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SIX YEARS IN INDIA. 



DELHI: 



THE CITY OF THE GREAT MOGUL. 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF 

THE VAEIOUS TBIBES IN HINDOSTAN; 
HDJDOOS, SIKHS, AFFGHANS, ETC. 



• ^ |fefa (BMtimr oi 

"THE MISSION, THE CAMP, AND THE ZENANA. 



BY MRS, COLIN MACKENZIE, 




LONDON: 
RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. j\\ 

1857. 



LONDON: 
SAVILL AND EDWABDS, PBINTEBS^ OHANDOS 8TBEET, 

OOYENT GABDBN. 



PREFACE 
TO THE NEW EDITION. 



The following noi^ from a journal kept for the family of the 
author, may be of interest at this moment, as throwing light on 
the character and customs of our fellow-subjects in India and the 
Punj&b. 

It must be remembered that the manner in which we have 
acquired India is one which has no parallel in history, and which 
affords no ground for comparison with the cases of Poland, 
Hungary, or Italy. The most accurate and clearest view of the 
way in which we have become " Kings of the East," is given by 
Count Bjomstemja's brief and admirable sketch of " The British 
Empire in India."* We conquered India from the Mdhammadan 
invaders, who had ruled it with a rod of iron from the days of 
Mahmoud of G-hSLzni ; and that our rule has been a deliverance 
and an unspeakable benefit to the Hindus who form the great 
majority of the population, there can be no question. We did not 
even overthrow the Mtihammadan Empire — that was done by the 
Mahrattas under French officers, from whom, in 1803, we rescued 
the aged Emperor, whose descendants we have ever since pensioned 
and protected. 

None of the Musalmin Princes, Nawabs, and Sultans whom we ' 
have dispossessed were hereditary Sovereigns : they wwe rebellious 
Viceroys and Governors who had seized the opportunity of confu- 
sion to make themselves independent ; and the title of King was 
first bestowed on the Vazir of Oude by Lord Hastings. The 
tyranny and oppression of almost all the Native Princes (for a 
benevolent despot must always be, like Alexander I. of Russia, a 
"happy accident"), especially of the Musalmdns, render the British 
rule with all its defects, most of which arise fix)m the 's.tsns^ 

* Ihne 10 unotii&r exo^ent, thovgh lai^r work bj^'EL 1, 'Pxaae^^j'^Easv.^^ '^'J^- 



IT PBX7ACB . TO THE KEW XDITIOK. 

observance of legal rules and forms, a blessing to the people which 
we have no right to withhold. 

The Government committed a greater sin in the sight of God 
and man by handing over Kashmir to such a monster as Gulab 
Sing, than by all its annexations during the last hundred years. 

There has been much harshness and injustice in the resumption 
of land, especially of late, but no nation ever ruled another on so 
just a tenure. This is proved by the general fidelity of the popu- 
lation. It is a MuTnrr — not an Insurrection. 

The chief causes of the Mutiny are the dissatisfaction of the 
Mtihammadans at being deprived of their supremacy,' and the in- 
trigues of the deposed Princes. 

No doubt it arises from a widely-spread Muhammadan conspi- 
racy, in which the Musalmans, who in India have adopted all 
the prejudices of caste, have availed themselves of the pretext 
afforded by the greased cartridges (as they did of the new head- 
dress at Vellore) to rouse the Hindus. 

It is a Hindu pretext, but a Muhammadan motive. 

That which has rendered the Mutiny possible is the separation 
between the European officers and the Sepahis. The officers are 
better men, both morally and intellectually, than they were forty 
years ago, and, as a body, unrivalled for integrity and for both 
military and administrative talent, for the simple reason that our 
countrymen have nowhere such a carriere ouverte aux talents as in 
India. Why, then, have they less influence ? Why is the Army 
in a worse condition than formerly? Because the Government 
have, 1st, by their absurd system of centralization, deprived officers 
of all power of reward or punishment, so that even Sir Charles 
Napier, when Governor in Sinde, could not punish a Bengal Sepahi 
imder his orders: and 2ndly, by the pernicious interference of 
civilians, from the Governor-General downwards, in purely military 
affairs. 

The officers lose all heart ; the Sepahi loses all respect. If the 
Sepahis were again made dependent on their officers, if the latter had 
the power of rewarding and punishing, their old intercourse, in- 
fluence, and affection would revive. Personal influence is the only 
sure hold we have on the Indian army, and this has of late been 
sjjsitemB.t\c2X\.y discoiiraged. 
Government, endeavouring to do everyttmig itseVi,^ overi^owered 



PBEFACS TO THE NSW BDITIOV. T 

with details, and consequently business stands still; and those officers 
who press even the most important questions or facts on the notice 
of the Governor-General, are considered troublesome and impor- 
tunate. 

The three armies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay are com- 
pletely distinct ; and although all have suffered greatly from cen- 
traUzation and civil interference, yet the discipline of the two latter 
is far more strict than that of Bengal, and the native officers are 
promoted by merit and not by seniority, which of course makes 
them more efficient, and gives influence to their European officers. 
In both, men of low a^ well as high caste are admitted, while in 
Bengal the army is composed exclusively of men of high caste 
and Musalmans, about every third Sepdhi being a Brahman. Of 
course, when a regiment is formed of men of different races, castes, 
and creeds, combination and mutiny become almost impossible. 

A man must be horn a Hindu — ^he cannot become so. For in- 
stance, the children of a Hindu Bajah by a Musalmdn mother are 
brought up as Muhammadans, as they cannot share their father's 
caste unless the mother also belonged to it. The Hindus look 
upon religion as a matter of birth, and hold Christianity to be as 
fit and true for us as woolly hair for a negro, or Hinduism for 
themselves. It follows that they have no idea of proselytism ; and 
as men of different castes can have but limited intercourse with 
each other — as they can neither eat, drink, nor smoke together— 
the Hindu has no idea of nationality. 

The SuKHS are a modem sect of Hindu dissenters. They have 
no castes, and any one may become a Sikh. They have little 
sympathy with the Hindus, and an intense hatred of their old 
foes the Muhammadans, whom they have tyrannized over in the 
Punj&b, as the sons of Isldm have tyrannized over the Hindus. 

The Muhammadans in India have adopted Hindu prejudices of 
caste to such an extent, that they will not eat with Christians. 
They are divided into the two great sects of Shiahs and Sunis, who 
detest each other all over the world, and who can scarcely be 
restrained from open warfare, and both parties in India are ex- 
tremely ignorant of their own religion. All Musalmans are ardent 
proselytizers and fanatics, and look upon the slaughter of an infidel 
as a short cut to Paradise. The majority of those m Ix^^^sa. ^Ktfc 
descended from converts made by the swoida oi ^a!afi»fe "^«^«a. '\s^- 



Tl FBSFACE TO THE NEW EDITION. 

vaders. The war cry of the Muhammadan is Din Din (Religion), 
and scarcely anything can hold him back when this cry is raised. 

When the mutiny took place at Bolarum in 1855, in which 
Brigadier Mackenzie was all but assassinated by men of the 8rd 
Hydrabad Cavalry, he and his family slept as secure and as void of 
all distrust under the protection of the Musalm^ns of the 3rd 
Infantry, and with a Musalman Subadar on guard, as they did 
•under that of the Hindus of the same gallant and loyal regiment ; 
because, as the bigoted Nizllm himself expressed it, "Yih Din 
kd kisr nahin — This was no religious quarrel." But men of 
the same contingent have lately declared that they cannot fight 
against their brethren, because now it is " Din ki bat'* — a religious 
question. Great ignorance prevails among Europeans as to what 
really constitutes and affects caste; and consequently they yield 
when they should be firm, and are incautious and obstinate where 
they should yield. A native will often allege his caste as a pretext 
for not doing something which he imagines contrary to his dignity. 

Nothing afiPects a man's caste but eating, drinking, or smoking. 
Brfihmans and Rajputs will and do dig, make bricks, bmld, and 
perform any other manual labour ; but of course, if the plea is suc- 
cessful, his caste becomes more and more delicate and exacting. If 
the objector's services were quietly dispensed with, no difficulty 
would be made by his successor. It is owing to this ignorance that 
Bengal Sepffliis have been allowed to refuse any duty they had no 
fancy for, on the plea of caste ; and it was this which, on the 
occasion of -the above mutiny, led Lord Dalhousie solemnly to warn 
all officers against "interfering with the religion of the natives," 
not understanding that it was a question of police, not of reli- 
gion. 

The following pages affiDrd many instances of the way in which 
the natives will forego their religious prejudices when influenced by 
either interest or affection ; but compulsion of any sort in cases 
which really affect their caste or their tenets is not only dangerous, 
but most unjust. The light in which they regard missions is also 
clearly shown. The natives are quite shrewd enough to distinguish 
between support of Christianity with perfect toleration for other 
creeds, and compulsion towards themselves. A Governor-General 
may subscribe to missions and visit mission schools — ^they will look 
ijpaa it as natural and right : they will no more object than they 



PBEFACB TO THE NEW EDITION. VU 

did to Akbar the Great founding Musalm^n colleges — but they do 
most strongly object to anything like compulsion. Hitherto the 
Government, so far from meddling with the religion of the natives, 
has been afraid to grant equal protection to Christians. The 
Musalm^ns being the most dangerous class, |have been the most 
petted. Hindu feasts have been made to give way to those of 
Muhammadans ; and not many years ago a converted Sepdhi was 
compelled to accept his discharge from the Bengal army ! And now 
suddenly they have, by the incautious and unexplained introduction 
of greased cartridges, hit upon the only method by which Hindus 
and Musalm^s could have been led to make common cause, or 
induced to believe themselves equally insulted. 

Men all over the world are susceptible to kindness, and capable 
of personal attachment and gratitude. This is the case in India as 
well as Europe ; but we must remember that, as regards morality, 
the natives are what the heathens of old were — ^without principle, 
implacable, unmerciful : and though personal kindness and courtesy 
ought to be exercised towards them to a far greater degree than 
is usually done, yet now that they have polluted the earth with 
such unspeakable atrocities against not only men, but innocent 
women and children, we must remember that even a Christian ruler 
is not to bear the sword in vain, and say to our nobles, our rulers, 
and to the rest of the people, "Be not ye afraid of them : remember 
the Lord who is great and terrible, 9![A fight for your hrethren^yowr 
sons ^ your daughters^ and yotir mves.^* — Neh. iv. 14; "for the land 
cannot he cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the 

BLOOD or HIM THAT SHED IT." — ^Num. XXXV. 33. 

Augtatj 1857. 



GLOSSARY. 



Ayah, lady's nudd or nurse 
Akh&na, a mandate 
Amir, a lord (not Hindu) 

Bechoba^ a tent without a centre 

pole 
Brahman, the sacred and highest 

caste of Hindus 
Bund, a dam 

Bunder, a landplace (at Bombay) 
Biiniah, a shopkeeper 
Bhisti, a watercarrier 
Blbl, a lady 
B^gtim, a princess 
B&r^, or B&rf, great 
Bungalow, a house, especially a 

thatched one 
Bigh, garden 
Budgerow, a large Calcutta boat 

Chattah, an umbrella 
Chill&m, a pipe 

Dinghi, a large Calcutta boat 

Bhobi, washerman 

BhobiUi washerman's wife 

Dahgoba^ a beehive-shaped Buddhist 
shrine 

B&k, post 

D&rb&r, a court 

Daffikl&r, a native cavalry non-com- 
missioned officer 

Dheds, a low caste people in Surat 
and elsewhere 

DiSms, a low caste people in Bengal 

Buli, a litter 



G&ri, carriage 

Gronds, the aboriginal Hill Tribe of 
the Dekkhan 

Gh&t, a pass through hills, or a land- 
ing place 

H&vild&r, a naidve sergeant 
Haq, rififht 

Huq4> long pipe^ the smoke passes 
through wiiter 

Jemadar, a native lieutenant 
Jungle, forest — waste land 
Jain, a Hindu sect^ half Buddhists 
Jhappan, a sort of sedan chair with 

curtains, at Simla 
Jhamp, a screen of bamboo and 

matting 

K&mmerb&nd, girdle 
Kuli, a common labourer 
Kh&nsim^n, head servant 
Khan, a title-lord 
Khidmutgar, a man-servant 
Elach^, unripe, unbaked, imperfect 

Maharajah, a Hindu king, lit. great 

prince 
Mash^l, or Masai, torch; Mas^lchi, 

torchbearer 
Masjld, mosque 
Mili, gardener 
Mir Adal, chief justice 
Massak, goatskin for carrying water 
Mehter, a man of the sweeper caste ; 

Mehtr&Tii, % ^oman oi Vk<^ vvi^^v^x 

caate 



XU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTEB V. 

Baptism of a Convert-^Saleh Muhammad — Urozshahar — ^Afghan Dinner — Our 
House, and Servants* Life— School — Public Spirit of Missionaries — ^'* Don't 
tell me lies r— Captive Children — The Nizam-u-Doulah—-" You write Book" 
•— Aliwal — Cowardice— Hnshing-up— Dust-storm — ^Sermon on the Mount — 
Death of Akbar Khan—- A Birsaker — Tract Distribution — Converted Devotee 
—Temperance — ^Afghan Dress — ^A Jezailclii — ^Blood Feuds — Old Soldier — 
Afghan Ladies— -Raising a Begiment — Garden — Illustrations of Scripture — 
Pets — Phankahs— Drawing a Camel— Bribery — ^Depravity of Hinduism — 
The Nizam-n-Doulah — ^A^hans and Sikhs— Firozshahar^— Honesty by Voca- 
tion 5$ 

CHAPTBE VL 

Afghan Zenana— Making an Impression — ^A Beauty— A Demoniac— Mussalman 
Husband— Pictures— Camera Obscura — ^Hasan Khan's Curiosity — Beception 
by Governor-General— Sirfraz Khan — Stoddart and Conolly — Persian Horse 
Dealer— Lights— Nil Gao— Hot YTinds— Unlucky Dream— Life in the Harem>-> 
Polygamy— Manly Boys — ^A^han Supper — Salt on Sunday— Messenger from 
Muhammad Shah Khan— Afghan Claims — Akbar Khan's Treachery — 
Feather Jacket— Our Soldiers still captive in Afghanistan — Bangstrie— Cure 
for Industry— Prosperity of Annexed Sikh States — ^Hindustani Language — 
Murteza Shah-— Rudeness to Native Gentleman— Remarkable Storm — 
Faithful A fghan — Bribery— Unserviceable Arms — Bengal Army— Suffering 
of the Regiment ' 78 

CHAPTER VIL 

Jacob's Illness— Conmiittee on Flour— Three Kinds — ^Hasan Khan's Friendship 
—Rudeness— Jacob's Death— Funeral— Sufferings of Regiment — ^Rains — 
Retrenchments— Serai — Scenes in the City — Cleaning Cotton — ^Blacksmith — 
Paying the Regiment — Elephanli- New-bom Afghan — Munshi's English — 
Fort— Disgrace at Baddiwal— Kashmiris — ^Inquirers — Sepahi and Peasant's 
Wife— Sliah Shi^ah— Legend from the Kuran — Snake — Elephants— Full- 
dress Night-ihirtt-Govemment Regulation and Coffins— A Charm — ^Barsaii 
—Fireworks— Selling Children — Murders — Shiabs and Sunis — Compliance 
with Native Superstitions — The Four Friends — Mussulman Orthodoxy — The 
Ramazan— Afgluui Noble in Distress — Anakims 88 

CHAPTER Vin. 

The Regiment quarrels and is punished— Conversion by the Sword— Forbidden 
Marriages among Mussalmans— Fasting — Doctrine of Imputation — Mussalman 
Legends — ^Alta Muhammad on Fasting — ^Regimental Bazar — Tracts — Official 
Delays — First Death in the Regiment — Munshi and Monasteries — **Son of 
Fowl" — ^Influence of Native Women — ^Brahman on Popery — Children of a 
Missionary— The Arabic Character disliked— A Father's Picture— One Hour's 
Sonsekeeping--Na.tiYe Mode of Sleeping— Temperance for Ladies— Superiority 



OONTBKTS. Xlii 

of Hindu Religion — Condition of Widows — ^Indian Mussalmans— Pugatory— 

Afghan Idea of the Heavens — ^Falling Stars — ^Defldendes at S6l»tu>n State 

of Magazines — ^A Jezailchi — Salubrity of Different Stations— Regimental 
Festival — Kindness of Prince Teimur — ^Respect for Catechists— Snfflsrings of 
Soldiers* Wives — ^Injndidous Commandant — Promotion of Havildar M%)or-~ 
** The Labourers in my Yineyard"— Poor Bhisti — ^Dogs— Tinkling Feet— Evil 
Example of Officers .' ' 101 

CHAPTER IX. 

SQndu Festival — Persian Testament — ^Walis — Superstition — ^Hasan Khan in a 
Pet — Shahzadeh Shahpur's Gallantry— Muhammad Shah Khan's Kasid — ^Ab- 
dnlrahman Khan on Prayer— Hindu Ignorance of Mussalmans — Hindu 
Bearers — ^Kurban — ^Breakfast at Hasan Khan's — ^Afghan Estimate of Wives 
— ^A Molewi — ^Futile Cavils against Christianity — Amir Dost Muhammad's 

Treachery— The Fire-mouth — Panthei«n — Worship of Regimental Colours 

Havildar Major on Idolatry — Plato enlists — Carpenter's Tools — ^Fine for 
killing acddentally — ^Hindus Cooking — Sikh Hair— Chess — Agha Muham- 
mad's Adventure — Shahzadeh Jammur — Sultan Muhammad — ^HI Treatment 
of 120 Afghans — Shabudin — Danger of Beef Eating 115 

CHAPTER X. 

Persian Bible — ^Bazar at Night — ^Neglected Children — ^Irregular Cavalry- March- 
ings — ^Disregard of Caste — Pressing Carts — ^Bridge Filor— A Fallen-Prince— 
Grenadiers strike Work — ^Repentance and Industry — Fear of Death — ^Inso- 
lence of a European Officer — ^Brutality of a Soldier — Screening— Abdulrah- 
man Khan— Imprisoned Havildar — Native Drawings — Hardihood of Afghans 
— Our maimed Camp Followers — Christian Officer — ^A Hindu's View of Death 
— ^'* Heaven not a Stable"— Kindly Feeling— Servant with Battle Axe . . .123 

CHAPTER 33. 

Agha Muhammad's Wife — An Afghan Brother — ^Fall of 50th Lines — ^Delays 
in Clothing the Regiment — Pensions to Jezailchis— Security of Existence- 
Oppression in Kashmir — ^False Alarm — Cheap Living-^Qovemment Educa- 
tion — Fewness of Sikhs — Afghan's Anxiety to learn — A proud Mullah — 
False Inquirers — Ungentlemanly Conduct — Accident to an Officer — Widow of 
Shah Zeman — Cheroots — ^Funeral in a Zenana — ^Beauty — Two Zenanas — 
Abbas Khan's Rescue — Fait* at Hard war — Money God — Poor Old Afghan . .131 

CHAPTER XIL 

Murder of Anderson and Agnew — General Ventura — ^Individuals^ have no Rights 
— A Sikh Sirdar— English Friendship— Rudeness— >Nabi Baksh— A Weeping 
Naig— Shir Sing— Sikh Reghnent— Rejecting Information— The Rani— The 
Raiment volunteers — Mussalman Funeral-^Exposing Trooi^ to tYi^ ^\xel— 
SlrF. Cnrrfe , . ,\.^^ 



ZIT C0NTSNT6. 

CHAPTEB XIIL 

TAG 

Knowing People— Kindness and Unkindness — A. Jezailehi's Bones — ^Afghans and 
Sikhs— Henpecked Hindu — ^Asses — Taxes — Poetical Justice— Taxes in Kash- 
mir-— liiitle Pdnce — Hunshi's Translation — ^A%han Abuse — Sick Child — 
Patan Honks — Spoilt Children — Swearing-in the Begiment — Preparing to 
march — Contradictory Orders — ^Balaam and the Dog— Shopkeepers — Prayer 
— Sikh Villages — Ovens — H.M.'s 29th — Ham and Jam 142 

CHAPTEB XIV. 

Paindft KhaA«-^ieg« of MMtan— BftptdM on Sth-^Sbir Sing joins Uoln^— Lieu- 
tenant Edwa idi i i Q tneral Ventarals Crittdtfn — Sqpahf s wont work— Prinoe 
Shahpur>i Cbildrsn— P^r Massalwnn aad Us Wife— l4««tttant Lake's 
StntagttBi • • « . . 15< 

CHAPTEB XV. 

Augmeiftation of Army — ^Ball Practice — Glengarry Bonnetft— English Vultures 
—Orders and Counter-orders — An oppressed Choukedar — Sawar's Opinions 
— Shamefhl Confiscations — Bonnets and the Granthi — The Commander-in- 
Chiefs Camp— Discipline of Be^^ent-^Fifty Lashes — Fall of Peshawur — 
Ambush at ^Bamnagar — Dragoons — Treasure Party of Three Sepahis — Pre- 
sentation of Oolours— GoTemor^QeneimllB Bntiy— Peniaa PoUteness — Cri^ 
ti^ue on ouir way of eating— Hnltan taken 15 

CHAPTEB XVL 

Battle of ChiUiaawala— Betreat of lith Dragoons — Dawes and Lane — Lord 
Grough — Dreadful Loss — Further Accounts — Hilled and Wounded — Night on 
the Battle Field — Caste among Christians — ** Threes About" — Chattar Sing's 
Opinion of us — ^Mulraj — ^Battle of Gtjrat — Bout of the Sikhs — Colonel 
Pope and tlie 14th Dragoons — A^hans and Hindustani — Chillianwala — 
Bnming Village— Camp at Firozpur — Becoveiy of Prisoners — Bohtas — The 
30th Natire Infantry — Sikhs surrender — Sultan Huhanunad — Treatment of 
Mrs. Lawrence— Mrs. Lawrence r^oins her Husband — Wail for the Dead — 
Funecml^— Superstition 15 

CHAPTEB XVII. 

■Journey to Simla — Morinda — Kassaidi-— Hacripore — Syri — Simla — A Major and 
a Guru — Commissariat — Parable of the Cow — ^Lord GrOugh Mahasu — Forest 
Votive Offerings— Piank»— a Chaprasi— View of the Hills— Lieutenant Her- 
bait at Attok-^B^acts sAcnt FerMflhahar— Fall of the Teai^— Jangle on Fire 
— StmlA Twenty-three Tears ago— BndeiieM of «* Indian Ladiee **— ^M. Budolph 
-^Str Charles Napier— Hill Schools— The Chief— Eagle— A vigorous General 
(Mer^JOefeace of Attok— Gxatitade of Bikh»— Moonlight Scene-*-Apes . . 17< 



CONTENTS. XT 

CHAPTER XVin. 

Malversation of Honours — Jemadar of Ayahs — Soldier of Chattar'Sing — ^Blde to 
Sabathu — Flowers — ^Kasaoli — Mrs. Bndolph's Death and Character — Temple 
— Eulis — Remarkable Dream — Gambling — Sh: Charles Napier — A Deaf-aad- 
Damb Man — Appointment — The Commander-in-Chief— The Water System — 
Hattu Kotghar Mission — ^Lawrence Asylmn — ^Loodiana — The Afghan Princes 
—Departure • 177 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Beach Lahore — Soldiers' Garden — Treasury — ^Eoh-i-Kur— Dhalip Sing — ^Darbar 
Banjit— Sing's Cenotaph— Relics of Muhammad — Shalimar Gardens — Sikh 
Widow — Investiture of the Bath — Sketch of Paqjab Revolutions — Chattar 
Sing — Shir-Sing— Amritser — Gold Temple — Akalis — Shawl Weaving — Gi- 
gantic Orderly — A Snbadar — Durbar Tents — Peep into the Zenana — Farewell 
Parade— Dr. Duflf— Parting 187 

CHAPTER XX. 

Great Canal — Cold— Delhi — Visit to the Royal Zenana— Political Report on the 
Sut^ject — Kutab— Environs of Delhi — King's Revenue — Well — ^Hummayun's 
Tomb — Selim Ghar — Government Vandalism — ^Alighar — Agra — Atta — Ma- 
hamud — Decay of Mnhammadlsm — The Town — The Jail — Monuments de< 
stroyed — Fattihpur Sikri — Mosaic Work — Hindu Dwelling — Superstition — 
Journey — Bearers — Pilgrims — Bengalis — Surrender of Ghazni — Crossing the 
Son — Addressto Oxen — Palm Trees — ^Roads — ^Board of Control — 22nd Madras 
Native Infantry on march — ^Dag Dagghi — Baricon — Calcutta — Slave Girla — 
Mission School — ^Behari Lai — Mussalman Convert 195 

CHAPTER XXL 

Passage on board the Sulimani — Crew — Columbo— Coffee Store — Parsi Customs 
— Khalasis — ^Bombay Harboui^— Energetic Panris — Bombay People — Governor 
Duncan — Female Schools — Pars! and Brahman Converts — Narayan Shi* 
Shadri — Towers of Silence — Female School — Use of Pen — Jewish Ladies — 
Parsi Family— Elephanta-^-Zoroasterism — Want of Phankahs — Salsette— 
American and German Missionaries — Maina's Story — Vincent and Balu — 
Boys from Bagdad — Converted Faqir— Baptismal Service — Khaadala Ghat — 
Puna — Mission School — Nagar Converts — Chaplains — Ahmednagar — Fort — 
History of the Dekhan — ^American Mission Schools — French Mission Schools 
—Singing 209 

CHAPTER XXn. 

Tokah — Anrtngabad— Tomb^-Mareh — ^Ajanta — Sikhs— Outbreak— Use of Con- 
tingent — Sa^ of Malkapur-— Jhalgan-Linewallah's — Heat — ^Bowan Bir^^ 
Murder of Miiior Davis— Akot — Elichpor — Sceneiy — Chicksffilah — Gktwil Ghar 
— JjQfweAj Bidea— Bison-^Rains — Memoirs of a Banker— -^Teft\.'\i&k^l;—'^^^'S^'(^» 
—liny Wjiagttep>^^»3fBhainmad(K;han-»Maaliixeiaot AfgYisciift— l>f^a^r--T^^^ 



xvi CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Boons needed — ^Unyisitable Women — Character and Talent of the Military 
and Civilians— Indian Ladies-^Their Vocabulary — Precedence — ^Domestic 
Happiness— Elichpur Fever — Prisoners — ^A Murder — Chikaldara — ^Acuteness 
ofPoUce 224 

CHAPTEB XXin. 

My Husband's Illness — Warburg's Tincture — Jaifrabad — Votive Offerings — 
Dawn — Want of Cultivation — ^Nagar Converts-f-Winnowing Com — Country- 
Traveller for pleasure — ^Umrah's Illness — ^Apathy — Walled Villages — ^Ahmed- 
nagar — American Mission — ^Boarding and Orphan Schools — Promising Dis- 
trict — ^Native Church — Female Missionaries, their Activity and Zeal — ^Access 
to Native Women — Serur — Idols — Musalmani Women— Afghan Princes — 
Akbar Khan — Kazzilbashis — Kashmiris — Battle of Korlgam — Puna — Class 
. f(»r Young Men — Converts — Soldiers' Meetings — Temperance— Female Schools 
—English School — ^Parbati's Temple— Idol Worshii>-— Khandoba — Parsi Gar- 
den — Discourtesy — ^Boarding School — Kala Caves 233 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Khandala — ^Landing at Bombay — Karim's View of Bombay — ^Free Kirk Institu- 
tion — Native Opinions on Europeans — Qovemment Schools — Christianity — 
Different Papers — ^Results of Missionary Teaching — State of Educated Youths 
— ^Respect for Converts — Parsis — Hormazc^i's Conversion — ^Nestorian Mission 
— Scotch and American System — ^Liberality of Missionaries — Effect of Preach- 
ing-^Female Boarding School — ^Varied Population — ^Battiaha— Venus — Be- 
luchis — Arabs— Drawing Ben-i-Israel — ^Inquirers — ^Want of Scholarships . . 244 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Church of England Mission — Girls' School — ^Money School — ^Baptism — ^Mr. 
Bowen— Bozwalas — Funeral Piles — Bedouin Arab— Oriental Countenances — 
— Arab Synagogue — Jewish Ladies — The Communion — Inquirers — ^Bombay 
Jars — Costume — ^arsi Lady — M^jnun and Leila — Panwell — Christian Se- 
pahis — ^Doulatabad — Grapes — Tombs — Caves at Elora— Buddhism and Monas- 
ticism — Three Weddings — ^Latour d'Anveigne — Caste is losing ground — Se- 
cret Societies — ^Hook-worship — Poor Travellers — Wild Boar — Papering Room 
— Gk>nd Burial — ^A Poor Mother — The Gonds— Language — ^Marriages— Depo- 
pulation of Hills — ^Deposition of the Ri^ahs — Oppression 256 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Two Multan Merchants — Oppression — ^A Mad Tree — Aristocratic Potatoes — 
Flyting— History of Joseph — ^Nagpur Converts— Opposition to Missions — 
Idolatrous Compliances — Nagpur Missionaries — Colporteur arrested — Oaths 
abolished— Waterfall— Gallant Defence by a Rajput— Frightftd State of the 
Country — The Thuggi Establishment — ^Robbers Protected — ^Akham<— Jungle 
on Fire — The 4th Sikhs volunteer — Their March — ^Baptism of a Sepahi — 
Watching for a Tiger— Night Scene — Orderly killed by Tiger— Tiger Wor- 
Aft^^— Jfiuv/i— l%'«trict Aathoritie8--Hor8emfaisUp--CMd itolen . . • .270 



SIX YE^?lRS in INDIA. 



DELHI: 

THE CITY OF THE GREAT MOGUL, ETC. 



CHAPTER I. 



We are now very near Calcutta. • On Tuesday, as we were at dinner, we 
heard that a steamer was in sight, and had offered to take us in tow. 
Tou cannot imagine the excitement — she came rushing towards us, and 
never did I feel such admiration for her self-propelling power, as when I 
saw her moving freely towards tts, who were tne slaves of a contrary wind. 
She was the " Dwarkanath.'.' Some natives were on deck; at first, I 
almost took them for wooden figures, so immovable were they, and so 
thin. Every one crowded to the bulwarks, solemn silence prevailed while 
the Captain roared questions through his trumpet. "All quiet;" "the 
Grovemor-Gteneral in the Upper Provinces." These were our first bits of 
news, for which we listened as for the notes of a nightingale ; then a man 
brought some papers with nothing in them, and soon after, amid immense 
bustle, the " Dwarkan&th" look us in tow. We felt ourselves once more 
members of society, and inhabitants of the world. Such a sunset ! so 
gorgeously magnificent, came to add to our pleasure. About nine o'clock 
we got the pilot, ninety -four days since our English one left us — an excel- 
lent passage for the season. The Pilot is not a rough tarry creature as I 
expected, but a gentleman, with very pleasing manners. We crowded 
round 1dm to hear the news ; there was not much. We have been talking 
of little else but " the Pilot*' for the last week. 

Thursday, November 26th. — On getting up yesterday morning, we were 
in the Hiigll, near S4gar Island ; my first adaress on seeing it was, — " You 
dirty, ugly, slupgish thing ;" the water drayn from it was so muddy that 
it was impossible to bathe in it. A boat came alongside with ghostly 
fi^nii^es robed in white ; to my great satisfaction it remained under our 
windows, and I made a sketch of it, which I mean to send home. Other 
boats soon came with plantains ; E. bought some, and I thought them 
very good, though I was told they were very bad ones. We had eggs for 
breakfast — I ate a mouthful, drew a figure, ate a little more, and could 
settle to nothing. 

In the middle of the day we came to Kedg§ri, where the first post-ofiice 
is. A D^ boat put off and brought letters for several of us ; a most 
affectionate line from Julia 0. for us. One lady was joyful ; her husband 
had got an excellent appointment, and was to be in Calcutta in a fort- 
night, and she is spared a long journey by herself to Kashmere. Another 
went into hysterics on hearing that her husband was well. Several shed a 
fbw tears at receiving no letter, though they could not expect one. To- 
wards evening, the river grew narrower, and we inhaled the delightful 
smell o£ land. No perfume can equal it : it has \>e6ii (^ooV&x >(Xi<^ \^^\* \<s^ 

B 



APPEAEANCX OF THE S 



moat dUigenfly; theacaoh man sita down to a huge motal dish of coarse 
ricej then the; nasfie^, Toaledp washed again; men some of them ate 
more rice, ana then befan again to wash ; they are very slender, but 
well made, and their attitudes moat picturesque. They near a long clotik 
wrapped ronnd the hody, somewhat like a pair of drawers, and when cold ■ 
B large chaddah, or sheet, whicli they usually draw over the head : it is 
juat like the Roman toga, and makes %M«tifal drapery. Some of the 
men wear tbcir hair a la Chinoiae, knotted up like awoman's; the othera, 
Bhag-gy-wise and sliort. 

A lad came as. bmid in tift vradn^vM soKsfial;: le wasl&itteen, 
very slender, and, like the reat, seemingly very poor ; their garments are 
coarse oloth oE whitay-brown hue. He asked am for — what do you think i 
— .1 pack of cards to play with r which wa had not. So C. grave liJTn a 
shilUng instead, whieh he said he would give to his mother. Mr. M. 
brought me a mangx) fish and a prawn to see. The former is such a deli- 
eaey, that an epicure of tljgone days pronounced it worth coming' to Indii. 
for : it is about eight ineheB long, with a beard [ong«r than rtseLf ; tfia 
prawn was nearly aa big, beautiiiil to behold, but terribfe to eat, fbrtfeay 
feed on the bodieswasllea down the rfvers. It was a beaotifiilcmTSopraae 
ffeen, semi-tracBpareut. The shores are qnita flat, juat Eke Holland. 
Ab we came nearer, I was struck with the unArreign appearance of ^ber 
scenery ; there was notliine to distingai^ it front tue banks of tits' 
ThameE, save the absenoe of hoosea [all of which are here hidden amongst 
the trees), and a few palm.s, which at a distance fermed no prominettB 
featuro of the landscape; but then the sunset recalled one to me tropics. 
Tile sun went down like a burning ruby ; yon may rmagiuo how glorioua 
the red light was, when I tell you my attention was drawn to it by seeing 
a nuthogany door of a beautiful crimson. The evening- would have been 
jjerfeot, haa not the chief officer, incited by nautical vanity, nearly por- . 
aoned us by painting the ship. 

We hope to be in to-day about fourP.n:. Ifoi^otto tdlyou that wa 
anchored both kst ni^ht and tho night before on account of tliB tide ; we 
got up about Ave miles beyond Diamond Harbonr last night. Hod it 
Dot been for ao opportunely falling in with, the staamer wnen we did, 
wo could not have, arrived before Friday. My servant is packing up 
with great joy. ^^__ 

CHAPXEEH. 
Fbidai, IfoTEUSEB 27th.— The nearer we approaobed Calcntta tite 
prettier the aborea became, from being studded witn nnmeions European 
bouses and gardens, the former mncli handsomer titan I expected, and 
mostly two stories high. Suddenly the anchor was let go; every ona 
asked" Why?" with disappointment in their looks — the simple reason 
■was, we were arrived ! The scene was pretty ; numerous ships at anchor 
around us, and curious boate of various kinds ; some gentlemen were seen 
approaching, with bearers hoUling umbrellaa over their heads, coming for 
the ladiea on board ; — imagine the bustle. We went on shore in a boUnbi 
a kind of gondola, only larger, and rowed in the ordinary way. C. ex- 
horted tho man to pull by crying " Shabaali," " Bravo," eto., to which 
tiey responded by a aimnltoneous about of quite dramatio effect. We 
were carried over the nuid on a wiraden seat, and found the Gamerona' 
carriage waiting for us. Two of tJie ladies and I, witii two birdcages 
and Ia's picture (which, a fow minnteB before, had been in the ahns of 



D0MB8TIC SBBVANTS. 3 

a dirty eooly !) were paeked kito the diariot, and despatched to Mr. P.'s, 
alAlipiir. 

While waiting on the shoi^ the scene was most picturesque. It was a 
h/weLy moonlight, so still and silent that, as the white-robed graceful 
figures maroJied slowly past, it appeared like a scene in a drama. We 
drove oyer a fine suspension bridj^e and along the course, passed a native 
"Ullage, which, in the uncertain light, looked like a fair, and arrived at a 
noble hense in. the midst of a small park. I was astonished at the size 
and beauty of the houses* After depositing Miss D. at Col. Forbes' s, a 
fine old gentleman, who came out and pressed me most hospitably to st^y 
to dinner, though he had never seen me before, I arrived at the C.'s, and 
mfit ft. warm ^greloome from. Julia. I was amused with my drive ; the 
aazriag^ was aa English-like ohariot, with a roof above the real one, pro- 
jesting- half a foot on every side, and with a large open window at the 
bade a» well aa in the front 4 it looked very droll to see a coachman with 
a iklde tndbaa. I just looked at the letters to see that you were all well, 
and then went to dinner. The iced water and delicious tine white bread 
wexe luxuries to us : and it was pleasantly cool, even with a silk dress on. 

The servants who wait at table are always Muhammadans ; they were 
dressed wholly in white, with white and crimson turbans — very pic- 
tnreaqne. The people here have nothing of the heavy sauntering motions 
of tiie negro 5 all their movements are remarkably free, unconstrained, and 
^(laeefuL Six servants waited at table, besides which, a bearer clothed 
in orimson, and an ayah, sat on the floor in a comer amusing little Ewen, 
who is nearly three years old, by setting up his toys for him. The rooms 
are very lofty (about twenty feet high), nandsomely furnished; but the 
rafters are all seen, which, cdthough they are painted green^ gives an un- 
fibodshed look to the interior. Very spacious verandahs surround the 
houaes : the beds stand in the middle of the room, with a Phanka over 
them. 

Lord Hardinge has written to ofEer C. the command of one of the four 
Sikh regiments to be raised on the Satlej (i)ay about 800 rupees a monl^), 
i£ he thought it worth his acceptance. 0. immediately decided on taking 
it, and as this appointment has thus been put into our hands by a 
bounteous Heavenly Father, without any exertion on our part (beyond 
forwarding the letters of introduction), it seems all the more clearly His 
will that we should go, and my heart rose with thankfulness to Him for 
His innumerable mercies. 

C. was sitting in the verandah with Mr. C. and another friend. A man 
oame and made sal^m : C. said, " How are you? Have you a place ?" 
"No!" "Then go up and brush my clothes.*' The two gentlemen 
stared at eaoh other, until he explained that this was his old sirdar bearer 
or (chief bearer) Bonam^li, who was with him in captivity, and whom he 
bribed an Afgh&n to send to Jelalabad, instead of which they made him 
eat beef and lose caste. 

It is odd to feel dumb. This morning I put my head out of the door, 
and. two graceful, bearded, grave Muhammadans came and made sal^m 
1x> me : I said, ** Rivers:" they made another sal^m. " Rivers,'* said I 
again, and they sal§,med once more, till at last I cried "Ayah," when 
Ihey nodded their heads intelligently and departed. In every room there 
are three or four people — ^two at least on eaoh landing. J. has sixty 
servants in all : she ha!s four or five European women in the house, who 
seem to help eaoh other in doing nothing. 

On Saturday I drove with her and the children on the course and 
through the fort : the former is the fashionable drive aLoii% t\isb T\N^t^ ^ixs.^ 
wa» crowded with oaniages^-some very handsome — ^om!& Q^^ilioJL^T^Qivsa:^- 

b2 



4 DE. DUFF — MAN-SBEVANTS. 

oairiages, hackaries drawn by small oxen, buggies, and many equestrian?. 
The native grooms often run by the side of uie carriages. All visits are 
paid before two, after which no one comes, as it is too hot. 

Yesterday, C. and I took Mrs. D. and Miss M. a drive to Garden Breach, 
about three miles from Calcutta. We passed through a native village. 
It is dark here by six o'clock, the moon high by naif-past six, and I 
cannot tell you how picturesque the huts appeared peeping from among 
the trees, with sheds before them full of grain, fruit, etc., for sale, witfi 
sever^ lights in each, and the groups of the white-robed natives seated 
or strolling about. 

This morning we had a delightful drive to the Baitakhan^, where Dr. 
Duff lives. It was through the native -poxt of the town ; and so pic- 
turesque are the people, so beautiful their forms, so free and graceful 
in action, and so remarkably still when in repose, that it was like 
seeing a succession of pictures, or a gallery of antique bronze statues. 
Their faces are often very fine, and one is not at all struck with their 
scanty clothing. They give one more the idea of modesty in dress than 
half the young ladies you see at Court, or in full costume ; I think this 
arises from the intention being in the one case to hide the figure, in the 
other to display it. 

Whenever a carriage drives up to a house, the gate-keeper gives as 
many strokes on the gon^ as there are persons within. Dr. Duff met us 
at th^ door in the most kind manner, and we were equally pleased with 
his yrife. The rooms have as many doors in them as possible for coolness, 
and the one we breakfasted in was on the p^round floor, the walls quite 
bare, the room matted, and rather dark, with no windows whatever, but 
two great doors opening into the porch, very cool and pleasant. We sanc' 
the last'three verses of the 43rd Psalm, read a portion of Scripture, ana 
then Dr. Duff prayed. He gave me the ** Life of Mahendra," and that of 
" Koilas," and to C. his own " Lectures on the Free Kirk.*' He is a much 
younger man than I expected, but seems in delicate health, and draws Ms 
breath every now and then, as if his chest were weak. In speaking of 
children, he said he thought the prayers and the correspondence of the 
parents, great means of conversion. The school which was formerly Mrs. 
Wilson's is now much fallen off, both in numbers and efficiency, but the 
Free Kirk has an Orphan School of its own for girls, under the superin- 
tendence of Miss Laing, which we are to see. 

Thursday, December 3rd. — I have just ordered two pairs of shoes jfrom 
a Chinaman with a long tail. Our two bearers come in as soon as I am 
ready in the morning, to make the bed — such a bed ! it makes one ache 
all over? it is 'only one mattress, as hard as a board, and this they say is 
wholesome. In the evening the bearers come in again to prepare the bed, 
and put on the musquito curtains, and then, with equal gravity, put on 
Dicky's over his cage — without one he would be killed by the musquitoes. 
It is a very odious custom to have man- servants for ladies* apartments. 
I sent the other day for a tin -wallah (I think ** wallah" must si^ify man 
or fellow) to open my case of dresses — one of the bearers came in to help 
him ; the latter inserted the point of a chisel, wi^i a huge head, under 
the lid ; the tin-wallah struck it with a queer-looking hammer, each man 
using only one hand. The natives are very quick observers of manner, 
and are very sociable and frank, though perfectly resj)eotful, to those 
who, like C., they know will take it kindly. On gomg to dine with 
Maria J. last night, we had three men behind the carriage, and one on 
the box beside the coachman, the superfluous ones came because they 
liked the drive. It is a most picturesque thing to go through the native 
streets at night, and to see rows of sheds, like out-houses of the most 



TBSE GHirbCH COLLEGE. 5 

pitiful kind in England, and in each of them lights, with a group of men 
Iiard at work at their respective trades. I never eiyoyed driving about 
any place so much as this. Some of the better dwellings remind one very 
much of those at Pompeii, for they have no light except from the door, 
and are excessively small. Doubtless the habits of the people were very 
similar. It is cunous to see the sparrows flying about the drawing-room ; 
they build on the cornices, and their twittering is very cheerful ; they 
did 80 of old in the Temple, see Psalm Ixxxiv. 3, and when I see them 
flying in and out, I can understand how David must have envied them 
iheir familiarity with that holy place, from which he was exiled. 

Tuesday, December 8th. — I have been longing to tell you about our 
visit to the Free Church College, on Saturday. Dr. Welsh accompanied 
ns to Dr. Duff's, where we breakfasted, and immediately afterwards Dr. 
Duff and I, in a close carriage, and C. and Dr. Welsh in a buggy, drove 
to the institution. Our road led through the native town, the varied 
groups in which afforded me as much pleasure as usual. Mrs. Duff is a 
very attractive person, seemingly a most fit helpmeet for him. Dr. Duff 
is not much like that print at Nisbet's — the nose there is too short, and 
the face too broad. He is a man in the prime of life, but apparently far 
£rom strong ; the sharp blade is wearing through its earthly sheath. The 
institution is situated m the best part of Native Town, and was formerly 
the house of some great personage. We found numbers of pupils waiting 
for tiie bell, which rings at ten o'clock, and were introduced to Mr. Ewart 
in the library ; a fine, tall, clerical-looking man, with a very mild, calm 
face. Captain Kenning joined us, and Dr. Duff then led me into a long 
gallery, with windows closed by Venetian blinds on each side. Here one 
of the missionaries offered up prayer. About 200 of the elder pupils volun- 
tarily attended ; they were all dressed most simply, like the majority of 
natives here, in white ; their hair short, like English boys, with no mark 
of caste, and many of them with shoes. I never saw more steadfast and 
apparently devout attention. Kemember these are heathen youths, 
attending by choice on Christian worship. Out of 1000 pupils only 
about twelve are professed Christians. Dr. Duff then took us round 
the building, which is very spacious, so that each class has plenty of 
room. 

The first class we heard examined had been in the institution about a 
year. To my surprise their teacher (one of the senior pupils, each of 
whom teaches a class for one hour daily) asked them in English, " Who 
was the firijt man ?" — " Adam," was the answer, shouted by half a hun- 
dred young voices. " Who was the first woman !" — ** Eve," cried they. 
*' Who made them?" — " God," answered they. " In what state were they 
— how did they lose that state !" were the next questions. Dr. Duff ex- 
plained to them in English the deceit of the serpent, spoke of lying, asked 
them if they did not often hear lies ; to all of which they answered per- 
fectly well, just as well-taught children at home would do. But what 
struck me most was the eagerness and animation with which they answered ; 
the intelligence and mirth which sparkled in their eyes whenever anything 
amused them, and the pleasure with which they listened to what was 
said. I never saw a teacher on such delightful terms with his pupils. 

When Dr. Duff spoke to the boys, he was answered by them exactly as 
a beloved parent. The next class were of the same standing, and were 
taking a lesson from a learned Pandit in Bengali. We then descended 
to wluLt was formerly the domestic temple, a beautiful hall, with arches 
opening into the court round which the house is built. Here the two 
youngest classes were learning — they teach them a.a &Ua^^\— Tckfe 
monitor puts an on the stand, and tells them t\iaV\^\\/^T \^ ^<d^^\'^<k 



6 FBBE CHUSCnS COLLBGB. 

they all repeat it. He then puts up an X, tells them its name, and then 
teaches them that these two letters form the Enj^lish name of an ox. fle 
makes them deserihe the ox, and tells them the English word for eyeiy 
part of it. This he did before iis, asking them in Bengali what has an ox 
on his head, they cried horns, ears, eyes, and month, &c., in En^ish. He 
cross-questioned them about it. " What are its feet for ?" "To -walk,**" 
shouted they. — " Why, then, does not this (pointing to the stand) watt: ?" 
'* Because it has got no life,'' was their answer. Some of the ohildzen 
were yery pretty. All haye ^e most beautiful large diamond-Hke ex- 
pressiye black eyes imaginable. The next class aboye this haye a book 
giyen them, and seeing the same words they haye already learnt, find 
they haye begun to read. They learn short phrases, and «re questioned 
on each. " Chalk is white." " What is whiter "Chalk." ^'Whatk 
Chalk ?" " White." All in English. In every lessen, and at every 
sta^, they are questioned and cross-questioned in eyery possible mssner 
which i/he ingenuity of the teacher can devise, whereas in the natiye 
schools they are merely -crammed with so many words by heart, and n& 
pretence is eyer made of teaching them the meaning. As eadi monitar 
is only employed in teaching one hour in the day, his energies are aU 
fresh, and I neyer saw any school where there was so much lite and findrit 
displayed both by the teacher and the tauprht. Every one was alive, 
awake, eager, happy, and intelligent ; certainly l^ey are a most qaiek- 
witted, intelligent race ; they undferstand a wora or a sign in a mimeott 
and prick up their ears at everything l^at is roing on. 

The next dass we stopped at was composed of elder boys,— diiey weie 
reading an English history of Benj^al ; Br. Duff qnestioned them on it» 
and then led them to consider the origin of the diversity of language in the 
world. They could not answer him at first, but when he brdke up his 
questions into smaller ones, they replied rightly. When they can tmder* 
stand English they are instructed exactly as Christian boys would beu 
An hour each day is devoted to the Bible or the Eyidenoes ; Idieir yery 
earliest books contain Christian instruction, and l^ose in the College 
department learn the Shorter Catechism, tiie Confession of Faith, and read 
such books as " Home's Evidences," " Mundjr's Christianity and Hindu- 
ism Contrasted," and " Erskine's Internal Evidences." Dr. Duff loses ns 
opportunity of bringing every subject to bear on the one thing needfol. 
In this instanoe he asked them what " Fuj^" was ? they replied Woiadiu» 
offered to different gods" — one said in a loud voice, "to false gods. 
" Did they know any commandment forbidding that V* They quoted the 
first and second. "Was it-4awful to do so?" They answered "No;" 
and one cried, "it is dishonouring God." Dr. Dun asked them wbo 
several of their gods were ? and how they were represented ? " The <3ed 
of War is represented riding upon a pi^." " A pig ! — that is a very wv*^ 
like animal," said Dr. Duff, right mernlv, whereupon there was siuii a 
display of white teeth, and such mirthful looks, as showed they had 
yronderfully small respect for the warlike deity. He then made tiicooi 
describe Dnrga, the consort of 8iva and Goddess of Destruetian. *^ A i^eif 
sweet and merciful goddess, was she not ?" This they denied laughingly, 
and told how cAie hi^ a dosen arms to slay men with, and a netmaoe « 
skulls, and a girdle of hands and feet ; in face quite blaok, and her tongue 
hanging out the length of a span ! Then he asked them the name of lSt» 
Governor-General, me name of the Queen, whose deputy he wafl» snd 
inquired what they would expect him to feel if some of his subjects, instead 
of going to make sal^m to him, were to go down to l^e river side, taJos 
-some clay, make it up into any shape -they pleased, and then sal&m to it; 
wooid ho not he much displeased, and look on it as an insult that thef^ 



OrBSE CHtrSOH COLLBdE. 7 

tiMidd consider it better to pay respect to thk clay than to himself^ And 
■D it is with the Most Hiffh Gfod. I can only give you a very imperfect 
account of all Dr. Buff said. 

We then retuised to the chief lectnre-room, where one -of the younger 
eLuaes jeoeived a lesson on !K[ataral History, repeated some texts and 
liyBins, among them that beautiful one, ** Oh ! that will be joyful, joyful, 
joyful 3"' Was not this enough to stir the very depths of one's neart^ 
An elder dass was then examined in geography, and a still more advaseed 
tne in the use of tiie globes. The teacher of the latter is a regular master 
oi the institution, and was one of the first pupils when it was opened 
fifteen yeazs ago. His name is Isha Chandra De. He asked them, among 
^ber things, now thery oould prove the earth was flattened at the poles ^ 
The answer was, by the increased velocity of the pendulum, and they 
ttplained this step by step. O^ey use " Keith on the Globes," and stated 
ihe .names of the planets, and the distance of several of them. Here 
Bgain, after other qmstions, Dr. Dufi' spoke tol^em of their responsibility 
on aeooont of what they ko^w of the way of salvation. They answered as 
(Sirifltian lads would nave done, and he then urged them to lay these 
things to ^eart, and to beware of resisting the truth. While we were 
afterwards pausiag for a £bw minutes C. asked Isha Chandra De if he were 
a Chzistian ? He enid, ''^o, Godidone can give belief." €. told him of the 
anxiflty he feii i^iat others should share those blessings, which he knew 
the 0om>el offfOied, and promised him *' Gregory's Evidenees," which he 
aooepted with great pleasure, and said he would read it. This young man 
has taken pains to inslarnct his wife, a thing which is always vehcanently 
qvposed by the family. 

dLookimg oat on the court, we sawtheyoun^ boys eivioying footbaU 
and isnoket, winch is considered a kind of miracle in the soft indolent 
BeBg^iHs. Heoee there was noting but energy and life, yet I remarked 
h«w wajsxh. more s^entLe, and therefore gentlemanly, they are in their 
manaeiB than English boys ; there was no rou^^h luxrae-pl^y, no rudeness ; 
they say an Indian boy never dreams of robbing a bill's nest, hunting a 
out, iioxiBg, or jmy other of those innumerable cruel acts which maay 
^^1^«*< iiKthers view with complacency as evidences of the manly spirit 
niueh is to fit their sons for the hunting-field. In this matter the heathen 
beys hehave as Cftuistians should do. We returned to the lecture-room 
and keard erne nf the senior classes examined in logic and political economy. 
All "the «xamxBation8 were impromptu, -so that in many instances only oue 
er.twe in the dass oould give the exaet answez'-Hihey showed that in a 
^Ikgnm the ynedioate is oontained in the major proposition. Dr. Dufi:' 
mesL adked them if this was the case what is the use of lo^ ? and ex- 
fiajffiBfi at to be aprooess of developing truth. Which really is there, but 
vridoii XB hkLdeoL from the person to whom you speak— just as in chemistry, 
you affirm that the air is composed of two gases. Another says, ** How 
eon it be, I den^t see that." The chemist analyses the atmosphere and 
shcmro it to him—AO in logic You say man is responsihle, another denies 
it Sowwauld y on ^^rove it. Kan has freedom of action, eonscience, 
iateUeat, Ac, Ao. This is granted, but these faculties would not have 
heen^ven him by God eaooept for some good purpose — wherefore man is 
lesponiiMfi to God for the use he makes of them ; this was elicited from 
Ihe popiilfi by qiwstions. 

In PoHtiral JBeonomy they showed the use of division of labour, of 
MBTchants, of the learned and theoretical members of a community. I 
naked (through Br. Duff) what was the use of those persons who lived on 
their own resource without working ; they answered, " Sana «.\. iJl" «si^ 
one added, "jw^esB they spend their money in. dsnnig ^<k^'' \\>T2kS7^^^ 



8 JEWISH AND ABHEKIAK SCHOOLS. 

stmok me so forcibly before, how titterlv useless is the state of those 
" who live at home at ease," unless they nil the office God has espedally 
allotted to them of caring for the poor. 

Here we were interrupted by a crowd of white-robed students, bringing 
in a model steam-engine. Bona M^ De, one of the teachers, brother-in- 
law to Isha Chandra De, explained it most clearly. He told us he was of 
the Weaver caste. "We saw the room where evening service is held every 
Sabbath in English, many of the pupils attend, and also some from the 
Hindu Government College. In fact, they are better instructed in 
Christianity than half the young men at home. But Satan and the evil 
heart of unbelief keep them from renouncing all things for Christ's sake ; 
yet they believe Christianity with the intellect, will argue for it, and wiU 

Srove it. The very worst, those who most entirely go back to Hindu 
abits on leaving the institution, yet better than uneducated Hindus, and 
desire education continue for their children. Many instruct their young 
daughters and wives. About three-fourths of these lads are marrie£ 
The daily attendance is nearly 1000. More than 1280 are on the books, 
and even durine the Hindu holidays, when every other educational insti-i 
tution is closed, and all the public offices shut, the average daily at* 
tendance has been upwards of 600. On the greatest day of the Dnrga 
Puj& in 1844, 125 were present. I look on these two last facts as me 
most remarkable of any. It shows what a shake Hinduism has received^ 
Pray that the Lord will send down the dew of His Spirit on this insti-r 
tution and this land, that they may bring forth fruit to the glory of His 
Hdy Name ! 

Tne next morning we received our home letters, and in the aftemooa 
came the lovely little watch. Just after breakfast to our great joy Jacob, 
our most faithful and invaluable Christian servant, rejoined us, having 
arrived by the steamer, and with him a Jew from Madras, named Abraham 
Joseph, a native of Damascus, who was converted through the instra- 
mentality of the Rev. Mr. Lugard, an English chaplain, in 1845. A 
cousin of his, named Jacob, professed Christianity at the same time ; they 
were both baptized, and, after some delay, forwarded to Jerusalem. When 
tiiey arrived the bishop had just died, and the rabbis were using every 
means to oppose Christianity. Mrs. Wylie took us to see the school for 
Jewish and Armenian girls under the care of Mrs. Ewart, the wife of one 
of our missionaries. Mrs. Ewart had been longing and praying to be made 
useful to the native women, when an excellent Armenian Protestant 
Missionary, Mr. Aratoon, came and asked her to open a school for his 
countrywomen. She agreed on condition of his finding a place. He took 
a very nice room in a native house ; she went there but no pupils came. 
For three days i^e and the aged missionary met and united in prayer ; on 
the fourth two little girls appeared, and she has now about seventy, not 
quite half of whom are Jewesses. 

Mrs. Ewart seems far from strong. The elder class read very nicely a 
chapter in the New Testament, with a perfectly pure English accent. 
They learn geo^phy, write, and work very neauy, and have a good 
acquaintance with the main doctrines of Scripture. The progress they 
have made during the short time the school has existed is quite wonderful. 
The Jewish parents make no objection to theiif daughters reading the 
New Testament. My husband spoke to them on disobedience to the 
law of G^d constituting thevery essence of sin, and on the willingness of 
Christ '* the Messiah" — " the txue God" — ^to save all who come to him ; 
but they are veiy shy, and it is difficult to get them to answer. They are 
taught entirely in English. 

One or two of the Axmenian girls are lovely, with beautifully chiselled 



MISS LAINa's SCHOOL. 9 

features, and a clear brunette complexion, so fine and delicate that no 
fur one conld be prettier. They look much older than thev are ; those of 
eleven look like fifteen. Most of the Jewesses were very plain, with very 
coarse features, and some with a moustache ; many of them gaudily 
dressed with silver lace on their robes, and beads round their necks. 

The Armenians, who intermarry frequently with the Portuguese, who 
are as dark, if not darker than the Hindus, dress like Europeans, only 
with a predion of flowers and trimmings. The Jewesses wear a tight- 
fitting robe, fastened beneath the bosom ; and one little girl had a train 
to hers. 

Mrs. Ewart gave me a sampler " to send to my sister." It is worked by 
a very good little Jewess, named Jamilah Musa Bakahia, about ten or 
eleven years old. Her parents wished to take her away to marr v her, and 
had even bespoken her wedding garment ; but she is so fond of the school, 
that she prevailed on them to allow her to stay another year. 

The pupils sasxg a hymn, and we then went to the lower room, where 
there is a class of about forty infants ; such a variegated bank of babes 
would astonish anv English teacher, for the little bodies were arrayed in 
all the colours of the rainbow. One small thing of two years old had a 
turban, and several had patches of opium to the size of sixpence, on the 
forehead and temples, as a cure for colds. Two half-cast teachers assist 
Mrs. Ewart, both of them very pleasing. The little children answered 
many questions, similar to those in " Watts's First Catechism,'* extremely 
well, and then sang the ** Infant School Hymn," which, doubtless, you 
know—** "We wash our faces, we comb our hair." I never saw a prettier 
sight. 

^ \Vh»n we thanked Mrs. Ewart for her kindness, she expressed herself 
in the most grateful terms for our visit. She said it was such an encou- 
ragement to her, for hardly any one visits or knows anything about this 
most interesting school, although it is one with great prospects of useful- 
nesSy and, at the same time, with many discouraging circumstances 
attached to it. The girls do not stay long at the school, on account of 
their early marriages ; and the influence they are under at home is often 
^nite contrary to mat which is exercised over them during the hours of 
instruction. But still we are sure that the good seed will brin^ forth 
fruit ; and that the word of the Lord will not return unto Him void, but 
$haU prosper in that whereto He sends it. 

Thursday, December 17th, 1846. — ^According to a^jpointment, we drove 
to Dr. Dufl*s house this morning, and he accompanied us to the Female 
Orphan School in connexion with, the Free Church. Miss Laing has just 
moved into a new house, with a nice garden, and accommodation for one 
hundred pupils. As yet she has only thirty, besides one day scholar (a 
oountry-Dom girl), and a little Bengali child of three years old, who 
comes of her own free will. Most of the orphans are of Portuguese origin : 
they are all dressed according to the custom of their respective nations. 
Miss Laing is a very lady-like, attractive person, the daughter of a cap- 
tain in the army, and has devoted herself to this good work from love to 
Him who said ** Feed my lambs." The children were all assembled in 
three classes, in a spacious apartment on the ground-floor, open on two 
rides to the outer air. Their copy-books were laid out for inspection, 
and, like those at the Jewish school, were remarkable for their neatness ; 
there were no blots, no letters left out, no carelessness, like some copy- 
books at home. The first thing that attracted our attention was the 
yoimgest class, under the charge of Mahendra's widow Rose, the sweetest- 
looking young Bengali 1 have seen. Her face is quil;^ \oN^\^>T\a\.w^ 
homieatare, but mm the aweet, modest, pathetic ex5tXfe^«^Q^« ^^^^^ 



10 i>UMX>ini. 

dressed, like all her coimtrjrwomen, m a white sort of sheet wrapped 
round her head imd figure. Her little girl, a beautiful child of about two 

J rears old, olung to her. You will understand the interest with which we 
Qoked on Madiendra's wife und child. I took her hand ; but, like all 'the 
native women, idie is too i^ to speak befotre sttaagers, She was bgsmgkdi 
up at Mrs. Wilson's school, and is the bosom IdeDDLd of her fellownpopil 
ibina, whom JSIoilas mamed. They were wedded on the same day, ^id 
became widows within six weeks or <eaah ether. Bese is weQ -educated, 
her husband having taken great pains to instruot her; she is Tery uaafn 
in the school ; they have every reason to believe her a converted p&nxm. 
Dr. Duff pointed out one little girl in the class whose parents were dain 
by dacoits (robbers), and who was found on the Toad, where the jaokals 
had already begun to eat her. She looked up in my face with suoh m 
pretty smile, and such beautiful, mesry, black eyes, it was inspossible 
not to pet her. The eldest class tiiien read the 2nd of John. Dr. Duff 
questioned them upon it, and cross-ouestianed them most strictly. They 
answered pecfeotly. Be examined them on many difierent parts of 
Scripture, with all of which thev were well acquasinted. He explained 
to them the nature of the union between the Lord Jesus and Mis people, 
and illustrated it by the fate of a branch broken oSirom a^tree. He said, 
''What would become of a branch broken off? What is that tike?" 
When liiey &iHy understood this illustration, he asked for .some tetf 
wherein our Lord was spoken of as a vine. They immediately qnioteiL 
^ I am the ^ine, ye are the branches." He then illustrated it ny the 
dependence of len infant on its mother for food and support.^ and ques- 
tioned them again on what he had said ; asked them what our Lord aaii 
jof ehildren coming to lam. I^ey quoted, '* Buffer little ehildren," and 
*' He took themiip and blessed them." Dr. Duff then ^aaocdned them ok 
geography, in whioh idiey answered very satisfaetorily. 

Miss Lamg showed us the house ; it is Tery dean and .simple ; every- 
thing is done by the girls, who leam to wash, cook, tend all kinds of 
liousehold work. Thesr have no oommimication with any native senmnts^ 
md only one beaver is kept to dean the walls and the lights. . The 
children are brought np exactly }ike natives, and sleep on Imre wooden 
kedsteade, with no mattrefls or pillow. The very litde ones have a smAll 
pillow; in the eold season each has a blanket, and in the hot weather m 
sheet, to wrap herself in ; they live on curry and rice twice a day. Xhe 
only thiiig that can beukne ior them, as they .gBow up, is to many tiiem 
io. Ghcistians, as it is imposeible to sex^ them to .service in any fanuly; em 
JMOomit ef -the hescthen eervonts they would be '•Uiged to mingle with, 
ifiome have been bmptized in infuiey; tof course, none of the others aze 
■ntil tiiey give evidenee of ctnrversion. One girl iias been lately received 
into the Choroh 4xf Qhiist — ^I had remarked her extreme interest when 
Dr. Duff was qeoking. 

Miss Laing canducSs morning and evening worship daily, and one of 
the missionaries preaches to them on like Sabraitii; thev are taught Ben- 

Sli and English fiimultaaeeuBly., as at tiie College. Inss Laing told me 
at the average expense of each ^hUd, exclusive of house-rent (which is 
ray high in Calcutta) and of the teachers' salaries, is three rupees, or 
six fshimngs a montii ! How many could subscribe this sum, and thus 
reieue an orphan from wild beasts, er from men who are even worse ! A 
IxUile girl died about a fortnight «go wil^ all liie oonff deuce, joy, and faii3i 
of an experienced saint! ^e longed to depart, and be with Jesus, and 
i^oke to all her oomx>anioii9 wi^ the greatest earnestness, exhorting them 
to ilee to Christ for salvation. 
Gn Taeaday, Jteoamber 18th, we went to Dumdum. Dr. Clarke is in 



KATITE CATECHISTB. 11 

medical oharji^c of the Amirs of Bind, several of whom are here. One of 
them (whom wc Afterwards saw driving about in an English nndress 
Dniform), Prince Muhammad Ali -Khan, is very clever — speaks and reads 
English, and will oven xead the Bible. Uc broke his leg: some time ago, 
a very bad tmmpound fracture ; .and, in the course of attendance on mm* 
Dr. Clarke expressed a hope that he sometimes prayed. " How can I 
pray r" said he ; " my lee is broken." Dr. Clarke explained ^ him the 
nature of jirayer, which lie seemed fully to comprehend. Tie never joins 
ttie others in the Muhammadan forms ; out this appears to be from dis- 
belief in Jalam, rather than from belief in anything else. The drive to 
Dmndum is very pretty ; there are native huts almost the whole way, 
SEXOept whore the fine villas and grounds of the rich B&bns of Calcutta inter- 
rene, with gardens and railings, apparently very much in the English style. 

Saturday, December 19th.— C. and I took tea ^ith Dr. and Mrs. ifnS, 
to meet the four native Catcchists ; — one is a Brahmin, named Jagodishwar 
Bhattachozjya ; another a Kiklin liruhman (which is the very highest 
oaate), named Pr^sun^ Kumar Chattcnia; Lai Behiirl D6 (pronounced 
Day), of the Banker caste.; Bcharl Lai Bin^f, the Kajput, was ill, and could 
pot come. They are all yoimj? men, remai^ably quiet and gentlemanly 
Ln manner, with most intelligent countenances. It was on the 2nd 
MiDvember, 1841, that Jagadishwor iirst opened his heart to the Mis- 
damudes, and expressed his desire for baptism. This was the very day 
bhat the insurrection of Kabul broke out.; and, strange to aay, owing to a 
Pflry remarkable conjunction of the phmets which took place at that time, 
the conviction was nniversid omonf? the natives that some great calamity 
WUB impending over the Britidb Empire, so much so that business was 
almost suspended, and the people wandered about doing nothing. When 
they heard, therefore, that a Brahmin was about to be baptized, they 
looked upon this as the immediate begimiing of the calamity, and on the 
Ebllowing morning the Institution was besieged by thousands. Dr. Duff 
bad to throw himself into tlie midst of the crowd to rescue • Jagadishwar 
from the friends who were dragginf^ him away. Ue said, '* I looked as 
Keroe as Csmtain Mackenzie was doin|i: at that very time, and told them 
they shonld only have him by passing over my 'body. ' The lad was 
refioued, but the clamour continuing. Dr. Duff went to fetch the police. 
rhe mob suff'ered him to depart ; and, to prove he was not carrying the 
foimg convert away with him, he ordered the carriage to be driven all 
ronnd the court, that they might see that he was alone. When the police 
oame, the immediate douffer of the house being forced ceased; andthie 
iiissionaries being perfectly satisfied with the state of the young man's 
Blind, from the long convorBation they had had with him the previous 
Bight, came to the conclusion that it was advisable to baptize him imme- 
iifltdy ; this was accordingly done, in tiie boll of the Institution, in the 
pvesenoe of all the pupils. 

Immediately the natives heard that he had cast away the Brahminicol 
Bord and received baptism, they looked upon it as ^ un fait accompli," — 
in iixevocahle act, — and qnicftly dispersed. He is a very handsome 
roung man, with Tory small delicate hands, aquiline nose, and magni- 
Domt oyes, as they all -have. The KuUn Brahman has not such regular 
CEAtures ; his nose is a little retroussS, but he has a very sweet expression, 
md a remarkably well-formed head. One of his prerogactives, as a Kulln 
Drahman, was that of marrying as many wives job he chose ; and many 
Kidins moke a livelihood by going about the country to marry the 
laughters of any Brahman who will give a lar^e sum for the honour of 
illying his family with the illustrious race of the KCiUii BTQikn^^&&\\\sb 
:heii leaves the Boid wife in her father's bouao, anii \MSt\uK^ Tiss^^ ^ak^^ 



12 8T0BY OF THE ABSENT CATEGHIST. 

her again. Fortunately Prasun^ had only married one wife, and, follow- 
ing the Divine directions, he felt he had no right to cast her off, if she 
were willing to come to him. This he had reason to helieve was the case, 
^though since the day of his open confession of Christianity he had neither 
seen nor heard of her. He, however, kept up amicable intercourse with 
his sister, who lived some distance from Calcutta. At the time of a great 
festival, bis two Mends, Jagadishwar and Lai Beh^ri De, advised him to 
go and pay a visit to his sister, in hopes of hearing something of his wife ; 
he thought it of no use, but went. At first his sister was out — ^he spent 
the time in reading the Bible, and praying that, if it was God's will, a 
way for the recovery of his wife might be opened to him. He returned 
(o his sister's house, and found his young wife there ; — ^this was the first 
interview since his conversion. He found she was willing to go with him 
to the ends of the earth ; so, directing her to return home, as if nothing 
had happened, he went to the river side and engaged a boat. She met 
him in the evening ; they entered the boat, and arrived safely iii Cal* 
cutta. He then began to teach her, and she proved a most docile and 
intelligent scholar. She was soon baptized, and they have now an infant^ 
whom Dr. Duff had the pleasure of baptizing a few weeks ago. I asked 
Prasun^ if his wife was very young ; he said, ** Not very — about sixteen 
or seventeen." It is looked upon as a calamity, in a Hindoo family, if a 
woman receives any kind of instruction ; notwithstanding this, some of 
the educated Hindoos have begun to teach their wives. Dr. Duff said it 
had often been a matter of serious consideration among the Missionaries, 
what should be done in case of the conversion of one who had already 
married several wives, because, all these marriages being legal, how could 
they be broken ? One thing is clear, that such a person could not be 
admitted into any office of the Christian ministry, as both a Bishop and 
Deacon is required to be " the husband of one wife." 

The story of the absent Catechist, Beh^ri Sing, was very interesting. 
About twenty years ago, an old Eajput, the highest caste next to the 
Brahmans, came down to Calcutta. He had two sons, whom he Subse- 
quently placed in the Scotch College, where they both became convinced 
of the truth of Christianity, without being brougl^t to feel their personal 
need of it. When the elder one, Behari Sing, was asked by Dr. Duff 
why he did not become a Christian, he answered, ** I believe everything, 
but I feel nothing." They both left the Institution ; the younger made 
his way up to Chunar, near Benares, where he fell in with Mr. Bowley, a 
Church of England Missionary, who, astonished with his acquaintance 
with Christiamty, determined to water the good seed which Dr. Duff had 
planted. God gave the increase; the young man was baptized (I am 
aorry to say by the name of Timothy, instead of his own namej, and then 
he began to urge his brother by letter to follow his example. Beh&ri 
Sing was at this time a Government servant at Jubbulpore, under Mr. 
Macleod, a pious civilian, who had formerly maintained nim at College ; 
and whose exhortations, joined to those of his brother, were soon blessed 
by God. The first sign he gave of his sense of the value of the Gospel, 
was by sending eighty rupees — a whole month's salary — toward the sup- 
port of the Institution. Soon after, he came down to Calcutta to receive 
baptism. On his road, he met, at a small station (where good Mrs. 
Wilson then resided), some English High Church gentlemen, who, on 
learning his intentions, plied him with arguments in favour of Apostolic 
Succession, Episcopacv, the efficacy of the Sacraments, and told him that 
such baptism as Dr. Duff could aidminister was no baptism at all. He 
listened patiently, and then solemnly asked : " To a soul trembling in the 
presence of a holy and just God, and longing for salvation, what is there 



CABIOATUBB OF ENGLISH MANKBBS. 1$ 

on say to meet his case }" They had nothiDgr to reply. After his 
1, he gave up his salary of eighty rupees monthly, and his pro- 
>f advancement, for the pittance of eight rupees per month and the 
l^e of working in the Lord's vineyard ; and to crown the whole, the 
>ld soldier — of whom Beh^ri had said, ** If I were to hecome a 
an, my father would cut off my head " — followed his sons' example, 
o enlisted under the hanners of the Captain of our salvation. Does 
3 call on us to hless and glorify God ? 

iudacious Tamllsha Wallah (literally play-fellow) dressed himself 
n of&cer, with a white mask, and was (the ladies naying departed) 
g how a young Ensign treats his bearer. I immediately went to 
a never was more aiverted. He did it admirably, and showed 
I)erception of European follies, as to prove an effectual warning to 
jent not in any way to commit themselves before these quiet, quick- 
natives. He had laid hold of one of Julia's bearers, and was 
J him walk backwards and forwards for his amusement, bestowing 
every now and then to quicken his movements. He then 
m for a bottle of brandy, stamped and rampangcd about, and finally 
to dance, exactly like an awkward Englishman attempting a hom- 
le forced his supposed servant to dance, and looked at him through 
-glass. He then Drought in one of his companions dressed as a lady, 
d her about by way of taking a walk, and then danced with her m 
on of a quadrille and waltz. I cannot understand any one ventur- 
waltz before a native, after seeing this apt caricature of the per- 
ice ! It was very droll, and only too true. 

ve since found that a Mullah, in controversy with Mr. Pfander of 
alleges the custom of " kissing and putting their arms round the • 
of other men's grown-up dau^ghters, sisters, and wives," as an argu- 
.gainst Christianity. The ** kissing" appears to have been added by 
aginative Mullah, but I do not see how a waltz or polka could pos- 
)e defended in the eyes of an Oriental. I hope Mr. Pfander ex- 
d to him that Christianity does not (as he alleges) sanction these 
5es, for it teaches us to " abstain from all appearance of evil." 
houses here are all within courtyards (called compounds) with 
The Durwan, or gatekeeper, here is a Brahmin of very high caste ; 
f his business is to let no one carry anything out of the compound 
it a warrant of some kind that he is authorized to do so. 
ew a Bairaghi, or Yoghi, i,e, a Hindu religious mendicant, who sat 
Lf down in the Durwan's shed, so that I had an excellent view of 
om one of the windows. He was a fine tall young man, with mild 
ssion, his beard shaved, but his moustache and hair long ; his left 
e carried bolt upright, never to come down a^^ain ; I believe they 
} the limb to some god. It was rather shrunk m size, and the nails 
through the back of the hand ; he T^as dressed in a tiger-skin, with 
of the same. He had a staff, and a small linen bag slung over his 
shoulder, I suppose for provisions. I saw him readmg a book which 
■. the servants lent him. / 

irsday 24th. — C. accompanied Mr/Cameron, General von Gagem, of 
utch service, and his Aides-de-Cam>p, to the Medical College. It is a 
IS fact, that the first class of Students at the Medical College, i, e, 
who go through a course of study sufficient to qualify them for 
tant- Surgeons, are almost exclusively Hindus ; the second class, or 
who, without learning anatomy, are qualified for hospital dressers, 
isers of medicine, &o., are almost exclusively M^hammadans, and 
>ns of Sepoys. 
) character and prejudioeis of the MuliammadaiiB ax^ «\xQTv%^t^Qt^a:^ 



the Hindu, altKough tke religisn of the latten is much the mosir opposed, 
to surgery. The Mussuko^iL holds the prejudices he has leamt^nL tbe 
Hindu muoh more strongly tilan he from whom he haa acquired tbem^ 
There are hardly two Mussulmans at ike Free Chnrah<. College, and cezii- 
verts from among them are almost unknown., 

Mondays December 28th. — Being- very anxious to see something: of tha 
Huharram! (the Muhammadan festival' in^ remembrance of EBasaa ami 
Hoseyn, the two sons of Ali), I borrowed J.'s chariot, and started about: 
three o'clock alone, taking Jacob on the box: to interpret for me. I took 
my i^etoh-book with me, and we had not gone £Eir before we fbll in witiL 
divert nondescript-looking, camels of wood with human faces and turBaiu^ 
their bodies painted orange ; they represent the camels^ on wlnnh Hosejas 
fledr— but it was only by the force of genius and. eruditioa united that I 
found; out they were meant for camels at all. Dr; W. took tton: for 
osfaiches ! By-the-b^^ the Persians call the ostrich ** shutr^-murgk or 
camel-fowl." Thei*e were also-divers little towers about eight feet nighv 
very prettily adorned and painted^, in each of which a: silver hand' is 
placed. It represents the haiid of Hasan,, which was out off when: he was 
slain. I stopped, to draw one of these, and then a camel stopped to be 
drawn — ^I wul send you these *' pleasing images." A few annas mada. 
the bearer of l^e said monster quite happy — in fact, th& natives seenL to 
take special delight in bein^ drawn, and as soon as they perceiYe' thatyoir 
axe sketching,, keep quite still tillyou have done. 

We drove slowly tnrough the Baz^, ^diich is nothing^ more nor lesr 
than streets full of shops, Baz^ meaning simply market or High-street. 
These streets are extremely picturesque, the houses- beingrgsenarally-of one 
story,. v«ry low, with, far-projecting^ pent-house sheds along the wliole^ 
front which is open to the street. I never saw so populous a neighbour- 
hood as this — every little shop has half a dozen persons in it. I drew 
two shops— in front of one was a boy winding thread by holding-fche skdn: 
over his knees. 

I stopped to see numerous towers, and also to buy sweetmeats in, the^ 
Bazar ; they sell t^em in little cups made of leaves ; the natives geui^ally 
eat off plantain leaves, as they are thus secure fbom liie danger of eating 
off a plate which has^ been used by a man of lower caste. I was very 
much amused with my expedition, and the servants seemed delighted! ton 
have a lady who- was so- curious, for they looked, at each particular tower 
witkas much interest aaif they had never seen one before, and came to 
tell me the expense of each. One cost eight,, another twelve rupjees, and 
the groups of white robed Muhammadan s anxioudy watching the CQm>- 
pletion of the towers, were very picturesque. 

Tuesday, December 29th.— (Crowds of people surrounded the tank oppo- 
site our house the whole morning, throwing the figures of camels into it^ 
this beings the last day of the Muharram. 

IS'ew Year's Day, 18i7. — Breakfasted early, and drove to Union Chapel, 
(taking Jacob with us), where every "New Year's-day there is a truly 
catholic Communion, iu which all the Missionaries, of every denomina- 
tion (except the Church of England), and any other Christians who wish 
to do so, join in celebrating their Redeemer s Feast. Mr. MacDonald, 
of the Free Church, was just finishing the prayer ; Mr. Lacroix, a Swiss 
Presbyterian, of the London Missionary Society, then preached a verv 
animated, simple, but most touching sermon, on *' Heaven and earth shall 
pass away, but my words shall not pass away." He spoke of the certainty 
of God's promises,, liie sureness of salvation contrasted with tiie transiton- 
ness of ail things earthly, and ended by saying, ** A ]few more years 
joajr see a coDgregaXioji met within these walla ibr the same purpose that 



HOnSEfr 131. CALGUTXA. 15 

we are ;: but another minutaE will' occupy the pnlpit, and of all now 
present eyery one will hoira passed away to the Jod^nent Seat o£ God/' 
— and then; psayed ihet it might be only to enter into iha inner Sanctnary, 
to dwell witk me Lamh< for ever and erer. A yonn^ minister of the 
flootdL EataMishinent^ Br. Hendnaen;, prayed with great fisrvoar, so did 
s 'V8neEabl& American. Baptiat Missionary ;: Mr;^ Boaz,. the minister of the 
Ghapel (an Independent) ^ made a most touching address before tha 
dfilzvery of the bread^. and anptiier before that of the wine, on ** This do 
in rememfyranoe of me." The first was on remembering' what Christ haa 
done for us ; the second,, oa semembering what we ore bound to do for 
him. Mr.. Bwavt, of tha Froa: Ejrk,. w^as one of those who- distributed the 
iilaments. We all sat stili in our places, and the bread,, out in littlia 
pieoes*. waB> handed round. After the service,, we sang the hymn-, 

Chice again before we voct.'.*^ Mr. Boaz^ afteorards shook hands with; 
both of ua^ and gave us oaok the communion cards to keep in cememr 
brance of the dav. I cannot teli you how afGectin^ a sendee it was. 

We droye to me W^dies'— tLmost fit house toyisit after au£h a service^ 
We found* Mr* Hawkins, the excellent Christian Judge,, theitia^ and also a 
young man belonging- to the Exohanm (a kind of li^ge shop), who was 
treated witb a» muck kindnass ana respect as the man in high of^ce 
bid^de him- This is one feature whick distinguishes the Christians in 
Calcutta,, tiiat their houses and society are open to all who appear to be 
truly Chrnstian people; although their statbn in lifs may be a humble one. 
Mrs. W^^ told me that Mr. Laeroix has been here lor the last twenty 
yean, uid is the most acceptable missionary of any to the natives, 
libit long- aisos he wrait to Europe for two or three years, and was very 
useful in stining up an- interest inmisfflons in England, Scotland, France, 
and 9witEserland. Mb brou^^ several young menfrom Geneva with him, 
one of whom has married his eldest doubter.. ^ They are settled at a vil- 
lage near Alipiir, where the young missionary* s wife is most useful. She 
luu a school' under her care for native girls, and speaking Bon^li like a 
native gives. her great opnortunitieif of doing good. They say it is beaiv- 
taful to near her pray with her pupils. 

One of the 3F0ung converts I met at the Wylies' (a Brahman), owed his 
oonversiontotiLe deadi of a fellow-scholar, who was brought out to the Ghat 
(av tfaa custom, is) to breathe his last. He called his companions to him, 
and said, ** Do not do as I have done : I have believed in Christ, but have 
been ashamed to confess Him before men." This dpng admonition was 
blessed to the young hearer : and may we not hope that the d3ring con- 
jfesnon of the weak oeliever- was a sign that he too was one of the fold of 
Christ? 

Saturday, January 2nd, 1847. — ^The houses in Calcutta are remarkably 
fine, with fiat roofs. Almost every bed-room has a bath-room attached, 
which is paved, and rows of chattis (earthen pitchers), full of water, are 
placed there for pouring over oneself. The natives seem to be incessantly 
bathing. Little conduits run along most of the large streets, and there the^ 
are pouring water over tiiemselves frommomii^ tilLnight ; but they do it. 
very decently, never wholly unclothed. None but women of low caste are 
ever seen in the streets : some of them wear rings in their noses. The 
native hackney coaches are very droll. There is generally a servant 
gravely seated, cross-legged on the top. The bearers, who are all Hindus, 
and who, in a family, x>erform most of the functions of housemaids, such 
as making the beds> dusting the furniture, &o., generally wear their hair 
long, and turned up a ^ Chinoiae, with a knot behind. The common 
bearers have their heads bare ; but those in service wear a white turban 
with their queer little knot projecting beneath it. l\i^\ie^ft "Vs^-wt^TSk «cft 



16 BABAKAaAB*— A BBAKCH SCHOOL. 

employed in ladies' apartments and bedrooms only in Calcutta : I have 
never neard of its being done elsewhere. AU oyer India many ladies are 
gnilty of great carelessness in dress, to call it by no worse name, appear- 
ing before their servants and strangers in flannel dressing-gowns, and 
even less decorous garments. But nowhere are these evil practices car- 
ried to such a disgraceful extent as in Calcutta. There, ladies will give 
audience to half-a-dozen men-servants in their sleeping apartments, the 
moment they have risen. And I have even known an instance of a young 
and handsome woman dressing and undressing in the presence of the 
tailors, with as little scruple as if they had been old women. 

Sunday, January 3rd. — Went to Miss Laing's, as I was anxious to spend 
the rest of the day with her. "We dined at three o'clock, and the two 
youngest children with us. The orphans cook, as well as do everjrthing 
else for themselves ; and the few servants Miss Lauig is obliged to have 
for herself are wholly separated from them. She told me the children 
were remarkably docile, punishment rarely necessary; the three little 
Jewesses giving more trouble than all the rest put together — wilfulness, 
perversity, ana obstinacy being prominent characteristics in them, though 
in many ways they are very attractive children. She says the great^ 
difficulty with the native children is from their habits of deceit. I asked 
her about the kind of education she intended to give them. She said, as 
high a one as they are capable of. She teaches tnem everything they are 
able to learn, and hopes that some of them will turn out clever and hiehly 
educated women. Mr. Ewart came about four o'clock, and delivered an 
exposition on a chapter in Acts. This he or one of the other Missionaries 
does every Sabbath, as the girls have no other means of hearing preaclung, 
it being impossible for them to walk through the streets to church. 

Dr. Duff ojSered to take me with his daughter to Baranagar, where an 
examination of the Branch School was to be held. On our way he showed 
us the new Mission House, and buildings for converts, now just on the 
point of occupation, and pointed out the Old Institution, which was full of 
scholars, his former house, and the trees which he himself had planted. 
We also passed the Le;)er Asylum, where these unfortunate people have a 
maintenance on condition of not going out of the compound ; and the 
Mdiratta ditch, made to defend Calcutta from those dreaded invaders. 
We had a very pretty drive ; Baranagar itself is a sequestered rural spot, 
like an illustration in "Paul and Virginia." 

Mr. Smith, the missionary, lives in a very pretty one-storied native 
house, with a tank before it, and the school is a thatched bamboo Banga- 
low, close by. There are about 200 pupils. Mahendra once taught there. 
They have at present an excellent half-caste Christian master, and a very 
clever Hindu teacher, brought up at the Assembly's Institution. Mrs. 
Button, the wife of the good English chaplain at Dumdum, was the only 
other lady present; but Dr. Clark of Dumdum, Mr. Ewart, and Mr. 
McKail were there, and all examined the boys. They answered ex- 
tremely well in mental arithmetic, geography, Eoman and English history, 
geometry, and Scripture history, &c. The eldest class read and explained 
a long passage, taken at random, from "Paradise Lost," book second, 
describing Satan's flight. Dr. Duff asked what was meant by Satan 
putting on his wings. One answered, ** he put them into practice* (mean- 
ing use). This was the only mistake that I remember. On English 
history, Mr. Ewart asked about the civil wars, and then inauired wioh 
was best, war or peace? — they all answered "peace," with great zeaL 
Mr. Ewart observed, " there might be some just wars, adding, suppose an 
enemy were to burst into this country, plundering and destroying every- 
tbing, woidd. yon not flght r" " I^o, no, said they. Mr. Ewart, who is a 



NATIVE CONVEETB. 17 

yery fine powerful man, and gives one the idea of being full of manly 
determination and courage, was so astonished that he paused for a mo- 
ment, and ^en said, * * Bnt would you not fight for your notnes — your own 
families ?" " No," said they, "the Bengalis would not fight — they are all 
cowards." I am not quite sure if he asked whether they themselves would 
not fight, or if their countrymen would not do so ; but the answer was as 
above ; and Mr. Ewart remained dumb and amazed. This made me think 
that patriotism seldom if ever exists in those (unless they are true Chris- 
tians; who are much in advance of their countrymen, because they despise 
their own people, instead of taking a uride in belon^ng to them : this idea 
would alloy patriotism in general with a huge portion of vanity and self- 
exaltation. We are patriotic, generally, because we think our own na- 
tion the best of all nations, and ourselves honoured bjr belonging to it ; 
but, if we perceive it to be inferior, we gladly cut the tie which binds us 
to it, unless grace fills the heart with such patriotism as that of Paul. 

After the examination Dr. Duff asked me to distribute the prizes 
(which consisted chiefly of books used in the classes). He said it would 
put a new idea into the boys' heads, to receive them from the hands of a 
lady. I accordingly took my seat at the head of the table, and delivered 
tiie Dook to each scholar as he was brought to me. Most of the elder boys 
made a graceful bow of acknowledgment, but many of the others had to 
be callea back, and vigorously reminded to make salam ; and then some 
made it to Mr. Smith, and not to me. The costume was much more varied 
and picturesque than at the Parent Institution : some of the lads had 
shawls, chains, and other fineries, but none of those painted marks on the 
forehead which are often called " marks of caste,' but which are, in 
reality, marks of the idol whose votary the wearer is. 

We then went to see the lower class writing ; each boy sits on his own 
little mat, with a reed in his hand, and the leaf on which he writes 
lying on his left palm. After resting a littie at Mr. Smithes house, we 
£ove home. The Eulln Brahmans of Bengal are divided into the five 
following families : — ^Baneiji, Chatteiji, Mukaji, Qungull, and Gosal : one 
of the senior pupils at Baranagar, with whose appearance I was much 
struck (a Gangull), has since been baptised. One of the things which 
impressed me most at the examination at Baranagar, was the perfect 
knowledge displayed by the scholars of all the doctrines on which they 
were questioned, especially the cardinal point of justification, which they 
explained in the clearest manner. They expressed their belief in all 
they said, and spoke decidedly against idolatry ; but all this is, with most 
of them, only the religion of the head : it sets before one in a strong light 
the difkrenee between intellectual conviction and heart conversion, the 
work of men and the work of the Spirit. How many hearers of the 
Gospel, how many children of religious families, are in the same condition 
as these poor boys, with a perfect form of godliness without the power 
thereof. These Hindus would, doubtless profess the Gospel, and attend 
regularly on the means of grace, if there were nothing to be lost b^ so 
domg. At home, where there is so much less difficultj[ in confessing 
Christ before men, there is far greater danger of men deceiving themselves, 
by fancying they are Christians when they are not. 

Dr. Duff gave me a most interesting account of good Dr. Carey's death. 

A letter arrived the other day from Akbar Khan, tenderlv reproaching 
mv husband for not having given him news of his health ; he must have 
h^ of our arrival instantly and written at once. 

The substance of the letter from Akbar Khan to Captain Mackenzie is 
as follows. Hie compliments, which are very elaborate, axe QTmNXA^^ SX 
being scarcely possible to translate them : — 

n 



18 leave calcutta. 

" Most affecxiokate Fbiekd, 

** Up to tlie month of Shawall, thioi^rh God's morcy, the kin^om of 
"Kkhvl was in snch a state as to be thankful to God. 

'* I assure you that my future conduet will never be such as to creatfr 
an impression on your mind against our friendship and allianoe. Ln 
eyerir respect you may keep your mind comfortable, for nothing will be 
wanting on my part to |>lease you. 

" As I am always anxious to hear from you, it is of course a matter ni 
regret that, notwithstanding the existing friendship between us, I may 
not be informed of the circumstances and good news of my friends, not 
I be asked to declare my own ; this being a failure on your part» stzikes 
me in mind now and then. 

** I feel, however, much pleasure and comfort in learning y^bally the 
welfare of my friends, through Moortusa Shah, who was lately here* a» 
messenger from the Gttvernor-General's agent. With a view to p^petnate 
mutual friendship and alliance, I have penned this note of afi^ction, and 
hope that, relying upon my friendship, you will always do the same." 

As the last injunction he ^ve, on sending the hosteges and captives ie 
Bamiin, was to cut the throats of all who could not march ; and as he 
knew full well that my husband was, from extreme illn^s, iiieapiJ>le of 
walking a hundred yards, you may judge how far this loving epistle 
accords with such a parting benediction. Mis intention in writLc^ was to 
endeavour, through the medium of my husband, to establi^ a goed 
understanding with the British Government. 



CHAPTER in. 

Weditesdat, Janttart 6th, 1847. — ^After leaving Calcutta, the drive to 
Barrackpur was very pleasant, a long fine road bordered by magnifioent 
trees. The first thing I remarked was a blacksmilh shoeing a horse, 
sitting with the hoof in his lap. On one side we saw an elcj^iant feeding 
before a cottage, and on the otiier two men i)assed mountea on a camel ; 
so that we already began to meet with Orientalisms. On arriving at 
Gyretty Gh^t, we crossed the river, the coachman accompanying us, and 
looking very picturesque in his scarlet dress and queer littile forked beaidv 
which he washed, divided in the middle, and then turned up l£ke a pair 
of moustaches. We were a long time in packing the palki ana palkif^§if ; 
and had brought so many things that we were obliged to give away diven 
pillows, &o., which crowded us. The palki is like a loiig oox or a jporti^ 
berth for a steamer, cushions at one end for one's head, a little shelf and 
drawers above one's feet, and a net above that for oranges, &e., — ^t«o 
bearers at each end of it sup(>orting it on their shoulders. When the 
sun was bot, we unrolled a white cover which projected about a foot on 
each side of the roof, and kept off much of the glare. There are sliding 
doors by which you can completely close the palki ; a reading-lamp at tiie 
back of one's head, pockets, musquito-curtains, and everything to nakB 
one oomfortable. The carriage is much the same, only larger, and on 
four wheels, which are all of the same height. Inside it is like a vU-d-vit^ 
with a spare cushion which fits between the two seats and turns it into a 
bed ; and, as it is on good carriiu^e-spriDgs, the motion is much eaner 
uittn that of the palki. Miss M. had eleven men, t.^., beaiecs, who 
relieve each other ; two men carrying pitlur§,hs, and one torohman. We 
had fifteen men ; ten to push and drag the carriage, four to oany pili&- 
r&hs, and one torch-bearer. The latter fed his torch every now aud Ukat 
intli oil which he poured out oi a bamboo, shaped like a quill tootJ^aok* 



TSAYBLLINa 8CXVSS. 19 

The bearers wear very little olothing, only a piece of oloth skilfully 
wrapped roond their bodies, and a sheet whioh serves for cloak by night 
and turban by day. 

While waiting, an old man came out of a cottage opposite, to pick some- 
thing in his garden, by lamplight. His figure, with the flickering light 
on i^ and the group near him preparing their evening meal, as usual, 
ontude the little dwelling, whicn was shaded by fine old trees, formed a 
nerfeot night piece ^ and no less scenic was the figure of tiie mas^lchi 
(traidi-beBzer), running along in his white drapery, or illuminating a whole 
group by the vivid blaze of nis torch when we stopped to change bearers. 

Each station is called a ohouki, literally " seat. Does not this indi- 
cate the difference between the active European, who stands at his post, 
and the oriental who sits at it? By-the-bye, I was much strudk by the 
Sepahis at Barrackp(ir ; they are very fine men, and make most graceful 
salutes. They only wear uniforms when on duty. The lines where they 
live are rows of mud huts. The population near Calcutta is very dense. 
The soenery was for a long time pretty, and English-looking, being flat 
and well wooded. W e p assed numbers of noble oanians, the most mag- 
nifiooit of sll trees. We had a lovely night, and slept well. Whenerer 
we woke there was something to see or hear ; sometimes a jackal prowling 
near, sometimes the merry chatter of the bearers, and sometimes the wilo, 
but not unmusical, shout in chorus, by which they ^ve notice of their 
airiyal at the ohouki. £aeh man gets about eight pie (that is a penny) 
a mile* and generally sixpence to a whole set for each stafi:e, which is about 
eight or ten miles, as baishish ; but C. gives them double. 

To lay a dak, you apply to the postmaster so many days before, and he 
makes arrangements with the post-offices up the country. You pay tho 
whole fium at <mce into his hands, and find the bearers waiting for you ; 
and of course have to pay if you detain them beyond a certain time. We 
started about half-past five p.m. : the night was most lovely. At Mem^ 
was the first bungalow we had seen. All tho dak bungalows are fac- 
similes of each other. They are one-storied buildings with verandahs, 
with two sets of apartments, each containing one large room, with one or 
two oane bedsteads, a smaller room, and a bath-room with earthen 
pitchers full of water, of which we availed ourselves largely. At Memliri 
we took some milk and ohap^itis (large thin cakes of flour and water, like 
bannocks), and proceeded to Bardwin, where we stopped for dinner. 
Each traveller or party pays one rupee for the use of the bungalow for 
any period not exceeding twenty-four hours. A butler, bearer, and 
sweeper are attached to each. The curry seemed to us the best we had 
eaten. The roads are made of broken bricks ; and, further on, of konkar» 
a natural composition of clay and sand. 

Early on Friday, January 8th, we saw five Afghans on camels, whom 
C. saluted in PusntCi, the most harsh and guttural language you ever 
heard. It sounds to me like Welsh. We came to a small wood, where a 
herd of bufOUoes were feeding, and bought some of their milk, which, 
with plum cake, made an excellent breakfast ; the beautiful snow-white 
paddy-birds, attending as usual on the buflaloes, looked like good spirits 
watoning evil genii. Our road lay for some distance through a jungle ; 
we crossed two chain bridges, one of them spanning a river, which at tins 
season is, as L. might say, made up of islands. Tho country then became 
very barren, with only one or two trees here and there. We saw many 
two-wheeled carts of most primitive construction, drawn by oxen, and 
some of the curious native carriages, Hke a rude throne and canopy, on 
two wheels. In one of them this morning was a M^hasnm.'QLdAXL'NiQxi^Mv.^ 
veiled ; her lord and master, who was sitting at t^o edge ol \]t^ ^i^cS^^ 

c2 



20 TABWATI JUKGLS. 

gave her a jealous poke with his elbow as an admonitioii to wrap herself 
up more closely, as we approached. He must have looked with horror at 
me walking: alon^ like an Irishwoman, in my night-cap ! The dress of the 
bearers seems to diminish, and certainly one s ideas of necessary clothLig 
are becoming wofully contracted. 

The bungidows and servants are all beautifully clean, and we get very 
^ood curry, milk, eggs, and chap^tis, so that the hardships of a travellar 
in Italy or Switzerland are much gr eater than in India ; they generally 
charge one rupee for our meal. We carry tea and sugar, biscuits, jasi, 
cold meat, and a little bread with us. We left at half-past five, and had 
to cross a nsdlah nearlv dry at this season, the road very bad, and the 
country very barren ; tne women carry heavy loads, and seem to work 
very hard in the field. 

The next morning, January 9th, saw some beautiful hills (the Dacoity 
Hills) on the right, and the still finer Bajmahal range beyond. The peo^e 
are a finer race than the Bengalis. We entered the great Parwati jun^ 
about twenty-four miles in length, which abounds in tippers, who have 
destroyed several persons within the last year, but the jungle has now 
been cleared to some distance on each side of the road, so that it is not so 
dangerous as it was, at least by day. We asked if the gentlemen near 
did not go into the jungle to shoot the tigers ? They said, " I^o ; the 
forest was imder the protection of the Goddess Parwatti, and she had as 
yet given no * hukm' {t.e, order) that the tigers should be destroyed." 
Co]. Sleeman relates that the Hindus believe that when a tiger has once 
killed a man he becomes much more dangerous, for the spirit of his yiotim 
sits on his head, and guides him to his prey. 

In one of the villages we saw a sumasi, or religious mendicant, witli 
scanty garments, shaggy locks and beard, gravely blessing the pe<>pk. 
The pictures of St. Paul, the Hermit, and St. Antony, are peziect suniasis. 
We passed some more Afgh§,ns of the Lowllnl tribe, takmg their fru^ 
meal under a tree ; they are all going to Calcutta to fetch merchandize, 
their camels having no burdens at present, save a little iruit, such as 
pistacho nuts. The Afgh§,ns are square and strong, with bushy beards^ 
some brown or reddish, hut mostly black, and ruddy complexions, or what 
appear such by the side of the natives. Some spoke Hindustani, hat 
most Persian ; one square-built Ghiljye stood stock still, witii a most 
wondering stare, on perceiving me. When C, who was walking, eame 
up, he offered him some plum cake, which he happened to be carryinj; in 
a sandwich-box. The Ghiljye modestly intended taking a little pieoeTbut 




they 

had been six months on their way from Eabiil. About the middle of the 
day we reached the camp of H.M.'s 98th, at the foot of the Rajm&h^ Hills. 
The white tents, the groups of natives with bullocks, a woman bringis£ 
hay on her head, the European soldiers generally within their tents, aU 
formed a pretty picture. The road was very bad, and our progress so 
slow that it was fortunate the beauty of the scenery, especially the fine 
and varied forms of the wooded hills, prevented it from bein^: tedious. 
We saw a group of travellers bathing, and some lovely red lilies in ihA 
water. 

I forgot to mention that on Thursday morning we saw some huge apes , 
among the crops ; these creatures are held sacred, and no one mdMs ' 
them. A whole crowd of younff boys rushed out from a little village to 
help us over a nallah, and so baa was the road, that between Top Cmucki 
to i)umri, we were five hours in going seven miles. C. questioiied a 



YISIT OF THB SIND AHIBS. 21 

' appointed to guard the road, as the £61es, an aboriginal tribe who 
i all the neighbouring hills, are notorious marauders. He said they 
»mmitted occasional robberies, "but no murders, since by the 
ible destiny of the S§ihib L6g (lordly people) some of them had 
inged!" 

Tiew of the hills at dawn this morning was lovely, and the scenery 
Led beautiful the whole day. C. overheard some Palkis beldnd us, 
zed our bearers if there were not two of them. They answered with 
it subservient phraseology — **If it be your Lordship's pleasure,"— 
he translated, *' Your Excellency's whim," whicE is indeed the 
g of it — " there shall be two psdkis, or three, or even four," It is 
b to get a decided answer on any subject, for every native is accus- 
to answer according to what he supposes to be the whim of his 
r. For instance, a fine young traveller whom 0. invited to join 
who gladly did so as a protection against tigers, was walking on 
rily as possible on Monday morning, after having marched about 
1^0 miles, with his sword slung by a handkerchief over his left 
T, and a little red bag held daintily between his finger and thumb, 
he confidential servant of a neighbouring Baja, who gives him five 
a month, and was going to visit his family, about two miles off the 
ad. He told us all his family were alive, and the bag contained a 
umber of bracelets of various colours, which are only to be had at 
ce he was coming from, and which he was taking to his female 
is. C. asked him if he was tired, — ^he said, ** Not a bit." C. re- 
L that he was a strong young fellow. He looked much gratified, 
Lswered, "By your Lordship's permission, I am a strong young 
" He willingly accepted some tracts; so did a poor Brahn^n, 
we saw yesterday morning on his way to Jagamllth — he was sick, 
;ave him a homoeopathic dose, which he gladly took, 
as we came to Shergotti, a poor M&H or gardener brought us a 
of fruit. A nazzar is a present of fruit irom an inferior to a 
•r, which is accepted by touching it, and then repaid by a present 
ey. 

^hing the Bungalow, I was astonished to see my husband shaking 
snth two very portly men in white, whom I tooK for Jews. They 
ome of the Amirs of Sind ; and I)r. Ck>lman, who is in medicsul 
of them, vacated his apartments for us, and pressed us to eat his 
ist. I^ot satisfied with uiis, he sent his servants, tea equipage, and 
ons for our use, so that an excellent repast was prepared for us, as 
agic ; and I remarked that the very pat of butter which was placed 
for his breakfast when we entered, was sent back untouched for 
The Amirs sent me a present of oranges, and said they were coming 
me a visit after breakfast. We, therefore, dressed and breakfasted, 
which a small fish-bone stuck in my throat ; whereupon the grave 
ems^man said affectionately to C. — " If the child (jikhk) will eat 
ry rice, the bone will go down ;" so I swallowed the dry rice and 
ront to my dignity, as a " mem s&hib" together. 
Lshed me to find some little present for the Amirs. I produced a 
pebble necklace and brooch, and a pair of small amethyst earrings ; 
a arranged seats for the whole party, some on chairs and some on 
1, and the three Amirs entered. I shook hands with each, and 
J>r. C. to express our pleasure at seeing them, our great sympathy 
r misfortunes, and our nope of better times for them. The highest 
'^ Amir Muhammad Kh^n, of T§dp6r, is very handsome, with noble 
8 and expression. They are all full of intelngent^, tmdL ^"^fA^^^OL 
. writing and reading. They have very fino aoadfi) VoXi \)ds»t^^SQSft^ 



22 FSTBITDSHIP TILS BXATBT. 

axe spoilt by extreme corpulence, which they cherish both as a beauty aaid 
as a mark of dignity, and will, therefore, never ride on horseback (except 
in hunting, of which they are very fond), from fear of becoming thia. 
They are not tall, but powerful men, and wear caps like tubes doged at 
the top, with thick wavy glossy hair, parted in the middle, and tamed 
back over the ears. I asked them about their families, and found that 
Muhammad Khka was engaged, but not married. He was to have be^ 
married in about a fortnight, when the last battle took place. He ia 
about twenty-six, and his brother twenty, although he looka like a maa 
between forty and fifty. G. was so surprised at hearing hia age, he oonJd 
hardly forbear laughing. 

I omered the necklace to Muhammad Khan for his intended l»ide, whom 
he expects to join him, the brooch to Shah Muhammad for his wife, and 
the earrings to the fat Ylir Muhammad, as an encouragement to him to 
to marry. The idea seemed to divert him extremely. The chief Amir 
held out his hand to his kinsmen, to examine their presents, and then 
made me a speech, saying, that his gratitude was not transitorTt hut 
would last as long as his life, and quoted a Persian verse to this ef^t : — 
*' I have made a covenant with my beloved Mends, that our friendship 
shall last while the soul remains m the body/' — ^this was quite in the 
style of Canning's heroine — ** A sudden tiiought strikes me, let us swear 
eternal Mendship." So here I am, the sworn mend of a Sind Amir. I had 
a strong inclination to laugh, but it wovild have been monstrous to hxn 
done so ; so I expressed the gratification I really felt at their receptioii of 
a small mark of kindness. 

It would be difficult to give you an idea of their high-bred eourteons 
manner. I asked them for their aut^aphs, which they each gai» me^ 
and in return requested mine, which I wrote on three sheets of papevi 
and added one of those pretty little eoloured wafers with our arms, the 
meaning of which Dr. C. expounded to them. They had had long e«n- 
versations with my husband previously, and were pleased at heari^ that 
he and Colonel Outram were Mends. We showed them Akbar EJiin's 
letter, which the chief Am^Li*ead in the melodious chanting way used by 
the Arabs and Persians, stopping every now and then with his eyes and 
mouth beaming with humour, at some outrageously barefaced ezpresBi0n 
of afSBction from such a personage. I have seldom seen a finer or man 
expressive face, — ^when quiet, it has a strong tinge of mebnoholj, but 
lights up with feeling and wit, so as almost to tell you what he is siqFing 
before the interpreter can repeat it. 

