
matter has been most judicious and highly satisfactory to me. I 
should wish that course steadily pursued. I consider that the 
Coorg christening in St. James's Chapel, with royal godfather 
and godmothers, and the name of Victoria given her, has been a 
great mistake, calculated to make the child regard a sacrament 
as a Court pageant, and to lead all the world to believe fas I 
verily believe myself) that the father's motive was not so much 
that his child should be an " heir of salvation," as that she should 
be a god-daughter of Queen Victoria I I do not think I am un- 
charitable in concluding that the man could have no higher 
motive who, while he was leading with one hand his elder child 
to Christianity, gave over the younger with the other to Hinduism 
and Jung Bahadoor ! Let us avoid all such reproach. If Duleep 
is to go to England, let him be quietly baptized before he goes, 
and by his own name of Duleep Singh. Indeed, I am prepared 
to advise his being baptized now, as soon as his minister can 
declare that he is sufficiently instructed, and is willing to receive 
the rite. If he is sufficiently instructed, and is willing to be 
baptized at all, he is quite old enough to take the obligations 
directly upon himself, and to be baptized without the intervention 
of godfathers and godmother. 

Dr. Carshore goes to Jhelum. He is to be succeeded by Mr. 
Jay, whom I have never seen, but whom I understand to be a 
learned, gentle, and pious man. 

I shall be glad to hear from you on this subject after your 
return to Futtehghur. There will be no objections to the Maha- 
rajah being accompanied by his young companions. 

I am in a difficulty about my portrait for Duleep. There is 
nobody here who can paint a good one. Mr. Beechey can't be 
got, and I should not like to send a bad one. Do you think the 


Chapter Maharajah would be disappointed by my delaying, in order to 

^» get a good artist, either here or in England ? 
1862-64* J Q^^j^ ^gj^ ijj^y yQ^j.g^ 


Login wrote Lord Dalhousie, telling him that the 
Maharajah had begun regularly to attend church, very 
-quietly, and without any attendance beyond Bhajun 
Lai, who at his own desire accompanied him. 

I am fully satisfied that the Maharajah's knowledge of Christian 
truth, and the sincerity of his convictions are such as to qaalifv 
him for baptism, whenever it is thought expedient ; and I intend, 
during the visit of Archdeacon Pratt to us next week, to ask his 
opinion, after he has had some opportunities of conversing freely 
with the boy. 

If the Court give permission for the Maharajah to visit England, 
it would be a great advantage to him that it should be after your 
Lordship had gone home, so as to have the benefit of your ad\nce 
as to the manner in which he should be received, and to prevent 
him from being brought forward prominently until his education 
is further advanced, and he is enabled to take his place in society 
in a manner which will be creditable to himself and all connect^rd 
with him. 

LoBD Dalhousie to Dr. Login. 

Government House, Oct. Ibth, 1852. 
Dear Login, 

Just a line to say that I know no reason why the Maharaja!. 

should not go to church when he wishes it, and every reason whj 

he should, his mind being made up. 

I quite approve of all you are doing. 

In haste, yours very truly, 

Dr. Login. Dalhousis. 


The cold weather was pleasantly passed on themjirc h Chapter 


back to Futtehghur. By this time Duleep Singh had ^ 

acquired a taste for shooting and coursing, and spent 
almost every morning riding and walking after game, 
with his two friendsFrank and Charles Boileau, attended 
by Thornton, his English servant ; of course, an escort 
of troopers were within easy hail. Seven or eight 
miles on foot was thought little of by the young 

At Meerut, His Highness was received by Sir Joseph 
Thackwell, who was in command ; at Seharunpore, by 
Air. Philip Trench, C.S., who invited the ladies and 
gentlemen of the station to meet His Highness at 
dinner. The same attention was paid by Mr. Blunt at 
AUyghur. Everyone remarked the great improvement 
in Duleep Singh's manner and bearing since he passed 
up the year before. 

His love for music had developed greatly and as he 
brought his music master, Mr. Hunter, with him for 
the cold season, while he was not needed by his pupils 
in the hills, he worked very hard with him for some 
part of the day, amusing himself with his band of an 

Having undergone a probation of two years, the 
Maharajah himself now expressed his strong desire to 
be received into the Christian Chiu-ch by baptism. 


FuTTEHGHUB, Feb, lOtht 1853. 

{Anniversary of Sobram). 
My Lobd, 

Chapter The communications which I have from time to time made 

^* to your Lordship regarding the Maharajah's progress in religious 

Io02-o4. knowledge will have prepared you to receive the expression of his 
desire to be baptized. The enclosed letter, which he has 
requested me to forward to your Lordship, conveys the sentiments 
of his mind on the occasion. 

From the marked consistency of his conduct and character 
during the last two years, and the earnestness with which he 
applies himself to the study of the Holy Scriptures, in contrast to 
his general application to his other studies, I have every reason 
to think that his heart is deeply interested, and that he desires 
to make an open profession of his faith in a right spirit. 

The importance of the step he is about to take has been most 
careftdly impressed upon his mind, and he is fully aware of the 
duties to which his baptismal vows will bind him. 

In the event of your Lordship's sanction being obtained to 
his public profession of his belief, the Maharajah is anxious that 
he should be baptized by the Eev. Mr. Jay before he returns to 
Mussoorie. As the church here is still imder repair, and not 
likely to be finished for six months, the ceremony may perhaps 
with every propriety take place in his own house, in the presence 
of such witnesses as your Lordship may approve. I am sure tl:at 
Messrs. Buller and Cuninghame, the judge and the magistrate of 
the district, Colonel Alexander, Major Tucker, or other of the 
gentleman residents at the station, will very readily be present on 
the occasion ; or, if it be considered desirable, I could ask the 
Commissioner, Mr. Tyler, or Mr. Wilham Muir, the Secretary to 
the Lieutenant-Governor, who are not very far distant from us. 

While taking every care that the ceremony should lose nothing 
of its impressiveness and solemnity, I need not say how much I 
coincide in the wish expressed by your Lordship that, when it 


THE BAPnSlL 301 

does take place, every ostentatious display should be avoided. Chapter 
This has hitherto been carefully observed in all that has related ^* 
to the Maharajah's instruction in religious truth, and I do 1862-64. 
sincerely hope that the substance, rather than the form, has been 
impressed upon his mind. 

Although His Highness had, about three weeks since, expressed 
his desire to be baptized, and Mr. Jay had written to me proposing 
that he should obtain the requisite sanction of the Bishop for the 
performance of the ceremony, I thought it better not to take any 
steps in the matter until the Maharajah should himself express 
his wish to me on the subject, on receipt of which I inmiediately 

wrote to Mr. Jay As, in the event of your Lordship's 

sanction to the Maharajah's baptism, it will be necessary that Mr. 
Jay obtain the sanction of the Bishop, it may save some delay in 
reference, if the Lord Bishop could be requested by your Lordship 
to communicate with Mr. Jay for that purpose. 

The Maharajah has taken very great interest in reading the 
Holy Scriptures with Mr. Jay, and that gentleman has been 
equally gratified with the attention and earnestness with which 
His Highness has received his instruction 

I remain, &c. 

J. S. Loam. 

Enclosed with the above, were the foUowing notes : — 

Feb. 6th, 1853. 
My dsab good Fbiend, 

I think I now sufficiently understand the Christiaji religion, 
and the duties to which it binds me, and have a strong desire to 
be baptized, which I trust, therefore, I may be considered fit for. 

I remain, 

Yours very sincerely, 

DuiiEEP Singh. 


My DBAS Mb. Jay, 

Chapter The Maharajah having addressed a note to me to-dav 

^* expressing his strong desire for baptism, I am anxious to ascertain 

1o52-d4. fj-Qju you whether, from the opportunities which you have had of 

conversing with him on religious subjects, you consider him to be 

sufficiently advanced in the knowledge of Divine truth, and 

sufficiently impressed with the importance of the vows he wishes 

to take upon himself, to justify you in admitting him to that Holy 


I am, my dear Mr. Jay, 

. . .Yours very truly, 

J. o. L. 

My dear Dr. Loom, 

I think the Maharajah has quite sufficient head knowledge of 
the truths of our holy religion to justify his receiving the sacra- 
ment of baptism. How far his heart is touched, you have better 
opportunities than I, a comparative stranger, have had of judging. 
I have gone through the Gospel of St. Matthew with him carefully, 
and I never spent any time with greater pleasure and satisfaction. 
The young Maharajah was uniformly careful, attentive, and 

Yours very truly, 

W. J. Jay, 

Chaplain of Futtehghur, 

From Archdeacon Pratt's Memorandum to the Bishop. 

I have been much pleased with my interviews with the Maha- 
rajah. He seems fully aware of the responsibility of the step bt 
wishes to take, and that his conduct will be scrutinized when 1 • 
becomes a Christian. I asked him many questions, which l* 


answered very clearly and fully. He made correct statements on Chapter 
the doctrine of the Trinity, the Person of Our Lord, His Two ^ 
Natures, His offices of Prophet, Priest, and King, which 1852-64. 
he explained. Altogether, I was much pleased, and feel persuaded 
&at a gracious work is going on in his heart. I do not see why 
he should not be baptized, if he wishes to be. He shows consider- 
able thought and seriousness and good sense, far beyond his years, 
and with it all (what one is not sorry to see) his boyhood and 
simplicity are not lost. 

Login adds : — 

I am sure that Mr. Guise, and all who have been intimately 
associated with him, will join me in willing testimony to his 
truthfuhiess and rectitude of conduct, and to the great improve- 
ment that has been apparent in many ways during this trial of 
probation, now more than two years. 

To this communication Lord Dalhousie replied as 
follows : — 

GovEBNMENT HousE, Feb, 15th, 1853. 
My deab Login, 

I have communicated with my colleagues, who concur 
with me in readily acceding to the Maharajah's wish, that ho 
may receive the rite of baptism at once.* I have written to 
the Bishop to address Mr. Jay. The station church being under 
repair, His Highness's own house would be the best place for the 
performance of the rite. I desire no secrecy, but at the same 
time deprecate notoriety and all approach to a tunmsha. 

The official i)cniussion of the Goveraor-General in Council followed this. 


Chapter Don't bring people from a distance. Invite, if you please to do 
X. BO, the principal persons of the station ; bat only those who will 
1862-54. regard the occasion as a solemn administration of a Holy 
Sacrament, and not a common festivity. 

Probably it will not be necessary to give a name at all, bat if 
requisite, let it be his own name, " Duleep Singh.*' 
I pray God to bless this act to his eternal good. 

Believe me. 

Yours very truly, 


Db. Loom. 

Government House, Feb, 15th, 1853. 

My deab Mahaiiajah, 

I have received with the most lively satisfaction the 
letter in which you express your desire to be at once baptized, 
and to be admitted a member of the Church of Christ. When 
you first showed an inclination to beheve in the truths which you 
found declared in the Word of God, I advised you not to act 
hastily, to continue your study of the Bible, and to test by time 
the strength and sincerity of your belief. 

You have followed my advice, and I have learnt with real 
pleasure from the statements of the Archdeacon and Mr. Jay 
that they have found you quite fit to receive the baptism you 
desire to obtain. I, on my part, most readily assent to your 
vnsh, and I thank the God and Saviour of us all, who has put 
into your heart a knowledge of, and belief in, the truth of our 
holy religion. 

I earnestly hope that your future life may be in conformitT 
with the precepts of that religion, and that you may show lo 
your countrymen in India an example of a pure and blameless 
life, such as is befitting a Christian prince. 


I beg your Highness to believe in the strength and sincerity of Chapter 
the regard which I shall ever feel towards you, and to remain, ^« 
now and always, Ioo2-o4. 

Your Highness's sincere and affectionate friend, 

His Highness Mahabajah DutiEep Sinoh. 

GovEBNHENT HousE, March l&th, 1853. 

My deab Mahabajah, 

I have received, with the liveliest satisfaction, the letter 
which you wrote to me on the 8th inst., announcing to me 
that the rite of baptism had been administered to you, and that 
you had been admitted into the Church of Christ. 

I rejoice in the opportunity it affords me of again offering you 
the aBSiurance of my affectionate interest in your welfare, and of 
my most earnest wishes for your happiness, both in this world 
and in that which is to come. 

I beg your Highness to believe me, 

Your sincere and faithful friend, 

His Highness Mahabajah Duleep Singh. 

Futtehghue, March 8^A, 1853. 
My Lobd, 

It now gives me sincere pleasure to acquaint your Lordship 
that the Maharajah was this day admitted into the Christian 
Chnrch by baptism, and took the vows upon him in a most 
solemn and impressive maimer. 

The ceremony took place in His Highness's private dwelling- 
hoixse, in presence of about twenty of the European residents of 


306 snt JOHN Loom and duleep singh. 

Chapter the station, and nearly an equal number of the Maharajah's 

^ principal native servants whom I had invited to attend. 

18o2-o4 rpjjQ truly simple and earnest manner in which the service was 

conducted by the Eev. Mr. Jay, and joined in by all the Christians 

present, commanded the reverent attention of all who witnessed 

it, and, I hope, left a deep impression of its solemnity on many 

minds I forward a copy of the entry made in the baptismal 

register at Futtehghur. 

Mr. Jay considered it necessary that the names of three persons 
(of whom one should be a lady) should be entered as witnesses to 
the baptism, and Colonel Alexander and Mrs. Login were proposed 
in addition to myself ; but with Mr. Jay's consent, I also asked 
Mr. Guise to sign the register. 

The native names on the register have been spelt as the Maha- 
rajah pointed out 

I may add that everything approaching to display, or unbefitting 

the solemnity of the occasion, has been most carefully avoided in 

every respect. 

I remain, &c., 

J. S. Login. 

The ceremony was felt, by those privileged to be 
present, to be touching as w^ell as impressive; the 
earnest expression on the young boy's face, the look, 
half sad, half curious, on the countenances of his 
people, who were all witnesses of the rite by their own 
wish, combined to make it so. 

It occurred to Mrs. Login, at the last moment, that, 
bearing in mind the veneration in which all Hindoos 
hold the River Ganges, there would be peculiar appro- 
priate ness in using its water for the sacred rite. 


thereby sanctifying it in the Maharajah's mind, from Chapter 
henceforth, with a new and holier association. Jewin- ^^JT*^^ 
dah, the favo^te Sikh attendant of Duleap Singh, ''^'*- 
begged to be allowed to fetch the water himself for 
this purpose from the river, and ran off with his brass 
lotah, evidently regarding the proposition with favour, 
as a concession to Hindoo prejudices. 

GoYEBNMENT HousE, March 16th, 1853. 
My deab Login, 

I have had the pleasure to receive yours of 8th, enclosing 
one from the Maharajah. 

I rejoice deeply and sincerely in this good issue to the great 
change the boy has passed through, with so much satisfactory 
evidence of the reality and genuineness of his convictions. 

I regard it as a very remarkable event in history, and in every 
way gratifying. 

Let me add that, under circumstances of peculiarity, of great 
delicacy, and of great difficulty, I have been most highly satisfied 
with the judgment and discretion, the prudence and kindly tact, 
which have been exhibited by yourself through them all. 

Believe me to be, my dear Login, 

Yours very truly, 

Db. Login. 

MussooBiE, June 2nd, 1853. 
My Lord, 

It gives me particular pleasure to acquaint your Lordship 
that, ever since his baptism, the Maharajah has continued, by his 
conduct and character, to afford very satisfactory evidence of the 

X 2 


Chapter influence of Christian principles on his heart, and I trust, as his 
^ years increase, they may continue to gain strength, and preserve 

^^*"^* hiTTi from the many dangers and temptations to which he must 
necessarily be exposed in the position he has to occupy. He is 
fully aware of the responsibilities which his profession of Chris- 
tianity imposes on him, and of the effect which his example may 
have upon others of his countrymen, either for good or evil, and I 
believe he is honestly anxious to use this influence aright.* He 
is going on with his education with more energy than heretofore. 
His progress in music is rapid, and he takes great delight in it. 
He performs really creditably on the flute and cornopean, and, 
with his music-master's assistance, has got up a very good band 
of eight or nine men. It is a great amusement to him, and it is 
an incentive to study, as he pays the expenses out of his pocket- 
money. This band is a great pleasure to the community at 
Mussoorie, as they play on the Mall on stated evenings, where 
their appearance is hailed with delight. 

I have been successful in getting up a course of lectures duriu 
the season, which have already been well attended. Many gentle- 
men have been induced to offer their services as lecturers, and I 
have got a course of them on various subjects, arranged to fill up 
six months ; the three first, by Mr. Mackinnon, on ** Astronomy." 
were excellent — pronounced so by some of the best astronomers 
in India, who were among the audience. 

I have already expressed to your Lordship my anxiety that the 
Maharajah should not become a mere State pensioner, but that bo 

* NumerouB letters were received by the Maharajah, congratulating him on Ki> 
baptism, and giving him cordial welcome from many eminent Christians, K>*:. 
European and native. Some of them were very touching. Amongst others « L i 
wrote to him were — 

Rev. Krishna Baneijee. Mr. Thomason. 

Rev. Gopy Nanth Nundy. Sir Henry Lawrence. 

Ganeudro Mohun Tagore. Sir Frederick Cunie. 
Bishop Wilson. 


should be led to take an interest in all that concerns the welfare Chapter 
of the natives around him, and the progress in improvement of his ^ 
neighbourhood ; and if such was my wish before he became a ^"^J-04. 
Christian, I need not say how much my anxiety has been 
increased by that event. This is not likely to be fully developed 
unless he has some estate in the country to which his attention 
could be applied. I would, therefore, respectfully beg your Lord- 
ship's consideration to the propriety of giving him a grant of land 
on the occasion of his coming of age, of such extent, and on such 
conditions, as may appear suitable to his position and circum- 
stances. Should His Highness's home be fixed in India, a part 
of the Eastern Dhoon would appear most suitable, as he is sure 
to pass the hot season here. The Dhoon is not looked upon as 
profitable, but I think it might be made so. 

The two young Boileaus have passed with great credit in Urdu 
and Hindu, and are qualified for the army. Their father has, I 
fear, little chance of getting appointments for them ; and as I feel 
that the Maharajah has gained much by their companionship, I 
am anxious to help them, and if your Lordship sees no impropriety 
in the Maharajah asking Lord Hardinge for a commission for the 
eldest, he will gladly do so. 

I have the honour, &c., 

J. S. L. 

Sir Frederick Currie, before leaving India, wrote the 
Maharajah as follows : — 

Calcutta, April 11th, 1863. 


I wish to write to your Highness before leaving India 
to offer you my warm congratulations on the important 
event which has just been communicated to the Government by 


Chapter your Mend, Dr. Login, viz., your Highness's admission into the 

^* Christian Church by the rite of baptism. 
looJ-04. J jjg^yg Yong regarded you with very sincere esteem (ever since 
we first met on that memorable occasion in February, 1846) ; and 
those feelings are much enhanced by the contemplation that I can 
now regard you as a fellow-Christian, animated by the same hopes, 
cheered by the same promises, and seeking the same consumma- 
tion of all our objects and desires in life — the love and glory of oar 
conmion Saviour in time, and His presence in eternity. 

I have in no degree lost the interest which I had in your 
Highness during the eventful year 1848 ; but I have thought it 
better, considering our respective positions, and hearing of the 
feelings which were at work in your heart, and which have led to 
such a happy result, that I should not write to you. 

Any communication between us might have been misrepre- 
sented, to your Highness's detriment, both in the Punjab and in 
Hindostan. But now there is no longer any cause for such 
reserve ; your Highness has taken the irrevocable step, and I am 
about to leave India by the steamer of the 8th prox., when my 
connection with the Government will be at an end. I therefore 
now write these few lines to assure your Highness that I have 
taken the most lively interest in all that has happened in regard 
to you since I saw you ; that I have read the reports of your pro- 
gress in knowledge and of the development of your character, 
sent from time to time by Dr. Login, with high gratification ; and 
that the last reported event above referred to has given me 
imfeigned joy. 

I do not know if there is any possibility of your Hi^line^s 
visiting England, but should you do so during my lifetime, it >)rill 
give me very great pleasure to renew our acquaintance. 

I remain, Maharajah, 

Your sincere friend, 

F. CuRjais. 

His Highness Maharajah Dulebp Sinqh. 


The following is the first letter Login received from Chapter 

Lord Dalhousie after the death of Lady Dalhousie : — .«3' . 

^ 1862-64. 

GOVSBNMENT HousE, AwQ, ith, 1852. 

Deab Login, 

I have to ask your pardon for the long delay which has 
occurred in replying to the letter I had from you about middle 
of June. Since that period, though I have not allowed public 
business to be retarded, I fear I have left many letters unan- 
swered, among them yours. Your account of the Maharajah 
continues to be as satisfactory as we have any right to expect. 
Your plans for at once instructing, diverting, and training him as 
a member of European society are excellent, and can leave on 
your mind no doubt of your meeting with full co-operation, as far 
as it depends on me. 

With regard to the future, I cannot go quite so entirely with 

you. We are at one in thinking that he should go to England. 

It is my opinion, as it is yours, that he should go while he is yet 

what we should consider a boy. I shall therefore be prepared to 

ask permission from the Court to let him go next spring, if you 

consider him ready and desirous, as before, to go. I will not 

disguise from you that the Court may not give a very gracious 

assent ; the visit of Jung Bahadoor, whom they spoiled, and still 

more, the present visit of the ex-Bajah of Coorg, whom, in spite 

of all my precautions and warnings, they have lifted wholly out 

of his place, making a fool both of him and of themselves thereby, 

has disgusted the Court and Board of Control with native, and 

especiaUy with princely, visitors. Still I hope they will agree, and 

Btill more, I hope that the Maharajah will not expect pompous 

receptions, and will rather seek quiet and privacy while he shall 

remain in England. With respect to the question of a residence 

at Mussoorie, and also to a grant of land, I conceive that these 

matters should be postponed until the Maharajah shall have 


Chapter returned from England, and until he shall he, at least, of age, 
^- which in his case I presume would he eighteen. The grant of the 

1852-54. Eastern Dhoon, to which you allude, seems the carving out of a 
large slice. But, without committing myself to details, I have no 
difficulty in expressing entire concurrence in your views of making 
the Maharajah something different from a Delhi or a Lucknow 
pensioner. It is natural you should wish these points settled by 
myself, who must needs take a more peculiar interest in the boy 
than any of my successors can do; but you may be quite sure 
that he will always be an object of interest to the Governor- 
General of the time, and I think it would be open to objection if 
I should attempt to decide upon, and to provide for his futare, 

Believe me to be, 

Yours very truly, 


Db. Login. 

August, 1853. 
My Lord, 

I have told the Maharajah of your intention to ask per> 
mission for him to visit England next spring 

.... In the event of his obtaining the permission, I shall see 
that he has not a large retinue vnth him, and will only take to 
Calcutta those who are to proceed with him. The Maharajah is 
very anxious not to be separated from Sheo Deo Singh, and, if the 
little fellow's own feelings were consulted, I think he would not 
be unwilling. If your Lordship thinks it desirable, I shjdl 
endeavour to get his mother's consent. 

The Maharajah, and all of us, would regret any cireumstanee 
which would lead to any separation between them, for they 


mach more attached to each other than they were, and a very Chapter 
kindly feeling now exists between them. Mr. Guise has lately X« 
received a very good offer from Mr. Maclean, a large indigo 18^2-54. 
planter near Futtehghnr, to take charge of his work during his 
absence in England, and a share as partner. Up to the present 
time, I am satisfied that no one could have filled his place with 
His EUghness more perfectly than Mr. Guise has done. 

The irregular, self-indulgent manner in which the boy had been 
brought up, his natural indolence and want of application, and the 
difficulty of exercising any restraint over him, required an amount 
of patient endurance and perseverance on the part of a tutor, in 
bringing him through the rudimentary stages of education, and 
establishing a desire for instruction, which is very rarely to be met 
with, and I feel that His Highness owes more to Mr. Guise than 
he can ever repay. The Maharajah has now, however, reached a 
stage in his education at which he is more likely to derive benefit 
from the instruction of professional masters. 

In the event of Mr. Guise accepting the offer made him, I think 
that it would be only proper on His Highnesses part to make a hand- 
some acknowledgment of his services in any way your Lordship 
might think fit. Although this offer is most eligible, Mr. Guise is 
quite willing to remain with His Highness if it is desired ; but in this 
case, he would naturally look for some permanent employment on 
his return to India in place of that which he had declined. 

In the event of Mr. Guise not accompanying the Maharajah, it 
would be advisable to retain one or both of the Boileaus as 
companions for a time, and it might be more possible for me to 
obtain commissions for them while in England. 

It was only in the event of His Highness not going to England 
that I ^was anxious to find some interesting and useful employment 
for him, to occupy his mind and engage his attention. 

I have, &c., 
J. S. Ij. 


Chapter The following note from Dnleep Singh to Login was 
1852-54 onclosed in the above : — 

My dear qood Friend, 

As I do not like to attempt a letter to the Goyemor- 
General, I hope it will do as well to write to you what I wish to 

You told me that the Governor-General wishes to know if I am 
as anxious as before to go to England. I wish to say that I am very 
anxious to go, and quite ready to start whenever his Lordship 
gives me permission. I do not want to go to make a show of 
myself, but to study and complete my education, and I wish to 
live in England as quietly as possible. 

Yours very sincerely, 


Government House, Aug. Slst, 1853. 

My dear Login, 

Tell the Maharajah that it is wholly impossible for me to sjlj 
when he may be allowed to go. It does not rest with me. I hav«: 
not authority in this case to let him go without reference to tli-v 
Court in the first instance. 

This reference I will make by the very next mail, and I w:l 
make known to you the answer as soon as possible. 

If he goes, he should go without a *' following." In England. &$ 
you say, his education will be easily carried on, either by masters 
or a private tutor. The offer, therefore, which you speak of &» 
made to Mr. Guise, should on no account be set aside by \Lk 
Maharajah or by the Government, because it would be impossil**- 
for either to undertake to compensate Mr. Guise for the advanta^^^ 


he will have consented to forego at their request. Mr. Guise Chapter 
certainly deserves well of the Maharajah; and if he quits him ^* 
now, a handsome acknowledgment of his services would, as you lo^2-o4. 
suggest, be very fitting, but it should not be in the shape of a 

pension If it is desirable that the Maharajah should have 

a young companion, as you seem to think, one of the lads may 
accompany him, not both — ^you will find a " tail " in England 
very troublesome and very costly* 

The going of the Shahzadah must depend entirely on whether 
the Maharajah wishes it, so far as the wishes of his family are 
concerned at all ; but I think the wisdom of his going doubtful, 
for he is as yet too young to derive any profit for himself ; and 
with respect to the pleasure of the thing, I think the Maharajah 
would find him a great '' taigle " in England. Many people, who 
would be glad to be civil to His Highness, would not choose to be 
bothered with a second prince, who has no interest or importance. 
My present impression is that the little boy should not go, and 
that some arrangement should be made for him here, by which he 
would not lose what he has gained, during your absence. 

Believe me to be. 

Yours very truly, 


Db. XjOGIN. 

Extracts from some of Loom's letters to Lord Dalhoubie from 


.... Mr. Guise has accepted the appointment offered him, 
and has left to join. At parting. His Highness presented him 
with a Government promissory note for 5,000 rupees, as a kindly 
ackno^edgment of his services. 

.... I have thought it right to avail myself of the opportunity 
afforded me by the return of Mrs. Scott (now a widow) with her 


Chapter family to England to allow the young boy, Tom Scott, who has 
^- for the last four years been brought up with His Highness and the 

l8o2-o4. Shahzadah, to accompany her for the purpose of going to school ; 
but in consideration of the advantages which have resulted to His 
Highness from the companionship of his young friend at so 
interesting a period of his life, and the very straitened circum- 
stances of Mrs. Scott, with a family of seven children unprovided 
for, I trust no objection will be made to an allowance of fifty 
rupees per mensem being granted for the education of the boy. 
during the minority of His Highness. Charles Boileau returns to 
his father at Ferozepore. Thus Frank Boileau will be the only 
European companion who will accompany His Highness to 

.... Your Lordship's principal objection to the Shahzadah's 
accompanying his uncle seems to be the possible inconvenience oi 
the arrangement. I think that might be obviated, and the 
Maharajah suggests many ways of doing so, which shows how 
much he desires to have him with him. But apart from His 
Highness's wishes on the subject, I would respectfully point out 
other considerations. As the Maharajah, by adopting our faith, 
has deprived himself of almost all political influence among liis 
countrymen, they are now inclined to consider the Shahzadah as 
the rightful representative of their old rulers, and judging {rem th< 
boy's natural disposition, it would be advisable to keep him &.« 
much with the Maharajah as possible, and accustom him to cci.- 
sider their interests identical. By allowing him to remain ti 
India while His Highness is in England, I fear he will be monc 
encouraged in the idea of his separate importance, and it will U 
difficult for his pretensions to be kept under control, as easily ^ 
while with his uncle and natural head. The ignorant wiU b- . . 
him in estimation for not having crossed the ocean. There "v^i. 
be no difficulty about the retention of his caste, though it will er.t^ 
additional trouble and arrangements upon me, which I wou 
otherwise escape. 


I can make arrangements to take two or three Pmijabi Chapter 
Brahmms to attend the Maharajah, relatives (and servants) of X. 
the Misr Makraj at Lahore, of whose family two or three 18o2-54. 
members still remain attached to His Highness. The old Misr 
has vmtten to them to say that it is their duty to go, if the Maha- 
rajah wishes it, only that they should be careful to keep their 
caste. If they go with us, there will be no difficulty about the 
Shahzadah, as regards caste. I am willing to submit to 
all this trouble, rather than miss the opportunity of opening 
a way, and showing high-caste Hindoos that it is possible to 
break through prejudice, and set an example to their countrymen 
to visit Em'ope. 

The Shahzadah's mother has returned from her home, and will 
remain here till we leave, when she will go to reside at Hurdwar, 
where she has a house. She does not like the idea of her son 
going with the Maharajah, and has sent me a petition to send to 
your Lordship on the subject. I have told her that as soon as 
we know that the permission is granted, I will send in her 
petition against it. 

The little boy himself is really not unwilling to go, and has 
great faith in Mrs. Login being able to persuade his mother to let 
him go. He has been explaining to her the geography of Europe, 
showing her the map, and the pictures in the Illustrated News ; 
and though, since her arrival, he does not say so much about it 
as before, his own inclinations are very evident. He has now for 
the last two years been absent from his mother's influence, for 
periods of ten and a half and ten months at a time, and seemed 
to enjoy life thoroughly. 


GovEBNMENT HousE, Nov. 29^%, 1853. 
My deab Login, 

ITou give so many good reasons why the Shahzadah should go 

with His Highness, if he goes to England, that no objection vnll 


Chapter be made by Govemment. In that case all yoTir arraDgements 
^« will be approved, 

1802-04. ^ gj£|. q£ 5,000 rapees to Mr. Guise is both liberal and proper ; 

and your allowance to Tommy Scott will not be questioned. The 

order of the Court shall be sent as soon as received. HI go to 

Burmah I'll tell Mr. Courtney to let you know. I approve of all 

you propose to do. 

Yours very truly, 


Jan. ZUh 1854. 
My deab Login, 

I have just received the Court's leave for the Maharajah to go 
to England, and I beg you to deliver the enclosed to him. 

I hope he will do me credit, for they have had a sickener of 
native grandees at home lately. 

Yours most sincerely, 


Government House, Jan. ^Ist, 1854. 

Mt deab Maharajah, 

I am very happy to be able to tell you that I have this 
moment received the permission of the Court of Directors that 
you should visit England. 

In the belief that this intelligence will give you pleasure, I 
hasten to convey it to you with my own hand. 

I have not time to write another word beyond the assurance of 
the pleasure it will give me to see your Highness again, 

I remain, with much respect, 

Your sincere and faithful friend, 


His Highness Maharajah Dulesp Singh. 


Letter from Sib Henby Lawbbnce after the death of his Wife. Chapter 


Camp, neab Neemuch, Feb, lOth, 1854. 

Mt deab Login, 

Best thanks to you both for your kind letters and sympathy. 
Yes ! my heart is a sore one, and hard to bear — God's will be 

Yes : I will try and go to Boorkee. Napier will probably be 
there, and I long to meet him; also I want to see Cautley and 
Mr. Colvin, and also your brother and sister. 

I am moving towards Bhurtpore, by way of Eohat and 
Kerowly. My very kindest regards to Mrs. Login. 

Bemember me kindly to the Maharajah, 

Always, my dear Login, 

Yours very sincerely, 

H. M. Lawbence. 

Bhajun Lai up to this time had fully determined 
to go to England with his master; but his people 
knew well that if he did so he would take the 
opportunity of declaring himself a Christian ; they 
were therefore bent on preventing his going. His 
convictions were very strong; but in his own case 
he had not the courage to throw off the bondage of 
Hindooism, though he had certainly helped the 
Maharajah in his decision with all the energy of 
which his nature was capable. 

When he got back to Futtehghur, to his young 


Chapter wife and children, and his father, who was a shrewd 
^' bunniah* in the city of Fumickabad, he became 
* unable to struggle against the influences brought to 
bear on him, and matters reached a climax when, on 
the occasion of his youngest brother's marriage (which 
was about to be celebrated with all the display and 
lavish expenditure that rich Hindoos consider incumbent 
on them on these occasions), he was induced by his 
father to prefer a request that in the public procession 
through the city the soivaree of His Highness, ie»,, 
the horses, carriages, and elephants, should form a 
prominent feature, and that the Maharajah's tents, Ac. 
should also be lent in which to celebrate the weddinir 

Under ordinary circumstances. Login would have 
been very pleased to show some such token of the 
estimation in which both he and the Maharajah held 
Bhajun Lai's services, and of the respect they would 
wish to show to a member of his family. It was also, 
according to native ideas, a very customary mark of 
favour from a prince or noble to a favourite attendant 
or companion, such as Bhajun Lai. But as in this 
case the bridegroom was a mere child, and the bride 
of equally tender age, Loginfelt a conscientiousobjection 
to appear to give his, or the Maharajah's, public 
sanction to one of those monstrous child-marriage< 
which bring such misery into the homes of India. 

* Nati7e merchant 


Especially he felt that this would be unbecoming on Chapter 


the Maharajah's part, since he had so lately made 

profession of the Christian faith. 

He therefore told Bhajun Lai that he could only 

grant his request on one of two conditions, viz., 

either the marriage was deferred, until the bride and 

bridegroom were of an age to understand the importance 

of the contract they were about to enter into (in which 

ease, besides the loan of the things asked for, the 

Maharajah would bestow a sum of money to set the 

young people up in the world), or else, a bond or 

agreement should be given to the young girl, to the 

effect that, in the event of her boy-husband dying 

while she was still marriageable, she should be 

permitted to select another partner for herself, from 

among the widowers or unmarried youths of her 

husband's family. This alternative arrangement was 

suggested, because it is a frequent custom among the 

Sikhs to marry their brothers' widows, thus saving 

the girl from the awful slavery for life, which is the 

fate of Hindoo child- widows. 

Poor Bhajun Lai, in whom family affection and 
love of money, were equally ruling passions, was 
persuaded by his relatives to send in his resignation, 
and thus cut himself adrift from his chance of becom- 
ing a Christian. It was a great sorrow to all who 
had been brought to know, and like him, during the 
three years he had been with the Maharajah, for he 
was, indeed, " almost a Christian " at heart, and 



Chapter certainly had been, under God, the instrument of 

confirming the desire of the Maharajah to come out 

from among his people. A handsome present of 
money and a horse were given him on leaving. 

The Maharajah did not evince much sorrow at 
parting from him, though he had counted on his 
going to England with him ; but he fully agreed in 
the propriety of lending no countenance to the 
iniquity of infant marriages. 

It may be as well to mention here all that is known 
of the later history of Bhajun Lai. He wrote 
occasionally to Dr. Login, but his letters were ftdl of 
money-getting; he became a hiinniah in the city of 
Furruckabad, and at the time of the Mutiny proved 
himself faithful, and was of great use, though he was 
unable to save the property of the Maharajah from 
loot and destruction. He is now the head of the 
great firm of tentmakers at Futtehghur (Bhajun Lai 
& Co.), but all idea of becoming a Christian seenis to 
have passed away. 

Early in February, the camp of the Commander-in* 
Chief (Sir WiUiam Gomm), came to Futtehghur, and 
with it Colonel Mountain, one of the staff, who -was 
brought in from the district dangerously ill. Ht* 
was conveyed to Dr. Logins house, and attended 
by him ; but medical skill was of no avail, and in 
a few days he died there. As Colonel Mountain 
was a very great friend of the Governor-General. 
Login at once wrote a fiiU account of his last 


moments to Lord Dalhousie : to which letter the Chapter 
following is a reply:— 1862^54. 

Mt dbab Login, 

I received your sad letter yesterday, and am grateful 
for what you tell me of the last moments of my poor 
friend. He has died the death of the righteous ! I never doubted 
that, soldier and Christian as he was, he would die when his time 
came as hero or saint should die. I mourn for him with a deep 
and sincere sorrow. 

I wish I could ask the Maharajah to come here to Government 
House on his arrival, but there are only really two or three rooms 
in the whole house. Would it be any convenience to you to put 
up at Government House, Barrackpore ? there is plenty of room 
there, and you would not be far off. I will have it all got ready 
lor him if I hear from you that he would Uke it. His horses, &c., 
will have plenty of accommodation at the stables there. 

No objection will be raised to the Shahzadah going to England, 
if the Maharajah still desires it, so you can bring him with you. 

Yours truly, 


In reply, Login said that the Maharajah would 
much like to go to Barrackpore, and was full of 
eager anticipation of his coming visit to England, 
that he talked of entering one of the public schools 
and taking his place among boys of his own age, 
" only hoping he won't get many thrashhigs." 

This suggestion apparently did not meet with the 

Y 2 


Chapter Governor- General's approval, as we may judge firom 
iQco'c>< the answer it elicited : — 

Government House, Feb, 25th, 1864. 
Mt deab Login, 

The proposal to go to public school won't do at all. He 
is much too old, and would be thrashed beyond a donbi 
periodically. Even a university would not do. 

Yours sincerely, 


A short stay was made at Lucknow, en roiUe to 
Calcutta, owing to a kind invitation from the Resident, 
Colonel Sleeman, to the Maharajah, asking him to pay 
him a visit, and see the sights of that city before 
leaving India. As there was no intention of exchanging 
courtesies with the native Court there, the visit was 
made a private one, though, as the Maharajah was now 
on his way to Europe, the usual ceremonials weiv 
observed as to guards of honour, salutes, &c. ;* . . . . 

* Letter from Major W, A, G. Mayhew fAut, A,G. to Brigadier-Gentml 
r. Palmer y Commanding Cawnpore' Division) dated A, G. Office ^ Caicmttt 
Wth March, 1864. No, 193:— 

Under instructions from the Most Koble the Govemor-General in Council, I 
have the honour to request that, should His Highness Mahan^ah Duleep Sin^ 
halt at Cawnpore, he is to be received at that station ¥rith a salute of tirmty-csj 

I am further directed to inform you, that His Highness is to be proTided vi:t 
a Jemadar's Guard during his yisit. 


an escort of irregular cavalry accompanied his carriage Chapter 
to and from Lucknow, and a military guard remained 1862-64 
in attendance with him. Whilst at Lucknow, Dr. and 
Mrs. Login were treated with great distinction by the 
King of Oude and the Prime Minister; they were 
expressly invited to the Palace, where a khilliit was 
presented to Dr. Login, with the addition of a valuable 
sword as a souvem'r, and a pair of diamond bracelets 
and a ring to Mrs. Login. 

As Dr. Login was not then in the service of the 
King, these presents could not be accepted ; but the 
King made a request to Colonel Sleeman, that the cir- 
cumstances of the presentation might be made known 
to the Governor-General, so that an exception to the 
ordinary rule might be allowed in this case. The 
amount of correspondence which this unimportant 
matter entailed between high officials in India and the 
Court of Directors at home before the official permis- 
sion of the latter body was given, would cause no little 
amusement and surprise to those imacquainted with the 
idiosyncrasies of red-tape routine. 

Colonel — ^afterwards Sir William — Sleeman, cele- 
brated for his successful effiDrts for the suppression of 
" Thuggee," was an ardent ethnologist, and a great 
authority on the origin of races. The following letter, 
which he wrote to Login after the Maharajah's visit to 
Lucknow, may prove interesting, as containing the 
finits of some of his researches on the subject of the 
great westward migration from the Pamir plateau of 


Chapter the Hindoo Koosh, and the connection between the 
1852-64 IJ^d<>-Teutonic races : — 


LucENOW BEsmENCT, March 11th, 1854. 

Mt dbab Login, 

I have been reading up the book I spoke to the Maharajah 
about (" Pictorial History of England "), since he left. You must 
get it for him, and let him see for himself that he is of the same 
race as the men of Kent. They were from Jutland, and came 
into England with the Saxons from Friesland and Angles from 
Holstein, who dispossessed the old Britons in the fifth centur\'. 
They were the Juts or old Getsa of the Greeks and Romans, who 
came from the countries about Kashgar. Some came down and 
settled on the banks of the Indus, whence they spread to the 
Jumna and Chunbal ; whilst others went and settled in western 
Europe (Sweden and Denmark); from them Jutland received its 
name. Tell His Highness that their chiefs, Hengist and Horsa, 
were Juts, like himself ; their family came from Kashgar and the 
Caspian, and settled in Jutland ; while his part of the family 
settled on the Indus, spreading to the Punjab. The Juts took 
possession of Kent, and some of the first kings were Juts, like the 
Maharajah's ancestors, and both might, with equal justice, boast 
descent from Odin, the god of war ; they also took possession of 
the Isle of Wight and the Isle of Thanet. All the old Kentish 
families are descendants of Juts, and of the same race as Duleep 
Singh. Ton can show him some of the beauties of Kent» as yon 
go up the Thames, and he will have an opportunity of seeing it if 
he visits Lord Hardinge. Tell him, with our kind regards, that 
we would be very pleased if he would present the beautiful ting 
which he did Mrs. Sleeman the honour of offering her to the first 


]gseiiy Kentish girl he sees, and claim brotherhood with her, on Chapter 
the authority of an old Indian officer, his friend, Colonel Sleeman. ^ 
If she is of pure Kentish descent, he may feel assured that they l®^2-64. 
are members of the same great family! I trust His Highness 
will cultivate his great talent for music : it will be a great resource 
to him hereafter. 

Believe me, my dear Login, 

Yours very truly, 

W A. Sleeman. 

At Benares, an addition was made to the party in 
the person of the Pundit Nehemiah Goreh, a young 
and learned Brahmin convert, who had joined the 
missionaries there to work among his country people, 
but who was induced by the Rev. W. Smith (senior 
missionary) to accept Login's proposal, and accompany 
Duleep Singh to England for three years, as his tutor 
in Oriental languages. Nehemiah Goreh was of the 
greatest benefit to Duleep Singh; he was so truly 
earnest, so pure-minded and simple, and his faith so 
strong, that his example was a living lesson. He 
returned to India at the expiry of his term to resume 
his work, unspoiled, by all the attention and admira- 
tion he had excited. 

The hot weather was beginning when the party 
reached Government House, Barrackpore, where every 
arrangement had been made for His Highness s com- 
fort, his own carriage and horses having been sent on 


Chapter a-head. A note from the Governor-General was 
1862-54. awaiting Login :— 

My dear Login, 

Gome to breakfast if yon can on Monday. There shall 
be a room ready for yon. Of conrse, this is only if convenient 
to yon. I have sent yon a hnge memorial from the mother of 
the brat yon have brought, accnsing yon of many enormities, 
of which child-stealing is the least ! ! 

Yonrs very truly, 


Of course, since the mother of the Shahzadah had 
lodged a petition against her son's going to Eng^laijd> 
the idea v'as abandoned. Her uncle, Meah Mullick. 
who came to Calcutta as her vakeel to present it, was 
seized with cholera. He refused the advice or 
assistance of any other doctor than Login himself, 
to whom he despatched a messenger in the middle of 
the night imploring him to come to him ! No time 
was lost by the "Doctor Sahib" in obeying this 
urgent summons, and he remained with the poor man 
till he was out of danger.* 

* Extract from official letter dated Fortwdliam, ISth April, 18M :^ 

"Hifl Lordship thinks it only jast to yon to state, with reference to tltf 
memorial of the Raoee Duknoo, that the Government entirely acquits yon d 
the charge of attempting to influence the Shahzadah's religion, and to add, t^ 
you have not sought to conceal from the Government the relnctanoe of th« 
Ranee to allow her son to accompany the Maharajah.** 


A few days after his arrival at Barrackpore, the Chapter 
Maharajah was received by Lord Dalhousie. 186'2-54 

Government House, April 3rd, 1854. 

My deab Login, 

I have ordered the " Sooramooky "to be at Barrackpore 
to-morrow by ten a.m. The beat plan for the Maharajah to 
follow will be to come down in the steamer, taking tiffin on 
board, so as to be here by five p.m. I can then have the guard out 
for him at half -past five, and he can return to Barrackpore by road, 
in the cool of the evening. For this purpose he can take ray 
carriage to the half-way stables, if you will have his own waiting 
him there. If he were to come during the day, I can't well have 
the guard out. He will receive his salute (twenty-one guns) 
when he lands, and will have the Body Guard troopers if he goes 
through the town. 

Pray impress upon His Highness that while in India he 
receives all the honours of his rank— in England he will be 
entitled only to courtesy .• 

Yours very truly, 


On the 19th April the Maharajah and his party 

• Extract from a Letter of Lord Dalhousik to John Lawrence : — 

Calcutta, April lltA, 1854. 

" The Maharajah Duleep Singh is here, and sails on the 19th. He has grown 
a great deal, speaks English well, has a good manner, and altogether will, I think, 
do us credit in England, if they do not spoil him there." — ** Lift of Lord 
Laiirrefiee" vol. i., p. 452. 


Chapter sailed for England. The following is Lord Dalhousies 

^ letter of farewell to his ward on his leaving India :— 

GOVBBNMENT HouBE, April 18th, 1854. 

Mt deab Maharajah, 

Before you quit India, I have been desirous of ofTering 
you a parting gift, which in future years might sometimes remind 
you of me. 

Since that day, when the course of public eyents placed you a 
little boy in my hands, I have regarded you in some sort as my 
son. I therefore ask you, before we part, to accept from me the 
volume which I should offer to my own child, as the best of aU 
gifts, since in it alone is to be found the secret of real happiness 
either in this world or in that which is to come. 

I bid you farewell, my dear Maharajah, and beg you to believe 
me always 

With sincere regard, 

Your Highness's faithful friend, 


His Highness Mahabajah Duleef Sinqh. 



The voyage to England was uneventful. On the Chapter 
deck of the steamer, the young Maharajah bade farewell ^q?1^ 
with great equanimity to all his Punjabi retainei-s, 
his mind being full of pleasurable anticipation of all 
the wonders he was about to see on the other side of 
the " Kalee Panee." 

In Egypt he met with a cordial reception. Through 
the instrumentality of Mr. Bruce, whose kind offices 
Lord Dalhousie had bespoken, the caniages of the 
Viceroy were placed at his disposal. In order that he 
might have time to see something of the sights in the 
neighbourhood of Cairo and^ Alexandria, it was 
arranged that he should remain in Egypt, until the de- 
parture of the following steamer. 

