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Full text of "Sir William Penn : his proprietary province and its counties : those of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, with the chronology, etymology and genealogy of the counties"

COMPLIMENTS OF 




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Sir William Penn 


his 


PROPRIETARY PROVINCE 


AND 


ITS COUNTIES 


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SIR WILLIAM PENN 



HIS 



PROPRIETARY PROVINCE 

AND 

/ 

ITS COUNTIES;, 

THOSE OF THE 

COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, 

WITH THE 

CHRONOLOGY, ETYMOLOGY and GENEALOGY 

OF THE 

COUNTIES. 




RETIRING ADDRESS OF HUGH HAMILTON, M.D., 

PRESIDENT (1919) OF THE FEDERATION OF PENNSYLVANIA HISTORICAL 

SOCIETIES ; DELIVERED AT HARRISBURG. PA.. 

JANUARY 15th. 1920. 




Admiral Sir William Penn. 

Father of \\*m. Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, painted by 

Sir Peter Lily. 



PAGE THREE 



Ladies and Gentlemen of the Federation of 
Historical Societies of Pennsylvania : 

It shall be my endeavor to interest you in the sa- 
gacious statesmanship of Sir William Penn; also, the 
fascination of the Etymology and Genealogy of the 
Counties of the Province and subsequently of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. 

In Penn's Frame of Government, or Constitution, 
for his Proprietory Province, is the following enuncia- 
tion of principles: 

"Liberty without Obedience is Confusion. 
Obedience without Liberty is Slavery. To carry 
the evenness is partly owing to the Constitution, 
and partly to the Magistry. Where either of 
these fail, Government will be subjected to Con- 
vulsions; but where both are wanting it 
must be totally subverted (Russia). Where both 
meet the Government is Like to endure. W T hich 
I humbly pray and hope GOD will please to make 
the lot of Pennsylvania. 

4th month, April 25th day, 1682, 

(Signed) William Penn." 

Vol. I., Colonial Records (Pa.) p. 30. 

Now the world rejoices in the victorious refutation 
of the Doctrine. 

''Obedience without Liberty," born of the Devil, 
ruthlessly pursued by that child of the devil, Wilhelm 
II. of Germany ; overcome by tremendous sacrifices, in 
our vivid memories. 

Think for an instant how our peaceful, rugged for- 
bearers, swung their axes in "a sun-rise to sun-set 



PAGE FOUR 

day — " nature's own time limits! No clocks to fool 
with, or fool us! 

"A man was famous according as he had lifted up 
axes upon thick trees." This was written 1026 B. C, 
by the Psalmist David. Our ancestors must have been 
famous men. 

Whose axes swung as a pendulum, carved out fertile 
Eden-like farms; among them now busy towns do 
hum, we have comforts, in place of rude alarms. 

Remember the debt to-day owes yesterday and — to 
the axes of our forefathers. Few, without some emo- 
tion, can see on hill and dale the peace added in the 
evening of a perfect day in Pennsylvania : — by the self- 
denials of those ahead of us. 

Dulled with the life of the city by the thought- 
less throng estranged, 

My thoughts go back to the woodland where 
happily I ranged; 

Again I wander in spirit where the cool spring- 
waters flow, 

And watch the changing hues of the speckled 
trout below; 

In my heart comes a silent yearning almost akin 
to pain, 

To know the peace and quiet of the Pennsylvania 
Hills again. 

In the busy heart of the city I am swept with the 

restless tide, 
But the ghost of a vanished pleasure is ever by 

my side ; 
The spirit of the woodland that haunts the dell 

and glade, 
With the scent of the purple violet and the cool 

of the noonday shade; 
And the peace of a perfect day through my heart 

for a moment thrills — 
The peace of a perfect day in the Pennsylvania 

Hills. 

"In the glare of the City twilight, when the stars 

are hid from view, 
And the Moon's pale beams shine dimly, the 

'Lamp-lit' darkness through; 
Come memories tinged with sadness, of a pensive 

twilight glow; 
And the dancing-lights of fire-flies, thick in the 

swamps below. 




(Sir) William Penn at the age oE 22. 
Absolute Proprietor of Province of Pennsylvania in 1682. 



A copy of the only authentic portrait of William Penn for which he 
sat, at the age of 22, when a Captain in the 18th (Royal Irish) 
Regiment of Foot (Infantry); that Regiment made for itself credit, and 
renown; in the recent war of 1914. 

