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October Ilth. 1903 



>nal Farm Sc 

irm School, Bucks Co., P 






^ response made to the opening of this 
store, I20T & I209 Chestnut St., 

is perhaps the best evidence of the recognition 
of our established reputation— recognizing the 
immeasurable advantages that our manufac- 
turing department gives in enabling us to sell 
directly to consumer at one profit. 

Chestnut and 12th Streets. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 

The Notional Tarm School, 



October iitn, 1903. 

Officers of National Farm SchooL 

Prksidhnt, JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF, 122 W. Manheim St., Germantown. 

Vick-President, morris A. KAUFMANN. 

Treasurer, FRANK H. BACHMAN. 

Secretary, HARRY FELIX, 25S Zeralda St., Germantown, Philad'a. 


Sidney Aloe, 
Frank H. Bachman, 
Hart Blumenthal, 
Adolph Eichholz, Esq. 
Simon Friedberger, 

Adolph Grant, 
Morris A. Kaufmann, 
Alfred M. Klein, 
Joseph Krauskopf, 
Howard A. Loeb, 

Joseph Loeb, 
Isaac H. Silverman, 
Jos. N. Snellenburg, 
Benj. F. Teller, 
Harry Tutelman. 

Committee on Admission, 

Adolph Eichholz, Esq., Chairman, 
Benj. F. Teller, 

Alfred M. Klein. 

Committee on Education. 

Joseph Loeb, Chairman, 

Morris A. Kaufmann, 
Dr. Joseph Krauskopf. 

Committee on Ways and Means* 

Isaac H. Silverman, Chairman, 
Frank H. Bachman, 

Sidney' Aloe. 

Committee on Supplies. 

Hart Blumenthal, Chairman, 
Joseph N. Snellenburg, 

Simon Friedberger. 

Committee on Building and 

Adolph Grant, Chairman, 
Howard A, Loeb, 

Harry' Tutelman. 

Executive Committee. 

Adolph Eichholz, Esq., Chairman, 
Alfred M. Klein, 

Isaac H. Silverman, 
Hart Blumenthal, 
Adolph Grant, 
Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, President, 
Morris A. Kaufmann, Vice-Presid't. 

Ladies* Auxiliary Board. 

Mrs. Simon Bloch, 
Mrs. Ralph Blum, 

Mrs. Hart Blumenthal, 
Mrs. Sol Blumenthal, 
Mrs. Adolph Eichholz, 

Mrs. Martha Fleischer, 
Mrs. Adolph Grant, 
Mrs. Henry Jonas, 
Mrs. Morris Kaufmann, 
Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf, 
Mrs. Isaac Leopold, 
Mrs Joseph Loeb, 
Mrs. Isaac Silverman, 

Mrs. Nathan Snellenburg, 
Mrs Sam'l Snellenburg, 
Mrs. Julius Sondheim. 

Faculty of 1903, 

JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF, D. D., President. 

JOHN HOSEA WASHBURN, Ph. D. (Gottingen), 

Director and Professor of Agricultural Chemistry. 

LUCIUS J. SHEPARD, B. Sc. (Main Agricultural College), 

Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm. 

ISAAC BRADLEE GAGE, A. B. (Tufts College), 

Professor of Agricultural Physics and Literature, and Mathematics. 

WARREN B. MADISON, B. Sc. (Rhode Island College j, 

Professor of Horticulture, Superintendent of the Grounds. 

W. G. BENNER, V, S., 

Professor of Veterinary Science and Farm Hj-giene. 


Director of Domestic Work, and Matron. 


Assistant in Agriculture. 


Stenographer, and Superintendent of Repairs. 






Place of Birth. , 

Occupation at Time of 


Elmore L,ee 


Allegheny, Pa. . . 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

Alexander Monblatt . 


Chicago, 111 


Attending School. 

Bernard Zalinger . . 


Chicago, 111 

United States . . . ' 

Stock Boy. 

Max Malish 

Jacob Taubenhaus . . 


Rosenhayn, N. J. 
New York, K. Y. . 

Russia . , 


Operator in Men's 

Shirt Factor},-. 
Attending School. 


Harrj- Hirsch .... 


Chicago, 111 

United States . . . 

Clerk in Cloth'g House. 

Jacob Ratner 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Clerk in Cigar Store. 

Rudolph Kvsela . . . 


Kew York, N. Y. . 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

Julian Klein 


Schuyler, ISTeb. . . 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

George A. Shaw . . . 


Eliot, Me 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

Abraham Freides . . 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Attending School. 

Max Morris 


Chicago, 111 


Attending School. 

Da\-id Serber 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Attending School. 

Jacob Xorvick .... 


Baltimore, Md. . . 


Cigar Making. 


Bemhafd Ostrolenk . 


Gloversville, N. Y. 


Attending School. 

Emanuel Abraham . 


Baltimore, Md. . . 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

Philip Krinzman . . . 


Elizabeth, K. J. . . 


Attending School. 

Isadore Weinberg . . 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Clerk in Chem. Mfg. Co. 

Chas. Horn 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

Leo. Eisenstein . . . 


New York, K. Y. . 


Attending School. 

David Neustadt . . . 


New York, N. Y. . 


Millinen,' Business. 

Henr5' Ratner .... 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Cigar Making. 

Joseph Reinitz .... 


• New York, N. Y. . 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

William V. Ginzler . . 


New York, N.Y. . 


Attending School. 

Saul Rosenblatt . . . 


Cape Maj' City, N. J, 



Louis Condor 


Baltimore, Md. . . 

Attending School. 


Louis Rock 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Attending School. 

Abe PoUowitzky . . . 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 

' Russia . . . . • . . - 

Attending School. 

David Da^-idson . . . 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 

1 Hungary 

Attending School. 

Mark Dresden .... 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 



Attending School. 

Abe Miller 


1 Corsicanna, Texas 


Attending School. 

Dave Goldberg .... 


Chicago, 111 

United States . . . 

Attending School. 

Solomon Feinberg . . 


New York, N. Y. . 


Attending School. 

Victor Anderson . . . 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Attending School. 

Calendar 1903—1904. 

FIRST QUARTER, Sept. 1 5th, 1903, to January 1st, 1904. 

Tuesday, September 22 Rosh Hashanah. 

Thursday, October i Yom Kippur. 

Tuesday, October 6 Succoth. 

Sunday, October 11 . Succoth Pilgrimage & Annual Meeting. 

Thursday, November 26 Thanksgiving. 

Monday, December 14 Chanukah. 

Thursday, December 24 Winter Recess begins. 

SECOND QUARTER, January 1st to April 1st, 1904. 

Thursday, January 14 Winter Recess ends. 

Friday, February 12 Lincoln's Birthday. 

Monday, February 22 Washington's Birthday. 

THIRD QUARTER, April 1st to July fst, 1904. 

Thursday, March 31...-. Pesach. 

Friday, May 6 Arbor Day. 

Friday, May 20 Shabuoth. 

Monday, May 30 Memorial Day. 

FOURTH QUARTER, July Jst to September 30th, 1904. 

Monday, July 4 Independence Day. 

Friday, September 10 Rosh Hashanah Eve. 

Special recess for planting and harvesting when the season demands. 
Two weeks camping some time in Sept. when the season admits. 


The course of study covers a period of four years and is designed to give a 

thorough training in practical and scientific agriculture, 
jects as they occur in the respective years. 

Following are the sub- 


Algebra, 4* 

English, 4 

Farm Practice 2 

Practical Agriculture, i 
Freehand Drawing, . . 2 
Military Drill, .... 4 

Industrial, 35 

Detail, 7 

Agricultural Physics, . 4 


Geometry, 5 

Chemistry, 4 

Soils and Soil Manage- 
ment 4 

Botany, .2 

Theme Writing i 

Elocution, I 

Meteorology, .... 2 

Military Dr'ill 4 

Industrial, 35 

Detail 7 


Trigonometry 2 

Analytical Chemistry, . 4 
Horticulture, 3 

a) Vegetable Garden- 


b) Small Fruit Culture. 
Agricultural Mechanics, 

Elective, 4 

Rhetoric and Literature 3 

Elocution, I- 

Industrial, 35 

*Spanish, Elective . . 4 
Details, . 7 


Agricultural Geology . 3 

Veterinary, 3 

Horticulture, 4 

a) Floriculture. 

d) Landscape Gar- 
Agricultural Mechanics, 

Elective, 4 

Agricultural Literature, 2 

Industrial, 35 

Spanish, Ellective . . 4 
Details 7 

First Year, 

Algebra, 4 

English, 4 

Agriculture, 4 

Bookkeeping, 2 

Freehand Drawing, . . 2 

Military Drill 4 

Industrial 35 

Agricultural Physics, . 4 
Detail, 7 

Second Year. 


Geometry, 3 

H3'giene of Farm 

Animals, 2 

General History, ... 3 
Greenhouse Managem't 3 

Dairying, 2 

Laboratory, 2 


a) Class Work, ... 4 

b) Laboratory, ... 2 
Military Drill, .... 4 

Industrial, 35 

Detail, 7 

Meteorology 2 

Third Year. 


Surveying, 4 

Stock Feeding, ... i 
Agricultural Chemistry 4 
19th Century History . 3 
Botany, Elective ... 3 

Dairj'ing i 

Literature, i 

Industrial, 35 

Detail, 7 

Spanish, Elective, ... 4 

Fourth Year. 


Road Making, .... 3 

Horticulture 2 

Agricult'l Bacteriology, 2 

Agriculture 3 

Dairying, 2 

Superintendance, , . 35 

Details, 7 

Agricultural Literature, 2 
Geology, Elective ... 2 
Spanish, Elective ... 2 


Algebra, 4 

English, 4 

Live Stock, 3 

Botany, 2 

Military Drill, .... 4 

Industrial, 35 

Detail, 7 

Agricultural Physics, . 4 


Solid Geometry, ... 2 

Agriculture, 3 

Breeds and Breeding, . 2 

Physiolog}', 3 

Meteorology, i 


a) Class, 4 

d) Laboratory, ... 2 
Llilitary Drill, .... 4 

Industrial, 35 

Detail, 7 


Levelling and Draining, 3 
Geology & Mineralogy 4 

Botany, 2 

Laboratory, i 

Economic Entomology 3 
Zoology, Elective ... 3 

Industrial, 35 

Detail, 7 

Spanish, Elective ... 4 


Agricultural Economics 4 

Horticulture, 2 

Field Crops and Farm 
Management, .... 2 

Botany, 2 

Agriculture, 3 

Thesis, 5 

Superintendance, . . 35 
Directing Detail, ... 7 
Spanish, Elective ... 3 
Fertilizer, Elective . . 3 
Agricultural Literature, 3 

Some recitations will be held during the entire Summer. 

* The figures denote the number of hours per week. 

t Spanish is elective only for those students whose average is above 75 per cent. 

The course of instructiou is so arranged as to permit a student to give special 
attention to lines to which he seems best fitted. The course is designed to teach 
the sciences that underlie practical agriculture, together with sufficient English, 
mathematics, literature and such other supplementary studies as will sustain both 
scientific and practical agriculture, thereby raising the agricultural student to the 
intellectual level of the educated. The agricultural instruction is given by means 
of lectures, text books, and practical work in the fields, barns and dairy. Starting 
with the first year student who has had little if any agricultural training, the 
course is so constructed as to build up a systematic agricultural education so that 
the graduate will have passed through all of the different branches of farm work, 
from the fundamental principles to the most advanced. The instruction in class- 
room, supplemented by field work, takes up the improved methods used in the 
various operations of farming, such as the use of farm machinery, treatment of 
soils, value of fertilizers, management of crops, feeding and caring for stock, dairy 
operations (including butter and cheese making), poultry keeping, study of breeds 
and breeding, diseases of plants and animals, the study of chemistry in its appli- 
cation to agriculture, insects in their relation to farm crops, gardens and fruit trees, 
greenhouse and nursery work, vegetable and truck gardening, small fruits and 
landscape gardening. Special attention is given to industrial work. Five hours 
per day during the school period are devoted to industrials for carrying on field 
operations and laboratory work in greenhouses, dairy and chemistry. 

During the summer months more time is devoted to industrial work. 

Classes in the study of nature will continue through the entire summer. One 
or two weeks will be devoted to camp life at some appropriate place. 


The farm consists of 122 acres of exceedingly fertile land, all of which is till- 
able, making it possible to carry on diversified farming, so essential to the instruc- 
tion given in the various subjects considered. The farm also contains several 
acres of timber land affording three fine groves. The farm is well stocked with 
thoroughbred and grade stock. The buildings for grain, stock and machinery 
are ample. Improved tools and implements are in general use. The dairy build- 
ing is thoroughly equipped with modern machinery for carrying on dairy opera- 
tions. A model horse and dairy barn has been added. On the ground may be 
found vegetable and truck gardens, orchards and nursery, these together with the 
greenhouses make practical industrial work in horticulture possible throughout 
the entire year. 

The Farm School lies adjacent to the W. Atlee Burpee celebrated seed farm, 
a thoroughl}' equipped establishment conducted on the soundest business principles, 
where a dollar is required of every dollar expended. Also our proximity to the 
Robert Steele horse farm gives a most valuable opportunity to study with fine 
illustrations, the best methods of breeding horses. The managers of these places 
allow our students to study their methods of business. Such an object lesson ac- 
companying the instruction given at the school, adds greatly to our educational 

Other neighboring farms are among the best in the State. All are willing to 
be helpful in every way possible to assist the worthy young men in the study of 

Our entire environment is that of an agricultural people who live on and off 
their farms, and whose whole life and example show the profitable and enjoyable 
aspect of agricultural pursuits. 










The main building is fitted up with dormitory rooms, class rooms, library, 
reception rooms, dining rooms and offices, and is lighted by gas and heated by 
steam. The buildings are supplied with spring water. The library contains 
several hundred volumes and a reading file of the leading daily papers and agri- 
cultural journals. Illustrative material for class room and field work is being 
constantly added. ' 


The maintenance of good behavior and order in the dormitories and about 
the buildings is strictly adhered to. Detail and industrial work must be thoroughly 
and carefully done. Students failing to conform to the rules and regulations of 
the institution will be immediately dismissed. 

All supplies furnished students are merely loaned. These must not be taken 
away or disposed of in any way except by consent of the Director. 


No meals served to visitors without special permission. 

All visitors to be out of the buildings and off of the grounds at 6 o'clock P. M. 

No visitors to be allowed above the first floor except on regular days of inspec- 
tion, at regular appointed times, without special permission. 

No lady to be taken in the dormitories except on above public days and by 
special permission. 

No gambling of any sort whatever allowed at National Farm School. 

Dancing not allowed in the reception hall except between the hours of from 
2 to 5 on recreation days. 

Permission to leave the grounds, to use the piano or to practice singing must 
be obtained from the governor. 

All persons wrestling, shouting, whistling or singing in the school room or 
reception room at any time will be reprimanded. 

Students will be at the barn or at horticultural department or other places for 
work on time, 7 A. M. and i P. M. 

The bell will be rung ten minutes before the hour. 

Any student leaving work without permission before 12 M. or 5 P. M. will be 

The object of the above rules is to impress students with the importance of 
honesty and promptness. 


The following is the program for each day except Saturday and Sunday during 
the school period: 
5.30 A. M., Rising Bell. 4 to 5 P. M., Military Drill and Athletics. 

5.45 A. M., Details. 5.00 P. M., Details. 

6.30 A. M., Breakfast and Devotion. 6.00 P. M., Supper. 
7 A. M. to 12 M., Study and Classes. 7.00 to 9.00 P. M., Study Period. 
12.15 P- M., Dinner. 9.45 P. M., Retiring. 

1. 00 to 4.00 P. M., Study and Classes. 

Seniors and Juniors have industrial work every forenoon and classes in after- 
noon. Sophomores and Freshmen have classes in forenoon and industrial work 
in afternoon. 

Meeting of Farm School Literary Society takes place every Saturday evening 
at 7.30. 

For further information address the National Farm School, Farm School, Pa. 

Regulations Governing the Admission of Students, 

1. An applicant for admission must be over i6 years of age. (His mental 
and physical development must be such as ensure his being able to pursue the 
advanced studies and to perform the industrial work. ) 

2. He must pass a thorough entrance examination completing the common 
branches equivalent to the entrance examination into the High School. 

3. An applicant must be in good health. A physician's certificate, accord- 
ing to the form prescribed by the Directors, must accompany the application. 
Where practicable, a physician will be designated near the residence of the appli- 
cant, from whom such certificate ntu^t be obtained. 

4. An applicant must be of good moral character and able and willing to 
perform hard out-door work. Satisfactory references must accompany the appli- 
cation, and wherever practicable, the recommendations must be submitted by the 
applicant to be endorsed by the member of the Auxiliary Board representing the 
State in which such applicant resides. 

5. The number of admissions will be dependent upon the annual income of 
the School. Applications will be considered in the order in which they are 

6. Pay students will be accepted at a charge of $200 per annum, payable 
semi-annually in advance. 

It is estimated that the charge of $200 per annum will merely cover the ex- 
penses of the student's maintenance. 

7. When an applicant shall have been notified that his application has been 
favorably acted upon, he must come to Doylestown, Pennsylvania, at his own ex- 
pense, and must come provided with seasonable clothing for one year. 

The outfit must consist of one blue military cape overcoat, one school suit, 
two pairs of working shoes, one pair gum boots, one pair of slippers, three suits 
of heavy underwear, three suits of light underwear, one dozen pairs of socks 
{}i dozen light, ^ dozen heavy), one half dozen collars, two pairs cuflFs, two 
bosom shirts, six working shirts (two winter, four summer), three night shirts, one 
dozen handkerchiefs, two pairs of overalls, two blouses, one hair brush and comb, 
one tooth brush, one umbrella, three neckties, one hat for Sabbath wear and one 
working hat. The articles of clothing will be marked by the institution. 

8. The receptacle for a student's personal effects must not exceed in size, 
that of an ordinary steamer trunk. 

9. Before any student shall be admitted, his parents or guardian must release 
all control over him from the time of his entrance until his completion of the four 
years' course, or until such prior time as he may, in the discretion of the Board, be 
discharged therefrom. Such parents or guardian must also waive all claim for 
compensation for services which he may render in or about the school or the farm 
thereunto belonging. 