When we departed, two of the Amirs came out to see us eSL Hhsf 
were all dressed in close-fitting jackets of red, green, or blacky with goid 
lace, a flowing '*sark" with wide sleeves appearing beneath, and wide 
trousers. 

Our road still lay through a deep sandy plain, and on Tuesday, Jasnary 
12th, 1847, we passed the S6n riv^ : Son means gold, whieh is found m 
its sands. The said sands are three miles across. We took three pair of 
bullocks to our b'ght carriage. I believe this immense bed is aometini|BS 
full in the rainy season : as it was, we were three hours in traversing it 
We lorded one stream of 150, and another of about 200 yards wide, aad 
the refreshment of the breeze blowing over the dear waters is lade- 
Bcribable, after the heat and gLare of the sand. Carts with oxen, nm 
and women with ehildren on tneir hips and shoulders, were fordmg^it 
likewise. At last we came to the mam stream, where the caniage w« 
pushed into, or rather on to a, boat, covered with a platform of bambooi 
and earth, in which we were fended over. On a large island or ia&mns 
was jijiuiaeroaM oaniyui of inlgrima from Ben&xety the varied groups el 



VAXIYE HUKTSICAN. 23 

persons in the gayest tints, the pilgrim's oolonr, yellow, predominating : 
the equally gaadv natire palkis and carnages, with carta and oxen 
intemuxed, formed a picture like one of Horace Yernet's in the desert. 
Some of the pilgrims were fording the riyer at a little distonce, and 
iDsny were waiting on the shore where we landed. Our bearers reflolyed 
thenifielTes into the Tery cube roots of men while on board : it is impos- 
sible to ooneeiye the way in which they contract thMnselyes into the 
amallest possible space. Most of the pilgrims were armed, and we after- 
wards met many carrying the so-called holy water of the Ganges, in 
Taaes along across their shoulders on each end of a bamboo, and adorned 
with little red flags. We were hot and very weary, for it was very 
Jste when we reached Dekri Bung^ow. The aloes between it and the 
jiTer-side were as dusty as if they had been shut up in a lumber-room 
for tlie last twenty years. 

Wednesday, January 13th. — ^This morning we stopped at Mohanniah 
for dinner, and wrote our journals. A natiye huntsman came in to sell 
same teal : his gun was a yery long matchlock, spliced together with 
bands of grass. There were delightful green crops of wheat yisible 
to-day. that refreshed our eyes : ana it has become so much cooler, that 
we fma it difficult to keep ourselyes warm at night. We saw a Hock of 
imtty knur-taHed paroquets. About dawn we reached the Ganges, which 
we croBsea in a wide boat like those on the Son, and arriyed at Major C.'s 
house about seyen o'ekok. On our way we saw a man with his beard 
stained red with hcBBa. 

Thursday, January 14th. — The young Bajah of Yizig^p^tam called : 
htB is about twenty, wad yery handsome (which he knows), with a i)each- 
Hke bloom on his cheeks which any woman might enyy ; but he has a 
Ticant ezpressicm, and will probably become yery fat. He has lately lost 
kis father, who had liyed m Benares for the last ten years, and the 
Ckyyemment has requested the young Rajah to return to his dominions, 
snd manage as much of his own aSairs as they haye left in his power. 
He has been yery carefully brought up by an English tutor: speaks 
Engliwh perfectly. His mother, a yery beautiful woman, liyed at enmity 
witia her husband, and eyen separated from him. The old Rajah caused 
Ms own death by starying himself for fifteen days to cure a boil. When 
the B^ni found that her husband was dying, she came with a young 
-eoBsin, a yery handsome girl, to Major C. one morning at dawn, to 
csntreat him to reeoncile her to the Rajah, on account of the disgrace it 
would be to her should he die before this was done. He went with them 
in the same carriage (a thing unheard of), but the poor prince was insen- 
sibie. The B^mS mis beoome a Boiragin or religious deyotee; — the word 
expresses one who is without passions. She cannot leaye the hol:^ city, 
has laid aside all her jewels, and sees no one but her son and her female 
attendants. The young Rajah came to-day to get money to marry the 
said coudn, who is betrothed to a natiye prince. He wore a dose-fitting 
shawl dress (chapksm— much like the Afghan garb), ^yide trousers of 
doth of gold, and a i>eeiiliar eap of silyer, like a Greek cap, worn only by 
hk Ismily. lie droye away in a buggy I A Rajah in a buggy ! He is a 
&st*nite billiard player. 

A yeiy pleasing young German, Count yon Goertz of Hesse Cassel,. 
sniyed thai morning; and late in the eyening, Count de Blacas and 
Count Nioolay, the two French Carlist gentlemen we met at Calcutta. 

Friday, January 15th. — C. produced some gun cotton just as the Kurg 
Rsjah mnriyed. He is a small man, with an aquiline nose, and was 
dzmed in straw-eoloured satin, with a small muslin turban on. ld%VL^<^ 
•sad> iDMgai&oeiDt neeklaoe o£ emeralds and peac\&*. \u^ ^^\j^ is:) 



24 KUBG- BAJAH.— BEHADBBING. 

hnsband with a degree of cordiality which rather surprised me, consr- 
dering that their first acquaintance was at the taking oi £urg. As soon 
as he was seated, we proceeded with our experiments, and I exploded a 
little bit of cotton on the palm of his hand. He had kindly brought the 
jewels of the Einl to show me, and he came with us into the drawing- 
room, where he dressed Marina's head with them in a style which made 
us suspect he was in the habit of dressing his wife, so artistic were his 
proceedings. There was a most queenly head ornament, consisting of a 
Band of jewels, from which rose a diamond star, seTcral other bands of 
gold and jewels depending oyer the back of the head, with strings and 
tassels of pearls and emeralds for mixing with the hair which hangs down 
the back ; magnificent pearl earrings, and no less than four collars and 
necklaces, put on one oyer the other, a splendid zone of gold, set witii 
diamonds, emeralds, and rubies, and equally fine bracelets and armlete. 
His own state ornaments consisted of a double row of the finest pearls 
supporting a large emerald, which was the most yaluable of all. 

Saturday, January 16th, 1847. — ^We started soon after gun-fire (dawn), 
and droye to the city, where we mounted the elephants. Major G. and I 
were on one belonging to one of the Delhi royal family, with a silyer 
howdah ; but the pad worn into holes, a curious contrast. MM. de 
Blacas and de Nicolay were on a pad, a kind of saddle. The Kurg Kajah 
had a hunting howdah, in which, though it is contrary to etiquette for 
natiyes of rank to haye any one with them on an elephant, he took Count 
Yon Goertz, and my husband occupied the seat behind them ; and, such 
was the Eajah's politeness, that he wanted to take that place hiinself. 
The elephant is made to kneel, and the rider motmts by a ladder ; the 
huge creature then raises himself on his fore legs, and you are thrown 
backwards ; he then raises his hind legs, and you are thrown forwards, as 
if you were riding on a huge waye of the sea. When once mounted, the 
motion is yery easy, and the height placed us on a leyel with the first 
stories of the houses, so that I spied into the rooms, and curious little 
pigeon-holes most of them were. 

We were attended by three Saw^rs (horsemen) belonging to the 
Agency, and diyers men on foot preceded us, clearing the way. One of 
them, in a yery gaudy dress of blue and yellow, with a crimson turban^ 
and sword in hand, in the service of one of tbe princes who 'lent us the 
elephants, was the most perfect specimen of a Beh^dering official I have 
yet seen. Behadering is an indispensable word to express the demeanour 
of many men and horses in this country. It means consequential, swag- 
gering, and theatrical, with a great aJSectation of dignity ; and implies 
that the man or horse in question is in gorgeous array and making a luss* 
In its pi^oper sense the word is a title, and is applied to any gaUant 
soldier. Thus, Haider Ali is always spoken of in tne Gamatic as Haider 
Bah^dar. The saw^rs (of whom I haye since sketched one) were yerv 
picturesque, clothed in green and scarlet, witji their long spears in hand. 
The streets are so narrow, that there was just room enough for one 
elephant to pass. I wish I could giye you an adequate idea of the pio- 
turesqueness of our whole morning tour. The shops are mostly under 
arcades, with curiously caryed pillai's, painted, as are many of the houses* 
deep red. Some of these dwellings are yery fine, with handsomely oarved 
balconies ; and, wedged in among the houses, are numerous small temples 
and shrines called Shew^Uahs, built and endowed by any one who has a 
deyotion for a particular idol, as a Romanist would do for his patron 
saint. The elephants stopped, we descended, and, walking along a very 
narrow passage, we found ourselyes in a small oblong hall, with Taultea- 
Too4 open at me top, supported by pillara on. aUL udfts^ and approadwd by 



yisseshWab temple in benabes. 25 

ihree or four steps. A curious shaped stone was in the centre, on which 
erowds were successiyely x>ouring water and throwing flowers and grains 
of rice : — ^this was the Temple and Altar of Maha Deo, the chief God of 
Benares. Many fine young sep^his, in their ordinary dress, hut easily 
known by their carriage and neight, were bringing their offering of 
grains of rice and drops of water. Some old Brahmans met us, and 
wowed us everything with the greatest obsequiousness. They brought 
ns wreaths of strongly-scented white and yellow flowers, which, how- 
ever, I carefully avoided putting on my neck, thinking it might look like 
a homage to the Sh^tan of the place. I therefore put it on my arm ; but 
a Brahman soon came and took it away, lest one of the sacred oxen, who 
were marching about the temple, should snatch it, and poke me at the 
same time. On the right-hand side was a smaU dark apartment, con« 
taining a silver tank offered by some Kajah to this shrine. The devout 
prince fllled it with rupees, gold mohars, and precious stones to an im- 
mense amount. It is under the i^roteotion of the Agency. 

The name of this temple (which is the most venerated in Benares) is 
Bisseshwar or Visseshwar. Crossing the little court, which was very 
splashy from the quantity of libations poured out, we ascended a very 
narrow staircase, up which no stout person could go, to what might be 
called the leads of the temple. Here were three quadrilateral domes close 
together, which are being gilded from money left by Ranjit Sing. Im- 
mense sums were sent with a portion of his ashes to various temples, and 
amongst others to this one. The temple is very small in comparison to 
European places of worship. On descending, we were led along a curious 
passage full of images and altars like the flrst (the whole having much 
the appearance of the entry to a museum of antiquities), — to a well in 
which, when the former temple was desecrated by the Miihammadans 
under Aurangzeb, the god took refuge. It is surrounded by a railing, and 
offerings of flowers, water, and rice are continually thrown down to pro- 
pitiate the helpless divinity. The odour of sanctity of Hindu Mythology 
is not more agreeable to the olfactory nerves ti^an that of the Eomish 
begging fraternities— so we quickly left the spot. The Brahmans seem in 
no way different in dress from their countrymen, except that all of those 
in the tepiple had their heads and beards partially shaved. Most of them 
wore red mantles. The remains of the former temple were very fine. On 
its ruins Aurangzeb built a mosque, which we proceeded to visit ; and, 
coming from the idol temple, I felt a relief, and even an emotion of sym- 
pathy with the simple building we entered, where, at least, there was 
nothing outward and visible to dishonour the Most High. The only thing 
which it contained was a raised place for the mullah to preach from. We 
went up one of the minarets, a toilsome undertaking, for which we were 
rewarded by a magnificent view of the stately river, the fiat- roofed pic- 
turesque city interspersed with trees, and immediately beneath us fiocks 
of the sacred blue pigeon, which always haunts a mosque, while divers 
pretty long-tailed paroquets had perched themselves on the smaller pin- 
nacles. This was the most thoroughly Eastern city I had yet beheld : after 
enjoying the view for some time we descended, and went to see a curious 
observatory built by a Rajah learned in astronomy, Jai Sing by name. 
. I was astonished to find we were admitted everywhere without the 
smallest difficulty. Mussulmans are not permitted to enter the Vissesh- 
war Temple ; but the Hindus acknowledge that our religion is very good 
and tmie for us, so they are as liberal as some members of parliament. 
This observatory has a representation of the planetary sjrstem, which 
would astonish Sir John Herschel. A huge block of stone in th^ <^^\^\^ 
of a circle represents the highest mountain in the ^otV^l, Ai^cv^ ^^slOck. S^s^^ 



26 ICTA— THS GHAT. 

is supposed to rest upon an elephant^ wbicii again rests upon a tortoise 
aocording to some, upon a serpent according to others. I begged to know 
upon what the tortoise stood. The pandit, who was our guide, said, '* Oltk 
these are all mya (illusions). Everything is an illusion. Bramk it 
dreaming, and sees all these things in his dream. He sees jon all coming 
b^e." G. squeezed the pandit's little finger, and asked if that was aa 
illusion. He said yes. He pinched him harder ; but, though he made a 
hideous grimace, at which the bystanders laughed, the imperturbable man 
still answered that it was all mya. C. then said, "If all is mya, how do 
you know that I am not the Brahman and you the Feringhi ? Some of 
the Brahmans teach this doctrine, others that everything is an emanation 
from Brahm — gods, men, animals, and all are parts of him, and will be 
ultimately absorbed in lus essence. How a part of Bramh ^or, as they 
pronounce it, Brum) can do evil they do not explain. The Hindu system 
IS more one of philosophy than of religion : it professes to account foe 
everything. The learned are all atheists, pantheists, or idealists, while 
the poorer sa^^, as many gods so many religions ; and believe that a 
change of fashion in this matter occurs every now and then, when a new 
faith is revealed. 

We descended an immense pyramidical flight of steps to the river. 
The top of this ghat was overnung[ with trees : and the groups of our 
numerous partv were worth sketching as they stood on it. A fine boat^ 
with two wooden horses at the bow, and many arm-chairs under vol 
awning, awaited us. It belonged to the Eajah of Benares. The rowers 
all sat on deck and pulled in a curious fashion. No panorama was ever 
more striking than that which now passed before our eyes. The euriow 
buildings, elaborately carved temples, the ghat on which dead bodies are 
burnt, uie numerous and many-coloured groups of bathers, and even a 
part of the road which was to have been supported on ardies, but has 
sunk into the water from the effects of an earthquake, all added to tiie 
pictorial effect of the scene. 

On landing we remounted our elephants, and the sun beginning to be 
felt, the indefatigable swordsman who rode behind me, and who had been 
running after me with an umbrella wherever I went, unfolded a Eoperb 
ehatta or parasol of velvet and gold, with a silver stick, whiol^ he lield 
over my head. The shops were getting full. 

We went to a house considered one of the finest in Benlures, but now 
rather dilapidated, the master of which conducted us over it. It was of 
three stories, built around a small court with a balcony overlooking the 
same at each story; the carving of the balccmy and of the balustrades was 
beautiful. One side of the house, divided from the rest by the pardahh 
(or veil), is appropriated to the women. Here no men enter but the mas- 
ter of the house (whose private apartments are within it), his sons and 
brothers. The women fL^ at our approach, but a ^up of merry ^irk 
and children filled up the window of the latticed partition, which divided 
off their share of the roof, and gazed at us with much curiosity. In the 
hot weather the natives sleep much on the roo£s. We saw the state room 
where visitors are received, and family ceremonies take place ; it is di« 
vided across the middle by a row of columns : none of the rooms were 
high. We next went to a very shabby entranee in another house, up a 
narrow stair into a low room lit by a square opening in the roof like uie 
apartments at Pompeii. This was the house of one of the richest mam- 
uicturers at Benares. Half of the room was raised one step. Here we 
sat while bales of the most magnificent geld and silver stuffii, called kin*- 
kob, were unrolled before us. I do not suppose any European brooadee 
eguMi tbem. They are used by the natiTes for trousers^ but are almost 



aiTASA SAJAH. 27 

too^ heavy for any articles of Earopean dress, unless it were for court 
trains, bome of the muslins spotted, with gold, and mnslin shawls and 
Mar£i with gold and silver borders for about thirty rupees were beautifoL 
MIL de Nicolay and de Blacas having selected those which they wished 
to have brought to the house, the merchant offered us spices in a little 
jilver sanoer, and att& of roses, into which we each dipped a iing^er. We 
then remounted our elephants and soon rejoined the carriages, in which 
we drove home. 

On our way we met a party of Ghurka soldiers belonging to the Rajah 
of KipH who is just aznved here. They were short, square men witn a 
Chinese or Tartar look, high cheek bones, and small eyes: each wore a 
CDzioiDa silver ornament in his turban, something like a heart with the 
point upwards. 

After tiffin the Sat&ra Bajah came to pay a visit. He has lately been 
deposed by us, owing to a series of forgeries in his name, and has been 
oondemned unheard. My husband's opmion is that the Rajah did enter 
into some prohibited intrigues, but by no means to the extent asserted by 
his enemies* and that, bom in our public and private dealings with tlie 
nativee, even-handed justice requires that we should moke the same 
allowance for deceit and intrigue in them that we do in Europe for an 
awkward manner, or an ill-shapen nose ; the one is as natural and (\diile 
they continue heathen) as unavoidable as the other. We should take no- 
tioe of none but overt acts and imminent treachery. 

The Rajah ia the representative of Sivajl, the great Mahratta conqueror ; 
he ifl a very small man, and was dreflsod in tight muslin trousers, and a 
short tranju>arent muslin tunic ; dippers very wide at the toes, like those 
of Henry YlIL, a pearl and emerald necklace, small white turban with 
eanings, and a red spot on his forehead lowing that he had performed 
p€ga (worship^ to Krishna, that morning. He came on an elephant smoking 
his hiiqa, and attended only by a few horsemen and marshalmen, but 
his Sawui, or cortege, arrived soon after him. Every one belonging to 
the R%jah was present. There were two or three small guns, then divers 
elephants^ bearing the different membt^s of his feunily, among them his 
ad^ited son, a little bov of perhaps ten years old, and his little grand- 
ehiM, a girl of four. The Mahrattas are almost the only people who show 
their female children in public ; they also intermarry with Miihamma- 
dans, as the Rajputs did in Akbar's time. Then came a troop of horse, 
Hiany of them dressed like gru^urdsmen, with short red jackets and white 
trousers : aaaie with muskets, some with lances, some on horses, some on 
ponies, some in one colour, some in another, carriages of all sorts, palkl« 
gftils, and even a child's carriage, dosed the procession ; in the midst of 
which appeared several of thdr once dreaded standards, some foot sd- 
dimrs, ana military music, the predominant part of which were the kettle- 
drums, which, as a s^rmbol of sovereignty, were beaten with redoubled 
fury as l^y passed their Prince. The Rajah waved his hand and an old 
man alighted &om Ma horse, who fixing his eyes on me (just as if I under- 
stood him), and raising his arm, began to shout the glories of Slvaji, the 
founder of the Mahratta monarchy. I looked very attentive, and after a 
time the Rigah signed to the old bard to finish. 

On re-entering the house I asked my husband to tell the Rajah how 
pleased I was with the Sawari, and how much 1 admired his little grand- 
ehildt whereupon he asked me to come and see the Ranis. The Rajah is a 
very exdtable, vivadous, intelligent old man, very quick and active in 
all his movemenfcs. and incessanU3r eating some spices wrapped in green 
leaves (^called Fan), which the native? are very fond of, and which stains 
the inside of the mouth a bright red. 



28 BBNABES SCHOOL. 

Monday, January 18th.—- "We were up early, and drove with Miss IL 
and Count Goertz to see the Free School, where the missionary, Mr. 
Sandhergr, and the master, Mr. Maekay, met us. This school was founded 
by a Hindu upwards of twenty years ago, and placed under the Church 
Missionary Society. It has about 300 pupils, who learn Hindiistam, 
Persian, Sangskrit, Beng§.li, or English, as they choose. "We were first 
led round ike school, wnich is held in one laree hall; in »cnneof the 
classes I was astonished to see bearded men, fathers of families, as they 
told me. These were Brahmen who consider it honourable to continue 
always learning, even though " never able to come to the truth.*' The 
Enghsh class was then called forward, and read the third chapter of John. 
My husband questioned them on it ; they did not answer particularly well 
on doctrine, out when Mr. Sandberg examined them, they showed an 
excellent knowledge of the facts of the Bible, and found out passages to 
prove particular points, such as the divinity of our Lord, as well as any 
Do^s in England could have done. They then answered ver^ satisfao* 
torily in Eoman and English history, and in mathematics ; during which 
time I cross-examined Mr. Maekay as to the method of teaching and its 
results. Until lately he was single-handed in the work. All me boys 
read the New Testament, and religious instruction is given them almost 
entirely by word of mouth. Those boys who do not learn English are 
taught almost everything in the same manner, by short lectures, owin^ 
to the want of books in tiie native languages. The main defect in this 
school seems to be, that so small a number of the pupils learn English, in 
which language alone tbey could receive a thoroughly good education. 
All the Persian and Muhammadan books contain fierce attacks on Chris- 
tianitv, either in Ihe preface or volume itself; the Persian scholars are, 
therefore, the most inimical to Christianity, and are incapable of reading 
works of a different tendencv, from their ignorance of the English. Mr. 
Sandberggives lectures in Urdu, which I found to be identical with Hin- 
dustani (Urdu means camp\ on the first principles of physical sdenoe^ 
which are attended by numbers of people in the neighbouniood ; and all 
the boys have free access to the library of English books, of which many 
gladly avail themselves. Not one conversion has even taken place in this 
school, though some who have been impressed with tiie truth they have 
heard there, have afterwards professed themselves Christians in otha 
places. 

Ben^es offers peculiar obstacles to any who wish to become oonyerts, 
the city bein? the sacred capit-al of Hinduism and the very focus of fanati* 
oism. The first four boys in the English class profess themselves con- 
vinced of the truth of Christianity ; so did the teachers of the Hindustani 
dass, the boys of which answered extremely well on a chapter in the New 
Testament, but they go no further. Now this, be it remembered^ is the 
state of mind of almost idl the pupils of the Free Church College in Cal- 
cutta, besides which t?iey have an increasing band of converts. "Where 
most fruit appears, there, I think, we may justly conclude is the best 
manner of sowing the seed. 

Leaving the school, we drove to Slgr4, where Mr. Leupolt, of the Church 
Missionary Society, is at the head of a male and female orphan school 
and Christian village formed thereupon. "We visited both ; the boys did 
not answer very well, when questioned as to salvation by g^race and not 
by works ; but this might be partly from shyness and from imperfect use 
ox English, for thev seemed very intelligent and appeared to understand 
my husband's explanation. They answered well in geography; and in 
the school-book of one of the elder pupils ("Chambers on Ph^Bioal 
Bdence*'), I found a neat little paper book, in wMck was the definition^ 



FBUALB EDUCATION. 29 

and flometiines the Hindustani translation of eyerv difficult word in the 
nait that he had read. They are taught carpet-maiking ; all they earn is 
ueir own, and as soon as thev can support themselves thex are allowed 
to marry ; tiliey thus form a Goristian yulage. A pretty church has just 
been bmlt^ in which the Liturgy in Hindustani is read. 

We -visited the carpet manufactory and the dyeings rooms. After 
hreakfiuBt and family prayers we went to see the girls' school : they were 
at work, and. do both plain work and knitting extremely well. The 
education consists of reading and workine, religious insfaruction, and a 
little geography. This appears to be the prevalent system in most 
missions^ except those of the Free Eirk. I am inclined to think that in 
the present weak state of the church in India, every convert ought to be 
fitted as far as possible for conveying the knowledge of the Grospel to 
others. No one can deny that a body of Christian women of disciplined 
minds, thoroughly acquainted with Christian doctrine and evidences, 
woold do better service to God and the infant churches, both as wives, 
mothers, and neijorhbonrs, than such as can barely read and write. Ma- 
hendra's widow is an example of this; she was an excellent teacher. 
Anna, the widow of EoiHs, has now charge of a native class of day 
scholars under Miss Laing's eye ; and Marian, the senior pupil of Miss 
Lfdng's institution, who is now (1860) the wife of Jagadishwar, has 
opened a school at Bansberia, which, two months after, was attended by 
nineteen girls, from four to ten years of age, and which she conducte 
without the aid of any one. From the orphan school here they have, we 
are told, already two or three catechists of telent and piety. 

Tuesday, January 19th. — One of Major C.'s Saw^rs came to be sketehed. 
I sat in the verandah and drew him : I found the horse so difficult tiiat 
he reminded me of ihe enfant difficile a bapttserJ I forgot to teU you 
that story of Mr. Cameron s. A certain priest in Canada, being somewhat 
intoxicated, could by no means find the proper place in the Missal, when 
called on to baptize a child. In vain he fumbled over the leaves, imtil 
at last, losing all patience, he cried, " Je n*ai jamais vu un enfant si 
difficile d baptiser, 

vTednesday, January 20th. — Major C. came to ask me to draw a Niplil 
Birdir; two were with him, and he wanted to get rid of one that he 
might have some private conversation with the other, for there has lately 
been a terrible massacre in Nip^l, about forty of the chief nobles being 
slain in open Darbar. The youth I was led to draw is brother of Jung 
Bahl^dar, the present Prime Minister of Nipal, and was art and part in 
the massacre. Karrak Bah^ar is a finely made youn^ man, with beauti- 
fully-diaped arms and hands ; when in repose, his face had rather an 
indolent sentimental expression : but such a wild eye ! just like a pan- 
tiier^s. He wore a small brocade turban, with the usual heart or shield- 
shaped ornament in it made of gold, a scarlet jacket, with gold lace and 
epaulettes, the sleeves reaching only to a short distence above the elbow, 
and trimmed with dark fur, beneath which appeared the tig:ht muslin 
sleeves of a kind of " sark," reaching to his knee. He had tight white 
silk trousers, white stockings and slippers, and a sword in his hand. 

C.'s b&bii translated my admiration of his dress, which seemed to 
please the youth not a little ; but had I known then of his evil deeds, I 
would not nave said a word to him. Afterwards, the old sirdlir came to 
be drawn, a fine sagacious old man, who, being of the losing party, is not 
sure of his life from day to day, ana whom Eharrak Bah^ar would be the 
first to attack. Major C. has been trying to persuade him not to return 
to Nip&l, but in vain. He wore a tunic of cloth of gold, and a white 
shirt-like thing underneath it, shawl trousers, no Bto^sm^^^ ^^\ ^ ^tsa^ 



30 THS BAirXS. — JL PUBBAB. 

wbite torban. His eword was a beautiful Ehori^ui blade, the hilt finely 
w<Hrked in iron and inlaid witibigold. 

After tiffi^ 0. and I, Oonnt (roertz, and ilie two ^oung ladies, set foH3i 
on our Tisit to the Sattara Banis ; the £aiah sent ms own eoacfaman and 
Seises for ns. We three ladies were ushered into a room quite bare of 
fnmiture, where the Kajah sat smoking: his huq^, in a common wooden 
arm-chair, three similar ones being set at his right hand for us. A xezai 
(quilt) was then thrown oyer his chair, I suppose to make it soft. He 
shook hands with us, and haying seated us, went to the door to look after 
the gentlemen, his huqii-bearer running after him. In a few minutes he 
tock me by the hand, or rather by the wrist, as you would lead a naughty 
child, ana conducted us through one or two low rooms with curtains 
instead of doors, to a mean apartment, long, low, and dark, where the 
Banis sat. One of them we were desired not to approach or touch ; the 
other, and the Rajah's daughter, shook hands witn us, and placed us in 
chairs by her side : two other ladies sat on the othar side of toe room like 
Ufi, close to the wall. 

M. speaks Hindustani very imperfectly, therefore we oould not say 
much. The Rajah left us, and I admired the drees of tlie ladies, which 
consisted of a yerj short red jaisket widi short sleeyes, armlets, braceieiaL 
and a nose ring, chiefly of pearls ; a red drapery, embroidered or sprigged 
with ^Id, enyeloped toe wnole person. The attendants (one of them, a 
Tery nne-looking woman) wore a cloth, put on just like the bearers, ieay*- 
ing the right leg exposed to the knee, and a yery handsome stout limb 
it was. 

The Rajah's daughter was small and not handsome, but had a very 
I^easant expression. She, and the other ladies, seemed pleased and 
amused at my praise of their dress and jewels, and tiie poor untouchabla 
one opened her yeil, and showed us her jacket, which was cloth of gold. 

Wreaths and bracelets of the double white Indian jessamine were brought, 
and thrown oyer our necks and arms, a pretty and poetical mode of wel- 
come, then six trays of fruit, barley si^rar, &c., were laid at our feet, we 
ate a little, but did not take any fruit, not knowing what it might be 
proper or improper to do with Hie peel, as there were no plates. One of 
the door curtains was lowered, ana a band stationed behind it ; a singing 
woman, with stiff outstanding petticoats of red and gold, was introduoe£ 
Her singiog was to me almost inaudible, and her dancing consisted of 
adyancin^ and retreating a few steps, holding her left arm akimbo, and 
gently twirling her right hand in the air, as if on a piyot. Two female 
servants, with bundles of peacock's feathers (which are emblems of 
royalty), stood by each of the two principal Ranis, and whisked these 
brushes oyer their heads. A good many other damsels, and some of the 
servants and children, lined the lower part of the room, most of whom 
suddenly retreated when the old Rajah returned. All the ladies remained 
standing in his presence; his daughter put spices and almonds in our 
hands, and when we had praised her little cnild, we shook hands and 
bowed. 

The Rajah led me down some steps through an odd little garden, con- 
sisting of divers little courts, to the door of his hall of audience ! there we 
peeped through the screen, till the Rajah perhaps reflecting that we must 
he already more visible to those within, than they could be to us, ordered 
the screen to be raised, and ushered us into his Darb4r. 

This was a long apartment supported on small columns, a large throne 
or seat for the Rajah was at the upper end, on the right hand of whioh 
were some cushions on the ground for the little princes of his own fSoLinily, 
while in two towb, the whole length of the zoom, close by the walls, sat 



HATITX COICHKAN. 3L 

the fidthfol Sird&n' snd other Mahrattas, who had followed their aove- 
rogn in his adyersity. I reocMrnised all who appeared in the Saw&ri the 
other day. They aat on their heels, C, like an adept, cross legged, Gonnt 
Ooertz as best he could, both on the floor, while wreaths were brought* 
which the B&jah threw oyer their shoulders and arms, and which looked 
TBry pretty on the red jacket— the Bajah then gave them spices, and 
Baunedto us. 

The whole Darb6r stared at us with profound attention. The little diild 
ga^e me her hand, and the Rajah reconducted us through the gaiden, and 
we then sent for the goatlemen to rejoin us. 

While waiting, the amall thing, which has magnificent black eyes, and 
a little rnqolline nose, and was dressed in light muslin trousers, and short 
ooat of the same, with a kind of Greek cap of silver and ^Id on its head* 
its hair hanging in one plait down its back, clenched its toes as if tiiey 
were fingers, making in fact a little fist of its foot : this shows how elastic 
and supple the people in this country are. 

P6n, ue, little gieen packets of leaves, inside which is a kind of seed, 
mixed wit^ powdered lime, was brought to us with the spices. The 
nativei diew this, leaf and all : it dyes the mouth a bright red colour* 
and has a very pungent taste. Came home much pleased with our visit. 
Th» trays of £ruit were sent after us : we touched them in token of acoept- 
aaee, and they were then given to the servants. 

The Hindufiftani Sepahis are very fine men, much taller than the English 
M^diers, but not so s^xmgiy made : they chiefiy come ^m Oude, or the 
Upper Provinoes. It was beautiful to see them run when skirmishing* 
mBj are so light and active. They are dressed very much like European 
tro^s, and wear no beards, but as much whisker and moustache as they 
like, or, as Oarlyle woula say, *' according to faculty." They have a 
ooUar of large white beads, instead of a stock, while the native officers 
wear necklaces of gold knobs. The review began soon after seven. 

When-tiie young Rajah of Yizigapatam was here the other day, 0. 
showed him mjr sketch of the Nip41 Sirdars, and asked him if he would 
like to sit for ms portrait. He confessed that his prejudices would not 
allow him to do so : his English education, without religion, does not 
seem to have d<me him much good. He has not the least wish to visit 
Europe. 

Monday, January 25th. — It rained, and for the first time I perceived 
liiat the compound was not one unvaried mass of sand, but that port was 
in grass* The tarees changed from brown to green, and the landscape was 
wonderfully improved. The trees here are generally protected when 
young by an embankment of earth about four feet high, so that when 
they become large trees, they grow from the top of small hillocks. 

iSiesday, January 26th. — We left about ten p.m., having sent the palki 
on in the morning. The Rajah of Benares kindly laid a dik of his own 
horses for us, as far as Groplganj, thirty- six miles, on our way to Alla- 
hihad. The same coachman drove us the whole way, the Rajah lending 
both him and the Brischkah ; we of course rewarding his people. He was 
a queer little man, in close jacket and trousers, the former red, the latter 
blue with broad red stripe ; a turban, over which he had wrapped a white 
cloth, made his head and shoulders look too heavy for his little legs, and 
over all, while the rain continued, he wore a kind of thick horse-cloth, which 
covered him from head to foot. He got down at each stage, and ^vely 
loclLed on whilst the Seises put the horses to, which they did with great 
caution and dexterity, as the country horses are almost all vicious. This 
was proved at our last stage, when one of the fresh pair threw himsdf 
down, and after much trouble we were obliged to take t\yb ionsiSiL ^^^ 



32 SCHOOL AT ALLAHABAD. 

on another stage. They testified their disapprobation of this arrange- 
ment, by stopping every five minutes, so that it was more owing to the 
Seises, who as usual ran alongside, than to them that we at length reached 
Goplganj, about half-nast four a.m. 

We met numbers oi Afghans with 'their long strings of camels. The 
whole wav was thronged with pilgrims and water-carriers, from Alia* 
h^bad (wnere the Ganges and Jamma join), and travellers of different 
kinds — a striking contrast to the quiet state of the road between Ben&res 
and Calcutta. We saw divers Faqlrs or Yogis covered with askes, one of 
them carrying a red umbrella, though he had no clothes. Crossed the 
Ganges about two p.m., by a very primitive but strong bridge of boate. 
A Sawar of Mr. Woodcock's, the magistrate, met us, and conducted ub 
over a deep sandy plain, through Allahabad, which is very prettily 
adorned with trees, to Mr. Wooocock's house, on our way to wnich we 
passed hedges of the milk plant, whose juice is a strong blister, yet the 
goats eat it greedilj. 

We were exceedingly tired and weak, having had nothing to eat since 
we left Ben^es but a small twist of bread between us three. It was, 
therefore, quite delightful to find ourselves in a most comfortable bung[a- 
low, bed- rooms, dressing-rooms, and bath, all ready for us. The kmt- 
madgars brought tea immediately, and our considerate host never ahow^ 
himself, but waited until, after some hours' rest. Miss M. and I thought 
proper to enter the drawing-room. We found a fire most comfortable. C. 
and Mr. Woodcock settled that we should remain here the night and over- 
take our palkls, by means of a horse-d^k, to-morrow. It was a great pity 
we could not remain longer at Allahabad, for it is a verjr interesting mis- 
sionary station, a branch of the American Presb^rian mission being esta^ 
blished here. The Government school (of which Mr. Woodcock, much 
against his conscience, as he says, was a committee-man) has been lately 
tninsferred to the charge of the mission, imder whom it prospers greaUy. 
The senior class, when examined the other day, after being omv two 
months under Christian instruction, showed an excellent knowledge of 
the meaning of the first chapter of St. John. The female schodi for 
orphans, under the same missionaries, is also very useful; they receive a 
higher kind of education than at the Church Missionary School at Benlires. 

There is a regular Hindustani Presbyterian Church here. Mr. Wood- 
cock said he thought an English education the only means of really edu* 
eating the natives, but that when that was given to the total neglect of 
the native languages (as it is in many cases), it in a great measure froa- 
trates its own end, by incapacitating the scholar from communicating hit 
knowledge freely to his countrymen. I remember Mr. Smith, of the 
Assembly Institution, told me that the boys write better essays in En^ish 
than in Bengal, although the Bengali is ;carefully taught in the Free 
Church Institution ; I must find out if this is the case in Government 
schools. Of course giving a man a thoroughly foreign education, without 
a simultaneous one in his mother-tongue, only isolates him from his 
countrymen. We agreed that the great fault of the Benares Free School 
is, that English is not taught to all. 

It can hardly be expected to Christianize the pupils when many of them 
are taught almost exclusively from Muhammaaan books. 

Thursday, 28th. — ^Again met numerous Afp:hlns, with their long strings 
of camels, some of them loaded with assafoetida. The oxen in this part of 
the country are magnificent ; in many of the carts five are used at once. 
We also saw some lovely birds, such as kingfishers, and quantities of 
yellow thistles, all of which, on a fine, clear, cool day, with a pretty 
country to drive through, were pleasant to behold. C. gave some oranges 



WALLBD TILLAGES— CAWirpt^^B 33 

to a respectable old man at one of the stations, who jumped off his horse 
(die usual mark of respeot with natives), and then told him the cause of 
the journey he was making, which was a dispute with an obstinate neigh- 
boar about a piece of lano, and as his stiff-necked opponent would not 
abide by the aeciwm of the village Panch^yat (court oi five arbitrators^, 
oar old friend was going to place the matter in the hands of the Zillan 
jodge. 

We passed several camps to-day and yesterday, and amongst them 
that 01 the 62nd Native Infantry. A Sep&hi camp is much more pic- 
toresqae tiian an European camp, on account of the shape of the tents and 
the pleasing groups. We reached Arampiir Bimgalow at half-past ten. 
We have two meals a day, one in the palkl of bread or biscuit, and some 
milk (if we can get it), and another somewhat more solicL at a bungalow. 
Chap&tls form the chief food of the people in this part of India ; rice is but 
UtUe used. The wheat crops are now about a foot hiirh, rather different 
from the state of things in England at this season. Ihey sow about the 
same time, in November, after the rains. We left Arampiir at midnight, 
and stopped the next day at Kalianp^r. While sitting over our tea 
and carry, C. and Miss M. suddenly flew to different doors of the bun- 
galow, ana left me wondering what was the matter. They had heard a 
most hideous bellowing, for no other name could be given it, but found it 
was a bride, who, on being taken home to her husband's house, thought 

S roper to make this extraordinary uproar, from a mistaken sense of 
ecorum. 

Do you remember the Scripture expression of " walled villages," a thing 
unknown to us ! Here we meet witb them constantly, and often all that 
is to be seen of a village by the road-side, is a long mud wall. Many, 
however (I suppose modem ones), are quite open, while the growth and 
size of the trees show that however the country may have been troubled 
by daooits (robbers), it is long since an invading army has laid it waste, 
or reduced its groves to the condition of most of those of Northern 
German]|r. llie contrast between the two struck me forcibljr. This 
oountrv is generally well wooded, and manv of the trees, especially the 
magnincent tamarind and the palms, are or great beauty. B^ni&ns are 
much rarer than in Bengal. There are large crops of dk\, a kind of vetch 
(the '* pulse" of Daniel and his companions) much eaten bv the natives, 
and also of the oil-plant ; so that the landscape is enlivened by the same 
sheets of brilliant yellow which we used to admire so much near Dresden. 
The village are remarkably clean, the raised places in front of the doors 
where the inhabitants chiefly sit are always swept, and poor as the huts 
are they do not look squalid. 

Fridav, January 29th. — We passed a temple with a large picture of 
Hanuman, the monkey deity, on the outer wall. It was much colder 
to-day. We did not reach Gawnpiir until ten at night, and then, owing 
to some mistake about a note, C. went over to Captain Troup's, while 
Miss M. and I sat in the palki, and afterwards in the verandah of the Bkk 
Bungalow, where we kept ourselves warm with mirth. At last C. returned 
with Major TrQup's palkig&rl, in which we drove to Mr. Speirs', through 
most curious ravines, haunted by jackals. In our way we saw a wolf at 
tiie entry of the town. C. and I were lodged in a double-poled tent, with 
separate divisions for dressing and bath-rooms ; but the cold was excessive 
at night. 

Saturday, January 30th. — They took us after breakfast to see the Pro- 
pagation Dodety Mission, that is, the female school belonging to it. It 
was founded after the dreadful famine of 1837» and contains abo\xt ^y&X»^ 
orphcui girls, who are instructed in English and Uindwat^coX \ \j\]l\»x^^^vh^ 



34 FBICALS OENAKEKTS ON THl TOES. 

a very limited educatioii, oonsistingr obiefly of Scripture knowledge and a 
little g^eography. Some of them speak a uttle fiindni as well, and a ftfw 
can r^ the three lans^xiages. Only two hours a day are deyoted to studj, 
the rest of their time is spent in fancy and plain work for sale, and m 
domestic duties, for tlieydo eyerything for tiiemselines except washing 
their clothes : most of them are nearly grown up. We saw their wofIL 
and heard them sing a Hindustani and an English hymn. They were au 
sitting on the floor in a large hall supported hy pillars. Here .the3r sleep : 
in the next room are their dining-taDles, little henches six inches high tai 
as many wide ; each girl has a brass plate and lot^ or drinking cup. 'S^ej 
grind their own meal and liye on cnap&tis, except in the hot weather, 
when they get a little rice, as chap&tis alone are too heating. 

We saw Mr. and Mrs. Perkins, who are at the hecul of this mission, and 
a fine boy of theirs of eleven years of age, as healthy and ruddy as possible^ 
though he has never left India. Mr. Perkins had a ouiet, suDdued« medc 
manner, and seems devoted to his labour. I believe nim to be one of tlie 
excellent of the earth. Majr God bless and prosper him and his wife in 
bringing many souls to Ghnst ! The school, however, reminded me too 
much of an English village school, where work is the grand thing in 
education, and faultless stitching is raised to the rank of a virtue. 

Monday, February 1st, I847.-7-C. went with Maj(Mr Troup to choose a 
horse. My husband's faithful Siis Baed^ah, who was with nim through- 
out the disasters in Afghinist^, suddenly made his appearance «& 
Saturday, the morning after our arrival. He is a tall, powerful man, with 
Tather a pensive expression. When he saw his old master, he ran up to 
him and embraced his thigh, tlie mark of respect and a£S^on paid hf 
disciples to their spiritual guides. 0. squeezed his shoulder, paUed him 
on the cheek, and said, ** Welcome, my Mend !" and the tears stood in 
tiie faithful man's eyes. 

The people are much better, and more gaily dothed, than in Benral; 
most of them have wadded jackets or pelisses, or a good rezai (quilQ to 
wrap round them. Some of the men wear yellow wadded trousers neaj:^ 
ti^t ; and many oarrr arms. . Most of the travellers have swords, and one 
pMsed us with a musket in a case of scarlet cloth. We have left behind us 
all the steep-roofed cottages of the lower country. The women fix silver 
ornaments like stars between their toes, which I suppose is the Hindu 
version of Ilfaut souffrirpaur etre belle. It is difficult to give on idea of 
the picturesque effect of many things that are very uninteresting on x>a^; 
for instance, the stately domes of Muhammadan tombs, rising in the midst 
of the vast plains, impress the mind with an indescribable ^ling c€ 
solemnity ; then an Afgnan passes, seated on his camel, and looldnglike 
a living representation of Jacob or Isaac ; or, late in the evening, in going 
through a village, we behold a ^^oup seated round a fire on osie of 1^ 
raised platforms under a tree, which are eo common here, and t^e flidcer- 
ing light on their many-ooloured garments forma a picture that one would 
like to draw. 



CHAPTER lY. 

AasA, Thubssay, Febbttakt 4th, 1647.— It was a cold clear day, like 
a March morning in England, when we approached Agra ; even the cattiB 
were all clothed, and I was amused at the sight of a poor littiie «alf in 
rags. Suddenly, about fiive miles from Igra, C. cried out that tiie TIj was in 
sight, and there, in the siidgt of the barren, niffged oountnr, with noliiiiig 
but tufts afdrygnoB and tSiistiLes to adorn ttie muidy puans and stony 



▲GBA—yrHE tIj BT ICOOKLiaHT. 35 

Tavines, appeared the Tkj like a fdiry palace in a desert, its dazzling white 
dome and minarets bathed in sunlig^ht. The effect was magical. It was 
often hidden as we pursued our way, but at each new vista it seemed more 
b^utiful. Buildings, some in ruins, some perfect, the remains of the age 
vhen the Muhammadan power had reached its height in the person of 
Akb&r, when Akb&rabad (the Muhammadan name for Agra) grew in 
beauty and magnifioence under the eye of her imperial founder, and when 
the great nobles of the Court yied with each other, as much in the splen^^ 
dour of their tombs as in their palaces. On the right, close to the rough 
bridge of boats, we saw the Mausoleum of Itimah-u-Doulah, the Yazir 
ofShah Jeh&n. 

We crossed the Jamna, and proceeded to Mr. Edmonstone's house. A 
torn in the road showed us tiie JPalki and Banghy Bard^s (Pittarreh ear- 
ners) in front-: they formed a very gay processien, with the yellow and pink 
<x>ver8 of tiie Pitarrehs, the yellow or green jackets, and red turbans oi the 
men. We passed the most beautiful snow-white cow I ever saw. She 
was folly sixteen hands high; and was led by three men, being, I conclude, 
as vioious as she was beautiful. Her stately walk, beautiful high caste 
heaid, and hi^ black eyes, reminded one of tho milk-white heifers that 
the G-reeks ofi^red to their gods. After dinner Mr. and Mrs. E. took us to 
flee the T^ by meonlieht. We alighted at a magnificent gateway, and 
bdifild this unequallea building at the end of an avenue of cypresses. 
The walk from the gate to the tomb is a quarter of a mile long. The Tkj 
stands in a garden enobsed by a quadrangular wall of red stone. Oppo- 
site the gateway is a quadrangle of white marble, from the four corners 
of which spring snow-white minarets, and in the centre, raised on a 
stately terrace, is the pure noble dome of the T^j itself. At the back runs 
a terrace overlooking the Jamna — on cither hand is a fine mosque of red 
stone, but no description can give any idea of the wondrous beauty of this 
m'^tri^nlftftw monument. No building that I have ever seen comes near it 
except the Cathedral of Cologne. St. Peter's is not to be named in the 
same breath as regards the exterior. Its exquisite symmetry, its spotless 
oolonr. looking as if it were carved in snow, and its lovely situation 
(seoluaed in the midst of a stately garden, full of trees, flowers, fountains, 
and payed walks), make the l%j more like a vision of beauty than a 
reality. The sight of it makes one's chest expand and one's heart swell : 
it almost lifts one off the earth. C. put his plaid on the steps of the beau- 
tiful summer-house, on the right-hand side of the T§j, and there I sat to 
ieast my eyes by gazing on it. It was nearly midnight when we reached 
home. 

Friday, February 6th. — At four p.m. drove to Sekandra, where the 
Chnrcdi Missionary Society have a school for orphans of both sexes. We 
saw only tiiat for sdrls : they were busilv employed in works of different 
lands. Knitting ana plaiting straw, but there was no teacher present. The 
boys work at a printing-press. I sketched the gatewav of red stone, 
roofed with deep olue, green, and gold-coloured tiles, wnich now forms 
part of the missionary's dwelling, and we then went to Akb^r's Tomb. 
The entranoe is by a magnificent gateway of red stone, inlaid with white 
marble and stones of various colours in complicated patterns, but disfi- 
gured by enormous painted flowers in imitation of mosaic, with white 
minarets at each comer. There are three similar buildings at the other 
side of tiie garden, only they serve as alcoves instead of gateways. The 
lattice- work of the guraen wall which connects them is most beautiful and 
vaiied, though much of it is broken, and the arches themselves partly in 
rains. From the entrance a paved walk leads to the tomb i\a^\i,^%^.\]c^\i- 
dons pile, conststi^fir of three quadrangular terraoea oi i^^ %\Arci^^ ^^qx- 

d2 



36 THE TOMB OF jLEbXb THE GBEAT. 

mounted bv a fourth of white marble. On what may be called the nonnd 
floor, are chambers containinfi: the tombs of Akb^r's daughters, and otiier 
members of his family, of wnite marble, with inscriptions and carvings 
in bas-relief, and adorned with beautiful mosaic of pietra dura. Theie 
were flowers lying on most of them. In a vault beneath is the sarcopha- 
gus, containing the mortal remains of Akb^r the Great. A rich covering 
was spread over it, on which flowers were strewn, and above it hangs a 
lamp. 

In all these mausoleums the real tombs are below, while the monument* 
which is a fac-simile of the former, is in the upper part of the building. 
There is a minaret at each corner of every terrace, and every part u 
admirably carved. The greatest beauty of the edifice is the uppermost 
story, which is of the purest marble, surrounded by arcades, which I sap- 
pose are nearly unequalled in the world : the outer wall is a marble lattice 
of the most delicate open work, although an inch and a half in thickness. 
Each division is of a different pattern, and the pillars and arches are 
adorned with arabesques and inscriptions in has relief. The pavement of 
the court, which is surrounded by this colonnade^ is the only coloured 

5 art about it — ^it is composed of different marbles, and is open to the sky. 
'he monument is in the centre, with a font-shaned stand for holding t 
light at the head of it; both are of white marble, and remarkable nxr i 
their elcRance. The tomb is inlaid with the ninety-nine names of tha 1; 
Most High (as the King, the most Merciful, the Compassionate, the 
Omnipotent) m black marble ; surely a more suitable inscription in the 
presence of death than fulsome panegyrics on the departed. No letters 
are so graceful as the Arabic, so that they form a beautifxil ornament 
wherever they are used. Although exposed to sun and rain, the whole is 
as fresh and unspotted as if just completed : never was a mor» bcAutifol 
mausoleum erected, the T§j alone excepted. From every terrace there is an 
extended prospect, and the whole buildmg stands like the T§j, in a garden of 
flowers. These stately tombs illustrate the description in Isaiah xiv. 18i 
of the Kings of the Nations, lying " in glory— every one in his own house." 
Saturday, February 6th. — ^We drove to see the T&j, which is as beantiM 
by daylight as by the moonbeams. I sketched it irom the gateway : a 
lovely vista. Between the two paved raised walks, bordered by cypresses, 
is a cnannel of water, with fountains. At the back of the ovpresses are 
beds of flowers in fall beauty, the different plots being divia^ by stone 
borders of fantastic patterns, the regularitv of which connect the garden 
more completely with the building ; and behind these again are nroadt 

Saved walks, where we enjoyed the most refreshing shelter from the noon- 
ay sun. I give up in despair all hopes of conveying any adequate idea 
of the beauty of the architecture, of the inlaid marble terraces, the fine 
old trees, the delightful verdure, and above all, of the chaste nnsollied 
majesty of the dome itself. In a vault beneath lies Mtimt^ Begum, and 
on her right a loftier and larger tomb to her husband Shah Jeh&n. Above, 
the mausoleum consists of a glorious vault, in the centre of which stands 
her monument, with his in the same position as below. Each tomb is of 
the usual simple form — a narrow raised parallelogram, perfectly plain, 
not uulike what Scipio's tomb would be without the cornice, and inlaid, 
like the whole of the interior, with flowers of bloodstone, lapis-laznli, 
agates, and other precious stones, forming the most beautiful mosaie. 
Over the tomb hangs an ostrich egg. Both monuments had flowers laid 
on them, and are surrounded by an octajgonal screen of the most lovely 
fairy-like open work. The walls are, as it were, panelled with bas-zelid 
of tulips and other flowers, in white marble, surmounted by arabesques 
la costly mosaic ; and around the dome are four beautiful apartments 



JBSTHSTIO BBLIOIOir. 37 

[shed with no less oare. Such is the perfect art manifested throu^h- 
lat although every part is, when closelj viewed, brilliant with 
and though the exterior is adorned with inscriptions from the 
t in black marble letters of colossal size, yet this in no way mars the 
I effect of the whole building as one of dazzling whiteness, while it 
3 the eye when near from the tedium of travelling over unbroken 
I and depths of, as it were, unvaried snow. How strange it is 
16 architects of most of the finest buildings in the world remain 
vnl 

risited one of the side mosques, which is built of red stone inlaid 
hite, and stands on a lower elevation than the Tki, and then re- 
to the gatewajr, just as mv husband arrived with Mr. Pfander, the 
1 Church Missionary, a short, stout man with a most benevolent 
ion, who has distinguished himself greatly by his controversial 
'8 against Muhammadanism, especially the *' Mizan ul Haq," 
Hras the means of enlightening Mus^ and Ibr^lm. I went back 
T^* with them. We met some Panj&bis, very iine looking men 
them with bright crimson trousers, small pink turban, and white 
h), who were gratified by our asking them to enter with us. They 
Le salto to the tomb of Mtimt^ Begum and her imperial husband, 
^ey had departed, C. sang a verse to try the echo, the most beau- 
irer heard. It is so perj^ct that it gives the idea of a choir of 
ii the air. 

hen went to the terrace at the back of the T§j, to enjoy the view 
loble river flowing beneath, and of the picturesque city, embosomed 
beyond. Some say, I believe on very slight ^rounds, that it was 
)ntion of Shah Jehan to erect a similar mausoleum for himself on 
osite bank of the river, and to connect the two by a bridge of white 
; but one cannot regret that he did not execute this plan, for one 
At any addition to the T§j would be a superfluity. The gateway 
le considered a most magnificent work anywhere else, but here it is 
ippendage ; it is chiefly red, inlaid with white. I do not think an 
Loiced person could, after visiting the T§j, attach any value to the 
religious feeling which is produced by external obiects affecting 
168. Here a Muhammadan ouilding excites in the highest degree 
motions of rapture which, by a natural transition, melt into the 

9 poetic devotion which is aroused by the ** long-drawn isles ** and 
»hgious light" of an ancient cathedral : this shows that these feel- 
) purely natural. A heathen can feel them— a Muhammadan 
it or an infidel poet can excite them ; therefore they have no claim to 
dered as Christian or as religious feelings at all, in any other sense 
springing from those tendencies to wonder and reverence, which 
lanted in every one who has a heart. Riip^htly did our Presbyte- 
refathers act in stripping the worshij^ of God of all that could 
i;he worshipper, by exciting those poetic emotiqps which too often 
Tent, with those who experience them, for the true devotion of the 
> that God who **dwelleth not in temples made with hands." 
»iild a woman value that love, or a friend that friendship, which 
) origin, and depended for its existence on the magnificence of an 
jnt, or the beauty of the scenery in which they dwell ? How can 
^6, then, that this spurious Kind of devotion is acceptable to 

10 searcheth the heart, and who sees that it exists so often in souls 
d from Him, and '* enemies in their mind by wicked works }** 
rove towards the tomb of Itimah-u-Doulah, which is on the other 
Ji6 river. Mr. Pfander told us a good deal about the miaeiow \jist^» 
the head of the churoh of which the Yeneiab\Q'NL\i&»Qi!^isi3^^ 



38 TOMB OP ITWfcA:H-tT-l>OULAH. 

Abdiil Masih* formerly had the care, hut of which onljr a few o 

original memhers now remain at A^ra, as after the death of that 

" Servant of Christ" they were left without a pastor for nine years- 

nnmher of Christians in communion with the missionaries of the CI 

of England is ahout 300, including the orphans. There are ahont 

Chrisnan families. The American Preshyterians have lately estaW 

a mission here; hut hoth ministers are now ahsent, and the Ba 

lahour on the opposite side of the city. Mr. Pfander and his coUe 

have lately heen very successful in the neighbouring villages, 1^ 

recently received an addition of about fifty converts. The Romi 

have had a small native^hurch hero since the days of Akb&r, but 

make no new converts, except among Europeans and half-castes. 

are building a fine cathedral. The priests are chiefly Italians ; tb 

not interfere with the Protestant missionaries, though they always 

and sneer when they meet any of them preaching. All the Prot< 

missions have day- schools, but Mr. Pfanaer complains sadly of the 

of proper teachers. Yery few persons of high caste have become ooi 

up the country, for here all the native prejudices remain in much g 

vi^ur than in Calcutta, neither have the missionaries laboured so ii 

Mr. Pfander thinks that one great reason why so few Muhamm 

have been converted is, that they are only just beginning to find ou 

they are not the first peoplo in Asia in point of science and leamii 

hard lesson for them to learn after their pre-eminence had been 8< 

undisputed ; but he thinks the fields are beginning to ripen fc 

harvest, although they may be said to be more backward in Agra ti 

Calcutta. 

"We reached the tomb of Itimah-u-Doulah,.and passing through a 
garden, came to a slope of variegated marbles, over which a strean 
to flow into the fountain beneath. There is a beautiful reservoir ir 
of the tomb on the terrace above. This mausoleum is smaller, but 
elaborately adorned with painting than either of those we have 
llie mosaics have been in a great degree destroyed by the Mahratta 
picked out the beautiful bloodstones and agates of which they wer< 
posed. On the ground -floor are the tombs of the Vazir and his wife 
eentre apartment^ the ceilings and walls of which were former 
splendent with gold and richly-coloured arabesques : four or more 
ments, similarly adorned, and each containing one or two tombs of 
members of their family, surround it. The hall or terrace above h 
of the most beautiful pavements I ever saw, of white marble, inlai* 
a rich and grand arabesque of vdrv large size in coloured stones, wb 
screen which surrounds it rivals that of the T^ in beauty. The mi 
are peculiarly beautiful,, and from one of them we enjoyed a lovel; 
of the majestic TSj on one hand, of Akb^'s tomb, the fort, the riv 
Motl Maerjid, and the innumerable tombs and ruins in the neighboi 
of the town, on the other. 

Sunday, February 7th, 1849. — The missionaries preach only ii 
dustani, with the exception of the Baptist missionary, who has a 
ebapel close to where we were. We were informed none but kar^ 
elerks, went there ; but this did not frighten us away. The service 
at half -past six. Seeing: the table prepared for the Communion, C 
to the vestry to inquire if we could partake of it. He explained 
missionary who we were, that I was a member of the Free Xirk, an 
M. of the Church of England. Mr. Lish, the minister, who is a 
Indian, said that usually they required three or four days' notic 

* Senrant of Christ.. 



GONTXlTfl-^FOBT AOBA. 89 

fliey mi^t leani flometfaing of the character of the parties wishingr to 
•ammunioate ; bat that he would consult with his elder, Mr. Trazer (a 
PieabTterian) ; and they both came to the conclusion that, as we were 
tovellers, azid had so recently oonununicated with the Free Church in 
Cakatta, there could be no objection. Mr. lish preached an excellent 
diMMrarse on "Behold, I lay in Zion a chief comer-stone/' &o. He then 
isfomied the congregation who we were and where we were going ; men- 
tioned omr wish to partake of the Lord's Supper with them; ana, in one 
of tlie prayers during the Sacrament, implored the Diyine blessings 
npeoiAlly on ns, prayed for the furtherance of our journey, and for our 
mban reunion with those present before the Throne of Qtod, It was such 
a fbnple Scriptural way of reoeiying strangers, you could fancy Titus and 
Ikoo&y acting thus. At the conclusion of the service, Mr. Lish took his 
seat at the table, and after prayer (during which the congregation knelt) 
we resumed our seats, and the bread was distributed by an elder. Mr. 
I^ prayed again, and the cup was brought round ; and, after a con- 
^^ni^ing prayer, we ended by singing my favourite iifteenth doxolc^y : 

" 3£ay the grace of Chriat our Saviour, 

And the Father's boundless love. 
With the Holy Spirit's favour. 

Best upon us from above ! 
May we now abide in union 

With each other and the Lord, 
And eqjoy in sweet ccnnmunion 

Joys wbioh. earth cannot afford." 

The chai>el was well filled ; but no one looked like a gentleman except 
one officer, who communicated. Whenever I hear that the rich g& to one 
preacher, and the noor to another, I conclude that the latter is the most 
erangelioal and tne best minister. A native woman partook of the 
Saerament. After the service, Mr. Lish told us that the lives of the 
nmYerts are generally yerv satisfactory; they have no very great success* 
bat enough to encourage tnem and make them grateful. 

Monday, February 8th. — Drove to the fort, which is very fine : it was 
taken by Lord Lake from the Mahrattas at the beginning of this century. 
We droye through three courts, and alighted at a flight of steps. Passing 
through a handsome gateway, we found ourselves in the court of the 
MotI ICasjid, or Pearl Mosque, which is worthy of its name. This is snr- 
zonnded by colonnades of white marble, with a tank in the middle: the 
mosque itself occupies the fourth side of the souare. It is raised above the 
le(Yei of the court, and is paved with huge slabs of white marble, each of 
which is inlaid with a slender line, like the outline of a pointed window, 
and destined for one worshipper. The mosque is open to the court, and 
oomposed of three aisles, running parallel to the spectetor's eye, the con- 
tiaiy way to those of our churches. There are of course three domes ; and 
in the interior is a flight of four or five steps of white marble, on the top 
of which the mullah site to read and expound the law, while the soyereign 
and his court meekly sit on the floor. At either end are marble lattices 
delicately carved, behind which the ladies of the harem could see and 
hear without being seen. 

^ We ascended the roof under the guidance of a courteous mullah, and 
zisked our precious persons, as he daily risks his, by scrambling up a 
rode ladder to one of the minarete, from whence we had a bird's-eye view 
of the fort^ and also of the ever-beautiful Tfg, and the other adommente 
of the eity. The said mullah, instead of being a portly man ia i(bitA;,%Sk 
one fancies all mnUahiS ought to be^ was dressed in 8l wu& %^sciftT^O^^!&^ 



40 PAirjABIS — SAJAH LAL 8IKa. 

with orange and trimmed at the sleeres with white for; a yellow read 
with red nowers, lined with bine, with a crimson binder to ike lining, wu 
wrapped round the upper ^Mjrt of his body. He had a small white tiuban ; 
but told US when he was officiating he always wore a white robe. 

In front of the mosque is a long inscription in colossal Arabic letters of 
black marble. We next went to the palace, which is also within tiie 
fort. In the little garden we met some Panj&bis, attendants on B&j&h Lil 
Sing, who is immured here. They were remarkably fine-Looking men, 
both in feature and height, and very courteous apA respectfiil in mannw. 
C. complimented them on their fidelity to their chie^ which delighted 
them greatly, so that the^ burst out into a perfect chorus of words, patted 
and stroked him ; and, wmle he was showing them my opera-glass, tluongh 
which they all were eager to look, one of them continued stzokinig^ him on 
the back as if he had been some soft fnrrv creature. 

After seeing the Diwan-i-Khlis, or Hall of Nobles, where the sovereign 
used to hold his Darb^r, C. invited them to accompany us into the vaults. 
We first saw the Shish-Mahil, or Looking-glass Palace, a beautifal hall, 
the walls of which are covered with thousands of little mirrors with 
silver flowers embossed on them, while every here and there a portion of 
blue and gold or crimson and gold is introduced — ^the mirror part forming 
the ground of the flowers, liuch is broken and defaced, but enongn 
remains to give one an idea of the brilliant effect it must have had when 
lighted up. Opposite the entrance of the principal hall is a cascade, or 
rather a place in the wall, over which a cascade used to flow into a deep 
bath beneath. Behind the cascade are double rows of niches, wherein 
lamps used to be placed — ^imagine how pretty it must have looked. 

We then descended into a narrow passage, with a torch bearer for our 
guide, and climbing up to a low ardhway, about four feet from the 
ground, we jumped down on the otiier side into a vaulted apartment, very 
much like one of the Halls of the Inquisition. Here any of the hapless 
women of the harem, who incurred the suspicion or displeasure of her 
lord, was hung upon a black beam which still traverses the apartanent 
and when life was extinct, the once admired form was cut down ana 
suffered to drop into a deep well beneath, from whence it floated into the 
Jamna. The well is now nearly choked up, and the air was poisoned 
with the smell of the bats who infest the place — ^fit emblems of the evil 
deeds committed there. The very Sikhs seemed to look with pity on a 
spot whence so many souls have parted in anguidi for a land of darkness. 
After all, these deeds of cruelty do not shock one so much when resultij^ 
from human passion as when committed under pretext of doing^ either 
God or man service, as in those dark places of the earth, the InquisitionB 
at Yenice and elsewhere. 

On emerging we were led through many passages where the ladies used 
to play at hide-and-seek, and which were probably also used for keeping 
the royal treasures. These passages led to half-dark apartments, where 
the inmates of the ZenkiA oathed in the heats of summer. We then 
re-ascended to the upper chambers, of which it is vain to attempt any 
description. They are realizations of the *' Arabian Nights." There are 
innumerable halls and chambers, the former open on three sides, and 
supported on beautiful pillars, richly inlaid with Florentine mosaic ; the 
walls are covered with flowers and arabesques painted on the marble, in 
a kind of raised lacquer, with much gilding ; they are also panelled with 
flowers in bas-relief, among which the my is conspicuous, probably 
introduced here, and also in the T^* and the lioti Mui^id, by the Italian 
artist, out of devotion to the Virgin. Many of these halls have cascades, 
haths, or fountains, paved with mosaic, or little marble watercourses 



VXLkOE C0UBT8-HS0MKATH GATES. 41 

nmning through them. There are numberless smaller rooms for sleeping 
apartments, and for the retainers of the Court ; and terraces on the root, 
snaded by marble lattices of the most delicate open-work, used during the 
hot nights of summer. 

From the marble baloony of a beautiful proieoting circular apartment 
there is a lovelv view of the citv, interspersea with trees, of the noble 
liyer, and of all the finest buildings in the neighbourhood. Many of 
these are in ruins, but we were told that the remains of subterranean 
passages still exist, b^ which the ladies of the Royal Zenknk might visit 
those of all the principal nobles, whenever they pleased. At the top of 
another terrace is a marble seat, with very high steps to it, from tho 
Palace Court below. Here the Yazlr sat, and administered justice or 
injostioe, "according to faculty," or reviewed troops. Probably it was 
from such a seat that the king in the Arabian tales beheld his daughter's 
contest with the ma^cian, when she transformed herself into a cook, and 
ate up her antagonist in the shape of pomegranate seeds. We saw a 
small praying place for the inferior women servants, and lastly a minia- 
ture Moti Masjid of white marble with three domes, for the great ladies or 
Begums (pra^ pronounce begoom). Here one of our attendants was 
sharply reprimanded by a brother Mussalman for daring to enter the 
house of prayer with his shoes on. They expect nothing better from us, 
but condemn it in each other. 

We next went, to see the Dlw4n-i-Am, or Common Hall (you may 
translate it Court of Common Pleas) where, in a raised chamber in the 
wall, about ten feet from the ground, the sovereign gave audience to his 
poor liege men. It is now approached by a temporary flight of steps on 
each sioe, and occupied by a marble sofa and two arm chairs, inlaid with 
colours, and partly gilt, a present from some neighbouring Kiijlh to Lord 
EUenborougn, who held a mock regal court here on his return from the 
north-west frontier, and had the bad taste to put up his arms over those 
of tlie Company, and to insert them in some of the Palace windows, lust 
as a private womd scrawl his name in charcoal on the walls ! and with as 
much right 1 

This hall is now the armourv, and at one end are the notorious Somnath 
gates ; they are of sandal wood., and must have been beautiful specimens of 
carving before they were so much defaced. Two Sikhs, one of them a perfect 
model for a painter, with bare arms and enveloped in a huge rezai (quilt), 
followed us everywhere, and with the chapr^sis and others, inspected 
everything with the greatest attention, and listened with much interest 
to C.*s account of the newly invented gun-cotton ; our Sikh friend with 
the quilt especially seemed to think the hiqmats, or tricks of science, of 
the B&hib L6g perfectly astonishing. 

Leaving the arsenal, C. stopped to speak to an old sergeant of horse 
artillery, who remarked that when he entered the army a man was 
punished if he did not take his allowance of spirits — it was called contempt 
of the Company! "We were first taught to drink, sir," said he, "and 
then punished for being drunkards !" A man is now allowed money 
instead of spirits, if he prefers it.' The sergeant gave it as his decided 
opinion, that in no case whatever do men require strong drink, except for 
hospital purposes; under the very hardest work they are better and 
stronger witn nothing but water. On our way home we stopped at the 
Jamma Masjid, which is very large, with a fine tank in the middle of the 
court ; but being built of red sandstone, which is apt to crumble, part of 
the colonnade heus fallen down, and the whole of the pavement of the 
mosque is in course of repair. 
As there are more candidates for Mission work in. (BtexmAXL^ ^i^si Hki^'L^ 



42 SSLT-jyEVJJLL 07 KI88IOKABXB6. 

Kte in tke Chtaoh of England, the latter is glad to avail herself of the 
seryices of Lntherau mimisters, whom she ordains and adopts as her own ; 
but deyoted as most ef them are to their work, it is surely a matter <^ 
some importance that they belieye in oonsubstantiation, baptismal rege- 
neration (though not to the Puseyite and Romish extent), and that they 
deny the Divine authority of the Christian Sabbath. These are doctrines- 
held and taught by onr friend Professor Graul, the head of the Missioa 
Institution at Dre^iea, and the Dryine obligation of the Sabbath is^ I 

have been informed by Dr. W g, ffeneraUy, if not uniyersaDy, denied 

even at the Basle College from whence so many missionaries issue. I 
have known some German missionaries (among them the Ect. Mr. 
Xriickeberg of the Church Mission, and Mr. Sternberg) who are thoroogMr 
sound on these points, and I believe strictly observe the Sabbath ; and 
the yiewB of othersf on the Saeraments are often essentially modified by 
intercourse with tiheir brethren of different orthodox denominaticms (fnr 
the Church of England Lutherans are generally remarkable for their 
Ga^hc^c spirit towards other Christians) ; but still, the above are the 
doctrines to be expected Aron a Lutheran^ and the Church of England, by 
adopting the Missionaries, becomes responnble lor the dootnneft tkey 
teaciu 

I may add that, for self-devoted zeal, none can surpass the G^emMua 
Missionaries. Many come to the country (some sent out W Pastor Gkesner 
of Berlin) without any settled means of support, and if their livee are 
spared, continue labeimng upon a casual pttanee raised by the sympathy 
of those Christians who are aware of their circumstances. A very large 
proportion have fallen victims to toils and privations which a better 
acquaintance with the dimate would have shown them eould not be 
attempted without throwing away their lives. For instance, some have 
essayed to travel on foot, oihers to maintain themselves by field labour 
and in the burning plains of Bengal ; they have denied themselves tlie 
essential luxuries of rhankahs and Tattls, under the idea that it would 
he self-indulgent to use them. In one instance near Calcutta, the luggage- 
cart of a party of Missionaries stuck in a river. They harnessed them- 
selves and dragged it through, an act of amazin;^ temerity in a country 
where five minutes' exposure to the sun has some^mes caused death. In 
another instance, the wife of an officer, finding that the newly arrived 
Missionaries ate no meat, supplied them from her own farmyard. They 
sold the ducks and fowls for the benefit of the Mission ; but she was as 
determined in her care for them as they were in self- denied, so dhe sent 
them the poultry ready for table, which obliged them to eat it. 

The German Evangelical Mission in Southern India has twenty-nine 
male and about sixteen female Missionaries, and yet the wh{de expense 
is <mly 4898/. per annum, each Missionary taking barely sufficient to live 
upon. 

Mr. Pfander tells us that one day he was detained in the citv by a stoim 
imtil it was quite dark ; when he set out he discovered that the b&is, who 
ought to have led the horse, as the carriage (a common PalkSg&ri) could 
not be driven, was moon blind, and could not see in the least, Mr. Pfuider 
was therefore obliged to lead the Sliis, who led the horse, and thus they 
reached home. Eating goats* liver is said to be a remedy for moon 
blindness. 

Thursday, February 11. — Reached Delhi by 3 p.m. On our wi^ pessed 

under the walls of the i>alace, with two very fine gateways. GAie wallf 

instead of being a blank, as ours generally are, is ornamented at the top 

with a soH of v andyck scollop, which improves it greatly. The diffeiSBSS 

m the people as we get up the country is very lemarkabte. Here tiiey are 



PALACI AT DELHI. 43 

a fine athletic race of men, as tall as Europeans, and mnoh fairer tlian 
tiie Beng&lis ; this aooounts for the height ot the Beng&lis Sep&his, none of 
whom are natiyes of Bengal Proper. Delhi strikes me as hemg the finest 
city we haye yet seen. Ben&res is the most picturesque, heing the most 
thoroughly Hindu. Agra has the most beautiful buildings, but Delhi is 
more luce a great MCihammadan capital. We passed an immense tank of 
red stone, and seyeral fine aqueducts, or raised stone oonids, running 
through the city. The appearance of one of them as it rolled its mass of 
waters under oyershadowing trees for a great distance was very beautiful. 
The turbans worn here are yery small, and of the gayest colours ; rose 
oolonr seems a fayourite hue. 

Satorda^r, February 13th. — Rose at gun-fire, i.e,, dawn; droye to the 
palace, which is surrounded by a noble wall of red stone. The palace 

Eteway, G. said, somewhat resembles the Chur Chowk, or Great Bazlir at 
ibnl, but this is much handsomer. It is yery long, so that one takes 
some time in driying through it, and a good deal like what baz&rs are at 
home, an arcade with smalTshops on each side. The court beyond would 
he yery handsome were it in proper order, but the channel for water which 
crosses it is broken and dry. Here some Chobdors, men with silyer sticks, 
met us, without whom no one can enter the palace, within whose precincts 
no one is allowed to use that emblem of royalty a parasol or umbrella ; I, 
therefore, coyered my bonnet with a shawl. 

Left the carriage and walked into the second court where the Diw&n- 
i-&m is situated. Oyer the second gateway, and facing the king's throne, 
IB a gallery for a band of musicians. The Diw&n-i-&m is an open hall 
supported on pillars, and filled with seryants sleeping on their chari^s or 
natiye beds, which are just four-footed frames, with cord or broad tape to 
lie upon. It was also crowded with Palkls and Tonj]ons (the latter are like 
Hke body of a smaU gig, with a pole before and behind, and are carried on 
men's shoulders), belonging to the royal family. Some must haye been 
Tery handsome. The present king, fi&h^ar Bhah, has eighty sons and 
daughters, and although his income is yery large, it is all swallowed up 
by so numerous a family. The throne is a canopy of marble supported on 
four pillars, richly gilt and inlaid, projecting from a small chamoer in the 
hall, the whole of which is beautifully inlaid with bu^s, fruits, and 
flowers in Florentine mosaic ; and oyer the door behind the throne, through 
which the king was wont to enter, is a mosaic copy of Eafiaelle's Apollo 
^ying on the yiolin : this, with many other circumstances, proyes that 
Shah Jeh^n employed Italian architects. On the bronze gates, which are 
exactly like some of the fine church doors in Italy, are lilies, such as are 
80 often used as emblematical of the Virgin. Among the birds on the 
walls of the throne-chamber is a yery good mosaic of a bullfinch, a bird 
quite unknown in India. Beneath the throne is a yery handsome white 
marble table, from which all the precious work in pietra dura has been 
picked out bj the Mahrattas. On this the Y&zir used to stand, and thus 
hand up petitions to the soyereign, who, from his eleyated seat, had a yiew 
of both courts of the palace, so that one understands how a petitioner could 
make sal§lm to the king on entering the outer court. 

Passing through the third court we came to the fourth, where the 
Diwan-i-JOi&s or Hall of State is situated. Like all other halls, mosques* 
miners, — I might almost say every kind of M^hammadan build[ing,7--it is 
raised on a chab^tra or platform about three feet high, which is admirably 
caryed, as is likewise a marble railing in front of it. The scarlet awnings 
which used to extend from its facade halfway across the court, are now 
sadly discoloured and faded. The hall is supported on mamye ^^oIxjlTs^^ 
white marble, the lower part oi which is i^aid. \ikfi \\v<b V^eo^tl^ Vc^'^v^ 



44 HALL OF JLUDIBKCE — ^PBITJLTB CHiPSL. 

Diw&Q-i-&m with precious mosaics of flowers, and the upper adorned with 
gilding:. The richly yariegated ceiling has been much injured by the 
Mabrattas. A canal of water runs through half of this magnifloent hall, 
and in the centre, on a dais of white marble, formerly stood the famous 
peacock throne which was carried off by Nadir Shah. 

Behind the throne are marble lattices overlooking the broad Jamna and 
the surrounding country. In the centre one there is a seat for the king 
formed of one huge block of alabaster. On one side of this once-unequalled 
throne-room is a smaller hall where the king usually sits to administer 
justice. A pair of scales adorn the wall. The pardahs or curtains between 
the pillars ai*e torn and faded. The old king retains no authority bevond 
the precincts of the palace ; his estates are under the management of the 
Qoyemor-G^neral's agent, who obtains for the aged monarch a much 
larger revenue than the dishonesty and bad management of his own people 
ever allowed him to receive from the same lands. The palace garden 
would be very fine if it were in tolerable order ; but neither the king nor 
the Qovemment of India like to pay for repairs. It is extensive, and 
intersected with broad shady walks, with camds and fountains on every 
side. In some parts the water runs under a pavement in which open 
patterns are cut of stars and other devices. There were few flowers, and 
those common ones. We saw a fine bath of a single block of marble ; and 
on each side of the garden is a large summer-house, one of which is called 
Sawan, and the other Bh&don, from the two rainy months, which begin 
about the middle of July and end the middle of September. The reason is, 
that these halls (which are raised a good height &om the ground) have 
not only fountains tdl round them, but a Large deep square bath in the 
centre, each side of which is full of niches for lamps, over which the water 
falls to the depth of about five feet. There is a large tank in the centre 
of the garden, which the present king has spoilt, by erecting a summer- 
house of red stone in tiie centoe. At the end of one of the canals is a 
building of some height, as usual, full of lamp niches for a cascade to fall . 
over. As we were not allowed to use our parasols, it was well for us that 
the garden was so shady. 

Tne present heir apparent of the empire of Akbar the Great lives in a 
part of the palace which is thatched. The state Palkis (called Nalkls), 
like the state howdahs, are in the shape of tour-post canopies, with on 
awning in front. They are painted crimson and gold. 

"We drove out by a part of the palace where the under-servants live, 
43omething equivalent to " mews" in London. We soon reached the mag- 
nificent Jamma Masjld, which is approached by an immense fi^ht of 
Atens, like those of some of the churches at Venice, only on a more gigemtic 
iscale. The whole building is of red stone inlaid with white marble, of 
which latter material the domes are built. 

I forgot to tell you of the king's private chapel, a second Moti Masjld, in 
the palace. It is built of the purest marble, beautifully carved, with three 
gilt domes. Yet even this gem is so far neglected that the smidl marble 
tank in front of it was drv, and a handful of long grass growing out of it. 

Perhaps I have not made it clear to you, that all eminent mosques form 
one side of a quadrangle, the other three sides of which are colonnades. 
Every Masjld is so built that the worshippers on entering face Mecca; 
the^fore in this country the entrance of every mosque faces the east. The 
quadrangle of the Jamma Masjld is immense, the colonnades are open, and 
the views through them of the city and its trees are very pretty. These 
are the first open colonnades I have seen. I am inclined to prefer this 
Masjld even to the Motl Masjld of Agra ; the latter is most beautiful, but 
tbiafar exceeds it in aimple grandeur. It is a most stately building. 



THE JAHMJL MASjId. 45 

Several Mussnlm&nswere bathing their heads, feet, and hands in the tank 
in the centre of the court, and we afterwiurds saw one at prayer. The 
prescribed postures are manifold : sometimes he sat on his heels, some- 
times prostrated his forehead on the ground, sometimes stood pra3rinsr» 
sometimes opened his hands as if reading from them, but it was all done 
with much more decency, solemnity, and apparent abstraction from out- 
ward objects than is usually seen among Romanist yotaries. The pnlpif 
consists of three finely carved marble steps^ but it was dirty, and some 
common pitchers were hidden underneath it. There is another pulpit of 
marble oi a different shape just outside the mosque, this is used on the 
last day of Ramazln, wnen the king comes in state to break up the fast^ 
and almost every Mussulman in Delhi is present ; the great covact, which 
holds about 12,000 persons, is then filled, and as the voice of the Iman 
inside would be inaudible to this multitude, another takes his place on 
the elevated pulpit, and acts as fugleman to the vast crowd present, all 
of whom kneel, rise, stand, and pray as one man. 

Mr. Roberts saw this last Octooer, and sdid it was a very fine spectacle, 
but then comes the thought that this worship dishonours God by denying 
the Trinity in Unity, and lowers the Lord our righteousness to the level 
of a creature. On the left hand of the Masild is an inclosure in which the 
beard of Mohammad is said to be preserved ; there they would not let us 
enter, &o. The semicircular recess in the centre of the mosque contains 
divers sheets of paper covered with writing. The words being, in some 
cases, arranged in curious devices so as to form rosettes and otner figures 
(in fact, not unlike specimens of caligraphy at home), the nature of which 
1 curiously inquired. We found they were done by different personages 
(one h^ the king, another by the heir apparent, both of whom are great 
adepts in the fui; of penmanship), pai*tly out of devotion, tiie sentences 
being from the Eur^n, and partly perhaps to make their talents public. 
Divers little boys were sitting in the colonnades reading, or rather chant- 
ing, the Eur&n, at the very top of their lungs, and with no more attention 
than school-boys learning the Latin grammar in England. When I 
praised the beautiful form of the Arabic letters some time ago, I did not 
know the difference between these and the Persian : they are the same 
characters, but the Arabic are upright and much stiffer, while the Persian 
is a beautiful flowing character which cannot be printed on account of 
its luxuriant lines, so that books printed in Persian are in the Arabio 
letters, while true Persian can only be lithographed. 

We went up to the roof of the Masjid, and close beneath us saw a sport 
for which Delhi is famous. On the roof of several houses were men 
waving little flags to make their flock of pigeons fly, while elder men sat 
gravely by, smoking. A large hurdle was fixed on the roof for the 
pigeons to alight upon. When they meet another flock in the air the two 
parties mingle, ana one invariably carries away some from the otlier. 
Each flock then returns home, and the owner who has gained some of 
his neighbour's birds, goes to him and threatens to sell them if they are 
not ransomed. It was very pretty to watch two, three, and sometimes 
four flocks of these beautiful birds, of all colours, meeting, mingling, and 
then parting again. This is a favourite amusement of the old king, many 
of whose bird-cages were on the top of jiis Hall of Justice. 

We ascended the Min^r, which is 150 feet high. The view of the city 
was very different from that of Ben&res ; here, although the Hindu half 
of the population is rather the larger, yet the character of the buildings 
is Mtihammadan ; the houses are only two stories high, instead of the 
loity edifices at Benares, and amid the multitude of mQ^cvwfo^ 1q\\1 ^^ 
marked the pointed dome of one Hindu temple. 



46 KADIB SHAH. 

The streets are the widest we have seen in any native city, many trees 
are interspersed among the houses, and the aspect of the country, covered 
with old tx)mhs, not unlike that of the Oampagna di Eoma. 1 beg^in to 
think Hindustan is one vast plain ; I have not seen a hill since we left 
the Eljmah&l range. 

On descending the steps of the Jamma Masjid we found a group of 
Afghans, who, as usual, gazed at us, with much curiosity. In the aiter- 
noon these steps are the resort of merchants and sellers of every kind ; 
now, early in the morning, they were occupied by men waiting to be 
hired, as in the parable of the labourers in the vineyard. Met many in 
the streets riding on fine oxen. We have done with the Ekk^, or one- 
horse carriage of Bengal, and find instead the Byli, a similar conveyance, 
but drawn by two oxen. Instead of the lari^e white turbans worn lower 
down the country, the men of Delhi delight in the smallest and brightest 
varieties of head gear, their turbans being jauntily stuck on one side, 
generally over the left ear. 

We dSrove through the Chandi Chowk, which is very wide, with an 
aqueduct in the midst ; it is the main street of the city. On one side of 
it is a little mosque of white marble, with three gilded domes, memorable 
enough, for when Nadir Shah invaded in 1739, the reigning sovereign of 
Delhi went out to meet him, they entered the city together, and Nadir 
quartered his nobles and troops on the inhabitants (being much such a 
guest as Napoleon proved when he came to give freedom to Germanv), but 
with the strictest order to do no injury. One morning it was bruited about 
that the dreaded Persian King was dead. Immediately the peoj^le of Ddhi 
rose upon his troops, and many of the inhabitants gave up their guests to 
slaughter. But the lion soon showed he was not dead. Nadir gave the 
order for indiscriminate massacre. He drew his sword, and sat there in 
that little mo6<]tue, with the symbol of vengeance in his hand, till the 
streets of Delhi ran red with blood, and the "king and his nobles came 
down from the palace, and besought him to put an end to the work of 
death. Then Nadir sheathed his sword, and the slaughter was stayed. 
He returned to Persia laden with the spoil of the imperial city, which nad 
hardly recovered from this misfortune when the Mahrattas came like a 
flock of vultures to prey upon the game struck down by the mighty hunt^. 

Monday, February 16th. — Started soon after gun-fire in a very EngHsh 
fog (Miss M. accompanying us), for the Eutab. The roads all roxmd Delhi 
are detestable, though Mr. R. is doing his best to get them mended. The 
country is most interesting ; full of ancient tombs and mosques. 

We passed a huge ape, " sloping along," as an American would say; 
there are numbers of wild jnonkeys in the neighbourhood. About half- 
way to the Eutab we stopped to see the tomb of Safder Jung, the founder 
of the present dynasty of Oud, who called in the Mahrattas to deliver 
the country from the Eohillas. He was Y^ir to the Eing of Delhi, aiid 
to this day the people speak of the Sovereign of Laknao (who is a Iring 
of our making), as the V&zir. I did not much admire the tomb: <me 
becomes very fastidious after seeing such admirable buildings as we have 
lat^done. 

We changed horses ; a Rajah in the city having lent us a pair. Two of 
his Sases ran the whole way ; it is quite a pleasure to see these men ran, 
they do it so well, very near the ground, and, at the same time, with 
indescribable lightness, and with a regularity of pace that looks as if 
they would go on for ever. A M^hammadan woman was stBBding at the 
gateway, whose whole dress consisted of a pair of trousers, and a cloth 
wrapped round her head and the upper part of her body, so tiiat I took 
her for a man. 



THB KtTTAS UlJKAJt. 47 

WearriTed at the Kutab about nine o'clock, and while waiting for break- 
fast ajod for Mr. fi. (who left as en route to inapeot a piece of new road, 
the roads and Tillages being under his superintendenoc as magistrate and 
collector of the dismot), i went with my husband to look at this famous 
tower. It is truly magnifioent — said to be the hi^est in tiie world (not 
reckoning China), being 248 feet in height. It is built of red ston^^ in 
five different shdFta, each crowned by a gallery of the most exquisite 
workmanship, and adorned with bands of dossal Arabic inscriptions in 
relief. It is fluted the whole way up, narrowing as it aseends. The 
lower story has twenty-seven veiutes alternately round and angular ; in 
the next story the volutes are all rounded, in the third all angular. The 
carving under the galleries I can compare to nothing but the exquisite 
wood carving of some of the stall canopies in the Bi^an chirohes ; at 
^iiB distance at whidi we saw it, it looked like lace- work. 

The Kutab stands near two courts of a very ancient Hindu temple. 
Bofth tihese courts are surrounded by ruined cloist^Es, through which we 
walked. The columns are of fantastic form* something akin to the 
EjgTptLan, but wantiiig their colossal size, being not more thantwelvo feet 
hig^L, having slender columns, each differing from the others, and elabo- 
rately and delicately •carved with iigures of their gods, all of which ^e 
Jf^haxninadans have conaeientiously defaoed. Just in the middle of the 
temple are tibree ma|:nifloent arches, the beginnin|r of a mosque which 
fihah&b-u-Din Ghon (oir. 1200 x.d.) intended to build. They are pointed 
Boch like the Goihic, and both in majesty of form and extreme oelicacy 
of ornament are most admirable.* The contrast between the Muham- 
madan and Hindu architecture is very great ; the former is as majestic as 
perhaps man in his fedlen state is oapable of conceiving ; the latter is 
wholly devoid of this quality, and in spite of the beauty of some minor 
details, the effect of tiiie whole is grotesque confusion. The pillars are 
tm^ as one might imagine in an uneasy dream. 

It aeems as if no mind, unaccustomed to dwell on the Unity of the 
€k>dhead, were capable of any trul v sublime idea even in temporal things ; 
as if this, the most umple and sublime of all ideas, were needful for the 
ednoation of the intellect and heart before man can conceive anything of 
vszty and harmony, or representthem in his works. No man can imagine 
aoght higher that that which he worships : in no ancient Greek or 
Koman building that I have seen is there anything to raise the mind 
from earthy— "their majesty consists chiefly in their stee ; their harmony 
is tiie harmonj of earthly beauty, but there is nothing which solemnizes 
4me AS a Gbthic building does. 

Kow the Hindu mytholopy being far beneath that of Rome amd Greece 
(especially as held ^y thetr philosophers aikd artists), their arehitectore 
ana Bcul^^ture is proportionate^ debased ; the latter is worthy of a New 
JZealand war club, the former is flt for the revels of sorcerers. There is 
aomething dtaboUcal in it, and in viewing it one's sympathies are aM. wiih 
the fierce Musaalmans, who gloried in the title -of .idol-breakers. The only 
xait of the temple I at all admired were two small domes, which the 
mndus, being unable to make an arch, formed by laying the stones hori- 
aooataUy one on the top of the other, the top being flnished with four 
prctty sheila. In the oentre of the temple is an iron pillar, with a 
oaBserit inscription, the purport of whicn is, that as long as this pillar 
ataada, the £lj or kingdom has not finally departed firom the Hindus. 
1^ M4hBmmadans therefore endeaTOured to melt it, but in vain, and at 
kst desisted from their attempts to destroy it after firing a ^annoa-ball 

• Query^—IMd QolMo arehitectore come fiNHa th^ l^wiki^ 



48 LEGEND OF PITHOBA SINO. 

• 

or two against it. Beyond the mosqne is the tomb of Shamshndin 
Altamsh, one of the slave kings. Its date, acoording to Elphinstone, 
must be about a.d. 1240. The tomb itself, which is of white marble, ana 
no doubt carved, has, I grieve to say, been covered with plaster, out of 
respect, and with as much propriety as when Jacob called the Queen he 
for the same reason. 

On the other side, close to the Kutab, is a magnificent dome, built by 
Akbar as a college ; and passing through it, we came to the tomb of a 
saint, for whom Akbar had special regard. It is, as usual, wiUiin a 
latticed chamber, beautifully carved. Tne name of a young officer was 
scribbled on its walls ; just beneath, a few months after, another hand 
added, ** killed at Sobr^on." 

We found an excellent breakfast awaiting us, Mr. Roberts's servants 
having started from Delhi about two a.m. with the requisites for it. 
What a hardshii) an English servant would think it, to walk twelve miles 
on such an occasion in the middle of the night ! Then, being invigorated, 
we all returned to the Kutab. The old Chaprasl who attended us in the 
morning was a Jkt, a very simple industrious race of Hindu agricul- 
turists who do 9iot steal, — ^for this nractice runs very much in families. 
The Jats are found in Sind, and are the original inhabitants and peasantry 
of the Panjab and the protected Sikh States, Lodiana, Firozpiir,Patiale, &o. 
Dr. Wilson considers them to be the descendants of a Scythian tribe and 
synonymous with the G^tte. We ascended to the first gallery of the Kutab, 
and anvthing so utterly abominable as the odour of the bats never 
offended my nostrils before. It made me quite ill, in spite of dosing 
both nose and mouth with my pocket-handkerchief. 

We could not see further than Delhi, but a radius of twelve miles in 
every direction is not a small one. The whole country is thickly covered 
with ruins, more or less perfect. Behind the temple are the remains of a 
huge Hindu fort, underneath whose protection the temple and old Hindu 
Delhi reposed in safety. A great part of the city still remains, contain- 
ing as many ruins as houses. This fort belonged to a Hal put chief, and 
the Hindu legend regarding the erection of the Kutab is this : The chie^ 
Pithora Sing, had a beautiful daughter, and as it is, or was, the custom 
of the Rajputs never to marry their daughters without a fight, he sent 
word to Udal Sing, King of Canouj, that he had a marriageable daughter, 
whom Udal might carry off if he could. Having, in this truly Irish 
fashion, done his best to get into a scrape, he bethought himself that Udal 
was a very powerful king, and that it would no longer be safe for the 
young princess to go daily to the Jamna, about seven miles off, to worship 
as she had been wont to do. He therefore built the Kutab, from the top 
of which she could see the Jamna and make Puj^ to it as effectually as if 
she were on its banks ; but I am sorry to say I do not know how Udal 
sped in his wooing. The Rajputs in the neighbourhood say they are 
descended from Pithora Sing, and there is a standing auarrel between the 
Hindus and Mtihammadans as to who built the Kutab. On the Mussal- 
man side are the Arabic inscriptions, and the fact that many of the 
openings for light are arched, which the Hindus were notoriously inca* 
pable of doing. But, on the other hand, the tower is not on a Ch&butra 
or platform, which all Miners are. Secondly, the style is unlike that of 
any other MCihammadan* tower, besides which the beginning of a corre- 
sponding Min&r, not far off, which is undoubtedly the work of Mussalmans, 
is on a Ch&butra, and is one- third lar^r. The door of the Kutab faces 
the north instead of the west: the said arches might easily have been 
added, as th^ are only one stone deep : and that tne inscriptions have 
been added after the tower was built is manifest by the fact, tnat another 



HdHAMHAB TOOHLiJC. 49 

mscription near the base has been begun and left imperfect ; thns showing 
that the original surface of the stones was on a level with the letters 
which are now in relief. It seems probable (as Mr. Roberts thinks) that 
this famous tower is a Hindu work, and that the Muhammadan invaders 
arrived before it was finished and added to it, and then afterwards may 
have intended to make it one of the Minars of the mosque which they 
commenced. 

We saw men beneath us making sal^m to the iron lat or pillar. Be- 
tween the Kutab and Delhi lies what is commonly called Ola Delhi (but 
which, in realitv, is Delhi the Second) and its suburbs. It was built by 
the Fatans, as tne Indians call their Afi^h^n invaders, and their descend* 
ants, after Hindu Delhi he^an to decline, while the modem city is the 
work of the later Miihammadan conquerors, who are known by the name 
©f Moguls, but who, in reality, were Turcoman Tartars, of the same 
origin as the present Turks. You will find in Elphinstone, that the so- 
called Mogul Emperors always spoke of the Mogul Tartars with aversion 
and contempt; but the Indians, not knowing the difference between the 
two races, and having been accustomed to real Moguls under Teim6r 
I^ing or Tamalane, applied the same name to their new invaders. The 
Patm buildings are easily distinguishable from the other by their massive 
character. There is something grand in their solid simple forms and low 
domes. A verv fine old Patau tomb is close to the Kutao. Hieir mosques 
have frequently innumerable domes : Mr. Roberts counted eighty-five 
domes on one which is now inhabited by a numerous population. 

During the Mahratta invasion, the people took refuge in these old 
buildings, where the solid masonwork enabled them to make some defence ; 
and many mosques and tombs have thus become dwelling-places. At 
some distance from Pithora Sing's fort is a very fine Pasan fort, bidlt by 
Shir Shah, the Afgh^in king, ciV. a.d. 1540 ; and another called Togh- 
lakabad, built by Gheias u Din, the founder of the dynasty of Toghlak 
about A.D. 1325. This king pressed the whole population into his service 
to bidld his fort; but a certain Saint Niz^m-ud-Din, being at that time 
employed in digging a great well, the people preferred working for him. 
Toghlak forbade this ; tne people then worked for the king by day, and 
for Nizam-ud-Din by night. Enraged at this, Toghlak forbade any one 
to sell oil to the saint ; but, owing to the prayers of the latter, the water 
of the well burnt like oil, and the work went on as well as ever. 

Muhammad Toghlak, son of this perverse monarch, was a magnificent 
prince ; but his caprice amounted to madness. He twice took it into his 
bead to transfer the capital of his empire from Dehli to Doulatabad, in the 
Deccan, and twice caused the whole population of the former to transfer 
themselves to the latter city, and then gave them leave to return, causins^ 
by these forced marches (one of which was during a famine) the death 
and ruin of thousands. 

If we had stayed on the summit of the Kutab all the time it has taken 
me to tell you what we saw from thence, we should have been roasted; 
toe even at this season, when warm winter dresses can be worn all day, 
and when fires are pleasant, the sun is intolerably hot in the middle of 
1^6 davi although the wind is cool. After descending this immense 
tower, 1 quite forgot my first impression of it, which was, " How short!" 
Went to Akbar's college, of which I made a sketch ; but photography is 
ibe only way of ^ving an adequate idea of the beautiful and elaborate 
. earvings with wmch aU these buildings are adorned. The latter MCiham- 
madan domes rise higher and higher than their Patau precursors, uiLt&L 
they assume a horse-shoe form, and those of Shah 3e\i%.'Q!%^m.^> v^lOkv ^^ 
the TSj, are raised on a low cylinder. Mr, Robeila i^o\u\fc^ W55i»\» ^nxa ^ 

s 



60 ALTAMSH'S TOMB-^FIGEOKS — ANTS. 

kind of bell pattern on the Kutab» wliioh is found in a ruder form in the 
Hindu temple adjoining, and is a^n repeated on the walls of Sham- 
shudin Altamsh's tomb. From this it appears, that the M^ammadaa 
oonquerors made the Hindu artificers work for them. 

We adjourned to Altamsh's tomb, the interior of which I sketohed. 
It is ootag^onal; and the semicircular dome at each of the four oomers is 
built in the same manner as those in the Hindu temple. There were some 
beautiM pureons in the court-yard, with feathered feet, such as I nerer 
saw before, long feathers growing out of each toe. The stable was for* 
merly a mosque. We had a refreshing drive through a country quitfr 
crowded with old tombs and other ruins. Saw some young wheat oropB 
full of green paroquets ; they are so pretty that one forgets the miBohief 
they do. The people here frighten away birds by shooting olay pellets at 
them from curious bows, with a double string, between wtiioh the ball is 
placed. 

We met a whole army of ants marching in close oolunm, each with a 
grain of some kind in its mouth. Ther were so numerous that tiiey had 
made a little smooth nath down the hill to their nest. Passed alarge 
building with high walls, now called the Arab Serai: it is inhabited by 
Arabs, who haye oeen long settled in this countrv, and are descendants A 
some of those Arab mercenaries who have played, such a conspiouous part 
in Indian warfare. One of them, a fine-looking old man with a Tenerahle 
white beard, joined us. They are quite fedr in comparison to the natives. 
As we walked through tiie narrow streets of the village, we saw a poor 
Miihammadan woman spinning ; she had a small wheel, and» in a mar- 
vellous fashicm, contrived to spin thread out of a mere lump of wadding. 
I gave her half a rupee, at wmch she was delighted. She nad a bright^ 
pleasing face: her whole dress consisted of trousers and veil. AH, even 
uie poorest, wear l^acelets, armlets, and rings of some kind or otiier, 
sometimes of coloured clay stuck over with little beads, sometimes ox 
brass, sometimes of silver. The Th&n4d^, or chief of the police of this 
village, joined us with his men, Mr. Roberts being his superior. He wi» 
a very handsome, delicate-featured young man (the son of an impoverished 
.Nawab), and wore silver rings on his toes. The police preceded and 
foUowed us, spears in hand. We entered a marble court, in which stood 
the shrine of Toghlak's opponent, the Saint Nizam-ud-Din, a vexy fine 
old Patau mosque, and divers square lattice- work enclosures containing 
tombs of the royal family. The shrine was built about 6dd years ago, bj 
£hiza Ehan, a brother of Toghlak, and a disciple of the saint. It is 

Suare, with a pointed dome, and stands within a colonnade, the teilisg 
which is painted (chiefly blue and gold) on copper. Between the nUars 
are scarlet Pardahs or curtains. The inner wall, which immemately 
surrounds the tomb, is of beautifully-carved open work. We weoEe not 
allowed to enter, but stood at the door. The tomb, about tiie siie of a 
cofiEm, is on the ground, covered with a spangled stujBT, and surmoonted 
by a canopy, much like that of a four-post bed. A row of ostridli egga 
hangs over it, each being the offering of some merchant; perohiince 
Sindbad brought one. A desk for the !Kur§ii stands at the head of the 
tomb. 

The adjoining mosque has only <»ie external dome. It is of Toghlak's 
time, and rema^able for its simple ^;randeur of form. The only oniiP- 
ments within are fine Arabic inscriptions in relief. There is a very fiae 
echo ia it. We then hurried to the tomb ol Jeh&nira Begum, the ede> 
tatted daughter of Shah Jeh&n. It stands within a beautifol muhle 
railing eiffht w ten feet high. The tomb is an oblonff square of iHati 
maMei, aoQut &y% Jfeet long by twdve or sixteen incmes broad, aad m 



BOYAL TOMBS — ^WELL OF NIZJLM-UD-DIN. 61 

many in height. It is open and filled with earth. At the head is a white 
marble screen, on whioh are inscribed some yerses written by herself, to 
the effect that the hnmble, the transitory Jehaniz^ was a disciple of the 
holy men of Christ— supposed to be the Romish priests. Two otner tombs 
have since been placed in the same inelosnre. One is of the prince, who 
went to meet Lord Lake's army when we took possession of Delhi, and 
delivered the poor old kins: from the Mahrattas. 

Another of these inclosures, containing the tomb of the King, 
Muhammad Shah, has marble doors, which Lord Hardinge has had copi^ 
to replace those which the Mahrattas carried away from the railing round 
the tomb of Mxmitaz Begum (t.e., the T&j) : they are very elegant, one 
nde is divided into three compartments, each containing a branch of 
lilies ; the other side has one long branch running the whole way up. 
Another tomb opposite, of the two elder brothers of the present King, 
whioh has been nnished within the last twelve or fifteen ^ears, shows that 
the present generation have in no degree lost the skill wmch characterised 
their ancestors, for nothing can be more graceful than the design and 
workmanship. Flowers were lying on most of the tombs, and a tree or 
two is suffered to grow in the court, thus gradually adding to its beauty : 
this is generally the case in court-yards ; that in the pialace has some 
palms. Passing through a narrow passage or two, I heard Mr. Roberts 
say, " Now, I think, she will be astonished, she does not know what to 
expect," and, accordingly, I was surprised a moment after, on passing 
through a narrow passage, to find myself overlooking a very large well 
about sixty feet square, surrounded by houses of several stories, and with 
a lofty flignt of wide steps opposite to where we stood. A crowd of people 
were sitting or standing on me house-tops to our right, who looked most 
picturesque in their garments of many colours, with the bright blue skj 
and the green foliage behind them. Mr. Roberts had just said, " This is 
the well of Niz^m-ud-Din," when, to my utter amazement, a man joined 
his hands over his head, and leaped from the house-top into the well : 
another and another followed, from this house-top and from that, from 
thirty to sixty feet high tiiey sprang, and, before I could recover my 
breaui, a perfect shower of men and boys came flying down into the water. 
At last tney reanpesured from their plunge, and swimming, by throwing 
each aim forward alternately as far as they could reach, they gained the 
steps, and gathering up some addition to their very scanty garment, ran 
round to the passage in which we stood, so that on turning I beheld a 
crowd of half-naked, dripping men and boys looking as cheerful as they 
oould with chattering teeth : two rupees sent them away fully satisfied. 
As for me the suddenness of the act and the novelty of the scene com* 
pletely bewildered me, and my husband and Mr. Roberts were quite 
pleased at the success of theii secret plot. 8ome of the leapers were Uttle 
Boys of twelve years old. 

From thence we wdked past man^ fine buildings of which not even 
fhe name is known, some of them with painted domes, to the tomb of 
Ham^^n, erected by his son, Akb^. The sun was just set as we reached 
it: nevertheless, there was light enough to enjoy the view from the stately 
terrace of the surrounding country, with its noble domes and feathery 
palms. This tomb is of rea stone or granite, peculiarly simple and grana, 
just fit for a warrior king. There is no inscription wnatever on the tomb 
itself. It was curious to find the Masonic symbol of the two triangles 
i n t e ri aoed, inlaid most conspiououslv on the building. The old Arab said 
that two knobs in the centre of these figures, one on each sid^ oi ^<^ 
oentire aroh, were meant to represent eyes. I should. Iske V> Viy^s^ M ^^^^ 
were built hy as European anmiteot, or whethier ther^ ^^^ tnemas^T^^'vcL 

s2 



52 HIKDU BBIDAL PBOCBSSION. 

India at that time. Almost all the Arah masters of ships are freemasons. 
Some vulgar Europeans have defaced this magnificent monument hy 
foolish inscriptions and drawings worthy of an ale-house. Such creatures 
ought to be sent to the treadmill, for they sadly require chastisement and 
employment. 

We re-entered the carriage, feeling conyinced that to see the euTirons 
of Delhi woidd require weeks, and sdOford ample work for both pen and 
pencil, with calotype to boot, to give anything like an adequate idea of 
them. 

After all our fatigues, poor Mr. Hoberts had to go to a Hindu wedding. 
He could not avoid it, as the Kajah, who gave the marriage feasts aiuL 
whose little brother of ten years old is the oridegroom, had sent us the 
pair of horses which took us on from Safder Jang s tomb. 

Tuesday, February 16th. — Mr. Roberts brought home divers chains of 
tinsel ribbon, with Mse stones, and a little bottle of atta, from the feast. 
The Eajah bewailed the trouble and expense of the marriage ceremonies, 
both of which are very great. The entertainments last eight or nine days, 
or rather nights, at the end of which the bridegroom is conducted in stete 
to visit the bride, who in the present instance is a little girl of seven years 
old. The ceremony is indissoluble, but the bride is not brought home to 
her husband's house for six or eight years more, though, if he die in tiie 
interim, she is considered a widow, and prohibited from marrying again, 
a custom productive of a thousand evil consequences, and of great hard- 
ship to the poor girl. Mr. Roberts asked the Kajah why he did not break 
through the custom he lamented, of lavishing so much money on the 
ceremony. His answer was just the reason given all over the world lor 
most of the foolish and extravagant acts committed : "Oh," said he, " So- 
and-so spent so much on the marriage of his son or brother, and if I did 
not do the same, I should be considered stingy." The procession is to 
take place this evening. 