In this way, he was enabled to pay a visit to the 
Pyramids, an expedition which he much enjoyed, and 
where he, like the boy he was, insisted on organizing a 
race to the top with his companions, much to the 
disgust of the Arab guides, who, on these occasions, are 
accustomed to take forcible possession of the unlucky 


Chapter tourist, and haul him by main force, from block to 

1^56.^^°!^'''."? *^^ ^'^^ °^*^^ P^"^^' demanding black- 
mail from him, at every particularly perilous point in 

the ascent, and who regarded the Indian Prince as their 
especial prey, and as fiirnishing an opportunity, not to 
be missed, of unlimited backsheesh. They took their 
revenge, however — these gallant " sons of the desert '' 
— when the party prepared to inspect the interior of 
the pyramid. Not a second time were they to be 
baulked of their lawful dues ; and, once engulphed in 
the literally Egyptian darkness within, their hapless 
victim was seized on, dragged, pushed, and hustled, where 
and how they would, till, — what with the confusion, 
pressure, and especially the stifling heat, caused by bad 
au', burning torches, and swarms of ill-odorous, half- 
naked followers of the Prophet, — their " distinguished 
visitor " was only too glad to re-emerge into the open 
air, with a very hazy idea indeed as to where he had 
been (save that it was as near proving his own tomb as 
that of any old Egyptian monarch 1) but not a little 
surprised to find himself still intact, and that his 
dusky conductors had considerately refrained from 
relieving him of even one of his pearl necklaces, but 
contented themselves with demanding a heavy toll 
in coin for the privilege of their attendance / 

Whilst at Cairo, he was taken to visit the American 
Mission Schools, and was greatly interested to see si> 
many orphan girls being educated in the Christian 


While still in Indian waters, at Aden and elsewhere, Chapter 

the reffular salute ordered by the Governor-General -^^-^ 
. . 1864-66 

was given the Maharajah, on the vessel which conveyed 

him dropping anchor ; but there was some uncertainty 
in Duleep Singh's mind as to the exact amount of 
recognition to be awarded him by the Home Govern- 
ment. When on board the homeward-bound steamer 
from Alexandria, therefore, there was a certain degree 
of anxiety in noting the exact number of guns 
fired to greet his arrival at Malta and Gibraltar ; 
especially was this evident at the latter fortress, 
where — ^spite of his well-maintained sang-froid before 
his fellow-passengers, who were deeply interested in 
the proceedings — a close observer could discover that 
the Maharajah was in reality quietly counting the 
number, as each report was heard, and when the total 
reached twenty, and there could be no doubt that a 
fuU " royal salute " of twenty-one guns was intended, 
he coidd no longer repress the look of satisfaction 
which appeared on his countenance. 

On Login's application to the Treasury, Sir Charles 
Trevelyan arranged that His Highness's baggage 
should be passed through the Customs, as is usual 
with royal visitors, and he also obtained, as a mark of 
consideration from the Court of Directors, the compli- 
ment of having a residence provided for him at their 
expense during his stay in England, Until this 
could be arranged, apartments were taken for him at 
** Mivart's (Claridge's) Hotel." 


Chapter A close correspondence was still kept up with Lord 

.^}\r. Dalhousie, whose interest in the reception of the 
1864-56. , . ^ 

young Prince will be shown by the following letters, 
written in reply to Login's, announcing his arrival : — 


August 10th, 1854. 
Mt deab Loom, 

Your letter of 24th June gave me very great pleasure. 
You have made a most favourable start in your London life, and 
I have no doubt all will go on agreeably, and upon the excellent 
plan you have laid down for the Maharajah. He has made a very 
pleasing impression on those to whom he has been introduced, 
several of them having already written to me to that effect. My 
friend, Sir George Couper,* will, I am sure, do all that his own 
many duties will allow him to do to help you. 

Sirdar Lena Singh Majeetia has died at Benares. The Shah- 
zadah's mother has arrived there, and wrote to me lately. It was 
a very civil letter, and, among other things, protested that she had 
never said a word against you in her life ! ! 

We are all very quiet here in India. The king of Ava is send- 
ing up an envoy to Calcutta, and Dost Mahomed is "ettling* 
to be well with us at the other side of the land. I enclose a 
letter for the Maharajah. 

Tours very truly, 


* Comptroller of the HousehoKl to H.R.H. the Duchess of Kent 


September, 1854. Chapter 
My deab Login, Xl 

I have had the pleasure to receive yours of July 24th. 1864-66. 

The reception that the Maharajah has had, and the pleasing 
izDpression his unassuming manners and well-bred bearing have 
made, are very agreeable to me. 

Yon have done a tidy little bit of business in getting a house 
out of the Court, and I advise you to rest content with that, and 
not seek for more ** marks of consideration," or they may be 
anxious for his return to Futtehghur ! 

Sir G. Couper writes in warm terms of His Highness, he is 
veiy happy to be of use to you. 

Yours, &c., 


Duleep Singh had found it convenient, while in 
India, to adopt a semi-European style of dress for 
sporting, riding, and boating, as it gave him more 
freedom of motion. It soon became his ordinary- 
costume, save for formal occasions, and a very hand- 
some, becoming, and picturesque one it was. It 
consisted of the Sikh, embroidered coortah, or Cashmere 
tunic, and over that a single-breasted velvet coat, 
richly embroidered in gold ; English trousers, with a 
stripe of gold embroidery down the seams. In his 
Sikh turban was a jewelled aigrette, and three rows 
of large pearls were round his neck ; frequently he had 
on other jewels besides these, but he was never without 
the pearl necklace, and a pair of large emerald-and- 


Chapter pearl earrings. After he came to England, he only 
ia54 \f\ wore his complete national (Sikh) costume, with all its 
splendid jewels, when he went to Court, or at any 
great entertainment, but it was not for some years after 
this that he fully adopted English dress for all occasions. 
The Court of Directors were agreeably impressed with 
the una^uming manners and quiet dignity of the 
deposed young ruler of a warlike nation, and accorded 
him a friendly welcome. The Queen and the Prince 
Consort, very soon after the Maharajah's arrival, gave 
him a special audience, and he returned charmed with 
the kindness of the Queen's manner to him, and every 
successive interview added to the warmth of the 
feeHngs with which he regarded the Queen and the 
Prince. Her Majesty gave orders for a full-length 
portrait of him to be painted by Winterhalter, and for 
this he gave sittings at Buckingham Palace twice a 
week. This brought him much in contact with the 
Queen and Prince Albert ; for they were always present, 
and greatly amused by his naive remarks on all he saw 
and Lrd m thk, to L, rt,unge oouot.7. 

The candour and straightforwardness of his comments 
seemed especially amusing to the Prince, who de- 
lighted in drawing him out, and getting him to talk 
freely to him. 

Dulaep Singh contrasted favourably with the gener- 
ality of natives of India in the truthfulness of his 
character, and this was encouraged in every way by 
his guardian, who was most desirous that his love o: 


truth, hatred of deception, and habit of calling '' a Chapter 
spade a spade," in which he had been trained, should ^ 
not be rubbed off by intercourse with the world. 

His zealfor truth,and disapproval of "polite lies." were 
sometimes unsparingly displayed at this time. On the 
way back firom a large party, on one occasion, he said, 

"I am a&aid you believe the Duke of to be a 

good man. Now, I can tell you that he does not speak 

truth, for I heard him tell Lord A that he had 

quite enjoyed his son's visit, and hoped to invite him 
again, for he was a delightful companion, and he had 
just before told me, that he was nothing but an ass, and 
not worth my making his acquaintance ! " and another 

time, " Did you hear Lady praising that lovely 

Lady ^'s dress, telling her she thought it the most 

beautiful at the Drawing-room ? when I had heard her 

say to Mr. D , that she looked a perfect fright ! " 

At a large dinner given in his honour, by a General 
just returned from high command in India, where he 
had already met Duleep Singh, the hostess pressed the 
Maharajah to take some curry she had had specially 
made for him. She went on to say that no doubt it 
was very inferior to what he was accustomed to, but 
she trusted, in that case, that he would honestly tell 
her if it was not good. The poor boy had been politely 
endeavouring to swallow a little of the mixture, which 
was certainly very unlike an Indian curry ; but when 
his hostess said this, he believed she meant it, and, 
putting down his fork and spoon with a sigh of relief, 



Chapter he ejaculated, " Oh 1 you are quite right, it is horrible 
•^' — ^take it away 1 " The dismay of the hostess may be 
' conceived ! She thought herself an authority on Indian 
dishes, and this was the plat of the occasion ! 

During a visit to Windsor with the Maharajah, the 
Queen was graciously pleased to confer the honour of 
knighthood on Login — a mark of royal approbation 
which gave sincere pleasure to Duleep Singh. The 
latter's own rank was already determined to be the 
same as that of an European prince, and as chief of the 
native princes of India, he was authorized to take 
precedence next after the Royal Family. Just before 
this announcement was publicly made, a lar^ 
dinner party had been arranged, in honour of 
Duleep Singh, at the house of Sir Robert Inglis. 
the Primate (Archbishop Longley), Lord Shaftesbury, 
and other notables being invited to meet him. Poor 
Sir Robert, who was too good a Churchman to 
like the idea of any Indian prince (although a 
converted one) taking precedence of the Primate 
of the English Church, came in great distress ot 
mind to consult Login as to what could be arrange*! 
to prevent such a scandal taking place in Li- 
house ! He was assured, that the young Prince wouli 
make no difficulty in giving way to the Archbishop, t\i^> 
he went away much relieved. On the way to tht 
house. Sir Robert's dilemma was explained to lb- 
Maharajah, and the suggestion made, that he shoiil 
signify to his host his willingness to come aj^^ 


the Archbishop. Lady Login remembers how eagerly Chapter 
be assented, saying, " I am very glad ; now the Arch- -q?"^ 
bishop will have to take the oldest lady present, and 
tbis time surely I may please myself. I always get 
such old ladies ! " When he was told of Sir Robert's 
suggestion, that he and the Primate should walk in 
together, his shout of laughter startled the solemn 
servants, who were marshalled to usher him in, but his 
face of dismay, when a second old lady was brought up 
to him, was truly comical ! 

Sir John Login steadily resisted all the proposals of 
different religious bodies to bring forward the distin- 
guished convert to Christianity on public platforms, 
and strenuous efforts were made by the Exeter Hall 
party to induce him to allow his name to appear in 
leh'gious and missionary reports. 

He explained his reasons fully to Lord Shaftesbury, 

who acknowledged their force and propriety ; and this 

correspondence was the commencement of a warm and 

sincere friendship between them. Login's Indian 

experience being frequently called upon, for the benefit 

of missionary and philanthropic work, during their 

many conferences in London, and at Lord Shaftesbury's 

country house, St. Giles, he was also brought into 

close correspondence, with the Secretary of the Church 

Missionary Society, the Rev. Henry Venn. 

Hitherto, since the arrival of the Maharajah in 
Eng'land, the subject of the Koh-i-noor had not been 
touched on in conversation in his presence; his 

z 2 


Chapter Governor and Lady Login were, however, well aware 
^^' of his sentiments on the matter, as, indeed, he had 
* made no secret of them. They knew that, to him, 
"the Koh-i-noor" meant something beyond a mere 
jewel of fabulous value, — ^in his eyes, and in the eyes 
of Oriental nations, it was an object of superstitious 
veneration, as the symbol of imperial sovereignty over 
Hindostan, and the countries adjacent, marking its 
possessor as chief among the rulers of Southern Asia : 
it was on this account that Runjeet Singh had made 
such strenuous efforts to get it into his hands, as 
setting the seal to his ambitious designs, and for this 
reason, too, that he never trusted it far from his own 
person, but had it always conveyed with him, \mder a 
strong guard, wherever he went. 

Lady Login was present, by special desire, at all thtr 
sittings for the Maharajah's portrait, given by him at 
Buckingham Palace. At one of these, the Queen, ii. 
the course of conversation, asked her, " I£ thr 
Maharajah ever spoke of the Koh-i-noor, and, if si-. 
did he seem to regret it ? " observing, at the same time, 
that she had never mentioned the jewel to him, ai;'': 
would feel a certain delicacy about wearing it in hi- 
presence. Lady Login replied, that he had never 
spoken of it since he came to England, though h- 
had often done so in India, and had been great];, 
interested in the descriptions of the operation « * 
re-cutting it. Her Majesty then said, that she Lope* 
Lady Login would be able, before the next sittiiw 


to ascertain what the Maharajah's feelings were on Chapter 
the subject, and whether he would care to see it, ^' 
now that it was re-cut, adding, " Kemember to tell 
me all he says." 

The task was by no means an easy one to Lady 
Login, for she dreaded what the Maharajah might 
say, and did not wish to bring the matter formally 
into discussion. No good opportunity presented itself, 
as the days went on, until just the day before the 
next sitting, when, as she was riding with him in 
Richmond Park, she managed to lead the conversation 
up to the subject. Then trying to put the question in 
a casual manner, " Would you like to see the Koh-i- 
noor again ? " she waited in some anxiety for his 
reply. " Yes," was his answer, " I would give a great 
deal to hold it again in my own hand ? " " Why ? For 
what reason ? " "I should like to have it in my 
power myself to place it in Her hand, now that I am a 
man. I was only a child then, when I surrendered it 
to Her by the Treaty ; but now I am old enough to 

The feeling of relief caused by this answer was 
great, and it was with a light heart she repeated it to 
the Queen on the following day. 

Unknown to the Maharajah, who was engaged 
with the painter at the further end of the room. 
Her Majesty at once gave orders for the Koh-i- 
noor to be sent for from the Tower. After some 
interval, there was a slight bustle near the door; 


Chapter the arrival of the jewel and its escort was an- 
^^ nounced ; and it was brought in, and presented to the 

Taking the diamond in Her hand, Her Majesty then 
advanced to the dais, on which the Maharajah was 
posed for his portrait, and, before the astonished young 
man realized what was passing, he found himself once 
more with the Koh-i-noor in his hand, while the 
Queen was asking him if "he thought it improved ? 
and whether he would have recognized it again 1 " 
At first sight, indeed, he would hardly have done so, 
the cutting and European setting had so altered its 
character ; yet, in spite of these, it remained still the 
" Mountain of Light," and it was with some emotion 
and eagerness that he walked to the window and 
minutely examined it, making remarks on its 
diminished size and greater brilliancy, whilst the 
spectators could not help watching his movements 
with some anxiety. It was a nervous quarter of an 
hour for Lady Login ! 

But, when at length he had finished his inspection. 
Duleep Singh walked across the room, and, with a low 
obeisance, presented the Koh-i-noor to his Sovereign, 
expressing in a few graceful words the pleasure 
it afforded him to have this opportunity of hifnst'l/ 
placing it in Her hands. Whereupon he quietly 
resumed his place on the dais, and the artist continued 
his work. 

The Queen and Prince Consort held many conver- 


sations with Login, on the subject of the Maharajah/ Chapter 
and took particular interest in all the details given ^* 
them, with regard to his education. The Pundit, 
Nehemiah Goreh, having been mentioned in high terms 
on one of these occasions, Her Majesty expressed a 
wish to have him presented to Her ; it was arranged 
that Sir John should bring him to the Palace, where he 
was received in private audience, as the Prince was 
desirous of an opportunity of personally questioning 
this learned and interesting Brahmin convert. 

The Maharajah witnessed, for the first time, the 
ceremony of the Prorogation of Parliament, and, by her 
Majesty's special direction, was accommodated with a 
seat on the '* woolsack." 

Letter from LoaiN to Lobd Dalhousie. 

EoEHAMFTON, Nov. 22nd, 1854. 
My Lord, 

I had the pleasure of seeing Sir G. Couper a few days ago, 
and he mentioned that he had acquainted your Lordship, by last 
mail, that it was Her Majesty's intention to confer the honour of 
knighthood upon me, so that your Lordship will have been 
prepared for the announcement of it in the Gazette, It has been 
as much a spontaneous act of Her Majesty's favour, as it is 
possible to be, and can only be considered in the light of a com- 

* Her Migesty was very anxious thoroughly to understand the Maharajah's 
histoiy and position, and by her request, Login drew up a memorandum on tlic 
Kubject for her private perusal, from which document much information in the 
larUer portion of this work has been culled. 


Chapter pUment to the Maharajah, and a token of Her Majesty's hig^ 
XI. approval and encouragement. For my own part, I must confess 

1854-56. that I should feel more easy under my new dignity, if a good 
many others, who have far higher claims, were equally honoured. 
Sir James Melvill, while expressing his own satisfaction at this 
mark of Her Majesty's approval, assures me that it has been 
highly gratifying to the Court of Directors. 

The Maharajah expresses himself much pleased that Her 
Majesty has thus honoured me, hut he is shrewd enough to see 
that the compliment will be fully more useful to himself than 
to me. 

It was Sir James Melvill himself who suggested that I should look 
out for a larger and better residence for His Highness than that 
at Wimbledon, which was the only one available at the time, and 
this was backed by Sir Frederick Currie and Sir George Pollock. 
I mention this, in case you may think that I have been asking for 
more " marks of consideration " from the Court of Directors ! 

At the Treasury, I have found Sir Charles Trevelyan most 
anxious to help me, and, through his kind representations, the 
Maharajah has been exempted from income-tax, and all other 
assessed taxes. This has been done without any official repre- 
sentation, or question as to its legality, merely as a matter of 
expediency, and by private reference to the Inland RevcLUt 
Board, which Sir Charles has had the kindness to arrange for vMi. 
I am anxious, however, that the Maharajah should be fully awar>r 
of the value and extent of these exemptions and "marks of c^i.- 
sideration " which have been shown to him ; and I have giT>: •: 
him to understand that I have not been exerting myself merely * ' 
give him a greater amount of money to hoard up, hut to enab.^ 
him to be generous and liberal. His natural disposition is, I &r 
afraid, very much the reverse of this ; indeed, at times, I i. 
ashamed of his stinginess ; but so long as I find him Tv^illinc * 
agree to any act of liberality I may recommend, I ongbt r ' 
to complain that he never originates any I 


As it is now time that he should hegin to take an interest in his Chapter 
own accoonts, I propose to make over to him the management and ^* 
direction of all charitable disbursements as a commencement, and lo^l-oo. 
to show him how much he has it in his power to be bountiful, in 
consequence of the liberality which has been shown to him. 

I intend, in addition to his ordinary allowance for charitable 
purposes, to place to the credit of this fund for benevolent 
purposes — 

Ist. — ^The amount saved to him by the liberality of the Court 
of Directors in furnishing him with a residence during his 
stay in England. 

2nd. — Amount saved by exemption from income and assessed 

3rd. — By remission of import duties on his baggage. 

4th. — ^Discount on tradesmen's bills, and, perhaps, the table 
allowance paid by me, on account of myself and family. 

In his position, and with the disposition he evinces, I think it 
will be very desirable to set off all these items, in order that he 
may see how much the liberality of others has placed in his 

Whether he may apply it all to benevolent purposes will 
depend on himself. He has already, out of this fund, agreed to 
give 1,000 rupees for yearly prizes at the schools at Amritsur, near 
Lahore ; £100 to the Patriotic Fund ; a donation of £500 to an 
Institution for Destitute Natives of Distant Lands, of whom there 
are now so many in London, and is to subscribe £250 annually 
for its support during his stay in England. 

BoEHAHPTON, Dcc, 23rd, 1854. 

I have to thank your Lordship for your kind letters of Sept. and 
Oct. 2lBt. I am very much gratified to hear that Her Majesty 
should have Herself informed you of the good impression which 


Chapter the Maharajah had made, and of the genuine interest which she 
XI. takes in him. 

18o4-ob. J YxB,ve abready acquainted your Lordship that the Maharajah 
has had an opportunity of meeting the Coorg Princess, and that 
he was favourahly impressed with what he had seen of her. She 
is, indeed, an amiable and engaging little girl, and, so far as one 
can judge, is likely to turn out well. Mrs, Drummond has brought 
her several times to visit my wife and children, and the Maha- 
rajah has also twice called on the Princess and Mrs. Drummond, 
with me. I am, however, very anxious, that any advances 
towards intimacy should come from himself, and I know that, 
although he is inclined to be pleased with her, he is rather appre- 
hensive of leading her to expect too much from his attentions ! 
I have little doubt, if it were not for her father's character, and the 
dread he has of coming into contact with him, he would be more 
disposed to cultivate acquaintance with her. As I have, however, 
been lately engaged in reading the Bistory of the Sikhs with him, 
and especially Carmichael Smyth's "Reigning Family of 
Lahore," he perceives that, in respect to their parents, they are 
similarly situated, and that the same feeling which may prevent 
him from wishing to be connected with the Rajah of Coorg's family, 
is likely to be an obstacle to his forming an alliance elsewhere. 

I have thought it right that he should be aware that ever}'thing 
regarding his early history is known in England, and that the 
attention and kindness which have been shown to him have beeii 
caused by a desire to encourage him to raise himself out of the 
mire of treachery, murder, and debauchery, in which, but for 
God's grace, he would have been overwhelmed. As he is now 
able to appreciate the difference between the standard of Ghiistian 
morality, which he ought to aim at, and the miserable debauchery 
from which he has escaped, I think that the perusal of the history 
of the Sikhs, and of his family (which he acknowledges to be on 
the whole correct), is likely to be useful to him, especially ii 
accompanied with remarks, introduced with sufficient delicacy, by 


one who has his welfare much at heart, and that it is calculated Chapter 
not only to render him contented, but most thankful to have XI. 
escaped from the dangerous position in which he had been placed. lo54-56. 
Year Lordship is doubtless aware that Her Majesty has been 
pleased, after due consideration, to give the Maharajah the rank 
and precedence of an European Prince. When the Queen did me 
the honour to ask me what were the Maharajah's own wishes on 
the subject, I said that His Highness was so confident of Her 
Majesty's goodwill towards him, that he was satisfied that she 
would graciously order what might appear best for him. In con- 
versation with Colonel Phipps, regarding the manner in which 
His Highness was to be received at Osborne, I agreed with his 
suggestion, that the Maharajah should go down to the Isle of 
Wight to reside for a short time, and be invited to dine frequently 
at Osborne, being received and treated as a subject of high rank ; 
and I was therefore taken by surprise when Colonel Phipps 
informed me, some time afterwards, that it had been, on consider- 
tion, determined that he should have the rank and precedence of 
an European Prince. I mention this, in case you may think that I 
have been taking any part in this elevation.* 

The Mahaarajah vsras made very happy durmg his 
visit to Osborne. The Queen and the Prince Consort 
treated him vsrith the most gracious kindliness, and 

* It is the intention of the Queen to invite the Maharajah to come down here 

for a couple of days early in next week I will take care that one of Her 

3Iaje8^'8 yachts shall be in attendance in the docks .... to bring His High- 
ness over. Yon are probably aware that, after deliberation, Her Majesty has been 
advised that the Maharajah is entitled, in this country, to the same rank and pre- 
cedence as an European Prince. — Quotation from a letter to Login from Sir Charles 
r/tippSf dated Oshome^ Aug. 14<A, 1854, 


Chapter all the royal children made much of him, treating him 

•^ as if he were one of themselves. The Princesses 

' introduced him to their special domain — ^the Swiss 

ch^et in the park, which was fitted up for them with 

all conveniences for cooking and housewifery; here 

they entertained him and their brothers, and 

exhibited their skill in cookery. The Maharajah 

thoroughly appreciated the joke, when the Princes, 

affecting greater proficiency in the art of boiling 

potatoes, basely took forcible possession of the cottage, 

locked out the rightful owners, and, with Duleep 

Singh's valuable (!) assistance, proceeded themselves 

to prepare the repast. 

From this time forward, a correspondence was 
established, between the Maharajah and the young 
Princes, and many letters (now extant) bear witness 
to their cordiality and friendliness towards hinu 
Birthday-presents were exchanged, and sketches 
executed by the Prince of Wales and Prince Alfred 
are still to be seen, treasured in the same book with 
photographs of the Royal Family, taken by the 
Maharajah on one of these visits, with the friendly 
assistance of the Prince Consort. In some of these 
photographs, the young Princes are seen dressed in 
the Maharajah's Indian costumes. 

The Queen never forgot the Maharajah's birthday : 
as regularly as it came round arrived the rovaJ 
birthday-gift. A valuable thorough-bred hunter was 
the first of these ; he also received, at different times. 


a dog, a beautiful time-piece, and other gracious Chapter 
tokens of her kindly interest in him. ^" 

1 QUA. f\(i 

At Lord Hardinge's invitation, the Maharajah, Sir 
John and Lady Login paid a visit to South Park, 
near Penshurst. They spent here a delightful week 
among the pretty Kentish scenery, and the Maharajah 
did his best to carry out Sir William Sleeman's 
injunctions!* As the Maharajah's horses had been sent 
down beforehand, the party were able to take many 
rides, and thoroughly explore the neighbourhood 
around. The late Governor-General (then Commander- 
in-Chief in England, in succession to the Duke of 
Wellington) was a fine, hale-looking, old man, with 
the remarkable bright-blue eyes peculiar to his race, 
and it was with a grand, old-world courtesy that he 
received as his guest the ex-Sovereign, whose armies 
he had defeated in three bloody fights, yet whose crown 
and kingdom he had magnanimously spared. 

This was Duleep Singh's first experience of English 
country life ; later on, with Sir John and Lady Login, 
he went down to Scotland for a short time, and from 
Edinbm'gh, paid a visit to Lord Morton at Dalmahoy. 
On the return journey, they stopped for a week 
at Hickleton Hall, in Yorkshire, belonging to Sir 
Charles Wood (afterwards Lord Halifax) ; at Went- 
worth, the seat of Earl Fitzwilliam ; and at Teddesley, 
Lord Hatherton's place in Stafibrdshire ; and thus 

*Seeafi^, p. 826. 


Chapter extended his acquaintance with the homes of English 

^* noblemen, 
1864-56. ^'^'^ ''"• 

He thoroughly enjoyed English life in all its phases, 
and acquired a keen taste for sport. As he was verv 
anxious to get some shooting in the Highlands, Castle 
Menzies, in Perthshire, was hired for a period, from 
Sir Robert Menzies, and the two or three succeeding 
years of his English life were mostly passed there, the 
house at Eoehampton being occupied merely durinir 
the winter and spring months. 

It had been decided by Lord Dalhousie that Duleep 
Singh should attain his majority at the age of 
eighteen, although, according to Sikh custom and 
the Treaty of Bhyrowal,* his minority would end when 
he became sixteen, when, had he not been deposed in 
1849, he would have been left to himself to mana<::e 
his kingdom. As time was now passing, the Maha- 
rajah was naturally anxious to know what arrange- 
ment (if any) was contemplated for his future ; and the 
following letter to Lord Dalhousie will show that at 
this early period the question was already being 
pressed, by Login, on the attention of Government : — 

Wimbledon, OcL^ 1854. 

Sir Charles Wood has no doubt told your Lordship the opiuic u 
he had formed of the Maharajah, on closer acquaintance, duiir^ 
his visit at Hickleton, and he told me, that he had also comniuT.:< 

* See Appendix. 


cated with yon on the subject of his settlement on coming of age. Chaptor 
Since the visit to Hickleton, His Highness has spoken to me on ^• 
the matter, and I think it right that your Lordship should be -l-o^ft-oo. 
informed of the views he entertains, in order that I may be able, 
before the question is settled, to prepare His Highness for such 
an arrangement as may be decided upon. On mentioning to the 
Maharajah that it was very desirable that the arrangements for 
his settlement on coming of age should be made while youi 
Lordship remained in India, he quite agreed with me. And I 
then asked him what his own wishes were on the subject ? He 
said that his own wishes at present were, not to receive an 
assignment of land or any estate from Government, as in that 
case he would feel under obligations to reside there, and could 
not, perhaps, have the power to dispose of it, if he wished to do 
so, but that he was anxious that such accumulations as may 
have taken place during his minority, by lapses of pensions from 
the allowance of '* not less than four lakhs, and not more than five 
lakhs, per annum,'* to which he and his family and servants were 
entitled by the Treaty, should then be made over to him, and 
that from that sum he could appropriate a part to purchase an 
estate, and allow the balance to be deposited for him in 
Govemnient securities. Hi^ Highness is evidently under the 
impression that the *' not less than four lakhs " mentioned in the 
Treaty were to be allowed to him and his family and servants in 
perpetuity, and that he is entitled to such accumulations as may 
take place by lapses of pensions from this fund ; and, as your Lord- 
ship may view the matter in a different light, it is very necessary 
that you should be apprised of it, to prevent any future mis- 

I told him that I should mention his wishes to your Lordship, 
and also to Sir Charles Wood, but said, at the same time, that he 
might rest satisfied that whatever justice and goodwill towards 
iiim niight dictate would be done. 

As His Highness had never before so decidedly expressed his own 


Chapter wishes, I am anxious that your Lordship should know them, and 

XI. that you will favour me with your instructions I shall, of 

1864-56. course, say nothing on the subject to him, until I hear from your 


Since his return to Wimbledon, he has been applying himself 

assiduously to his studies. My letter from Edinburgh would give 

all particulars of His Highness's visit to Dalhousie Castle. He 

certainly enjoyed his stay at Hickleton Hall, where he made 

many new acquaintances, and, I think, made a very favourable 

impression on all. 


J. o. L. 

Government House, Nov, 11th, 1854. 
My deab Login, 

It gave me great pleasure to receive letters from you and the 
Maharajah when at Edinburgh, and to learn that you had paid a 
visit to my children, at the Castle. 

You may well beUeve that I anticipate my daughter Susan ^ 
coming with great delight, not free, however, from anxiety 
regarding this pestilent climate. I have resolved to go next 
summer to the NeOgherries, as pmctically the nearest point to 
Calcutta at which I could take refuge. We are all very qtiiet here 
in India. Instead of a Russian army from Cabul, we faain^ 
received a friendly mission from the Ameer, and I am in daily 
expectation of a similar mission from the King of Ava. Your 
former potentate, the King of Oude, is very ill. He has " wined, 
womened, and wasted " himself to death's door, and I fear we sha' . 
have that wretched Government prolonged, throughout another 
minority. Old Sleeman is quite done. Colonel Outram is to ac: 
and will, no doubt, romain permanently. 

I remain, my dear Login, 

Yours very truly, 



BoBHAMPTON, April 9th, 1856. Chapter 
My Lord, XI. 

The Maharajah continues to apply himself to his studies, 1°^'^- 
and has made much more progress than formerly, because he 
now puts some heart in his work. At present he devotes his 
attention to the German language, which, from its affinity to 
the Sanscrit and Hindu is, he thinks, more likely to be useful to 
him than French. 

Perhaps his intercourse with the Prince Consort has been 

a spur to application in this particular branch. He has great 

facility in acquiring languages, however, and this is likely 

to be very useful to him, if he travels. Among his other 

accomplishments, he is learning photography, with much 

success. This also has been greatly encouraged by the Prince 

Consort, who has taken great interest in his progress. He 

has had the honour of dining with Her Majesty several times 

since I last wrote, and continues to receive most kind 

attention. The Queen has caused a likeness of him to be 

published, from Winterhalter's picture, and I think the artist 

has been most successful. I am happy to say that he does 

not appear to be in any way spoiled by these attentions ; he 

seems to appreciate them in a very proper way. On receiving 

your Lordship's last letter, I explained to him (as you requested 

me) his mistake in supposing that lapses from the four 

lakhs were to fall in to him to increase his allowances. He 

listened in silence, making no remark, but appeared satisfied 

to trust his future settlement, on coming of age, to the justice 

and liberality of your Lordship and the British Government. 

I mentioned in a former letter that His Highness intended 
to subscribe liberally to get up a Home for Strangers — Asiatics, 
Africans, &c., visiting London. He was present at a meeting 
held for the purpose a fortnight since, and there is every 
prospect of the institution being successful. I am quite aware of 
the danger to be apprehended, in allowing him to occupy too 



Chapter conspicuous a position in such matters; but I trust, with 
XI. prudence, to avoid all risk, and, at the same time, enable him 
18o4-o6« iq effect much good ; this seemed especially an object which 
he ought to help. 

I think I told your Lordship that I was engaged in making 
up a conveyance for the wounded in the field. I think I have 
been successful, and that I have been able to turn my Indian 
experience in such matters to good account. 

With earnest wishes for your restoration to health, 

I remain, &c., 
J. S. Lj. 

Jan,, 1855. 
Mt dear Login, 

Your description of Duleep's life in England is really very 

gratifying. If this lad does not grow up with right notions and 

principles, and well-directed sentiments, it certainly will not 

be your fault. I agree with you, that if he wiU only foUow when 

rightly led, we need not be disappointed that he does not 

lead the way I have no right to consider you under my 

authority at present; but you may be assured that the 

unrestrained correspondence between us is a real pleasure 

to me. The Queen has again mentioned to me the Maharajah's 

second visit, and she also alluded to the Goorg affair. I am glad 

to find that it promises w^ell, and I hope may come to some- 

thing, although, like other cases of " true love," it may not 

always run smooth ! 

I am very shaky, and newly done. 

I beg to offer my most sincere congratulations to Lady Login. 
which I omitted to do before, when I wrote to congratulate: 

Believe me, my^ear Login, 

Yours very truly, 



Diileep Singh's education continued all this time to Chapter 
be regularly carried on by masters for the various 
subjects, and, on the whole, he made very fair progress, 
though there was always a difficulty in keeping his 
attention alive. He had a great admiration for 
Shakespeare, even if he could not quite reach the 
same pitch of enthusiasm as his English master, who, 
to the amusement of his pupil, always spoke of" the 
divine William " as an emanation ! In the study of 
German he made some advance, but Italian was his 
favourite European language ; and as he contemplated 
a lengthened residence in Italy during the following 
year, his Italian tutor, Signer Montanari, accompanied 
him to Scotland, to continue his instruction. The Rev. 
Henry Estridge, an Oxford coach, was at the same 
time engaged as resident English tutor, and re- 
mained in that capacity, and as companion to the 

Soon after coming to England, Sir John Login 
obtained from Lord Hardinge a commission in a 
Queens regiment in India for Charles Boileau, and 
received from a member of the Court of Directors the 
promise of a cadetship for the other brother, Frank. 
He had thus the satisfaction of seeing both lads launched 
in the world under favourable auspices. Entering the 
Company's army, Frank Boileau* landed in India 

* Now Lieat.*Colonel commanding the Mhairwarra Battalion. 

AA 2 


Chapter just before the Mutiny broke out, served at the siege 
-^* of Delhi, where he was severely wounded, and was 
' obliged to invalid home in 1859. 

The Boileaus having left, Duleep Singh now 
found congenial companions in the young Leslie- 
Melvilles, sons of the Earl of Leven, who lived near 
him at Roehampton. With them he had constant 
intercourse, and greatly enjoyed their society, and 
that of other lads of his own age. Granard Lodge, 
the house at Roehampton, then occupied by the 
Maharajah, could only be got for six months, but 
Ashburton Court was afterwards secured for as long as 
he cared to live near London. 

Young Tom Scott had come to England with his 
mother for his education some time before this. aii<l 
was, later on, sent by Login to a tutor at Wimbledoix, 
to prepare for the army. Mrs. Scott, after remaining^ 
two or three years in Europe, returned to India in 1 85G. 
Just before sailing, in December, she came down to Asli^ 
burton Court on a visit to her friends, and then Logii^ 
undertook to see after her son, whom she was leavirkvr 
behind her. He was enabled, through the kindness of 
Sir Henry Rawlinson, to procure him a commissioi^ iti^ 
the Indian army. 

Poor Mrs. Scott ! Little did those who then V>cn.K» 
her farewell dream of the awful death she was cy>rk;i,.. 

forth to meet, and that her son, on following Lx^i* 
India, would be met on landing by the" t^^-^^^/. 
announcement that his mother, brother, and 

ENQIiAND. 357 

were among the first victims of the outbreak of the Chaptet 

mutiny in the vicinity of Lucknow ! ^• 

^ ^ 1864-66. 

Sir John was beset by requests from photographers 
and illustrated papers for permission to take Duleep 
Singh 8 likeness for publication ; but this he always 
steadily refused, on the plea, that the Maharajah was 
in England for the purpose of study, and had no 
desire to court notoriety. 

Besides the portrait by Winterhalter, the Queen 
ordered a bust of the Maharajah to be executed by 
Baron Marochetti, which, by Her Majesty's directions, 
was afterwards " tinted " by Mr. Millais, somewhat in 
the style which Gibson's " Venus " rendered so much 
in vogue at this period.* 

Addiscombe was at this time the Military College of 
the East India Company, and the Maharajah having, 
at Login's suggestion, given a yearly prize to be com- 
peted for by the cadets, he was present, as the guest of 
the Governor (Sir Frederick Abbott), at the annual 
inspection and prize-giving, and was an interested 
spectator of the " sports," although neither then nor 
afterwards did he evince any special military tastes. 

The close of the Crimean War brought to the notice 
of the public the hard case of many discharged soldiers, 
who had faithftdly served their Queen and country. 

" A bust of the Princess Victoria Gonramma of Goorg was treated in th« 
same manner : they are both to be seen now in the gallery at Windsor. 


Chapter yet whose pension was insufficient to form their sole 
•^- support, and whose wounds disabled them from earning 
' their livelihood in any save the lightest forms of 
employment. Sir John Login was one of the first to 
urge their cause, and — ^before the Corps of Com- 
missionaires was formed, of which he was one of the 
original promoters — he was the very first to set the 
example of emplojdng these men in positions of trust, 
by taking into the Maharajah's service, in the year 
1855, six of these wounded heroes as stablemen, house- 
porters, and gardeners. 

One of them, Harry Naylor, a handsome young 
dragoon, had been in the famous " Balaclava Charge," 
and his appearance as a groom in the Maharajah's 
livery, his breast covered with medals, attracted much 
attention on the part of strangers. 

At Castle Menzies the Maharajah received at 
diflferent times many distinguished visitors,* and met 
with much kindness and attention from the neighbour- 
ing landowners, particularly the Marquis of Breadal- 
bane and the Duke of Athole, whose acquaintance he 
had already made in town. 

The friendly intercourse with Taymouth was a 

* Among these were most of the chief officials at the India Hoiue, viz., ^i-*' 
James Hogg and his son Colonel Hogg (now Lord Magheramome), Mr. Temrc 
Smith (Loixl Lyveden), Sir James Melvill, Sir George PoUock (afterwards Field - 

Marshal), Sir Frederick Currie, Colonel Sykes, kc also Mr. DudlrT 

Marjoribanks (Lord Tweedmouth), the Earl of Leven, Lord Hatherton, Kr. Jolr. 
Bright, Mr. EUice, M.P, and many others. 


pleasant feature of the sojourn at Castle Menzies. Chapter 

Lord Breadalbane (at that time Lord Chamberlain), ^^ 

. . . J , . . ^1864-56. 

entertained as his guests a constant succession ot 

eminent personages, to many of whom the Indian 

Prince was an object of great interest ; in this way, he 

met Archbishop Tait (then Bishop of London), the 

Bishop of Oxford (Samuel Wilberforce), Lord 

Clarendon, the Duke of Leeds, Mi\ Delane, editor of 

the Times, Lord Bathurst, Lady Ailesbury, Lord 

and Lady Kintore, and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. 

Great amusement was created at Castle Menzies on 

more than one occasion when the Duke of Athole s 

party arrived to luncheon, having driven all the way 

from Blair Athole, a distance of about fifteen miles, in 

the so-called " boat-carriage." It really consisted of a 

fx)at on wheels ; and however convenient it might have 

been — as the Duke was fond of pointing out — for 

crossing rivers or lochs, it could scarcely be called an 

elegant equipage, or comfortable for a long journey. 

The Duke of Athole persuaded the Maharajah to 

adopt the " kilt " for shooting on the moors, and 

undertook the ordering of one for him from his own 

tailor ! 

Seeing their master wearing the Highland dress, 

the ambition of several of the Maharajah's English 

servants was fired to exhibit themselves also in that 

l>ecoming costume. Thornton, who had accompanied 

His Highness firom India as his valet, often attended 

him on the moors wearing the kilt ; but this fell far 


Qiapter short of the ambition of Russell, the butler, who went 

^^* in for a full-dress costume of the royal tartan, with 

* sporran, silver ornaments, and all complete ! Being a 

fine-looking man, no doubt he thought the result 

repaid him. 

One evening at dinner, Lady asked Sir John 

what distinfifuished visitor had called at the Castle that 
afternoon ? as she had been absent at Taymouth. He 

named several ladies, but Lady enquired if no 

gentleman had been there ; because, she said, as 
she drove over the Weem Bridge, she met an 
aristocratic-looking stranger, in full Highland dress, 
evidently on his way to the Castle, and she was 
afraid that her admiration must have been expressed 
in her countenance, for he actually blushed as he 
gracefully doflfed his cap ! Both Sir John and the 
Maharajah had seen the person in question, and knew 
it to be Russell, who was at that moment filling the 
lady's glass with wine, which, in his trepidation, he 
managed to spill all over her and the table, and so 
created a diversion, under cover of which he effected 
his escape from the room ! 

Picnics were a great delight at this time ; the 
house-party used to go out on the moor and meet the 
sportsmen at an appointed spot, where luncheon wa> 
spread. Ponies were allotted to the ladies, each le*i 
by a gillie, or groom, and it was very amusing to see 
the competition that went on to get the " Balaclav;. 
hero," Harry Naylor, as escort. 


At one of these picnics, a renowned professor, who Chapter 
had come from London to teach the Maharaiah botany, ^' 
fell a victim to his ignorance of entomology ; for, 
selecting a nice green grassy hummock as his seat 
at lunch, in the middle of the repast he suddenly 
precipitated himself with a yell into the centre of 
the table-cloth, knife and fork in hand, having 
discovered that he was sitting on an ant's nest all 
the while ! Later in the afternoon the Professor 
was found testing the depth of the various pools in 
the neighbouring burn on his way home I 

The Maharajah was able once more to indulge his 
passion for hawking, and his hawking-parties attracted 
much attention and curiosity, as the revival of an old 
sport now almost obsolete in Britain. John Barr, the 
well-known falconer, was in his service, and no expense 
was spared in securing first-rate falcons. 

The small group of houses known as the " toun " 

of Weem lay just outside the gates of the park at 

Castle Menzies, and here was the parish kirk which 

the family and household attended every " Sabbath." 

The long sermons then usual in the Scottish kirk were 

rather a tax on Duleep Singh's patience, though his 

behaviour was most exemplary, even when the 

metrical Psalms were led off by the precentor, with 

the aid of a tuning-fork, — ostentatiously exhibited as if 

it were a species of musical instrument ! — and though 

the situation was rather trying for him, when, after 

praying for the Queen and Boyal Family, the old 


Chapter minister invariably added a petition, enumerating the 

^' particular graces he desired for "the Prince now 
1864.66. ^ . . ^ ^ „ 

sojoummg amongst us. 

An amusing incident occm-red one Sunday at the 
Free Kirk, Aberfeldy, which some of the household 
were in the habit of attending in the afternoon. 

The day was very sultry, and the congr^ation 
consequently rather somnolently inclined ; especially 
was this the case with the Castle Menzies' servants, 
who were tired with their long, dusty walk. The 
text was from Acts xvi. 14 — "Lydia, a seller of 
purple," and the voice of the minister, a noted 
preacher, acted on all as a soothing charm ; when, 
perhaps, becoming aware of this fact, he suddenly 
thumped the pulpit cushion, and raising his voice. 
declaimed in stentorian tones, " And — Lydia — ." 
Instantly, to the amazement of the preacher and 
congregation, a voice from the gallery replied, " Yes, 
Sir John ! " while an unfortunate 8tilli*oom-maid. 
whose name happened to be Lydia, being observed 
at the same time standing erect in her pew and gazing; 
round with bewilderment and consternation, revealeil 
at once the fact that here was the author of thi*^ 
unseemly interruption, self-convicted of sleepiru: 
during the sermon ! 

The adulation paid to the young Prince at thi^ 
time, especially by ladies, was not calculated t« 
produce a beneficial effect upon him, though , t» 
his credit be it said, he seemed to prefer the plai: 


speaking, or honest censure, by which his friends Chapter 
sought to counteract such lavish and unwise flattery. ^' 
There is no intention to portray Duleep Singh as a 
perfect character, or saint. He was surrounded by 
temptations of an unusual sort, yet had hitherto 
led a blameless life as regards morality. Some 
infirmities of temper, indolence, or selfishness, showed 
themselves with, perhaps, the Oriental tendency to 
be indifferent to suffering. Of the latter, an instance 
may be given : — 

During the first shooting season at Castle Menzies, 
when the house was fiill of guests, there arose one 
evening at dinner much chaflfing talk amongst the 
young men concerning a cat which had been shot, 
when discharging their guns near the village, on their 
way home. Sir John " hoped it was not a poor 
woman's pet." Duleep Singh " did not care if it 
were ! It had no business there ! " 

liady , a devoted admirer of the Maharajah, 

when enlarging aftei-wards in the drawing-room to the 
other ladies on his gentleness and amiability, under- 
took to prove her words, by dressing up in character 
as the poor woman who had lost her cat, in order to 
excite his compassion. 

On the entry of the gentlemen, therefore, a poor, 
weeping woman was found in the biUiard-room, 
'' waiting to see His Highness." So pathetically 
lid she relate the story of the loss of her favourite 
md only companion, her "puir cattie," that young 


Chapter Alick Lawrence, Sir Henry's son, was moved almost to 

•^^- tears, and, stepping forward, entreated her to " cry no 

* more I it distressed him to think of the accident — 

would she accept ten shillings from him as a small 

compensation ? " &c. This was not what Lady 

wanted, so she redoubled her eflforts to gain some sign 
from the Maharajah. 

He stood unmoved the while, save that his eyes 
blazed with anger. At last, losing patience, he burst 
out, shaking his billiard cue in her face, " Yes ! cry, 
cry till you are tired ! Don't let your brutes cross my 
path. Not a penny shall you get from me ! " Then, 
laying no gentle hand on her arm, " Begone, I 


At this moment Lord , recognizing his wife. 

and thinking the joke had gone quite far enough, 
addressed her by name, and she, to the Maharajah' -^ 
consternation, dropped her disguise, which had beei. 
so perfect that none had suspected it. 

One of the few ladies present lately gave this 
account to Lady Login, who was herself an inval'.'i 
at the time. 

Possibly the contrast between his own conduct ai.i 
that of young Lawrence might have been more appan:-: * 

to Duleep Singh, had he not been assured by Lady 

when he tried to apologize for his discourtesy, th ' 
she '* had only admired his princely air of commaiM^ 
and felt "he was every inch a king when point i:.> 
her to the door," &c. 


Letter from Sm Hbnbt Lawbbnce, E.CB. Chapter 

Mount Aboo, June 10th, 1866. 1854-56 
Mt deab Loam, 

Many thanks for the Maharajah, Lady Login's, and your 
kindness to my son Alick. I will be glad of your taking every 
opportunity to urge on Alick the necessity of exertion, at this 
period of his life. You have been accustomed to deal with 
youths, and might influence him much. He is very amiable, but 
unenergetic. I fancy, too, that in spite of all I have said, he does 
not realize the need for steady application. I am very anxious 
about him, soul and body t This is his time of trial, for he is 
surrounded by temptations, that nothing but the grace of God 
can protect him from. I shall be most grateful for any help you 
can give. 

We have good accounts of Duleep Singh from different quarters ; 

our friend Mr. Jay writes me, that he has received a very 

gratifying letter from him. I am sorry, on many accounts, that Mr. 

Jay refused the Chaplaincy of Eussowlee, even though a good man 

has got it. Mr. Jay now wishes to get a hill-station, on account 

of his child's health. I hope he may get Dugshaie. I am 

anxious to get good men of moderate temper near Mr. Parker, as 

fly-wheels on his energies. The asylum, now that the lower 

orphan school is added to it, will be an engine of great good. I 

have often been siurprised that the Maharajah has never himself 

given me a rupee for it, especially as he must know you do. 

YovL have made him give liberally to other Indian charities, 
but doubtless you have a delicacy as regards mine, from our 
perBonal friendship. 