This Regulation is made in order to enable the Board to encourage the 
student in the pursuit of his studies and to protect him against any possible ill- 
advised interference of relatives. 

10. Applications should be made at least two months before October ist, 
the opening of the school year. Such applications should be sent to the Dean of 
the institution, Doylestown, Pa., who will furnish list of examination questions. 

Sixth Annual Meeting and Succoth Pilgrimage* 

Grounds of the National Farm School, 
DoYLESTOWN, Pa., Sunday, October nth, 1903. 

The Sixth Annual Meeting and Succoth Pilgrimage of the 
National Farm School was participated in by several hundred 
members and friends of the Institution. 

The meeting was called to order at 11.30 A. M., by the Chair- 
man, Mr. Adolph Eichholz. 

On motion of Mr. Alfred M. Klein, the minutes of the last 
annual meeting having been published, were ordered approved 
without reading. 

President, Rev. Dr. Krauskopf presented his annual report, 
copy of which is herewith appended. 

Mr. Adolph Kichholz, Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
followed with a statement of the finances of the School, showing 
the receipts and disbursements for the year. 

An address was made by the Director, Dr. John H. Washburn, 
a copy of which appears in this report. Other addresses were made 
by Mr. Jacob Gimbel and Professor Gottheil, which addresses are 

On motion the following gentlemen were unanimously elected 
to' serve as Managers for three years: Sidney Aloe, Hart Blumen- 
thal, Adolph Eichholz, Dr. Krauskopf, Harry Tutelman. 

On motion. Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf was unanimously re- 
elected President and Mr. Morris A. Kaufman, Vice-President. 

President's Annual Message. 

To the Board of Directors, Members and Friends of the National Farm School: 

On this da}% commemorative of the Jew's original agricultural pursuit in his 
native land, and on these grounds, consecrated to the restoration of the Jew to the 
noblest, healthiest and most independent of all callings, we are assembled to review 
our year's work, to see whether we have drawn by a year's length nearer to our 
goal, whether the results attained have warranted the labor and means expended. 

It is perhaps only by contrast of the present with the past that material growth 
can be best measured. Attainment of the sought for and often seemingly unattain- 
able goal is so difficult that efforts from day to day, while helping to the end in 
view, are so minute in themselves as to be almost unappreciable. It is with this 
thought uppermost in our minds that we have felt inclined to call the attention of 
this audience to the growth of the National Farm School during the past seven 

Seven years ago to-da}- the first annual meeting was held on these grounds. 
At that time the main building, poorly equipped, and a dilapidated barn and farm- 
house constituted the property of the National Farm School. To-day ten substan- 
tial buildings give evidence of our growth. Twenty cows now pasture on our 
grazing ground, where once a solitary animal stood. Ten horses have replaced the 
original one. A well-stocked poultry yard and a duck pond, a sheep-fold and pig- 
pens give an animated appearance to grounds that once were overrun with noxious 
weeds. These broad acres which at that time were largely a wilderness with unkept 
walks and wide gaps between the fence-poles now present an appearance of health 
and industry. Seven years ago the property value of the National Farm School 
was about |20,ooo; to-day the sum of 175,000 is a conservative estimate of its worth, 
and fully as much has beeii expended in the running of the school since its open- 
ing, in the year 1897. 

Seven years ago the faculty of the school consisted of one instructor and a 
farmhand. And as to students, six boys ventured upon a new and to them untried 
calling. To-day, a faculty of five able men replaces the one, all of whom are 
graduates of agricultural colleges, and at their head stands a director, who has 
gained wide and useful knowledge as president of the Rhode Island College of 
Agriculture and Mechanical Arts for thirteen years, and forty young men pursue 
their studies with a consciousness that a life of health and usefulness and success 
awaits them after graduation. 

Seven years ago to-day the outlook was indeed far from encouraging. Pessi- 
mistic observers foretold dire calamities. Nor were there wanting those who, while 
not energetically opposing the movement, yet with a passive resistance hindered 
even more this step in the right direction. To-day the school has supporters and 
friends in all parts of the United States, among them some of our foremost thinkers 
and leaders. 

This is indeed growth. In the eyes of the caviller and grumbler perhaps not 
growth enough, but it may be doubted whether throughout the whole city there is 
one institution that has shown such progress in seven years. Institutions, even as 
people, must gradually establish their merit. It is not enough that they exist, but 
the "raison d'etre" of their being must be apparent and appreciated. 

It hardly seems necessary to state that we think the Farm School has demon- 
strated its deserts, that the number of friends it has obtained shows that its appeal 
for Jewish interests in agricultural pursuits has been heard and has received a 
favorable reply in many a quarter. 

That the school has not won for itself wider recognition and greater financial 
support must be attributed to the fact that it represents a kind of philanthropy that 
is not yet generally understood. In the majority of cases charity is still only 
remedial. We have not yet reached the goal of true philanthropy — that of the 
prevention of the need of charity. The National Farm School from its inception 
aimed at this goal. It claimed at the time of its foundation to be the exemplar of 
scientific charity, not that it considered that the Farm School was a cure-all, and 
that its special methods would make for perfection, but that the school should be 
considered a step forward to the desired goal. 

It may be asked why, seeing that there are so many different occupations for 
our people, should a school be kept to teach a few the art of agriculture. Our 
answer is that the immigration problem is a hard, cold fact which presents itself 
to-day to us all. The economic conditions of our country altered by the influx of 
our poverty-stricken brethren from the inhospitable lands of their birth, render 
more and more necessary the turning of some of our people into farmers and bread- 
producers. We have all read Secretary Hay's note anent the influx of undesirable 
immigrants into this country. In England Major Evans-Gordon has recently 
written a work, entitled "The Alien Immigrant." This book purports to consider 
all the various aspects of alien immigration into England from all the centres from 
which "undesirable" immigrants are said to flow. Of the sixteen chapters of the 
book, fifteen avowedly deal with Jewish immigrants. The remaining chapter is 
entitled "other aliens," but even of that a good proportion is devoted to the Jews. 
"The Hebrew colony," says he, "unlike any other colony in the land, forms a race 
apart, as it were." He recounts various and numerous evils for which the Jewish 
immigrant, in his opinion, are responsible. England, he claims, is training a 
generation of aliens to compete with her own people. "So critical has the position 
in the east of London become," says Major Gordon, "in consequence of the Jewish 
influx, that an anti-Jewish outbreak in that district is inevitable, and already the 
state of feeling between Jew and Gentile gives the police serious anxiety." At the 
conclusion of his impeachment of the Jew of London, the author admits that the 
arguments he has used are precisely those used against the Jew in Russia and 
Roumania. In very plain words he regards the sweat-shop Jew and the petty trader 
a menace to every country which he invades. 

When such words as these are becoming louder and louder in liberal England 
as well as in the United States, it is only the unwise that can afford to ignore them. 

It was to combat this eternal cry of "non-producer" that the National Farm 
School was started. Once let it be understood that the Jewish immigrant comes 
not as a hired sweat-shop hand and as an unproductive participater in the results 
of the labor of others, but as an agricultural colonist, as a man anxious to settle 
and to be lead by skilled leaders in the cultivation of the soil in the giving of bread 
to the nations, once let this be firmly implanted in the minds of our opponents, 
and the cry which they have raised against the alien immigrant will fall to the 
ground, and we may be sure that the heartiest welcome that can be extended to 
any alien will be extended to the Jew. "Turn the Jew from a middleman to a 
breadgiver, convert his yardstick to a plow," said to me Count Tolstoi, "and the 
world instead of persecuting will honor him." 

"The National Farm School," says the Rev. Joseph Leiser in a recent article 
published in The Jewish Exponent, "is more than an institution, it is at once a 
protest and a mission. It protests against the slander that the Jews are incapable 
of farming, and its mission is to rewin the Jew to the soil." 

By the side of this last statement it is but just that we should state that there have 
been and still are adverse criticisms regarding the school. We have yet to hear 
however of any institution that has escaped unscathed from the critical spirit of our 


times. Some are inimical to the Farm School because of its expensiveness. " It 
costs too much to run it " they say. We believe this to be a fault which this school 
shares with nearly every institution of learning. This is a school. It maintains a 
salaried faculty. It gives to all its pupils an education for which it receives no fees 
in return. It supplies all of them at the same time with food, clothes, lodging, 
text-books, etc., free of charge. The pupils are young and entirely inexperienced 
when they enter the school. Their labor becomes profitable only when they are 
about to graduate. The labor of one good farmhand is more valuable than that of 
a dozen young beginners in the field of agriculture. The same applies to all schools. 
Despite tuition fees and enormous endowments, the University of Pennsylvania 
faces an annual deficit of many tens of thousands of dollars. It is not the nature 
of educational institutions (barring a few aristocratic private schools) to be self- 
supporting or to declare dividends. We have yet to hear of the Philadelphia High 
School paying dividends to the taxpayers of Philadelphia, or the West Point 
Military School earning money for Uncle Sam. 

The National Farm School in spite of its detractors exists and grows because 
it meets a want, because, diametrically opposed as it is to present material views 
and tendencies, it has supporters in all parts of the country. Its success during 
the past seven years is sufficient explanation of its utility. 

In our archives we have endorsements from some of the most prominent leaders 
and men of thought of the present day. The past year has brought us expressions 
from the Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture; the Hon. Oscar Straus, 
ex-Minister to Turkey; the Hon. C. C. Harrison, provost of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, all of which are commendatory to the work of our school. If during the 
past year the endorsements alone of these three men were given, sufficient gain 
would have been our portion. But we lay claim to more. We have the signal 
success of many of our graduates to chronicle. Two of them are employed to-day 
as experts in the Agricultural Department of the United States Government. One 
of them is successfully managing the Fresh Air Society, under the auspices of 
Professor Felix Adler's Ethical Culture Society. Another one of them, a former 
inmate of the Jewish Foster Home of Philadelphia, while earning wages as an agri- 
culturist, is taking a special course of studies at the University of California for the 
purpose of perfecting himself in the science of entomology, so that some day he 
might contribute his mite toward exterminating the insect pest of that State. 
Equally good things could be reported of the other graduates if time permitted. 

And the school certainly must have a place in the modern social problem when 
so distinguished a gentleman a Mr. Edward Lauterbach, of New York, writes as 

"I have always understood that the graduates of the National Farm School 
have been very much sought after, and have been very successful. Have you at 
present any one whom you could recommend as a proper person to organize a 
somewhat similar institution in Massachusetts? I have been asked for information 
on this point and naturally turn to you." 
And when another gentleman writes us: 

"I have concluded, after deliberate and deep thinking, to purchase a farm to 
engage one of j-our graduates to manage it. and gradually invite the -dispossessed 
from the overcrowded ghettoes to join me, teaching them the science of small 
farming; in other words, to organize in this vicinity an auxiliary or a school of 
applied farming, on a business basis, for Jewish people, those who intend to benefit 
in establishing the school." 

Yet, however much satisfied we may feel over the educational growth of our 
institution, both through its direct and indirect method, we must admit that oui 
material success during the past year has not been as great as heretofore. Beyond 


the telephone and heating installation and cellar improvements, all of which work 
was done by the students, we have nothing to record outside of the erection of the 
post-office station, the waiting-room and windmill, improvements to the dairy, 
some donations of books to our library and the gift of a tent for large out-door 

Our condition in this respect, however, is not different from almost all institu- 
tions under the Federation of Jewish Charities of Philadelphia. It cannot very 
well be otherwise. We are, as j'ou know, no longer permitted to make individual 
efforts to raise money for improvements. We would, however, suggest a method 
of securing larger means of support. Those among you who count yourselves as 
friends can materially assist us by interesting yourselves in getting a larger mem- 
bership for the Federation, inasmuch as our appropriation will be proportionally 
increased in accordance with the money received by the parent society. 

We likewise cannot record the usual fair sized increase in membership outside 
of our city, on account of the office forced upon our president last year, that of 
director general of the Isaac M. Wise Fund. This office has necessitated that he 
devote almost all his time for a number of months to the raising of an endowment 
for the Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati, and, therefore, the interests of the 
National Farm School, for the time being, had to be set aside. Let us hope that 
the next year will give a better showing. 

An excellent start has already been made by the increase of the State appro- 
priation from :j25co to 55000 a year, for two years. The thanks of the Board are 
due to Governor Pennj-packer for his helpfulness toward our good work, and we 
are also indebted to Messrs. Ralph Blum and Adolph Grant for their efforts in 
aiding us to secure this appropiiotion. You will no doubt hear with pleasure that 
one of the Flora Schoenfeld Memorial Farms will be in operation when we again 
meet here, and probably also another. The purchase of one farm is about com- 
pleted, and one of the graduates will be placed in charge of it. It is with pleasure 
that we report the donation of a cold storage plant, presented by Mrs. Henry Hey- 
man and family, in memory of Henry Heyman, ground for which building will be 
broken to-day. 

And now there is one other matter to which we desire to call your attention. 
It has been stated before that we are not allowed to canvass for donations for the 
school. Nor do we desire to do so. We stand to-day, however, in a peculiar posi- 
tion. Our dormitory accommodation is entirely inadequate even for our present 
number of pupils. To remain as we are now, limited as to pupils, would, we think, 
be entirely contrary to the mission of the school. We must grow. 

During the past year we have received donations to the amount of I690 to this 
urgent need. To build an annex dormitory would cost about ^10,000. Owing to 
our lack of accommodations we are compelled to refuse admission to a large number 
who would be desirable students. Year after j-ear we are becoming known more 
and more. Shall it be said to us: "Thus far and no further?" With every year 
there is an increasing desire on the part of younger lads to enter the agricultural 
field. Refused admittance into our school, they drift into the congested ghettoes, 
swell the army of petty traders, or lay the foundation to physical and mental and 
moral degradation in pestilential sweat-shops. Hundreds of Jewish lads are to-day 
preparing themselves in filthy slums to become burdens to charity institutions, 
inmates of consumption hospitals, of reformatories and infirmaries, who, as pupils 
of the National Farm School, might have stored up that knowledge and health 
that ultimately would have yielded happiness to them and health to the nation. 
Shall men ever be blind to the fact that a dollar spent on the National Farm School 
may save hundreds in hospitals, asylums or reformatories ? Shall men forever con- 
sider that alone charity that deals with people only after disease and poverty have 


come upon them, and not before? Shall men never see that the solution of the 
ghetto problem lies not in the increase of charity institutions, but in the scattering 
of congested immigrants over the broad and health-restoring acres of God's soil, 
and the settling of them in industrial and agricultural colonies under the guidance 
of trained leaders? Shall men never see that unless institutions such as this are 
fostered and supported, there ma\- before very long not be money enough to build 
all the hospitals and orphanages and homes that shall be needed for the widowed 
and orphaned and physically and morally diseased ? 

Shall men forever be blind to the fact that the ghetto is not only a breeder of 
physical, but also of moral diseases, that there those vices and crimes take root 
that could never raise their head amid the healthful labor and ennobling environ- 
ment of the tiller of the soil ? Shall men never see that the solution of the ghetto 
problem lies not only in the redeeming of young lads from debilitating and vitiating 
sweat-shop life, but also of young girls? Shall young women continue to be 
tempted into vice by the miserable conditions under which they are forced to live 
and toil for a pitiable existence, when in dairy, greenhouse, poultry yard, truck 
patch, they might earn good wages and not only preserve their own health and 
purity, but also clear away the foul stain that has recently besmirched the fair 
name of Israel. What need of woman's blighting coming generations by slaving 
and starving amid squalor, when by laboring where the sun shines, the birds sing, 
and the trees and flowers waft their perfume, she might live in a land overflowing 
with milk and honey, and transmit to coming generations inexhaustible storehouses 
of physical, moral and spiritual vitality ? 

The knowledge that these boys and girls can be saved from the dreary toil of 
slum life, that their manhood and womanhood can be developed by contact with 
nature, that, imbued with new ideas, they can go forth into the world a living 
protest to the slander that the Jew shirks hard labor and is content only with 
fattening on the sweat of the laborer's brow, that knowledge should indeed evoke 
some responsible chord in our hearts. 

Before closing I want to thank all of the donors and benefactors of this insti- 
tution, and all well-wishers for our success. 

We have endeavored to discharge the sacred responsibility entrusted to us to 
the best of our power. We have kept conscientiously in view the needs of our 
students and the wishes of our patrons. We have endeavored to deserve the larger 
support we need. We beg your active participation in our work. W^e invite your 
visits to the school, especially on week-days, when the boys are at work in the 
fields, dairy, greenhouses, laboratory, barns, stables, etc. Come and inspect the 
harvest of the school's labor. Come and let your heart rejoice that a new generation 
is rising, a generation not only of bread-winners, but of bread-producers as well. 

And unto Him, from whom all our blessings flow, we turn with hearts of grati- 
tude for the favor bestowed upon this humble work of our hand, for the success 
vouchsafed to the pioneer graduates of the school, and for all the aid that has come 
to us from those men and women who yearn to see Israel return once more to that 
noble pursuit that has given to the world kings, prophets, law-givers and bards to 
whom the whole civilized world does homage, and that will continue to do so to 
the end of time. 



Report of the Executive Committee. 

Philadelphia, October ist, 1903. 

To the Members of the National Farm School: 

The exhaustive report of the President makes it unnecessary for us to present 
other than a statement of the receipts and expenditures as follows: 


Life Members, % 100 00 

Dues, . . 3 368 9S 

^General Donations, 3.003 52 

Less Solicitor's expenses f. 623 30 

" commissions, 538 97 

£6,472 50 

1,162 27 

Net Total, $5,310 23 


Cash in Bank, October ist, 1902, 11,787 02 

" hands of Dean, October ist, 1902 100 00 

Interest on Max Schoenfeld Fund, 450 00 

Receipts from Post Office, 25 54 

5tate aid, ... 3,125 00 

Federation of Jewish Charities, 5.829 00 

Net receipts from memberships and general cash donations 

as above, 5.310 23 

Interest on Lewissohn Fund, 147 50 

-5ale of farm products, 123 30 

$16,897 59 

Expenditures for Year Ending October ist, 1903. 