About five o'clock we drove to a house in the Chandi Chouk, belonging 
to one of the native sub-collectors, a Mussalm^, who had prepared seats 
for us, whence we could see everything. The Chandi Chouk 13 a double 
street, and divided down the middle by a stone watercourse, the edges of 
which were crowded with people. The procession was passing down the 
side farthest from us, ana, turning at the top of this inmiense street, it 
paraded before the bride's house, which was a little way above us, and 
then came close under our windows. It was more than a mile long I The 
balconies and flat roofs of the houses, which are generally low, were 
covered with people ; here was a variegated group of men and ohildren, 
there a bevy of shrouded Muhammadan women, the first I have seen, and 
the appearance of the crowd was that of a bed of tulips. 

Just as we had seated ourselves numbers of empty palkls were paasin^, 
then a crowd of Tonjons, some empty, some with one or two childien m 
them. Many of these were gorgeously dressed, in brocade or velvet, with 
Greek caps of gold and silver, and some of them were borne by four men 
in scarlet, and attended by a man on each side, with. Chouries of the tail 
of the Yak or Thibet Ox, to keep the flies off. All the friends of the 
bridegroom's family do him as much honour as they can, by sending their 
led -horses, elephants, vehicles of every description, and their ohildren 
richly dressed, to form part of the procession. The ladies of the King's 
harem were there in bullock carts, with scarlet hannngs, to see the diow. 
His Majesty had also sent his guards, and his camds carried small swivel 
cannon, which were fired at intervals. The led-horses formed a very 
l>ioturesgue feature in the xjrocession; some of them were painted; t 
wJu^ one had Ma lega and tail dyed red wiih henna, and splashes of fto 



THB HINDU BBIDBGBOOM. 68 

same on Ms body, as if a bloody hand had been repeatedly laid on his side. 
Then came a whole body of men clothed like soldiers, at the Kajah's expense, 
\nQi a band that was executing a Scotch melody. Then appeared a whole 
tribe of magnificent elephants, their faces elaborately nainted in curious 
patterns, and gaily caparisoned in scarlet, green, and otner bright colours. 

(hi a small baby-elephant, most richly adorned, sat a little boy, with 
an aigrette of jewels in front of his turban. His dress was a robe of lilao 
gauze, edged with gold, reaching to his feet, and most carefully spread 
out, fan- wise, on each side, as he sat astride on his elephant. Then came 
the litUe bridegroom, who was a mass of gold. He sat alone in his howdah, 
with a careful servant behind him ; his turban was covered with a veil 
of gold tissue, which he held up with both hands, that he might see all 
that was going on. Bearers of peacock fans, and others with gold pillars, 
walked by him, while his elephant was as splendid as he could be. A 
few other elephants closed the procession, the beginning of which now 
passed under our windows on its return. It consisted of huge trays filled 
with artificial fiowers, the effect of which, as we looked down the street, 
was extremely pretty, like a parterre of the gayest colours. Then there 
were moving pavilions, with beds of flowers in front of them, peacocks on 
the top, and bands of musicians inside. Such music ! fancy flutes in 
hysterics, drums in a rage, yioUns screaming with passion, and penny 
trumpets distracted with pain, and you mav have some idea of it. A 
crowa of women and boys, of the poorest of the people, then appeared, 
cairying little flags. 

Eastern processions are like Eastern life, they comprise the greatest 
contrasts ox poverty and magnificence. They seem to think everything, 
no matter wnat, helps to make a show. After, and among the moving 
fbwer-beds, came trays of huge dolls, and others of little puppets, one set 
of which represented a party of European officers at dinner, with their 
£hitmadgars waiting behind them. Another was a little regiment of 
soldiers, such as children play with at home. Suddenly the mob rushed in 
upon the bearers, and down went the trays ; one snatched a great doll, 
imoh, in the struggle, had a leg pulled off; he seized the dissevered 
limb, whirled it round his head like a shillelah, and valiantly defended 
the rest of his prize with it. The trays were seen swaying about till they 
were torn in pieces, and the fortunate ones rejoiced in naving got a bunch 
of fiowers, or perchance a doll's limb. I believe they are stuffed with 
some kind of sweetmeat, and the people think it lucky to get any frag- 
ment of these trays, which are always given up to be scrambled for, after 
they have passed the house of the bride. It was the first time I had 
seen the natives in a state of excitement, and I certainly thought they 
managed the scramble with much good humour, and nothing like tne angry 
fighting that would have taken place in England on a similar occasion. 

After this appeared several X^ach girls, splendidly dressed in red and 
gold, their muslin petticoats full of gathers, and very wide, and their 
long hair hanging down their backs, each carried on a canopied platform, 
by men. One of them was very handsome, but they stood in theatrical 
attitudes, beckoning, smiling, and joking with the populace, and had a 
boldness of maimer most unpleasin^ in a woman. By this time it was 
dusk, and the blaze of torches opposite the bride's house was very pretty, 
as seen through the trees, of which there are a good many in the middle 
of the street. We returned to the carriage, and drove to a spot opposite 
the house ; the bridegroom soon arrived, and looked most brilliant by the 
glare of the torches. We watched him slowly entering the gateway^ and 
whidi was imme^ately shul^ reminding us sUonglY ^^ ^^^* "x^s;^ • ^>^* ^ 
-was yery inteTesting to see it. 



54 KiLLnra ▲ cow. 

Wednesday, February 17tli.— Mr. Eoberte told me tliat when he wu 
encamped at the Kutab a few months ago on his nsoal c(dd weather tour 
through the district, a yoong man came to see them, and foolishly amused 
himself by firing with ball in the direction of a Tillage. He aimed at a 
dog, and kept following it as it ran, of course not seeing anything between 
hm and it ; the consequence was that when he fired he killed a donkey 
and a cow with one baU. Compensation for the cow was accepted by the 
owner, a Brahman, but in a short time he brought back the money, and 
said that his fellow Brahmans threatened to expel him from caste, if he 
accepted any remuneration for the death of so sacred an ftnimatl^ and 
nothing could induce him to retain the price, for they looked upon tha 
death of a cow as a sacrifice. 

Mr. PfiEinder told us at Agra that the Hindus despise Popery for itsTery 
affinity to their own system, saying that if they are to mtve idols, they 
may as well keep their own. I saw a speech made by an educated Brah- 
man the other day, in which he dwelt upon the numerous points of 
similarily between Komanism and Hinduism, and came to the condusioii 
that it was of no use making each a slijgfht change. The general tenet 
of the Hindu is, that each nation is right in having a religion of its own. 
The Muhammadans utterly abhor what they consider to be tiie open idola- 
try of the Romanists. They never speak." candidly*' of image-worship in 
any shape. One cannot but acknowledge that the spurious libcmiaty 
wmch leads some of our highly cultivated infidels to plume themselves 
on their philosophical spirit in looking with serene and self-complaoeBt 
indifference on all religious distinctions, is really far more oppoeed to 
Christian feeling than the natural impulse of an uncultivated mind, — gaj 
that of a child or a Muhammadan — who sees, as if by instinct, that if 
one religion be true, the opposite must be false, and, therefore, detests it; 
and who could, by no possibility, be made to comprehend the state of 
mind which does not approve of idolatry, yet thinks it "very enthu- 
siastic/' narrow-minded, and bigoted decidedly to condemn it. The 
cultivated natural mind is still more at enmity against God than the 
uncultivated one ; it has turned away from the light, and has added the 
bandages of sophistry to its own natural blindness. It is among the 
former class that the majority will be found, who 

** non furon.rebelli 
Ne furon fedeli a Die, ma per se foio.** 

C. drove me in a buggy before dinner, the first time I ever was in cme. 
A two- wheeled carriage appears very unsafe. Buggies are the same as 
gentiemen's cabs in England. The cantonments always appear to me tiie 
ugliest and most uninteresting part of every station. The Bungalow^ 
though very comfortable and prettily furnished within, are very nrfy 
without, bemg one-storied houses with verandahs on two or three t^Sk, 
and immense thatched roofs. 

The next day, Thursday, February 18th, our kind friends persuaded in 
to stay and dine with them, and then drove us about four miles to over* 
take tiie palkl. The roads were so bad between this and Loodiana, 1haf» 
much to our regret, we are obUged to leave our comfortable palkf ffftift 
and proceed in palkis. C. has bouc^ht a duli or litter for himself, ana one 
for the Ayah whom I have engaged. These are much larger, lighter, and, 
in some respects, more comfortable than a palki, being merely charpais or 
bedsteads made of tape, and with a frame- work for the curtains ; they aie 
carried by four men, like a palki, but the bearers do not require to rest m 
often. Bight bearers are allotted to a palki, four of whom work at a tuna. 
£!aoIi palki or dull has a Massalchi or tOToh-\)eaxet, «ii<io\ix bsjgga^ is all 



DJLE: TBATBLLIKCh— DJjrCUffG BKjLKES. M 

earned in Petanahs or square tin bdftes with pyramidioal tops, wMoh are 
filnng at each end of a bamboo, each bearer carrying two. We now had 
ten men f(ur the palki, four for each diiH, three Massalohies, and seTen 
Petarrah carriers, maJdng twent^-^i^ht in all. 

We haYB laid a priTate diik which is rather cheaper than when the post- 
•offioe supplies the bearers ; ihe latter receiye five annas a stage ; under 
ihe post-office they get rather less. Sevenpence seems rather little for 
carrying a heayy burden ten miles, but here the people live well on a 
rai>ee and a half or two rupees a month. Since leaving D^i we give 
them one rupee- a stage as *' bakshish," t. e, present, but they seem quite 
aatisfied. You may judge how much less expensive a palkig^i is thaa 
palkis, as the former holds two, and only requires ten men to pudi it. 

This was my first night in a palki ; I slept verv well, though not so 
OQonfortablv as in the g£ri ; when we went evenly the motion was by no 
means unpleasant, but when the bearers Yan it was like winnowing com 
in a sioTe, sndi joltinff could only be adequatdy described by the muse 
when " she on dromedary trots." 

Monday, February 22nd. — Kam^l was formerly a very large station, 
and very nealthy, but like every other place in India, subject to oooasional 
^demies. Lord Ellenborough was here during a week of rain, when 
fsver was prevalent: he hastily decided that it was an unhealthy station* 
and removed it to Amballa, leaving the barracks, go-downs, storehouses, 
and ot^er buildings (a church included), erected at incalculable expense, 
to go to ruin. Only three families are now stationed here. Just opposite 
Ihe IKik Bungalow is an old Serai of the time of the Moghul emperors, 
built for the acconmiodation of travellers : it is a square enclosure, with 
lod^ walls and handsome gateways. 

While we were at the Bungalow, two men with dancing snakes came to 
the door. They blew their little pipes vehemently, but one snake re- 
mained inactive; the other, a cobra capello, raised its hood as if angry; 
the man patted and soothed it, and it then waved itself about to the 
music. Then came a beggar — on horseback I who certainly had no one 
'''der fiir seine Bekleidung sorgt." 

We did not reach Eanakaserai until two o'clock p.m. on the 25th, at 
which time the heat is very great. The country is intersected by ditches 
full of water, and the road is wretched, being a succession of high ridges : 
the country is of such bad repute north of Delhi, than an escort of Sep^his 
is usually given to those who are marching. One was offered to us, but 
declined, as we were going D^k. We had a saw^r, or trooper, instead : 
tibese men are changed at every station like the bearers. 

Just before reaching Ambala, I had my first view of the Himalaya 
Mountains. At the distance we were, they gave one the idea of a low line 
of hills, owing probably to there being no manifest irr^ulaiit^ or bold- 
ness of outline. I do not believe tliere is a green field in India at this 
reason, except of wheat: the grass has disappeared, and in the place 
where it ou^ht to grow is dust. We have met several persons : one or 
two ladies nding early in the morning, which is a pleasant way of march- 
ing; they go about ten to fifteen miles daily. 

Tlds morning we saw a thief, or what had been a thief s body, hanging 
by the heels from a tree close to the road : he had crept into a camp, 
-stolen something, and on going away, knocked down a Sep&hi sentry wifii 
a bludgeon. A patrol of European soldiers came up at the moment, cut 
the marauder down, and then nung him up m terrorem. After this we 
passed Sirhind, formerly an extensive city, but one of the Sikh Gbriis 
Xor spiritual teachers) having been cruelly murdetedlaEKiXs^ ^<b'\&n^«ssL- 
.madans, the Sikhs destroyedthe place, vowed it &lio\]iV<i'n£^^'t\^x%'^\fscs^ 



56 THE AUEBICAN MISSIOK. 

and since that time every Sikh who f^ses carries away a brick, which he 
throws into the Jumna. The ruins are very extensive and solid. The 
travellers whom we now meet are all armed. At one Chouki the bearers 
were not forthcoming. The headman or chowdi, therefore, walked on 
with us, to try to get some at a village near. In talking to him, 0. found 
that he had heard the missionaries at Loodiana preach. He said he 
believed there teas only one God, and gladly accepted some tracts, one of 
the Gospels, and a copy of Dr. Wilson's " Confutation of Hinduism, in 
IJrdu." Having dined, we left Kanakaserai about half-past six: it 
seems from an inscription written on the wall, that in the room we occu- 
pied, the measures were agreed upon, December 13th, 184^, which led to* 
the battles of Sobraon, &c. 

February 26th, 1847. — ^We reached Loodiana in the night, but I slept 
in the courtyard of the hotel (a bungalow so called) until six o'clo^ 
when C. woke me to take tea. We walked in the little stiff garden, with 
its young cypresses looking like paint-brushes with their tips spoilt, and 
enjoyed the pure fresh morning air, and then proceeded to the Compoimd 
of the American mission, where we were most kindly received by the 
Bev. Mr. Janvier, of the American Presbyterian Mission, and soon after 
by his wife. Went out of the Compoimd gates. On one side of the ardi 
is written, *' Jesus said, I am the door ; by me if any man,'* &c. ; and oa 
the other, ** I am the way, the truth, and the life," in English, Urdu, and 
Panjabi. We saw a catechist working in his garden, and spoke to hini» 
found he was a Bengali named Haldh^r, converted about twelve yean 
ago, and therefore probably an older Christian than either of us. The 
Mission Compound is a very large enclosure, contains four houses (each 
with a good space around it), and also the chapel, school, and printings* 
office. It is in a very pleasant, open situation, away from the smoke «f 
the town. 



CHAPTER V. 

Sunday, FEBEXiAEr 28th, 1847.— C. went to the Hindustani service, and 
was much pleased, the preacher, a Beng^ll^ gave an excellent sermon. A 
woman was baptized, she is the wife of a convert, and the Missionaries 
have known her for two years past. My husband was much pleased wifli 
the simplicity and seriousness with which she gave her answers. 

The native Church here consists of about sixteen, whom they consider 
real converts, besides some of the people employed in bookbinding, and 
the orphan girls who attend the nubiic services. They are all, except 
one, the fruits of the Mission. In the evening we all partook of the Com* 
munion at the Mission Chapel, where the service was i)artly in English 
and partly in Hindustani. The American Presbyterians allow any 
strangers who choose to partake of the Sacrament ; they give an invita- 
tion and a warning, and then leave it to the communicant's own con- 
science : but they exercise very efficient discipline in this respect over all 
who are regular members of the congregation. About fourteen native 
Christians commxmicat«d with us, and the minister who administered the 
Holy Ordinance was a Bengali, Golak Nath, an old pupil of Dr. Duff's^ 
but baptized here. 

Mondav, March 2nd. — S^leh Muhammad called. I do not like his faoe. 
He was the commandant of the guard whom Akbar Kh^n commissioned 
to convey the hostages and prisoners to Turkist^n, and who was bribed i» 
bring them into the British camp. He had deserted from us at Blmiij|& 
la 1840, 80 that he is a double traitor *, but my husband received him 



MITHAUMAD HASAK KHlK. 5? 

ciyilly, considering the service he had rendered, and not the base motives 
thereof. This man has lately taken to drinking. He is fat, self-indulgent 
and craftv, without Urmness. He brought a friend of his to recommend 
to C., ana some half-dozen rough-looking followers. The Afghans seem 
fdll^ as tall and strong as any Europeans. They are much less cere- 
monious than the Hindustanis, and make a very slight sallm, just raising 
the hand to the head carelessly. 0. gave one of the attendants a small 
Bakshish, he just took it without any acknowledgment whatever. S&leh 
Muhammad prefaced his visit (as is the custom here from an inferior, or 
from B3xy native short of a Rajah) by sending a Nuzzar, which in this 
case consisted of a round tray of pomegranates with scarcely any seeds. 
They taste, I think, like raw peas, but are sweeter. In the evening, a 
much more interesting visitor arrived in the person of my husband's 
devoted friend and follower, Muhammad Hasan £h^n, who sealed his 
fidelity to the British with his blood, and lost everything by so doing. 
My husband and he met outside and embraced straitly. He is a noble- 
looking man, with lofty features, piercing black eyes, and a most beau- 
tiful and varying expression. 

Just as I was writing this, in came Hasan Eh^n again. The other 
night he was richly dressed, to-day he wore a shawl, turban, and white 
ohogah with white cotton gloves. This snow-white dress contrasted well 
wit£ his dark complexion and jet-black beard. He told us of the diffi- 
culty which he had here in obtaining any remuneration for his losses ; 
they were as great as those C. encountered on his behalf at home. At 
last he said to Mr. Currie, the Secretary to the Government, and some 
other person who had made promises to mm : " If I have done bad service 

five me a paper saying so, and I will never trouble you again ; but if I 
ave done such and such things then reward me, or I win kill some of 
you, or be killed myself.*' His eyes were fiercer when he related this 
than you can well imagine ; and yet in speaking to us his expression is 
peculiarly sweet. He was wi^ poor Major Broadfoot at Firosnahar, and 
had a horse shot under him. Major Broadfoot said to him : " Now you 
have done great things with Mackenzie, do as much with me and I will 
write him an account of it." Hasan Kh^n said he never saw such con- 
fusion as in that battle. He kept by Broadfoot as long as he could, but 
at last completely lost himself, caught and mounted a Sikh horse which 
was running loose, and for some time rode hither and thither, not know- 
ing where t3ae Europeans were, or where the Sikhs — for there was nothing 
but dust, noise and smoke, until he came to the place where the Governor- 
General was sitting. Colonel Garden, the Q,uarter-Master General (who 
was suffering great agony from being struck in the side by a spent ball), 
and several other officers, were with him : Hasan Kh^n sat down among 
them. Sir Henry Hardinge remained for some time in deep thought, 
with a very sad face, and at last burst out into an exclamation to Colonel 
Gkirden. Hasan £han asked what he had said, and Colonel Garden told 
him. " Had one of my sons fallen, I could have borne it, but the loss of 
Major Broadfoot is irreparable." 

« Saaleh Miihammad sent me an Afghan dinner. This consisted of three 
or four roxmd trays, each containing a Pillau surrounded by smaller 
dishes : I made a point of tasting them all. The Pillaus were very 
simple, with no spice, and coloured with saffron, which looks better than 
it tastes. There were divers dishes of Kuftas, which are just rissolles 
(only bun shaped) with sauce, in which I strongly suspect there was a 
spice of assafcetida, of which seasoning the natives are very fond. How- 
ever, they were not bad. There were vegetables n.o\,"aT\\kfe ^^evi. ^smsss 
sea-weed, which C. pronovmeed, very good, and t\ie xe^V. oi \Jti^ ^«x\»i '''' "ws^ 



1^ XFQILLS BBSAD— WAY OF LIFE. 

very bad," and little sanoers fall of stgl and milk, extremely like pap. 
Suji is a preparation of the very heart of the wheat. There were aua 
some excellent sweetmeats-^one a kind of oomp6te of apples, the otiier 
made of apricots. 

We have bought a cow for sixteen mpees and a half, which is reckoned 
hijgh. She is very pretty, small, but such a high caste lookine things 
with head and legs like an Arab horse, eyes like a ffazeile, a deep hanging 
dewlap, and a hump between her shoulders which is very becoming. I 
never saw such beautiful cattle as in this country. It is necessary foe 
«very lady here to be her own " milkman," as Lizzy would say, and to 
keep her own fowls and sheep, bazlir mutton not bein^ fit to eat, as, firam 
want of pasture, the sheep wmeh are not shut up and fed on gram and 
bhui^ are driven to act as scavengers, in common with pigs and p&rifih 
dogs; besides which, when you buy mutton, you generally get goat. 
G. breakfasted the other day with Hasan Kh^, who sent me some of the 
breakfast, Pillau as before, two kinds of Afghan bread — one, like bad 
pie-crust, the other like a bannock with butter in it. The Shahz&dah 
Shahp^r sent to know when C. was coming to see him, and aecomi>8nied 
his message by a tray of sugar-candy. 

Saturday, March 6th. — We got into our house, which is just oppositB 
the Janviears, and has a verandah on three sides. A short distance from 
the house is a row of mud rooms, one of which is the cooking-room, and 
the others are for those servants who, having no families here, do net 
return to the city at night. The east verandah is ^nerally full of people ; 
the orderlies. Dearer, tailor, khal^isi (or tent-pitcher), and any stray 
people, sit there. All the principal roopis have nre-places : the bed-room 
contains nothing but the bed, which is a four-footed frame, the foundatiaa 
for the mattress to rest on being broad country tape, interwoven, whidi 
is very dastic ; and I think when the hot weather comes we shall be 
obliged to take off ihe mattress and sleep upon that. We have two Sldd- 
matglrs, who are properlv waiters at table, but who act as cook and 
butler ; likewise a Massalchi, who helps them ; one Bearer, who is house- 
maid and valet; one Ayah, who cleans my room, makes my bed, and 
waits upon me ; one sweeper ; one Bhisti, or water-carrier (the s w eep e r 
takes care of the fowls) ; one Dhobi, or washer-man, to whom we pay 
twelve runees a months, t.c, twenty-four shillings, for washing evory- 
thing we cnoose to give him ; onelchowked&r or watchman, who sleeps m 
the north verandah until we get our guard ; one Ehal^Lsi, or Lascar, to 
take care of the tents and to do anything which is required. Each hone 
has a groom and grass-cutter. I must explain that gy-d owns are 
store-rooms, of which we have four of different kinds. When Jacob 
comes he will be general superintendent ; see that the fowls are fed and 
horses get t^eir allowance of grain, and that nothing is wasted. 

We get up at gun-fire, t .c, early dawn : when dressed, I go to tiie 
store-room and give out fiour, sugar, potatoes, rice, &c., for the day, and 
order dinner. C. has already long before gone to parade, which he 
attends morning and evening ; then I write till he comes home. We hare 
prayers before breakfast, which is about eight o'clock, dinner at three, 
tea at seven, prayers at nine, and go to bed directly after. 

The weather is already too hot for me to leave the house in the day- 
time, but in-doors it is very pleasant : it is now, March 11th, 74** in tins 
3room, at half-past ten a.h., out outside the house it is 82*" in the shade. 
Boxwallahs, or Eapr§.w&llahs (Hterally clothmen), often come ; they aie 
£ke pedlars, and have every kind of wares, from European muslins, and 
eyen velvets, to tlie merest rubbish. 

We went the other day to see tlie printing ea^/o^ViBbxivj&^t, ^^bich is om 



PUBLIC SPIBIT OT THB MI88IOKABIES. 59 

Hie Mission piemises. They print Persian, Hindnst&ni, Panj&bi, and 
English. I saw, among other Panj&bl tracts, " Malan's Deux Yieillards.'* 
They have also a bookbindry. We also saw the bovs' school, where boys 
of all ranks receiye an excellent education in English and Hindustani : 
we heard them go through port of their ordinary studies, by reading, 
parsing, and explaining a passage of EngHsh ^rose. They showed a 
Tery good knowledge of grammar, and also of arithmetic; Mr. Rudolph 
teaches them. 

The ijnerican missionaries are fall of public spirit. During the Sutlej 
campaign tiiey printed Sir H. Hardinges Pai^abi proclamations, there 
being no other press in India which could do it, and no English yrem 
nearer than Delhi. This inyolyed great personal labour, as the mission- 
aries themselyes are obliged to correct the press, and eyen in a great 
measure to act as compositors ; neyertheless they refused all payment, and 
I neyer heard that the Goyernor-General showed his sense of obligation 
by any donation to the mission. 

Saturday, March 13th. — Did I oyer tell you that in this countrj, if a 
woman and man walk together, no matter how wide the road is, the 
woman always walks behind ? The Hindu women do not yeil their faces ; 
only sometimes, as bne passes, they draw their yeils across, but they are 
not muffled up as Musalm&nis are. All the officers of irregular oayalry 
nourish beards : Captain F. called here the other day with a beard longer 
than my Khitmadgar's. 

I am giying you miscellaneous scraps of information, so I will mention 
that all the bath-rooms contain seyeral large earthen pitchers and water- 
bottles of the same material, with round bodies ana long necks, all of 
which are filled daily by the Bhisti, who brings the water in a goat-skin 
flliing at his back. Those huge Etruscan yases, of which I neyer could 
make out the use, were, doubtless, for the bath-rooms of the ladies of 
ihoBe days, for they are exactly of the same shape, only mine are plain red. 

March 16th. — ^Tne other eyening a yery fine-lookinff Afghan called. This 
was Haider 'Khkn, a nenhe w of Tur§baz Eh^ the old Momand Chief, and 
the yery man who conaucted Captain and Mrs. Ferris in safety on their 
perilous flight. As a reward this man, the son of a chief, and a gentleman 
both by birth and manner, is now superintendent of M^jor Mackeson's 
oamels on a salary of twenty rupees a month. He told my husband he 
did not care so long as he was treated with respect, and had enough to 
keep life in him ; but he was so ashamed of the smallness of the salary 
that he wrote to his uncle that he had an appointment of 120 or 160 rupees 
a month. The old chief wrote back, "Don t tell me lies ; I haye heard 
that you only get 20 rupees :" whereupon his nephew, in his answer, asked 
"if he would belieye his enemies rather than himself ?*' All this our 
yisitor related with the greatest simplicity, showing what a complete 
alMience of the yery idea of truthfulness there must be among his people. 
He had alighted and left his horse at some distance from the nouse, out of 
respect; C. called to the groom and made him bring the horse near. 
llaider Eh^ then seized the bridle and endeayoured to lead the animal 
fiurther off before mounting ; the matter ended by C. making him get up 
where he was. 

March 17th. — We heard last night that about fifteen children of Sep&his 
and others who perished in Afghanistan haye been sent to the care of the 
missionaries. They and about ninety others, among them a European 
boy, have just been recoyered from the Afgh§.ns by the agency of Murtez& 
Shah^ the same who was the instrument (with Ali Reza Xh&n £azzilbash\ 
of bribing SSileh Muhammad to bring in the ladies and. q&(^^i^\a ^^T\srd2L 
Sale's camp. C, went over to Mr, Rudolph's and bow Wi^a ^oot <3K!\^3»\i.> 



60 0ALLANTB7 OF USMAK EHAN. 

who can speak nothing but Persian. One poor little mil has lost hotk 
feet : C. and one of the missionaries carried ner over to the Orphan-House, 
where she was to sleep. The boys and girls made bitter lamentations on 
being separated from each other, but my husband explained to them that 
it was only for the night. To-day I sent the little girls some pomegra- 
nates, and begged Mrs. Rudolph to provide a good meal for them at our 
expense. In the evening we walked over to see them, nine from Afghan- 
istan and eight of the Orphan School ; the latter quite busy helping the 
Pillau which they had cooked, the odour of which was excellent. The 
Pillau was brought in a large cauldron and then ladled out, first into two 
great dishes and then into brass plates, each of which served for two car 
more children. A table-qloth was spread on the floor, and they aU sat 
round it and ate with their fingers. 

The new comers look as if they had been well fed, but some of them ifte 
in a bad state of health, and several have lost some of their toes, or been 
otherwise injured by the frost. A native lamp, which is just a piece of 
wick lying in oil, was all the light they had. The two youngest of the 
quondam captive children were eating together, there was but one morsel 
of Pillau left on their plate, and neither liked to take it ; at last, the elder 
one made it into a ball, popped it into the little one's mouth, and tilien 
coaxed her in the native fasnion by stroking and patting her. It was 
very pretty to seethe affectionate way in which it was done. Mr. Rudolph 
asked a blessing on the meal, and I inwardly prayed that they might socn 
be led to feed on the bread of life, to which, poor children, they are yet 
utter strangers. 

March 18th. — ^After dinner, Usm^ Eh^n, the Kizlm-u-DoTilali, Of 
Prime Minister of the late Shah Shujah, called, a very noble lookinjBr 
elderly man. He it was who warned poor Sir Alexander Bnmes of bis 
danger, and got nothing but an insolent reply for his pains, which, how- 
ever, did not prevent his putting himself at thehead of the iE^nff'a Hin- 
dustani Paltan (or regiment), and fighting so gallantly, that had lie been 
properly seconded by Colonel Sheltonand the British force, titie insurreo* 
tion would, in all probability, have been nipped in ihe bud. He was 
afterwards imprisoned in the £^1^ Hissar by Akbar, and left his country 
with Pollock's force. 

In spite of his fidelity and rank, and although he was present at all 
the battles during the last campaign with the Sikhs, yet he has only 
within the last two days got any reward at all, and now it is onlv ^0 
rupees a month ! The people in office here say they have written home 
for a larger pension for nim. 

There was a ceremonious struggle on parting : 0. insisted on taming 
his slippers, which he had (as usual) left in the verandah, the riglit way 
for him to put them on, and then helping him up on his horse. 

I must tell you a story which Mr. C. wrote us. A friend of his has 
just arrived in Calcutta, travelling for pleasure. A Parsl on board the 
steamer thus addressed him :— " You civil ?" " No." " You military ?* 
" No." " Then you write book." Is not this a good classification of 
Indian travellers ? To skip to quite a different subject, — a conductor of 
Artillery was showing my husband a house in the 60th lines. Yon must 
know that each regiment has a kind of camp allotted to it, where (if it be 
a Native corps) the Seph^ihis build mud huts for themselves — a line of 
huts being appropriated to each company ; if a European regiment, they 
have barracks, and the whole, with the officers' houses, are called the 
lines. (We have just received a note directed "Missionary lineal*^ 
Well, as I said, a conductor was showing 0. the 50th lines, and in so 
dolus- remarked that the fall of titie banaoKA laat year^ by which so nmy 



BUST 8T0BM. 61 

perished, seemed like an evident judgement £rom heaven upon them, for, 
said he, ** in my whole life I never knew so wicked a regiment." It is 
lemarkahle that when the Sikhs attacked Loodiana in 1845, they burnt 
that part of the cantonments, but did not touch the barracks, and by thus 
leaving them uninjured that dreadful catastrophe took place. The regi- 
ment continued as depraved as ever after this awful event. 

The Colonel of Her Majesty's — foot before the guns opened on the Sikhs 
the night previous to the battle of Sobr&on, received orders through Lieu- 
tenant J. opens to support the batteries, and drive in the enemy's pioquets. 
He atfirstrefusedtoobey such orders, unless the^ were given in writing, and 
then Lieutenant S. returned with the order written, desiring the brigade 
containing Her Majesty's — ^nd.to do so and so. Colonel having pre- 
viously detached the re^gnent to a little distance, said that regiment was 
not in the brigade, and ne could not do it. Lieutenant S. then told him 
bluntly that he must recall the regiment, but nothing was done, and Lieu- 
tenant S. advanced without any escort, and put his gims in position, and 
it was then discovered that there were no picquets to be driven in. 

Colonel Wheeler's brigade behaved extremely well — save a sergeant- 
major, who was discovered flying out of shot as fast as he could. In conse- 
quence, however, of his name being, by some extraordinary mistake, 
mentioned in dispatches, he was presented with an unattached ensigncy ; 
but on his applymg to General Gilbert for an adjutancy, the gallant old 
man, who knew the facts, refused to forward his application. 

March 24th. — ^Last evening we took a walk by moonlight in the garden, 
where the perfume of the orange blossoms was almost too powerful. 
Lic^an gardens are very like those gaufres we used to get in Paris, being 
divided into squares by littie ridges. They are intersected by little 
oanals, and have ridges of earth raised round the roots of each tree or 
ahrub to keep the water in. 

March 25th.7-It was very hot and sultry. Mrs. I. and I had head- 
aches ; the children were sick, and there was every appearance of a 

storm. In the middle of the night the I s were obliged to take refuge 

in the house. We made a (^uilt into a bed for one child, and put the 
other into a basket. The wind was blowing with such fury that C. sent 
the whole ffuard and the watchmen to hold the tent>ropes, for fear the 

tent should come down before the I s could get out of it. It was a 

dust-storm, and had perfectly filled the house with sand. Everything 
* was a mass of fine dust, so thick that some papers which lay on my table 
were all but invisible. Towards morning rain fell, and it became calm, 
but the condition in which we were on rising was lamentable ; water was 
turned to mud, our brushes and combs might as well have been dragged 
along the road ; and we were all occupied half the day in washing our 
hair. Rain fell at intervals, and it is now much cooler. 

Hasan "Khkp. came here on Sunday morning, and while talking said to 
C, in a soothing way, ** Your religion and ours are very much the same." 
C. said, ** 1^0, there is a great deal of difference," and lent him a Persian 
Testament, marking the Sermon on the Mount, which Hasan, who is a 
very poor scholar, promised to get read to him. He came again the other 
day and began the subject, by saying he had heard it read, and it was 
**very good ; but," added he, " the Sahib Log do not live according to 
their book. I have only seen one or two that do so." C. told him it was 
very true, but that still there were some here, and many at home, who 
tried to walk after the Word of God. To walk is the literal Persian ex- 
pression. Is it not strange that the inconsistency of nominal Christians 
should be so palpable to a Miihammadan, and yet that ths^ \!s^t&s^^<^ 
remain so blind to it ? 



HXTHAMVAD AKBAB KBLLS's DEATH. 



March 27tli. — ^We'gret four quails for threepence, and abrace of wild ducks 
for a shiUin?. Atta Muhammad, an Affrhan, whom C. formerly knew as a 
merchant, but who is now ^aib Rassaldar, t. e. native second in command 
of Captain Fisher's Horse, called last night ; he said Afghlinistan was 
soaked in blood. When we first arriyed Hasan Kh&n informed us of 
Muhammad Akbar's death. It was said that he had been poisoned by 
Shuiah'U-Boulah, the murderer of ^ah Si^ah, but it is now known that 
he died of fever, brought on by excesslYe dnnking, for when he ceased to 
be a Gh^, he sought intoxication from wine insteid of fanaticism. Our 
friend last evening told us that when he was dying he sent for his fither- 
in-law, Muhammad Shah Kh§n Ghiljye, and said to him — " While I have 
lived I have protected you, and no one could hurt you, but mv lather 
hates you, so now look to your own safety.*' Muhammad Shah Shin 
followed his advice, betook nimself to the hills, and is now in open lebei* 
lion. The road between £4bul and Peshawer is therefore dosed. 

I was much amused at our visitor's gesticulations ; he was an immensely 
broad-shouldered, powerful man, not so tall, but probably as thick aa 0^ 
kinir of Bashan, and when he was descanting on his own patience eout 
meekness, he crossed his arms on his breast, and leant his head and bushy 
black beard on one shoulder with such a ludicrous expression of exti«ma 
gentleness and sweetness, that he reminded me of Friar Tuck enaotinf 
the devout monk. C. laughed outright ; he told me that iust at that 
moment he thought of a story which Captain Fisher had mated of thifr 
very man. Two parties of Sepals were fighting — ^the Naib Raasaldar 
went out to quell the tumult, and in the melee got a cut across his shool* 
ders with a whip. This roused his ire to such a degree, that, sailing m 
huge tent peg for a club, he laid about him with such fury that both 
parties ceased their strife, and fied from him with might and main. Iffct 
satisfied with this, he pursued them with increasing rage, when the gnaid 
was ordered to seize him, but were speedily sent flying back again lathis 
perfect Berserker. Captain Fisher, not knowing who it was that wafr 
inaking this terrible uproar, despatched a whole troop to capture him, but 
it was of no use ; he demolished the troop, scattered them, and Tn^T Wied 
about like a lion rampant, I suppose until the rage went out of him. Now 
the recollection of this with such a huge meek face before one, was to» 
much for any one's gravity. He is a very good-humoured man, hub 
Afghans, like Highlanders, when roused, are untameable. 

Mr. Porter came in to get a cup of tea on Sunday, after evening aer* 
vice. There is a great mela or fair going on here, and we have lent onr 
tents to the Missionaries — the large one to preach in, the small one t» 
distribute books and tracts from. Mr. Porter told us that the iteonle* 
come most eagerly for books, asking for particular ones, such aa vm 
** Epistle'to the Eomans." A Summary of the Gospels in verse, published 
at Madras, seems a great favourite. Many of them, to show the exaet 
book they want, recite a page or two at the top of their lungs. He says* 
they sometimes find natives, who, from reading the Scriptures, areneai^ 
as well acquainted with them as the missionaries themselves, and oihen 
who are intellectually Christians. Once, at a place about seven maroiies> 
from this, he and his native coadjutor gave a portion of Scripture to a 
F&qir. This man had been all over India on pilgrimages, seexing peaee- 
and finding none ; the word of God proved itself like a two-edced sword« 
for about two years after he came to the missionaries, professed the faitiL 
of the €h>spd, and has been for the last five years a catechist at Sabatfas. 
All the missionaries here are teetotallers, and Mrs. Janvier told me tliat 
in America not one minister in a hundred of any denomination has h 
toxicating liquor of any kind in his house. We might weU take 



TBXPEfiAirCB — APGHAir DBES8. 63^ 

of them in tiiat i>artioiilar, espeoially in Scotland, where the abominable 
custom of giying a glass of whisky to half the poor peoole who come tO' 
one's house is a fruitful source of sin. How many thousands perii^ 
annually from drink in our own beloved land, encoura^red by those who 
take wine and beer in moderation } and how yery few either of gentlemen 
or ladies do take wine in real moderation } How many are as fit for 
work, as clear-headed, as even-tempered, as fit for meditation and 
prayer^ after dinner as before ! How much time after dinner and after 
Iitkich IS wasted, because we have taken a glass of wine, and cannot there- 
fore apply to study or business ! I have long thought we should abstahi 
from wine and beer (for many ladies in India dnnk both) in order to 
redeem the time^to keep our Dodies in subjection^ and because, by deny- 
ing ourselves this expensive luxury, we should be able to minister more 
largely to the wants of others ; for I suppose there are few men in India 
whose cellars do not cost them from 60/. to 100/. a year at the very least*, 
without reckoning any *' company." 

Friday, Anril 2nd. — ^Went over to the chapel, to see one of the orphan 
sirls niamea to a teacher in the Sunday school : they are both nominal 
GEhristians. There was dinner at Mr. Kudolph's in one room for us and 
lor two of the native catechists and their wives, and on the floor in the 
next apartment a feast for the bride and bridegroom, the orphan girls, 
and divers others. It was pretty to see them enjoying thonaelves, and 
to mark the difference of expression in the little captives, who now lo<^ 
as merry as any, and seem at home. Colonel Lawrence haa proposed 

S'ving 200 rupees to the school, for the board and education oi eaioh of 
le rescued children. 

Wednesday, April 11th. — Yesterday, Hasan Xhan eame while we 
were at dinner, and one of his men laid a covered tra^ on the floor, which 
excited my curiositnr, especially as Hasan £h&n said nothing about it. 
When we nad finisned, the cover was removed, and a very handsome 
Afj^h^n dress appeared, laid on the top of a tray of sugar-candy and roses^ 
which Muhammad Hasan had put in hand directly he heard of G.'s arrival 
in the country. He then began todress him in it : it consisted of apurple 
silk skirt, a dark doth coat, exquisitely embroidered in gda, red 
pa^&mahs, a shawl ^rirdle, and a green turban. It is a most becoming 
oostnme. All the assistants cried in chorus, '* Mubarak b^had !" ** May 
you be fortunate !" which they do on putting on anything new, or on 
mounting a new horse. Baedoollah always devoutly says, *'Bismillah,'^ 
" In the name of Qodf** when 0. put his foot in the stirrup ; a thing few 
M^&hammadans would do to a European. I never saw any gola embrddery 
equal that on this dress : it was done in Miihammad Hasan's own house, 
under the superintendence of a Kashmiri tailor. Of course we shall have 
to give them some handsome return for such a ^esent, for it could not be 
rerased without a complete breach with Hasan Ah^in, who looked so gra- 
tified on the occasion that it was quite pleasant to see him. He said, '* as 
they were boUi well made men, he had had the dress cut on his own 
pattern, and that was why it fitted so exacUv." 

The Afgh&ns axe certainly a very hanosome race. Hasan Eh^n^s 
H^ndil, or ** man of letters," came in to read a letter of thanks from his 
patron to Mr. Mills, of the Indian House, comparing him to Plato and 
Lokhman, to which Hasan Kh&n listened with a face of simplicity that 
convinced me he knew as much of one as the other. The said Munshi and 
another attendant had most beautiful features ; I never saw a more perfect 
nose than the Munshi's, and Miihammad Hasan's Peshkhidmat, or hench- 
man, whom he sent the otiier day with his magnificent donatiaa of ^s&\^ 
rape«s for the poor Highlandervi, was one ol: the finest «;v^q^xs^ta ^i\Qss^ 



64 AN OLD FOLLOWSB — DBAWIKGS. 

beauty in its full maturity wHch could be imagined. Hasan EMn fhen 
told us that one of my husband's old Jezailchls was with him, Sh&bad 
Ehan by name : he was one of those fifteen who were out down in ike 
attack on the Shah Bagh at E&biil ; thirteen were slain outright, but this 
one recovered, and C. showed me a frightful scar across his right 
wrist. 

When he was introduced, C. warmly shook hands with him, and he in 
return pressed his old commander's hand to his forehead and eyes. He 
was greatly pleased when I brought my copy of "Eyre's Journal," and C. 
read the names of all his Jezailchls which 1 had written on the fly-leaf. 

Hasan £h^ then began to recapitulate Sh^bad's enormities ; how he 
would spend twenty rupees in a day, and never send any to his aged father 
and mouier ; how, if he were not a man of his own tribe and his own place, 
he would have cast him off entirely, and he shook his garment vehemently; 
how he had beaten him, and said to him, ** Begone, let me never see you 
more !" but that he stuck to him like his girdle. During all this tune. 
SMbad ihkn, who was sitting by, made such gestures of injured ana 
belied innocence, that I could hardly refrain from laughing; at last he 
said, "You had better kill me, Kh^n, than give me such a bad clmracter; 
besides," added he, " not a word of it is true !" Hasan 'Khka, did not 
seem at all disturbed at being thus accused of coining about a dozen false- 
hoods, but went on to relate, that this man accompanied him to Calcutta, 
but on their return, another retainer of his being about to join him, who 
had a blood feud with Sh^bad, he told him of it, and said, " x ou had better 
depart, for he will kill you." 

Now, Miihammad Hasan having sent his enemy on a message to "Kkhtl, 
Sh^bad Kh&n has emerged from his retreat aud rejoined him ; but when 
his foe comes back he must vanish again. My husband said, *' This is an 
abominable custom ; canuot peace be made between them ?" Hasan Kh&n 
said that it was very bad, but it was the custom, and peace could not be 
made unless blood was spilt. 

A Eassaldar also called, and C^^jj^Vwed them some of my sketches, 
which they admired, and cried, ** Vjpnderful ! It is a great science ! The 
Feringhi are wonderful people ? Wonderful that the Mem Sahib should 
do it herself. Wah I wah ! ' and then wagged their heads wisely. 

In our drive passed a camp of Sep^his on furlough ; they always go in 
bands for safety ; four or five have been murdered and robbed here since 
we came, so these have sentries. 

"Wednesday. — The senior Sub^dar of our regiment came, — a fine-looking, 
white-bearded old man, to whom, at C.'s request, I gave a rose, and told 
bim that, as my father was an old soldier, and I hoped my husband would 
live to be one, I felt an affection for old soldiers in general. This small 
speech C. translated, and the old man was greatly pleased, and told us he 
had two daughters (married to native officers) and five sons. It is a great 
compliment for a native to speak of the female members of his family, for 
they never do so except to those of whose respectability of character they 
have a high idea. I never saw more willing and obliging servants than 
ours ; they have never yet made the least aifficulty about anything : our 
household is almost exclusively Muhammadan, and the two Khitmadgars 
have been up to Afghanistan and Bokhara, which has enlightenedSieir 
minds. 

Thursday morning, C, Mrs. I. and I were at breakfast when MCiham- 
mad Hasan Khan's ladies arrived. They came together in a close 
palki, not muffled up, and one of Hasan Kh^'s retainers carefdUy 
shut the doors after them. One was young and pretty, with a very 
sweet mouth; she had very lively, bright, expressive, large dork 



PSBSIAN STYLE. 65 

eyes, tinged with antimony, beautiful white teeth, with rosy lips, a 
colour in her cheek, and a complexion not darker than a Spaniai^d's 
or Italian's. She wore a little skull cap, embroidered by herself in gold 
and silver braid, her front hair in little tnin curls pasted on her forehead, 
the rest of her tresses hanging behind in two plaits. She had a sort of 
loose shirt of rose-coloured satin reaching to the hips, with full sleeves and 
fastened at the throat, very wide green satin trousers, so full that they 
looked like a petticoat, and a row of silver bangles six inches deep on each 
arm, finished b^ a gold one, silver chains round her neck, pretty gold 
earrinffs, sometlung like the Grenoese filagree, but the top of each ear dis- 
fi^rea and made to hang over by the weight of half a dozen large gold 
rings. She had a crescent-shaped ornament of enamels and pearls 
(over the left evebrow) and a little pearl thing like an earring top stuck in 
one nostril. Sne wore a large yellow gauze veil, and the palms of her 
hands were stained with henna. Her companion was older, with hand- 
some features, though rather too much marked, she was dressed in the 
same manner, except that she had no cap, and the bosom of her purple 
satin tunic was covered on each side with half rupee pieces, put on just 
Kke military medals, close to each other. The veil was deep red bordered 
with gold, and like the other's large enough to envelope her whole person. 
She is the mother of a beautiful little girl, Hasan Khan's only living child. 
He has lost four, two boys and two girls. They were very affectionate and 
lively in manner, and we got on very well, especially after Mrs. Rudolph 
came over to interpret. And it was evident that Hasan Khan gossips with 
his wives of everything he sees or hears. They inquired what relation 
Mrs. I. was to my husband, and whether I had any sister, and thought it 
very sad she should be in England when I was here. I showed them dif- 
ferent pieces of work which they admired. We looked at each other's 
dress, tney examined my rings and hands, seemingly surprised that they 
were not stained. At last, each gently took hold of the skirt of my ^own, 
pulled it up a little way, and seemed to marvel at the corded petticoat, 
that they then raised a very little, and on seeing my under garments cried 
approvingly " ah !" I never was more amuse^. 

They would not take tea, but ate some p^n and stayed about an hour 
and a half. ^ We sent all the men away from the verandah, and deposited 
them in their palkis. They did not seem to mind the man who came with 
them seeing them, perhaps he is a kinsman, but he took care to summon 
the bearers only when they were safely ensconced in their box. J3asan 
Khan rode up just at that moment, I think he wondered what his wives 
had "been doing so long. His Munshi comes to read Persian with my 
husband in the evening. They have been reading the Sermon on the 
Mount in " Gladwin's Persian Munshi ; " and the scribe not only admired 
the Persian style exceedingly, but showed a perfect comprehension of the 
meaning of that divine discourse. He said the style of tne Persian Testa- 
ment was very inferior, that was full of awkwardness, but this was most 
beautiful. 

I send you a copy of a letter I have just written. 

"Loodiana, April 15th, 1847. 

" My deab Mr. . , 

" Having extracted a quantity of information from my husband, I sit 
down to fulfil my promise of giving you an account of * raising a regiment/ 
The first thing C. hud to do was to understand half a dozen contradictory 
orders. He was directed to form his regiment half of Sikhs and t^*^ <2^JaKt 
half of Mussalm^ns and Hindus ; Brahmins excej)ied^ as \\v^'5 ^ice %^\3lS2wJ^73 
at the bottom of aJ] mntiniea and conspiracies. 

F 



66 BilSIVa A BEOIMBNT. 

** He found on arriving: that hardly any but Muhammad^ns had been 
enlisted, with the exception of one hundred men, the very refuse of the 
Amb^a Police Battalion lately disbanded, many of whom were of the 
caste very properly excluded by Lord Hardinge, out now forced into the 
regiment by his express order. 

" He then sent proclamations in Pani^bi and Hindustlini, throughout 
the neighbouring villages and country (as he was directed to do), s&ting 
that such a regiment was to be raised— tne advantages of enlisting, seven 
rupees a month pay for Sepahi, &c., &c., and inviting men to^ enter so 

glorious a service, if ot quite 350 men were collected when we arrived, and 
esertions were incessant, as many as ten in one night. C. made the men 
a speech, in which he set forth the disgrace of deserting, and I suppose 
hinted at the penalties thereof. ^ 

** Lord Hardiuge's idea in raising these four new regiments, was, that 
they would absorb the old Sikh soldiers ; and, in order to carry out this 
plan without expense to the State, he disbanded thousands of our faithM 
Hindustanis. Hardly any of the old Sikh soldiers choose to ent^ our 
service, their habits of military license unfit- them for our disciplijoe — their 
national and military pride disinclines them to serve their conquerors, and 
above all, they are agriculturists, and always returned to their nield-labours 
during their periods of furlough ; they require, therefore, stronger indaoe<- 
ments than we have to offer, to make them quit their plough for the sword, 
or rather the musket. 

"Moreover, they all wear their hair at full length, which length lam 
assured commonly extends from three feet to six feet, and sometimes even 
to eleven feet !— four feet of hair is frequent. The whole is formed into a 
loioton the top of the head. Now, "here's a coil** which effectually 
prevents a man from wearing a very shallow forage cap ; and, as Lora 
Hardinge gives them leave to keep their hair and beards, neither of which 
they ever cut, and at the same time insists on their wearing this obnoxious 
topi, the veterans positively refuse to have anything to do with a service 
which makes a saucer-cap a sine qud non. 

" Some of the finest recruits draw back, and will not enlist when the 
top! is shown to them ; and truly the effect of it is most absurd. C. has 
risked the safety of his GHengarry bonnet, by sending it to head-quarters, 
with a request to be allowed to give similar ones to liis men. 

"Ifhe like the appearance of any that come, he has them measured; he has 
fixed the standard at five feet seven inches, and takes none under that, 
excep^for special reasons, as in the case of a gallant little GhurkSi, who was 
at Cnar^k§,r, in Mr. Haugh ton's re^ment, and who,- in company with a 
fellow soldier, volunteered to carry intelligence to the garrison at SSibiil, 
and performed the task, passing through the very heart of the enemy. 
He was severely wounded, and afterwards served with the Sappers and 
Miners, who, subsequently to Captain Laing*s death at Behmar^, were 
under my husband's command, xou cannot imagine a stronger contrast 
than that between the little square, sallow-complexioned Chinese-looking 
Ghurka, and the tall, flexible JKAJput Havildar-major. 

" If the men are of the proper height, they are sent with a roll of their 
names, ages, &c., to the surgeon, who pronounces on their fitness for ser- 
vice. They are then put to drill, and when perfect in facing, marching, 
extension motions, &c., ought to ^et muskets and learn the manual and 
platoon exercise. I have only just found out that the manual exercise 
consists in learning to handle the gun in dumb show — ^the platoon exerciso 
in learning to fire it. 

** The only public personage who eauals them in unpopularity is the un- 
fartunate military auditor-general, wtkose title is the signal for a ehonis of 



THX bbcbuit's pbogbbss. 67 

Tituperation, for he is always cutting: people's lawful pay, retrenching the 
same sums two or three times over, and recovering from three or four dif- 
ferent persons that which only one is answerable for. C. has applied for 
muskets, numbers of his men being now ready for the manual exercise, but 
there are no belts in the magazine here, so that they cannot get any. 

"This being: harvest time, when the whole population are fully em- 
ployed, recruiting goes on very slowly. Different native commissioned 
and non-commissioned officers are out in the district recruitmg, and each 
recruit receives two annas* worth of food a-day. Now, when they arrive 
at Loodiana a lar^ proportion are found unfit for service, and the auditor- 
general always disputes the pa^rment of money expended in this manner, 
although the expense is unavoidable. This, however, is not so much his 
fault as that of the rules by which he is fettered. 

. '* No pay abstracts of eiUier officers or men have yet been passed, but 
the Treasury advance whatever money is needed, on the responsibility of 
the Commandant ;* and Captain W. has had so much trouble and expense, 
owing to these arrangements, that he ends a most humorous note of 
ffrievances to my husband, by saying, 'Catch me raising another regiment 
for them, that's all I' It is indeed very hard work, especially where, as 
in C.'s case, he has it all to do by himself. He rises beiore dawn to go to 
parade, and often cannot get back to breakfast. Then Native officers, 
Havildars, Sikhs, *Afgh§.ns and Ghurkas, come pouring in; official letters, 
indents, ad libitum^ nave to go oat ; and in the evening he is at parade 
again until tea-time. 

*' The new Adiutant has not yet joined. The Commissariat department 
is thus managea : A chowdrl is appointed at the head of the regimental 
Baz§.r. Advances are made to enable him to furnish funds to such shop- 
keepers as are willing to settle in the regiment, and he is responsible for 
tiie quality of the provisions sold. The Sep^his are generally required to 
supply themselves from their own Bazkr; and, as tney pay a little more 
than they would do in the town, the extra profit induces the Bani^hs to 
go with the regiment wherever it may be ordered. 

**C. turned out the first Baniahs who came, for cheating the soldiers. 
They consequently endeavoured to form a conspiracy with all the other 
shopkeepers in Loodiana, to prevent his having a Bazar at all, and the 
men not understanding the advantage of one, said they woidd rather 
receive their two annas daily to buy for themselves, C. managed to get 
two or three old Sepahis, who had turned Baniahs, to settle in his lines, 
and took much pains to explain to the native officers, commissioned and 
non-commissioned, the use of a Baz^r, desiring them to propound the 
saidi to the men. He also issued an order on the subject, wnich, after 
being read at three successive roll-calls, so entirely convinced the recruits 
tiiat they rushed tumultuously to the shops, and well nigh plundered 
them. 

** They are now marched up by companies, and each receives his allow- 
ance in due order ; and, if the shopkeepers give them credit beyond the 
aniount of two annas per diem, it is at their own risk. Some of the men, 
principally the Hindus, save a good deal out of their subsistence money. 
C. means to have ten Baniahs, one for each company. Each shop contains 
everything the Sepahis require in the way of food. 

" All the native officers who have been out recruiting are in disgrace, 
for they have brought in the scum of the country, and pocketed the 
public money by the following process : They send word they nave enlisted 

* When tbe r^meat received the first issue of pt.y W'^tA eigM mcmt>& \-niaTTeAT%« 
but they were afterwards paid, like the rest of the Bengal aim^ , ^n^t^ hlouWil. 

72 



68 DBUMMEBS DISALLOWED. 

one hundred men, and require subsistence money accordingly ; then they 
bring in fiftj', and declare the other fifty have deserted en route, ana 
within ten days twenty-five of the remainder have taken their leave. 
For the latter desertions there is no doubt that the topi is greatly to 
blame." 
I insert a fragment of another letter on the same subject. 

" Loodiana, May 13th, 1847. 

" My dear Mr. . 

" I must add a postscript to my Chanitre des Chapeaux, as I think my 
letter touching the Frontier Brigade ana the Topi may be justly styled. 

" In the first place Lord Hnrdinge, considering the Frontier brigade as 
a Political Body, has placed it under the Political Department, at the 
same time constantly referring matters relating to it to the Commander- 
in-Chief and military authorities, who, rejoicing in the conviction that 
everything will get into confusion without their superintendence, refuse 
to have anything to say to it. C. applied for tents.- The Governor- 
General directed that the regiment should only have half the allowance, 
because tchen comi^leted, more than half woula seldom be assembled at 
once, as it is his intention to employ them in treasure-parties and gaol- 
guards. Luckily C. had got the tents before this answer arrived, but if 
ho were to leave, he would have to restore all but the scanty portion 
allowed. 

** C. has represented that the regiment must be collected together and 
disciplined before they can possibly be detached on |fuards or treasure 
parties, and in the meantime one half of them cannot lie in the open air— 
the hot winds are blowing — the rains are coming on, and, of course, the 
men will desert. 

** He then applied for hutting-money. The regiment is at present 
occupying some old lines, and the mud huts of their predecessors could 
easily be put in repair and thatched for them at a very small expense. 
This was refused, although granted to all the regiments of the line, to 
which Lord Hardinge is so anxious to assimilate the Frontier Brigade. It 
was stated that the men must do it at their own expense, but the x)olitical 
authorities might afford them any lielp in their power by convict 
labour, &c. The men have not received a farthing of pay beyond bare 
subsistence money (two annas a day), so how can they do it at their own 
expense ? And it turns out that no convicts can be spared, and the poli- 
tical authorities have no other assistance to give. 

** Again the Governor- General writes that KhaMsls are not authorized* 
for these corps, and has required the commanding officer of one of the 
other regiments to pay twelve drummer-boys himself, saying that he tad 
no authority for enlisting them, but allowing them a drum-major had 
bedn inserted hy mistake in the complement of the regiment ; I should say 
that the drummer-boys were the natural and necessary consequents of 
the druip-major, and that therefore Government ought to pay for their 
own mistake. They also refused buglers, but afterwards allowed two per 
company, and lo ! no less than three of their own documents, previously 
issued, authorise the entertainment of both Khalasis and buglers ! How 
can raw recruits be expected to pitch and take charge of their own tents, 
especially when all the other regiments have Khalasis to do it for them ? 
The commanding officers have been invested with the powers of joint 
magistrates, and a Munshl is indispensable, not only to take down pro- 
ceedings but also to write all Hindustlinl letters and papers coxmeoted 

* Long afterwards, in consequence of vehement representations, Khalasis wsre at 
length allowed. 



HASAN KHAN*S JOUE^BY — OUR GABDBK. 69 

with the reiariment. The last orders from head-qnarters disallowed the 
Munshl, so that C. has to pay his salary as well as that of the Xhal§.Bi3 
out of his own pocket. The men have not yet got their arms, and the pay 
abstracts of February are not yet passed." 

Hasan Khkn came the other evening and said he was going to Simla to 
pay a visit to the I/)rd Sahib. He asked for letters to Colonel Garden 
and others, and said he thought it probable he should be requested to 
raise a thousand .; horse in the district of Peshawur ; but added, ** they 
wont obey me, I must have some European gentlemen, or otherwise all 
these Afghans will be at sixes and sevens. iNow I shall tell them that I 
wont serve under anybody but you." C. advised him not to say anything 
of the sort. 

He came yesterdav, the 16th, to take leave. He wore boots, and a 
tight-fitting: embroidered " chapkan" (coat) with pistols and sword. As 
he sprang into the saddle and dashed awav, his Munshl and attendants 
checked their horses to shake my husband's hand. The Munshl had a 
round shield slung at his back. One of the other horsemen had a long 
scarlet spear, and there were one or two fleet men on foot, and as they 
went off at full speed, there was such a pawing and prancing, such cur- 
vetting, caricolling, bounding, and behadering of horses and men as you 
never beheld. They teach their horses to rear and prance for effect, and 
very good the effect is in a picturesque point of view. My husband was 
advising Hasan Khan to lay by some of his pension. ** Oh," answered 
he, " it would be a shame for me not to spend all the money I have.** 
This exactly expresses the usual Eastern idea. 

Innumerable passages of Scripture derive fresh force in this country ; 
for instance, in reading the first Psalm the other morning^, " He shall be 
like a tree planted by the rivers of waters, &c.,'* on raising my eyes I 
beheld every tree in the garden planted by a water-course, without which, 
in this burning clime, it would not bring forth its fruit in due season, but 
its leaf would wither ; and I felt how forcible an emblem it was of the 
absolute necessity of never failing supplies of the water of life, for the 
spiritual life and fruitfulness of the plants of the Lord's vineyard. 

The other day I saw, for the first time, the Eastern mode of watering a 
garden. The well is at some distance, at the top of a little rise ; a bullock- 
skin is drawn up by a pair of little oxen, who run down a short slope 
with much glee, and thus raise the water ; they are then loosened from 
the rope and walk up the hill again, while the water is poured into a 
channel from whence it flows down to the garden, and runs from one little 
sloping channel to another; the mall or gardener carefully removing all 
obstructions from its path. It makes one understand the expression, 
" He water eth it with his foot ;" for with the foot you easily open a 
passage through the little ridges of earth, or bar the prog[ress of the tiny 
stream. So ought we to remove obstacles — our besetting sins, our worldly 
pleasures, which hinder the free course of Divine grace in our souls. 

I was much amused yesterday in watching the patient, quiet camels I was 
aketching. All creatures in India appear to me much better sitters than 
at home, and have a much greater faculty of keeping still : cows, camels and 
horses will remain some minutes in the same attitude without moving an 
inch, so do the people : the very birds sit tranquilly and meditate on 
their spray. A state of violent action and excitement, and one of perfect 
repose, seem the two alternatives under which men and animals naturally 
exist in the land of the sun. 

Our young Arab Moti is the most quiet, sleepy, lazy creature possible, as 
alm<^ all Arabs are when not roused. He is as gentle a.^ ^ Vacco^^ vcA.v^\s^ 
me starokehis eyes, and pull his ears, and coax him a& inxLC^\i «s»\\^<&« W^^:^^ 



70 DBPBATITT OF HINDUISM. 

divers pets. Then there are two handsome Panjabl black goats, very 
large, nearly as high as the calf, with long hanging ears, who come for 
a bit of bread every evening, and the pretty HtUe kid of one of them. 
The ears are white, and the rest of the creature perfectly black and like 
the softest velvet. They brought me a new-born kid this afternoon, 
whose ears I measured : they were fully twelve inches long, and will be 
eighteen in all probabilitv when it is full CTown. One of my goats is 
of a peculiar breeds and nas what they call bands, — ^two pendants, like 
small ears, from its throat. 

I have also a dumb^, or Afghan sheep, that was brought on a charpal, 
carried by men all the way from Firozpur. Its tail is more than a foot 
wide, and consists entirely of fat, which is considered a great delioacy. 
It is a very handsome white ram tiiat eats out of my hand, and follows me 
into the house. 

It is becoming warmer daily. Our phankahs are put up, and we have 
one pulled while we are at dinner ; we must soon have it all day. The 
I>oor people in Calcutta had the thermometer at 96^* under a phankah more 
than a month ago ; and at Allahabad Mr. W. wrote ns a fortnight sinoe 
he was sitting without his coat, although his phankah was going. 

C. drove me out the other evening. The oountry was just a waste of 
sand, like driving through a desert. We met many people returning 
from their labour, — many of the women with great loads of straw on 
their heads ; some of them tall and handsome, and all of them with an 
excellent carriage and free step, their dress quite classical. 

Hasan Khan has left C. in charge of his household. On the first of the 
month he is to get his private signet, draw his pay, and supply money 
to his people. It makes one's heart ache to thinK ihut such a man as 
Hasan Khkn should be a Muhammadan. 

The other morniug I saw two officers shooting <]^uail8, the place of dogs 
being supplied by beaters, who take up their position ten paces from each 
other and then close in, thus putting up the birds ; they nad also hawks 
with them. I saw them throw a dead quail into the air, and the ha#k 
caught it before it fell ; but it is a cruel sport, I think, to let loose one 
creature upon another; and moreover, the beaters greatly injure the 
corn-fields, and the poor people are generally afraid to complain. 

It is impossible to describe the corruption of some of the courts in this 
country. The munshis, chaprasis, or messengers, and other officials about 
a European judge, agent or magistrate, extort bribes from all who have 
causes, sometimes under j>retence of speaking to the S&hib, sometimes 
under pretext that the bribe is for the S§hib himself. If none, or not 
sufficient, is given them, they prevent the proper witnesses horn being 
called, keep tnem out of the way, and with unimaginable dexterity defeat 
the ends ot justice. A man will give himself the airs of being high in 
favour and having great influence with his master, simply from the fsot 
of being admitted into his writing-room, and will pretend he has pleaded 
the cause of a suitor, when he would not dare to open his lips on the 
subject. Of course an indolent man in office is the cause of unspeakaUe 
iojustice. 

It is, I believe, almost impossible to find a native who is either tmthfiBl 
or pnre-minded. How can they be so with their impure creeds ? Yon 
know the tendencies of M^hammadanism, but you are not aware of the 
nnspeakable abominations of Hinduism, which are intertwined with all 
their religious rites. The ** Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation" shows 
that man can never he better than that which he worships, and if so^ how 
thoroughly must the native mind be polluted by a faith which, I sni>poaey 
snrpassea ill others in depravity. On this account it is min to a child t^ 



THB WAFA &IOUM — AFGHANS AND SIKHS. 71 

be kept in this country, unless the mother can haye it always with her* 
and yet» knowing this, half the parents in India commit the sole charge 
of their children, even girls» to native bearers. The bearers are, however, 
a shade better than the women. I could not repeat the dreadful stories I 
have heaxd of the early depravity and knowledge of wickedness acquired 
by children from their Ayahs, even under viguant superintendence. I 
think it a plain duty for every one who can hy any means afford to have 
a European nurse for their children as soon as they begin to speak ; and 
the next best thing is an Afghan bearer, who will keep the child in order 
and not spoil it by excessive servility. 

On returning from a drive we found the Niz&m-u-Dowlah here in the 
midst of his prayers. He and two of his people were kneeling facing the 
west, each on his praying carpet, one behind the other, the Niz^m hemg 
iiie fugleman. They took not the smallest notice of us or of anything else 
mitil mey had finished. By-the>by, did you see that letter in the Record 
flihowing that praying to the East is an old Pagan custom, mentioned by 
Yictorius on his rules for building heathen temples, that half of the skV 
being' considered propitious and the other unlucky. The Mzim-u-Dowlan 
belongs to one ci the most aristocratic branches of the Clan Popalzye. 
fi^ fatiier ojid grandfather were both Wazirs ; one of his sisters married 
fihah ZemkBif and another Shah Shinah. The latter, who was called the 
Wafa Begum (the sincere or honourable lady or princess), was his princi- 
wd wife, and distinguished herself by her fortitude, wisdom, and spirit 
during her husband's captivity in the hands of Rax^'it Singh. She was 
Shah Shindb's very sool ; the Niz^im sjpoke most warmly of her, and then 
added, " We were of one milk," meaning children of the same mother. 

A £sw evenings after he brought his nephew, the Shahzadeh Sult&n 
Huaein, son of Shah Zein^n, to see if my husband could procure a m(»re 
equitable division of the pension allowed by Government to the family of 
^e late Shah. The pension is only 2000 rupees a month ; and of this the 
ladies take half. The Prince very naively said, ** I have no objeotkm 
^at women should have food, and all that is necessary, but it is not right 
that they should take half, and leave hardly anything for eight sons, 
bearded men." It is curious that all these AighlLns, many of them like 
the Shahzadeh, personally unknown to my husband, should come to him 
lor advice and assistance. The Prince was most simply dressed, with a 
flain white turban, his manner was shy, with a shade of awkwardness, 
and it is no wonder, if a s(m of the Sover^gn who shook our Indian 
Empire to its bads should feel awkward in so strangely altered a position. 

The differenee between the Afgh&ns and Sikhs in manner and appear- 
ance is vwy markei. All the Afghans of any rank that I have seen, are 
perfect gentlemen, in manner very courteous, but with none of the exube- 
rant oeremondousness and obsequiousness of the Hindu. The Nizam-u- 
Bowlah is one d the most dignified men I ever saw ; the Sikhs, on the. 
other hand, are rough, rude, unpolished, noisy soldiers, with loud voices. 

A Sikh Colonel, Gajit Sing by name, callea here the other day. Both 
h» and his cousin were fine looking men, but with much less high caste 
features than the Afghans. They were both dressed in gigot- fashioned 
white trousers, white muslin jacket, and the C<d(Hiel had a pair of gold 
bangles on his wrists. 

Aimost all %khs^ Afgh&ns, and Hindus have very delicate hands and 
Iset, in comparison to European ones. 

It is now net enough to use the phankah all day. Do you know what 
a phankah is ? It is a wooden firame about three feet deep, covered with 
doth, with a doul^e flounce of caUoo at the bottom. It is slun^ fccycoL^V^ 
ceiling, as low as can be done without knoekinfs vfiiy qis£^*« \ifiAA. ^^ \a 



72 FIBOZSHAHAB. 

passes under it, and is pulled to and fro by a rope whicli generally passes 
tlirougli a hole into tne verandah, where the Dearer sits. It makes the 
room pleasantly cool. We have also Tattis, which are semicircular 
screens of thatch, made of sweet scented grass, called Kas, and fitting the 
doorway on whichever side the wind blows. This Tatti is sprinkled in- 
cessantly with water, and the hotter the wind of course the more rapid 
the evaporation, and the cooler the house. 

We have had rain lately, which has made the mornings and evenin|fs 
delightful. The house is Kept closely shut from seven or eight o'clock m 
the morning till seven in the evening ; but although the outer air is like 
that of an oven, I do not feel it at all too warm in the house ; thanks to 
these admirable contrivances. 

Dr. has just paid us a visit. He told us, as so many others have 

done, that there never was such confusion as at Firozshahar. The 
battle began about half-past three p.m., consequentlv it soon was become 
dark ; there was no moon, and the only light was from the Sikh camp, 
which was on fire, and their magazines, which ever and anon blew up. 
He said there was no reason for attacking that night, as there was not 
the smallest chance of their running away. The Governor- General was 
seeking the Commander-in-Chief, the Commander-in-Chief the Governor- 
General ; nobody could be found, and the conflict and confusion went on 
until near daybreak. 

It was Dr. who, on the morning of the 23rd, recognized poor M^jor 

Broadfoot's body. It was lying just within the entrenchments, in no way 
mutilated, with the face perfectly calm and placid, and he it is who has 
lately caused the spot to be marked by a pavement of bricks with bis. 
name, otherwise it would soon have been obliterated. Colonel Ai^bur- 
tham was anxious to mark the grave of Major Somerset in a similar 
manner, and three graves had to be opened before it could be ascertained 
which was the right one. The Doctor told me that before the battle of 
Mudkl, the Sikhs declared they would not stop at Delhi, but would maroh 
straight on to London. After it, they were not quite so confident. 

He said, that in spite of Lord Gough's want of generalship, there was a 
great charm in him : his fine person, sweet expression, frank kind manntf, 
sincerity of heart, are very winning. His example did very much for our 
success. He was always m the thickest of the nffht, ahead of every one, 
waving his cap, and cheering on his men. The soldiers at Firozshahar were 
BO much exhausted, that Dr. himself saw an officer ride up to a scat- 
tered party of Europeans, and exhort them to come on. Their answer was. 
'* It's of ho use, it is not in us, sir. We are done up." Many of the 62nd 
were fainting before they came imder fire, having been marching from 
seven in the morning unul three, p.m., when they came into action, 

A regimental EhSlasi, whose vocation it is to be trustworthy, stole 
eight rupees from the doctor, whereupon all the other EhUasies went in 
a body to tJie doctor, to say they hoped he would be punished, for he had 
brought disgrace upon their name. Strange to say, there are whole daMes 
of men in India whose vocation it is to be honest, or rather perhaps, trust- 
worthy. 

The Mahajans or native Bankers often send a common bearer from t]i0 
bazar some himdred miles with a bag of gold, luid unless the bearer dies 
of fever or is murdered, the money is as »ue as if under charge of a regi- 
ment. So it is with Kh^asis ; ana my husband tells me he would entrust 
nncounted money to any amount to any Sep^s from the line whom he 
has in his renment, and feel quite at ease regarding its safety, just as yov 
would to a Highland cadie in Edinburgh,; exceptions are wondemilly 
rare. They are ploughing part of the garden, and manage the matter 



AFGHAK ZENANA. 73 

very simplv. A plank is first tacked on to two bullocks, a boy stands oij 
it as they drag it along, and this is sufficient to make this light sandy 
soil quite smooth. The bullocks are then fastened to the plough, made of 
two i>ieoes of wood nearly at right angles with each other, and caused to 
describe an oblong, inside whicn they patiently proceed, diminishing it 
every turn like a coil of rope, thus making no regular furrows, but turn- 
ing up tiie whole ground. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Mat 4th. — On Saturday one of Hasan lOi^n's people came to tell us the 
youngest Bibi had been yery ill the last three days, and had sent to the 
Baz^r for some medicines, which of course had done her no good ; I pro- 
mised to see her in the evening, and Mrs. Eudolph agreed to accompany 
me. We drove in at a narrow gateway, got two or three vehement jolts 
in entering the court yard, ana stopped before a one-storied house with 
mud walls and no windows. Mrs. Kudolph and I were ushered in, and 
found cursives in a good sized room with bare rafters and painted walls, 
fall of little arched recesses, about four feet from the ground, which served 
for shelves and cupboards. A mattress, covered with a sheet, lay on the 
floor, and on it the poor little wife who had paid me a visit ; she was very 
illy her face draw]gL and pinched, unable to move without pain ; she was 
dressed in a very wide pair of scarlet trousers and a short transparent 
little shirt of figured net, with wide sleeves, her black hair hanging down 
behind in one plait ; a dirty elderly woman, with thick cotton veil, which 
may once have been white, and dark trousers, tight halfway up to the 
knee and full above, was sitting by her and coaxing her. I took her for 
a servant, but found she was her mother ; two stout dirty boys of nine or 
ten years old, and several servant girls, one of them a very pretty young 
thing, were sitting around on the floor. The other wife, IJibi Jl, con- 
ducted me to an arm-chair in the middle of the room close to a little 
Phankah, but as I could see nothing of my patient at that distance, I 
speedily sat down on the floor by her side ; they then brought me pillows 
and bolsters to lean upon. I gave her some medicine, and ill as she was 
she could not forbear taking another look at my petticoat, which is a source 
of great wonder to them from being corded. Bibi Ji brought us some tea 
made with cinnamon, which we both agreed was much nicer than when 
made our fashion. The tea-leaves and cinnamon are put into cold water, 
and placed on the fire to boil very slowly ; it is taken off directly it begins 
to boil, and boiled mUk and sugar added. 

The room was painted with fiowers on a white p^round, a sort of imitation 
of Florentine mosaic ; it has three doors opening mto the inner court where 
the women sleep in the open air, cook, &c., and on the opposite side as 
many leading to the outer court, which, when the women occupy this 
room, are kept closed, with thick wadded curtains of yellow cotton, bor- 
dered with red, over them. As, however, the doors are very rudely made 
of planks, they have manv chinks most convenient for the women to peep 
and listen through. At the head of the bed stood a rude lamp, a kind of 
vase, with four wicks, lying in oil, which require to be constantly 
trimmed ; it stood on an old deal box to make it higher, and when I 
asked for water it was brought by the Pesh E^hidmat, who seems to manage 
everything in his master's absence ; he came only to the door, but he must 
have seen in very well. 

Sunday morning, by ^ve o'clock, a message was sent thattkei^t "^SXikN. 
was worse. Mrs. Eudolph and I went again, and tdod. ^m^ T€tci&^^'^ ^S^ 



74 AFGHANI PATIEKT. 

apparently no good result ; Mrs. Kudolph was obliged to eo home, but 
beiore doing so she asked the i>oor sick girl how she expected to be saved, 
and, on her making no answer, told her she ought to pray to GK>d to en- 
lighten her heart by His Holy Spirit, and then gave her a short sketch of 
the way of salvation by Christ. Leila Bibi kept tier eyes shut with a Idud 
of stifOiecked expression, and Mrs. Rudolph atterwards told me she always 
found that it was a very unwelcome subject, for they are sensible of having 
no^ sure ground of salvation, and do not like to think of it. How often is 
this the case with nominal Christians ! Like the ostrich hiding her head 
in the sand, they hope to escape danger by escaping the sight of it. 

"When, however. Sirs. Rudolph returned with me in the evening, Leila 
Bibi's manner to her was very cordial. I stayed with her until half-put 
one P.M., leaving her better, although her strength was greatly prostrated. 
The Bibls brought me all sorts of eatables ; they made me he down on 

auilts in the middle of the floor, and polled the Phankah over me^ and in 
tie evening they made a khana or dinner for ns of pillau, and an exoeU 
lent dish called Phimi, ground rice boiled in milk tiu it is of the eonsiB* 
tency of arrowroot. 

Every day since, I have been to see my poor patient, morning and evoB- 
ing, sometimes staying with her two or tnree hours. She has had veiT 
restless nights, ana has eaten nothing the last six days. Mrs. Rndolpa 
goes with me as often as she can, gencrallv early in the morning. 

Yesterday (Tuesday) she read the 53ra of Isaiah, yid some of John, 
in Hindustani (which Leila, having been brought up at Loodiana, nn- 
derstands perfectly), and spoke of the sinfulness of our hearts, and of 
the only way of salvation. Leila Bibi said nothing, but one of the 
others listened most attentively. The mother and Bibi Ji walked about 
entirely unconcerned. When Mrs. Rudolph is not with me, Jacob or 
my husband comes to interpret ; Jacob stands at the door, and the old 
mother speaks to him openly, but 1 observe they are much more parti- 
enlar ^vith C. He modestly stands on one side of the door and Hhit 
female speaker on the other, so that although they make up for it by peep* 
ing after him, he cannot see them. The Peshkhidmat always stands l)y, 
and all the younger members of the family post themselves against tae 
walls, so as not to be seen. One or two are pretty intelligent girls, and 
they all receive me most adbctionately. 

It is pleasant to see how harmonioiisly they seem to live together* each 
vying with the other in attending on the invalid. Bibi Ji is a heavy 
figure, and not very " quick at the uptak.*' liy<the-by, I remarked that 
I^ila itibi's little sark is sewn at the throat, so it is evidently not taken 
off every day. Their persons and hair seem clean, but their clothes are 
worn until they are aunost worthy of a Romish saint. The men of any 
rank are much more particular. They use only one sheet on their bedv 
and none over them, as they sleep in their day clothes ; they seem y^ 
decorous in uncovering themselves before others ; this was shown in 
many ways by the poor invalid when we were putting hot fluwwij l* on 
her, &c. 

Now that Leila Bibi is getting better, they all show me every mark of 
kindness and gratitude, squeezing my hands, patting and stroking me ; 
and, last night, two of them shampooed me. Leila Bibi makes signs ^ 
me to sit on her bed close to her, and then puts her arm round me, and 
her dumb thanks, putting my hand to her forehead and eyes, are yeff 
pretty. There seems little practical distinction of rank between tke mil' 
tresses of the family and the servants, except that the former have a fev 
gold ornaments, and wear very wide trousers and transparent jaekets, irith 
purple net reUa thrown over the left shoulder and reaching to the gitmnd 



MAKING ijf IliPBBSSIOlC. 75 

beliind ; while the latter have blue cotton shirts, cotton yeils, and ludicrons 
trousers, tight nearly to the knee and full above. One or two have a peti- 
coat instead. They have their hair hanging down in braids behind, and 
one long curl on each side of the temple. Bibi Ji has silver bangles on her 
feet. An old fat servant sometimes comes in dressed literally in sack- 
cloth. Bibi Ji brin^ everything eatable with her own hands, fetches 
water for the medicines, &c. Several that I at first took for attendants 
torn out to bo friends, for it is the custom in case of sickness for some of 
the friends of the invalid to go and stay in the house, rendering all need- 
ful aid tiU amendment takes place, and a good custom it is. In H/ngland 
we can so easily buy service, that we have forgotten the privilege oi ren- 
dering it. 

Last evening the invalid was much better and quite cheerful. One of 
the maids, a merry-looking girl, hearing I was not qoite weU, took the 
Homoeopathic Book and pretended to read in it to £na out my case. The 
other day they asked me to read to them, having a great admiration for 
an art, which none of them possess. As 0. was to receive Hasan Kh^'s 
pension for him, two receipts in Persian were prepared and brought to 
Leila Bibi to be stamped with her husband's private seal. She is eyi- 
dentljr the favourite wife. A red little box was placed on her bed, with 
one mnge off; she unlocked it, (such a wretched padlock I) with a little 
key which hung on the sash of her trousers. The seal was rubbed with 
Indian ink, and the maid tried to make an impression and produced a 
great black blot. I tried with no better success, so the seal was confided 
to me that the Sahib might make the impression himself. The Pesh- 
khidmat followed me home with two fresh receipts, but neither he nor 
the " Sahib** could succeed ; so they were obliged to have two others made 
out and bring the Munshi, who sealed them properly in a moment by 
putting on very little ink, and not letting any go into the hoUows of the 
seaL This is mo way all letters are authenticated ; they are written by 
a Munshi and stamped with the seal of the person sending them, which 
seal bears his name and often his title. This of course opens a wide field 
for forgeries, especially as it is easy to wash out either the writing or the 
signature, and substitute others, both being in Indian ink on thick and 
YCTV glossy paper. 

Hasan hhkn has a private store-room hung round with arms, among 
them I saw a shield, a cavalry sword, and the blunderbuss 0. gave him. 
Some large chests I suppose contain clothes and resais, but Orientals seem 
to have no sense of oider. The family possess only pewter spoons, and 
coie or more very blunt clasp knives, and a red and wnite German glass. 
In order to return Hasan Khan's present, I sacrificed my amethyst brace- 
lets and gave one to each Bibi. The little sick one's face lighted up with 
pleasure, and I really think it did her good. 

Wednesday, May 6th. — When I went last evening to see Leila Bibi, I 
£>und a whole family of strangers there. She, who seemed to betheprin- 
eipal i>erson, was one of the most lovely creatures I ever saw ; eyes, 
nose, mouth, and teeth were beautiful, with a very fair skin like an 
Italian, perfect eyebrows, and eyelashes such as they almost all have, 
like a thick silk fringe. She was very becomingly dressed in snow-white 
pajamahs and veil, and a purple net shirt. This morning the Peshkhid- 
mat, as usual, brought a lamentable account, but I found my patient no 
worse. I took a cup of sago with me, and gave her a few spoonfuls, as I 
was afraid of her remaining any longer without nourishment, and I dared 
not tell them to feed her, lest they should force her to eat, which they 
were much inclined to do. She called me her " bahin" 015 m\ftit« Xwsl 
may be sure that I pray earnestly for guidance w\ieii^^enc \ ^x^^ssr^wfe ^^t 



76 POSSESSED BOY — AN AFGHAN HUSBAND. 

my patient or give her anything, and, as C. suggested that it would be 
well to do so openly, I told them as well as I could that God only could 
make her well, and then knelt down and prayed silently for a few minutes 
before giving her the medicine. 1 thought it the only way I could take to 
give Him the glory of her recovery. 

A very strange thin^ has happened to the son of Mrs. Rudolph's Ayah. 
The boy, who is, I believe, twelve or fourteen years of age, returned from 
the Bazkr the other day howling and cr3dng in a fearful manner. Mr. 
Rudolph went to see him ; he was sitting with his knees up to his chin, 
crying out that a spirit was within him, and Mr. Rudolph said he never 
saw anything more frightful, or more exactly like the account of those 
possessed by evil spirits which the Scriptures give us. The x)eople here 
all believe that in these cases, which are common, the i>erson is possessed, 
and accordingly they have been keeping a light burning before the boy, 
and making ofterings of flowers to the evil spirit within him. Mr. Ru- 
dolph's opinion is exactly the same as my husband's — viz., that in 
Heathen countries such as this, Satan still exercises a power which we 
know was formerly allowed him, but of which he is now in a great 
measure deprived in Christian lands. 

May 7th. — Leila got better the next two days, and on Saturday evening 
we found them all quite joyful, as they had heard from Hasan Kh&n, that 
he had been extremely well received by the Lord S^hib, who had given 
him very handsome presents, and promised him three medals, one for 
Afghanistan, one for Gw^lior, and one for the battles last year. 

The next morning — Sunday — ^to my great amazement, as I drove into 
the court, Hasan Kh^n himself appeared ; he must have ridden day and 
night from Simlah directly hjB heard of his wife's illness. He led me in; 
she seemed better, but shortly spasms came on, and she suffered greatly. 
This obliged me to stay with ner till half-past ten, by which time septa 
had relieved the violence of the pain. You may imagine I watched Hasan 
£[han very closely to see how Muhammadan husbands behave. He was 
most attentive to his poor wife, raising her up, giving her water every few 
minutes, and holding her head. He was dressed exactly as the women 
are — i. e., with very full trousers, muslin short shirt, and skull-oap. like 
all the Afghans, he rushes about in the most energetic manner ; and then, 
when his wife was a little easier, sat down and gossipped with the other 
women most sociably. He is well obeyed ; he told his little child to go to 
me, and it came instantly, for the first time. He seems very fond of Tier. 
He gave his little wife some sago, and though she made wry faces, he 
caused her to take the whole, just as if she had been an infant. He is 
particularly pleased with a telescope which Lord Gough gave him. The 
Jungi-Lord (or war lord, as they call him) went to get the glass himsdK 
and said, " I have used this five and twenty years, and I give it to you 
because you are an old and brave soldier." 

May 14th. — I have been to see my patient every day. Hep brother is 
still tnere, but comes no more within the Zenana. It is droll to see Hasan 
'Khka feel his wife's pulse. He does it with a face of such preternatural 
gravity, as plainly snows he thinks it incumbent on him to make up for. 
perfect ignorance by wise looks. 

He sent us a breakfast the other day, and then came to see us eat it 
It consisted of a lamb roasted whole, just as it is described in Exodus xii. 9i 
a huge pile of rice, and some minor dishes. After breakfast, we showed 
him some electro plate, and C. endeavoured to exi)lain the electric tele* 
graph and the railway. The telegraph he found it very hard to cr^t; 
I am sure if any one else had told him of it, he would not have believed a 
sfUable, 



YISIT FSOH HASAN EHAN's FAMILY. 17 

We gave him two electro- plated curry dishes, with which he was greatly 
leased. Hasan Kh^n was charmed with the blotting^-hook Miss J. 
mbroidered for me, and seemed as if he could not examine it enough. 
11 the natives are curious in embroidery. The Afghans, also, seem fond 
f pictures, and understand at once what they mean-^the Hindus never 
; but if they see a lion drawn on a very small scale, probably take it 
>r an insect. Hasan Khan greatly admired a little print in Anderson's 
Maehrchen," of a hare running over the snow. 

My husband tells me that the Hindus have no eye for beauty, whereas 
16 Afghans have a very quick perception of it, and admire Europeans 
Kceedingly ; it is the same with our melodies, with which the Afghans are 
elighted, but the Indians prefer tomtoms to Mozart. 

I do not perceive the Jewish caste of countenance so strongly as I ex- 
eoted ; on the contrary, I should say there was no characteristic difference 
etween Europeans and Afghans, save the darker complexion of most of 
le latter. 

Yesterday I sent a buggy and requested Leila's mother to come to me, 
s I wished to speak to her. It soon returned covered all over with a 
^hite cloth, out of which, after the Sais had been sent away, the Pesh- 
hidmat extracted the mother and little Padimah Begum, Leila, and 
►ibi Ji, who had all crammed themselves into the bug^y. Hasan Khan 
5on after arrived, and when C. reproved him for letting his little wife 
ome out in the heat, he said, " What could I do ? She would come." 

I made her lie down, and afterwards showed them my Camera Obscura, 
rranging it so that they could see everything in the outer room without 
eing seen themselves. Hasan Kh^n was as much delighted with it as 
ny of them. He made Leila Bibl sit by him, .and showed it to her. They 
ad the satisfaction of seeing my husband in this fashion. 

He takes very little notice of Bibi Ji, who, though a most good-natured 
feature, looked extremely discomposed. He had been all the time either 
>oking through the Camera himself, or showing it to Leila Bibi ; so to 
omfort the other, I showed her my store-room and my saddle. They 
articularly admired a black tulle dress, and above all a looking-glass, 
ito which they all looked and smiled at themselves, and arranged their 
eils with great satisfaction. 

Hasan Khan is every bit as full of curiosity as his women. While I am 
resoribing for his wife, he examines my gloves, bag, purse, and handker- 
liief ; he generally brings me my bonnet and shawl nimself, and always 
ralks by my buggy to his gate. He has twice daubed me with sandal 
'ood oil, the scent of which can hardly be got rid of. 

He told C. that he went to Simla with his heart burning, determined to 
peak out. He says that he has rendered greater services to Government 
tian any other A^han, and thinks his pension ought to be made equal to 
liat of Jan Fish§,n Kh^n (who has 1000 a month) and five rupees bej^ond 
:, just to give him the pre-eminence. " The pension I have was given 
le for my services in Afghanistan. I expended 2000 rupees in arming 
)llowers during these last fights, and I have got nothing for my later 
Bpvices but medals. When the Lord Sahib gave me his hand, placed a 
hair close to himself, made an oration in my praise, and gave me the 
an (betel nut) and perfume himself, which is always done to a king, all 
his shut my mouth, I only asked for a letter in his own writing stating 
he services I have rendered, and said that I wanted my family from 

Lord' Hardinge has promised him this letter, and is goin^ to write to 
)ost Muhammad to desire him to send down the Kh^nL^ja i^xmV^ . 
So great was his indignation at getting no substautiol "c^^^x\ iort \:c\& 



78 AFGHAN CHILDBEK. 

reoent ROod service, that he said he could have ** torn the presents in 
pieces. Never was there a more fiery soul than dwells in his lean and 
wiry frame, at the same time he is full of strong affection. He kissels his 
little child's hands, and pats her most tenderly. It is pretty to see the 
small thing when he desires it to keep still, sit down and lay hold of one 
of his feet to coax. 

He told us the other day, that after the battles last year, his sister " of 
the same milk^* who is in Afgh§.nistan, heard a false report that he was 
killed. She wept so much, that to use his own words, ** darkness came 
on !'* and she is blind. I iind that the beautiful creature I saw at his 
house sometime ago, is a sister of Leila Bibi, married to Safdar Jang, a 
son of Shah Shujah's, and so utterly vile a character, that Hasan Eh&n 
never suflfers his wife to return her sister's visits. He said, " I am a re- 
spectable man, and therefore do not prevent the sisters seeing each other ; 
but I am of one of the hrst fjamilies in Afghiinistan, and I should think 
myself disgraced if I crossed the threshold of such a man's house." 

I am happy I am not an Afghan child. It is generally spoilt, and 
sometimes cimed. Bibi Jl, who never makes her little girl do anythinff 
she is told, the other day gave her two or three slaps in anger, and carried 
her off hanging by one arm. 

The other day we had a visit from a brother of Aminullah Sli&n, tiie 
chief who ordered my husband to be blown ^m the moa^ of a gon. 
The brother, Sirfraz Khin, is a most respectable-looking, gentlemanly old 
man, who^ at the head of Prince Sh^pur's household, and never sofifers 
him to spend a farthing beyond his pitiful income of 400 rupees — i.e., 
forty pounds a month. He came to consult my husband about a disagree- 
ment Detween Nadir Shah and Teimdr Shah, two of the princes ; and 
also on the best means of getting an increase to Sh^hptir's pension— 
asking his advice whether the Governor-General should oe written to at 
once or not. A strange position of confidential intimacy for two men 
who had stood in such opposite relations to Aminullah Kh4n. 

Atta Muhammad, who often comes here, told us the other day, that he 
had seen an Afgh&n who had been at Bokhara at the time of the mmrder 
of Stoddart and ConoUy, who told him, that had General Pollock informed 
the Amir that if the two officers were not given up, he would despatch a 
force to Bokhara and take the city, they would have been sent in with all 
honour. This is exactly what C. always said, and what Is^k Man&hem, 
the Bokhara Jew, also told us ; adding, that the people of Bokhara not 
only expected us, but would have welcomed us with joy. Thus these two 
gallant men were sacrifioed by Lord EUenborough's timid policy. 

May 18th. — A Persian horse merchant called the other day. when our 
Menu, Major Mac Donald was in Persia, and so ill that he was thought to 
be dying, some of his servants deserted, and others plundered him ; tlds 
man nursed him as if he had been his brother, so we felt bound to show 
him as much kindness as we could. 

1 met with a strong trait of honour the other day in a poor wood 
merchant. Jacob had bargained for some wood, ana, I thought, had 
beaten the man down perhaps a little too much, so I sent him about six- 

gence more than the stipulated price. He would not take it, saying he 
ad agreed to the price named, and could not go back from his word. I 
intend to employ him. 

I have never told you about the lights we have. Candles are very dear ; 
those from Patna, which are excellent, are a rupee a pound, even on the 
spot. We generally burn ghi, which is boiled butter, as it is cheaper 
than cocoa-nut oil. About a quarter of a pound of ghi is put uito a 
burner with water in it (shaped like a tumbler ^ vith a long stalk and no 



HOT WINDS — DBBAHS. 79 

foot), in whioh is a little tin thing holding two wicks made of twisted 
ootton. The hnrner is stack into the candlestick instead of candle ; it 
luis a glass shade round it, on the top of which is a tin cover full of holes, 
to prerent the light heing puffed out by the Phankah. 

Hassan £Mn speaks with ^eat contempt of his wife's family, just as 
Bob Eoy did of Glasgow bodies. His brother-in-law came with hira the 
other day to read a letter, but though a chair was placed for him, he did 
not sit down, and retired to join the other attendants as soon as he had 
finished reading. 

I forgot to tell you of the " Niel Gk)w" I saw sometime ago. You will 
tajkcy 1 was charmed with sweet sounds — no such thing, a nil gao is 
literally a blue cow. They are of a bluish slate oolour, and made more 
like the elk than the cow, and have that peculiar appearance as if the 
bac^ were weak or broken. They are found in all the forests of India ; 
the male has short straight horns. 

Even after sunset the hot wind is now as scorching as if you were 
standing dose to a huge kitchen fire, so you may have some faint idea of 
what it must be in the daytime. The house do<Mrs and windows are never 
opened until dark. Hassan Khto chose to have himself cupped at the 
back of. the neck the other day, under no reasonable pretext whatever. 
He came the next morning to see us, and appeared so oast down, Uiat 0. 
asked what was the matter. *'A1 Mihrbim" (0 dispenser of favours), 
sighed he, " I have dreamed a dream,"—** Well, what was the dream ?" 
**I dreamed that I broke a tooth, and that is a very evil portent." My 
hosband expounded to him that dreams generally arose from indi^stion, 
and said we have a scientific book written on dreams, which explains the 
oauses of them. " Ah !*' said he disconsolately, ** so have we, and it 
gives the meaning of each dream, and this is a verv bad one." 

An A^h^n came who had behaved most faithfully during the disasters 
at Kabul, so we kept him all day and feasted him at night. He is a most 
intelligent man, thoroughly unaerstood the whole Afghan business, and 
marveued at the inoomprehensible blunders of the English commanders. 
He is of the Ish4k £hail near Kandahar, and he is the first Afghan I 
have seen who wears his hair lontr. He was well dressed, with a turban, 
half of his hair brought forward over one shoulder and half over the 
o^er nearly down to his waist, *' like the hair of women," Rev. ix. 8. 

LoodUna, May 30th, 1847. 
The hot weather has now so completely set in, that for the last month 
I have never left the house, save before seven a.m. and after seven in the 
evening. From my &*equent visits to Hasan Kym's family, where I can 
go when it is cool, I see, as you may suppose, a ^ood deal of ** Life in the 
Harem," and would undertake to refute authoritatively, as I always felt 
inclined to do on prima facie grounds, the tine theories of Mr. Urquhart 
regarding the superior happiness of Muhammadan women. What can 
a man know of tne matter ? Did he go about visiting in the form of an 
old woman ? Had he friends and acquaintances in half a dozen Zen&n4s ? 
Would any Mussalm^l woman speak freely to a Feringhl, even if he 
did obtain speech with her, or are the Turks to be taken as competent 
and impartial witnesses as to the relative happiness of their wives. I do 
not thmk their secluded life makes them objects of pity. They are 
hardly more devoid of excitement than I am myself; thejr see their 
female Mends and their dearest male relations, and the tie between 
brother and sister seems to be very strongly felt by them ; but it is not in 
human nature to be content with being only the fourth part of a man's 
wife. They are far from viewing the matter as we do, and 1 ^WqNAl vk^« 
pose Hasan Kh&n's Zenknk a favourable speoixneu, ft;ft'Wi)ii\j^^^^'^V^x^^ 



80 POLYGAMY — AFGHAN SUPPEB. 

Bibi Ji seem very good tempered and very friendly to one another. Still, 
as no man can love two or more women equally, and as no woman can 
bear that another should share her husband's affections, I plainly see 
there are heartburnings innumerable, even in this familv. Leila Bibi is 
the favourite : she is a very pretty, merry, clever little creature, who 
laughs and talks with Hasan Khan much as an English wife would do. 
He is evidently very fond of her, but he takes not the smallest notice of 
noor Bibi Jl, who says nothing, but has an expression sometimes in her 
face which pains me to see. Luckily for her, she does not seem at all a 
sensitive person ; she is a good, warm-hearted creature, who is very much 
obliged for any little kindness, but not very bright. But then she has a 
little girl, and Leila Bibi, who has been married four years, has none. It 
is the old story of Hannah and Peninnah over again : the one is so anxious 
for children, and the other indirectly boasts of ners, by always talking of 
children and x)itying people who have none. 

It is surprising how we manage to talk, considering my want of know- 
ledge of Hindustani. The other morning I was alone with Leila Bibi and 
a servant. Leila Bibi asked me about marriages in our country ; I ex- 
plained the ceremony to her, and then she said,.** Only one Mem Sahib to 
one Sahib!" " Of course only one.*' The servant loudly applauded so 
excellent a plan, and Leila Bibl said, with a little pout and in a pitiful 
tone, "My bahib has got six! four at Kabul, and tne Governor-General 
has promised to apply for them!" I fear when they come there will be 
great difficulty in reconciling the claims of the * auld love* and the new, 
the one of noble birth, whose wisdom and prudence her husband extols so 
highly, and the young pretty creature, who now has things all her own 
way, as much, at least, as anv one can have under such a disciplinarian 
as Hasan Kh^n — for, with all his warm feelings, the savage nature of the 
lion peeps out whenever he is in any way provoked. 

Leila Bibl's brother, a very nice polite boy of eleven years old, who is 
very kind to little " Fatima" (whom he coaxes and pets as if he wel*e her 
nurse), and as gentle and quiet as a tame mouse, let one of my books fall 
this morning: Hasan Khan picked it up, and then deliberately gave the 
poor boy a slap, on his cheek as hard as he could. The child said nothing, 
though I am sure any English boy of his age would have roared. I was 
so angry that I shook the Khan by the sleeve, and only wished I could 
have spoken Persian enough to have "flyted" him. By-the-by, every 
Afghan is a living refutation of the favourite English idea, that boys 
must be sent away from home to make them manly. All the great men 
of our own country in the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries were brought 
up at home ; and here, under our own eyes, we see one of the most manly 
races in the world brought up in the Zenan§, almost exclusively among 
women, and therefore as boys wholly devoid of the bearishness and odious 
manners which characterize most English boys from ten to twenty. The 
only bad result of the presence of the boy in the gynsscium is, that they 
talk of everything before him just as if he were not there ; and, although 
very modest in behaviour, they are much more unrestrained in speaking 
of many subjects than any of our own countrywomen I have ever knowiii 
though I have heard wonaerful stories of what ** Indian" ladies will say. 

The Kh^n was eating his supper when I arrived the other evening, in 
the court-yard, with a white metal tray with three or four dishes on a tea- 
poy before him. He had a chair and a spoon brought for me, and we ate 
lovingly out of the same dish, he picking out bits of meat (very nice 
roasted mutton cut in small pieces^ with his fingers for me. When ne had 
finished, Bibl Ji, who waited on nim, brought a little thing like a teapot 
without a handle, made of metal, and enamelled in blue, green, and 



MESSAGE FROM MUHAMMAD SHAH KHAN. 81 

white : he drank water out of the spout of it, which is the usual Afghan 
fashion. He is very polite to me, hrings all I want, and always escorts 
me to the 'gate on foot. I thought how amused you would have been, 
could you have seen me gravely eating kabobs with Hasan Khan, or 
driving home in the buggy, with one Sais to lead the horse, another 
(Baidullah) to take care of me, and escorted by Leila Bibi's brother on 
horseback, and the Peshkhidmat with a blazing torch on foot, all at full 
speed. 

I happened to go one mornihgr to the house of one of the native Cate- 
chists, when they were engaged m family worship. The Catechist prayed 
most fervently in Hindustani, and it was pretty to see his little children, 
an old grey-headed woman, with his wife, and the wife of another 
Catechist who is absent, all scattered about the floor, with the head, in the 
Native fashion, resting on the knees, an attitude that would give most 
Europeans a fit of apoplexy. 

Our Havildar Major is from Oude. C. explained to him the other day 
that we had no holy days, except the Sabbath, and that ought to be con- 
secrated wholly to God. He said, ** Ah ! in my country we also observe 
the Sunday — we eat no salt on that day.*' 

That gentlemanly old man, Sirfras Khan, came to see us the night 
before last, and brought with him a Saiad, or holy man, the bearer of a 
letter from Muhammad Shah Kh^n, who saved my husband's life at Sir 
William MacNaghten s murder. Since the death of his son-in-law, Akbar, 
whose property, to the amount, it is said, of seven laks, he carried off, 
he has been at open war with the Amir, Dost Muhammad, who has lately 
taken and razed his fort of Baddiabad (where the hostages and captives 
were confined), and obliged Muhammad Shah to fly to the mountains of 
the Kaffirs, m all probability descendants of Alexander the Great's 
army, and inhabit tiie Hindu Kush range^to the north of the plains of 
Jelliilabad and Laghman (Hindu Kush means Hindu killer, the mountains 
being nearly inaccessible, but with delicious valleys between). The poor 
Khan in extremity writes a loving letter to C, reminding him that they 
had always been friends, and wishing to know if that friendship continues. 
According to their custom, when they are doubtful as to the relation they 
stand in towards any one, he had given the Saiad a token, whereby he 
should know my husband's disposition towards him. 

The Saiad began, — " Muhammad Shah Kh^n says to you, when you 
were in peril of life by the fort of Mahmud Kh^n, how did I behave?" 

C. immediately answered, " When the sword was raised to strike me, 
he put his arm round my neck, and took the cut on his own shoulder." 

And thus the Saiad knew that he was willing to acknowledge the ser- 
vice, and not as some of their own countrymen would have done, deny 
that he had ever seeussuch a person. C. told him that Muhammad Sh^h 
Khin had been a bitter enemy, but always an open one, and therefore he 
would meet him in battle without enmity, and if he came to his house 
would treat him as a friend, and make a feast for him. Is not this like a 
little bit of the olden time. 

• C. has been writing letters vigorously the last two days, endeavouring 
to get justice done to some of the many Afghans and refugees who have 
received little or no thanks at our hands for their fldelity ahd services. 
They all viewed Shah Shujah as our tool (which he undemably was), and 
in sacrificing everything in his cause they served us and not nim. I will 
just give you two or three instances of tne way in which they have been 
rewarded by our short-sighted economy. 

First, there is the Shahz^deh Shdpur, who, after being i^toqXsms^<5i^'^\xs!^ 
at Kabiil, and being foolish enough (the gallaiLt \)oy 'T^Bca W\. ^vxXfe^Ti^ \fi 



82 a&bab's tbbachsbt. 

trust to the repeated assurances given to him and the friendly chiefs, that 
the army would at least winter at KahOl, found, when too late, that he 
had been made a mere stalking horse, and was left to shift for himself as 
he best could. After the retreat of the army the Shahz^deh was attacked 
and ]}lundered, and it was with the utmost difficulty that he snooeeded in 
escaping with life and honour to Hindustan, where the Gbvernment as- 
signed him the paltry allowance of 400 rupees a month for his mother, 
hunself, his brother Nadir, and a host of ruined dependents. 

Again, All Reza Eh^n, the Kazzilbdsh, whose exertions as Chief-X)om- 
missariat Agent at Kabul were the means of supplying ihe force, came 
here yesterday from Lahore, quite weary with waiting for justice. The 
Government owe him the sum of 30,000 rupees, which he cannot get paid; 
he lost in our service between two and three laks, and although he nas a 
pension of 400 rupees a month, it is wholly swallowed up in paying inte- 
rest for money, which, owing to his Government bad debt, he has been 
obliged to borrow. 

Then again, there are some Afghan soldiers of Slileh Miihammad's to 
whom Major Pottinger gave a paper, pledging the Government to employ 
them permanently, in reward lor their services in the liberation of the 
captives. When they got to Kabul they were talked into accepting, or 
rather ordered to receive, four months* pay instead of perpetual serrioe ; 
and now, when having nothing else to hve on, they apply for employment, 
and produce the paper given them by Major Pottinger, mey are told that 
their claims, which are ^iXMmoraUy valid, cannot be listened to, because 
they are of five years* standing. How could these poor men apply when 
Lord Hardinge was in Calcutta, and they had no one to speak tost them? 
Why, for the sake of saving a few thousand rupees, should the Govern- 
ment act as petty pedlers, chaffering about strict dues, and evading oM 
claims that are not legally valid, and many that are so, instead of remrd- 
ing in a liberal and generous spirit (which would be the best policy)jho8e 
who have sacrificed everything to their fidelity to our cause ? As Hasan 
Kh^n truly said, ** It does not become a great Government to dole out its 
gifts' and rewards." 

That long-haired Afghan, who came the other day, told us tiiat on tiie 
retreat from Kabul he had escaped by passing himself off as a servant (^ 
Shujah-u-Doulah, and he himself heard Akbar Kh^n cry out in Persian, 
** Cease firing ! Do not touch the English !" and then add in Pushtu, 
" Slay them ! Slay them !** This he related as a piece of information, n©t 
knowing that C. was aware of it. Major Pottinger, soon after tiiey had been 

F' ven up as hostages, turned to my husband and said : " M., remember, if 
am killed, that I heard Akbar KMn desire his people to slay the English 
in Pushtu, though he was calling to them to stop firing in Persian." 