X should have thought that his kindly feelings towards me 
^ould liave induced him. While he was in India, I did not feel 
lustifiecl in mentioning the subject to him, and even now I don't 
»vish you to do more than show him the last report, and say that 
ihe Asyl^iDi is in debt. 


Chapter I have built a school here for fifty, and have twenty-three 

XI. children always. I hope soon to have another at Neilgherries. 
1864-66. With kindest love to Lady Login. 

Ever yours affectionately, 

Henky M. Lawrbmce. 

P.S. — I enclose a letter to the Maharajah. 

The following year, Duleep Singh, having gone to 
the Highlands early in the season for salmon fishinjj, 
wrote from thence to his guardian : — 

Castle Menzies, June 30t/i, 1856. 
My dear good Friend, 

I enclose in this a note for the Prince of Wales ; will yon 
kindly send it on ? 

I intended to write to you before, but there is little to write 
about. We are getting on pretty well with our housekeeping, 
and are all well. I did not catch a salmon, as I hoped, the du^ 
you left ; but as soon as I catch one myself, it shall be sent straig: : 
to Lady Login, at Boehampton. 

I commenced lessons seriously this morning with Mr. Housk. 

and hope to get on very well with 'him. I trust to hear th&' 

Lady Login, and all of you, continue to be quite well. Wbt 

will Lady Login and the children come to Castle Menzies, for 

begin to feel very lonely without them ? I miss them dreadful! 

I hope Hancock sent the things I ordered for the little one. W.* 

my love to the children. 

I remain, yours afifectionately, 


P.S. — Please bring the "Treasury of Histories" when >. 
come. It was paeked for India. 



[Readers already satiated with descriptions of 
Italian travel are recommended to skip this chapter.] 

As a tour on the Continent formed pai't of the scheme Chapter 
for the Maharajah's education, it was arranged that, ^^^• 
previous to his return to India, he should spend some 
months in France and Italy. Accordingly, in Decem- 
ber, 1856, he left England, accompanied by Sir John 
and Lady Login, and by his friend, Mr. Ronald Leslie- 
Melville (then an undergraduate of Christ Church, 
Oxon.), whom,^he had persuaded to join the party. To 
avoid publicity, and ceremonious receptions at the, 
various foreign Coiu'ts, it was thought advisable that 
the Prince should travel as a private individual, under 
the name of " Mr. Login." 

As the party travelled in the old-fashioned style, 
taking their own carriages with them from England, 
^he following quotations, from a diary kept at this 


Chapter period, may prove amusing to those unfamiliar with 

^^' the Italy of thirty years ago : — 
1866-67. "^ J J ^ 

Cannes, Jan, 2nd, 1857. 

Made our first essay, at Marseilles, in travelling by post, in our 
own carriages, for there is no more rail after that place. You 
would have been amused to see the carriages starting — ^a loug 
string of horses to each, and each postillion dressed differently ; 
one only had any pretension to being smart, and he had jack- 
boots, a sheepskin coat, a conical hat with a flower in it, and a 
pipe in his mouth 1 We pitied him very much, for it was a hot 
day, and he must have been nearly boiled in that warm coat« 
after bumping up and down so long (for he did not rise in his 
stirrups like an English postillion). The horses are great, heavy, 
strong animals, all decorated with bells. The harness is 
wretched, and always breaking, being mostly of rope; the 
traces are always rope, and very insecure. One postillion manage^ 
four horses, sitting on one of the wheelers, and guiding thoM: 
before with reins. We enjoyed the posting very much, and all 
got out and walked on through the villages, when we stopped to 
change horses. In the evening we reached BrignoUes, our halting 
place ; the cracking of the postillions' whips, as they come ne^r 
their destination, is something astonishing ; it is like a successi^ ' 
of pistol shots let off close to your ear 

Next day we ascended the Esterelles pleasantly, but our desc« 
was not so comfortable. The view from the mountain, on goi- . 
up, is beautiful, and, as the sun was setting, it looked to perfectiv i 
The waters of the Mediterranean were so bright and blue, tj 
hill-sides covered with cork trees, pines, and olives, varied w^.* 
jutting crags ; deep ravines and hrightful precipices (withotit a 
parapet) below us, with the bold outline of the mountain tc.- 
beyond, made a glorious panorama. At the post-house on : 
top we remained so long, owing to some delay about the ho(r>-'^ 

ITALY. 369 

(on going down we had foTir horses only, though coming up we Chapter 

had ten), that the gentlemen walked on, and I was to follow in ^U. 

the carriage. It was nearly dark when at last we set out, and, to-^"^"^* • 

make up for lost time, the postillion set off at a hand-gallop, and 

I was very nearly upset over the precipice before he could pull up. 

When we overtook the gentlemen it was quite dark, and, as they 

got in, the postillion was warned to go carefully ; but nevertheless. 

before long, the same thing happened again, and we were brought 

up bump against a post ! In a minute we were all out, and the 

first thing we saw was Presanzini, the courier, and Thornton, 

thrashing the postilhon, whom they had discovered to be drunk I 

Here was a nice dilenmia 1 still five miles to the bottom, and no 

help near. We decided on leaving the drunken postillion behind, 

with Presanzini and Mr. Gawood (the Maharajah's secretary) in 

the faurgon, to wait till we sent a sober driver, and we took the 

lady's-maid in the rumble, with Thornton. Taking the sober 

postillion from the fourgon, we reached Cannes very late, for we 

had a further adventure with, a jibbing horse, that seemed very 

anxious always to look in at the carriage windows, instead of 

going along quietly 

A most amusing dinner party at the . The Maharajah 

would not go, but made some excuse of having a cold. Sir D. 
Brewster and the Anstruther-Thompsons were there. 

A little girl, a niece of the hostess, was introduced at dessert. 
She had evidently heard of the Maharajah, and was very anxious 
to see him. She was talking to me in the evening, after dinner, 
whilst I was sitting beside her aunt, and when her aunt happened 
to express great regret that the Maharajah had not come, the 
little girl suddenly said, ** Is he really a blackamoor ? What is a 
blackamoor ? " Her aunt looked perfectly horrified, and ex- 
claimed, " What a vulgar expreaaioni I am ashamed of you I" 
evidently thinking I must be greatly offended ; and the child was 
seized on by the uncle and asked, '* Whom she could have heard 
3peak of the Prince in that manner?" With the utmost naivete 



Chapter she at once replied, '* Now, aunt, you know you said so this 
XII. morning, to Miss Crow! " 

'18o6-o7. Poor Mrs. looked so relieved when she heard me invite the 

little girl to pay me a visit in the morning to see the hlack 
Prince ! The Maharajah was much amused when he heard the 
story, and made himself very agreeable to the little girl, who 
went home delighted. 

We enjoyed our stay at Nice very much, as we had lovely 
summer weather. A picnic was arranged to Villafranca and St. 
Hospice, by Major Reynolds, in the Maharajah's honour, to which 
all the elite of Nice were invited; but the Maharajah had one 
of his obstinate fits, and it was with much difficulty we prevailed 
on him to go. He consented at last, with the stipulation that I 
would keep near him, and not leave him alone among all thos<' 
strangers. He does so hate to be lionized, and be looked upon as 
a sort of natural curiosity I The excursion to Villafranca is 
usually made on donkeys, but as the Maharajah could never bv 
persuaded to mount one of those animals, very good horses were 
provided for us. The ride there and back was beantifiil : 
the first part of the way across the mountains, and the rest 
all along the shores of the Mediterranean, by a rocky 
footpath, overhanging the sea, just fit for donkeys, thou^u 
we found our horses more sure-footed than the less noll^ 
animals ridden by the fest of the party. We were all vtr* 
merry, particularly when entering Nice, on our way home, Kr » 
wicked little donkey -boy (who seemed to think I approved of u 
measure) would, every now and then, give a sort of scream, a^ * 
signal to the donkeys; on hearing which, the animals set • 
helter-skelter, at a tearing pace. No matter who was rid^ . 
them, lady or gentleman, there was no holding them ! The la«; 
screamed, and several of the Bftrty, I believe, had tumbles f r 
their " Jerusalem ponies " before we got up to them, oviin^- : 
their falling on their knees scampering downhill; indeed, I saw 
gentleman roll over his donkey's head — for the creatures wt 
halt as suddenly as they started, with an abruptness calcula: 

ITALY. 371 

to launch their riders into space I Being mounted on nobler Chapter 
steeds, who were deaf to the cries of the donkey-boy, we conid XH. 
survey the scene in safety ourselves, and the absurdity of it was 1856-57. 
altogether too much for the Maharajah's politeness, for, I regret 
to say, he went into such fits of laughter that he nearly tumbled 
off his horse himself ! 

We were engaged to a large party at Lady Ely's in the evening. 
It was a great crowd. Several of tbe Empress of Russia's suite 
were there, for the Elys seem great friends with the Empress, 
though the rest of the English society here are very indignant at 
the airs the Bussians give themselves. It is a great pity, there 
seems to be such a bad feeling between them, and it is difficult to 
say on whose side the fault lies. When the Empress came first, 
she used to go out in great state, with outriders preceding her, 
armed with long whips, which they cracked loudly, ordering 
every carriage to draw up to the side till Her Majesty passed. 
This several English refused to do, and complained of such over- 
bearing conduct to the authorities ; so, as it was feared that the 
place would sufier by the withdrawal of the English visitors fthey 
having threatened to do so). Her Majesty was induced to adopt a 
quieter style, and now she drives about in a more unassuming 
manner. We met her returning from some church ceremony, 
attended by her Court ladies, all in full evening dress I She 
looked very ill and delicate. The Grand-Duchess Helen was 
expected this evening, but could not leave the Empress, wjio was 


I met several old acquaintances here, amongst others. Lady 
William Harvey, who was our neighbour on Putney Heath. 
LiSidy Ely introduced me to Lady Dufferin, and yoimg Lord 
Dufferin, who is one of Her Majesty's Lords-in- Waiting. He was 
rery amusing, and I cannot quit* make out whether his pretty 
isp is real or affected 1 * 

* Little did the Maliarajah dreaTD, on this occasion, that a day would come 
rhen be sliotild stand arrested as a disaffected subject, by order of this same Lord 
iulTerin, then Viceroy of India 1 

BB 2 


Chapter .... Expected to have found John Bright at Mentone, as Mr. 
Xn. E. Ellice, M.P., had told us Mr. Bright was looking out for us. at 
1866-57. hig desire, but he had not arrived. 

Genoa, Jan, 19th, Sir John slipped down some steps at the 
Hdtel de la Yille, from the slipperiness of the marble, so, to guard 
against evil effects, is to keep quiet for a day. We have, therefore, 
given up the idea of going to see Turin from here, thinking it wiU 
be better to do so on the return journey. 

Jan, 20^/t. Put off our departure, as Sir John did not feel quite 
recovered. John Bright having come in to spend an hour or two 
with him and talk politics, the Maharajah, Bonald Melville, and 
I set off to visit the Fieschi Convent, on the hill above Genoa. It 
was very interesting, and amusing also, as we were escorted by 
two nuns (neither of them young nor pretty), and shown all over 
the place ; they seemed charmed to have a chat with our laquaii 
de place, and entered into any joke that was made by us with 
great glee. We saw their dinner laid out, and a small decanter 
of wine for each nun; they laughed heartily when we said we 
hoped they did not drink all their allowance ! Their dormitories 
looked very clean and airy, but no washhand-stands were visible, 
only a Uttle pump of water outside the door in the corridor! 
Their pillows were Hke pin-cushions, and I wish you had heard 
them laugh when the Maharajah asked how they managed 
bolstenng-matches with them, he and Bonald illustrating what 
he meant, to the nuns' intense deUght I 

We also went to see the famous Gatina, or emerald dish, kei ; 
at the Duomo, and said to have been presented to King Solomon 1 > 
the Queen of Sheba. The Maharajah was very anxious to cxaniiix 
it, having been told it was the largest emerald in the world ; ax.^ 
being exceedingly proud of the size and lustre of his own u^.- 
emeralds of Bunjeet Singh were celebrated), he was, therefor 
immensely relieved to find that it was only a piece of green gl^-- 
after all. 

• • 

ITALY. 373 

Flobence. Florence is famed for its flowers and flower-girls ; ClM|iter 
the latter mostly large, coarse, good-natured-looking contadine, ^^- 
who all wear enormous L^hom hats flapping about their faces. lSo6-a7. 
They are most persevering in their attentions, and urill decorate 
you with a bouquet per forct^ though, as they always \ta\t to be 
paid, their attentions are not quite so disinterested as strangers 
at first imagine! I used to laugh heartily at the way they 
victimized both the Maharajah and Sir John. 

We drove to the Cascine, or dairy of the Grand-Duke ; on the 

way we met the Grand-Duke himself, and his suite; also the 

young Grand-Duke, and his bride. We had the use of Lord 

Normanby's (the English Ambassador) box at the Pergola, and 

went three times ; the music was good, but the singing and 

acting very poor. That, however, does not matter to the 

Florentines, as they merely go to the opera to pay visits to their 

friends, as we do at their houses, during the day, in England. The 

first time we went to hear a new opera, called Violetta, which 

the Maharajah had never heard ; by the time it was half over, we 

discovered it to be the Traviaia, under a different name ! and 

we had always refused on principle to hear the Traviaia in 

England ! The other two were La Sonnambula and Linda 

di Chamouni. On Saturday we had a pleasant dinner-party at 

Lor)} Normanby's, and heard a good deal of singing afterwards. 

We met all the diplomatic " swells " there — Prince de la Tour 

d'Auvergne, the French Ambassador, the Piedmontese, Due de 

L , also the Tuscan Prime Minister, and Baron Htigel. 

Maria Phipps and her son were there also. 

One evening, when we were dining at the Embassy, the great 
bell of the Duomo began to toll. Immediately a Florentine 
nobleman, who was of the company, rose from the table, and 
with a word of apology to the hostess, quietly left the room. 
The rest of the assemblage seemed to regard his action as the 
most natural in the world, but the Maharajah was very curious 
to know the reason for it. " He is one of the Misericordia 


Chapter Brothers," was the reply to his question ; *' and he is on duty to- 
^^^* night." After that we heard more about the Misericordia, and 

loOo-OY. geveral times met their procession in the streets, carrying litters 
with sick people, going to the hospital. They look ghastly in the 
extreme, with their long black dresses, which cover them from head 
to foot, having round holes for the eyes. The people hold them 
in great respect ; and when they pass, all uncover their heads. 
The Society is composed of noblemen and gentlemen of 
Florence, and the Grand Duke himself is one, though, since the 
Bevolution, he has not ventured to take any part in the duties. 
They dress in black monastic attire, with a black silk visor to 
conceal their face ; a certain number are told off daily for duty, 
and on the tolling of the city bell — whatever is their employment 
or engagement — they must hasten to their guard-room, and 
assume the dress, and go out to perform their duty, whatever 
it may be — whether to carry sick to the hospital, or to rescue 
sufferers from any danger or accident. So many are appointed 
to go forth collecting for their charity fund, and the first person 
I saw on arriving, was one of them holding a box for charity. I 
was quite startled — ^he looked like a demon in his dark dress, 
¥rith his eyes flashing through the holes in his visor 

BoME. I was delighted with the Coliseum, and I think I shonld 
like to spend hours there. Nothing in Borne, I think, recalls tht^ 
idea of former grandeur and present decay more than that 
magnificent pile, so full of historical interest. Inside, all around 
the amphitheatre, they have erected "stations" for pilgrims 
to walk or crawl round, for penance and indulgences, and there is 
a great cross put up, and a pulpit, where a friar preacbds 
frequently. All this is incongruous-looking, and I wish it were 

altered Just as we lefttheColiseum, the Pope (Pio ^oikc 

drove past in a carriage and four, with an escort of the Gvuan^A 
Nobile, formed of Boman nobles. He is a very benevolei;:- 
looking old gentleman, and gave a special benediction to o *: 
party as he passed, though the Maharajah did not receive it at & 

ITALY. 375 

in a proper spirit, and declared the Pdpe had only made Chapter 
" snooks " at him I We were told that we were very lucky, as he ^H' 
is not often to be seen out. The guard of French soldiers all l-oo6-o7. 
knelt as he passed, and so did everybody but ourselves ; of course, 
the gentlemen took off their hats to him, as they would to our 


The moon being full, Bonald returned to the Coliseum, to see it 

by moonlight ; as I have still a cough, I did not venture. We 

advised him not to fall into the same mistake as is attributed to 

Mr. Macaulay, the historian,* who also went to see the Coliseum 

by moonlight, and when in the shadow of the arches, was 

suddenly jostled by a man, who passed with great rapidity. 

Immediately afterwards Mr. Macaulay missed his watch ! The 

"thief" was still in view; with great presence of mind, Mr. 

Macaulay at once gave chase, overtook, knocked him down, and 

repossessed himself of the stolen article. Fearing the arrival of 

accomplices on the scene, Mr. Macaulay now made the best of his 

way home, where the first object that met his view was his men 

watch, safe in the spot where he had left it before going out ! 

Overwhelmed with the idea of the robbery which he had committed, 

he rushed off to the police-office, to find an unfortunate stranger 

describing with much excitement the shameful outrage of which 

he had been the victim ! 

Feb. 12th. Went to St. John Lateran. The "Santa 
Scala," or Holy Staircase, was crowded with penitents, going up 
on their knees, repeating a prayer at every step. Nothing would 
serve the Maharajah, but he must also try the sensation of this 
form of penance, which he declared was not at all difficult, and 
he would undertake to do it much faster than any of them I The 
steps are covered with planks, to preserve them from the wear of 
the pilgrims' knees, and these planks have already been renewed 

The late Lord Macaulay. 


Chapter three times ; the steps themselves, are said to have been those of 
^I- Pilate's judgment seat, down which Christ walked after being 

18o6-o7. condenmed. We visited Macdonald's studio, and saw a number 
of busts (mostly of English nobility), and a fine copy of *' Young 
Augustus " ; we ended by going to Saolini, the great cameo- 
cutter, and arranged to have our profiles taken by him, next 

Feb, l^th, Mr. Gibson showed us his studio to-day, and 
we were delighted with all we saw. His " Venus " ia beautiful ; 
the hair is tinted in imitation of ancient Greek statues, and the 
skin has a faint life-like glow. The " Cupid " also is very lovely. 
I admired his bust of the Queen, but, though the large statue for 
the Houses of Parliament is greatly admired, I did not think the 
likeness was so good. There was a beautiful thing there, " The 
Sleeping Cenci in Prison,'' just finished by his pupil, Miss 
Hosmer, a young American lady. Arranged with Mr. Gibson 
about sittings for the Maharajah's bust. 

Feb, lUh, To-day, shortly after noon, the great bell of 
St. Peter's tolled to announce the beginning of the Carnival, and 
at two p.m. we went to the Corso, and sat in our hired balcony to see 
the procession pass. It is a very gay scene, and full of animation. 
The whole street is choked with people in gay and fancy costume^, 
shouting and laughing, leaving barely space for the brightly 
decorated carriages, filled with people, all attired in fancy dresses, 
and having on wire masks, who pass up and down slowly. Tl.e 
balconies and windows are full of ladies and gentlemen, and ga\ 
with flags and draperies of all colours; each person has a store « i 
chalk bon-bons or confetti, bouquets of flowers, and real bon-bons, 
which they fling at every passer-by ; the balconies throwing at 
the carriages, and vice versd. Every one wears a wire mask, c^r 
runs the risk of being bUnded by the chalk dust; even with i 
mask one does not escape scatheless. Every now and thc!!. 
gay processions of the military, civic authorities, or cardinal- 

ITALY. 377 

magistrates varied the scene, and the whole was wound up by a Chapter 
race of six or more horses (without riders), goaded on by steel XII. 
plates hanging loose all over their bodies, and stuck full of sharp 1856-57. 
spikes, which flapped about as they gallopped, and urged them 
almost to madness. This race is repeated each day of the 
Carnival, and formerly used to be run by poor unhappy Jews, for 
the amusement of the people ! but of late years they have 
purchased exemption from this degradation, by paying for hand- 
some prizes, for the owners of the fortunate horses. 

The Maharajah and Bonald joined the procession of carriages, 
and went up and down, pelting and being pelted by gentlemen, 
and exchanging bouquets with ladies ; but I contented myself with 
looking on. 

Sunday, Feb. 16th On our return from the English 

service, we went with John Bright into San Carlo, to hear Dr. 
Manning preach* on the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, 
and were glad to And that his arguments and reasoning were so 
miserable. I expected to hear much more specious reasoning. 
He gave several very far-fetched interpretations to several texts, to 
give colour to his own side of the question. Poor man! he 
certainly seems very eajmest in his belief himself ; he looks worn- 
out vnth penance and fasting, and his voice is quite weak. It 
was quite lost in that great church. He is evidently a trap set 
for the English and American visitors, who are all attracted by 
his eloquence and good style of delivery. 

jF^Vfe. nth. Rather sleepy after last night's ball at the Princess 

* . . . . Dr. Maiming is to preach to-mon"ow afternoon in the church of San 

Carlo, perhaps Lady Login and yourself, may wish to hear him — he will not, I 

suspect, overthrow your Presbytciianiam, any more than the faith I hold with the 

Society of Friends 1 

Yours very sincerely, 

John Bright. 
^eb. Uth, 1856. 


Chapter Doria's. It was a grand sight, and a rare one, for the magnificent 
^^' picture-gallery was lighted up, and many splendid rooms. There 

Io56-o7. y^QYQ a great many royalties there — the reigning King of Bavaria, 
Queen Christina of Spain and her daughters, and, I believe, 
" Henri Cinq," Comte de Chambord — though I did not see 
him. We were introduced to the Princess Doria, she is one 
of our Shrewsbury family. 

The Caldwells, and John Bright, wdth his pretty daughter 
Helen, have just dined with us, and gone home early, as 
is the good custom in Rome. We were a merry party, Mr. 
Bright very eloquent about the wrongs of India, to the 
Maharajah's infinite amusement ! and Colonel Caldwell giving 
us histories of what was done in Lord Wellesley's, and Lord 
W. Bentinck's time ! I have promised John Bright to go 
out with him in the carriage to-morrow, and run the gauntlet 
up and down the Corso. His daughter is very anxious to do so, 

Feb. ISth. Went for an hour in the carriage with Mr. Bright, 
as agreed upon. We were deluged with bouquets and bon-bons, 
and all sorts of harmless missiles, and thumped with distended 
bladders. Poor Helen Bright had to mourn the loss of a lovely 
bouquet of sweet violets, just presented to her by a gentleman, 
which was snatched out of her hand, by a laughing imp of an 
Italian boy. Her father scolded her for not having kept a 
tighter hold ; but next minute the laugh was turned against him, 
for his own bouquet was snapped away out of his hand as he 
was in the very act of presenting it to a lady ! 

Feb, 10th, Went out on the Campagna, near Cecilia Metella*s 
tomb, to see the hounds throw off. We managed to keep up 
with them in the carriage, by going at a hand-gallop aloo^ tb« 
Appian Way, as the fox doubled back and forward across the 
road. We were just in front of the King of Bavaria's carriage. 
and his people were calling to ours, to make way for ll'< 
Majesty. But this did not at all fall in with the ideas of oar 

ITALY. 379 

coachman, whose sense of his own importance would not suffer Chapter 
him to give place to anybody; so whipping up his horses he XH. 
kept the " lead " throughout the chase I 1856-67. 

Feb, 20th. The masque ball was a very curious sight. We 
engaged a box at the theatre, so as to look down upon it 
without being crushed, and were constantly invaded there by 
parties of ladies and gentlemen of our acquaintance, all in masks 
and dominoes. It is ridiculous what a complete disguise a 
domino is, for Fred Kane and Bonald, who were of our own 
party, left us, and came in again, and we never knew them, 
and Sir Norton Knatchbull never recognized his own wife I 

Mr. Bright was in our balcony that morning, looking on at the 
Carnival, and got into a combat with Lady Knatchbull, on the 
opposite side of the street. She got the worst of it, for ''the 
Quaker " made a capital shot with a sugar-almond, which 
effectually silenced the enemy's guns ! As she was an utter 
stranger to him, we had to introduce him at the masque ball, in 
order that he might make his apologies for the result of his com- 
bativeness ! 

25th, Ash Wednesday. At half -past eight, Eonald, Sir John, and 
I, started for the Sixtine Chapel, to see the Pope put ashes on the 
cardinals' heads. We could not persuade the Maharajah to go 
with us, as he declared, when he went to bed the night before, 
that now the Carnival was over, he did not know when he would 
get up again ! As ladies must dress in mourning to gain admit- 
tance to this ceremony, I wore a long black veil instead of a 
bonnet ; Sir John his political uniform, and Konald full evening 
dress ! 

We got there a few minutes before the door was opened, and 
were greatly amused to see the anxiety of those assembled to get 
m first, though there was plenty of room for all. One very fat 
lady was sitting on the doorstep, in such a way that the door 


Chapter could not be opened till she rose. She looked as if she had sat 
XII. there all night — ^her hair and veil were so untidy I 

1866-57. I y^a^g separated from the gentlemen, as men and women are 
not allowed to sit together, — and Sir John, from his uniform, 
being supposed to be at least an ambassador — ^I was handed into 
the large pew, specially set apart for the ambassadors' wives. It 
was empty, and remained so all the time. (I suppose the ambassa- 
dors are all bachelors.) During the service I observed the 
ambassadors all highly amused at seeing the soHtary lady who 
represented their womankind, and each seemed to ask the other 
who on earth I was ? Sir John was asked to go in among the 
ambassadors, but declined, and went with Ronald to a less con- 
spicuous place. It was lucky he did so, for every one of the 
ambassadors present had to go and kiss the Pope's toe after- 
wards ! . • . • 

At last the procession of cardinals came in, with their attendants ; 
and after their robes (or rather the skirts of them) had been 
unrolled and smoothed dovm, they were assisted up into their 
perches, and displayed to our admiring gaze a collection of as 
heavy, sensual, worldly-looking countenances (with only one or 
two exceptions) as could anywhere be found. 

Soon after, in came the Pope — a fine-looking old man — with a 
great crowd of officials, the most important being a bishop in 
golden boots^-of which portion of his attire he appeared very 
proud — and whose privilege it seemed to be to take the Pope'< 
mitre off and put it oo again at intervals of about five minutes. 
Six or eight people were kept constantly occupied, in assisting the 
Pope to get up, sit down, kneel, turn to the altar, and bow, at 
different parts of the service. The Pope chanted the service 
beautifully ; he has a splendid, clear voice. The cardinals 
changed their robes frequently, and when the time came for theis 
to go up to be sprinkled with ashes, they put white napkiu 
on their backs, and over that grand gold vestments, and went cp . 
one after another, holding their little scarlet skull-caps in their 

ITALY. 381 

hands. The Pope put the ashes on the crown of each head, just Chapter 
on the tonsure, and then they kissed his hand, still kneeling. ^U« 
After the last cardinal had retired to his place, the King of 1856-67. 
Bavaria advanced and went through the same ceremony — save 
that he, and all those who followed, had to kiss the Pope's toe 
instead of his hand ; then came Queen Christina's husband, and 
all the big-wigs and ambassadors. It was rather a shock to 
one's feelings, remembering the original meaning of this solemn 
ceremonial, to see how, as soon as the Duke returned to her side, 
the Queen of Spain, assisted by the Princesses^ at once set to 
work — amid much smothered laughter — to blow at his hair, and 
dust off his clothes all traces of the ashes, using for the purpose 
their own handkerchiefs, and also a clothes-brush, with which 
they had come ready provided ! This occupation, and the merri- 
ment it caused, lasted them throughout the remainder of the 
service. Meanwhile, the stream of people continued to pass 
up and back, till nearly everybody in the church, including 
the soldiers, had been sprinkled by the " Holy Father," and it 
yvsA not till one o'clock that all was over, and we returned to the 
Hotel de Londres thoroughly tired. 

Feb, 26tk. Mr. Gibson took us round to see all the principal 
studios, and pointed out the beauties of each work of art. We 
visited, amongst others, the ateliers of Mr. Spence, Mt. Penry 
Williams, Signer Tenerani, the great Italian sculptor, Wolff, the 
German one, and Miss Chawner. 

Feb. 2Sth. We had an amusing party last evening. Sir 
Charles Nicholson, Mr. Gibson, and Mr. and Miss Bright dined 
with us. There was a great deal of table-rapping, and Sir 
Charles gave a most interesting account of Egypt, where he has 
lately been travelling. This evening we dined at Colonel 
Caldwell's, and met a large party, amongst whom were the 
Baron von Orlich and his wife. The Baron recognized Sir John 


Chapter as an old acquaintance, having met him in India, some years ago, 

XII. when on his travels there. 


March 2nd, Baron von Orlich kindly got us permission to Bee 

the Etruscan Museum of the Marchese Gampana, and escorted 

us to see it. This evening was fixed for a treat to which we 

have long been looking forward. 

As a special compliment to the Maharajah, the Pope gave 

orders, to have the sculpture galleries of the Vatican lighted up 

with flambeaux for his inspection, and we were permitted to 

invite a select company of our friends to enjoy, at the same time, 

this unique opportunity of viewing the statuary, under such 

favourable conditions. A man with a torch was stationed 

behind each statue, while Mr. Gibson and Mr. Macdonald gave 

us a sort of art-lecture, showing the special points in each 

figure and their relative degrees of beauty. We enjoyed it all 

very much, and it has added greatly to the interest and usefulness 

to the Maharajah, of this visit to Bome. For this special favour 

from "His Holiness" we are, of course, indebted to the good 

offices of Mr. Odo Eussell, the representative here of the British 


March 1th, Visited the Quirinal Palace, which is the Popes 
summer residence ; saw his private apartments, and a few good 

March 9th, Went to a party in the evening at Mr. Forbes', 
the clergyman's, house, and met Mrs. Beecher Stowe. Had a 
long conversation with her, and foimd her agreeable and AmnRJng ; 
altogether a younger and more pleasing person than I had 

March 11th, Took the Brights to Tivoli with us for a picnic. 
and spent a delightful day. Spread our luncheon on the grass, in 
the gardens of the Villa d'Este, and in the basin of a dried-up 
fountain, in the centre of which was a stone galley, tbo 
Maharajah seated himself to personate Neptune, as he informed 

ITALY. 383 

the company, though he was too much engaged with a game-pie Chapter 
to spare much time for flourishing his fork as " trident I " After XII. 
luncheon we started to see the waterfalls, Miss Bright and 1 1B66-67. 
mounted on respectable ponies, the gentlemen walking. We 
enjoyed our five-mile ride exceedingly, though I think the 
gentlemen found it very hot, for I observed the Maharajah toiling 
along with his coat off, in his shirt-sleeves ! On our way home 
we nearly met with an accident. The two " politicians " (Mr. 
Bright and Sir John) were too deep in discussion on the present 
condition of India, its needs, and its future government, for any 
one to dream of separating them ; so we left them to follow by 
themselves in one carriage, whilst Miss Bright, the Maharajah, 
Ronald, and I, went on in the other. The two young men were 
in high spirits, and were making a great noise in the carriage ; 
something went wrong with the harness, and the coachman got 
down to put it right, when either the voices, or something else, 
startled the horses, and off they dashed, leaving the coachman 
behind on the road ! We were only saved from imminent peril 
by Bonald's agility, in clambering on to the box and getting hold, 
somehow, of the reins. 

March 12th. Left Eome on a lovely morning, and travelled 
along the Appian Way, on our road to Naples ; our route having 
been carefully and minutely made out for us, by kind Baron von 
Orlich, so that we might not miss any of the points of interest. 
We had no adventures with brigands, the line of road is so well 
patrolled, by both horse and foot soldiers, and there are military 
stations at short intervals, all along to Molo de Gaeta. 

March 14:th It was dark when we reached the gates 

of Naples, and as the hotel was a long way off, we were very 
weary of dragging through the streets at a foot's-pace, for 
travelling carriages are forbidden by law to go any faster in the 
streets. At last we reached the H6tel Yittoria, and, after a late 
dinner, got to bed. 


Chapter From Naples the party visited Pompeii and Hercu- 
1856-57 ^^^®^^"^» ^^^ ascended to the crater of Vesuvius. 

March 20th. Dined at the Stranges', and met some nice 
Italian families. We were much taken with the young Marchesa 
Bugnano, and her husband and mother-in-law. The Dowager 
Marchesa is an Irish Eoman Catholic — a sensible old lady, 
who treated Sir John to all the politics of Naples. Her son, the 
Marchese, is quite a Neapolitan, having been educated on the 
Continent; yet he is a great admirer of England and English 
liberty, and speaks English very well. His pretty wife is a 
fascinating creature, the daughter of one of the Neapolitan 
princes. She is very lively and amusing. 

I was also introduced to Captain Farquhar, B.N. He 
commands the frigate lying off this port, to protect the English 
inhabitants in case of any outbreak. He told me he knows 
several of my sailor cousins, and had been Flag-Lieutenant to 
my uncle, Admiral Patrick Campbell, at the Cape of Good Hope. 


Naples was left on the 24th March, and the party 

proceeded by steamer to Leghorn, calling at Civita 

Vecchia on the way. Stopping for one dajr in Florence, 

they went to Bologna, having had some difficulty in 

crossing the Appenines, for an avalanche of snow had 

can-ied away great part of the road, thus rendering it 

impassable for horses. The travellers were obliged to 

get out and walk, and bullocks were procured to dra*; 

the carriages over this part ; during this operation the 

pole of the fourgon snapped, which caiised a further 

delay. At Padua they joined the railway again, an^l 

so reached Venice by the first of April. 

ITALY. 385 

April ith We saw two live horses, belonging to the Chapter 

Austrian General, being exercised on the Campo Marto, followed ^^ 
about by a crowd of admiring boys. It seems that, a few years 1856-57. 
ago, some of the Venetian gentlemen, anxious to teach their 
daughters to ride, united together, built a riding>school, and 
made a ride round a small island in the town. When, however, 
the horses arrived, they were looked upon by the inhabitants 
as a show — ^very few of the people ever having seen one ; 
and at last the whole project had to be abandoned, owing 
to the noise and excitement of the children, hurrahing and 
shouting afjer the riders, so as to render the horses quite 
unmanageable from fright. 

Monday, April 13th. Since last Monday we have been very 
anxious about Bonald, who has been very ill of gastric fever. 
To-day, however, I am thankful to say, we have been able to 
Bend a message, by telegraph, to his mother, to tell her that 
the fever has left him, and that he is now doing well. In conse- 
quence of this, I have been only able to go on the water now and 
then, as I could not leave Bonald, except for a short time daily. 

There was a grand military funeral the other day — such a 
display of troops, and firing of cannon, under our windows, 
when they were all drawn up I I was glad, for poor Eonald's 
sake, when it was all over 1 The hearse was a gondola, and the 
procession on the water was very curious and interesting. Our 
laquais told us we were very Iticky to have been here to see such 
a ^at/ funeral ! There will be some more of this gaiety soon, for the 
bells have been ringing to announce the death of the Bishop, or 
Cardinal, who has been long ill. 

On Easter-day I went into St. Mark's, to see the Arch-Duke go 
in procession to high mass. It was a curious ceremony. The 
Arch-Duke Maximilian (afterwards Emperor of Mexico), brother 
of the Emperor, is Viceroy of Italy ; he is a faur-haired, simple- 
looking youth, and appeared rather nervous during the ceremony, 
and very glad when all was over, without any open mani- 



Chapter festation of hatred on the part of the Venetians to their Anstrian 
XII. masters. 

1856-67. The Maharajah has kindly fed the pigeons of St. Mark's daily, 
and now they know him, and follow him aU over the town ! 

The Brights arrived on Easter-day, -having been detained in 
Bome by Miss Bright getting measles ; they came and dined with 
us last evening, also Major and Mrs. Young, from the Punjab. 
The Mararajah felt unwell just before dinner, and Sir John made 
him take a hot bath, and go to bed. I hope he is not going to 
take fever. This morning he is better, though not well, and we 
have resolved, as he seems nervous about remaining in Venice, 
that, if he is well enough, he shall go on to Padua, or Milan, on 
Thursday, in my charge, leaving Sir John to follow with Ronakl. 
I am in hopes, however, that Bonald will be strong enough to go 
also, on Thursday. 

Padua, April 15th. 

The Maharajah not being at all well, and Ronald better, we 
thought it wiser to get away from Venice at all risks : so here 
they are — and they both seem, so far, none the worse for the 
short trip of one hotft by train. We had Bonald carried in a 
chair ; but the Maharajah was able to walk, though far from well. 
We hope they may be able to go on to Verona to-morrow. 

We left Venice so suddenly, that all our clothes were at tht: 
wash, and as Thornton and Mrs. Sandison were needed to atten<l 
on the invalids, we could only spare Mr. Cawood to remain behind, 
and bring on the remainder of our luggage. It appears it is a role 
of the Austrian railway authorities never to allow a man to takt 
any clothes belonging to a woman out of the town, unless then 
is a woman in his company, and vice versa, a woman is not per 
mitted to travel with any man's-clothes among her baggage. W< 
were all, of course, quite ignorant of this regulation, and so, whc 
poor Mr. Cawood innocently showed our boxes at the Custor 
house, he was horrified to find himself at once treated as * 
suspicious character by the police, for having so large a qnautit; 

ITALY, 387 

of clothes in his possession, more than they thought could possibly Chapter 

belong to one man alone 1 Their suspicions were confirmed, on ^^- 

the further discovery, that a great portion of his luggage consisted l^^"^"^ ' • 

of hdies' habiliments, and as, when questioned as to whether 

there was any lady with him, he told them, quite innocently, that 

there was not, the afEekir begaoi to wear a serious aspect for him I 

He tried his best to explain the position to them, and how it 

happened that he was found in possession of other people's clothes 

—but all to no purpose. They could not make out half he said» 

and thought he was declaring the clothes to be his own ; to his 

consternation and wrath, they then proceeded to pull about my 

things— flourishing a smart lace cap in his face and asking, '' if he 

wore that ? " — and, shaking out one of my nicely starched and 

frilled petticoats, sarcastically inquired whether " this were a 

usual article of his attire?" After this they formally arrested 

him as a thief escaping with stolen property 1 and would have 

put him then and there in " durance vile," only that he begged 

that the landlord of our hotel should first be sent for. On this 

man vouching for his respectability, poor Mr. Gawood was 

sujSiered to return with him to Venice (the landlord being made 

answerable for his safe keeping), and the clothes were detained 

until next day, when Presanzini was sent to claim them, and 

satisfied the Austrian police as to the truth of Mr. Cawood's 


April 16th. Still at Padua, and likely to be for some time, as the 
Maharajah had regular intermittent fever last night, and now we 
must let him and Bonald rest here. It is a good thing we have 
got them out of Venice ; this is a tidy, clean town, and we have 
good medical advice, and excellent rooms at the Hotel de I'Etoile 

Bbsscia, April 20th. We came here by train from Padua, to-day. 
The patients are both very weak, particularly Eonald. I only 
hope they may not be stopped here for more than this night, for 

OC 2 


Ohapter it is a very uncomfortable sort of place; the stables being directly 
XU. imder our sleeping and eating rooms, causes a most unpleasant 
18o6-o7. odour to pervade the whole, which cannot be very wholesome for 
sick people. 

MniAN, April 22nd, Dr. Cappelli says that Bonald may be 
laid up for six weeks, as he has got miliary fever on the top ol 
gastric (a common sequel to Venice fever in this unpleasant 
country). The Maharajah has also felt ill to-day, and is laid up 
— so matters are not very bright I We have thought it advisable 
to telegraph to Boehampton, and tell them how things stand with 
Bonald. He would like his mother to join him, I think. 

April 26th, Mr. and Mrs. Melville,* with their old nurse, 
arrived last night, having travelled night and day ; they reached 
us on the fourth day after leaving Boehampton. 

TxTBiN, May 2nd. Beached Turin last evening. Baron Solaroli 
found us out, and came and spent the evening with us. Sir John 
knew him in India ; he married a sister of Dyce Sombre's, and, of 
course, has got lots of money with her. He is a very intelligent, 
gentlemanly man. 

3rd May, Sunday, Went to English service, held in a private 
house by a converted Jew ; it was very strange to hear the 
prayers and sermon given in English by a foreigner, with a stroL^ 

Sir James Hudson, the Ambassador, called to offer his senrices. 
and also Mr. Erskine, Lady Wiltshire's H^rother. Baron Solaioli 
came, with his daughter, a pretty young woman, newly married 

to Gotmt . The Baron will bring his wife to meet us at the 

train to-morrow, as she is not well, and could not come to call. 

Next day the paxty crossed Mont Cenis, into Savov. 

*The late Earl and Countess of Leven and Melville. 

ITALY. 389 

At St. Michel, where they slept, the inn could only Chapter 
furnish eight trout and six eggs, for the party of seven - J^^^' 
famishing folk ! Luckily they had with them some 
hermetically-sealed soup for the Maharajah and a 
cold chicken ; and, as they always travelled with a 
supply of English tea, they did not do so badly. 

Greneva was reached on the 6th of May. Here 
they made a halt of five days, before starting on their 
homeward route. They made several excursions on 
the lake, and revelled in that glorious Alpine scenery. 
They had also the pleasure of making the acquaintance 
of many members of that cultured society, which has 
rendered Geneva so famous in the religious world, and 
among men of letters; this privilege they owed, in 
great measure, to Sir John's previous acquamtance 
with M. Merle d'Aubign^, who was on the look-out for 
him, and to the kindness of Lord Shaftesbury and the 
Rev. Henry Venn, who had written of Login to their 
firiends in that city. 


The Mutiny. 

Chapter The annexation of the kingdom of Oude, which took 
Tqkt' P^^^® ^ ^^^ previous year, was an event in which the 
Maharajah naturally took the deepest interest, as it 
was the first case of the deposition of an Indian 
sovereign which could in any way be compared with 
his own;* and the handsome terms offered to this 
" discrowned debauchee,"t by Lord Dalhousie, were a 
hopeful augury of the liberal interpretation which the 
Indian Government was prepared to place upon the 
treaty forced upon himself in 1849. 

Captain Trotter thus describes the causes which led 
to this annexation : — 

X '* Ever since Lord Hardinge's visit to Lucknow, in 1847 » the 
affairs of Wajid Ali's kingdom had heen steadily declining fron: 

* Though, eren in this instance, Wi^jid All had never been an independ^s 
king, like the Maharajah of Lahore, and he was deprived of his crown for his 
malpractices as a ruler. 

t Trotter. 

t Trotter, ** India under Victoria,'* p. 817, ch. x., vol. i. 


bad to worse. In that green garden and teeming granary of India, Chapter 
every man did that which was right in his own eyes, from the XHT. 
King himself, amidst his fiddlers, bnffoons, and dancing girls, I^' • 
down to the humblest followers of his Court. The two years of 
grace allowed to the royal debauchee passed by, and, in 1849, 
the Besident, Colonel Sleeman, reported no change for the 
better, nor any hope of such change, whether in the King's own 

conduct, or in the general state of things in Oude The King's 

favourite fiddler was made Chief Justice, and a singer acted as 
Yazir for a King who never troubled himself about public affairs. 
In short, there was no such thing as government, law, or justice 
throughout the land. Such was the state of things reported by 
Sleeman, in 1851, and such, or even worse, did his successor. 
Colonel James Outram, find in 1855." 

Small marvel was it, therefore, that the two men should unite 
in petitioning the Governor-General to put an end to this con- 
dition of affairs by " enforcing his treaty rights against a dynasty 
which in fifty years had broken all its pledges again and again," 
and besought him to " assume the government of a country whose 
native rulers had long proved their unfitness." . 

In response, Lord Dalhousie laid before his Council a minute, 

unfolding his plans for the future government of Oude. " His 

chief design therein was to show the utter disregard evinced by 

the Oade princes to the treaty of 1801, which bound them to 

' govern well and justly, and always to advise withy a/nd act in co7i' 

formity to, the counsels of the officers of the Honourable East India 

Company.' " On referring the question to the Court of Directors, 

a reply was sent out in November, 1855, which reached India in 

January, and was construed by Dalhousie into a direct order to 

annex ; in accordance with which instructions, Outram, on the 

4th February, appeared before Wajid Ali, the bearer of a letter 

from tlie Governor-General, and with the draft of a treaty for 


The new treaty declared that " the sole and exclusive adminis- 


Chapter tration of the civil and military govermnent of the territories of 
Xin. Oude shall henceforth be vested for ever in the Honourable East 
1857* India Company, together with full and exclusive rights to the 
revenues thereof. For Wajid Ali himself, and his heirs, was 
reserved the title of King, with full sovereign rights over the 
palace at Lucknow, and park at Dilkusha, a yearly pension of 
twelve lakhs (£120,000), with three more lakhs for his body- 
guard,^ and due provision for all the members of his family." 

But these, or any terms, Wajid Ali refused to sign; be 
submitted to his fate, but preferred to retain a right of protest. 

Delaying the execution of his orders till the 7th of February, 
on which day a short note from the King confirmed his previous 
resolution of refusal to ratify any treaty, Outram issued a 
proclamation of Lord Dalhousie's, declaring the annexation of 
Oude an accomplished fact. As Chief Commissioner, he took 
over formal charge, despatched civil commissioners to their 
stations, and marched in British troops ; no resistance was offered 
from any quarter. *' Over the whole face of things there stole a 
change as complete as any produced by the shifting slides of 

a magic-lantern Neither in India nor in England were 

many voices raised, at the time, against a measure which 
the great Proconsul had carried through, less in accordance with 
his own ideas, than with the virtual commands of Leadenhall 
Street and Cannon Bow.t By refusing to sign the new treaty, 
Wajid Ali had pronounced the doom of a dynasty which had 
reigned only by British sufferance ever since Sir John Shore had 

* This body-guard, composed of Seedees (pure black Africans, or Soadanesit \ 
was the Kmg*s pet hobby. Their uniform was most gorgeous, and immeii» 
sums were lavished on their equipment. Wajid Ali was continually doming 
new uniforms for them ; and, at every grand review, they would appear, attir*i 
from head to foot, in an entirely fresh colour ; so that one day they might be seen al 
in blue, even to their boots, and on another occasion transformed into green 
hoppers, or yellow butterflies ! 

t Trotter, vol i p. 821. 


displaced the son of Asaf-ud-danla by a ruler of his own Chapter 

choice Few people questioned the right of the Paramount XIII, 

Power to enforce against a refractory vassal the treaties which loo7. 
he and his forefathers had steadily broken for so many years 

Even the outside amount offered to the Maharajali 
Duleep Singh, of Jive lakhs of rupees yearly, " for the 
support of himself, his relatives, and servants of the 
State " (with which, however, he was quite satisfied), 
looks rather meagre beside this^^een lakhs (£150,000) 
per annum, destined for the King of Oude and his 
amusements alone! — other due provision being made 
for the members of his family. 

Before proceeding to Italy, in 1856, the Maharajah 
wrote the following letter : — 

To the CHAniMAN and Deputy Chairaean of the Hon. Coubt 
OF DiBECTOBS of the East India Company. 

CiiABmoE's Hotel, Dec. 9th, 1856. 


Having now attained an age at which, according to the laws 
of India, I am entitled to asBume the management of my own 
affairs, and being anxious, before my intended departure for 
India, in October next, to have everything relating to my future 
position clearly defined and settled, I have to request the favour 
of yoUy at your earliest convenience, to bring the subject to the 
notice of the Hon. Court of Directors, in order that sufficient 


Chapter time may be afforded for such reference to the Govemor-Greneral 
Xin. in Council as may be required. 

Io07. jjj taking the subject of my future settlement into considera- 
tion, I hope that the circumstances in which I have been placed 
under the protection of the British Government, may receivQ due 

Having at the early age of ten years been required to resign 
the throne of the Punjab, and, with the advice and approval of 
my then ministers and guardians, to accept the terms offered to 
me by the Government of India, I readily consented, believing the 
conditions to be as fair and liberal as under the circumstances 
could be obtained. 

