COMPLIMENTS OF * =* Sir William Penn his PROPRIETARY PROVINCE AND ITS COUNTIES Mi : ION 2. 5 i+ if Z I * : * a SIR WILLIAM PENN HIS PROPRIETARY PROVINCE AND / ITS COUNTIES;, THOSE OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, WITH THE CHRONOLOGY, ETYMOLOGY and GENEALOGY OF THE COUNTIES. RETIRING ADDRESS OF HUGH HAMILTON, M.D., PRESIDENT (1919) OF THE FEDERATION OF PENNSYLVANIA HISTORICAL SOCIETIES ; DELIVERED AT HARRISBURG. PA.. JANUARY 15th. 1920. Admiral Sir William Penn. Father of \\*m. Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, painted by Sir Peter Lily. PAGE THREE Ladies and Gentlemen of the Federation of Historical Societies of Pennsylvania : It shall be my endeavor to interest you in the sa- gacious statesmanship of Sir William Penn; also, the fascination of the Etymology and Genealogy of the Counties of the Province and subsequently of the Com- monwealth of Pennsylvania. In Penn's Frame of Government, or Constitution, for his Proprietory Province, is the following enuncia- tion of principles: "Liberty without Obedience is Confusion. Obedience without Liberty is Slavery. To carry the evenness is partly owing to the Constitution, and partly to the Magistry. Where either of these fail, Government will be subjected to Con- vulsions; but where both are wanting it must be totally subverted (Russia). Where both meet the Government is Like to endure. W T hich I humbly pray and hope GOD will please to make the lot of Pennsylvania. 4th month, April 25th day, 1682, (Signed) William Penn." Vol. I., Colonial Records (Pa.) p. 30. Now the world rejoices in the victorious refutation of the Doctrine. ''Obedience without Liberty," born of the Devil, ruthlessly pursued by that child of the devil, Wilhelm II. of Germany ; overcome by tremendous sacrifices, in our vivid memories. Think for an instant how our peaceful, rugged for- bearers, swung their axes in "a sun-rise to sun-set PAGE FOUR day — " nature's own time limits! No clocks to fool with, or fool us! "A man was famous according as he had lifted up axes upon thick trees." This was written 1026 B. C, by the Psalmist David. Our ancestors must have been famous men. Whose axes swung as a pendulum, carved out fertile Eden-like farms; among them now busy towns do hum, we have comforts, in place of rude alarms. Remember the debt to-day owes yesterday and — to the axes of our forefathers. Few, without some emo- tion, can see on hill and dale the peace added in the evening of a perfect day in Pennsylvania : — by the self- denials of those ahead of us. Dulled with the life of the city by the thought- less throng estranged, My thoughts go back to the woodland where happily I ranged; Again I wander in spirit where the cool spring- waters flow, And watch the changing hues of the speckled trout below; In my heart comes a silent yearning almost akin to pain, To know the peace and quiet of the Pennsylvania Hills again. In the busy heart of the city I am swept with the restless tide, But the ghost of a vanished pleasure is ever by my side ; The spirit of the woodland that haunts the dell and glade, With the scent of the purple violet and the cool of the noonday shade; And the peace of a perfect day through my heart for a moment thrills — The peace of a perfect day in the Pennsylvania Hills. "In the glare of the City twilight, when the stars are hid from view, And the Moon's pale beams shine dimly, the 'Lamp-lit' darkness through; Come memories tinged with sadness, of a pensive twilight glow; And the dancing-lights of fire-flies, thick in the swamps below. (Sir) William Penn at the age oE 22. Absolute Proprietor of Province of Pennsylvania in 1682. A copy of the only authentic portrait of William Penn for which he sat, at the age of 22, when a Captain in the 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot (Infantry); that Regiment made for itself credit, and renown; in the recent war of 1914. This portrait was painted before; he fully embraced the Doctrines of Fox (Quakerism), or become (Sir) William Penn, Absolute Proprietor of the Province (Commonwealth) of Pennsylvania. It can be seen in tlfe State (Pennsylvania) Library and Museum