-Salaries of Faculty, $4,296 06 

Wages, 1,728 52 

Salary of Secretary, 600 00 

Railroad transportation, 137 27 

Fire insurance, 87 12 

Building repairs, 4 8 97 

"Telephone 53 02 

Machinery, 200 04 

Machinery repairs, 68 00 

Farm expense, 763 24 

Students' wearing apparel 900 26 

Permanent improvements, 532 17 

Furniture and fixtures, 626 32 

Light, heat and power, 675 16 

Printing, postage and stationery, 6S9 25 

School supplies 486 69 

Provisions, 1,141 96 

Real estate and buildings, 620 24 

Tools and impleme«its, 687 44 

Live stock 496 90 

Cleaning supplies 131 78 

15,360 41 

Leaving balanse of % 1,537 18 

Consisting of 

Cash in Bank, $i.437 18 

' ' hands of Dean, 100 00 

Total Balance, |i.537 18 


The preceding account is simply a cash account of receipts and expenditures 
during the year, and does not give an adequate idea of our real condition. The 
fact is that for a number of years at the close of the books on September 30th, a 
large number of bills have been left unpaid. Our condition is the same this year, 
the amount due on October ist being about |3,ooo. So that after deducting the 
balance of $1,537.18 cash on hand, there remained a deficit of about |i,500. 


Principal Account. 

I St Mortgage on premises 305 South 6th St., Philadelphia, . . $2,700 00 
|2,ooo Phila. & Reading General Mortgage 4s at 95^, .... 1,907 5° 
Cash, 182 50 

$4,790 oc 

Income Account. 

Interest on $2,000 P. & R. Bonds, $ So 00 

" Mortgage, 67 50 

$147 50 

Report of John H. Washburn, Director. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is only after an inspection of the calendar that one can realize- 
that a year has passed since the last annual meeting. During this year our activi- 
ties at the National Farm School have been so varied and so interesting that we 
are fully impressed with the old adage that "Time has wings." Throughout the 
past year much has been given to us for our comfort; you have heard of our 
appropriation. Telephones have been installed in each building, and a station and 
post-office established. Many useful books have been obtained by moneys gener- 
ously given for our library. I feel that the money spent for books is bringing us- 
something which five years from now will have more value than any money which 
we spend for any other necessity. And at the same time valuable opportunity is 
afforded to give instruction in how to use books and how to appreciate libraries. 

The farm has given a good harvest. There were drawbacks, but as a result of 
the whole we should be satisfied. Our cattle have increased; so have our sheep 
and horses, thanks to the donator of a most excellent horse just received. 

The spirit of the school is certainly more serious and the young men are more 
impressed with the fact that the study of agriculture is a study of a business added 
to a knowledge of the common scientific facts applied to everyday life. The ex- 
panding of this idea is the object of the school. It should be the ambition of a 
young man entering the National Farm School to become a farmer; while in every 
case the young men state on their application to enter the school that it is their 
desire to become a farmer, many of them have no conception whatever of what 
the duties of a farmer consist. 

During the first year at the school one is taught what farming is, what is. 
required of a farmer and what he may hope to attain. It then is not by any 
means to be wondered at, that at the end of that period of trial, one should realize 
that he is, or he is not, fitted for those duties. I have observed that the object of 


the agricultural education in the mind of some who have entered the school was 
■not alone that they might be efficient farmers for themselves, but rather in the 
hope of being able to occupy a position with considerable salary after they 
graduate. While in a few instances this may be possible, it certainly should be 
understood that the pupils of this school are learning to become farmers ultimately 
for themselves and not laborers for others. In so doing one can make money in 
proportion to the talents which God has given him and the use which he has made 
of those talents at the school. A very efficient test may now be offered to some 
graduate by means of the recent acquisition of the Schoenfeld farm, which is 
already contracted for, and possession will be given to the trustees within a mouth. 

While it is the object of this school to teach as much mathematics, science and 
English as is taught in an ordinary High School, and in the application of the 
science more than would be given in a High School, even as much as in some 
courses in college, still we believe that this is secondary in importance to a knowl- 
edge of the practical work. Our pupils need constant practice and most constant 
supervision in this practice. It is the most difficult instruction that we have to 
give, because a practical knowlege of one thing does not seem to suggest a way of 
■doing another, and all schools suffer more or less from too much automatic labor. 
It is difficult to get the young man to think at the same time that he is working; 
he too often falls into the habits of a machine. For illustration, the work that we 
have is divided up among our different pupils, and a man is kept in one line of 
work for a month until he becomes somewhat proficient; he is then changed to 
another, and he may not be returned to the first duty for a number of months. 

It has occurred that when a horse has been away from his stall during a 
■number of meals that on his return, perhaps in a heated condition, he has been 
placed before several rations of grain that the student in charge of the feeding had 
■unthinkingly placed in his manger each feeding time during his absence. 

I have seen a young man in our senior class greasing a wheel, put it on wrong 
side out and attempt to drive it back with a wrench because it did not fit. Such 
things as these discourage us. On the other hand, I have seen freshmen who have 
been here less than a year plough very well, cultivate and drive the teams with a 
good deal of ability; such things encourage us, and we have many more encour- 
agements than discouragements. It is generally the little things about our place 
where the boys fail, thinking that they are too unimportant to receive their atten- 
tion, and it is just here, when they leave us and take positions, that they will give 
dissatisfaction more than in the larger things unless that error can be broken up. 
I feel the necessity, during the next year, of fighting the little errors, and the 
large ones will take care of themselves. Not all young men are fitted to become 
farmers no more than all the young men who enter the medical schools are fitted 
to become doctors. We should feel sad, indeed, if the only help we had when 
sickness visited our families was such as would come from many of the specimens 
•which we all have seen at medical schools. Just so in farming. 

Of all those who come to an agricultural school it is not to be expected that 
all are fitted for farming; again we have some boys who are fitted for some 
branches of farming and not for others. We have a dairy; it becomes necessary 
for the boys who work there to handle a boiler and a small engine, but there are 
•some who will always let water run into the boiler until it runs out of the safety 
valve, and who can never understand that water is not as good as steam to drive 
the piston, and if the noise of the steam blowing off of the safety valve is disagree- 
able, they see no reason why it should not be wired down so that it will be more 
quiet and restful working around such a boiler. The thought that fuel is being 
wasted never suggests itself to their minds, nor the function of the safety valve, 
and still these same persons, who seem to be entirely unfitted for agricultural 

mechanical problems, may do well with the care of animals or the selling of 

We have begun this year a new plan of having recitations and study hours in. 
the forenoon and afternoon, two of our classes working on the farm and two have- 
study hours and recitations at the same time. In the afternoon the two classes- 
that were working in the forenoon have study hour and recitations while those 
who were reciting in the forenoon work at practical agriculture. This plan enables 
us to have about twenty-five per cent, more study than ever before with no less 
practical instruction. 

The instruction in gardening has been improved by the introduction in the 
Horticulture Department of the individual gardens. Each one is sure of having 
all the care of all the common vegetables for several summers, at the same time 
he watches them raised on the large and small scale, the larger scale on the farm 
and the small scale in his own garden. One interesting feature during the past 
year was that the produce of the boys' gardens has been better than that from the 
farm. The seniors' and juniors' gardens are very much better than those of the 
sophomores and freshmen as a whole, and the difference was due simply to the 
difference in the amount of care and cultivation. 

The report of the expenses incurred in conducting the institution has already 
been given you, and it is often asked me by persons who are interested in the wel- 
fare of the school if we cannot sell this produce or that from our farm. I think 
most persons do not realize how much we do sell from our farm. First let me say- 
that I have never for a moment tried to make money, I have not felt that that was 
my object here, but first and last my duty was to make men of these pupils and 
to encourage them in education. You all know something about the expense of 
laboratories — chemical laboratories require money to conduct them; physical 
laboratories are even more expensive than the chemical laboratories, while forms 
of bacteriological and physiological laboratories are more expensive still. The 
expense to the laboratory of most of our mechanical institutions is $600 per year 
per student, the student, of course, paying but a small portion of that expense in 
tuition and fees, the rest is made up from the interest of endowment funds given 
to the school or else contributed by the State, and I assure you that the farm of an 
agricultural school, which is its laboratory, has a similar expense. It is only by- 
using machines that boys can be taught to use them, and the wear and tear on 
such machines which are used for instruction purposes is infinitely greater than 
the wear and tear in regular business. With so many young men we are obliged 
to have a larger number of horses and teams that they may learn to drive and to 
harness and to maneuvre these teams in the different kinds of work and places. 
More than half the number of our horses are used and needed as laboratory 
material to teach practical agriculture; the feeding of the same and the price of 
the material that they eat and their care should be charged to and considered as a. 
part of the cost of instruction. Take the item of the care of the cows. I feel that 
the cows are here that the boys may learn to milk them and to care for them, but 
the produce which we obtain from them is decreased all of fifty per cent, annually 
because they are used as laboratory material, objects of instruction. The milkers- 
are changed once a month, and the expense of this care and food should be charged 
to instruction rather than farming; while we have raised a few things on our farm 
during the year we have supplied them to the very,best market — our own kitchen. 
On a farm of this size, 120 acres, a farmer with a half dozen in the family will live 
and raise most of the food which they eat and have perhaps |;6ooto $700 cash from 
produce sold. Such a return would be considered excellent and such a farmer 
well off. The National Farm School occupies the same size farm, our pupils and 
instructors make up a family in size fully ten times that of the average farmer. 



We have consumed in our kitchen 3400 pounds of beef raised on our farm, 373 
pounds of mutton — and while we have never used an iota of pork on the tables 
for our pupils, yet we have raised and fed to our servants and employees 522 pounds. 
Twelve hundred bushels of potatoes were raised, 200 fed to the cattle, 200 sold and 
Soo eaten by our family; i6o bushels of wheat were raised, 1000 bushels of corn, 
436 bushels of oats, 500 bushels of turnips and 1200 bushels of beets, 6 tons of 
millet, 15 tons of corn-fodder, 160 tons of silage, 50 cords of wood cut and used 
last winter in the place of coal, 900 pounds of butter have been used, together 
with 53,227 pounds of milk or 26,613 quarts, and 400 dozen eggs and 90 chickens 
and fowls; 40 head of swine, 20 head of sheep, 4 of young cattle and 100 chickens 
have been added to our farm stock, while our horticultural department, having 
but a small amount of ground compared with the farm, has done equally well in 
proportion to the land cultivated. We have used 75 barrels of apples, 450 quarts 
of strawberries, 15 bushels of peas, many dozen radishes, 350 heads of lettuce, 
400 heads of cabbage, 95 of cauliflower, 250 dozen sweet corn, 12 bushels of onions, 
3S bushels of beets, 35 bushels of beans, 3 bushels of carrots, 15 bushels of turnips, 
25 bushels of tomatoes, 10 bushels of sweet potatoes, 3 bushels of peppers, 100 
summer squash, much parsley, several barrels of cabbage for sour kraut and 
several barrels of apples for apple butter. The wholesale market price of these 
products would amount to over $3600, and when people say why don't you sell 
something from your farm, it is too long a story to explain why we don't, and I 
generally answer because we have so many mouths at home. With all this we 
raise quite a good many roses and carnations which are sent to the city and bring 
a little income. 

I know that many of our students are old enough to appreciate the opportuni- 
ties for instruction offered when they can see and learn how to do what we are 
doing towards preparing food for the family. In our dairy building this fall we 
have canned already 250 quarts of tomatoes, about thirty gallons of sweet corn, 
string beans, crab apples, pears and quinces. We have already made several 
barrels of apple butter, which is very gratefully received in the winter in our 
dining room. All this is of the utmost practical value to those who are living on 
a farm. It teaches them to raise their own food, to utilize what they have. If a 
farmer has in the summer, when chickens are cheap, twenty-five or thirty chickens 
ready to eat, he can kill them and can them, and it is no expense to him to put 
them on the cellar shelf. They will wait there until he is ready to take them 
without any expense for food, and if the chicken was alive it would be spoiling 
soon into an old hen and become tough. All these things teach economy, and 
these goods when properly canned are far superior to any article that we have ever 
been able to buy. These problems are as important in the family economy as 
those of how to reap and to sow, to plough and to mow, to feed and to breed. 

We are indulging in the hope that we may look forward to the time in the 
near future when we can enjoy a new dormitory for our pupils. To-day we have 
not the facilities which we ought to have. Our light for study is simply atrocious. 
There is not room enough for the different pupils to study, but with the facilities 
which a new dormitory would bring we can then have the different classes in their 
own study rooms and much comfort would be added to our home life, and the 
work of the institution increase materially in efficiency. 

Prof. Richard Gottheirs Address* 

I feel that in the movement into which I have thrown so much of my time, 
lies to a great degree, the salvation of the Jewish people. The Farm School is 
striving for many of tne things for which the Zionists are striving. It was founded 
in the same year in which the first Zionist Congress was held at Basle. The pre- 
ventive phase of charity rather than the remedial is the Zionist point of view. At 
the meeting of the Alien Immigration Committee in London, Dr. Herzl made the 
point that it was quite useless to remedy the ill effects of immigration so long as 
no attempt was made to stop the causes of that immigration. 

Jews are unfortunately always compelled to justify themselves. First, to 
themselves, and then to the world at large. It has been charged that we are not 
an agricultural people. It has been charged so often that we have almost got to 
believe it ourselves. If this charge were uprooted the Farm School would have 
far more support. The whole polity of ancient Jewry was agricultural. At the 
first moment they have an opportunity to till the soil they avail themselves of it. 
There are over one million Jewish agriculturists in Southern Russia. When agri- 
cultural colonies were started in Palestine, many students threw down their books 
and took up agriculture. 

A few weeks ago I returned from Basle, where our sixth annual congress had 
been held. Many hard things have been said of the Zionists. The chief thing is 
that we are idealists: looking forward to the future from the standpoint of one 
riding on the clouds. Our program remains where it stood before. We are 
Palestinians first and last. We believe the ultimate goal of Jewish history will be 
that goal. A great nation has made an ofi'er to the Jews of a tract of country in 
East Africa. East Africa is no more Zion than the United States or England. All 
the sentiment which pushes us toward Palestine is wanting in this offer, but given 
the conditions existing in Eastern Europe, the great centres of Western Europe 
and this country, many felt that Zionists had no right to refuse this offer, and we 
have sent a commission to study the conditions of the land and see whether such 
a settlement could be made a success. 

Never in the history of the Jewish people has such an offer been made. The 
document is unique in our annals. Papal bulls, edicts of exclusion, edicts of sup- 
pression have been the letters of the past. Now the British nation says that any 
measure looking to the betterment of the Jews must be of importance. It says 
to the Jewish people: "If conditions in Great Britain compel us to partially close 
down to you, we feel it our duty to open another door." 

To students of the Farm School it is important to know that whether the 
Zionists take up the work or some other Jewish body, there is opened up a vista, 
comforting and inspiring. You may, perhaps, be able to make your advantages 
useful to those we have left behind in the Old World. Therefore, I think that this 
new turn in our affairs should give you an added zeal in this work of regeneration, 
which may offer a home to those hundreds of thousands who still sit in the 

Such schools as these should receive the heartiest support from the Jewish 
people. It is a work not simply remedial, but preventive. If we all work to- 
gether for the regeneration of the Jewish people, toward finding a home for those 
who have no home, we shall feel the inspiration that comes from the knowledge 
that we are working for a great aim and toward a great future. 


Mr, Jacob Gimbers Address. 

In most instances the labor of farmers is greater than their success. We hear 
of captains of industry; why do we not hear of captains of agriculture? The 
opportunities are present. Eight hundred millions of acres of land lie untilled. 
Ten millions of people are engaged in farming, yet we know of none who have 
attained eminence in this domain. It has been said of Jews that they are not 
adapted to farming. Our ancestors were tillers of the soil and shepherds, and the 
early history of the Jewish people teaches that this charge is not true. I have 
learned of the tendency of foreign Jews to flock together in already congested and 
over-crowded districts. I love to think of some means to divert these Jews from 
their miserable condition to the broad acres of farm land. One of the most im- 
portant influences to this end is the National Farm School. If our graduates can 
show themselves as leaders in agricultural work, they may do much to attract the 
Jews of cities toward farming occupation. How insignificant does the expense of 
running such an institution become when this result is considered. I hail with 
much delight the influence growing out of this school. As regards the connection 
of the institution with the Federation of Charities, as one of its constituent socie- 
ties, the Farm School's usefulness could be enlarged if more funds were available. 
The grounds and the organization are here, but it takes mone}' to conduct the / 
institution. The reason that no larger sum is appropriated is because we must cut j 
our garment according to our cloth. 


Farm School Graduates — Its Third Class. 

JUNE 26th, 1903. 

The special train which left the Reading Terminal at 12.30 
o'clock carried several hundred friends of the National Farm School 
to the beautiful grounds of the institution at Doylestown, despite 
the threatening aspect of the weather in the early part of the day. 

The occasion was the graduation of the third class to enter the 
school, and the visitors, as they stepped from the train, were greeted 
by the forty odd students in their natty uniforms, who lined each 
side of the road leading to the main building, and presented arms. 
The exercises were held in a large tent, which had been erected 
near the m.ain school building, and which was gaily adorned with 
the American colors. A large orchestra, furnished by Harr\^ Herz- 
berg, played appropriate selections. On the platform were ex-United 
States Minister to Turkey, Oscar S. Straus, Provost C. C. Harrison, 
Rev. Dr. Krauskopf, the founder and president of the school; 
Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, John Field, Ralph Blum, Alfred M. 
Klein, Hart Blumenthal, Adolph Eichholz, Rev. Joseph Leiser, of 
Kingston, N. Y. ; Director John H. Washburn, Joseph N. Snellen- 
burg, Simon Friedberger, James Branson and Adolph Grant. 

After an invocation by Rev. Dr. Berkowitz, Rev. Dr. Krauskopf 
delivered the introductory address. 


In the name of the Board of Trustees of the National Farm 
School, I extend a most hearty welcome to you, honored guests, 
who have come to us at a great personal sacrifice to participate in 
our graduation exercises, to you, ladies and gentlemen, who have 
set aside your usual vocation to assist us in bidding God-speed to 
the six young men who this day enter upon the battlefield of life. 