Although I still consider them to be such as my ministers and 
guardians were justified in recommending me to accept, and very 
gratefully acknowledging that the kind and liberal consideration 
which I have experienced from the Government has left me 
no cause to regret that I placed myself, with so much confidence, 
under their care, there are, nevertheless, certain restrictions as 
to residence imposed upon me by Treaty which, however prndeni 
at the time, are now, in my altered circumstances, felt to be 
irksome, and certain conditions as to the amount of income to be 
assigned to me, which, if carried out in accordance with the 
literal interpretation of the Treaty, may place me and my family 
in a less favourable position than the ministers and their 
families by whom the Treaty, on my behalf, was made. I trust. 
therefore, that in considering the subject of my future settlement, 
the whole circumstances of my position may be carefully 
reviewed, and that such provision may be assigned to me as may 
appear liberal, considering my former rank, my present recog- 
nized position, and the expenses necessary for its proper and 
dignified maintenance. 

I have, &c., 

(Signed) Duleep Bingb 


To the above letter, the following reply was received Chapter 

A i U.« 



by His Highness at Rome, in March, 1857 : 

East India House, Feb. 19th, 1857. 

.... I am commanded to state, in reply, that the Court 
have observed with great satisfaction the excellent disposition 
manifested by your Highness during your stay in England, and 
are prepared to relieve you from the restriction as to residence. 

The Court will make a reference to the Government of India, 
to ascertain the present and prospective appropriation of the sum 
set apart by Treaty for your support and that of your family 
and dependants, and on the receipt of the answer from that 
Government, they will again address you on the subject of your 
pecuniary circumstances. 

I have &c., 

(Signed) James C. Melvill. 

On the Maharajah's return to England in May, 1857, 
finding that no reply had been received to the reference 
to India, he was much disappointed, and was again 
about to address the Chairman of the Honourable East 
India Company, regarding the delay which had taken 
place, when, late in June, 1857, the intelligence reached 
this country of the mutiny of the native troops at 
Meerut, and the occupation of Delhi by the mutineers. 

Under these circumstances, he at once felt him- 
self precluded, for a time, from requesting the attention 
of the Honourable Court to the subject, and refrained 


Chapter even from asking to be released from guardianship, 


~Z^' and entrusted with the management of his own afl^ rs, 
until intelligence was received of the recapture 
of Delhi, the relief of Lucknow, and the success 
of operations, in which his countrjrmen and former 
subjects had most loyally assisted, which released the 
British Government from all present anxiety as to the 
re-establishment of their rule. 

In the year 1857, the Queen-Mother of Oude 
arrived in England, to plead her son's cause in person 
at the feet of his Suzerain. 

Remembering the old friendship of former years, she 
was most anxious to obtain the assistance of Sir John 
and Lady Login — who were at that time down in 
Scotland — in laying her petition before Queen Victoria. 
As the rigorous seclusion in which, according to 
Mahomedan custom, the old Queen lived, made it 
seem necessary to obtain the services of some ladj 
who could act as interpreter in the forthcoming 
audience with her Majesty, she earnestly requested 
that Lady Login, the only English lady of her 
acquaintance, might perform this office, and the ide^ 
was very warmly taken up by Mr. Vernon Smith 
(Lord Lyveden), then President of the Board t»: 
Control. The suggestion rather alarmed Lady Logir., 
who dreaded the responsibility of acting as go-bet^weev 
in important matters of State ; but she was not, aft^' 
all, called on to perform this office, as Sir George derL 


one of the Directors, himself undertook the duty. Chapter 




The interview, one would think, could hardly have 

fulfilled the expectations of the poor Queen of Oude ; 
for, though the principal personages could see each 
other, they were unahle to converse; while the 
presence of an interpreter behind a screen^ could 
scarcely have heen a. convenient arrangement. 

The Queen of Oude remained in England, doing her 
utmost in her son's cause, until seized with fatal illness. 
In January, 1858, Sir John Login was summoned 
to consult on her case, by the following note from her 
son, the late Commander-in-Chief of the Oude army, 
who had accompanied his mother to England : — 

14, Wabwick Egad, MAmA Vale, W., 
JaTh 18th, 1868. 

H.B.H. General Sikunder Hushmut Bahadoor presents 
his best compliments to Sir John Login, and has the deepest 
regret in informing him that his royal mother, the Qneen- 
Dowager, is dangerously ill. Under this distressing circum- 
stance, H.E.H., considering how well-acquainted Sir John Login 
is with Indian manners, customs, and physical constitutions, 
would feel particularly ohliged by Sir John's informing him when 
and where he could send his native physicians, for the purpose of 
consulting with Sir John, and having the advantage of his 
invaluable advice and suggestions. 

Not long after this the Queen of Oude died at 
Paxifl, on her way back to India. 


Chapter Duleep Singh continued to receive frequent invita- 
^5' tions to Windsor and Osborne, and on two or three 
occasions the Prince of Wales and Prince Alfred came 
down' to Ashburton Court, accompanied either by Mr. 
Gibbs or Dr. Becker, to spend the afternoon with him ; 
when the chief amusements consisted in cricket and 

On the Prince of Wales's first visit, Login's eldest 
boy was unwell, and obliged to keep his room. 
Hearing this, the young Prince — even thus early 
giving tokens of that kindliness of disposition which 
has rendered him so deservedly popular — insisted 
on leaving his game to go and cheer the invalid, by 
talking to him from below his window — an act of 
gracious thoughtfulness with which the boy* was 
infinitely delighted. 

Readers of the Queen's "JoumaV^ will remember the 
accident to the Princess Royal, which occurred aboxit 
this time, caused by the sleeve of her muslin drees 
catching fire from the candle which she was usinv^ 
when sealing a letter ; and many were the rumours 
spread abroad of serious injury to her Royal Highne^ss. 

The foUowing note from the Prince of Wales w;i<; 
written in answer to the Maharajah's inquiries on 
hearing of the accident : — • 

* Then an Eton schoolboy. 


Buckingham Palace, Jvly l^th, 1866. Chapter 

Mt deab Mahabajah, ^g^Y 

I am very sorry to have neglected writing to you till to-day, 
but I have been so busy that I have not had a moment's time. 

Princess Boyal's arm is a great deal better now, and she thanks 
you very much for having inquired after it. She really has borne 
it very well A minute more and it must have proved fatal. 

I saw Sir John Login the other day, who gave me very good 
accounts of you. Will you remember me to him ? We are going 
to spend two nights at the camp of Aldershot, and are then going 
on to the Isle of Wight. 

I remain, 

Yours affectionately, 

Albebt Edwabd. 

When the Emperor Napoleon III. brought his lovely 
young Empress to England in 1857, the Maharajah 
was amongst those presented to their Majesties by 
Queen Victoria, and like all who came in contact with 
Fier, fell under the sway of the Empress Eugenie's 
beauty and charm of manner. 

Lord Canning had several interviews with Duleep 
^ing-h and Sir John Login before he left for India to 
.ake up the Viceroyalty, and took great interest in 
he young Indian Prince, though, of course, he was 
Lofc so fully acquainted with his character as the 
larquis of Dalhousie. After Lord Canning's arrival 
1 India, some suspicions arose that Duleep Singh was 


Chapter in clandestine correspondence with his mother, the 
^J' Maharanee Chunda (Jinda), in Nepal, as will appear 

by the following letter from Sir John Kaje, then a 

high official at the India House. 

India House, Nov. 25th, 1856. 
My deab Loam, 

I think it very probable that you have not heard that the 
Government of India have sent ub home copy of a letter addressed 
by the Maharajah to his mother, suggesting that she should come 
to England. The letter, written in English, was dated from 
Orindlay's Agency, to which it was suggested that reply should be 
sent. It fell into Jung Bahadoor's hands. Jung Bahadoor 
gave it to our Besident at Ehatmandoo, who sent it to the 
Government of India, whence it has come home, with a minute 
of the Governor-General. 

I need scarcely ask you whether you know anything about the 
iQatter — ^for the very fact of the Maharajah's writing through 
Grindlay's Agency shows that he wished to keep the matter free 
you. I write this confidentially (with the knowledge of tit 
Chairman), so do not at present say anything to Duleep abcc 
the matter. When I have heard from you, I will let yon knc^ 
what it is thought should be done. 

The letter was a somewhat harmless one, but the Nepc. 
Government think that all letters to Ghund Eowr should z 
through their hands. 

I write in haste, but you shall hear from me again. 

Ever yours, very sincerely, 

J. Wm. Katx 

Sib J. S. Login. 

Sir John Login, however, was able to convince t:. 


Government that the letter in question was an im- Chapt^ 
pudent forgery, and an attempt to extort money from ~f' 
the Ranee, on the part of some person in England. 

Up to a period a little anterior to this, Duleep 

Singh had manifested not the faintest desire to 

communicate with his mother, or even to hear of her 

in any way, but a few months before the incident 

above alluded to, he showed signs of stiri'ings of 

conscience with regard to her, and an anxiety to put 

in practice the duty inculcated on him as a Christian, 

to "honour his mother," according to the Scriptural 

precept, and to manifest some care for her well-being 

in this world and the next. 

As the Pundit Nehemiah Goreh was then about to 
return to India, to resume his missionary labours, the 
Maharajah entrusted him with a personal mission to 
the Maharanee at Khatmandoo, which forms the 
subject of the ensuing letters. 

The Pundit not being aware of the affair of the 
forged letters, and being unable himself to proceed to 
Nepal before the unhealthy season, wrote to the 
Maharanee, through one, Manee Eam, a Udassee. 

Florence, Jan. ZOth, 1857. 
My i>eak Pundit, 

I am very sorry to find, from your letter to the Maharajah, 
hat you have been unable to go up to Nepal to communicate 
ersonally with the Eanee ; and that you have, in consequence, 
3nt messages to her through some of her people. 



Chapter I liad thought it the best way, to avoid any correspondence 
Xin. through doubtful channels, to ask you to speak to her personally, 
1857. to jjeii her all you knew of the Maharajah, and to give us an 
account of her, and the people about her. I wished, also, to 
know if she was living in a respectable way, and to ascertain the 
best way in which the Maharajah could be of service to ber. You 
may not have gathered my meaning clearly, and have naturally 
thought it sufficient to let her know, through the Ud<i$see, of her 
son's goodwill towards her. The Maharajah does not know 
anything of this Udassee, or of the other people you mention, and 
does not wish to communicate through them. As he is unable to 
correspond with her in Goormookhee, it is useless to send on her 
letters. My last letter from London will have informed you of 
the letter which has been sent by some scoundrel, in the Maha- 
rajah's name, to induce the Eanee to apply for permission to 
visit England ; and other letters, I have since ascertained, have 
been written, in the name of the Banee (with or without her 
sanction), to Mr. John Bright, and perhaps to others in Parliv 
ment, to induce them to take up her case. I am, therefore, 
afraid that she will find difficulty in distinguishing between tlu 
Maharajah's genuine communications and the forgeries, unless 
you can speak to her personally, and explain. I have no doubt 
whatever that her desire to communicate with the Maharajah . 
through you, has been awakened of late, by the other letters 
her in the Maharajah's name, as, for several years, she has 
no attempt to correspond with him, or even enquire about hii^ 
I am very anxious that you should impress upon her mind th'^' 
the Maharajah is entirely opposed to her proposal to vi> ' 
England, and that the safest course she can adopt is to lexna. 
quietly at Nepal for the present, living respectably, so as to afior. 
her son good grounds for asking the Governor-General in Coanj. 
to permit her to return to Hindostan, where she could be ^vri*. 
relatives and friends. 

But if she makes the least attempt to give trouble to t:: 



Govemment, it will be quite impossible for the Maharajah to assiBt Chaptpr 
her in any way, however his natural feelings, as well as his Xm. 
Chnstian duty, may incline him to do so. I shall not be at all '•^^^ 
surprised if, on his return to India, he should himself ask the 
permission of Government to go up to Nepal to see her, and 
ascertain for himself in what way he can be most useful to her ; 
and, from what I know of the sentiments of the authorities, I do 
not apprehend that they would make any objections to this. 

Always, dear Nehemiah, 

Yours very sincerely, 

J. S. Login. 

From Pundit Nehemiah Gobeh to Sm John. 

Benabes, Feb. 2&th, 1857. 
Deab Snt John, 

I thank you much for your letter. The money also came 
safe which you sent for my expenses to Nepal, but my going there 
has been put a stop to by Lord Canning, who writes Mr. Tucker, 
in answer to his request for permission to let me go, thus : '' I beg 
you to tell the Pundit Nehemiah that he can write all he wishes 
to the Banee, with the certainty that it will reach her safely, 
through the Besident, but that he caimot proceed to Nepal at 

I am, therefore, writing her a letter. She has been anxiously 
looking for me, I believe. I shall tell her about the forged letters, 
and tell her to be very careful in trusting any person in such 
matters. I had heard that she was cheated of some thousands 
of rupees by some man in this very matter. 

It seems she has a set of dishonest people about her, from whom 
she should be separated. 

I remain, dear Sir John, 

Your a&ctionate, 

NE^EMIAH Gobeh. 

DD 2 


Chapter The Maharajah's craze for photography continued 
~I" unabated ; and in this way, all visitors to Castle 
Menzies were induced to leave their " shadows " 
behind them ; for the art of photography, being still 
a novelty, many felt a gratification in having their 
lineaments perpetuated by a Prince. He was more 
often successful with his gentleman sitters, and many 
were the likenesses he took of Harry Panmure Gordon, 
his neighbour at Killiechassie, whose fine figure in the 

Highland dress made a capital subject. Colonel , 

a gentleman with a number of good -looking daughters, 
was very anxious to have them photographed by tlie 
Prince. The dismay of the proud father may l>e 
conceived, when, owing to some error of focus, the 
young ladies came but all with hands as big as their 
heads, and looking remarkably as if they had donne<l 
boxing-gloves for the occasion I He was not satisfies I. 
until further attempts produced something rather 
more complimentary. 

The news of the Mutiny came like a thunderbolt v.. 
the summer of 1857. 

Great as was the turmoil aroused throughout tl:- 
whole nation — of horror at the atrocities commit te%i 
and desperation at the consciousness of our impotence, 
at that distance — this was as nothing comj)art*' 
to the emotions excited in the breasts of those • 
whom both the scenes and the victims of this srrt-. 
tragedy were perfectly familiar, who had themsel^ - 


but lately returned from those regions, and who, but Chapter 
for a merciful Providence, might themselves have been -g^-' 
numbered among the slain 1 

It was not long before the intelligence reached 
Castle Menzies, that the Maharajah's residence at 
Futtehghur had been sacked and burnt by the 
mutineers, and his faithful servants murdered ! As 
the Maharajah's visit to England was only expected to 
be for two years, he had left valuable property behind 
him, under guard, in his Toshkhana, in charge of his 
English steward. Sergeant A. Elliott (Bengal Sappers). 
This man had been selected for work in the Lahore 
Toshkhana, by Login, who, discovering his value, after- 
^vards applied for him for the Maharajah's establish- 
ment. His letters at the outbreak of the Mutiny, 
gave such graphic descriptions of all that occurred, 
that Login, having forwarded one of them to Colonel 
Phipps* for perusal, was requested to continue to do so 
as they arrived. This he did, until their sudden 
cessation raised fears for the writer's own fate, which, 
alas ! were to be only too speedily confirmed. 
Sergeant Elliott, his wife and children, and Mr. 
W^alter Guise (the Maharajah's former tutor, whose 
house was hard by), were all miu*dered, along with 
other European residents at Futtehghur, shortly 
before the massacre of Cawnpore. 

• Colonel the Hon. Charles Phipps — afterwards Sir C. Phipps — private 
secretary to the Prince Consort 


Chapter It may well be imagined with what breathless 
TTTI' interest Login watched the struggle of that devoted 
band who defended the Residency at Lucknow, 
familiar as he was with every foot of ground rendered 
memorable by that conflict, and intimately acquainted 
with both European and native inhabitants of the 
city ; while the chief and central figure, on whom the 
hopes and safety of that little garrison, humanly 
speaking, chiefly depended, was his own best and 
dearest £riend ! We need not speak here of the grief 
with which he received the sad intelligence that that 
brave and gentle spirit had been struck down at the 
post of duty, and carried in to die in the very house 
where, years before, the two friends had conjointly 
elaborated so many schemes for the welfare of the 
native races of India. 

Letter from Colonel PHn»PB. 

Balmobal, Sept. 27th, 1857. 
Mt deab Sm John, 

I was very sorry to find, from a letter which I saw to-day. 
that Lord Clarendon had formed the opinion that the Maharajah 
was of an unfeeling and cruel disposition ; upon what grounds his 
opinion has been formed I am at a loss to know» but my 
observation, certainly limited, would have led me to form, as far 
as cruelty is concerned, an exactly opposite judgment. I do nc( 
think that any Eastern ever shows much feeling, and perhaps 
they do not possess much, but I cannot believe that the Maharajah 
has any cruelty in his disposition. I can believe it perfectly 


possible that, being still an Indian at heart, he may not like the Chapter 
terms of execration, too well justified, in which he hears Indians XIII. 
spoken of, and that he cannot join in the hopes of bloody retribu- 1867. 
tion so generally entertained ; but surely we must make allowance 
for this not unnatural feeling on his part. 

Lord Clarendon, in a former letter, said, that in conversation 

with you at Taymouth Castle, he elicited from you that the 

Maharajah did not evince particular interest in the subject of the 

scenes that had occurred in Bengal during the outbreak, and was 

more taken up at present with his sport. May I venture to 

suggest a little caution in the expression of any opinion as to the 

feelings of the Maharajah on this subject, because a very slight 

expression from you may give rise to a very comprehensive, and 

probably exaggerated, opinion. Pray, my dear Sir John, forgive 

this hint, which is suggested by the most friendly motives. 

Sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

Castle Menzies, Sept, 30th, 1857. 

My dbab Colonel Phipps, 

It is indeed kind of you to put me on my guard as to the 

impression I may give of the Maharajah's character, in my 

conversation regarding him at this time. As you may have 

perceived from my note, conveying the Maharajah's reply to Her 

Majesty's most gracious and considerate message, I have been 

a little disappointed that he has shown so much indifference on 

the subject of the treacheries and cruelties perpetrated in India 

by the mutineers, and that he has scarcely admitted the propriety 

of abstaining from a few of the usual gaieties at this season, in 

consequence of the sad intelligence we have received of the fate 

of his own faithful servants, and of his tutor, Mr. Guise, and poor 


Chapter Tom Scott's mother, sister, and brother, who had been his 
Xin. gaests at Roehampton only a few months before. I have 
loOY. endeavoured to find excuses for this want of sympathy, in the 
natural tendency of young men, at his age and in his position, 
to allow nothing %o interfere with their sports and amusements* 
When Lord Clarendon asked me what the Maharajah's thoughts 
and views were, on the Mutiny, I could only say truthfully that 
he did not show any great interest in it, his thoughts being at 
present wholly occupied with shooting and field-sports. I am 
sure nothing I said led him to form the opinion you mention, of 
the Maharajah's disposition I think it probable it has arisen 
from the Maharajah's own conversation with Lord Clarendon, 
and the remarks he overheard him make to the ladies who were 
guests at Taymouth Castle at the same time, and who have been 
more than usually observant of any traits in his character which 
they consider to be peculiarly Oriental. 

He is, I am very thankful to say, extremely truthful and candid, 
and I am certain that there is nothing in the character of 
English Christians which he admires so much, and wishes so 
much to copy, as straightforward honesty, and openness. He 
certainly sometimes, when he see that any of the sentiments he 
expresses cause surprise or wonder, exaggerates them a little for 
amusement; but always with a tendency more to depreciate 
than exalt himself in the estimation of those he converses with : 
and although I have repeatedly pointed out this effect to him, 
he has found people hitherto so ready to think well of him, and 
has such a horror of hypocrisy, that he considers it better to err 
on the safe side. Of all his amusements, hawking is his favourite 
whenever he can enjoy it, and as the falcons have to be trained 
by means, which to us appear cruel, he has often, in course 
of conversation, to explain the process ; and observing the effect 
the description has upon most people, he no doubt amuses 
himself a little dilating on the subject. Knowing the feeling 
with which falcon training would be viewed among us, I induced 


him to lay it aside for some time in India, and hoped the Chapter 
passionate love for the sport might moderate ; but having now XIIL 
attained an age, at which restraint on his field-sports is not ^^'* 
expedient, he has resumed it with all his former ardour. 

This style of talk, combined with a certain expression about 
his mouth, which I heard a lady at Taymouth point out as very 
indicative of Oriental character, has doubtless led them to 
attach an idea of cruelty to his disposition; but were I to 
attempt to say anything on the subject to him, I am afraid that 
his anxiety to avoid anything approaching to dissimulation 
would only increase the difficulty. 

Even his indifference to what is occurring in India, his apparent 
want of sympathy with the sufferings of our countrymen and 
women, arise in a great measure from a wish not to deceive, or to 
be better thought of than he is in reality. Of all the Christian 
\artues, truthfulness is the one to which he attaches most import- 
ance, though I am happy to think there are others besides which 
exert no little influence over his natural disposition. 

The Maharajah has certainly no sympathy with the mutinous 
Sepoys, nor any other wish than that we should effectually put 
them down. He does not look on them as his countrymen, nor 
refrain from expressing abhorrence of their conduct whenever it is 
mentioned ; but although he even goes so far as to suggest and 
invent modes of punishment for them, perhaps as effectual as 
ridiculous, his feelings in our favour are not so strong as to over- 
come liis natural indolence, or to tempt him to read or make 
many inquiries on the subject of the revolt. With the conduct of 
the Sikhs and Punjabis in assisting us, he is very much gratified, 
while, at the same time, he is not without misgivings as to their 
continuing faithful throughout, and expresses doubts of the pro- 
3riety of bringing them to Delhi, where they will see a handful of 
iilnglisli, opposed to a multitude who speak nearly the same 
anguag^j aiid differ little in religion from themselves. 
In Bpite of all Duleep Singh's faults and deficencies, I have still 


Chapter much to be thankful for in his character, although I have 
^OJl, reluctantly been obliged to forego the hope, I at one time indulged, 
^ool. ^}^2i^^ i^Q would take an active and foremost part in enlightening the 
people of India. 

Yours very truly, 

J. S. Login. 

Shortly after the tidings of the Indian Mutiny 
reached this country, and while all trembled with 
anxiety as to what news next mail might bring, Lady 
Login was one morning told that two men on horse- 
back had arrived at the Castle, from Kinloch, and one 
of them craved a private interview on matters of im- 
portance. Coming, as they did, from the home of her 
childhood, she sent for the man at once, and, on his 
entrance, recognized one of her brother, Greneral Charles 
Campbell's, tenants, Donald MacCulloch, an old 
acquaintance, who, shutting the door cautiously, and 
speaking in a whisper, said, " We just thocht we Mail 
come o er the hill, to see if ye were a' richt, for there s 
no trustin' thae black men noo ! " 

Seeing she looked puzzled, he asked in a hoarse 
whisper, pointing with his thumb over his shoulder. 
"Is HE keeping quate ? If there's ony fear o' hl^ 
breakin' oot, there's a wheen o' us ready to come o'er 
the hill and sattle him for ye, gin ye gie the word ' " 
To his great relief he was told that the " black Prince ' 
had only two native servants, and that both he and 


they were very peaceably disposed — ^would he like to Chapter 

see the Prince ? he had been in that room only a few ^}}l' 
. . -^ 1857. 

minutes ago. 

The poor man absolutely jumped I " What ! is he 

loose ? I never saw but ae black man in my life, and 

that was yer uncle, Sir Patrick's, naygro, carrying his 

bag on the moors. I was but a laddie then, but I still 

shake when I mind o' the Admiral cryin' on me, 

'Donald, here's auld Clootie vn his bag come for 


The brave Donald was reassured when he saw that 
the Prince was not black, like his negro acquaintance, 
and he went off home quite happy, on foot, having 
made a capital bargain, and got a good price for his 
sturdy little black mare, to which the Maharajah had 
taken a fancy as a shooting-pony. 

The idea of the Strathbraan men being on the watch 
for symptoms of a " rising " on his part, was greatly 
enjoyed by Duleep Singh 1 

This year of the Mutiny brought an inmaense 
amount of work and correspondence on Sir John Login. 
Having so lately returned from the scene of operations, 
and being in constant communication with many of 
the leading actors in the suppression of the revolt, he 
was appealed to on all sides for information on the 
matters then absorbing public attention. 

Here is a letter received at this time from Mr. 
Bright, who had been staying at Castle Menzies a few 
days previously : — 



BocHDAiiE, S^L Ist, 1857. 
Chapter Dear Sib John, 

I ought to have written you sooner, to tell you what took 
place after I left you so suddenly at Castle Menzies, but you will 
have seen it in the newspapers. The Birmingham people have 
treated me most handsomely, and I only hope I may be able to 
repay them. I am l^keeping quiet till February, but I am not 
very sanguine that I shall even then be able to venture into the 
House of Commons, for the " strength ** of my head recovers but 
slowly, and, after such a shock as I have suffered from, restoration 
is always slow, without being always sure 

The India chaos is a truly melancholy "business ; and the death 
of Lawrence will have come upon you as a calamity. The more 
I consider the whole question, the more its magnitude and its 
difficulty oppresses me. The cruelties perpetrated by the Sepoys, 
and the scarcely less horrid cruelties inflicted by our countrymen, 
under the name of punishment and vengeance, will leave a 
desperate wound, which time can never heal. The restoration oi 
order, therefore, will be not a small part of the difficulty — the 
future government of India is the great problem, and I know 
not how this is to be solved. The loss of India would not iiii::i 
England, but the effort, and the cost of keeping it, may do so : 
and the crimes we have committed there must be atoned for, in 
some shape, by ourselves or our children. 

Pray remember me most kindly to Lady Login, and say to ti.-j 
Maharajah that I was very sorry not to see his hawks fly, and t>> 
leave him so abruptly, if not, indeed, so rudely. 

Believe me always, 

Very sincerely yours, 

JOHK Bbiqbt. 

Sib John Login, 

Castle Menzies. 


In answering this letter, Login took occasion to Chapter 
disabuse Mr, Bright of some misconceptions of the f~' 
native character he appeared to have formed, and of the 
effect produced upon it by the high-handed proceedings 
of some of the first representatives of English rule 
among them. He was very anxious to secure, as an 
advocate for the future interests of India, a man of 
such sterling integrity, and extraordinary power of 
influencing the masses of his countrymen ; and of 
whose character, as personifying honesty and upright- 
ness, he was a sincere admirer. 

Lord Canning 8 anxiety to prevent bloody retribution, 
and to discourage the indiscriminate thirst for vengeance, 
found an echo in the minds of a large body of noble- 
minded statesmen and philanthropists at home, who 
dreaded lest this un-English lust for blood might grow 
to such a pitch as would baffle the restraints of dis- 
cipline and humanity, and lead to excesses, such as the 
nation would have cause to deplore in its cooler 
moments. The fearful descriptions of the mutilations 
and outrage to which English ladies and children had 
been subjected were repeated and exaggerated to such 
an extent, that men's minds were strung up to an 
intensity of hatred to the native races of India, which 
forbade their listening to reason ! 

A committee of gentlemen was therefore formed, 
of which Login was one, to institute an inquiry into 

* Login's reply to John Blight's letter will be found in the Appendix. 


Cliapter those cases of mutilation brought forward bj the 
T^' newspapers, to which special features of atrocity were 
attached, and Login offered himself to go down to the 
ports of arrival, and board all steamers and sailing 
vessels with passengers from India.-especially those 
named in these joiu*nals as conveying victims of the 
ferocity of the Sepoys. Though at first himself a 
believer in the possible truth of these assertions, he 
had the satisfaction of establishing the fact, after 
interviewing both oflficers and passengers on board 
these vessels, that at least among those who had 
returned to their native country, no single case of such 
mutilation was to be found. His own impression 
of the matter was, that in cases of mutilation it was 
most improbable that the victims would be suffered to 

This evidence was of great assistance in strengthen- 
ing the hands of Lord Canning, whose " clemency " to 
the rebels had raised a storm against him, both in 
India and in this country. 

It must be remembered that, at this time, excepting 
Login, very few (if any) officers of the East India 
Company had been brought much in contact with tht 
Court. Login's personal intimacy, therefore, with the 
Hon. Charles Phipps, then private secretary to Htr 
Majesty the Queen, as well as to H.R.H. the Princ? 
Consort, made him the medium of communicating tl^* 
views and counsels of Indian officers on the crisis. 

Having forwarded to Colonel Phipps, soon after ti.*. 


earliest accounts of the Mutiny reached England, some Chapte 
private letters received by the last mail from India, ~~^* 
Colonel Phipps wrote to him as follows : — 


OsBOBNE, July 2ith, 1857. 
Mt Deab Sm John, 

I was exceedingly obliged to you for your letter and its 

In the present awful crisis of the affairs of India, any opinion 
or views, propounded by one so well acquainted with the country 
as yourself, must be most valuable, and you could not do me a 
greater favour than to continue your communications. 

I think that we had no right to be much surprised at what has 
occurred. Everybody who has had boldness or sincerity enough 
to face the question, has long since known, and many have de- 
clared, the utterly rotten and unreliable state of the Bengal 
native army, nor have frequent occasions been wanting, on which 
the Sepoys of this Presidency have suflBciently shown their 
mutinous and exacting spirit. Upon such emergencies as the 
present, however, the least profitable and least satisfactory process 
is a retrospect of the past. It will require all the wisdom and all 
the energy of the Government (I hope they may have enough), to 
provide for the future. I should think that no Government, 
either national or under charter, would be so mad as to entrust 
again the safety of an important part of the Indian Emjpire to 
high-caste native troops, and yet I can conceive that much 
difficulty may arise from the sole employment of white soldiers, 
entirely unacquainted with the language and customs of the 
people. From the amount of the force heretofore maintained, I 
should suppose that the Company's troops must be employed 
upon many duties other than the mere military repression of 


Chapter With regard to the other question of gradual conversion, I have 
XEII. always understood, though I profess to be very ignorant upon 
1857, Indian subjects, that it is one of very great dif&culty. 

The difficult epoch appears to me to be that in which you 
have not made progress enough to reap any of the fruits that 
may be hoped to result from the knowledge of the doctrines 
of Christianity, and yet have done enough to alarm the preju- 
dices and fanaticism of those whose existence almost depends 
upon the adherence to their rules of caste. I have very little 
faith in any number of adult converts — a few isolated cases there 
must be ; but in general, a sincere believer in any religion will 
not be a sincere proselyte, and it is the weak and the worthless 
who, in general, first embrace a new faith — worthless in them- 
selves, and by their characters throwing discredit upon con- 
version. But this must always be a stage to pass through. In 
the present case, you have so long preached up non-interference 
with religious prejudices as the doctrine of your Indian rule, that 
you give a plausible excuse for discontent when you depart from 
the principles proclaimed by yourselves. 

I look with the most painful anxiety for the next mail. How 
much may depend upon the news which that brings ! but I fear, 
from what I hear, that our army was very deficient in all the 
materials for striking a decisive blow, and its efficiency very 
much cramped by the^limited power and authority which ha< 
been accorded to the generals commanding. 

Sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

In response to this, Login, on the 28th July, 1857 
addressed a long letter, or rather memorandum^ t« 
Colonel Phipps, which led ultimately to a voluminoii? 
correspondence on Indian affairs in general, too long t.^ 


receive here more than a passing allusion. That these Chapter 
papers — written thus early, before it was known out- ~:^' 
side the Cabinet, that the Queen's Government had 
determined on taking into their own hands the future 
destinies of India — were not without their influence on 
the measures then under consideration, for the re- 
organization of the Indian Government, and of its 
army, will perhaps appear on a perusal of a short 
summary of their contents, which will be found at the 
end of this volume.* 

While engaged in this correspondence with Sir 
Charles Phipps, Login wrote to Sir James C. Melvill, 
Secretary to the Court of Directors, explaining to him 
(for the information of the Board) the circumstances 
under which the correspondence had arisen, and for- 
warding copies of all his letters as they were despatched, 
ending by saying :— 

" As I think it not unlikely that these opinions are made known 
in a high quarter, although I cannot presume to think they are 
likely to have much weight, I consider it my duty, situated as I 
am, to let you know what I have done, I hope that you will, 
whether you approve of my opinions or not, be assured of my 
desire to do nothing which I cannot freely communicate to you. 
.... I have also had frequent conversations with Mr. Bright on 
the subject of India, whilst he was here on a visit, and have done 
my best to modify his views From all the opportunities 

See Appendix. Corre9pondence bettoeen Sir C, Phipps and Sir J. Login. 



Chapter of observation which I have lately enjoyed, I am satisfied that 

Xni . the transfer of the Indian Government to the Grown has been 

1857. determined upon, and that the how and the when have only to be 

considered. I have, therefore, thought it my duty to meet Colonel 

Phipps's wishes, by giving such information as I am able to do, on 

various points connected with the transfer I have no 

doubt that I may be considered very presumptuous in all this ; but 
the opportunities afforded me, of expressing my opinion, have not 
been of my seeking, and I think I do right to avail myself of 

It is gratifying to note, from the following quotation 
from the " lAfe of Prince Consorty' that the Queen 
herself attached value to Sir John Login's opinions on 
Indian affairs. Writing to Lord Derby (then Prime 
Minister) in reference to Lord Ellenborough s secret 
despatch to Lord Canning, April, 1858, and of his 
second despatch, May 5th, Her Majesty says : — 

" The despatch now before me, for the first time, is 
very good and just in principle, but the Queen would 
be much surprised if it did not entirely coincide with 
the views of Lord Canning, at least, as far as he has 
hitherto expressed any in his letters. So are also the 
sentiments written by Sir John Lawrence (in a private 
letter which Lord Derby had sent for her Majeetv*< 
perusal), in almost the very expressions frequently xxse»l 
by Lord Canning. Sir John Login, who holds the 
same opinion, and has great experience, does not find 
any fault with the Proclamation, however seemingly h 


may sound at variance with those opinions; and he Chapfcar 
rests this opinion on the peculiar position of a&drs in ^^^* 
Oude."» ^^'^' 

The following is the last letter Login received fix>m 
Lord Dalhousie, who was on the point of going abroad 
in search of health : — 

Edoibuboh, Oct. Srd, 1867. 
Mt dsab Loonr, 

We are just on the wing for London, on otir way to Malts, 
for which we sail on the 20th inst. I have never had any com- 
munication from the Court regarding the Maharajah, and hope 
that the sentiments which were placed on record will lead to 
a satisfactory settlement of his aflEEdrs, 

The tidings from India are too distressing to write about, 
though they occupy my thoughts by day and by night. 

Believe me, my dear Login, 

Ever yours very truly, 

Sm J. S. Loom, 

Castle Menzies. 

Letter from Sib John Loom to the Editor of the '* Timbs." 

CabtiiB Menzibs, Nov. 26th, 1867. 
My dbab Delamb, 

I have been lately asked by the Bev. H, Venn, secretary to 
the Church Missionary Society, to give him my views with 

♦ "it/e of Prince Conwri,'* voL iv., p. 226. 

EE 2 


Chapter respect to Christian education in India, and the extension of our 
^ni. missions. I sent him a paper, of which I enclose you a copy, 
1857. ^jj^ J hskYe also written to Lord Shaftesbury, at his request, on 
the same subject. 

The article on the use of the Boman character in Oriental 
languages, has attracted much attention. I lately sa\v the 
editor of the Mirzapoor paper (Bev. Cotton Mather), who is now 
engaged in an edition of the whole Scriptures in Urdu for the 
Bible Society, and will, I hope, soon be able to assist Sir 
Charles Trevelyan and others in bringing out an edition of the 
New Testameiit, English and Bomanized Urdu in parallel 
columns, for the use of persons going out to India. It is al^^ 
proposed to get up a Romanized edition of Shakespeare's or other 
standard dictionary. 

I have been much gratified by your articles on Indian finance^, 
and the means of getting the mercantile classes to contribute in 
fair proportion to the revenues of the State. If we keep to our 
law of inheritance, as now established, permitting, of course. 
Hindoos to adopt by will as they please, provided they pay a 
succession duty, we shall get a pretty good sum out of them. 
The proposal to sell freehold rights in the land (which I havt* 
also often thought of), although excellent in principle, should 
not, I think, be brought into operation at present — not until con> 
fidence in our Government has been most effectually restored, and 
the possibility of raising taxes from other sources than the land 
satisfactorily ascertained. 

I have had a letter from Charles Havelock, the General >* 
brother. Since I told him of your kindness, he has found that 
the regulations of the Horse Guards, in respect to officers wb -> 
had left the service by sale of commission, precluded his retur: 
to it at his age ; but he had applied for an appointment under the 
East India Company. I have sent on his letter to Sir Geor^v 
Pollock, who is also interested in him, and have written to S^* 
James Melvill, suggesting that he might be most useful i:. 


diilling the Light CavaJry recruits, and mentioning that you had, Chapter 
through Mr. Ellice, interested Lord Panmure in his case, and Xnr. 
that they would carry the goodwill of all with them, for his ^°^7. 
brother's sake. I am glad to hear that Wilson and Havelock are 
both to be made baronets, but they must have pensions also, for 
neither of them are able to keep up the dignity without such 
assistance. I know Havelock well, and Wilson also. I served 
under him throughout the Punjab campaign. I do not know 
what is to be given to John Lawrence: he deserves a peerage, but 
his sister told me lately that he had only saved £20,000, so that 
he could not afford to take one without a pension attached. 
When I go up to London next week, I will show you the replies I 
have sent to some influential friends, who asked me to state my 

opinions on various Indian matters 

I fear I have written you a very long letter. 

Yours very sincerely, 

J. S. Loom. 

About this time (August, 1857) Sir John wrote to 
Sir James Melvill to ask if any reply had yet been 
received from India relative to the Maharajah's affairs. 
He suggested that as, owing to the Mutiny, the 
Maharajah's return to India had been put a stop to, 
and he remained in England more from necessity than 
choice, if the Court of Directors desired to induce him 
to settle contentedly in this country, it would be 
advisable to provide him with an estate. If left to 
himself to decide, whether to purchase property or not. 


Chapter Ids mind was so unsettled, that it would be long before 

?frf ' he could make it up : but if the matter were decided 
1867. . . 

for him, he would readily acquiesce in the arrangement, 

and very contentedly make this country his home, for 

several years to come. 



The marriage of the Princess Royal, in January, 1858, Chapter 
was the last Court ceremonial in which Sir John Loe4n ^^- 
took part as governor and guardian of Duleep Singh, 
who was henceforth to be permitted to manage his own 

The Maharajah celebrated his emancipation from 
guardianship by organizing a shooting expedition to 
Sardinia, with Dr. Parsons and a friend. Before start- 
ing for the land of banditti he made due preparations 
for the worst ! making his will, and leaving a power of 
attorney with Sir John Login, to act for him in the 
settlement of his affairs. 

When the lease of Castle Menzies expired, the 
shootings of Auchlyne, on Loch Tay, were rented from 
Lord Breadalbane, which place became Duleep Singh s 
headquarters on his return from Sardinia, pending the 
conclusion of the arrangement for a lease of Mulgrave 
Castle, which Sir John was making with Lord 

The following letter was written by Lord Hatherton, 


Chapter whilst the Maharajah was on a visit to him at 

^^- Teddesley: 

Tbddeblby, Dec, 11th, 1867. 
My deab Login, 

.... I have been talking with the Maliarajah about the 
expediency of his having some house in or near London, but he 
seems unwilling, until he has made up his mind whether he shall 
revisit India in the cold season of next year. He talks of "being 
entitled to consider his own pleasure and comfort/' and was so 
decided that I thought it best to say no more. He showed me a 
draft of the will he intends to execute before going abroad. He 
evidently wishes to do what is kind, liberal, and right in the 
disposal of his property, and I was pleased to hear his expressions 
of gratitude to you. His words to me, on my proposing to him to 
alter the plan of his will, and leave £10,000 at once to the Church 
Missionary Society, and make you his residuary legatee, were 
'' You do not know him as well as I do, if you think this would 
please him. Oh, no ! He wished me to leave it to the Church 
Missionary Society, and I have fully resolved to do so. All my 
interests and duties are in India, but Sir John and Lady Login 
have the strongest claim upon me. He has abandoned a career 
that might have been most profitable, for my sake. I shall leave 
him not less than £10,000, .... and, if I Uve to come of age, I 
shall settle £1,000 per annum on him, to be followed by the 
legacy. I feel the importance of not delaying the execution of my 
will, and intend to do it at once." 

I thought it might please you to know how he feels to you both. 
He says he is to consult his friend, Mr. Guninghame, about being 
executor to his will, when he passes through Edinburgh. 

Very truly yours. 
Sis John S. Login. 


Login wrote to congratulate Sir Charles Phipps on Chapter 
the honours lust conferred on him, to which Sir Charles , ^F^' 
replied : — 

Buckingham Palace, Jan. 26th, 1858. 
My deab Login, 

Many, many thanks for your kind letter of congratulation. 
I claim no merit but that of doing what is given me to do, with a 
wish to do it honestly, and to the best of my ability. I need 
hardly say that the honour given me was one that I should never 
have sought or expected, and that I felt doubly the insignificance 
of my services from the company I found myself in in the Gazette.* 
But this is not my fault. The Queen cannot be exclusively served 
on the Ganges ! 

I assure you, my dear Login, that I consider one of the 
privileges of my position to have been, to have formed first 
the acquaintance, and then, I hope, gained the friendship, of one 
for whom I have a very sincere respect, and true regard. 

Ever sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

The Maharajah was, at this time, bent on enjoyiog 
life as a private gentleman, free from all the trammels 
of princely rank, and for this reason appointed no 
equerry or aide-de-camp. 

* Havelock and Wilaon. 


Buckingham Palacb, Feb, 9th, 1858. 

Chapter My deab Sib John, 


iRfift k*\ ^^® Queen and Prince would hope to see the Mahaxaj&h 

before he goes abroad. Would Sunday next be too late a day to 

name for that purpose ? The Queen desires me to say, that she 

hopes that the Maharajah will not think of going abroad without 

somebody as a sort of A.D.C. and companion. Her Majesty 

thinks that to go quite alone would hardly be compatible with his 

rank and station. Tour name will be restored to the ceremonial 

list (those present at the royal marriage), from which it had been 

accidentally omitted. 

Yours very sincerely, 

C. B. Phipps. 

A few letters from Duleep Singh, written while try- 
ing his wings on his first flight, show his boyish 
character yet unspoilt. 

DovEB, March 3rd, 1858. 
My deab Lady Login, 

Here we are stuck at Dover, and can't cross, as the sea is 
very rough; but if it is calmer to-morrow we shall cros>. 
otherwise, we must delay till Thursday. We had a vin- 
pleasant journey; my companions made themselves voi} 
agreeable. Dr. Parsons, I think, is a very nice man ; he seems 
to know something about everything, and enters into idl d j 
amusements. I fear I shall not enjoy this trip as I had hopetl 
as they try to please me too much, and I fear very much that . 
I do not take care I shall be spoilt for ever afterwards. TLe^ 
act towards me as I daresay Sir John remembers, a r*r 



Drtuzmiond used to do to the Duke of Athole. He used to Chapter 
call him *' His Grace " at every word, and if the Duke happened ^V, 
to drop anything, he used to rush forward to pick it up, and also lo^O"63. 
flattered him a great deal. It is not good to have people near 
me in this position, for I am very much afraid that I shall get 
quite vain ; but perhaps when we get to know each other better, 
it will not be the case. My kind regards to Sir John and the 

Believe me always, my dear Lady Login, 

AjSectionately yours, 


Cagliabi, Sardinia, March 2^th, 1858. 

My dear good Fbibnd, 

I received your letter this morning, which gave me great 

pleasure, for besides telling me that you are all well, you gave 

me all that news about Mulgrave Castle. I think it would be 

a very good bargain, if the shootings are what you describe 

them. If the moors are of the size of one-fourth of the whole 

property, I should like you to secure it, but if not, never mind. 

This is a very nice place for shooting, but I wish I had come 

in December, as now there is hardly any game to be found. Thank 

Lady Login for her kind letter ; tell her I did her commissions 

at Genoa, and Presanzini is to send the parcel by a courier 

friend of his. I am very glad to hear that Alick Lawrence has 

got a Baronetcy and £1,000 a-year. Many thanks for the trouble 

you are taking about my settlement with the East India 

Company. It must delight Sir George Pollock to be made a 

Director; give him my congratulations, please. It is such a bother 

to have lost two of my best hawks, first time they were flown I 

We get Indian mail sooner here than in London ; the last news 

seems better, I hope for peace soon. This way of travelling is 


Chapter very much more expensive than I expected. My love to the 

XIV. children. 
1868-63. Your affectionately, 


DoMO d'Ossola, Sihflon, May 3rd, 1858. 

My dear Lady Login, 

I was so glad to get your letter. We returned to Genoa 
on the 30th ult., having had little shooting in Sardinia. I have 
come to the conclusion that there is no place in the world after all 
for sport, like England, however, I have enjoyed my trip very 
much. I think if you were to visit Sardinia you would think it 
very like India, I almost fancied myself back there when looking 
at the scenery. 

When I was at Muro, I was persuaded to give a ball ''to 
the nobility and gentry " ; they came in their national costumes. 
One young lady was very beautiful, all our party were smitten, 
even Dr. Parsons ; / did not, however, fall in love with her as I 

did with at Bome ! Have you no commission for me to do ? 

We hope to be home on 17th, when I trust to see you. I am 
going to send for Signor Brochi from Bome, to continue my study 
of Italian. I have found out my deficiencies, and am determined 
to learn it well before I go abroad again. Do you remember what 
fun we used to have with him ? I have just written a long letter 
to the Prince of Wales, so will now stop. With love to all, 

Yours affectionately, 


AucHLYNE, July 6/A, 1858. 
My deab Lady Login, 

I am so very glad to hear that the Queen has asked you. 
and you have agreed, to take charge of the young Coorg Piince>> 


I am quite sure you will make her very happy, and treat her with Chapter 
that motherly kindness which I myself have had the good luck XIY. 
to experience. Yes, I left the brougham to be sold, and I hear 1858-63. 
you have inquired the price ; it has none if it is for your own personal 
use, but if it is for the use of the Princess, I think she can afford 
to pay me £40, which is one-third of its cost I Tell me when to 
expect Edward ; he will enjoy fishing. Love to all. 

Your affectionate 


Mrs. Drummond, having resigned the charge of the 
young Princess of Coorg, god-daughter of the Queen, 
Her Majesty made it a special request that Lady Login 
should take charge of her, and, after taking her abroad 
for the winter, bring her out in society next season* 
Feeling that whatever inconvenience this arrangement 
might cause to herself, the Queen's wishes must be com- 
plied with, she agreed, trusting that another suitable 
chaperon might be foimd later on. In consequence, 
the house in Portman Square was given up, and the 
family removed to Kew, where one of the Queen's houses 
was prepared and furnished for them. 

After Christmas, Sir John and Lady Login took the 
Princess and their two elder children to Rome. 

This same winter, the Prince of Wales was there, 
with his Governor, General Bruce, and honoured Sir 
John and Lady Login with a visit at their apartments, 
No. 56, Capo le Casa. During the Carnival, he also 
came to their balcony in the Corso, with a bouquet for 


Chapter the Princess Gouramma, and, after watching the 
if^ftfiq procession for some time, passed on to the balcony 

of the neighbouring house, which was occupied by the 

Prussian royal family. 