at Harrisburg, Pa. PAGE FIVE And the ever-creeping shadows, darkening the hollow's rills Shadows cast by the Light-crowned, Pennsylvania Hills." — C. B. Benson, in the Philadelphia Ledger. Our persistent effort should be to exercise the senti- ments of Sir William Penn, preserved and expressed on his Proprietory seal: "TRUTH." "PEACE." "LOVE." and "PLENTY." A logical sequence of these assertions, originating from the opposite expe- riences in the Cromwellian conflicts, which emphasized the need of such stated principles of the brotherhood. Are they not prominent issues of this day? Will the schemes of our epoch ever be tangible? "And what are we? An inter-stated nation! What seek we now? An Inter-national State! Who scoffs at this, decries our own creation, Our League of Commonwealths which makes us great. Yet there were little men when we were founded, (1791) Who feared for selves and little bounties Who would have kept the New World cramped and bounded By puny jealousies of petty counties! There is no Golden Rule of all the Ages, But some self-seeking souls have called it brass! There's no Beatitude of Wisdom's pages But some have sworn its jewels were glass ! So now our Mole-eyed men of earth-bound vision Who hold their heads within their burrow's night But nibble at the roots of a decision, And cry out that they cannot see the light ! They cannot hear the singing in the steeples Which summons to fellowship of thought Which summons to a Parliment of Peoples Where Citizens shall teach and Kings be taught Stand forth, America! Strike hands with those Who face with Faith the new dawn, dewed and pearled. Where men shall hail as neighbors, not as foes. Under the greater Charter of the World. — B. V. Cook, in the Patriot. A sailor on a United States ship wrote his mother during the late war from Aden, Arabia, that his vessel had passed the most historic spot on the globe, greater than Lexington or Bunker Hill ! It was the Red Sea, PAGE SIX in evidence of which he saw Pharaoh's chariot wheels on the bottom. (The Egyptians had been washed into the Indian Ocean long, long ago). It was a wrecked aeroplane ; but real history as he saw it. Our object is real history. A child was told the Biblical account of the Deluge. She looked into her Grandpa's face seriously, and asked, "Were you in the Ark?" He answered, "No!" She followed it up by this, "Why were'nt you drowned?" He maintained discreet silence. The explanation, would have been a longer story than that of the Deluge. What does make history? Calvary is but a slight elevation from the surrounding landscape; its con- sequence increases through association. History is not necessarily ancient : I. It is a narrative of incident. II. Growing into event. III. In a locality. IV. At a definite date. V. Confirming God's universal government.* In Lincoln's short Gettysburg speech he saw the travail of the nation's soul in its Birthright of Free- dom : "The Government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." That speech shook thrones and gives cheer to people, even now in 1920. The same idea was promulgated by Penn, in 1681, in a letter of April 8th to the Dutch on the Delaware, after the English had captured New Amsterdam, now New York. "You shall be governed by laws of your own making, live a free, and, if you will, a sober and industrious life." These sentiments of Penn and Lincoln combined were the cause and fortunate result of Gettysburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The reverse of these figures 1681 and 1861 will fix these historical events in your mind. That letter of Penn, and Lincoln's speech made almost as *Psalm 105. PAGE SEVEN deep an impression, as the Victory of the Field of Battle in Adams County, did for the Right. Chateau Thierry forms a paragraph in the Dispatches of the day and stands gloriously for the principles enunciated at Philadelphia in 1776; i. e., "Liberty with Obedience!' Are we in danger of losing it ? What association is suggested in the names of counties and places in Pennsylvania. "Valley Forge," "Susquehanna/' "Wyoming," and "Gettys- burg," ascending from local into National fame. Every