This portrait was painted before; he fully embraced the Doctrines of 
Fox (Quakerism), or become (Sir) William Penn, Absolute Proprietor 
of the Province (Commonwealth) of Pennsylvania. It can be seen in 
tlfe State (Pennsylvania) Library and Museum at Harrisburg, Pa. 



PAGE FIVE 

And the ever-creeping shadows, darkening the 

hollow's rills 
Shadows cast by the Light-crowned, Pennsylvania 

Hills." 

— C. B. Benson, in the Philadelphia Ledger. 

Our persistent effort should be to exercise the senti- 
ments of Sir William Penn, preserved and expressed 
on his Proprietory seal: "TRUTH." "PEACE." 
"LOVE." and "PLENTY." A logical sequence of 
these assertions, originating from the opposite expe- 
riences in the Cromwellian conflicts, which emphasized 
the need of such stated principles of the brotherhood. 
Are they not prominent issues of this day? Will the 
schemes of our epoch ever be tangible? 

"And what are we? An inter-stated nation! 

What seek we now? An Inter-national State! 

Who scoffs at this, decries our own creation, 

Our League of Commonwealths which makes us great. 

Yet there were little men when we were founded, (1791) 

Who feared for selves and little bounties 

Who would have kept the New World cramped and bounded 

By puny jealousies of petty counties! 

There is no Golden Rule of all the Ages, 

But some self-seeking souls have called it brass! 

There's no Beatitude of Wisdom's pages 

But some have sworn its jewels were glass ! 

So now our Mole-eyed men of earth-bound vision 

Who hold their heads within their burrow's night 

But nibble at the roots of a decision, 

And cry out that they cannot see the light ! 

They cannot hear the singing in the steeples 
Which summons to fellowship of thought 
Which summons to a Parliment of Peoples 
Where Citizens shall teach and Kings be taught 
Stand forth, America! Strike hands with those 
Who face with Faith the new dawn, dewed and pearled. 
Where men shall hail as neighbors, not as foes. 
Under the greater Charter of the World. 

— B. V. Cook, in the Patriot. 

A sailor on a United States ship wrote his mother 
during the late war from Aden, Arabia, that his vessel 
had passed the most historic spot on the globe, greater 
than Lexington or Bunker Hill ! It was the Red Sea, 



PAGE SIX 

in evidence of which he saw Pharaoh's chariot wheels 
on the bottom. (The Egyptians had been washed into 
the Indian Ocean long, long ago). It was a wrecked 
aeroplane ; but real history as he saw it. 

Our object is real history. A child was told the 
Biblical account of the Deluge. She looked into her 
Grandpa's face seriously, and asked, "Were you in the 
Ark?" He answered, "No!" She followed it up by 
this, "Why were'nt you drowned?" He maintained 
discreet silence. The explanation, would have been a 
longer story than that of the Deluge. 

What does make history? Calvary is but a slight 
elevation from the surrounding landscape; its con- 
sequence increases through association. 

History is not necessarily ancient : 

I. It is a narrative of incident. 

II. Growing into event. 

III. In a locality. 

IV. At a definite date. 

V. Confirming God's universal government.* 

In Lincoln's short Gettysburg speech he saw the 
travail of the nation's soul in its Birthright of Free- 
dom : "The Government of the people, by the people, 
for the people shall not perish from the earth." That 
speech shook thrones and gives cheer to people, even 
now in 1920. The same idea was promulgated by 
Penn, in 1681, in a letter of April 8th to the Dutch 
on the Delaware, after the English had captured New 
Amsterdam, now New York. "You shall be governed 
by laws of your own making, live a free, and, if you 
will, a sober and industrious life." These sentiments 
of Penn and Lincoln combined were the cause and 
fortunate result of Gettysburg in Adams County, 
Pennsylvania. The reverse of these figures 1681 and 
1861 will fix these historical events in your mind. That 
letter of Penn, and Lincoln's speech made almost as 

*Psalm 105. 



PAGE SEVEN 

deep an impression, as the Victory of the Field of 
Battle in Adams County, did for the Right. Chateau 
Thierry forms a paragraph in the Dispatches of the 
day and stands gloriously for the principles enunciated 
at Philadelphia in 1776; i. e., "Liberty with Obedience!' 
Are we in danger of losing it ? 