Though Login had regularly forwarded to the India 
House copies of all his letters and memoranda to Sir C. 
Phipps, during the correspondence already alluded to, 
the Board never so much as acknowledged the receipt 
of any of these communications. It would seem as if 
they resented the fact of an officer in their service 
being consulted on Indian affairs, or giving any opinion 
as to the direction reform should take ; although they 
were perfectly aware that Login had only given 
expression to his views by particular request, 
after positive assurance that " the rule of the Company 
was doomed," and that it only remained to be decided 
by what form of government it should be succeeded. 

The treatment which they meted out to a hitherto 
trusted servant would almost justify the idea that the 
moribund Company of Directors were not above 
showing their displeasure in a somewhat undignified 
and ungenerous manner. 

It was not until the 29th December, 1857, that the 
Court of Directors acceded to the request of the 
Maharajah, that he might be permitted to assttme the 
management of his own affairs ; at that date he had 
exceeded by three years, the age at which Hindoo 
princes attain their legal majority, and by more than a 


year that at which European sovereigns are considered Chapter 


competent to assume the reins of government. The ^ • 

Court nevertheless informed him that though they 
granted his request, " purposing, so far as their 
authority extended, to show the esteem they enter- 
tamed for the sense and good conduct which had 
marked all his proceedings in this country," yet, 
according to the laws of England, he was still a minor, 
and legally incompetent to imdertake certain responsi- 
bilities ; * while, as a minor, he was incompetent to 
execute a legal instrument appointing another person 
to act for him.t 

Having decided that the guardianship was at an 
end, the Court immediately informed Sir John Login 
that his official salary must now cease ; and it was 
only on his pointing out that his original appointment 
had been that of Superintendent and Agent to the 
Governor-General (personally attached to His High- 
ness), and that the latter function did not necessarily 
cease on the Maharajah's attaining his majority,* that 

* A side of the question with which they were not concerned, as they were 
boniid to deal with him only by the laws of India. 

+ This palpably refers to the power of attorney, which the Maharajah had 
executed in favour of Sir John Login. 

^ As agent to the Goyemment with His Highness, it may still be my duty to 
draw his monthly stipend and sign the bill for it, and it may be in his power to 
communicate through me, if he should so wish it, instead of through the Honour- 
able Court, with the local authorities in India, for the recovery of his property, 
plundered by the mutineers at Futtohghur, and in other ways to assist him 
officially, if ho requires it, as I think he may. — Letter from Sir J, Login to 
Secretary of the H.E.LC, Feb. \5th, 1868. 


Chapter the ' Court allowed him a further period of three 
loeo /to months for the audit of his accounts, on an allowance 


of 600 rupees per mensem, that being the moiety of his. 
salary hitherto paid by the Company ; but when Lord 
Stanley, the present Earl of Derby, who was the first 
Secretary of State for India, came into office, he, 
" fully appreciating the very conscientious and efficient 
manner in which he had discharged his duties,'* 
directed in a letter dated December 1st, 1858, 
that Sir John's full salary should be paid to him, up 
to the date on which his fimctions ceased. 

In announcing that the Maharajah was henceforth 
to be considered of age. Sir James Melvill then wrote 
to Sir John Login :— 

The Court, however, cannot allow the connection which has 
existed for so many years between you and the Maharajah to 
cease, without expressing their entire approbation of the manner 
in which you have performed the duties of your important office, 
as evinced by the good results of the careful training for which 
the young Prince is indebted to you. 

On the 27th February, Sir John wrote to inform the 
Court, that he had transferred all balances at the 
bankers, and other securities, to the personal credit of 
His Highness, and made over all valuables to the 
charge of Mr. Cawood, the steward appointed by the 
Maharajah and empowered to give receipts. In thif 
letter he also informs the Court that, "Knowing it 


had been out of his power to save much from his Chapter 
allowances, or make suflBcient provision for his family, ^^* 
during the nine years of his guardianship, the 
Maharajah had spontaneously proposed to settle an 
annuity on him, and make further provision for him 
in his will, in the event of his surviving him." In 
requesting that this desire of His Highness might be 
favourably considered. Login reminded the Directors, 
that owing to his having undertaken the charge of the 
yoxmg Prince, he had forfeited his chances of rising, 
either in the medical service, in which he had as fair 
a prospect as any medical officer in India, or in the 
civil and political service, where a career was well 
known to lie open to him ; while, on the other hand, 
from the peculiarity of his position he had been unavoid- 
ably led, not only personally, but in his family, into 
greater expenses than he would have been in any 
ordinary appointments of the service. He also 
mentioned that the Maharajah, before embarking, had 
left with him a power of attorney to arrange the 
settlement of his pension, the recovery of his property 
in India, and other matters requiring reference to the 
Court of Directors, and concluded by remarking, " it 
has been a source of much gratification and thankful- 
ness to me, that I have been able, under God's blessing, 
to establish and confirm a feeling of goodwill, loyalty, 
and respect towards the British Government, on the 
\ part of one from whom such sentiments could scarcely 
have been expected.^' 


Chapter The following letter was also written at this time 


' to the Secretary of the East India Company :- 


On the severance of the connection which has for so many 
years existed between Sir John Login and myself, I am aniioos 
to testify my appreciation of his character, and my sense of his 
constant and kind attention to my interests and comfort. I have, 
therefore, to request the Honourable Court of Directors that, od 
the termination of Sir John's official engagement in the manage- 
ment of my affairs, the sum of Bs.833. 5. 4. per mensem, may be 
paid in India to his order, or as he shall direct, and be deducted 
from the total allowance I receive from the East India Company. 
May I, therefore, beg of your doing what is necessary, for cati3ring 
out these my wishes into effect. 

I have, &c., 

DuLEEP Singh. 
London, Feb. 26/A, 1868. 

The answer of the Court was conveyed to Sir J. 
Logm in the following terms :— 

March lOth, 185S. 

.... In reply to this communication, I am commanded 
by the Court to state that the letter of the Maharajah makes d. 
mention of any testamentary bequest, and, with reference to tbt 
proposed annuity, that the receipt of any present or gratuity fzos 
a native of India by any officer of the Company, is prohibited, l.: 
only, as you must be aware, by the rules of the service, but by v 


Act of Parliament. The arrangement, therefore, cannot receive Chapter 
either the approval, or the sanction of the Court of Directors. XIT. 

TV, M. 1868-63. 

I have, &c. 

J. D. Dickenson, 


To this, Sir J. Login replied, that he regretted he 

had not before informed the Court that, in the 

event of their acceding to the above request, he 

intended to retire from the service, but had thought 

it best to defer the announcement until all his accounts 

had been audited. And having, for the last eight 

years and upwards, been directed to draw one-half of 

his salary from His Highness, and, for the previous 

seven years, an equal amount from His Majesty the 

King of Oude, besides receiving special permission, on 

several occasions, to accept presents from the latter, 

it had not occurred to him that it was not within the 

power of the Court, in like manner^ to sanction the 

acceptance of the Maharajah's offer, under the very 

peculiar circumstances of the case. 

With respect to the absence of any mention, in His 
Highness's letter, of any testamentary bequest, as His 
Highness merely intended to ask the favour of the 
Honourable Court to carry out his wishes for the 
payment of an annuity, by deduction from his pay, it 
v^ras not considered necessary by His Highness to 
make any allusion to it ; and Jie (Login) only mentioned 

FT 2 


Chapter it, from a wish that everything should be known re- 
Ifi58^ garding his relations to His Highness. 

From Sbcbetaby to Boabd op Dibbctobs. 

April 3rd, 1858. 

.... You state that it had been your intention to apply for 
pennission to retire from the service, upon accepting the annnitj 

offered to you by the Maharajah Duleep Singh In 

reply, the Court desire me to state that the remarks, in their 
letter of 10th March, applied to the supposed case of an officer 
of the Company's service receiving sums of money from one of 
the princes of India ; the rules of the service, and the Act of Par- 
liament, referred to in that letter, being applicable to such case. 

Sir John then placed his resignation in the hands 
of the East India Company, after a service of 
twenty-six years ; and having again requested, on the 
Maharajah's part, that the proposed arrangement 
might now be carried out, was^answered in these words 
(under date, April 21st, 1858) : — " .... I am in* 
structed by the Court to inform you that, in their 
opinion, the matter is not one in which they can, with 
propriety, interfere." 

On resigning the service, Login addressed a short 
memorandum to the Court of Directors, in which he 
says : — 

The favour I solicited from Government, and which iL- 
Maharajah requested on my behalf, was merely that they wocid 


permit the annuity which His Highness wished to settle upon me, Ch^ter 
to be deducted from his pay in the same manner as other deductums had ^^« 
been previoudy made, at his request, in order that the circumstances >«'0"^^- 
under which it had been granted to me should be known officially, 
and that I should stand in a somewhat more satisfactory relation 
to the Court, than those officers who, having resigned the Honour- 
able Company's service, had entered into engagements with native 
princes of India, not of the most creditable kind. I had hoped 
that the manner in which I had performed my duty, while guardian 
to His Highness, would have been sufficient to justify the 
Honourable Court in departing, under very peculiar circumstances, 

from their ordinary practice in this slight degree It may 

cause some surprise that, during the time I have held my present 
appointment, I have been able to add only £1,500 to my small 
savings, partly owing to the fact, that, with a view to give me a 
more independent position in the management of His Highness's 
affairs, I credited to his account an allowance of £200 per annum, 
while aione with him in India, and £500 when in England, 
as my share of table-expenses.*. . . . The Honourable Court, 
however, have seen fit to refuse the appUcation with the 
private explanation, through one of their members, that I shoxdd 
"consider myself fortunate in having passed through the service so 
pleasantly as I have done T' .... It is not likely, so far as the 
Honourable Court's treatment in my case is concerned, that my 
experience can afford encouragement to any other medical officer, 
to regard so little his private interests in the exercise of his public 
duty, as I have done. 

In March, 1858, Login was appealed to by Sir 
Charles Trevelyan, then at the Treasury, to assist him 

* Besides this, Login paid the wages, &c., of all his own servants, and all 
educational and travelling expenses for his family. 


Chapter in carrying out John Lawrence's wishes, with regard 
i^ft^Q *^ procuring a permanent endowment for the Lawrence 
' Asylums. 

** The matter is somewhat complicated," says Sir Charles, " by 
the relation which the Special Lawrence Fund and the General 
Belief Fund, bear to each other. The proper course, I think, will be 
to throw all the strength we can at first into the Lawrence Fond, 
and to supplement whatever may be deficient, out of the balance 

of Belief Fund Don't consult any one else until we can 

have a conference together to decide our plans. Perhaps you will 
go with me, to introduce me to Lady Lawrence to-morrow, or 
next day." 

A few months later, August 13th, came a private 
intimation from Sir John W. Kaye, to the following 
effect : — 

A move is to be made in the Court of Proprietors against the 

grant to Sir John Lawrence His ofifence being that he made 

A public manifestation of his respect for Christianity, and his desire 

to do justice to native Christians We ought to muster not 

only the friends of the Lawrences, but the friends of Christianity. 
.... Let me hear from or see you as soon as possible, that wt 
may arrange to meet this properly.* 

Mrs. Bernard, a sister of the Lawrences, wrote 

•Their exertions were snoceesfiiL See Trotter, vol. ii., p. 106. 


Login, February 10th, 1858, of the disappointment felt Chapter 


by the family, that nothing had been done, or even 

spoken of, up to this date, to honour the memoiy of their 
dear brother Henry, by Queen or country. She observed, 
that the orphan children of one who gave his life 
for his country, besides having lived for her benefit, 
and who were but poorly provided for, were surely 
entitled to the same distinction as had been already 
conferred on the family of Sir Henry Havelock. 

Gould you, without pain to yourself, dear Sir John, bring 
this subject before any of the high personages in the realm ? I 
daresay you will have remarked how John has been passed over, 
but he is still alive to take care of his own good name. 1 do not 
know Lord Stanley personally, or anybody who has any 
communication with the Court but yourself, or I would write to 
them ; but I would much rather leave it in your hands, knowing 
how dear his memory is to you, and how much he loved you 
while alive. 

Five days later. Dr. and Mrs. Bernard wrote :- 

Your letter has given us great pleasure. We all feel most 
grateful to you for your most kind and successful exertions in 
expediting Alick's baronetcy, &c. We enclose a letter to Mr. 
Vernon Smith, to be given if you approve. The recognition of our 
dear Henry's merits will be most gratifying to his family, and 
the annuity to his children most acceptable. We are quite sure 
it will be an additional pleasure to dear Alick to hear how to the 
last, as at the first, you have been concerned in this matter 


Chapter We know how grateful Bichard* also will be to you. Did yoQ 
XIY. know that this is the eldest of five boys ? and Bichard is only a 

;io5o-63. regimental Captain, so you may imagine the service you have 
done him. John never says a word about any honour or reward 
for himself ; but you must have seen how often the nation has 
said, during the last few months, that the " Saviour of India" 
should get a peerage and five thousand ! . . . . We rejoice that 
you and Lady Login are again to be employed on work for which 
you are both so well suited. The present loss of quiet family 
habits with your own children is a serious one, in bringing this 
young Princess into your home; but remember, this second 
important charge is from the Sovereign, not the East India 
Company, and your children's present loss will be compensated 
afterwards. Our lads, Alick and Charlie, give an amusing account 
of how John stopped three days at Bawul Pindee, where Herbert 
Edwardes and Becher came to meet him ; and the three talked 
over public affairs and arrangements from ten a.m. to six p.m., 
each of the three days ; sometimes one, sometimes another, taking 
a short nap, and waking up to join in the conversation ! On the 
third evening the two departed, and John went on with his 
camp. They don't work like this in England I 

John Lawrence, writing to his brother-in-law, speaks 
of the interest his nephew Alick excited among aU the 
Sikh chiefs, who welcomed him most warmly, as the son 
of Hemy Lawrence. 

With regard to public affairs, he says : — 

I have strongly advocated a discriminative amnesty. I wonld. 

* Henry Lawrence's youngest brother, for whose eldest son Lc^gin had obtuned 
an Addificombe appointment. 


on certain terms, forgive all lesser criminals : all those who have Chapter 
not murdered our people ; and so economize our powers to hunt XI v. 
down desperate characters. People in Englajid seem to think ■••ooo-oo. 
that we can hold India without a native army. However essential 
English troops are, native troops are still more so. We can do 

nothing without the latter We seem drifting into the 

old system. Now, of all other opportunities, is the time for 

change and improvement 

Give my kindest regards to Login, and thank him for so kindly 
looking after my interests. 

The rule of the East India Company ceased August 
2nd, 1858 ; although it was not till November Ist, 
that the Queen s Proclamation, announcing that fact, 
was issued in India, by Lord Canning. Sir C. Phipps, 
writing to Sir John Login, on September 3rd, alludes 
to the forthcoming Proclamation : — 

I have to thank you very much for your last letter, full of 
good sense and moderation. 

I do not think that you will find in the Queen's Proclamation 
much, if anything, that you will object to ; the great desideratiun 
appeara to me to be to convince the inhabitants of India that our 
rule of their country will be an impartial one. Your proposal 
seems so just that I cannot see how it can be objected to — that 
the Government should give support to all schools for secular 
education, allowing the children the free exercise of the religion 
of their parents, but not . preventing them from hearing the 
truths of the Christian faith, if they wish to do so. 


Chapter When the terms of the Proclamation were known in 
q}J^' England, Lord Shaftesbury thus writes : — 

Dec, 9th, 1858. 
My deab Sib John, 

.... Can you spore time to come to pay me a visit at 

St. Giles, that I may have some Indian talk with you ? I want 

it much 

The Proclamation will do our work. The framers did not 

intend it. Their minds were one way, but God made their pens 

go another I You may safely deduce from it everything we want. 

Call on Venn, and talk with him. He takes a bright view, as 

you do. He is a wise man ; the wisest, I think, in the ministry 

of our Church. 

Awaiting reply, I remain. 

Yours very truly, 


Again, on January 20th, 1859, Lord Shaftesbury 
makes arrangements for a more lengthened conference 
at St. Giles, on the subject of Indian missions. 

Login was applied to for information by many 
statesmen interested in Indian questions ; amoi ^ 
others, the Duke of Marlborough. 

July 10th, 1858 
My dbab Sib John Login, 

I beg to return the papers you were kind enough to give sr 
a sight of, together with Sir John Lawrence's letter, which v»* 


most interesting. Need I say what pleasure you would give me, Chapter 

if you could spare time to talk with me on matters relating XIV. 

to these suhjects, with which I am very anxious to become better 1B58-63. 

acquainted ? 

I remain, dear Sir John, 

Yours very truly, 


Early in September, Duleep Singh writes Lady 
Login from Mulgrave Castle : — 

I wish you would arrange to pay me a visit soon, before you 
get tied down with the Princess; for I do not think it would 
do for you to bring her here. Any time will suit me, and please 
invite any of your friends you would like to meet you. What do 
you say to the Cunninghames, Alexanders, Pollocks, and any 
others you like ? only do arrange it all, and tell me what you 
decide. I have settled to start for Constantinople on November 
1st. I take Thornton and Presanzini, and join Mr. Baker, who 
is a great shikar. I fear there seems httle chance of our meeting 
at Home. From what Mr. Baker says, I expect good sport on the 


Your affectionate 

DuLEEP Singh. 

The Maharajah, it will be seen from this, had 
intended to have some sport on the Danube before 
going to Constantinople, and started with Mr. — now 
Sir Samuel — Baker as " guide, philosopher, and friend." 


Chapter The expedition, however, did not realize his expecta- 
^^^' tions, and he left Constantinople for Rome, where, 
* much to their surprise, the Logins found him awaiting 
their arrival. 

As he was constantly with them during their stay, 
Lady Login was in hopes that the young Princess was 
the attraction ; but the Maharajah took an oppor- 
tunity of telling her that he had considered the matter 
deeply, and had come to the conclusion that an 
Englishwoman alone would fulfil his ideal of a wife. 
As she knew that he had received every encourage- 
ment from some of the first nobility in England to 
seek a wife among their daughters, she foresaw little 
difficulty in his forming a suitable alliance. 

When at Kew, after their return to England in the 
summer, they had many letters from Duleep Singh 
from Mulgrave and Auchlyne, foil of enjoyment of his 
bachelor life and fishing ; and h© steadily declined to 
appoint any one as equerry, saying he did not want to 
be tied to any one young man as a companion. 

Sir John was anxious he should have some reliaKe 
person about him, and knowing that he had liked and 
respected Colonel Oliphant, formerly a member i-r 
the Court of Directors, who had lately met witl. 
heavy losses, he suggested his asking him on a visit t , 
Auchlyne, to keep him company and enjoy fishini: 
trusting to his making his own way with him. Ir- 
a letter from Auchlyne to Lady Login, dated Ju!^ 
9th, 1859, the Maharajah says : — 


I am very glad I have followed Sir John's advice, and asked Chapter 
Colonel Oliphant here. He seems quite happy fishing, though XIY. 
he meets with indifferent sport, the water being so low. I have 1858-63. 
been away, at Susie, in order to get a shot at the deer, and have 
been sitting up at night watching for them, when they come to 
eat the com. Colonel Oliphant does not give any trouble, and I 
am really thinking of doing as Sir John advised, and asking him 
to come to me when I require an equerry, but it must only be 
now and then, not to live with me always. I think this would 
meet the Queen's wishes too. I think he would just do, for he 
would not be a stranger to me, and I would feel free. What a 
good boy you will call me, when you will know that I actually 
did what you suggested in your letter, before I got it I and I 
intend to take him with me, on my return, as far as York, where 
our roads separate. 

Later on, in August, he writes, giving an account 
of his grouse shooting, &c. : — 

I hope, from what you say, that you seriously think of agree- 
ing to my proposal, that you bring all the children to Mulgrave 
next month ; they can easily go to Whitby daily for sea-bathing. 
Can you arrange to come on the 1st September, to meet Lord 
and Lady Normanby ? Otherwise I will be in a great fix, for all 
my time will be taken up with the shooting arrangements for the 
£rst fortnight, and there will be no lady to entertain my guests, 
unless you come ; besides I want to arrange, with Colonel Oli- 
phant, to come there for a beginning. There is a nice nursery at 
;M^VL]grave, and I will make arrangements for the whole party, and, 
xf you like, get some of the young Oliphants to come, as com- 
pcknions for them. 

ISdOnd you get a photograph taken for me of my baby god- 


Chapter daughter. Hoping sincerely to heax, by return of post, that you 

XIV, see no objections to complying with my request. 

1858-63. _ . ^ 

I remam, &c. 

DuLSEP Singh. 

In November of the same year, when paying a visit 
to Lord Grosvenor^ he writes : — 

Eaton, Ghesteb, 1859. 
My deab Sib John, 

My patience is quite exhausted! do, for goodness sake^ 
get the Government to settle with me, and pay my arrears as 
soon as possible! I do believe they will take another year to 
settle my affairs 1* I trust to you to stir them up, for I dread 
getting into debt. I am glad the poor Shahzadah has at last got 
a jagheer, however small. 

I am going to a ball this evening, and expect (tell Lady Login' 
to meet the lovely Lady F ! 

Will you write me to Teddesley, where I shall be for a few 

days, and say if you will have me on a visit at Kew, if I run up 

on December 5th ? If you cannot take me, ask the MelviUes if 

they will. 

Affectionately yours, 


The Shahzadah had written Sir John, imploring him 
to get the Maharajah, as head of his family, to makt 

• Little did he think that thirty ytan hkr they would still ht onaettled ! 


him an allowance to enable him to marry ; he being, Chapter 
at present, dependent on his mother's pension. ^^ 

After a long correspondence, a small jcigheer was 
given the Shahzadah, 8,000 rupees per annum (less 
than £800 per annum), which the Government, in 
spite of Duleep Singh's remonstrance, considered ample 
provision for the only son of Maharajah Shore Singh. 
The visit to Mulgrave was paid, but Lady Login only 
took the two small children with her (one being the 
Uttle god-daughter of the Maharajah). The Marquis 
of Normanby (owner of Mulgrave Castle) was there, 
with the Marchioness, and a succession of visitors ; 
Colonel OUphant was duly installed as equerry. 

Duleep Singh made a charming host, and did all he 
could to make the visit pleasant to his guests. He was 
very eager after sport, and one day nearly bagged 
an archbishop, when after partridges ! A covey rose on 
the other side of the public road, close to which he was 
standing, just as the Archbishop of York (Dr. Thomson) 
drove past, on his way to the Castle. In his excite- 
ment and eagerness not to lose his birds, the Maha- 
rajah lost his head, and gave his guest rather a warmer 
reception than he expected, for he fired right across the 
carriage, the shot passing in dangerous proximity to 
the Archbishop's shovel hat ! 

The Rajah of Coorg (father of the Princess Victoria 
Gouramma) died about this time, after a lingering 
illness. He had only been able to visit his daughter twice 


Chapter at Kew before lie was taken ill. It was very sad to see 
^^- them together, neither of them able to miderstand the 
* other ; the Rajah could not speak English, and the 
child had forgotten her native tongue, so that Lady 
Login had to be interpreter. After the Rajah was 
seized with his fatal illness, Lady Login took the 
Princess to visit him at his house, and, on one of these 
occasions, he took the opportunity of making over to 
his daughter the jewels he had set aside bs her portion, 
SO that there might be no trouble afterwards, and that 
he could leave the rest to his family, at Benares. 
After the death of the Rajah, it was discovered that in 
his will he had appointed Sir John Login bis executor, 
to carry on to its conclusion his suit against the 
Honourable Company, for some Government paper 
they had seized, after his country was annexed 
Login was able to get some pension arranged for hk 
large family, at Benares, who were left, for a time, in 
great destitution, by the sudden cessation of the 
Rajah's pension ; but, of course, the case against the 
Company failed ! 

Hearing that Lady Login had been ill, Duleep 
wrote thus to urge her to pay him a visit in Scotland, 
in August : — 

My deab Lady Login, 

I am delighted to hear from Sir John, to-day, that you ax^ 
really better. He, at last, consents to your paying me a visit, r. 
Scotland. I'll ask Frank Boileau to come at same time. Do i* 


a day, and I'll have everything ready for you. There will be Chapter 
rooms in the house for all, except Frank and Edwy, and they XIV. 
must sleep at the inn across the water. • 1858-68. 

Your afifectionate 


The Maharajah arranged to go out to India in 
December, 1860, intending to stay for some tiger 
shooting, to see his mother, and arrange with Govern- 
ment for her fiiture residence in British territories. 

He had taken an active part in promoting, vnth the 
sanction of the Queen, a marriage between the Princess 
Gouramma of Coorg, then under the care of her god- 
father. Sir James Hogg, and Lady Login's brother, 
Colonel John Campbell (Madras Army), whose ac- 
quaintance the Princess had made after leaving* Lady 

The Maharajah's chief reason for wishing to pay a 
visit to India was his anxiety about his mother. 
Hearing that she was thinking of employing a stranger 
to make an application to Government, he was anxious 
to prevent her taking such a step ; but, after the ex- 
perience of the forged letters, he was carefiil that 
there should be no doubt about the authenticity of any 

* On making over the Princess to Lady Catherine Harcourt, Lady Login had 
been much gratified to receive an autograph letter from the Queen, expressing Her 
tlianks to Lady Login for having undertaken the charge at her request, and for 
tbc manner in which she had fulfilled it. This was followed by the gift of a 
l«racelet, *' as a more durable mark of the Queen's appreciation.*' 



Chapter communication from himself. So, as Sir John Login 
^^' happened to be writing privately to Mr. Bowring, 
private secretary to Earl Canning, the Maharajah took 
advantage of the opportmiity to enclose a letter for his 
mother, with the request that it might be forwarded 
to the Resident at Khatmandoo, who would be able to 
see that it was safely delivered into the Maharanee's 
own hands. 

Mr. Bowring replied :— 

Govebmob-Generaii's Camp, Paniput, 

Jan. Sth, 1860. 
My deab LoaiN, 

.... I received a short time ago your letter, forwarding a 
note from Maharajah Duleep Singh to his mother, Banee Jinda, 
which has heen sent to Colonel Bamsay with a request that he 
will deliver it to herf The Governor-General, to whom I showed 
your letter, has written a despatch upon the points referred to is 
your letter, viz., the Maharajah's desire to visit India, and the 
advisahility of allowing the Banee to reside in British territory. 
On this latter point, I believe his Excellency is of opinion that 

she may be pepnitted to do so Colonel Bamsay speaks of 

her as much changed. She is blind, and has lost much of the 
energy which formerly characterized her, taking apparently !•-* 
little interest in what is going on 

The Governor-General does not object to the Maharajah's vi-:i- 
ing India, though he does not deem it advisable that he shon • 
proceed to the Punjab. His Excellency's despatch, which I ha*<- 
mentioned, should you see it, will place you quite au courant c 
his views on the subject. 

I much regret that little Sheo Deo Singh was prevented fr> 


visiting England with the Maharajah. He is a promifling youth, Chapter 

and some day may have influence, which it would be well to direct ^V. 

beneficially. I fear that his proposed marriage with the daughter J'^'^"*>*>' 

of the Shamgurh Sirdar, a small chief in the Thanesur District, 

will not prove advantageous to him. 

As far as we can see at present the temper of the 'Sikhs is 


Yours very sincerely, 


This correspondence with the Viceroy's private 
secretary was apparently not viewed with favour at 
the India Office, where there existed some desire to 
sever all connection between Sir John and his former 
ward, for on the 31st March, 1860, Sir C. Wood 
informed the Maharajah that : — 

Sir John Login having ceased to be officially connected with 
your ELighness, any application made by him, on your part, 
cannot be officially recognized; and it would, in all cases, be 
advisable, that you should communicate your wishes, .... in 
the first instance, to Her Majesty's Government. 

To this the Maharajah replied :• 

I regret that the Viceroy having written a despatch to 
you on the subject of my return to India, founded on a 
private note written by Sir John Login to Mr. Bowring, his 
JBxcellency's private secretary, you should have been led to 

GO 2 


Chapter suppose that I had wished to communicate officially with the 
^^^' Government of India, on any subject, without, in the first 
Iboo-oo. instance, submitting my wishes to Her Majesty's Government. 

. . . « Being quite aware that Sir John had ceased to be 
officially connected with me, it never occurred to me, nor, I 
believe, to him, that his private note would be officially recognized. 

The Maharajah having left for India to see his mother, 
and to have a season's tiger shooting, Sir John Login 
wrote him at Calcutta as follows : — 

London, Jan. ISth, 1861. 
Mt dbab Mahabajah, 

As objections are likely to be made at the India Office, to the 
recognition of my authority to act as your attorney and agent — 
without a formal and legal document — on the ground, I believe, of 
your having — since the former power was given to me — ^been in 
direct communication with the Secretary of State on the subject * 
(which by law invalidates the power), I have asked Messrs. 
Graham and Lyde to prepare another power of attorney, which I 
now send to you, and also a copy of the former one, in order 
that you may see in what they differ. 

The new power is made out, as you wiU see, to enable in« 
merely to settle your affiairs with the Government, which leaver 
it open for you, if you like, to grant another to Oliphant f . * 
other matters; but if you wish to continue to me th 
same power as you gave before, it can be written out accordin^I. 

*At a private interview with Sir C. Wood, at India Hotue, Doleep Sir 
signed a paper prepared in his presence, Jan. 20th, 1860. 


by Messrs. Judge, or any other respectable sofidtor in Cakatta, Oafier 
whom you may employ. HV. 

There is another difference — the power is not limited to your lwW-63. 
absence from the United Kingdom — bat as it is rendered null (if 
the Government position be correct) by your entering into 
personal correspondence with them on the sabject, this is of no 
consequence, as yon can at any time set it aside. Just settle it 
in your own mind whether to limit it to CrOTemment matters, or 
extend it to others, as yon may think best ; bat do kindly lei me 
have the document one way or other, with the least possible 

Sir Charles Phipps told me that now was the time to pash the 

Government, as I should come in for all their blame in haying 

the matter agitated, and that you coold safier no damage by 

my proceedings; and as he knew that I did not mach care 

for their annoyance, so long as I had a good caase, he thoo^t it 

by far the best opportunity for you to get the question advanced I 

So you see how coolly I am recommended to fight your battles. 

Well, be it so ! It will be a great happiness to me if I can get 

oar people to do what is liberal and right, to enable me to hold 

up my head before you, and to say that I am not ashamed of 

them. My dear Maharajah, it requires some knowledge of our 

national character to understand us ! Because the Council 

of India do not benefit a single pie themselves, and think they 

stand up for the interests of 200 millions of subjects, they'll fight 

until they have not a leg to stand on, while all the time they have 

the most perfect goodwill to you, and would like to see you happy 1 

However, it will all come right yet ; I have every confidence. 

[Here follows a description of Applecross Estate.] 

!Edwy is at Boehampton with the Melvilles. Frank (Boileau) 
and his brothers are as busy as possible skating on the Serpen- 


Chapter tine. What a contrast to your grilling at this moment near Aden, 
^^y* I suppose I My wife and all here join in kindest regards to you. 

Believe me ever, my dear Maharajah, 

Your most sincere and faithful friend, 

J. S. Login. 

P.S. Get Bowring to hasten on the accounts; you can 
explain to the Shahzadah that it is out of your power to do much 
for him, until they have heen settled in England, by the Secre- 
tary of State. 

The Maharajah writes from Calcutta : 

Spencb'b Hotel, Feb,, 1861. 
My deab Sib John, 

I received your second letter, and reply at once, as the mail 
is going. I think I would prefer " Applecross " of the two pro- 
perties, if the grouse and the salmon fishing are both good. Oh, 
it is too cruel of you to write me, so soon after coming out here, 
about an estate in Scotland, for now I cannot make up my mind 
to stay a day longer than is necessary to see my mother ! Your 
letter has almost driven me wild; so you may expect to see 
me back sooner than I thought of when I left. I have got the 
Shahzadah here on a visit. He is a very quick, intelligent lad, 
but a thorough native in his manners, I regret to say. He 
wishes to marry another wife already 1 You will be surprised to 
hear that he has no objection to read the Bible now, and often 
reads a chapter to me, and listened attentively when the Bev. 
Gopee Nauth Nundy read the Scriptures and explained them to 
him, though he would not stay for prayers. I have no doubt he 
will one day be a Christian. He has no objection to be touched 
by low-caste people, as long as none of his people are present ' 


He tells me he has no belief in his own religion, and would Chapter 
like to go with me to England if he could, without his mother ^^• 
knowing! 1868-68. 

Now, I must tell you that India is a beastly place ! I heartily 
repent having come out, for I cannot get a moment's peace with 
people following me, and all my old servants bother the Ufe out of 
me with questions. The heat is something dreadful, and what 
will it be in another month ? I hate the natives, they are such 
liars, flatterers, and extremely deceitful I I would give anything 
to be back in dear England, among my friends ! I cannot think 
or write about anything else but this property. Oh 1 buy it for 
me, if possible. My mother is to be at Bani Gunj in ten or twelve 
days. I wish her to await me there, as it is quieter than 
Calcutta. I have heard (not officially) that she is to have from 
two to three thousand a year, but will know for certain when the 
Governor-General returns here. They gave me a salute of 
twenty-one guns, and, you will be amused to hear, an escort of 
two sowars I and a guard of one paharah of four Sepoys, and a 

Sheo Bam is here. I am sending him to my mother, as she is 
surrounded with very low fellows. Sowdagar, Kashee, and 
Bolund Khan all send their most respectful salaams to you, Lady 
Login and Harry ; they are so glad to hear about you. 

Yours affectionately, 


A little later he writes again : — 

Mt deab Sib John, 

I have signed, and send herewith, the full power of attorney. 
Mr. Bowring told me yesterday he thought the accumulation 
would not be much over £70,000 {withotU interest), but was not 


Chapter sure, but that all the papers would be sent off to England without 
^V- delay. I hope you are arranging about " Applecross." I am trying 

1858-63. |.Q gQ^ j^ house outside Calcutta, for my mother. I have not yet 
settled whether I remain over the hot weather here, going up to i he 
hills, and then returning to England. I am to have elephants 
from Government for tiger shooting. It is already very hot. 
Shahzadah is very anxious to come with me to England, but does 
not expect to manage it. 

Yours affectionately and sincerely, 

DuLEEP Singh. 

P.S. — Since I wrote this, my mother has declared she will not 
separate from me any more, and as she is refused permission to go 
to the hills, I must give up that intention ; and, I suppose, we 
shall return to England as soon as I can get passage. 

Letter from Colonel Ramsay, Besident at Khatmandco. 

Nepal Residency, Nov. 28/^, 1860. 
My deab Loqin, 

.... I quite agree with your estimate of Jung Bahadoor ; a more 
unprincipled scoundrel does not tread the earth. He would have 
taken part against us at the time of the Mutiny, if it had not been 
for that providential visit of his to England, and the experience he 
gained there ; and for this we have to thank your poor brother, 
who exerted such a wise influence over him, and persuaded hiin 
to the step. 

Jung has often told me so himself, and one of his brothers told 
me the same thing, as early as the month of June, in that eventful 
year, adding that every attempt was being made by influential 
men, to induce him to join in driving us out of the conntiA', 
but that no persuasion would cause him to commit such an act of 


suicidal folly. The Government will be in a dilemma respecting Chapter 

the ex-Maharanee of Lahore, miless they or Duleep Singh are XIV. 

prepared to allow her a permanent substinence in our provinces, l^o^^""^- 

Jung Bahadoor longs to get rid of her, for various reasons personal 

to himself, and declares that if ever she sets foot in the British 

provinces, she shall never be allowed to re-enter Nepal, or receive 

. a stiver from his Government. He declares she now gets 20,000 

rupees per annum, which he grudges exceedingly. He also wants 

her mansion, which is on his own premises. They are always 

quarrelling, and she contrives to wound him on a tender point — 

his vanity. Pray offer my best regards to Lady Login. That is 

surely not a brother of hers who married the Princess Gouramma 

of Coorg the other day I Her sister, who married Jung Bahadoor 

some years ago, is now a very fine-looking yoimg woman, and 

seems happy enough. The other sister, whom he also brought 

with him from Benares in 1858, was sadly duped, and wanted to 

go back to her brothers. She is said to be very unhappy — at 

least, she was some months ago, but I have not heard of her 


Believe me, my dear Login, 

Yours very truly, 

G. Bamsat* 

About the time of Duleep Singh's visit to India, 
several Sikh regiments, who had arrived from China, 
besieged his hotel, and were very demonstrative in 
their welcome to their former ruler. Though per- 
fectly amenable to discipline, their excitement was 
great, and in consequence. Lord Canning thought 
it desirable to urge the Maharajah, to give up his 
intention of going up country, and to return to 
England at once. Although the Maharajah had gone 


Chapter to great expense in preparing for a season's sport, 
^^- having brought out with him an india-rubber boat and 
a swivel duck-gun, besides all the latest inventions 
in rifles, &c., for tiger shooting, he yielded his own 
wishes gracefully, and took passage for himself and his 
motherun the first available steamer for England. 

On the voyage home, Dideep Singh wrote Sir John 
Login to beg him to secure a house in his neighbourhood 
(Lancaster Gate), where he might bring his mother on 
arrival, until her jewels and property could be landed 
safely, and passed through the custom-house. He 
said he had been very sea-sick, but that she had home 
the voyage well ! He was anxious, at the same time, 
to have good medical advice for her in London, as he 
feared her health was seriously impaired. A large 
empty house in Lancaster Gate was taken, and Sir 
John sent in some fumitiure, and arranged cooking- 
places for the natives out in the area. 

Jinda Koiir was truly an object of conmaiseration 
when one contrasted her present with her former state. 
To see her now, with health broken, eye-sight dimmed, 
and her once-famed beauty vanished — it was hard to 
understand the power she had wielded through her 
charms. It was only when she grew interested and 
excited in conversation, that one caught glimpses, 
beneath that air of indifference and the torpor of ad- 
vancing age, of that shrewd and plotting brain which 
had distinguished the famous " Messalina of the 


She had brought with her several ratiTTe serr&iits, Cr^ 
both male and female, bat S-»rtoo- a slave, who Lad 

been bom in her house, and had foil >w€d Ler n^i-^tness' 
fortunes, was her favourite and oc^l^ iei^TLJ atieri*iaiit ; 
she had also been Duleep s plavmate as a chCd, beiiig 
about his own age. 

The Maharanee was full of curicisitv a>>iit the 
customs and manners of the Enfrlii^h. SLe was much 
shocked to find, on Lady Login s to her her 
little boy (aged eight years), that as yet his marriage 
had not been arranged, nor a suitable pnriie selected ! 

She paid Lady Login the great compliment of a 
return visit, when she was assisted up the stairs to the 
drawing-room floor by several servants (a piece of 
Oriental etiquette which her infirmities rendered 
perhaps not unnecessary). The exertion, indeed, to 
her, must have been most £itiguing, and a great mark 
of condescension on her part, for she appeared dressed 
in full English costume — ^bonnet with feather, mantle, 
dress, and large crinoline complete ! — ^which she had put 
on over her native dress ! It was no wonder, therefore, 
that with the added weight she found it difficult to 
walk. The crinoline with which she was encumbered 
would not permit the poor Eanee to seat herself, imtil 
two of her servants lifted her bodily on to a chair, on 
which she was then able to sit comfortably, Indian 
fashion, with her feet under her, while her crinoline 
spread all around! She had only just received her 
jewels firom the custom-house, and was naturally 


Chapter delighted to have them again in her possession; for 
fXIV. gince her flight from Chunar Fort to Nepal, the 
* Indian Government had retained them, and only 
delivered them to her at Calcutta when she embarked 
for England. On this occasion she was decorated with 
a large assortment, the most remarkable being some 
beautiful pearls and emeralds, which, as a graceful 
concession to English fashion, she had arranged in a 
sort of fringe beneath her bonnet, in place of the 
" cap " usually worn at that period, inside the brim ! 

She was evidently quite surprised to find Sir John 
Login so different from what she had imagined him to 
be, and took occasion to inform him, with great naii'ete, 
that, if she had only known before what kind of man 
he was, she would never have plotted to have him 
poisoned ! A hint of the Maharanee's kind intentions 
had reached him at Futtehghiu' ! 

As soon as the Maharajah had departed for India, in 
the preceding December, Login forwarded to the India 
Office (December 22nd) the power of attorney made 
out in his favour, in 1857 ; and also an autograph 
letter, from Duleep Singh, dated Southampton, Decem- 
ber 20th, 18G0, empowering him to act as his attorney 
in settling his affairs with the Government. 

These credentials the Indian Office refused to 
recognize, and a smart interchange of lettere took 
place, no less than six passing, before the Indian Office 
would give any reason for this refusal to recognize a 
document, which had already been recognized, and 


acted upon, by the Court of Directors. At length Chapter 



(February 22nd, 1861), Lord de Grey and Ripon (then ^^• 

Under Secretary of State) declared that the power of 
attorney was illegal, having been drawn out when the 
Maharajah was a minor, and ignored altogether the 
autograph letter. 

On this, Login obtained a legal opinion from Mr. J. 
F. Leith, Q.C., Member of Parliament for Aberdeen, 
one of the highest authorities on Indian law, and well- 
known, for many years, at the Calcutta Bar. 

This gentleman gave, as his opinion, that the Maha- 
rajah could not be compelled to adopt European forms 
in his dealings with the Government ; and that, as an 
Indian prince, he was entitled to appoint an agent. 
Login, therefore (while to prevent delay he applied to 
the Maharajah for a fresh power of attorney), pro- 
tested (March 2nd, 1861) against the indignity offered 
the Maharajah, by the exclusion of his agent from the 
position assigned him by His Highness, remarking 
that the Maharajah's relations to the Government 
were secou'ed by treaty; and that, in transacting 
business with them, he was only bound to produce 
evidence of his appointing a person to act for him as 
his agent ; this evidence was sufficiently shown by the 
power of attorney, and the autograph letter. This, he 
reminded the Government, is aU that is required in 
the case of any Indian prince. 

On the 6th of April, Login presented, under protest^ 
the fresh power of attorney ; but when, on April 20th, 


Chapter he asked to see the statement of accouot of the 
^^' pension fund (applied for a year before firom the 
Government of India), he was told that it had not yet 
arrived, but that when it did, "Sir C. Wood would 
communicate about it with the Maharajah on his 
arrival " ; thus plainly revealing that their object, all 
through, had been to gain time and deal with the 
Maharajah himself, and thus endeavour to ignore the 
legal instrument which they themselves had stipulated 
for. With the same view, in the month of July 
following, when Login renewed his application, he was 
answered by Sir C. Wood (July 27th), that the state- 
ment had at length been received, but that the 
Secretary of State would " communicate with the 
Maharajah on the subject ! " 

MuiiORAYE CastiiB, JiUy, 1861. 
My deab Sm John, 

As I have not yet heard from Sir G. Wood, although I hare 
heen in England now three weeks, I begin to think that be 
is waiting to receive a letter from me personally, and thus throw 
your power of attorney to act for me aside. However, I will 
disappoint him in this, for I wish you to act for me entirely 
in settling my affairs with the Government. Will you, therefore, 
kindly address him about this delay, and also tell him that o-V 
letters connected with the settlement of my affairs should be 
addressed to you, and not to me, and this will show him ho« 
I desire the thing to be done. My mother is delighted witi: 



Mulgrave, but I cannot get her to agree to live separate from me Chapter 
at Lythe Hall, as you advise. XIV. 

We hope to start for Scotland on Thursday. 1868-63. 

Ever your sincere and affectionate 


P.S. — Kindly let me have a copy of any letter you write to Sir 
C. Wood. 

Two days later he writes : 

Mt beab Sib John, 

Colonel Oliphant has just received a pnvate letter from Sir 
Charles Wood, to say that my papers are now before the com- 
mittee, and will be shortly ready to send I So you see I was right I 
Will you at once write to Sir Charles that I wish to have my 
papers sent to me through you. As soon as you receive them, 
I should like very much if you would come yourself to Auchlyne 
and bring them with you. I wish very much to have a conversa- 
tion with you about my private property in the Punjab and 
the Koh-i-noor diamond, and, perhaps — if you really can come — 
you will kindly procure and bring with you the Punjab Blue 
We are just starting for the north. My kindest love to all. 

Ever yours, 

DuLEEP Singh. 

Here we have the first mention of private estates^ 
and no doubt it was the information given him by 


Chapter Jinda KoUr (who, as Queen Regent, must have drawn 
i^ftfiq then* revenues,) that prompted the Maharajah years 
afterwards to study the Blue Book at the British 
Museum, and bring forward his claim to the old family 
estates of Rimjeet Singh, before he became ruler of the 
Sikh nation. 

Login, having submitted Mr. Leith's legal opinion 
on the Maharajah's rights under the Treaty of Lahore 
to Colonel Phipps for perusal, received the following 
reply : — 

OsBOBNB, Attg, Ath, 1861. 

My deab Sir John, 

Many thanks for your letter. I have read it and the 
enclosed legal opinion with great attention. I feel convinced 
that the best course which the Maharajah can pursue is, as yon 
suggest, to submit his claims to some impartial persons, in whose 
judgment he might have confidence. 

The constant advancement of fresh argument, and the establish- 
ment of a chronic state of contest with the Government authorities, 
cannot be advantageous to him. 

The legal opinion may be a perfectly correct one, but these 
matters must be settled by the rules of common sense, and legal 
splitting of hairs only provokes equal ingenuity on the other aide. 
I feel sure that any equitable arrangement arrived at by honour- 
able and impartial men, would be both better and more satisfactory 
than a constant state of contest and uncertainty. The arrival of 
the Maharanee in England is a misfortune, though it is impossible 
to oppose his filial wish. I hope he wiU see the inconvenience of 
having her and her attendants in the same house with him. I am 


glad to hear such good accounts of the Princess Gouramma. Pray Chapter 

remember me very kindly to Lady Login, XIY. 

•a . 1 1868-63, 

Ever sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 
Sib John Spbnceb Login. 

Duleep Singh writes from Auchlyne to Sir Jolin, 
August 1st, 1861, announcing that Sir C. Wood has 
sent the papers to him direct ^ in spite of all orders to 
the contrary ; that he can do nothing unless he comes 
up to him to examine them, and begs he will start as soon 
as he can ; that he is very busy training his hawks and 
dogs, Ac, and cannot settle to business, ending, " My 
mother begs to send her best salaam to the kind 
Doctor Sahib." 

Sir John had gone with his family to North Wales, 

and after settling them for the summer, went to 

Vichy to take the waters, and while there another 

letter came for him to Llandulas, from Duleep Singh, 

aimouncing the sudden death of his secretary, John 

Cawood, and the shock it had caused him. This 

letter announced his determination to throw up all 

his worldly prospects, and to return to India with 

his mother, to devote the rest of his life to God's 

service, in trying to evangelize the heathen, and 

begging that application be at once made for leave 

for his going back. Lady Login sent the letter on to 

Sir John, and wrote the Maharajah begging of him 

to take time to think before taking any serious step, 


Chapter or even before publicly announcing his intentions, 
^^' and that some proof would be required of the stability 
^^"^- of his convictions. He replied, thanking her much for 
her letter, and regretting that it was out of his power 
to follow Sir John to Vichy, which he would have 
done had he not to go to Mulgrave to receive visitors 
there. He wrote from Mulgrave, September 22 nd : — 

I wish it were only possible for you and Lady Login to come 
by the middle of next week, for I do long to see you, and to be 
once more able to read with you in the mornings, as we used to do 
long ago, when we lived together. I feel it very difficult to lead a 
Christian life ; I am constantly erring before God, and really some 
of my sins I cannot give up. 

Login had been trying to persuade the Maharajah 
to have a separate establishment from his mother, the 
influence was very bad for him, and he was sadly 
tempted to lapse into native habits. His mother 
seemed to have no objection to his being a Christian, 
and he had great hopes of her becoming a convert 
herself At this time his religious feelings were in a 
very excited and unsettled state, he was ready t** 
enquire into every different opinion and try ever\ 
sect in turn. 