May 26th. — ^A present from Ali Eeza Kh^n came ; we had before told 
him that it was impossible to accept it on account of the Gt)ve]:nme]it 
regulations, but he wished me at least to see the things. It vras grievous 
to be obliged to refuse them, they were so pretty, — a beautiful Kashmir 
shawl, with pattern all over it, a green Kashmir scarf, and a little poahlii 
or jacket made of drakes' feathers, so pretty and glossy ! Ah ! what 
sacrifices public duty requires when one may not take a little jacket of 
ducks* feathers ! Atta Mahamiid brought me a very pretty piece of nink 
crape some time ago, and was so grieved at our refusing it, that yestei3aT» 
determiDcd we should take sometning, he sent us half a smidl cheese whioi 
he had lust received from Labor. On C. telling the messenger he nu 
much obliged and would eat it, the man answered in their usual primitivf 
fashion, "Stuff yourself well!" 
One ofC, 'b orderiies belonged to Woodbum's force, when, near Ghandf 



BESPOlfSIBILITY. 88 

Captain Woodbum and most of his men were cut to pieces. This man was 
among those taken prisoners — was carried aboat to different parts of 
Afjgfhanistan as a slave, and was in the mountains just above IstaM at the 
very time General M'Caskill took that place. He said that all the moun- 
tains in tiiat part are full of Hindustani, Ghurkis, and even some English 
prisoners, Se^^his, camp followers, &c. The Subadar of his own company, 
who, at the time of Captain Woodbum's murder, killed several AfgMns 
with his own hand before he was captured, was kept in chains and ez« 
teemely ill treated for a long while, and at last sent off with many other 
of our unfortunate men to Balkh, in Turkistan, where they now are. It 
was in vain that Major Fottinger urged General M'Caskill to wait only 
three days at Istalif, when all these prisoners would have been brought 
in, — he woidd not teke the responsibility of doing so ; neither would 
General Pollock, fettered as he was by Lord Ellenborough's vehement in- 
junctions to retreat, take the responsibility of allowing him to remain. It 
IS very odd that people have no fear of "responsibility " for doing nothing. 
The fact is they fear blame, for responsihility must be borne whether they 
like it or not. The consequence is that, to our jpreat disgrace, numbers of 
OUT faithful soldiers and fellow-subjects are pining in slaverjr to this very 
hour. The orderly himself only escaped with a comrade of his a year and 
a half ago ; they entered the Amballa Police Battalion, from which they 
were transferred to our regiment. 

June 2nd, 1847. — Thermometer 87 J° with Phankah and Tatties. 

The Niz^m-u-Doulah paid us a visit last evening. He made some 
observations about vaj industry, for I was working at something 
for C.'s horse. C. said that sometimes he thought I did too much. 
"Ah!" said the Niz&m, "for a person of intelligence it is a grief 
not to work; but let her take two or three pearls, pound them very 
fine, and then mix them well with water, containing a little gola 
and a little silver ; let her drink that, and it will cure her of that hot zeal 
of heart which makes her overwork herself. Thus it is written in books 
of Grecian science." I could hardly believe that this exceedingly clever, 
clear-headed man (whom Sir William MacNaghten always spoke of as the 
most intellectual, sound-minded Asiatic he nad ever known, in which 
verdict my husband fully coincides) should have gravely recommended so 
droll a prescription. 

You see I have but very small incidents to relate, but I think even 
trifles are worth recording if they help to give you an idea of the people 
or country. I am often reminded of that excellent distinction between 
stupidity and ignorance, " on est ^ne par disposition, on est ignorant par 
d§faut d,*in8truction" — for the Afghans, though fully equal to Europeans 
in natural capacity, make the most ludicrous mistakes as to what is pos- 
sible or not, simply from being too ignorant to form any judgment in the 
matter. They therefore jump to a conclusion (Dean Swift would say, 
" like the ladies in England"). For instance, nothing but a firm trust m 
my husband's veracity induced Hasan Eh§.n to believe the possibility of 
an electric telegraph, and vet he shortly afterwards inquired if we had 
not a machine which enabled us to see through mountains, and would 
have believed any one who had confirmed his precocious idea that we had 
such a thing. I have just heard a very shocking thing which proves the 
opinion of the European soldiers as to the behaviour of H. M.*s 62nd. 
Poor things ! there was great excuse for them. Of the men of the 62nd, 
who, on the corps quitting India, volunteered into other regiments, four 
committed suicide, stung to the quick by the taunts and jeers of their new 
oomrades. One was in H. M.'s 10th, another in the 53rd, a third m -^Vss^ 
80ih, and a fourth in some other. 

a2 



84 PSOSFEBITY OF ANNEXED SIKH STATES* 

The people of the annexed Sikh states on both sides the Satlej are pros- 
pering under our rule. One proof of it is, that waste lands, which were 
the common property of everybody, are now become so valuable for am- 
cultural purposes, that they are incessant objects of litigration. The 
people here used a short time since to import grain for their own use ; 
now, like Sind, they export. Traffic is so much increased, that tiie value 
of the ferry tolls has risen immensely ; and Hasan Eh^n told us that he 
had been talking to some people ^om the Jalander Do^b (which is 
situated between the Satlej and tne Bi^s), and they all declared that tiieir 
falling into the hands of tne British was the mo^ fortunate event that 
cpuld bave happened for their interests. Although on this side the 
Satlej I believe the assessment is nominally rather higher than it was 
before, yet, of course, a man would rather pay 10^. than be assessed at 6l, 
and plundered of 20^., which was pretty much their condition when under 
the Lahore government. 

The servants are a constant source of amusement to me. For instance : 
the other day I peered through the screen, and found the bearer in the 
next room lying flat on his back in the middle of the floor, and pulling the 
Phankah in that fashion. They often pull the string with their toes. 
The heat the last few days has been very great : it was 90** in this cool 
room at half-past nine last night. 

I take three lessons a week from a Munshi. Hindustani seems to me a 
very harsh languag:e. full of gutturals and aspirates : the German ch is 
the softest of the Urdu gutturals, and there is one which I despair of,— in 
fact, they say none but an Arab can pronounce it properly : then there 
are innumerable specimens of b*h, t*h, d'h, gh, and Jkh, and double aspi- 
rates without number. The word for " good,*' which is the only way of 
saying thank you, is " Ach-ha," which, if properly pronounced, sounds 
very much like a sneeze. The verb is sent to tne end of the sentence, as 
in German ; the verbs are simple and easy, with a very full complemeht 
of tenses. The prepositions and verbs vary their gender l^e nouns and 
adjectives ; and the nouns and adjectives are declined like in German. 
Hindustani is a mere lingua franca for the different races which inhabit 
this great peninsula. It is composed of Persian and Hindui, and to the 
south it has Maluratti and to the north Panjabi words mixed with it. 
They say Persian is a very beautiful language, but most of the Afghans 
speak it as they do Pushtu ; so that it gives a stranger about as much idea 
of the sound as the broadest Scotch would of polite English. I am learn- 
ing to write the Persian characters, but, as usual, And it much more diffi- 
cult to read them*. 

Saiad Murteza, who was sent by All Reza Khan (at Mohan Lai's sog- 
gestion) to Bami§.n, to negotiate the release of the hostages and captives 
with Saleh Muhammad, was with us yesterday. He is a Kashmiri, and 
except for some defect in the shape of the mouth, is an extremely handr 
some man, full of intelligence. His young grown-up son, who is very 
gentlemanly, wrote a few lines as a specimen of penmanship, — an art 
much prized in this country. He also embosses words, flowers, and birds 
on paper, with his thumb-nail, in a most skilful manner. The way in 
which Murtezi Shah happened to be here yesterday was this : — He lent a 
certain man 6000 rupees, and received a house in pledge. Now his debtor 
refuses to pay, and Saiad Murtez§. cannot sell the house to reimburse 
himself, as it does not legally belong to him. If he bring the matter into 
Court, he will have five percent, to pay as fees, and five per cent, more as 
a reward to the judges for doing justice. Is not this last a very wonder- 
ful regulation ? The Court here is said to be one of the most oormpt in 
India: and thus, although Murtezd Shah's papers are most dear, the 



BUJ>ENE8S TO KATIVB aENTIEHBN. 85 

agreement being ^ntnessed by the Kotwal (or native Mayor) himself, his 
chance of getting justice would be very doubtful ; for not only is the 
Deputy Commissioner completely in the hands of natives, but he never 
maikes an example of a man who is convicted of perjury, and therefore 
false witness flourishes. 

Under these circumstances, Murteza Shah went yesterday morning to 
the Deputy Commissioner to consult about this ^uit. C. happened to be 
present. Murtez^ Shah, like all the Afghans, spoke freely, as one man 
would to another, but in a very moderate manner, and with great 
courtesy, as his manners are excellent. Captain , with the imper- 
tinence but too common amoujg: Englishmen towards the poor, tneir 
servants, and all whom they imagine to be in any way beneath them, 
would hardly listen, leant back in his chair, repeating, *' I can't do any- 
thing, I can t do anything," and at last cried imperiously, ** Jao !**— Go. 
Murtez^ Shah departed instanter, without even making him a Salam. 
C. overtook him at the gate, made him get into his buggy, and brought 
him here. The Saiad's remark was, " What a vulgar tyrannical man !" 
I really think that neither Scotchmen nor Irishmen (I mean ^ntlemen) 
are so overbearing and discourteous as the universally-by-foreigners-dis- 
liked English. There ! I feel better for that Ion? German adjective, for 
it vexes me to see our national reputation thus tarnished by the 
behaviour of men who, as the Spaniards say, "have neither formality 
nor politeness." 

The Niz^m-u-Donlah, who would be remarked in any society for his 
perfect maimers, and whose familv might vie with any in Europe, speak- 
ing of the English authorities ana. officers here, said, **I never go near 
any of these people, for they don't know how to behave." And his 
brother-in-law, Atta Muhammad, described their behaviour in a very 
lively way, saying, ** Whenever they see a man with a turban, they cry, 
' Oh, here* 8 |pi Afghan or a Kashmiri,' adding a most significant shrug, 
which implied, * to worry me out of my life.* '* Is not this the same 
comi^laint that we have so often heard &om ever^ class of persons abroad? 
and it has always gratified me greatly when foreigners who knew enough 
of tiie British to distinguish between them, remarked, as Herr K.did, that 
the Scotch were so much more courteous and " zuthuend." 

Khan Sahib, a nephew of J^n Eish^n Khan, brought a letter from his 




affability, 
hardly reply with proper gravity when this speech was translated 
to me. 

Sahib Khan is goin? on to Pesh^wur to seek his fortune, and on taking 
leave yesterday, asked C. for some money, as he had none for his journey. 
They always ask each other for aid when they want it : C. of course gave 
him some, for if he were to ask any money from J^n Eishan Khan, that 
gallant Chief would borrow it at a high interest, and lend it to him with- 
out any. Murtez^ Shah, too, though he knows that my husband has 
little means of being of service to him, volunteered the other day to 
supply him with any sum he might want. 

l^t night we had a dust storm, which convinced me that the accounts 
I have heard of people having candles for two or three hours in the day- 
time were in nowise exaggerated. It was about six o'clock in the even- 
ing, and the sun of course high, when it suddenly became very dark. I 
had just time to shut my ink bottle, and throw a handkerchief over m^ 
worK, when it became so dark that we went groping a\>o\i\. «c& a\i T£CiL^TCL*^Q^« 
The dog ran up agaiaatme without seeing me, and.loT2[V:^ ioxxs^^^^^^^ 



86 AK AFGHAN OH FiaHTIKG. 

my husband was ]by his voice ; it was impossible to see one's own hand. 
It lasted about two hours. 

I forgot to mention that the sand storm the other eyeninpr was of a 
deep red colour, something like a very red fog in London. This is a rare 
thing, and Mr. Blackall tells me it has much disquieted ihe 8ax>erstitiotis 
natives. His bid bearer said he had never seen a red storm, since the 
Siege of Bhurtpur ; but another added, that there was one just before the 
Gwalior Campaign. By-the-bye, what do you think of a military man in 
high office here, and who has seen service, spelling campaign without a^.' 
B4edullah cut his wrist very badly yesterday, but that excellent Matico, 
or ** Soldier's Herb," stopped the bleeding at once. One of Hasan Kl^'s 
men happened to bring a tray of melons from his master just as C. was 
bathing and bandaging the wound. Baedullah, who had suffered a great 
deal or pain, and doubtless felt weak, walked away with a languid, feeble 
air, which in such a huge creature was a little ridHculous. The Afg^ilm, 
who had watched the whole operation, looked after him with muoh con- 
tempt, and then turning to my husband, said : " These Hindus tlinis are 
so * !Kazuk,' tender. In Afghanistan we get wounds of all kinds £rom 
our enemies, wounds from swords, and from guns, and from stones, and 
never care a bit. Here we are obliged to be quiet for fear of the S^b 
L6g (the lordly people, i, e. the British), but if it were not for them we 
would soon make short work with some of these folks." C. told hiin 
that Afghanistan was soaked with blood, and that from every man's blood 
a voice went up before the throne of Ghod. He seemed struck by that, 
and when 0. as&ed him if that was not more likely to bring down a curse 
than a blessing upon a country, he at once acknowledged that it was. 
By-the-bye, both Hasan Kh^n andMurtez§, Shah's son have accepted Per- 
sian Testaments. C. also sent one to Muhammad Shah Ehin. If it does 
him no good, it may fall in the way of some one else. 

A man came here the other day who rendered good service to my 
husband when he and the other hostages and captives were on their way 
to Bkmikn, and as they then believed, to almost hopeless slavery in 
Tnrkistan. His name is Amed Khin, a brother of Mahmiid, the Heriiti 
servant of Major Pottinger, and afterwards of Major Broadfoot. When 
the insurrection broke out at Kabul, the two brothers, who were on leave 
in Eohistan, became objects of much suspicion, and saved their liyes by 
enlisting with Saleh Mahomed. They thus came to be amooigr the guards 
at Bimian. He begged C. to take no notice of him, as it would render 
him suspected, and uien quietly managed to supply Jacob with suoh pro- 
visions as he could get — sometimes a few eggs, sometimes a fowl, te 
He is now a S^w^r in Captain Quin's regiment of Irregular Horse. 

I told you that one eoect of an officer putting himself into the hands 
of natives is, that he is sure to be accused of bribery. I have just heard 
a fresh proof of it. Captain J., whom my husband believes to be a most 
honourable man, is yet considered corrupt by all the natives ; for sot 
only was he completely infatuated by a very clever MunsM, but when 
this man was convicted of having taken bribes to an enormous amo ^p^ 
and sentenced to a lengthened imprisonment, Captain J. had the impra- 
dence to continue his monthly salary of 100 rupees, and of coarse all the 
natives say that he dared not do otherwise, lest the Mimshi should 
betray him. 

So great is the vanity of some people, that they seem to conaider it a 

persomd insult if either a bint or a proof is offiared that any of their 

people are dishonest or corrupt ; and as they choose thus to identify them- 

selves with their underlings, they are most completely identified wiA 

them by general opinion. 



COMKITTBE FOB EXAMlUlVQr ASMS. 87 

A committee sat the other day to examine the arms supplied for the use 
of his reginjent. The president of the committee, after carefully examining 
them, remarked that they were only fit to he broken up. The muskeU 
were old and worn out, so that it would be impossible to fire them; out 
of 360 only 188 could be found not utterly useless. The sewing of the 
belts eaye way at the first touch, and the sheaths of the bayonets were 
80 bad that the first shower of rain would complete their aestruction. 
Imagine supplying a regiment with such arms and accoutrements. At 
the first meeting of the committee, the president was the only officer 
there, the two juniors, according to the custom of the Bengal army, 
thinking it too much trouble. C., being accustomed to the strict dis- 
oipline of Madras, where, if an officer did such a thing, he would be 
reprimanded in orders, or ordered to attend every day, at twelve o'clock, 
at his commanding officer's quarters, in full uniform, for a week at least, 
expressed his astonishment to Major F., who is an active and excellent 
officer, but who^ having been brought up in this lax school, was asto- 
nished at C.'s astonishment, and asked it he really meant to say that he 
always attended a committee when appointed to it ; and, when answered 
in the affirmative, declared that, of all the committees he had been on, 
he had never attended more than two or three. 

Such is the lax discipline of the Bengal army. Yet the men are na- 
turally so martial, and at the same time so docile and so gentlemanly, that 
their efficiency is unimpaired by it, and they are undoubtedly the fbiest 
Sep^his in India. 

June 17th. — Will you believe that in this weather, with the rains just 
setting in, and the thermometer at 91° in our cool sitting-room, 0. has 
just received an order to return all the extra tents which he got for his 
men r In all regiments one tent is allotted to each company ; but Lord 
Hardinge chooses to allow only half that number to the )i rentier Brigade, 
and as they have no huts, 0. retained the full number of tents, which 
he had got possession of before this absurd order came. By the end of 
this month ne expects his regiment will be raised to its full complement* 
800 rank and ^e, who are to be crammed into five tents, each tent being 
fitted to hold only eighty men. 

Dr. Walker, the surgeon of the regiment, has made an official report 
to my husband of the great hardships the men have sufiered from being 
exposed to the heat and sand-storms in tents, and from having no hos- 

Eital. It has produced numerous cases of ophthalmia. Even the siok 
ave no shelter but a tent ; a dust-storm comes and blows it down, and 
they are left exposed till morning. Dr. Walker is in temporary charge 
of the 70th Native Infantry, who are properly sheltered, and he gave the 
following abstract of the state of the two regiments, showing the sufier* 
ing entaued on our poor men : — 

The daily average in hospital for the week ending June 11th, 7l6t Native 
Infantry, 13i ; 4th Frontier Brigade, 26. 

The ratio per cent, (the 71st having its full complement) was, 71st Native 
Infantry, If per cent. : 4th Frontier Brigade, 4 per cent. 

In the 71st hospital there is only one case of ophthalmia, caused by an 
accident. In the 4th regiment oi Frontier Brigade hospital, there are six 
•cases of ophthalmia, none arising from accident. 



88 BUDENESS TO THE NIZA&I. 

CHAPTER Yir. 

June 18, 1847. — ^Poor Jacob was taken suddenly very ill yesterday, with 
violent fever. 

Jun^ 19tli. — ^Yesterday the hot wind came back, so it was cool and 
comfortable in the house. We were in great anxiety about poor Jacob, 
but to-day he seems decidedly better, though still very seriously ill. 
Three native officers are now sitting in this very room in committee, upon 
a brass dish of flour, which is placed at their feet. One of them is the 
old senior Subadar I told you of; another is a Hindu, with only a little 
moustache, fat and sleet as a banker (I think he must be of their caste); 
the third is a very intelligent-looking man, with high marked features, a 
Sikh. C. is just now making a speech, to which the Chowdrllistens with 
his eyes cast up like a martyr, the Havildar-Major with his eyes cast 
down like a schoolboy hearing his next neighbour fearfully lectured, and 
the three officers with much attention, and I hope edification. 

The Havildai' Major amused me by makings what I suppose was a state- 
ment of facts, and when he had finished, curhng up all his toes backwards. 
You cannot imagine what an expressive action it was. 

Three difierent kinds of flour are made from the same wheat. The wheat 
is ground between two stones ; the coarsest part, which makes brown bread, 
is called ** Attah," and is that on which tne people principally live; the 
finest, which is very white, and reduced to an almost impalpable powder, 
is called "Maid^ ;** and the most precious of all,. which is merely the heart 
of the wheat, which from its hardness, instead of being reduced to powder 
is more like very fine grain, is called Sujl. Their relative value a little 
time since was exactly 3, 5, and 7. Three sirs of Suji being worth seven 
of Attah. "We now get 22i sirs of Attah for the rupee. The sir is equal 
to a quart. Sugar is almost as dear 'as in England, about Ij sir of sugar 
icandy, or 3 of very fine soft sugar, for the rupee. There is no loaf sugar. 

I must give you a trait of Hasan Khan's generosity, and his attachment 
to my husband. C. happened to mention our debts, he asked some ques- 
tions as to their amount, and then said gravely, " You must take 200 of 
my 600 a month until they are paid off." When C. replied that he could 
not think of such a thing, but that it was more than many a brotiier would 
do, he answered very earnestly, "Don't say such words to me, but take 
the money." How many of one's friends would offer a third of their 
income to free one from debt ? 

The Nizira-u-Doulah came this evening in great indignation and per- 
plexity, having just received a notification, worded in the most uncivil 
manner, from the Deputy- Commissioner, that, owing to instructions from 
Lahore, "Muhammad Usman Khan, pensioner," was to have his pension 
8topi>ea till further orders, without affording the smallest clue to the 
reason of this proceeding. C. promised to write immediately to Lahore 

on the subject. Captain 's missive was peculiarly insulting from the 

position of the seal (a huge official seal), stuck at the top, as if it had been 
a King writing to a Kuli, common politeness requiring the seal to be 
placed at the bottom of the pate, or at the back of the letter. 

Hasan Kh^n on hearing of this, although he does not like the Nizam-u- 
Doulah, expwssed great indignation at such treatment, and seemed to 
think no one's pension was safe under such a Government.* 

On Monday night C. was roused by the servants (three or four of whom 
were sleeping or watching round Jacob) by the alarming intelHgenoe that 

* The Nizam soon after got back his pension, as there was no ground for wiUip 
holding iU 



Jacob's last wobds. 8& 

he was quite delirious. We both got up and found that what they call 
symptomatic hydrophobia in a slight form had set in ; his strength was 
extraordinary, his teeth clenched, his eyes wild, and he endeavoured to 
bite those near him. C. spoke to him of Jesus, which quieted him ; we 
gave him Belladonna, and you may imagine how earnestly we prayed that 
Satan might not gain any advantage over him. He had but one more 
slight paroxysm after this. He would not suffer his dear master to leave 
him, l)ut held him by the hand, and when C. asked if his faith were strong 
in Christ, he squeezed his hand and nodded. He then struggled greatly 
to say something to Baedullah, who was sitting by him. He pointed to 
hia heart, and then to heaven, as if he wished to exhort him to believe in 
Jesus if he would be saved ; and full well did Baedullah know his mean- 
ing, for when C. asked him if he understood what Jacob meant, he 
answered, ** Oh yes, this is what he has been saying to me for many days." 
What a happiness to have spoken so fully and so conscientiously of the 
only way of salvation to those whom we love, that we need only remind 
them of our former exhortations when we come to die ! How great would 
have been poor Jacob's anxiety, if he had deferred speaking to his old 
Mend until sickness prevented him doing so. This was almost the last 
time he sijoke. 

I saw him at four a.m., and at six on Tuesday morning Dr. W., finding 
him greatly exhausted, recommended wine. Dr. C. soon after arrived. 
They wished him to have a vapour bath. Two of the bearers, Mrs. 
Budolph's tailor, and I, set to work immediately, and soon finished a large 
flannel bag, in which Jacob was put, one end tied round his throat, and 
the other round the neck of a large pitcher of water, which was set on a 
portable stove at the foot of his bed. The bag was soon filled with steam, 
and thus he had a vapour bath while lying on his bed. He perspired pro- 
fusely, but without any good result. They covered him with two quilts, 
and shut up the doors of the room ; but the fever only increased ; they put 
on a large blister, and at night put another at the back of his neck, and 
gave him an opiate ; but from the moment the homoeopathic treatment 
was left off he grew worse, the fever returned, the inflammation extended, 
and the next morning C. roused me about half-past three a.m., thinking 
he was actually dying. 

He lay apparently unconscious, the mouth half open, and breathing 
very hard. We continued giving him arrowroot by spoonsful every two 
hours, and water every now and. then ; he had sometimes great dimculty 
in swallowing, I think from weakness. 

Quartermaster Sergeant Wharton, who, as usual, was here at his office^ 
fed him more cleverly than any of us, and all the servants tended him in 
a manner which showed how much he had won their affection. The 
Native doctor of the regiment, who had sat up with him all night, was 
most gentle and tender to him. C. had told the servants the grounds of 
our strong confidence that Jacob would soon be in glory. Baedullah 
assented to everything his master said, as a matter of course. Vazir^j 
the bearer, listened earnestly, but spoke not ; while. the poor old Khaksi 
answered in a melancholy tone, " We are only khidmatgars ; we are only 
khidmatgars (servants) ; what should we know ?'* The two doctors said 
all must soon be over, and left. I think the effect of the opiate wore off, 
for there was more intelligence in the eye ; and he seemed to see us, and 
to hear the texts which we spoke distinctly in his ear, in hope of giving 
him support and comfort, but he could give no other sign. 

We sat by the bed alternately or together till about eleven or twelve 
o'clock, when 0. x>ersuaded me to lie down. Hasan Kh§.n. c^m!^, ^^A^i^b^d:^ 
shed tears. G. told him how it was that we kn.QN<r 3aQoV ^ ^ii^^xi\QrDL\><^ ^^ 



90 Jacob's death. 

secured ; and an expression passed across the Afghan's face, as if he did 
not feel himself in a state of safety. As C. left the room, he followed him, 
and said earnestly, " Read to him out of jrour book ; it will do him good ; 
read to him from your book." C. explained, that although he hs^ not 
been reading, yot he had been repeating short passages from that Holy 
Book, which satisfied Hasan Kh^n. I slept a little on the sofa, for I was 
Tery weary, till C. bade me come quickly. The hard breathing had 
become softer, the pulse lower, and just as i got to his bedside, the eye 
fixed, and with a gentle sigh our good faithful Jacob breathed his last on 
earth. C. said, '* Jacob is in heaven," but I could hardly believe he was 
gone ; only the chest was quite still. The Native doctor and bearer both 
wept ; C. closed his eyes, and we bound up the falling jaw, and then I 
came away that they might straighten the limbs. 

I had been reading the Hvmns on Death in Montgomery's " Christian 
Psalmist," while sitting by him in the morning, and th§t one — 

" In yain oar fancy tries to paint, 
The moment after death," 

expressed exactly our feelings. There was nothing but joy when we 
thought of him who was once our servant, now being a son and heir of 
God, entered into his inheritance, and walking wiQi Christ in Glory. 
"His name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel, a Prince wifli 
God ;" but for us, no one can tell how we shall miss his cheerfial, 
loving service — his watchfulness for our comfort and interests—his 
hearty sympathy with us, and all whom we loved — and his constant 
reference to the things of God. Sometimes he would bring a hjma to 
show me ; sometimes a passage of Scripture which he did not fully under- 
stand : — ^he was unwearied in endeavouring to make known the Gospel to 
all the servants, and to every one who came within his reach ; and I^ had 
won the love of all of our people by his kindness and helpfulness. 

Some of the texts wherewith we endeavoured to comfort him were :— 
** Let not your heart be troubled," &c., John xiv. 1 — 4 ; " Fear not, theiL 
thou worm, Jacob," &c. ; and ** When thou passest through the waters, I 
will be with thee," &c. ; ** Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away ufi 
sins of the world ;" " Who shall separate us from the love of Christ, As* 
&o. Near the last, one of us was almost always with him, thinking that& 
might be a pleasure to him to see always one whom he loved close to hhi 

The next morning my dear husband nailed up the coffin himsdU* 
The face was still unchanged. Hasan £h4n came again ib the afternoooi 
and earnestly .entreated C. by no means to allow the body to remain in 
t^e house all night ; but when he found him immoveable, althoofrh he 
told him that all bad things came to a corpse, meaning evil 8pirits(u^ 
knowing how the Lord watches over the tabernacle of his saints), in tin 
height of his friendship he valiantly said he would come and watch it 
himself. He would no doubt have come armed to the teeth, if C. had mot 
told him that we meant to spend the evening in considering the Word d 
God and in prayer. 

The servants were evidently full of superstitious fears, and the M 
Khal&si was overheard saying to another, ** When he departed one of tltf 
bamboos which supported the jhamps (e. e, a kind of screen of mattiog) 
was carried away,*' evidently believing that the soul had oarried awiy 
the stick. " Yes," said the other, '' and what is mdre, all the bamhooi 
feU down." The fact was, that a little whirlwind came which blew dowi 
one of the jhamps. The chapter we happened to read to-day was Istial 
Jrii. ; nothing could be more appropriate, if we remember what Olict 
sdys, that " The iighteous is taken away uoVi otA-^ i£<^m the evils of jtflf ' 



HIS FUNBBAL — ^VIBW OF THE HILLS. 91 

i, but from that of temptatioii and sin, whioh ofttimes proves the 
of the two :" that he did " enter into peace," or go in peace, is our 
i)eHef. Captain C. stayed with us all the evening, and the next 
ng at five o'clock the funeral took place. The Quarter-Master 
Eint, Wharton, who said he was so accustomed to such scenes, that he 
lite ashamed of not feeling Jacob's death 09 he ought ^ the Sergeant- 
', and two other artillerymen, bore the coffin. A company of artil- 
rished to volunteer their attendance to show their respect tov Jacob's 
3ter, but C. thought it best to decline this. Muhammad Hasan 
came with Abdulrahman, son of a brother-in-law of the Nizam-u- 
h, who out of respect arrived counting his beads, and repeating the 
rs for the dead, so that he would not even shake hands with C. I 
I a white dress, feeling that there ought to be nothing gloomy about 
s funeral, and a black silk scarf over my head. Major Fisher, and 
TO doctors, and good Captain C. came ; Mr. Porter was the minister 
i occasion. The chapel was filled; many of our servants and of 
I Kh§.n's attendants were present, as well as the orphans, 
mmad Hasan £h^n and Abdulrahman sat on each side of me ; the 
r offered to kneel when we did, but C. motioned to him to sit still. 
Irahman sat with his fingers in his ears the whole time ; yet even 
a the impression was so far favourable* from the simplicity of the 
ip, that he remarked to Hasan £h^n, when it was all over, *' After 
sre is not much difference between us and them." At any rate he 
lat we were not idolaters. Mr. Porter read the 16th Corinthians, 
nding as he went on. That beautiful chapter never seemed to 
Poll of beauty and comfort before. A hymn was suug and Mr. K. 
i. 

then resumed our march to the little burying ground. C. helped 
er the head into its last resting-place until it shall rise again in 
Then Bishop Heber's Hymn, "Thou art gone to the grave," 
xng, that and the whole service being in Hindustani, and it was 
5r. 

he afternoon the hills were distinctly visible &om our house, and a 
beautiful sight tiiey were, the highest ran^e capped with snow, and 
ring quite near, though more than 200 miles distant. C. took me 
r a drive. In the night we had a tremendous storm of thunder, 
ing, wind and rain, and we heard the next morning that C.'s poor 
iad been obli^^ed to hold on outside the tents while it lasted, to pre- 
hem from being blown down upon them . It is great cruelty keeping 
in tents in such a season. Dr. McC. visited our hospital tents the 
day, and was so shocked at the suffering and discomfort, that he 
i a vacant ward in his hospital for their accommodation, and I am 
' to sajr they are now there, with cool and lofty shelter, and with 
modation for the native doctors and attendants, and room for the 
ines, of all of which there was an utter want before. Dr. Handy- 
»f " Tait's Horse," on visiting them one day with the regimental 
)n, Dr. Walker, found those who had blisters on, with the blister 
etely dressed wUh sand, 

f 3rd, 1847- — Two Punjiibis called here the other day with a letter 
he Sirdar Len^ Sing, asking for C.'s interest in a cause which is 

)efore Captain 's court. One, a Mussalman, is Lena Sing's 

il» a very clever looking man, with a remarkably fine forehead and 
' handsome features, but such a crafty, false expression and manner ! 
order has lately been received from head-quarters, stating that the 
ransferred irom the Umballa P(^ce Battalion, o\<i c^cMy^T^ ^i I^^^kl 
t years* standing, are to he paid a« recruiU^ — & gxoaAi Vx^yaaXjitt^ Na 



94 GOTBBKHENT ELBFHANTS. 

a visit, but on reaching Jiis house we heard such a noise of musicians 
within, that we went on to the ** Fil Khana," where the OoTemment 
elephants are kept, close to the fort. Here we got out, and walked among 
them. I thought how much interested our children would have been at 
seeing such a number of these huge creatures, each peaceably feeding on 
a little slope, with his face towards his keeper s hut ; most of them being 
fastened by so small a rope that it could only serve as a hint that he was 
expected to stay there. "We saw one which they said was eleven feet high. 
Another who was pointed out to us as the most sagacious of all, is only 
thirty years old, and therefore not come to his full strength : he had such 
a crafty, wise, wizoned face, and a mild eye, just like a philosopher. One 
or two were wicked, but most of them very gentle. This wise onie was 
fanning himself with the long stalks of grass given him forliis food. It 
is curious to see the difference of expression and countenance in the 
different elephants ; one near the philosopher had a foolish, good-natured, 
weak face, like dozens of people I have seen. At some distance, a very 
wicked one was chained to two large trees ; he is so savage that some- 
times he will not suffer his mahout to come near him, or even the bhisti 
who brings him water, so that he goes without any for days. He killed 
two men at Laknao ; and watched us out of the comer of his eye in a way 
I did not much like. Not far from him was a sick elephant, ninety years 
of age ; by no means past work. He was very thin, and his face like that 
of an old man, with sunken cheeks and rheumy eyes. My heart warmed 
to the good old creature ; for I love anything old, for my dear £Either's 
sake, and I remembered the elephant was just his age. They had given 
him only the fresh green tops oi the karbi, instead of the whole stalk, as 
they do to the others. Each elephant has two men to wait on him and 
manage him : his food costs two rupees daily; sotiiat the whole etpense 
is about severity rupees a month for each. 

On returning, we went to Hasan Khan's, where the music had now 
ceased. The uproar it made was enough to have killed both mother and 
child, if they had not had very strong nerves. You never saw anythiDff 
so droll as the baby ; it had a great aquiline nose, its eyelids were tinged 
with antimony, and its eyebrows painted so as to meet m the middle. It 
was swaddled, though not tightly enough to prevent its moving its limbs ; 
but the arms are put behind its back, just as if for the first eight or ten 
months of its existence it was to be perpetually saying spelling lessons. 
Bibi Ji (its mother) was dressed as usual, sitting up in her bed. I gave 
her a ring and baby a piece of cloth, to make little chogahs for him. 
Three old Afghan women came in, who stroked and hugged Lala Bibf's 
head, and kissed little Padimah vigorously. They all rose and remained 
standing when Hasan Khan came in. 

Monday, July 12th. — C. took me to the Fort in the evening. To nswho 
have seen nothing but barren sand for so long, the country, with its 
patches of verdure and pools of water, now looks quite pretty. It is a 
view which we should pronounce " frightful" at home. The colouring of 
the sky, and indeed of every object, is, however, truly beautiful durmg 
the rains. Mr. Ryan, the Conductor of Ordnance, who has charge of the 
Fort, showed us where the Sikh army were encamped last year. All the 
ladies took refuge in the Fort, and the numerous fires of Hie refugees put 
Mr. Ryan in perpetual fear for the powder magazine. He truly said tnat 
if Sir Harry Smith had not gained the battle of Aliw^ he must have bera 
disgraced for his want of common sense (to say nothing of generali^p) at 
Baddiw^, which is close to Loodiana ; for by unnecessmly marofliag 
close to the Sikh force, instead of within cover of the fort, he lost everf 
atom of Ms baggage, and had all his sick and wounded massacred in thar 



KASHVIBI WOMEN — AJS IKQUIBBB. 95 

litters — ^but of this not a word is now hiBord. Mr. Ryan spoke like a 
Christian man of our wonderful deliverance duiing tne late war, for 
nothing but the panic which it pleased God to put into tiie hearts of the 
Sikhs prevented the destruction of our enfeebled force. 

Saw many Kashmiris. Their skins are literally yellow ; many of the 
women have beautiful features, and in spite of dirt and poverty, one can 
£ancy that when young their complexions must resemble that of a peach. 
Some of the women were smoking — one of them with a baby in her arms. 
The women wear a red cap like a Constantinopolitan Fez, with a veil over 
it, trousers, and a sort of loose shirt fastened at the throat, and reaching 
nearly to the feet, which is never taken off while it will hold together! 
We passed a group of men gambling, of which they are exceedingly 
£>nd. The game ** Paohlsr' is played with markers on a cross made up 
of squares. 

Tuesday, July 13th, 1847. — Two inquirers have lately come to the 
Mission — one a Jew from Herat; another a Mussalman from a viUage near 
this, who has thankfully accepted the office of Mr. Janvier's Phanksdi 
Wallah at three rupees a montn, in order to be here and receive instruc- 
tion in the Gospel. This poor man afterwards died of consumption, 
expressing to the last his trust in " Isa Masih" (Jesus the Messiah) alone 
for salvation. There were no particular marks of deep feeling, but all he 
said was satisfactory, and his conduct blameless and consistent. 

l^e public press in India seems to me in a very low state. You cannot 
imagine the nonsense, the twaddle, the petty gossip, and the vulgar mess- 
table and barrack-room jokes and slang, with which the newspapers are 
filled. " The Friend oi India" is one of the few which assumes a higher 
tone : usually they are filled with petty professional squabbles, attacks of 
the coarsest kind on rival Editors, oy name, questions on the most trifling 
points of etiquette, e,g, whether the wife of a Major and C.B. ranks above 
the wife of a Colonel who is not a C.B., whether a rifle will carry 1760 
yards, inquiries for deciding bets, accounts of every ball, and how many 
pfToposals were made, and some hopeless efforts at wit, and in some of 
them occasionally an infidel letter on some point of Christian doctrine. 
But however defective the newspapers are in many ways, they are in- 
valuable auxiliaries to^ truth and justice in others. They make known 
abuses, and cause inquiry into many affairs which would otherwise never 
see the light of day. 

Every one's character in India is fully known to the whole community, 
so that the bad example of many in positions of great influence is most 
pernicious. 

The heat has been greater than we have yet fek it, for there has been 
no rain for the last ten days, and as the hot winds have ceased we cannot 
use Tatties. The thermometer has been from 91" to 96° daily, but the 
evenings are always pleasant. 

A very remarkable man came just as we were going to drive out .the 
other night — an Afghan of the name of Suleyman Khan. I was quite 
struok by his countenance, which is full of quickness, talent, and decision, 
with magnificent eyes and eyebrows, a sweet and "winning expression 
when pleased, and a small, well-made, wiry irame, fitted to endure any 
amount of fatigue. His boldness, intelligence, and determination, render 
him the first of spies and scouts, and he was high in the confidence of Mr. 
C^eorge Clerk and Major Broadfoot. He is just returning from a visit to 
the former at Bombay, and told with much satisfaction how well the 
Governor had received him, embracing him before everybody. He spoke 
of the confidence Major Broadfoot had placed in him, but added> " 11 \ 
had committed a fault he would have hsmged me in. ^ve xtmiMSce&r 



96 A SBFAHI AND FEASANT'S WIFS. 

By birth Suleymaii Khan is a poor Afghan of good family. He had 
hurt his foot very much, so that whenever he mounted on horseback the 
blood gushed out ; but he did not seem to eare for it. He is just the kind 
of man you read of in a novel, who guides the hero through unimaginable 
difficulties, and gets himself in and out of unimaginable dangers. 

The other evening I happened to go to the back of the house, and found 
a most curious assemblage. The orderlies, all our servants, and some 
sep^his, were there together, with an elderly peasant, and near him a 
woman on her knees. Mv husband was speaking loudly in an indig- 
nant tone, and the old Ayah, as usual, was sitting in the verandah wifli 
her elbows on her knees, and her chin on her hands, seeing what was to 
be seen. Suddenly, just as I arrived, C. ordered the woman to depart, 
and our people unanimously ran at^ her, each man flourishing a duster, 
and waved and pushed her away with every mark of indignation, while 
the Sikh peasant seemed much obliged. 1 found afterwards that this 
poor man had come to complain that a Sepahi had carried off his wife, and . 
that she was then in the lines. 

C. sent the Havildar-Major to arrest the Seplhi, and to turn the 
wretched woman out of the lines. The soldier was gone to the Bazlr, but 
a party was sent after him, and the woman was brought here. C. told 
her, if she was caught again within his lines he would shave her head (I 
was sorry he did not have it done at once). She began to defend herself, 
whereupon he ordered her to vanish instantly. 

The Sepahi was put in the guard-house, and afterwards publicly kicked 
out of the regiment (literally so), as a warning to others. C. published a 
Regimental Order on the subject, which was explained to the men at two 
successive roll calls. 

Saturday, July 17th, 1847.-7Abdulrahman Khin paid us a visit. 
Speaking of Shan Shujah, he said his own fondness for reading had been 
cultivated chiefly by him. The Shah, who was an accomplished scholar, 
used to take him on his knee, make him read and spell, pat his head, and 
give him a Chogah to encourage him. " He made me what I am,'* con- 
tinued he ; "he gave me learning, he gave ine honours, and now if I were 
to go back to that country, and they were to give me thousands, it would 
be nothing to me ; and except that I know that it is God's will that I 
should live, my liiPe would be a burden to me." As you mi^ht see, by his 
behaviour in the chapel at Jacob's funeral, when he sat with his Angers 
in his ears, Abdulrahman is a bigoted Mussulman; but having mentioned 
the name of Pharaoh, C. told him the history of Joseph, and of the deli- 
verance of Israel out of Egypt, saying that all these thinprs were written 
in the Tourah or Old Testament, and oflered to lend him a Bible, for 
which he said he should be much obliged. 

In sneaking of the Scriptures he used the term Kalldm ul iUah, or 
" Word of God," which they apply to the Kuran, and like all Miihamma- 
dans, he never names our blessed Lord without styling him a "Prophet 
on whose name be blessings." He related a long story from the Kuran, 
which shows how the facts of the Gospel have been distorted bv Miiham- 
med. He said that Jesus wishing to know if the owner of a certain 
beautiful garden were truly grateful to God, entered it and asked him for 
some of the grapes that were hanging in rich clusters from the vines. 
The owner refused, whereupon Jesus left the garden, and the churlish 
proprietor saw to his dismay, that every cluster of grapes had been turned 
into a human head dripping with gore. 

He hastily overtook our Lord, and besought him to remove the spellt 
which he did by prayer, and then admonished the man, t^at whenever 
God gave bleaangs, it was that they might be shared with others. It is 

i 



60YBBKKBNT BBGULATIOK. 97 

hardly possible to quote any moral precept of the Gospel to a Mussalman 
without the latter capping it, as it were, with a similar maxim from the 
Euran ; but these gems of truth are hidden under a mass of " profane 
and old wives' fables." We had a verv pleasant drive on Saturday even- 
ing (towards Filer, crossing the old bed of the Sutlel and a nallah). Saw 
a small snake in a tree, which my husband killed with the butt end of his 
whip. It was above two feet long, beautifully marked, but with a flat 
head, and a tail tapering off very abruptly, two sure signs of a venomous 
snake. Several labourers and i>assers by saw its death with great satis- 
faction, especially a traveUer with beads round his neck, who said with 
a kind of horror, " It is an exceUent thing it is killed, for it might have 
come out in the morning thirsting for something, and have bitten me." 
On coming home we stopped at a great well, to see the elephants get 
their evening allowance of water. Tne docile creatures came forward or 
gave way to others, just as they were bidden — the Mahout turned one of 
them hastily out of our way, for he was ** a smiter." The Bhistis put a 
leathern bucket of water before the elephant, who fills his trunk, and then 
blows it down his throat, making about two mouthfuls of the bucketful. 
Close by was a drove of camels, and on the other side some little mules^ 
all forming a picturesque scene in the glowing twilight. The city police, 
which is generally drawn up for their evening muster about the time we 
pass, is a very ludicrous body, with no particular dress, but mostly armed 
with si)ears. We passed a little circle of men sitting on the ground and 
singing, or rather " crooning" a plaintive air in chorus. 

I was very much amused the other day by one of the Havildars who 
came here with an English night-shirt for his sole upper garment. It 
was very stiff and clean, and lookefd more absurd than can well be ima- 

fined. fie doubtless thought hims&lf arrayed in the newest mode. Ke 
ad a white cloth bound tii^htlv round his head and hanging down his 
back. Ke brought a Sep^ to be reprimanded, and I did not dare to look 
tip for fear the poor man who had misbehaved should think I was laugh- 
ing at him. 

July 23. — ^I will give you an instance of what would be called trickery 
in an individual, but which is styled a Government Regulation. The 
Quarter-Master-Sergeant related the other day, that a Company's recruit 
is told in England that he will get sixteenpenoe a day. When he arrives 
in India he finds this, under divers pretexts, diminished to fourteenpeiice, 
and monstrous to relate fifteen days' pay is taken from him — you would 
never guess why— to buy his coffin. Supposing that he lives to retire, he 
gets neither coffin nor his pay returned. Do you remember what the 
author of ** Essays in the Intervals of Business," says of the different 
way in which men act as individuals and as members of a committee \ 
and the same holds ta*ue of public bodies and governments. The respon- 
sibility is divided, and therefore they will commit acts as a hody which 
they would shrink from in a private capacity. 

In our evening drive we passed a number of men sitting on the sdnd 
much as if they were going to play at "honey pots." We asked them 
what they were doing. They said they had been trying a charm to see 
whether the monsoon (rainy season) would be favourable, and whether 
the harvest would be good — and it would be very good. 

We continued our drive literally cross country. The landmarks are 
formed by little pyramids of mud. The evenings and sunsets, during 
the rains, are lovely, but the name "rains" is often a misnomer, when 
one gets so far north : as thus far we have only one rainy day in ten dry 
ones. The rains are considered the most unhealthy season, ol \}cl^ ^^^'dct \ 
swarms of insects and creatures of all kinds ma\Ej& \\i<^Sx ^sc^^'^^^c^^x^^^n 

H 



98 INSECTS — ^FIBBWOBES— CHILD STEALINQ. 

generally one particular species predominates for a few days. For some 
time we had wnite ants, with long gossamer wings, then olaok beeti<e8» 
large and small, in such numbers that it was hardly possible to haye 
family worship at niffht, we were so much disturbed: then numbers id 
hairy orange- coloured caterpillars come galloping over the carpet witil 
wonderful speed : musquitoes are abundant, and so are a beautifdl kind 
of moth, with scarlet bodies and white wings edged with red. Any sore 
is most difficult to cure during the rains, especially on animals ; and 
horses are subject to a very infectious disease, called barsati (or monsoon) 
ulcer, which is considered incurable, as it is sure to return. 

Hasan Kh^n came the other day chiefly, I think, to display a beauti- 
fully embroidered new dress. I do not know what made him speak of 
relationship, when he expounded to us that those who are ** of one milk," 
that is, of the same mother as well as father, are more closely related 
than any others, nearer even than parent and child. One may ea^ly 
understand that this is the case among the Moslim, where there are ehit 
dren by half a dozen different wives, each with riyal interests and sharing 
in the rivalries and enmities of their mothers. 

Thursday, July 29th. — In passing through the city the last two even* 
ings, I have been astonished at the number of roekets going off in all 
directions ; quite poor people indulging in the luxury of nreworks. It is 
very pretty, as we sit at tea before tne nouse, to see them rising all round 
the plain, looking like fiery serpents chasing each other. To-day is a 
great Muhammadan festival, when they make offerings for the souls of 
the dead, and believe that they are in some way gratified by the fireworks 
which have been goin^ on with redoubled vigour. We went out into the 
verandah after our drive, and about a dozen of our servants began their 
display. Besides rockets and a wheel, which greatly astonished Bow* 
wow by sending forth a shower of fire over and over again, just as bs 
thought of attacking[ it, there were a number of little things whidll 
]they call aniir, or pme-apples. These they place in rows, and eaeh 
sends up a shower ot fire like so many little fire-pots instead of flowor* 
pots. 

Suleim^ Kh^n, the Kundschafter I told you of, was contrasting tbe 

J»resent state of Loodiana with what it was under former agents. 
Tormcrlv, any one who was convicted of selling a child was tseretekf 
punished, and condemned to the roads for a term of years. ISow it is 
openly done every day. Three men were found strangled on the high 
road, close to Aliwal, about fifteen miles from this, and were buried at 
the back of our lines, and such is the supineness of the civil authorities 
here, that I suppose nothing more will be done. Dost Mohammad, the 
poor Kashmiri, whom we have been treating so long iot ophthalmia, was 
assaulted yesterday in broad daylidbt, and most cruelly beaten and 
kicked by some of his countrymen. He is a Shiah (who cio not number 
above twenty houses in Loodiana), while the Sunls, of which party Ids 
assailants were, are 20,000. This will make it difficult for mm to get 
justice. Hasan Khkn and most of the Afghans are Sitnls ; the Persians 
nnd Knzilb4shis are Shi^hs. Mr. Anderson, from whom we heard not 
long ago, on his return to Bombay vid Persia, says the religion of the PeB^ 
siaiis consists in the po^m of Hasan and Hoseyn. The two sects hsts 
each other bitterly : I asked my Munshi some questions about the wooden 
camels I saw during the Muharram in Calcutta. His knowledge of Eng- 
lish being quite inadeqnate to express his feelings, he turned to my hns> 
band, and beg]g:ed him to explain to me, that it was ** part of the idolatry 
of those abominable Shi§ihs, and that many of the S^nls had been ka 
into partaking in these eeremonies without understanding them." 



COICPLUNCES WITH IDOLi-TBY. 99 

Thursday, August 5th, was a M^ammadau festival, in honour of one 
'of their saints, who is huried here, and over whose body the British Go- 
Temment has built a tomb, because they thought that the prosperity of 
the place would be increased bjthe mel^ or fair annually held at his 
sJirine. This is, indeed, forgetting that ** righteousness alone exalteth a 
people " The compliances with both Muhammadan and Hindu supersti- 
tion, of which men calling themselves Britons and officers have been 
flruilty, are perfectly marveUous. Almost every irreligious man, who has 
awelt chieny among the votaries of one or the other of these false reli- 
gions, becomes more or less attached to it and imbued with the native 
TOreiudices against the opposite party, and in favour of his associates. At 
Veud is a mosque built hy Colonel Skinner ; and Englishmen, in former 
days, under tne influence of Hindu wives, have been known to paint 
themselves and perform Pujah, or worship at the river side like heathens. 

My little dog is most perverse, and whenever there is a Mtihammadan 
here, he insists on lying down on his feet» instead of coming as usual to 
me. But it is curious to see how all our servants overlook their Mussal- 
mka prejudices in his favour. They pat him, play with him, and even 
carry him. We never ask them to do anything about either of the dogs, 
that being the sweeper's business. I remarK, too, that the M^ham- 
ii(^ftflitTi« and Hindus are perfectly friendly with each other, talk together, 
sit side by side, and help each other to let off the fireworks ; but Sld4h8 
«nd Sunis generally appear imbounded in their antipathies, though I be- 
lieve less so among Hindustani Mussalmans than among those of other 
Ziations. 

When my husband related the attack on poor Dost Mdhammad to 
Hasan Kh^n, although the latter is full of generous feelings, as soon as he 
found the sufferer was a Shiah, he lost all his interest in the story, and 
began to explun that Shi^hs were verv bad people. C. told him that they 
were just as good Muhammadans as himself, for he had read the £ur&n, 
which Hasan Kh^n had not, and that there was not a word in it from 
bejs^inning to end about Shiahs or Sunis, or about the Khalifas. "Tes," 
said Hasan Kh&n, ** but they do not believe in the Char-i-Yar," or four 
Mends. These are Abubekir Sadiq, or the Just, Omar, Usman, and Ali, 
and Ihe word Chliriyar is quite a war-cry among the Afghans. "But," 
said my husband, *' there is nothing about that in the Kur&n ; it is 
enough if a man acknowledges that there is but one Grod, and that Mii- 
hammad is his prophet. Do you not acknowledge this ?" he asked Dost 
Miihammad. " Of course I do,'* cried the poor man, and repeated ike 
Miihammadan Confession of Faith. ** Ah ! but thev don't aoKuowledge 
the four books," rejoined Hasan Ehin. ** Yes, I do, ' shouted the other ; 
** there is the Kuran, and the Tourat and the Ingil (the Old and New 
Testaments), and the Psalms of David.'' Hasan Khan was so confounded 
at this proof of orthodoxy, that not knowing what to say, he turned to 
O. and asked him if he acknowledged Muhammad as a prophet. '* No, I 
do not," he answered ; " one part of your religion is true, that there is no 
God but one, but one part of it is a he — that Miihammad is his prophet." 
Hasan Kh§.n'8 eye ffasned hre, but 0. added : *' I will talk to you about 
this another time ; now, we are speaking of Shiahs and Sunis ; and I teil 
you there is no difference between them : but you are all imposed upon b^ 
your Mullahs, who tell you whatever falsehoods they choose." This 
seemed to make some impression on Hasan Khlin, who, like all A'^h^ms, 
has a horror of being thought priest-ridden ; and my husband showed him 
that the Mullahs in Afghiinistan cannot read the Eiu^n, as it is written 
in Arabic, which they do not understand, and they have no translad^i^. 

The assailants of Dost Muhamnmd have been ^u^^a3x^\)Q>x:sAQ^^x\j^ 

h2 



100 FASTINa — AN AFGHAN NOBLE IN DISTBESS. 

keep tlie peace, which pledg-e they performed by attacking him on his way 
home. My husband sent his two orderlies to escort him, and they found 
that his enemies had beaten his wife, and broken all his cookine vessels. 
Mr. D., the Assistant Magistrate, has therefore placed an armed man to 
watch over him. This business has caused a great commotion in the city» 
and Hublq Khan, a poor Afghan whom we have often assisted, told my 
husband he had just been defending his character, for the people in Bazar 
said he was a Shiah ; "but I told them,** added he, "you were not any- 
thing half so wicked.'* C. was roused at this, and asked, " Do you think 
if I believed in Muhammad, I would remain as I am ?*' " No," said 
Hubiq, " I do not think you would.** C. told him that as there is but one 
God, so there was but one true religion, and that he believed to be the 
Christian faith, and he considered Muhammad an impostor. C. repeated 
what he had said to Hasan Ehan, that the disputes between Shiahs and 
Sunls were founded on the falsehoods of their Mullahs, and not at all on 
the Kur^n. He added, " half of you do not know anything about your 
own religion?*' and turning to one of our servants, several of whom had 
drawn near, he asked, "Who are the Char-i- Yar ?'* " Prophets," an- 
swered Vazira rapidly, whereupon even Hublq burst out laughing. 

Hasan Khan came to see us a few days afber, and said, " The Ramazan 
will begin in a few days, but how can a man fast in such hot weather ?" 
he exclaimed, with a kind of peevishness. I had just been presoribing 
for him ; so my husband suggested that he was not well, ana therefore 
need not fast. " How can I say I am not well when I come here, talk 
and laugh ?*' He finally announced his intention of going into the jungle 
to shoot and hunt, because when a man is on a journey or hunting, he is 
exempted from fasting if he make up for it in other ways. C. told him 
that Christians fasted differently ; and on his inquiring our doctrine on this 
point, made the Babu read him what our Lord says of fasting, which he 
pronounced very good. An Afghan of high rank whom we often see, 
came here the other evening in the greatest distress, having sold even his 
sword, he said, to satisfy his creditors. Teimur Shahzadeh owes him a 
small sum, which he will not pay, and he was at his wit's end for fifty 
rupees. We could hardly do less than ofier it to him. He said ho knew 
of our debts, and nothing but dire necessity drove him to come ; ** but," 
said he, "who can I go to ?** He begged C. not to give him the money 
before the servants, so the matter was artfully managed, and he dei>ajrted 
with a lightened heart. 

That gentlemanly old man, Sirfraz Khan, came to consult C. about his 
affairs, he too being wretchedly poor. C. told him he had little hopes of 
serving him, but that if ever it were in his power, he would gladly ao so ; 
first, because he had a great respect for him; and secondly, because his 
brother Aminullah had ordered him (C. himself) to be blown from the 
mouth of a gun, and we were commanded by our law to return good for 
evil. Sirfraz Kh^n said he believed he was sincere in what he said. 

Abdulrahman Kh^n (the slave of the Most Merciful), of whom I told 

Jou as such an intelligent man, and to whom C. related the history of 
oseph. asked in consequence for a Bible. C. promised him one that is 
coming from Calcutta. He then asked for a New Testament in the 
meantime, "for,** said he, "I have heard that the Gospel of John may 
be depended on.** You know that although Muhammadans acknowledge 
our Scriptures, they assert that they have been corrupted. Of course a 
copy was joyfully given him. 

My husband told Abdulrahlra, Hasan Kh^n*s peshkhidmat, thai his 
master's child was so fine a boy, that he was convinced one of his an* 
eestors must have been a son of Anak who had settled in A^hfinistuw 



THB BEQIMENT QrAB£ELS, AKD IS PUNISHED. 101 

adding, "You know about the Anakim.** "Oh yes," he answered, 
•* they were a people sixty jards high." In spite of tne perverted version 
of Scripture narratives which they have got hold of, they always defer to 
C.'s account of any of these things as the proper one, and stand corrected 
by him. Rahim, who has had fever, was doubtful if he might take 
medicine to-day, according to my directions, on account of the fast. 0. 
told him he certainly might, as he was ill, and appealed to my Munshi if 
that were not the doctrine of the Kuran. The Munshi said, hesitatingly, 
" Yes, if he were very ill," whereupon C. expounded to them that a little 
illness was like a little lion ; if you let it grow, it becomes too strong for 
you, and eats you up. It was also like a man iinding a small hole in a 
dyke, and neglecting to stop it, because it was so small : he goes to sleep, 
and the next morning the waters have overthrown the dam, and flooded 
the country. By which illustrations they appeared quite convinced ; and 
Eahim departed, thanking us much, and proiessing himself our slave. 



CHAPTER YIIL 

On Thursday evening, the 12th August, just as we were going to bed, all 
the Afghans of the regiment rushed over in a body, having had a tight 
with the Sikhs, bringing with them a mullah whose beard had been ^uUed 
by the latter. C. forthwith turned them out of the compound, refusing 
to hear any particulars ; and bade them go and lie down, without saying 
a word, good or bad, to any one. He also warned them that if there were 
any more quarrels, he would strike all the Afghans ofl* the strength of 
tiierenment. 

My nusband being determined to quell this spirit of discord, took his 
measures accordingly. The next morning he put his plan into execution. 
The native officers were much to blame, as they should have prevented 
anything like a flght. After the regiment had been drilled for two hours 
(from 4 to 6), as usual, instead of dismissing them, he sent for the Granthi, 
or Sikh priest, to accompany the men ; gave the word to march, put him- 
self at their head, and led them, in the flrst instance, through two pools 
of water, past our house, where they evidently thought they were to stop ; 
past the taming into the city, through which they probably nattered them- 
selves they were to return ; through a great piece of water which, as they 
were not suffered to break line, reached midway above the knee of many 
of them, and wherein one of the subadars, a very fat, clever man, stuck 
in the mud, to his extreme disgust, and was obliged to be pulled out by 
two Seplhis ; to a pillar on the Umballa-road, full Ave miles from their 
lines : when within a quarter of a mile from this pillar, he ordered the 
bugler to sound " double quick," and thus made them " charge" up to it ; 
from thence he brought them back, leading them over the sandy, broken, 
rough ground at the back of our house. They did not reach the lines until 
9 o'clock, thoroughly knocked up ; so that, as the acting Havildar-Major 
confessed, each man drank a whole jarful of water. The Grranthi was in 
a pitiful plight, from excessive heat, and the consciousness that the men 
were laughing at him. The old Senior Subadar's red coat had become 
black, and never was there such an expression of disgust and weariness as 
on the face of his fat comrade. At noon there was drill for stragglers ; at 
1 o'clock a roll-call : another at three ; drill for the whole regiment from 
lialf-past 4 to sunset ; a roll-call at 9, and another at midnight ; and the 
penalty for non-appearance at any of these, instant dismissal from the 
regiment. C. issued an order to be read at ten sucoessW^ TQ\3L-^'8Kia^ *Ya. 
which he told them that the ^tate required ftOO «o\di^^, ^lA ti^\» %^^ 



102 INTEBCES8I0K — THE AFGHANS. 

Mullahs, Pandits, or Granthis ; and that any one who should in any way 
insult or attack another on account of his reliffion, he he ChnBtian|. 
Muhammadan, Hindu, or Sikh, was guilty of a high military offence ; ana 
that any more such occurrences as disgraced the regiment last night should 
be visited with severe punishment ; ending by forbidding all Faqlrs ^r 
religious mendicants oi any description to come within the lines. He 
also told the Sikh Priest that if any more quarrels occurred, he would be 
instantly dismissed. 

This morning, Saturday 14th, the men were in a great fright lest they 
should be put through a similar course of discipline to that of yesterday- 
After drill the regiment was drawn up in about sixteen small sections, to 
each of which the order was read in Urdu and G<irm<ikhi, and explained 
by the Munshi and Granthi, Eleven men, absent from roll-call yesterday,, 
were inexorably dismissed, and as C. rode along the ranks he made divers 
pithy speeches on the iniquity of Faqirs in stirring up strife, describing 
them as men who said, .** * For the sake of God, I eat other men's bread; 
for the sake of God I am filthy and unclean ; for the sake of God, I am an 
unspeakable rogue ;* only let me catch one in my lines,** added he, ** and 
he snail be beaten — so that it shall be terrible." On coming home he told 
me this, and grieved for the eleven discarded men, who of course.lose their 
livelihood by being discharged. I suggested that Mr. Bean might inter- 
cede for them, and then he could safely pardon them ; and accordinglT I 
wrote to Mrs, Bean, asking her to persuade her husband to intercede in 
the men ; an intercession with which (although quite a Roman CathoHo 
one in its circumambulatory course>the Commandant was only too happy 
to comply. So now I hope they will all be good boys. 

My husband having^ accused the Mussalmans of converting by fbrce,. 
my Munshi denied this, and said it was " onli/ when people would noH 
listen to reason,** C. had his sword in his hand, and making a lunge with 
it said. ** And then they converted them in this way :'* the Havildar- 
Major laughed, and added, " Half my caste (the Raiput) are Muhamma- 
dans and half Hindus. How came it that any left the faith of their fore- 
fathers ? Why, they were made Muhammadans by the sword." And the 
Munshi was confounded. The regimental Munshi, who is a Slashmiii 
Hindu, said this morning that the Mussalmans were always boastixig of 
their religion, but that he knew better. My husband said ne had abod^ 
which he had once lent to two Jews ; it was a comparison between CSuis- 
tianity and Muhammadanism, ahd it enabled them entirely to defeat the 
Muslim." * * A good book to read,* * said the Munshi eagerly. * * I will le&dit 
you," returned C, ** and you will be able to confute all the Mnssalmaiu 
in Loodiana." So I must go and find the Mizan ul Haq for him. 

The Afghans appear one of the finest races on earth, both physically and 
mentally. They are very manly, full of intelligence, talent, courage, ssd 
with strong feehngs and extraordinary energy. Their very yices, Kke 
gigantic weeds, show the richness and vigour of the soil whioli prodnces 
them. What a people they would be aid they but know the Tradi! 
Hasan Kh^ has been very ill, and finding he had taken some horrid Bwrfir 
medicine, all I could d<5 for him yesterday morning was to send him some 
arrowroot, which he ate in spite of the fast, and afterwards, thanks to 
homoeopathy, he became mucn better. We went to see him Is^st evenxngf 
and found that he and his handsome Peshkhidmat Rahlm had had a gxand 
quarrel and parted. 

With his usual impatience he is not satisfied with knowing; that titf 

Governor-General is negotiating in order that his family may be aUmd 

to Join him; but he must needs despatch Rahim to Eabul, at theittof 

Ids life, to Bee why they have not arrived. T\i<& 'S^^V^khidm&t mtonDf 



HUSSiXMAN LAW OF MABBIAGE. 103 

enough refiised to go, and thence the quarrel. Hasan Eh^n, in spite of 
Yob weakness, waxed (]|uite strong with indignation, and abused all Kabu- 
lies and Afig^h^ns, as it he himself were not one of them. This morning, 
however, Kahim came to tell us that Sirfraz Kh&n had made it up be- 
tween him and his master ; but Hasan Eh^n having assured him that C. 
was exceedingly angry with him, he had come to clear himself, for that 
he being (literally) *' a seizer of his skirt," t. «., one who sought his pro- 
teetion<(he touched my husband's thigh with both hands as he spoke), 
ooald not bear that he should think iliof him. 0. explained that it was 
axL eza^eration to sav he had been very angry with him ; he had merely 
said, " it is not ^ood. ' like a devout Mussalman, during the Eamazan, 
Rahim carried his beads in his hand. The rosarv has ninety-nine beads, 
one for each of the names of the Most High ; but he confessed he could not 
aaythem by heart, though he could if they were written. 

The Munshi, in speaking of marriage, informed us that marriage with 
an aunt, by either the father or mother's side, is wholly unlawful among 
Mfihammadans. 

A man may marry his wife's sister provided the first be dead. The 
Bamazan should be kept by all men and women above the age of twelve 
or fDurteen ; even women who are nursing should fast, that is, as my 
Munshi expressed it " all good women." None of our servants appear to 
do so. They ought to abstain from swallowing anything whatever, even 
their saliva, from early dawn, t. e., 3 a.m. to sunset ; but Baedullah was 
puffing away at his nipe lon^ after sunrise, and a young horsekeeper who 
goes out wim us in the evening runs in front of the buggy with surprising 
Tigour, for one who is supposed to have fasted all day. Owing to the 
M^ammadan year being shorter than the astronomical one, some of their 
months having thirty, and others only twenty-nine days, the beginning of 
the year, and consequently the Ramazan, falls at different seasons, and of 
course the fast is much easier to bear in winter than in the hot season. 
It was l^e Bamazan when C. was besieged in the Eila i Nishan Ehan at 
£Iab61, and he took advantage of the enemy being engrossed with eating 
and drinking during the night to cut his way through them. The city is 
now a most lively scene just after sunset, every one being engaged either 
in cooking or eating, and whiSs of roasted meat and spices assail one on 
all sides. 

August 19th. — ^Abdulrahm&n Eh4n told us this evening that his sister 
had lately lost a little girl of nine months old. He said that children of 
that age being sinless, present themselves before God, and their innocence 
is reckoned to the account of their parents. It is curious to see that the 
doctrine of imputed righteousness, to which so many unbelievers in Chris- 
tian lands object on the score of injustice, should be so prevalent all over 
the world in an erroneous form. That and the corresponding belief in 
imputed sin, are deeply rooted both in the M^hammadan and Hindii 

S stems. Does not this show that man naturally feels the necessity and 
e justice of the doctrine of imputation both of sin and righteousness, and 
that consequently cavils are suggested by Satan irom his hatred to the 
truth ^ !Ete never objects to the doctrine when a false application is made 
of it, because he knows well enough that a soul will never be saved by 
the vicarious suffering of an animal or even of a Monk ; and that the 
merits of Romish Saints and Miihammadan infants are alike inefficacious ; 
but when men are called upon to trust to our Great Substitute who bears 
<mr sins and gives us His Bighteousness, then ApoUyon storms and rages, 
and finds fault with the principle itself as unjust, imnatural, and quite in- • 
comprehensible. There is a sad perversion of many Go&^l tsx^Vssi ^Sk^ 
MCihammadanism. Abdolrahmto said the other e^^iuxi^ t)&^V '^^s^^^s^A'-- 



lOi PITINO THE BSaiUXKT. 

siah would come Bf sin at the end of tlie world, makiiig use of tbe Eaiba, 
or black stone of Melika, aealadler to alight upon the Earth, and that 
then he would convert all nations to MCihannnadaiiieni, and ffye up ths 
governmect of the world to that now wretched Deceiver 1 

Atta Mtihanunad being; here, a^ked my hnsband if he fasted? He told 
him that Christians were left to their own disoretion in this matter ; that 
he himaelf being far from strong, never fasted, for if he did his thoughts 
would be fixed on food and drink instead of on the things of Qod. " Ah 1" 
said our stout friend, " that ia the case with me. All day long I tbink 
to myself, could I but have a drink of water — could I bnt eat a kaw&b i 
— could I but have a chillam ! (pipe)." As for Hasan Khfto lie took a 
pipe here yesterday, and said," he would make it up in the cold weather." 

The Uuartermaater Sergeant and Babii do all the Adjutant's work. 
They take the accounts of the regiment, make out indents or applicationa 



.s first established, large advances were made by C. to enable the shoiH 
keepers to lay in stores for the regiment. He waited until the men had 
eat«n up more than the advances,, and then settled the accounts of the 
BaniaLs (shopkeepers), who were thus entirely in his power. Thevhad 
not only made out false accounts, but endeavoured to bribe the Babn to 
pass them, thinking that the Sahib would never look into the bills him- 
self. Ihe Itabu brought the money to his master, examined all the so- 
oounts carefully, and found numbers of chai^«s made for men of straw 
who had no existence : and relying on the ignorance of the recmits, espe- 
cially the Sikha, who did not know whether they had eaten two annas or 
tax annas worth of meal a day, but only knew that, they had had enough, 
endeavoured tJ] cheat them also by charging them fur immense qaaatttUB 
of food. C. had warned the Baniahs to give credit to no Sepihi beyond 
two annas a day, telling them that he would only be respooaible for that 
amount. He therefore struck ofi' all the extra cfaar^, turned off the 
man who had established the Bazar, and who had incited the Baniahs to 
offer the bribe, and told the remaining ones, that if they could not keep 
up their shops without advances (which the; declared was impossible) thit 
they might depart. Almost all of them have, however, stayed. My 
husband gets advances of 6,000 to 10,000 rupees at a time tnm ths 
treasury. This money I keep in a trunk, and the Havildar-Uigor comet 
daily for 12S rupees, for the subsistence of the men. By-the-by, hutting- 
money, 1. e. an allowance to enable the men to build huts for tnemBelvei, 
has just been granted ; or rather, the news of its being granted has joat 
come, though the order itself is dated June 7th. Thus the re^mentlui 
been kept in t«nts, durmg the whole of the hot weather and rains, ohiefly 
owing to the utter confusion with which everything is managed. 

Part of the Frontier Brigade is under C<uonel Lawrence at Lahore; 

Ct of it under Major Makcson. This regiment and the 3rd, which is at 
balla, are nnder Major Maokeaon; yet both get their pay from Lahon, 
though there is a Paymaster in Amballa itseu. Ferbans the reason m 
this may be that these regiments are paid from money levied from tb» 
protected Sikh States, instead of the contingent which they were farmeilr 
bound to furnish ; but surely the Oovemment must have heard of snan 
things as bills and drafts. All the pav abstracts of all regiments have to 
he sanctioned by the Auditor-Oeneral in Calcutta; as he and his Baher- 
dinates have far more than they can do, the whole business of revisins 
the lulls falls on native clerks, who make innumerable retrenehtneot^ 
j)erbspsmore often wrongly than rightly; while the Auditor-Qenersl, wlw> 
■fjva iuajsDppoM, is t^6 Mte noire oEmI loilitAri man, oan hardly maiiaii 



A COliaCANDANT's LBTTBB* 105 

to sign the innumerable papers presented to him. The bills are then sent 
back, with all the retrenchments marked in red ink, and the rest sanc- 
tioned. A correspondence generally ensues: the officer giving his authority 
for the charge objected to. Nothing goes direct; but every letter through 
the immediate superior of the writer ; so that the delays are frightful. 

I will give you some extracts from the letters of an officer who is raising 
another of the Sikh regiments : — ** June 7th. — As usual, can get no defi- 
nite answer from Government about anything, and lucky to get one of 
any sort in three months at earliest. How get you on with the Auditor- 
General? Of about 14,000 rupees advances I have had from the Treasury, 
iiSr. la. lip. is tJie sum total yet credited to me by passed bills. Pleasant 
that ; and I meaning to walk off in October." [My husband drew nearly 
100,000 rupees on his own responsibility, for the use of the regiment, 
before his bills were passed.] . . . . " Have you contrived yet to 
ascertain whether drummers are drummers or buglers? whether any tents 
will be allowed us or not, or Kh^lasls to take care of them? I can ascer- 
tain nothing, although I put my (][uestions in tolerably plain terms ; 
and, under all this provocation, as impertinently in style as may well 
oe* 

*' Jal]F* — Patience and impatience, civility and incivility, argument and 
persuasion, everything have I tried, and all to no purpose. The only 
reply I can get out of them is an impertui'bable silence." (The writer, an 
excellent officer, is an Irishman.) "My arms and my accoutrements I 
have not received; my indent was kept two full months in Calcutta, in 
order tp allow of the ram commencing, and the roads becoming impassable 
for carts; so that I shall probably not see them for the next two months, 
or five months after sending my indent. And they expect the regiment 
to be rax>idly complete ; and Mackeson— rthe innocent individual — writes 
to know if I am prepared to send out detachments, treasure escorts, &c. 
. • . • The Knalasi war still goes on, in the shape of furious letters 
on m^ part, and deathlike silence on others — satisfactory sort of thini^, 
especially as I am paying the establishment myself all this time. ' 
Spei^dng of his authority as joint magistrate, he adds: *' I have taken no 
notice wnatever of their commission, or diploma, or whatever they call 
it. When a fellow is caught thieving, I give him a licking in front of 
the regiment, and kick him out without any form. This thieving is the 
onlv civil offence they commit; and for military ones, extra drill, guard, 
and reduction to the ranks, have sufficed without any court-martial." 

There seem to be hardly any beggars here, except a few religious men- 
dicants, one of whom rides his horse as he asks alms. Some aged and 
blind people come to the house every Monday, and one now and then 
during the week ; but that is all. 

August 31st. — ^The first death that has yet occurred in the regiment 
took place yesterday. When a Sep^hi dies, the men of his own caste in 
the regiment bury him ; and this one was burnt early this morning by 
the river-side. As he left very little to send to his family besides a brass 
pot and a sheet, we have just |)aid the expenses of his funeral, amounting 
to three and a half rupees. It fiUs one with a feeling of indescribable pain 
to think of the dread realities on which this poor idolator has now opened 
his eyes. What an awful revelation of truth must that be which takes 
place (for the first time) on the other side of death ! How this should 
make us pray with increasing fervour that the kingdom of Christ may 
soo(n come with power over all nations, and that the glory of the Lord 
may cover the earth as the waters cover the sea I 

My Munshi was telling me this morning about the Mussalman. &^\^^5]s^. 
No work ifught to be done on that day ; but the pooi "^eoi^l^ ^iwiXJvaxxfc '^'ivt 



106 EYIX. BXAHPLE OF EUSOFBANS. 

labours as usual, except that they often attend the piiblio prayers, whixk 
begin about one o'clock, and generally last two hours. 

After prayers, they have a sermon, and some people then go to the 
Baz&r, and buy and sell as usual; but the Munshi said, "that was not 
very right." I told him about our Sabbath. He happened to ask me 
what a monastery was. I explained to him about monks and nuns; 
taking care to assure him that we had none, only Roman Catholics had; 
for he understands the distinction between the two faiths very well, and 
told me the other daj that the Shias were like Roman Catholics, which I 
thought a most convincing proof that he had formed a very bad opinioji 
of the latter, whom he considers as ** But parast," or idolaters. He then 
asked, very simply, " Nun — wife of monk ?*' 

Loodiana, September 8th, 1847.— The Munshi often diverts me. The 
Khansaman came with a very ^rave face to announce the death of a 
chicken. I did not hear what he said, so the Miinshi interpreted in a 
solemn tone, ** Son of fowl — dead !*' 

He also tells me many things about the customs of this country. He 
gives a frightful account of the state of morals, and when 1 told him that 
marriage was for life among us, he answered warmly that that was a very 
good custom. You may imagine the degraded condition of the people 
here, when I tell you that we constantly pass women in the open street 
bare down to the hips, little children have generally no dotiiing at all, 
and many of the men the smallest possible quantity. They do not seem 
to have the least sense of decency. We daily see fresh proofs that the 
whole world lieth in wickedness. ^ 

The conduct of the Europeans, in many instances, is such as to make 
the natives despise and abhor them ; for although worse themselves, vet 
they expect those above them to be better than tney ; and the^ know lull 
weU that our law requires a life of purity and holiness. Besides which, 
the usual haughty and domineering manners of the English makes them 
as unpopular here as on the continent of Europe, and as they are almost 
all in stations of some influence or authority in this country, evil oonduet 
on their part is the cause of injustice and suffering to those beneath them. 
When a man in office is under the power of a native woman, she inva- 
riably takes bribes, and he gets the credit of doing so ; for she of course 
gives out that the Sahib shares in her extortions. Thus, whether the 
wretched man does or not, he loses his character for common hones^. 
Now, putting the principles of morality out of the question, it is evident 
that an officer who thus ^aces himself into the hands of a Heathen woman, 
is wholly unfit for any situation of authority. 

The natives universally remark that the Sahib-log do not live aooording 
to their book, and therefore despise their characters, though they fear 
their power. And the evil example of the Europeans has doubtless been 
one great reason why the Gospel nas not made greater progress in India. 

Some time ago I read a very clever paper by a heathen Brahman, show- 
ing why he would not embrace Popery. His argument was, that he, as a 
Brahman, professed all that Popery offered ; that they were too much 
alike to make it worth while to change. " You have your images," he 
said, " and we have ours ; you have Monks, and we have Suniasis; yon 
have the Virgin and the Saints, we have Kali and innumerable Deities; 
you have rosaries and holy water, and so have we ;" and thus he went 
on, piaking a minute parallel between the two. Now I am sore that a 
similar prejudice is created against pure Christianity, when Mnasabsan 
and Hindus see that the lives of professed Christians are no better, and 
sometimes more openly scandalous than their own. It is irnxxMriUe to 
oreirra^ the importance of the inftaence oi t^e most insigniftoant ori«tare^ 



IDOLATBY, 107 

either for good or evil. The difference in bigotry between the learned and 
nnleamed Mussalman is very marked. 

The feeling of the former regarding the unlearned of their own creed» 
seems to be exactly that of the Jewish Scribes : " This people who know 
not the law are cursed ;" and if we did not remember the sovereignty of 
Divine Grace, we should be inclined to pronounce the conversion of a 
Mullah or Molevi (a priest or scribe) impossible. It is hard for a man to 
acknowledge with Paul, that all his learning is loss in comparison to the 
knowledge of Christ. 

By-the-by, we have been endeavouring to get the^Bible Society in Cal- 
entta to print Bibles, so that they will be read. Some time ago we sent 
to Calcutta for a Persian Bible, for the j)urpose of presenting it to the 
Shahzadeh Shahpiir. It arrived beautifully bound ; but all the Old 
Testament is in the Arabic instead of the Persian character, and, conse- 
quently, not one M^hammadan in twenty, either here or in Afghanistan, 
either can or will read it. The Arabic appears plainer to us ; it is much 
stiffer and straighter, while the Persian is more flowing, like a written 
hand : but still many cannot, and more will not, igead the former. Who 
would read a volume printed in italics ? In vain the Missionaries have 
represented this ; the Bible Society will not listen to them, for the Arable 
is cheai^r, and all the learned men down in Calcutta approve of it. 

Arabic is the study on which an Eastern scholar especiaUjr prides him- 
self, just as a Eurox)ean does on Greek ; and European Orientidists are 
infected with the same preference : but not only are the people in Calcutta 
as profoundly ignorant of India in general as a Cockney, who has never 
left the sound oi Bow bells, is of Ben Lomond, and more so, for the Cockney 
might read about Scotland : but what can a man read about Upper India } 
— ^the Cockney could get Scotch newspapers, but what can be found equi- 
valent to these in Calcutta — ^but all the learned Molevis whom they con- 
sult, think of nothing but displaying their learning, and are wholly 
opposed to the Gospel. No^ are Mey, or are the comparatively unlearned 
Missionaries, the best judges of which will be most acceptable, and most 
read. Would you consult Hannah More or Dr. Person anent tracts for 
the poor or cheap Testaments ? 

My husband wrote vehemently to Dr. Duff, and told him that by this 
false economy rupees are saved and souls lost, so that I trust he may be 
able to influence the Bible Society to a better course. 

Mycuriosity was aroused by a very animated dialogue between C. and 
our Khansaman at dinner time. It appeared that Saiad Kh§in, the Ehan- 
saman, although a Mussalman, had lent a large bamboo fa.n of mine 
to some of the men of the regiment to brush away the flies from an 
abominable idol of theirs. C. reproached him, and said, though he would 
do anything for the comfort of the men themselves, he would in nowise 
countenance or help them in dishonouring God. He then scrawled a 
hideous face on a sheet of paper, and said, ** I know very well that 
Idolaters say they do not worship the image itself, but God through or 
hy means of the image ; but suppose your son were to make a hideous 
picture like this, and then take it to the Baz&r, and tell every one that 
it was your likeness, and then make salim'and pay respect to it, what 
would you do? Would you be pleased?" "I would make him eat 
blows,'*^ returned Saiad Kh^n very decidedly. " Well, then," my husband 
answered, " do you not think it must be most oflfensive to Goa to have 
a vile image made by man worshipped as his likeness ?*' The two Mus- 
salmans heartily agreed, and the old Hindii bearer, who was pulling the 
Phankah, broke in by vehemently declaring that idola^«tfeTi^^3cKatt\sQ^ 
vanity and wickedness. This confirms wkat t\iQ l&m\QTiiNCL«8k \«^ x»v 



108 * HASAN ZHAN's GALLANTBY. 

that both Heathens and M^hammadanswill constantly grant man^ Scrip- 
ture truths, without, however, making the slightest change in their prac- 
tice. Just as we ourselves too often do. 

Dr. Wilson, of Bombay, records that a large body of Hindj&s whom he 
addressed on the folly and sin of Idolatry, all, with one exception, assented 
to every statement he made. He adds, *' I could not but regard them as 
the willing subjects of the Enemy of Souls." 

Now that I have had some experience in housekeeping, both here and 
at home, I must say that I consider the excuse which ladies so conunonly 
make for not doing fifty things that they are conscious they might do— 
Tiz., that they have so large an establishment to manage — quite futile. 
A large establishment need take no more time than a small one, and I am 
sure that a lady may look into everything herself, and keep her house in 
excellent order by devoting an hour a day to it ; so from henceforth I 
enter a protest against all excuses on the score of housekeeping. I must 
tell you of an act of gallantry in Hasan Kh§.n which quite astonished 
me. He was leading me by the hand across the court just as you would 
a child, when he suddenly fell down on one knee to tie my shoe-string 
which had become loose. I, however, preferred doing it myself, as the 
task would havo puzzled him. Coming home the other night we saw six 
or eight Kulis lying flat on their backs in the road with their heads close 
to our wheels, fanning themselves to sleep ! Almost the whole popula- 
tion sleep out of doors. They just draw in a foot which is sticking out 
beyond tiieir charpais as our buggy passes. These light charpals, t. e., 
bedsteads, which are merely a frame on which a mat of cord or tape is 
stretched, show one how easily the paralytic could " take up hisf bed and 
walk." The houses are very miserable — I mean those of the poor people 
— ^being only a kind of stall or booth open to the street, and containing no 
furniture whatever. The walls are of mud. The ovens are sunk in the 
ground like wells, are first well heated, the fire is then cleared out, and 
the bread, which is not unlike bannock, pasted round the inside of the 
oven. It is then shut up and they are baked. Of an evening the streets 
-are full of Kawab sellers, each fanning his fire and surrounded by hungry 
purchasers. Every now and then the clink of brass drinking- vessels tells 
of the approach of a Muhammadan water-seller with his goatskin of 
water at nis back. At sunset there are rows of Mussalmans at their 
devotions in front of the little mud mosques, while a loud bell announces 
the idolatrous rites of the Hindus. A native officer called the other day 
in full uniform, followed by a Sep^hi. With many sal^ms the officer 
presented the hilt of his sword and some rupees, first to my husband, and 
then to me. He touched them, and the Sep^i offered two rupees in like 
manner. They came to pay their respects on promotion, vie Sep&hi 
liaying been made Naig, and the Jemadar Subiidar. The latter is a meri- 
torious old soldier to whom 0. is now making up for former frowns of 
fortune. The ^race and self-possession with which natives acquit t^em- 
43elves on occasions of this kind are remarkable. Nothing could be more 
perfect than the manners of the Sub^dar. 

By-the-by, dear L. attacked me in her last letter for what I said about 
ladies taking too much wine. But I am more and more convinced of the 
sad fact, and I no longer wonder that most people have bad health in 
India when, in addition to exposure, often unavoidable, to the sun, they 
£at and drink even more than in Europe. Meat twice and even three 
times a day, wine, beer, and porter, are enough to kill any one in a 
climate like this. Several people have assured me, that in the hot 
weuther I should find it absolutely necessary to drink beer or porter, 
because I am delicate. I am quite convinced I should have been laid up 



HI8EBY OP WIDOWS. 10^ 

with fever had I tonohed either, and I rejoice to say numhers in India are 
beginning to find out, that abstemiousness is the best way»both to husband 
and to increase strength. As to the q^aestion of total abstinence, I am 
greatly in its favour ; first, because it is a Christian's duty not to put a 
stumblingblock or occasion to fall in our brother's way, and the force of 
example does wonders — here it is essential to health, and at home the 
example is still more needed, on account of the lower classes ; secondly, 
a pledge keeps people steady to their own resolutions, and provides a suffi- 
cient answer whenever they are tempted to break them. There are 
inconveniences, but they must be endured for the sake of the great good 
both to health, mind, and soul, and especially to temper, whioh total 
abstinence produces. I do not think it wrong to take wine or beer in 
Ihemselves, and in extreme moderation; but I think the evils arising 
from them are so great and so extended, that all Christians ought to come 
boldly forward, and endeavour to stem the torrent. 

It will give you some idea of the depravity of the Natives, to mention 
that we passed to-day a pretty little girl, singing at the top of her voice ; 
and C. told me that the words of the song were so utterly detestable and 
vile, ihsX hardly any man among the worst in London would sing such, 
unless previously intoxicated. Muhammadans are practically as bad as 
the Hindus, though their religion is far better ; for nothing, it is said, can 
equal the abominations of the Hindu deities and modes of worship. 

The verses taught to children at school are such as cannot be repeated. 
I saw a letter lately from an educated Hindu, who after citing one or two, 
said that *' deoencv forbade him to give any further specimens of the 
slokas or couplets ne had been taught in his childhood." Think what 
must be the state of a nation, when children are sjrstematicaJly trained in 
wickedness, and their acts of worship consist of crimes. Mr. Janvier was 
saying the other day, that although the abolition of Sati is a thing to be 
carried through by all means, still that the condition of a Hindu widow 
is often so lamentable as to make death almost preferable. She is obliged 
to submit to all kinds of austerities and fasts, and from their patriarchal 
mode of living — (all the branches of a family live together under one 
roof, and under the authority of the father or eldest brother) — ^too many 
jealous eyes are over the poor widow to allow of her escaping any of 
these inflictions. 

I now, with the heln of the dictionary, manage to have long conver- 
sations with my Munshi. I was telling him the other day about the 
Algerines, and mentioned that they, as well as the Turkish and Egjrptian 
Miihammadans, freely ate and smoked with Christians. He said at once 
there was nothing in the Eur^n against it. Although a learned man, he 
knew nothing about the Egyptians beyond the name, nor about the 
Memliiks, or the Beys, or the Dey of Algiers. I endeavoured to give* 
him some idea of Christianity, and in return he told me that Muham- 



madans believe in purgatory, which they call "Ar4f," and which is 

of Hindus and others, who dyin 
committed' sin, are consigned to this abode, which is situated between 



tenanted by infante of Hindus and others, who dying before they have 



heaven and hell. When the gales from heaven blow over them, thej 
revive and live ; when the gusts of hell reach them, they die ; and this 
alternation continues for ever. I rather think wicked Mussalmans go to 
hell for a time, but I must inauire. 

Many of their traditions and doctrines are childishly absurd, and others 
are rather poetical. For instance : Abdulrahman Xh&n, who often comes 
and sits with us in the evening, on our admiring the extreme beauty of 
the sky, deigned to enlighten us on the subject of the stars, b^ «a.Ts^^^ 
that all things were created with a reference to man, wA \3tka.\» >i)aa ^\»"«3C^ 



110 DENUDED MAGAZIKE8*-CHINSU£JlH. 

were stuck in the sky for our pleasure, just as brass-headed nailB are stock 
in a door. Soon after, we saw one of those beautifid fallinj: stars, so £re^ 
quent in this climate; C. asked our Afghan Mend what he thought of 
tnem. He said that the evil angels constantly endeavour to listen to 
what is going on in Paradise, but that the heavenly watchers at the gate 
hurl these fiery darts at them, and drive them back. 

The Q,uartermastcr-Serjeant mentioned casually the other day, that at 
the battle of Sobraon onLy one mortar had a platform, without which 
essential appendage, a mortar, on being fired, goes head over heels and 
buries itself in the sand. Two or three howitzers burst for want of plat- 
forms, and the supply of ammunition was so short that the batteries were 
silenced for want of it, at the very time when they ought to have covetei. 
the advance of the infantry against the Sikh batteries. The consequence 
was, that the latter played on our troops with redoubled vigour and effect, 
and caused most murderous results. There were so few artillerymen to 
serve the guns, that most of the horse artillery were Amounted to man 
the batteries. When, therefore, the horse artillery were required, the 
guns were brought forward under the charge of bare-legged Saises 
(grooms), with here and there a dragoon whom they had picked up as 
they could, the horses kicking over the traces, and every tning in oon» 
fusion.* Major T., who you know is a kindly Scot, told C. the first 
enemy they met, that he never saw such confoosion. You may imagine 
that tne authorities have not i)rofited very much by the lesson they tiien 
received, on the danger of bein^ unprovided with military stores ; for 
the magazine here is almost totally denuded of everything it ought to 
have. The nearest magazine is that at Delhi, 200 miles distant, situatel 
in the heart of the city, in the midst of a fanatical Miihammadan popula- 
tion, three miles from the cantonments, with a slender guard, thus being 
open to a surprise by any daring adventurer or sudden outbreak. 

Last campaign there was nothing to prevent the Sikhs pushing on to 
Delhi, except the good providence of God which kept them from doing it. 
Colonel Drummond, Q^uartermaster- General of the Army, who has just 
finished a very laborious work for the Governor- General, on the com- 
parative salubrity of the dififerent cantonments in India, was telling my 
husband of a curious instance of perverseness in the Governments of 
India for a great number of years. Chinsurah, near Calcutta, has been 
the depot for newly-arrived troops. It has been remonstrated against on 
account of its extreme unhealthiness, ever since the place came into our 
possession, yet the successive Governments of India have persisted in 
maintaining the station, and have built barracks at an expense of 3 laohs 
of rupees (£30,000), where the men die by scores. Each man by the time 
he is fit for duty in India, is reckoned as having cost the Company from 
«£100 to £120, so that the extravagance of maintaining so unhealthy a 
station, to say nothing of its inhumanity, is obvious. Colonel Drummond 
is a very fine old officer, full of energy. He told C. that although a 

* Qnartermaeter-Seij^ant W. C. Wharton, who related the above, was a first-rale 
non-commissioned officer. He was afterwards transferred to the 23rd Bengal Katire 
Infantry as Seijcant-M^or : on one occasion, during Sir Charles Napicfs expedition 
in 1850, he killed no kss than seven men with his own hand, one after the other, 
chiefly with the sword. For a feat for which Napoleon would have giren hhn Hie 
Legion of Honour on the spot, and which Sir Charles Napier, with his quick ai^meia- 
tion of military excellence of every kind, would have rewarded to the extent of his 
power, the only recompence he got was a coarse rebuke from a coarse comnuuidiag- 
offioer, telling him he needn't expect to obtain a commission zabardast ({.e. by Ibne) 
in that way. This excellent n<a-oommissioned ofllcer has lately fkUen a sacriBM 
to the olJmate of Bengal (1851). 



YIELDINa TO SSPAHI8* 111 

ilui-hy* himself, he always inveighed against the want of common 
diiwipline in the Bengal army. He recollected the time long ago, when 
he was on service with some Madras troops, when he nearly got into 
several serious quarrels with officers of his own Presidency for openly 
asserting the superiority of the Madras system of discipline. C. however 
thinks that the incessant worry of the Madras system would never suit 
the Bengal 8ep&hi ; and even as it is, it chiefly falls on the shoulders of 
the unfortunate European officers, for the Government of the ** henighted 
presideno]]^" have long been in the habit of yielding to all the demands of 
me Sep&ms, who, being very low caste men, manufacture and obtrude 
their religious prejudices on all occasions, when the high caste Bengalis 
would never think of making an objection. 

As an instance of this culpable weakness, a Madras officer related to 
US, that the Adjutant-General haying determined to introdncc the Eil- 
mamook cap worn in Bengal, in place of the absurd monstrosity hitherto 
in use, it was arranged to try it in one regiment, on the principle that if 
one i^eep leaps a dyke, the rest will follow. The men cheerfully agreed 
to it, witn the single exception of the son of the Munshi, who was incited 
to rebel by his father, a bigoted old Mussalman. The cap was no more 
against his creed t^an .it is against yours, nevertheless, instead of at 
<Hioe dismissing the malcontent and serving out the caps, the authorities 
had the incredible weakness to reverse their own decree, to recall the 
4)ap0, and restore the ancient monstrosity to its former ** hideous reign." 

1 am happy to say the muskets C. rejected, have, on his representation, 
been changea by Government, who have ordered him some of a superior 
kind (fusils), but which are not to be had nearer thap. Delhi, so that he is 
not likely to get them until November, although he indented for them in 
May. 

One of his old Jezailchis stopped us the other day as we were going out, 
with such a handsome open countenance, that I was quite interested in 
Mm before I knew who he was. JELasan Kh^n remembered him perfectly, 
and confirmed his assertion that he was one of the last men that remained 
with him after my husband was given up as a hostage. G. has now fur- 
nished him with clean garments, and is trying to get a pension for him. 
fie has lost the toes of one foot from the frost on the retreat 'from E&bul. 
His name is Mohammad Kh^n. He lives here, and like Homer's heroes, is 
no less remarkable for his prowess at the feast than in the fray. Baedullah, 
who has acted as his purveyor, assured us that he never saw a man eat so 
mnch at a meal : he has devoured f of a sir of meat, and 1^ sirs of mesl 
4aily, and as Baedullah added, " He made us all lay hold of our ears, and 
-cry, * Tobah !' when we saw him." This they do to express extreme asto- 
nunment. Now, as a sir is equivalent to 2 lbs., it is no wonder that the 
JesaUehi has grown visibly fat during the last week. He does nothing 
Imt walk about, sleep, eat as aforesaid, smoke, and look as meek and as 
happy as a lamb. 

Tne 6th Native Infantry had a great wrestling-match, to which our 
regiment was invited. We stopped as we were passing their lines, but it 
WAS all over, except some of them plajring at single-stick with very small 
shields, under the thick shady foliage of the spreading trees. Several of 
the 6th came up, as scantily clad as decent men well could be. They 
ware evidently pleased at our stopping, and brought out a long-necked 
iDObde of rose-wat^, wherewith tney sprinkled my husband, and then, 

* i^tL Bengal officer ; so called IVom the number of servants employed in Bengal, 
who are summoned by calling Koi-hj ? Who is there? Bombay officers are called 
INmIes^ fiom a flsh Ibr which their presidency is ikmons. Madras oAoetft, MsK^x^ 
Jmow not why. 



112 SUFFEBIKGS OF SOLDIEBS' WIVES. 

having? asked permission, they dexterously sent a showerful into my eyes. 
They then offered us a tray with slices of apples and spioes, a few of 
which I took. This is the simple and courteous entertainment they offer 
to each other. 

As we were coming: home affcer the eclipse, we saw the Shahzadeh 
Teimur, Shah Shujah's eldest son, preparing for a drive ; and as I wished 
to see him, we left the bug:gy, and walked into William the CateohJ^t'* 
house, close by, from whence I saw this curious cortege, preceded by 
about a dozen men on foot, in scarlet, with spears ; then came the Prinofr 
in a buggy, followed by some horsemen, wnile divers Saises scampered 
after them on foot. It was so dark that, being in the shade of the porch, 
they could not see us. A horseman came and asked for William as tiie 
" Chota Padre," "chota" meaning little, junior, or inferior. Teimfir 
spoke to him in Hind^sjani — a great condescension, as a Sovereign is 
supposed to know no language but his own ; asked after him and his 
family, and his brother, the other Chota Padre, meaning Haldhar. 

William told us that when the Sikhs came to Loodiana, Prince Teimiir 
sent for him and his family, told them not to fear, and most kindly kept 
all the women and children in his own zen&na for safety. So mudh for 
the **old Indian" idea, which Dr. Duif exposes so well in the July 
number of the " Free Church Missionary Record," of native convert 
being considered as outcasts, and despised by their countrymen. Doubt- 
less they are outcasts from their families and friends, just as a convert 
from Komanism is ; but we see with our own eyes the respect with which 
the native converts are treated by their countrymen in general, when 
their lives are consistent. Muhammadans of course consider a Clmstiaa 
much better than an idolator ; and Hindus think each man is to be saved 
by the religion he professes ; if indeed they have any idea of what we 
mean by salvation. 

September 30th, 1847. — A young Scotchwoman, wife of a bombardier, 
came to ask me if 1 could get a situation for her. She told us that coming 
up the country, the women and children were brought up in the river 
boats ; and the voyage from Calcutta to Cawnpore was only fourteen days 
shorter than from Liverpool to Calcutta. They were sent up in June, toe 
very middle of the hot season, in boats, as usual, pervious to the son. 
The doctor (Macpherson by name) who was w ith them, took no charge of 
them whatever. Doctors seldom do give advice or warning to eitiber the 
soldiers or tiieir wives, thinking it of no use. The surgeon of a hussar 
regiment laughed at me for warning a ruddy young girl fresh firom 
England, who was sitting bareheaded in the sun, saying, ** We never 
give them any advice, it is of no use ; we let them take their own way :*' 
and of course numbers are sacrificed to their ignorance of the climate and 
its dangers. Many, doubtless, are obstinate, but not all. Money was 
given to these poor women for subsistence, but no one told them what food 
they would require, or what they ought to get ; so that many of them 
lived on a little tea, without any milk or sugar, and thick, indigestiUe 
chapatis of wheat-flour and water. The consequence was that the deathf 
were frightfully numerous, five or six bodies oi women and children being 
often buried by the river side in one morning ; and yet no representatifla 
was made by their officers. 

A poor soldier's wife is indeed to be pitied ; she is often a yoimg, 
inexperienced country girl : nobody cares K>r her, no one looks after her: 
her health is as likely to give way as any lady's in India ; she is treated 
more like an animal than a woman, obliged to live day and night ia 
barracks, in the same room with a crowd of rude, depraved men, maicied 
and single : probably her husband beats and kicks her ; and when m 



VSGLECT 07 A SOLBISB's TSSLIKOS. 118 

board ship, she is worse off than a female convict. In India she is sent 
hither and thither at all seasons, and she may truly say, ** No man careth 
for my soul," for hitherto I have only seen two chaplains who can be 
oonsidered as truly Christian men; undoubtedly there are others, but 
thev are rari nantes, &c.* 

l!nat hu^ burly N&ib Eassaldar, Attah Muhammad, came here a few 
days ago ; and on hearingr of the loss I had sustained, he begged C. to tell 
me how grieved he was, and then opening his hands like tne leaves of a 
book, said, " Let us have a * fetiha,' ' or prayer. C. put his hands in the 
same position, and, with his face quite red with emotion, and his eyes full 
of tears, Atta Mfihammad prayed that God would bless and comfort me, 
and that the blessing oi Jesus the Messiah might come upon me. 
Then they both stroked their beards. The heartiness and earnestness 
with which it was done quite touched me. This kind man cannot read, 
so that he could not use a New Testament. But is not this a fine native 
soil; and wUl it not be a glorious harvest, when the good seed of the Word 
springs up to everlasting life in the hearts of these men ? 

Another of my husband's gallant little band of Jczailchis arrived the 
other day. Amir Kh&n, a naib (or deputy) jamadar, whom C. appointed to 
take charge of Captain Eyre's family on the retreat, and who brought 
Freddy Eyre on his horse, safe through the Eab61 Pass. He oame to ask 
for a certificate. He is a stout handsome man, with, like most of his 
oonntrymen, the most beautiful long silky eyelashes imaginable. They 
are Ihe handsomest race I ever saw. Hasan Eh&n is just what the 
Hindus would call him, ** The Unquiet One." He is never happy unless 
!n a state of fiery excitement ; the other day he worked himself up to 
boiling-heat, in shaking of his old commandant, Captain F., and related 
several facts, wmch are certainly not to his credit. A sister's son of 
Hasan Kh&n's, who was with Captain F. when he was attacked at 
Peshbolak, fought to the last with the greatest gallantry, keeping the 
gateway, and as Hasan Eh^ said, " behaving like a man,*' At last he 
was killed. When Captain P. met his uncle afterwards he never said 
one word to him on the subject, expressed no sympathy, did not even tell 
him Ms nephew had been killed. Muhammad Hasan said, *' If he had 
but told me, *your nephew was killed fighting,' it would have been 
enough ;" but he only heard this from some of the Jezailchis. Again, 
previous to Hasan Eh&n's momentous expedition to K&bul, a relation of 
nis was dying, notwithstanding which Captain F. wished to detach him 
on a treasure party, and on his remonstrating, assured him it was necessary 
he should go, as there was no one else he could trust. When he returned 
he found his relation dead and buried. '* I took up his body," he said, 
** embalmed it, and asked leave to go and bury it among our ownpeople.** 
I told him I should be dis^ced if I did not do it ; all my tribe would say, 
* Ah ! he is too busy making money, he does not care for his kinsfolk.' '* 
It was in vain — Captain F. would not let him go. He describes every- 
tibdng in pantomime as well as in words, so that I can almost follow ms 
narrative. 

October 9th, 1847. — C. has lately promoted his Havildar Major to be 
Bubadar, the highest rank of native officer in a regiment. When he told 

* Orders have lately \)eea Usatd for married soldiers to hare aeparate barracks 
ftom tbe aingle men. Sir Charles Napier made great exertions to get 1000 cubio ftct 
to be allowed for every inmate of a barrack. But still more recently the number 9i 
auuxied men has been limited to twelve per company, which is beneath the presefifc 
STerage, at least in the artillery. Now certainly any one who has the welfiire of 
tht soldier at heart woold endeayonr to increase the nnmbec of idaxi\»%^ Vfiikm^ 
of Umttiiig them. 



114 FOOB BHI8TI — ILLUSTBATIONS OF SOBXFTtTBS. 

him of it, 'the man, a yersr fine Bajpiit, who has done exoellent sendee 
since he joined, said nothing, only made a military salute, and when C. 
afterwards in private expressed nis gratification at haying the oppor* 
tunity of promoting him, he merely joined his hands, and tried to mutter 
something, with tears swimming in his soft large eyes. C. was quite 
touched, lor it was so different from the usual exuheranoe of verbal grati- 
tude shown by the natives. He came soon after in uniform, to pay his 
respects on'promotion, and looked very happy ; an arm-chair was plaoed 
for nim, ana he sat down as a visitor for the first time. Since then he 
comes on business in his usual simple dress. His promotion, however, 
excited great wrath in another Havildar, who came and requested to be 
sent back to his former regiment. For this most insubordinate request 
my husband deprived him of his pay havildarship, reducing him to phun 
Havildar, by which he loses five rupees a month. He then ordered all the 
pay havildars to assemble here (such a fine set of men ! none imder six 
leet), and caused the regimental Munshi to read to them the parable of 
the Labourers in the Yineyard. He told them this is the wora of God; 
and explained to them that they had entered as Sep&his on seven rupees a 
month, and ought to be contented if they remained so alwavs j th^ 
understood the parable perfectly, and were quite pleased wiui it It 
certainly appears to me that he has a most admirable way of dealing with 
people in general. 

I was much interested in another regimental incident. A poor bhisti, 
or water-carrier, got leave to visit his mother, who was very il]« ova> 
stayed his leave, and did not come back till after muster — a heinous 
offence, and moreover no one gets pay, who is absent without leave on 
muster-day. He came just as we were going to dine out, and ma moit 
ostentatiously and imperiously desired to depart by the orderlies, whob 
in virtue of their office, are the most overbearing and despotio persons^ 
imaginable, for this was not the proper time to come. C. beckoned tohw 
to approach, whereupon they cried, ** l^ow halt, don't advanoe a stop 
farther." The poor Sikh stood with his hands joined making his petitkot 
and my husband's old bhisti, who was with him at Pesh&wur, and who 
always amuses me by his grey beard being stained red, whOe tfaa 
moustache is left white, was so moved that, although the delinquent wu 
a Sikh and he himself a Mussalman, he could not help orying, " Oh, be 
merciful." I am happy to tell you the poor man was re-admitted and 
got his pay. 

October 19th, 1847. — Sometime ago we sent a shepherd and a Qhonke- 
dar of the regiment with 100 rupees to buy a flock oi sheep for the MntUm 
Club. They were obliged to buy a large he-^ifoat to walk at the head of 
the flock, for until they did so the sheep ran hither and thither, andeonld 
not be driven comfortably. Does not this illustrate the expression (Jer. 
iv. 8) in which the Jews are told to go out of Babylon, and be as the ho^ 
goats before the flocks, that is, set an example to others to follow ? 

Again, each of the servants has so many dusters in his charge, one of 
which he always carries about with him. Most of them gird th^auelTBi 
with it, and I seldom see one unfasten the end of his towel, if abooft to 
wash anything, without thinking of our blessed Lord condescending to 
do the same. 

These are just some of the illustrations of Scripture that we see duly. 
The crowd of wild Pariah dogs, which rove about the city, giye qmtB s 
different meaning to the expression, " Dogs have compassM. me, ' (Bk 
xxii. 16), to what it has in our ears, who are accustomed to haveflBtr 
faithful and civilized dogs come about one. You remembor how UBMf 
passages speak of the tinkling o€ \]he unkktA of the Jewish women: htn 



"CHILDBEK OF GOD. 116 

4]iey not only often wear a whole row of silver bangles, but sometimes 
4hey have little silver tassels attached to them, which of course make a 
^^eat jingling in walking. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Yesterday was a ^eat holiday of the Hindus ; those of our regiment 
£ent a request to their Commandant through the Havildar Major, that he 
would come and see the festival. He tola the Havildar Major tiiat he 
was a Christian, because he believed it to be the only way of salvation, 
«nd, if he went to the show, people would think he either did not believe 
in ma own religion, or that ne considered all religions alike ; and bade 
liim explain to the men that it was out of no disrespect to them personaUy, 
and that he would never interfere with any man's worship ; but that he 
oonsidered idolatry as sinful, and would, therefore, be acting against his 
conscience if he countenanced it. The Havildar Major imderstood per- 
feotiy, and said it was quite right, and I am sure the Hindus will only 
respect him the more. 