What association is suggested in the names of 
counties and places in Pennsylvania. "Valley 
Forge," "Susquehanna/' "Wyoming," and "Gettys- 
burg," ascending from local into National fame. Every 
County in this Commonwealth has an Etymology and 
Genealogy worthy of consideration. 

I have here the blue print of a map by Capt. John 
Campbell, of the Internal Affairs Department of 
Pennsylvania, joining the County seats of the several 
counties with indicating arrows and lines, depicts 
graphically the divisions of the original and subsequent 
ones with exact dates of their erection by Acts of 
Assembly. His gracious kindness permits me to show 
it to you. Pie receives my hearty thanks. 

In Day's Historical Collection of the State of 

Pennsylvania respecting Clarion County; its name 

originated from the "clarion"-like echoes coming from 

defeated Indians of the "Corn-planter" tribe in the 

battle at Brady's Bend, likened to the description of 

the skirmish of Roderck Dhu in Scott's "Lady of the 

Lake" canto XVII : — 

"At once there rose, so wild a yell, 
Within that dark and narrow dell ; 
As if, fiends that from heaven fell. 
Had pealed the "Banner-cry of Hell!" 

impressed the victorious white participants that they 
concluded from the shrill shrieks of the Indians, their 
yells were like clarion tones, hence in 1839 the name 
"Clarion" appropriate, as well as historical, was given. 
The Official Original County was Philadelphia form- 
ally made previous to 10th of March, 1682-3.* From 

* Due to the changes in the Calendar Year, then. 



PAGE EIGHT 

it all the counties sprung in a nomenclature at once 
alluring and familiar to an Englishman. Surrounding 
Philadelphia, somewhat like they did London in Eng- 
land; Buckhamshire (Bucks), Cheshire and Lancashire 
(our Lancaster) sometimes in the same relative north- 
ernly direction. 

The Swedish Colonial town of Oopland was named 
Chester from the deck of "The Welcome" by Sir 
William Penn before he landed, in flattering tribute to 
his friend and fellow passenger, Pearson, a native of 
Chester, England. Subsequently it was confirmed at 
Chester, Pennsylvania on the 2nd day of February, 
1685, according to Hon. James Futhey and Gilbert 
Cope in their history of Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia, at the junction of the Schuylkill River 
with the Delaware River was a county spread like a 
huge fan, North and West, afterward separated into 
adjacent and more convenient jurisdictions limited by 
creeks and other prominent landmarks. They were 
named for immediate and domestic recognition by the 
English immigrant far away from his ordinary envi- 
ronment to make him feel "at Home" — with Lancaster 
as the County-town of Lancaster and beside it Cum- 
berland County with the familiar Carlisle as its judi- 
cial capital; and so on, this close adjacency; carried 
out had much to do with the peace, prosperity and 
contentment of Penn's Domain. 

Lancaster County was defined in 1729, forty-six 
years from the founding of Chester County, divided 
from it by the Octorara Creek ; from its mouth to near 
its source ; thence eastward to the mouth of the 
Monocacy on the Schuylkill River; north and west- 
ward indefinitely — northernly from the future London 
of the Province, PHILADELPHIA. The Susquehanna 
River, then included in Lancaster County, formed such 
a barrier to attending the court at Lancaster, a new 
County was necessary. It was made in 1750 less 



PAGE NINE 

than twenty-five years after Lancaster County, and in 
accordance with the plan, called York after Yorkshire 
in England; that adjoined Lancashire there. It was 
one of the few provincial Counties if not the only 
one limited by provincial action, in its western bound- 
aries by the line of the summits of the South Moun- 
tains ; to their crossing of the northern line of Mary- 
land. Within the limits of (this) York County was 
a Commonwealth County, "Adams," made in 1800, des- 
tined to become the scene of the crucial battle of the 
Civil War, Gettysburg in Pennsylvania. Most of the 
adjacent counties named by Penn were those in which 
the "Quaker" or doctrines of Fox had been accepted 
and withstood vile persecutions. These converts were 
besought and urged to follow their "Moses," Sir Wil- 
liam Penn, across the ocean to the "woods of Penn" 
where there was to be no distinctive, titled, privileged 
class ; acquired in Europe and Asia by a perversion of 
"Divine Right;" known to them as the "Cain-variety" 
— "kill all who don't agree with you." We hope have 
now eliminated that variety forever. 