When in London, he used to go with Sir John an^l 
Lady Login to church on Sunday, and on one 
occasion he did not turn up as expected ; but on theii 


return from church, they found Mrs. Claridge, the Chapter 



landlady of his hotel, waiting to see them. She 

informed Sir John that she was so interested in His 
Highness, that she could not see him led astray by 
other young men, without speaking; besides, she did 
not like such doings in her house 1 It appeared, that 
a young friend of His Highness had lately become a 
Plymouth brother, and was trying to induce His 
Highness to follow his example; that he had persuaded 
him not to go to church that morning, saying he could 
administer the Holy Communion to him at home ; 
that the waiters had been scandalized by the pro- 
ceedings in consequence, and she did not like it! 
All this will show the unsettled state of his mind at 
this time on religious points, and how eagerly he was 
blindly groping after light. 

He was able to resume his usual sport before 
September had quite passed, and writes : — 

I have been having capital sport these last few days, averaging 
forty brace daily. I address this to Lancaster Gate, as Sir John 
said you would be back by this time. I want you and he very 
much to come for ten days, or as long as you can stay, and you 
must bring my little godchild with you ; indeed, you really must 
not come without her ! I want your advice also about getting a 
good likeness of my mother (in oils). The Normanbys are here, 
and beg to send their kind regards. 

It was in this year (1861) that the Order of the 

HH 2 


Chapter Star of India was founded, in the establishment of 
i^^q which Order the Prince Consort took a lively interest, 
himself drawing up its charter and regulations. It 
was thus a token of the esteem in which H.R.H., as 
well as Her Majesty, held the young Indian Prince, 
that the name of Duleep Singh appeared in the very 
first list of recipients, as Knight Grand Cross of the 
Order. The Prince Consort had previously, on the 
Maharajah's first arrival in England, with gracious 
kindliness and interest, himself designed for him an 
appropriate coat-of-arms, and selected the motto : 
Prodesse quam conspici (to do good rather than be 
conspicuous), which, with the crest, appears on the 
cover of this volume. 

The sorrow which fell upon the nation at this time 
was felt by none more acutely than by Login, who 
brought from Windsor the sad tidings of the death 
of the noble-hearted Prince Consort. 

6, Lamcasteb Gatb, Dec. SOth, 1861. 

Mt dsab Sm GecabiiBB, 

It was very kind indeed of you to write me to explain your 
inability to see me when I went up to Windsor on the 14th. I 
did not, under the circumstances, expect that you would, and 
felt it necessary to have a note prepared to excuse myself for 
having attempted it. I had, on two or three occasions, made 
inquiries at Buckingham Palace, before the bulletins were issued, 
and ventured, in my anxiety, to do so at Windsor. 
If the universal sympathy of the civilized world, and the heart- 


felt Bonow of the icilZiDiis who dcZd-t lo ^'-kz^ywrjai^t h*^ CI 
soveieigDtT, and to take a deep ai:-3 i5em:«r.fcit ii tires ::. *I lLu iT* - 
concerns the welfare ol oar iDOSt belrr&i &Zii ^^liizr^i ^rj&ei. ta»j, 
in any way tend to alleriate grSel rziic? so sbi a bEjeaT^^rn^^rt. 
Her Majesty must hare er;cyed that cz^^zZkzjz'l icp ar exLemt 
to wiiich the history ol the hzzsMn rhce a=:ric :i:> p^rLL^ : Zisr 
can I doubt that the mmr^yvr in wliil iLe -nm^ss i^ i*^i€; xiii^a 
she loved so well hape now bees b::i:»::r&i aii L.jrr&r^'^eti as 
an example to hnmanity, can be ccLerm Iht iL&z. riii*?: grfc-i-rr 'ig.. 
I sincerely tmst, howerer, that iL&se LaT« a5:<riad c-iJt a s^aH 
portion of that oons(dadon with whi::i E-er Kav^stt La*. tL*r:»:i£is 
Divine grace, been wistainf^l in h^r d&t^ •^.^^.-r-. ui»i ijl&i ::a 
sanctifying inflnences may be abmi^ft^tlj eipEri*:i,Kji 17 fcll mL-j 
are dear to our beloved Queen ! 

Agaiii he writes :- 

.... I have for the last few d&i s been SLLzia:;^ to write to 
yon on the Maharajah's afiairs, t-=t Lare beer. pr*rrtr.t*ed by tL« 
fear of being intrusive, while yc^r att-ei.i:'.i. n.':%t be cec-f ^ed to 
incessantly. But in the hope that \'^i •srjll crxc"it>e cy ^l^t-h to 
avail myself of any leisure wLich you n^ay L&j/per. to L&re, I feL&.*l 
send this, although you may not be ahle to a^'kr.o-Di'I^;:e it for 
some time. 

I am afraid that the Maharaiah is ^etiii.? tbor ot;;^^]v T«r>dier his 
mother's influence, and that our oiJy Lope of vtmuvL Lim from 
discredit is to get him to live apart frorr. her, a^ \jJi u^u arratiged* 
and to find some suitable companion of Lis own age to reside with 
him. He authorized me to look out for a young man to attend 
lectures with him, but changed his mind. When he was last in 
town, he was again full of arrangements for an estate in India, 
and to return there, after a short time, and most anxkms to accept 


Chapter the Government o£fer, for anything they might be disposed to give 

XIY. without trustees, QO that he should have entire control over the 

.1858-63. amount, but I told him, that I considered such an arrangement 

to be very inexpedient, and that, if such were his determination, 

I had better withdraw. I accordingly have written the enclosed 

letter, which I shall send to him on your returning it to me. 

Sir John Lawrence has been quite prepared to go into the case, 
if submitted to his decision ; but, on the 19th instant he wrote 
me, '* Sir Charles Wood has never said a word to me since 
I was at Windsor, and I, of course, have not referred to it 

J. D. L. 

To this Sir Charles replied :- 

OsBOBNB, Jan. 4th, 1862. 

«... I am very sorry to hear what you say about the Maha- 
rajah — nothing could be so destructive to him as that he should 
succumb to his mother's, or any other native influence. He is too 
good to be so lost ; and, if I were in your place, I should certainly 
not, at such a moment, forsake any position which gave me auy 
influence over him, or could possibly tend to prevent his doing 
anything foolish. I do not think, if it were pointed out to hiiu, 
he would do anything wrong. 

I should have answered you some days since, but you may 
conceive what this house is at present ! for the very air we breathe 
is an atmosphere of sorrow, and that is a bad medium in which to 
transact business. 

Always very sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipph. 


5, Lancaster Gate, Jan, Sth, 1862. Chapter 

My dear Sir Charles, XIY. 

.... If I could, for a moment, suppose that, by retaining 

the papers connected with his case, and by continuing to act for 
him at the India Office — ^while we differed so much in respect 
to the arrangements which appeared advantageous to his 
interests, — ^I would be more likely to maintain any influence I 
possess with him, I would, of course, regret very much, 
especially at the present time, to be under the necessity of doing 
BO. But, as I think I know the Maharajah. very well, and that, so 
far from weakening my influence with him by doing so, I am 
more likely to strengthen it, I have still thought it better to 
send the letter and papers, trusting that I shall yet be able to 

make it clear to you that I have done right While I have 

returned him all the official documents and memoranda connected 
with his claims, I have expressed my readiness to give him every 
assistance in my power in explaining any points required, 
.... and satisfied him that I have only his best interests at 
heart, .... and do not give up the charge of his case under any 
feeling of temporary annoyance at his vacillation — ^but certainly 
more in sorrow than in anger. I feel very certain that, after 
having done this, and giving him, I hope, another proof that I am 
not actuated by selflsh motives — of which, like all Orientals with 
whom I have come in contact, he is very suspicious — he will give 
more weight to the remonstrances which I think it necessary to 
make, against the self-indulgence to which he gives way so much. 
I think, also, that when it becomes known that (rather than have 
anything to do with an arrangement which I cannot but consider 
most improper and injudicious on the part of Government, and 
which I certainly believe would never have been thought of, had 
they not been most anxious to make it appear that their first pro- 
posal of settlement was very liberal), I have determined to give up 
my^'position near him, they may look a little more carefully into the 


Chapter matter ; at least (although I may flatter myself a little too much 
^^' in supposing it to have this effect), I shall, at all events, have 
' done my duty in thus .... protesting against it. 

.... Most earnestly do we all hope and pray that our 
beloved Queen may be enabled, through Divine strength, to con- 
tinue to set before Her people that bright example of Christian 
resignation and Christian duty, for which they have hitherto had 
so much cause to be grateful 

Believe me, very sincerely yours, 

J. 8. Login. 

OsBOBNE, April ISth, 1862. 
My deab Sm John, 

.... I shall be very glad, for the Maharajah's sake, and 
yours also, when his affairs are finally settled, for all this constant 
uncertainty and negotiation must be very annoying. He ought 
to be very grateful to you for all the trouble which you have taken, 
for never did anybody work harder for another's interests! . . . . 
Pray remember me very kindly to Lady Login 

WiNDSOB Castle, June 16th, 1862. 

.... I quite agree with you that it is most important for the 
welfare of the Maharajah that his mother should not be prevented 
from returning to India. I fear very much that, as long as he 
remains under this influence, he will retrogade in his moral and 
social character, instead of advancing to become an English 

gentleman, as I thought he was doing 

C. B. Phifps. 

Login s method of dealing with Duleep Singh, at this 
crisis of his life, proved its wisdom by the result ; it 


roused the better instincts of his nature, and impelled Chapter 
him to make an effort to save himself from the life of ^ ^^^ ' 
aelf-indulgenoa into which he wx, drifting. ^'^^^ 

He wrote to Sir John in June : — 

I have decided to arrange for my mother's return to India, 
and will see Sir Charles Wood on the subject at once, to have a 
place of residence fixed for her. I must see you soon, and will go 
up before I have to attend the marriage of the Princess Alice at 
Osborne, to which I am invited on July Ist. 

Some difficulties were made about the Maharanee's 
place of residence in India,* so the Maharajah took a 
separate house for her in London, with an English lady 
as companion, where she lived till her death, in the 
following year. 

The India Office having made it evident that they 
wished to deal with the Maharajah alone (without any 
axivisers) regarding his future settlement. Login wrote 
as follows, to his former ward : — 

Mt deab Maharajah, 

When you expressed your desire to be educated as a 
Christian, I explained to you the sacrifices that a profession of 

*Sir John Lawrence, now a member of the Indian Council, writes Login, 
Jmae 8th, 1862 : — There can be no doubt whatever that the Maharanee is better 
out; of India than living in that country. There she is sure to do mischief ; here, 
I admit, she wiU be equally the evil genius of the Maharajah. It is for the 
Secretary of State for India to decide which interest is of paramount importance ! 
^^j8 to the Maharajah's claim for compensation for losses during the Mutiny, he 
sbofvld lodge hts complaint again^ if he wishes the matter attended to by Sir C. 


Chapter Christianity would entail upon you, with regard to your position 
XIV. among your countrymen and former subjects ; and now that the 

1858-63. settlement of your affairs is under discussion, I wish to draw your 
attention to several points, which in your anxiety to secure the 
provision offered you personally, you may be apt to overlook. I 
have already shown you the responsibilities which devolve upon 
you as a Christian, and the influence your example may reasonably 
be expected to exercise on other natives of India. I wish now 
to point out, that the principles involved in the question between 
you and the Government are of wide application, and upon their 
decision much depends. 

It rests with you to determine whether a native of India, who 
has embraced Christianity, can be legally required to give up bis 
birthright, and to divest himself of privileges to which, by the 
laws of his country, he is entitled. I hope, for the sake of Xhv 
millions who are, I trust, likely to be interested in the question, 
that you will not hesitate to have it settled. But besides the 
principles of general application, there are other points worth\ 
of your consideration which may be affected by it. By tht- 
Treaty of Lahore, you very wisely gave up your political position. 
and all pretensions to sovereignty for yourself and your 
descendants, under former rights. But your position and 
privileges as head of your family, are in no way affected thereby. 

As it seems to be in every way expedient that you and your 
immediate descendants (if you have a family) should avoid, for 
several years to come, the risk of placing yourselves in the wa\ 
of any temptation to encourage, or keep up, political aspiratioi^^ 
in the Punjab, it is strongly to be recommended that you shoul^l 
make up your mind to remain in England, and, if possible, u- 
marry into a family of high character and befitting rank. TL*. 
arrangements proposed by Government ensure a sufficient pre- 
vision for them, and with prudent management, you have the 
power to make them wealthy. 

In the event of your securing your position under the Treaty, ; 


the control of the balances of State pensions, through trustees, Chapter 
and your right to devise by will, at your death, any unappropriated XIV. 
balances,! would recommend, if you have no personal descendants, l^^O'oS- 
that you claim your right, by the laws of India, to adopt an heir 
(say, your nephew, Sheo Deo Singh, or one of his sons,^ whose 
character may give confidence that he is worthy), leave him by 
will, say, one-third of the unappropriated balances, as your heir, 
and two- thirds for Christian education among the Sikhs 

Hatherop Castle was purchased at this time by the 
Maharajah, with naoney advanced for the purpose 
by the Government. In his eagerness to possess an 
English estate, and accept the large sum of money 
offered him, he was a little inclined to overlook the 
interests of others, and forget the duties of his 
position BS head of his family, though reminded by 
constant appeals from his nephew, the Shahzadah, who 
\v^as anxiously expecting the settlement of the Maha- 
rajah's affairs, in the hopes of obtaining some addition 
to liis paltry allowance. 

Loch Eennabd Lodqe, August Isf, 1862. 
£>£:ab Sib John, 

I received yesterday the letter from Sir C. Wood, which 

I enclose The terms offered seem liberal, and I think 

I ought to accept them ; but pray let me know what you think 

ajid. advise. 

Oct. 2Sth, 1862. 

The letter to Sir Charles Wood has been sent, after altering 
it in fc^e way you wished.* .... I daresay you have by this 

* See p. 512. 


Chapter time heard that I have hought the place in Gloucesterahire 

XIV. (Hatherop) for £183,000, and I think it is a good investment. 

The ''investment," however, did not turn out so 
profitable ss the Maharajah had anticipated ; and in 
1863, by the advice and sanction of the Government, 
it was sold, and the estate of Elveden, in Suffolk, pur- 
chased in its place. 

Amongst other schemes for the development of 
India, in which Sir John Login took much interest, 
was that of the promotion of railroads and tramwaya 
In December, 1862, he was asked by the Board of the 
Indian Tramways Company — now South Indian Kail- 
way Company, of which he was one of the original 
members — ^to go out to Bombay as their represen- 
tative, to confer with the Governor, Sir Bartle Frere, 
on matters connected with their interests. 

This was Sir John's last visit to India. He ret\ime<l 
to England in April, 1863, after having thorougUy 
examined aU the various lines proposed, throughout tl:«^ 
Bombay Presidency.* 

The transition, from the Indian climate to the bittt^r 
easterly winds of an English spring, was too suddei 
and soon after his return he had his Jii^st severe illness 
and was advised to go to the seaside, for chaikp 
He went accordingly, with his family, to Felixstowe, « : 

* He had intended to go into Bengal also, but the hot weatb«r 
far adyanced. 


the Suffolk coast, and had been there but a short time, Chapter 
when he received a telegram from the Maharajah, .^7^^^^^ 
begging him to come to him at once in London, as the 
Maharanee had died that morning. The Maharajah 
himself, had been hastily summoned from Loch 
Kennard Lodge, Scotland, only a day or two before, 
and had written to Sir John that very morning to say 
that his mother seemed better since his arrival. 

On arrival at Abingdon House, Kensington, where 
the Maharanee had lived, Sir John and Lady Login 
found her household in great distress and constema* 
tion. The arrangements for the disposal of her 
remains were left in Sir John's hands, and it was 
settled that they should be placed temporarily, in an 
unconsecrated vault in Kensal Green Cemetery, until 
they could be conveyed to India, to receive the funeral 
rites of her religion. A large number of Indian 
notabilities attended this interment, as a mark of 
respect to the mother of the Maharajah, and to the 
surprise of every one present, especially of those who 
kne^w the effort it cost him to overcome his nervousness 
in speaking in public, the Maharajah, in a few well- 
chosen words, addressed the native attendants in their 
own language, comparing the Christian religion with 
that of the Hindoo, and assuring them, that in the 
blood of Christ alone, was their safety from condemna- 
tiort in a ftiture state. It was an impressive incident 
in a strange scene ! 

The Maharajah did not get possession of Elveden, 


Chapter until the 29th September, and, owing to necessary 
1^ A repairs and alterations, wajs not able to take up his 
residence there, until the following November. He 
was very anxious, however, that Sir John should 
inspect his new purchase, and wrote on the 20th 
September asking him to do so. But this was not to 
be — his best friend was never destined to see the 
place, which for the next nineteen or twenty years 
was the Maharajah's home in England ! 

A greater loss, a more poignant grief, than had yet 
come into his life, was this year in store for Duleep 
Singh. Two months after his mother's death, he had 
to mourn the loss of him, who, from his early boyhood, 
now fourteen years before, had been his truest and 
most faithful friend, on whose wise and disinterested 
counsel he had been accustomed to lean all his life, 
whose mind and energies had been throughout devoted 
to his best interests, and whose bright example of 
uprightness and integrity had led him to desire for 
himself a part in a religion which made it possible 
for a man to lead such " a God-like life on earth ! " 

On the 18th October, 1863, John Spencer Login 
passed peacefully into his rest — bearing with him the 
love and veneration of all who had ever known him, 
for none could fail to see in him one who " walkeil 
with God." 

" He was not, for God took him." So sudden 
was the summons — to him not dread, but welcome 


— that it fell as a shock on those who looked for Chapter 


many more years of service to God and man from 5^353.53 
that untiring brain and energy ; yet, though not quite 
fifty-four years of age, his heart had been weakened by 
the hard and constant work of his early life in India, 
and doubtless had suflTered a severe strain from the 
anxiety and worry, arising from the settlement of the 
Maharajah's affairs. 

The little churchyard of Felixstowe, was the scene of 
a simple but striking ceremony, when, on the 24th 
October, all that was mortal of John Login was laid in 
the grave. By their own special desire, the coast- 
g-uardsmen of that station, whose hearts he had won 
during his daily rides along the beach, attended in 
uniform, under the command of their officer, Lieutenant 
Hart, R.N., and carried the coffin to the grave. By 
this kindly act of sympathy and respect, it thus came 
about that Login received these last earthly honours 
from that service to which, in his youth, it had been 
his great ambition to belong. 

Very many old and valued friends followed him to 
the grave, besides his own and his wife's immediate 
relatives, well-known names in India, — Sir John 
Lawrence, soon after to be made Viceroy of India, and 
to receive his peerage ; Sir Frederick Currie, Bart. ; 
Sir James Alexander, K.C.B., and many others.* 

* One of these, John Marshman, C.S.I., formerly editor of the ** Friend of India " 
then taking holiday at the seaside, was an old friend whose society Login had much 
enjoyed, both being deeply interested in India. Marshman was then busy with 
his ** Hiitory of India" the first volume only being complete. 


Chapter The Rev. William Jay, formerly Chaplain of Futteh- 

-^^* ffhur, read the burial service, assisted by the derey of 
1858-63.° . , ^ ^-^ 

the parish. 

The grief of Duleep Singh was most intense 
and unaffected. At once, on receiving the sad in- 
telligence, he hurried to the family at Felixstowe, 
and, at the funeral, took his place as chief mourner with 
Login s two sons. One of those present has described 
the touching spectacle of the Maharajah's impassioned 
grief beside the grave, as he gave utterance to the words, 
" Oh, I have lost mj father ! — for he was, indeed, my 
father, and more than my father!" When speakinor of 
his loss to Lady Login, he said, " If that man is not in 
Heaven, then there is not one word of truth in the 
Bible ! " 

The great desire of the Maharajah was that 
his guardian should be buried at Elveden, in a uevr 
mausoleum which he designed to build there as a family 
burial-place, and he intended the interment at Felix- 
stowe to be only temporary, until such time as this 
edifice could be completed; but, by Lady Login's 
wish, the arrangements at Felixstowe were made for a 
permanent tomb, and, later on, the Maharajah erected 
to his guardian s memory, in the churchyard there, a 
beautiful monument of grey-and-red granite and 
white marble, the design of which was approved by Her 
Majesty, who herself selected the text to be cut on it 
— ^thus marking the estimate of his character formed 



by the Sovereign he had so loyally served,* and which Ch^>ter 
she had already expressed, in a letter written by her .j^fV- 
commaDd to his widow. 

This monument is 
an object of much 
interest to the visi- 
tors at this little 
place ; 

• The following inscriptioD U placed on th« tomb ; — 

In Loving Memory 



Wbodied at Felixstowe, October ISth, ISflS, 

In the 6ith year of his age. 

This Moniunent ia erected, 

B; his Affectionate Friend and Ward, 

Tbb Makabaiab Ddlsep Sihob, 

In Grateful Bemembrance of the 

Tender Care and Solicitude with which 

Sir John Login 

Watched over his early yeaiB, 

Training him up in the pure 

And simple faith of Out Lord and Savionr 

Jesub Chbist. 

" The memory of itte jnit it blessed." — iVoMrli x. 7. 


Chapter ing, as it does, on the highest piece of ground at that 
ifififisa point on the coast, the white marble cross on its 
summit has served for years as a " leading-mark " for 
pilots. Thus, in his death, as in his life, he serves his 
fellow-men — ^the cross above his resting-place reminding 
the seaman, as he steers his homeward course, how he 
also ** may so pass through the waves of this trouble- 
some world," as in like manner to attain a safe anchor- 
age in the haven of eternal rest I 

Of the many letters written at this time — besides 
the one from Her Majesty just referred to— only two 
or three are subjoined ; containing, as they do, a 
tribute to his memory, in the words of those whose 
good opinion he himself most highly valued. 

St. James's Palacb, 

Oct, 2Uh (5 p.m.), 1863. 
My deab Miss Login,* 

[I can hardly attempt to express to yon how shocked I was to 
see yesterday, when arriving at Edinburgh, the account of the 
sudden death of my dear friend, your father. I had hoped that 
he had entirely recovered from his illness, and that we might 
hope for a long-continued life of usefulness. Lady Login knows 
how strong was my regard and friendship for him. I find it quite 

* This letter was addressed to Login's eldest daoghter, who died at 
two years after her father. 


impossible to say how much I regret the loss of so ezceUent and Chapter 
valaed a Mend. There were, however, dear Miss Login, few ^^^• 
people so well prepared for a sadden call to his Maker, for few people ^^^'^*^- 
had sach strong feelings upon religion, or acted so nniformly 
npon Christian rules. If I dared to intrude on your dear mother's 
sacred grief, I would beg to be allowed to assure her of my 
sympathy in her loss, founded on the deep regard and respect I 

feel for the truly good man whose loss we mourn For you, 

also, I feel deeply. What must have been your love for such 
a father !....! have only just arrived in London (5 p.m.), or I 
should have asked to be permitted to join to-day in the last sad 
tokens of respect. It would be very kind if you would write 
again soon, to tell me of Lady Login. 

Believe me, very sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

WiMDSOB Castlb, Oct. 27th, 1868. 
My deab Lady Login, 

The Queen has this morning commanded me to write to you 
in her name, to express to you the deqf and very sincere sympathy 
with which she has heard of the overwhelming affliction which 
has fallen upon you I Few, indeed, can so well enter into the 
grief under which you must now be suffering! You are well 
aware of the high opinion which the Queen entertained of your 
excellent husband, my valued friend. Her Majesty had 
frequently shown this, not only in the honour bestowed upon 
him, but in the confidence so often reposed in him, and never 
disappointed. He was a thoroughly good, consciefdious man. 
What higher praise can be earned on earth ? What better 
passport can there be to Heaven ? 

I hardly know anybody who could be better prepared for a calm, 
though sudden and entirely painless, end. I did not intend, 

n 2 


Chapter when I began this letter by the Queen's command, to enter 

^^' into my own feelings ; but I had a very greai and recU friendship 

loDo-o3. f^y yQ^jj. jj^qqIj excellent husband, and to me these thoughts 

are very soothing. I only carry out the Queen's repeated instruc- 
tions, in assuring you, that sympathy for you is most sincerely 
combined with true regard and respect for him that is gone. 

Believe me always, dear Lady Login, 

Sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phippb. 

Windsor Castlb, Oct. 28^&, 1863. 

My dbab Ladt Looin, 

I had written, but not sent, the accompanying letter by the 
Queen's command, when I received yours this morning. I feel 
very strongly the kind exertion you made in writing to me, and I 
pray God may strengthen and support you ! You cannot overrate 
the regard I had for my dear friend, your husband, and my 
admiration of his character. I am very glad to hear that the 
Maharajah has shown so much feeUng of the debt of gratitude 
which he owed to his kind and gentle, but always honest, mentor ; 
it will, indeed, be a terrible loss to him, for Sir John always told 
him the truth, and gave him the sincerest advice. 

The Queen read your letter vTith the greatest interest. If there 
is anything kind from Her Majesty that I could say, and have 
not said, I have so far gone within her commands ! 

The Queen has been very sorry to read the account you gave of 
Princess Gouramma's health ; she wishes to know whether yoa 
think that it would be injurious to her health to come down here 
to see Her Majesty ? 

The Queen does not forget the kind manner, in which yoa and 
Sir John undertook the care of this poor child, at great peraooal 


mconvenience. If it is too much for yon to write and answer Chapter 
this yourself, pray ask your daughter to do so. XIY, 

Ai 1 1868-63. 

Always sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

OsBOBNE, Feb. 17th, 1864. 
My dbab Lady Login, 

The Queen was very much grieved at the account you gave 
of the poor little Princess in your letter, and directed me to tele- 
graph at once to enquire for her, in her name. 

It is very sad to see one so young cut off, but I think you have 
long thought that her lungs were in a very unsatisfactory state. 

I shall be greatly interested to see the sketch of the monument 
which you and the Maharajah have approved, and when I go to 
London shall certainly go to see the model. There has rarely 
lived a man with a more extended and pure benevolence ; and I 
have certainly learned more of India, and Indian affiedrs, from him, 
than from any other man. 

I fear, from what you say, that Princess Gouramma is in a very 

dangerous state The dear Maharajah is not always very 

wise in his decisions,* and I fear there is nobody now who has 

much influence over him. He must miss his faithful Thornton, 

too. I suppose there is no doubt about his going to India, as you 

say he intends doing. 

Very sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

Again—February, 20th, 1864 : — 

The design for the monument is very much liked ; it is both 
quiet, handsome, and in good taste. What do you think of the 

'^This refers to the Maharajah's expressed intention of visiting the Mission 
School at Cairo, of which Lady Login had informed Sir Charles. 


Chapter enclosed inscription ? It is simple and short, which I think yon 
^^< wished, but it can easily be added to if wished.* The Queen will 
1868-63. herself select a text. 

Ever sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

Llandudno, N. Walbs, Oct. 26th, 1863. 
Dbab Ladt Login, 

I have just learnt from the newspaper, the great affliction 
that has befallen you. I cannot forbear to write, to tell you how 
much I grieve for you and your children. I know no particulars, 
but this I know, that you and they have suffered a loss which 
can never be repaired. There was so much true goodness, honour, 
and kindness t in Sir John Login, that he did much to make 
happy all around him ; and these qualities, so apparent to his 
friends, were even more conspicuous in the bosom of his family. 
I remember his many kindnesses to me when I met him abroad 
seven years ago, when I was out of health. I shall always think 
of him as one whom it was a privilege and an honour to know. 
I can say nothing that will lessen the blow which has been 
permitted to fall upon you ; he whom you mourn knew well the 
Source of highest consolation, from that Source alone can yea 
derive help to sustain you in this time of your fearful trial. My 
daughter Helen is in Edinburgh, so I can send no message &om 
her, but I know she will be full of deep sympathy .with yea. 
Excuse this note, which does but poorly express what I wish to 

* This inscription was afterwards somewhat enlai^ged by the Hahar^ah, who 
thonght it did not express fully enough all that he wished. 

tLord Lawrence's remark to a friend at Sir John Login's funeral wsa, '* I 
never met another man who so perfectly combined the most straightforwmrd 
tratfaftdness with perfect courtesy of manner. " 



Bay, for yoa know that my regard and esteem for your husband Chapter 
was deep and sincere. XIY. 

Believe me alwajrs, dear Lady Login, 

Your sincere friend, 

John Bbioht. 

Before the Maharajah embarked to convey his 
mother's remains to India, he spent a w^eek or more 
with Lady Login, at Felixstowe. He was anxious 
to help her in every way, and wished to fill the place 
of the father they had lost, to the children of his 
guardian.* If anything happened to him during his 
absence in India, his wUl was made, he informed 
her, and he had provided handsomely for his god- 
daughter. He spoke of his own future with great 
anxiety, and seemed earnestly desirous to lead a life 
worthy of his Christian profession. He dreaded a 
marriage with a worldly woman, such as he might 
meet with in society, and said that he would like 
to meet with some young girl whom he might train to 
be a helpmeet for him. With this view, he said he 
had made up his mind to visit the Missionary School 
at Cairo on his way out, and. ask the missionaries 
if they could help him; he had never forgotten 
the interest these orphan girls had excited in him. 

* Edward, the eldest, was appointed to the Indian Finance Department by 
Sir John Lawrence, Governor-General of India. He died in India, December 
16thi 1876. 


Chapter Lady Login told him to weigh well beforehand the 
1^ Aq consequences of such an irrevocable step, as it would 
influence his whole after-life. 

To show her that he was serious, he left with her a 
paper in which he had sketched out his intentions. 
During this visit, the Maharajah read with much 
interest a report of the American missionaries, on the 
results of their mission at Futtehghur up to the time 
of the Mutiny, when the mission was destroyed by the 
mutineers. The report had been sent from America 
to Sir John Login. An account was given of the 
successful working of the ten schools for boys, estab- 
lished and paid for by Duleep Singh, and superin- 
tended by the American Presbyterian Mission, 
whereby 400 youths were thoroughly educated in 
the Christian faith, and some were being fitted to 
evangelize their own people. 

The Maharanee Jinda Koiir's remains were landed 
at Bombay, where arrangements were made for her 
fimeral rites, and the ashes were scattered on the 
sacred waters of the Nerbuddah. 

The Maharajah wrote from Bombay to announce his 
engagement, and soon after the following notice of 
his marriage in Egypt was published in the Times of 
India : — 

Thb Mabbiagb of Duleep SmoH. — A correspondent of ibe 
Times of India writes as follows : — " The marriage of the Maha- 
rajah Duleep Singh took place at the British consulate, AIexandna» 


on the 7th June, in the presence of a very few witneBses. The Chapter 

young lady who has now become the Maharanee is the daughter XIY. 

of an European merchant here. Her mother is an Abyssinian. Aooo-63. 

She is between fifteen and sixteen years of age, of a slight but 

graceful figure, interesting rather than handsome, not tall, and in 

complexion lighter than l^er husband. She is a Christian, and 

was educated in the American Presbyterian Mission School at 

Cairo ; and it was during a chance visit there, while on his way 

out to India, that the Prince first saw his future bride, who was 

engaged as instructress in the school. Duleep Singh wore at the 

wedding European costume, excepting a red tarboosh. The 

bride's dress was also European, of white moir 6 antique, h fichu 

pointe d'Alengon — short lace sleeves, orange blossoms in her dark 

hair, with, of course, the usual gauze veil. She wore but few 

jewels ; a necklace of fine pearls, and a bracelet set with diamonds, 

were her only ornaments. The formula of civil marriage at Her 

Britannic Majesty's consulates in the Levant is very brief. Both 

parties declare that they know no lawful impediment to their 

union ; then they declare that they mutually accept each other as 

husband and wife, and the civil ceremony is over. This formula 

was pronounced by the Prince in English ; the bride, in a low 

but musical voice, read it in Arabi (that being the only language 

with which she is acquainted), and thus * Bamba Muller ' became 

the ' Maharanee.' She showed much self-possession through it 

all. A religious ceremony was performed by one of the American 

ministers at the house of the bride's father; and the newly- 

inarried pair retired to the Prince's house at Eamleh, a few miles 

from Alexandria." 

The young couple, on their arrival in England, lived 
in retirement for the first few years at Elveden ; a 
governess being engaged in teaching the young 
Maharanee English before introducing her to society, 


Chapter for which she never cared much, being of a retiring, 
1^ 63 ®®^^^^^ nature. Though very young, she was deeply 
imbued with religious feeling, and of a sweet and 
gentle disposition. 

The Maharajah used to describe, in an amusing way, 
his difficulties when attempting to converse with his 
Jianc&e^ on first acquaintance ; she only spoke and 
understood Arabic, so that he had to employ his 
dragoman as interpreter. He told Lady Login that 
he had made over Soortoo (his mother s att'Ondant) to 
the care of Dr. and Mrs. Wilson, Bombay Mission, 
that she was now baptized and leading a most exem- 
plary life as a Christian. Lady Login heard afterwards 
that she died at Bombay during an epidemic. 

During the spring of 1864, after a long illness, the 
Princess Victoria Gouramma, of Coorg, died, leaving an 
infant daughter, for whom, when she felt herself dyintj, 
she earnestly bespoke Lady Login's maternal care.* 
She had deeply felt the death of Sir John Login. The 
first visit Lady Login paid her after that event, she 
found her and her little one dressed in deep mourning. 
Observing how ill and weak she was, Lady Login told 
her she ought to be in bed ; on which she replied, ** I 
only got up and dressed to show you that I mourn, out- 

*At Lady Login's entreaty, the Queen arranged that a pensioii ahoiild l« 
allowed by the India Office for the education and support of this chili. 
The Queen, however, made it a condition that she should be entirely tmder 
Lady Login's care. 


wardly as well as inwardly, for that good man who was Chapter 
such a true friend to me/' ^^* 

Her Majesty's kindness and solicitude never failed 
during the Princess's illness; constant enquiries and 
telegrams were sent by command, and after her death, 
the following inscription was sent, to be placed on her 
monument in Brompton Cemetery,* 

Of the life of Duleep Singh, after this period. Lady 
Login can say very little from her own personal know- 
ledge. She did not often visit Elveden, and, save for 
the occasional visits paid her by the Maharajah, at 
Felixstowe and in London, she saw little of him and 
his family. 

The Queen showed great kindness to the Maharanee, 
receiving her at Court and in private most graciously ; 
her unassuming manners and gentle disposition making 
a very favomuble impression. 

For many years Duleep Singh's strict religious life 
was common report, indeed, during the visits Lady 
Login paid to Elveden, he was much occupied with 

* Sacred to the memory of 


Daughter of the £x-Rajah of Cookg, 

The beloved wife of Lieut. -Colonel John Campbell, 

Bom in India, July 4th, 1841. 

She was brought early in life to England ; baptized into the Christian 

faith, under the immediate care and protection of 


Who stood sponsor to her, 

And took a deep interest in her through life. 

She died 30th March, 1864. 

** Other sheep I haye, which are not of this fold." — John x. 16. 


Chapter religious meetings, in which he took a prominent 
^^' part. 

Some years later, she was aware that he was engaged 
in composing an opera, and that, in consequence, he 
was much in London ; but she knew nothing of his 
money diflficulties until July, 1883, when the Maha- 
rajah came unexpectedly to pay her a " farewell visit," 
as he said. He had taken passage to India for himself 
and his whole family in December, intending to 
resume native life, and be " done with England and her 
hypocrisies for ever ! " He told her that he found he 
had no longer the means to support the rank given to 
him in England ; that the Government had arranged 
that, at his death, his property was to be sold, so that 
there was no future to look to for his eldest son, for 
whom they would only make a provision of £3,000, 
which he (the Maharajah) considered insulting ! He 
was evidently very angry with the India Office, but 
when alluding to the Queen, and her great and un- 
failing kindness to him, he fairly broke down. In 
consequence of this interview. Lady Login, through 
Sir Henry Ponsonby, made an appeal to the Queen, 
telling the substance of her conversation with the 
Maharajah ; and the whole matter was, by Her Majesty, 
referred to the Secretary of State for India for recon- 

It was only natural that the chief opposition to a 
liberal settlement should come from the Indian Go- 
vernment, whose whole anxiety was to be able to report 


&yourably of Indian finance. Each successive Governor- Chapter 
Greneral had had the command of the accumulations ^^' 
from the Lahore Treaty Fund, and each was unwilling 
to have them deducted ; and, as time went on, and the 
sum increased, so did the difficulty of parting with it ! 
The Maharajah brought his legal adviser to look over 
some of Sir John Login's letters and papers, and, before 
leaving, this gentleman advised His Highness to implore 
the Queen to use her influence to have all transactions 
between the Maharajah and the India Office, since 
Sir John had ceased to act for him, wiped out, and a 
fresh departure made ; because it was evident that he 
had eagerly accepted, in his difficulties, all baits of 
money offered, instead of insisting on the real terms of 
tha tU being carried out, afd a final aattlement 
made. To this the Maharajah cordially agreed. 

That Duleep Singh was willing and ready to come to 
some equitable agreement is evident, for he offered to 
abide by the arbitration of any three English statesmen 
to be named by the Queen — if tliey were unconnected 
with the India Office ! 

His departiure for India was deferred, pending the 
decision of his claims, and the following letter, written 
to Lady Login, will show that, up to that date, he had 
no thought of disloyalty : — 

Gablton Club, July 25^A, 1884. 
Mt deab Lady Login, 

I am sending you my book, stating my case fully. I think 

it "mil interest you. Whatever decision is arrived at, I think I 


Chapter have resolved to go to India. There is a storm gathering out 

XIV. there, which will burst ere long, and I trust to be able to render 

such services as will compel the British nation to take up my 

cause, and recognize my claims as just. The Sikhs saved India 

for England during the Mutiny, and the chiefs who gave assistance 

were afterwards rewarded by Government. Why should I not bo 

equally successful ? The advance of Bussia is watched for with 

intense joy by many princes of India, whom you believe to be 

loyal ; it is only a matter of a few years ; but you wiU hear what 

I, the loyal subject of my Sovereign, though unjustly treated, will 

do, when the time comes ! but I must not sound my own 

trumpet I . . . . 

Ever, dear Lady Login, 

Yours sincerely and gratefuUy, 


After a couple of years' suspense and delay, finding 
there was little prospect of any satisfactory solution of 
the question, Duleep Singh, worried and indignant at 
the treatment he had experienced, carried out his 
intention, and embarked with his whole family for 
India, leaving his estates at Elveden at the disposal of 
the Government. 

It would appear that the India Office had never 
seriously believed in his threat of doing so, for Duleep 
Singh declares — and the assertion has never been 
contradicted — that before he left Southampton a 
member of the Indian Council, whom he named, waited 
on him from the Secretary of State for India, with an 
offer of £50,000 if he would remain in England ! 

What followed is well known. 



As soon as he entered Indian waters, he was Chapter 
arrested at Aden, by order of Lord Dufferin, in the 
presence of his fellow-passengers on board the mail- 
steamer, and told he must not proceed to India. 

The Maharanee at once returned to England with 
the family. The Maharajah, furious at what he 
regarded as an insult, reftised to accept for himself 
any longer the pension from the British Government, 
and withdrew to the Continent of Europe. 

The Maharanee did not live very long after this, 
dying in the following year, and leaving six children, 
three sons and three daughters, to be provided for by 
the British Government. The four younger children 
have been placed under the care of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Oliphant, at Brighton, while the eldest son. 
Prince Victor, godson of the Queen, has entered Her 
Majesty's service, and holds a commission in the Royal 
Dragoons, being allowed, we understand, £2,000 a year 
by the India OflBce. Prince Frederick, godson of the 
late Emperor of Germany, is an undergraduate at 
Cambridge, and is now of age. 

The future of both these young men involves a 
serious responsibility on the British nation. Prince 
Victor, the eldest, has been deprived of his birthright 
and inheritance by the action of the India Office, in 
compelling the sale of Elveden at the Maharajah's 
death, thus destroying his dearest ambition of foimding 
a family in England. To those acquainted with 
Oriental feeling on this matter, it will be unnecessary 




Chapter to enlarge on the intensity of this desire vnih 
X^^- them. 

And now that we have brought to a close this 
account of the early life and training of the Maharajah 
Duleep Singh, and of the man to whose care that 
training was entrusted, may we, at least, hope, that 
however imperfectly and tediously the story has been 
told, those of our readers who have followed us so far, 
will acknowledge the worth and character of the 
Governor selected for that position, the high motives 
from which he acted, and which he endeavoured to 
instil into his ward, and the earnestness and persist- 
ence with which he pressed on the Government the 
consideration of that ward's just rights, even when 
such pertinacity was damaging his own interests. 

An impression seems to prevail among the mass 
of the British public that Duleep Singh is some 
pretender, with a grievance more or less imaginary 
against the Government, and that the " guardian " he 
so objurgates and denounces for unjust dealings, is 
none other than Sir John Login himself I It is right 
that we should at once rectify this latter error. 

Duleep Singh has never, even in his most unguarded 
statements, said a word against the memory or char- 
acter of his most &ith{ul friend, and personal guardian, 
whose justice and uprightness he haa always professed 
to admire, and whose loving care and solicitude for 
him he has ever acknowledged. The "guardian" 


against whom he constantly inveighs is the Bintish Chapter 
Government^ who took upon itself that office by the ^^' 
Treaty of Bhyrowal, and who is so described by Lord 
Hardinge, the author of that Treaty.* 

Another point we have endeavoured to bring out in 
these pages is the fact, that up to the time when, on 
Duleep Singh attaining his majority, Sir John Login 
relinquished his charge, there was not a more contented, 
loyal subject of the Queen to be found within the 
breadth of Her Majesty's dominions. Had Sir John 
Login's advice, at this time, been followed, the Govern- 
ment would not have got into their present difficulties, 
and their trusting ward would not have developed into 
an angry and discontented rebel ! 

Sir John Login brought up the boy to accept with 
entire satisfaction, when of age, the provisions of the 
Treaty of Lahore, as understood by those who signed it 
for him,f and by Sir Henry Lawrence, Sir Frederick 
Ciirrie, and John Lawrence, in whom the Sikhs had 
fiill confidence. Login advised that a liberal interpre- 
tation be given to the Treaty, instead of naming the 
very lowest sum allowed by the letter of that dociunent, 

* See Appendix. 

f The Fakeer Zebooroodeen, one of the gentlemen in attendance on the Maha- 
ngah at Futtehghur, who was the son of Fakeer Kooroodeen, one of the Ministers 
who rigned the Treaty, was well aware of the meaning attached to the terms by 
his father and others. 

It was often a remark when the death of any pensioner on the Fund was 
annoonced, that '' so much more was now the Maharajah's." 

Xi<>gin knew the names of all those who were originally put on the Pension 
F^and, as all pensions were made through him at Lahore. 


Chapter and instead of interpreting it in a sense in which 
^^^' neither the Maharajah, nor his Ministers who signed it 
for him, understood it at the time. He agreed that 
the £25,000 a year, should be considered a fair income 
for the Prince, but that the lapses under the Four- to- 
Five Lakh Fund should be vested under trustees, as a 
provision for his family and descendants (the income, of 
course, to be enjoyed by the Maharajah for his Ufe). 

With this arrangement the Maharajah would then 
have been perfectly satisfied, and the matter closed 
once for all. At that time the private estates inherited 
by him from Runjeet Singh, as a Sikh Sirdar, had 
never been thought of, nor was any claim to the 
personal property and jewels, as distinct from State 
property, put forward.* The long delay, and nigglincr 
spirit of the treatment he met with, has given time 
for all this to crop up, with what sad results we all 

*\Vitli reference to a claim lately advanced by the Maharajah, it may Ite 
obvserved that, in answer to a question put by Sir John Login in 1861, thr 
following reply was given, by a very high authority : — ** I do not know what thi- 
law in the native kingdoms of India may be, or what may have been established 
as the basis of international law in that country, but in this oountry there is no 
doubt that all property, either real or personal, inheiited by the Sovereign, fh:>m 
his or her predecessor, becomes the propei-ty of the Crown, and not of the indi- 
vidual. If the same law ruled in the Treaty with the Maharajah, all the privmte 
property would be absorbed in that of the State, except what Duleep Singh may 
have purchased himself, which could be but little. 

' * In the particular instance of the Koh-i-noor, although it is now the personal 
property of the Queen, having been acquired during her lifetime, .... as soon 
as it came into the hands of her successor, it would become the property of the 
Crown, and could not be alienated. 

" I do not think that it would be of any advantage to the Maharajah to adwicc 


Sir John, on finding that the Grovemment were Chapter 
determined to deal with the Maharajah cUone^ without ^^' 
any aid or counsel from a friend, and were tempting him 
to give a discharge in fiiU, by offering him large sums 
of ready money to deal with as he liked (while they 
allowed no inquiry into the use to which they applied 
the Pension Fund, though debarred by treaty froui 
employing it for any other piu-pose), would take no 
ftirther prominent part in the matter, but contented 
himself with merely giving advice to the Maharajah 
from time to time on specified points. 

It was a great risk to which to expose a yoimg lad, 
ignorant of English life, to place a large income at his 
disposal, and large sums of ready money as well, and, 
while discouraging him from consulting the counsellor 
he had chosen, allowing him none other in his place 1 
Hitherto no Indian prince had ever been left so entirely 
to himself ; there was always an officer appointed as 
agent to the Governor-General, to help and advise 
him, and why should they be so resolved on the 
dangerous experiment of throwing a youth, for whose 
moral welfare they were doubly responsible (in that he 
was the first Indian prince to embrace the religion 
of the Paramount Power), alone and unaided into 

claims that could be refuted, because it would necessarily lessen the prestige of 
the rest." 

From this it is evident that, as the Koh-i-noor descended from Ruig'eet Singh, 
through Ehurruck Singh, and Shere Singh, to the Maharajah, it must have been 
considered State property, and dealt with as such by the Treaty of Lahore. 

KK 2 


Chapter the temptations of a London life, at an age when 
"■ • no English lad would be considered fit to stand alone ? 

Furthermore, it would almost seem as if they had 
presumed on his profession of Christianity, by imposing 
upon him a continued system of petty slights and 
injustice, which they would not have dreamt of offering 
to a Hindoo or Mahomedan prince, in the same 

Far be it fi:om us, to palliate or excuse Duleep 
Singh's later utterances 1 We can but deplore that a 
dawn of such promise, has been clouded by the 
darkness of bitter and revengeful passions. His 
present conduct and language is at such variance 
with his chivalrous character, that his friends can only 
hope that the aberration which betrays him into 
such licence is only temporary, and that, ere long, 
his veneration for the Queen, at present overshadowed 
by his resentment against her Ministers, will yet 
manifest itself with all its former intensity ! 




With the death of Sir John Login all business com- Chapter 
miinications with the Maharajah ceased, and, although ^^* 
a lively interest was taken in his proceedings, by the ^®^^"^' 
family which he had hitherto held in such close friend- 
ship, it will easily be understood, now that the head 
and guiding hand had gone from among them, that a 
gradual drifting apart set in, and much went on in the 
life of the Maharajah that was unknown to his former 

Under these circumstances, before proceeding ftirther, 
it is thought advisable to ask those whose interest may 
have been afoused by what has been placed before 
them, to refer to the introductory chapter of this 
volume, in which the primary objects of the imder- 
taking have been set forth. 

It will then be suflScient to give a short summary of 
the situation of the Maharajah with regard to the 
Grovemment, and such facts as can be produced from 


Chapter official and other sources will be brought to show how 
ift^fi ftA brooding over fancied wrongs, and constant beating 
against the rocks of cold officialdom, has gone far 
towards turning a loyal and loving subject of Her 
Majesty, the first convert to Christianity among the 
princes of India, iijito a bitter and discontented foe 1 
His early training led him to trust his guardian (the 
British Government) implicity. How has that guardian 
treated him ? 