The fact that so many of you are assembled here this afternoon, 
despite the lateness of the season, the distance from the city, and 
the expenditure of time involved, is the best evidence of your 




interest in agriculture, more especially in the return of the Jew to 
his original pursuit as tiller of the soil. 

Large and gratifying as is this assemblage, there is, neverthe- 
less, one person whose absence I greatly regret. It is the Russian 
Ambassador to the United States, Count Cassini. It was he who 
declared to the Associated Press of our land that the Jew's aversion 
to agriculture is the cause of the world's hatred of him. Had he 
been here and had he seen these broad acres, all cultivated by the 
hands of Jews, and for the main part by the hands of lads either 
born in Russia or of Russian descent ; had he listened to the reports 
by non-Jewish instructors of the school of the zeal with which these 
young men devote themselves here to the study of practical and 
scientific agriculture, and of the success that attends the^ labors of 
those who graduated during the past two years ; had he been made 
acquainted with the large waiting list of Jewish lads seeking admis- 
sion to our agricultural school and denied entrance by reason of lack 
of dormitory accommodations and means for maintenance — he 
would never again speak of the Jew as he has spoken nor wrong 
him as he has done. 

Let us hope that he will at least read what will be said here 
to-day, and that he will acquaint his government with what is here 
demonstrated. Perhaps Russia may then learn that it is easier and 
more humane and more profitable to extend to her citizens of Jewish 
faith the privilege to cultivate the soil than mercilessly huddling 
them within the overcrowded cities and restricted area, and forcing 
them to eke out a miserable existence in the pursuit of the lowest 
trades, or brutally driving them as refugees and exiles to foreign 

And even if he should suspect that we of the Jewish faith are 
biased in our judgment of the Jew's interest and success in agricul- 
ture, it is fortunate that we have presented to us to-day a document 
from an impartial source and from one of the most competent 
authorities in the land, the Honorable James Wilson, Secretary of 
Agriculture at Washington. We had counted on his being with us 
and so had he hoped to be our guest for the third time since the 
existence of our school, but circumstances have arisen over which 
he had no control, circumstances that require his official presence 
elsewhere, and so, much to our regret, we shall not be favored to- 
day wnth the sight of his majestic presence nor with the sound of 
his encouraging words. But he has sent us a letter which, while it 
is but a meagre substitute for his presence, nevertheless displays 
most admirably the interest he takes in our institution and the hope 
he cherishes for its future. Let us hear him speak for himself: 


June iSth, 19:3. 

Dr. Joseph Kratiskopf, President, and the Governhig Board cf the National Farm 
School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gentlemen: — I rejoice with you that you have successfully reached your 
third graduation exercises, under circumstances of such promise for the future. 
You have done admirable work in the past. It is a matter of great satisfaction to 
myself, as well as every other Arnerican citizen who is familiar with the facts, that 
the Jewish people have organized an agricultural school designed to give instruc- 
tion in the science and practice of agriculture, so as to prepare scholars along this 
line for the education of the young men of your own race, and all other races, in 
the near future. 

I do not know of any effort being made along this line where such admirable 
results have been reached in so short a time. I am entirely familiar with all your 
work and all its details, and approve of it most heartily. It must result in great 
good to your people, to the State of Pennsylvania, and to the Union in general. 
A movement to bring back your people to close contact to the soil has great 
promise for the future, not only to them, but to all American people. No man is 
well informed regarding agriculture who does not read the history of the Patriarchs, 
who were excellent fiockmasters and thoroughly understood agriculture, as many 
people do not understand it to-day. The whole Bible story is-full of valuable sug- 
gestions regarding the atmosphere, the soil, the plants and the animals; and no 
fact along these lines mentioned in the Bible has ever been contraverted by science. 

Your people have always been a masterful race along financial lines, and I look 
now for help from them along the lines of agricultural education, because Ameri- 
cans generally do not understand these matters sufficiently. The future of the 
country depends more upon a knowledge of scientific agriculture by those who 
cultivate the soil than on any other one material factor. 

There are fine openings for educated men along these lines. The old world 
is coming to us. A young man not long ago left our Department to go to Southern 
Africa to help their people organize scientific agriculture. The Egyptian Govern- 
ment is represented here now by its Secretarj- of Agriculture, and wants men 
educated along these lines. The agricultural colleges and experiment stations of 
the country require men better educated in this direction than many who now 
hold positions. The young men in the employment of the Department of Agri- 
culture who have been educated at Doylestown are doing good work, and getting 
post-graduate instruction toward greater usefulness. We hope, as occasion re- 
quires, we may be able to avail ourselves of the young gentlemen you are edu- 
cating, in addition to those we now have. I would be with you on this occasion 
were it not that previous engagements compel me to go in other directions. 

Hoping that you will have a pleasant exercise, that the hearts of your people 
will be turned toward your work and be manifested in generous assistance to do 
this great work, I remain, very cordially, 


Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Perhaps it is just as well that the Secretary of Agriculture is 
not with us to-day. We might possibly have suffered from an 
embarrassment of riches. It might have been too much for so 
small and so poor a school as ours to have had with us at one and 
the same time a Cabinet Minister and a statesman of international 
reputation, the Hon. Oscar S. Straus, of New York. 

If one of the two had to be absent it is well that we are privi- 
leged to have Mv. Straus with us at the present time, for he is one 
of our people, and one of the foremost Israelites in the United 
States. He knows of the enthusiasm which our fathers of yore 
were devoted to the pursuit of agriculture ; he knows of the cruel 
laws that for eighteen hundred years excluded the Jew from the 
noblest of all callings and forced him to Ghetto life and Ghetto 
pursuits ; he knows of the congested Ghettoes that have sprung up 
even in our own land ; he knows of the evils they breed, of the 
dangers they threaten ; he knows that there is but one solution — 
that of spreading the overcrowded and the physically and morally 
and mentally debilitated over the broad acres of our land, where 
there is health and food and labor in abundance for all ; he knows 
that such colonies, to be founded from among the congested popula- 
tion of our large cities, to be successful must have scientifically and 
practically trained leaders of their own people and faith ; he knows 
that these leaders are here fitted for the great mission that is before 
them and before us. But why speak for Mr. Straus when he is here 
to speak for himself? Ladies and Gentlemen, I take great pleasure 
in presenting to you the Hon. Mr. Oscar S. Straus, of New York. 


Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I am here to-day not because I know anything 
about farms or farming, either practical or scientific, but because your indomitable, 
eloquent, earnest and persistent president will not take a negative for an answer. 
He infuses every one with his magnetic spirit, and therefore I am here. My farm- 
ing experience ended when I was twelve years of age Before that time I had a 
boy's experience in hoeing potatoes and following a plow in the little town where 
I was brought up in the piney woods of Georgia. I was asked to say a few words 
to-day, and I see those few words now bear the dignified title of a baccalaureate 
address. I shall not inflict you with any such stately remarks. For your spiritual 
guidance who could take the place of your learned and eloquent president? For 
your inspiring encouragement in the profession you have chosen this school is 
honored to-day by the presence of the distinguished Secretary of Agriculture, who 
unites the wisdom of a philosopher with the interest of a father in the scientific 
and agricultural development of this great country of ours with its outlying 

No vocation in life is entwined with such sacred and hallowed memories as 
that of the farmer, because "the people of the book " were an agricultural people, 
and some of the most beautiful celebrations that our religion enshrines commem- 
orate agricultural festivals, the changing of the seasons, the first fruits and the 
harvesting of crops. The ideals of happiness are pictured in the Biblical words: 
"Shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree, and none shall make 
him afraid." The Pilgrims and Puritans who settled in New England drew their 
inspiration from Israel's history in the Bible, and that history made doubtless a 
deeper impression upon them because they too were an agricultural people; and 


because they were an agricultural people and, like Israel, cultivated the soil as 
well as their souls, they have left such a precious heritage of sterling manhood to 
the generations that followed them. 

When medieval persecution began to lash Israel the first eflFect was to drive 
her sons and daughters from the soil and to shut them up in narrow pest breeding 
Ghettoes, and to put upon them a mark of degradation, that all men might know 
that those within were shut out from " life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." 

When Russia twenty years ago began to intensify her system of oppressing 
her Jewish subjects one of the primary objects of her network of laws was to drive 
the Jews away from the soil back to the Ghettoes. When their cry of distress 
reached civilized Europe a man arose who was led as it were by an unseen hand 
to become the great benefactor of his suffering co-religionists. He offered to the 
Czar the enormous sum of ten million dollars to found schools, trade and agricul- 
tural, for Christian and Jew alike, so that the Russian Jew might have the oppor- 
tunity nf scientifically studying agriculture and return to the soil. This great 
philanthropist was convinced after careful investigation that the Jews of Russia, 
like their ancestors, would crave for the opportunity to return to the soil. This 
most generous offer was declined by Russia and the answer was — back to the Pale. 
Need I say that this man, whose name and fame his good works have carried to 
the four quarters of the world, was Baron de Hirsch? It was my privilege to 
know him well, and to have discussed with him his gigantic plans for the relief of 
his oppressed co-religionists. The basis of them all was expressed in the phrase — 
out from Russia and back to the soil. For this he planned his schemes of coloni- 
zation and founded technical and agricultural schools. 

It occurred to me that I could not occupy the moments of this occasion with 
a subject that would be more befitting than to give you a sketch of this most 
commanding figure in the galaxy of philanthropic endeavor of the nineteenth 

The century now drawing to a close is marked by great men in every walk of 
life; it had its Napoleon, its Wellington, its Humboldt, its Mazzina, its Tennyson, 
its Longfellow, its Jefferson, its Lincoln, its Peabody, its Montefiore and its Baron 
Hirsch. No one community, sect or country is the heritor of such men— they are 
the product of the ages, they are cosmopolitans, as universal as the good they 
wrought, and the principles for which they struggled; they belong to the world. 

Baron Hirsch cannot be measured by ordinary standards. He was colossal in 
his sphere; he was a financier, an organizer, a railroad constructor, a statesman, 
a worldly man and a philanthropist. But as the rivulets run into rivers, and the 
rivers empty into the ocean, so did all these qualities culminate in equipping him 
with the resources, power and capacity to become the leader of the most gigantic 
exodus that has been witnessed since the days of Moses. His enterprises in con- 
structing those arteries of civilization, the railroads, through benighted lands, 
through Russia, Roumania and Turkey, brought him in close relations not only 
with Czar and Sultan, with ^Ministers and diplomats, but also with the humblest 
hewers of wood and drawers of water, the men who plied the shovel and wielded 
the pick-ax in digging the roadbed for his iron horses. 

With the accession of the late Czar there came a reaction devised with the 
finesse of the nineteenth century, but outstripping in its diabolical purposes the 
barbarity of the Middle Ages. The inspirer of this ungodly crusade against five 
millions of peaceful, unoffending and loj-al subjects is the Chief Procurator of the 
Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. When asked how those infamous 
"May Laws," that embody his policy, would effect results in ridding Russia of five 
million Jews, he is reputed to have answered: " One-third will be driven to exile, 
one-third will be forced to conversion, and one-third will die of hunger." 


This was in iSSi and 1SS2, and the enforcement of these laws has been accom- 
panied by pillage, burning, massacres and death. Baron Hirsch was then fifty years 
•of age, engrossed in his many affairs. He stopped, to the surprise of every one, 
in his mid-career; he marshaled his resources, and turned the powers of his active 
brain and the tireless forces of his energies to the problem how to reclaim his 
suffering co-relionists from humiliation worse than slavery, from starvation and 
destruction. His first move was to offer, through this same chief of the Holy 
Synod of the Czar, fifty million francs for education in Russia without distinction 
of creed or race, hoping the dissemination of education, mechanical and mental, 
^vould in the end induce a better condition from the lowest to the highest. But, 
no — Russian autocracy was framing laws to limit, not to extend, the advantages 
of schooling, and rejected the munificent offer unless Baron Hinsch would remove 
his conditions and permit the expenditure to be made as the Czar and his Ministers 
saw fit. Baron de Hirsch was too well acquainted with Russian officials to part 
with his money to line the pockets and adorn the palaces of the persecuting Rus- 
sian Ministers of State. 

Until this time it may, perhaps, be said that Baron de Hirsch in his friendships 
and associations was more Christian than Jew. Creed lines had no significance for 
him. He was already well known for his generosity and philanthropy, and he 
"had contributed liberally in many directions and for many causes. The misery, 
and not the race nor the religion of the Russian Jews, attached Baron de Hirsch 
to their cause and summoned him, as by a voice of God, to assume the colossal 
task of devising plans and to pour out his treasures with endless munificence in 
colonizing them in other lands. He had for years given annually large sums to 
■maintain schools, trade schools, hospitals and asylums throughout the Oriental 
countries. He had maintained hospitals and given large sums of money for relief 
during the Russo-Turkisb War, and sent one million of franks to the Empress of 
Russia for charitable purposes. He had begun negotiations for a foundation, 
which was enlarged to some twenty-five million franks, for educational institutions 
in Galicia, which maintained forty institutions, wherein nine thousand pupils, 
without distinction of creed, are being instructed. He had hoped that his son, 
who doubtless would have, if he had been spared, would make it the profession of 
his life to carry forward and perfect his projected works of benevolence and phi- 
lanthropy. The loss of his promising son was a severe blow to him, and probably 
bad the effect to enlarge and extend his benefactions. On one occasion, when it 
was stated that Baron de Hirsch had lost his son and heir, he replied: " My son I 
have lost, but not m}' heir; humanity is my heir." 

Following an interview, partly true and partly not, circulation was given to a 
rumor that he advocated that the Jews of Russia should abandon their faith and 
become Christians. He sent a reply to some gentlemen in England correcting 
this report, wherein he said he had hoped he had given too many proofs of his 
devotion to Judaism and to the Jews to be suspected of hostility to a people he 
had defended with so much spirit and resources. Profoundly afflicted at seeing so 
many of his co-religionists reduced to misery by reason of religious or racial 
hatred, he desired simply and plainly to tell the an ti Semites that persecution 
intensified religious sentiments and defeated the very objects they sought to 
attain. He added: "Remove every barrier, admit your Jewish compatriots to 
every right and the advantages of social life, and there will be more chances for 
effecting the infusion which they appear desirous of bringing about." 

In perfecting and carrying forward his plan of relief Baron de Hirsch, cosmo- 
politan as he was, speaking half a dozen languages with readiness, and on terms 
of intimacy with some of the leading rulers and statesmen of Europe, applied all 
jhis powers and opportunities to this end. I have ever believed that his social 


relations with princes and statesmen, philosophers and literary men, in many 
instances were cultivated as influential channels to further his philanthropic 
plans, just as an Ambassador, singly devoted to his country's welfare, utilizes 
social life to advance interests committed to his charge. That such was his 
purpose, and not to gratify his personal ambitions, is shown by the absence of 
vanity in his nature. No appeals made to him to erect institutions, public build- 
ings or monuments to perpetuate his name, ever enticed him to divert his money 
from his plans of philanthropy. He was not an ascetic, but rather a Sybarite. 
He loved fine horses, equipages and the luxuries of life. Of castles and paintings 
he had a rare collection. Whatever he undertook he did on a large scale, whether 
as financier, philanthropist, or as an owner of racers. Even his pleasures contri- 
buted to philanthropic works. His winnings on the turf and the proceeds from 
the sale of his horses, aggregating half a million dollars, he distributed among 
the London hospitals. 

His constant care was not to overcrowd the lands to which his army emigrated — 
he did more than all laws to regulate the exodus and the immigration— to select 
men who would apply themselves to handicrafts and principally to agriculture. 
He had an abiding faith that the Jews of Russia, if properly directed, would again 
become tillers of the earth as their forefathers were in Babylon and Judea. He 
never tired of impressing the importance of directing the immigrants in these 
channels exclusively, that they should become a part of the sturdy yeomanry of 
the countries wherein they settled. 

In the prosecution of his plans he searched in every direction for reliable and 
responsible agents, men who combined brain with heart, for the work, and 
especially not such who clamored for lucrative employment, who stormed his door 
and filled his mails with applications. He cared not to what religion or sect such 
agents belonged, he wanted them, true men, of capacity, whose hearts throbbed 
with philanthropic impulses. His most valued helpmate in all his work, with 
whom he counseled and imparted every detail, who read his letters and assisted in 
his correspondence, who accompanied him in his travels and shared in every hope 
and encouragement, for discouragement he never entertained, was his wife, who 
was his faithful and inspiring helpmate. Baroness de Hirsch was a remarkable 
woman, kind, gentle, accomplished, and most simple in her tastes. She was a 
Lady Bountiful wherever she went, and spent a large part of her separate fortune 
in maintaining schools, asylums and hospitals, which she visited personally and 
directed with discrimination and judgment. At Constantinople I have known 
her day after day to visit the poorer quarters of the city, and they are very poor, 
and relieve with her hands misery and poverty among the Mohammedans, Chris- 
tians and Jews. 

The Baron was instrumental in inducing Hall Caine, the author of "The 
Manxman," to visit Russia some few years ago and study the condition of the 
peasants and lower classes. Mr. Caine, I am told, made a report to the Baron, 
but he was so impressed, or depressed, with the sadness of the conditions he there 
found, that he has not as yet been able to write out and publish the result of his 

Mr. Arnold White, who, as an authority on sociology, has had much experi- 
ence among the lower classes in London and on the Continent, he sent on a mission 
to Russia. He selected Mr. White because of this experience, and in spite of the 
fact that he had in his writings shown himself rather prejudiced to his cause. The 
Baron wanted light, not sentiment, to guide him in his plans, believing, as he did, 
that permanent good is often defeated by the temporary expedients sentiment 
interposes. He realized that colonizing was like planting trees -it required time 
to bear fruit — his hopes rested upon the children of the emigrants and upon the 


•generation to come. The forty years in the wilderness might be shortened but 
not escaped, until the Promised Land should give its blessings. The work does 
not cease with his death; it rests on carefully planned foundations, administered 
by agents he chose in the several countries. His idea was that in time the work 
■would be self-acting, and as soon as the first stages were past and the first comers 
were settled and had reached a certain degree of independence they would attract 
others to themselves and lead out more and more of their brethren, so that in 
another generation Russia, freed in part from the activity and energy of the Jews, 
would either learn to appreciate their economic value, or, like another Spain, meet 
her deserved fate and become a helpless victim of her own intolerance. 