These pioneers willingly fled from actual ills, came 
over in flocks to worship as their conscience directed. 
The wonderful vision of Sir William Penn — a veritable 
Utopian idea in that period of prerogatives. Penn's 
"Lighf inspired and blessed him and his immigrants 
in their enterprises. — We enjoy them now. 

All the counties in Pennsylvania previous to the 
Revolution of the Colonies were named identically and 
relatively after the counties in England, in this chron- 
ological order in the Province: — Philadelphia, Chester, 
Bucks, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, North- 
ampton, Bedford, Northumberland and Westmore- 
land.* 

Wedged together, as they were in old England. 
After the success of the War of Independence, three 

*See accompanying Map and Table. 



PAGE TEN 

were named after English Counties for the same rea- 
son ; to attract settlers. They were Huntingdon, Som- 
erset and Cambria, — still adhering to the splendid and 
comprehensive scheme of Sir William Penn. 

Our Commonwealth made more counties, until they 
now number, sixty-seven. They may be grouped* 
Etymologically, as follows : 

I. Sentimental; as Philadelphia (Brotherly-love). 

II. Familiar and adjacent; as in old England ; such 
as Chester (shire), "Bucks" (inghamshire). 

III. In Gratitude, for national existence, in the 
name "Washington" and "Dauphin." 

IV. Aboriginal ; by poetical Indian tribal-names 
as "Juniata" and "Wyoming." 

V. Topographical, as "Centre," situated in the geo- 
graphical centre of the Commonwealth ; also "Clarion" 
from re-sounding echoes made by the steep sur- 
roundings. 

VI. Faunal, as "Beaver," "Elk;" also "Schuylkill" 
from Hollandish (Dutch) "schuil" in our word a ("y" 
is substituted for the "i") it means shielded or hidden ; 
and "kill" means a run or creek; hence hidden by 
dense vegetation on its shores and enormous quanti- 
ties of weeds in the stream. 

VII. Political, as "Cameron" in 1860, and 
"Snyder." 

In the midst of a Military furor, directly after the 
War of the Revolution, a County was named Franklin 
in 1784 — a glowing tribute to Doctor Benjamin 
Franklin for his sparklingly brilliant experiments in 
electricity, from them was evolved the "wireless" of 
today. He was the Edison of his generation. 

About half a century later, 1850, Fulton County was 
called after Robert Fulton. Observe the coincidence 
(both inventors) to the neighboring County: — "Frank- 
lin." Fulton's invention of the steam-boat set the world 
afloat, so that in 1918, 2,000,000 and more brave and 



PAGE ELEVEN 

grateful Americans went "dry-shod" to France, be- 
cause of our friendly Alliance with Louis XVI, that 
saved the cause of the American colonies at the Siege 
of Yorktown; resulted in the surrender of Corn- 
wallis in 1781, subsequently founded the nationality of 
the United States of America. 

The southern tier of counties, being closer to 
Philadelphia, in their naming seemed to have a livelier 
sense of brotherhood in such names as Washington, 
Franklin, Fulton and Greene. 

Our own county, "Dauphin," shines among the 
galaxy of the counties in being named for everlasting 
gratitude to the "Fleur de Lis" of Louis XVI ; being 
named in 1785, after the oldest son of Louis, Heir 
Apparent, which the French called the "Dauphin." 

A manifestation of Penn's gracious sentiments in the 
Greek appellation Philadelphia, Brotherly Love ; Even 
practical John Harris, the founder of this city, did call 
for some time this primitive settlement "Louisbourg" 
in grateful recognition for the vital French service 
rendered the Nation. The Jail of this county has now 
a stone "Fleur de Lis" over its portal. However, ego- 
tism overcame Harris, and he affixed his own name; 
that means "a comb of iron teeth" (a harrow). This 
County has possibly been honored as the Capital of 
Pennsylvania because of its appreciation of France's 
attitude toward the infant U. S. — inculcated by Sir 
William Penn's impassioned friendly suggestions. 