To answer this query, let us turn to the evidence of 
Sir John Login, in his private letter to Sir Charles 
Wood, and the memorandum subsequently drawn up 
by him on the Maharajah's position with the Govern- 
ment : — 

July, 1859. 
Deab Sib Chables Wood, 

I hope that you will kindly excuse the liberty I take, in 
intruding upon your attention while it must be so fully occupied 
with matters of perhaps more importance; but as I am very 
apprehensive that if I delay to do so an opportunity may be lost 
of doing an act of justice in a graceful way, and in a manner 
which may tend to advance the public interests in India very 
materially, I venture to bring it to your notice. 

I have already mentioned to you that the subject of the 
Maharajah Duleep Singh's settlements on coming of age has 
been under the consideration of Government since December, 
1856, when he became entitled (at eighteen), by the laws of India, 
to the management of his own affairs, but that various circuiS' 
stances have prevented a final decision upon the subject up to the 
present time* He has, during the last three years, been unsettled 


and anxious regarding it, and to provide against some of the Chapter 
inconveniences likely to arise from the delay, he has heen induced ^^* 
to insure his life at an annual premium of £1,000. 1866-86, 

With every desire, however, to make allowances for the delay, 
it is very difficult for a young man at his age to be patient under 
it, especially when he has already had to pay £3,000 as insurance 
premium, which would not have been necessary had his settle- 
ment been determined at the proper time ; and I am therefore 
apprehensive that if all arrangements are not satisfactorily com- 
pleted before he attains his majority (on the 4th September, little 
more than a month hence), he may naturally be very greatly 
disappointed, and be much less disposed to be satisfied with 
any settlement which may be made by Government than he now 

When all the circumstances of the Maharajah's removal from 
the throne of the Punjab and the annexation of his country 
are duly considered, I think that it must be admitted to be at 
least very satisfactory to us, that the person who, in the opinion 
of other civilized nations, has suffered most from the change 
should himself, on attaining an age at which he can correctly 
judge of the rectitude of our proceedings towards him, be ready to 
express his approbation ; and I may be excused, therefore, if I am 
a little anxious, for the sake of our own high character among 
other nations, and among the people of India, that nothing should 
occur to deprive us of this satisfaction. 

It has been said, and, perhaps, truly, that the Maharajah has ' 
been fortunate in having been removed irom his high position 
into private life at his early age, and also that he could never 
have continued to hold it, even with the assistance to which 
he was entitled from us, among so turbulent a people. But even 
admitting the latter to be the case — although I greatly doubt it — 
have we not, as a Government, been equally fortunate in having 
to act with a young man who, during the last ten years, has given 
us the most convincing proofs of his .loyalty, fidelity, and good- 


Chapter will, rather than with one who might have been otherwise 
^^- disposed towards us, and have set a different example to his 
1866-86. former subjects ? 

I have no doubt that you will take these circumstances into 
consideration in determining the provision to be made for himself 
and his family, and that notwithstanding the temporary difficulties 
in which the general finances of India are now involved, you will 
kindly bear in mind that, in so far as respects the Punjab, the 
result of our Government has been eminently successful, and has 
far exceeded the anticipations which were formed when, in 1849, 
the Maharajah was deprived of his throne, and required, through 
the ministers that we had placed around him, to accept such 
terms as we imposed upon him. 

I confess that I am less anxious for the Maharajah's personal 
interest in the decision of the question, than for the honour and 
credit of the British Government, and for the character which 
impartial history may yet attach to the transaction. 

While admitting the necessity of the measure, it was con- 
sidered at the time by almost all who took part in it to be a very 
hard proceeding towards the Maharajah, and one which can 
in no way be so satisfactorily justified, as by his own approval of 
it, after his judgment has been matured by ten years' experience, 
and he has been able to appreciate the motives from which we 

Trusting you will excuse the freedom with which I have 

addressed you. 

I remain, &c., 

J. 8. Login. 

Memorandum bv Sir John Login. 

Written in 1862. 

Dec. 9th, 1856. The Maharajah wrote to the Court of 
Directors requesting that his settlement, on coming of age, nii^i 
be taken into consideration. 


Feb. l^th, 1857. He was informed, in reply, that a reference Chapter 
would be made to India on the subject. They also released him XY. 
from the restrictions imposed on him by treaty as to residence. 1856-86. 

In consequence of the mutiny of the Bengal Army, and other 
causes, no further communication was made in this matter 
until — 

May 20ih, 1859, — ^When His Highness was informed by 
Lord Stanley that Her Majesty's Government proposed to fix his 
allowance at an annual rate of £25,000, to commence on the 
attainment of his majority, according to the laws of England. 

June 3rd, 1859. The Maharajah acknowledged the liberality 
of this allowance, but requested to be informed whether it was 
to be considered a mere annuity for his Ufe, or to be continued 
in whole or in part to his heirs and descendants. 

Oct. 24:th, 1859. He was informed by Sir Charles Wood 
that, of the yearly allowance of £25,000, the sum of £15,000 was 
to be considered as a personal allowance, terminable with His 
Highnesses life, and the remaining £10,000 to be derived from 
investment (in the name of trustees) of such an amount of India 
stock as will yield that amount of yearly interest — such Capital 
Stock (subject to provisions for his widow, not exceeding £3,000 
per annum), to be at His Highness's disposal to bequeath to the 
legitimate heirs of his body according to the laws of England. 

In the event of his leaving no such heirs, the stock to revert to 
th.e Government, subject to such settlement as His Highness 
may have made upon his wife. This arrangement to be in 
satisfaction of all claims for himself, or his heirs, on the British 

Nov. 1st, 1859. The Maharajah expressed his satisfaction 
at the manner in which it is proposed to make provision for 
liis family — ^but believing that no inconsiderable portion of the 
suxn "which Her Majesty's Government proposed to place in trust 


Chapter for himself and family had already accmnulated by lapses and 
XV* short payments, during his minority, from the State pension 
I800-86. assigned under treaty, he requested that the condition requiring 
the reversion of the trust fund to Government on f aikirc of direct 
heirs should be so far modified as to admit of his appropriating 
such portion of it as can be shown to have accrued up to the 
period of his decease by accumulations, by lapses, and otherwise, 
from the State pensions above alluded to, for the promotion of 
Christian education in the Punjab, or other territories over which 
he had held sovereignty, placing the same under such additional 
trustees as may be approved by Her Majesty's Government. He 
also pointed out that no allusion had been made to his claim for 
compensation for loss of property during the Mutiny. 

No reply having been received to this commimication for 
upwards of two months, the question having, it is believed, been 
referred to a Special Committee of the Indian Council, and 
objections, it is said, having been raised to the Maharajah's 
request, on the grounds of interference with religious neutrality, 
the Maharajah called upon Sir Charles Wood at the India Of&ce, 
and at a private interview stated his claims more fully. 

Having been requested by Sir Charles Wood to give in a written 
document, to be laid before the Council, the following was at 
once prepared in his presence, and signed by the Maharajah : — 

The Maharajah asks for £25,000 a year for life, and also the sum of £200,000 
to be settled on him for life, and on his heirs after him ; ami in the event of no 
heii-s, he is at liberty to devise it for any public purpose in India. 

This to be in full of all demands. 


Jan. 20th, 1860. 

The question having been thus modified by the document 
which the Maharajah had, without sufficient consideration of fai> 
position under the Treaty, given in, and which Sir Charles W<x>i 
had also unfortunately overlooked, the Committee of Coundi 


had little difficulty in pointing oat that the Maharajah had Chapter 
personally no right to any further portion of the State pension ^^* 
than that which had been, or might be, assigned to him by the l^^'o^. 
British Goyemment; and a communication was made to His 
Highness to this effect. 

It was admitted, however, in Sir Charles Wood's letter — that 
the whole of the State pension fixed by the Government for the 
Maharajah, his relatives, and servants of the State, had not been 
expended in each year for the above purpose — that he had no 
means of ascertaining the whole amount of accumulations arising 
from this source, but that it may probably be between £150,000 
and £200,000 — " that Her Majesty's Government have no 
intention of allowing any part of this amount to be applied to any 
purposes other than that for which it was assigned." 

Sir Charles Wood further stated, that it will rest with the 
Government of India to determine, how the accumulations ought 
to be disposed of for the benefit of all parties interested — that 
he was very decidedly of opinion that the advantage accorded to 
His Highness, by the capitalizing of a sum yielding £10,000 a 
year, was greatly in excess of what he could derive from any 
apportionment of the present accumulation. 

If, however, His Highness should be of a different opinion, Sir 
Charles Wood was ready to call on the Government of India to 
report the exact amoimt of the accumulation, and the proportion 
which could be assigned to His Highness with due regard to the 
claims and circumstances of the other parties interested ; such 
amount, in that case, to be at His Highness's absolute disposal, 
leaving him to make his own arrangements for a provision for 
his wife and children. 

April Srd, 1860. The Maharajah, in reply to the above 
letter, explained the circumstances under which he had asked 
permission to appropriate the trust fund to Christian education 
in the event of the failure of heirs; expressed his regret at 
the inadvertence of which he had been guilty in respect to the 


Chapter document which he had given in, at his private interview with 
XV' Sir Charles Wood, and with reference to Sir Charles Wood's 

looo-oo. admission as to the state of the account, and that he had no 
means of ascertaining the actual amount of accumulations from 
the State pension, repeated a request that he had made in his 
letter of June 3rd, 1859, to he furnished with a full statement of 
accounts before he could enter upon any compromise of his 

Ajsril 20th, 1860. Sir Charles Wood explained a portion of 
his letter of 23rd March, which His Highness had apparently 
misunderstood, and stated, that he gathered from His Highness's 
letter of the 3rd April that His Highness wished to defer his 
decision between the two alternatives there referred to, until he 
shall have learned what the sum to be placed at his disposal may 

April SOih, 1860. His Highness in reply, repeated his wish 
to decline any compromise or decision, until he had been favoured 
with the required statement, when he would be prepared to enter into 
such arrangements as, under the circumstances of his position, may 
appear expedient. 

A further delay of nearly fifteen months having occurred in 
procuring the required information from India, on — 

JtUy 27th, 1861, — His Highness was at length famished 
with a copy of the statement, accompanied by a letter from 
Sir Charles Wood, in which he pointed out that the unappro- 
priated balance of the Lahore State Pension Fund amounted 
to about £76,500 on the 4th of September, 1859. 

India Office, July 27th, 1861. 

It appears from the statement, which is made up to the 4th ScptemKr. 
1859 (a copy of which is appended to this letter), when your Highness 


roar majority, that the total amount appropriated, in accordance with the terms Chapter 
of 1849, falls short of the aggregate snm payable to the Lahore family — viz., XY. 
four lakhs of rupees per annum— by 764,263 rupees, or about £76,500. 1866-86. 

The amount now annually paid to the family is about four and a half lakhs of 

I trust that your Highness will now be able to i-eturn without further delay a 
definite answer to the proposal contained in my letters of 24th October, 1859, and 
23rd March, 1860. With reference to these letters, I have only to add that 
if your Highness should elect to receive the una]>propriate<l balance — say 
£76,500 — I am willing, in accordance with the recommendation of the Govern* 
ment of India, to place the entire amount at the disposal of your Highness, 
instead of capitalizing a part of your present allowances (that is, £10,000 
per annum), for the purposes and in the manner stated in the above-cited letters. 

I have the honour to be, kc. , 

Charles Wood. 

Some of the documents having been omitted to be sent on from 
the India Office, they were furnished on application. 

On referring to the statements forwarded to His Highness, so 
manifest a discrepancy was at once apparent in the amount to be 
credited, and in other parts of the account, that, without going 
into details, it was necessary to ask for explanations, which His 
Highness accordingly did, in a letter addressed to Sir Charles 
Wood on the subject. 

To Sib Charles Wood. 

August, 1861. 

I have had the honour to receive your letter of the 10th instant, with it 
enclosores, showing the manner in which the balance of £76,500, referred to in 
your letter of the 27th ult., has been obtained. 

Before entering into the question of the amount to be credited by the Govern- 
ment of India, under Art. 4 of the Treaty of Lahore, of date March 29th, 1849, or 
into details of disbursements on account of myself, my relatives, and dependants, 
which had been furnished to me, it is necessary that I should point out that even 
at the rate assumed by the Government in the abstract which I have now received 


Chapter (^^ four lakhs of rupees per annum), the amount to be credited to the Lahore 
XV. Pension Fund between 29th March, 1849, and the 4th September, 1859, t.^., for 
1866-86. 10 years 6 months and 6 days, would be Company's Ra. 4,173,333. 7. 5., exclu- 
sive of interest, and not Company's Rs. 4,071,111. 1. 9, as exhibited in the 

I would also bring to your notice, that I have not yet been furnished with any 
statement in detail of the payments made from the General Ti'easury, amounting, 
as shown in the abstract, to Company's Rs. 186,000, nor of advances on account 
of my personal stipend from March, 1855, to the 4th September, 1859, stated to 
amoimt to Company's Rs. 475,333, which are necessary to elucidate the account. 
With respect to the remarks in the second paragraph of your letter of the 27 th 
ult., that the amount now annually paid is about four lakhs of rupees, I can fin* I 
nothing in the statements or letters to exhibit this, and I shall therefore lo 
obliged by further information on the subject. 

I have kc, kc,, 


It had always been the wish and intention of the Maharajah. 
and those who advised him, after being furnished with a state- 
ment of the accounts, to place the matter in the hands of 
impartial persons best qualified to judge of the circumstances of the 
case, and to abide by their decision, and accordingly, when several 
months elapsed without any reply to the inquiry for explanation, 
it was urged upon Sir Charles Wood to refer the question to Sir 
John Lawrence for settlement, as the person, above, all others* 
best qualified to judge of all the circumstances attending the 
negotiation of the Treaty, and, in fact, the officer through wbo>« 
influence and exertions the Treaty had been obtained. Afivr 
some delay Sir John Lawrence undertook to act, if assisted bv 
Sir Frederick Currie ; and Sir Charles Wood, having made tlus 
arrangement, requested the Maharajah to send in a " stateznec: 
of his wishes and objections " to those two gentlemen, to be sQb> 
mitted by some person duly authorized by him to place the case 
before them. 

His Highness declined sending in any statement, but requestesi 


Sir John Login to wait upon Sir John Lawrence and Sir Frederick Chapter 
Currie at the time appointed, to offer any explanations which XV. 
these gentlemen might require, and expressed his readiness to be 19o6-86, 
perfectly satisfied with any decision which Sir John Lawrence 
and Sir Frederick Currie might arrive at on the question, placing 
his case entirely and unreservedly in their hands. 

These gentlemen having accordingly considered the whole ques- 
tion, prepared a report (as a Sub-Committee of Council) for 
submission to the Secretary of State, but in consequence, it is 
believed, of some difference of opinion in the Council on the 
subject, no steps appear to have been taken by Sir Charles Wood 
to consider their report for nearly three months — when His 
Highness, becoming impatient at the delay, and being anxious 
that his mother (then residing with him) should return to India, 
and that he should accompany her for a short time, applied for, 
and obtamed, permission from Sir Charles Wood for the purpose. 

Within a short time, however, after His Highness's wish was 
intimated to Sir Charles Wood, and his consent obtained, the 
following letter was sent to His Highness from the India Office, 
under date July 26</t" 1862 : — 


With reference to our firat correspondence, I liavc now the honour to 
inform your Highness that since the date of my last letter, I have taken into my 
deliberate consideration in Council, the several accounts which have been laid 
before me, representing the sums which have been hitherto appropriated to the 
benefit of your Highness, your relatives, and the servants of the Lahore State, in 
accordance with the terms of 1849, and I have the satisfaction of adding, that 
Her Majesty's Grovemment are now prepared to make an arrangement for the 
future maintenance of yourself and your immediate family, which, it is confi- 
dently hoped, will be acceptable to your Highness. 

It is proposed that, without reference to your present life pension of £25,000 
per annum, which will be maintained on its present footing, the sum of £105,000 
(one hundred and five thousand pounds) shall be invested in the purchase of an 
estate in this country, to be held by trustees for your Highness's benefit, the 
rent thereof to be enjoyed by you in addition to your present stipend. 


Chapter Should your Highness marry, any provision for your widow will be settled 

XV. upon this estate. 
1856-86. ^^ the event of your leaving lawful issue, you will be empowered to devise the 
estate to such issue in any proportion that you may think lit, or should you die 
intestate, the estate will, in such case, pass by inheritance to your children. 

Should you have no issue, you would be empowered to devise the estate to 
such person or pei*sons as you might desire to bestow it upon. 

Her Majesty's Government do not, however, mean to limit to the proceeds of 
the estate, the amount of provision to be made after your death for such 
legitimate offspring as you may leave behind. They are willing to enable you to 
devise to such offspring, in such proportions as you may think fit, an amount of 
four per cent. India Capital Stock as will yield an income of £7,000 per annum : 
and should your Highness die intestate, the Capital Stock above mentioned will 
pass by inheritance to your legitimate children, according to the law of thi^^ 

Your Highness will understand, that in making this arrangement for the 
future provision of yourself and your family — which is irrespective of any 
arrangement that has been and may hereafter be made, for other object^ 
embraced in the terms of the Treaty of Lahore — Her Majesty's Government 
intend it to be final, and in satisfaction of all personal claims which you ma> 
have upon the British Government, and an acknowledgment to this effect will U> 
required from your Highness, on your acceptance of the present proposal 

Hoping that your Highness will consider this as a satisfactory solution of thf 

question so long pending between you and the British Government, and that yon 

will accept it with the kindly feeling and in the liberal spirit in which it l* 


I have the honour, &c., 

Charles Wood. 

Reply from the Mahabajah, Oct, lltk, 1862. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 26th Jolj, 
informing me of the arrangements which Her Ms^esty's Government are nom 
prepared to make for my future maintenance, and that of my immediate familT. 
and which you confidently hope will be acceptable to me. 

In reply, I desire to express my sincere thanks for the oarefdl and deKbormre 
consideration which you have given in council to my personal right as a 
pensioner under the Treaty of Lahore, and for the kindly feeling which i* 


maiiifested in the arrangements which are proposed for my benefit and that of my Chapter 
immediate family. XY. 

While I regret that the whole question of my claims has not been settled, as I 1856-86. 
had hoped would have been done when it was referred to Sir John Lawrence and 
Sir Frederick Currie, I readily accept these arrangements under the conditions 
which yon specify, and I am prepared to sign any legal document which may be 
necessary to release the Goveniment from any further pecuniary claims on my 
own part, or that of my immediate family, arising out of the Treaty. 

But I hope you will agree with me, that in my position under the Treaty, and 
as head of my family, it is still incumbent upon me to see that fit and proper 
arrangements should be made for placing the control of the remainder of the 
State pension under trust, in such manner as may appear most advisable ; and I 
shall be happy to enter into any further arrangements for that purpose that may 
be requisite. 

Your letter does not allude to my claims for compensation for loss of proi)erty 
at Fattehghor during the Mutiny, nor to the appropriation of intestate estates of 
deceased relatives and members of my family ; but these matters I leave con- 
fidently in your hands, believing that they will be settled in the same friendly 
spirit in which the arrangements now proposed have been made. 

I have, &c., 

DuLEEP Singh. 

To the above letter no reply has yet (December 6th, 1862) been 
received; but it is believed that the Government intend to act 
upon it by making over the money to be assigned under trust for 
the Maharajah's own family as proposed. 

Now, firom the letter to Sir Charles Wood, and from 
the contentions brought forward in the above memo- 
randum, it will be seen that Sir John Login himself 
did not consider that the terms of the Treaty of Lahore 
were being carried out in the spirit which the ward of 
the British Government was warranted to expect. 
How easily might the Government at this period 



Chapter have finally settled matters with the Maharajah in a 

.37^^ manner satisfactory to him and . creditable to them- 
•1856-86. , , ^ 

selves ! 

Between 1862 and 1882 many transactions took 
place between the Maharajah and Government, relative 
to the purchase of estates and advances of money for 
various purposes, a detailed statement of which is 
given further on, in quotations from the book published 
by the Maharajah in 1884. 

No public attention was drawn to the condition of 
affairs until August, 1882, when Duleep Singh, no 
doubt observing the action of the Government in 
South Africa with regard to Cetewayo, commenced 
the following correspondence in the Times : — 


To THE Editor op TJie Times, 

Aug. SUt, 1882. 


As the era of doing justice and restoration appears to 
dawned, judging from the recent truly Hberal and noble act of tbe 
present Liberal Goveminent, headed now by the great Gladstone 
the Just, I am encouraged to lay before the British nation, thLTY>Uf::^: 
the medium of The Times, the injustice which I have suffered, ir 
the hope that, although generosity may not be lavished upon xnc 
to the same extent as has been bestowed upon King Ceto^rmvo 
yet that some magnanimity might be shown towards me l>y tli.^ 
great Christian Empire. 


When I succeeded to the throne of the Punjab I was only an Chapter 
infant, and the Khalsa soldiery, becoming more and more ^^* 
mutinous and overbearing during both my uncle's and my lo^o-oo. 
mother's Begencies, at last, unprovoked, crossed the Sutlej and 
attacked the friendly British Power, and was completely defeated 
and entirely routed by the English army. 

Had, at that time, my dominions been annexed to the British 
territories, I would have now not a word to say, for I was, at 
that time, an independent chief at the head of an independent 
people, and any penalty which might have been then inflicted 
would have been perfectly just; but that kind, true English 
gentleman, the late Lord Hardinge, in consideration of the 
friendship which had existed between the British Empire and the 
*' Lion of the Punjab," replsMsed me on my throne, and the 
diamond Koh-i-noor on my arm, at one of the Durbars. The 
Council of Eegency, which was then created to govern the country 
during my minority, finding that it was not in their power to rule 
the Punjab unaided, applied for assistance to the representative 
of the British Government, who, after stipulating for absolute 
power to control every Government department, entered into the 
Bhyrowal Treaty with me, by which it was guaranteed that I 
should be protected on my throne until I attained the age of 
sixteen years, the British also furnishing troops both for the 
above object and preservation of peace in the country, in con- 
sideration of a certain sum to be paid to them annually by my 
Durbar for the maintenance of that force. 

Thus the British nation, with open eyes, assimied my guardian- 
ship, the nature of which is clearly defined in a proclamation 
subsequently issued by Lord Hardinge's orders, on the 20th 
August, 1847, which declares that the tender age of the Maha- 
rajah Duleep Singh causes hirn to feel the interest of a father in 
the education and guardianship of the young Prince. — {Vide 
•* Punjab Papers " at the British Museum). 

Two English officers, carrying letters bearing my signature, 

LL 2 


Chapter were despatched by the British Besident, in conjunction with my 
XY. Darbaor, to take possession of the fortress of Mooltan and the sur- 
loOD-oD. rounding district in my name ; but my servant Mooh'aj, refusing 
to acknowledge my authority, caused them to be put to death ; 
whereupon, both the late Sir F. Gurrie and the brave Sir Herbert 
Edwardes most urgently requested the Commander-in-Chief of the 
British forces at Simla, as there were not sufficient English 
soldiers at Lahore at the time, to send some European troops 
without delay, in order to crush this rebellion in the bud, as the y 
affirmed that the consequences could not be calculated which 
might follow, if it were allowed to spread ; but the late Lord 
Gough, with the concurrence of the late Marquis of Dalhousie, 
refused to comply with their wishes, alleging the unhealthiness of 
the season as his reason fordoing so. 

My case at that time was exactly similar to what the Khedive's 
is at this moment ; Arabi being, in his present position to his 
master, what Moolraj was to me — viz., a rebel. 

At last, very tardily, the British Government sent troops (as has 
been done in Egypt) • to quell the rebellion, which had by that 
time vastly increased in the Punjab, and who entered my terri- 
tories, headed by a proclamation, issued by Lord Dalhoosie's 
orders, to the following effect : — 

Inclosarc 8 in No. 42. — To the subjects, servants, and dependants of tlie 
Lahore State, and residents of all classes and castes, whither Sikhs, Miusalm&n^. 

or others, within the territories of Maharigah Doleep Singh Wher*vi> 

certain evil-disposed peraons and traitors have excited rebellion and insurreet i. n. 
and have seduced portions of the population of the Puigab from their alleg^iAiiv 
and have raised an armed opposition to the British authority ; and whereas t i $ 
condign punishment of the insurgents is necessary .... therefore the Briti-.. 
army, under the command of the Right Hon. the Commander-in-Chief, Y. »- 
entered the Punjab districts. The army will not return to its cantonments unr 
fuUpunishmentof all insurgents has been effected, all opposition to the oons^. 
tuted authority put down, and obedience and order have been re-estabhshttii. 

Thus it is clear from the above that the British Commaader-ii;- 


Chief did not enter my dominions as a conqueror, nor the army Chapter 
to stay there, and, therefore, it is not correct to assert, as some ^^* 
do, that the Punjab was a military conquest. looo-oo. 

And whereas it is not the desire of the British Govemment that those who 
are innocent of the aljove offences, who have taken no ]»art, secretly or openly, 
in the disturhancos, and who have remained faithful in their obedience to the 
Government of Maharajah Dulccp Singh .... should suffer i^ith the guilty. 

But after order was restored, and finding only a helpless child 
to deal with, the temptation being too strong. Lord Dalhousie an- 
nexed the Punjab, and instead of carrying out the solemn compact 
entered into by the British Govemment at Bhyrowal, sold almost 
all my personal as well as all my private property, consisting of 
jewels, gold and silver plate, even some of my wearing apparel 
and household furniture, and distributed the proceeds, amounting 
(I was told) to £250,000, as prize money among those very troops 
who had come to put down rebellion against my authority. 

Thus I, the innocent, who never lifted up even my little finger 
against the British Govemment, was made to suffer in the same 
manner with my own subjects who would not acknowledge my 
authority, in spite of the declaration of the above-quoted procla- 
mation, that it is not the desire of the British Govemment that 
the innocent should suffer with the guilty. 

Lord Dalhousie, in writing to the Secret Committee of the late 
Court of Directors, in order to justify his unjust act, among 
other arguments employs the following. He says : — 

It has been objected that the present dynasty in the Punjab cannot with 
Justice be subverted, since the Maharajah Duleep Singh, being yet a minor, can 
liardly be held responsible for the acts of the nation. With deference to those 
by whom these views have been entertained, I must dissent entirely from the 
soundness of this doctrine. It is, I venture to think, altogether untenable as a 
principle ; it has been disregarded heretofore in practice, and disregarded in the 
ease of thfi Maharajah Duleep Singh. When in 1845 the Kh&lsa army invaded 


Ch&pter our territories, the Maharajah was not held to be free from responsibility, nor 
Xy. was he exempted from the consequences of the acts of the people. On the con- 

1856-86, trary, the Government of India confiscated to itself the richest proyinces of the 
Maharsgah's kingdom, and was applauded for the moderation which had exacted 
no more. If the Maharajah was not exempted from responsibility on the plea of 
his tender years at the age of eight, he cannot on that plea be entitled to exemp- 
tion from a like responsibility now that he is three years older. 

Bat in thus arguing, his Lordship became blind to the fact that 
in 1845, when the Kh&lsa army invaded the British territories, 
I was an independent chief, but after the ratification of the 
Bhyrowal Treaty I was made the ward of the British nation ; and 
how could I, under these circumstances, be held responsible for 
the neglect of my guardians in not crushing Moolraj's rebellion 
at once, the necessity of doing which was clearly and repeatedly 
pointed out by the British Resident at Lahore ? 

Again, his Lordship says, "The British Government has rigidly 
observed the obligations which the Treaty imposed on them, 
and fully acted up to the spirit and letter of its contract." No 
doubt all this was or may have been true, except so far that 
neither peace was preserved in the country nor I protected on my 
throne till I attained the age of sixteen years— two very important 
stipulations of that Treaty. 

He further alleges, ** In return for the aid of the British 
troops they (my Durbar) bound themselves to pay to us a subsidy 
of twenty-two lakhs (£220,000) per annum .... from the day 
when that Treaty was signed to the present hour, not one ra|>tH^ 
has ever been paid." 

Now, the above statement is not correct, because of the follow- 
ing despatch which exists : — ** Enclosure No. 5, in No. 23/' the 
Acting Besident at Lahore affirms, "The Durbar has paid into 
this treasury gold to the value of Rs. 13,66,637 0. 6." (£135.837 
148. Id., taking the value of a rupee at 2s.). 

Likewise Lord Dalhousie alludes to Sirdar Chutter Singh's 
conduct. Enclosure 19 in No. 36 will show those who cftre to 


look for it, the reprimand which Captain Abbott then received Chapter 
from the Besident for his treatment of that chief, who, after that, ^^* 
with his sons, without doubt beUeved that the Bhyrowal Treaty 1866-86. 
was not going to be carried out ; and, judging from the events 
which followed, were they right in their views, or were they 

(1) Thus I have been most unjustly deprived of my kingdom, 
}delding, as shown by Lord Dalhousie's own computation in (I 
think) 1850, a surplus revenue of some £500,000, and no doubt 
now vastly exceeds that sum. 

(2) I have also been prevented, unjustly, from receiving the 

rentals of my private estates (vide Prinsep's ** History of the 

SikJis," compiled for the Government of India) in the Punjab, 

amounting to some £130,000 per annum, since 1849, although my 

private property is not confiscated by the terms of the annexation 

which I was compelled to sign by my guardians when I was a 

minor, and therefore, I presume, it is an illegal document, and I 

am still the lawful Sovereign of the Punjab; but this is of no 

moment, for I am quite content to be the subject of my most 

gracious Sovereign, no matter how it was brought about, for her 

graciousness towards me has been boundless. 

(3) All my personal property has also been taken from me, 
excepting £20,000 worth, which I was informed by the late Sir 
John Login was permitted to be taken with me to Futtehghur 
when I was exiled ; and the rest, amounting to some £250,000, 
disposed of as stated before. What is still more unjust in my 
case is, that most of my servants who remained faithful to me, 
were permitted to retain all their personal and private property, 
and to enjoy the rentals of their landed estates (or jagheers)t 
given to them by me and my predecessors, whereas I, their 
master, who did not even lift up my little finger against the 
British nation, was not considered worthy to be treated on the 
game footing of equahty with them, because, I suppose, my sin 
being that I happened to be the ward of a Christian Power. 


Chapter The enormous British liberality permits a life stipend of £25,000 
XV. per annum, which is reduced by certain charges (known to the 
1866-86. proper authorities) to some £13,000, to be paid to me from the 
revenues of India. 

Lately, an Act of Parliament has been passed, by which, some 
months hence, the munificent sum of £2,000 will be added to my 
above stated available income, but on the absolute condition that 
my estates must be sold at my death, thus causing my dearly- 
loved English home to be broken up, and compelling my descen- 
dants to seek some other asylum. 

A vety meagre provision, considering of what, and how, I have 
been deprived, has also been made for my successor& 

If one righteous man was found in the two most wicked cities 
of the world, I pray God that at least one honourable, just, and 
noble EngHshman may be forthcoming out of this Christian land 
of liberty and justice to advocate my cause in Parliament ; other- 
wise, what chance have I of obtaining justice, considering that 
my despoiler, guardian, judge, advocate, and jury, is the British 
nation itself ? 

Generous and Christian Englishmen, accord me a just and 
liberal treatment, for the sake of the fair name of your nation, of 
which I have now the honour to be a naturaUzed member, for it 
is more blessed to give than to take. 

I have the honour to remain, Sir, 

Your most obliged servant, 

DuLBEP Singh. 
Elveden Hall, Thetford, Suffolk, 

Aug, 2StK 1882. 

It will be acknowledged that there is nothing in the 
tone or spirit of the above letter to justify the con- 
temptuous reply which it received, contained in the 


following leading article printed in The Times of Chapter 



August 31st, 1882, and which hears conclusive evi- 

dence of official inspiration. Considering the rank 
then held by the Maharajah in England, the considera- 
tion due to him on account of the position from which 
we had deposed him, and his own known loyalty and 
attachment to the person of the Sovereign, surely a 
more dignified and less irritating response might have 
been afforded him 1 To try and turn a man into 
ridicule is no answer to a specific charge, and the real 
point at issue is, in this article, merely fenced with. 

The '* Times *'—Aug. Slst, 1882. 

We print elsewhere a somewhat singular letter from the 
Maharajah Duleep Singh. Encouraged, as it would seem, hy 
the restoration of Cetewayo, he puts forward an impassioned 
plea for the consideration of his own claims. On a first glance, 
his letter reads as if he demanded nothing less than to he 
replaced on the throne of the Punjab. He professes to establish 
his right to that position and then to waive it, magnanimously 
avowing that he is quite content to be the subject of his most 
gracious Sovereign, whose graciousness towards him had been 
boundless. His real object, however, is far less ambitious. It is 
to prefer a claim for a more generous treatment of his private 
affidrs at the hands of the Indian Government. In lieu of the 
sovereignty of the Punjab, with its unboimded power and 
unlimited resources, ** the enormous British liberahty," he 
complains, permits him only a life stipend of £25,000 per 
annum, which is reduced by certain charges to some £13,000. 
All that he has hitherto succeeded in obtaining from the Indian 

522 sm JOHN uoQm and duleep singh. 

Chapter Govermnent is an arrangement, lately sanctioned by Act of 
^^» Parliament, whereby he will receive an addition of £2,000 to his 

4.000-00. annual income on condition that his estates are sold at his 
death in order to liquidate his liabilities, and provide for his 
widow and children. It is really against this arrangement that 
the Maharajah appeals. His argument concerning his de jure 
sovereignty of the Punjab is manifestly only intended to support 
his pecuniary claims. If these were settled to his satisfaction, 
he would doubtless be content, and more than content, to die, 
as he has lived, an English country gentleman, with estates 
swarming with game, and with an income sufficient for his 
needs. This is a sort of appeal to its justice and generosity 
with which the English public is not unfamiliar. Duleep Singh 
is not the first dispossessed Eastern Prince who has felt himself 
aggrieved by the dispositions of the Indian Government, nor is 
this the first occasion on which his own claims have been heard 
of. For a long time he preferred a claim for the Koh-i-noor, of 
which he alleged that he had been wrongfully despoiled. Now it 
is his private estates in India which he declares have been 
confiscated without adequate compensation. No one, of course » 
would wish that a prince in the Maharajah's position should be 
ungenerously treated. He is, as it were, a ward of the English 
nation, and even his extravagances might be leniently regarded. 
But as the claim, now publicly preferred by the Maharajah, has 
been disallowed after full consideration by successive Govern- 
ments both in India and this country, it may not be amiss to 
show that his case is by no means so strong as he still affects to 
consider it. 

The events of two Sikh wars, and their sequel, have probably 
faded out of the memory of most of our readers. They are, 
however, accurately stated^ so far as the main facts are concerned. 
in the Maharajah's letter. It is not so much with those facts 
themselves that we are now concerned as with the Maharajali's 
inferences from them, and with certain other facts which he 


not found it convenient to state. It is perfectly trae that after Chapter 
the overthrow of the *' Khalsa " power in the sanguinary battle of XV. 
Sobraon, Lord Hardinge declined to annex the Punjab and 1^6-86. 
replaced the Maharajah on the throne under the Begency of 
his mother, the Eanee, assisted by a Council of Sirdars. This 
settlement, however, proved a failure, and was replaced by the 
arrangement made under the Bhyrowal Treaty, whereby the 
entire control and guidance of affairs was vested in the British 
Resident, and the presence of British troops was guaranteed 
until the Maharajah should attain his majority. 

The second Sikh war, which began with the revolt of Moolraj 
in 1848, soon proved the futility of this arrangement also, and 
after the surrender of Mooltan and the battle of Gujerat, which 
finally broke the reviving power of the Khalsa, Lord Dalhousie, 
who had succeeded Lord Hardinge as Governor-General, decided 
that the time had come for the incorporation of the Punjab with 
the British Dominions in India. Duleep Singh was at this 
time only eleven years of age; but he had been recognized for 
more than three years as the Sovereign of the Punjab, and by the 
advice of his Durbar at Lahore he signed the terms of settlement 
proposed by the British Commissioner, whereby he renounced 
" for himself, his heirs, and his successors, all right, title, and 
claim to the sovereignty of the Punjab, or to any sovereign power 
whatever." By subsequent clauses of the same instrument *' all 
the property of the State, of whatever description and where- 
soever found," was confiscated to the East India Company ; the 
Koh-i-noor was surrendered to the Queen of England ; a pension 
of not less than four, and not exceeding five, lakhs of rupees was 
secured to the Maharajah, '' for the support of himself, his relatives, 
and the servants of the State ; " and the Company undertook 
to treat the Maharajah with respect and honour, and to allow him 
to retain the title of " Maharajah Duleep Singh, Bahadoor." Of 
this instrument, the Maharajah now says that he was compelled 
to sign it by his guardians when he was a minor, and he argues 


Chapter that the political necessity which dictated it was due to the 
XY. Idches of the Indian Government, which had failed to fulfil the 

1866-86. pledges of the Bhyrowal Treaty, and had allowed the revolt 
of Moolraj to develop into a Sikh rebelUon. In answer to these 
allegations, it is sufficient to quote the report of the Britiah 
Commissioner, who presented the terms for signature. "The 
paper," he says, "was then handed to the Maharajah, who 
immediately affixed his signature. The alacrity with which he 
took the papers when offered, was a matter of remark to all, and 
suggested the idea that possibly he had been instructed by his 
advisers that any show of hesitation might lead to the substitu- 
tion of terms less favourable than those which he had been 
offered." Moreover, the plea that the Maharajah was a minor, 
and therefore not a free agent, is fatal to his own case ; he was 
two years younger when the Bhyrowal Treaty was signed, and 
younger still when the settlement of Lord Hardinge replaced him 
on the throne, and restored to him the sovereignty, which he 
even now acknowledges might at that time have been rightly for- 
feited. We need not dwell on this point, however. The Maha- 
rajah himself would hardly press it. His claim of sovereignty is 
merely intended to cover his claim for money. He never was much 
more than nominal Sovereign of the Punjab, and he probably 
desires nothing so little at this moment as the restitution of 
his sovereign rights. The political question has long been closed ; 
it only remains to consider whether the personal and financiaJ 
question still remains open. The Maharajah complains that he 
was deprived of his personal and private property — ^with insignifi- 
cant exceptions — and of the rentals of his landed estates. There 
is, however, no mention of private property in the terms of settle- 
ment accepted by the Maharajah; and a minute of Lord Dalhousie, 
recorded in 1855, states explicitly that at the time the Punjab 
was annexed, the youth had no territories, no lands, no property, 
to which he could succeed. The pension accorded by the East 
India Company was plainly intended to support the Maharajah in 


becoming state, and to provide for his personal dependants ; and Chapter 
the British Government expressly reserved to itself the right ^V. 
of allotting only such portion as it thought fit of the " Four Lakh 1856-86. 
Fund/' as the pension was called, to the Maharajah's personal 
use. Bo long ago as 1853, Lord Dalhousie wrote a despatch, 
intended to remove from the Maharajah's mind all idea that the 
Four Lakh Fund would ultimately revert to himself, and charac- 
terizing such an idea as ** entirely erroneous." 

The Indian Government, however, has certainly not dealt 
ungenerously with the Maharajah. It is true that it has not 
recognized his claim to certain private estates no record of which 
exists, still less has it listened to any of his attempts to assail the 
validity of the instrument whereby his sovereignty was extin- 
guished. For some years after the annexation his personal 
allowance out of the Four Lakh Fund was fixed at £12,500 a 
year — a sum which was considered entirely satisfactory by the 
leadidg Ministers of the Durbar, which assented and advised the 
Maharajah to assent to the terms of 1849. But in 1859 this 
allowance was doubled, and the Maharajah himself more than 
once acknowledged in subsequent years the Uberality of the 
arrangements made. The allowance of £25,000 a year has been 
reduced to the £13,000 mentioned by the Maharajah in his 
letter, not by any act of the Indian Government, but by what, if 
he were only an English country gentleman, we should be 
compelled to call extravagance, though, as he is an Eastern 
prince, it is more generous, perhaps, to describe it as magnificence. 
He first bought a property in Gloucestershire, but this was sold 
some yearis ago, and his present estate at Elveden, in Suffolk, was 
purchased for £138,000, the money being advanced by the 
Government, and interest for the loan to the amount of £5,664 
per annum being paid by the Maharajah. Some two or three 
years ago the Home Government of India proposed to release the 
Maharajah from payment of this annual sum provided that he 
would consent to the sale of the estate, either at once or at his 


Chapter death, for the repayment of the principal of the loans advanced. 
XV. This proposal, however, was rejected by the Indian Government, 

I006-86. ^iiich maintained, in very strong and plain language, that the 
Maharajah had already been treated with exceptional liberality, 
and that if he wanted more money he should sell his estate. The 
Indian Government remained inexorable, but the liberality of the 
Home Government was not yet exhausted. The Maharajah had 
built a house at Elveden, at a cost of £60,000, and had borrowed 
£40,000 from a London banking firm for the purpose. For this 
loan £2,000 interest had to be paid, and the India Office has 
lately sanctioned the repayment of the capital sum without 
making any further charge on the Maharajah. It is to this 
arrangement, and to the Act of Parliament which sanctions it, 
that the Maharajah refers with some bitterness at the close of his 
letter. In order to settle his affairs, and to provide for his wife 
and family, the Act of Parliament requires that his estate at 
Elveden should be sold after his death. Hinc ilia Ic^crr/tna. An 
argument which starts from the sovereign claims of the son of the 
" Lion of the Punjab," ends, somewhat ridiculously, though not 
without a touch of pathos, with the sorrows of the Squire of Elveden. 
Duleep Singh began life as a Maharajah of the Punjab, with 
absolute power and boundless wealth if he had only been old 
enough to enjoy them, and if the Eh41sa would only have 
allowed him to do so. He is not even allowed to end it as 
an English country gentleman leaving an encumbered estate and 
an embarrassed heir. There is really a certain tragedy about the 
whole matter. Fate and the British Power have deprived the 
Maharajah of the sovereignty to which he was bom. He has 
done his best to become an English squire, and if he has lived 
beyond his income, he may plead abimdance of examples in the 
class to which he has attached himself ; yet he is forced to hear 
the consequences himself, and not to inflict them on his children 
and descendants, as an English squire would be able to do. The 
whole case is one which it is very difficult to judge upon any 


abstract principles. It is, no doubt, the duty of every man to live Chapter 
within his income, and yet if the Maharajah has failed to acquire ^^• 
a virtue rare indeed among Eastern princes and not too common 1856-86. 
in the class to which he belongs by adoption, there is no English- 
man but would feel ashamed if he or his descendants were 
thereby to come to want. At the same time it is impossible for 
the Indian Government, which has claims on its slender resources 
far more urgent than those of the magniJ&cent squire of Elveden, 
to guarantee him indefinitely against the consequences of his own 
improvidence. At any rate, it is safe to warn him against 
encumbering his personal claims by political pleas which are 
wholly inadmissible. He is very little likely to excite sympathy 
for his pecuniary troubles by his bold, but scarcely successful, 
attempt to show that if he could only come by his own, he is still 
the lawful Sovereign of the Punjab. 

" The Times," Friday, Sept. Sth, 1882, 

To THE Editob of ** T/wj Tirnes" 


As your leading article of Thursday, the 31st ult., comment- 
ing on my letter of the 28th, which you were so good as to 
publish, contains many inaccuracies as to matters of fact, which 
no one, perhaps, can correct so precisely as myself, I trust you 
will allow me to do so, and to make a few observations. 

(1) You say : ''All that he has hitherto succeeded in obtaining 
from the Indian Government, is an arrangement, lately sanctioned 
by Act of Parliament, whereby he will receive an addition of 
£2,000 to his annual income, on condition that his estates are 
sold at his death, in order to liquidate his liabilities, and provide 


Chapter for his widow and children. It is really against this arrangement 
XY. that the Maharajah appeals." 

1856-86. J ^Q fiQi tt really appeal " against the aboye arrangement, but 
what I do certainly think unjust in it is, that I am not permitted 
to repay, during my life, the loan which is to be made under it — 
£16,000 having already been advanced to me — and that I am thus 
forbidden to preserve, by a personal sacrifice, their English home 
to my descendants. In April last I sent a cheque for £3,542 14s., 
representing capital and compound interest at the rate of five per 
cent, to the India Office, but it was returned to me. 

My widow and children, should I leave any, were already 
provided for, under arrangements which existed before this Act 
was passed. 

(2) With reference to your quotation from the British Com- 
missioner, as to my " alacrity ** in signing the terms, I have 
simply to say that, being then a child, I did not understand what 
I was signing. 

(3) '' Moreover " you say, " the plea that the Maharajah was a 
minor, and, therefore, not a free agent, is fatal to his own case ; 
he was two years younger when the Bhyrowal Treaty was signed, 
and younger still when the settlement of Lord Hardinge replaced 
him on the throne, and restored to him the sovereignty which he 
even now acknowledges, might at that time have been rightly 
forfeited. We do not dwell on this point, however. The Maha- 
rajah himself would hardly press it." 

But, whether it is fatal to my case or not, I do press it, and 
maintain that after the ratification of the Bhyrowal Treaty, I was 
a ward of the British nation^ and that it was unjust on the part of 
the guardian to deprive me of my kingdom, in consequence of a 
failure in the guardianship. 

Here are Lord Hardinge's own words : '< But, in addition to 
these considerations of a political nature, the Governor-General is 
bound to be guided by the obligations which the British Govern- 
ment has contracted when it consented to be the guardian of the 


young Prince during his minority " {vide p. 49, '* Punjab Papers,*' Chapter 

1847^9), XV. 

(4j *' The Maharajah complains," you would say, ** that he was 

deprived of his personal and private property — ^with insignificant 

exceptions — and of the rentals of his landed estates. There 

is, however, no mention of private property in the terms of the 

settlement accepted hy the Maharajah ; and a minute of Lord 

Dalhousie, recorded in 1855, explicitly states that at the time the 

Pimjab was annexed, the youth had no territories, no lands, no 

property to which he could succeed." My reply is, that at the 

time of the annexation I had succeeded to territories, lands, and 

personal property, and was in possession, and these possessions 

were held in trust, and managed for me, under treaty, by the 

British Government. 

That I had succeeded and was possessed of private estates 
in land, is an historical fact, and a matter of public records. 
Moreover, these estates had belonged to my family, one of them 
having being acquired by marriage, before my father attained 
to sovereignty. The statement in Lord Dalhousie's minute only 
amounts to denial of the existence of the sun by a blind man ; 
and there are none so bhnd as those who will not see. 

And now with regard to my alleged extravagance, these are the 
facts. The life stipend of £25,000 allotted to me, has to bear the 
following deductions: — (1) £5,664 interest, payable to the 
Government of India ; (2) about £3,000 as premium on policies 
of insurance on my life, executed in order to add to the meagre 
provision made for my descendants by the British Government, 
and as security for the loan from my bankers ; (3) £1,000 per 
annum for two pensions of £500 per annum each to the widows 
of the superintendent appointed by Lord Dalhousie to take 
charge of me after the annexation, and of my kind friend, the late 
controller of my establishment ; besides which there is some £300 
per annum payable in pensions to old servants in India. 

In order to be able to receive his Koyal Highness the Prince of 



Chapter Wales, and to return the hospitality of men in my own position 
XV. of life, and because I was advised and considered — ^not, I think, 

1866-86* QjjjgagQnably — that the rank granted to me by Her Majesty 
required it to be done, I expended some £22,000 (not £60,000, as 
you were informed) in alterations and repairs to the old house on 
this estate ; suitable furniture cost £8,000 more. 

At a cost of some £3,000, 1 have purchased life annuities, to be 
paid to the before-mentioned widow ladies, in case they should 
survive me. 