The Baron never took part in politics in any form. They were not to his taste; 
he doubtless recognized, whatever side he took, it would array the other side 
against his cause for the relief of the Russian Jews. 

Baron de Hirsch is the Napoleon of this great exodus and for every life that 
great liberator of the Jews of France had lost in his Russian campaign. Baron de 
Hirsch led out two lives, whose children's children will not forget Russia, but will 
swell the ranks of the sons of liberty, and in the end will triumph where Napoleon 
failed. There is something greater than autocratic power — the power of armies is 
great, the power of navies is great, but greater than all these is the aroused indig- 
nation of the civilized world. Before the altar of eternal right and justice kings 
uiust bend their knee and dynasties molder in the dust. 

"For freedom's battle once begun, 
Bequeathed by bleeding sire to son, 
Though baffled oft is ever won." 

In intioducing Dr. John H. Washbnrn, Director of the National 
Farm School, Dr. Krauskopf said : 

Even though denied the presence of Secretary Wilson, we are 
not without an agricultural authority. It is our good fortune to 
have with us a gentleman who, like Mr. Wilson, may some day be 
■called from the school which he now directs to take a place in the 
Cabinet of the United States. I refer to Mr. John H. Washburn, 
a graduate of the Massachusetts State School of Agriculture, a 
post-graduate of the Brown University, Doctor of Philosophy of the 
University of Connecticut, for four years professor of Agricultural 
Chemistry at Sterr's x-\gricultural School, Connecticut; for thirteen 
years president of the Rhode Island School of Agriculture and 
Mechanical Arts, and for the past nine months director of the 
National Farm School. I take great pleasure in presenting to you 
Dr. John H. Washburn. 


Dr. John H. Washburn, in his address to the graduates, said: 

"My young friends, you are soon to sever your intimate relations with the 
institution which has done so much for you during the past four years. You will 
go out into the world relying upon your own resources, but you are introduced to 
this new environment by the National Farm School. Your letter of introduction 

32 . 

will be the diploma of this school. The school has honored you by accepting youj 
as one of its pupils, by watching over and guiding your development and growth^ 
and by the instruction given j'ou resulting in this final graduation. This school 
stands for one of the highest and noblest problems of mankind. It is to educate 
and train in scientific and practical agriculture those persons whom a long line of 
social events has deprived of the privilege of owning and tilling land' until the 
desire for this fundamental principle of national existence has become dormant in 
the hearts of too many. It is to give the opportunity for satisfying the desire of 
some to again own land and to produce from Mother Earth the food and material 
for raiment lequired for the service of mankind. It is to substitute for those 
occupations in our overcrowded centres, which occupations admit only of a mere 
existence, and are associated too often with a mental, moral and physical stagna- 
tion or degeneration, a life of independence, happiness and lasting usefulness. 
A life that will always give opportunity for mental, moral and physical growth to 
those who desire it. However, do not entertain the erroneous idea that a life of 
independence and happiness is one of idleness, for idleness is slavery. When self- 
control ceases so that the higher impulses of our ideals and ambitious no longer 
are sufficient incentives for useful occupation, then has mental and moral growth 
ceased and we are in the bondage of indolence, the penalty of which is death. 
For what is life but growth; when growth ceases death begins. You know that to 
be true in the plant; it is the same with our animal bodies, and equally true with 
our mental, moral, religious and industrial life. If you are to succeed, if you are 
to be worthy of success, indolence must be foreign to your nature, and you must 
possess sufficient independence of character and self control to live to those prin- 
ciples which have been taught to you each week by our distinguished president. 
All life is the result of work; nothing can be acquired or produced except as a 
result of labor. We value things in proportion to the labor required for their 
production. Those things which cause us the most anxiety and labor we value 
the most. The highest pleasure is the gratification felt that our endeavor has been-, 
productive of the desired results. Clearly, then, your future is to be one of activity. 
Your career during the stay with us has been such that we believe you capable of 
enviable success in the calling you have so wisely chosen. There are but few 
callings in life unable to afford opportunity to every one for an exercise of their 
best powers. I know .of none that offers a wider scope to the intellectual and 
business tatents than agriculture. The scientific training of the mind, together 
with the adaptability for applied science, is as necessary for the agriculturists as is 
mathematics to the engineer. The National Farm School has taught you that 
scientific agriculture is merely another term for common sense agriculture. It is 
not in any sense of the word book farming. It is merely the practice of methods 
which have given the best results with the largest number of thinking and observ- 
ing farmers whose practice has been in accord with scientific truths. Your useful- 
ness will now begin. If you constantly study and observe, beginning your work 
with a couviction that your yresent knowledge is very limited, and with a desire 
to learn more as fast as possible, you will grow and probably succeed. Should' 
you, however, possess that unfortunate idea that you are now educated and that 
the few facts you have learned have already fitted you for life, you are entirely- 
unfitted, and it is just as sad as it is true that your degeneration has already begun. 
However, we believe that you are all too wise for such an error, and that you will 
constantly try to grow and become an honor to your alma mater, and that those 
persons who have so wisely and generously contributed to the support of this 
school may realize beyond a doubt that the hope of its founder is already realized 
in you. Not light, indeed, is the responsibility which rests upon you. It is our 
sincere wish that each of you may realize and accept this responsibility as your 


. .- '^IjlIu™ 




-'■ '^^W: 

^^b«^i^J«^'iSl ^ . ill 






own, and that you may know that your reputation is our reputation, that your 
success is our success, that upon your results depend the education of many young 
men in the future. We also believe that you are prepared to do much to elevate 
and make simpler the life of farmers here within the State of Pennsylvania, 
teaching by precept the very methods which you have been taught here, the value 
of which can be seen when the results of this farm is compared with those whose 
farming you have been taught to avoid. Your life will constantly be the result of 
choice, namely: the choice of methods, the choice of companionship, the choice 
of action. It is the earnest wish of your faculty that you may be guided by an 
all wise Providence in making such choice as is lasting in the formation of a noble 
character. No matter how well you may succeed in business, unless your success 
is associated with a growth of character you will have failed indeed. 


In introducing C. C. Harrison, Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania, Dr. Krauskopf said: 

Providence is indeed kind to us by winning for us the interest 
of some of the foremost people of our land. We have been favored 
upon these grounds with the presence and participation of two 
Cabinet Ministers, a Senator and a Congressman of the National 
Capital, a Governor and an Adjutant General, a number of legis- 
lators of our State, a Mayor of Philadelphia, and a number of his 
chief executives, a number of judges of our courts and a number 
of editors of our foremost papers, a number of presidents of agri- 
cultural colleges, but until this day we have never had the honor 
of welcoming upon our grounds the head of one of the greatest 
institutions of learning in the United States, Mr. C. C. Harrison, 
Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. 

To me the presence of Provost Harrison is fraught with signifi- 
cant meaning. He, who has guided the destiny of thousands of 
young men, has probably realized better than any of us that there 
is danger to a land that suffers from overeducation, from overcrowd- 
ing of the professions. Mr. Harrison, in watching the careers of 
youiig men, has undoubtedly recognized that society is in need of 
both brain and brawn, and that while we have need of the profes- 
sional class we must not neglect those callings that give us our 
bread to eat, our raiment to put on, that build our homes and 
schools, that drive our locomotives across the lands and our ships 
across the seas, our tillers, our mechanics, our artisans who constitute 
the motive power of the great wheelwork of our civilization. It is 
the recognition of this fact that entitles Mr. Harrison pre-eminently 
to award to the graduates their well earned certificates, and so I take 
great pleasure in presenting to the graduates of 1903 the Provost of 
the University of Pennsylvania, Mr. C. C. Harrison. 



Mr. Harrison, in his address, emphasized the fact that the great 
progress which had been made during the past fifty years in chem- 
istry and other sciences had also been observable in the line of 
scientific agriculture. He cited a number of instances of what had 
been achieved by the application of scientific principles to agricul- 
ture, notably in increasing the yield of wheat and in the successful 
cultivation of the beet root. He asked the graduates to keep up 
their scientific studies. 


John Field delivered a short address to the graduates, in which 
he exhorted them to remain faithful to their alma mater and keep 
up their studies. Dr. Washburn then distributed the prizes. The 
prizes were taken from a fund composed of the following general 
prizes: Floriculture prize of $25, gift of Louis Loeb; gardening 
prize of $25, gift of Dr. Krauskopf ; agricultural prize of $25, gift 
of Ralph Blum ; prize in dairying of $10, gift of Samuel D. Lit. 

J. Rattner received a prize of I15 for the best general work. 
First agricultural prize of $12 was awarded to Myer Goldman; 
second prize of $8 divided between Harry Sadler and Jacob Nouri ; 
third prize of $5 to George A. Shaw. First prize in horticulture 
and floriculture of $12 awarded to Moses Levy; second prize of $8 
divided between George Borovik and Jacob Taubenhaus; third prize 
of $5 to Rudolph Keyseller. First gardening prize of $6 awarded 
to Aaron Margoulies; second prize of $4 to Moses Levy. 

The exercises concluded with a benediction by Rev. Joseph 
Leiser, of Kingston, N. Y. 


The graduates and their residences are as follows: George 
S. Borovik, Chicago; Myer Goldman, Alliance, N. J. ; Louis A. 
Hirshowitz, Philadelphia ; Moses Levy, Pittsburg ; x\aron Margou- 
lies, Jaffa, Palestine; Harry Sadler, Philadelphia. All of the gradu- 
ates have secured situations. One will go to Shenley Park, Pitts- 
burg, as a landscape gardener; another will be employed as a 
nurseryman in this city; one will be a manager in the Illinois 
Floriculture Establishment; one will be connected with an agricul- 
tural institution in Massachusetts; one will be an assistant manager 
of a tobacco plantation in Havana, and the last will have charge of 
Felix Adler's Fresh Air Vacation School in the Catskill Mountains. 


Prior to the departure for Doylestown, Ralph Blum gave a 
luncheon at the Bellevue in honor of Oscar S. Straus and his 
daughter, Miss Aline Straus. Those present were Adolph Grant, 
Joseph N. Snellenburg and Mrs. Snellenburg, Adolph Eichholz, 
Hart Blumenthal and Felix N. Gerson. 


Rev. Dr. Krauskopf received many letters of appreciation and 
encouragement , from which we select a few. 


Dear Sir: — I have your valued communication of the 23d inst., inviting me 
to be present at the third graduation of the National Farm School, which will take 
place to-morrow afternoon. 

I had promised myself the pleasure to come to your graduation exercises this 
year, but since they are to be held on Friday afternoon, this will not be possible, 
for I make it a rule not to absent m3'self from home on Friday evenings, which 
has always formed the main part of our weekly Sabbath celebration in our family 

I am glad to know that the National Farm School, to the building up of which 
you have personally devoted so much energy, is prospering and fulfilling its pur- 
pose, and wishing its management every further success, I am. 

Yours very truly, 



3'Iy Dear Doctor: — I have your kind invitation to the commencement exercises 
of the National Farm School set for to- day and which I had planned to witness — 
at this writing I find it is impossible for me to be present. 

Some little study of the matter leads me to the conclusion that agriculture 
bids a solution to at least part of the problem of bettering the condition of the Jews 
in the congested dis-tricts of large cities. 

The reports of the several Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Societies certainly prove 
the ability of the Jew to become, under conditions but half way favorable, an 
eflScient agriculturist; and that which the National Farm School stands for I follow 
with much interest, and I particularlj' regret that I cannot be with you to-day. 

I am, very sincerely yours, 



My Dear and Reverend Sir: — Your very kind invitation to attend the gradu- 
ation of the National Farm School has been just received on my return to the city, 
and I exceedingly regret my inability to attend, owing to an important engage- 
ment made before your letter reached me. 

The purpose of your school to fit Jewish young men for agricultural pursuits, 
and train them to become founders of successful agricultural colonies is deservi^ig 


of high commendation, and the institution existing under your excellent manage- 
ment should receive every encouragement at the hands of our co-religionists. 
Give the immigrant Jevr the opportunity — furnish him the requisite education — 
shovr him the way through such practical means as you and your associates in the 
National Farm School have adopted, and with that innate and often eager desire 
he possesses to be helpful and progressive and a breadwinner for himself and his 
family, he will prove himself well fitted for and. will intelligently enter upon agri- 
cultural pursuits and through this, one of the great problems as the support and 
maintainance of the increasing tide of immigration to our shores, will be solved. 
Just such an exhibit as I naturally assume the commencement exercises of your 
school will make, will serve greatly to give an emphatic denial to the unfounded 
charge that the Jew will not follow agriculture for a living even if afforded the 
opportunity. Rejoice that we have in your school a fine exemplification of facts 
making the denial clear, and that in you we find an earnest advocate and hard 
worker to prepare our Jewish youth — more particularly the immigrant for helpful 
farming industry and healthful country life. 

With my best wishes for the success of the school, and renewed regrets that 
I cannot be present at the interesting commencement exercises, I am. 

Sincerely, your friend, 



My Dear Doctor: — Your letter requesting me to be present on Friday at the 
National Farm School is at hand. Were it within the reach of possibility for me 
to be there, I certainly would come; but the amount of labor that I have had to 
perform recently warns me that I must not attempt to do any more at present. 
I am living in the country and trying to regain by rest what I have lost by work. 
My feelings for the school and for you personally are well known, and, as you say, 
I was a friend of the school in its inception and have been throughout. I still 
think as I did then, that you have done splendid work and contributed vastly, not 
only in the direction of great services to the general community, but especially in 
breaking down the walls of prejudice on the part of the non-Jews. At this special 
moment confronting as we do great problems that concern the Jew, I think the 
object lesson afforded at the National Farm School is conducive to the development 
of a more correct judgment on the part of one and all, and at the same time con- 
tributes to the personal welfare of the graduates, who become missionaries in a 
field that up to the present has not produced much benefit for our people. 

I sincerely hope and trust that your exercises will be of a high character, as I 
am sure they will considering the gentlemen who are to speak, and again assuring 
you of my sincere and heartfelt sympathy, and regretting that I cannot voice it in 
person, I am, 

Ever your sincere friend, 




In Memorg of 




Memorial Buildings* 

I. Theresa Loeb Memorial Green House, in memory of Theresa L,oeb, Ogontz, 
Pa., by her family. 
II. Ida M. Block Memorial Chapel, in memory of Ida M. Block, Kansas City, 
Mo., by her husband and family. 

III. Zadok Eisner Memorial Laboratory, in memory of Zadok Eisner, Philadel- 

phia, Pa., by his wife. 

IV. Rose Krauskopf Memorial Green House, in memory of Rose Krauskopf, 

Philadelphia, Pa., by her children. 

Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 



Birmingham Lodge No. i68, 

I. O. B. B I5.00 

Cabeen Bros 5.00 

Congregation Emanu El . . 5.00 

Marengo Lodge No. 283, 1. O. 

B. B 10.00 


Council of Jewish Women of 

Mobile 5 00 

Eichold, Emanuel 5.00 


Kahn, M 5.00 

Loeb, Jacques 3.00 


Little Rock. 

Bnai Israel Congregation . . 10.00 
Pine Bltiff. 

Roth, Louis 5.00 



Bonnheim, A 10.00 

Cohen, Isadore 5.00 

Weinstock, Harris 25.00 

San Fra7icisco. 

Cahan, Mrs. L. 1 5.00 

Hirschfelder, Mrs. J. H. . . 5.00 

Leffman, Mrs. L. D 5.0Q 

Rosenbaum, Mrs. Chas. W. . 5.00 

Schwabacher, Louis A. . . . 5.00 


New Haven. 

Adler, Max 5.00 

Ulman, Jacob 5.00 



Van Leer, Chas 5.00 

Van Leer, Chas 5.00 

Wilmington Lodge No. 470, 

I. O. B. B ... I5.00 



Blumenfeld, Mrs. M 2.00 

Deborah Lodge 5.00 

Elijah Lodge No. 50, 1.O.B.B. 5.00 

Herman, A S-OO 

Saks, Isidore 5.00 

Silverman, Master Erie . . . 3.00 

Sondheimer, J 5.00 

Washington Sabbath School 5.50 

Wolf, Hon. Simon 5.00 



Hebrew Benevolent Congre- 
gation 10.00 

Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent 

Society . . . , 10.00 


Cohen, Jacob i.oo 

Joseph Lodge No. 16, 1.O.B.B. 2.00 



Binswanger, A 5.00 

Despres, Samuel 5.00 

Einsenstadt, 1 10.00 

Foreman, Oscar G 5.00 

Frank, Henrj' L 5-Oo 

Gatz, John 5.00 

Gatzert, August 5.00 

Goldman, Albert 5.00 

Greenebaum, Elias 5.00 

Greenebaum Sons 5.00 

Isaiah Sabbath School . . . 5.00 

Kohn, Isaac 5.00 

Mandel, Leon . 100.00 

Mandel, Simon 5.00 

Maxwell. Geo. H 10.00 

Nusbaum, Aaron E 5.00 

RamahLodgeNo. 33, 1.O.B.B. 10.00 

Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 


Rosenwald, M. S 


Schanfarber, Rev. Tobias . . 


Solomon, Mrs. Hannah G. . 


Steele, H. B 

5 00 

Stolz, Rev. Dr. Jos 



Abraham Lincoln Lodge No. 

90, I. 0. B. B 



Ernes Lodge No. 67, I.O.B.B. 



Greenhut, J. B 


Levi, Rev. Chas 




Steifel, Mrs. L. C 

Fort Wayne. 

Friedberger, Leopold . . . 

Gosh €71. 

Salinger, Nathan 

Hartford City. 

Weiler, Mrs. Amy .... 

Efroymson & Wolf .... 

Kahn, Henry 

Kahn, Nathan 

Kirschbaum, R 

Levy, Percival 

Newberger, Louis .... 

Rauh, Henry 

Rauh, Sam E 

Sommers, Chas. B 

Strauss, L 

Weiler, Mr. and Mrs. Abe . 

Wineman, Jos 

La Fayette. 

Jewish Ladies' Aid Society 
La Gonier. 

Strauss, Ike i . 