How much has been wrought by the splendid states- 
manship idea expressed by Sir William Penn in his 
frame of government of the Province of which he 
asserted himself as "Absolute Proprietor," absolute 
because he desired his authority to come from popular 
assent. The reverse of his seal bears the words 
"MBRCY." "JUSTICE." The very essence of the 
watch-word of today. (I have the seal here to show 
you). Would that Sir William Penn could have seen 



PAGE TWELVE 

the fruition of some of his grand principles in the 
haughty and proud-bearing of his great-great-grand- 
sons "The Keystone Division," in victorious triumphal 
march on their return from France in Philadelphia. 
Without this incentive of brotherhood, that would have 
been impossible ! What would have become of France ? 
The bulwark of popular civilization ! Or without, also 
the Pennsylvania invention by Robert Fulton on the 
Conestoga Creek* in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 
and the growth of static electricity in the trained 
lightning of the "wireless" ? by Dr. Franklin. 

♦Having read with care, the Lancaster County Historical 
Societies Proceedings, to which I was referred, for the "Ful- 
ton House Celebration" in Vol. XIII. No. 8, of its bound 
transactions; Mrs. Sutcliff's book on "Robert Fulton and 
The Clermont," and also the book of "Historic Inventions" 
Hol'and, Phila. 1911, p. 112, beside private correspondence 
from Lancaster, Pa. Regard the Conestoga creek; not the 
Conowing Creek, the scene of the fourteen-year old boy Ful- 
ton, to try propelling skiffs with mechanical paddles. 

I. For the fact he was in Lancaster, at Isch and Messer- 
smith's shops frequently, and found there a companion of 18 
years of age, an apprentice ; whose father was a fisherman on 
the Conestoga' s "quiet waters," used to take the son, Christo- 
pher Gumpf with him ; Robert Fulton was with his boy-friend 
and as they poled from place to place, got lazy and thought 
they would work harder with their brains than their blis- 
tered hands; so they taxed their ingenuity, to do Deter 
Gumpf's bidding easier; this was accomplished; by aid they 
could get at the shop where Christopher worked. 

Lancaster at that time was the flourishing metropolis of 
the County and had shops. In Little Britain Township where 
Fulton was born the country is quite hilly so could not furnish 
streams, that frequently placidly meandered in the Lower 
Silurian ("Trenton"). 

A limestone formation, where streams flow lazily afford- 
ing a still place for his uses. A flat-bottomed boat, at once 
indicates a sluggish current. 

III. "Henry" made his unsuccessful mechanically pro- 
pelled craft experiments before Fulton on the Conestoga 
(likely not unknown to Fulton). Lancaster was a place 
where things were to be had; just like New York is now. 
These facts make one decide that the Conestoga creek was 
the stream upon which Fulton's mechanically self-propelled 
skiff was tried. 

There is no conclusive evidence found for considering 
that the Conowingo Creek as the scene of any trials by Ful- 
ton, because it was so far away from mechanical facilities 
then only to be had at Lancaster. — H. H. 



PAGE THIRTEEN 

History lately took unrealizable treasure in the mak- 
ing and in the downfall of an Empire founded on 
"Obedience without Liberty." Penn's assertion caused 
ultimately the diabolical European melee. 

The recording pens in hosts of hands will soil tons 
of paper, making books of this historical event in 1914. 

"There is a moral in all human tales ; 
'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past; — 
First Freedom, and then glory — when that fails, 
Wealth, vice, corruption — barbarism at last. 
And History, with her volumes vast 

Hath but one page !— "ROME !" 

Owing to the means of communication, everything is 
neighborly or quickly otherwise. Comparing the voy- 
age of Columbus with recent aeroplane performances — 
we look askance into the future. How did men live in 
such monotony? No newspapers with their daily tele- 
grams and all that it is to us. Only ponderous tomes. 
Our forefathers made epochs deliberately. In the 
Harrisburg "Chronical and Weekly Visitor" edited and 
published by my Grandfather, Hugh Hamilton, Esq., 
quoted as "News" in November, 1815. the fact that 
Napoleon Bonaparte had been defeated at Waterloo 
on the 18th of June ! 

"This world is verily a passing show." 
Good news then seems to have traveled slow. 

We can keep this Anniversary where we may ; — we 
will be thinking each in his heart of those not here. 

It now affords one an agreeable pleasure to extend to 
you a hearty welcome to our County, which has a 
good French name in this state of Germanic influences 
and to the grand Capital of the Commonwealth. — The 
sylvan province of Sir William Penn ; also to view 
from the "River Drive" on this side of the shore a real 
imaginary city. 



PAGE FOURTEEN 



"THE SUN-SET CITY. 