I gave a Persian Testament the other da3r to Atta Muhammad, who put 
it to his forehead, and said he would read it, and take the ^eatest care 
of it. I thought his sympathy with me was -a good opportumty of asking 
him to accept it. He was quite pleased, and told us a &w days afterwards 
that he had had some of it read to him ; he also showed a very fair know- 
ledge of some parts of the Old Testament history. 

C. has, been reading the Gospel of St. Matthew in Persian with the 
Monshi, who is evidently shaken in some of his prejudices, and cannot 
Answer C.'s arguments on the necessity and perfection of the atonement. 
But you can hardly imagine the gross and carnal manner in which they un- 
derstand Scripture. For instance, Hasan Ehan was greatlv shocked at the 
beatitude, " Blessed are the peace makers, for they shall be called the 
4^dren of GKxl." He said it was very bad, and nothing could make him 
understand that the words *' children of God " were not meant literally 
but spiritually. 

The Munshi confesses that the more a Muhammadan prays and tells his 
beads, the greater rogue he is sure to be. All spies and adepts at intrigue 
make a point of carrying their beads. 

My husband and the Munshi have had a great argument about W^lis. 
These are supposed prophets, who have the power of working miracles, 
but who keep themselves very quiet and much abstracted from tiie 
world, and are only discoverable by the understanding few* The Munshi 
told these stories. 

When C. asked him in 1840 to accoihpany him to Peshawur, he was 
mnoh inclined to do so till he consulted a Wali, who said, " Don't go — 
great dangers await you" — a very safe prophecy for any man who knew 
the state of Afghanistan. This C. endeavoured to show him, whereupon 
he brought forward another proof of the supmatural powers of Wali. 
fie has a child who seems to be a kind of ^* natural," and two or tiiree 
years ago, while thinking of this child, he heard of the arrival of a Wali 
who appears to have been insane, with sufficient cunning to take advan- 
tage of the respect paid him. The Munshi went to him and sat down. 
The unsavory Saint was very condescending to him, and even gave him a 
pipe to smoke, saying to his attendant, '* Daughter give Daughter pipe," 
■each of the so-called daughters being black-bearded Mussamians. The 
Mmu^ t^en told his ^ef and received for answer, " 0\i, ^<d.w^^fis£^\ys^ 
not dipoomfited, thy olSld will recover.** . " And,** coiv\Mi^3Lfc^ \Sfc ^\s£^<& 

i2 



116 HA8AK KHAN— TBIKCB 8HAHFI7B. 

man, ** two years afterwards she began to say a word or two." C. then 
told him of the Wall of whom the Amir Dost Muhammad inquired when 
he should return to Afghanistan. The Wali said he must consider for a 
day or two, and in the meantime went to Captain Peter Nicholson, who 
had charge of the Dost, and asked him what he should say. CaptEun 
Nicholson gave him iive rupees, and thinking it would keep his prisoner 
quiet, and prevent his trying to escape, told the Wali to answer he would 
return in four years. The impostor did so, and received rich presents 
from the credulous Dost, who really did return about the time specified, 
and the said Wali is in consequence looked upon as the greatest prophet 
in those psorts. Captain Nicholson told my husband this himself. The 
Munshi could onlv answer, that that Wali was a great Dagha-bftx or 
rogue, literally a player with knavery." 

Hasan Khkh is really the greatest baby I ever saw, as impatient as a 
child for anything he wants — ^he never reflects whether there has been 
time for it to reacn him or not, and when disappointed or cross, he pouts 
and sulks and shrugs his shoulders, and looks as if he were ready to ory, 
exactly like a nau|?hty spoilt boy. He has not the least scdf-controL 
Sirfraz £han, who is at the head of Prince Shahpur's household, oame to 
consult my husband how an increase of pension could be obtained for the 
Shahzadeh, who at present subsists on the pitiful allowance of 400 ropees 
a month, and this arter being acknowledged King by General Pollock, and 
having relations and retainers innumerable to provide for. 8irfiraz 'Khkiu 
although he must know that every one of his countrymen is full of enmity 
and jealousy towards all the rest, unwarily opened the subject in the pre- 
sence of Hasan Ehan, who, being already very cross, imme^tely burst 
out into a tirade against Shahpur, calling him a coward, and I know not 
what besides. C. immediately took up his cause, described the gallant 
boy's behaviour during the expedition to Istalif, when he and his body 
of Eazilbash Horsemen were placed under my husband's oharse — how 
eager he always was for action, and the contempt he expressed for some 
of the Kazilbash Chiefs when he thought them inclined to hang bacdc, and 
as Hasan Kh^n had nothing to reply, he leant back in his chair and 
sulked. Sirfraz Kh^n brought a Kassid (a messenger) with him, who was 
the bearer of a letter from M^ammad ^hah Kh§n and Dost Mtihammad 
£han to my husband. 

The Eassid was one of those wily men who are made the medium of aU 
intrigues. His beard was partly grey, and his turban being pushed a 
little back showed that he wore his nair beneath it — he had a beantifid 
nose, and such brilliant, intelligent, crafty eyes. I saw one glance at 
Sirfraz £hln which convinced me the old gentleman had said somethixi^ 
imprudent. It was a quick reproving look, such as a disguised Jespit 
superior might give to a blundering novice. He was poorly dressed, with 
a ragged cloth lor a Chogah, and his beads in his hand. He drewfmh a 
small book, and took the letter from between the boards and thie linings 
and then sat down on the floor counting his beads and guietly snnreying 
everything in the room, and marking all that was said or done. TUhe 
letter was from Muhammad Shah Ehan and his brother. The former ao- 
knowledgcd the receipt of C.'s auspicious letter, and what he had sent, 
i.e., the Testaments, and professed that both brothers were ready to obey 
the slightest nod of the British Government, who, however, do not wiih to 
have anything to say to them. 

AbduLrahmin Khka was nresent when a poor Aigh&n came to say his 

li^e girl Assoa was very ill with high fever and delirium, and C. told 

Abdulrahm&n that the poor child often came here, and addra, *' andpff- 

JiapB abe may die V* "God forbid thatBhe should die I" eriedhe; ^'joa 



8I0E OHILD'-BATIHa 1000. 117 

ure goinff to have i>rayers— pray for the child." And then turning 
towi^ds him, he oontinaed, ** 1 wish you knew what was in my heart for 
you. It is great Mendship. I see here purity of life ;" and then he ex- 
pressed a hope that eyen though not a Muhammadan he might he saved, 
saying* in a kind of soliloquy — " I haye a strong hope that there may he 
a plaoe for you in Paradise. C. took the opportunity of explaining to 
him l^e grounds on which he hoped for salvation, namely, through the 
Uood of Christ alone. He and my hushand always read the Scriptures 
together when he oomes, and though he constantly caps a Scripture pas- 
sage with some ahsurd legend or quotation irom the Kuran, vet we maj 
surely hope that the Word of God will not he wholly plucked out of his 
heart, hut that it ma^ yet hear fruit. The Munshi says it is very good 
tibat we should inquire into the right way, and when G. offered up a 
prayer in Persian that they might hoth he led into all truth, he added a 
fervent ^mln .' Amen. 

The Sergeant-Major has heen lately appointed to another regiment. 
On his going away C. spoke a few words to him, not, as he said, as his 
oommanding officer, hut as a fellow-criminal who must soon appear with 
him at the har of GKxi. The rough hlunt soldier had tears in his eyes, 
and as the Quartermaster- Serg[eant said that he was very anxious to be 
allowed to keep " The Church in the Army," which we had lent him, and 
which was the first religious book he had ever read, it was, of course, 
given to him ; C. also gave him a Bible, and I " the Holy War," for his 
wife. Imagine the simple Havildar Major explaining to us why Muham- 
madans will take water from the hands of a Hindu, but not nrom those 
•of a Sikh— that the Sikhs eat pork and fowls, and even eogs ! The two 
latter are an abomination to Hind(is, but the Mussalmans themselves eat 
them just as we do. I could give you many other instances how ignorant 
one sect is of all that concerns the others. 

We have just seen the Journal of the Catechists of the Free Kirk at 
Odoutta. which shows a most wonderful diminution of Hindu prejudices 
among the people they visited. £ven Brahmans received them kindly, 
and gave them food. 

October 2l8t. — I am not at all pleased with Hindustani. It appears to 
me to have a most wearisome sameness of construction, and to express 
tldngs awkwardly ; but I want to know if the imperative and indefinite 
future are not aiike in Hebrew. They are so in Hindustani, so that this 
would account for many passages in the Psalms, which almost look as if 
Davids were imprecating vengeance on his enemies: whereas if the 
Hebrew be like Hindustani, there is no difference between the imperative 
** Let them be" or ** may they be," and the future " They will or shall 
be." There are many Arabic words in Hindustani which are like 
Hebrew ; for instance, *' kiirb^," a sacrifice, I suppose is the same word 
as ** oorlmn." Pray tell me if it be so. 

Saturday, October 133rd. — Breakfasted at Hasan Kh&n's wiHi Colonel 
Speirs and Major Macdonald. I sat a little while in the Zen&n&, and 
then Hasan Khka came for me. He had got table and chairs, and bor- 
rowed our plate and one of our servants, so that we might eat in our own 
feishion, but the meal itself was quite an Afghan one. There were kids 
and lambs roasted whole, pillaus, kuftas, wmch are like rissoles, and a 
variety of smaller dishes, besides fowls, so that the table was insufficient 
to contain such a feast. In vain Hasan £h^ tried to make room by 
paling the la^ flat loaves upon each other, snatching a kid off its dish, 
and putting it on the top of the bread ; at last C. and M^jor Macdonald 
estftblJAed themselves on the floor, and Colonel Speirs and I QAOkAS^ ^s\a- 
MLves with cititicifiing their Afgh^ habits. Hx^aa "S^t^kiiVlbxxja^t^i^s^ 



118 XTFXCTS OF POLYOAMT. 

into the hands of one of his men to take to us, and another to them, and 
kept loading our plates with choice morsels, dexterously tearing df ^ 
joint or gathering up a handful of sausages with his finders. C. and 
Major Macdonald displayed their skill in eating with tiieir fingers,— a 
Tcry difficult art when rice is to he eaten, as it runs up one's sleeye. 
Everything was very good ; the meat excellent ; and a pillau, flayoured 
with lemon, is worthy of heing introduced into Europe. They poured 
water on our hands hefore and after eating. Being in Hindustan, Hasan 
Kh^n could not well eat publicly with us, hut he sat down by C. and 
Major M., and helped them to the best bits, until he was overcome by the 
savory odour, and could no longer refrain. 

In Afghanistan, and everywhere except in India, Mussalmans eat 
freely with Christians, but here thej have teamed Hindu customs. Little 
Padimah (prox>erly Patimah) is quite fond of me, and sits on my side as 
she would on her mother's. It is much the easiest way of carrying a 
child : just try it. When we took leave, a horse was brought out as a 
present for Colonel Speirs, which, of course, he did not accept. Hasan 
Ahan is just gone to Peshawnr to meet his other wives. 

The Afghans generally think nothing of the death of a wife. When my 
husband was in Afghanistan he was several times asked, "Are jovt 
married?" "No; my wife is dead." "We hear you are very sorry 
when your wives die : did you weep }** " Yes, I did. ' Whereupon they 
were struck dumb with astonishment, that any one could feel the deam 
of a wife so strongly. "Why should we grieve," say they, "there are 
plenty of others;" and yet these are men of warm feelings, capable of 
strong attachments ana sympathy : but this only makes the £ict more 
evident, that any violation of the law written in the hearts of all, or of 
the arrangements of the Creator (to say nothing of his revealed laws), 
brings with it its own punishment. Polygamy has destroyed everything 
like domestic and family ties. Sometimes nature reasserts her right, and 
produces strong attachment between husband and wife, brother and 
brother ; but this is the exception, and that this state of things is pro* 
duced by polygamy, and not merely by ignorance of true religion, is 

§ roved by the example of the ancient Komans during the period when 
ivorce was unknown, and when the wife, being the sole and life-long 
Sartner of her husband, gave him not only a help-meet but a home and a 
omestic hearth, ideas imknown to Muhammaaans. There must be a 
mater familias before true family ties can exist. 

In looking back to the Hindu Rajahs and others, whom we saw at 
Benlres, I cannot tell you how strongly the contrast strikes me between 
them and the Afghans. The former seem so weak, so childish, such mere 
babies by the side of these manly, energetic men, By-the-bye, C. has 
been reading my Journal, and says that if I do not explain, you will cer- 
tainly think the Munshi is a fool, when you read of his devotion to Walis. 
He is quite the contrary, being a clever and, as far as a Mussalman can 
be, a candid man. He brought his Molevi, t. e. a kind of combination of 
Mi^hammadan Scribe and Pharisee, whom he called " My Master," and 
assured me he was a " very learned and godly man." 

When the Molevi came over, the Munshi immediately gave up his 
chair, which he took as a matter of course, while an intelligent-lo^dng 
man, a scholar of his, stood beside him. The Molevi was very plainly 
dressed, with a quiet manner, but his behaviour was that of a man who 
feels himself superior to all around, and therefore had no pretendon» 
while the respectful deference of the other two was quite that of disoiplefl 
to their teacher and master. It was a relation of which I had never seen 
any other example, and interested me muoK. Botk the Molevi and his 



DOST XUHAHMAD's TBSACHIBT. 119 

sobolar were suffering from oyer study and want of exercise. I told them 
^e bod^r was like a slave to serve the mind, but, if it was too hardly 
treated, it would fall sick, and could do no more. The sage was graciously 
leased with my little parable. 

Thursday. — Molevi came again to see my husband, and brought a book 
against Christianity by a famous Muhammadan doctor at Laknao. He 
mentioned some of the objections advanced in it, which were all of the 
most trivial description ; such as one translation of '* Behold my servant 
whom I uphold," having " Band,** slave, and another, ** Noukar," ser- 
vant. He also obiected to the passage in the Psalms, " Gird thou thy 
sword upon thy thigh, thou most mighty," and said that it could not 
apply to Christ, as be never wore a sword. C. told him that the Jews 
were as much opposed to Christianity as the Muhammadans, yet the Old 
Testament in the hands of the Jews all over the world is exactly the same 
as that which Christians acknowledge ; now it cannot be supposed that 
tiie Jews would unite with Christians in altering or interpolating their 
own sacred book. To this he had nothing to reply. The different sects 
among Christians form a similar proof of the genuineness of the "New 
Testament. The genuineness of either was never doubted until Miiham- 
mad's time ; and they who bring the accusation of falsification should 
prove their assertion. I think the testimony to the truth of the Oospel 
writing from the unanimous consent of so many opposing sects, may have 
been one of the reasons why those divisions were permitted. 

When SirMz Ehkn. was leaving Afgh^stan, the Amir, Dost Mii- 
hammad, met him, swore upon the Kur^n that he was the best friend 
he had in the world, and tried eYerj art to induce him to return. He 
afterwards married the daughter of Aminullah Khan (Sirfr^z's brother), 
and then murdered the old man with his own hands, smothering him wim 
a pillow. Sirfr^ TShkn. says Shah Shujah's pride amounted to insanity. 
To such an e^ttent did he carry it, that he never suffered any of his nume- 
rous daughters to marry ; and when the Kin^ of Delhi, who, as the repre- 
sentative of Akbar the Great, is certainly the first Muhammadan prince 
in the East, sent to ask for one of them as a wife for one of his own sons, 
Shah Shujah was perfectly frantic at the insult ! Just as if Louis Philippe 
were to despise the alliance of the Emperor of Austria. 

Mr. Porter, who has been absent on a Missionary tour for the last 
month, told us that on the hill side, near Kangra, there is a most curious 
phenomenon, called the Jew^la Makki, or Fire-mouth. A subterranean 
stream of gas having found vent from many crevices of the mountain, and 
having been by some means set on fire, perpetual flames are seen, which 
the Hindus look on with great veneration. They have enclosed the prin- 
cipal ones in a temple, which they will allow no one to enter without 
talking off his shoes. The Governor-General, however, lately visited it. 
and 01 course did not take off his. Mr. Porter refused to do so, and told 
tiie Priests that if he did they would represent it as an act of homage to 
the idol, for so these jets of fire may be termed. 

It happens that Ideutenent Lake, who has charge of these districts, 
rendered great service to the Brahmans of the temple by restoring to 
them some revenues that had been seized by another set of priests ; when, 
therefore, Mr. Porter threatened to tell Lieutenant Lake that they refused 
to admit him and his chUcbren with their shoes, they at length consented 
to do so. He asked tiiem what right they had to shut up this work of 
God that was free to all men on the mountain-side, and offered to put out 
tiieir God : upon which they earnestly begged him not to think of such a 
thing. 

Perhaps you do not know that the YedanUo doctocraaSa* ^^\» 'Qs^^'sfe^ 



120 FANTHBISH — ^WOBSHIPFIN« THB COLOUBS. 

but one God, and that He should be worshipped without images and any- 
where, and that people may eat anythinf?, no matter hj whom it is pre- 
pared. They teach further, that everything is a manifestation of (iod. 
and is God. This Pantheism is exactly that of Pope's '* £s8ay on Man, 
see — '* All are but parts of one stupendous whole, &c. ;'* and they say 
further, that it is better to worship Him through ike medium of Tisihla* 
beings than not at all. Thus they sink into the grossest idolatry, and 
worship anything in everything. 

Brahm, tne supreme god, is said to sleep and wake alternately ; firom 
him all the other gods proceed ; but after all they, as well as the wnole of 
creation, are but " My a," or delusion. 

That temple we saw at Benares is, perhaps, the most famons one in 
India of Siva, or the Destroyer, under the name of Mahadeo. 

The Hindu Sepahis commonly worship the colours of their regiment* a 
thing which even many Christian commanding officers take no steps to 
prevent ; but which G. is determined shall never be done while the regi- 
ment is under his command. You will find a very ^ood account of Hindu 
mythology in *' Chambers's Useful and Entertammg Tracts," under the 
head of " Hindu Superstitions." 

My husband was writing to Ceylon the other day, and said to his 
Havildar-Major, a high caste Rajput, "llie Brahmans tell you that 
Ceylon is inhabited wholly by demons (or d^os), and that evary one who 
goes there is immediately devoured by them." The Havildar-M^jor 
acknowledged this. ** But there are many English there, many troopfl» a 
British General, and a British Governor, and I am thinking of bimng 
some land there. I am now writing to a great man in that island, and ii yoa 
have any particular friend among the Deos, I will send your salam to him. 
I often eat grief on your account and that of your countrymen, whom I 
see worshipping idols ; for there is but one God, who alone should be 
worshipped. ' 

The Havildar answered : " True, there is but one God." 

'* Is it not lamentable, then, that men should bow down to images which 
l^ey make themselves of wood and stone ^" 

" And mud," interjected the Havildar-Major. 

** Your worthless Brahmans tell you these fables for their own piofiti 
and not for your good." 

"True," said he, "they do for their own profit: for the other day» 
when we gave a little feast to our brethren of the 11th, they came among 
us and extracted fifteen rupees from us, and then told us all the gods were 
much pleased." And the Havildar-Major finished with a little soomfial 
laugh that spoke volumes. 

The Mussalmans are very fond of speaking of Sikander Padsh^ f.«. 
Alexander the Great, and his two Yazirs, Aristun and Aflat&n, (Aristotile 
and Plato), all of whom they devoutly believe to have been good Miiham- 
madans. My husband was telling Abdurahm^ Eh&n of Lord Bosi's 
gigantic telescope, when he gravely replied, that it was nothing to one 
which Aristotle made for Alexander the Great, by which he oooM see all 
that passed in the heavenly bodies so clearly, that he was enabled to draw 
omens from them, and fix the proper days for marching, &o. Imagine 
assigning to the stars the office of C^uartermaster-General of Alexancter^f 
army. 

The result of this Mdhammadan jumble of ideas was a most diTortnig 

dream of my husband's. He thought Plato offered to enlist with hiSi 

assuring him he was onli/ 100 years old. C. considered this rather ipamk 

but thinking he would still get some work out of him, decided on takisff 

Mtn, because he was " 80 thoroughly respectable." 



XLEFHANT AT WORE — THJB LINES. 121 

November 11th. — C. has just received his arms which he indented for 
six motUhs ago. However, in consequence of his vigorous remonstrances^ 
he has obtained a better description of muskets tmui either of the other 
leeiments except the Hill Corps. 

I asked Mr. rorter if the late war had done much in the way of opening 
the Panj&b to the Gospel. He said '* Everything ;" previously no britisE 
subject could cross the Satlej without the permission of both Govern- 
ments. Now, they may go and preach where they please. An old 
Sub&d&r, who had served in Broadioot's Sappers and Miners, recognised 
0. the other morning Is his corps was marchmg into Loodiana, and came 
to see him after breisikfast — a Une old man with many medals, he has 
beenin fort]^ battles— and while sx>eaking, pulled up his trousers to show a 
wound on ms brawny brown knee. 

November 17th. — ^There is a very simple and excellent contrivance used 
here by carpenters for boring holes. It is a kind of iron stiletto, and a 
bow with a loose string, which is twisted twice round the handle of the 
former, and beinff moved rapidly up and down the borer turns and goes 
through the wood without any exertion. 

A gentleman related t^e other day, that having killed a man by pure 
accident when out shooting a short time a^o in the JcJander Do^b, he 
requested a Panch&yet (or council of live arbitrators) to settle the amount 
of oompensatipn he ought to pay. They decided Uiat *' as he was a Sahib/ ' 
he ought to give ten rupees ; and a Lambadar, or ruler of the village, told 
him privately, that if he thought that exorbitant, he would try to get it 
lessened. 

Early on the 19th, we went out on an elephant, which the I.'s brought 
with them. It is a very nice creature. I have fed her several times, and 
she now knows my voice and comes after me when I call her. It is very 
curious to see what steep places an elephant will go up or down. C. de- 
sired the Mahout to make the elephant knock down a wall for my edifioa* 
tion. At first she did not understand what was required of her, and made 
a frightM growl or roar when the Mahout struck her, but when she 
knew, she pushed down apiece of wall about nine feet in height, and four 
broad, of unbaked bricks, with the upper part of her trunk, as quietly 
and gently as possible. Finding her so capable of the work, G. led us to 
his own unes, where they made her demolish some of the old huts to 
make room for the new ones, Uius saving the men a good deal of labour. 
We passed through the lines, and I was much amused at the peep I got 
of them. Many of the Hindu Sep^his were preparing their food, each 
man sitting in a little circle, with a small rampart of earth two or three 
inches high around it, withm which himself and his bright brazen vessels 
remain untouched and impolluted. 

It is curious to see a Hindu Sepahi with the front of his head shav^, 
twisting up his long black hair into a knot. I want^ to see a Sikh's hair, 
but that is very difficult, as I hear horrid reports of its never being taken 
down ; I hope ** in public** is sous-entendu. Most of the men seem to have 
Gharpais and ^ood rczais or quilts. I played chess with Abdulrahman 
£hi^ a little time ago, and he would inevitably have been defeated, when 
he suddeidy found out it was very late, and feared the game would last 
all night; so as it would doubtless have horrified him to have been 
beaten by a lady, it was best to agree with him and leave off the game. 
The only difference in their manner of playing is, that the pawns are not 
allowed to move two squares at first, and the king of one party is placed 
opposite the queen or vazir of the other, instead of the queen bemg always 

on her own colour. -• t >_ 

I have never told you of a most gentLemouly Aitfaka, ol ^Caaiisxs^a ^t 



122 AOHA HUHJLMMAD. 

Agha Miihaiimiad, whom we often see. When Akbar besieged Fattih 
Jang» Shah Shujah's son and successor, in the BUli Hiss^, the latter sent 
to deneral Pollock for relief, which he promised to famish, but owing to 
Lord Ellenborough's orders not to advance, failed to do so. Fattfli 
Jang held ont a week or two beyond the time, and at last snrrendered. 
Ajgha Muhammad was confined with him in ^e city. Akbar demanded 
his jewels, and threatened him with death if they were not given np. 
Fattih Jang promised to have them ready by the next day, but in t£e 
meantime Agha Muhammad made a hole in tne roof, scrambled up him- 
self, and drew the Shahzadeh np after him bv his turban. They then hid 
themselves in the house of a fnend, from whence Fattih Jang made the 
escape, Agha Muhammad lending him 5,000 rupees. ^ The latter returned 
to Kabul afterwards with his father, to settle their affiurs ; they were 
waylaid by Akbar's emissaries, the old man murdered, and the son. 
severely wounded. When he came back to Loodiana, he found the Shah- 
zadeh had si)ent all he had, like a prodigal, and could not possibly pay 
him, so that he is, as you may imagine, in a lamentable i)osition. 

Wednesday. — C. went to see the Shahzadeh Jammur, who is on his way 
to Pesh^wur. He offered to come here, but C. prefers going to the Shan- 
zadeh's, as otherwise their visits would take up too much time. Prince 
Jammur is very intelligent ; he has been living at Pesh&wur, and gave 
exactly the same accoimt of the state and prospects of things in that 
quarter as Atta Muhammad (the Friar Tuck of Fisher's Horse) did some 
rameago; and yet the Shahzadeh and Basaldar have never seen each 
other. They both consider Peshawur and its environs as in a very un- 
settled state. Sultan Muhammad, a brother of Dost Miihammad, and a 
former protege of Ksmjit Sink's, is living there, and is undoubtedly car- 
Tying on intrigues with his kinsfolk, the Barakzjres, though he pretends 
to be at feud with them. As Prince Jammur said, *' TFny does he givs 
presents in money, shawls, &c. &o., to all the Afjp^h^ins round abou^if 
not for some private end of his own ?" C. thinks it is most imprudent to 
allow such a man to reside at Peshliwur. All the Af?h§aaLS consult (It 
and strange to say, folloto his advice, speak freely and confidentially to 
him, and show him honour in every way in their power. The very Go- 
vernment seem to consider him as a kind of Chief ot the Afgh&ns, for not 
knowing what to do with about 120 men who have been lately disbanded 
from Major Ferris's Police Battalion, and many of whom had been with 
C. at Eabul, the magistrates of Banda sent them here, beg]ging my hus- 
band to take steps for distributing them among the regiments of the 
Frontier Brigade. His own ranks being quite full, he was obli|sed to 
send most of them on to Lahore, where Colonel Lawrence will provide ftr 
them, and the rest back to Amballa to enter one of the regiments there. 
But this influence costs a good deal ; for instance, so man^ of these men 
being old comrades, C. had to give a feast to the whole, wmoh cost twenty 
rupees. Then one of those who was going on to Lahore was so deeply is 
debt to anothelr who was returning to Amballa, that we had to release his 
Jellalabad medal for him with ten rupees more. 

One of these men, Eyun-u-Din volunteered to carry a letter to Jella- 
labad from Sir William Mac Naghten, at a time when no Kassid oonld 
be bribed to make the attempt. He succeeded in spite of great danger 
and difficulty. He was a fine-looking man, with a lilao and sDver 
turban, and red shawl wrapped about him. Another of this gallsat 
band, who has lost both feet, is at PeUi^wur, and one who has lost boft 
hands and feet, is in his native moimtains. C. has applied for penskv 
for both of them. Almost all the men who came to-dav had shmn 
heads, and one of the officers speaking) aa \]bfi'j ^ did^ of the ii^UitiB* 



AFGHAN JEZAILOHIS. 123^ 

of disbandingr them {[when Lord Ellenborougli had promised that as a 
reward for their distingxiished fidelity and sendees in Afghanistan, they 
ahonld be for ever retained in the service of the Company), suddenly 
plucked off his cap with the utmost vehemence, and thrasUng his bald 
nead under G.'s very moustache, showed a scar that would have split any 
other skull but an Afghan's, an Irishman's, or a Highlander's, fore and 
aft ; crying, " Do you think I took that on my head for nothing !" C» 
sent them all away pleased at what he had done and was trying to do 
for them. He bias a wonderful way of managing them. That Afghan 
I told you of, whom he cut down for mutiny, and who came to see him on 
his way to join one of the other regiments, returned the other day, haying- 
asked for ms discharge in consequence of not bein^ promoted mstanter. 
0. has more than his complement, and can do notning for him ; so he 
slapped his cheek, told him he was an ass, and then took him by the 
shoulders, and shook him until his head nearly fell off, all of which this 
sturdy mutinous creature with battle-axe in hand took most placidly, 
while the other Sep§.his laughed. 

A Kashmiri Mussahn^n, a gentleman by birth, came a few days since 
to ask for assistance. He had been nearly slain, and then driven out of 
the Panjab during the Sikh dominion for eating beef. G. told him that 
too many came. He answered, " When a fountain is known to send 
out sweet water, all men flock to it." " But if the fountain is ex- 
hausted, what is to be done ?" To this he had no reply, but as he was 
really in need, the fountain was obliged to give him a few drops. 



CHAPTER X. 

C. lately sent Prince Shahpur a Persian Bible." The New Testament 
was beautifully bound in morocco ; the Tourah, or Old Testament, was a 
Tery fine edition, but in plain, strong half-binding. I therefore made 
^en velvet covers for the two volumes of it, and embroidered the title 
in gold beads, with a little flower on the other side, lining it inside with 
crimson silk. It was thought very pretty, and my Munshi took the 
greatest interest in superintending the shape of the letters. I wrapped 
up the whole in a piece of crimson China crape, which made a lovely 
coyer. 

I am never weary of driving through the Baz^r, it is so picturesque. 
Aibout sunset all the cookshops are in full activity. Here you see one 
ladling out soup, and for some reason of his own, he invariably strikes a 
loud bell as we pass, probably to invite us to partake of his " savoury 
messes." Then, on the ground are innumerable Kab&b seUers, each one 
with rows of skewers on which the bits of meat are filed, laid over a little 
charcoal fire, which sends up a ruddy hue on the countenances of the 
hungry group around, probably wild-looking Afghans, waiting till the 
meat is ready. A little further on is a whole family sitting over a fire 
which they have kindled in their solitary room, or rather alcove, — for it 
18 open to the street— or a poorer ^oup are trying to warm themselves 
with some blazing straw ; — again, in a larger ana carpeted apartment, 
are some wealthy shopkeepers, casting up and settling their accounts ; 
the Kotwal or fTative Mayor sits in his little chamber over the gate 
poring over papers ; a seller of dainties made of sugar and ghl, is 
squatted by the roadside, with a light fixed to a stick stuck in the ground,. 
or else carries them on his head with a candle fastened to his basket.. 
Sometimes you see a little dog trained to light its master l\OTKi^ V^ ^vrrv- 
mg a blazing torch in its mouth. Then the &^& «ni^\^^^ ^)l^ ^ OcS^ 



124 TEACHIKO CHILDBBir. 

toddling across the horse's path, and whisks careless passeng^ens, bullodki, 
and donkeys oat of the way with a horse-towel. 

At this season no one who can help it sleeps in the open air, so that thie 
streets are more passable than they were. Then there is an elephant or 
two, a long btring of hagp:age camels, a Shahzadeh and his suite, or a 
Missionary driving home in his buggy after his daily preaching. At one 
place there is the cloth mart, each seller carrying a few pieoes on his 
shoulder or head. Near them are the money chang^ers seeming &it 
asleep, but sure to open their eyes if any one come witmn reach of their 
piles of copper; then there are the bimocks lying in the midst of the 
road, an irregular horseman careering about ; all this is entertainment 
for the eye ; and for the ear, there is a group of men on one side singing 
softly in chorus ; across the street an imperturbable Hindii 8h(n>keeper, 
abused and assailed by some furious client or rival ; the red-ana-yeUow 
clothed, or perhaps half-naked Sikhs, talking Paxjabi, every other woid 
ending in ** Sing ;" the deep, guttural, harsh tones of Afghlns ahontang 
Pushtu, or the incessant clack-clack of a Kashmiri woman's tongue^ poorinff 
out unimaginable maledictions on the luckless wight who has inonnea 
her displeasure ; by all of which the strangeness and interest of the soena 
are of course much heightened. 

I am astonished at the way even rational and Christian people niegleet 
the instruction of their young children. You hardly ever meet a child 
nnder five or six years old who knows anything ot the Gospel, or who 
can even speak English, and yet children far below that age are clearly 
responsible before God. How, then, can their mothers leave them in 
ignorance as great as that of heathen children ? It is also marvellouB 
to see the manner in which too many good managers deal with their 
servants, always suspecting them, and stopping their pay for every 
offence ; moreover, sometimes taking them forcibly to plaoes at a great 
distance from their homes, because it is inconvenient to the master or 
mistress to get other domestics. 

My little school gets on pretty well. I began to think that WiUiam'i 
yoxmgest little boy Jacob, of four years old, was inaccessible to inatmctioa 
until I read " Wilderspin on Infant Schools." 1 then determined to fay 
a more lively methoa of teaching, and speaking of labour beinff the 
punishment of Adam's sin, I asked mm to describe different kinds of laDOiir. 
First, what a Sais did ; asked him about horses, what they were like, how 
they walked, ai)d made him walk on all fours, and rub down the Ayah's 
little boy as if he were a horse. He laughed and began to look muolL 
brighter. We then made both the children show how grain was sowil 
and reaped and ground. They agreed that it was right that no one ihoiila 
eat who did not work, but for a long time little Jacob insisted that taflon 
should not eat, and he was only convinced of the propriety of their dnng 
so, by our showing him that if tailors did not eat they would die, andu 
they died, who would make warm clothes for him ^y-for I most tell yoa 
that the native Christian women do absolutely nothing ; and even wheB 
they are in debt, as too many of them are, they send eyerythio^ to ba 
made up by tailors, whereas, if they chose, everything might be made at 
home, as all their garments are made of cotton, and very simply. I am 
teaching my Ayah's little girl to work, and she succeeds admirably. 

December 1st, 1847. — Tms was a quiet, home-like moming,~oloiidy 
sky, watery tfUn, and bare trees; the thermometer at 38° at sunriae: wa 
saw the hills north and east of this covered with snow. Captain Skimuf^f 
regiment of Irregular Cavalry was here last week, and C. having nMB- 
tioned that he had not seen them. Captain S. very obli^ngly afinad ti 
Mrea Reld^day for our bene&t, ^hion 1^ aocoidiagily did. It wai 



OBOssnra tbb fobd. 



plain, the ground mHrked out by flags, and kept by mounted orderlies 
and oamel sawirs beton^ting' to the regiment. The latter are most pio- 
tnreBque, though nngaiRly creatures— the camel* I mean. Behind iks 
whole vaa a dark stormy sky and the setting ann. The Irregntar Cav^ry 
are 8o mnoh superior to the Beeulara in the use of their weapons &ad tho 
management of their horees, that many offioers, my husband among the 
numbar, are strongly in favour of having nothing but Irregulars, The 
men are of a superior class with higher pay, find their own horses and 
aoooutrementB, and only three officers (commandant, second in command, 
■nd adjntant,) instead of twenty-one or twenty-two to each regiment. 
Their dnsn is adapted to the climate, their 'saddles to keeping on, and 
{heir spears to use, being light bamboo instead of heavy ashen weapons. 
Pioked men were chosen from Her Majesty's 16th Lancers, and a man 
taken at random ont of Skinner's Horse, and the result was that he slew 
tiiem over and over again (witli blunt lances) without their being able to 
touoh, him. 

Captain Skinner, son of the well-known Colonel Skinner, seems to harft 
inherited his father's talent for raising and disciplining oavahy. As I 
wished to see his regiment on the march, he very conrteonal^ postponed 
tiuAx departure till sunrise. Accordingly we drove to their camp on 
Saturday morning (27th). We wore too early, so that we had time tolook 
about. It was a very cold morning, and many fires were lit by the men 
to warm themselves. Some were loading camels or tatt&s (the hardy littlo- 
ponies of the country), poor women were collecting the moanre in baskets 
to born ', here sat a little child so enveloped in sackcloth or horseclotb, 
that nouiing bnt its large black eyes were visible ; there was a refractory 
tattCi making desperate efforts to kick off its load ; or a trooper jnrt 
booting himself; camp followers of all kinds making haste to be off; no 
tents standing but those of the European officers ; an elephant for the 
Commandant, laden with gnns for sporting, a, dog-cart, some fine horses, 
hackeries, &o. Stc. The native Doctor, who had been a fellow-prisoner 
of my huaband'a, soon made his appearance oomfortabty encased in a. 
large flowered and wadded cotton robe, with his sword by his side; while 
his assistant, as was due, had a much sorrier nag of holt the size, and by 
DO means so py a porb. The men soon began moving to the front, where 
tbey formed into nx divisions. We then drove on ahead to get a good 
▼iewof them as they passed the ford, the only pretty bit in Loodianat 
oiut truly we were leirarded for our trouble when they came up, the top 
of their spears appearing first as they mounted the little rise, and then 
the whole body marohing on to the sound of their kettle-drums, winding 
nmnd and descending again towards the ford, where the morning snn 
gleamed on their ranks as they crossed the bright blue water. As many 
as ohoose wear shields siung at their backs. The Irregular Cavalry equip 
themselves, and of oonrse are obliged to borrow money to do so in the 
first instance. This regiment cost GO,O0O rupees, for which Captain 
Skinner is responsible, and the men pay interest to the Native Banker at 
ib» lato of twenty-five per cent. Captain 8. wrote to represent this, and 
to ask Ooremment to lend them the money, promising to repay it in two 
yean with interest at twelve per cent. The paternal answer was that he 
might have 6000 rupees. 

I must not toTftit to teU yon of an instance of diraemztli (A cw^ ^1^. «. 
Brahman Bep&hi which astonished us all. He im a,U«KKeA.^B^A ^tnato.'i^ 



126 A FALLEN FBINCE. 

with violent colic, from eating bad flour. C. save him some medioine, 
which he took without the smaUest difficulty ana from our spoon, thonrii it 
was mixed by us in water from our bottles, drawn by a Mussalm&n Bhistii 
in a goat's skin ; so that the whole genealogy of it was unclean in his eves. 
Whether his liberality arose from the cogent argument of pain, or nom 
serving in our ranks, I know not, but I am happy to sav he was cured. 

Tuesday, December 14th. — Started about eight o'clock for Fil6r on the 
Satlej, to spend the day with Captain and Mrs. Phillips. It is about nine 
miles off. It was a beautiful bright, cold morning, and the road wai 
thronged with passengers, native officers riding, some Sahib's baggage 
guarded by Sepahis, with goats and kids tied to the carts, and cages d 
quacking ducks and guinea-fowls surmounting them ; for people much 
with all their worldly goods, animate and inanimate. We came npon an 
immense train of bullock-carts, the owners of which all shouted out their 
grief at having been pressed and obliged to bring the baggage of one of 
the regiments from Mirath. They get a fair price for iiie work, but this 
is the busy season in the fields ; and moreover, no man, not even a pati^t 
Hindu, likes to be torn away from his own proper work and applied to 
some other purpose, as if he were a thing and not a person. We met our 
second buggy horse (such a gallant little Arab mare) at a place bv the 
roadside, wnere some Faqlrs had made themselves a hut, and offered the 
comfort of a clean mat, a pipe, and a fire made in a hole, with manure for 
fuel, to any passing traveller, who gladly requited them with a few pioe. 
At this season the Satlej is low ; we forded a great part of it, and orossed 
the rest by the most absurd-looking bridge of boats I ever beheld. The 
boats are like very large punts with most curious stems, about eight 
feet out of the water. In each boat is a hut, in each hut are some men, 
80 that it is a populous bridge, the whole thickly overlaid with straw. 

The old Shanzadeh Nazzar, son of Shah Zeman, came to call the other 
day, having, as he said, heard so many praises of my husband, that he 
wished to make his acquaintance. He is extremely gentLemonly and 
much respected, especiallj on account of the resignation and quiet digni^ 
with which he bears his adverse fortune. He was once Governor A 
Her^t, in the days when his father was a mighty monarch who made 
India tremble; and here he, who was then served with a jewelled Ealifin 
with princely state and pomp, smoked a common bazlr Chillam with 
^eat satisfaction, and conversed amiably with my Mun^i when G. was 
out of the room. 

The other day my husband was not on parade, and the Acljatant came 
to inform him that the men of the Grenadier Company, who are bmlding 
their lines, had struck work. The Adjutant had found them sitting ca 
the ground, and on demanding the reason, thev replied that they had got 
no pay for many months, and therefore could not work. Mr. GilMrt 
threatened to beat them if they did not, and on their proving refractoiy 
he assailed some of them vigorously, and most of them returned to their 
duty. On hearing this C. drove tHere and told them to leave off; that u 
they were too fine gentlemen to work, he should transfer tiie brioUajeFB, 
whom he had hired to teach them how to make bricks and to build, to the 
£rst company, which has distinguished itself b^ its zeal in pulling down 
the old huts. In vain they ofiered to work — in vain the Subadar Rett 
Sing represented that this would be punishing the whole company for the 
fault of a few — in vain a day or two afterwards they begged tae Sergeant 
Major to intercede for thom, and Ham Sing came here himself to get their 
Ijardon. C. was inexorable, and said that when all the companies had 
iinished, he would hire Kulls at the expense of the Grenadier Company to 
build their huts. The companies take il in. lotation to build their LiaA 



IKSOLBNCB OF JSUBOFEAlfS. 127 

«o that the Grenadiers ought to h^ve been finished before the first company 
began ; bnt the latter, who had greatly distin^shed themselves by their 
zeal in brickmaking, which they, to the astonishment of all the Bengal 
officers, who say they cannot get the men to make their own bricks, had 
volunteered to do, and made much better and harder ones than those 
which are made by labourers, thereby savine their own pay;— this said 
company, fired with emulation, began to build up their wails in the most 
astonishing manner, the Afghans especially worked with fury. Ohe 
Afgb&D. brings so many bricks on his head that he stands as it were 
Btupified, with his eyes starting for a minute afterwards. I do like the 
Afgh4ns, they are so full of energy. I never saw an Afghan sit still when 
there was anything to do, even though it might be no business of his. 
Well, the Grenadiers fretted and fumed, and vented their rage hj[ privilj 
bestowinga sound beating on the ringleader, who had led them into this 
scrape. The walls of the first company grew and grew, until a good 
number of the Mussalmans of the Ghrenadier Company got leave to attend 
their great feast, the Muharram, but instead of going to the feast they 
hired bricklayers of their own, and worked the whole time of their leave 
witii might and main. Upon this 0. forgave them, and the two companies 
are trying which can build fastest. 

December 24th. — We had Afghan visitors all day. Murtiza Shah's son 
oame. He is a most gentlemamy youth both in appearance and manner. 
Yet he related an instance of coarse insolence he had lately met with, 
which, I am sorry to say, is by no means rare on the ^art of individuals 
(for they are neither men nor gentlemen) towards natives. It happened 
only a tew days ago that in riding he met an elephant, and as his norse 
always shies and makes a terrible fuss whenever ne meets one of these 
huge creatures, he turned into a Gomi>ound close by until the elephant 
was past. The occupant of the Bungalow, I am sorry to say an officer, 
rush^ out shouting, ** Jao, jao" (Go, go), and actually threw a stone at 
him. The young man said, ** l^ot knowing whether he was drunk or only 
ignorant, I said nothing, and came away." He added : '* I know you 
and several other British gentlemen, and am therefore aware that you are 
not all of the same colour (their idiom to express being all of the same 
class, all alike), but such acts make people without science detest the 
British name." He also mentioned that some time ago his father had an 
appointment with a gentleman, and on his way to it passed through part 
of the British camp. I think it was at Lahore. A European came up 
and asked to see a book he had in his hand. Murtiza Shan handed it to 
him, and in return he struck him on the leg with a heavy bar of iron until 
the blood gushed out. 

The gentleman Murtiza Shah was going to was very much annoyed, 
but noSdng was done. 

Now in these two cases both father and son were well dressed, the 
latter well mounted, with a servant after him, and both very gentlemanly 
in appearance, so that the Q,uartermaster Sergeant calls the son ** the 
young Prince ;*' so you may imagine how such people would behave to a 
poor or ill dressed man. I asked C. how it was that such an assault was 
was not severely punished. He said, I little knew the way in which 
•officers will screen their men in such cases. 

In the evening Abdulrahm^n Kh^n^came while we were at dinner. We 
lianded him a box of Kabul grapes, which he ate, jauntily flinging the 
akins over his shoulder against the wall, evidently thinking himself the 
very mirror of good manners. It was done with such simplicity that I 
4X>uld hardly forbear laughing. 

After dinner C. read with him the last ohaptexa oi \Jcka Qcq«^^ Ql\idiifc. 



128 BUILDING THE LINES. 

He had brought back the Testament my husband had giyen him, hat 
had evidenUy not read it all, for when he came to the part where the Jew* 
cried out, " Crucify him ! crucify him !" he could not forboar bursting 
out with a most emphatic exclamation of ** Kambacht !" (" You luokle» 
wretches !") and as he went on he uttered constantly an Arabic appella- 
tion to the Most Hiprh, signifying, "Why are such crimes permitted?" 
When we related this to Mr. Janvier, he told us that a compositor in their 
printingioffice exclaimed, when he came to the same part, ** It was from 
gross jealousy that they put him to death !" 

December 25th, 1847-—^. and I profited by his holiday by toking a walk 
together. Such lovely bright cola mornings and such bnlliant. starlight 
nights we have now. Certainly at this time of year the climate is the 
finest in the world. 

In the evening C. took me to the Lines, that I might see his men 




its head, have worked with more zeal than discretion, and haTO, in their 
haste, built their doorwavs quite crooked. 

There are three barracks to a company, each containing eight Tooms or 
houses, in each of which there are about three Sepsis. The Native 
officers are allowed a certain sum to build houses for themselves, accordiBg 
to their rank, and when a regiment leaves the station, it receives compen- 
sation for its lines, if they are in good order. 

I saw no women, and only one little child, besides a baby of the Se^ 
geant-Maior's, a most beautiful, stout, blooming Irish babe, of seven 
months old, of which its little Hindustani Ayah— for all^ the soldienT 
wives have one — seemed very proud. European chOdren thrive admiratiy 
here. I never saw finer babes. 

A poor bombardier and his wife came to chapel last Sunday, and to oar 
house afterwards to tea. They seem Christian people by what Captain C. 
told us of them, yet there they are in that wretched barrack ni^t and 
day. He complained bitterly of the fearful temptations scmoimdittg 
them ; they have no place wherein to pray, and can never join in praver 
together, but when they wish for uninterrupted communion writn God 
they take a walk by themselves. Is not this another proof of the sin of 
herding men and women together, as they do in barracks ^ 

January loth, 1847. — Sometime ago C. dispatched a narty to apprehend 
deserters. While so doin^ they were laid hold of by the civil power and 
put into prison, whereby hve of the c^tured deserters escaped. C. has 
had a long correspondence with the different authorities on the sd^eeti 
and sent word to nis Havildar and men to stay in prison until they wer» 
released in proper form, lliis, however, they were not permitted to do* 
the authorities nndin^ themselves in a scrape thrust them out. So a few 
days ago, I was astonished to see a tall, fine-looking Sikh take off his tur- 
ban and place it on the chair. I seized the opportunity of looking at his 
long hair, which was turned up in a most complicated manner and fast- 
ened by a rod comb. I found afterwards, that he did this to express the 
depths of dishonour into which he had fallen. Had he been condoled wxtL 
ho would have been a discontented man for the rest of his days, so C. ^u 
him impatiently to put on his turban and depart : adding, '* The matter is 
no business of yours, the concern is mine '** he accordingly went away, con- 
vinced of the truth of this assertion, which, I think, it would have bea 
next to impossible to imprint on the mind of a John Bull, who had boa 
imprisoned for doinff his duty. He never could have borne to be tto 
riolenUy dj^pnyedi of his grieyanQe. 



HABDIHOOD OP AFGHANS. 129^ 

The Sikhs, they say, are less superstitious than the Hindus. I was asto- 
nished at the Granthl or priest or the re^ment bringing his sacred book 
the Chranth* (a title I can never hear without laughing) for me to see, 
thinking I might like to copy some of the pictures, which I intend doing, 
though certainly not account of their beauty. 

Mr. E. and Major MacDonald dined with us the other night, and were 
creaking of the Afjghan character, and saying how much these wild people 
prefer Europeans to Hindust^ls, for whose soft character they have the 
greatest contempt. Major MacDonald mentioned as an instajice of this, 
that a noted AfAan wrestler tried his skill with an officer, who gave him 
a severe fall. When he got up again, the officer said to him, ** I am afraid 
I have hurt you?** "Do you take me for a Hindust^inl?** was the in- 
dignant reply, and springing up in the air the wrestler allowed himself to 
fall violently on his knees, which were, in consequence, frightfully cut. 
'* Do you take me fw a Hindustani ?** asked he again. Mr. E. told us 
that last summer the authorities at Simla were beset by a crowd of half- 
starved and jnaimed men, women, and children, who had all but perished 
in the snows of Afgh^stan. They cried for succour — the men in office 
said it was no business of theirs, and sent them to and &o, until, wearied, 
with the sight of their misery, they ordered the police to turn them out 
of Simla — and these i)oor creatures, our own fellow-subjects, who had Iqst 
everything but life iteelf in our service, were driven forth to perish. Mr. 

JS. indignantiy expressed his opinion of such an action to Colonel , 

who answered, coolly, " Why, what could be done ?*' — ^Done ! why they 
might, should, and ought \/o have been provided for at the expense of the 
6h>vemment ; it was a sacred debt, both of honour and justice, and if the 
Government had made difficulties, why could not these men in high office 
have helped them out of their own pockets ? I should feel it a disgrace 
and a sin, if a discharged soldier or a poor camp-follower went from our door 
unpitied and unrelieved, whether we could affisrd it or not. By-the-by, 
many of the disbanded Afghans of whom I told you some time ago can 
get no employment though the^ have been discharged without bountv, on 
tiie understanding that, according to promise, they would be provided for. 
Some of those who went on to Lahore, finding no employment there, 
wrote a x>etition to my husband, begging to be received into his regiment, 
but this cannot be done as Major Mackeson opposes it, not liking, I be- 
Heve, the admixture of Afghans and Sikhs. Another set of them are 
waiting here. They came the other morning to see how their affairs were 

going on ; such a fine set of men, each with his medal, and some with two. 
L told them nothing had been done, that he had got no answer to his 
letters. ** Well,'* said they, ** our only dependence is on you — ^we cling to- 
your Lordship's skirt." ** But,'* said my husband, ** if you null too hard 
my Lordship s skirt will tear l** at which littie joke they all laughed. 

X^ow that we dine late, Abdulrahm§.n Kh^n often occupies himself when 
he i)ays us evening visit, by saying his prayers in the corner while we eat 
our soup. One of our men died the other day ; he was an only child, and 
his poor old father, a venerable-looking Sikh peasant, came to receive his 
pay. It touched one to see the desolate white-bearded man, but C. said 
Idnd things to him, and gave him something to help him on his journey 
home. 

. Another disbanded soldier came te us the other day, an Afghan of 
Ferris's Jezailchls, a very fine athletic man, who had not eaten for three 
days. Certainly some record ought to be made of Government promises, 
l^t one GoTemor-General may fulfil those given by his predecessor. 

• Pronounced " Gront." 
E 



130 ONE WHO "OOES ABOUT DOING GK)OD." 

Monday, January 17th. — Mr. Janvier brought over Capt. W., "who has 
for the last seven or eight years studied the Scriptures in Urdu and 
Hindul, for the purpose of making himself useful among the natives. He 
assembles his Servants for reading and prayer, morning and evening, dis- 
Izibutes tracts, and enters into conversation on religion whenever £e can 
make an opportunity. Good Major Wheeler at B&nkres openly Breaches 
to the Sep§ihis, but although Capt. W. does not do this, yet when ne takes 
his books, and goes to visit a village, the Sep§.his say, " Let us follow our 
Padre, with his books, and hear what he says.'* The Molewi of his corps 
has been much oppressed by the other Mussulmans for the interest he 
evinced in Christianity : he appears at present to have gone back. 

Capt. W. mentioned an incident which shows how useful it is to give 
away tracts. He was speaking to a man whom he met by chanoe on the 
subject of salvation, and was astonished at his knowledge. He asked 
how he came to know these things, and the man told him that a S^hib 
had given him a book, which he not only read himself, but which bis 
neighbours constantly came to his house to hear. Mrs. W. also told me 
that when she used to translate one of the tracts for children which abound 
at home, to her little native school at Ben^ires, the children would listen 
with the greatest interest and cry, ** Oh, why don't the people in England 
send us such little books, we should like to read them just as much as the 
children in England." 

In the afternoon Ca^t. W. went into the city, and after one of the cate* 
chists had done speaking, addressed the people himself. The next day, 
before starting, he accompanied Mr. Janvier and Mr. Kudolph to visit a 
Dhobi, who is to be hanged to-morrow for the inurder of his wife, ^e 
was unfaithful : he cut her throat, and then delivered himself up to the 
kotwal, or native magistrate. They found him perfectly callous and un- 
moved. He said, " God put it into his heart to kill his wife, so that if 
there were anything wrong in it, it was not his fault : what did it sigx^if 
whether he were hanged to-morrow or not, he must die some day." Mr. 
Rudolph plainly told him, ** You will bitterly regret to-morrow at this 
time not having listened to us to-day ;" but no impression could be made 
on this wretched Hindu. He said, ** If I have sinned I shall atone for it 
to-morrow :" and thus he left the world, in the full persuasion that he 
would be happy in the next. 

Agha Muhammad told us a most excellent answer that he had himself 
heard at Pesh§,wur. Que day he and his father were paying a visit to 
Abdul Sammad Beg, that wretched Persian of whom you can see an 
account in " Wolff's Book," and who was the principal adviser of the 
tyrant of Bokhara, on the occasion of Stoddart and Conolly's murder: 
some refugees of our unfortunate Kabul force having also had their throats 
publicly cut before the gates of the city by his orders. This monster had 
a negro servant, a remarkably devout Mussalm§.n, who never omitted the 
&ve prayers daily, and was looked upon as a saint. 

Abdul Sammad was telling his visitors what a heavenly man this wu, 
"when the negro entered bearmg a pipe. His master said to him, '*! wis 
just sa3ring what a devout man you are, that you are sure to f]^ to heaven: 
tell me, what do you think of me? do you think I shall?" The negio 
looked him full between the eyes and answered gravely, ** Heavep. is mot 
a stable," meaning where swine and dogs and such as you may enter. 
Agha Mohammad said that Abdul Sammad tried to laugh, but evidently 
felt the rebuke. 

In no other country is there such a gulf between the different o1mmi> 

in regard to kindly feeling and intercourse, as in England, and espeeially 

JEngland Proper. See tke difference ia Qe^xm^iii, for instanoe; tbe 



AN OFFICEE's 8BEVANT. 131 

respectful familiarity between officers and men in the Prussian army. 
The more I see of other countries, the more forcibly English exclusive- 
ness strikes me as a very bad national peculiarity. It is a thing wholly 
iinknown in the East, where servants and masters, rich and poor, behave 
to each other much as I suppose they did in patriarchal times. 

The N^ig of our guard reported last night that a young Sepahi having 
burnt his leg, the cold had increased the pain to such a degree that he 
l^as unfit for duty. He was quite a lad ; C. sent for him, gave him a dose 
of arnica, and tied up Ms leg with cotton with his own hands. The pain 
went off almost immediatelv : we kept him here all the next day, that he 
might take more arnica, and his father and mother, who live quite near 
the Lines that they may look after their boy and cook for him, brought 
him his dinner. 

January 20th. — This morning, as we were taking our usual walk,, we 
met an omoer's servant with a curious sort of weapon in his hand : it was 
a kind of battle-axe with a long red handle. He told us he carried it as 
a protection against thieves, and showed us how he folded it in his gar- 
ment, so that they cannot tell, said he, what I have here. Fancy a gen- 
tleman's servant carrying such a weapon in England ? 



CHAPTER XI. 

Janttaet 29th. — Agha Mohammad came full of joy to tell us, first, that 
he was likely to win his law-suit here, and secondly, what was still bet- 
ter, that his wife and little brother had escaped from Afghanistan and 
were now at Pesh^wur, on their way thither. At first he used the general 
term ** my household," but then added, confidentially, " that is my wife," 
and his eye glistened. He said, " Many of my people take more than one 
wife, but I am sure that it is not only wicked but foolish ; there are always 
jealousies and heart-burnings, and those who do so are sure to eat sor- 
row for it at last." 

Abdul Rahman Khin came in last ni^ht. C. mentioned the fact of 
Abdulla Khan Achakzai having buried ms elder brother in the ground 
up to the neck, tied a rope round his throat, fastened a horse to the other 
€nd of it, and drove the animal round and round until his brother ex- 
pired. Abdul Rahman could not deny the fact, so he uttered two or 
three groans, and then betook himself to his prayers in the corner of the 
room. My naughty little dog no sooner saw this, than he must needs ^o 
onrionsly prying into his performances— peering into his face and dis- 
tracting the pious Mussalman with his unorthodox attentions, and it was 
only by constant feeding I could keep him away. The Hindustanis are 
rather fond of dogs, the Hindus very much so ; out the Afghans have a 
true Musslaman sense of their uncleanness. 

A Bombardier's wife has been telling me much of Captain C.'s kindness 
to the sick. I find she was in the barracks of the dOth at the time they 
fell down last year. She and some other women had been sent up to 
join their husbands after the Satlei oampaini. They arrived at Loodiana, 
I think, in June. There was no place for them to go to, and for some days 
they lived in their hackeries* in the midst of the hot winds ; at last they 
. were housed, and some were sent to the 60th lines. The very night they 
got into their new quarters the barracks fell, and their end was the only 
portion that remained standing. They had bee^ obliged to have a guard 
of Sep^ihis to protect them from the insolence of the British soldiers^ sqiqa 

* Carta. 
k2 



132 LOUD DALHOUSIE. 

of whom being intoxicated, had endeavoured to force their way into the 
women's quarters. All their guard were killed except one, a young 
Havildar, who had kindly gone to fetch a light for one of the poor women 
whose child was just dying. He was in the act of giving them this^ light 
when all the rest of the building fell, and thus owed his life to this act 
of kindness. 

Mrs. Janvier and I went to see Hasan Khan's wives the other day. 
They were full of the execution which took place lately, and thought it 
very wrong to hang a man for such a cause, saying that in their counfey 
a man had a right to kill an unfaithful wife, and besides, he was "so 
young." I could not help thinking there was much excuse for him. 

February 15th, 1848.— We have been walking daily of late, for it has 
been too cold to drive in the evening. The men have got their great- 
coats just as they were beginning to die from exposure to the cold with 
insufficient clothing. A hundred are still waiting for their arms, and 
have been so since November, for want of workmen to make and alter 
their belts, pouches, &c. Just imagine the consequences if the regiment 
•had been needed for active service. The arms were indented for last 
May. My husband applied to Government for information as to what 
clothing ne was to indent for, and whom he was to get it from, and did 
not receive an answer for months afterwards, and, therefore, could not 
indent until late in the autumn, and the men are nine months in arrears 
of pay. I was amused at seeing a stout Sikh Havildar, with a magnifi- 
cent beard, sitting working at something close to my tailor. 

The new Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, has done a deed which 
exalts him greatly in our opinions. C. applied some time ago for pensions 
for some of his maimed and wounded Jezailchis. He was aesired to state 
what pension he thoueht suitable, and named ten or twelve rupees & 
month for Kaijir and Kabbir, the former of whom lost both hands and 
feet, and the latter both legs up to the knees by the frost, and seven or 
eight for Mohammad Khan, Gulfraz, and Gulnur, all of whom have lost a 
portion of their toes. ** The Governor-General has granted this, autho- 
rized my husband to pay the pensions at once, and commended him for 
bringing the case to the notice of Government." Gulnur is the one who 
came down a little while ago from Peshawur to see my husband, and 
Gulfraz, who was in the Banda Police Battalion, is going with Miihammad 
Khan to live among their own people in the neighbourhood of Pesh&wnr. 
Muhammad Khan amused me very much the other evening by coming to 
report formally that he had met Major Mackeson, who had inquired his 
name, what he was doinof, &c. ; he had answered all his inquiries cauti- 
ously, stating that C. had "nourished him very considerably," and then 
came to reveal the matter, being evidently quite imable to fathom the 
motive of these questions, and determined, with the characteristic caution, 
and suspiciousness of his countrymen, that his old leader should not be 
circumvented through any fault of his. "We have just heard, to our 
great regret, that poor Kajjir is dead. Delay of justice is immediate 
injustice. 

We are far from the security of European existence. A poor S^ here 
stole some radishes out of a garden. He put them in a little pot, and was 
stooping down to wash them when, as it is supposed, the owner of the 
garden came behind him, and with one blow severed his head from his 
body. It made one's heart ache to hear of it. 

Talking of sui)erior security, however. Major Mackeson told me a Per- 
sian story last night of a party of pleasure going in a boat, whose ein<^- 
ment was guite marred by the incessant crying of a child whom theynad 
brought with them. One of them pToposfe^ ^MUva.% VVccl into the water, 



TALBOTYPKS — GOYEBNHENT EDUCATION. 133 

which was done, and after he had heen thoroughly ducked, he was so 
convinced of the superior safety of the boat that he became quite quiet 
and contented. 

This was on Carlyle*s principle, an excellent one to act upon. — " Fancy 
that thou deservest to be hanged (as is most likely), thou wilt feel it 
happiness to be only shot." 

I have been working hard at Talbotypes, and have made one of a 
camel carriage — ^it is really very pretty. 

The Government is extremely dissatisfied with Gulab Sing's oppression 
of his unfortunate subjects, and one of Lord Hardinge's last acts was to 
write a letter to the Maharajah (the contents of which, if known, would 
throw the whole of Kashmir into insurrection) saying that if he did not 
mend his behaviour, the British would leave him to shift for himself. 

March 3rd and 4th. — My husband was occupied all the morning in 
paying his men in the verandah. The whole h^use was surrounded by 
them, and the sweetmeat makers had the audacity to come close by, and 
tempt the poor young Sepahis with great trays of Mitai. * One of our 
Sdises assured us that a man may have half a seer, i, e, a pound of meat 
and a seer of flour every day for three rupees monthly. Sepahi's pay is 
seven rupees a month. The whole expense of the regiment is about 
10,000 rupees monthly. This is considered a very expensive place. 

There nave been divers remarks in the papers lately, on the small 
results of the Government scheme of education. At present history and 
belles lettres are the two objects to which the attention of the students is 
chiefly directed ; and history, more as a matter of memory than of philo- 
sophy. They read Bacon's " Novum Organum," but that is the only 
work I know of, of a deep character. Their education strikes me as a 
feminine one, and receiving no religious instruction, they are deprived of 
the best part of English female education, of that which does more to 
strengthen and form the character than any other. Dr. DuflTs remarks 
on the plan of education pursued in the Hindu College, in a recent 
number of the "Missionary Kecord," are most true. There is nothing to 
strengthen or expand the mind ; the memory and taste are cultivated, 
mats voild tout. 

There is no excuse for not introducing Christian instruction, for the 
education given is entirely contrary to all the native prejudices — it 
deprives the pupils of their superstitions, and leaves them a prey to infi- 
deuty. Thus the Government denies them bread, takes away their loaves 
of stone, and gives them a serpent. The objections made to Christian 
education always rest on the ostensible basis of danger in meddling with 
the religion of the natives; but I suppose even an unbeliever would 
hardly maintain, that there was anything wrong or dangerous in giving 
the knowledge of the Gospel to those who professed no religion at all. 
Now the Government schools entirely overthrow Hinduism, and thus 
having done all the dangerous part of the work, they carefully abstain 
from that which they themselves must acknowledge to be beneficial. 
They destroy but will not build. 

Query, is there any instance of a Heathen, Muhammadan, or Popish 
Government abstaining from all interference with the religion of a con- 
quered people? If they are not afraid to introduce error, why should we 
be aCraia to introduce truth.* If the Government professes Christianity, 

* There never was a nation, except professedly Christian and Protestant ones, 
which did not consider religion as the most essential part of education. English 
etdnoation of any sort, even mere geography and chronology, overthrows the HvcL<ix\. 
creed. Why should we not at least qfer something bftttet vaWi^ ^\wi^ oS. \3a3a^^^ 
destroy ? That we do destroy is granted by Mr. Kerr, PnacVp?:^ ot \Jaft ^BJasL^xj. ^:jQji«%^'. 



134 AFGHANS ANXIOirs TO LEABN. 

let them not support Heathen schools. Let them as Christians make 
grants towards all Christian schools, according to the number of their 
pupils. Let all offices and employments be open to Christians, Mussal- 
mans, and Hindus, irrespective of religion; let all have the opiwrtunity 
of embracing Christianity, but let none be either rewarded or punished 
for doing so. 

Met Mr. Scott of the Civil Service, who told me that the Sikhs (you 
must remember that .the Sikhs are a sect, the Panj^ibis a people) are so 
few that in the Jallandar Doab there is not one Sikh in a hunorea inha- 
bitants. They always call their sacred book " The Granth Sahib." Mr. 
Scott told me he had had many suits to settle regarding land wMch has 
been left for the support of the G^ranth Sahib. A census of the population 
of Lahore has just been published, and although the number of Sikhs^ 
even in the capital, is very small, no beef is allowed there. In Jallandar, 
where sometime ago they made a "fass^d," i.e., a fuss, commotioi), or 
rebellion, on the establishment of one shop for killing and selling beef, 
they now submit patiently to the presence oifive such. 

I am happy to say a good many Thugs were captured the other day, 
and more are being pursued ; they abound just now in this neighbour- 
hood. 

On reading with the Munshl yesterday in the Acts, of the people at 
Jerusalem casting off their clothes from rage, I found that the same thing 
is sometimes done in this country. The garments are also rent in mourn- 
ing, both by Muhammadans and Hindis, but more by the latter. When 
a death occurs, a woman of the caste called Doms, who are musicians and 
singers, goes to the house and leads the lamentation, in which the women 
of tne family join, beating themselves and tearing their hair. 

Leila Bibl having expressed a wish to learn to read, I have had Louisa 
Sylvester taught the Hindustani character, and she has been several times 
to teach her ; she is very quick, and I hope will be persevering. Louisa 
has also read a chapter of the " Pilgrim's Progress " to her in Hindustani, 
and explained it, and she seemed to imderstand and to be interested. The 
other day Leila Bibl and Louisa had an argument on Muhammadism and 
Christianity : it was, as you may supppse, not a very learned or logical 
discussion, but they showed the popular idea of their religion by saying 
that no matter what a man did in tnis life, after death he had only to go 
to Muhammad, and, for the sake of " the Prophet," Qod would pardoin ul 
his sins. Louisa answered that if it were thus, a man might sin as much 
as he liked, kill six or eight people, commit a good many robberies, and 
diveis other sins, and yet be sure of heaven at last. They say, " Oh, that 
would not do ; that they would be punished for their sins, but only a little.'* 
Like all Muhammadans, they attacked the Divinity of our Lord and 
Saviour, because they cannot understand it. An evening or two after* 
Louisa met several wives of one of the Shahzadehs, who desired her to ask 
me to allow her to come and speak to them also. Oolak JN^^th, the natiTe 
minister, told us on Sunday that, at Jallandar, not only do manv women 
of the poorer classes come to see them and listen willingly to what they 
sav of the Gospel, but those of higher rank, who cannot come out them- 
selves, often send to ask his wife to visit them for the express purpose of 
hearing something about this " new religion," and always listen to ha 
patiently. There is an immense field for female Missionaries in this part of 
the country, but, unfortimately, there is scarcely any one to enter upon it 

who thus writes — ^*^ It is gometimes said that the edacation we give makeg oar alB- 
dents sceptical. It does make them sceptical — sceptical of all those de^fnullag idatt 
with wbiob the notion, of a Deity is associated in Hinda minds." (" A SeTftewof Ptitfie 
Inatraotion in the Bengal Presidency ftom. \«%5 to l^i&ir \>T J.K^rc, ILA.) 



A FBOUD MULLUa: — FALSE IKQUIBEBS. 135 

Mr. Janvier has just returned firom his tour, and gives a yery encourag- 
ing account of the manner in which he has been everywhere received, and 
the opportunities he has had of maintaining the truths of the Gospel before 
divers men of rank and learned Mullahs, whom he has, in every case, been 
enabled to silence, and although it was reported that he had been defeated, 
yet he said that it was a great satisfaction to him to know that whatever 
they might say, from 50 to 150 persons had been present in each instance, 
all of whom had heard with their own ears that their most famous Mole vis 
had been nonplussed. 

One of these Molevis is said to be the greatest and most learned man 
north of Delhi. He affects such a degree of sanctity that he never goes 
out. Sometime ago a man of high rank came with a great retintie to see 
him, pitched his tents at a little distance, and sent word to him of his 
arrival, stating how far he had come on purpose to see him, thinking that 
the MoJevi would surely relax a little m mvour of a man of his conse- 
quence ; but the latter sent for answer, that, since he had come so far, he 
might as well come a little further. But the l^awab, being as proud as the 
Mmlah, struck his tents and departed without seeing him. 

This learned personage sent to ask Mr. Janvier to come to him. He 
accordingly went, and found a £ne looking man, with a magnificent black 
beard, wno was at first too prudent to say much, leaving the discussion to 
his disciples ; he at last came to their rescue and endeavoured to browbeat 
Mr. Janvier, who checked him by observing that it was not the proper way 
of carrying on a discussion of such importajice. He then repeated what he 
liad before advanced, and at last they were left without a reply. He took 
leave in a friendly manner, and the brother of the Molevi afterwards came 
to visit him. 

He found many reports rife among the natives, that converts were bribed 
by the Missionaries, and supported at their expense, so he publicly invited 
taem to send some one to Loodiana to ascertam. 

A man once stopped him in the bazar at Loodiana, saying he was willing 
to be a Christian, and wishing to know how much he would give. Another 
oame to one of the Missionaries, and said, they dressed so cleanly, and fed 
so well, that he would like to be a Christian ; and a third went to Golak 
a short time since, and asked for Christian instruction. After a few meet- 
ing^ it appeared that he was a man of property, who had a suit which he 
is likely to lose, pending before Mr. John Lawrence, the Commissioner, 
and therefore wished to be " of the religion of John Lawrence S^ihib ;** but 
finding that Gholak was a Presbyterian, and had no infiuence, spiritual or 
political, with the Commissioner, he departed. So men followed Jesus to 
£sed on the loaves and fishes ; so they ofttimes come to his servants from 
merely mercenary views, and numbers of the Europeans you meet in Lidia, 
having no knowledge or belief in the great work of the Spirit, deny the 
possibility of converting the JN^atives, and think that all the converts have 
been bribed. I do not know how they could account for the conversion 
of tiieir own barbarous ancestors. They seem to say that the Lord's hand 
is ** shortened, that it cannot save.'* 1 do not understand how any one 
who does not pray for and help Missions (much less any one who opposes 
them), can use the Lord's Prayer, and say daily " Thy kingdom come." 

Many Europeans treat the natives more like brutes than men : they 
seem to think a native is made to be abused and beaten, and the most 
Yulgar parvenus treat native gentlemen as the dirt beneath their feet. I 
■will give you two instances of the ungentlemanly and unchristian tone of 
!bidian society and opinidns in tbis respect. In some notes of a journey 
from Agra to Bombay, in 1841, now publishing in the " Delhi Gazet^^ * 
the writer say's, " I managed to bag a few peowaio^^^ thouQK tlvfc ■^eo'^Aft ^^ 



136 WIDOW OF SHAH ZSICAIT. 

not like them to he shot, and at one place we met with some grej partricUces, 
whicli the Zamind§irs (landholders) wished to he spared. ^ A8 toe had no 
occasion for their good offices for supplies, hut rather required the hirds, 
there was little hesitation in ha^g^ing^ all I could." Again, the ** Delhi 
Gazette" announces that " an uniortimate accident has occnrred to a ^ounjgp 
officer, who, of course, is a kind-hearted man and greatly heloved in his 
corps." What do you think this accident is? When out shooting, he 
became enraged with his unfortunate S^ls, and gave him a kick on the 
hack, of which the poor man died in a fewniinutes, the spleen haying been 
broken by the kick ! Men can restrain their tempers when a stout hiuskney 
coachnjan or coal heayer is abusiye, because tney are afraid : tiiey can 
eyen keep from striking their seryants in England, because they would be 
punished by law ; but here, because they know that they are the strongest, 
they are cowardly enough to tyrannize oyer eyery one who happens to 
thwart their childish humours. Our turkey-cock is a great curiosity in 
these parts : the Sikh cultiyators all come to look at him as they pass, and 
when he gobbles and struts they run away. 

March 22nd. — Mr. Newton came to ask me to yisit one of Shah Zemin's 
widows, who is yery ill. Mrs. Newton and I accordingly droye thither. 
All that was to be seen of the house outside was a high mud wall, li^ 
that round a large garden : a door in it led into a little court, where a fine 
cow and calf and. a pair of yery handsome oxen (intended, I suppose, to 
draw the Palkigarl which stood, outside) were eating. Our ^uide booked 
with his stick at a yery low door, so that a i)erson outside ooidd see 
nothing of one within higher than the elbow : it was soon opened, and we 
entered and found ourselyes in a neat Uttle garden full of onions, from 
whence another door led into a row of yery clean neat apartments, in one 
of which the poor old lady was sitting up in bed, wrapped in a quilt; two 
<;hairs were placed for us. The Shahzadeh, her son, and a row of womeiL 
were all sitting on the floor, watching the incantations of a strange yeilea 
^figure, who turned out to be a natiye " wise woman " performing^ohaims 
for the poor old lady's recoyery. She has been ill more than two months 
wnd had hardly any pulse, though she moyed wonderfully well. Two 
•elderly unmarried daughters were near her : it is strange how immediately 
I recognized them as such without being told, — ^there is something quite 
dijQPerent in the look of a married woman and an old maid. 

ShahZeman seems, at least in these instances, to haye followed the same 

Sreposterous system as his brother Shah Shujah, by not suffering his 
aughters to Iharry. The old lady must haye been handsome in her yonth, 
•and was yery courteous and grieved when I stood up to help her.^ The 
Bhahzadeh was yery attentiye to her : a handsome man when sittiiU[, 
though yery short and stout, magnificent eyes, eyebrows, and bearo. 
Diyers of his wiyes were there ; one rather pretty, with a sauoy, pert 
expression, the other yery gentle and the mother of two yery pretty 
delicate little boys, dressed in yellow satin, one of whom went to Mrs. 
Newton at once and fell asleep in her arms. I prescribed for the poor old 
lady, who encouraged us by saying that if she got well we must come 
again and she would giye a Nach ! All the ladies were smoking by tonus, 
one chillam being passed round ; they offered it to us, and when we 
declined, one of them, more knowing than the rest, obseryed, "Ah, they 
smoke cheroots !** 

March 23rd. — ^Mrs. Newton and I were just going to see the poor old 

Begum when Muhammad Eh^ told us that she was dead. She oied last 

night, and was buried to-day about one o'clock. He had been to the 

house to join in certain prayers for her soul. On finding, howeyer, thit 

they bad sent last night after w.e had gone out to ask me to come to her, 



FUNEBAL SCJSNE IN JL ZENANA. 137 

Mrs. N. and I agreed it would be better to call and see the family, that 
they might not think ns unkind or neglectful. A respectable grey- 
bearded man showed us the way to the woman's apartments and garden, 
the^other side of the house being occupied by the men. Prince Teimur's 
buggy was standing at the door, he having come to pay a visit of condo- 
lence. We found the garden full of women of all ranks, so that it was a 
gay rather than a mournful scene. Some of Shah Shigah's family were 
seated on a kind of terrace spread with carpets, where they invited us to 
sit ; and after talking to them a little, they asked us to go within to see 
the nearer relations. Two of these, daughters of the poor old lady, 
seemed in real grief; it is not etiquette for them to speak, but thJ^y may- 
be spoken to. One of them seemed as if she had wept until she could 
weep no more, and she occasionally groaned and rocked herself; we sat 
down by them and expressed our sympathy, but the other women showed 
no signs of feeling. The pretty saucy little creature we had seen the day 
before talked and smiled close to them, and almost all the otiier women 
begged me to feel their pulses, and to prescribe for different aches and 
pains. One or two gently pulled my skirt to make me look round, that 
they might see the Feringhi lady properly. In order to introduce the 
subject on which we most wished to speak, Mrs. Newton told them that I 
was in mourning for my dear father, but that I thought of him witli joy 
as now with God. 

When we returned to the B6ffums, outside, one of the women repeated 
to ahem what Mrs. Newton had. said, which gave her the opportunity of 
telling that it was only through Jesus, " Isa Masih," that we could be 
saved. They seemed to assent, but then began another list of maladies ; 
they were very anxious to know which was Mackenzie Sahib's " Mem," 
and said they knew all about him. There were several women there of 
great beauty, as fair as Europeans, with a very noble style of features 
and winning manners. There was also the first really beautiful Kashmiri 
I have seen, rather dark, but such eyes, nose, and mouth I She looked 
like one of liie most beautiful of the Greek Bacchante. They wanted us 
to stay to the feast, but this we could not do, as Mrs. Newton was anxious 
to get home. Indeed, the noise and crowd were quite fatiguing ; it was 
more like a fair than a funeral. They wore colours as usual, but no orna- 
ments. ^ It makes one's heart ache to think of the poor old Begum having 
passed into eternity, and of all those passing away ignorant and heedless 
of a Saviour. Near relations visit tnem for three or ten days, and on 
the first and fortieth day all their acquaintance go, and there is a feast for 
them and for the poor. 

Saturday, 25th March. — Two of the invalids we had seen on Thursday 
sent for medicine, and one earnestly begged we would come to see her. 
Mrs. Newton and I therefore went, and were conducted first to Shahza- 
deh Yusuf s, where we found cushions on the fioor for our reception ; a 
handsome man, whom we concluded to be the Shahzadeh, and a crowd 
of women speedily came and sat around us. My patient was a young 
immairied girl, who sufiers dreadfully from headaches, and had just had 
leeches on. I prescribed for her ; her father, a remarkably fine looking 
man, with a mafi^nificent beard, standing at the door, so we concluded he 
must be a brother of our host, as the women were all unveiled. Some 
of the women were very handsome, particularly one who had stained all 
the upner half of her forehead a bright yellow ; a boy about twelve years 
old had. also yellow stripes on his cheeks like whiskers. Our host, after 
I had prescribed, asked if I were married— if I had children, and why I 
wore blaok, and pressed us to eat; and when we declined^ \k^l ^^^SS. 
we woold come to a Khkna (dinner) if they incited. "vxa\>^loT^«ai^^'^\^^ 



13& TZIXOW CWEEKS Jjn> BXD HAIS. 

we prc'dised to do. I must not omit to say, tliat in ^oing out we passed 
tfaroueli a little passage Tooim. where two men were sawing wood* and a g^ 
was lyin? in one oomer ; in heu it was her stable. 

Close by the door was a jiedestal of mod (of which* by the way, all oar 
houses here are built; about a yard sanue. I had seen an ann-chair 
placed on this as we entered, and wondered what it was tbere for; but 
in oomine out we found rather a gocid-lookiiig per90iiage» anoflier Shah- 
zadeh, perched thereon. He wishes! me to gire him some medicine for a 
lamp on his hand, but I promised him a note to the doctor inst^MMJ, We 
then went on to Shahzadeh Suleimin. It was a Yerj poor house, and 
ererythin? in their dress, as well as in the building, betokened the 
reduced circumstances of this grandson of the once mignty Shah, Zemkn, 
He was sitting in a kind of open shed (such as they pat eaits into in 
England) smoking his chillam, and we found his wife was the handsome 
ereature, with such noble features, whom we had met i^ the fanaraL As 
we could not make all the needful inquiries about her health with the 
Shahzadeh sitting by, Mrs. Newton mentioned this to him. He nodded 
his head and then sent away his pipe, thinking, poor simnle man, that it 
was that which was in our way, so we were obliged to explain that it was 
his highness* 8 self. After I had given her the medicine, her eldest boy, 
a beantitiil child about nine years old, with a fine emerald in one ear, took 
hold of Mrs. Newton's hancU and remarked on the difference of colour. 
They asked us why wc did not make a littie spot between the eyebrows 
as they do. Mrs. Newton retorted, " Why do you do it r" which made 
them laugh. We declined staving to eat anything, on the plea that our 
husbands would have no breakfast till we got home. They then aflEeied 
to send us some, and inquired if we would eat out of their hands. We 
assured them that we would with pleasure another time. I have in- 
quired about the yellow colour on the forehead and cheeks, and find it is 
used medicinally ; they pound a certain wood called sirk, and spread it 
on the head for pain in the head, on the cheeks for pain in the throat 

April 14th, 1848.— ;We have been once or twice to see the ft^«*^«<^ft^ 
Suleiman's Begums, if they can be called so when leduced to such poverty. 
We met an old woman there with her grey hair dyed red ; she said it was 
good for her eyes, which are weak, but it had a very odd effect. 

The Nizam-u>Doulah has been here with his eldest son, a yer^ fine ymsDg 
man, who has lately escaped £rom Eand^ar. £ohan Dil Euka, a 
Barakzai, and one of the Amirs of Kandahar, caught this young man, 
put chains on his hands and feet, and a heavy iron coUar on his neck,— 
most shameful treatment for a man whose nobility is a match for almost 
any in Europe. Not satisfied with this, he ordered him to be hanged ; 
but no sooner did Kohan Dil's Plr, or saint, hear of this monstrous order, 
than he came into the town, and said, ** Do you want to bring a ooise 
on your house by slajdng Abbas Kh§in ? Give him to me ! not a hair of 
his head shall be touched !" He accordingly took him away, and finding 
his life was still in danger, sent him across the hills with a gpiide. They 
rode, and they ran, so that thev nearly killed their horses, and barely 
escancd from their pursuers. Abbas Khan is a very handsome and most 

fentlemanly man; Ms hands and clothes as delicately clean as those of an 
Snglish gentleman. 

1 had slight fever on Sunday, 16th, and have not been quite well sinue 
until to-day ; this is the first time I have been feverish since I came to 
India ; surely I have great cause of thankfulness in such good heaUii' 
Gk)lak Nath dined with us last evening (April 19th) ; he has just retained 
from the great fair at Hurdwar. Mr. Rudolph was so overcome by the 
extreme heat, which was upwards oi lOO"" in tlie tent, that he beoama TSiy 



POOE OLD AFGHAN — LIEUTENANT ANDEBSON. 139 

ill, and was obliged to return some days ago. Golak says hundreds came 
to receive books, and each of the missionaries (there were only about four 
or five present this year) continues in his tent preaching and speaking to 
the people the whole day while the fair lasts. Imagine the toil in such 
a climate. Hurdwar is not far from the hills, and the nights are sd cold 
that they are glad to use a quilt. He says that the chief difference he 
remarks in the behaviour of the natives is, that they are perhaps more 
willing to hear than thev used to be, and at any rate more willing to dis- 
pute and discuss the subject of religion. They know now the object of 
1^6 missionaries, and have a general idea of what Christianity is. Golak 
overheard one warning another against going to the missionaries, saying, 
'' You will hear nothing but things against Muhammad." 

April 24th, 1848.— I was touched the other day by the poverty of an 
old Afghan retainer of Shah Shujah's, whom Dr. M*Crae has lately couched 
at mjr nusband*s request, with partial success. He is so much reduced 
(having lost evervthmgj that he said, " I live upon fasting, and the day 
when a little Dal (dried pease) is cooked in mv house is a feast." He 
said it quite simply, without making any paraae, and accepted C.'s gfift 
with quiet thankfulness. I remarked the reverence and tenderness with 
which his son supported him — and Abdulrahman Kh^n tells us that this 
son has refused all offers of service in order to take care of his old 
father. Indeed filial affection is a very pleasing trait in the Afghans 
generally. Mohammad Khan has left us for Peshawur. He thanked 
us both so nicely before he went, and said that if he had offended in any- 
thing he hoped to be forgiven. I took a sketch of him, and we were 
really grieved to part with him. "We gave him a Pushtu Bible, as he 
can read a little. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Apbil 26th, 1848. — "We received a note from Mrs. "W. this morning, 
telling us that our poor friend Mr. Anderson had been attacked at Mul- 
tan, whither he had accompanied Mr. "Vans Agnew as Political Assistant, 
and both wounded. One account says Mr. Agnew is dead. After this 
we heard reports that both were Mllea, and a large force under Brigadier 
Campbell was ordered to Multan. 

April 28th. — Heard that poor Mr. Anderson was certainly killed, the 
British force countermanded, and a force of 7000 Sikhs is sent to Multin, 
where it will probably join the rebels. 

"We can haraly believe that that gentlemanly, high-spirited young man, 
has met such a tearful death. Mr. Cocks mentions that the last conver- 
sation he had with him was about us. We rejoiced to hear of his appoint- 
ment. He left Lahore about the 4th of April, and must have met his 
death almost immediately on arriving. Mr. Cooks mentions both, as so 
very different from the usual run of young men, both having strong 
religious feelings. 

This has almost put the French revolution and its impending con- 
fiequences out of our thoughts, and it is with inexpressible pain we think 
of poor "Willie" Anderson's flaxen hair, that used to wave to and fro 
when he amused the children by playing at " cock,** floating on the point 
of a spear ; for they are said to have cut off their heads and paraded them 
about. May God comfort the families of both ! 

May 3rd.-— General Gilbert, who was here the other day, told C. divers 
anecdotes of the wars in Lord Lake's time, in which he served. A little 
before this period tiiere was no higher rank in India tbA.TL Q.«^\aJca.. ks^ 
soon as a man got his Captaincy he was appomle^ \ft a x^^\saK^^ ^laa. 



140 UrBDKK OF MX. AGSEW Jjn> JXECTKSAXY AJSJOSSOV, 



drew tibe alknranoes fCT* 10(M, thon^ lie never had mbove 200 men. This 
was the general {yraedoe and nniversallj' known. But wbea the reg^ent 
was wanted for serrioe, its Commandant immediately laiaed and armed 
the fall complement, and did his work well. 

Friday, Maj; ^th. — As far as we can. gather, the trae account of oar 
pocft fiiexui Lieutenant Anderson's death seems to he as follows: — ^He 
accompanied Mr. Agnew as his assistant to Mnltin, where tiiey were to 
instal a new Sikh Governor in the place of the Dewan Mnlraj. Prior to 
doing this, Mr. Agnew demanded a statement of acoonnts from the Dewan, 
which the latter refused to give, and wished his saccessor to be installed 
at once. Mr. Agnew went to the Fort, which contained some thonsand 
soldiers, leaving matters in this unsettled state with Mulraj, and impra- 
dently enough told the soldiers that such as were fit would be entertamed 
and Uie rest discharged. This, of course, was very unsatisfSactory news 
to them, several of whom assailed him and Mr. Anderson as tiiey^ were 
leaving the Fort. The horse of the hitter shied into a ditdb, and it was 
while extncating himself that he received several wounds. He and Mr. 
Agnew managed, however, to reach their camp, and when, a few hoars 
after, thej saw a large body coming to attack them, they took refoge, 
with their escort of 200 men, in a small Id^ah, where they defended 
themselves until their men, either bribed or intimidated, surrendered. 
The enemy made a rush, and both fell almost at the first fire. Lieutenant 
Anderson was too much disabled to resist, but Mr. Agnew fiired both 
barrels of his gun and killed one man. Their heads were cut off and 
paraded about on poles, and their bodies exposed to a thousand indigni- 
ties. The new (jOYemor, £Mn Sing, and two native artillerymen, stood 
by them to the last, and the former is now a prisoner. 

Not content with confiscating General Ventura's Jaghlr, the authorities 
(I believe during the absence of Sir H. Lawrence) thought that General 
Ventura's handsome house and garden at Lahore very suitable for a 
Eesidency — so they fook it ! and when the Greneral, naturally enough» 
requested that as they had taken his house, they would at least x>ay for 
it, this was refused on pleas worthy of the meanest attorney in Chanoery- 
lane. He said he thought they should have acted differently towards 
'' un vieux militaire," but he found that Major Mackeson had told him 
truly when he said, " General, in this country an individual has no 
rights." He had received a letter from a Sikh Sirdar, who was so agree- 
aole and friendly that when! any Englishman went into the Pai^& in 
Lord Auckland's time, they always requested that he might be appointed 
their Mehm^nd^r or Host. He thus had constant opportunities of con- 
ferring obligations on British officers, from the Commander-in-Chief 
downwards : all of them were lavish in their expressions of gratitude till 
the Sikh war broke out, and the British took possession of the protected 
States on the side of the Satlej, and proclaimed that all proprietors who 
did not loin them should have their property confiscated. Among others, 
this Sirdar had a house in Loodiana, but the chief part of his property 
being across the Satlej, of course he did not come in, and yet, smoe the 
peace, in spite of all the professions of friendship ne received, and in 
spite of the unreasonableness of expecting him to turn traitor to his own 
Government, he has never been able to get back his house. He said to 
General Ventura that " he hoped he would not find the English what 
they had been to himself, full of protestations of friendship when they 
could get anything from you, and as soon as you can be of no further use 
they throw you overboard."* 

* Tbe Court of Directors has since purchased General Ventura's J^hir fiv a ooft- 
Blderable anm. 



HINDU NAia'S ABTFULNESS. 141 

A very enterprising merchant here, Nabi Baksh by name, set up a 
soda-water machine and makes excellent soda-water. Some time since 
Nabi Baksh called upon different officers here (beginning with the senior 
surgeon, a man of weight and character) and asked them to come and 
dine at his hotel, and then draw up a certificate or testimonial of his zeal 
in introducing various improvements and making divers efforts to supply 
the wants of the European community. They all accepted the invitation, 
and Nabi Baksh made a grand feast, had excellent wines, and everything 
as good as possible to do honoiir to the guests, expending about 200 rupees 
on the occasion. When the day arrived he went there himself to see that 
everything was properly arranged, and sent twice to tell his guests that 
the dinner was ready. Not one of them came ! It is this insolence which 
makes Englishmen hated. 

The other day a Hindu Naig came here, weeping bitterly as he leant 
against the comer of the house, and said that 300 rupees had been stolen 
from him. C. spoke sharply to him for crjring, but caused diligent inquiry 
to be made, when there appeared every reason to believe that he had 
never lost any money, but had made the complaint merely to injure 
another man. This will give you some idea of their artfulness. I do 
not think that an Englishman could, by any possibility, cry over an 
imaginary loss. 

That abominable Rani (the Marie Christine of the Panj^b) is now at 
Pirozpur, en route to Benares, which is a satisfaction. We heard yester- 
day from Major Lawrence, from Peshawur. . 

I will copy part of a letter just received by a friend of ours from 

Dr. , at Lahore. He says : — " The fact is, the whole country is up, 

and ^)repared to attack us, only waiting an opportunity. The attack on 
the city was to have been on the 13th instant. This plot, it appears, 
has been hatching since the be^innin^ of March, and might have been 
discovered before, had our Politicals given a prudential ear to warnings. 
But their custom, their stupid custom, is to affect to treat all such reports 
with contempt, and then, wnen they find they are in for it, they stare and 
say, who could have thought it ?" 

It is a most astonishing thing that English Politicals always despise 
information unless it come through some regular formal channel ; at least, 
those who are wiser form the exception. When mv husband informed 
Sir William MacNaghten that Muhammad Akb^r had arrived at Bami^n, 
a fact which he had been told in confidence by a K^ibul merchant who had 
just come from thence. Sir William, though at first struck with it, 
speedily came to the conclusion that " if it were true he must have heard 
it." A faqir also warned him with still less effect. John Conolly told 
him that the city was ripe for insurrection. All this was about a fort- 
night before it broke out. The Lines are nearly finished ; they will pro- 
bably be completed for the sum allotted by Government, so that the 
regiment will have nothing to pay ; whereas their neighbours, the Sappers 
and Miners who refused to do any of the work themselves, will have to 
pay about twelve rupees a man for theirs. 

On Thursday evening C. took me on the elephant to see the Lines, which 
are just finished; they are very neat, with broad walks between; the 
Sub£d^rs' and Jemadars* houses being at the rear of their resijective com- 
panies. Numbers of young trees have been planted in the Lines. Some 
of the Sikhs were sitting round while their dinner was cooked. There are 
two cooks to each company (the Hindus and Mussalm^ns cook for them- 
selves). A fire was kindled beneath a large iron plate and the Chapattia 
stuck on this to bake. 

We found a conclave ofN&tire officers and Tvoii-eomwasvotva^ ^^^^^Ta* ^ 



142 EXPOBIKG TBOOFS TO THE BUK. 

one of the Pay-Havildars houses, and next day it turned out that they 
had been consulting about volunteering, for when at sunrise on Friday 
morning they came to receive their pay. the Native officer in command of 
each company stepped forward, and on behalf of his men volunteered for 
the approaching campaign. This, of course, was very gratifying to my 
dear nusband, and 1 think little less so to me. They expressed their 
pleasure at serving under my husband personally. 

Sir F. Currie never vouchsafed an answer of any sort to this spallant 
offer, and probably never made it known to the Governor-General, and 
some t^e after, on writing to my husband on other matters, he mentioned 
casually that he had been ** much amused at it :*' which was an imperti- 
nence arising from utter ignorance of a soldier's feeling. Althougn the 
resident migut be too timia to employ them, common policy, to say nothhig 
of courtesy to the regiment, would have dictated an acknowledgment 
of their gallant offer. The event proved that they might have been 
trusted as implicitly as one would trust the 42nd Highlanders. 

Saturday 27th. — As C. and I were taking our evening ride on the 
elephant, we saw a small funeral train coming across the sandy plain, 
ana followed it. The Muhammadan burial-ground lies south from our 
house, and before reaching it the bearers set dfown the charpai on which 
the body lay. It was a young woman who had died in childbirth. The 
scene was a most desolate one. A kind of valley of sand, doping down 
from the desert-like plain, with the burial-ground a little laimer on, 
marked only by broken hillocks of sand, and a few stunted trees, which 
the friends of the dead have planted near their graves. Most of the com- 
pany went up a little ascent to get water to wash previous to prayer. They 
then turned to the west, repeated a short Fatiha, and liftmg the body 
they carried it to the grave, our Mahout uttering a short invocation as he 
entered the burial-ground. They took off the scarlet veil which covered 
the body, and placed it on the shelf which they always make on one side 
of the grave. It was so nearly dark that we did not stay to see them M 
it up. Only men were present. 

We have heard a^ain from Major Lawrence, who expresses the strongest 
disapprobation of Sir F. Currie' s weak policy. The futility of the pretence 
that ^oops could not be sent to Multan on account of the season is appa- 
rent, for he has ordered plenty of troops up to Lahore. Her Majes^s 
32nd have been marched from Amballa to Ferozpur, and have suffered 
very severely on their march. It is said from 200 to 300 are on the sick 
list, and six or seven, including one officer, have died from a coup de soleil. 
It is supposed that they have been unnecessarily exposed to the sun. 
Queen's officers are often obstinate on this point (I suppose from ignorance 
of the climate), and seem to think it manly to run every possible risk. A 
staff officer in China, who was present on the occasion, told my husband 
that two of Her Majesty's regiments were landed under a soorcning sun, 
and went into action. One was commanded by an old Indian, who aUowed 
his men to take off their stocks : they suffered very little from the heat. 
The other regiment was commanded by a stiff European martinet, who 
could permit no such irregularities, and lost ten men on the field firom 
apoplexy ; surely, in the case of the 32nd, it would have been better to 
expose the troops to this heat lor some good purpose. Sir F. Currie has 
directed the commissariat officer at Ferozpur to discharge all the cattle^ 
which he had collected at great expense and trouble, merely to avoid the 
outlay of feeding them tiU October, when, if t^ere is a campaign, they 
will be needed, and will have to be bought at double price and probably ift 
far from serviceable condition. 

June 9th,— A letter, just received iiom '^a^oc MaAkeson, aays, "laay 



LIYINa IK A GLASS CA8B. 143 

that your Yolxtnteering is yery iin-Sikli-like, and I should wish to he at 
hand when your gallant 4th storm the hreach — ^to he at hand and lend a 
hand to avenge the murder of poor Agnew. His old gardener, who iB 
here now with me, when I told him of his death, said, * Kya ! oisa amir 
'ke mama ehalo S^lb, ham bhi chalenghi.' ' What! kill such a gentle- 
man ! go, Sahib ; I, too, will go forth/ " I must send you an extract 
£rom the ** Delhi Gazette," about our regiment volunteering : I don't 
know who can have written it. 

The Regimental Chowdri has just married his eldest daughter, — such a 
nice little girl, about ten or twelve years old, whom I have often seen. 
We lent the Chowdri some carpets for the occasion, and this morning he 
brought the bridegroom, a qmet-looking and very young Sepahi, to pay 
hie respects. The said briaegroom was clad in white upper garment, 
crimson silk trousers, kammerband or girdle, and small crimson cap with 
gold lace, and a large necklace. 



CHAPTER Xni. 

Jxnoi 14th.-;-Qne learns to know people in India most thoroughly. 
Everybody lives, as it were, in a glass-case — every one knows the income, 
style of living, aebts, and position of every one else : then there are so 
many money transactions — so much buying and selling between gentle- 
men constantly goin^ on, that there are a thousand opportunities of judg- 
ing of character which could never be afforded in England. If a man 
borrows money from any of the banks, and agrees to pay it by instalments 
£rom his pay, 'his commanding officer, the Paymaster, and slU who make 
out or see the Pay Abstracts, know exactly how much is deducted. K he 
incur small debts to his servants or others, they carry the matter before 
the Court of Requests, which consists of a certain number of his brother 
officers. If he tnink the rent of his house too high, or quarrels with his 
landlord, the matter is referred to a Station Committee. If a person 
admire a horse, carriage, or any ^iece of furniture, he often bespeaks it 
** whenever it is sold ;" for on leaving a station, even for six months, peopla 
generally sell a good deal of their property. 

A succession of marches, or being obliged to buy or to build a house on 
pain of having none to live in, throws the finances of many an officer into 
confusion ; the wife then often parts with a new dress or some of her orna- 
ments ; and women calling themselves ladies, can be found, who will beat 
down the price of jewels sold under such circumstances, and get them for 
l^s than half their value. Then some people ijever pay imtil they are 
asked to do so ; others put exorbitant prices on their own things ; others 
profess themselves mucn obliged for bein|^ allowed to buy a thing which 
they forget to pay for ; others change their minds, and beg to be allowed 
to return their purchase, where the seller is just starting for Europe ! 
Others give commissions, and then find fault with them, and return them ; 
80 liiat in a very short time one involuntarily becomes completely au fait 
of all one's neighbours' modes of dealing. Then, in sickness, one is so 
much more dependent on the kindness of friends than one could ever be 
at home. Some characters gain, and some lose, on this dose inspection. 
Mrs. C. is one of the former. I hardly ever knew such unwearied sympa- 
thising kindness as she has lately shown to a poor lady who is just dead. 
She visited her daily ; p£^cked for her when she was alive, for she was to 
have started for the hiUs the very evening she died ; sat by her to the 
last ; with her own hands assisted in washing and dre%»ii^ \Xi!& ^^^^t ^\&3ak- 
.dated body« and arranged everything after aei dea&.. ^<^ \li^\^^tv\^&^ 



144 KINDNESS AND UNKINDNESS. 

a sister to the x>oor husband ; thougrht of eyerytbing by which he could 
be spared pain ; and Mr. C. has shown equal sympathy, and yet they 
were comparative sti'angers ; for Mr. 0. never saw the poor husband but 
once before he drove him down to his wife's funeral, not one of tiie offioem 
of his own corps having offered to do anything, or shown any Idnd of 
feeling. This poor man lately lost an excellent appointment through the 
fault of his subaltern, who was appointed to succeed him ! Consequently, 
having been extravagant in former days, and being bound to pay lai^ 
monthly instalments to the bank, they were reduced to the greatest du- 
tress, having scarcely enough to live upon. She was ordered to the hills 
as the only prospect of saving her life. 

I will just give you a few specimens of the treatment they met with:— 
They have two boys at school in the hills. Mr. Monk, with whom they 
are, begged them "not to think of paying him," and offered Mrs. D. the 
loan of a house. A near relation, who is said to have 1300^. a year private 
property, besides 2400 rupees a month pay, refused her a loan of 200 
rupees— on security ! A seijeant of Horse Artillery from whom Captain 
D. had been obliged to borrow 800 rupees — a thing diametrically opposed 
to all military rule and etiquette—on his returning 600, wrote to say that 
he knew Mrs. D. was going to the hills in bad health ; and that as he 
thought the money might contribute to her comfort, he begged leave to 
return it, and if any more was needed, he would be most happy to send it 
to such an amount, for he never could forget the kindness he had received 
from his old commanding officer. This ^ood seijeant has a wife, and a 
little child born the other day, and Captam D. not now being in the same 
corps, has no power whatever to benefit him. I think tms trait does 
honour to human nature. 

On Monday morning, C. took Hasan Kh^n and one of Ferris's old 
Jezailchis — ^who got a rifie ball in his knee, in the expedition against the 
Sangu Khail seven years ago — ^to Dr. M*Rae's, to see a very severe opera- 
tion performed on the poor little bojr of ten years old, under the influence 
of chloroform. The poor child neither stirred nor felt anything, where- 
upon the Jezailchi, who was very anxious to get rid of the baQ in his 
knee, declared himself quite ready to be operated upon. They laid him 
upon the table, and he snuffed up the chloroform with such vehemence as 
to alarm the doctors, and almost immediately feU asleep and began to 
snore. Soon, however, it became a calm, pleasant slumber. Deep outs 
were made, and the ball was found embedded in .a thick and yery ixmA 
leathery bag, which it had formed for itself. This being cut through, toe 
bullet was extracted, and found to have been perfectiy flattened affainst 
the iron thigh-bone of this sturdy Afghan. Dr. M*Kae said he had seen 
a ball thus flattened against a wall, but never before against a man's 
bone. The leg was bandaged, and strong ammonia applied to the patient's 
nostrils. He became sick; they washed his face and beard, smrinkled 
water over him, and on his becoming wide awake, asked him ^f^t had 
been done to him? '* Nothing," he said. They showed him the ball, 
whereupon he gazed at it in amazement, and then burst into suoh a fit of 
laughter that he fell back again from excessive mirth. He then sat up, 
and made salams all round to everybody, to the doctors, to the diessers, 
to my husband, to Hasan Kh^n, and to the other Afghans, who stood with 
bright faces, greatly enjoying the marvellous sight : so they put him into 
a Duli, and sent him home. Hasan Kh^ seemed verv much struck witii 
the liberality of Christian dealings ; and, in spite of his bigotry, oouM 
not help saying, ** That is much better than we Mussalm§tns ; in the £nt 
place we could not do it ; and secondly, if we could, we should leoidre a 
great reward before doing so." ^mid \Am<& «i^x h;^ exdaimed, ^'I lee 



THE BEGIMENT — Ji HINDU YIBACK). 146 

what it is ; it is not pure science (Hm), but Kimia," i.e,, alchemy (by 
which he evidently meant necromancy, as alchemy is quite a lawful 
science among Mussalm^ns) ; and added, " It must be so, for I don't 
understand it." 

Friday, July 16th. — Abdulrahm^n Khan came as usual this evening. 
He began to speak of eating, and to revile ** these stupid Hindustanis," 
as he called them, for not eating with Christians, saying, " it showed the 
blood of their Hindu forefathers." He said to m3* husband, "If you 
killed a sheep with your own hands, would I not eat it ? and if you 
cooked it, would I not eat it ? You are men of the Book." C. showed 
him the passage in Matthew xv. 11, and explained why we eat all things. 
He said with much energy, "Haq, haq; "Right, right;" and then 
added, as he always does, ** Our book also says the same." This is exactly 
what Sasan Kh^n also thinks proper to add on all occasions, though he 
knows nothing whatever of the Euran or its contents. 

June 19th. — I went this morning on the elephant to see the regiment 
at battalion exercise. It is really a Une looking one, much finer than the 
generality of English regiments of the Line. The average height is 
5 ft. 8i in. About five-eighths of them being Sikhs and Afghans, they 
are canable of thrice the work of a Hindustani regiment. Tne Afghans 
and Sikhs are both exceedingly hardy, daring men, — the former complete 
Highlanders, generally rather below than above the middle size, but ex- 
cessively strong, wiry, and enduring, with bones that will flatten bullets. 
The Sikhs are a very handsome race, with such fine stout limbs, that I 
do not wonder at the Hindustanis calling them " Bara chalnewalas," 
** great people for w^^^^S'" Many of the women are just what one 
would fancy the wives of the Roman people in Rome's palmy days. 
They are tall, weU-made, and strong, with free and noble action. The 
Jat (or peasant) women seldom marry before twenty or one-and-twenty, 
— a great improvement on the frightful Hindu fashion of marrying in 
early childhood. 

Tne other day, Sital, a Hindu Sais of ours, came running to my hus- 
hand in great rear, sajdng that his wife threatened to throw herself into 
the well to vex him, and that " then he would be hanged !" It seems 
she is a complete virago, one of the ugliest women I ever saw ; sha beats 
Sital, keeps nim in bodily fear, and once did actually throw herself into 
a well. C. assured him that nothing would be done to him. I suppose 
the Dhobi who was hanged for murdering his wife, has given great pre- 
ponderance to the temsle side of the question in these parts, and made 
the husbands fancy they are responsible for the life of tneir wives in all 
cases ; so C. added, that she might throw herself in whenever she liked, 
only not in this well, for it would spoil the water : and the ^ave old 
Khansam^n reproved Sital severely for bringing such domestic matters 
to the notice of his master, saying "family quarrels should be kept 
quiet." 

Tuesday, 20th June. — ^Under British rule all taxes on merchandize, 
trade| and manufactures have been abolished. There are no taxes what- 
evet in Loodiana, but the owners of land pay the same as they formerly 
■did under the Sikhs. This is only a temporary arrangement until the 
fair rate of taxation can be settled ; but there is this great difference, 
that Ihere are no " begars," or forced labour (eorvees in fact) : and more- 
over, there is no insolent soldiery to go into the city and tyrannize as 
they pleased, and this my Munshi spoke of as one of the greatest deli- 
verances. 