Adler, Phil 

Petersberg . 

Frank, Sol 


Weiler, Morris 

Terra Haute. 

Gan Eden Lodge No. no, 
I. O. B. B 

Herz, A 


Boise City. 

Ladies' Judith Montefiore 



Rothchild, D. " . . . . . 
L)es Moijies. 

Des Moines Lodge No. 330, 
I. O. B. B 



5 00 



5- 00 











Baldauf, Samuel |io.oo 

Sioux City. 

Council of Jewish Women . 5.00 


Leavemvorth . 

Flesher, B 20.00 



Baldauf, Morris 10.00 


Lexington Lodge No. 289, 
L O. B. B 5.00 


Bernheim, B 5.00 

Bernheim, B 25.00 

Bernheim, J. W 5.C0 

Bernheim, J. W 25.00 

Kohn, Aaron 5.00 

Sachs, Marcus 5.00 

Sachs, Edward -. 5.00 


Mertz, Eugene 5.00 

Mertz, Millard 5.00 


Harmony Lodge No. 149, 

I. O. B. B 5-00 

Shelby ville. 

Jewish Library Society . . . 5.00 


New Orleans. 

Council of Jewish Women . 25.00 

Kohn, Joseph 5.00 

Lazarus, Levy & Co. .... 5.00 

Newman, Isidore 10.00 

Newman, Isidore, 

Dormitory Wing 100.00 


Titche, Chas S-oo 



Pride of Maine Lodge No. 202, 

O. B. A .5-00 



Adler, Chas 5-00 

Bamberger, Elkin 5.00 

Benedict, Benj 5.00 

Drey, Elkin 5-00 

Epstein, Jacob 5.00 

Frank, Dr. S. L 10.00 

Goldenberg, Mrs. M 5.00 

Gottshalk, Jos 10.00 

Gutmacher, Rev. A 5.00 

Guttman, Mrs. Joel 5-oo 

Hamburger, Ph 10.00 

Lobe, H. J 5-00 

Levy, Julius 10.00 


Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 

Levy, Wm $10.00 

Raynor, Albert 5.00 

Raynor, Isidore 5 00 

Sinsheimer, L 5.00 

Sonueborn, Henry 5.00 

Sonneborn, Henry 25.00 

Sonneborn, Sig. B 5.00 

Strouse, Mrs. Hennie .... 5.00 

Strouse, Leopold 5.00 

Ulman, Nathan 5.00 

Ulman, A. J 5.00 

Frostburg . 

Wineland, Max 10.00 

Wineland, Max 25.00 



Hecht, Jacob 25.00 

Hecht, Mrs. Lina F 500.00 

Kaffenberg, J 5.00 

Koshland, J 5.00 

Morse, Godfrey 5.00 

Ratchesky, A. C 5.00 

Shuman, Samuel 5.00 

Ziegel, L 5.00 


Wolfson, Mrs. L. ..... . i.oo 

Wolfson, Miss R i.oo 



Montefiore Lodge, I. O. F. S. 

of 1 5.00 

Weinman, Mrs. L 5.00 


Mishan Lodge No. 247, 

I. O. B. B 10.00 



Minneapolis Lodge No. 271, 

I. O. B. B 15.00 

Minneapolis City Lodge 

No. 63, O. B. A 5.00 



Joachim Lodge No. 181, 

I. O. B. B 2.00 


Jewish Women's League , . 5.00 

Manassah Lodge No. 202, 

I. O. B. B 3.00 


Tausig, Joseph 3.00 


Frank, Henry 5.00 


Kansas City. 

Benjamin, Alfred , '. , . . . 5.00 
Berkowitz, Mamie 5.00 

Bernheimer, G., Bros. & Co. $5.00 

Bloch, Edward 5.00 

Bloch, Sol 25.00 

GriflF, F. W 5.00 

Hyman, A 5.00 

King David Lodge No. 86, 

0. B. A 5.00 

Mayer, Rabbi Harry N. . . . 5.00 

Meyer, L 5.00 

Rothenberg & Schloss . . , 10.00 

Shane, M 5.00 


Michael Bros 3.00 

St. Joseph. 
Joseph Lodge No. 73, 1.O.B.B. 10.00 

Schloss, Moses A i.oo 

Westheimer, Ferdinand . . . 25.00 

St. Louis. 

Eben Ezra Lodge No. 47, 

1. O. B. B 10.00 

Stix, Wm 10.00 



Mayer Bros 20.00 


Fishel, Mr. and Mrs. E. . . . 5.00 

Jacobs, M. . 25.00 

Nebraska Lodge No. 354, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 



Van Rensaleer 100.00 


Fuhrman, Abraham .... 5.00 

Jersey City. 

Hudson Lodge No. 295, 

I. O. B. B 5-00 


Hirsch, Mrs. Samson .... 5.00 


Fisch, Joseph 5.00 

Gluck, Rev. B 15.00 

Goetz, Jos 5.00 

Lehman, L 5.00 

Michael, Chas 5.00 

Michael, Oscar 5.00 

Plant, Moses 5.00 

Scheuer, Selig 5.00 

Scheuer. Simon 5.00 

Stern, Mrs. C. K 5.00 

Strauss, Moses . , 5.00 


Fleisher, Nathan 5.00 

Holzman, S. L 5.00 


Mack, Louis C 5.00 

Trenton Lodge No. 319, 

L O. B. B 5-00 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 



Santa Fe. 

Seligman, Mrs. Bernard . . f5.cxD 



Brill mau, Mrs. Isaac .... 5.00 

Congregation Beth Emeth . 25.00 

Laventhal, Mrs. J. ..... 5.00 

Lesser, Mrs. \Vm 5.00 

Mann, Mrs. Jos 5.00 

Waldman, Louis 1 10.00 


Abraham, A 25.00 

Bamberger, L. 1 5.00 

Blum, Edw. C 10.00 

May, Moses 10.00 

Rothschild, S. F 10.00 


Fleishman, Simon . , . . 5.00 

Wile, Herman 5.00 


Friendly, H 3.00 


Ithaca Lodge No. 165, I. O.S.B. 2.00 

Mt. Vernon. 

Samuels, Julius 5.00 

Samuels, Moritz 5.00 

New York City. 

Battelle, Mrs. John Gordon . 5.00 

Benjamin, M. W 10.00 

Benj. Harrison Lodge No. 9, 

0. B. x\ 3.00 

Bijur, Nathan 10.00 

Bloomingdale, Jos. B. ... 10.00 

Boehm, Alex 5.00 

Browsky, Louis 5.00 

Bruecks, \Vm 10.00 

Brum, Emil ....... 5.00 

Clark, Louis, Jr 5.00 

Cohen, A. . . 25.00 

Cohen, Isaac 5.00 

Dormitzer, Mrs. Henry . . . 10.00 

itstricher, Henry 5.00 

Friedman, Sol. & Co 10.00 

Funk & Wagnalls 5.00 

Goodhart, P. J 10.00 

Grossman, Rev. Dr. Rudolph 5.00 
Guggenheim, Mrs. Daniel. 

(New Dormitory Wing) . . 100.00 
Hebron Lodge No. 5, I. O.B.B. 5.00 

Heine, Arnold B 5.00 

Henry Jones Lodge No. 79, 

1. O. B. B 2.00 

Herman, Mrs. Esther .... 10.00 

Herman, Nathan 5.00 

Herman, LTriah 5.00 

Herzig, Leopold 5.00 

Hochstadter, Albert F. . . . 5.00 

Holzman & Ascher 10.00 

Jonas, Wm. (Herman Jonas 

Memorial Alcove) .... 25.00 

Joseph, Mrs. Julius. (New 
Dormitory Wing, in mem- 
ory of her father, A. A. 

Solomon) $50.00 

Kahn, Louis 5.00 

Kleinert, LB 10.00 

Kohn, Emil 5.00 

Krauskopf, Mrs. Henrietta . 5.00 

Krauskopf, Nathan 5.00 

Ladenburger, Theodore . . . 10.00 

Lauterbach, Edw 25.00 

Levy, Morris 5.00 

Limeburger, Mrs. Marie S. 

(New Dormitory Wing) . . 30.CO 

Loeb, Emil 5.00 

Loeb, Ferd. L 5.00 

Loeb, Mrs Louis (Graduation) 25.00 

Loeb, Louis 5.00 

Loeb, Maurice 5.00 

Loeb, Miss H. K 5.00 

Mack, Fred. A 10.00 

Mayer, Otto L 10.00 

Mayer, Rabbi M. A. 

(For a friend) 5.00 

Meyer, Arthur 5.00 

Modey, 1 3.00 

Moses, Rev. Isaac S 5.00 

Mt Sinai Lodge No. 270, 

I. O. B. B 10.00 

Pulaski, M. H 5.00 

Rice, S. M 25.00 

Rothschild, Jacob 5.00 

SchafFner, Abe 5.00 

Schiff, Jacob H 100.00 

Schoenfeld, Mrs. David . . . 5.00 

Scholle, Melville J 5.00 

Schwed, Fred. K 5.00 

Sidenberg, Henry 5.00 

Solomon, A. A., Jr 5.00 

Solomon, A. A.. Jr. (New 

Dormitory Wing) .... 25.00 

Sondheim, Max 5.00 

Speyer, James 10.00 

Sutro, Lionel 5.00 

Sutro, Richard 5.00 

Tannenbaum, Leon, Sr. , . . 25.00 

Waterbury, John 1 25.00 

Weinman, Miss Rita. (Sadie 

Bash Memorial Alcove) . . 15.00 

Zeckendorf, Louis 5.00 

Zion Lodge No. 2, I. O. B. B. 10.00 

Zucker Samuel 5.00 

Niagara Falls. 

Silberberg, Moses L 5.00 

Silberberg, M 5.00 


Wile, Julius M 10.00 


Lebanon Lodge No. 55, I. O. 

F. S. of 1 5.00 


Eisner, Henry 5.00 

Guttman, Dr. Adolph .... 3.00 

Jacobsou, Dr. N 5.00 


Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 

Jacobson, Dr. N $5.00 

Thalheimer, G 5.00 

Tottenville, S. I. 

L,evinson, Henry 3.00 



The Akron Schwesterbund . 5.00 


Acb, Samuel 5.00 

Bettman, Levi 10.00 

Bettman, Morris L 5.00 

Bing, J. & S 5.00 

Block, Abe 5.00 

Block, Leon 5.00 

Council of Jewish Women . . 25.00 

Fletcher, Victor 5.00 

Fox, Sol 5.00 

Freiberg, Julius 5.00 

Freiberg, J. W 5.00 

Freiberg, Morris J 5.00 

Fries, Gus. R 5.00 

Grossman, Rev. Dr. Louis . 5.00 

Harris, Geo. W 5.00 

Jonas, H 5.00 

Levy, Harry M 5.00 

Levy, Harry M 5.00 

Mack, Mrs. W 5.00 

Mayer, Mrs. L 5.00 

Moch, Albert 10.00 

Mt. Carmel Lodge No. 20, 

I. O. B. B 10.00 

Ofner, Alex 5.00 

Pritz, Benj 10.00 

Pritz, Sidney E 5.00 

Pritz, Sol. W 5.00 

Scheuer, Jacob 5.00 

Shohl, Chas 5.00 

Weiler, Isaac 5.00 

Westheimer, Maurice .... 5.00 


Eiseman, Chas 5.00 

Feiss, Paul L 5.00 

Greis, Rev. M. J 10.00 

Hexter, Kaufman W 2.00 

Hexter, Sol. M 5.00 

Joseph, Isaac 10.00 

Joseph, Sig 5.00 

Marks, M. A. 5.00 

Mayer, Adolph 10.00 

Scheuer, S. A i.oo 

Schlesinger & Co., Sig. . . . 5.00 

Schvpab, Mrs. M. B 5.00 


Lazarus, F. & R 5.00 

Lazarus, Fred., Jr 5.00 

Lazarus, JeflFrey L 2.00 

Lazarus, Robert 2.00 

Zion Lodge No. 62, I. O. B. B. 5.00 


Daneman, Mrs. Jacob .... i.oo 

Grunstein, Isaac ...... i.oo 


Huhn, E 5.00 


Anshe Emeth Congregation . $5.00 

Ephraim Lodge No. 183, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 


Grossman, Rev. J. B 5.00 

Hartzell, E. J 5.00 

Hirschberg, 5.00. 

Ritter, Miss Carrie B 5.00 

Strouss, 1 5.00 



Cohen, Mrs. Josiah 5.00 

Gallinger, Mrs. N 5.00 

Hanauer, Mrs. H 5.00 

Jericho Lodge No. 44, I.O.B.B. 10.00 

Lazarus, David M 5.00 

Rauh, Mrs. Rosalie ..... 5.00 

Sunstein, A. J 5.C0 

Sunstein, C 5.00 

Wertheimer, Samuel .... 10.00 


Dodson, T. M 5.00 

Fetcher, A. B 5.00 

Fritz, John 5.00 

Lauchenbach, Dr. A 5.00 


Friedman, Samuel I.oo 

Kuhn, Sam'l and Sol. . . . 5.00 

Marks, Herman ...... 5.00 


Einstein, Jacob 5.00 


Moss, S. R 5.00 

Rich, Israel A 5.00 


Bachman, Max 5.00 

Corn, S. B 5.00 

Sunstein, 1 5.00 

New Castle. 

Feuchtwanger, Marcus . . . 5.00 


Abbott, George 5.00 

Acker, Finley 5.00 

Alumni of Keneseth Israel . 5.00 

Baird, J. E 10.00 

Bash, Mrs. Henrietta .... 5.00 

Bash, Mrs. Henrietta .... 10.00 

Bash, Julius 5.00 

Baum, Samuel 5.00 

Bernstein, Mrs. Theresa . . 3.00 

Blaylock & Blynn 5.00 

Bloch, Bernhard 5.00 

Blum, Mrs. Ralph 25.00 

Blumenthal, Hart 25.00 

Blumenthal, Harold .... 5.00 

Bougher, J. R 10.00 

Bowers, W. H 5.00 

Burpee & Co., Atlee .... 9.00 

Butler, Benj. F 5.00 

Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 


Clay, Henry I5.00 

Davis, Ed. T 10.00 

Delaney & Co 5.00 

Devlin, Thomas 5.00 

Devlin, Waller E 5.00 

Dodge, James M 25.00 

Feustman, N. Morris .... 5.00 

Fishier, Herman lo.oo 

Francis Bros. & Jellett . . . 25.00 
Friedberger, Simon .... 100.00 

Gans, Mrs. Jeanette .... 3.00 

Gattman, M 5.00 

Gazzam, Jos 5.00 

Gelb, W. B 5.00 

Goldstein, Mr. and Mrs. Sol. 10.00 

Graves, N. Z 5.00 

Grieb & Son, J. B 5.00 

Hagedorn, Mrs Alice .... 200.00 

Hannifen, J. E 5.00 

Heebner, Samuel 5.00 

Heilbronner, Sidney J. . . . 3.00 

Heusell, Colladay & Co. . . 5.00 

Herzberg, Mrs. L 5.00 

Hill, Robert C 5.00 

Hirsch, Mrs. Gabriel .... 10.00 

Hofifman, Julius 5.00 

Hovey, F. S 5.00 

Jeager, A. H 5.00 

Jonas, Miss Freda 10.00 

Joshua Lodge No. 23, 1. 0.0. B. 10.00 

Klein, Leon G 5.00 

Klonower, Mrs. O., and 

Mrs. Bertha Wolf .... 5.00 

Knight, C. C 5.00 

Koch, Mrs. I. M 10.00 

Levy, Edgar and Newton . . 2.00 

Lit, Samuel D 10.00 

Lockwood & Co 5.00 

Lord Co., G. W 5.00 

Mayer, Mrs. J. 1 10.00 

McCreary, Geo. D 5.C0 

Merz, Mrs. Regina loo.oo 

Meyers, Mrs. J., for a friend 2.00 

Meyers, Yetta 5.00 

Moore & White 5.00 

Moss, Dr. W 5.00 

Murray & Murray 5.00 

Nachod, J 5.00 

Nixon, W. H. 10.00 

Oppenheimer, M. C 5.00 

Oppenheimer, Oscar .... 5.00 

Ostheimer, Wm. J 5.00 

Paulus & Co., J 5.00 

PaxonCo. ,J. W 10.00 

Poth & Sons, F. A 10.00 

RafF, Raymond A 5.00 

Ralph, Wm. T 5.00 

Rosenthal, N 5.00 

Rubin, Mrs. Joseph 20.00 

Schloss, Mrs. Louis 10.00 

Schwacke, J. H 5.00 

Search, Theo. C. 25.00 

Sharp, S. S 10.00 

Sichel, Mrs. Jalius 15.00 

Silberman, Mrs. Ida .... 10.00 

Silberman & Son, M I5.00 

Showell, E. B 5.00 

Smith & Co., E. B 5.00 

Smith, Horace J 5.00 

Smythe, E. E 5.00 

Snellenburg, Sam'l 100.00 

Snellenburg, Sam'l 25.00 

Soulas, Charles H 10.00 

Soulas, G. A 5.00 

Springer, Emanuel 5.00 

Starr, Jesse W., Jr., 3d . . . 10.00 

Steinhardt, Miss Frances . . 3.00 

Stern, Harry L 10.00 

Stern, Miss Ida 10.00 

Stern, Rose G 5.00 

Sycle, Meyer 10.00 

Ulman, Miss Hennie .... 5.00 

Warburton, Barclay H. . . . 3.00 

Webster, H 5.00 

Weil, Sam'l 5.00 

Weinman, Mrs. Fannie . . . 5.00 

Wilson & Richards 5.00 

Wilson & P^ogers 10.00 

Wolf, Mr. and Mrs. Martin . 40.00 

Young, Smyth, Field & Co. . 5.00 


Aaron, Chas. 1 50.00 

Aaron, Chas. 1 5.00 

Aaron, Louis J 5.00 

Aaron, Louis J 5.00 

Aaron, Marcus 5.00 

Aaron, Mrs. Mina 5.00 

Adler, E. B 5.00 

Adler, Herman 5.00 

Adler, Louis J 5.00 

DeRoy, Joseph 5.00 

Dreyfus, C 5.00 

Floersheim, Berthold .... 5.00 

I^rank, Isaac 5.00 

Gross, Isaac 5.00 

Guckenlaeimer, Mrs. A. . . . 10.00 

Kamm, W^ L ' . . 5.00 

Lippman, A 10.00 

Oppenheimer, Alfred M. . . 10.00 

Oppenheimer, Oscar W. . . 10.00 

Raphael, Rudolph 5.00 

Rauh, Marcus 5.00 

Rauh, A. L 5.00 

Rothschild, M. M 5.0Q 

Sidenberg, Hugo 25.00 

Stadfield, M 5.00 

United Hebrew Relief Asso. 100.00 

Weil, A. Leo 25.00 

Wertheimer, E. M 10.00 

Wertheimer, Isaac 10.00 

Wolf, Fritz 5.00 


Greenewald, Gabe 5.00 

Greenewald, Mrs. Alice . . . 20.00 

Solomon, Mrs. Bettie .... 25.00 

Solomon, Mrs. Bettie .... 10.00 
Union Lodge No. 124, 1.O.B.B. 5.00 


Oheb Shalom Congregation . 25.00 


Subscriptions from Oct. 1902 to Sept. 30th, 1903. 