County in this Commonwealth has an Etymology and Genealogy worthy of consideration. I have here the blue print of a map by Capt. John Campbell, of the Internal Affairs Department of Pennsylvania, joining the County seats of the several counties with indicating arrows and lines, depicts graphically the divisions of the original and subsequent ones with exact dates of their erection by Acts of Assembly. His gracious kindness permits me to show it to you. Pie receives my hearty thanks. In Day's Historical Collection of the State of Pennsylvania respecting Clarion County; its name originated from the "clarion"-like echoes coming from defeated Indians of the "Corn-planter" tribe in the battle at Brady's Bend, likened to the description of the skirmish of Roderck Dhu in Scott's "Lady of the Lake" canto XVII : — "At once there rose, so wild a yell, Within that dark and narrow dell ; As if, fiends that from heaven fell. Had pealed the "Banner-cry of Hell!" impressed the victorious white participants that they concluded from the shrill shrieks of the Indians, their yells were like clarion tones, hence in 1839 the name "Clarion" appropriate, as well as historical, was given. The Official Original County was Philadelphia form- ally made previous to 10th of March, 1682-3.* From * Due to the changes in the Calendar Year, then. PAGE EIGHT it all the counties sprung in a nomenclature at once alluring and familiar to an Englishman. Surrounding Philadelphia, somewhat like they did London in Eng- land; Buckhamshire (Bucks), Cheshire and Lancashire (our Lancaster) sometimes in the same relative north- ernly direction. The Swedish Colonial town of Oopland was named Chester from the deck of "The Welcome" by Sir William Penn before he landed, in flattering tribute to his friend and fellow passenger, Pearson, a native of Chester, England. Subsequently it was confirmed at Chester, Pennsylvania on the 2nd day of February, 1685, according to Hon. James Futhey and Gilbert Cope in their history of Chester County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, at the junction of the Schuylkill River with the Delaware River was a county spread like a huge fan, North and West, afterward separated into adjacent and more convenient jurisdictions limited by creeks and other prominent landmarks. They were named for immediate and domestic recognition by the English immigrant far away from his ordinary envi- ronment to make him feel "at Home" — with Lancaster as the County-town of Lancaster and beside it Cum- berland County with the familiar Carlisle as its judi- cial capital; and so on, this close adjacency; carried out had much to do with the peace, prosperity and contentment of Penn's Domain. Lancaster County was defined in 1729, forty-six years from the founding of Chester County, divided from it by the Octorara Creek ; from its mouth to near its source ; thence eastward to the mouth of the Monocacy on the Schuylkill River; north and west- ward indefinitely — northernly from the future London of the Province, PHILADELPHIA. The Susquehanna River, then included in Lancaster County, formed such a barrier to attending the court at Lancaster, a new County was necessary. It was made in 1750 less PAGE NINE than twenty-five years after Lancaster County, and in accordance with the plan, called York after Yorkshire in England; that adjoined Lancashire there. It was one of the few provincial Counties if not the only one limited by provincial action, in its western bound- aries by the line of the summits of the South Moun- tains ; to their crossing of the northern line of Mary- land. Within the limits of (this) York County was a Commonwealth County, "Adams," made in 1800, des- tined to become the scene of the crucial battle of the Civil War, Gettysburg in Pennsylvania. Most of the adjacent counties named by Penn were those in which the "Quaker" or doctrines of Fox had been accepted and withstood vile persecutions. These converts were besought and urged to follow their "Moses," Sir Wil- liam Penn, across the ocean to the "woods of Penn" where there was to be no distinctive, titled, privileged class ; acquired in Europe and Asia by a