June 22nd — Just after writing this, a man was brouaVA, m^ Ocl«x^'^<^ 
with having torn off the ornaments of a 'woman, waS. ^\Xfc-vsi^MYsi% \a 

L 



146 TAXES IN EASHMIB — LITTLE ]PBINCE. 

murder her last night, close to the lines. A Sikh Sepahl heard her cries 
and rushed out to her rescue, when the cowardly assailant ran off, bnt 
the Sikh pursued and caught iiim ; the poor little woman was young and 
trembled like a leaf, so that C, fearing she would not tell the whole tmth 
before the magistrate from fear of being murdered, and the man having 
the efironterv to deny the whole, though her arms were all discolonred 
with the yiolcnce used towards her, snatched a stick out of the Hayild&r'B 
hand, and bestowed two such blows on the culprit that they knocked him 
down, and '*nezt time'' he certainly will not attempt a robbery dose to 
the Sikh Lines. C. commended the Sepahl, and kindly encouraged the 
poor woman, and having thus, as far as in him lay, distributed due 
poetical justice, he dispatched the whole party under charge of a Havildfir, 
to obtain the best approximation thereto which may be procurable from 
the hands of the Deputy-Commissioner. I suppose it is called poetical 
justice from being so seldom found in the region of fact. 

A Munshl, who accompanied two of Lord Harding's sons in a tour 
they made to Kashmir, wrote a yery good journal, which has been trans- 
lated and lent te us. He nyes some details of the exeessiye taxati(Ni 
under which the people of Kashmir groan. The town is surrounded by 
mountains, through which there are only four or five passes, only one A 
which is open in winter, and no one is allowed to leave the country with- 
out permission. The chief revenue of government is derived mm tiie 
shawl manufacture, which brings in a return of about 807,500 Harrl 
Singhl rupees (of 10 annas or about Is, Sd, each), besides 11,000 more from 
the oorder makers. Merchante with capital pay 148 Harrf Singhf rupees 
per shop ; five workmen are reckoned as two shops, and their wages vary 
irom two to six annas a dav. The average annual tex on each workman 
is thus nearly 59 rupees ; tne total number of shops of these capitalists is 
about 3500, and the totel receipt from them to government about 600,000 
rupees. An inferior kind of shawl is made by those who, having no 
capital of their own, obtain advances from Government; but llie t^est 
quality is only to be obtained by commission and advance of money. 
Coin is shamefully alloyed in Kashmir ; everything is taxed, and inhabi- 
tants of almost ail classes taxed from one to two rupees a head monthly ; 
even grasscutters, fruitsellers, and comgrinders, the very poorest of tbe 
people. Caste is but little attended to, there are no Hindus but Pandits, 
but little distinction is made between them and Mussalmans. 

July. — A sweet little boy, a son of the Shahzadeh Shahpur, about fire 
years old, was brought here the other day to be prescribed for. He had 
a bad eruption on his face which, fortunately, the remedies I gaye have 
quite obliterated. The first time he came he was a little frightened, and 
said Salem Aleikiim a great many times. C. put him in an armchair, and 
he asked with a little soft timid voice, "Do you hold me fop a friend?" 
C. assured him that he did, and that he was a very great fHend of his 
and of his father's ; but when I came with the medicine and a little 
spoon, he asked rather anxiously, " That one, what will she do ?" He 
was very prettily dressed, with a curious square cap, gold at the top, and 
black velvet sides, which I believe is a mark of royalty. The next time 
he came, his mother had twisted un a crimson crepe veil, with gold 
fringes, into a turban for him, and he looked very pretty. He now seems 
quite at his ease, and is like most Afghan childr^ of rank, remarkably 
self-possessed and courteous in manner. 

I mrgot to tell you of a translation of the Munshi's l^t amuied me 

very much. The word the natives use for health is ** Mizljj," which mstitf 

temperament or constitution, but the Munshl, interpretmg a letter front 

Sasan KMb, in whioh. lie inquixed. lot tne, \xi^^;«dii Qt " eudted healthy" 

I 



AFGHAK ABUSE — NATIVE HOITSE. 147 

tamed it into "yonr high temper," at which I had some difficulty to 
look graye. 0. was speaMng to two of our servants, one a Hindu and 
tiie other a Mussalm^n, on the subject of cheating and falsehood. They 
both acknowledge that they never knew one of their countrymen whom 
they could really trust on either particular. The Hindu added, however, 
" Some Sahibs tell lies, too." They heartily agree that their respective 
piiests and religious men were even worse than the rest, and they acknow- 
ledged that some white people never told lies. (They quite understand 
tiie difference between real and nominal Christians.) I never knew such 
keen observers as the natives ; they are excellent juoges of character, and 
know perfectly what is, or is not, forbidden by our religion. I was 
astonished the other day by hearing an Afghan talking most vehemently 
at the door. He had been introduced by Hasan Ehin, and had brought 
two young men as recruits, who proved too short, and, therefore, could 
not be enlisted. Upon this he became furious, and not liking exactly to . 
abuse my husband to his face, he turned on ELasan £h^n, who was pre- 
sent, and reviled him bitterly. " You," he said, ** who have got into such 
favour with the Feringhis hj killing numbers of your own people, you 
say that you and Mackenzie Sahib are brothers, that you are one — 
identical, and you can't get two men into his regiment !'' Hasan Kh^ 
only sat and laughed, for £ery as they are, the Afghans seem to think 
notning of an amount of abuse and vituperation that would drive a 
European into a state of frenzy. Hasan Khan was one day abusing Amir 
SMn the Naib Jem^d^r, calling him a coward, mimicking him, and 
showing how he had hidden himself. Amir Kh^n, being just round the 
corner of the house, heard every word, aud only laughed, and one of 
Hasan Kh^'s followers, after hearing it all, came and tenderly embraced 
the vituperated man at taking leave. The Havild^s, however, who were 
present when this stormy A^hin thus vented his indignation indirectiy 
at their commandant, stood perfectiy aghast, and the Munshl's face was 
turned upside down. Most officers, accustomed only to the polite courteous 
Hindustanis, would have thought themselves affironted, but C. knowing the 
A^hans, only bade him not make so much noise. 

July 5th. — ^Went to see the child of a Binder to whom, about ten days 
ago, a native quack gave two ^eat pills of Bhau^ and then opium, tne 
consequence is, that he has continued almost insensible ever since. I sent 
him some strong coffee to drink and camphor to smell, and the father 
reports him better this afternoon. As the poor msui had nothing but a 
mere hut, the Binding Contractor had lent him his best room, and where 
two armchairs were placed for us. It was large, but as usual, had no 
other furniture than a bolster. It had two small windows close to the 
floor. When we went a^ain in the evening, the poor child was better, and 
soon after got quite well. Had a most curious nde home through all kind 
of out-of-the-way streets and places, and from our lofty howdah we looked 
down on the flat roofs of most of the houses and over into the little courts, 
we could have touched the walls on either side had they been high 
enough. The scene was like a fair at night — the streets crowded, a light 
in every house, and several in each of the innumerable shops of eatables, ^ 
All the sellers were at their posts, though many who had nothing to sell 
and probably nothing to buy, had already laid down for the night, and 
through all the wise, quiet elephant pursued its plodding way, never 
jostling or hurting any one. I have never seen anything like violence or 
quaireUingamong the natives since I came to India, always excepting the 
perpetual Kashmiri scolding matches and occasional exhibitions of the 
same kind among the Hindust^is. It was nearly daxk, iot Wi^mwrn.-^^^ 
but &Ye days old, ao that when we came upoui two ot ^^^^ ^sicvsc^V'^'aNri 



148 SWEABINO'IK THE BEOIMBNTS. 

Patan mosques, the effect was so quiet and solemn, that one could hardly 
fancy oneself so near such a busy, lively scene as the Bazir presented. I 
conclude Loodiana is prospering, for they are buildine in various direc- 
tions. A new mosQue has been erected inside the Serai since I went 
there last ;^ear, and tney seem to be making gutters and sewers in the town. 
C.'s regiment is now employed on various duties. Some are on guard 
at the Kacheri, and I wish you could see the extraordinary zeal with which 
they tui'n out and present arms. 

My Munshi's little boy was ill, and I told him he must be careful not to 
let him eat ghi and mitai (sweetmeats). He remained in doubt, and then 
asked me gravely what he should do if the child would have sweetmeats; 
because, added he, he will cr^* and I love him so much, I cannot refose 
. him anything. He also inquired if he might put sugar in the water, or 
** else perhaj)s he will not drink it." I was quite at a loss for any 
measures which had the least chance of being adopted in such a state 
of domestic discipline, which, however, is the prevailing one throughout 
India. 

There was a slight earthquake here yesterday morning, so slight that I, 
who was standing, did not feel it, but my husband and the Babu in the 
next room, who were both seated, distinctly felt the tremor. 

I went the other morning to see about three hundred Sikhs of the regi- 
ment sworn in. A man carried the Granth (their sacred book^ wrapi^d 
in a white cloth, on a small Charpai, upon his head, the Granthi gravdy 
following it with a chouri, or fl.y-fl.ap of horsehair, with which he drove 
away the flies from it. The Bearer walked to the front of each company, 
and as many men as could conveniently stand round it slipped off their 
shoes, touched the book with one or both hands, made samm to it, and 
then kept their hands either on it or its Charpai while the Granthi read 
the oath. Each man said, ** 1, so and so, son of such a one, of such a 
village, and such a Pergannah (district), swear to be faithful to my salt," 
&c. They then made another sal^m to the Granthi, stepped back and got 
into their shoes, and C. made them a short speech. 

Dr. TurnbuU, of the Sappers, has just returned from escorting the Bani 
to Amballa. The heat in tents was so great, that a tumbler which had 
been standing on the t^ble, when filled with water from a jar in the tatti, 
split as if it had been ice. \ 

August 1st, 1848.— My husband was with the C.'s when the adjutant of 
the Sappers and Pioneers came over and said they were to marcn the fol- 
lowing evening for Multln. Mrs. 0. behaved exceedingly well. She neither 
wept nor said anything, only drew a deep sigh. 

The heat on the march to Ferozpur was by no means so ereat as they 
anticipated, but the confusion at Ferozpur was almost beyond description. 
Contiudictory orders came from the Commander-in-Chief, the (General of 
Division, ana the Commandant of the Station — one day the Sappers were 
to march by the right bank, the next by the left, then they were to go by 
water, then they were told to do as they liked. The duartermaster, in 
despair, went to Captain F., who is Brigade-Major, to ask. what he was to 
do ; and the latter could only comfort him by showing the orders he him- 
self had received, which were equally contradictory and incomprehensible. 
After all they were sent by water, and we have at last heard of their ar- 
rival at Bh^walpur, where they expect to have to wait a month for the 
siege train. Then the 8th Cavalry were ordered from Loodiana to Feroi- 
pur ; they started with only half the carriage required, and twelve hom 
after came a counter-order, desiring them not to move, if they had noi 
already left. They were only ten miles off, stopped by rain and want of 
carriage, atill the Brigadier conid not Tec9^^<&m. 



"O GBEAT STOOL. 149 

August 10th. — ^The other day my husband read the "History of 
Balaam" to the Munshi, the latter added a Musalmlu finale to it, by 
^TaYely relating that there was once a most virtuous dog, and as it was 
imiMssible that the body of a prophet could be sent to hell, therefore to 
reward the dog and punish Bamam, the dog's soul was put into Balaam's 
body, and went to paradise, while the soul of Balaam was despatched in 
the body of the dog to hell. 

I have just heard a fact, which at first I thought was meant as a jest, 
until C. assured me it was true. The Baniahs (or shopkeepers) on opening 
their shops in the morning, are in the habit of worshipping the little stool 
on which they sit (all Hindus occasionally worship the implements of 
their calling), and pray " great stool ! send me to daj many customers 
with full purses and empty heads !" We passed a Faqur's duelling as we 
came home from our ride ; some of them were ploughing, others smoking. 
I did not know before that they ever combined labour and begging. 

The Sikhs seem an active enterprising people. Near one village we 
found a little plantation that the Zamlnd^rs were rearing with care, 
having procured them from cantonments. All their villages seem to be 
wallea, so that from the outside a Ion? high mud wall is oiten all that is 
to be seen of them. There is generalr^ a gate at each end. Within, the 
houses are very closely packed, each with a little yard of its own, which 
is ^nerally full of very lean cattle, many of them buffaloes. Sometimes 
it IS a puzzle to find out how the cattle ever got in, or how they were ever 
to get out again. The streets are so narrow that it required all our huge 
elephant's care and caution to move along without knocking down tne 
rain-spouts on the one hand, or the cakes of manure, drying on the top of 
the wall, on the other. 

Miss W. tells me that in the villas^es near N^koda, the people have one 
common oven (i.e. a deep pit such as they have here), which, when 
thoroughly heated, is opened, and each woman, with her vessel of fiour 
and water on her head, claps her chap&tis against the side of it, identify- 
ing them by sonie particular mark. The oven is then shut, and you may 
fancy the gossiping which takes place while the cakes are baking. They 
keep their cattle, grain, and fodder in like manner in common, each mw 
having his own stack, or his own cattle, in the public enclosure. This is 
an excellent protection against private pilfering. The M^rw^tis, a tribe 
near the hills, and in the lowlands at the foot of them, which are called 
the Terai, are noted cattle-lifters, Mr. W., the indefatigable majBfistirate of 
Mor^tddb4d, has nearly suppressed cattie-stealing in his district, by 
making every village responsible for every head of cattie which could be 
traced as having entered its boundaries. 

Notiiing interesting from Mult^n. Goneral Whish's force has been 
there a long while, that from Loodiana has also arrived, and they are now 
waiting for the siege train, very much like ** Sir Bichard waiting for the 
Earl of Chathsun." 

The annexation of the Panj^b is spoken of as certain, and I hope Kash- 
mir will be included, for hardly any country in the world groans under 
greater oppression and extortion of every kind than poor Kashmir. 

7th. — ^The siege at Mult&n was expected to begin in earnest about this 
date. It is incessantiy carrying off camels from our force. H. M.'s 29th 
43ame in the other morning : we found them parading on the high road, 
and were, therefore, obliged to stop. One's heart warmed to a regiment 
of one's own countrymen. They looked mere boys; there was hardly a 
whisker or a head oi dark hair to be seen down the whole line : they struck 
me as remarkably smart looking and dean. I believe i^ ^ ^-qsv.^t^^ ^ 
" crack regiment. " The men are very muob. undsTm^^ ^\ftt ^^ "Ska.* 



150 HULBAJ ON THE OFFENSIVB. 

dustani regiments : there was a huge Bengal Grenadier standing by» who 
looked a perfect giant. 

September 8th. — ^I was much amused at a story Mrs. C. related to me 
of one of her uncles, a civilian, who was extremely particular about high 
caste servants, and who treated them magnificently, dressed them in 
English broadcloth, &c. This pearl of masters once gave a dinner party, 
and the dinner being delated long after his guests were assemble, he 
proceeded himself to the ^tchen to discover the reason. There he found 
all his servants standing in a row, with their backs towards him, each 
man proving his orthodoxy by solemnly spitting in rotation on a fine ham, 
which was about to be served up to the company ! Now observe that this 
excess of MusalmSn " zeal" was manifested by a whole party; but man i& 
society and man in solitude are different beings, as was proved by a lady, 
who ^scovered her £hans§,man eating a thick slice of ham oovdred wiu 
raspberry jam ! 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Two A^hans called here the other day: the younger, Y^ub £h6n, 
travelled up the country with C. in 1840, and used constantly to oometo 
his tent and ask for medicine, meaning thereby brandy ; the eider, Palndi 
Eh^n, is a most gallant man, who distinguished himself greatly under 
that fine officer. Captain Woodbum, near Kandahar, and received a very 
severe wound in his leg. He did such good service that a small pension: 
is now allowed him, until he can be permanently employed by our goveriH 
ment. They are sons of Muhammad Sherlf, Zabtbeghl, or master of con- 
fiscations to Shah Shujah, who was killed gallantly fighting witiii the 
Niz&m-ud-Doulah and the Shah's Hindustani Faltan, on the first day of 
the insurrection at E^bul, when no entreaties of Captain John ConoUy 
and others could induce Colonel Shelton to let a single man or gun go to 
i^eir succour. The younger son, Y^kub, joined my husband at Ist§li^ 
but disappeared when the assault began. On this and divers other 
accounts C. received Y^ub rather coolly, when he called last year to tak 
his interest on a lawsuit, which he is carrying on against Banal Dar (a 
rich Baniah, who also came to ask my husband's assistance), bat mm 
coming with his gallant brother he met with a better reception. 

A Mend writes from the camp before Multan :— 

** September 9th. — MulrS,j is acting offensively and we defensively! 
It is believed we shall have to rush on and take a couple of mounds, on 
one of which we have allowed the enemy to erect a battery. So we aze 
erecting batteries here to make Mulr^j undo what he has done under oar 
very noses, since we took up this position. Our trenches are regolady 
outnanked every night. Everything goes on with the greatest coolness, as 
if we had every intention of spending our lives in this delightful locality*". 

Another friend writes, September 11th. — "Everything on our side ifl 
going on in a lamentably slow style. We are fettered by forms. When 
anything is required, a requisition through ten different channels is sent 
to some one, wno refers you to some one else, who tells you steadily to ^ 
back to the applicant, while Edwardes or Lake gives an order, and m 
half an hour it is executed. 

" September 12th. — To-day's news is excellent. We have carried tiie 

Sosition which the enemy had so strongly entrenched, with oomparativ)^ 
ttle loss. The working party of Sappers (Hindustanis) nudiea throagn 
the breach thus made, and showed tne wayfor H.M.'s 32nd. Our WUA 
looked like a handful among thousands. The bayonet was tiie wm^pam 
and £ightfal has been its work. 



PEFECTION OF SHEBE 81^0. 151 



" September 14. — To-day's news is that Sher Sing, with twelve guns, 
two mortars, and 4000 men, have gone over to MuJraj. This has long 
been expected, and is no loss." 

September 26.— General Ventura called. He gave me quite a lecture 
on the siege. He said that in the first place the force was insufficient, as 
it is a very strong place, and he does not think Edwardes's troops are to 
be relied on. He said that General Yish (as he calls him) had run his 
head against a wall ; the first thing he should have done was to defeat 
MuMj in the open field. I asked nim how he could make MuMj fight. 
He said very ei^y. MuMj has about 40,000 men, of whom, perhaps, 
15,000 are soldiers, the rest are armed very irregularly, some with swords, 
some with lances, &c. All these have to be paid, and it is said that they 
are beginning to be ill paid. Then there are about 15,000 inhabitants in 
the town, and we should have forced the neighbouring villagers to have 
taken refuge in the city. Mulr^j must then have fed this vast multitude, 
or have fought in order to get supplies. His troops being defeated, he 
would probably have surrendered at once ; at any rate we could then have 
commenced the siege without molestation. The proper side for attack 
would have been from the Idgah, keeping it to the right of our position. 
[The fort is unconnected with the town, a space intervening between them. 
The old brick-kilns, which form the mounds on which the Sikhs erected 
their batteries since " Vish's" arrival, command the town; and here, if 
we insisted on attacking from that side, we should have begun our paral- 
lels, having first got ria of the army outside the walls. Part of the town 
commands the fort, and having once got the town the fort was in our 
power. He gave it as his opinion, that although General Yish's force was 
insufficient, yet, even at the worst, he could have fought instead of run- 
ning away ; as the moral effect of this last step both on our own men and 
those of Mulr§j will be most disadvantageous to us. 

Either it was rash to begin the siege at all, or faint-hearted to retreat 
£rom it. Sir Charles I^apier with fewer troops and material than were at 
Oeneral Whish's disposal would have taken the place in a week. 

General Yentura told us, that Ranjlt, though an excellent soldier, never 
oould understand anything of tactics. When a council of war was held, 
he would cut it short by saying, " Oh, never mind this, let us rush on !** 
but he had the sense to let Ventura have his own way, especially as the 
latter always vehemently rebelled whenever Ranjit wished to interfere. 
General Yentura says, that the Sikhs are the only peonle of India who 
have some idea of nationality and love of country. Tney have certain 
ideas of honour, and during Ranjlt's time such a thing as desertion was 
never heard of. C. remarked that with barbarous people, personal attach- 
ment to a chief was the strongest tie. General Yentura says the Sikhs 
have every qualification for making good soldiers ; they are naturally 
temperate, brave, and indefatigable, very intelligent, and a very fine race 
physically, especially the M^nj§. Sikhs (south of Lahore). 

Our last news from Mult^n is as follows : 

"The Sappers and Pioneers are very hard- worked— digging wells, 
making roads ; whereas the Sepahis, do nothing, and did not even dig 
their own wells! Glover, of the Engineers, found a Sepahi, standing 
thirsty and disconsolate by a half-dug well. When Glover came up, the 
Sep^bS said, * Khawand (my lord), I am very thirsty.' GLover answered, 
* Why don't you dig !' If the Sepahis were told, * Until you di^ you shan't 
drink,' they would not hold out long. The Sappers think it very hard 
that tiiey are employed on every species of secondary work, day and night, 
while the Sepahis are treated as it we did not dare give them an otdsx, I^ 
bias really oome to tiiat J Tools supplied by 13(1^ "E»u%\xi'i«t\si^ ^^-^^jxXssvk^ 



152 PESHAWUE — BALL PRACTICE. 

to a regiment of Native Infantry were returned by the Adjutant, saying 
that the men would not work !" 

You may imagine what C. thinks of this. His men do whatever he 
desires them. Can it be wondered at that the D^udputris wonfc work, 
when our regular troops set them such a bad example ? 

Two of Prince Shahpur's children came the other day for medicine. 
The little boy has the hooping cough — the little girl has weak eyes. She 
is a very pretty little wilful thing, who took a great fancy to my husband. 
We showed them the picture of their grandfather, Shah Shujali, and the 
little Shazadeh immediately put his hand to his forehead and said 
** Sal^m aleikum" to it. 

We were much interested in a poor Afghan, whose wife was very ill 
with fever. We rode to see her every morning for some days, but she 
died. She was a Hindustani, with a very pleasing expression. He said 
one day, "She has been very good wife to me ; I do not know what I sh^ 
do if she dies,** and his eyes filled with tears. 

C. said only this morning, that he was sure he could raise five hundred 
Afghans almost at an hour's notice, and they would be invaluable at 
Peshawur. Certainly one regiment could be spared from Lahore. I wish 
they would send C. up with such a force, including his own men, it would 
repay Major Lawrence for his gallant offer of succouring him in the Kila- 
i-lSTishan !Kh^n. I would part with him willingly for such a purpose, for 
I feel boiling over with indignation and shame at the apathy shown to 
the fate of a brave man, to say nothing of his wife and babes. 

/ 

CHAPTER XY. 

The " Gazette" on Saturday contains an order for augmenting every 
Infantry regiment by 200 men, 10 Havildars, and 10 NSiiks, and for . 
raising the Calvary to 500Sawars each regiment, thus restoring the exaet 
number which Lord Hardinge discharged. Of course the ddnations given 
to the discharged men are thrown away ; this amount would have nearly 
paid the men for a year, and we should now have had efficient soldiers, 
instead of raw recruits. Two of C.'s native officers speaking to him on 
the subject, made this very remark, saying : " It is well known that a 
soldier is not worth his salt until he has served a year and a day ;" and 
they confessed that in regiments beyond a certain strength, no confidence 
was felt in the Q-ovemment by the younger soldiers. They say, " I 
may be discharged before I get a pension ; of what use is it being a good 
soloier?'* 

This morning C. took me a walk to his parade-ground — one company 
were at ball-practice. Out of 262 shots 220 hit the target at 100 yards, 
which is wonderfully good in comparison to the regular and European 
regiments. They say that in action half the men, both English and 
native, get bewildered, and fire up into the air, or anywhere, instead of 
taking cool, deliberate aim. My husband once saw the 44th Clueen's fire 
at a body of Afghans within twenty yards, without knocking over a 
single man or horse. Half of this company, however, are Afghans, who 
are accustomed to handle a gun from cnildnood, and the rest remarkably 
fine Sikhs.. 

The Glengarry bonnets for the regiment have arrived. C. tried the 

pattern one on Sub^d^ Sudial Sing and some of the ^ard. It was so 

becoming to them that they fully appreciated it, and immediately begwa 

to pv]l out their side curls and brush them up over their bonnet. We 

think even the shaven Afgh^mis wiUlQegiii to o\)i\i^«btA love locks, Tiie 



ENGLISH VFLTUBE8. 153 

next morning all the native officers prononnced them very good. The 
bonnets are much higher than usual, and have a very soldierly appear- 
ance. C. told one handsome young Orderly, that " now he looked like a 
Sep^hl, but before like a Banlah." I sent for a looking-glass, and his 
face expanded with smiles when he saw himself. The high bonnet holds 
the Sikh's hair beautifully, and as the strict ones believe that outtincr 
their hair or wearing a Topi (hat) endangers their salvation, I suggested 
that they should be carefully instructed that this was not a Topi, and Mr. 
Rothney says he shall teach them to say " bonnet." All the rosettes have 
to be made, so Mr. Rothnejr and I had to enter in all manner of intricate 
calculations as to the quantity of ribbon which could be allotted to each. 
Mrs. Bean and I have lent our tailors and they are now at work. The 
colours are come and are very handsome, of rich silk. The Q,ueen'a 
colour is the Union Jack. The regimental colour a rich yellow, with a 
small Union Jack in the corner, and in the centre a beautifully em- 
broidered wreath of oakleaves with " 4th regiment Sikh Local Infantry" 
within. The badge on the bonnet is C.*s crest, — the burning heart 
between two palm-branches. 

Hasan £han came this morning and brought five guinea fowls. I had 
given him the eggs and he intended to eat the birds, hut a learned coimcil 
assembled at Delhi had pronounced them to be English vultures — ^first, 
because they had hairs on their faces ; and secondly because they had . 
horns on their heads ! "He said he knew very well mat they were very 
good for food, but added, if I were to eat them, these Hindustanis would 
say, that I eat birds that fed on dead bodies !" 

October 26th, 1848. — I never could have imagined anything like the 
delays and indecision evinced by the authorities. Colonel Eckford was 
sent to Ferozpur by D^k, to take the command of his brigade, which was 
ordered to march to Multkn immediately. It was then counter-ordered. 
The other day an express arrived from the Commander-in-Chief, desiring 
him to march forthwith. He did so : having made three marches he has 
been peremptorily recalled ! Think how provoking this must be to the 
force at MuMn. 

An Afghan Choukedar, whom my husband had procured for a lady, 
came not long after to complain that she not only expected him to keep 
awake all the night, but likewise employed him all the day. He said, 
" For my own credit, and for the Khan's (meaning Hasan Kh^n, who 
recommended him), and for yours, I am very vigilant : I watch the whole 
night, and never go to sleep ; and then this * Mem' sends me messages to 

go to the Baz^r, and to press workmen for her, at the risk of being laid 
old of by the Kotw^l (Mayor), and to do fifty other things. I am your 
servant, you may throw me into the river if you like, but I cannot go with- 
out sleep night and day !" 

This morning C. rode out to Filor : on his way he met some Sawars of 
the 2nd Irregular Cavalry, who rode with him, and spoke very freely to 
him, especiaDv one of them, by name Mansab Dar Khan Daroga, of the 
6th troop (a iJaroga is a non-commissioned officer who has charge of all 
the horses). They gave their opinion of divers European officers : ** One 
they pronounced hated by his men on account of his temper. Major Tait 
they praised up to the skies : so they did Captain Liptrot. The I)aroga, 
who has been upwards of twenty-five years in the service and never even 
in the guard-house, complained bitterly of the government. He and his 
comrades had lately returned from forlough. He said, " When we got to 
our villages, what do you think we found ? The magistrate, by order of 
the Haqlm of Akberaoad (Mr. Thomason, of Agra), nad <iQ\\fi&^'a.\fc^ ^-vo^ 
J^hlrs (lands) granted to our forefathers fot Bo\ii aet'TOfc^^'^'w^^'ai^^'^^ 



154 THE BONNETS — MILITARY DISCIPLINE. 

Lake's time. If it were not for the war, I would petition the goyemment 
at once, and if they did not grant my i)etition I would throw up the ser- 
vice. But now it IS wartime, I know what a soldier's honour requires. 
I will not petition now as if I were selling my services, hut after the war 
I will petition." Mr. Wilson of Moradahad, protested vehemently against 
the resumption of these Jaghlrs. It is truly what the Daroga called it, 
Bana Zullm, " great oppression ;" but quite in accordance with the system 
of seeking the apparent gain of the Government, at the expense of justice 
and public gratitude, and, therefore, of sound policy. 

The other day I rode to parade, to see the caps which had been served 
out. There was no opposition on the part of the Sikhs, only some private 
scruples ; and one or two deserted before pay-day, — ^it is supposed in con- 
sequence of their fear of the Topi. Mr. Eothney sent 'for the Granthi, 
who informed him that for a Sikh to wear anything on his he€ul through 
which a needle had passed would, according to uieir creed, subject the 
offender and his family for seven generations to perdition. Mr. Eothney 
explained that this did not apply to the bonnets, as they were part of 
their uniform as soldiers ; moreover, that they had enlisted on the condi- 
tion of wearing a Topi, whatever might be the consequences, and mur- 
murers would be immediately coniined in the quarter-guard ; so thanks to 
these appeals to conscience and comfort, no difficulty was made. The 
men looked exceedingly well. C. walked between the ranks,^ occasionally 
cocking a bonnet a little more. One intelligent Sikh Jemadar he asked if 
his bonnet were not a little tight ; and on his answering in the. affirma- 
tive, altered its position a Uttle, saying, "Large wit requires a lar^ 
head — that is why it is tight;" whereupon the Jemadar looked quite 
pleased, and, metaphoricaUy speaking, swallowed the Topi with a good 
grace. 

C. rode out to the Commander-in-Chief's camp on Monday, October 
30th. The ^rallant old Chief sent for him as soon as he heard he was in 
camp : inquired if he could depend on his men, and. how many Afig^h^ms 
he thought he could raise at a pinch in Loodiana. He told him that he 
had urged the Government to re-enUst the men who were disbanded last 
year, so early as May, and had entreated them to lay in stores of grain, 
which could then have been bought at half the price at which it is now 
sold here, and about a quarter of what they are paying for it at Firozpur. 
All these suggestions being neglected, they are now obliged to wac^en 
the regiments, by sending out parties to recruit ; and the recruits will 
probably not be obtained till the war is over : they are obliged to buy 
grain at famine price, and everything has been done in a hurry. He 
said at that time that there would probably be a rising in the Fa^j^b. 

General Gilbert, who called on me the same day, told me he saw letters 
from the Chief last May, urging all these measures. The Governor- 
General is not expected at Amballa untQ the 12th of December I He has 
told nobody what he intends doing, and perhaps does not know T^imsAlf, 
as he may be waiting for instructions from the nome authorities. 

I have never told you of C.'s system of managing his regiment. A 
commanding-officer has hardly any power at all beyond inflicting extra 
drills. Any serious case must he tried by court-martial, and oonflrmed 
by the Commander-in-Chief ; the consequence is, that the delay neutralizes 
the effect of the pimishment. A sailor knows that his offence will meet 
summary chastisement within thirty- six hours; a soldier knows that 
flaws may be found in the charges, legal technicalities may make a loop- 
hole for him to escape, and that at any rate he cannot be punished uhqbt 
some weeks, if not months. Now, who cares for punishment some wedcs 
Iienoe ? A thoughtful or rational pex^u, W\> tl<(2^> «u c^hM or a oonmuui 



FALL OF PS8HAWUB. 155 

soldier, either European or native. As my husband is a joint magistrate, 
he takes advantage of this power to inflict summary punishment on his 
men. 

The European soldiers make so light of a few lashes, that, talking of 
Ihe Duke's yielding to the modem idea that a regiment can be managed 
like a boarding-school of young ladies (forgetful of the strict discipline on 
which his own Peninsular successes were based). Major Troup told us of 
an instance at Cawnpore where a soldier, on the promulgation of the 
new regulations, limitmg the number of lashes to fifty, offered to take as 
many tor a glass of gin ; his comrades inflicted them with all their might, 
and he drank off the gin afterwards as if nothing had happened. 

Mr. Ilothney says C. is a very stem judge ; there is only one instance of 
a deserter being let off, and this, coupled with the fact that men have 
been caught a year or eighteen months after their desertion, has esta- 
blished the idea in the men's minds that it is of no use to try, for that it 
is impossible to escape. General Yentura told me that he knew that 
" M. Mackenzie est excessivement aime de ses soldats." They are quite 
satisfied with the system of swift sharp punishment, for they know that 
it is just and not excessive, and they see how he studies their comfort and 
welfare ; but I suppose no one knows (except myself) of the pain and 
suffering it costs mm to sentence a man to punishment. He has just 
given them all the vegetable seeds we got from England, with which they 
are delighted. 

The gardens in the lines already look very nice. Every native officer 
has one, and many of the HavUdars, but I have been obliged to send for 
more seeds for the men. 

l^ovember 13th. — ^Peshawar has really fallen. Major and Mrs. Law* 
renoe are safe in KohS.t. 

It is said that a mutiny forced Major Lawrence to fly. C. is decidedly 
of opinion that he ought not to have employed any Najibs (PanjiilJi 
Miihammadans), for, fiom long servitude under the Sikhs, they have 
become a most vile and treacherous race, like the Greeks under the Turks. 
C. would have turned all the Panj^bis out of the fort, except the artillery- 
men, just to work the guns — taking the whole of these into the fort, 
garrisoning it with Eusufzais and other Afghans, and setting a stout 
Afghan guard over every gun to see that the artillerymen did not play us 
false, by putting in the ball before the powder, or otherwise. 

He advised Major L., long ago, to caU in the Afghan tribes, but he does 
not seem to have done so. Had this plan been carried out, and blood 
once drawn between the Afghans and Sikhs, no after>alliance between 
them would have been possible. However, we are very thankful he is 
safe, and the Government deserve to lose Peshawar for their delay in 
succouring it. 

It appears that, on the evening of the 22nd, Colonel Pope's brigade and 
others were warned to be in readiness when the general should sound 
from the Commander-in-Chief's tent. They waited till long past four a.m. 
the next morning, and then found ^at the old chief had marched off at 
two A.M. with H.M.'s 3rd and 14th Dragoons, the 6th and 8th Cavalry, 
and some Horse Artillery guns, as he said, to reconnoitre. Seeing some 
Bannu men in the distance, he ordered a charge to drive them off. As 
our cavalry approached, theirs filed off to the right and left, leaving our 
men exposed to a tremendous fire from a battery on the opposite bank of 
the Chinab, as well as from matchlock men concealed in all the ravines 
and nullahs, both of which the Sikh horsemen had masked up to that 
moment. 

General Cureton and Hayelook feU (the \)0^^ oi \iX\a \aJ^t \i'5{^ ^^ 



156 6ENEBALS ACHMX7TY AND WHI8H. 

found) : one of our gnns stuck in the sand, and, with two waggons fall 
of ammunition, fell into the hands of the enemy. Our small force suffered 
very severely — about 140 killed and wounded; among them, Captain 
Fitzgerald and poor young Captain Hardinge ; also Lieutenant Holmes, 
of the Irregulars. A bad oeRinniDg of the campaign. 
, The Bombay force is near Kori, with no immediate prospect of moving 
on. The case stands thus : General Achmuty, who commands the Bom- 
bay troops, is senior to General Whish, and would, therefore, supersede 
him if he were to go to Mult^n. This the Commander-in-Chief does not 
wish, and therefore directed General Achmuty to stay l^ehind and send 
the troops on : but this General Achmuty will not do ; and keeps the 
troops back — first, to wait for the assembly of the whole force, — ^then, 
when the last detachment arrived, the commissariat was not ready ; when 
that was complete, the Engineers were to be waited for, and now that 
everything is prepared, they are tarrying for the arrival of two or three 
large boxes of medicine, which, when they do come, must be sent by 
water, and not with the troops, and which, for the sake of the men, I 
hope may ^o to the bottom. Meanwhile, General Whish daily sends the 
most pressing entreaties for an advance, to which General Achmuty turns 
a deaf ear, and says he must wait for an answer from Lord Gt>ugh, to 
whom he has made a second reference on the subject, his first having been 
in vain. 

Owing to some extraordinary mismanagement, our army has no means 
of getting information, consequently they constantly stumble on the enemy 
qmte xmawares. Suleiman Kh^n, that prince of " Kundschafters," is, I 
believe, the only man. who procures intelligence for the army. He warned 
the auljiorities of the presence of the Sikh ambuscade at Ramnagar, and 
was scouted at for his pains. "When his iirformation was so tragically 
verified, instead of acknowled^^ing his service, they are said to have 
scouted him still more out of spite. 

As soon as throwing the bridge across was found to be impracticable, 
the 14th Dragoons returned to the Commander-in-Chiefs camp at Ram- 
naggar. The remainder of the Brigade began to ferry themselves over in 
parties of fifteen to twenty at a time, but the strength of the current made 
this a very tedious and toilsome affair, and the chief labour seems to have 
fallen on the officers, few of the men knowing how to handle an oar. By 
sunset they got the whole of the 2nd Euro|)eans over. They bivouacked 
on the banks of the river. The cold was intense. The next morning, 
4th December, at daylight, all the officers of ttie brigade set to work agam 
and ferried the remainder of the force over. They started at half-past 
seven, A.M., and joined General Thackwell, who, immediately on their 
arrival, turned out all his division .and pursued the enemy. 

Imagine one of the collectors of revenue sending a sum of from 40,000 
to 50,000 rupees into Loodiana from the district under charge of three of 
our Sepahis, who brought it in safe. Major Mackeson has been sent on a 
mission to the Commander-in-Chief. 

Saturday, December 16th. — ^As the Governor-General is expected im- 
mediately, it was deemed proper no longer to delay giving the colours to 
the regiment ; and I was to present them. 

We had fixed it so suddenly, that no one was there except our regi- 
mental family party, the Beans, Rotlmeys, Mrs. Dempster, ana Dr. Keid. 
The regiment formed three sides of a square, and the colours being carried 
by two Havild§rs in the centre of the fourth side, my husband dis- 
mounted and came to fetch me. The two senior SuMdars present 
marched up, attended by a ^ard, and halted directly in front of the 
colours, C. led me up, and said a few -wot^a \a ^ik^xsv> ^ thfi effect that in 



PBESENTATION OF COLOUBS. * 157 

our cotintry it was a great honour for a lady to present colours, and that 




mediately replied to my compliment, " May you be a general !'* — ^to me ! 
The ladies behind laughed, so the other SuMdar (a very clever Hindus- 
tani Muhammadan) altered his wish into, '* May you become exceedingly 
^eat !*' Mr. Rothney then (as interpreter) read a very excellent address 
m Hindustani, after which the grenadier company placed themselves in 
the rear of the colours, as their guard, and the remainder of the regi- 
ment, headed by their commandant, marched past and saluted them. We 
ladies critically watched our three lords saluting, and they all did it 
beautifully : they then formed into a line and fired a feu de Joief which 
^rminated the ceremony. 

C. was too imwell to take the command of the regiment when the 
Qovemor-General came in on Tuesday. 

Early in the morning 1 drove down, with Mrs. Bean and Miss Ballard, 
to see me procession. The regiment of ^ood ugly little Qhurkas, and part 
of two corps of Native Infantry, were orawn up just at the entry of the 
town, towards cantonments. We made a circuit and drove all through 
the town ; and Miss B. was greatly amused by overhearing all our Sepa- 
his, directly they saw me, say to each other, ** Mem Sahib, Mem S^hib." 
They all seemed quite pleased ; and we were equally pleased to see them, 
for they really looked remarkably well : they are mostly both tall and 
well made. The orderly who came with me was a remarkably fine man ; 
we, therefore, made him stand in front of the carriage, and admonished 
him to make a very fine salute, which he did, to our satisfaction. It was 
really a very pretty sight. We were near the Kotwalli (equivalent to the 
H6td de Ville), in front of which the grenadier and light companies were 
drawn up, with the colours ; the windows and roofs of the nouses were 
covered with men in every variety of coloured garment — ^Afgh^s, Sikhs, 
Hindustanis, and Kashiniris. The Governor-General was preceded by a 
dozen or two of Bhisties, watering the road ; then Captain HiU ; then 
tiie staff; and lastly. Lord Dalhousie himself, very &[entlemanly, with a 
handsome thoughtful face. The officers and guard saluted ; he uncovered 
to the colours^; the old general by his side bowed and talked ; and when 
we cross-questioned the orderly afterwards, as to which was the Lord 
S^b, he replied confidently, "Oh, the one with the great feather!" 
The body-guard, in a very handsome uniform, followed, and then some 
very picturesque Sikh and Afghan horsemen, shawled and richly dressed, 
and several camels with zamburaks (swivel guns), B^bus and Munshls : 
elephants, hackeries, &c., closed the procession. 

Tuesday, 26th. — There was a review: it was bitterly cold. The 
Governor-General sent for my husband. 

An old blind Afghan, having heard that my husband had been ill, came 
to inquire for him, and did so with the courtier-like politeness of the 




was 

I was much amused at a remark of Hasan Khan's on our manner of 
eating. He had been watching us, and then said, ** You eat quite difie- 
rently from us : we fix our attention upon one dish and eat mightily of 
it ; but you pick, pick, — a little of this and a little of that ; you do not 
eat like hen." 

At daylight on the morning of the 22nd January, MuMi ^JClsLV:^^ ^g'i'st- 
risen of about 3000 men surrendered uncoudilioii^XV^. ^V^aai ^«:^ '^^iwa^ 



158 * EAJC SING — THE SIKHS IN ACTION. 

Mulraj is yomiR:, fair, sligrht figure, and very pale, and looks anxious, as 
well ho may ; diough of course nothing will be done to him. 

Now for two otiier histories, the worst last. A certain insurgent, 
hight Ram Sing, has been giving trouble near Nurpup, in the Jaluider 
Do^b. He posted himself in a very strong position in the hills, and drove 
back our friend Captain "W. with loss. The whole of General Wheeler^s 
brigade was sent against him ; but even they could not attack him until 
they were reinforced. An ofScer wrote, that never, even in Switzerland, 
had he seen anything more beautiful or varied than the scenery. The 
snow-capped majestic Himalayas, with wooded; verdant, and.barren hills 
at their foot, bounded the scene. Ram Sing was on the top of a hill that 
ajjpears to be nearly isolated, but having spurs running out firom it and 
joining the larger ranges of hills. 

On the 15th the final arrangements were made for storming the enemy's 
position, extending over eight or nine miles of most fearful hjlls. The 
ascent was to have been made in five columns. Prom the right rear of 
the enemy's position, by the guides and four companies 3rd Native In- 
fantry ; immediate rear, by four companies 4th Native Infantry ; left rear, 
^ye companies 4th Native Infantry ; in front right, remainder of Srd 
Native Infantry, and 200 2nd Irregular Cavalry (Sawars), dismounted ; 
left front, two companies Hodgson's Sikh Corps, and sixty dismounted 
^wars of Davidson's Irregulars, under D.'s command. It rained during 
the 16th, up to two o'clock p.m. of the 16th ; but as Colonel D., of the 4S 
Native Infantry, had received his instructions relative to the attack, they 
were obliged to commence operations on the morning of ttie 16th, but not 
so early as had been arranged, owing to the failure of a signal whi^ was 
to put the front columns in motion. The guides were to asoend tiie 
highest peak on the enemy's right at dawn, and plant the " Union" 
thereon. To get to the place where their ascent was to commence, they 
had to cross the R4vi into Gullb Sing's territory, and recross higher up, 
which they were unable to do till very late, as the previous rain hful 
swollen the river considerably, and rendered the culrent too violent tt> 
stem. 

The front columns waited till 8 or 9 a.m., for the signal ; but not per- 
ceiving it they were ordered to move on. Both columns carried every- 
thing before them, and gained the enemy's chief positions, viz., the village 
of Dalla, and a strong stockaded hill on the left of their positions. The 
enemy was driven down towards Colonel D.*s proposed direction of attack. 
but tne Colonel's columns were nowhere to be seen. Everything^ apnearea 
in a state of tranquillity in his camp. In fact he ha,d not movea out; 
and there was no accounting for it, till after the business was over, a 
letter arrived from him, saying that " he supposed the General would not 
attack that day, from the inclemency of the weather." So the 4th^Natiye 
Infantry had no hand in the affair. The guides and companies of the 3rd 
Native Infantry had no fighting. The head-quarters 3rd Native Infantry^ 
under Major Butler, and the Sikh Companies, nad all the work. The SJui 
Companies behaved remarkably well, and were full of the conduct of ^ir 
leader, saying, "The Sikhs will fight as well as other peo^e, when "they 
are properly led." Captain Burroughs heard them say, "The Sahib Ldg 
think we won't fight; they shall see how we can fight for those whose 
salt we eat." .... The 4th regiment must have heard the firin8[ of 
the other columns ; so that they showed remarkable indifference to mili- 
tary glory. 



BATTLE OP CHILLIANWALii. 15^ 

CHAPTER XYL 

C. WENT out to the Governor- General's camp on the 11th. While there 
he received intelligence of the disastrous battle of the 13th. The Com- 
mander-in-Chief had moved his camp (after a halt of nearly five weeks) 
£rom HiUa to Dinghi. He determined to fight the Sikhs, and came in 
sight of the enemy at Chota Amrao about eight o'clock a.m., and halted 
for an hour and a half. It being about two o'clock when the army reached 
Chiilianwala, Lord Gough wished at first to defer the action till next day; 
but he and his sta£P being seen by a son of Shere Sing, who commanded a 
lottery in their front, he fired three shots at them, which acted like the 
sound of the trumpet to the old war-horse. The batteries were ordered 
to open, and while they were firing the army deployed into line. After 
£^ing about twenty minutes, Lord Gough ordered the line to advance 
through a thick jungle, and against a force which overlapped them on 
both flanks. The Sikh batteries were not in enlrenchmente but placed 
between patches of thorn jungle so thick that the men could not see ten, 
and sometimes not three yards before them. The line advanced to take 
these batteries at a run, with skirmishers in front. When they got near, 
the skirmishers ran in, and they poured in file-firing as fast as they could, 
cheering as they ran. Campbell's division (the left of the army) were 
ordered to charge at 300 yaros, in front of Snere Sing's guns; they were 
consequently exhausted and breathless just as they neared them ; they 
were forbidden to fire, and told to "do everything with^the bayonet. 
They were met with grape and round shot from the batteries in front and 
on their left, and a galling fire from the infantry : they broke, and were 
pursued by the Sikh Horse almost up to their original position, and part 
of the Sikh right wing fell on their rear and left flank. H. M.'s 24tli 
suffered frightral loss. Gilbert's division at first appeared more successful, 
as the enemy broke and fled, leaving them in possession of the ground ; 
but while halting for a few minutes they beheld a cloud of cavalry on 
their right flaiJc, two or three brigades of re^lar infantry, and nine guns 
in the rear. The Sikhs had enveloped the division, and the two brigades 
were separated. The enemy fell upon the 14th Dragoons and Christie's 
Troop of Horse Artillery, which were then in the right rear. Captain 
Christie was preparing to fire at them when the 14th went about, rushed 
through his gims, upsetting one and dashing at full gallop through the 
field hospital, where one of the surgeons was at that moment amputating 
a Ifanb, knocking over Dulis, camels, and wounded, and never stopping 
till they got to the rear, leaving Christie's troop to be cut to pieces. 

At this moment the Sikhs saw Dawes's battery, and would probably 
have taken it had not the 2nd Europeans and 70th Native Infantry charged 
at them rear rank in front, until they reached the battery, where they 
knelt, firing. The fire was fearfully hot, but providentially the enemy 
were on the ridge of ground slightly elevated, so that all their artillery 
fired over our men. They remained facing each other about two minutes, 
then Dawes timbered up, and they dashed at the enemy, broke their Ime, 
and spiked their guns. 

Dawes's battery was the great means of saving the division. As he 
nnlimbered to the front of Mountain's brigade, six of his gunners and five 
of his horses went down, and he himself was hit on the ankle. He 
Bilenced a Sikh battery (of double his strength and gallantly served) in 
about twenty minutes. 

Colonel Lane, with his battery, three troops of 6th light Cavalry, and 
three of H.M.'s 9th Lancers, preserved the division— and conaft«^<soi!« 
the army— from ruin, by checfcLng tl)e masaes oi ^\kk ^ot^^^V^^^sKsaL^ 



160 LOBD GOUGH. 

down on our right after the panic and flight of the Cavalry Brigade, 
oonsisting of H. M.'s 14th Dragoons, part of the 9th Lancers, and 6th 
Cavalry. For this most important service, Colonel Lane was not even 
thanked! The Sikh Ghorcnarras (horsemen) behaved most gallantly. 
The Sikhs, however, withdrew, no one seems exactly to know why, leaving 
upwards of forty of their guns in our power ; yet mstead of bivouacking 
on the field, as was his first intention, Lord Gough was persuaded to with- 
draw his troops, thus abandoning his wounded ! Some talked of Ihe 
danger of a night attack — of another Ferozeshahar — no water, and so 
forth. The consequence was, that the Sikhs (who had fired a salute in 
honour of their victory) came back, and carried off most of their own 
guns, and four of Christie's. The latter remained on the ground until 
four A.M. of the 14th, with the. native ^un Lascars sitting on the trails. 
They only quitted their post when driven away by the Sikh horsemen, 
who brought bullocks and carried off the guns. At best, it can only be 
considered a drawn battle. It was only the prestige of our name which 
prevented the Sikhs from pushing their advantage. 

It is considered that Lord Gough's first error was abandoning the plan 
of turning the Sikh flank at Kassul ; his second, allowing himself to be 
provoked to fight without knowing the ground; his third (his old one) 
of not allowing the artillery to do their work, but hurling masses of 
infantry on the Sikh guns ; his fourth, charging when completely out- 
flanked by the enemy, and through a thick jungle ; his fifth, abandoning 
the wounded and the guns. 

Altogether, never has so severe a fight, with so much loss and fw results, 
been fought in India. Had the army encamped on the ground they had 
won, they could have parked every gun they had spiked, and render^ the 
Sikhs powerless, from want of artillery ; as it is, they have no doubt by 
this time drilled out all the spikes. 

The Sikhs took three of Huish's guns, and one of Christie's, and a 
colour from each of the following regiments : H. M.'s 24th, 25th, 30th, 
and 66th (besides the one recovered by the 70th), and 6_th Cavalry. The 
latter was taken, owing to the Jemader, who bore it, having secured it to 
his body by way of precaution. He was killed. 

Ekins, the Assistant-Adjutant- General, was cut to pieces in trjring to 
rally the 14th Dragoons. He and twenty-six others, thirteen being of 
H. M.'s 24th, were Duried the next evening, together with a number of 
men. In one grave were laid the two Pennycuicks, father and son, and 
in another the two Harrises! and this fearful loss of life — the returns 
amount to 2400 odd killed and wounded — ^was caused solely because the 
Commander-in-Chief was too impatient, and did not let his artillery do 
their work, but sent the poor Infantry at guns. 

The enemy's camp is in front of ours, about two miles off. They must 
be three times stronger than we are, and their position on a long, low 
range of hills. Colonel Pope described the camp as being situated in a 
perfect swainp ; the Sikhs can see everything that is going on, and they 
attack our pickets constantly. One or two regiments of cavalry are sent 
out daily to procure forage, which they bring from Waziri^b^d, Bam* 
naggar, and places even yet more distant. 

C. wrote to me as foUows: — January 18th, 1849. — "Our great guns 
were doing their duty well, and the execution among the Sikhs was such 
as to insure their destruction. In this way the French, under Napoleon, 
by means of their artillery (the best in the world then) first disorganized 
the opposing force, and then with a certainty of success and smtul loss, 
launched their masses on the already discomfited enemy. Lord Gough. 
Iiowever, barely allowed the heavy cannon to fire fifty rounds ana 



A BIGHT OK THB BATTLE-FIELD. 101 

ordered the advance of his whole line, the Sikhs strongly posted in the 
wooded heiffhts overlapping our flanks in the proportion of six miles to 
Hiree. Lord Gbugh made no attempt to throw back his flanks en potence^ 
so as to remedy this, but rushed on. Gilbert's division,* fighting hard, 
went steadily on, carrying everything before them, of course with some 
loss. The others behaved, for the most part, like men, but were fearfcdly 
mown down hj the Sikh guns, and several regiments being surroundea, 
owing to the initiatory blunder, had to fight front and rear. The 30th 
Native Infantry went on boldly, but getting clubbed, fired at random and 
killed some of their own officers. Part of the 9th Lancers and the 14th 
Dragoons being, they say, surrounded, disgracefully fled before 400 Sikh 
horsemen, abandoning a European troop of Horse Artillery, the gunners 
being cut down and our guns taken. In trying to rally these panic-stricken 
troopers, Ekins was killed." 

A Mend in camp wrote to us, 21st January. — " The only conclusion I 
can arrive at is, that the Sikhs, in every sense of the word, licked us, and 
if their cavalry had only gone on, must have routed us and taken the 
Commander-in-Chief and Staff prisoners. Our people were quite pre- 
pared for it, nor do they seem to know why it was not done. The Com- 
mander-in-Chief makes out a very fair appearance in his dispatch, but I 
doubt its taking anybody in, at least on this side of the world. I assure 
you the fight of the 13th was as nearly proving another massacre of a 
]Dritish army as possible." 

The loss in killed and wounded is unparalleled, save by Ferozeshahar 
and Sobr^on. The Queen's 24th Foot, for instance^ lost 537. Next day 
tbere lay in their mess-tent 13 of the officers of that single corps, dead. 
They went into action with 34 officers ; they have now only 9 fit for duty. 
The 30tih Native Infantry lost one third of their entire strength; the 
Queen's 29th lost 234. Officers kQled 24, wounded 65, total 89; men 
killed 573, wounded 1600, total 2173 :— total hors de combat 2262. Many 
of the wounded are since dead, and many many more must still perish^ 
for the wounds in general were of a fearful description, received in close 
conflict. 

"The night that followed this dreadful day was the most miserable of 
my life. The troops cdl huddled together without order, and the tents 
and baggage nowhere to be seen. Some of us sat for the early part of the 
night upon some guns, and when it began to rain, which it cud heavily 
towards midnight, we sought the shelter of an adjacent village, where in 
a mud hut of diminutive dimensions„we found a most motley assemblage 
con^gated in the dark, and where we passed the night, in a crouching 
position with my back to the wall, for there was not room to lie at length 
on the mud floor. On my left, and seen by the occasional blaze of a whin 
fire outside, lay a Sep^hi, with his loaded musket between us, which I 
every moment ex]}eoted would go off as he turned himself in his sleep, and 
shoot some one, as similar accidents were heard going on outside all night 
long ; on my right sat the Aide-de-Camp to General Tennant, and beyond 
him, the General himself; next sat a boy with his head on the doorstep ; 
a number of the Commander-in-Chiefs Staff were huddled together in the 
further comer ; Colonel Curtis and some Sep^his occupied the centre. 

" In this position we spent the night ; the longest I ever experienced. 
No one spoke, every one was occupied with his own reflections, longing 
for the bght of the morrow, and listening to every sound that broke 
the stillness of the night. Had the Sikhs been an enterprising enemy 
(which they are not), and had come down upon us that night, our troops 

• Composed of tbe 2nd Europeans, 70th and 3U\.'S«itVi^lssS;»ai\3i« 

IC 



162 BVBJAL OF MBSSBS. ANDBBSOIT UTD AONEW. 

oould Lave offered no resistance, and most have fallen an easy prey. It 
pleased God, however, to shield us in our hour of helplessness by His 
.ffracious providence, and day began to break without even, an alarm 
Having occurred. Large fires were then lit in the little courfyard in which 
our hut was situated, which threw a strange and picturesque light on the 
foliage and figures that surrounded them. Amongst tilie latter I reco^ 
ffnised the Adjutant- General, Judge- Advocate-General, Q,uartermaster- 
General, Brigadier Penny, &c. ; not one of them appeared to know what 
had become of the Commander-in-Chief for some time. At length we 
heard of his having passed the night in another village about a mile off. 
I had had no food since six a.m. on the previous day, save a crust of bread 
Colonel had given me. 

" As soon as the Commander-in-Chief could be communicated with, the 
trumpets sounded the assembly, the troops stood to their arms, and the 
line was re-formed just where it stood before they went into action. I was 
overwhelmed by a sense of gratitude to the Almighty when I onoe more 
saw our brave fellows thus extricated out of inconceivable confiision by 
the cheerful light of day. 

'* Here we are, in such a mess as the army of India has never been in 
since the days of Clive . ' * 

The bodies of poor Lieutenant Anderson and Mr. Agnew have been 
disinterred. They were found wrapped in silk (I believe some A%h&ns 
buried them), and the heads severed from the oodies ; but it waa im- 
possible to say if this were the effect of decomposition or violence. They 
were buried with all military honours, and carried up the principal breaon 
in triumph, by the jjallant Bombay Fusiliers, poor Mr. Anderson's own 
regiment. No doubt it was with swelling hearts they did so. They buried 
them near the Idgah, and there they rest. 

February 1 2th, 1849. — Mr. Winslow, at Madras, some time a^, had to ex- 
communicate upwards of thirty catechists, for keeping caste ; and the whole 
of them relapsed into heathenism. I did not know, until the other davythat 
caste was most rigidly observed among a large portion of the Church of Eng- 
land converts at Madras. It seems that the yenerable Schwartz settiEe 
example of this most pernicious compliance with idolatrous customs, not 
foreseeing its ruinous consequences. The present bishop has instituted 
an inquiry into it, and, I nope, will suppress it. Imagine so-called 
Christians of high caste refusing to associate, even at the Lord's tahle^ 
with those of low caste-;-scrupulously avoiding the pollution, of having 
any communion with their brethren. 

Mr. Erskine, in speaking of the immense advantages of India over 
Europe, as a ** carriere ouverte aux talenSi* and as affording men. scope 
for aU their faculties, at an age when at home they could be bat meze 
subordinates — " mere pens**— gave us an instance, that when the Sikhf 
crossed the Satlej, in the last campaign, the Government were so taken 
by surprise, that all they could ao was te desire the different Deputy 
Commissioners to make tne best arrangements in their power; thus by 
this act putting the whole defence of their respective enormous distrieti 
into their hands. Each had, in fact, the responsibility of a prime 
minister. 

Mr. Erskine raised the male population enmasse^ and trained them as 
well as time permitted. He is a most practical, energetic, and pnblio- 
epirited officer, and would make an excellent military man. 

Lord Gifford came to see us the other day (on his way to meet ImUs 

Dalhousie at Sehdranpur), and told us many interesting things aboot 

Hamnagar and Chilianwala, in both of which he was present, and acted 

09 Lord Gfough's aide in the last. H.e eoid Brigadier Pope oomd not pos- 



ALABM OF THB CJLMF. 163 

fiibly be to blame for the behaviour of the 14th Drag^)onfi, as he was 
wounded and out of the field long before. Only one squadron of the 9th 
Lancers fled. Somebody (no one knows who, some say a private) called 
out, " The Sikhs are in our rear — threes about." Tile dragoons obeyed 
the order at first in a regular manner ; but the broken nature of the 
ground caused the flanks to press on the centre — a sudden panic came 
over them, and they fled in confusion through the field-hospital, upsetting 
dulis, wounded, camels, and everything that came in their way. 

The whole camp has been frequently alarmed by the Sikhs, but these 
last have now left their strong position at Kassul, and for some days no 
one knew where they were gone ; they might have crossed the Jelam, and 
they might have crossed the Chenab. For a day or two it was positively 
asserted that they had done the first ; and such were the fears that l^ey 
would do the second, that there was a perfect panic at Lahore, which had 
the good eflect of causing the citadel to be put in a state of defence for 
the first time. We now learn that they have marched upon Gujr^t. 

The Commander-in-Chief has fallen back, and the two forces have 
united. They are, by to-day's letters of the 20th, within five miles of 
Gi]jr§.t and the Sikhs ; and an action is expected on the 81st. Do you 
know that the Sikhs are so given to strong liquors, that they will dnnk 
off half a bottle of brandy without its having the smallest effect upon 
them. The spirits they use are so powerful, that brandy and gin are said 
to be like wine in comparison. Cnattar Sing has sent Major Lawrence 
into the Govemor-Genend's camp, but not apparently to offer terms, as 
he says he despises our Commander-in-Chief, our army, and our race ; 
and that our cavalry, European and Native, are not worth their salt. 

A decisive bat^e was expected on the 21st. — May God give us the 
vietOTy ! 

I heard from J. on his march up the other day. He says : '* It seemed 
like the fateful ending of au ancient tragedy, that on the morning we 
marched from Multan with Mulr§j between our ranks as a prisoner, our 
way should have been between the Eedgah and the spot where the mur- 
dered men had been first buried. The ^it was open, for the bodies had 
been taken out to receive Christian bunal two or three days before, and 
iheie were still traces of how it had been occufHed. With this on the left 
hand, and the ruined Eedgah on the right, the road ran with scarce a yard 
of spare room. Truly the Lord executeth righteousness and judgment 
&r Uiem that are oppressed." 

We were much amused at a story Miss W. told us of a kuli of her bro- 
i^b/^B, who, on being promoted to be a chouked^r (watchman) at four 
rupees a month, took a second wife. His first, who was a Eulm, was a 
remarkably handsome, hardworking woman : the other was a grasscut. 
He explained to his master that he had taken a second wife to his honour, 
as it greatly redounded to Mr. W.'s credit that his choukedir should have 
two wives. However, they disagreed so much, that in a short time he 
was glad to give the second twenty rupees to induce her to leave him. 

Several desertions have taken place. La order, therefore, to make the 
whole corps keep a good look-out, C. has ordered parades twice a day, 
extra roU-calis at noon and midnight, and doubled the regimental guards 
and patn^ so that they will all be so hard worked, mat they will be 
glad to oaten any man who may try to bring the same trouble upon them 
aaoiher time. Every one to whom C. gives a guard speaks in the highest 
tenns of our men. 

February 24th. — Mrs. C. and I drove down to the Post, and heard that 
we had won a great victory on the 2l8t. I received a. \fc\XfcY i-toiTo. ^^jc^ 
tain 0. announcing the fac^ and stating that out \o^s \& ;x)c>q>k):^ ^^^V^<^^ 

m2 



164 COLONEL POPE. 

and wounded; that of the Sikhs is about 1200 to 1500. On Sunday 
morning early, Mrs. F. came with a letter from her husband which he had 
got inserted with the Commander-in-Chief's dispatch, telling of his own. 
and Mr. C.'s safety. The action appears to have been entirely one of 
artillery, whom, wonderful to say, Lord Gough allowed to do their work* 
The last Brigade from Multan, under Colonel Dundas, joined the Com- 
mander-in-Chief by forced marches on the evening of the 19th. J. says 
of the Rifles, ** the men are in capital condition ; they made fifty miles 
the last two days, but it was no great draw upon them." We had abont 
27,000 men, and upwards of 100 pieces of artillery. The action appears 
to have been almost entirely on the right of our line; that is to say, the 
Infantry of General Campbell's division did not fire a shot. 

Ten minutes after the Infantry delivered their first fire, they charged, 
and the Sikhs fied. 

General Gilbert is gone to intercept them. 

The rout of the Sikhs on the 21st was so complete that they threw 
away their arms, ammunition, and everything, and fled in their Dhotis 
(their simplest garment, — a cloth that they wrap round them, which 
serves the purpose of tj'ousers). Many guns have been picked up by th& 
cavalry in the villa^^es : the Sikhs dragged them on as long as they were 
able. They have also taken several standards in this way. 

Colonel Pope forwarded Colonel Lane's and Colonel Bradford's letters 
to the Commander-in-Chief, about the flight of the 14th Dragoons, and 
begged that he mi^ht be exonerated irom having given any order which 
could by any possibility have been misconstrued into an order to retreat* 
The Commander-in-Chief coldly replied through the Adjutant-General 
that he ** accepted his denial," without adding one word of sympathy or 
regret at having publicly cast a slur on the honour of an old soldier wnoas 

fsulantry is uninipeachable ; poor Colonel Pope has been with us for some 
ays. He is very weak and ill. 

Saturday, March 10th, 1849. — Since Friday week, the x>oor old Colonel 
has been so ill with inflammation of the lungs, that he was almost given 
oyer, and C. has been obliged to sit up with nim the greater part of every 
night, as his nieces are quite worn out with waiting on him all day, and 
the native doctor, though most attentive, cannot make him take food and 
wine, which are ordered for him. It is clear to me that the Hindnstanis 
are an inferior race, both to the European and to their northern neigh- 
bours. I have never seen a native obtain power over a European : if fiey 
do, it is in rare instances ; they may, and often have very great inflnenoe 
with them, as a favourite servant often has, but hardly ever that antho* 
rity which a European, even of inferior station, would exercise. How 
despotic a European nurse often is, over either patient or child. Here, 
this is scarcely ever the case, the nurses and bearers are the slaves of the 
children. The position of the British in India, often reminds me of that 
of the old Romans. There is such a wide distinction between the con- 
quering and the subject race. When no officers are present, the Seijeant- 
Major exercises the regiment, though the Subadars and Jemadars are 
considered as gentlemen, are entitlea' to a chair when they come to the 
house, and are presented to the Governor-General and Commander-in- 
Chief with the European officers. Europeans of every class come under 
the denomination of ** Sahiblog ;" but an Afghan distinguishes at once be- 
tween a gentleman and a common man. Perhaps I can hardly make it 
clear to you, but no one could know an Afghan, without feeling that they 
are of the same race as ourselves. Their energy, obstinacy, strong wiUf 
and £ery natures, mark them as of a diffi^rent genus from the ^[enth 
patdent, apathetic Hindustani *, and. 1 QOTi&\\idL& m^t tha snperianty & 



▲ HIBACULOUS B8CAFB. 165 

energy of the Hindustani Mussalman oyer the Hindii, arises from his 
mixed descent from the conquerors of Hindust§,n, the Moghals, and 
Patans. The Sikhs and Banjahls, haye much more energy, and are a 
much finer and stronger people physically, as well as intellectually, than 
the Hindustanis. This they have proved in the present campaign. I have 
never seen a Hindustani rush about, so that it refreshes me to see the 
vehement energjr with which Hasan Khan darts across the room and 
pounces on a chair, to save my husband the trouble of handing it to him. 
{the Sikhs are generally very ignorant and very intelligent, twice as quick 
of understanding as any imeducated native of the North of Europe I ever 
saw. 

Sir Elchmond Shakespeare spent the day here, on the 7th instant. A 
round shot carried off the tip of his left forefinger, and took all the skin 
off the right side of his face ; he fainted, but soon recovered, had wet ban- 
dages applied to his cheek, and rode back to his duty. Two or three days 
after, however, it swelled up to a frightful size. A more miraculous escape 
never occurred. He told us that a Lieutenant, who has been travelling 
with him, got a ball in his forehead, which came out at the back of his 
head near the ear. He is quite well a^ain ! Sir Richmond Shakespeare 
said that one great mistake at Chillianwala was not opening all the 
batteries, field as well as heavy, on the enemy at once. After the action. 
Brigadier Godby rode up to Captain Dawes and said, " Captain Dawes, 
I am happy to have this public opportunity of thanking you for saving 
my Brigade." Just after. Sir Walter Gilbert came up, and roared ou^ 
" Dawea! thank you for saving my Division !** and -whenever the subject 
is mentioned, and compliments paid him, good Captain Dawes blushes 
and is abashed. Young Mr. Dempster was so ill, that his mother was 
quite at ease about him, thinking he could not possibly be present during 
tlie action. However he got leave from the doctor, was carried to his 
gun, which he commanded throughout the day by driving a fowrah, — a 
curious kind of spade, with the blade at right angles with the handle — 
into the ground, and sitting upon the blade of it. 

Captain Scott who commanded the party left at Umriala, after resist- 
ance nad ceased, desired his men to offer quarter. They tied those who 
threw down their arms in pairs, and took them into camp as prisoners. 

There were nearly 150 of them, yet Major is said to have blamed 

Captain Scott for bringing them m, and told him not a man should have 
been spared. Colonel G. ordered the village to be burnt, which was done, 
and a young friend told us that the sights he witnessed in going, for the 
last time, through the village, to find out if any persons remained in it, 
hannted his dreams long afterwards. In the principal house in the place 
eighty lay dead. Many an unfortunate wounded man was burnt. 

As I should suppose both Major and Colonel were naturally 

humane, it makes the way in which they are said to have acted in this 
affair very remarkable, and shows how easily men may do harsh and cruel 
things when their blood is heated. C. says they may have been obliged 
to issue these orders, but I have not heard any reason alleged for their 
doing so. 

If Major were right in blaming the troops for giving quarter where 

no good end could be gained by further bloodshed, on his principles, not 
a man should have been saved out of the whole force ; lor if General 
Gilbert was justified in receiving the submission of Shore Sing and his 
16,000 men, certainly Captain Scott was right in offering quarter to these 
men. It appears that a code of military law, such as YatteFs, for inter- 
national amEiirs, is greatly required ; for officeia genexoW^ «j(^\> Qi\i Ym.^\)^&^'a» 
.and crotchets of their own, without any fixed xxjloa. IVi ^«»a ^^\i^Vsi- 



166 BELBASE OF MBS. LAWBEITCB. 

Colonel Or. to have the village hnmt when it no longer offered any resist^ 
ance. It was, in fact, burning the wounded. The village was no ways^ 
particularly guilty ; it had offered resistance, and was right in so doing. 
There was no plea of ** example." Mult4n was spared because it was larpe 
and rich : was this village burnt because it was small and poor ? If a 
town resist after terms have been offered, it may be good policy, and even- 
tnaUy save much slaughter bv preventing other towns from doing* the like, 
to grant no quarter to the fighting men. This was Cromwell's plan, and a 
wise and merciful plan — though severe in appearance — ^it provea to be ; but 
he never burnt a village which had not been summoned, and whioh was 
maintained as part of the enemy's position on the battle-ffeld, at a time, 
too, when the enemy having fled in complete disorder there was no possi- 
bility of their re-occupying it. A man who has not clear views of right 
and wrong, based on sound principles, is sure to make frightful blunders. 

On Thursday, Idth, C. started for the Governor-General's oamp at 
FirozpCir. 

Yesterday (Sunday, 18th) a royal salute was fired in honour of Shore' Sing 
and Chattar Sing having delivered themselves up with twentv-siz guns, 
Mrs. Lawrence, and all the prisoners, when 16,000 men laid down their 
arms. Captain Dawes mentions that "Mrs. Lawrence, with European 
servant and baby, prisoners, Lieutenants Bowie and Herbert* arrivM at 
Wazurabad yesterday, 14th March, and a verv pleasant sight it was to 
see the coach and four, drawn by mules, enter nead-qnarters' oamp, with 
the Commander-in-Chief on the left, and the Adiutant-G^neral on ^e 
right. The Artillery and H.M.'s 61st, gave her three cheers, and 'one 
cheer more for the blessed babby.' " 

I heard from J. to-day (2l8t) ; he mentions that Shere Sing brought in 
the Lawrences himself at Paohi Serai. Sir W. Gilbert told him he did not 
want him without his men and guns, and that he had better go back again, 
which he did. J. says he is in love with the country — the climate now is 
delightful — day after day cloudy skies and gentle showers — all round are 
green corn-fielas, and north and east there are most magnificent ranges of 
mountains, the last and grandest of them being covered with snow. He 
describes Koht^s thus : — *' Fancy a fortress girding a mountain, one side 
two miles long, with walls of solid masonry thirty feet thick I If the 
Jinns did not build it, giants must — and the work was daintily done, too 
— even the places for firing down through irom the battlements are 
finished with nicely carved corbeils, but, perhaps, the most extraordinary 
thing about it is the way that part of it has been ruined by an earthqaalre, 
{or by adverse Jinns), in one place a- whole bastion has gone bodily down 
into a ravine without being broken up." This famous fortress was built 
by Shir Shah, the Afghan, perhaps the greatest general of the East, 
who drove Ham^yun into exile. He ruled from the Jelam to the 
mouth of the Ganges, and his civil Government was both benevolent and 
wise. 

Sir Richmond Shakespeare did a thing which amused me much, and 
yet it showed great thqughtfulness. Lad:^ Shakespeare had been kept in 
suspense by not receiving his letter for thirty-six hours after she heud of 
the battle of Chillianwala, so to prevent this he wrote to her before the 
battle of Gujr6t— "We have had a hard fight, but have thrashed liie 
Sikhs completely," directed it, put it in his pocket ready for the post with 
a written request that if he were killed it should be torn up. He sent this 
off soon after he was wounded. It shows the confidence that we always 
entertain of winning the day. 

Sir R. filhokespearo also told us that one of the Queen's regimentB 
ifaptuTed an elepnant at Gujet&t. On. ^^Yl« insrcisax^ «S^et l3bA battle the 



HBB SAFE ABBIYAL. 167 

men bad been so long witbout food tbat biscuit, or something of that sort 
was served out to them, until they could get a meal. Tbey tbougbt the 
poor elephant must be hungry too, so each man gave him a bit. 

The 30th Native Infantry, though not mentioned in the despatch, 
behayed most gallantly, they rushed on unchecked at Chillianwala to the 
Tery muzzles of the enemy's guns, and spiked ten of them. They lost a 
great number killed and wounded. There was only one officer out of tiie 
seyenteen who went into action untouched, and the next day the colonel^ 
t^e adjutant, and two subalterns were aU that were lit for duty. 

The officers gaye up their mess tent to their wounded men, helped to 
bxinf them in on oharpais, &c., and nursed them themselves. To make 
up &r the omission, the Commander-in-Chief wrote a public letter, 
expressing his '* grateful acknowledgments to the regiment," whieh was 
lead on parade. 

J. writes from Attok, March 19. — ** "We found a large number of Sikhs 
awaiting us at E^wal Pindi, to lay down their arms. It was quite 
affeeting to see the old srey-bearded Ehalsas giving up their swords ; 
they generally salamed them as they put them on the ground. One of 
thm abused Shir Sing bitterly for not making a better stand ; another 
was heard to say, "Now, indeed, Ranjit Sing is dead.*' Altogether^ 
between 20,000 and 30,000 are said to have surrendered, the stacks of 
arms are a wonder to look at, and we got besides, about forty cannon 
altogether : at Mult^ and since, our army has taken upwards of 100 
Srons in this campaign."' 

April 20th. — ^To our great satisfaction Mrs. George Lawrence arrived 
yesterday. She left in the evening for Simla, she and her two babes are 
looking very well. She gave me some account of her adventures. When 
Major Lawrence sent her into Labore in October (her little boy was a 
month old the day she started). Sultan Muhammad had promised her 300 
horsemen, to whom Major L. was to add 300 foot, but the Sirdar sent only 
seventy Sawto. They had a most fatiguing march, endeavouring to 
ret a good start before Chattar Sing should hear of their departure. For 
tiiree months previous she had never been able to leave her apartmente, 
"which were in the upper story of the house. Major Lawrence fearing that 
she might meet with some mght from the lawless Sikh soldiery. She 
eould not even go into the garden, for it was filled from morning to night 
with Sikhs. 

Chattar Sing had heard of her journey, and sent a regiment and two 
ffuns to intercept her. Her escort might still have carried her to Lahore 
by some by-path had they been determined to do so, but there is no 
doabt tiiat Sultan Muhammad wished to keep her in his own hands, 
thinking it would give him a powerful claim on our Government. His 
eldest son, Ehojah Baksh, who commanded her escort, told her it was 
im]D08sible to proceed. Mrs. Lawrence told me afterwards a circumstance 
which proved that Ehojah Baksh had no intention of taking her to 
Lahore when he started,— he had no other clothes with him than those 
lie wore ; now a man of his rank would never appear in Lahore in dirty 
trayelling garments. 

Her party were obliged to move 6x)inplace to place, both to escape 
tram the Sikhs and to nnd food ; at last Enojah Baksh took her to Eohat 
about forty kos (say eighty miles), where his own family was. Both he 
and his famer came to her, swore solemnly that they con^dered her as 
their guest, and gave her tbeir signet rings as pledges, saying, " So long 
as you keep these no one can prevent your doing anything you cbooae.'* 
When die expressed some anxiety afterwarda, \Xiey BL'Ssi&.\\st \ ^ ^^ 

•* Do yon think we are dogs, that we aihonld. do svw^ «u ^QcasLig,"?* ^"^ ^S.^» 



170 SUPEESTITION— A VIEW. 

You will hardly believe that our Sergeant-Major's wife (an Irish 
Papist) ^ave a rupee to a Mussalman faqir to pray for her child when it 
was sick ! ^ 

^ I have since heard of a curious instance on the Bombay side, where a 
rich Babfi annually makes the T^but (the tower carried about auring the 
Muharram) in compliance with a vow made by his ^reat-grandfather, 
who having sought the help of his Hindu deities in vain, at last obtained 
his desire, on appealing to Hasan and Huse]rn, and conseqnently vowed 
that his family should, for four generations, keep up this observance in 
their honour. 



CHAPTER XYH. 

"Wednesday, May 2nd, we started for Simla. As we had been so long on 
our way to Morinda (only forty miles), we started as soon as the stoim 
would allow us, to perform the remaining half of our journey. We passed 
many fine Banian, Pipil, and other trees, some of which appeared like a 
species of oak, and others somewhat like chestnut trees. You cannot 
imagine how refreshing and delightful to us it was to see trees again, 
especially of such size and beauty, after the long fast we have had from 
them. It rained a good deal in tne night ; and the next morning I awoke, 
and found a line of dark, and as I then thought, low hills, in front, 
showing we were close to Kalka. I had the greatest inclination to get 
out and walk, but I was swiftly carried up the hiU amid a crowd of 
camels, horses, seises, palkis, and people, to tne door of Matthews's Hotd. 
There we breakfasted. 

Jhappiins were brought, and my husband and Mr. C. mounted their 
horses. A Jhapp^in is a kind of arm-chair with a canopy and curtains ; 
the canopy, &c. can be taken off. A short pole is slung by a leather strap 
between the side poles, both in front and behind: it is carried by four men 
in single file, each of whom bears one end of a short pole on his shoulder. 
For a journey one has eight men; but at Simla, where every one keeps a 
Jhapp^n and Jhappanis, they have five men, and a mate who steadies the 
Jhapp^n, holds an umbrella, and enacts the Grand Seigneur in conLparison 
to the others. 

In winding up the hill we saw some beautiful flowers — one especially, a 
small tree, covered with clusters of the richest scarlet blossoms. It was a 
species of Eeysu or Dak : there were also abundance of large pomegranate- 
trees in full flower, and white roses in profusion. The shape of the hills 
is not very beautiful, nor very varied. They have bony ridges at the top, 
and flat sides, and are rather wanting in massive grandeur of form. Th^ 
stood out so sharply from the bright, blue sky, that they gave me the idea 
of pasteboard or fictitious hills ; but they were hills, and tnat of itself was 
sumcient to make them delightful in our eyes, wearied with more than 
two years of sandy plains. 

Near Kas^uli there was the most beautiful view I have yet seen, 
extending as far as Simla, the barrenness of the hills being relieved by the 
beautiful variety of light and shade caused by a storm in the distance. 

The scenery became wilder and more beautiful after we left TTam^in l'- 
We passed a mad faqlr kneeling in the middle of the road, and throwing 
pebbles over his shoulder down the precipice. We passed Sab&thiL 
ensconced among the hills above us, and when the moon rose, it dothed 
the barren mountains with light and beauty. I saw a magnificent meteor, 
like a. ball of fire, the size of a full moon, slowly gliding down the iky, 
till it waa lost behind the hiH we 'sreiQ Qfic^ii<^r[i\^. '^^<s^ ^Bba^.^gfor we 



ENTBANCB TO SIMLA. 171 

crossed a stream, from "wluch rose perpendicularly the grandest precipice 
I ever saw. It was in deep shadow, with the moon shining hright 
above. 

Next day we rode to Syti, the road being much of the same character 
as the i)receding evening, wild and barren. These hills are remarkable 
for having no valleys ; they are a jumble of mountains ; one is, as it were, 
all the time in the very heart of the hills, you descend to a mountain top. 
You wind in and out, sometimes on ridges just broad enough for the road^ 
irith magnificent precipices and views on either side. Almost every led^ 
is cultivated ; the huts are perched like seabirds' nests yiierevcr meie is^ 
a sufficiency of level ground to hold one. 

At Syrl we had breakfast, with plenty of wild raspberries of a bright 
orange colour. The hill a became more wooded, and tne scenery more and 
more beautiful. We were delighted with the gigantic scarlet tree rhodo- 
dendron, which they say is not known in England. The mountains were 
now partially clotiied with firs; and the view of one mountain-ridge 
rising behind another, with not a plain or valley to be seen, was very 
Parana. The snowy range wtis quite nidden by the hills we were ascend- 
ing. As we entered Simla, the beautiful shady walks reminded me some- 
what of Sdiwalbach. We proceeded along the winding Mall, meeting 
crowds of x)eople and finer bonnets than I had seen for many a day. The 
jhappanis amused me much, as they are dressed uniformly according to 
their master and mistress's taste. Most of them are in plaid tunics and 
trousers edged with red, looking like magnified little boys; but others are 
in long robes, generally black down to their feet, with deep red borders, 
and red caps; so that the first man having a wand in his hand, they look 
like a company of magicians. There were children in cots, and chJldren 
on ponies, no wheeled carriages of any kind being allowed here, and ladies 
of aXL ages in j haptens and on horseback. We met Lady Dalhousie riding 
with two mounted orderlies of the body guard after her. 

Colonel B.'s house is at the other extremity of Simla, about three miles 
from the entrance, and beautifully situated. We were most kindly 
received, and found everything most comfortable : curtains to the windows, 
papered walls, red furniture, and a thousand other things, especially a 
good fire, which reminded us of England. We saw hailstones tne size of 
marbles, the remnants of the storm three days ago. It is unusually cold 
for the season. May being generally the hottest month at Sin^a. 

We met Lord uough on Sunday evening in one of the walks. I was 
quite charmed with his soldierly figure, benevolent countenance, and 
venerable white hair and moustache. 

A certain major, commanding a cavalry regiment, lived in a certain 
Guru (Sikh priest's) house near Jallander. He lived rent free, had the 
Guru's excellent house, garden, bullocks, and horses, in fact everything. 
He paid for it by lending all his infiuence to support the said Gurus, 
solemnly walking with him in an idolatrous procession, while, contrary 
to the express regulations of the service, six trumpeters of the regiment 
opened the march, and as some of them were doubtless Mussalm^s, they 
must have been much disgusted at being so employed. 

I have lately heard a story of Lord Hardinge and the Chief Commis- 
sariat Gom^th^ (agent). Lord H. found that the sum charged for the 
repair of his camp equipage, including all the tents of the different secre- 
taries, &c. &c., amountecL to the enormous sum of 15,000 rupees. He 
sent for the Gomisth^, who came in a great fright. He is a very wealthy 
man, and advances the money needful for Government supplies, repaying 
himself with enormous interest. He went to an o^(^€t ^J^L'^i %^'^\sisoL 
what he meant to do. He answered, " I doii't'kao^i-— \V^^^T^^*^iKiSi5L *^ 



172 TISW OF FAau — sncLA^ 

say. There was once a cow, whose owner got a cowherd* and allotted 
him so much money to feed the cow with. The cow got thin« so her 
master got a second cowherd. She then grew worse, so he got a third, 
and the cow died. The Company is the cow. When they wanted the 
tents re{>aired they sent for an inferior Gomasth4 — ^he made his profit— 
they sent for me to superintend him — I made mine — ^they sent a seijeant 
to superintend me — ^he made his." The officer advised him, when sent 
for by Colonel Benson, to say nothing, but merely to present the paper 
signeii b]^ three officers, that the repairs were well done, and at the 
proper price. He did so, and the Company paid the 15,000 rupees ! 

Wednesday, May 16th. — ^We dined at Lord Gough's, now no longer 
Commander-in-Chief, for last night the ** Oazette" arrived announcmg 
Sir C. Napier's arrival on the 7th. 

AVe went on about two o'clock ; the forest, although it has been greatly 
spoilt by clearing away the trees, yet becoming more beautiful every step. 
At Simla, which is in the Company's territory, not a tree can he cut 
down without the permission of Mr. Edwardes, as Cjovemor-Gkneral's 
agent ; but here, where the land belongs to some of the petty hill rsg'asy 
there is no such protection. The people bum the trees at the roots, as 
an easy way of making them fall and of manufacturing charcoal at the 
B^me time. We halted at a lovely shady spot and rested there. Such 
pines I never saw, those in Europe are slender dwarfish things in com- 
parison, these are as gigantic as the hills they grow on. We rode on to 
F^gu, where there is a Bungalow ; walked with some of our party to a 
kind of promontory, from whence the view was magnificent on either 
hand, it was only disfigured by strips of raghanging on the bushes, in 
honour of a detestable idol of black stone. When we asked the neople 
how they could worship a stone in this maimer, one man replied, tnat if 
the Chokedar were ordered to do so, it should all be rooted up ! We found 
quantities of a beautiful white sweet scented creeper, which we had seen 
hanging in festoons in the forest, wild thyme, and many pretly wild 
flowers ; but the sun had now set, and the scene was no longer so glorious 
as when we arrived in the afternoon, with a deep Neapolitan sky above 
our heads, and the richest purple shadows on the mountains, contrasting 
with the fresh green of the leaves dancing in the sunlight, through which 
we caught vistas of the snowy range beyond. I am a little disappointed 
in the snowy range ; it is so distant (200 miles off) that it is not naif so 
beautiful as the view of the Alps from the ramparts of Berne, where 
they are near enough to show the varied hues in which they are 
bathed by the setting sun. Enjoyed a good fire ; but though so high 
(9000 feet), it was only pleasantly cool. Saw a line of fire on one of 
the distant hills, where they were burning the brushwood to prepare the 
land for crops. We all rose by dawn, and bade adieu to our friends, as 
the heat of the sim, almost immediately after it rises, obliged ns all to 
hurry on our respective ways. We reached Simla about half-past nine. 
On the road we met numbers of men carrying three to four planks eadi 
(generally slung across the shoulders, and resting on the smidl of the 
back), which they were bringing down to Simla for sale : they get four 
annas (sixpence) for each plank. 

Monday, May 21st. — ^We all rode to Annandale along a most beautiful 
road, winding through the woods till it reaches the valley. Found Hasui 
Ehan, who has pitched his tent in this lovely spot imder the gigantk 
pines. He and his men greeted us with joy, and accompanied us tlm)ng^ 
the narrow valley, showing us the new tea plantations, a Goyemmentel 
experiment, and only left us after we had climbed the hills on the o]^po- 
Mite side to some distonce. I ha^e not \va.^ ^ mot^ ^^^i^hl&lI expeditiiOD. 



LIEUTENANT HEBBEBT*S OALLANTBY. 173 

We saw the oheerfal fire by Hasan Khan's tent far beneath ns. He and 
his peojde seemed greatly to enjoy being once more among the hills. 

The Hindustanis are very apathetic to scenery, I have never known 
one stop to admire anything. My husband cross-questioned a Chaprasi 
(from iJelhi I think) to find if he had any appreciation of the beauties 
which surrounded him. Not in the least. He said the pain in his legs 
in running up and down hill with messages was not to be expressed, and 
that if it were not for the wants of his stomach he would not stay here a 
day. 

Major Mackeson called in the morning. He is a man of such truth and 
integrity, and so thoroughly manly, that I always see him wi^ipleasure. 
He told us of Lieut. Herbert's gallant behaviour at Attok. When they 
could hold out no longer the Niz^m-u-Doulah, Eiud-u-Dln Eh^n, an 
Afghan Chief, who has always stuck to us most faithfully, and the Shah- 
zaaeh Jammur, resolved to escape to the Khaiber, by letting themselves 
down &om the wall, and crossing the river on massaks (goat-skins, in 
which water is carried). Mr. Herbert was to have accompanied them, 
but there was a sick European sergeant (Salter by name), wKo was too ill 
to make the attempt. The Afghan Chief endeavoured to persuade him to 
give himself up to the Sikhs, but he refused to do so, thinking that his 
inferior rank would not protect him from their vengeance. In spite of 
the man's selfishness Mi\ Herbert gallantly resolved to share his fate. 
The Chief escaped, and he and the sergeant fell into the hands of the 
Sikhs, who were so enraged at his having deranged all their combinations 
by holding out so long, that they refused to give him a tent, half starved 
him, and threatened to put him in irons. 

When Prince Jammur and Eiud-u-Din Kh^n came into the camp 
(which they did long before Mr. Herbert's release), and related this beha- 
viour, which they could not at all understand. Major Mackeson said he felt 
proud of'his countryman. 

Sir H. Lawrence came to see us directly on his arrival here. He com- 
plains bitterly of the plundering that has been goiag on by officers as 
well as men, m the Panjab. He is a most warm-hearted man. 

The other day, at Lahore, a Rajah was married. According to custom 
Sir H. Lawrence sent him a present, on the part of the Government, of 
1000 rupees, whereupon he received a rebuke for his lavish expenditure. 
They make a man Grovernor of the Panjab, and cannot trust him to spend 
1000 rupees. We cannot govern India like England. If we are to be 
£ings of the East we must act like Eastern Kings, and there is nothings 
natives (especially proud and lavish Sikh or Afghan Chiefs) consider as 
more indicative of nobility than the open hand. 

There are so many false reports on all kinds of subjects, that, whenever 
I can get a really authentic version of any fact, I generally record it for 
your benefit. For instance, some say that Lord Gough wished to retire 
to rirozp6r after the battle of Firozshahar, and that Sir H. Har(Hng& 
refused, and said, the army should remain on his responsibility ; others 
say, that Sir H. Hardinge wished to retire, and Lord Gough refused^ 
Neither is true* 

Among those who voted for a retreat was Major . Accompanied 

by Colonel , he went to Sir Hugh Gough, and said, " Sir, I think it 

my duty earnestly to recommend our retreating to Firozpur." Sir Hugh 
replied, " Never ! I'd rather die on the spot. I'll fight them to-morrow^ 

and beat them!" Colonel then reiterated the same advice: and 

Lord Gough always declares (which is no doubt true) that he said that 
the Governor-General had sent him with that message, ^vt ^xs^^-^^a* 
so irritated, that he made his way to where t\v^ Q^o^eniw-^^^^t^ -^'?^^ 



I74i "INDIAIT ladies" — HILL SCHOOL. 

standing, and asked him if he wished to retreat. " Neyer ! " was the 
answer ; " here have numbers of men, even general officers, been plagning 
me to retreat, and I'ye told them I would rather leaye my boay in the 
field! We*ll conquer or die where we are. You know that was my 

answer ?*' he added, as the latter came up ; and Colonel was obliged 

to confess that it was the case. Sir H. Gough forbore to expose him. 
The Goyemor- General took one re8{>onsibility on himself; but it was that 
of refusing to let the Commander-in-Chief attack the enemy that day, 
before the arrival of Sir John Littler from Firozpur. 

Eyerything here wears the appearance of autumn. It is, in fact, the 
** fall " of the year ; for the trees are dry, and the leayes strew the ground. 
Last Sunday there was a beautiful sight from Mrs. Lawrence's windowB.. 
The jungle on the opposite mountain nad been set on fire in many places, 
and the flames spread and ran up the ridge of the hill, burning fiercely, 
and looking most picturesque. The Hill people do tlus, although it is 
forbidden, as it makes the land fit for tillage. It burnt fbr two days and 
nights. Leopards, hyaenas, and great baboons with white beards, all 
occasionally come up out of the jungle, close to Mrs. L.'s house. 

Mrs. Lawrence told me liiat she was at Simla, as a young girl, twent;[<* 
three years ago, when it had lately been annexed to tne Company's tem- 
tories. There were only four houses here, and the Goyemor-Ueneral's 
Agent discouraged people from coming up. 

June 14th. — We dined at the Goyemor-Generars. Lady Dalhoasie is 
yery tall and extremely fair ; she was yery becomingly dressed in crimson 
silk, trimmed with magnificent black lace. I foiind her courteous and 
friendly in her manner, and if she is ever otherwise, there is this great 
excuse for any coldness on her part, — that the " Indian ladies" generally 
know so little how to behaye, that she has seyeral times met with w 
greatest rudeness from them. When she first arriyed. Lord Hardinge 
gave a ball in her honour in order to introduce her to the ladies in/Cu- 
<}utta. Instead of the company rising to receiye her, as common poli^ 
ness dictated, eyery one kept their seats ; not one came forward to reoeiTS 
or welcome her, and consequently she yery naturally declined having 
them presented to her. 

The rains have set in, and we got wet through on Wednesday eyenisf, 
22nd. Mr. C. called : he is very pleasant. Told us an anecdote of JL 
Eudolph, the Russian Ambassador at Yenioe, whom a Mend of his found 
in bed one day at three o'clock in the afternoon: — " Comment, MonsiBor. 
^tes-vous malade ?" was the inquiry. " Du tout, Monsieur," was the old 
Ambassador's answer ; " mais c'est aujourd'hui ma fete, et ma femme 
me menage une surprise," and so he staved in bed to be out of tiie way. 
They had no children, and the dear old lady had done this regularly for 
forty years. ^ 

Sir Charles Kapier is come, and we met him out riding. He says his 
fault shall not be leniency. I know an instance in which an offijoer of 
hi^h standing disagreed with him on a certain point, and wholly failed in 
bnnging over to his views ; but on further consideration, the COTunander- 
in- Chief wrote a most frank note, manfully saying, " I was wrong, and 
you were right." How few men possess this gentleman-like candour? 

Saturday, June 23rd. — The rains have now fairly set in, and the hills 
are ten times more beautiful than they were from the rich colouring and 
varied light and shade. Went with the Henry Lawrences to see Mr. 
Edwardes's Native School. Mr. Edwardes is me commissioner of the 
Protected Hill States, and founded this and many others in the districts 
only a year ago. Mr. Thomason, Mr. Erskine, &c., were there. At this 
school there is an English, a Persian, tudd. a. liiudu dsuss. ^eir progrev 



jl siegb of attok. 176 

is most creditable. They read easy English sentences, and understood 
what the;y read ; their Persian and Hindui writing, and their progress in. 
arithmetic, were all good. In. the district schools nothing is attempted 
beyond reading and writing Hindui and arithmetic, but this is a great 
deal if one considers the complete ignorance of the people. In one district, 
at the foot of the snowy range, called, I think, Pannur, the people, who are 
tlie wildest and most sayage of all the hill tribes, vehemently opposed the 
introduction of a school, fearing, as they said, the wrath of tneir gods. 
It .was with great difficulty that a Pandit could be found who would go 
among them. Mr. Edwardes at last succeeded, and the pupils have made 
greater progress than in any other of the district schools ; tne parents now 
complain that their sons look down upon them for being so ignorant. 
Mr. Edwardes, the different Hill Rajas and Banas, are as yet me only 
subscribers. The Heir Apparent of one of the HiU States was present 
with his interpreter, who was educated at the Benares College. The 
young Kajah, who is a ward of our Government, is an exceedingly idle 
boy, and was well lectured by Sir H. Lawrence, who added some Hnd 
words of advice to him as we came away. The pupils were of all classes 
and all ages, some bearded men, some little creatures not higher than Uie 
elbow. 

Sunday Evening. — ^We were taking a little stroll when we perceived the 
woods filled with monkeys. Frightened at our auproach, they scrambled 
and tumbled down the trees into the " khud" below by dozens. A little 
liysena came into the verandah the other night, but instead of catching it, 
the servants chased it away. Did I tell you of the fine eagle I found 
sitting on the path one morning. The bold bird allowed me to ride within 
a few paces of it, and then slowly and majestically rose and sailed away. 
One sees many beautiful and strange things in nature here. We are forty 
miles from the foot of the hills, yet the whole air is darkened sometimes 
for two or three days together by dust from the plains, which hides the 
mountains like a thick fog. On the evenings of rainy days there are 
hand fide fogs as thick as tney could be in Scotland. We noticed clouds 
the other night hanging more than half way down the mountain beneath* 
yet illumined with tne golden rays of the sun that had apparently set, for 
there was no other traoe of his presence. The hills at Simla are covered 
with rhododendron trees of immense height, and on many the beautiful 
erimson blossoms still remain. Had a beautiful ride round Jacko in the 
•evening. Ever since Sir Charles's arrival I make a point of reading the 
genetaf orders. The proceedings of a Court-martial at "Wazirlibad were 
recently sent to the Commander-in-Chief for approval. He wrote " Con- 
firmed — ^I cannot say approved, for I never read such inefficient pro- 
ceedings in my life, — Court, officiating Judge-Advocate, and evidence, 
all inefficient! ' 

Wednesday, July 4th. — ^Mr. Herbert Ifede with me, in the evening. He 
told me that Attok was so completely commanded from the river, that he 
wrote to Major Lawrence, that if he were besieged, he could not hold out 
four days. Thanks, however, to the bad soldiership of the Sikhs, he was 
besieged ineffectually for fifty- four days, without a practicable breach 
l>eing effected. ' His garrison was composed entirely of Afghans, and he 
si>oke very highly of their personal bravery, and of the Nizam-u-Doulah, 
wiliiout whom, he said, he never could have kept them together. He 
said all ihe Afghans spoke of m^ husband, all knew him, and all liked 
him. One Ehaiber chief, in particular, used often to talk of nim. When 
Dost Miihammad openly joined the Sikhs, the Afghans said : " It was a 
war of religion^ and they must join his standard." Mr. Herbert haui^^i 
money to pay them, for the Baniahs of tiie place leivika^Wft ^^^5iS5fe\J55sx 



176 BEAUTY OP THE HILLS — HUGE APES. 

any, and thus he had no hold on his troops. C. thinks he ought to haye 
forced the Baniahs to supply him with what he wanted. 

This would have enabled him to hold out, and would have saved them 
from the utter ruin which befel them, on the capture of the place. So 
the Afghans departed. About twenty Khaiberis, who had acted as a sort 
of body-guard, took leave of him with tears in their eyes, pressing for- 
ward to shake his hand, and make a diversion, while he attempted to 
escape. The European sergeant, who was with him, was reduced to a 
state of childish weakness, both of mind and body : — on this account Mr. 
Herbert could not accompany the Nizam and the other chiefs, who crossed 
the river on massaks. He could easily have swam but for the same 
reason. There was a Sikh camp on either side of the river ; Mr. Herbert 
and the sergeant passed one of them, going in the dry bed of the river, 
but were seized by a patrolling party. Tne Sikhs treated Mr. Herbert 
very ill, and gave him no tent for the &:st six days : and used to threaten 
and abuse him, but the Afghans all came to comfort him, and assured 
him that they would not suffer the Sikhs to touch him. These were not 
men of his own garrison, who had joined the Dost, but other Afghans. 
He thinks the lower orders in Afghanistan generally like us. He told me 
one pleasing trait of the Sikhs. It seems that their officers are in the 
habit of beating the men : once at Pesh^wur, a Sikh Colonel was about 
to do so in Mr. Herbert's presence, the latter stopped him and said:— 
** It never does any good to beat men, speak to them, that is enough.'* 
When he was a prisoner, some of these very men interfered, when flieir 
comrades were revilinff him, saying, " you must not do so, he is a very 
good S^lhib, he would not suffer us to be beaten at Pesh^wur." Mr. 
Herbert said, the anxiety of the Niz^m about his family, who were all at 
Peshawur, was most painful to witness. They got away into the Khaiber, 
where they remained in safety. 

Thursday, July 5th. — Mrs. L. and I went to tea at Mrs. Colvin's. Mrs. 
Colvin's house is situated very high, with a very steep, bad path up to it, 
and a magnificent view of wooded mountains opposite. No pen can give 
aiiy idea of the fairy-like beauty of these hills, m such a glorious moon- 
light as we had last night ; so brilliant that the olive green of the rhodo- 
dendron, and the dark colour of the pines, was- clearly distinguishaUe, 
<md every obiect as distinct as by day, while the distant mountains were 
bathed in a flood of silver light ; the road winding with a view, first cm 
one hand, then on the other, and sometimes on both, and a sheer preci- 
pice of nearly 100 feet beneath. Simla (which hangs, as it were, on the 
side of the hill, one house being so completely beneath another, that 
you see men sitting, and mules feeding on tne roofs of houses, on a 
level with the path), looked very pretty, with its lights and fires, some- 
thing like the view of the Auld Toun of Edinburgh. 

The weather is most lovely, we have showers now and then, the hills 
are clothed with the freshest green, and the rhododendrons have, mod 
unusually, flowered . a second time. Mrs. L. and I were very mnoiL 
amused, early this morning, by watching numbers of huge ax>e8, the wn 
of human beings, with white hair all round their faces and down their 
backs and chests, who were disporting themselves, and feeding on the 
green leaves, on the sides of the precipice, close to the house. Manj of 
them had one or two little ones, the most amusing, indefatigable, little 
creatures imaginable, who were incessantly running up small treeii 
jumping down a^ain, and performing all sorts of antics, till one felt quite 
wearied with their perpetual activity. When the mother wished to Bf, 
she chucked the little one under her arm, where clinging round her body 
with all its arms, it remained VnaaietYt ^\^^ ^e made leaps, oifnat 



MAJrOB LiJSJB JLND JLiJOB HEBBEBT. I7if 

tfairtjr to forty feet, And ran at a most astonishing rate down the kfaad, 
eatcmng at any tree or twig that offered itself to any one of her four 
aims. There were two old grave apes of enormous size, sitting together 
on. the branch of a tree, and deliberately catching the fleas in each other's 
flha^gy coats. The patient sat per£Dctly still, while his brother ape 
diTided and thoroughlv searched his becgrd and hair, lifted up one arm, 
and then the other, ana turned him round as he thoug^ht fit ; and then the 
patient imderto<& to perform the same office for his fnend, 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

I HA.TX a great many stories to tell you about the new honours. The 3rd 
Dragoons are much disgusted a4i two C. B.'s being given to the — th, and 
JHiy that " it is a premium for misconduct.'* At Gujrat Lord Gbugh sent 

MsLJOT Tucker to tdl Oolond with one wing of the — th to charge a 

hoay of Sikh horse, and thus redeem the character of the regiment. He 
flaid that they were too weak. Major Tucker, Deputy Adjutant-Greneral 
said, "Then take that wing of Irregular Cavalry.* "I don't think," 

said Cdkmel , •* tiiat even then we are enough-" **Then," said 

Ifajor Tucker, "1*11 give yon that wing of Regular Cavalry." "Oh, 
we are not strong enough even then." " Well," said Major Tucker, " I 
iwvse giTKi you ^e Commander-in-Chief s message," and then rode off. 

It is most exciting to lide on the Mall just now. Every one is so full 
oi the Brev^ and almost every one displeased either at what he himsdf 
or his friends have not reoeived* or at what others have got ; so if I am 
inlected with the general spirit you will not wonder. So difficult is it to 
aTOtd catching even the expressions ona hears, as well as the sentiments, 
that it is a struggle to preserve the purity of one's mother tongue, and 
not to speak and write a la miUiaire, 00 if any camp phrase slips out 
unawares, you must excuse it, and believe that I shall be as shocked at. 
myself as you could wish. Others have received promotion, simply 
beeause they hap|)ened to be on the Staff of the Governor-General or 
Commaiider-in-Cmef. I am very glad Mr. Herbert was rewarded, but 
eertainiy Mr. Lake ought to have had double, for his services were very 
great, and Mr. Herbert's defenoe of Attok, though very gallant, was un- 
suooess&l. Mr. Bowie^ who was made prisoner at the very beginning of 
tfaye campaign, is, i believe, to have a brevet majority as soon as he obtains 
his Cap£uscy. 

The Govemor-Oenerai is said to have been quite disgusted at the lists 
he bad to forward for honours ; but these instances of injustice to others, 
and disgrace to die army, can never be avoided until the custom ceases 
of bestowing honours on men simply because they hold certain staff 
appointments like the aforesaid brigade maj(»*. The only remedy is to 
xeqnire a statement^ of the services for which such honours are daimed, 
ma to specify them in the "Gazette" in which the promotion or dis- 
tiBBtion is granted. 

Wednesday. — Mrs. Lawrence told me the other day that the old 
MxiBsalmln Avah whom she lately engaged, is the Jem^d§r of all the 
Ayaks in ^mla, and when they hold a Panch^yet or council, she has 
(I tiiink) a quadruple portion of rioe, &c. The^ hold PancMjrets on 
many ooeaaions; for instance, if a master or mistress behave ill, the 
nenrants give notiee to each other, and not a servant of any description 
can that unfortunate individual get. Mrs. Lawrence also told me that 
flbe has oonstantiiy seen the Sikhs at Pesh^wur making «al^xc^ \j^ \\sst 



178 BIDS TO BABjiTHU. 

Now that servants are on the tapis, did I eyer ieU yon Uiat Just after 
the annexation, I asked my little Ayah, who is a native of Loodiana, 
if the people were glad when Loodiana was taken hy the British? ^ 
said *' V ery." I inquired why i She said fonnerly she could not wear 
such clothes as she does now ; that everr one was " veiy poor and very 
dirty/' If there really has heen this onange under the British rale, 
there can he no doubt of its stability. I have made a ^bawing from a 
rough sketch of Mrs. Lawrence's, of one of Ghattar Sink's soldiers. No 
wonder they outmarch us. Each man carried his bedding on his head, 
and on the top of that his shot-bag, a bundle of Atta andl)^ (flour and 
dried pease) at his back, his pot oi Ghi (melted butter) in his hand, and 
his blanket thrown over his musket. When I showed it to General 
Ventura, he said the Sikhs were the most hardy soldiers he had ever 
known. On coming off a long march, thev will set off to a village eight 
or ten miles distant, if they can buy their food for a paisa less there than 
on the spot, and then think nothing of going two or tnree miles in another 
direction to bathe. He has known tnem march two and three days without 
food, except a radish, or anything they might chance to pick up by the 
way, without complaining. 