Ackerman, J. O IS-OO 

Amos Lodge No. 136, 1.O.B.B. 5.00 

Krotosky, Isidore 5.00 

Oettinger, Louis 5.00 

Roos, Dr. Elias G 5.00 

Scranton City Lodge No. 47, 

I. O. B. A 5.00 

Selin's Grove. 

Weis, S. . 5.00 


Levy, Leon ....,.,. 5.00 

Stern, Harry F 5.00 

Strauss, S. 1 5.00 


Lehmayer, N 5.00 



Sons of Israel and David 

Congregation 10.00 


Frankenstein, Ignatz .... 5.00 



Harpman, Sol 5.00 

Lehman, Felix 2.00 

Memphis Lodge No. 35, 

I. O. B. B 10.00 


Edelman, F 5.00 

Loveman, Adolph 5.00 

Maimonides Lodge No. 46, 
L O. B. B 5.00 



Alexander Kohut Lodge No. 

247, O. B. A 5.00 

Friend, Alex. M 5.00 

Friend. Henry M., Sr. . . . 5.00 

Kahn, E. M 25.00 

Kahn, J 5.00 

Linz & Bro., J 5.00 

Myers, Seymour 5.00 

Ortlieb, Max 2.50 

Sanger Bros 5.00 

Sanger, Mrs. Philip .... 100.00 

Titche, Ed 5.00 

El Paso. 

Aaronstein, S i.oo 

Ft. Worth. 

Levy, Samuel 5.00 


Bromberg, J. G 5.00 

Sail Afitonio. 

Edgar Lodge No. 211, 1. 0.B.B. 5.00 

Halflf, M 5.00 

HalfiF, S 10.00 


Levy & Co., A |io.oo 


Salt Lake City. 

Meyer, Mrs. Rosa G 15.00 



Hecht, Jacob 5.00 

Hirschler, E 5.00 

Lowenburg, D 5.00 

Seldner, A. B 5.00 


Asher, Simon 5.00 

Binswanger, Harry S. . . . 5.00 

Binswanger, Helen 5.00 

Galenski, Dr. vS 5.00 

Hutzler, Henry S 5.00 

Kaufman, 1 5.00 

Millheiser, Mrs. Clarence . . 5.00 

Millheiser, Emanuel .... 5.00 

Millheiser, Mrs. Rosalie . . 10.00 

Wallerstein, Henry S. . . . 5.00 


Loeb, Julius 5.00 



Seattle Lodge No. 342, 1.O.B.B. 10.00 

Eckstein, Mrs. Nathan . . . 5.00 



Baer, Henry 5.00 

Bloch, Samuel L 5.00 

Emsheimer, Joseph 5.00 

Hanauer, Philip 5.C0 

Horkheimer, Louis 5.00 

Levi, Rev. Harry 5.00 

Rice, S. M 5.00 

Sonneborn, M 5.00 



Newald, L. J 25.00 

La Crosse. 

Strouse, B. L 5.00 


Cohen, Mrs. Gertrude . . . 5.00 

Cohen, Jonas 5.00 

Gilead Lodge No. 41, I.O.B.B. 10.00 

Isaac Lodge No. 87, I.O.B.B. 5.00 

Landauer, Max 10.00 

Milwaukee Federated Jewish 

Charities 90.00 

Schuster, Chas 2.00 

Tabor, L. L 5.00 

Wisconsin Lodge No. 80, 

O. B. A 5.00 


Memorial Tree Donations. 

Donated by In Memory of 

Alkus, Isaac Son, Leoii Isaac I25 00 

Bachrach, Julius Fanuy and Charles Bachrach 5 00 

Bamberger, Mrs. Albertine 50 00 

Beck, Mrs. M 10 00 

Bernstein, Mrs. G Leou Wiernik 5 00 

Cohen, Mrs. Eva Bernard Seligtnan 10 00 

Council of Jewish Women (Phila.) Professor Lazarus 5 00 

Fisher, H Bertha and Mark Fisher 10 00 

Foster, Mrs 3 00 

Gimbel, Mrs. S 20 00 

Glenn, Mrs. Wm. B 5 00 

Greenewald, Mrs. B. F Adam Gimbel 10 00 

Harrison, Raphael I Louis R. Harrison 10 00 

Heller, Wm Samuel Heller 5 00 

Hertz, Mrs. S Mrs. Pauline Hyman . 5 00 

Heyman, Mrs. H Henry Heyman 5 00 

Hilbronner, The Misses Father, Isaac 5 00 

Hirschman, Mrs. Carrie Henry Meyers 5 00 

Hoffheimer, Mrs. L 5 00 

Hoffman, Julius Care of Tree 2 00 

Hope, Nathan 10 00 

Horn, Mrs. B, F 15 00 

Horn, B. F 5 00 

Isaac, Morris 5 00 

Jonas, Miss Freda Herman Jonas 25 00 

Koester, Mrs. L Norman Koester 5 00 

Leopold Isaacs 5 co 

Milton S. Lehman . . 5 00 

Levy, Mrs. Caroline Mrs. Clara Einstein & Hy. L. Einstein 25 00 

Lipschitz, Mrs. M Sarah Estelle Lipschitz 5 00 

Loeb, Mrs. Joseph Flora E. Wolf 5 00 

Loucheim, Mrs. Sophia Henry J. Loucheim 15 00 

Lowenstein, Mrs. Benj Benj. Lowenstein , , . 10 00 

Lowy, David G Mrs. Amelia Lowy 5 00 

Marks, Isaac Dora Marks 20 00 

Massman, Mrs. A. E Rachel Massman 5 00 

Myers, Mrs. Pauline Her Husband 5 00 

Oppenheimer, Mrs Louis Oppenheimer 10 00 

Pulaski, Mrs Her Husband 20 00 

Albert Schlachter 5 00 

Schwerin, Mrs. E Emanuel Schwerin 5 00 

Sessler, Mrs. Chas C. Abendroth 5 00 

Weber, Herman Father 5 00 

Weider Bros. Franciska Wieder 5 00 

Weiler, H Ellen Weiler 10 00 

Wurtzman, Bernath 10 00 

Donations of Goods. 

Mrs. D. WolfsoH, Philadelphia. Lawn Mower and Lantern |i5 co 

Gara McGinley & Co., Philadelphia. 50 feet Galvanized Pipe 500 

S. H. Smith, Philadelphia. One dozen Baskets . . . . 2 50 

American Wringer Co., New York. One Wringer 5 00 

Atlee Burpee & Co., Philadelphia. Quantity of Seeds 5000 



To find your memorial tree: look on top of chart for letter corresponding to 
letter following name of the one for whom your memorial tree is planted. Follow 
that letter down its column, until it crosses the section of the number indicated 
after the letter. 

F II. 

Abendroth, Christian. 
Abrahamson, Leopold 
Alkus, Leon, g ii. 
Arnold, Edwin. G iv. 
Asch, Hannah. A XI. 
Asch, Mannes. a xi. 
Asch, Michael. F i. 
Asch, Pauline. F I. 
Ash, Fannie. F i. 


Bamberger, Dollye E. H ii. 
Bamberger, Rosa S. 
Bash, Michael, c vii. 
Bash, Sadie. B Vll. 
Bedichimer, Isaac. B viii, 
Behal, Isaac. G Vlil. 
Beildeck, Aaron. H III. 
Beitman, Emelie. H v. 
Berkowitz, Joseph, c vllI. 
Berman, Bernard. C I. 
Bernheimer, Lazarus, c I. 
Bernheimer, Samuel, b x. 
Bernstein, Edgar, b vii. 
Binswanger, Clara. A ix. 
Binswanger. Isidor. G ii. 
Binswanger, Solomon, a ix. 
Bloch, Ida. A IX. 
Blum, Jacques, a vii. 
Blumenthal, Emanuel. H i. 
Blumenthal, Fannie. F i. 
Blumenthal, Mrs. Louis. A iv. 
Bonnheim, Joseph, b hi. 
Branson, Mrs. James. C III. 
Buehler, John A. G i. 
Buehler, Lena, h i. 

Casper, Henry. G Vlll. 
Cohen, Isaac. G V. 
Cohen, Mrs. Isaac. G V. 
Cortissoz, Miriam. B IV. 


David, Bertha H. G VI. 
Davidson, S. K. B viii. 
De Costa, Rebecca. D iii. 
Disston, Horace. A IX. 
Dreifus, Jeanette. H ii. 

Einstein, Benjamin. A xil, 
Einstein, Evelina. A xii. 

Feldman, A. M. B viii. 
Fleisher, Simon, c vii. 
Foster, Henrietta. G I. 
Foster, May. G i. 
Friedman, Emil. E iv. 

Frohsin, Lena, h viii. 
Fulda, Rosa, a xi. 
Fulda, SamueL a x. 
Freides, Samuel. B l. 

Gimbel, Adam, d iv. 
Gimbel, Fridolin. E i. 
Gimbel, Selomon. E vii. 
Glaser, Lillie. D li. 
Goldsmith, Abraham. H i. 
Goodman, Caroline. G in. 
Goslar, Rosetta. E III. 
Grant, Marietta, a v. 
Greenbaum, Ethel, c iv. 
Greenberg, Ferdinand, b xi. 
Greenewald, B. F. D iv. 


Haac, Hattie. A iv. 
Hagedorn, Estelle. c vii. 
Harrison, L. R. F i. 
Hecht, Samuel. F in. 
Heller, Sidney, b vii. 
Herman, Emelie. F VI. 
Heyman, Benno. E i. 
Hexter, Samuel. F iv. 
Hilbronner, Mrs. J. H iii. 
Hinline, Clara, b xii. 
Hirsch, Baroness de. G iv. 
Hirsch, Mason, b hi. 
Hoffman, Lehman. F v. 
Hoffman, Ernest, b ii. 
Hoffman, Mrs. Ernest. B II. 
Hope, Mrs. B. c viii. 
Horn, Fanny, c vill. 
Horn, Louis, c viii. 
Hutzler, Louis. F i. 


Isaacs, Isaac. E v. 


Kahn, Albert. H iv. 
Kahn, Benjamin. B X. 
Kahn, Charles. B Xll. 
Kahn, Henrietta, c il. 
Kahn, Isaac, c ii. 
Kaufman, Babbetta. F III. 
Kaufman, Fannie. H I, 
Kaufman, Mathilda, d hi. 
Kaufman, Solomon. H i. 
Kind, Fannie. E iv. 
Kirschbaum, Abraham, c VI. 
Kohn, Henry. E vi. 
Kohn, Mrs. Henry. D V. 
Kohn, Simon, a x. 
Kohn, Henry. G viii. 

Lang, Henrietta. 
Langfeld, Linda. 

H V. 


Lazarus, ]Moritz. E IV. 

Lehbach, Jacob, e ill. 

Lehman, Samuel, .-v xi. 

Lesem, Isaac, c I. 

Lesem, Mrs. Isaac. B i. 

Leopold, Marks, d i. 

Leopold, Arthur, e i. 

Levi, Hettie. G il. 

Levi, S. M. c IV. 

Levi, S. N. A IV. 

Levy, Emanuel. B iv. 

Levy, Moses, b iv. 

Lewin, Philip, b vii. 

Lewisohn, Leonard, b ix. 

Lewisohn, Mrs. Leonard. B ix. 

Lewisohn, Samuel, b ix. 

Lichten, Aaron, e ii. 

Lichten, Mathilda. E il, 

Lichten, Simon. E il. 

Linz, Francis. E ii. 

Lieberman, Emanuel. G Vll. 

Lipschitz, S. E. b I. 

Loeb, Cora. H iv. 

Loeb, Fannie. A iv. 

Loeb. Leonard. G iv. 

Loeb, Lottie. E i. 

Loeb, Moses. G iv. 

Loeb, Theresa, c vii. 

Lyon, Isaac, b xi. 

Loeb, L. F I. 

Lyon, Theresa, b hi. 


MacElRey, Emma. H vill. 
Mann, Isaac. G iii. 
Marschuetz, Joseph. D V. 
Marks, Dora. E iv. 
Marks, Jean. F v. 
Marks, Joseph. B ix. 
Marks, Theresa, b ix. 
Marquis, Mrs. A. a hi. 
Marquis. Mrs. M. a iv, 
Massman, A. E. c viii. 
Massman, Henrietta, b viil. 
Massman. S. E. b viii. 
Mayers, Milton, a xi. 
Mckinley, William. G v. 
Meyers, Abraham. F vi, 
Meyers, Elizabeth. H V. 
Meyers, Moses. G i. 
Meyers, Sophia, c i. 
Meyerhoff, Julia. H iv. 
Miller, Mrs. Julia. B xi. 
Myers, Meyer. E vi. 
Myers, Simon. B xi. 


Nathan, Simon. F iii. 
Naumberg, Rev. L. G I. 
Navaratsky, Isidore. F iii, 
Nelke, Ferdinand, a xii. 
Netter, Simon. B xi. 
Newman, Morris. A iv. 
Nirdlinger, Caroline. F IV. 
Noar, Anna. D i. 
Near, Miriam. A v. 

Oppenheimer, Mina. b viii. 

Pfaelzer, Cassie Theobald. E v. 

Raff, Mrs. A. L. E vr. 
Rayner, Mr. and Mrs.Wm. A Vll 
Reinstine, Alex, a xii. 
Reinstine, Elsie, a xi. 
Rice, vSimon. G ii. 
Ridgway, Sarah, b hi. 
Rosenberg, Bella, b vii. 
Rosenthal, Emma, a X. 

Schloss, Aaron, a ix. 
Schwarz, Albert. G viii. 
Schwarz, Nannie. E vii. 
Silverman, Barbara. E III. 
Simon, Sansom, a iv. 
Simson, Mary, a ix. 
Simson, Henry, a X. 
Smith, Caroline, b x. 
Smith, Carrie, b X. 
Smith, Isaac. B IX. 
Snellenburg, Isaac. B iv. 
Snellenburg, Joseph. B IV. 
Starr, Hortense. F i. 
Stern, Lena. H HI. 
Stern, Leon, b viii. 
Stern, Mrs. Jacob, a hi. 
Sternberger, Lena. B viii. 

Techner, Bertha. E vi. 
Techner, Heyman. E vi. 
Teller, Francis, b vii. 
Teller, Joseph. B vii. 
Teller, Rebecca. F i. 
Thalheimer, Solomon, b xi. 
Traugott, Rachel. B iv. 
Tuch, Mr. and Mrs. c v. 
Tutelman, Samuel. G I. 


Ullman, David. B xil. 
UUman, Charlotte. B xii. 
Ulman, Michael. H ii. 


Weil, Mrs. Carrie. D ll. 
Weil, Samuel. A v. 
Weiler, Ellen. G iii. 
Weiler, Rosa. A X. 
Wertheimer, Henrietta, b it, 
Wieder, Herman. F ii. 
Wise, Dr. Isaac M. E V. 
Wittenberg, Philip. B ii. 
Wollenberger, Maier. h h. 
Wollenberger, Caroline. H ii. 
Wolf, Carrie. G vii. 
Wolf, Flora, c ii. 
Wolf, Wm. G VH. 
Wolf, A. S. G IV. 
Wurtzman, C. F il. 
Wurtzman. E. E II. 






ARBOR DAY, 1903. 


Mrs. C. Weil, Pyrus Mai. 
Paulina Ash, Pyrus Com. 
Isaiah Weinman, Pyrus Mai. 
Chas. Stern, Pyrus Com. 
Leon Hoffheimer, Pyrus Mai. 
L. Bamberger, Pyrus Com. 


B. Seligman, Pyrus Mai. 
Daniel Merz, Pyrus Com. 
Henry Meyers, Pyrus Mai. 
L,. Louchheim, Pyrus Com. 
H. Louchheim, Pyrus Mai. 


2sorman Koester, Pyrus Com. 
H. Lowenburg, Pyrus Mai. 

, Pyrus Com. 

Herman Jonas, Pyrus Mai. 
T. Bacharach, Pyrus Com. 


C. Bacharach, Pyrus Mai. 
Henry Hyman, Pyrus Com. 
Leopold Isaacs, Pyrus Mai. 
Mrs. A. Levy, Pyrus Com. 
Rosa S. Bamberger, Pyrus Mai. 


Sam'l Weber, Pyrus Com. 
I. Hilbronner, Pyrus Mai. 
Raphael Teller, Pyrus Com. 
Julius Beck, Pyrus Mai. 
Ephriam Beck, Pyrus Com. 


L. Oppenheimer, Pyrus Mai. 
Edward Kahn, Pyrus Com. 
Leon Wiernik, Pyrus Mai. 
Emanuel Schwerin, Pyrus Com. 
Mark Fisher, Pyrus Mai. 


Bertha Fisher, Pyrus Com. 
Manuel Frank, Pyrus Mai. 
Rachel Massman, Pyrus Com. 
Rev. M. Mielziner, Pyrus Mai. 
M. S. Lehman, Pyrus Com. 


Albert Schlacter, Pyrus Mai. 