There's a city that lies in the Kingdom of Clouds, 

In the glorious country on high; 
Which an azure and silvery curtain enshrouds, 

To screen it from mortal eye. 

A city of temples and turrets of gold, 

That gleam by a sapphire sea; 
Like jewels more splendid than earth may behold. 

Or are dreamed of by you or by me. 

And about it are highlands of amber that reach, 
Far away till they meet in the gloom ; 

And waters that hem an immaculate beach, 
With fringes of luminous foam. 

Aerial bridges of pearl there are, 

And belfries of marvelous shapes; 

And lighthouses lit by the evening star, 
That sparkle on violet capes. 

And hanging gardens that far away, 

Enchantingly float aloof; 
Rainbow pavilions in avenues gay, 

And banners of glorious woof. 

When the Summer's sunset's crimsoning fires, 

Are aglow in the western sky; 
The pilgrim discovers the domes and spires, 

Of this wonderful city on high. 

And gazing enrapt as the gathering shade, 

Creeps over the twi-light lea; 
Sees palace and pinnacle totter and fade, 

And sink in the sapphire sea. 

Till the vision loses by slow degrees, 

The magical splendor it wore ; 

The silvery curtain is drawn and he sees, 

The beautiful city no more." 

— Henry Sylvester Cornweil, 
In "Home Book of Verse," Vol. VIII., p. 3460. 
Henry Holt & Co., New York, 19 is. 



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Chronological Order of English (familiarly) Named Counties of Province of Pennsylvania, and the Commonwealth 



So. 


DAY 


MOHTH 


YEAR 


NAME 







VOL 


FAGE 


STATE LIBRARY 


NOTES 






ALCOVE 


Sn£lP CLASS 


DIV. 


BOOS 


FLOOR 


1 


4-10 


March 
Oct. 


1683 


PHILADELPHIA Founders' Memorial Week 1909 


1 


' 


XXXIII 






374.86 
974-8 




H397 


- 


Council of Penna., March 10, 

1682-3. 
Mayor Reyburn. Before 10th 

March, 1683. 
Vol. I, Col. Record p. 57. 


2 


2 


March 
Feb. 


1685 


CHESTER 
(Cheshire) 


History of Chester Co.. Pa., | 1S81 
J. Futhey Smith, Gilbert 
Cope ; Evans, Primer, 18S1 




28 


XXXIII 
XXXIII 








F9861 


.St 


Ditto. 


3 


8 


March 
Feb. 


1685 


BUCKS 
(Buckingham) 


A History of Bucks Co., by , 1853 
W. J. Buck; Brown, Printer, 


50 




B8541 


ISt 


Ditto. 
A little book bound in 


4 


,0 


May 


1729 


LANCASTER I Bioren 1810 
(Lancashire) 


I 


176 


46 






In the 


State 


Law 


[ *"; sl ; 


An old Law Book. 


5 


19 


Aug. 


1749 ] YORK Bioren and Carey 1803 
(Yorkshire) 


1 


246 


46 










,st 




6 


27 


Jan. 


I750 


CUMBERLAND . Bioren 1803 


I 


301 


46 










.St 




7 


» 


March 
March 


1752 


BERKS , Statutes at Large of Penna., 1898 
(Berkshire) | %£'$*'** R ^ ~ ! 


V 


133 


46 










.St 




8 


11 


1752 NORTHAMPTON j Bioren 1803 


I 


322 


46 










■ St 


9 


9 j March 


1771 


BEDFORD 


Bioren 


1803 


I 


523 46 










ISt 


xo 


21 


March 


1772 


NORTHUMBERLAND 


Carey and Bioren 


1803 
1803 


II 
II 


41 
89 


46 
46 


,st 




» 


26 


Feb. 


1773 


WESTMORELAND 


Carey and Bioren 






.St 




12 


'7 


Sept. 
March 


1787 
I99S 
1804 


HUNTINGDON 


Carey and Bioren 1803 


III 


214 


46 










ISt 


"Commonwealth." 


'3 


SOMERSET j Carey and Bioren 1803 


V 


98 46 


2 


"Commonwealth." 




26 


CAMBRIA 




1806 


VII 


333 


46 






Wales is very rugged; its 
hills are called "Cam- 
brian," from"Cymry,"an 
old name for Wales. They 
were called by Cajsar when 
in Britain "Cimri" or 

Cambria or Welsh Tribes.