Hearing that Mrs. Eudolph was very unwell, Mrs. Lawrence most 
kindly invited her to come up and stay with us. We exi)ected them dl 
Friday, and got everjrthing ready, but they came not, and on Saturday, 
about eleven, I received a letter from Mr. Kudolph, saying tihat his poor 
wife had arrived in Kasauli so much worse, and in such a state of ezhans- 
tion that she could not be moved. I therefore resolved to go to hor. 
Having a jhappan at the door ready, I started about two o'clock, canying 
with me a small box of clothes and the Qrasscutter with my saddle. Ifrs. 
Lawrence went out and got arrowroot and portable soup, which I took 
with me. It was a pleasant afternoon with a cool breeze, so that I did 
not feel the heat much. There is a wonderful increase in the beaut]^ of 
the hills since the rains, and especially on a cloudy day, when the varymg 
shadows from the clouds lend tnem a further charm. They are all olothea 
in green, and where the sun shone on the verdure, it was of a brilliancy 
that made the emerald dull in comparison. Near Syree (the first sta^} 
the sides of the road were covered with a larg^e brosd-leaved plant, with 
beautiful large white flowers, that made the air heavy witii their sweet- 
ness. There was abundance of a plant with small yellow flowers, and I 
remarked that round it fluttered innumerable tiny yellow butterflies, that 
looked like flying blossoms, while a larger white hutterfly hovered near 
the white flowers. If butterflies generally correspond in colour with ti)6 
flowers they frequent, it must be a great protection to them aniinst Urdi 
and other enemies. Further on, the hill- side was covered with Caotnsea, 
looking Hke gigantic chandeUers. 

I got out at the Bungalow, took some milk and the cake I had brought 
with me, and then picked up *' Baber," whom I had posted there a day or 
two before for Mr. Itudolph. I had put on my habit, and when the moon 
rose I mounted about three and a naif kos from Haripur, and rode to 
Sab^thu, which is three kos beyond. The hills are covered with balsams, 
white and lilac wild geraniums, &c. It was a lovely night, and at first I 
enjoyed my ride very much. My careful young S^s amused me by tomioR 
round whenever he came to a hole in the road, and wavinf Ibis hasS 
towards it, to warn me to avoid it; the precipices below the Hazip6r 
looked beautiful in the moonlight. Crossed the river by a little ehais- 
bridge, but before we arrived at Sab^thu I became very tired ; the road 
wound round and roimd, and seemed as if it had no nearer end than tke 
end of the world, I was bungry , sleepy, wi^ ^«ii thirety. KaAac tt* 



KABJLV Jil — THE LAWBEKCS A8YLTJM. 179 

SkiB nor I had ever been in SaMthu before, and we could not find the 
Padre Sahib's house. We scrambled up to places where the houses looked > 
as if they had flown down, and were sitting in the grass like fieldfares, 
instead of having been built up in the ordinary way ; for it was not clear 
how the materials could have been carried up, ana having got there, we 
had to come down again. At last, at past ten o'clock, we reached the 
Mission-house. It was so hot that I could scarcely slee^. 

I rose early and eiyoyed the lovely view; the house is on an isolated 
hill, with range above range of hills rising in front of it, and their spurs 
approaching towards it on all sides. Geraniums grow in large shrubs all 
round the house, and with the other garden flowers are met by the wild 
balsams, and form a sheet of blossom. Mr. Morrison had been down to 
Kasauli, and gave an improved account of Mrs. Eudolph, but agreed with 
me that it was quite right to proceed on my journey, although it was the 
Sabbath, for Mrs. Eudolnh was nearly worn out. I had left my Jhaopanis 
to rest at Harip^, ana now sent them on ahead, and rode with Mr. 
Morrison to the chapel, where he has English service at seven o'clock, and 
then went on my way. I never saw such a profusion of wild flowers ; the 
hedges are full of most beautiful convolvuluses of the largest size ; deep 
blue, China blue, white striped, blue and white with the lower part pink, 
bright lilac and purple, then the petunia and wild geranium, white jasmine 
covering the trees, a beautiful lilac flower and a delicate white creeper, 
besides numbers that I cannot describe. The soil seems chiefly red clay, 
and of a bolder character than at Simla, with small streams whose murmur 
was a refreshment to my ear. There were lilac Babul trees. We lost our 
way, but some EuHs pointed out the right one ; I rode to the stream, and 
was then very glad to eet into my jhappan. Sab§,thu is fully thirteen 
degrees hotter than Simla. Xasauli, again, is about 2000 feet higher than 
Sab^thu, which is only 6000 feet above the sea level ; but, from being so 
much nearer the plains, it gets some of the hot winds, and is therefore not 
£0 cool as Simla, though much cooler than Sabathu. It was a lovely 
morning, and I thought, if creation, though under a curse, is so fair, how 
znuch more beautiful should be the flowers as well as the fruits that 
spring up in the second creation — the renewed heart of man. IVuit 
alone is not enough, there must be all that " is lovely,** as flowers are 
to the eye. I arrived at Kasauli about eleven, found the poor baby 
crying in the verandah. She immediately put out her arms towards 
me; Mr. Kudolph came out, and was so much affected that he could 
scarcely speak. Mrs. Rudolph knew me, but was so weak that she could 
not say above a few words. The first thing I did was to take the room 
furthest from hers, and remove the children to it, so that she could not 
hear their incessant crying. Mr. Rudolph lay down and slept. He and 
the Ayah are both nearly worn out. Then I nursed baby while the Ayah 
«lept. 

On Monday, September 3rd, I got letters which Colonel Birch and Mrs. 
Lawrence had sent by a Jhapp^ni, telling me of dear C.'s being iU, but 
begging me not to go down until I heard again. At night the poor baby- 
was worse, and the Ayah and I had to carry her about a long time. We 
xaade a fire on the floor of the dressinpf-room, and gave her some arrow- 
root. Mrs. Rudolph was very ill all night, and delirious. Her head was 
43haved. 

Wednesday, September 6th. — Rode to Sinowr where the Lawrence 
Asylum is. Mr. and Mrs. Parker were most kind. Mr. Parker showed 
ane the school. The children were at their breakfast of bread and nulk. 
Their sleeping-rooms are airy, neat, and clean, and tViB^ ^Vi^'Si^YftSiSS^ 
and cheeriul. Mr. Parker has three apprentice ipxrpilA^^Otv^T:^ ^V<^ ^^'SssJ^ 

N 2 



180 3[SB. BTTDOLFH's last H0UB8. 

Lim. The head boys, who ore styled Serjeants and oorporals, have gardens 
of their o]pvti whicn they keep very nicely. The situation is most lovely, 
and the air very fine. In the afternoon baby was better, and the first part 
of the day Mrs. Rudolph seemed so too. She evidently knew me. I a&ed 
her if she could think of Christ, but could not distinguish her reply, but 
she looked assent when I spoke of His thought and care for her. I was 
rubbing her hand and arm, which were rather cold, though her head was 
still very hot, and she said, " I rather like your warm hand." These 
were the last words I heard her speak. In the evening she was worse. 
The next momixig Mr. Parker came with a Jhappan and carried off baby 
to Sinowr, thinking the change would do her good. 

Thursday, 6th. — Heard a good account of my dear husband. In the 
evening Mrs. Kudolph was so evidently worse, that Mr. Budolph said to 
me, "I fear this will be her last night." She had great diffimiltyiii 
swallowing, her teeth beinjo: clenched, and it reauired two x>erBon8 to feed 
her : I held her head straight while Mr. Rudolph gave her the sago or 
chicken broth. The quinine seems to have no emct They nive her port 
wine in the sago. I did not go to bed, for I persuaded Mr. Budolph to lie 
down every now and then, as I had slept in the day. Dr. Healy came 
about midnight ; we expected her not to survive till morning, and on 
Friday at 7 o'clock Dr. Healy thought she might live two hours. She was 
incessantly moving her ri&rht arm and throwing it over her head. Her 
eyes now closed, she breathed more g^^> &nd i>er8piratLon broke <rat 
over her head in the night. At night Dr. Healy began to think that there 
might be a shadow of a hope, from her lasting so long, and tried a blister 
all over her head. Mr. Rudolph was much exhausted. She took notiiiiig 
all Friday till the evening* when we again tried a litUe broth, but in vain. 
I got Mr. Rudolph to lie down, and worked to keep myself awake, and lay 
down for about two hours in the middle of the night. When I retmnea 
there was a great change in her countenance, her hands and arms were 
quite cold^ and her breathing scarcely perceptible ; we watched by h^, 
but the spirit took its fiight so gently that we could not tell the exact mo- 
ment of its departure. There was not even a sigh. "We pttt the poor 
body straight and closed her eyes, and then I sent a note io Dr. Hraly. 
She must have expired about 3 o'clock, a.m. We were all struck withtue 
sweet expression of perfect peace which had settled on the oountenanee. 
Dr. Healv sent for Mr. Morrison, and Mr. Parker kindly had the coffin 
made and grave prepared. 

The next morning, Sunday, September 9th, soon after seven, we pro- 
ceeded to the burial-ground, Mr. Morrison and Mr. Parker, Dr. Hea^y 
and Mr. Rudolph, on foot, and I, the Ayah and children, in Jhapp&ns. 
It was a lovely morning, and a lovely road winding through the woods, 
which were so filled with wild fiowers that the Jhappanis gathered an 
enormous bouquet for me, with which, when the pall was removed. Dr. 
Healy completely covered the coflin. They reminded me of the light 
thrown by Christian hopes on the darkest moments of afOiotion, &r the 
black covering was almost hidden by their gorgeous hues. The buij- 
ing-ground is beautifully situateji half-way down a hill sloping to tie 
east, with the spurs of the opposite mountains advancing towards it on 
every side. Mr. Morrison made a short impressive addr^ and prayer; 
the coffin was then lowered into the grave, and after it had been paxiiy 
covered in, we left it in sure and certain hope of a glorious resnrreotioii 
to eternal life. I was so tired that I fell asleep after breakfast. He 
closed the evening with reading and prayer. The poor little babe, iAf> 
retamed on Saturday, was orying " Ma-ma, Ma-nuv' all day, and poor 
Mr, Budolph answered, " 3^ia-ma is nQtt'Viete) ^^t '* 



A jcissionaby's wifb- 181 

A more perfect model of a missionary's wife than dear Mrs. Rudolph 
I never expect to see. She was an excellent lingroist, speaking seyeral 
dialects, besides reading and speaking Hindostani perfectly. She waa 
80 indefatigable in teaching the orphan- school, that she never left her 
iioiLse bnt two evenings in the week, and I used to think an excess of 
patience the chief defect in her method of teaching. She was a devoted 
mother, and even injured her own health by her ceaseless watching over 
Iter little boy. She was also an excellent housewife, having retained 
the German custom of looking after everything herself, and often making 
«ome little primitive dainty for her husband or guests with her own 
hands. Her order and activity were equally remarkable. She was never 
idle, and yet she worked and read more than many who have no regu* 
lar employment on their hands. She told Mr. Rudolph, after she was 
taken ill, that she thought love of dress and want of charity in speech 
iiad been two of her besetting sins. When he related this to me after 
Iier departure, it was so con&arj to all we had ever seen of her, that 
neither of us could forbear smiling. It was probably from her being 
on her guard against these two sm& that she was so manifestly free 
from them. Her dress would have been not only plain, but poor, had 
it not been for the spotless neatness and cleanliness which marked every- 
thing about her ; and I never knew any one of whom it might be more 
truly said that her speech " was always with grace seasoned with salt." 
No one could be half an hour in her company without feeling that she 
was a child of God. She constantly spoke to ner servants, and to any 
native ladies she happened to visit, concerning the way of salvation; 
and I never remember an uncharitable or frivolous expression from her 
lips. My husband often remarked, after spending the evening with Mr. 
and Mrs. Rudolph, that he never saw any one whose expression of coun- 
tenance and conversation bore more strongly the impress of holiness. 
There was such a combination of unspeakable sweetness and heaven- 
bom dignity about this naturally plain and unpretending Missionary's 
wife, that he said he always felt unworthy to gaze at her, and that it 
enabled him to realize Acts vi. 15. She was only twenty-nine when God 
took her to his upper sanctuarv. 

Monday, September 10th. — On leaving Kasauli, we went along a ridge, 
to which live others formed parallels — all of them cut out in terraces, 
and well cultivated, with the narrow rocky bed of a stream below. It 
is very beautiful to see a line of white cloud strongly illuminated by 
the sun lymg between two ridges in deep shadow, so that the out- 
line of the nearest one is as sharp as light and shade can make it. 
Started about half-past three, and had a very pleasant journey to Simla, 
which I reached very tired about eight o'clock. 

Friday, September 14th. — Dr. Hare came last night, and said babj 
could not Hve, unless a Dhai (nurse) were procured for her; and as it 
is almost impossible to get one here who will leave the place, Mr. Ru- 
dolph determined to stfuii immediately for Loodiana, which he did after 
hreakfast. He is much cast down, but resigned. I received a very 
warm letter from Mr. Prochnow, enclosing one to Mr. Rudolph. Mr. 
Rudolph having left the Church of England and the Mission at Kote- 
ghar, nas made no difference in the warmth of feeling of these good 
men towards each other, which is a delightful thing to see. 

C. walked in, to my great astonishment ; he had met Mr. Rudolph on 
the way, who told him many things about his dear wife. He said she 
had made out every detail regarding the orphan-school, the amount of 
work the girls had done, &c., in a little book, and said^ that q& ^b& 
might be called away, it was better to do ao. Onfe ^i ^^^asasii^.^^ 



182 THE SECOND WATEBFALL — HILL WOMBK. 

asked her if she had any fear of the Jud^ent ? She looked at hiia 
with surprise, and said, ** I know that my sins are forgiven me, for the 
sake of Jesus Christ." Another time, when the Doctor thougrht her 
quite unconscious, Mr. Rudolph said to her, " Who is Christ ?" In a 
clear deliberate tone she answered, " The Eternal Son of God." I can 
hardly believe that she is gone from among us ; and I thank God for 
having permitted me to help her and comfort her sorrowing husband, 
for they are truly His children. 

Saturday, September 29 th. — Major Herbert gave us a breakfast at the 
second Waterfall, we started soon after six, on horseback — ^we both en- 
ioyed the beauty of the scene, which was greatly enlivened by jiatches of 
brilliant red scattered here and there. These were fields of Prince of 
Wales* feather, the seed of which is here used for bread, and they re- 
minded us of the lovely fields of rape-seed near Dresden, which formed 
such gorgeous masses of yellow. We breakfasted merrily under a paul (a 
tent without walls, just like two cards leaning against each other). After- 
wards I got myself carried into the bed of the river, to enjoy tne shade 
and fresh breeze, and C. caught two young Hill women, and made them 
sit to me. When he told them he wanted them to come with him to a 
lady, one looked him full in the face, and being satisfied, followed hhn. 
I sketched them both — one, a fine, well-made young girl, with a very sweet 
expression, told us her name was Mangila, and that she was the wife of 
a Sepabi in the Ghurka regiment. The other was the wife of a servant in 
Chota Simla, where they both lived, and whither Ihey were canning the 
enormous bundles of sticks on their heads for their own use. They were 
both dressed in tight trousers and vest, veil, and nose-rings. Those of 
Mangila were of gold ; the large ring is only worn after marriage. Yon 
never saw a more graceful, ladylike little creature than Mangila, with a 
soft voice and most graceful action. We then went on to the old Temple. 
It has a figure of Kali on the door, and on the lintel was the blood of a 
^oat, whicn had been sacrificed to that abominable Sheitan in the morn- 
ing. The carvings are very curious — the arabesque part elegant, but the 
figures grotesq^ue. One represents a man reclining on a wreck, a female 
servant fans him, another applies what looks like a shovel to the soles of 
his feet, and two musicians blow enormous horns into his ear. There aie 
horses with two heads, one feeding, and the other keeping watch ; a sort 
of centaur with a man's head, and the body of a horse or camel, it is 
difficult to say which. There is a little temple like a dog-kennel near 
it, for some smaller Deo, or idol. The place in the centre, which I 
took for a tank, is for burning incense or ghi, and has a fire-place in the 
middle. ~ 

Monday, October 1st. — Started at six, and rode to Mahassu Forest, 
about four kos distant, where Major Lake, Mr. Forsyth, and Mr. Bowie 
give a large pic-nic. Not a Jhappani was to be had, in spite of C.*s 

popularity. This was exemplified the other day ; the were about to 

start, and wanted seventeen Kulis; not one could be found. The B^oB 
declared there was not one in Simla, the Governor-General had taken 300 
to Nakanda : Mr. Thomason had 300 more to carry his luggaffe down 
the hill. My husband found our friends in this strait, so he rode off to 
the Bazar. The Babus immediately said, " Oh, if you want the Kulis, 
here they are ;" opened a door, and out of a dark hole came seventeen as 
athletic Kulis as one could wish to see, whom he carried off in triumph. 
Why they had hid themselves, is more than I can tell you. 

To return to our picnic. Capt. Hungerford told me a story relating to 

the father of Br. John Grant, of Calcutta. The said father was a High- 

Jander of the old school, and xetvxTiiVn^ ou^ ^ niA&h. fatigiifid nioi 



' WOKDBBFUL TALB — ^WILD BBA8TS. 18^ 

Tisitinff his haymakers, he sat down under the shadow of an old tower 
and fell asleep. He dreamt that he saw an old friend who had longheen 
dead, and who held ont his hand to him. Knowing that his friend had 
been dead some years, the old gentleman felt reluctant to take his hand ; 
niK>n .which he said, *' If you ever had any friendship for me, I entreat 
yon to take my hand." Mr. Grant gave his hand, which was £rmly 
seized, and he felt himself violently gulled np from his reclining position 
and dragged forward. He awoke with the shock, found himself on his 
feet a few paces from the tower, which immediateljr fell with a crash, 
and must have buried him in its ruins, had he been still sleeping. 

Heard of the arrival of our boxes, which left England in February, 
reached Allahabad 16th July, and Loodiana 29th September. The delay 
of the bullock train, owing to the insufficiency of carriag^e and bad- 
ness of the roads, is shameful. A fortnight is ample time for the 
journey between Allahabad and Loodiana. 

Sir Charles Napier has expressed his resolution to put down gambling ; 
one or two officers are now awaiting court-martials for this vice. There 
can be little doubt that if he remains in India, he will be the cause of 
unspeakable good to the army. 

All evening or two ago we met the Chief out riding, who desired to be 
introduced to me. He is a most fascinatijig old man, with a very sweet 
lively voice and manner. I never saw a man more devoid of pretension 
of any kind. There is not the smallest Jewish look in his face, except 
to the vulgar eye, which considers everything as Jewish with a beard 
and aquiline nose ; his features are far too delicate, the mouth pecu- 
liarly sweet (like his daughter* s), and the hair and beard soft and 
fdlk^* When we dined there on Tuesday, 19th, owing to my not re- 
ceiving a note, we were half an hour too late. He got up from table, 
and came out to hand me from the Jhappan, like any other host, in- 
stead of sending an Aide-de-Camp. It was a small party of twelve. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hodgson, of the 1st Sikh Corps, told my husband 
that, during the last campaign, he was riding along one morning when 
he heard two shots fired at the head of the column. He galloped up, 
and found that an officer had actually fired twice at an unarmed man, 
who was a little in advance of the column, and was preparing to fire 
upon him again. EiUed with indication, Major Hodgson turned to Mr. 
John Lawrence, and cried, ** This is murder ; as a magistrate, sir, I call 
upon you to put a stop to it." Mr. John Lawrence immediately inter- 
fered. Major Hodgson then desired a Naig and four to lay down their 
arms and go np the hill after the man and bring him gently down, so as 
not to alarm him. They brought him in a terrible state of alarm. Major 
Hodgson questioned him, but he gave no answer. A woman rushed up 
and threw herself at Major Hodgson's feet— it was her poor deaf -and' 
dumb son ! 

Monday, 8th October. — ^The Governor-General, in the kindest manner, 
offered my husband the command of a brigade in the Nizam's service. 

Sunday, 21st October. — Major H. of the — ^th Native Infantry, has just 
been cashiered for rambling and deliberate falsehood. It was a wonder 
how he had escaped being brought to a court-martial before. (One can- 
not but feel for nis wife). On hearing the sentence she went to the house 
of Mrs. M*Murdo, Sir Charles Napier*s daughter, and persuaded Majors 
Kennedv and M'Murdo to go down to the chiefs house to ask him to see 
her. This he refused, as it could not by any possibility be of any use, 
and would only be a most painful scene. The chief had just received a 

heart-rending letter from Mrs. , mother of a yo\m% xci^^an ^\ia 

has just been disimissed fbr intoxication and. ^inkm^ %. \»TQ»^<st ^&«i«t. 



194 SIB CH1BLE8 HAFIBS— >THB WATSR 0T8TEM. 

This poor lady is a widow with seyeral young children, and dependent on 
this, ner eldest son, for her support. SirChanes said, *'It may oe thought 
a fine thing to be Commander-m-Chief, bat nothing can. make up tar i&ee 
painful duties.** He was quite oyerconie» and burst into teazis, and nerer 
did tears better become a ime old soldier. After a time he adcUd, " But 
what can I do ? I must do my duty ! I am ready to help both these 
ladies to the extent of my power," and he then promised to head a sub- 

scription for her, a« well as for Mrs. , shoula the former reqmre it.* 

Sir Charles is full of deep feeling : but. he does not avoid nis duty 
because it is a painful one. 

Mondaj, October 22nd. — Started about one o'clock for F&gn, on our 
way to Kote^har. The way to F^gu seemed interminable, aim in spite 
of the moonlight, the forest was in some places so dark, that I could not 
see the road at all, and nearly went over the khud at a sharp turn. It 
was a most romantic ride, now in the moonlight, and now in: dwrlmftaw^ 
through this magniiicent pine forest. 

Sir H. Elliott told my husband a ludicrous story of the water sys- 
tem, which Mr. "Woodcock introduced into one of the prisons, wherer it 
was by no means appreciated by the prisoners; for on the yisiting magis- 
trates entering, they beheld an old gray-headed Sub&dar, who had been 
imprisoned, probably, for debt, standing with scarcely a garment under a 
water-spout, shivering and loudly crying, " Dowai ! dowai ! justice ! 
justice ! gentlemen, I have served the State fifty years !" 

The next morning we proceeded by the upper road to Nakanda. Tha 
lower road is fifteen miles, the upper only eignt, but over all but impas- 
sable mountains. Mrs. Lawrence and I were carried in dandies, a sort of 
rude hammock. C. helped himself up by Baber's tail, and it was a won- 
der to me how either man or beast kept their feet, for the path yazied 
from eight to twelve inches wide, and the precipice of many hundred 
feet was almost perpendicular. When we reached the top, our beaierB 
placed us on the ground. We could not get out of our dandy, for tiie 
pole in our laps kept us in. The whole of tne rest of our march lay over 
one immense strawberry-bed, (would the fruit had been in season!) 
through most lovely woods of firs, and holly-oaks, from tiie former hung 
long streamers of a delicate pale green moss, three feet and upwards in 
length, which covered the trees like vegetable stalactites. 

It is very difficult to convey in words a sense of the extreme beauty of 
the scene, or the enjoyahkness of the expedition. No wonder we found 
it cold at Nakiinda, for it is upwards of 10,000 feet high. Luckily CokiMi 
Bates, whom -^e met there, had brought with him two puppies £romKuhi» 
black, shaggy, fat things, just like nice bears. I carried one in my arms 
for about an hour, it was so warm — ^like a living mufi^ The roof of ths 
sleeping rooms were full of holes, but we made glorious fibres of pine- 
wood, the briffhtest and most delightful of all fires. Colonel Bates joined 
us with his dinner and company : and with warm wadded gowns and 
shawls we were soon very comfortable. 

The next mcnrning we again sent the servants and children on, and pro- 
ceeded up Huttu, upwards of 11,200 feet high ; the road was frozen hard 
in many places, and such a road ! Mrs. Lawrence went on her pony. I 
in my ihapp^n, but we ought both to have cfone in dandies. G&e view 
from the summit is truly magnificent ; I maae a sketch, more as a memo- 
randum than as a representation of it. We saw Jamnutri and Gangutri, 
whence the Jamna and the Ganges take their rise. We came down into a 
wood like an English one, with glades, and here and there a fallen tree, and 
mot^^ sunshine and shade. I mounted Turki, and we rode through a 

• He afterwards gave 1000 rop^^a \o «»a\i. 



KOTaHiJt SCHOOL AKD 1CIS8I0K. 185 

«weet smiling valley with crops of everjr varied colour^— red, orange, 
yellow, clothing the terraced sides of the hills. The villages are remans:- 
ably neat and picturesque, with slated houses two stories high, the upper 
one for living, the lower for a storehouse. Hay was also stored up in the 
arms of old trees. I saw some Prince of Wales's feathers folly two feet 
lone. Eotfi'har lies at the end of this valley. Ko wonder dear Mis. 
Kuddi^ called this *' a very amiable spot." 

Spent a few hours most pleasantly with Mrs. Prochnow and her sweet 
children. Mr. Prochnow was absent in Kulu. She showed us a^ Tartar 
praying- wheel, which I drew. Every Tartar carries one : it is much like 
s. child s rattle. Is it more irrational to pray bjr machinery than by rote ? 
&ie then took us to the girls' school, whicn contains ten or twelve children. 
Two of them — a girl of sixteen, from the borders of Chinese Tartary, 
named Elizabeth, and another of twelve (an orphan);— are Christians, and 
appear to be real converts. A third, of the name of Khirli, was frightfully 
beaten by her parents for professing her belief in Jesus. Her sweet, 
melancholy, thoughtful face touched us much. May the Lord stand by 
her and stxengthen her, and enable her to confess Him before men ! The 
<diildren are clothed and paid for their work, and this is the only induce- 
ment to the parents to send them. Mrs. Prochnow said she had not the 
least doubt tnat a real work of grace was going on in this dear child's 
heart. We heard four of them read the Scriptures fluently in Hindu!. 
Mrs. Prochnow then took us back to her house. After clothing and pajr- 
ing the children, she has about fifty rupees left from the profits of their 
work. She said of preaching "es ist gar keine Rede davon." No con- 
gregations can be collected in the daytime. You may enter village after 
village and not find above one man in each : they are all in the fields. 
The distance between each is also a great obstacle, but Mr. Prochnow 
makes a point of peaking to every individual that comes to his house. 
In their evening rides he also stops in the villages, and the people being 
then at leisure, will listen to him. They also are in the habit of referring 
their quarrels to him, and he takes advantage of every opportunity of 
recommending the gospel to them. Hardly any of them can read. 

The neighbouring Raja of Kunasu (or some such name) refused to 
allow a school on his lands, for, said he, " I can neitiier read nor write, 
and I do not see why my subjects should." He even punishes those who 
send their children. Mr. Prochnow says that when accused of idolatry, 
the people usually answer that they do not worship the image, but the 
god whom it represents (the Romanist evasion), and whom they believe 
to dwell in it after it has been anointed and consecrated by the piiest. 
Similar ceremonies are used in consecrating their temples. The priests 
are sometimes Brahmins, sometimes of lower castes. They occasionally 
pretend to inspiration, foam at the mouth, behave like madmen, and 
pretend to prcmhesy. Mr. Prochnow has seen them in this state. There 
are very few females ; plurality of husbands is the general rule, except 
where a man can afford to purchase a wife exclusively for himself. In- 
fanticide is abolished in the British territories, but is supposed to exist 
secretly under the native Rajas. There is no other way of accountings for 
the paucity of women. The church here consists of only six, including 
the two Christian ffirls, and there are none (out of the female school) of 
"whose c<mversion the Missionaries have any hope. 

We went by a different road — a very lovely one— with wood and rocks, 
and little streams. I rode on far ahead ; enjoyed a lovely view of the 
sunset lighting u^ the snowy peaks ; and then remembering bears and 
leopards, rather wished myself at the bungalow. Left Simla. Lt'^^^^-s'ssr^ 
hot part of the way, and the hills have loal mosfe oi \)bj5i\t^i«&«»^^\iiO!^ 



186 BSTUBK TO LOODIAKA. 

of green, wliich they wore when I last passed them. The road waft 
crowded with men and mules, for the Governor-General goes down to- 
morrow, and the Commander-in-Chiefs camp on the 5th. All the honga- 
lows are full. At Haripur I mounted Baher, and we rode to Sinour (the 
Lawrence Asylum). It was a long ride, and I was very tired and sleepy. 
We saw a most lovely meteor. Just as the stars were rising, I wa* 
attracted hy a star of extraordinary hrilliancy and size, when it began to 
move, and rose with a swift though stately motion to the zenith, then 
turned and sailed over the hill- top. 

Mr. Parker kindly welcomed us. After hreakfast the next day, he 
took us over the schools. After seeing the rosy English-looldng girls, he 
showed us a poor Httle child, wasted to a skeleton, and hrougnt up in a 
dying condition from dysentery. Her arm and hand were like a oird's 
claw. She was indeed, as Mr. Parker said, " a specimen of what the 
plains do for children." My husband cross-examined the boys. They 
answered well, read well, sang tolerably on Hullah's system; but what 
pleased me most, was their respectful open manner. They ore evidently 
well trained as well as taught, 

Remarked the abruptness with which the hills descend to the plains. I 
left the hills with regret, but I was glad to see the plains again, reached 
Morinda about eight, and started about six. Keached Loodiana about 
gun-iire. The regiment was on parade, and seemed to me to look better 
than ever. I was quite pleased to see so many of the native officers and 
non-commissioned officers come up to me : one of the former ran a little 
way by my palki, and I sent my salam to the whole regiment by him. 
C. stayed behind to see the men, and I went on to the CracoftsVwho 
received me warmly. After breakfast three more of the native officers 
came to make special salam to me. The trees on the lines and in the 
garden here are very much grown and improved. I have been away just 
six months. It was quite cool this morning, but is now like a hot 
summer's day in England. 

Saturday, 10th. — ^I drove with Mrs. Rothney in the camel-carriage to 
see the Governor-General come in, and made a little sketch of our light 
company, drawn up in front of the kotwali. It was a pretty sight, as a 
crowd in a native town almost always is. In the evening we dined at 
Lord Dalhousie's tent — a large party of forty-five, but only six ladies. 
The tents are very spacious, but Imed with dark yellow cloth, which has 
not a handsome appearance. 

Friday, Novemoer 16th. — The Commander-in-Chief's, camp came in. 
Many visitors, and sad complaints of hill tents, to which Sir Charles, in 
his zeal for reform, has reduced all the dignitaries, who have hitherto 
luxuriated in two double-poled tents a- piece! I went to Hasan K.'s 
before dinner. Leila Bibi has got a son, a beautiful baby just seven days 
old, so I went to rejoice with her. I had great difficidty in showing them 
the impossibility of accepting a pair of magnificent emerald earrings. 

In the morning C. took me to see the Shahzadeh Shahpnr and his 
brother Nadir. They are most gentlemanly in their appearance, and 
both very handsome. Three of their children, two boys and a little girl, 
were sitting outside in an enclosure of fiowers, learning to read. Shahpur's 
little son came in and took me into the Zenlina, where the Begum mother 
of the two princes met me very cordially, and introduced me to tibe wife 
of each prince, begged me to come very often, asked me divers questioDa 
as usual about my father, mother, sister, &c. 

Monday, November 19th. — Rode to the Commander-in-Chief's camp to 
take Mrs. M*Murdo and Major Kennedy. We went through otCr linfia, 
wJu'oh they greatly admired, and md. tWs ^^ 'sv^ver seen saoh patet^ 



THE TBEASUBY AND KOH-I-NUB. 187 

ones. 1^0 wonder, with their broad streets, young trees, and little 
gardens. 

Wednesday, November 21st. — ^Packedi After dinner Mr. Bean, Mr. 
Cracoft, and Mr. Kothney, all helped me in the kindest manner. At last 
we started with much pain at leaving a house where we have been so 
happy. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Beached Lahore on Saturday, November 24th. Colonel Garbett, being 
commandant of artillerv* has a house to himself, which few officers have 
here ; he is a most kind host. The view of the citadel is very picturesque. 
Monday, November 26th. — We all went to the "Soldiers' Garden" 
formed by Sir H. Lawrence ; it is very extensive, laid out with much 
taste with both vegetable and flower beds, rustic seats, a labyrinth, a 
place for gymnastics, a racket-court, two or three tigers, one of which is 
the largest and finest I ever saw, and a cofTee-shop at the entrance. It is 
open to all, and is most creditable to its generous founder. An immense 
Vinery has just been erected. 

^ Tuesday, 27th. — Colonel Garbett drove me, C. and James rode, to the 
citadel, a very picturesque and extensive range of buildings, erected by 
Jehangir. It contains so many courts that it is almost as much a maze as 
tiie labyrinth, and great part of it is now used as barracks for European 
and Native troops. We went to Dr. Login, who has charge of the younpf 
Maharaja and of the palace and its contents, including at present Mulrd,u 
Chattar Sing, and Shir Sing. Dr. Login led us to the armoury, whiok 
contains a ^nderous mace, said to be that of Eustum himself, and then 
to the Motimanda, Runjit's treasury, which was formerly a mosque, and 
in which the scales for weighing money now occupy the place of the 
Mblah, though, I suppose, without any intentional sarcasm. Dr. Login 
opened the chests and showed us trays full of jewels, of which I admired 
the pearls most, as many of them were of perfect shape, and all of fine 
colour, some as large as buck-shot ; but most of the emeralds, though of 
immense size, were full of flaws, and the diamonds generally ill-cut. The 
Koh-i-Nur surpassed my expectations, it is of great brilliancy, and will, I 
hope, soon be a crown-jewel of the queen's. Nadirshah took it from one 
of the Hindu temples in the Dekkan ; on his murder, his general, Ahmed 
Shah, founder of the Afghan monarchy, whose name and title is engraved 
on an immense uncut ruby, as Duran-i<Durani, seized his jewels and took 
them to K^bul. Rasjit got the Xoh-i-Nur and others from Shah Shui'ah 
by pure treachery ana fraud, so that our title to it is certainly as good as 
that of any of its former owners. The old treasurer, on giving it up ta 
Dr. Login, congratulated himself on getting rid of a charge that had cost 
the blood of so many men. We also saw a magniflcent coat embroidered 
"with pearls, and a baldrick of emeralds, made for Shir Sing, but he was 
murdered before it was quite flnished ; the sword of Holkar and that of 
Vazir Fattih Khan, eldest brother of Dost Muhammad, who was murdered 
at Kandahar bvKamram, with many others. 

Li the Toshakhana, or treasury of robes, shawls, &c., we saw the arms 
of Ran jit, consisting of a cap and shirt of chain- armour, a steel headpiece, 
shield adorned with pearls and diamonds, bow, quiver, sword, guns, and 
spear ; also his throne and footstool of gold, a gold chair, and a set of gold 
yessels, gharras (pitchers), lotas (drinking vessels), &c. The ToshakMna 
is fuU of shawls, but mostly coarse ones. It contains, also, the sword of 
Bustum and a suit of Akiili arms, with an. Ak^ ^Qcgdvot \?Qit^^si^Ts^s6^ 



188 MAHABAJAH DHALIF BISQ. 

of black stuff, with divers steel quoits fastened in it. This is a weapon 
peculiar to the Akalis. Govind's sword is also here ; Runjit Sing was in 
the habit of performinjf puj& to it every morning. 

Wednesday, November 28th. — James came with me on an elephant to 
Dr. Login's apartments in the oitadd. to draw some Bikhs. I lucetehed 
six, several of them very fine-looking men. One old man had been 
keeper of the robes to Ilunjit for forty years. I drew him sittin^^, and 
then wanted a fine-looking younger man, who is Jemadar of Orderlies, to 
stand by him, but he said if he stood people would take him for the old 
man's servant. In vain I said he would be taken for his son. He was 
very unhappy until I offered to draw him on a separate sheet of paper, 
when he snouted and skipped for joy in so ludiorous a manner tiiat James 
and I both burst out laughing. 

Enjoyed an excellent view of the Grovemor-General's arrival, his tent 
being just opposite the tower in which we were. It was a very pretty 
sight as the cavalcade wound along the double line of troops, and tiie 
numerous elephants added greatly to the effect. After breakfast Dr.Login: 
took us to visit the little Maharajah. He was in the Shish Maha, or Glass 
Palace, a very lofty apartment, open on one side to the court, the walls 
and ceiling are covered with a sort of mosaic of little mirrors and oolouzs. 
The back opens into his sleeping apartment, which is of tiie same descrip- 
tion. Dhalip Sing is about eleven years old, with beantifal eyes and 
nose, but the lower part of tbe face is too full. He met us at tie door 
and took Dr. Login s hand ; a gold chair was set for the little prince, 
and a silver one on his left for Dr. Login. We did not stey long, Irat 
returned home through the narrow streets of the city, which are almMt 
impassable except on an elephant. Something led us to s^ak of t^ 
example of our Blessed Lord as the best test for any action; James 
remarked that there seem few circumstances mentioned m the G<>spels in 
which His example could apply to us, and yet no circumstance can 
happen to us in which we cannot judge at once how He would have acted. 

Friday, November 30th. — The little Maharajah having expressed a wish 
that I should draw him, James accompanied me on an elepnant at gmi- 
fire. Dhalip Sing passed in an open carriage and four, with his hawk on 
his fist, escorted by some of Skinner's horse ; so I took a sketch of iha 
town, or rather of Runjit's Tomb and the Jamna Maarjid. We saw the 
Commander-in-Chief and his staff come in, and then proceed^ to th0 
fort, where we breakfasted with Dr. Login, and then went to the little 
Maharajah, who was richly dressed in yellow velvet and silver, with a 
sort of crimson tunic underneath, and magnificent pearls round hJb 
throat. I took a sketch of him and several of his attendants ; and he in 
return sent for two native artists, who made hideous representations of 
J. and me. 

Saturday, December 1st. — James and C. went to the Durbar ; Sir H. 
Lawrence went to fetch the Maharajah, and Sir H. Elliot receiyed him on 
alighting ; and the Gt)vemor-General met him at the door of the tent 
Dhalip looked very handsome and royal. About fifty-three trays of pre- 
sents were given to him, besides khillats or dresses of honour, and pre- 
sents to all the people about him. Lord Dalhousie returned his visit in 
state a few days after ; but it seems almost a pity that the Governor- 
General should have acted on the kindly impulse which prompted hun to 
treat the little prince as a sovereign, for both he and his attendants will 
be proportionably disappointed at his being sent away to Fattihghar. I 
beheve he has a revenue of two lakhs (£20,000) per azumrn allotted 
to him, 

Mrs. C, B, and T went with t\ie CoTDjnaTvOL'OT-m'^\afe^ wid his .party to 



SAKJIT sing's cenotaph. 18^ 

see the Toshakhana. It was curious to see the interest with which Sir 
Charles drew and poised each celebrated weapon, and the lively curiosity 
with which he afterwards inspected the jewels. Being rather tired, I sat 
down a little behind the rest of the party, when he came to fetch me, that 
I mi^ht see everything ; and when I explained, he said kindly, ** Oh, 
but tnese are worth seeing; twice/* The Chief was delighted with the 
Koh-i-Nur, and measured it on his pencil-case, marking the length — 
upwards of H inch — ^with his aide-de-camp's sword. Did I tell you of 
tiie two bridal Veils, formed of strings of pearls, for the bridegroom, not 
for the bride, and the pummels of gold and diamonds ^ Some European 
soldimv were present ; and it was pleasant to see how they listened and 
^oyed the Commander-in-Chief's jokes. They were illuminating the 
streets as we came home. 

Monday, December 3rd.— We took Mrs. M*Murdo to see Eanjit Sing's 
cenotaph. It is not yet finished. It is a very elaborate buil^ng ; but I 
jsuspect that some of the mosaio^work and carvings have been transferred 
from old MCihammadan tombs. £.anjit's tomb is in the centre of the 
building, covered with green Kashmir shawls. The Granth (or sacred 
book of the Sikhs) is on one side also covered with shawls, ana both are 
hung with wreaths of scented flowers ; while a man stands night and day^ 
vith a chouri, to keep off the flies. As Kunjit's body was burnt, thi& 
tomb can only contain nis ashes. 

This reminds me, that in the citadel we saw some relics of Muhammad 
and his successors : a print of Muhammad's foot on a marble slab ; some 
of bis teeth (invisible, being buried in sandal- wood powder), and some^ 
of his hairs — good stout reddi^ hairs, that may have belozigea to a chest- 
nut horse ; also his turban, and that of Ali ; the whole in a glass case, 
adorned with wreaths of marigold, and watched by a zealous Saiad with 
long black hair and beard. Dined at the Govemor-Gfeneral's ; the tents 
were exceedingly cold. The Gevemor-General mentioned how much he 
had been stmcK with the regal manner of the little Maharajah. It is 
indeed most remarkable. At the Grand Durbar the other day, after a 
little whispered conversation with Dr. Login, Dhalip Sing turned to 
Lord Dalhousie and said with childish simplicity in English, " I am very 
^^ad to see you here." In one sense the Governor-General was the last 

Erson whom the poor little prince should have rejoiced in seeing at 
there ; but as respects his future life and happiness, he has been his best 
friend. Dr. Login mentioned, that he was convinced that the little Maha- 
rajah fully enjoved the feeling of personal security at present. He must 
remember the fate of his little predecessor, Purtab Sing, a son of Shir 
Sing's, who was murdered when about his own age. Lord Dalhousie 
expressed his displeasure that none of the Sirdars had been near the little 
prince ; adding, " It is a very bad compliment to us, if they think we 
should not like it." I was also glad to hear him say, that he thought the 
Tdj worth coming from England to see ; and declared it was **mere affec 
tauon to think otherwise ;' for many seem to think there can be nothing 
worth seeing in India. 

I have known a gentleman six weeks close to a most interesting native 
city, and never take the trouble of entering it. 

Tuesday, December 4th. — Mr. Montgomery drove me to the Shalim&r 
Gardens, where C, James, and Captain Hodson joined us. Mr. Mont- 
gomery made the fountains play. This is really a lovely garden for hot 
weather. It consists of three terraces, one below the other, with canals 
fidl of fountains down the principal walks, a lake, likewise full of foun- 
tains, with a marble chabutra or platform in the <^eT\^^^ iWci^idsc^^ ^'^ 
trees and shade. There is also a very pretty ^t oi\)^\)![i-xwstQs^ 



190 SOLDIBBS' OABDSK— IHSTALIATIOK OF THB BATH. 

A Hill "Rkni and Iter little son, a 'fine bold little boy, about twelre, came 
to make sal^ to my husband. The R&ni made no scmple in showing 
her face, but stepped out of her Dull before every one, and sat with us all. 
' Being a widow she was almost entirely dressed in white, and her ehin and 
under 11^ covered, very much like a nun's head-dress, or that of a widow 
of the middle aees. She was an intelligent-looking woman, and assured 
me that she and I were * ham-shir ' of one milk, t.c, sisters. C. had met 
them on one of his journeys from Simla, as they live between Kupar and 
Loodiana, and they now came to ask him to introduce uiem to Sir H. 
Elliot, with a vague hope of bettering themselves in some way. The 
little Chief was dressed entirely in yellow, and attended by two very fine 
looking Sikhs. He asked me to play to him on the piano, and the whole 
party listened with curiosity to an instrument hideously out of tune. In 
the afternoon, C. accompanied Mrs. M'Murdo and me to take a second 
•sketch of the little Maharajah in the dress he wore at the Durbar, as I 
thought Lord Dalhousie would like it better. He looked extremeL^ hand- 
some with a sirpesh, or aigrette, of diamonds, and wreaths of pearls in his 
turban. His hawk is always in the hall, and when he drives out he 
carries it on his wrist ; it is a mark of royalty. 

Wednesday, December 5th. — James drove me to the Soldiers* Garden, 
where there was a f^te for the troops. They had tea, games at football, 
a donkey race, and divers other diversions, before we arrived : it was 
pleasant to see many of them walking about with their wives and carry- 
ing their little children. The Governor-General left just as we arrived. 
The little Hill Chief was there, rushing about and shaking hands with all 
the ladies. The evening was concluded by beautiful fireworks. There 
was a fountain of fire, which played, I should think, for more than half 
an hour, and rockets with no sticks in them. We returned to dme and 
dress for the Installation of the Bath, to which we drove about nine . 
o'clock. The Governor-General's tent has been made still larger than on 
Monday, bein^ supported on four poles. We entered between two lines of 
European soldiers. The Governor-General's throne, raised on three steps, 
was in the centre of the long side of the tent, opposite the door ; on his 
Tight a chair and footstool for the Maharajah, and on his left one for Lady 
Dalhousie. The Knights and Companions of the Bath sat on either side 
of the passage from the door, and behind them the sirdars on one side, the 
ladies on the other, with the whole background filled up with ofiicers in 
very variety of rich uniform. 

The Commander-in-C'hief warmly greeted his old antagonist, the Amir, 
Shir Miihammad, of Sind, who was placed just behind him ; but when 
Taj Sing, who is said to have held back his troops at the battle of Sobi^on, 
appeared, he cried, ** T^j Sin^ ! I won't sit by him — he is a traitor." 
Lord Dalhousie was ushered m by a procession of Chobd^^ or mace- 
bearers, some with short gold or gilt maces, like little bolsters ; some with 
long ones, and some with curious things of gold, representing fans of pea- 
cocks* feathers. I think the Pope has just the same. Then came the 
Aides-de-Camp, private secretary, &c., and the Governor-General in his 
<jivil uniform. He looked very well, and made a short animated speech. 
Sir C. Napier and Sir D. Hill then led in Sir W. Gilbert, preceded by 
Colonel Mountain, with the insignia on a red velvet cushion. All made 
three reverences as they came up, and General Gilbert being seated. Sir 
D. Hill and Sir H. Lawrence went to bring in Sir H. Elliot. The two 
knights knelt, and Lord Dalhousie invested them with the insiimia of 
<>.C.B. and K.C.B. 

What a pity this fine old military Order is thus extended to civilians, 
instead of founding another for Te\;axd\v\% evqW Tsi«\\.\ iottiiere is some- 



SJLKI KOUB CHAKD— AKBITSIB. 191 

thing singiilarly anomalous in rewarding both in the same manner. All 
that remains of the royal family of Lahore were present, and comprised 
only a little child of four years old, son of Shir Smg, and an elder half- 
brother of his. 

Thursday, December 6th. — I will just give you a sketch of the Panjab 
Tevolutions. Bai]jit died, and was succeeded by his son, Kharrak Sing, 
who was imbecile, and poisoned by his son, Nao Nihkl Sing, who, return- 
ing from his father's funeral pyre, was grievously if not mortally wounded 
by a beam which fell upon mm in passing under a very lofty gateway. 
We saw the place, and though some sav it was done purposely, yet the 
gateway is so lofty, and the difficulty of aiming a beam aright so great, 
that such a clumsy contrivance can hardly be supposed. lie was taken 
care of by the two Kajput brothers, Gul&b Sing and Rajah Dhyan Sing : 
the latter my husband says was the handsomest man he ever saw. They 
suffered no one to enter his chamber uptil he was dead, in which con- 
summation it is supposed that they assisted. His mother, Rani Kour 
Chand, then claim^ the supreme power, which was contested by Shir 
6ing, a pseudo son of Ranjit. The Rani was beaten to death by her 
slave-girls, who threw her out of the window into a small court which 
we saw. Shir Sing then became king, but was assassinated at a review 
by SircUir Ajit Sing, at the instigation of Dhy&n Sing, who under pretext 
01 presenting his carbine to him, shot him. His little son, Partlo Sing, 
was sought out and murdered. The two conspirators, Dhy&n Sing and 
Aiit Sing, returned to the city together in a carriage, and Ajit having 
*'his hand in," stabbed Dhylin Sing as they passed under one of the 
gateways. He was pursued by Hira Sing, the son of Dhy^n, and fell 
lighting. Sucheyt Smg, brother of Gnlah and Dhy&n, the most honest 
and gallant of the three brothers, fell in action about this time. Rani 
Ohanda then brought forward Dhalip as a son of Ranjit ; but her brother 
Jew^ihir Sing having caused the only real son of Ranjit then living, 
Peshori Sing, to be cut to pieces and cast down a well at Attok, the 
troops became enraged, and ordered him to come to a review. In vain 
he scattered gold and bangles among them, and entreated them to spare 
Ms life ; in vain the R4ni accompanied him, and endeavoured to' save 
him ; one volley missed him, the second brought him down. The recent 
history you know. 

Dr. Login took us to the tower where Ch attar Sing, Shir Sing, and his 
brethren are confined. I drew them on the. roof, with a shemianah or 
canopy over us, a European sentry walking up and down on one side, and 
A Sepahi on the other. Ohattar Sing is said to be rather an honest man. 
Thfe expression of his countenance was very sad. Shir Sing is very like 
the portraits of Henry VIII. It is said that Shir Sing informed Major 
Edwardes of all Mulr§j's messages, and of those who were likely to desert 
our cause, up to the day before he went over, when an earnest injunction 
irom his father determined him to go over himself ; but directiy he met 
Mulraj, he asked him how he dared to spread a report that he was coming 
a week before, when he had no intention of doing so. 

When I had finished sketching them, they asked to look at my other 
^drawings, and named almost all the persons, which shows that they must 
be like. They made sal^m, both to the little Maharajah's picture and to , 
iihat of Ranjit's tomb. I started about half-past eight in my palki for 
Amritsir, guarded by Suleym^n Khan, and arrived about sunrise next 
morning at the Ram Bagh, where Mr. McLeod, the Assistant- Commis- 
sioner, now lives. The house is very picturesque, both inside and out. 
The centre room, now used for dining, is open on all aida^, ^sA ^^tjl^sj^'s* ^"i 
a centre compartment, raised two steps fromtlafc "^^k&avsL^^^xwwA^ ^ssl^"®^- 



192 THB GOLD TEHPLB — BHAWL WXAYIKa. 

ported by massive clusters of pillars, slightly pyramidical in shax>e. The 
garden is delightfully shady. 

After breakfast our kind host took me into a tower, £rom which I 
sketched the gateway. The walls of the small room in which we sat were 
ooTered with curious paintings of scenes from the Hindu Mythology. 
After tifi^ Mr. McLeoa drove me through the town. It is by &r the 
cleanest town I have seen in India ; has been newly paved, and sappoHs 
an establishment of Bhistis, sweepers, and watchmen, at an expense of 
1500 rupees a month, which, among a x>opulation of 70,000, iaSla very 
lightly on each shop, many of the poorer ones being excused payment. 
It is a most picturesque place, with narrow streets, beautifully carved 
houses, the upper stories projecting over the lower ones, and many of 
them adorned with curious paintings. I saw one house with a row of 
peacocks, the size of Hfe, supporting the balcony. In Lahore a row of 
geese perform a similar office, so well carved and painted, and in such 
natural attitudes (one of them stretching out its neck as if hisuaing at the 
passers-by), that we at first took them for live birds. 

We alighted, and were ushered through a snudl door to the edge of the 
great tank, in the centre of which stands the famous gold temple, glit- 
tering in tiie rich hues of the setting sun. It was like a picture of 
Turner's. The temple is of gold (e. e., brass gilt), with a baaement <^ 
white marble and mosaics. It is connected with the shore by a long 
white marble bridge, which was crowded wiUi men, women, and children. 
I put jorabs (Kashmir socks) over my shoes, and accompanied Mr. 
McLeod and James to the terrace beneath. We saw ext^isive buildings 
on all sides, occupied by the priests, and a very curious temple, of great 
height, with three open galleries, one above another, iilled with peome in 
the most varied colours. Beneath, on the x>avem6nt, sat a crowd ofwor- 
shippers, among whom were many Ak^s, those martial fanatics wfa» 
feared neither death nor wounds. They are dressed in dark blue, witii 
ver^ high pointed turbans, interwoven with steel chains and sharp steel 
quoits. Loud music was heard from the ri^ht. It was a most striking 
scene. Another, not less so, presented itself when we crossed the 
bridge and stood at the door of the golden temple. Within, in the 
centre, was the Granth, on a pile of Kashmir shawls, and covered with 
the same ; in front of it was a candlestick and lighted candles ; a row of 
musicians with ^tars and drums, &c., sat and san^ loudlj on one side ; 
groups of worshippers sat around. It was sad to thiok their minds were 
as dark as their temple. In driving home, Amritsir reminded me of 
Athens — the ** whole city given to idolatry." We then drove to the Foort r 
but it was nearly dark, so we could only perceive the long winding gate- 
ways. The officers' quarters in Govinaghar (the fort ana tiie birtliplaee 
of Govind, the second founder of the Sikh sectj are very bad. 

Saturday, December 8th. — Went to the snawl manufactory. They 
make most beautiful Kashmir shawls here, all the workmen beiDg 
Kashmiris. The Choudri, or Mayor of the town, preceded us — a very fine 
black-bearded man, in crimsan and yellow, on a prancing white honN^ 
with a long tail, and red and gold saddle : how such a mayor would asto- 
nish the peaceful citizens at home ! We found a long room crowded widi 
weavers, but with no noise from the looms. At the top sat the man who 
draws the patterns, and the one who- writes out the stitdies in a oharaeter 
like musical notes, which every weaver understands. For instanoe, 
stands for red, and the mark + placed under it, stands for eighteen gtitpheff- 
I am not sure that these are the exact marks, but they are Mmllay to 

t]iem. ^ The shawls are woven, or rather worked, with a nnall shnttk; 

but it is more Uke carpet-work thsoDi ^osL-m.^. 'Ikcft^i oc four work in one 



JEWAJT SING— BAN JIT*S OBDEBLIBS. i93 

loom. The best worker was a boy blind of one eye, who kept incessantly 
readinjr and working, "Now eighteen red, now three green, now two 
white." Only half of one end of a long shawl is woven at once ; a piece 
about a yard long had taken three men four months ; they do about a 
quarter of an inch daily, and receive from two to two ana a half and three 
annas daily (four annas is sixpence). C. gave them some money for a 
feast, at which they were much pleased. Lord Dalhousie presented 5000 
rupees to the temple at Amritsir. It was said to be " for the poor :*' but 
the priest at Lahore told us that the Lord Sahib had been so pleased with 
their worship, that he had given 5000 to the temple. Thus it is made to 
appear like a national encouragement to idolatry ; and its having been 
done by former Governor-Generals is no reason for its continuance. 
After breakfast, I drew Jew&n Sing, the commander of a Sikh regiment, 
which, for its good behaviour in the late campaign, has been taken bodilv 
into our service (a very fine-looking man) ; his Adjutant, older, but still 
more handsome, a Gurcharra, or horseman, one of Ranjit's corps of Order- 
lies — a man about six foot four, and an Ak^li, with a very good expression 
and most quiet determined eye. C. gave him and his companion, another 
Ak^li, a present, and said, ^ I, too, have eaten three wounds, and have 
been nine months a prisoner." The man's face lighted up at once, as if 
he thought, *'I have found a comrade." Returned to Lahore in the 
evening. 

Tuesday, December 11th. — ^We left our kind host ; arrived at Ferozepore 
about nine. Khaz^n Sing, one of our Subadars, came to see his commandant, 
and sent his best salam to me, saying, " He considered me as his mother ; 
for," said he, ** she drew my picture." The Satlej is in two wide branches, 
and on the Panjab side of Ferozepore : we crossed in large boats : there 
is a great space of sand between. Left about seven, and got into Dhar- 
ramkote soon after sunrise. While there I made a sketch of Suleyman 
Khan. C. told me that on the way from Amritsir to Lahore, this worthy 
man kept up a continued narration of all manner of sublects — his travels, 
the people he had met, &c. He said that in Kashmir the air was so fine 
that one could never eat enough. Speaking of Mohun liil with the con- 
tempt which most natives appear to feel for him, he said, that when they 
were in Bokhara, where the people are all Sunis, he, too, was a devoted 
Suni Mussalman ; but no sooner did they reach Persia, than *' Suni Muni 
gazasht," (we heard no more of Suni Muni). The natives have a ludicrous 
custom of adding some word merely for the rhyme, lust in the fashion as 
a nurse talks of " mopsey-popsey" or " chicky-bidoy." Four or five of 
our men, who are on duty there, came to express their great sorrow at 
losing their commandant. C. gave them his hand, which the honest Sikhs 
shook with extraordinary vigour and warmth. Arrived at Loodiana early 
on Friday. 

I forffot to tell you of two things we saw at Lahore : one was a dwarf of 
the little Rajah's, twenty years old and beautifully made, but not quite 
three feet high. The other, the Darbar tents, which were put up for the 
Governor-Generars inspection. There were a great many of tnem en- 
closed in a khanat (wall of cloth) of scarlet. They were all " b^chob&s," 
that is, with no pole in the centre, about twenty feet square, and of the 
most magnificent description — some lined with green, others with red 
Kashmir shawls ; some with gold damask, another with printed velvet ; 
others with fine cloth, silk, or satin, embroidered with silk, and even with 
gold and silver. One was made like a tower, with an upper story, the floor of 
which was planked ; and they were as variegated and as picturesque 
outside as in, though not so costly. Everything in the To&hik\!L^\:^S&\Kk 
be sold by auction, and the little Maharajah ia \.o\<&QCH«\a^*(st^ ivst ^^^t 

o 



Id4 VABEWELL FABA]>E. 

in a few days. The walls are, I believe, to be thrown down ; so that I 
am very glad we have seen the last remnants of Ranjit's monarchy and 
splendour. 

Wednesday, December 19th. — Rode. Took a sketch of Hasan Kh4n. 
^asan Kh^n s Bibi Ji has just had another daughter. Leila Bibi's little 
son is a very fine child. Hasan Khan brought my husband into the 
Zenlina to see him. C. proposed giving the ladies notice. ** No," said 
Hasan KMn, " we will eaten them." So C. had a good view of them be- 
fore they could take flight. He showed us the presents he received from 
the Governor- General at the Darbar the other day ; they consisted of a 
common shield with gold studs, a handsome sword, a flne Kashmir 
shawl, which, however, had been washed, a piece of Gujerat kincob (bro- 
cade), and some trifles. They pressed me again to take the emerald ear- 
rings, which of course I could not do, so Leila got them for herself. It 
makes one^s heart ache to think of seeing these kind creatures no more 
for ever, 

Saturday, December 22nd. — Rode to C.'s farewell parade. Dr. Di^BP, Mr. 
Janvier, and Mr. Rudolph also went. C. dismounted, the men were 
drawn up in open column of companies, and he passed along every rank, 
speaking to some, patting others, and ending with a short address to each 
company, and one to the native officers. Dr. Duff followed him every- 
where, nodding approvingly at the end of each of the eleven speeches ; I 
followed on horseback. It was very grievous work, and when it was all 
over my dear husband was quite overcome. C. bestowed a few words of 
admooition on Mahabir Sing, the gallant but ill-behaved little Gurka 
Jemadar, who, however, seems to have been mending Ids ways lately. 
Dr. Duff and Mr. Janvier were exceedingly interested, and it gratified us 
very much that they should come and show so lively an interest in all that 
concerned us. The inspection being finished, the regiment formed in Hne, 
the colours and officers advanced to the front, and the colours were sa- 
luted. I could not forbear riding up and making salam to them. When 
the parade was dismissed I took a sketch of the lines with my Camera. 
It was pleasant to see how eager they all were to help me, how tiie 
seijeants pulled off their bonnets to raise my Camera, and one havildar 
took my snawl, aod another held the glass and my pencil. I rode to the 
Seijeant-Major*s bungalow to take leave of his wife, and foand the 
Quartermaster Serjeant's with her. They both expressed much sorrow, 
and Mrs. Ferguson seized my hand and kissed it — a mark of warmth I 
hardly expected from a sober Scotchwoman. Every one says the regret 
shown by the whole regiment is as genuine as it is unusual. Dr. Duff, 
an excellent judge of human nature, was much struck with the attach- 
ment manifested by the regiment to their Commandant, and remarked 
to me, ** Those men would go through fire and water for Captain M." 
The Afghans are all in grief, and we were told that even those in the 
city, wno do not know C. personally, speak with sorrow of his departure. 
The Postmaster wrote him a letter of congratulation on his appointment, 
but regretted the departure of ** so good and kind a g;entleman. 

The Shahzadeh Shahpur sent his saMm to C. alter the parade, and 
took leave of him with tears in his eyes. Indeed these last days were 
fuU of pain, every hour one had to take leave of some person or plaee 
we are not likely to see a^ain. An old blind Afghan, formerly Mastn 
of the Horse to Shah Shu;|a, to whom C. has allotted a small penaoo, 
prayed that the Virgin might bless me ; but my husband explained to 
him that we looked for blessings to the Most High alone. This ig one 
among several curious instances we have met, of the influenoe of the 
Momiah perversions of Cbxi&ti&xity on \»Vk!& Tsduda of the MtusalmttS. 



LEAYE-TAEING — OBEAT CA.NA.L. 195 

It is known tliat when Akbar requested an account of the Christian 
faith, the Jesuits furnished him with a so-called ** History of Christ," 
80 full of " lying fables" that the Emperor relected it with scorn. I 
believe this is the work called " D^star Masih,' by Hieronymo Xavier ; 
and the Muhammadans never seem to have lost the impression given them 
by the Romish Missionaries of the idolatrous nature of Christianity. 
After breakfast I drew Subadar Sudial Sing, Jemadar Ram Bakkas Misr, 
both Rajputs, and successively Havildar Majors, when we first came 
up, Attr Sing, a very handsome Sikh Havildar, who is to be promoted on 
the first vacancy, and Fatteh Sing, a Sikh Subadar. 

Monday, Deo. 24th. — The kind friends came to take leave of us. Some 
of the Native officers and havildars stayed all day, so did Mr. Rothney, so 
did Hasan Kh^n. Mr. Campbell, the Deputy Commissioner, came to 
breakfast and dinner. General Ventura came and sat by at dinner. Took 
leave of mypoor little Ayah, who wept bitterly, then of the kind Cracrofts 
and Miss Wilson, of the kind old General, &o., and of a whole crowd of 
servants, soldiers, &c., at the door. Mr. Rothney drove me in his buggy to 
take leave of his sweet little wife, who was very unwell. We then went on 
to the Janviers*, where C. joined us with Hasan Khan. At eleven o'clock 
we parted with prayer— a sad, sad parting from the dear Janviers, Mr. 
Rothney, and Hasan Eh^n : the latter walked some way with my husband, 
and wanted to ride the first stage, but C. would not let nim. He squeezed 
him in his arms and sobbed. These partings are really dreadful. 



CHAPTER XX;. 

TiTESDAY, December 25th. — Reached Kanaka Serai about eight a.m. ; a 
Bad breakfast, and both very tired. The road to Amballa is very bad ; 
the trees which Mr. Clerk planted all along the wayside are now much 
neglected, and we crossed a river and a very deep nullah, both without 
bridges, and consequently capable of delaying troops or stores for an 
indefinite period in the rains. We have certainly done little as yet for 
India in the way of establishing a perfect chain of communication. Dr. 
Duff gave us an account of the stupendous canal works near S4haranpore, 
over which the natives say Ma Ganga, or Mother Ganges, will certainly 
refuse to flow ; but while executing these, the Government need not 
neglect the highways that only want completing. It is exceedingly cold 
at night, and I travel wrapped up in a great postin, or sheepskin cloak. 

We got into Delhi about five a.m. on the 28th, C. having walked about 
twenty miles, and assisted in carrying me part of the way. 

Monday, December 31st. — I imagine that the magazine and arsenal are 
in the middle of the city, and, of course, exposed toajiy sudden attack from 
the inhabitants. This magazine contains the military stores for all the 
upper provinces, and C. thinks it most dangerous to leave them within 
i^ach of such a disaffected and fanatical population as the Mussulmans of 
Delhi. 

Tuesday, January 1st, 1850. — Mr. Ryley came about one, and took me 
to the citadel, where I made a sketch in the camera of the Dew^-i-Khas, 
where the peacock throne used to stand. No chair is allowed within the 
ooort, but Captain Robertson, who commands the palace guard, sent me 
one. Immediately the servants of the palace^in a great fright, begged me 
not to sit on it, or they would be turned off. However they sent a message 
to the kin&r on the subject, who said I might have a stool, but not a chair, 
and accordingly sent me a very rude little bench. Some of H.M.'s ^QiX^l. 
marohed in ; most of them were boys, Qlmo«\» ^li^^u* ' ^V^*^ V V^^ 

o2 



196 THE begum's toilet. 

finished, I desired some of the nnmerons bystanders to look into the 
camera, with which they were greatly delighted, and as we were going, a 
message came from the king, asking me to show it to him. We aooord- 
ingly turned back, and three or four black slaves came to conduct me into 
tiie harem. 

They introduced me to the chief Lady, Zinit Mah^l Begum, or Ornament 
of the Palace, who struck me as old and ngly, and then led me to the king's 
apartment, where the old monarch was smoking his huqi. He is slenaer 
and feeble-looking, but with a simple kindly face, though he took no notice 
of me when I came in, which I suppose is etiquette. His bedstead, with 
four silver posts, was by him, and a crowd of women about him ; one old 
woman was rubbing his feet. No one was handsomely dressed. The old 
king wore a gold skull-cap and a cotton chupkan. I sat down for a 
moment, and then told them that the camera must be put up out of doors. 
They led me into the balcony, but that would not do, so they took me to a 
terrace where I put it up. The old king seemed pleased, and asked me to 
drawn the queen, to which I willingly agreed. She was so long in adorning 
herself, that it was dark soon after I began. They brought out boxes fuU 
of jewels ; she put on about five pair of earrings besides necklaces, a nose- 
ring with a string of pearls connecting it with the ear, rings for the fingers, 
besides ornaments for the head. Then she retired to change her dress, 
some of the women holding up the cotton rezai (wadded quilt) in which 
her majesty had been wranpea, as a screen. She came back dressed in 
red muslin spotted with gola, and sat down, huq^ in hand, with two femaJe 
servants with peacock fans, or rather clubs, beldnd her. When I looked 
closer at her, 1 saw that she could not be old, but she is very fat, with 
large though unmeaning eyes, and a sweet mouth. Her hair, like that of 
all the other women, of whom there must have been about fifty present, 
was a la chinoise. Her little son, Mirza Jewan Bakht, came and sat beside 
her, but as soon as I offered to sketch him, he was hurried away to change 
his dress, and returned clad in green velvet and gold, with a sirpesh or 
aigrette of jewels in his ^old cap.* 

The noise and chattering of the assembled crowd was deafening, but 
the chief eunuch occasionally brought them to order and made them sit 
down. Her majesty laughed very loud, as loud as she could with her 
mouth wide open, ut some jest which passed. Not one of all these women 
were doing anything, or looked as if they ever did do anything, except 
three who were cracking nutmegs. What a life ! The old. king came in, 
and a man with a black beard, whom I took for one of his sons, and who 
remained standing, but the women sat and jested freely with his majesty. 
He approved of the sketehes. His little prince is he whom the king wishes 
to have declared heir-apparent, though he is the youngest of his ten or 
twelve sons. He has no less than thirty daughters. 

When we got home, Sir Theophilus told me that the king does not give 
a chair, even to the Governor-General. His father gave a chair on one 
occasion to a Governor- General, and repented of it ever afterwards 1 The 
present king, on one occasion, sent for Sir Theophilus, thinking himself 
near death, and commended the Begum Zinat Muhal to his care, and as 
she could not shake hands with him in person, he gave him an impression 
of her hand, which she had made by covering it with tumeric, and then 
pressing it on paper. A day or two after. Sir T. Metoalfe received the 
following, a precis of palace intelliffeuce, furnished to him, as it is to all 
British residente at native courts, daily. This is afterwards sent to the 
Governor-General and the Court of Directors. ** January 1, iSSO.—It 

* This Is said to be the king who has \>eeiii i9neQ«\«.\m&^\)i^ the matineen (18i7)* 



POPULATION OF DELHI. 197 

was reported that a ladyand grentleman were employed in sketoliinff views 
of the Samman Burj . The lady required a chair, and Puran Singr Cnobdar 
iras sent by the Commandant ralace Guards to procure one. The king 
imiinediately sent a stool for the ladjr. When the "lady had finished 
sketching, Bilal Ali Eh^n, eunuch, waited on his majesty, and spoke in 
high terms of the lady's talent to the king and the Zinat Mahdl, Begum. 
They requested a visit from the lady, who took likenesses of the Prince 
D^rza Jaw&n Bukht and the Zinat Mahal, Begum. The likenesses not 
having been finished, the king requested the lady to come again and finish 
them." 

So my visit is recorded in the Chronicles of the Kings of Delhi. I will 
just give you some account of Delhi, from an interleaved Gazetteer with 
mS. notes, bjr Sir T. Metcalfe. That pretty canal we saw near Karnal, 
is the one which conveys the waters of the Jamna from Kurual to Delhi, 
and is of the greatest importance to the latter city, as both the Jamne 
and the wells at that place are adulterated with natron and salt, so that 
there is hardly any pure water save from the canal.* Old Delhi is said 
to have been twenty miles in circumference, and this is borne out by the 
extent and magnificeuce of the ruins which remain. The whole distance 
between this and the Kutab is covered with magnificent tombs and 
remains of nalaces, including the observatory and the tomb of Safdar 
Jang, secona Vazir or Naw&b of Oude. The appearance of this immense 
plain studded with ruins, reminds me of the Campagna near Rome. In 
one spot I counted fourteen domes in sight in one aireotion, so that they 
might all have been included in a moderate- sized sketch. Those visible 
on all sides would have to be reckoned by scores. 

Modem Delhi was built by Shah Jehan, 1631 ; it contains between 
23,000 and 24,000 dwelling-houses, mostly pucka, and two magnificent 
streets, one a mile long by forty yards broad. The palace was built by 
Shah Jeh^n, who also erected the Jamma Masjid. The entrance to the 
palace is through a most stately and lofty gateway of red stone (like the 
walls), and of such great length, that the interior is now used as a public 
baz^r. The Dewan i Am was filled with lumber and sleeping soldiers of 
the king's private guard, but the raised throne and its tine Italian 
mosaics are but little injured. The Dewan i Ehsls, which is well described 
as an open quadrang^ar arcaded terrace of white marble, has suffered 

Seatly from the stones being picked out from the mosaic work. The 
oti Masjid, built by Aurangzeb, is a beautiful little domestic chapel 
of pure white marble, with a raised balcony adjoining, looking out on 
the gardens. 

Rajas of Delhi, or Indraprestha, are mentioned as early as a.d. 1008, 
and three years later the city was taken and plundered by Sultan Mahmud 
of Ghazni, to whom the Raja became tributary. Shabudin (Muhammad) 
Ghori, who was killed in 1206, having no sons, was fond of bringing up 
Turkish slaves, one of whom, Kutab u Din, rose to be Governor of the 
Indian provinces, and on his master's death ascended the throne and took 
Delhi from the Hind6 princes. He was a just and beneficent ruler, the 
first of the Afghan or Patau sovereigns, wnose dynastv continued till the 
time of Baber. Altamsh was a son-in-law of Kutao u Din, and was 
recognised as king by the Khalifa of Bagdad, died 1210. His fine tomb is 
near the Kutab: I drew it when last here. His son proving utterly- 
incapable of reigning, the daughter of Altamsh, the famous Malikeh 
Duran, Rezia Begum, was raised to the throne. Of her it is said that no 

# 

* It was made by Ali Merdan Khan, I know not when, and r^tot^^V^ \X^&^^i^^^3»sSGk 
in 1820. 



198 HISTOBY OF DELHI — THE HOUSE OP TOGHLAE. 

fault Could be found but that she was a woman. She sat daily on her 
throne to administer justice to all comers, and showed herself a just and 
able sovereign ; but having excited the jealousy of her nobles, by raising an 
Abyssinian slave to the office of Amir ul Omra, or Commander-in-Chief, 
they rebelled, a Turki chief named Altunia at the head of them. The 
queen marched against him, but her troops mutinied ; she was taken pri- 
soner and her brother Behram raised to the throne. Rezia Beg^m soon 
gained over Altunia ; he married her, assembled an army, marched to 
Delhi, fought two bloody battles, when they were both captured and put 
to death. She reigned only three and a half years. 

Behram was a tyrant, died 1239. Ala u DinMasaud, his nephew, was no 
better ; died 1242; Nasir u Din Mahmud, another grandson of Altamsh, 
then succeeded ; he had passed most of his life in prison, and retained 
on the throne the habits of Darwesh. He defrayed his private expenses 
by copying books, had only one wife, to whom he allowed no female 
servant, and who cooked for him with her own hands. It is ourioos that 
the idea of poverty should be associated with piety by Muhammadans as 
well as Romanists. Nasir was a great patron of rersian literature. On 
his death, in 1266, his AVazir, Ghias u Din Bulbum, a Turkish slave of 
Altamsh, who had married a daughter of that Prince, added the title of 
King to the regal power which he already possessed. He was succeeded, 
1206, by his son Keikobad, who was dethroned and assassinated, 1288, by 
a party of Ghiljyes, from Ghazni, and their chief, Jala loDin Khan, raised 
to the throne. He was then seventy years of age, and professed great regret 
at his elevation, retaining his old simplicity of manners. The Ghiljyes were 
Turks by descent, but had been so long settled among the Afgh&ns as to be 
almost identified with them. The old king was treacherously mturdered 
by his nephew, Ala u Din, 1295 ; during whose reign the Moghuls invaded 
the Paniab, and advanced to Delhi under Kublai Kh^n, but were defeated 
hy the ting. Much confusion followed — many princes died and others 
reigned. Mubarak Shah made a converted Hindfi, to whom he gave the 
title of Khusru Khan, his Wazir. This man conquered Malabar, and in 
1321 murdered his master and assumed the crown. 

A noble, Gh^zi Khan Toghlak, Governor of the Panj^b, defeated and 
slew the usurper, to the great joy of the people. He was the son of a 
Turkish slave of Ghi^s u Din Bulbun, and was a good prince. On re- 
turning to his capital, after reducing Tirhoot, he was received by his 
eldest son, Juna Khan, in a magnificent pavilion of wood erected for the 
occasion. It fell and crushed the kin^ and five other persons, thus 
throwing suspicion on his successor. This prince built the massiye fort, 
Toghlak^bad, about twelve miles from Delhi. Juna K., 1326, took the 
name of Sultan Miihammad, a prince of extraordinarjr eloquence and 
talents, but whose whole life was thrown away on visionary projects ; 
and it appears that he was in some degree insane. He reduced ihe 
Dekkan, and assembled a great army for the conquest of Persia, which 
dispersed for want of pay, carrying pillage and ruin into every quarter. 
He next sent an army of 100,000 men across the Himalaya to oonqner 
China. Those who succeeded in crossing, found a powerful Chinese army 
assembled, and were obliged to fall back. They were harassed by the 
mountaineers ; and so terrible were the calamities of the relxeat, tnat at 
the end of eight days scarcely a man survived to tell the tale. 

One of this prince's freaks was to change the site of his oapital to 

Doulatabad, in the Dekkan ; which he did more than once, TegaraleaB of 

the misery he infiicted on the poorer classes. The Dekkan and Guieriit 

revoltid. The latter was ewMued^ M.. Toghlak set out for Ta.tta,iBi 

8inde, to settle the affairs oi Oxxzei^^ "V)^!*^!^ ^^j^^^xjca^^^ ^^ tWkkWtM 



TEIMUB LANG — MASSACRE. 199 

died in 1361, leaving the character of one of the most accomplished 
princes and most furious tyrant that ever adorned or disgraced a throne. 
He was succeeded by his nephew, Firoz Toghlak, who, like the rest of his 
warlike and energetic race, was in continual activity. - He was constantly 
engaged in military operations — now in the south-east of Bengal, then in 
Sinde, and again in Guzerat — till in 1385, having reached his eighty- 
seventh year, ne invested his son, Nasir u Din, with full powers ; but this 
prince was so incapable, that he was forced to fly by two of his cousins, 
and a nephew of his set up in his stead. The old king died at the age of 
ninety. It was he who made the canal which irrigates Hansi and 
Hissar. Divers grandsons disputed the throne, and during these eonfu- 
sions Guzerdt nearly recovered independence ; Malwa and other provinces 
threw off the yoke ; Teimur Lang, the Tartar (Tamerlane), led his hordes 
to the conquest of Persia, Tartary, Georgia, part of Russia and Hungary, 
and in 1398 approached Delhi. The king, Nasir u Deen Muhammad 
(Toghlak), ordered a saUy to be made. Teimur repulsed them, and be- 
headed their leader ; and finding that the prisoners he had made since 
Crossing the Indus amounted to upwards of 100,000 he put the whole of 
them above fifteen years of age to death, lest they should join their coun- 
trymen. 

On the 7th January, 1399, Teimur forded the river, and putting more 
faith in action than in astrologers, he advanced against the Delhi prince, 
for whom it truly proved an unlucky day. The van of his army consisted 
of 120 elephants. Teimur ordered his troops to attack the Mahauts, and 
the elephants, being left masterless, carried confusion into their own ranks, 
of which Teimur tcfok advantage, and that night saw him at the gates of 
Delhi, and Muhammad Toghlak in flight. On the Friday he was pro- 
claimed Emperor of Hindustan, in the Mosques. The city was sacKed, 
the Delhi troops fought with frantic courage, the Hindus slew their wives 
and children, and fell upon the Tartars with the fury of despair. The 
massacre lasted five days. "Wearied with slaughter, and laden witii 
treasures, the conquerors quitted the scene of desolation. The Mussalm§.]i 
historian coolly says, ** they sent to the pit of hell the souls of those in- 
fidels, of whose heads they erected towers ; and Timurlane offered up to 
the insulted majesty of the Most Merciful the sincere and humble tribute 
of grateful praise. Truly, as there is a beautiful homogeneity in the 
works of God, so is there one of the opposite sort in the works of the devil ; 
Pope Innocent III., or a Grand Inquisitor, with their auto-da-fes, wilj 
supply the parallel to Teimur' s devotions. 

Nasir u Din returned two months after, and died 1405. He was the 
last of the Ghiljye princes, and was succeeded by Miihammad Khan Lodif 
who was in fifteen months deposed by Saiad Khizzar Khan, Governor of 
the Pan jab. Of him, the chief facts seem to be (like many other people) 
Ids birth — a descendant of Mohammad— and his death, for which (in no- 
nour of his descent) the people of Delhi wore black for three days. He 
was succeeded by his son and grandson and great-grandson, long-named 
men of little importance, in whose time the kingdom was still further 
reduced, so that in one direction it extended only eleven or twelve miles 
from Delhi. The last of the Saiad family abdicated, in 1450, in favour of 
Behlol Lodi, who had obtained the Puniab, and reconquered the empire as 
far as Benares. The second prince of the house of Lodi, Sikander Shah, 
did not kill his brothers or nephews, though they rebelled against him. 
He was mild, just, and fond of literature ; died 1516. His son, Ibrahim 
Lodi, had none of his father's virtues, but disgusted his tribe by his pride. 
Sultan Baber sent to demand the restoration of the Punjab, which he tmls.. 
This great prince was a Turk, fifth in. descent ixomTooxxx^ «;s\.^^^^Qf^T^^i^ 



200 8ULTAK BABEB — KAUATUS, 

bv his mother from Jenjiz Ehan, the great Moghul prinoe. He, howeyer, 
always speaks of the Moghuls with hatred and contempt. It must, how- 
eyer, haye been from his mother that he inherited his great talents and 
energy, as his father was extremely pacific, and delighted solely in pigeon 
fights, like the present King of Demi. Sultan Ibr^diim is said to haye im- 
prisoned the victims of his cruelty in the Selimghar, or State Prison, which 
joins the palace of Delhi. Many of his nobles invited fiaber to advance 
The latter came across the hills to Rupar and Loodiana to Delhi, defeated 
Ibrahim at Panipat, where that prince was slain. Baber treated the con- 
quered with generosity ; he advancedtoDelhiby the Ku tab, visited the tombs 
on his way, and after seeing the palaces and Masjids of Delhi, he says in his 
journal, " I returned to the camp, went on board a boat and drank arak !" 
His son, Humayun, had greatly distinguished himself in this his first cam- 
paign. Baber was the founder of a noble line of princes, under whose 
sway the whole of India bowed. Humayun being at the i>oint of death, 
Baber determined to devote his own life to save that of his son, in accord- 
ance with a superstition still prevalent in the east ; and so strong was the 
imnression made on all parties, that Humayun began at once to recover 
ana Baber to decline. He died, 1530, at Agra, but is buried near Eabid. 
Elphinstone justly pronounces him the most admirable prince who ever 
reigned in Asia. Such a genial, loving, energetic nature is not to be easily 
found on an eastern throne. Humayun's great opponent was Shir Shah, an 
Afghan by descent, who first made himself master of Behar and the forts 
of Chunar and Rohtas, retarded Humayun's advance by the obstinate 
defence of the first-named fort, until he had completed the conq^uest of 
Bengal, and tiben avoiding a contest with a force far superior to his own, 
allowed Humayun to overrun Bengal until the rainy season reduced him 
to inactivity, cut ofi* his communications, and thinned his ranks by sick- 
ness; during which time Shir Shah recovered Chunar, intercepted 
Humayun's communication with Agra, and surprised and defeated mm 
on the banks of the Ganges, as he strove to emerge from the trap so 
judiciously laid for him. The next year Shir Shah again defeated hhn near 
Oanouj, and obliged him to fiy to Labor, 1540, followed him up, and took 
the wnole of the ranjab, founding the famous fort of Rohtas, on the Jelam. 
Shir Shah fell at the siege of Culinjer, in 1544. He was no less dis- 
tinguished as a ruler than as a general. Shir Shah's fort and Humayun's 
noole tomb are still in good preservation close to Delhi. Shir Shah's son 
Selim reigned nine years, and was succeeded by his brother AdiU, of whose 
unpopularity Humayun too adyantap:e to invade India, and recover Delhi 
and Agra. Humayun died at Delhi, but his Yiz^r, Behram Khan, con- 
solidated thepower of the young prince, known in after years as Akbar 
the Great. Humayun was a brave though undecided character ; he wrote 
a bad hand, used fine inflated words, and only snelt tolerably, for all of 
which faults his father reproved him. Sei)arate Kingdoms ha!d arisen in 
the Dekkan, in Guzerat, &c., during the rei^n of Mahomed To^hlak. 

Akb^r conquered Beh^r and Bengal, which were filled with A^han 
settiers, recovered Kabul and conquered Kashmir. Akb^r founded modern 
Agra, called from him, Akbarabad, and the magnificent palace of Fatteh- 
pfir Sikri. He died 1605. His son Jehangir, the World-seizer, was suc- 
ceeded in 1627 by his son. Shah Jehan, who founded modem Delhi and 
built the Taj, where he is buried by the side of his queen. He was a liberal 
and magnificent prince, but was dethroned by his ungrateful son Anrang- 
zeb, the Louis XI. of India, who first defeated his elder brother Barm 
and then assumed the crown seven years before his father's death. Ht 
afterwards captured and slew his brother, whose head he buried in Ht* 
mayiin 'a tomh. Shah Jehan ^a&> Iqlo^qn^I) t^^^xi^^ b^ tha mistnut n^ 



SHAH ALLUM— THE EUTAB. 201 

suspicions of all around liim, whicli embittered the life and especially the 
latter years of Aurangzeb. He was a cold-hearted bigot, full of industry 
and talent, watching over the minutest details himself. Conscience 
awoke on his death- bed, and the picture of his fears and doubts, both as 
regard this world and that on which he was entering, is indeed a sad one. 
It was in his reign that Siv§ji founded the Mahratta power, and after 
long contests with .these rising soldiers, Aurangzeb was compelled to 
retreat to Ahmednagar, where he died 1687. He was the last of the great 
emperors of Hindustan. Then came his son Bahadar Shah, and several 
other insignificant princes. In the reign of Muhammad Shah III., 
B^jirao, the Mahratta Peshwa (the Maire du Palais of the descendants 
of Siv§,ji), was obliged to retreat from the gates of Delhi, by the approach 
of the Vizir Azof Jah a Turani, i. e, a Turk by origin, who founded the 
dynasty of the Nizams of the Dekkan. These two facts show the low ebb 
to which the imperial power was reduced. 

In 1707, Shah AUum, who seems to have coined all the rupees, ruled. 
Six sovereigns rose and fell in rapid succession. In 1735, in the reign of 
Muhammad Shah III., the Marattas burnt the suburbs of Delhi. In 
1739 Nadir Shah entered Delhi, 9th March ; massacred, plundered, and 
departed in April. In 1756, Ahmed Shah of KabuU formerly the Durani 
general of Nadir, entered Delhi on his own account. In 1761, Shah 
Allnm II. attacked the British acquisitions in Bengal and Behar, was 
defeated, and then voluntarily surrendered to the British, who assigned 
him an ample revenue ; but in 1771, he quitted their protection, returned 
to Delhi, and became the tool of the Marattas^ and in 1788, of the Ro- 
hillas, who blinded him. Sindiah drove out the Rohilla chief. But the 
poor old king was not much better off under him and the French officers 
in his service, the allowance for each of the princes being only fifteen 
rupees a month !^ Lord Lake defeated the Marattas, six miles from Delhi, 
in 1803, to the infinite ioy of the aged emperor ; restored to him the 
palaces and gardens, ana supplied him with funds. A lakh of rupees 
monthly was soon after allotted te him, tegether with some lands, which 
produced about one lakh more per annum. 

On Wednesday, 2nd January, drove to the Kutab.* The house is merely 
a transformed tomb with a verandah added to it. Went to see a bauli or 
\7ell, down which the people jump fully sixty feet. Near it are some very 
curious houses belonging to the royal family. 

Thursday, January ard. — In the city,, near the Kutab, I saw a most 
curious burial-place, which reminded me of the street of tombs in Pom- 
peii. Many of the tombs are very elegant, and many of them are open at 
the top and contain fiowers. 

Saturday, January 5th.y-Drew the tomb of Nizam-u-Din. Met a Dar- 
wesh, just like a monk, with bare and shaven head and a black mantle. 
At Hamayun's tomb made two sketehes, one of Shir-Shah *s fort, a fine 
specimen of Pat^n architecture, with the buttresses sloping ihwards from 

* The Katab was completed m the reign of Altamsh ; eyerything shows it to have 
been a Hindu building. It is 242 feet high, diameter of base 48 feet ; the three first 
stories are of red stone, the height of the lowest is 90 feet ; it is composed of 27 diTi- 
sions or flutes, alternately semicircular and angular, the second story, 50 feet of semi- 
circular flutes only ; the third, 40 feet of angular ones. The fourth story is of red 
stone, intermixed with white marble : the whole richly carved. The night before the 
defeat of Sindias (six miles from Delhi), loth September, 1780, an earthquake injured 
this splendid pillar. It was repaired by the British, under Lieutenant-Colonel B. 
Smith. The third story is perceptibly out of the perpendicular. It was foimd neces- 
sary to construct the scaffolding quite distinct from the building, and to faahl<»\ ^-aj^ 
stone separately, exactly to the size and shape of the UiteiB^ce V\. 'HTe& \a ^!i^ 



202 SELIMGHAB — SBEANDBA. 

the base. We had a most pleasant day, and arrived in time for dinner at 
the residency. It is difficult to convey any idea of the wild erandenr of 
the scene, the stately tombs looming in the distance like shadows of the 
mighty dead. There are numerous remains of summer-houses and palaces. 
They must have been magnificent old fellows, those old kings. A number 
of people surrounded us, asking for bakshish. C. asked what they bad 
ever done for him. ** We bless jou," said one.^ ** Yes," answered he, 
" to my face, and when my back is turned you will curse me as an infidel 
Feringhi.*' " He speaks the truth," said several of them, but it ended as 
usual in their getting a good bakshish. 

Monday, January 7th. — Mr. R. went with me to the palace, and as the 
Xing and the Begum were both asleep, I sketched the interior of the 
Dewan i Khas. A cannon, a band, and a great noise soon announced His 
Majesty's waking. He did not wish to be drawn himself, so I finished the 
sketch of the Begum. Here is the Palace Report, 7th January, 1850. 
" At 4 P.M. His Majesty was informed that the lady had come to finish the 
likeness of the Prince Mirza Jaw^n Bakht, and the Zinat Mahal Begum. 
His Majesty directed that she should be admitted, and both the pictures 
were fioished. His Majesty presented the lady with an emerald ring and 
100 rupees, but the lady declined accepting them and took her departure.*' 
Tuesday, 8th January, 1850. — The weather is very cold. Drove with 
E. and Mrs. C, to Selimghar, the old state prison. It joins the palace hy 
a bridge, and is a fine specimen (that is, its walls are, for nothing else 
remains) of Palace architecture — gloomy, stately, and massive, with pro- 
jecting buttresses. It now contains nothing but a garden, which I sup- 
pose supplied the numerous cauliflowers which I saw cutting up in the 
jBegum s presence, to furnish forth His Majesty's dinner. It is pretty to 
see the wild peacocks in such abundance. 

Friday, 11th. — We left our kind friends with much regret, and mounted 
an elepnant, which conveyed us to some distance to meet our palJd- 
garri, which had started early. In crossing the sands we had an excel- 
lent view of Selimghar and. tne bridge by which it is connected with tiw 
palace. The rain had swollen the Jamna so much that it nearly reached 
the hip of the chaprasi, who was a tall man, and some women who were 
fording it must have been wet up to their waists. About twelve miles 
from Delhi we passed Toghlakabad. Some tombs remain in a mwA 
ruinous condition. There was formerljr a very fine Patau gateway, hot 
the government (British !) has puDed it down to build barracks ! We 
reached Allyghar about noon the next day, and were surprised to find it 
so pretty a place, with beautiful rows of trees. In the evening, drove to 
see the remains of the batteries used by Lord Lake against the tow!i» 
about 1803, when he took it from the Manrattas. Allyghar was held by 
General Perron, in their service. The batteries are only about 6(K) yardi 
from the walls, rather difierent from General Whish's practice at 
Mult^n. Mf. L. has a very large horse, fit for so large a man. IBs 
S^is insists upon calling it Mahadeo, or the "Great God," which shows 
that they have no real reverence even for their own idols. The next day 
was the anniversary of Chillianwala, and the Sep^his of the 30th g(J 
hold of the only gun in the place and fired a salute in honour of it. 
Monday, January 14th. — Keached Agra about eight p.m. 
Wednesday, January l6th. — ^We rode to Sekandra. Yon remember 
my description of Akbar's tomb at Sekandra. The gardens round it 
struck me as more beautiful than before, for we slowly rode through tiMB 
while waiting for the Saises to hold our horses. Tney are ^di of ffaw 
trees, particularly one very lea^ kind, called the Khimi. Alter titf 
Btately, simple Afghan tomoB at DeM, «di<^ ^v^^VsXJcj ^^b^t tbe gzuMl 



UDHlHUADlItlBlf DBCBBPIT. 203 

of AkWs own father, HBtnaynn, I did not admire the style of this, . 
olway a esoeptiag the beautiful uppermoert Btorv. It is ia three atones, 
each one more or leas encumbered by a multiplicity of gumbaz, a kind 
of ahort minar, or rather canopy upon pillars, which, when ranged 
closely together, look very mncnlike bee-hives. The lattice-work of 
the girden wall ia most beautiful. 

Thursday, January 17th.— Mr. Taylor and Apa Mahomed accompanied 
OS to the T6j on horseback. It was exceeaingly cold-^uito a hoar 
frost. The Tfij seems mora beautiful each time wo see it. I had for- 
gotten that the tombs in the vault were as elaborately ornamented as 
the mausoleums above. On our way back, Mr. Taylor pointed out the 
ruina of a fine building, called the Rum-i-Ghar, or Roman {i.e. Turkish 
house), where the Ambassador from Constantinople formerly dwelt. 
"What a change from the days when the " Grand 8ignor" sent his 
embassiesto the " Great Moghul !" Is onythino- hut this contrast needful 
to prove the truth of what Taylor says in the second chapter of the 
" Saturday Evening," that MuhammadanLsm is " superannuated and de< 
cayiug with age." 

I must give you the paasape, for the whole of it is most true : — " The 
grave ana masculine superstition of the Asiatic nations, after employing 
the hot blood of its yonth in conquering the fairest regions of the earth, 
spent a long and bright manhood in the calm and worthy occupations 
of government and intelligence (as under the lirst emperors in India). 
Dnrii^ four centuries, the aucccssora of Muhammad were almost the only 
men the human race could boast of (I suppose he means from A.D. 600 
to IDOO). In the later season of its maturity, and throngh a lengthened 
period, the staadiness, the gravity, the immoveable rijfour which often 
mark the temper of man from the moment when his activity declines and 
until iniirmity is confessed, belonged to lalamism, both Western and 
Eastern." [See the Hiatory of the Turkish Empire.) " And now is it 
neocHsary to prove that every aymptom characteristic of the last stwe of 
linman life attaches to it! Muhammedan Empire is decrepit: Muham- 
madan faith is decrepit j and both are so even by the confeMion of the 
Titles." We have often heard this confession both from Afghfins and 
Hindustanis. 

Friday, January 18th.— Took an early ride to the fort. The walls of 
the fort are of red stone, and very £ne, though smaller than at Lahore ; 
but the walls, there, being oibrick, are not to be compared to these. The 
fort and city were built by Akbar, hence its Muhammadan name of 
AkbSribad. We saw the lovely Moti Masjid, or Pea! Mosque, with its 
gilt roofs, rJie ladies' mosquo j the Dewan-i-Khos, and innumerable halls 
and chambers, the former open on throe sides, and adorned, in the most 
elaborate manner, with beautiful carvings and mosaics. The lattice- 
work is very fine, and one projecting tower, with a baloony over the river, 
is particularly beautiful. This is the finest palace of any I have seen. 
Even the fountains are inlaid in Florentine mosaic ; the rooms panelled 
■with flowers in bas-relief, among which the lily is oonapicuoua. 

All these halls are raised on a kind of platform, colled a Chabutra, 
approached by three steps, and even these latter are beautifull}' decorated. 
"We again saw the greot throne of blaek marble, which is said to have 
been broken the instant a 3&X set his foot upon it, at the time when they 
lorded it over the fallen Empire of Delhi. We rode back by the 
Tripolia, so called from three roads uniting in this spot, and then 
throQgh the town. This is the first place where I have seen anything 
like B vegetable market. The streets are very clean, and it ■««.% a. -^^ 
tDiesqae eight to tee mqIi man in his ownlitl\e dulQ^»,lm% i>i\A\a&^'a.«%x 



204 THE JAIL— 8EPAHI FBIS0HES8. 

wHcli appeared to be equal in (mantity to those of a pedlar. There were 
shops foil of skiill-caps, others oi slippers, then again those of the dmgg^ists 
and perfumers, with Chinese jars and curious many^-coloured bottles. 
Went to the house of Mr. William Woodcock, who is mspeotor of prisons 
from Benares to Kumal ; and this being the central prison, immediately 
under Mr. Woodcock's own eye, we were anxious to see it. He kindlv 
led us over the whole. We saw them making paper and polishing it with 
a piece of blood-stone, making pottery and tiles, repairing and adding to 
the prison, and grinding wheat. Among the paper-makers was a fine* 
looking young man, with an open honest countenance ; he was a Thug! 
The sleeping wards are open galleries with an iron bar down the middle, 
to which each prisoner is fastened by a chain, except very well-be- 
haved men, who are allowed to sleep free. These have been built at 
less than half the expense of those constructed by the engineer officer, 
who made his almost without ventilation and bomb-proof (as if prisoners 
were inanimate and explosive materials) ! There is a very large garden 
attached to the jail, in which Mr. Woodcock humanely emidoys the life- 
prisoners. 

Sepahis are never allowed to work out of the prison, as the guard 
cannot manage them — a curious fact. The hardest work is grinding 
wheat. Mr. Woodcock pointed out to us the most troublesome man in 
the jail. He had a most determined look and a very badly shaped head; 
and as soon as he saw us. looking at him he began to grind with x>erfeci 
fury. Mr. Woodcock took us into the female ward. I never saw siu^ 
horrible faces as those of some of the women. Most of them were in ht 
murder, infanticide, or poisoning. One old hag had murdered seven 
people ; the crime not being sufficientlv proved to allow of her being 
hanged, she is imprisoned lor life. Ihey^ were all spinning. Some 
women have blinded themselves by producing ophthalmia, in order to 
avoid work; they are, therefore, made to grind. One woman had 
defeated all the magistrates and jailors for seven years. She said she 
never had worked and she never would, and nobody had ever been aUe 
to make her do so. Mr. Woodcock waa determined that she should, aad 
ordered her head to be shaved ; she no sooner found he was in earnest 
than she fell at his feet and promised, if he would only spare her hair, c^e 
would work as much as he liked, and there she has been spinning erer 
since. The prisoners give very little trouble. Those with labour hare 
24 oz., those without, 20 oz. of atta and d^ (flour and peas) per diem, 
and 1 lb. vegetables, some oH twice a- week, with 1 oz. ot tobaeeo 
a-week. 

In the evening, Mr. and Mrs. B. drove us to the tomb of Itimah-n- 
Doula. This title signifles Coniidenoe, or Prop of the State. His naae 
was Abu Fazl, the mmous vazir and friend of Akb^r. He fell fighting 
gallantly against an ambuscade laid for him, at the instigation ofrrinoe 
Selim, afterwards Jehanghir, to the great grief of his imperial master, 
who only survived him three years. The tomb is verjr beantLfally oarved, 
and the lower part has one of the most beautiful mosaic payements I hare 
seen, with a very bold arabesque pattern : both the tombs and cenotaphs 
are of yellow marble. Like all Mussalm^n tombs, that of the waciris 
distinguished by the kallamdan, or pen-case ; and that of his wife by die 
tablet or slate. The building has only four short minars, one at etek 
comer ; there is a fountain in front of each side : and the chambers whiflfc 
always surround the principal tomb, contain those of other members (^ths 
family. This fine building is much defaced, quantities of agates sad 
other atones being picked out and sold to Kattu, the present noidi 
manidketuier. These depxedat\oi\&ixA^^\i ^\)cc^l\^'^\& «^«toptOb Tki 



PATTIHFUB SIKBI — MAGNIFICENT GATEWAY. 205 

late magistrate of Agra sold the stone of Fattihpur Sikri ; and Lord 
William Bentinck had the marble baths in the fort pulled to pieces and 
sold. We then went to the Rambagh, a fine garden. 

Saturday, January 19th.— Mr. William Woodcock having kindly offered 
to show us^Fattihpur Sikri, we started at gun-fire. It was a hard frost, 
which gave everything a very home look. I remarked the great kos- 
minSrs, for marking the distances. Mr. Woodcock told me a good deal 
about the character of the natives. He thinks (and I agree fully) that the 
women are worse than the men. He says the Hindu women have no 
religion at all. We arrived about ten o'clock. Our breakfast had been 
prepared in Bir BaVs daughter's mahal or palace. This is a building 
erected for one of Akbar's wives, the daughter of his greatest personal 
favourite, Raia Bir Bal, who fell in an Afghan defile, in a desperate 
encounter witn the £usofzais. He is said to have been a man of great 
merit, liyeliness, and wit ; and Akbar, who, like his grandfather Baber, 
was a man of strong affections, was nearly inconsolable for his loss. It 
consists of four rooms on the ground floor, all most elaborately and beauti- 
fully carved in red stone, and two others above, built diagonally to each 
other, like the black squares on a chess-board, the white squares being 
open terraces. It will give you some idea of the immense extent of this 
magnificent palace, to know that this building is one mile horn the 
entrance, and yet is not at the opposite end. 

After breakfast, I walked out to the Rumi, or Turkish Begum's house, 
where the old guide pointed out the paintings of Rustam and other 
fabulous heroes, with which the outer walls were covered. We went to 
Salim Ghristi's tomb. He was a famous saint, whom Akbar consulted in 
his distress at having no son. He advised him to build a magnificent 
mosque and palace around his hermitage ; and Akbar complied by raising 
this stupendous edifice, in comparison to which even Versailles is insig- 
nificant. The tomb is situated in the midst of an immense quadrangle, 
on one side of which is a mosque, with a curious mixture of Hindu archi- 
tecture, modified by the more lofty Muhammadan taste ; and on the other, 
the finest gateway in the world. It is 120 feet in height ; of very grand, 
simple form, and stands on the top of a gigantic flight of steps, so that 
it is a most conspicuous object from every quarter of the surrounding 
country. It is strange that we have not taken the hint. The gates are 
coyered with horse- shoes ; a kind of thank-offering for the recovery of 
sick horses and mules. The whole quadrangle is surrounded by lofty 
' arcades. 

The tomb of Salim Christi is of white marble, with very peculiar and 
beauti^ flying buttresses. The inner building is surrounded by a 
verandah, with the most delicate openwork in marble I ever saw. One, 
which is said to be made of a single piece of marble, is exactly like a veil 
of double net. The inner walls are painted ; and to the lattice-work and 
tomb are attached innumerable scraps of cloth and thread, fastened there 
from the belief that doing so will ensure the fulfilment of any wish made 
at the time. The tomb and canopy over it are of mother-of-pearl. We 
then went to see the tombs of the AuUd, or descendants of Salim Christi, 
of whom our guide is also one. From thence we went to the palace of the 
.Bajah of Jeipur's daughter (another of Akbar's queens), which is the 
largest of all, and built in the Hindu style. The Mah^l, or chambers of 
1^6 Istambul Shahzadi, are also very beautiful, though small as those of 
London lodgings. Everywhere the masonic sign of the double triangle is 
-visible. We went over the rest of what still remains of this imperial 
palace. Court follows court — building follows building. There \& wsfe 
ooujrt where Akbar and his vazir used to play at ^ac^\iS&\ ^ ^^osi^^^^^ 



206 AKBAB B FBIVT DOITNOIL BOOU. 

on aboard in the shape of a cross, with twenty-four sqnarea in each limb), 
with sixteen sUve girls, dresfied in four different coIodtb, for oonutera. 
The squares Ktill remain in the pavement. Then there is a bnilding 
expressly for blind m an" s-biiff, full of narrow psaaaireB, abrupt turns and 
cnl-de-sftos i a large court tor ■Bild-benst fights, with a. tower for viewing 
them, stack all OTcr with elephants' tueks : again, a ftve-aloried building, 
called Panjmahal, consisting of tiers of pillars, arranged qui neons- wise, 
go as tfl form parallels in all directions. Then we siw Akbar's Privy 
Council Chamber. His seat was on a high pillar in the centre, while hu 
four vazirs sat on four apokea, which prc»eeded from it--a moat ourionj 
contrivance. In another place is a small canopied seat for his Hindu 
astrologer ; for Akbar was anything but a good Mussalm&ji. We came 
to Bir Bal ki Beti'a mahal, and I sketched our old guide. It is sad to see 
the immense piles of bricks between the outer and inner walla, the mins 
of masses of buildinc as extensive as those which remain. We droya back, 
after a moat delightful day. 

Monday, Januarr 21st. — Tl 

worker, and saw all the proee 

thin, flakes, about the thiolineas of a card, by means of a. wood and pa^- 
thread bow, water, andsand. A portion of the liake is then held cloBe to 
a little steel pattern of the required shape, and filed intii its eiaot form. 
The workman showed us the tjps of hie fliisers bleeding from the filing. 
The object that.is t« be inlaid having been made in white marble, the in- 
tended design is dratra upon it and then hollowed out with Uie utmost 
delicacy, and the pieces of mosaic being laid in with a kind of mutis 
beneath them, are coveted with talc, to prevent them from being in- 
jured, and the mastic boing melted by the action of lire, the tale is taken 
off, and the work has only to be polished. I shoiUd likf to know if this is 
the process now in use at Florence. The smaller specimens of this mosait 
are not mitch worth having, but we saw aoroe beautiful chess-tables, ons 
for 400 rupees. Kattu's house was well worth seeing as a specimen of a 
rich tradesman's dwelling. The rooms were exceedingly smail, like those 
at Pompei, with a tiny balcony, scarcely more than a foot wide, the door 
leading to it not being above three feet and a half hi^h. (There were s 
good many tinyrooms, all very clean. I saw an accordion with font kefi 
on the table. The staircase was so narrow that I tried to put my umi 
akimbo in going down, and could barely do so. It must be very djffioolt 
for a fat Babn to thread his own house. 

We passed the bridge made of iron pontoons and paid a farewell visit 
to the T6J i Mr. Woodcock pointed out to ua one small piece of repair 
which had cost 600 rupees. It was a slip of mosaic, not Tery minute, 
about a paim broad and three or four feet long; so this will Hve yon 
some slight idea of the enormous toil and expense of the whole edifice. 

Tuesday, January 22nd. — Packed and departed. It grieved ns to taka 
leave of our poor servants, some of whom wept ; and of the Havildar and 

Eiard, the last we shall see of our regiment. We drove out two stagta te 
uhammadabad. 

Wednesday, Jannary 23rd. — The bearers, on crossing a bridge, shori 
Ram, Ram. Further north, superstition does not seem to prevoit to tlw 
same extent, it does not seem to be perpetually on boUi knees u it is 

Thursday, January 24th. — We get on very rapidly, Roin^ npwatdt rf 

Ave miles an hour on abeantifolroad tiirongna well caltivkted aoattfit^. 

Friday, 2Sth. — Reached Eissea Bungalow at eleven a.m. Onr e vww e 

regaled all the way by green fields, and the weather is very 

2£e JTaiftn moke a great noiM BA tt\«S to-D Mk. k&thay 



MOSAIC WOBK — ^PILGBIHS. 207 

their number puts two or three short questions, to which they all give 
short answers ; a longer question follows, to which they respond in chorus 
with a kind of howl. They give warning to the bearers of the next 
Chowki, or stage, by a peculiar cry, and generally bring us in shouting 
and screaming with all their might. The fresh bearers rush forward in 
a crowd, and each man endeavours to secure a place. Q'he road to the 
river of Allahabad has been boarded over, which, as the sand is extremely 
heavy, is a great improvement. The roads are covered with pilgrims to 
Benares. All accounts agree, that the number of pilgrims to ail the great 
shrines is much diminished ; so what must it have been formerly ? We 
crossed the majestic river on a bridge of boats, and reached Benlres the 
next day (Saturday) at one o'clock, very hot and tired. 