A. A. Solomon, Pyrus Com. 
Jo.s. Myers, Pyrus Mai. 
Franciska Wieder, Pyrus Com. 

B. Lowenstein, Pyrus Mai. 


Gustave Blum, Pyrus Com. 
Clara Einstein, Pyrus Mai. 
Henry Einstein, Pyrus Com. 
N. Braunstein, Pyrus Mai. 
Daniel Frank, Pyrus Com. 


J. J. Hagedorn, Pyrus Mai. 
Pauline Hyman, Pyrus Com. 
Sam'l Heller, Pyrus Mai. 
Benedict Hope, Pyrus Com. 
Hannah Hirschler, Pyrus Mai. 


Simon Hirschler, Pyrus Com. 
Louis Pulaski, Pyrus Mai. 
Leon Pulaski, Pyrus Com. 
Chas. Kaiser, Pyrus Mai. 
Emanuel Nunes, Pyrus Com. 


Michael Hyman, Pyrus Mai. 
Mrs. Julia Hyman, Pyrus Com. 

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" / give and bequeath 2C7zto the National Farm School^ 

Farm School., Bucks Co.., Pa.., the sum of. dollars., 

free from all taxes., to be paid to the Treasurer., for the tijuer 
beijig., for the use of the institutio7t,\'' 



'■'' I give and devise unto the National Farm School., Farm 
School., Bucks Co.., Pa. {here describe the property or ground 
rent)., together with the appicrtenances., in fee simple., and all 
policies of insicrance covering said premises., whether fire., title 
or otherwise., free from all taxes.'''' 


A Rabbi's Impressions 
qf the Ober&.mmergau 
Passion Play. ^ ^ 

A handsome edition in Octavo Form, of the entire series of Rabbi 
JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF'S DISCOURSES on the above subject. 

The subject is one of absorbing interest, abl}- and exhaustively treated, and 
the work has a distinct literar}- value. 

The numerous demands for these lectures in book form have induced the 
publishers to issue the series in one volume, as a finished, complete book, iLnth 
an introduction by the author, Rabbi JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF, D. D. 

As a piece of book-making, it is all that good paper, good print, good binding 
can make it. PRICE $1.25. POSTAGE 10 CENTS. 




The Famous Savant and Aulhor of the " History of Universal Literature," Dr 
Gustav Karpeles: 

Very Esteemed Doctor: — I must confess to you that while perusing, I 
myself often found expressed therein the impression the Passion Play made 
upon me when I saw it twent}- years ago. I am convinced that your work will 
make its way among the reading public, and it is for that reason that I regard a 
translation of it into German as exceedingly necessary. We have no work in 
German literature which points out the difference between Jew and Christian 
from a modern point of view so critically as you do in your book. 

Berlin, September ist, icioi. 

Frank K. Sanders, Dean of Yale Divinity School : 

It was extremely interesting to me to follow it through from jour stand- 
point, which was quite sympathetic and yet difTerent from that which many of 
my friends had taken. It was most instructive and helpful, and I am very glad 
to have had the opportunity of reading it, — New Haven, Conn., Jan. ij, igo2. 

Dr. Isaac Funk, of Funk and Wagnalis Co : 

In your book I hear the heart-cry wrung from a great people that has 
suffered untold wrongs, awful cruelty, and injustice done in the name of Him 
whose life and words are to me the sweetest memory of all the past — malice, 
cruelty, avarice, superstition, fanaticism — all masquerading under the name of 
Jesus, for all these centuries— struck these cruel blows. . . . 

Your book is most eloquent in style, very clear, and is to me the most 
interesting from coyer to cover. 

Permit me to thank you for having written your \iod)s..—Jnly 2^, igoi. 

gO-CTs. THE GLEANER. one year . 

The National Farm School Students are its Publishers and Editors. The Nationa? 
Farm School is helping to solve the Jewish Problem. You will serve a noble purpose and 
keep yourself informed about this Institution through the medium of 

Published every month during the school year. — — — — - 

-That's all. Send 50 cents and know the rest. 

Addresss "THE GLEANER," care of Farm School, Bucks Co., Pa. 


This Shield is 



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All Mantles are not Welsbachs. 

See that the Mantle you buy has 
the Shield of Quality on the box. 

There's not enough difference 
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The present reduced prices of 
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10 INorth IVinth St. 

Illustrated catalogue mailed f 




At all 





Rugs that sell Readily- 

Rich colorings, attractive designs, substantially made 

High Grade Wool SiHyma Ru^s 

All sizes from 18x36 inches to 9x12 feet 

SAMUEL WHITE, '"^ """^^^^^.^^M 



New York Office, 

Silk Exchange Buildingf, 
Broadway and Broome St. 

Sulphur Torch 

Positive Disinfector 

Endorsed by Physicians 

Mi^MiR. No germs or insects can exist 

%' after the use of one of these torches. 

Price 25c. 

-39=41 ^^^^^ 


MarKet ® 12th Reading' Terminal 
and 121-123-125 North Eighth St. 


Hardware, Tools 
Mill Supplies ^ 

2o°o North Front St, 

A. Pomerantz, 


Engraver, ^ Printer 

and Blank Book Maker, 

22 South 15th Street, 


Harry R. Rust, 

Carpenter and Builder, 

Store and Office Fixtures, &:c. 

82S Filbert Street, Philadelphia. 

OFFICE and MILL, 724-26 Ludlow Street. 


Beef, Wine and Iron, 


None Better 

The William H. Moon Co. 

nurseryinen and « 
Candscape experts 

21 S. 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jungmann's Drug Store, 

4th and Noble Streets 

and 220 Vine Street. 

Glenwood Nurseries, 

MoRRisviLi-E. Bucks Co., Pa. 


Jerome H. Sheip. .\sa W. Vandegrift. 

Local and Long Distance Telephone. 

Sheip & Vandegrift, 

Manufacturers of 


818 to 832 Lawrence St. 


& SONS, 



121 5 South Broad Street^ 


Our Jessica Corsets 


Designed and made expressly for 
us in Paris by the world's most fam- 
ous corsetiere. 

Absolutely unequaled for style and 
fit, and a model for every figure. 

There is only one " Jessica " — and 
the nearest imitation is far inferior. 

$5.50 to $35.00 

A woman who has once learned how 
much a properly-fitted Jessica will improve 
her figure, and has enjoyed the comfort its 
matchless lines insure, will never be quite 
satisfied with even the best of other makes — 
the " Jessica habit " is a hard one to cure. 

Strawbridge ® Clothier - Phila. 

Take Notice* 

The John Mawson Hair Cloth Co., formerly of 
Coral and Dauphin Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
have removed to their new Factory, Kensington 
Avenue, Glenwood Avenue and Venango Street 
where they have increased their machinery and 
will have better facilities for supplying their trade. 
Thanking our friends for past favors, and 
soliciting their future trade, we remain. 





Manufacturers of all kinds of 

Hard Rubber, Elastic 
and Leather°Covered 


Supporters, Sboulder Braces, Crutches, 
Elastic Hosiery and Body Belts. 




Wines arid Cigars 



Walnut and Thirteenth Sts. 

Wc can do the Family Washing; 
cheaper than you can do it at 
home and BETTER. 

Ask us 

€xcei$ior Caundry €o. 

i9tb $t. Si momgomery Jive. 



253 South Second St. 



For Weddings, Soirees, Pri'va.te Parties 

1239-4t Girard A'be, 
J207-9 North 13th St, 
t643 North Broad St, 

Estitnaies given for Weddings, Parties, 
Receptions, etc. 


Wines and Liquors 

00 TO 


Wholesale Liquor Dealer, 

1516 Columbia Ave., Philad'a. 

10 yrs. old Rye a Specialty, 
$1.25 per quart. 

Telephone Connection. 

The Class & Nachod 
Brewing Co. 

Solitaire Beer 'i^ 

1720-38 Mervine Street, 


R. E. W. W. 

121 tUalnut Street. 


Tinners' Hardware and 
Roofers* Supplies, 

237 Arch Street, Philadelphia. 

f razin ^ Opp^nbetm 


$. €. €or. iitb and €bc$tnut Streets 
129 north Gigbtb Street 

new VcrK Chicago 

Fresh Flowers 



Columbia Avenue 



<^* 9^* t2^ W* ^* 



T12 Arch St. PH I LAD El_RH I A -1TOO N. Broad St. 

Let us do Your Fall and Holiday Shopping We'll Save You Trouble and Dollars. 


Scientific Sbopping 

Keystone Phone, Race 47-87 A KEITH'S THEATRE BUILDING 

Bell Phone, Walnut 5734 A I 1 16 CHESTNUT STREET 

S. W. GOODMAN ir.irA^ooY" 

His shingle hangs out at 116 North Third Street. 

He will do your PRINTING RIGHT and at RIGHT Prices. 
A postal card or a call on either phone will receive prompt attention. 




With Odd and 
Silver Mountings 


Old Testament 

Illustrated Catalogue with Price List mailed on application. 

OSCAR KLONOWER, 1435 Euclid Avenue, Philadelphia, 


REET'S Patent 
Invisible Eyes 

take the place of silk loops, and make a flat seam. The triangle ends keep the 

stitches firm and the Eye from slipping or 

turning over. Ideal for plackets. 2 doz. 

Eyes 5C.; with Spring Hooks loc. Black or ITSINTHE"fR|y\|^Q|_£-^ 

White. Sizes No. o, i, 2, 3 and 4. For sale 

at all stores, or by mail. 


t. MAY 7,is9b ^c Tn.ieM. 

Beware of itnitations, and see that our trade mark, "IT'S IN THE Tnl ANRI F 

is on every package. 



A. F. Bornot & Bro. 

French Scourers ^"^^ Dyers 

1 7th St. and Fairmount Ave. 


1535 Chestnut Street 
BRANCHES^ 1714 N. Broad Street 
106 S. Tenth Street 




Why not send us all your Important Cleaning 


1f\ for a New Sewing 
" Machine 

All Attachments and Guarantee 

(J» I O for the Ball Bearing kind, worth 
«[) I O double the price. 
(|»^F for the latest and best Bicycle- 
«P^0 geared, Ball Bearing, Automatic 
drop cabinet. 
Singer, Wheeler & Wilson, Household, 
Standard, Wilcox & Gibbs and all other 
makes to select from. 

All makes on one floor to select from 
at one price and one profit. 

818 Arch Street 

Open Evenings at 934 GIRARD AVENUE 

The Doyleslown Blacksmith 
and Repair Shops. 



Carriage and Wagon Repairing a Specialty. 

The Doyleslown Wheelwright 
and Repair Shop. 

J. Frank Poulton 

All kinds of 

Wheelwrighting and 
Carriage Repairing 

Saws Filed. Charges Reasonable. 


The New Britain Steam Mills 






Grist Grinding will Receive 

Prompt Attention 



Successors to E. W. Kirk. 

Fountain House Livery. 

Sale and Exchange Stables. 
TT/^'DO'C'O For Sale or Ezchange at 

An up-to-date Lmery throughout. 


standard Telephone No. 31. 
Long distance No. 19 X. 



Meehanie's Heater Ulorks. 

Plumbing, Steam and 
Hot Water Heating.... 


South Main Street, 



(Successor to Swarlley Bros. M. & T. Co.) 

and Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 


Grain, Feed, Timothy and Clover 

Seed, Lime, Fertilizers, &c. 

South Main St., opposite the GasWorks 



Mill Work and Coal. 

t^otzel & Raike, 

Old Lehigh Coal a Specialty. 

West State Street, 
Near Clinton, 




Dealer in Ready =Made Ciothing 

For Men, Boys and Children. 

Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, Furnishing Goods. 

Bicycles and Sewing Machines. 
Cor. Ashland & Clinton Sts., DOYLESTOWN, PA. 

Robert M. Yardley, Pres. Warner Worstall, Sec. 
Henry 0. Harris. Treas. John S. Worstall. Sup't. 


Manufacturers of Wheels and Wheel Stock, 
Shafts, Poles, Reaches, Etc. 




and Little Giant Thresher and Cleaner 

make the handicfit and moat economical threshing outfit known. 

ibe thrcDiiiriifi/ia.lein tlir€i»ii»«, 21 , -JO and *l in. ojlinder. ll i> 

a simple, cjsr to;:bt running ^atronf^.daratile and efleeliTO 

». \V ill t)m8h and clean wh.-at, rje.oats. barley, flai. rice, 

alfafa. millet, eor^buro, timothy, etc. Capacity 200 to awJ b"«. Kc- 

hole neighborhood equally well. Can be run t>j b team. Caroline, or anr-jther power if preferred. Tread pow- 

a-idChor>e<in lever p-Jircr.) Feri"«ln;drr fee.I.eDiib-e ar.d Bli<l!in-. tawin-,' "OO'l. pumplnr. pepanting 

on the niarV:et. Jloiinled"' I'mnnuntcd. aior-bre'l. Wealjomi'iC Lcvet I'owerj. IVt'l and Koai- 

.l/orJFIt£ECril„,,.,,ue. Ji EKB.M;IS i .SONS, No. I:rn <l SI . l,iiii~iliiV, I'a. 


co^iNG vluINb '^^'^^^ 


cruLed for every purpose 

George W. Gormley, 

cManure, Street Dirt 


The Rittenhouse Quarry, 

West of Wissahicfcon Ave. 




Nos. 1063-65 N, Delaware c4've, 

The Sanitai'v 

W. W. INGRAM, Sec"y & Treas. 

Product Co. 


Broad and Chestnut 5ts. 

Thomas McCarty, 


and Builder 

No. 345 York Avenue^ 

Below Callowhill Street, 


Telephone Connection. 





*^ Neats Foot OiL 



Doylestown, Pa. 

Columbian Tea House 


Full line of Imported and Domestic Groceries 




Brogan's }?]^ ,. 

^^ J^ Columbia 
L/aie, « « Avenue, 

^ Xiquov 


m. IB. Corner 

Pass^unli Bvc. an? Gatbarfnc St. 


N. W. Cor. Sj-denham Street, 


Oystm, « Salads, « SteaKs, 

Everything iu season Served 
to Order in First-class Style. 

Ftne Club Whiskies, 
"■ — Wines and Cigars. 

The Early Gardesi 

Must soon claim attention. Send for our Garden and 
Farm Manual for 1903. You will tiud it interest- 
ing and iustructiver6adingfor these long winter even- 
ings, it is v>rofusely illustrated and contains ever\' thing 
thatisuewin Vegetable and Flower seeds. Sent FREE on request. 
217—219 l»Iarbet Street, 
PHlt,Ar>El,I-HIA, F»A. 


1214 Atlantic Ave. 
Atlantic City 

S21 Park Avenue 

New York 






Eighteenth St. and Ridge Ave. 

A. H. FRY, Manager 



Tisb, Oysters 
and Clams 

Dealers in 


Fruit and Veg-etables in Season 

Pine St. between State St. 
and Oakland Ave. 


Wynne: Jameis, 


Orfice: in Hafrt Building 

STANDARD phone: NO. 1. 

Real Estate, Conveyancing, 

Loans Negotiated, 

Fire Insurance, Tornado Insurance, 

Mortgages and Stocks Bought and Sold, 

Special Bargains, 

Hotels, Farms and Building Lots, 

Business Stands. 


Rosenberger Bro$. 

Dealers in 




Coal, Flour, Feed, Hay, Etc^ 

Colmar, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

Branch Hay Pressing Establishment : 
Buckingham, Bucks Co., Pa. 




Dry Goods, Groceries, 

and General Mefchandise. 

P. «L R. R. DEPOT. 

James M. Hartzel. 
B. Frank Hartzel. 

Steam Roller Mills. 

High Grade Patent 
Fancy Patent 

Choice Rye Flour 

F. D. HartzeTs Sons, 




Grain, Mill Feed, and Best Lehigh 
and Schuylkill Coal, 



Dealer Id and Wholesale Agent for 

Iron, Steel, Building and 

Carriage Hardware, 


Corner of Main and Ashland Streets, 


C, Louis Siegler, D. D. S. 

opposite New Hart Building, 


Standard Phone, No. 55 A. 




Flour, Feed, Seeds, Hay, Coal, 

Cement, Lumber, Pine, Hemlock, 

Oak and Hickory, Slate, Doors, 

Sash, Shutters, Moulding. 


Carpenter and Builder, 

Jobbing promptly attended to. 

Reference ; Chapel at National Farm School. 


A. S. HELLYER'S SONS, Merchants 

lyadies' and Children's Wear, Dry Goods anti 

Groceries, Notions, Shoes, Etc. 


of HOUSEWIVES will no 
^ ^ >M ^ ^ doubt remember this picture 

on the wrappers around 


THE SOAP their mothers and grandmothers used 
to always praise so highly, and which they thought 
was the cheapest and best soap made. »^ ^ ^ 

Size of bar and quality is exactly as it used to 
be, a box of DOBBINS' ELECTRIC should be 
in every house, as it improves with age. 

Dobbins Sod>.p Mf^. Co. 

(Sole Proprietors,) 

ell ]Qi[es§ed ^^©un^ 


in and about Philadelphia are our patrons because they say we do 
their work JUST RIGHT. Packages forwarded by express to out- 
of-town customers. 

as finished by us, has received most flattering criticisms. We feel 
they have been merited. Are you particular with the manner in 
which such articles are finished? If so, write for our new pamphlet 
and price list just out. 



CHARLES BARTH, General Manager 

The Louis Bergdoll 

Brewing Co. 

Bottling Beer a Specialty 


29th and Parrish Streets 



Illuminate Your Windows and 
Stores with 

Electric Light. 

There is no artificial illuminant comparable with electricity for 
this purpose. Customers should be made comfortable; salespeople 
should be provided with a healthful workroom. Electric light is 
the only illuminant which does not vitiate the atmosphere. 
Progressive Merchants realize the tremendous force exerted by a 
brilliantly and handsomely lit window and store. It is a paying 



Electric Li^ht is brilliant: economical! 


Do not allow the adjoining Store to get ahead of you. It is better 
and easier to keep trade than to get it after it is once lost. 

Electric SisfllS ^^^ readable day and night. 
Electric AdotOrS ^^^^ clean, efficient and e conomical. 

The Edison Electric Light Co. 


N. E. Cor. loth and Sansom Sts. 

• • • USE . . . TELEPHONE^ { ||^^VoNE.