About £8,000 more had to be borrowed from my bankers on 
mortgage, to complete the purchase of this estate, as the money 
lent me by the Government of India was insufficient by that 
amount. Thus, my debts amount to something like £44,000, of 
which £30,000 is covered by policies of insurance, £8,000 by 
mortgage, and the remainder amply secured by personal assets. 
Therefore, instead of my estates being heavily encumbered, my 
heirs, were I to die at this moment, would succeed to a house and 
furniture which are worth much more than £30,000, without any 
liability, besides sOme £70,000, secured by insurance on my 

I think you are bound to acquit the Squire of Elveden of 

When the agricultural depression set in, I requested the Home 
Government to make an allowance that would enable me to 
maintain my position, and they kindly, after causing all the 
accounts to be examined, helped me with £10,000, but did not 
accuse me of extravagance. Subsequently, pending the considera* 
tion of my affairs, some £6,000 or £7,000 more was advanced to 
pay off pressing bills, as during that time I had not completed 
the arrangements for reducing my establishment. Out of the 
above loan about £10,000 was invested in live and dead stock on 
farms in hand, and would be forthcoming, if demanded, at a 
very short notice. 

Thus the extravagance during my residence at Blveden is 


reduced to the fabulous sum of some £12,000, and I possess Chapfcer 
enough personalty, beyond any question, to discharge debts to XY. 
that amount, and some £6,000 more, should they exist at my 1866-86. 

In common justice, therefore, Mr. Editor, I ask you to enable 
me to contradict, in as prominent a manner as they were 
brought forward in your most influentiaJ journal, the rumours 
as to my extravagance. 

In the first paragraph of your leading article of Thursday, the 
Slst ult., you say, '' that the claim now publicly preferred by the 
Maharajah has been disallowed after full consideration by 
successive Governments, both in India and this country." Yes, 
it is very easy to disallow a claim without hearing the real 

The English law grants the accused the chance of proving 
himself not guilty ; but I am condemned unheard : is this 

I remain, Sir, your most obliged| 


Elveden Hall, Thetford, Suffolk, 
Sept. eth, 1882. 

The Maharajah then, finding no notice taken of 
his appeal, devoted himself to compiling, with the 
assistance of his solicitor, a book which was published 
in June, 1884, ''for the information of his friends, and 
to disabuse their minds of any prejudice which may 
have arisen from what appeared in print about a year 

The following extracts from the above-mentioned 

MM 2 

532 SIR JOHN Loom and duleep sinoh. 

Chapter book will give the situation from the Maharajah's 

^ • point of view : — 
1856-86. ^ 

By the Treaty of Bhyrowal, in December, 1846, the British 
Government became the guardian of the infant Prince, and 
caused his mother to be removed from his vicinity, on account 
of the influence she was likely to exert over him, and her well- 
known character for intrigue. 

In 1849 the Treaty of Lahore put an end to the Protectorate, 
but by it the British Government entered into an engagement 
with the Maharajah to pay him a pension, and took entire 
charge of his person, exercising a full control over his move- 
ments, expenditure, education, and associates, appointing Dr. 
Login as superintendent under the direction of the Governor- 

They also undertook the administration of his pension, fixing 
the amount to be paid to him, to his relatives and dependants, 
as ^it was certainly necessary for some one to act for him in this 
matter until he came of age. 

There was a further complication in the matter. 

The Government, as is known, in 1849, took possession of aJl 
the property of the Maharajah, both in lands and money. The 
Treaty gave them all the State property, therefore, they became 
trustees for the Maharajah as to his private property. Disputes 
have since arisen how much, and which portions of the propertv 
are of one kind, and how much, and which portions, are of the 
other kind — ^and there is also a difference of opinion about the 
duration of the entire pension imder the words of the Treaty — so 
that there are several points of conflict between the Goyemmeni 
and its ward. 


The Government claims to be the sole arbiter on these conflict- Chapter 
ing questions, and hitherto has uniformly decided them in its own XY. 
favour, never rendering any account of its stewardship. Between I006-86. 
private individuals, a Chancery judge would interfere, and would 
appoint trustees, &c., and investigate the case before deciding it ; 
in the meantime, the funds would be secured, and set aside at 
interest, for the benefit of the successful party in the litigation. 

In this case, however, the Government has remained master of 
the situation. The Maharajah has been advised that the courts 
of law are, in all probabihty, powerless to decide between him 
and the Government, and the latter keeps possession. 

It will be interesting here to insert the views of the 
Government, as embodied in minutes by Lord 
Dalhousie in 1856, and by Sir Charles Wood in 1860. 

LoBD Dalhousie's Minute. 

When the Maharajah quitted India, the object which the 
Superintendent had in view, was to obtain for His Highness a 
grant of land in the Eastern Dhoon, near Deyrali, with the 
expectation, I presume, that the Maharajah would live at 
Mussoorie during the hot season, as he had been in the habit of 
doing; and would occupy himself, and interest himself, in the 
cultivation and improvement of the estate which was to be granted 
to him. 

The Superintendent appeared to be under the impression that 
the Maharajah himself very strongly desired the settlement of his 
future position. It seemed to me very unlikely that a boy of his 
ye€brs would have a strong feeling of any kind on such a subject, 
and quite certain that he could not as yet know his own mind. 


Chapter In correspondence with Dr. Login since the Maharajah has 
^^* resided in England, I have learned that upon being further ques- 

J-oOo-pO. tioned upon the subject, His Highness did not seem to desire an 
estate at all, but preferred a money stipend, and spoke as if he 
were under the impression that the four lakhs which were men- 
tioned in the paper of terms, and which were granted on the 
annexation of the Punjab, would all ultimately lapse to him. 
The view which was taken by His Highness of this subject 
was entirely erroneous. 

The terms granted did not secure to the Maharajah four lakhs, 
out of which His Highness was to grant pensions to relatives and 
followers, which, on the death of the recipients, were to revert to 
the Maharajah. The terms simply set apart four lakhs of rupees 
at the time of the ajmexation, as provision for the Maharajah, for 
the members of his family, and the servants of the State. 

By Sib Charles Wood, K.C.B. March 21s^ 1860. 

At the close of the second Sikh war, it was determined to 
annex the Punjab to British territory, and to put an end to the 
separate Ehalsa Government of the Sikhs. The form in which 
the arrangement for this purpose was recorded, was a paper 
of terms granted and accepted at Lahore in 1849, and notified by 
the Governor-General. 

The provisions in favour of the Maharajah are contained in the 
4th and 5th Articles of those terms (the first three all being 
declaratory of the surrender) as follows : — 

"4th. His Highness Duleep Singh shall receive from the 
Honourable East India Company, for the support of himself, his 
relatives, and the servants of the state, a pension not less than 


four, and not exceeding five, lakhs of Company's rupees per Chapter 

annum. XV. 

** 5th. His Highness shall be treated with respect and honour. 

He shall retain the title of Maharajah Duleep Singh Bahadoor ; 
and he shall continue to receive, during his life, such portion 
of the above-named pension as may be allowed to himself person- 
ally, provided he shall remain obedient to the British Government, 
and reside at such place as the Governor-General of India may 

The terms were signed by the young Maharajah, and by six of 
the principal Sirdars and people of his court. 

The first question is, what are the Maharajah's rights under the 
two articles, and what are the obligations which the Government 
of India came under towards him personally ? 

It is clear that, being a minor, required to live where the 
Governor-General might determine, he was not intended to be 
(he recipient of the " pension not less than four, and not exceeding 
five, lakhs of Company's rupees per annum," which was to form 
the provision for " himself, his relatives," and '* the servants of 
the State." 

This Article, though using his name as the head of the State at 
the time the announcement was made, must be construed with 
the following Article, which provides that " he shall continue to 
receive, during his life, such portion of the above-named pemion 
as may be allotted to himself personally," under the condition 
of good behaviour. 

The personal claim of the Maharajah is here limited to the 
receipt, for his life, of his personal stipend ; and the amount to be 
allotted to him was left entirely to the Government of India. 

During the first years of the Maharajah's minority the annual 
sum allotted for his personal allowance was 120,000 rupees per 
annum. It was afterwards increased to 150,000 per annum ; the 
increase taking effect from the date of his attaining the age of 


Chapter The Indian Grovemment recommended that, on his attaining 

^^* the age of twenty-one, £25,000 should be allotted as his personal 

•looo-So, allowance. This smn, together with the present sums allotted to 

the other recipients of allowances, under the 4th Article, will 

exceed the the amount of four lakhs. 

Some of these allowances will necessarily fall in sooner or later ; 
and the amount of allowances will again be reduced below four 

A question may arise as to the obligations under the terms of 
1849, as to the disposal of any such annual sums falling in. 

The Maharajah seems to expect that he may be considered 
entitled to benefit from such lapses. But this claim has been 
distinctly negatived by Lord Dalhousie, who cannot be mistaken 
as to the meaning of the terms which he granted; and the 
provision that the Maharajah shall only receive what may be 
specially allotted to him, is so clear in the 5th Article, that he 
can evidently have no right to any increase of his stipend conse- 

It is evident that the portion of the pension allotted to others 
can only be for their respective lives. 

The provision in the Maharajah's favour is only for life. This 
is expressly provided for. 

It cannot be supposed that the allowances to be assigned to the 
other persons were for any other term than that assigned for the 
Maharajah's, namely, for their respective lives. The only other 
possible construction of the terms would be, that the allowances 
of the other parties were to be for the period of the Maharajah's 

But it would be an absurdity to suppose because the 4th Article 
uses the Maharajah's name as the recipient of the entire pro- 
vision, that the pensions assigned to other members of the family 
and State servants would at once have ceased if the Maharajah 
had happened to die during his minority. All of them, like the 
personal stipend of the Maharajah, must be regarded as assured 
life stipends, but not extending beyond life. 


The amount, therefore, of any stipends so falling in hereafter, Chapter 
must, according to the terms of 1849, fall in to the British XV. 
Government. 1856-86. 

There is no douht, however, but that, up to the present 
time, the difference between the sums allotted to the Maha- 
rajah, his relatives, and the servants of the State, and the 
amount of four lakhs, which was the smallest sum which it was 
provided that the British Government should apply to the 
purposes mentioned, has not been so expended. What the 
amount of such accumulation is we have no means of ascertaining 
in England ; but it is understood that there may be a balance of 
between £160,000 and £200,000. 

The Maharajah supposes he is entitled to claim this as payable 
to himself personally ; first, because the 4th Article of the terms 
of 1849 uses his name as recipient of the whole four lakhs ; and 
secondly, because he alleges that the balance is composed mainly, 
if not entirely, of short payments to himself, of what he con- 
siders to have been due to him during his minority. 

The simple answer to this claim is afforded by the 5th Article, 
which specifically provides that he is only to receive the " portion 
of the above-named pension" that might be allotted to " himself 
personally," and the Government of India might allot to him 
whatever sum it thought proper, as it might in a like manner 
to the other persons referred to in the 4th Article. Any part of 
the £40,000 per annum which has not been allotted, and has 
accumulated in the Treasury of the British Government, is at 
their disposal ; but they are bound to apply it for the purposes 
stated in the terms of 1849. 

It is a fair question, however, what is the best method of 
disposing of any balance that the British Government has now in 
its hands, and which it is under obligation to spend for the benefit 
of these parties; and it would certainly seem that the most 
appropriate disposition will be to make a provision for the famihes 
of the life stipendiaries. 


Chapter It is to be observed that it is the practice in India, in dealing 
XV. with political stipendiaries, to leave the provision for the family 
1866-86. to be settled after the stipendiary's decease, and not to place it in 
the hands of the annuitant. 

The Maharajah has felt the precarious position in which any 
family which he might leave would be placed in this respect, and 
has asked us to give him security on this point. 

The Committee of the Council proposed a scheme on this 
especial point, namely, that a sum should be capitalized, sufficient 
to produce an annual sum of £10,000 per annum, as a permanent 
income after his death for his widow and any children he might 

The Maharajah has asked for permission to bequeath this 
amount to some public purpose for the Punjab, in case he should 
die childless; but to this the Committee have refused to 

By the terms of 1849, as already shown, the Maharajah is only 
entitled to receive for life such bum as may be allotted to him. 

The Committee, however, were most willing to remove his 
natural anxiety, by enabling him to make a Uberal provision for his 
wife and children after his death. 

But they could not consistently with their sense of duty place 
at his disposal, by will, any funds for any other purpose. If funds 
should be available for public purposes, their application must 
rest with the Government. 

The Committee further said that, if the Maharajah should pre* 
f er to receive at once such a proportion of the present accumolation 
as the Government of India may consider it proper to grant to 
him, with reference to the claims of all others interested, there 
can be no objection to that amount being paid to him down» 
leaving him to make his own arrangements for his family, which, 
in that case, would have no claim to look to the Government for 
any further provision after his decease. If the Maharajah prefers 
this to the offer of capitaUzing a sum producing £10,000 per 


annum as a trust-fund, for the benefit of his family, the case will Chapter 
be referred to the Governor-General of India, desiring him to 2^* 
ascertain what the real balance of unappropriated " pension " 1856«86. 
payable under the 4th Article of the Terms of 1849 now is — 
and also to determine the proportion of that balance which may 
fairly be assigned to the Maharajah. This is strictly conformable 
with those terms. 

The Council of India are of opinion that the proposal to capital- 
ize the proportion of the stipend of £25,000 per annum, i.e., 
£10,000 per annum, as a trust provision for his family, is the 
most beneficial arrangement for the Maharajah. They will, 
however, willingly accede to whichever of these arrangements he 
may prefer. 

On the foregoing the Maharajah's remarks : — 

The reader will see that the Government is of opinion that it 
is under no obligation to give, during the Maharajah's life, any 
larger pension thaji it may choose to allow, nor to give any 
pension to his family after his death. 

The Maharajah does not agree to this as a true interpretation 
of the Treaty, nor, we think, would ordinary minds come to that 

It is admitted that the pension is not entirely to cease 
with the life of the Maharajah, but as to certain portions, it is to 
be continued after his death for certain purposes. It is also stated 
that the name of the Maharajah is used in the 4th Article of the 
Treaty, not in his individual capacity, but as '' head of the 

This reading favours the construction for which the Maharajah 
contends, viz., that the pension was to be hereditary, and 
that any forfeiture that he might incur would not prejudice the 
rights of his children. 


Chapter The Maharajah does not believe that it could have been 
XV. intended to confine his compensation to a mere life pension in 

1856-86. exchange for an hereditary estate of not less than two miUionB 
sterling per annum, which increases constantly with the pro- 
sperity of the country. 

At all events, the interpretation put upon the Treaty by the 
Government is so unfavourable to the Maharajah, and to his 
posterity, and so different from what, we venture to say, an 
ordinary reader would gather from its perusal — so different from 
what must have been imderstood by the assembled chiefs in 
1849, when they heard it read by Sir Henry Elliot — that, if 
correct, it requires some more impartial sanction and confirmation 
than that of a Government department to render it acceptable or 
satisfactory to the Maharajah. 

If it were really intended after the Treaty to leave the Maha- 
rajah and his descendants entirely at the mercy of the British 
Government ; if the Government also intended to absorb all his 
personal and private property, as well as to deprive him of his 
personal freedom, why ask him to sign any treaty at all ? He 
and his were in the power of the British Grovemment and army, 
who might have disposed of both at pleasure. 

We cannot think that the India Office have rightly interpreted 
either the language or the spirit of the Treaty ; but we unhesi- 
tatingly say that, if the Treaty does mean what Sir Charles Wood 
stated in his memorandum, it is a document which must excite 
feelings of just indignation in every honest mind. 

As a consequence of its interpretations, as explained above, the 
Maharajah has never had what he considers to be the fall 
benefit of the Treaty of 1849 ; and, moreover, he has, under cover 
of the Treaty, been deprived of private property and lands which 
it did not profess to confiscate. 

Taking a lakh of rupees to be equal to £10,000, the pension 
would be between £40,000 and £50,000 (say £45,000). 

The payments actually made to the Maharajah are as follows: — 


From 1849 to 1856 £12,000 per annum. Chapter 

1856 to 1858 £15.000 „ XV. 

1858 onwards £25,000 „ 1856-86. 


Besides these payments, allowances to relatives and dependants 
to the extent of £18,000 per annimi at the commencement (1849) 
which were reduced to £15,000 in 1859 have been made. These 
allowances have rapidly dwindled into a very small sum, if 
indeed they have not vanished altogether. 

In 1859 about £100,000 was the aggregate saving of the 
Government on the four lakhs. 

In 1862 the Government provided a sum of £105,000 (which 
probably was the exact amount saved, but they endeavoured to 
make it appear as a voluntary provision made by them), for the 
purchase of an estate, to be settled on the Maharajah and his 
issue, also empowering him to bequeath to his legitimate off- 
spring a sum of four per cent. India Capital Stock, to be provided 
by Gk>vemment, this amount to be sufficient to yield an income 
of £7,000 per annum, subsequently increased to £10,800 per 

Between 1862 and 1882 the Government advanced the sum 
of £198,000, charged on the India Capital Stock, and (in the 
event of his leaving no issue) on the Suffolk estates. 

Of this, £60,000 was lent free of interest, the remainder, 
£138,000, was part at four per cent., and part at five per cent., 
the terms being precisely what could have been obtained from 
any insurance office in the City of London. 

The Government, however, agreed to pay half the premiums 
on policies of insurance for £100,000 on the Maharajah's life 
(the Maharajah bearing the other half, in respect of which the 
Grovemment now deduct £1,575 annually from his allowance). 

But the additional price exacted for these advances was, that 
the mansion and all the Suffolk estates, whether bought with 
the £105,000 (specially provided for the purchase of a family 


Chapter estate), or with the loans raised from Government, or with the 
^y* Maharajah's own money, shall be sold at the Maharajah's 
1856-86. death. Thus the Government have rendered futile the prospect 
of landed proprietorship for the Maharajah's h nrs. 

The money result in the year 1884 to the Maharajah of these 
operations is roughly as follows : — 

Annual pension from Government ... £25,000 

Deductions by Government : — 

For interest per annum ... £5,664 

For premiums of insurance ... 1,675 

Net sum received by the Maharajah from 


Government per annum. £17,761 

The Maharajah complains that the payments made to him are 
not in fulfilment of the stipulations of the Treaty. He considers 
that under the Treaty he ought, after he was of age, to have 
received the full pension himself paying out the allowances to 
his relatives and dependants. 

If this be correct, the Government have withheld from him sums 
which, it is calculated, must amount to more than the whole of 
their advances to him, although the figures of the account have 
not been furnished by Government. 

As to the £105,000 paid him in 1862, if it does, in fact, re- 
present, as he believes, the aggregate amount of sums withheld 
up to 1859 (calculating his pension at the minimum of four lakhs 
only), it does not include interest on those accumulations. 

It seems hard to the Maharajah, under these circumstances, to 
be paying large sums of interest every year to the Government, 
whom he believes to be his debtors ; and he hopes, that if ever 
they should pay him his accumulations, they will pay him 
back interest on the sums which they have, from time to time, 
retained, and withheld from his use. 


The following is the provision for the widow and children of Chapter 

the Maharajah : — XY . 


Valae of Soffolk estates (say) £200,000 

Insurance moneys 100,000 

£72,000 East India Stock 72,000 

Total provision £372,000 

This realized at 3^ per cent, would give an income of £13,000, 
to be divided amongst his widow and children. 

We have already stated that the Maharajah contends that the 
original pension of £45,000 per annum is in its nature hereditary, 
and ought to be continued undiminished after his death to his 

The revenues of the Punjab are not dependent on the tenure of 
a life, nor do they diminish year by year; and the pension 
awarded by the Treaty of 1849 should most certainly be regarded 
as a first charge on those revenues. 

From another part of the same book other extracts 
are supplied, which show how aaxious the Maharajah 
was to have his affairs settled by arbitration. 

Extract from work published by the Maharajah, entitled, 
" The Maharajah Duleep Singh and the Government." 

How stands the case between the British Government and the 
Maharajah ? 

It was thought expedient (it could not be just or right) to annex 
his kingdom. 

Zo iake care of his private estates and property, and to restore 


Chapter them undiminished to him when of age, was the bonnden duty of 
XV. the new Governors of the country, under the circumstances, even 
1856-86, \^ they not been the personal guardians of the boy. 

Nevertheless, these estates and property have been appropri- 
ated, without apparently a question, or the slightest hesitation on 
the part of the distinguished and accomplished persons who, from 
time to time, have constituted the Government of the Punjab, 
under the new rSgime, 

The whole has been treated as if it had been spoil of war. 

These estates, as we know, were untouched by the Treaty ; but 
how have we acted towards the Maharajah in our fulfilment of 
the terms stipulated for by that Treaty ? 

The Government has explained away all the provision apparently 
intended to be secured to the Maharajah, and assured him that, 
although one clause in it tells him that he is to receive between 
£40,000 and £50,000 per annum, the next clause, if properly 
understood, according to official interpretation, entirely takes 
away such right, and leaves him at the absolute mercy of the 
Government, to give as much or as little as they please. 

Lord Lawrence, in reference to another Indian prince (who 
was not a British ward), says : — 

The question "whether in dealing with an Asiatic nilcr, like Shere All, the 
common rules of European international law have any application whatever/* U 
again passed over. 

I aSirm that it should not so he treated. If international law has no apidi- 
cation in this case, then what is the law or principle on which the cause between 
Shere Ali and ourselves is to be tried. Are wetobe the judges in our aum eatu^ / 
Are we to decide in accordance with our own interest** ? Is this an ans^ * r 
which Englishmen will give in so grave a matter ? 

In another place Lord Lawrence justly observes : — 

Statesmen should never forget that the real foundations of our power in 
India do not rest on the interested approval of a noisy few. They rest anjusiicr. 


on the contentment of the millions, who may not always be silent and quiescent, Chapter 
and on their feeling that in spite of the selfish clamour of those who profess to be ^LV« 
their guardians and representatives, they may place hnpUdt trust tfi the equal 1856-86. 
jmstkeqfour GUnfernmenty and in its watchful care of the interests of the masses 
of the people. 

Here we have to do with a treaty and a series of transactions, 
one party to which is the British Government in its own right, 
and the other party is the ward of the same British Govern- 

In the one capacity the British Government want to escape 
from paying more, or giving up more, than they can help ; in the 
other capacity it has always heen their duty, as guardians and 
trustees, to uphold the interests of the Maharajah, and claim and 
recover for him all he could fairly demand, from whomsoever it 
might be. 

The Maharajah accuses the Government of having allowed its 
attention to the interests of the department to interfere with its 
duty to his interests, and refuses to be satisfied with the correct- 
ness of its decision between those interests. 

Is it impossible in such a case to provide some impartial 
tribunal, such as might carry conviction to a reasonable mind 
that injustice had not been done by irresponsible power ? Are 
there no eminent lawyers of judicial rank whose services might 
be engaged to hear and decide the conflicting claims ? 

Or must the nation bear the reproach of its Government, insist- 
ing on being judges in its own cause, to the neglect of those sacred 
principles which Lord Lawrence terms the "foundation of our 
power in India?" 

While the Maharajah was engaged m compiling the 
book from which the foregoing has been quoted, he 
had also sent out to India an agent from the firm 
of Messrs. Farrer & Co., his solicitors, with.instruc- 



Chapter tions to examine the records of the Punjab, with a 
if^fi ftfi view to establishing the Maharajah's claims on certain 
private estates. 

Shortly after his agent's return, the Maharajah 
addressed a letter to Lord Kimberley, then Secretary 
of State for India (March, 1885), forwarding a state- 
ment of private estates, claimed by him as inherited 
from Runjeet Singh, a Sirdar of the Punjab, and his 
predecessors, concluding the letter as follows : — 

Your Lordship by this time is fully aware that unless the 
British Government is prepared to accord me speedily some 
measure of justice, I shall be compelled to abandon permanently 
my landed estates and position in England, as I am unable 
adequately to maintain either with the means now accorded to 
me ; in which case, the moderate and legitimate expectations with 
which I was induced to settle in this country must be utterly 
disappointed, and I myself and my family be reduced to a state 
inferior to that of many of the subjects of the State of which 
I was the Sovereign when my country was annexed by the 
British Goverement, 

The subjoined statement is the result of a careful 
inquiry made by the Maharajah's agent in several 
districts of the Punjab. No estates have been claimed 
as private property that came into the possession of 
Bunjeet Singh subsequent to the year 1800, that being 
the year in which he attained to the sovereignty of the 


Estates claimed by Dvleep Singh as private property (of which Chapter 
some part have been in the possession of his famAly from the time of ^'^• 
Nodh Singh, his great-great-grandfather) : — looo-oo. 

In the districts of — 
Goojranwala . .61 villages ; of which 33 were left by Ghorrat Singh. 

Groojrat ...10 „ 





99 99 

Jhelnm ,..65 „ 





99 99 

(Including the salt-mines 

of Find Dadnr Khan.) 

Sealkote ... 18 villages ; 





99 99 

Goordaspore... 6 „ 




»> • 

Maha Singh. 

Anuritsar ... 2 „ left by Nodh Singh. 

The remainder of the above were left by Maha Singh, others 
being acquired by Bunjeet Singh. 

The annual value of the above villages is Rs.2,04,99, 

The revenue of the salt mines is now about forty 
lakhs. (1869.— R8.44,91,458=£449,145.) In Sikh 
times said to be under six lakhs.* 

The inquiry does not extend all over the Punjab. 
There are known to be other villages belonging to 
Churnit Singh, especially about Rawul Pindee. 

No reference is here made to the claims of the 
Maharajah to the intestate estates of deceased rela- 
tives, many of whom are known to have died since the 
date of annexation. 

* See ante, p. 99. 

NN 2 


^P^' While the question of the Maharajah's claims to 
1856-86. private property is under consideration ; it may be 
well to enter here a valuation of the personal property 
pillaged at Futtehghur during ' the Mutiny. This 
return was made out by Sir John Login, and sent in 
to the Indian Office at the time that compensation 
claims were called for. 

Vahie of property pillaged at Futtehghur, 

Land and houses purchased by His Highness 93»014 

Furniture and fittings of all descriptions, including 

table-furniture, plate, glass, and crockery 74,403 

Tent equipage made at Futtehghur lO^TGS 

Farrash Ehana property, consisting of Cashmere tents, 

carpets, Muslunda quilts, chogas, elephant jhools, ice. ... 20,000 


In compensation for this claim, the British Govem- 
mendt oflfered £3,000, which the Maharajah refused to 
accept, considering the proposition an insult. 

The Government has never accounted to the 
Maharajah for the money received for the sale [of 
the house, nor has he received anything in respect of 
the value of the land, though the papers show^ that 
the whole was purchased out of his money, nor any 
compensation in respect of the contents of the house, 
which were destroyed at the Mutiny. 


Such then is the position of the Maharajah Duleep Chapter 
Singh with the British Government. ^oa 

For upwards of thirty years has he been at issue 
with them on various points, small questions no doubt 
at first, which would have instantly disappeared had 
the recommendations of Sir John Lawrence and Sir 
Frederick Currie been adopted ; but which, as time 
went on, became more and more of vital importance 
to the Maharajah, and, in a corresponding ratio, less 
and less interesting to the officials who had to deal 
with the case, as they had no hand in the original 

Is he, therefore, entirely to blame for his present 
attitude towards the British nation ? 

If no excuse can be found for him, are the children 
to suffer for the sins of the father ? 






Extract fbom a Lettbb to Mb. John Bbioht, M.P., on thb 

poucy OF oxjjt BuiiE IN India. 

{In reply to one of his d4i$Bd September 1st, 1857.) 

Sept. 1857. 
Mt DBAS Mb. Bbioht, 

• • . . The intelligence from India continues to be indeed 
most painfal, and full of atrocities and treachery, although 
certainly not causing more apprehension or anxiety, as to the 
final result, than it did at first. That we should have been able 
to maintain our ground so well against such odds, could never 
have been anticipated by the mutineers; and when they hear of 
the successive arrivals of ships from England with reinforcements, 
before they have succeeded in establishing civil power in a single 
district, we may have reason to hope their treacherous, cowardly 
hearts will quail within them through fear. 

No one who has had opportunity of seeing Mahomedans (and 
Hindoos) in countries to which our influence had not extended, 
is much surprised at atrocities wl^ch are not very uncommon 
among them, and although the dread of consequences under our 
rule has prevented the exercise of such revolting cruelties, there 
is scarcely a man, woman, or child among them, to whose 
imagination they are not perfectly familiar, and, except by those 


whom education has enlightened, who does not consider them to 
be perfectly justifiable, if not praiseworthy, against " Kafirs," such 
as we are ! This revolt has torn the veil from Hindooism and 
Mahomedanism, and shown them in their true colours. 

I am quite as anxious as you can be, that we should bring no 
discredit on the Christian name by the manner in which we 
make these miserable wretches atone for their appalling atrocities. 
Of all that can be proved to have been ringleaders in the revolt, we 
have no alternative than to make a most fearful example. But 
those who have taken a lead in these atrocities are, I believe, few 
in comparison with the multitudes who have been led astray by 
them, and for whose ignorance we are, to a certain extent, 

Whenever we are again in a position to enforce order, and to 
bring the guilty to punishment, we need be under no difficulties, 
however numerous they may be. With so many railroads to 
make in India, on which convict labour can be made useful, so 
many settlements and colonies within the tropics, such as Pegu, 
Mauritius and the West India Islands, where a labouring 
population is required, so many ships available to convey them, 
and with a sincere desire to remove the ignorance and superstition 
which have caused such atrocities, we may confidently hope that, 
with God's help, we shall yet be able to "overcome evil with 

The manner in which our countrymen have been led to carry 
out the sentence of death upon these mutineers, with a view to 
make their executions more impressive upon the natives that 
witness them, is certainly most distressing, and I deeply deplore 
it ; but if it has the effect of deterring others from such crimes, 
and depriving the criminals of that bravado which leads them to 
rush to the halter prepared for them and die as martyrs, I can- 
not find fault with it ; for, however revolting, it is not more cmel 
or less instantaneous than any other mode, nor am I apprehensive 
that it will have the effect you suppose of "rousing revengeful 
feelings which time can never heal." The people of India consider 
us to be perfectly justified in thus punishing men guilty of such 
atrocities against us, knowing from the general leniency of our 
punishmeuts hitherto that we have only been driven to them by 
their treachery ; and if we can only succeed in putting down the 


mntmy, and re-establishing our power firmly, I should have no 
more apprehension of going unarmed among the very sons of 
these men in their villages than I ever had. 

In truth, with this, as in other things, we are obliged often to 
act in opposition to our right feelings, and in a manner which 
would be most unjustifiable among a people less barbarous in 
heart, in order to give that impression of our power and energy 
which is necessary to enable us to do any good among them, 
and to raise them out of that debasing superstition and igno- 
rance which is the fruitful source of all these atrocities. 

In the same way, I am quite prepared to make more allowances 
for such men as Clive, Warren Hastings, and others of our 
countrymen in India than you do, for being carried away by 
their successes (among a people who held their possessions by the 
sword) to acts and results which, to our settled notions of rights 
of property for so many centuries, appear most extravagant and 
oppressive; and I am very certain that even at this present 
moment — after we have, by the strength of our Government for 
the last fifty years, given a security to individual rights unknown 
before — there is not a single native of India who has read or heard 
of Clive or Warren Hastings, who attaches that discredit to their 
proceedings which Englishmen do. It is very true that you may 
have been in the way of hearing natives of India profess very 
high-flown sentiments on these points, as it suited their indivi- 
dual interests to do so ; but I am very much mistaken, after 
twenty-five years' experience of them, and among such men as 
Lord Metcalfe, Mr. Thomason, and many others (who knew them 
better than I can pretend to do), if there is a single one who, in 
circumstances like GUve, Warren Hastings, and other English- 
men, would have shown half their moderation. 

We must never forget that public opinion among natives of 
India generally is in many respects not further advanced than it 
was in England during the Heptarchy (certainly not so far in its 
religious basis), and that our ideas of individual rights and 
abstract justice are comparatively new to them, and can with 
difficulty be adapted to their minds. They are making progress, 
no doubt, and that very rapidly ; and another fifty years of our 
rule, and the security enjoyed under it, will bring them well up to 
us, if we do our duty. 


But, dear Mr. Bright, instead of giving much thought to the 
misdeeds of our predecessors in India — ^the cruelties of which I 
am sure you exaggerate greatly, and which I am very confident 
are not considered so had hy Asiatics as hy ourselves, and cause 
hut little ill-will towards us — I am anxious that you should turn 
your attention to exusting evils, with a view to remove them. If 
the present state of India is a just judgment upon us, it is not so 
much for the misdeeds of the past century, as for the present 
neglect of duty and want of confidence in the right policy we 
should pursue. 

Through the hlessing of God, we have been placed in India in a 
position of the highest influence and responsibility. 

We had an army of nearly 300,000 men, composed of Hindoos 
and Mahomedans, the most ignorant, most bigoted, and most 
superstitious of any class in India. We have had opportunities, 
no one can deny, of removing much of that ignorance, bigotry, 
and superstition by introducing education among them, without 
causing the least alarm for their religion (caste) ; and there are 
many who think that they were open to religious instruction 
without endangering our influence over them in the smallest 
degree. Instead, however, of our doing anything to enlighten 
them, as it was our duty to do, we have pampered them in all 
their ignorant superstitions; flattered them into a belief that 
as soldiers they were quite equal to ourselves, and instructed 
them only through the drill-sergeant. Is it to be wondered at 
that they should think we held India only by their sufferance, 
and that they should attempt to wrest it from us ? 

Our successes in India have placed many of the princes and 
chief sin our power, with all their families and dependants ; many 
of them receiving pensions greater than the revenues of some 
independent states in Europe. We have had influence sufficient 
to induce them to educate their children, at least, in secular 
knowledge, and to show them the world as it now exists ; but vre 
have not done so ; we have been satisfied to let them live in that 
state of sensuality natural to them, to indulge in dreams of their 
former greatness, surrounded by sycophants and slaves, and to be 
instructed only by the most bigoted of their creed, until, like the 
old Mogul and his family, and the atrocious Nana Sahib, we have 
prepared them fitly for the position they have assumed. 


As the Paramotmt State in India for the last fifty years, we 
had the *' right of presentation " (according to established practice 
nnder the Delhi emperors, and which the present pnppet of the 
mutineers will, no doubt, affect to assume) to almost all the 
minor principalities in India, and, as such, the right of placing 
whom we pleased to rule over them, if we thought fit to 
do so. 

During the reigns of the great emperors of Delhi to the time of 
Arungzebe (Alumgheer) this right was almost uniformly acted 
upon, and these petty musnuds were given away by them as 
readily as a kardarshipt or jagheer^ in the Punjab, by old 
Bunjeet Singh, a few years since. The right of a son to succeed 
his father was never dreamed of, although it most frequently 
happened that a son was considered by the Emperor and his 
courtiers to be the fittest man for it, and could afford to pay the 
handsomest nuzztir on accession ; in which case, he was, of 
course, preferred, and the grant and dress of honour sent to 
him, when he was considered by his subjects to be duly 

Of course, when the Emperor thought he could more con- 
veniently and profitably hold the province under his own ofiicials, 
he did so, receiving the revenues into his own treasury, and 
paying the functionaries himself, instead of giving out the province 
and the people on lease I 

When the power of the Delhi emperors decUned, princes and 
chiefs who had these soubahs and minor states naturally 
endeavoured to transmit them to their sons, and, in most cases, 
succeeded ; but they never felt themselves secure in their position 
until they received a sumntid from the Delhi Emperor, even when 
a captive in the Mahratta camp. 

When the success of our arms in the upper provinces of India 
placed the representative of the Mogul emperors in our hands, 
he transferred all his regal rights to our Government, on certain 
conditions, which have by us been faithfully fulfilled ; and, although 
the East India Company (in deference, I believe, to pubUc opinion 
in England, which considered such rights to be nothing more 
valuable than the claim of our Sovereign to the Crown of France) 
have not exercised those rights to their full extent, they had, in 
case of failure of direct heirs to such states, as they have them- 


selves re-established, very properly acted upon this principle, 
leaving, however, personal property to the families of deceased 
princes, with pensions suitable to their wants. 

Having, however, adopted so much of these rights as was 
convenient, they ought not to have neglected other responsibilities 
attfibched to their position, as they undoubtedly have done, viz., 
the duty of ascertaining and ensuring the proper qualifications of 
rulers succeeding, under their auspices, to the government of 
the subordinate states, and thus affording proper protection to the 
interests of their subjects. 

Had the Government of India done their duty in this respect, 
and taken measures for the proper education and instruction of 
every young prince in India, over whom they had such right of 
influence, I doubt not that, ere this, we should have seen many 
native states much more advanced than they are in order and 
good government. 

There is yet another point over which, I think, the East India 
Company have been greatly led astray, and of which the present 
position of India shows the extreme danger. 

The policy of the Indian Government has, I believe, not 
intentionally, but not the less certainly, given encouragement to 
military employment far beyond its proper bounds ; and I am 
convinced that, under a better system, there need not have been 
more than one-third the present number of native soldiers in 
India withdrawn from peaceful occupations. 

So long as we had large native states, with their numerous 
armies, to oppose us, it was necessary for us not only to employ 
as many Sepoys as we could afford for our own defence, but to 
prevent them enhsting, under native princes, against us; but 
when the success of our arms had reduced the power of the native 
chiefs, and forced them to accept our terms — instead of attempt- 
ing to reduce the militai-y population of each state, as might 
often have been done, by disarming them, and in cases where wt^ 
undertook their external defence, permitting no greater number 
of troops to be entertained by the chief than was necessary as 
personal guard, and for civil duties — our Government has been 
led by influences of various kinds to insist rather upon the 
organization of large contingents, to be officered by our army and 
paid by the subject state, leaving the chief very often to use his 


own discretion as to the number of troops he should retain in his 
service, or at least taking little account of them. 

As these contingents are perfect thorns in the sides of native 
potentates, and a constant source of ill-will and apprehension, 
obliging them often to keep up more troops than they would 
otherwise have done, it cannot be doubted that had the necessity 
or expediency of reducing military employment been sufficiently 
impressed upon otir Government, this end might have been easily 
attained by insisting on disarming when we had the power, 
taking notice of the smallest infraction of the Treaty as to the 
number of troops to be employed, and requiring the payment of a 
small amount as tribute, in money, or produce, or the assignment 
of a district, to defray the expense of any addition which might 
be required to our own army for the external defence of the 

It may perhaps serve to illustrate the extent to which native 
princes are sometimes permitted to increase the number of troops 
in their pay for the civil duties of the country, if I remark that 
the ruler of Oude in 1801 was limited by Lord Wellesley to the 
employment of seven or eight thousand men, but had up to 1848 
been allowed to increase that number gradually to 55,000 ! We 
need not therefore wonder that Oude has been considered so 
long our nursery for Sepoys I 

I cotdd also say something on our ''temporizing policy," in 
endowing their temples and mosques instead of boldly telling 
them that, as Christians, we can have nothing to do with 
them, but I have said enough, and must go on to another 

Had I not been aware of your sentiments, so well expressed in 
your letter to the electors of Birmingham, that to " restore order 
to India is mercy to India," I should have felt alarmed at the 
thought being entertained that " the loss of India would not ruin 
Sngland, although the cost of keeping and the effort may ; " but 
'when I know that your remark does not refer to the present, but 
to some future time, when our rule can only be maintained there 
against the wishes of the people, by military power, and at a cost 
of English blood and treasure exceeding its benefits to the 
country and to India, I can readily acknowledge its propriety. 
If I could not look forward ta the time when we shall rule 


India by other influences than mere military force, I should be 
disposed at once, after the revolt has been sufficiently suppressed 
and order restored, to select native rulers apparently best able to 
hold the ground in each of our provinces, endeavour to strengthen 
their position, enter into commercial relations with them, and 
leave them to govern their people in the way best adapted to their 

But however much in the opinion of many who judge of the 
Government of India only from an English point of view, a 
national insurrection .was at any time to be expected against it, 
the present revolt has nothing of the dignity of that character. 
On the contrary, all our information tends to show that the 
people are by no means disaffected towards us, and would con- 
sider the loss of our government to be a great calamity. 

The rebellion has not then the least spark of that patriotism in 
it which the natural feelings of free Enghshmen are ready to 
admire, even when opposed to us, but as a mere impotent 
attempt of ignorant fanaticism, unfortunately fostered by our- 
selves, to stem the tide of advancing civilization. 

Even amidst all the horrors of present anarchy, I can discern 
the dawnings of a brighter intelhgence, and of an influence likely 
to be more lasting than military rule, requiring only the fostering 
care of a powerful Government, and the security to individual 
rights (which recent events will teach our Indian subjects to 
appreciate) to be developed to its full extent, and to bind India to 
England in bonds of mutual interest and good-will. 

With a better knowledge of the power and enterprise of 
England diffused among our fellow-subjects there, will arise the 
feeling that our national character and commercial energy are 
necessary to develop and promote their industrial wealth, and 
that the most productive country in the world, with a population 
so little able to find markets for themselves, must necessarily 
be dependent on the strongest and most enterprising of the mari* 
time powers, and united to it in the bonds of self-interest. 
But may we not entertain hopes of even a higher i: 
than these, and that with the extension of the Grospel 
which, as Christians, it is our duty to make known — sitonger 
sympathies will be awakened between us, to bind us in a ne\7 
relation, under the influence of which we may safely leave Ihem 


to govern themselves, without any misgivings as to the conse- 
quences ? 

With such a prospect before us, let us throw all doubts aside as 
to our poUcy towards India, and at once boldly undertake the 
responsibilities which Providence has entrusted to us, assured 
that if we do so in a right spirit, strength will be given to us to 
carry it out I 

Although you have at least given as much consideration to the 
subject as I have, and applied the great abilities and judgment 
with which God has blessed you to devise a plan of government 
for India suited to its present wants, you may, nevertheless, accept 
a few suggestions I have to offer as to its organization, in the 
hope they may be useful.* 

As the interests of the English nation in the government of 
India have now attained too great a magnitude to be entrusted to 
any other power than the Imperial Legislature, and as the East 
India Company's government has existed long enough to show 
that it has established an influence in India likely to be more 
lasting than mihtary power, I think that it may retire from 
its responsibilities as soon as order has been restored, and with 
very much greater credit than you are perhaps prepared to con- 
cede to it 

Believe me, dear Mr. Bright, 

Yours sincerely, 

J. S. Login. 


MENT OF India between Sib Chables Phipps and 
Sib John Login, July, 1857. 

The first of these papers opens with a defence of the 
ciTil adnainistration of the country under the 

* ThiB is in reference to a scheme for the government of India, to which 
allnsioii wiU be made later. 


Company's government, pointing to the fact that 
the people are more contented under it, and have 
enjoyed more peace and security,' than under any 
other Government which ever existed there. 

** I believe it to be equally true," says Sir John Login, " that 
with 80 much corruption and want of integrity on the part of the 
native officials, whom they are obliged to employ, and bo much 
apathy (as to public measures), selfish avarice, and ignorance, 
on the part of the people, it would have been impossible for any 
Government to have done more for the civil administration of 
the country than has been done by them. I admit that they 
may have been urged on to activity in their civil administration 
by the frequent attacks made upon it in Parhament ; but these 
attacks have been so often made by men who only see 
everything from an English point of view, and who are so 
manifestly ill-qualified to judge of the true state of matters, and 
BO full of prejudice against the Company's government, that all 
the sympathies of old Indian officers are enUsted in favour of 
their old masters ; and they are averse to expose the real defects 
of their rule, or to add in any way to their embarrassment. To 
those who have given consideration to the subject, it has been 
for some time sufficiently evident that the weak point in the 
Company's government has not been so much the civil as the 
military administration ; but, strange to say, this has seldom 
been made the subject of attack in Parliament, and I am not 
aware that the reduction of strength of the native army in India 
has ever been proposed even by my friend Mr. Bright." 

After alluding to the necessity whit;h formerly existed for 
maintaining a much larger native army than was now required,* 
he continues: — *'It was politic to conciliate these men to our 
discipline as far as possible, and to avoid every offence to caste 
prejudices. I fear that these attempts to conciliate were, in the 
early days of our rule, carried much beyond conscientious limit8» 

•See ante, letter to Mr. Bright, p. 556. 


and to an extent which would not now be sanctioned by the 

lowest code of Christian morality When the reduction of 

the Punjab .... removed the last independent native army 
from which any danger was to be apprehended » . . . the 
proper time would appear to have Eurived for commencing to 
reduce the strength of our native army, and for increasing our 
European force." He then speaks of the fatal policy of making 
European troops dependent on native commissariat contractors, 
and of placing an arsenal like Delhi in sole charge of native 
troops. He gives his reasons for believing that ''although 
several Bengal regiments have frequently shown an exacting 
spirit, and one or two have actually mutinied and been disbanded/' 
yet no " real disaffection to the Government has existed among 
them until within a very recent period ; " and then mentions the 
causes which, in his opinion, led to the Mutiny, and says, that 
providentially for us, the revolt broke out sooner than was 
intended by the ringleaders, and before the mutineers had 
concerted aJl their arrangements. As a medical officer he then 
remarks, that though the heat would be injurious to the 
European troops at that season, yet that during the excitement 
of active service they suffer less, or, at least, quite as little^ as 
native troops (an opinion fully borne out by subsequent events). 
When order should be at length restored, and any hostile 
population disarmed, he suggests that a police corps, mounted 
and on foot, should be organized in every district, under English 
officers as magistrates; that European camps, fully equipped 
and able to take the field on the shortest notice, should be 
formed (say at Dehra, the Murree Hills, and Darjeeling for 
Northern India) with detachments to every magazine and depot; 
that good roads, with caravanserais at marching distances, should 
be made wherever railroads cannot be constructed ; that men of 
high caste should not be excluded from enlisting, but should not 
be allowed to preponderate in the ranks, which should consist of 
a due proportion of men of every caste, and that there should 
be an admixture of Sikhs, Ooorkhas, and Mahomedans in every 
company. Though this might cause more trouble to their 
officers in cantonments, there would be less risk of conspiracy, 
and their loyalty would be better ensured. All troops should be 
enlisted oi» the understanding that they were to be employed 



beyond seas if required, or on fatigue duties as sappers and 
miners. He concludes* with the suggestion that it might be 
advisable to attach one, or perhaps two, companies of Pxmjabi 
Mahomedans and hill-men to each European corps, to be 
commanded by the regimental officers ; they would be useful, he 
says, in relieving Europeans from unnecessary exposure, and in 
training young officers for service with the native army. 

This meniorandum, and its accompanying letter, 
called forth the following response : — 

OsBOBKB, Aug. 7th, 1857. 
My Dear Sib John, 

Although overwhelmed with business, as you may 
suppose, during the visit of the Emperor and Empress, I must 
write one line to thank you again for your most interesting letters, 
and to beg you will continue to enlighten me upon Indian afEedrs, 
which, I know, that you understand better than most people. I 
am happy to hear that fiumand is supposed to have shown great 
energy and skill before Delhi, and I hope that he may have shown 
equal military skill in his attack upon the town itself, which seems, 
from the plan, to have a large, straggling, outside fortification, 
with a pretty strong citadel or palace. 

What a blessing that the Maharajah was not in India at the 
time of this fearful outbreak. I cannot conceive a more distress- 
ing position than his would have been. 

Have you ever turned in your mind what will be the best plan 
for the future formation of an efficient army in India? 

Sincerely yours, 

C. B. Phipps. 

In response to the concluding sentence in the above 
letter, Login prepared and presented to Sir .Charles a 


memorandum on the reorganization of the Indian 
army, of which we can only afford space to give the 
leading points* 

This scheme provides for a large European force, an 
auxiliary native army, and a native military police ; 
also for the formation of a staff corps, and the regula-