perversion of "Divine Right;" known to them as the "Cain-variety" — "kill all who don't agree with you." We hope have now eliminated that variety forever. These pioneers willingly fled from actual ills, came over in flocks to worship as their conscience directed. The wonderful vision of Sir William Penn — a veritable Utopian idea in that period of prerogatives. Penn's "Lighf inspired and blessed him and his immigrants in their enterprises. — We enjoy them now. All the counties in Pennsylvania previous to the Revolution of the Colonies were named identically and relatively after the counties in England, in this chron- ological order in the Province: — Philadelphia, Chester, Bucks, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, North- ampton, Bedford, Northumberland and Westmore- land.* Wedged together, as they were in old England. After the success of the War of Independence, three *See accompanying Map and Table. PAGE TEN were named after English Counties for the same rea- son ; to attract settlers. They were Huntingdon, Som- erset and Cambria, — still adhering to the splendid and comprehensive scheme of Sir William Penn. Our Commonwealth made more counties, until they now number, sixty-seven. They may be grouped* Etymologically, as follows : I. Sentimental; as Philadelphia (Brotherly-love). II. Familiar and adjacent; as in old England ; such as Chester (shire), "Bucks" (inghamshire). III. In Gratitude, for national existence, in the name "Washington" and "Dauphin." IV. Aboriginal ; by poetical Indian tribal-names as "Juniata" and "Wyoming." V. Topographical, as "Centre," situated in the geo- graphical centre of the Commonwealth ; also "Clarion" from re-sounding echoes made by the steep sur- roundings. VI. Faunal, as "Beaver," "Elk;" also "Schuylkill" from Hollandish (Dutch) "schuil" in our word a ("y" is substituted for the "i") it means shielded or hidden ; and "kill" means a run or creek; hence hidden by dense vegetation on its shores and enormous quanti- ties of weeds in the stream. VII. Political, as "Cameron" in 1860, and "Snyder." In the midst of a Military furor, directly after the War of the Revolution, a County was named Franklin in 1784 — a glowing tribute to Doctor Benjamin Franklin for his sparklingly brilliant experiments in electricity, from them was evolved the "wireless" of today. He was the Edison of his generation. About half a century later, 1850, Fulton County was called after Robert Fulton. Observe the coincidence (both inventors) to the neighboring County: — "Frank- lin." Fulton's invention of the steam-boat set the world afloat, so that in 1918, 2,000,000 and more brave and PAGE ELEVEN grateful Americans went "dry-shod" to France, be- cause of our friendly Alliance with Louis XVI, that saved the cause of the American colonies at the Siege of Yorktown; resulted in the surrender of Corn- wallis in 1781, subsequently founded the nationality of the United States of America. The southern tier of counties, being closer to Philadelphia, in their naming seemed to have a livelier sense of brotherhood in such names as Washington, Franklin, Fulton and Greene. Our own county, "Dauphin," shines among the galaxy of the counties in being named for everlasting gratitude to the "Fleur de Lis" of Louis XVI ; being named in 1785, after the oldest son of Louis, Heir Apparent, which the French called the "Dauphin." A manifestation of Penn's gracious sentiments in the Greek appellation Philadelphia, Brotherly Love ; Even practical John Harris, the founder of this city, did call for some time this primitive settlement "Louisbourg" in grateful recognition for the vital French service rendered the Nation. The Jail of this county has now a stone "Fleur de Lis" over its portal. However, ego- tism overcame Harris, and he affixed his own name; that means "a comb of iron teeth" (a harrow). This County has possibly been honored as the Capital of Pennsylvania because of its appreciation of France's attitude toward the infant U. S. — inculcated by Sir William Penn's impassioned friendly suggestions. How much has been wrought by the splendid states- manship idea expressed by Sir William Penn in his frame of government of the Province of which he asserted himself as "Absolute Proprietor," absolute because he desired his authority to come from popular assent. The reverse of his seal bears the words "MBRCY." "JUSTICE." The very essence of the watch-word of today. (I have the seal here to show you). Would that Sir William Penn could have seen PAGE TWELVE the fruition of some of his grand principles in the haughty and proud-bearing of his great-great-grand- sons "The Keystone Division," in victorious triumphal march on their return from France in Philadelphia. Without this incentive of brotherhood, that would have been impossible ! What would have become of France ? The bulwark of popular civilization ! Or without, also the Pennsylvania invention by Robert Fulton on the Conestoga Creek* in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and the growth of static electricity in the trained lightning of the "wireless" ? by Dr. Franklin. ♦Having read with care, the Lancaster County Historical Societies Proceedings, to which I was referred, for the "Ful- ton House Celebration" in Vol. XIII. No. 8, of its bound transactions; Mrs. Sutcliff's book on "Robert Fulton and The Clermont," and also the book of "Historic Inventions" Hol'and, Phila. 1911, p. 112, beside private correspondence from Lancaster, Pa. Regard the Conestoga creek; not the Conowing Creek, the scene of the fourteen-year old boy Ful- ton, to try propelling skiffs with mechanical paddles. I. For the fact he was in Lancaster, at Isch and Messer- smith's shops frequently, and found there a companion of 18 years of age, an apprentice ; whose father was a fisherman on the Conestoga' s "quiet waters," used to take the son, Christo- pher Gumpf with him ; Robert Fulton was with his boy-friend and as they poled from place to place, got lazy and thought they would work harder with their brains than their blis- tered hands; so they taxed their ingenuity, to do Deter Gumpf's bidding easier; this was accomplished; by aid they could get at the shop where Christopher worked. Lancaster at that time was the flourishing metropolis of the County and had shops. In Little Britain Township where Fulton was born the country is quite hilly so could not furnish streams, that frequently placidly meandered in the Lower Silurian ("Trenton"). A limestone formation, where streams flow lazily afford- ing a still place for his uses. A flat-bottomed boat, at once indicates a sluggish current. III. "Henry" made his unsuccessful mechanically pro- pelled craft experiments before Fulton on the Conestoga (likely not unknown to Fulton). Lancaster was a place where things were to be had; just like New York is now. These facts make one decide that the Conestoga creek was the stream upon which Fulton's mechanically self-propelled skiff was tried. There is no conclusive evidence found for considering that the Conowingo Creek as the scene of any trials by Ful- ton, because it was so far away from mechanical facilities then only to be had at Lancaster. — H. H. PAGE THIRTEEN History lately took unrealizable treasure in the mak- ing and in the downfall of an Empire founded on "Obedience without Liberty." Penn's assertion caused ultimately the diabolical European melee. The recording pens in hosts of hands will soil tons of paper, making books of this historical event in 1914. "There is a moral in all human tales ; 'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past; — First Freedom, and then glory — when that fails, Wealth, vice, corruption — barbarism at last. And History, with her volumes vast Hath but one page !— "ROME !" Owing to the means of communication, everything is neighborly or quickly otherwise. Comparing the voy- age of Columbus with recent aeroplane performances — we look askance into the future. How did men live in such monotony? No newspapers with their daily tele- grams and all that it is to us. Only ponderous tomes. Our forefathers made epochs deliberately. In the Harrisburg "Chronical and Weekly Visitor" edited and published by my Grandfather, Hugh Hamilton, Esq., quoted as "News" in November, 1815. the fact that Napoleon Bonaparte had been defeated at Waterloo on the 18th of June ! "This world is verily a passing show." Good news then seems to have traveled slow. We can keep this Anniversary where we may ; — we will be thinking each in his heart of those not here. It now affords one an agreeable pleasure to extend to you a hearty welcome to our County, which has a good French name in this state of Germanic influences and to the grand Capital of the Commonwealth. — The sylvan province of Sir William Penn ; also to view from the "River Drive" on this side of the shore a real imaginary city. PAGE FOURTEEN "THE SUN-SET CITY. There's a city that lies in the Kingdom of Clouds, In the glorious country on high; Which an azure and silvery curtain enshrouds, To screen it from mortal eye. A city of temples and turrets of gold, That gleam by a sapphire sea; Like jewels more splendid than earth may behold. Or are dreamed of by you or by me. And about it are highlands of amber that reach, Far away till they meet in the gloom ; And waters that hem an immaculate beach, With fringes of luminous foam. Aerial bridges of pearl there are, And belfries of marvelous shapes; And lighthouses lit by the evening star, That sparkle on violet capes. And hanging gardens that far away, Enchantingly float aloof; Rainbow pavilions in avenues gay, And banners of glorious woof. When the Summer's sunset's crimsoning fires, Are aglow in the western sky; The pilgrim discovers the domes and spires, Of this wonderful city on high. And gazing enrapt as the gathering shade, Creeps over the twi-light lea; Sees palace and pinnacle totter and fade, And sink in the sapphire sea. Till the vision loses by slow degrees, The magical splendor it wore ; The silvery curtain is drawn and he sees, The beautiful city no more." — Henry Sylvester Cornweil, In "Home Book of Verse," Vol. VIII., p. 3460. Henry Holt & Co., New York, 19 is. I'll I £L § St -O P 3 ~ 2. S.8 n 33 a e-ff. 2 P . 3 SC* 3 «~t- <-t- O ^ 2 p* 9" P S C P " _ 3 ft J* p 3 P. <T> 1 1 1 §. g- * 6 rjq 2L ^ P p. P. P * O S3 3 Q. o i 5' 3 So 1 ? 8 g "< <« < 3 o 3: <t> ?• g^ C! ^3 P m 3 P p n 9 - orq O 3 P P trl 8 b 5 gg. 3 ►t p. o O W W > 3* 3 *-» »-t a Is. s 2.3 o o c rf CO § S3 I □' *""" 3 p 3 i.orq rS ° ffq P QfQ 3 w 3 P) P <T> i3 m 0,3 rf 3 2 i» no p 3 •"» 3\ 3 " * •8 O 3 3* -+ * $p *i wo o w ,-p 2 o 5* ^ ?r g i p H f* R- P. 3 O S O* <j ogicaj ing cos ch for earn." 32 P. B S3 - I EL t? ' n. e« O. 3 3 T- By Hugh H Harris President F torical St 3 Adams Biair Camero Frankli Jeffersc McKeai Monroe c Irs 1 ** p .P p sp«- ' - s ** 1 x p ? f Chronological Order of English (familiarly) Named Counties of Province of Pennsylvania, and the Commonwealth So. DAY MOHTH YEAR NAME VOL FAGE STATE LIBRARY NOTES ALCOVE Sn£lP CLASS DIV. BOOS FLOOR 1 4-10 March Oct. 1683 PHILADELPHIA Founders' Memorial Week 1909 1 ' XXXIII 374.86 974-8 H397 - Council of Penna., March 10, 1682-3. Mayor Reyburn. Before 10th March, 1683. Vol. I, Col. Record p. 57. 2 2 March Feb. 1685 CHESTER (Cheshire) History of Chester Co.. Pa., | 1S81 J. Futhey Smith, Gilbert Cope ; Evans, Primer, 18S1 28 XXXIII XXXIII F9861 .St Ditto. 3 8 March Feb. 1685 BUCKS (Buckingham) A History of Bucks Co., by , 1853 W. J. Buck; Brown, Printer, 50 B8541 ISt Ditto. A little book bound in 4 ,0 May 1729 LANCASTER I Bioren 1810 (Lancashire) I 176 46 In the State Law [ *"; sl ; An old Law Book. 5 19 Aug. 1749 ] YORK Bioren and Carey 1803 (Yorkshire) 1 246 46 ,st 6 27 Jan. I750 CUMBERLAND . Bioren 1803 I 301 46 .St 7 » March March 1752 BERKS , Statutes at Large of Penna., 1898 (Berkshire) | %£'$*'** R ^ ~ ! V 133 46 .St 8 11 1752 NORTHAMPTON j Bioren 1803 I 322 46 ■ St 9 9 j March 1771 BEDFORD Bioren 1803 I 523 46 ISt xo 21 March 1772 NORTHUMBERLAND Carey and Bioren 1803 1803 II II 41 89 46 46 ,st » 26 Feb. 1773 WESTMORELAND Carey and Bioren .St 12 '7 Sept. March 1787 I99S 1804 HUNTINGDON Carey and Bioren 1803 III 214 46 ISt "Commonwealth." '3 SOMERSET j Carey and Bioren 1803 V 98 46 2 "Commonwealth." 26 CAMBRIA 1806 VII 333 46 Wales is very rugged; its hills are called "Cam- brian," from"Cymry,"an old name for Wales. They were called by Cajsar when in Britain "Cimri" or Cambria or Welsh Tribes.