Monday, January 28th. — Started about noon. Crossed the Ganges in a 
rickety boat, barely wide enough for the carriage to stand in, so that they 
were obliged to put stones to prevent its running off on either side. 
There was a cool pleasant wind. The people here are very different from 
those of the Upper provinces, much shghter, shorter, and darker ; much 
more Indian looking, with good foreheads, well-shaped heads, deep-set 
eyes, and well-shaped noses. Many young trees have been planted by the 
roadkide and fenced with prickly pears. 

January 29th. — We were reireshed by a view of some beautiful hills, 
which we did not lose sight of for the next three davs. The road is 
covered with pilgrims. We were amused at the childish manners of our 
bearers. The way in which they trotted along, wagging their heads, was 
quite like that of children of four or five years old. Their voices have 
iy> depth, they are wooden and chattery voices, as if nutcrackers were 
speaking. My husband tells me that, even without the least anger, their 
language is indescribably coarse and bad. On this side the Son river we 
passed some indigo planters' graves. The B. N. I. was crossing on their 
wav up the country. C. spoke to them, and an old Hindu Subadar, who 
haa been with the regiment at Ghazni, was quite delighted to see him. 
He spoke openly of his former commanding officer, as *' the son of an owl." 
Speaking of the surrender of Ghazni, and disgrace thus brought upon the 
regiment, he said, '*Our honour became like mud." It was a pretty 
sight to see boat after boat crossing with the troops. We had three yokes 
ofoxen to our light Palkigari, besides the bearers pushing it and turning 
the wheels. The driver addressed the oxen thus, *' my son, pull, and I 
will iteed thee with sugar ; pull, pull, pull, — why dost thou not pull ?" 
We passed five or six divisions of the stream, fording most of them, and 
at other times crossing in a boat. The water is of a deep clear blue, and 
the beautifully shaped distant hills made the scene lovely. The bed of the 
river is three miles wide, the intervals of water being deep heavy sand. 

The road both to-day and yesterday has been broken up in several 
places. 

Wednesday, January 30th. — It was what an old general officer called a 
ravtne-otM country, very prett]^, full of bridges, and with plenty- of 
wood; ^uite autumnal in its varied tints. We had some very long mils, 
both this day and the next, there was a succession of hill and dale. At 
Barhi we found the 22nd M. N. I. My husband went to see them, and 
although he knew none of them personally, the officers all received him 
like an old friend. They told him that their Sergeant- Major, who had 
been Quartermaster-Sergeant in the 48th M. N. I., was always talking.of 
him (as a rider and as an adjutant)/ He is an Irishman of the name of 
Q'Dnscoll. When sent for, he was quite oveljoyed, though he did not at 
nrst reooguizQ my husband, owing, as he said, to the ** moustaY<^h<&^>" «:oi.^ 
vhen C. gave him his hand at parting, tears g^s\AU<&^ \xl ^<s^ V^-^^^*;^ 



208 DAG DA06HAI— CALCUTTA. 

soldier's eyes. The trees were very fine, and so are the cropjs, and there is 
grrass to be seen, instead of the sand of the Frontier Provinces. One of 
these days wc passed a colossal figrire of Rani lying on his back, all the 
hearers saluted it with the cry of " Ram Bahadar." Passed the tuH> 
thousand camp-followers of the 22nd M. X. I. 

Januarjr 31st. — Very early this morning, passed 1500 Europeans of dif- 
ferent regiments going np the country. 

February Ist, Friday. — ^It is now very warm, though with a nice breeze 
in the day. Passed the 42d B.X.I, on their march. Just before we came 
to their camping-ground we saw a man beating a little drum with a 
small flag beside nim. This is a sort of Faqir, who attaches himself to 
the regiment, and is called the Dag Dagghi, and the sight and sound of 
him so encourages the men as he announces the vicinity of their encamp- 
ment, that, as C. said, "in the fulness of their hearts and the emptiness 
of their stomachs, they give him something as they pass." Leaving Bard- 
w^n we saw the chapel and mission-houses of the Church of England 
Mission, a pleasant contrast to the Shewallahs we had seen on entering it 
The roads are bordered with fine trees. The road has been much worse 
lately; very difiTerent from the beautiful condition of that above 
Benares. Ima^ne that this great trunk road was only made by Lord 
William Bentinck ! Is it not disgraceful that it should get worse as we 
approach Calcutta? With much difSculty we were dragged across a 
nallah, the bridge of which was broken down moi« than two years' ago, 
and has never been mended yet. The great want of India is the means 
of internal communicatiou. At present there is scarcely anv : thoucrli 
much is doing in this respect, far more remains to be done. During the 
last famine at A^a, the best grain was to be had 400 miles off at OM0- 
eighth of the price at which coarse grain was selling in Agra, yet the 
difficulty of transport prevented its being brougrht thither. How diffe- 
rently did the Romans act ! Their first obiect in a conquered countiy 
was thoroughly to intersect it by admirable roads ; thus ox>ening it to 
civilization, making it available for revenue, and placing it thoroufbly 
under military control ; but in India, even if a Governor-General belolly 
impressed with the necessity of these internal improvements, he u 
thwarted by lectures on economy from the Home authorities. About 
4 A.M., on the 2nd, we reached the Ghat, and were ferried over the 
Ganges. 

Calcutta. — Marian took me to see the Church of England Mission it 
Mirz^pur, under the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Sandys. It is large and 
very interesting. We also saw four young girls just placed there. A 
short time since a child of twelve escaped from the house of her master 
(a MCihammadan in the city), on account of his cruelty. She had been 
sold to him as a slave, ana said that there were four other slave giris 
there worse treated than herself. Mr. Wylie sent a police agent with 
her, and desired her to tell the others that if they liked to come, the 
magistrate would protect them. They all availed themselves gladly of 
the offer. One is in hospital from the effects of ill-treatment ; anotnefi 
whom we saw, has lost an eye from a blow. They all seem very happy 
and contented, and much pleased at the change in their condition. loe 
elder girls read fluently in Bengali, and answered well to questions on the 
Scriptures. They also understand English pretty well. 

There is a large boys' day> school and a boys' orphan asylum. Behaii 

Lai Sing, one of the Catechists, who is employed m readug the Geqicl 

and sneaking chiefly to the domestic servants of Calcutta, came to see iHi 

He told us that a Muhammadan native doctor is to be baptized an Wed- 

nesday (lath). He recemd a co^S oi Wi<& ^it^Vao^ vLxteen yeusigo. 



KATIVE CBBW. 209 

and occasionally read them ; but about two years since tbey arrested his 
attention, so that at last he came to Behari Sin^ for further instruction. 
His examination was very satisfactory. Beh^n Lai Sing, you know, is 
Timothy's brother. I went to Mr. Mackay's to d raw some of the converts : 
but bad only time to sketch Lai Behari De, who is now a Oateohist, and 
Elmar^ Oharan Ghose. It was a great pleasure to see these young 
Christians again. All of them seem to have become men since we met. 
"Behkn Lai Sing, especially, is like an experienced city missionary. 



CHAPTEB XXI. 

About two, J. and M. drove us to the Ghat, where a large budgerow 
was waiting for ns, C. having taken oiir passage to Bombay on board the 
** Snlimani," Captain Dawson. The crew consists partly of Chinamen 
and partly of Mussulmans from Surat ; every division is imder a tindal, 
and the whole under a Barra-Tinda], or chief boatswain's mate. The 
Seraing, or chief boatswain is responsible for the whole crew. The 
Chinese are ugly, strong, and useful, and apparently merry, with great 
ju^ hands and feet, and larffe limbs. The Surat men are small and 
sp^t, with delicate hands and feet. The cargo consists of 6000 bags of 
rice, of 1641bs. each, Bombay bein^ supplied with rice from Bengal. 

Monday, March 4th. — ^Yesterday saw Adam's Peak, and a very 
coiious canoe came alongside. It was very ^ong, and so narrow as 
barely to leave room for one person to sit in it, with an outrigger, which, 
renders it perfectly safe. 

Went on shore in the ship's boat with an awning ; and the rowers — 
who were all in their best, with the curious Surat headdress, which is 
like a hat without any brim, made of parti-coloured straw, with gay red 
and other coloured handkerchiefs twisted round the temples — amused me 
by singing all the way. The chant was monotonous, but their voices 
pleasing. Ceylon looks very pleasing from the sea, &om being well 
wooded. The houses form a red line, while the beach and everything 
on landing is strange and trojpical. Every one walks about with palm-le^ 
umbrellas. The dress consists of a cloth, some ten yards in length, 
reaching from the waist to the feet, and wrapped tightly round and round 
the body. One would fancy it would impede them in walking, neverthe- 
less they stride along, swin^ng their arms in a manner that is quite 
refreshing after theTBeng^ saunter. The men wear their hair very 
long, ana turned up at the back of the head with a comb, so that as thej 
have very slender ngures and soft features, unless they have beards, it is 
impossible to tell them from women. There are others, who wear white 
caps like plastcorers, and those of sonie rank wear preposterous tortoise- 
flliell combs, six inches and upwards in height. The heat was extreme. 
Drove Uirough the little fort where the 37th Queeq,'s is on duty (the men 
without any white covers to, their caps), and then by the sea-shore, where 
we enjoyed the sight of the waves and the delightful sea breeze. 

We passed a man with his long hair hanging down his back, smoking 
a cigar, another with a small gold cross round nis neck, showing him to 
be a Somanist. All the fishermen are said to be Homan Catholics, and 
ihe tiUie they pay to be worUi £10,000 a year. English money is used in 
Ceylon. The scenery was delightful to us — the fresh verdure, the abun- 
dance of trees, the ponds, and the picturesque groups of people, all 
zefireshed our ejes. We came to the cmnamon-gardens without kssss^Ss^.^, 
it. The plant itself is a broad-leaved shrub, m some c^j^e^ ^ \?t^^,«sA*Qsia 



210 MALABAB PEOPLE— PAB8I CUSTOMS. 

ground was covered with most beautiful flowers, such as would adom 
any garden. Came back by a village, where we saw a Budhist priest in 
his yellow robes. The cocoa-nut groves were very beautiful. Mi^'or L. 
showed us some very interesting sketches of places in the interior, whidi 
has only lately been subdued. In 1802, Major Davies and 400 men were 
destroyed by the people of Kandy, after having taken the place bv a 
coufo de main. It was the Kabul <£saster on a smaller scale. After mat 
we left the King of Kandy in peace till about 1817, when the interior was 
finally subjugated.' There has lately been a pretender to the crown. 
He was taken, and made a stoker on board one of the steamers. In the 
morning Mr. Smith came for us, and drove us to see his coffee-store. It 
is on a very large scale. The coffee is separated from the " parchment," 
or skin, by huge wheels (moved by steam) passing lightly over it. It is 
then carefully picked by 500 women and girls, whose wages are four- 
pence hal^euny a day, then passed through a sieve, to separate the 
finest sort, called peaberry f which is very small and round, and tiierefoie 
roasts more evenly), from the rest, and then packed in casks, instead of 
the bags formerly used. 

I sketched two of the women employed — one a Cinghalese, the otiier 
a Malabar woman — ^both, especially the latter, as gracenil as any antique 
statue. We drove through the town. I have nowhere in India seen 
such comfortable dwellings for the poor. Everyman when we first went 
out had a cigar in his mouth. There is a large Wesleyan Mission here. 
By the time we returned, at nine o'clock, the neat was very great. The 
houses do not seem well adapted for a hot cHmate. They appear small 
and confined, and there are scarcely any Phankahs. Major £. says, that 
owing to the violence of the monsoons, Phankahs are never needed, 
except now and then, as at present, when one monsoon is ceasing, and 
the other not fairly set in. 

I summoned one of the girlish-looking waiters, and sketched him <m 
the spot, and took another frightfiil individual down stairs while my 
husband was paying the bill, which was a ^eat relief to my mind, for 
I should have grieved at not having a ^rawmg of the^e carious pec^le. 
He-embarked. 

Friday, 8th. — ^A boat came off from shore with fowls, fruity Ae. I 
sketched one of the men, a fine young Malabar. They have open 
countenances, and are as beautifiilly and delicately made as any yoong 
girl, though not small men. Some old writer speaks of the Malabara as 
" a fierce and warlike people." 

Wednesday, 13th March. — ^Passed the Sacrifice Sock, about three 
miles from shore, on which, till within the last few years, hmnaa sacrifioes 
used to take place, especially of young infants. 

Monday, 25th.--Captain Dawson told us that the P^rsi women newet 
show their hair to any except their husbands and neaarest relations. 
When a person is con^dered to be dying, they place him wr her in Bome 
outhouse surrounded oy a wall of stones, a,nd leave Ihem liiere witJi- 
out food or drink, to die alone — a horrid and barbarous custom. A 
physician at Bombay, Dr. Case by name, was attending an old Phn, 
when one morning on calling, he was informed he could not see him, as 
he had been laid out to die, and no one could go near him. It was only 
hy threats of giving the family into custody on cnarge of murder, that Dr. 
Case succeeded in overcoming their prejudices, and obtaining aooon to 
his patient. He found him very ill, but after administering a re stoiat ifei 
lite old man spoke. Soon he sat up, and he eventually lived gome weela 
later, ThePirsiflhaveagreataSeci^OTLioT^ovsik* 'C&y think it a point 



DOGS — BOMBilY HARBOUR. 211 

of duty to give the first moutliful of food to a dog, and they believe that 
after aeath, the dog whom he has fed, meets the soul, and defends it from 
evil angels. Mad dogs abounded at one time in Bombav, so that the 
jGrovemment ordered that every dog straying about should be shot. The 
l^rsis most vigorously resisted this, and made such a riot that the 
military were called out. The Parsis then endeavoured to prevent 
supplies being Aimished to the ships in the harbour, but the troops pro- 
tected their embarkation, and the malcontents were obHged to give in after 
some shots had been fired. 

The Khalasis, commonly called Lascars, lie asleep on deck, in all 
manner of comers, with no covering but their clothes, and no pillow but 
a coil of rope. I asked Mr. Tingate if they had no bedding. He said he 
did not think two men in the ship had any, that is among the Khal^ig. 
These m^i, who are all Mussalinlns from Surat, g^ from twelve to 
fourteen rupees a month, as they are considered ai& seamen ; but tbey 
spend the whole of it in foUy, and come on board with nothing but a 
change of clothes. The Chinese, who are but ordinary seamen, and only 
pull at the ropes, seldom going aloft, get only about eight rupees per 
mensem, yet every man has his bedding and a chest of clothes. They 
also live extremel;^ well, eating pickled pork, fish, &c., daily with the 
ship's rations of rice, ghi, and dal. There are a few Portuguese on 
board, for steering and mending sails, some of them Indi^, some 
European, some Portuguese, who get very good pay: they are called 
'"Ship's Cunnies," or " Sea Gunnies." 

The entrance to Bombay Harbour is very beautiM. I know nothing 
hxd the Firth of Forth and the Bay of Naples to compare it with. It is 
like an immense lake studded with picturesque ana rocky islands, of 
which Salsette andSlephanta are the largest, nextte the Island of Bom- 

Sy itself. The coast is very fine, range beyond range of mountains, and 
en a sky and stars such as we do not dream of at home. Yet I would 
rather see a Scoteh mist. We all sat on deck watehing the scene, which 
was enhvened by many boats with white lateen sails. We had scarcely 
dropped anchor, when a boat Ml of !l^rsis arrived, offering themselves 
as servants. What an energetic people they must be ! Men who would 
«ome out such a distance after dark, on the mere chance of obtaining 
e mpjo yment, must get on in the world. 

Went on shore in what they call a Bunder boat, much like a Calcutta 
Bodgerow, with the same kind of queer spatulsB for oars. Drove on to 
'Breach. Kandy, Mr. Grey's bungalow, about five miles from the Fort. 
We were struck by the athletic look of the men as compared with the 
Bengalis. They wear Ba.ndals quite of a classic form, and huge turbans, 
the mrgest I have seen, and often bangles on the legs. One man at Mr. 
{jiTey*B office had a huge silver bangle round his waist. There are 
numerous Parsis, known by their fair complexions and peculiar caps, 
^nerally made of shining black oilcloth, with a pattern on it. They are 
« handsome race, with piercing eyes, wide apart, arched eyebrows, 
aquiline noses, and a very independent gait. There is a remarkable 
family likeness between them all, and they nave often a noble expression. 
They wear the moustache and whiskers, but shave the chin, and wear 
iheir hair generally rather long, and in curls behind the ears. 

The Bombay women are fine and tall, but the dress of the Mahar, or 
low-caste women, is so scanty that they look like boys. It consists of a 
doth or Sari, wound round them so tight that, although the upper part 
of the figure is ver^ de^ntly covered with that and a little ^^ek^V^Os^a 
lower limbs look as if clad in a very short pair oi me^i^fiite^iJc&^V's&R^^ 

pa 



212 FABSI AI^D BBAHMAN CONVEBTS. 

down to the knee ; but they are so beautifully made, that I could nofc 
feel grieved at their coats being kilted so high. Bombay is quite a 
different town from Calcutta. There every one lives in a splendid man- 
sion in the town ; at Bombay few Europeans live in the Fort : the re- 
mainder of the town consists of native shops and dwelling-houses, the 
latter, like those in Ceylon, are superior to any I saw in Bengal for the 
poorer classes. Almost all the Europeans and rich Parsls five in the 
country at Ambrolie, Malabar Hill, Magzagan, &c. &c. Nearly the 
whole way was lined with gardens and trees. Mr. Grey's dwelling con- 
sists of three Bungalows joined by covered passages, with a very pretty 
garden. It is close to the sea, on the north of the island, and enjoys a 
delightful breeze most of the day. Drove out in the evening, and en- 
loyed the view of the sea and the delightful breeze. We went along a 
Dund or dam, made at a cost of £25,000 oy Governor Bhincan, to prevent 
the sea overilowing this part of the island, and turning it into a salt 
marsh covered witn dead fish, and thus rendering the whole island so 
unhealthy, that European life was only worth three years* purchase ; 
whereas since the buna has been made, the Island of Bombay has be- 
come one of the most salubrious places in India. Will it be believed, 
that the Court of Directors were much displeased at the expense incurred, 
and threatened to make the valiant Governor Jonathan Duncan pay the 
amount out of his own pocket ! 

Passed a very large tank with towers, covered with pigeon-holes, for 
the purpose of containing lights. Another evening we iiad a beautifbl 
drive round Malabar ELiU. The whole neighbourhood of Bombay is 
exceedingly pretty ; I wonder that I have not heard it more often 
praised. Calcutta and the Hugli are not to be compared to it. 

Mrs. WUson called ; a veiy pleasant person. She dissuaded me from 
visiting the Assembly's Institution, on account of its being in so bad a 
situation. There are many female schools, because parents will not send 
their daughters any distance. The teacher is obliged to go round to their 
houses to collect the girls, and to take them back in the same manner in 
the evening, as, owing to the ornaments, they wear, they would probably 
be robbed if sent out alone. The teachers are almost all heathens, but 
tiiey use the books appointed by the Mission, and each school is visited 
regularly (some daily) by a member of the Mission. Those in Dr. 
T^^lson's Compound receive rehgious instruction from him daily, and 
from Mrs. Wilson in the afternoon after a sewing lesson. Most g£ the 
others meet at Dr. Wilson's house once or twice a month, to be examined 
and addressed by him. 

Wednesday, April 5th. — ^Yesterday my husband met Mulla Ibrahin, 
who greeted him with the utmost joy. He is an extremely handsome 
man, the handsomest Jew I ever saw ; quite as fair as an Englishman. 
Dined at Dr. Wilson's. Met Narayan Snishadri, a converted Mahratta 
Brahman, who is shortly to be ordained, and Hormazdji Pestoigi, who is 
already a minister. Both wear their national dress. We were exceed- 
ingly pleased with Dr. Wilson, who is a younger looking man than I 
expected, and with Mr. and Mrs. Murray Mitchell, and not less so with 

. the converts. Hormazdji's child, of twelve years old (Bachu Bai), hur 
been under Mrs. Mitchell's charge ever since her father succeeded in 
recovering her by a process at law. His wife has since been married 
again to a Parsl merchant. These two facts enable one in some meaam!^ 
to realize how much a native convert has to give uj) for the sake of 
Christ Bachu Bal was at dinner ; a very nice little ^1 of much intel- 

ligence. She haa just returned ixom «i io^va ^««x«' aoioum in SooiJand 



BBAHMJLN CONYEBT. 213 

with Mrs. Mitchell, and both in mind and dress is quite like a little 
fellow-countrywoman. 

Thursday, April 4th. — Nar^yan came about eight o'clock for me to 
sketch him. He told me that much greater enmity is manifested against 
converts in Bombay than in Calcutta. They cannot pass through the 
streets witibout being reviled ; though the opposition is in some degree 
less than it was. I told him of the young pupil of the Assembly's Insti- 
tution in Calcutta, who, when dying, warned his companions to confess 
their faith openly. Nar&yan said he had known several such cases in 
Bombay ; "but," added he, " there is a glory in confessing Christ openly, 
which cannot be told. Often, when in passing through the streets the 
people have abused me, one passage of Scripture after another has come 
mto my mind, so that I have not felt their insults in the least." Nar^yan 
told me that he was formerly a most bitter hater of Christianity ; but the 
instruction he received, first in the school at Pun^, and then in that of 
Bombay, completely weaned him from Hinduism ; so that, to use his own 
expression, " his mmd was emptied," and then the beauty and truth of 
the Gospel gradually dawned upon him. 

Dr. W. gave us some lithographs of a Parsi Dakhma, or " Tower of 
Silence," where they expose their dead : it is a high circular building, 
within which, beginning six feet below the top of the wall, is a platform, 
sloping towards the centre. It is divided into three rows of compart- 
ments (the uppermost for the bodies of men, the next for women, the 
lowest for children), each of which has a channel which conveys the rain 
directly into the centre reservoir. Here the bodies are exposed ; every 
three or four months a priest sweeps the bones into the reservoir, the con- 
tents of which are washed away m the rains, through a passage which 
conveys them to the sea, or to some river, whenever this is practicable. 
These sketches were made by a naval officer, who risked his life by so 
doing. 

There is only one Parsi lad at present in the Free Church Institution, 
all the others go to the Established Kirk's School, because no conversions 
have yet taken place there ; but Dr. Wilson considers the alarm and 
prejudices of the JParsis to be subsiding, for only two days ago he received 
a visit from a very learned Parsi, of much influence, who expressed his 
regret at the existence of such feelings, and hoped they would soon pass 
away. Dr. Wilson took us to see Mrs. Seitz's Iboarding-school. It con- 
tains thirty girls. Mrs. Seitz, who is country-born, and widow of a 
German schoolmaster, devotes herself to the work gratuitously. She is 
a very pleasingperson. Dr. Wilson asked me to examine the girls on 
any subject. We asked them where Mexico was? — ^Bruxellesr — Ger- 
many P — the capital of Germany P — some town on the Rhine P — the boun- 
daries of Belgium P — the religion of Germany P — of France P — of England P 
— ^the difference between Homanists and Protestants P Maina (a convert 
and assistant teacher) answered, that the Romanists worshipped images, 
and kept the Bible from the people ; and proved the right of every one 
to read the Scriptures from the verse, " All Scripture is profitable for 
edification," &c. They also answered correctly as to the way of salvation. 
The younger ones hardly understood enough English to reply ; but one 
little* girl answered a few questions. Dr. Wilson said, that in Marathi 
they could have answered fluently. They sang very nicely, and work 
weU in needle, knitting and crochet-work. They also write well ; and 
that which struck me chiefly in this school, was the free use made of tlie 
pen as a means of intellectual culture. Mrs. Mitchell, tnY^o \a5&fe^'a.%^^'afe 
interest and share in their instruction (bavrng ioTmet\5"\iaJ^. ^^^ Oaax^^ 



214 JEWISH LADIES. 

of the school), requires them to write down, oflf-hand, on their slates what 
they remember of the lesson she has been giving them, together with any 
deductions or reflections that it has suggested to their ownjninds. I 
have seen no other girls' school where this admirable plan is carried to 
the same extent, and none where (so far as I can judge) the pnpils havo 
attained to the same understanding of the English language. In the 
day-schools they are taught extensively in Marathi, as it womd be waste 
of time to employ any part of their very short period of learning in 
acquiring a few words of English. 

I was much pleased with the appearance of the girls : Maina was 
dressed exacthr like any other girl of her caste. There was a pretty little 
Arab child, of three or four years old, whose mother lately b^01:^^ht her 
to be educated. We then joined my husband and Mulla Ibrahim, who 
took us to the house of the latter. We were ushered up a dirty staircase, 
on the landing of which several richly-dressed women met us, and led me 
into a nicely-mmished room. They were Ibrahim's wife and her sisters ; 
all of them very fair, and with pleasing expression. They wore fidse red 
hair, cut short over the forehead, and looped up in plaits over their 
turbans, while their own long black tresses were hidden. Strange to 
sa;^, it had not an unpleasing effect. Their head-dresses were covered 
with strings of pearls, with small gold coins attached, and strings of pearis 
and emeralds passed under the chin. They wore closely-fitting dresses, 
with no folds, and tight sleeves. Hannah the wife's was of a striped 
material, and oyer it sine wore a short-sleeved open jacket, of green venret 
and gold ; Miriam, her sister, was in silver brocade. All of them wore 
red-and-gold gauze handkerchiefs over the back part of the head and 
shoulders, and the rich stomacher covered with heavy gold chains. They 
are from Baghdad. 

Ibrahim's only child, a sweet little girl of three, named Firh&, or 
"Joy," was dressed in blue satin and gold trousers, a little white skbrt 
above, and a very unbecoming skull-cap, trimmed with lace, which was 
soon pulled off, and showed her pretty auburn hair. Miin*Tn wow 
immense gold anklets ; and all of them having bangles on their feet, and 
silver tassels at the end of their long plaits, made music as they walked. 
GTheir mother came in — a handsome woman, with few marks oiage— end 
severtd handsome and well-dressed Jews, their near kindred, one of whom 
— a young man — begged that he might be drawn too. 

Friday, A^ril 5th. — Hormazdjl brought his little girl to spend the d»; 
I sketched him. He told me that he has now friendly interconne wim 
several of his relations. His sisters were friendly from the first, bat his 
brother's manner was very constrained for the first four or five days tU 
he visited him, which is only quite recently. He told me that hui mother 
died before his conversion, his father not long ago, and it is a satisfiwtioB 
to him to know that his father received a statement of the eridencesef 
Christianitjr, and of the reason of the faith which his son has embiaixd, 
before he departed, though he is ignorant what effect it had npon faok 
I expressed my strong satisfaction on hearing that he was kincUr wrif 
comed by many of his nation; he seemed quite moved, and said, "It 
does one's heart good to know that the people of Grod feel for one." 
Captain and Mrs. Dawson came and took me with Bachn and G«nBaiB0 
to see a wealthy Parsi broker of the name of Manokji, and iiis wilk 
They live at Mazagon, a beautiful house in a fine garden. 

The Parsls go to great expense in cultivating their Q^dens. We wen 
met at the door by a little boy of ^ve ot «ix^ and a httle ^pA of mne Qt 
ten, both droMed in sliort s^iiixta and. \xcra&«)n) veA %.^B;2Mt tsio^ oatht IO0A 



PABSI HOUSE AND LADY. 215 

80 that the girl was only distinguished by a pair of emerald ear-drops. 
Mr. Manolni received us very heartily and politely ; he speaks Enghsh 
perfectly. The house was very richly furnished, spacious rooms with 
velvet 80&8, three or four very large pier-glasses, some portraits (one of 
the Queen, and another of Sir Jamsetji Jijibh^i), marble tables, alabaster 
Sgares, French clocks, and vases of flowers, the Illustrated Times, books 
of prints, and different English works. I also saw a Guzeritti New 
Testament, some fine prints from Landseer and others, rich carpets, 
spring cushions, a self-acting pianoforte, which cost £300 ([one of the 
barrels was made in Bombay, and pl^s Persian and native airs), in fact, 
everything which money can buy. lus wife soon came in, and I sketched 
her. She was very fair, with large dark eyes and delicate hands and feet, 
like all the women of this country. She wore a nose-ring with three 
immense pearls, a pearl necklace and gold arm-band, on an orange satin 
jacket, bordered with green, with short sleeves, and darkpurple satin 
B&ri (».«., petticoat and veil in one) bordered with red. Her hair was 
entirely concealed, like that of all the Parsi women, by a close-fitting 
white skull-cap. Manokji said she had a necklace of pearls as large as 
filberts, and that the Parsl ladies were never contented with their orna- 
ments, but were always wanting more. He then took us over his house ; 
the lower part contains an immense tank which is filled during the rains^ 
and supphes the house and garden for the rest of the year. 

Some Pars! ladies learn music; and man3r of the Parsls take their 
wives out driving with them, but as yet only in closed carriages. They 
have some of the finest horses in the island. We had scarcely got back 
when we started with Commodore Lushington for Elephanta. We had 
a pleasant run over of only half-an-hour. It is a very beautiful rocky 
island, with wood reaching even into the sea. 

The entrance to the cave disappointed us, it is not of the gigantic 
character we imagined from reading the descriptions of Basil Sail and 
Mr. Erskine. After a kind of vestibule we entered three lof^ aisles. 
divided by ranges of massive pillars all cut out of the living rock. At 
the far end of the centre one is the famous colossal threefold bust. The 
right-hand head, Shiva, is clearly smiling, not frowning, and the whole 
is, I believe, about nineteen feet high. On either side in the other 
a&les are immense colossal figures, one of which represents Shiva and 
his wife Parwatl in one figure, the right side being of the male, and the 
left of the female sex. Other gigantic figures stimd sentry at tiie doors • 
q£ some Uttle diapels ; and numerous alto-relievos, all gigantic, all more- 
or less mutilated, and all of them in honour of Shiva, adorn the other 
paarts of the excavation. So unhealthy is this beautiful island after the 
rains, that out of twenty-three Europeans who have had charge of it, nine- 
teen lie buried beneath the little grove of trees. We sat outside the cave 
till it was dark, when the Commo£>re had each of the great aisles lit up by 
Uue lights. The efiect was beautifrd, and every part of the sculpture 
much clearer than by day, while the bright ghasuy light gave them a 
T€fry uncanny appearance. Some of the sailors then walked before us 
carrying burning blue lights through the remainder of tibe cave. Thda 
is certainly the nght way to see the caves. There is something Egjrptian 
in their appearance, but I suppose the Eg3rptian sculptures are less 
monstrous and better fijushed. The cave-temple of Elephanta is sup- 
posed to have been made about a.d. IOOO, when Buddhism was extinct 
mi this part of India, for there is no representation of Buddh in it, except 
one small figure among Shiva's attendants. 

We were towed bade in a little Govenmient ^\«8anBt« T«^Vms« 



216 PA.B8I BELIGION — EUiaBATIOK. 

that the Parsls {Le. Persians) are descendants of &e ancient inhabitants 
of Persia, and followers of Zoroaster. They fled from the Muhammadan 
conquerors about the end of the 7th century, and found refuge in 
Guzerat and the adjacent countries. Although much has been adc&d to 
l^eir faith, yet essentially they are of the same religion that Gyros was. 
On the occasion of Hormasdjrs baptism, Dr. Wilson preached a 8erm<»i 
to the Parsls^ who were present in ^eat numbers, from Isa. xly. If yon 
read that chapter, bearing in mmd that the chief doctrines of the 
Zoroastrians are, that the Supreme Being is entirely passive (somewhat 
like Buddh and Bramh), and takes no part in the affairs of me world, 
which are entirel;^ governed by two Archangels, Kormazd, the creator 
of light, and Ahrimran, of darkness, between whom and their followers 
a perpetual warfare is carried on, you will see the prophetic appropriate« 
ness of this address to Cyrus. The Parsls worship not only the Sun 
and the Elements, but everything as a manifestation of Hormazd; they 
are in fact Pantheists. Hence the Lord Jehovah says, " I am the Lorct 
and there is none else,** no other God, no other object of worship — ^**I,** 
the Supreme, the Almighty, I, and no Archangel, " form the li^t and 
cre&te darkness ; I make peace and create evil. ' These deluded people 
still sav of Him who fashioned them, " He hath no hands." They teach 
that all things are made by the two supposed rulers of the wond, and 
that God himself is wholly passive. The Parsls have greatly increased 
of late years. Some have joined the Syrian Churchy and Dr. Wilson 
baptised the son of a Parsl convert to the Armenian faith. Many of the 
Apostles are said to have preached the Grospel in Persia, Mesapotamia, 
and India. The Church of Persia was not only rich in nimibers but in 
martyrs, until the MussaIm§Lns were made the instruments of punifjiing 
the tyranny of the Zoroastrians and the corruptions of the Christians in 
that country. 

Narayan Shishadri is by birth a subject of the Niz4m. The last time 
he visited his home he saw great numbers of people emigrating &om 
the Nizam's to the Company's territories, on account of the oppression 
exercised in the former. The climate of Bombay at this season is 
delightful; but strange to say, though, they have two months of much hotter 
weather. Phank^hs are very rare, and only to be found in dining-rooms* 
The same is the case up the country at rank, Ahmednaggar, Aurun- 
gab^d, &c. ; and as few people shut up their houses, one has to suffer 
much more from the heat than is at all necessary. I have not seen a 
Phank^h in a be<bx>om since I landed, though the nights in Bombay are 
not so cool in proportion to the day as one might expect. 

S aturday, April 6th. — Grermaine and I started at 6 a.m. with Mnu 
Wilson in a carriage for Salsette. We had a lovely drive of about 
twenty miles, the scenery very beautiful, especially about Zion Fort. 
The shape of the hills is remarkably craggy and picturesq^ue, ikey are of 
black tufa or trapp rock. The mangoe trees, with their rich dart-green 
foliage, form the greatest ornament of the island. Salsette is separated 
from Bombay by so narrow a channel, that it is crossed by a oridge. 
We overtook Hormasdji, and met Dr. Wils9n at a village, at the end of 
our drive. He had been to Tanna the previous day, in compliance witii 
a request from the inhabitants, that he would open a school there. A 
meeting was held, and he clearlv explained to them that the Bible would 
be taught. " Well, never mina," was their answer, " it is a very good 
book." The native inhabitants have proffered twen^-five rupees a 
month towards the expenses of the school. We breakmsted, and tben 
started for the caves of Kaohen, wbic\i «xe Vk^ ^<^t on the island and 



BUDDHIST CJLYBS. 217 

about four miles off. We folded our plaid skawls into eight, and laid 
them on the top of our heads, and thus with blue veils and double 
umbrellas, escaped all harm from the sun. It took us about an hour 
and a half, through a very beautiful jungle Med with cocoa-nut| 
palm3rra, cotton tr^, and many others, with abundance of sweet* 
scented flowers, which in some places made the air heavy with their 
fragrance. These caves are, I thmk, far more interesting tnan those of 
Elephanta, from their greater variety and extent, though they have 
fewer and less remarkable sculptures ; these are entirely Buddhist, 
the Buddhist religion prevailed from about B.C. 600 to a.d. 600, and 
these are supposed to have been excavated at the close of the period, as 
they are in some parts unfinished. 

Iluddhism is oi a kindred origin with Brahmanism, a sort of reformed 
Brahmanism, but rejecting the worship of images and sacrifices. It is a 
rationalistic Pantheism. They consider everything as an emanation, 
and even as a part of the Deity ; they deny in toto any superintending 
Providence ; they are Fatalists, consider matter as essential evil, and 
recognise seven Buddhas or men, who have become wholly disengaged 
from matter. How many and various are the inventions which man 
has sought out to dishonour his Creator and Provider, his Saviour and 
Mediator, his Eegenerator and Sanctifier ! Well may one of the chief 
titles of the Most High be " a God, fall of long-suff*ering." These 
unfortunate Buddhists were greatly addicted to the monastic life, and 
the caves cover an extent of upwards of four miles, and consist of 
innumerable cells, some soUtary, some for communities ; a temple for 
worship, tanks, and cooling places, and colleges, large and small, where 
Ijie priests instructed their disciples. They contain many inscriptions 
which have been recently decyphered by Dr. Wilson and other learned 
Orientalists. The first we saw, was a row of cells about six feet square, 
with 41 little window the size of a man's fist. In many instances the 
cell is nearly filled by a bed-place cut of the living rock ; there is 
often a similar cell for the monk's servant. Then we went to the great 
temple, which is an oblong square, with a vestibule, a range of pillars on 
each Bide, and a horse-shoe roof; at the furthest end is aDagoba, a thing 
cut out of the rock, in the shape of a veir tall beehive, and supposed to 
contain some relic of Buddha, such as a hair or a tooth, there are several 
of these in other parts of the caves. I think there were no sculptures 
inside this temple, or Chaitya, but at either end of the porch or vestibule 
is a colossal figure about twenty feet high, of Buddha, in alto-relievo, 
his left hand holding his garment, his rijght hanging by his side with the 
palm forwards, this represents him giving his blessing. There are two 
other colossal bas-relidfs, each contain two pairs of men and women with 
curious he^-dresses, supposed to represent the inhabitants of the 
country at the time the temple was excavated. There is more life in 
their attitudes than in any others I have seen. 

One of the women has a very petulant, saucy air. The dress and 
the ornaments are the same as those still worn by the Brinjaris or 
cattle-drivers ; these are surroimded by innumerable representations of 
Buddha in the attitude of contemplation, i.e, holding the little finger of 
his left hand with the fore finger and thumb of his right, as if he were 
going to demonstrate a fifth point. We saw several small and one large 
college, or shala (from which Sanskrit term comes our word shawl), 
each surrounded by a stone seat on three sides of the room, and the last 
adorned with innumerable images of Buddh, and figures 8ui;$igQttA3x% \^ 
lotus throne. There were also many ceWk — ail m<&fte «rss<c«?i^>2vs5Vis^ «s.^ 



218 AMEBICiir HI8S10KABIES. 

reached by ste^s cut out on the face of the mountaiii : from one part the 
view is of a city of caves. On returning to the chailya. Dr. Wilson 
pointed out to me the 115th Psahn — a most appropriate one for such a 
locality. The skin of a large snake was waving m the wind over the 
entrance, it seemed to me a fit emblem of the temple itself deserted by 
its demon inhabitant. Took the likeness of Yishnu Sb^ushtri, the most 
learned Brahman of Western India, and one of the first who deqyphered 
the cave inscriptions. There was a remarkable eipression c« pride, 
inward dissatisfaction and unrest in his countenance. I have very often 
observed this, especially in Brahmans. Dr. Wilson pointed out that the 
east side of all the cocoa-nut trees is white wiUi lichen, owin^ to the 
dampness brought by the monsoon. 

Sunday, Apru 7th. — ^We all went in the evening to the Free Church, 
and I went home afterwards with Mr. and Mrs. Murray Mitchell, who 
had asked some converts to meet us. We spoke of rebaptizing con- 
verted Bomanists. It is thepractice in America, but it was not Siat of 
the Beformers, not even of Kjqox, though the Beformation in Scotland 
was chiefly after the Council of Trent nad put the finishing seal to the 
Bomish aposta^. We talked much of the American and Grerman 
Missionaries. The former are most laborious, energetic, godly men, but 
are» I think, often deficient in eloquence and distinctness of enunciation. 
It is curious how common this de&ct is to the Saxon race. 

The German missionaries they spoke of as devoted men, who did not 
take common care of their health, and therefore die in scores. Mr. M. 
seemed also to think the^ had less stamina than British Missionaries, 
probably from poorer diet. They told me about Maina. It was in 
school that Maina learned the value of the gospel. She declared her 
determination to be a Christian, and persisted in spite of the greatest 
opposition on the part of her mother, relations, and her whole caste, that 
01 the Dhobis (washerwomen). She has often come to Mrs. Mitchell 
with her face all bruised and swollen from the ill-treatment of her 
husband, to whom she was betrothed. When at lengl^ she took refage 
in Mr. M.'s house, her caste filled the court and made a terrible oon- 
toion. Her husband declared he would hang himself, and climbinff 
up on the gateway he unwound his Pagri (turban) and proceeded 
to put his threat into execution, but the police laid hold of him and 
carried him ofi'for making a disturbance. She has since been with Mrs. 
Seitz, and is a most useful as well as consistent Christian. 

Two young converts took tea with us — Vincent, a converted Bomanist, 
who is to profess his renunciation of Bomanism pubHcly next Sabbath, 
and Balu, a converted Hindu, who is now studying at the Medical 
College, with a view to become a Medical Missionary. These both live 
with Mr. and Mrs. Mitehell. Vincent told me that it was not the per- 
ception of the falsehood of any particular dogma which caused him to 
renounce Bomanism, but the general inconsistency between the whole 
Bomish scheme of salvation and that of the Bible. ** It was getting 
hold of the Bible," said he. Two interesting little boys are also living 
with the Mitehells, who were found by a gentleman, about two months 
ago, wandering about the streets of Bombay. One is a fine little 
liestorian, an orphan about nine or ten, and the other a little ArmeniaDL 
boy, who has a mother Hving, and who seems to be about six or eifiht. 
It appears they had heard at Bagdad of the schools at Bombay, andso 
put themselves on board an Arab ship, and came to Bombay. 

There are few even amouff Christians who would willingly veeeiTe so 
manjr inmateB into their BmaU dwe\^ng,7«t %o i«£ fcoiBi thmkiiig it aa 



PABSI CONVEBTSr— YOHAK FBEM*8 HISTOEr. 219 

act of self-denial, Mrs. Mitchell said to me most heartily, in speaking of 
the little boys from Bagdad, and saying how remarkably free from vice 
they were — " Oh, they are very good boys ! I like them veby much," 
as if it were quite a delight to her to have them. At family worship there 
were four Scotch, one Parsi (Bachu Bai), one Portuguese, one Hindu, 
one iNestorian, and one Armenian. May all be Christ's at his coming I 

Mr. M!itchell kindly brought me home. He says they have had little 
trouble with the native Christians — ^they mostly walkconsistentlv with their 
holy profession. He s^oke very highly of Hormazdji and said, " I never 
knew a more conscientious man than Hormazdji." He remarked how 
great a blessing it was, that the first two converts at Bombay should be 
men of such a high standard as Hormazdji and Dhanjibhai. The latter 
has married a converted Mussnlmdni girl, all of whose family are like- 
wise Christians, and of whom Dr. Wilson speaks in high terms. He is 
labouring in Guzerat, so we did not see him. 

April 8th, 1850. — ^Ibrdhim brought his family to see me. The Jewg 
ezcluinge rings in marriage, but do not constantly wear their wedding- 
rings as we do. They embroider in gold and silver, and make braid and 
fringe. They do not seem to know the use of lace. They have asked 
me to procure some light auburn hair from En^knd for them. The day 
we were at their house, Ibrahim declined writing his name imder ms 
picture because it was the last day of the Passover, so strictly do they 
abstain from work on their Sabbaths, but he now did so. 

I took a sketch of a very remarkable convert, named Yohan Prem. 
He is a native of Anjar, in Kach, of the Loh4na caste, and being lefb an 
orphan, was adopted and made a Mussalm4n of by the wife of Abd-el- 
Kabi, an Arab Jemadar, who waa childless, and who took a fancy to the 
child when only nine years old. When grown up, he gave himself out 
to be a holv man, and supported hunself sometimes by acting as guide 
to a blind laqir — sometimes as an assistant to a Hindu cloth mermaj^t. 
After the taking of Pun& by the British, he went to Bombay, and lodged 
in one of the mosques, where a Mullah instructed him in the £ur^ and 
other Muhammadan works, at the expense of a devout woman. The 
Saiads then made him a masaiakh, or teacher. He scrupulously ob- 
served the five times of dailv prayer and the fast of Eamadhan, and had 
a great desire to go on pilgrimage. He got disciples whom he instructed 
in Mussulman traditions. 

"At that time," said he, in relating his life to Dr. Wilson, "I had 
some idea of the evil of sin, but not of a very acute character. A fisiqir 
named Gharib Shah, a disciple of Xam^l Shah, promised to show me the 
way of God. He maintained that everj existing object is a portion of 
the Divinity, and sought to destroy withm me every sense of dependence 
on the Divinity. At this time I fell into grievous sin. . . . The great 
object I then kept in view in the instruction of my disciples was the pro- 
curing of money." Sometime after his curiosity was excited regarding 
the religion of the Jews, and he was directed by the Headman of the 
Ben-i-Israel to attend the Arab Synagop^ue. One day meeting a friend 
of his, a Hindu of the name of Bakhmaji, the latter taught him the Ten 
Commandments. He then reflected on the power of tibe English, and 
had some thoughts that God must be on their side, and that their views 
of Jews must be more correct than those of the Kuran. He then dwelt 
for some months at Nasik and other places, giving instruction even to 
Hindu pilffrims, although he himself was a ISIussalm^in, teaching his 
disciples the Ten Commandments, and residing ^oTSLetvssv^ ^«¥i>i^ ^ 
MCdiammadan 'K&dihl, sometimes with Biad^, coiy^\di<s£^^\s^ "^ ^Si ^ 



220 YOHAN pbem's baptism. 

holy man." He then returned to Bombay. " I went," says he, "to my 
friend Bakbmsni, and asked him if he could give me anyfurther infor« 
mation about the religion of the Ten Commandments. He showed me 
the Lord*s Prayer, and began to tell me of the genealc^ of Christ, 
This I commenced writing down from his li^s. He said, * Doyou mean 
to copy a whole book P 1 will get a copy of it for yourself.* He accord- 
ingly procured for me a Hindu I^ew Testament. I commenced reading 
the Grospels in the houses of my disciples." 

It is a curious illustration of the brotherhood that exists between the 
different superstitions of India, that a Hindu merchant prostrated him- 
self before this Mussalman fsL(^ir, and besought him to come and dwell 
with him, for the purpose of discovering who had stolen his wife's jewels. 
He did so, and when the servant of the Banya fell sick, it was attributed 
to his guilt of the theft discovered by the presence of the holy man. He 
was afterwards lodged by a Mussalman Subadar, and then by a Parsi 
In 1832-3, he was directed to Dr. Wilson, who explained to him the 
Gospels of Matthew and John, chapter by chapter, comparing them with 
the Old Testament. He also gave him his own work—" [Refutation of 
Miihammadism" — ^taught him to pray, and prayed with and for him. 
The word of Grod came with power to the soul of the inquirer. He 
boldly declared to the Mussulmans that Jesus was " not only a prophet, 
but the Son of God, one in His Divinity with the Father and the Spirit," 
which greatly incensed them. 

On the day of his baptism, 1st September, 1833, he was attacked by 
them, and ms clothes torn. During all this time he had wholly sup- 
ported himself; and after his baptism entered the service of a Hina6 
shopkeeper, and afterwards began to sell things on his own account. 
These he purchased from a voung Armenian named Aratun, to whom he 
spoke of the Gospel, and finally introduced him to Dr. Wilson. This 
vqung man, after traveUi^ to Burmah, where he joined the Baptist 
brethren, has returned to Persia, in hopes of doing good to his fellow- 
countrymen. Latterly Yohan Prem has been employed as assistant in 
the native schools, and as colporteur to the Bible Society. The Indo- 
Portuguese were for some time frequent purchasers of Scriptures, 
whereby some who have not yet become Protestants, have been greatly 
alienated from Popery. The Mussalmans frequently purchased the 
Scriptures, and discussed the Gospel with the convert ; and an Irish 
soldier, who had no money, gave a flute for a copy of the Irish Bible. 
Neither the Hindis nor Parsis were such ready purchasers as the other 
classes. He is now employed as an itinerating Missionary among the 
natives. 

In the afternoon, drove down, in great haste, to the Bunder and rowed 
to the steamer. Nothing can exceed the kind hospitality we have met 
with. There was a ma^ificent sunset, and our little voyage across to 
Panwell was very beautiful. My husband introduced Captain Mylne to 
me. He is superintendent of Police over a district of 2000 square miles, 
and his corps haying been reduced in number, twice as many of his men 
m^e now on the sick list, from over-exertion, than were so when the corps 
was at its former strength. He remarked on the far greater Catholicism 
of feeling among Indian Christians than among the niajority of those at 
home. He said, that if plain English meant anything, the Baptismal 
service clearly taught Baptismal regeneration, i.e, conversion by means 
of Baptism ; and when I told him of Mr. Drummond's opinion, that we 
might give thanks in faith for that which we believed would be granted, 
^e said, " W!^y you might just as "weW. gw^ ^kKcSsa x^ss^ far your safe 



PUNA — BNGLISH SCHOOL. 221 

arriyal at Elichpnr : you liave prayed for a prosperous journey, and you 
believe it will be granted you, but you cannot give thanks for the per- 
formance of it yet." We may give thanks for promises, but not for the 
performance of them beforehand. 

We started in two phaetons, uncomfortable shaky things, in which it 
was almost impossible to sleep. At the foot of the Ghkt, PsQkls were pro- 
vided for us. The proprietor brought me a Pars! bouquet with the 
flowers arranged in circles according to their colours. I awoke about 
dawn, and enjoyed a magnificent prospect. We reached Xhandala, at 
the top of the Gh^t, about half-past six, got some milk and bread, and 
started again in phaetons. 

April 9th.— We reached Puna about 1 p.m. Puna has a very lar^e 
cantonment. We passed some Europeans playing at ball on the parade 
under this burning sun. Is it any wonder they die ? Took a drive in 
the evening to see Parwati's Temple and Tank. The latter we only saw 
at a distance ; the tank is beautiful, surrounded by fine trees, and with 
a little island in the midst, it looks like a tiny lake. On entering, in the 
morning, we passed some very picturesque Ghats and temples ; and in 
our evening irive we found Puna as full of the latter as might be ex- 
pected fropa a " Sacred City." Although Puna is fifty miles from the 
coast, yet it enjoys a delightful sea breeze every evening. Many more 
people are seen in the Bombay than in the Bengal P^sidency with 
idolatrous marks on their foreheads, for they are much more bigoted to 
Hinduism. 

The next morning, called on Mr. James Mitchell, the Free Church 
Missionary ; went on to the English School, heard the second and third 
classes read. In the latter they ^31 read clearly and distinctly, and 
could explain Pjotty well the meaning. The Parsi boys seemed to me 
the quickest. There were several Sepahis' sons in the school, a good 
many Portuguese, and one very fine lad, who, when C. asked him if he 
were a Portuguese, replied frankly, " No, Sir, I am a half-caste." The 
second class read English beautifully, and answered our questions in 
English. They also showed an excellent knowledge in .geography. 
Their teacher is a very clever Brahman, fully convinced of the trutn of 
Christianity. His name is Anna. 

The second boy in the class is considered as a Christian, though he is 
not yet baptized. He is brother of two young Brahmans, iMarayan 
Keshawa and Gopel Xeshawa, who are both converts and teachers. My 
dear husband spoke very plainly to the teachers and scholars on the only 
wa:y of saJvation, of the peace enjo3red by believers, both with God and 
their consciences. Anna listened with much appearance of interest, and 
recognised every passage of Scripture quoted. An old Madras 
Christian acts as chapr^si to the Mission, he brought nae a glass of water. 
Drinking water from his hands was a kind of recognition of being of the 
same caste, which pleased me. Anna told me that a few educated young 
men instruct their wives. We said we hoped many more would do so ; 
and my husband asked him if it were not very tiresome for an educated 
man to have a stupid wife who could not understand any subiect which in- 
terested him, and he agreed very cordially. Female schools thrive well 
here ; but the funds of the Mission are short of the expenditure, so that 
they have been obliged to give up the most important of their English 
schools (the one in the city), as also the farthest advanced and most pro- 
minent of slU the Marathi schools. Surely this ought not to be. I asked 
Mr. Mitchell about the native Christians. He gave us the same account 
that we got at Bombay— viz., that their conduct ia m ^e>Ti'fcT^^'^>a'b&\«rs 



222 HISTOBY OF THE DjLEHAN KINGDOMS. 

and consistent ; but they do not admit them hastily, but keep them in a 
state of probation for a lengthened period before baptizing them. There 
is only one member of the J^ative Church at i)resent suspended. He is 
a Parsi, who was baptized in jail, rather against Mr. Mitchell's judg- 
ment, about two years ago, and who, since nis hberation, a few months 
since, has been neglectful of Christian ordinances, and guilty of resuming 
the kasti, or sacred girdle, in order to facilitate the arrangements of his 
affairs with his kinsiolk. 

Thursday, April 11th.— Colonel and Mrs. Parr took us to see a fine 
villa of the Kings of Nagar, called the Ferrier Bagh. It is rare that 
one finds any remains of the dwellings of the Mus^lman conquerors : 
durability seems to belong only to their tombs. This is a two-storied 
building of octagonal shape. We ascended the ruinous stair with some 
difficulty, and from the top of the domed roof enjoyed a beautiful view of 
the hills, the wood, and the simset. 

Friday, April 12th. — Mr. Munger, of the American Independent 
Mission, came to see us. He is a tall, elderly man, with grey hair, and 
a plain though most benevolent and pleasing countenance. He has been 
here about sixteen years. The Native Church members are about one 
hundred, and they go on satisfactorily. They are very cautious in 
baptizing them, generally keeping them as catechimiens for eight or ten 
months. By-the-bye, I was told that many of the Free Kirk Inquirers 
are such as would be baptized by the Church of England Mission ; and 
that although some have left the Church of England, an instance is 
scarcely known of a member being expelled by her. 

Took a drive in the evening, the girls going in a Nagar cart, i.e, a cart 
on springs drawn by bullocks. We went to the old Patau fort, which 
has a very deep ditch, and the best glacis in India, one which completely 
•covers the works, so as to make it unpossible to breach them. It was 
taken by the Buke in 1803. It contains some guns of monstrous sizei 
among them a 56-pounder, lately sent out from England, which is coor 
sider^ the perfection of heavy artillery, it carries three thousand yards. 

The tyranny of Muhammad Toghlak drove the Moghal Amirs of the 
Dakhan into revolt, and about 1347 this rich province, which had been 
conquered only a century previous, became independent imder Hasan 
-Grangu, an Afghan of the lowest rank, who founded the Bahm&ni 
dynasty. His descendants reigned for thirteen generations. 

After many contests between Shi§hs and Sunis, the Behmini monarchj 
was divided about 1512-18 (in the reign of the Emperor Charles V.) into 
the kingdoms of Bijapur, under Eusof Adil KMn, a Turkish slave (said 
to be the brother of Muhammad II., the conqueror of Constantinople, 
whose mother sent him to Persia to preserve ms life, at tiie accession of 
his brother) ; of Nizamul Mulk, the son of a converted Hindu, whose 
capital was Ahmednagur ; Kutb Kuli, a Turkman, at Golconda, dose to 
Haiderabad; and Im^ Shah (descended from a Hindu convert) at 
Elichpur ; some time after Amir Barid proclaimed himself King of IBidr, 
but little is known of his dynasty or territory. The Adil Shah, or 
B^apur sovereign, was the constant enemy of the JN'izam Sh&h. Ahmed 
Shin, the second of the Nizam Shki race, built botib Ahmednagar and 
Ahmedabad. In 1595 Akbar took advantage of there being no less than 
four competitors for the crown, to send an army against Ahmednagar, 
under the command of his son Prince Morad, but was repulsed by the 
famous Chand Sultana, Begent for her infant nephew. JBut the next 
jreAT the Prime Minister plotted against the authority of Chand Sultana, 
and recalled the Moguls. Tke Ejjig oi Bi^^^mls «&si6ted her, and| after 



MISS pabber's femalb school. 223 

a fiiriocis battle for two da^s on the banks of the Godiveri, both parties 
claimed the victory. The v azer, Abul Fazl, took the Fort of Doulatabad^ 
and Chand Bibi having been assassinated by the soldiery, Ahmednagar 
was taken by Prince DaniH. It was on his march back from the Dakhan 
that Abnl Fazl was mnrdered. The cause of the young King was main- 
tained after the death of Chand Bibi by his Prime Minister, Malik 
Amber, an Abyssinian, who foimded a new capital on the site of the 
present Aurangabad, and some years after recovered Ahmednagar, 1610, 
and successMly held it for six years. It was not till 1636-7 that Bijapur 
and Golconda became tributary to' Shah Jehan, and the kingdom of 
Ahmednagar was extinguished. 

Saturday, April 13th. — Went to the house of Mr. "Wilder, one of the 
American missionaries. Their mission has no English service, thinking 
it their duty to devote themselves entirely to the natives, but I think 
this is to be deplored, on account of the Europeans. We went to the 
English school and heard some of the first class read. Here, as in the 
Free Church Mission, none are admitted to the English school imtil they 
have j|assed through a vernacular one. The American Mission, wisely I 
think in this place, rather discourages the boys from learning Enffhsh, 
and endeavours to give them a solid education and thorough knowledge 
of Scripture in their own tongue. Some of the elder scholars read 
beautifully; the subjects were more simple than in the Free Church 
schools — I might say more juvenile, but they are taught in a venr 
tiioroogh manner, and translate everything into Mahratti, explaining all 
difficult words. They also answered very fairly in geography, and sang 
a hjmin nicely. Some of them are paid for their attendance, in order to 
retain them longer in the school. They are chiefly of the lower castes. 
Mr. Munger drove with us to one of the five schools superintended by 
Miss Farrer. I cannot tell you how our hearts warmed to her when she 
oame forward, the very- pattern of a Christian old maid ; so clean, a little 
formal in her curtsy, and!^so full of heart, and energy, and devotion to her 
work, in which she has been engaged twenly-three years. 

It was a touching sight, to see rows of little native girls in every 
variety of picturesque colour and garment (some with their little soft 
infantme bodies bare down to the waist), reading, singing, and receiving 
Christian instruction. The woman who collects them and brings them 
to school, learns with them, and a great girl who is lame, is so attached 
to the school, that by her entreaties, she prevailed on her parents to let 
her return, after she had been taken away. They learn arithmetic, 
writing, and geography, and showed the places on the map of India very 
weU. Miss Farrer has a Sabbath class, which they all attend, and at 
which she can speak more freely to them, from the absence of the heathen 
teachers who assist her on other days. There was one little fat child, 
whose dress consisted chiefly in a pointed cap tied imder her chin. It 
looked like a little pixy, with such arch merry black eves. 

We then went to see Mrs. Burgess's school, also for girls, but older 
than the last, and chiefly boarders. They read and repeated large 
portions of Scripture in Marathi, showed a good knowledge of the map 
of Europe, and excelled any I have seen in mental aritnmetic. One 
question which they answered immediately was — ^If four-fifths of ten are 
two-sevenths of another number, what is that number? Mrs. Burgess 
is a very fine creature, evidently full of intellect and energjr. Miss 
Farrer told me, that in several cases her former pupils have visited her, 
and she has visited them after their marriage. She knows of some ^kcv 
are going on well, others have taught tacvr W^oDJ^a Xa^ x«&^» ^»s!w 



224 MISS BUBGESS* 8CH0OL—AUEANGAJBAD. 

inquirer applied to another mission, I think in Gujerat, for Instniction. 
" How did you learn to read P" ** My wife taught me." ** Youp wife ! 
where did she learn P" "At Miss Farrer's school at Bombay." Mrs, 
Burgess also has one married pupil, whom she sees, and who appears to 
remember what she has learnt. We saw two little girls, nieces of the 
Brahman convert who assists Mrs. Burgess, and dau^ters of his Chris* 
tian brother, who assists Miss Farrer. They seemea pleased to shake 
hands with me, but looked a little frightened when the Slhib put out his 
hand too. Mrs. Burgess teaches the girls to sing on HuUah's system, 
and consequently they are the best singers I haveneard. It was curious 
to hear them sol, fa* 



CHAPTER XXn. 

We left our kind hosts with much regret, in two Nagar carts. We 
got in to Tokah, on the Godaveri, a very pretty spot, early the next 
morning, April 14th, and stayed all day in the bungalow. The heat of 
the day was intense. Started at seven p.m., and crossed the Godaveri 
into the Nizam's territories. The cry of my Madras bearers is very 
Inusical : it is in three notes, something like " Ah ! ih ! 6h ! " About 
dawn I woke, and found myself in a large plain, bounded by most curious 
truncated hills, rising very abruptly out of the level ground, and looking 
like waDs and fortifications more than natural barriers. Brigadier 
Twemlow had very kindly sent his carriage to meet us; and we had a 
pleasant drive into Aurangabad. There were phankahs in the drawing- 
room, the first we have seen, except in dining-rooms, since we landed. 
This is generally the hottest month. How grateful should we feel to our 
Heavenly Father, who has thus graciously tempered the season for us. 
I firmly believe that such is the perfection of His scheme of government, 
that everytlung works for good to each one of His people, while at the 
same time it works that which is best suited to His plan as a whole ; so 
that this mild season is at once a peculiar mercy to t^, and a part of the 
grand scheme of the universe. 

Aurangabad was in a great measure built by the Emperor Aurangzeb, 
about the time of Charles II. Here we tasted the popoi, a delicious 
fruit, something hke a sweeter and more tender melon ; and custard- 
apples, also exceedingly good, for the first time. We saw some of the 
Nizam's cavalry this morning: they are the fiiiest in India; most of their 
horses Arabs. 

Tuesday, April 16th. — Started very early for a tomb built by Aurang^ 
zeb in honour of his daughter. We saw the great extent of the old city, 
ajid how sadly its proportions have now shrunk. The tomb is an imita- 
tion of the T^i, but does not possess its perfect proportions. Most of it 
is of stone, chunamed ; and where the cnimam has fallen off, the stone 
quickly perishes. On entering the mausoleum, you look down on the 
vault where the tomb Hes : it was covered with wreaths of flowers, 
brought the day before by a party of Mussalmanl ladies, who had come 
to pray there. A great part of the building is evidentljr intended for 
living in, as it has chambers and rings all around for awnings. Started 
again in our palkis after dinner. 

Early in the morning reached the tents ; pitched in the shade of some 

beautiful trees near the villapje of Baltri. We reached Ajanta early next 

morning, and met a very kind welcome from Mrs. G. Her husDand, 

Captain G., ia employed by Gov eTnTOfiiit to Taake drawings of the fiunons 



SACK OF MALEAFUB. 225 

caves at Ajanta, and he has two very clever native draughtamen under 
him. They are the only Europeans here, and live in a native house, 
where " the Duke" stayed after the battle of Assaye, and which they 
have made very comfortable. It is a very monotonous and lonely life for 
Jtfrs. G., her children being very young and her husband constantly 
away for ten days at a time, and imder no circumstances can he be at 
home in the day. The skulls of thirty-six tigers, all of which he has 
killed, adorn his oflSce. Opposite the windows is a rugged rocky gully, 
now dry, down which a roaring waterfall rushes during the rains. The 
country is infested with tigers ; one was killed in Captain Gill's Ghusal 
Xhana (bath room) only three years ago. 

The next day, Friday, 19th April, some poor Sikhs were brought before 
mj husband, haying conie to the Dekkan on pilgrimage, and oeing de- 
tamed on suspicion of being implicated in the late disturbances, or rather 
because they were Sikhs. So C. gave them a paper stating that he con- 
sidered them peaceable men, who should be allowed to go their way. 
This and a present of ten rupees, with the exclamation of " \Va Ji Gurii 
ka Fatteh !*' (Victory to the Guru !) their own war-ciy, greatly consoled 
the poor men. The Eajputs of the Dekkan are greatly oppressed by the 
Mussalmans. A short time ago the Rajput ryots rose, were joined by 
AfghknB, Arabs, EiohiUas, and the hordes of masterless men who infest 
this coimtry in the hope of fighting, and especially plunder ; among them 
300 Sikhs. They burned and plundered Malkapur to the amount of 
upwards of two lakhs of rupees. All this had been foreseen beforehand, 
and had been reported to the Eesident ; for strange to say, to such a 
height is the system of non-interference carried, that the Brigadiers 
cannot take the smallest step outside of their own cantonments without 
the permission of ihie Eesident at Hyderabad. This delay costs a fort- 
night from Elichpur, consequently the foreseen outbreak was allowed to 
tale place ; the city was ruined ; and when all was over, a large detach- 
ment £ram the Aurungabad and Elichpur divisions was sent into the 
field, where they have remained ever since, shutting the stable door after 
the steed is stolen. The absurdity of this monstrous system is the more 
palpable, if you reflect that the Nizam's army is bond fide the army of 
the Nizam. The Brigadiers are in his service, and yet they are restrained 
by^ tihe British B«sident from being of the smallest use either to him or 
his dominions ; so that if a village were attacked, and 500 women and 
children impaled or crucified a hundred yards outside cantonments, the 
Bngsulier would have no power to interfere. 

We left Ajanta in the evening ; stopped the next day at Bodur. 

This night we halted about midnight (to allow the bearers to rest as 
usual) imder the walls of Malkapur, in an open space, from which a 
leopard had just been driven. The town was completely deserted, and 
the troopers said tiiie ravine below was still full of dead bodies. It was 
the first time I had ever seen a deserted place, and the perfect stillness 
where so short a tune ago there was a busy and swarming population, 
made a most painful impression on the mind. The town is now left to 
wild beasts. My husband rode off to the camp of the detachment (sent 
out to look at Malkapur afVer it was burnt) . The Nawab of Jhulgan had 
bad tenia pitched for us in a Mussalman burying-ground, and conse- 
quently in a pleasant spot, with a good well and fine trees, for these are 
tne usual accompaniments of their burial places. The Nawab sent us an 
excellent dinner— the native cookery is, 1 think, very good-^-and in the 
evening paid mj husband a long visit. Some of the ^^oos liaMssR^^^s^s^, ^& 
the Nizam's prheUe vamj are called, formed oux gv»x^ dsoLfm^ ^^ ^ai^ 



226 NAWAB ALAM ALI KHAK. 

Thev were, quite ragged and thin, for they get no par. One of them told 
zny husband that his father and brothers were small landed proprietors 
near Benares, that he had come to the Dakhan to seek his fortmie, and 
that now he would willingly go back if it were not for shame, lest his 
relations should say to him, "Kyun gayaP Kyun a3raP" — "Why did 
YOU go ? Why are you come P" C. gave them a bakshish, whi<^ doubt- 
less consoled the poor things a little. I forgot to say that we were met 
by all the dignities of the town, forming quite a gallant Sawarrl (a 
procession on horseback). 

Monday, April 22nd. — ^Eeached Bowen Bir just at sunrise — a lovely 
spot. The son-in-law of the old Nawab, Alam All KhAn, a pensioned 
!Kesaldar, was waiting to receive us, having pitched tents for oar accom- 
modation, and soon after the fine old man himself arrived. Tliey are so 
fair that their Afghan descent is evident. The old Nawab is upwards of 
eighty, but quite vigorous, with a clear blue eye and white beard. I 
wish you could have seen the lovely spot in wnich we were encamped. 
It was again in a Mussalman burying-ground, with paths in every direction 
through the grove of trees, which consisted of Nlm, pipal, and other fine 
branching trees, with the tall graceful palms towering among thenL 
You cannot think how beautiful the red glow of sunrise looks tlurou^ a 
grove of palms. The thermometer was 101° in tiie tent, and there was 
no wind to enable us to have tattis; yet this is a wonderfully cool 
season. 

In the aflemoon the old Nawab came again and paid a long visit. He 
was Besaldar, or Native Commandant of Major Davies's regiment, which 
many years ago mutinied, owing tothefoUy of the Adjutant, who hadnot 
only made all the men cut their hair short, but had dissraced some of them 
by having their moustaches forcibly shaved. AlamA1iK"h4n warned Major 
Davies that a mutiny was highly probable, and advised him to allow those 
who objected to have their beards cut to take their discharge. MsM 
Davies was a man much beloved by, and of great influence amon^uie 
men, but he had clearly lefb too much power to the Adjutant. (Imaigine 
an officer writing in the papers the other day, and saying, that when he 
was Adjutant he had entire command of ms regiment* This is in ihe 
true BengaK fashion. A man of five-and-twenty, and perhaps younger, 
is seldom fit to command a regiment ; at least a man of foi^ ought to 
do it better : but so little are some commanding officers acquainted witii 
their men, that I know an instance in which one was obliged to send for 
his native officers the day before presentmg them to the GovenKV- 
General to learn their names, though he had been in command some 
months). Major Davies agreed with the Besaldar's proposal, but the 
mutiny was beforehand with him. He lefb Alam Ali EMn to take care 
of his young wife, and rode to the parade. At first he reasoned with the 
men, who excused themselves ; he then ofiered a free pardon to aU 
except the ringleader. The latter approached in a supplicating attitadey 
and shot him through the body. He just succeeded in reacliing his own 
Compound, and fell off his horse withm sight of his poor wife, who was 
waitmff breakfast for him, His young second in command put himself 
at the head of that portion of the Basallah which remained fmthful, and 
pursued the mutineers, who had taken possession of a small Maqid at 
some distance ; nothing daunted by their, superioriiy in numbers, he 
immediately attacked them, forced me doors with great loss of life on 
his own side, and left not one of the mutineers alive to tell the tale. 

A large cobra capello was killed near the tent, and brought fior m to 
0ee, We /bond our own tents W8A\iing{oT\]A «X> KksAA^^sijithd old "int^LUij 



FOBTBESS OF GJLWIL GHAB. 227 

whom I was quite glad to see again. Before sunrise we had reached 
Eliehpiir. 

Wednesday, April 24th. — There was a beautiful range of hills on our 
left with sharp and broken peaks. Our way lay across a rich plain of 
black cotton soil (so called because the cotton plant requires the richest 
earth), studded with fine trees. At the top of a little rising ^und 
beheld our house, to which my dear husband welcomed me. It is very 
nice and commodious; the garden and outhouses are also very good. 
The former is well stocked with manffo, citron, orange, and other fruit 
irees, also roses and many flowering shrubs. The heat increased every 
day at Elichpur, so that we arranged to go up to Chikaldah. 

Saturday, May 4th. — Had a beautiful drive to Imlibagh (or the Mango 
Garden) Bungalow at the foot of the Ghat. T^ere we mounted. It was 
a lovely ride, and the increasing coolness of the air quite invigorated us. 
The famous Fortress of Gawil Ghar crowns the hill on the right. It was 
taken by the Duke and General Stevenson, and it was up the precipitous 
Ghat we ascended that the Duke brought his guns. Aji excellent pre- 
paration it must have been for Si)anish warfare. We rode through part 
of the Fort, passing the gate which was carried by H.M.'s Royals. It 
is studded with long spikes to prevent its being forced open by elephants. 
Then we came to the beautiful table-land at the top of the hills. We 
went to see our own house ; it is very small, but the view is lovely. We 
are on a promontory ; a magnificent banian tree (Jicus religiosa) on the 
right hand, and many other fine trees round about. The change of 
climate is delightful, and we found it quite cool at night. 

Tuesday, May 7th. — Rode at gunfire to the Andhera Kora, or Dark 
Valley, It is very grand. A magnificent amphitheatre stretches out at 
one's feet, and far below we saw tne great forest trees diminished to the 
size of dirubs. This is the favourite resort of herds of bison. Another 
morning we rode to the Amjira (or Mango Fountain). It is quite a 
different kind of scenery ; a most lovely valley filled with magnificent 
trees. It is hard to say whether the sterile grandeur of the Dark Corrie 
or the rich luxuriance of this one is the most beautiful. Another 
morning we went to Park Point, which haFbeen so named from its 
resemblance to anEnghsh park, and a herd of deer crossing it completed 
the likeness. In fact, it would be impossible to describe half the varied 
beauties of these hills. I greatly prefer them to the Himalayas, for 
there is much greater variety here, and the mountains are far more 
picturesque in form. It was most beautiful in the evening at Elichpur, 
to see the fire running up the mountain side. One night the whole of 
one of the peaks was clothed in fiam^. These fires are constantly 
occurring in the dry season, and they greatly contribute to the fertihty 
of the ground. Another morning we rode to the Fort. It is a most 
picturesque place, containing tank beyond tank for the supply of the 
garrison. It is now in ruins, inhabited, onlvby some Rajputs and Gk)ndB 
Pffill people). My Turki carried mo up places as steep as a staircase, 
and so slippery that I wondered how he could keep his feet. 

I wish you could see the lovely flowering trees ; the Fort abounds 
with them. C. has been out several times tracking bison. They are 
enormous creatures, eighteen to nineteen hands high, not shaggy like 
the North American bison, but of a rich brown colour, with a ridge 
rather than a hump along the back. They do much mischief, destroying 
the fields, and even kifling people. They travel very fast in grazing, 
and require to be approached with as much caution as deer. 

June 28th.— The rains began about three w©eV» «^xi(ie,\iTyX.TiQ\»V^"N5f^ * 

q2 



228 STOBY OV A BAKKEB. 

They have made a delightful chaDge in the weather. We are now glad 
to wear warm dresses. 

JiJy lOth— Captain M. has just been telling me the history of a most 
iniquitous native oanker, named Kishen Das. Kundun Midi, the chief 
banker here, once gave out that Kishen Das was bankrupt. A third 
Saodager believing this, accepted from Ejshen Das bad aebts to the 
amount of 15,000 rupees in payment of a debt for that amount— thos 
compromising it for about a fifth. It turned out to be a false report, so 
Xundun Mall gained the bitter enmity of Kishen Das, and the latter 
paid 15,000 rupees in cash with the same amount of bad debts. Soon 
after, Kundun Mall was going to Hindustan to contract a marriage wiiih 
the daughter of a ^eat banker there. Some one supposing Eishen Das 
to be a mend of his, wrote to tell him that £undun Mail ought by no 
means to marry thegirl, for she was of low caste. Kishen Das kept the 
matter secret, and Kundun Mall went to Hindustan and broujo^ht back 
his young wife. Kishen Das, who had been collecting proofi of the 
truth of the information he had received, then accused him of having 
thus married and got him turned out of his caste. The only way Kundim 
Mall could be restored was by buying over the accuser to propose iis 
restoration ; then he had to give lar^e sums to procure his reinstatement, 
and finally to dismiss his wife, thus mcurring the enmity of her familf, 
who had taken him in. I thought these traits of native character mi^t 
interest you. 

Monday, August 12fch. — ^As there was to be wrestling and diven 
cames at the Fort, my husband gave Aga Sahib twen^-nre rupees to 
distribute in prizes, and allowed zul our people to go. 1 went the other 
day to see tne mother of our huntsman, who was iU with fever and a 
very bad cough. Her house is in the Fort, and I never saw anything 
cleaner. It was of mud, with light only from the door. The old woman 
was in the centre compartment, which was large, the floor raised, and 
beaten quite hard. There were two side divisions separated by a wall 
running hali-way up to the ceiling, in each of which was one of her 
daughters-in-law. They were very young, with gold-leaf on their fore- 
heads. I visited one, because she was sick ; and when I returned, tiie 
mother asked me if I ever went hunting, and if I would like to see acme 
shikar (game). I said I did not hunt, but I should like to see the game ; 
whereupon an elderlv woman ushered me into Mangal Sing's part of tiie 
house, and I found the " game" in the shape of a joxmg wue, who stared 
at me most industriously. The fireplace for cooking and many bundles 
filled her compartment. 

Wednesday. — C. and I were returning from our early walk thii 




C. was exceedingly diverted at this martial mite of a thine, gave hnn 
what he asked, and meeting him afterwards, wrestled wiHiiiim ; so in 
the evening, when Aga Sahib, as usual, was with us, he came up to him, 
saying, " I nave wrestled, and it is the Sahib's order that you give me a 
present," which the Aga, of course, hastened to do. Aga Muhammad is 
most useful. He writes my husband's Persian letters, and is quite a 
gentleman, often walks and hunts with him, and generally oomes in 
everjr evening, when I play. His enjoynaent of music is very great. His 
wife is a very fine, handsome creature, with a very noble expressimi. He 
is teaching her to read. He joined us the other morning, and after I 
went in, aaid, ** It would be very i^\MA«n\> \a \>^ iiSc»V& \k^ ^e one's wife 



DEBT— ^JLUSBS OF. 229 

abodt with one thus." ''Of course it is/* said my hoBband. /'It is 
haTing a very low opinion of women to think that they cajmot mix with 
their fellow-creatures without thinking of running away." " It is a very 
^reat nuisance," said Aga Muhammad, emphatically. ** But what can I 
do P" The people here, especially the Mussulmans, are not to be com- 
pared to those on the frontier for either intelligence or activity. Aga 
Miihammad himself said they were far worse than the Hindus — ^more 
ixnmoral, greater Uars, and greater cheats— which is quite true. 

I have mentioned the wonderful way in which every one's character, 
habits, and circumstances are known and canvafised from one end of 
India to the other. It is truly astonishing! A shameful want of prin- 
ciple in money transactions is but too common here, and I am sorry to 
say more general among military men than among civilians. At the 
same time there is less excuse for a civilian, for his pay is higher, he is 
more stationary, and is not liable to be moved every year, orben to sta- 
tions where he has to build a house, which is no sooner completed than 
he is marched awav. Civilians have also less idle time on their hands, 
which is a ^reat blessing to them. Sir Charles Napier has been doing 
great good oy rejecting all applications for mercy to officers who have 
been found guilty of dishonourable conduct in money matters. Almost 
evOTybody in India is in debt, and everybody avows it, and seems to look 
on it as a matter of course. 

This is true enough in some cases, where officers, having been obliged 
to buy or to bmld houses, are suddenly ordered to a fresh station. The 
frequent and unnecessary removes of regiments are the most frequent 
causes of debt to military men ; the expense of marching is enormous, 
to say nothing of the loss incurred in seUing and purcha^g furniture ; 
and whenever they have to buy or to build a house, they are generally 
obliged to borrow money fr9m some one of the banks, which, nominally 
charging 10 per cent., contrives, in reality, to exact at the least 15. That 
tme soldier's friend, Sir Charles Napier, saw the hardship of these inces- 
sant removes, and intended, if possible, to leave every regiment at least 
three years in one place. Another cause which often cnpples an officer 
is the necessity of taking sick leave for himself, or of sendmg home his 
wife or children. There are two boons which the army might justly 
claim from a paternal Government : one is, tihat sick leave should be 
reckoned in the period of service, and Plough to England as furlough 
to the Cape ; and the other, that when a station is abolished, a certain 
£xed sum, according to his rank, should be paid to each officer as com- 
pensation for his house. If to this were added loans from Government 
of a certain amount, to be repaid by monthly instalments, deducted from 
the pay (with or without interest at 6 per cent.), to officers obHged to 
build on the formation of new cantonments, there would be an end of 
half the unavoidable debts which oppress the army. As the formation 
and abolition of stations are purely acts of Grovemment, it is but (ait 
that officers should not be ruined by them. The purchase of steps and 
expensive messes are two other fertile sources of debt to young officers. 

The extravagant profusion in which the British in India formerly 
lived, is now almost unknown. An officer told me that, when he entered 
the service as comet, he thought it necessary to have a set of silver 
dishes, covers, and wall shades 1 I really think the ladies in Lidia much 
less esctravagant than their husbands ; and often the best thing a man 
can do to get out of debt is to take unto himself a wife. I have been 
quite touched by the self-denial and exertions of women. (jwLONi^RpcEss^ 
before their marriage to every comfort), m ot^et \/i ^nq\\ Ss^sssisca^ 



230 CITIL AKB ICILITAttT SEBYICES. 

debt, or from an honourable desire to liquidate those already- incnired 
by their husbands. Another wonderful fact in Indian life is, that women 
of undeniably bad character are received by those whose own lives are 
unblemished. 

My impression of Indian society is, that in ability and uprightness 
both the military and civil services are unsurpassed by any omer body. 
The average amount of talent appears to me decidedly above that of 
English society at home ; and the reason is evident — in India a man has 
opportunities of developing whatever faculties nature has given him, 
which would not be afforded in Europe until they began to decay. A 
mihtary man, by the time he is thir^ ^ears of age, has often acted as 
quartermaster to a division, or been left in sole charge of a detachment, 
perhaps of a regiment, in an enemy's coxmtry ; he may have becai sole 
magistrate of a large cantonment ; and has probably act«d as post- 
master, paymaster, brigade-major, and commissariat-officer, or has com- 
manded a regunent in action; perhaps, has been transferred from an 
infantry corps to one of irregular cavalry, acted as political assistant, 
made treaties with hostile tribes, settled questions of revenue or tribute, 
besides having to build his own house and his wife's carriage. 

A young civilian, with less variety of work, is even more uncontrolled, 
and has often greater responsibility thrown upon him. He is probably 
put in charge of a district half as large as England ; with the combined 
duties of ma^strate and revenue commissioner, he may be called on to 
defend his district as he best can ; to suppress an outbrealc ; to seize 
conspirators ; to trace gang robberies and wholesale murders ; and is 
advanced to high judicial, financial, or poUtical Amctions, while still in 
the full possession of all the faculties of vigorous manhood. No wonder 
that a clever youn^ civilian, who returned to England four years after 
he entered the service, when my husband asked him if he were not sen* 
sible of a great difference between himself and the ^oung men of his own 
age with whom he had renewed acquaintance, rephed, " To tell you the 
truth, I find thej are boys, and I feel myself a man." 

The isolated hfe civilians so often lead, and the lai^e amount of autho- 
rity and responsibility committed to them at so ear^ an a^, probably 
accounts for the fact, that you scarcely meet a young civiHan whose 
manner has not far too much confidence and pretension to be that of 
fi^ood society — where modesty, if not genuine, is at least feigned. As they 
grow older, this generally wears off; and as, en massct fliey are more 
highly educated than military men, you meet very gentlemanly as wdl 
as accomplished and agreeable civilians. Young officers, though not 
often so weU-informed as yoimg civilians, have generally much better 
manners, and would be better received at home ; for nothing corrects 
conceit and presumption so much as constant intercourse with equali 
and superiors, as in a regiment. One hears of jealousy between the two 
services, but I have never seen anything of it. The recent improvement 
in the religious and moral standard at home causes a marked difierenee 
between the majority of men under fifty and those above it. 

But if the gentlemen in India are above the home average, the ladies 
are certainly below it. Young men constantly make inferior marriages ; 
and girls, after having been deprived of a mother's care haJf their hvea, 
are brought out and married far too young — ^before their education (if 
they have had any) is finished, or their minds formed, and before they 
have enjoyed what, in the present deficient system, is often the best part 
of a giTia training — ^the advantage of intercourse with really Rood 
society. They have thoB no stands^d oi maaoxvist^ est \aeto by 'whico to 



PBECSDSKGS— BIBAB FSYEB. 281 

test the manners of those among whom they are thrown ; they pro- 
bably many under eighteen, often imder sixteen, and adopt the strangest 
phraseology from l^eir husbands and their husbands* friends. It is 
common to hear ladies speaking not only of their husbands by their sur- 
names (a thing impardonable, except of a ^eer), but of other gentlemen 
in the same manner ; talking of " our kit/' and using such terms as 
"joUy," "pluck," "acoolthingi" "lots," "rows," and "no end of 
things!" 1 think the wives of inilitary men are worse in this respect 
than those of civilians. 

The families of civilians intermarry very much among themselves. The 
great precedency given to the Civil Service is a curiousfeature in Indian 
society. A civilian of four years* standing ranks with a captain, one of 
ei^t years with a major, one of twentv years with a colonel. 

Xoss of rank and importance, as well as of their ample allowances, is 
doubtless a great reason why civilians, and especiaUgr their wives, so 
often dislike England on their first return to it. Precedence is so much 
attended to in India, that it is the custom for no one to leave a party 
before the great lady of the evening takes her departure ; and a lady 
whose right to be led to table by her host had been overlooked, has been 
Imown to refuse going to the dming-room until the delinquent returned 
to conduct her thither. After being ih.e recognised Ban Bibi, or great 
lady of a station, or perhaps of a presidency, for a number of years, to 
xetum home and find that a civilian is considered by most people as 
something between a merchant and a police magistrate (they do not 
exactly know which), and that his wife is placed after any captain's wife 
she may happen to meet, is a sad downfall! 

There is certainly a great amount of domestic happiness in India* 
Married people are in many cases so entirely thrown upon each other, 
not only for sympathy, but for conversation and amusement, that they 
become knit much more closely than when each has a thousand distrac* 
tions, and separate ways of spending the dav. 

The lady cannot spend her mormngs in shopping or visiting, nor the 
gentleman at his Club. They generally drive or ride together efery 
evening, and many married people, when separated, write to each other 
every day. 

Circumstances which tend to promote such a high degree of conjugal 
union and sympathy, surely cannot be considered merely as hardships. 

Q!lie news of an impending attack on the JSTawib induced my husband 
to resolve on returning to Elichpiir, as he did not like to be absent at 
such a time, though he is strictly forbidden to interfere. There have 
been severs^ fiffhts in the neighbourhood, and all sorts of atrocities com- 
mitted on the defenceless villages. 

Saturday, August 24th, 1850. — ^Nine of our servants have been ill at 
once with jBirar fever, which is always prevalent when the rains cease, 
which they have done for a month past. It is a kind of typhus, with 
dreadful headache and brown tongue. Several of the people nave been 
in great danger. We gave Warburg's invaluable tincture to two of 
them, and treated all the rest homoeopathically, and I am thankful to 
saythey are all recovering. Aga Sahib has been very ill indeed. 

Thursday, September 12th.— -I am quite pleased and happy at having 
been the means of releasing some prisoners. It fell out thus :— A poop 
Afgh^ml came to beg for some assistance. Her husband was sick, and 
bad been in prison for about eighteen months on suspicion of being con- 
cemed in some of the disturbances which are always going on in thi& 
country. 0. allowed her two annas a day, iot ^<& ^sA V«t ^«5w^:&Kt. 



838 ''l AND HY SWOBD"— TBABS. 

were nearly starved ; he told me of this, and I wbs so horrified at the 
idea of this man and eighteen or twenty others being imprisoned so long 
without trial, that I entreated him to bestir himself for their release. He 
accordingly called for a return of the prisoners, and then desired them 
to petition the Nizam's Goyermnent, and forwarded their petitions to 
Hyderabad. The consequence is, that thejr have been tried and all re- 
leased. Imagine the apathy of the officers in command here during the 
last two years leaving these men in prison without inquiry. One was a 
respectable old Pandit, against whom there was not even a charge; 
another, a gallant old soldier, whom they seized at prayers, slyly draw- . 
ing away bis sword from him. It has since been stokn, and C. is tiying 
to recover it for him, for.he loves it much. He said, " I and my swora 
were in prison." He said he was ashamed to go back to his house after 
being in prison ; but C. told him his imprisonment was nothing to that 
whieh he himself had undergone, and cheered and helped the old man as 
he had the Pandit, — and I am happy to say the swora was recovered. 

The evenings and mornings are delightful, there is always a cool 
breeze and cool night. The sunsets are most beautifuL^ and the sight of 
the hills is a perpetual source of pleasure to us. Aga Sahib has not yet 
shaken off the fever. One day when he had been very ill his wife told 
me in his presence, that he had wept much, thinking he should not 
recover. Whj is it that we are ashamed of tears P Ko English lady 
would have said this of and before her husband, and yet the A^hans are 
as hardy and brave a people as any in the world ; and " Hezemah wept 
sore." We have since sent the A^a and several of our sick servants oat 
to Bergam for change of air. It is a place about five miles off, where 
we have a shooting-box, consisting of one room about ten feet square^ 
sufficient to shelter one during the heat of the day when tents are not 
cool enough. It is on a hill, and the air is thought very fineu A fiight- 
ful murder of a Sepahi of the 7thE>egiment was oiscovered on SatardJij. 
His body was found in the " Do," or deep water, almost dose to cm 
Compound, by a bearer who went down to fish. My husband immedi- 
atdy went to the place. The body was horribly mutilated ; the lipfl^ 
eyelids, and ears being cut off, a deep gash across the face, and another 
on the arm, but none on the trunk. The surgeon and officers were wdl- 
nigh sick. The unfortunate man has been missing since Thursday, and 
was doubtless murdered that evening. Some people haye been ar- 
rested on suspicion, but the inquest on Saturdfa^ revealed littie. I 
went up to Chikaldah to nurse poor Mrs. , who is dangerously ilL 

C. has just given me a most beautiful lark, which imitates 1 know not 
how many creatures — chickens clucking and screaming, the cry of the 
hawk, a puppy whining, yelping, and barking, as if some one had trodden 
on its tau, a tattu neighing (so that a cock really neighs), the note of 
the partridge, pee-wit, mina, bulbul, &o. It is Icept covered up, and 
wakes me in the morning with its sweet song. One of the ordedief 
takes care of it, and gives it'a walk with its cage uncovered morning and 
evening, and catches grasshoppers for it. The Mussalmans here are 
extremely fond of these birds, and early in the morning you see numben 
of Sepahis, each with a Httle cage in his hand, airing his lark. They 
look like Horace Yemet*s youn^ recruit bringing back a canary from 
his foraging expedition. These birds cost as much as 40 rupees, mine 
was 20, ana it is indeed most cheerful to hear its varied notes aU dijf 
long. 

Ineard some curious anecdotes of the acuteness of Police tSuipn/aB 
Just before I left Elichpur. One o^'xxxt^^ ^^ q>^t dacj-^ some btnii^ 



ACUTJBNB6S OF OHAPRA8I8. 233 

and otber ornaments were stolen. Some Chaprasis went to the house of 
the suspected person, but for a long time could find nothing, they tapped 
the wails, examined the floo£^-t£ere were no laraees. At last one of 
them took up a bottle. " What is in it ?" said he. "Oil." "But what 
is in the oilr" said the crafty searcher. He poured it out, and diere 
were the broken ornaments. Another instance occurred some years ago 
«t Hingoli A man was found dead in the Hawina (place for euttij^ 
Arass), murdered by a blow with a sickle. One who hiui a quarrel wim 
him was suspected, and a Chaprasi* named Lachman set on in search of 
lum. " You nearly killed that man," said he, *' by knocking him down 
in tJbe Kamna., he has lodged a complaint against you before the Bri^- 
dier, and I am sent to fetch you." " Oh, but he struck me first," rephed 
the guihy man, " and left me for dead after I had hit him." " Well, 
ocmie along and tell your own story." As they entered the Bazar the 
murderer saw by the manner and iests of Lachman, and his comrade, 
that he had been imposed upon, and took to his heels, but they were too 
•quick for him, and speedily captured him. He afterwards confessed the 
murder and was hung. 

CHAPTER XXni. 

IFbidat, 18th Octobeb. — ^My dear husband came to take me back to 
Slichpur^ but was taken exceedingly ill with Birar fever, and was for 
«ome days in ^at danger. Warburg's fever tmcture, which is ahnost 
n. specific for this fever, was the means, under God, of savinc his life. It 
fttopped the fever at once. I could not have borne the dreadful amdety, 
had not comfort been grant-ed me &om on high. No words can tell the 
support I derived from remembering the human nature of our Blessed 
Xiord, "God manifest in the flesh," therefore able to save to the 
uttermost, and yet to bear with our infirmities. When I thought of his 
** strong crving and tears" — and remembered that he was heard in that he 
feared,^eb. v. 7, 1 felt that he could and did understand, and sympa- 
thize with and pity my weakness, and doubts, and agonies, and that ne 
would pardon my impatience and importunity. That passage also, in 
£)zodus, iii. 7, 8, where the Most High declares, " I have seen tibie afflic- 
tion of my people, and have heard their cry, I know their sorrows, and 
am come down to dehver them," was of inexpressible comfort to me. 

We returned to cantonments on the 13th November. My husband 
had a return of fever on the 24th, and then came most vigorous prepara- 
tions for our journey to Bombay, with the prospect of going to the 
Cape for eighteen months* sick leave. 

Wednesday, December 18. — Got to Jaffirabad about six. This is the 
prettiest camping ground we have been at. It was in the midst of an old 
and very extensive Muhammadan burying ground, showing that the place 
had formerly been a large town. A litue Masjid was close to our tents, and 
we were surrounded by magnificent Banian and Tamarind trees. C. proved 
to the Sawars that they were wrong in throwing away the paper of their 
cartridges. They carry carbines, a very inefficient weapon on norseback, 
compared to the spear ; this change has recently been introduced by 
Colonel Beatson. In the evening we went to see the tomb of an an- 
cestor of the present Nawab of Jaffirabad, who fell at the ba,ttle of 
JBerhampur, between the Afghans and Mahrattas (the latter enacting the 

*C]iaiiraki8 are attached to every office in India; they are official jneaseng^ers^ 
Juiown hy their hadge.or ChaprSs. 



234 SEINFLIIYT^XHAZI BABUB* 

part of allies to tke King of Delhi), in the time of Timur Shah, fath^of 
Shah Shjjja, in which the former were victorious and carried off immense 
booty. Tne mother of this gallant Nawab lies in a sort of octagonal 
shrine, surroimded by a lattice, with a daughter on one side and a 
daughter-in-law on the other. Her tomb was covered with flowers, and 
ofierings of rags and threads, with many little earthen pots for lights, 
brought by the women of the place in the hope of obtainmg children or 
other blessings by her intercession; there is a little garden on one hand 
and a vei*y fine well on the other, with many flights of steps leadins^ to 
it; all this, together with the small mosque attached, were lormerlyEe]^ 
in order by the present Nawab Haider Ali, who lives at Haiderahad, 
though his two brothers reside here. He allowed a Faqir five m^es a 
montn to keep the shrine clean, the garden'in order, and a lamp burning by 
the tomb, but he is such a skinflint that he refuses to do this any longer. 
The Persian expression for skinflint is, "one who would make taUow m>m 
a fly." The Nawab gets a lakh, about £10,000, yearly from this Ja^dr, 
and ought in return to keep up 500 horsemen/but he only keeps £fty, 

Friday, December 20th. — ^Sose at two. The mornings are lovely. 
There is no such thing as the grey dawn here, it is all rose-coloured and 
golden. It is very beautiful to see the full moon riding high in the 
heavens and the clouds around it all tinged with red by the rising sun, 

Saturday, December 21st.— A beautiftd ride ; the country lull of 
streams, but like yesterday, miles of it without any cultivation ; in some 
; )laces the hedges remained, showing that the ground had been tilled not 
'. bng ago. We came suddenly to a steep descent : beneath us was a 
)asinj surrounded by hills of a curious shape, rising abruptly £rom the 
plain, and truncated at the top. Beached Ehazi Barur about half-past 
seven. Halted here for the Sabbath. 

Monday, December 23rd. — ^Eode into Aurangabad. "Near each town 
we have passed lately, there have been numerous ruins of houses and 
walls, showing how far more populous this country formerly waa. For 
miles before we reached Aurangabad, we rode among the ruins of streets 
and Mussalman tombs. There are also remains of grand old tanks and 
aqueducts, formed by the Mtihammadan emperors. 

Sketched three converts from JSTagar : HamcliAnder Mohak, a Brah- 
min, who was converted by reading the books which he was required to 
teach in the Missionary school at Nagar ; Bamji Bhore, of uie Gold- 
sinith caste, and Sidu, a Kunbi, or cultivator— both converted by beine 
pupils in the same schools. The first has been a Christian siz years, and 
is now a licensed preacher ; the others assist him in selling books. Mo- 
hak told us that the Mission has given up distributing books and tracts, 
finding that but little care is taken of them. They now onl^ sell them; 
but the people are not very willing to pay. 

On Saturday, 28th, rode to Dhaigam. 

Monday, December 30th. — ^Left Dhaigam at four a.m. : it was very 
cold ; the moon had just risen, and the morning-star soon followed it. 
Passed great fields of wheat ; lawari, a kind of grain, but with leaves 
like the maize and a great head of com in shape like the top of 
a thyrsis; and channa, or gram, a sort of vetch; yet still there is 
much uncultivated land. Crossed five streams; the last was the 
Grod^veri, on which Tokah is situated. One set of rooms was occupied 
by a young Englishman, travelling for his pleasure, with an "RtiglUh and 
a Portuguese servant, and a great train of horses, camels, &o. We 
joined forces , and found him pleasant and sociable. Aga MtShammad 
waa quite charmed with, a man tra^^^^ \^ %^^ >(S[i^ '^ocld, and amdf 



WALLSD TILLAGES. 235 

" How different is this from my countrymen, who, if they are rich, say, 
* Why should we go to foreign lands ? our fathers never did so. Do you 
take us for beggars P We have enough to live at home/ " We reached 
Sastapur about eight. The whole country is admirable for riding, as it 
consists of vast Kvel plains: no wonder the Mahratta cavalry was 
£imous. 

As Umrah, our lame Afghan Sais, did not come up, we sent two Sawars 
in the afternoon to look for him. They found him in a field three miles 
off, where he had been lying the whole day, all but insensible from fever 
and headache. He had brought up a great quantity of blood, which 
I think saved his life. We sent a pony for him, and when he came in 
put his feet in hot water. The Aga began to bathe his feet at once, and 
iwent to and fro for hot and cold water, while not one of the Hindustani 
Saises and other servants, who were close by, even turned their heads 
to see if they could be of any use. 

The humanizing effect of Christianity on the whole nation by whom it 
is professed, struck me forcibly; for in England, if a man had been 
brought in, in so dangerous a state, every member of the household would 
have crowded round him, at least, to see what was the matter. The Af- 
ghlms have far more energy, and therefore more heart, than the apathetiio 
natives. When poor Umrah got better, he told us he had been so ill 
that he made up nis mind to die. When he foimd himself xmable to 

STOceed, he desired the Ghascut who was with him to let the Sahib know 
ow ill he was. The Ghascut cared so little about leaving a fellow-crea- 
ture to die under this burning sun, that he never said one word about 
the matter ; for which C. gave him a richly-deserved beating, I used to 
think one should never have a servaQt beaten ; but I now see that in 
many cases there is no other way of punishing or reprimanding that 
th^ would in the least degree feel. 

Wednesday, January 1," 1851. — Got into Lnampur, fifteen miles, in two 
hours. Mucn of the country uncultivated, though the crops we saw 
were fine, and the soil apparently good. Almost all the villages are 
walled, and many have towers at each comer. 

There are a good many Muhammadan tombs near IS'ag^, as this was 
formerly the capital of one of the five kingdoms of the JDekkan. Our 
troops had much trouble in taking the city. Drova to the house of Mr. 
and Mrs. Burgess, the Missionaries. 

The next morning (Friday, 3rd) I was present at family worship, con- 
ducted by Mrs. Burgess, in Mahratti, for the younger children of the 
school ; and my husband at that conducted by Mr. Burgess, for the 
adults and elder girls. The class I saw, read a portion of Scripture 
fluently. Mrs. B. questioned them, and one of them repeated the His- 
tory of Jonah, which she had related to them the previous morning ; 
then they sxmg, and Mrs. Burgess concluded with prayer. These little 
Mahrattas are far more lively than Hindustanis, and some of them were 
as difficult to keep quiet as English children often are. I was pleased to 
see the attention paid to good manners. Mrs. Burgess rises and salutes 
them when they are aU assembled, they respond ; and each came and made 
salam to us on leaving. Mrs. Burgess has about thirty-five girls in her 
school, of whom about three-fourths are the children of Christian parents.. 
They aU sleep on the premises in a row of low outhouses, with an elderly 
Christian woman to take care of them. They sleep on the earthen floor 
wrapped up in E^mals (coarse black blankets). Those who are hea- 
thens have an eating room, where they take the food their mothers brini^ 
them* The Mission gives them occadionaWy a^m^i oi-^idsoi ^<:>'^<b'Qi« Tc^^ 



236 AMEBICAN HISSIOK— KATITX CHUBCH. 

are brought up entirely in the simple native fashion ; and, as a g&aerel 
rule, the girls are not taught English. 

Mr. Burgess is not mucn in fevour of Orphan Schools, on account of 
the. great demands they make on the time and funds of the Misaion, and 
the unpromising character of the children, who are generally below the 
average point in intelligence and character. I quite agree with him in 
the fact, which is to be expected in those who are generally children 
of the lowest and most degraded of the community; and also in 
thinking, that the certainty of being provided for acts as a narcotic, and 
prevent their making the best use of the powers they may be endowed 
with ; but I still thmk them most valuable when under the efficient super- 
intendence of a female Missionary, who can devote her whole time to 
them, and where the education is of such a nature as to fit them for 
instructing others, aud for being active helpmates to ^ture native 
Ministers and Catechists. The Mission here has been established about 
twenty years, and numbers upwards of 100 commimicants, including 
from eighteen to twenty who are scattered in different villages in the 
Warlia districts, near Tokah. Mohak and his wife live there ; and Wm 
Farrer is now staying there for the purpose of conversing with some 
female inquirers. It is considered one of the most promising districts in 
Western India. This side of India is the region where the Br4hmins 
retain most of their ancient authority and influence. It is only of late 
that the Brahmins of Bombay have condescended to enga^^e in secular 
occupati(nis, and this is even now unfrequent in the interior, but Ihdi 
hold on the people is daily diminishing. Mohak being a Brahmin, his 
conversion called forth great indi^iation ; and when he first settled at 
his present residence, me inhabitants refused him even water. They 
were at last obliged to let him have it; but the strong arm of the law 
alone prevented them from proceeding to violence. Only two female 
visiters have ever called on his wife. She spoke to them a little oe 
religion, and read te them, but they never came again. Nevertheletf 
there are several inquirers in the neighbourhood. Mr. Wilder has chazge 
of this district ; it seems a wise plan to place each circuit under a special 
Minister. 

The IS^ative Church appears to be in a sound and healthy condition. 
This is, I think, te ]>e attributed te the caution exercised in admitdiig 
members, and the efficient superintendence and care bestowed iqK>n the 
women by the female members of the Mission. "No children are ever 
baptized, save Uie infants of a Christian parent; whereas, in other 
Missions, orphans, of seven or eight years old, are constantiy baptized* 
on the ground that those who have the charge of the school stand in 
the relation of parents te l^em. Children mus baptized in Orphan 
Schools often turn out ill, and thus bring much great^ discredit on the 
Christian Church than would be possible if they had never been nominal 
members of it. 

In many Missions, from the female members of it being mere wives ci 
Missionaries, instead of Missionary wives, there are hardly any paine 
taken with the native Christian women, and tihey consequently diuionoar 
their profession by idleness, extravagance, love of dress, bod management 
of their children, and the absence of all exertion for the souls of othcn. 
I have known the wife of a Catechist brought up in an Orphan School 
in the most simple manner, and vet always dressed in clear musliiif 
running her husband inte debt by buying bears' grease and peiiumei; 
several who always employ tailors to make their own and their children'f 
clothes, they themselveB sittimg \di\e \h& -^\!^<b. ^cr« Wice each Jfi^ 



MEETINGS FOB W0ME17 AND OTHEBS. 237 

sionary lady assembles tke women wko live in her own Compound as 
often as she can. Mrs. Burgess said that Miss Farrer had particular 
talent for making them learn ; whether Christian or heathen, she makes 
them come (even the wives of the bearers), makes^ them read, and drills 
them admirably. Mrs. Burgess herself has about thirty-five Wbmen in 
her Compound. About ten who read well she meets three times a week, 
and is reading through the whole Bible with them, remarking upon and 
discussing the subject as they proceed; each commits one verse ta 
memory daily, which they repeat on the Sabbath. Ten or twelve othera 
are learning to read, one of the girls of the school teaches them daily, 
and Mrs. Burgess meets them once a week, reads to them, questions 
them, sometimes encourages them to pray, and sometimes closes the 
meeting by ^rajring herself. A third class of about twelve, are either 
too old or their sight too weak to give any hope of their ever learning to 
read. These she meets twice or thrice a week, teaches them the Uom- 
mandments, the Lord's Prayer, and the first principles of the Gospel. 

Besides this there is a meeting for the mothers of baptised infants (whe* 
fliep they themselves are baptised or not), which takes place once a month. 
lljps. Burgess and Miss Farrer conduct it by turns. They take any 
subject which bears on the duties of mothers, and endeavour to consider 
it folly. For instance, on one occasion the Seventh Commandment was 
treated of, and they^ were instructed in its requirements, and how to 
train their children in the ways of purity. Every three months the 
children of the members are examined, aud have refreshments and fruit 
grren to them, so that the little things look forward to the day as to a feast. 
Ohere are thirty-three female members, and about thirty-five children. 

Sahguna, the daughter of Harripant, a Brahmin convert (whose two 
brothers are also Christian men), is a sweet child about eight, in whom 
there is as much evidence of a renewed heart as a child of her age can 
give. Her sense of right is very strong ; every one knows that nothing^ 
can induce her to tell a falsehood. I took her likeness, she has a very 
Brahminical countenance, fair, intelhgent, and the haudiity air is soflened 
into an esnpression of quiet majesty I never saw equalled in a chHd. It 
is quite what a regal air ought to be. 

I sketched two others of the Mahar, or lower caste, one Yeshi (whose 
father is a Catechist and veiy useful man), a little girl of seven, very 
merry and intelligent ; and the other, a great girl, named Changuna, who 
18 very exemplary in her conduct, and whom Mrs. Burgess believes to be 
a converted person. Th^ were all dressed in their national costume : a 
reiy short jacket, of some gay colour, merely covering the bosom, sleeves 
to the elbow, with a variegated border; then a very ample Sari, i,e, a 
cloth of red, blue, or purple, fastened round the body, so as to form a full 
petticoat, and the other end brought over the head as a veil. They all 
wore a good many ornaments ; Sahguna a gold coin round her neck, gold 
earrings at the top of her ear, and coloured bracelets. Changuna wore 
a nose-ring, a silver ring on her wedding fioger, with a broad plate of 
silver the size of half-a-crown, used apparent^ as a mirror, and one on 
the corresponding toe of a conical shape. We have been reading Sir 
Charles Napier's farewell order, a most admirable one and most true. 
He is the very pearl of Commander-in-Chiefs, never even by tradition 
has there been such a one in India ; he is eccentric in some things, but 
he is in essentials a chivalrous soldier, of a frank, noble and generous 
natiure, with the true good and honour of the army at heart. 

Mrs. Burgess told me that it is not difficult to obtain wseesik V^ ^^c^ 
women in the villages. The Misfionarieft' wi7e» c^fieom^^so;:!} ^(!i!d8a>K:aadQWsc)&& 



238 DEFENCE OF IDOLATBY. 

on preaching tours, in order to visit the native women. On one occafiion 
last year Mrs. Burgess visited every house in a village and was well 
received in all except one, where they did not pay her much attention. 
Most of the inhabitants are Kunbis, or cultivators, but there are generally 
two or three Brahmins in each village, and the Mahars, or lowest caste, 
live in the outskirts. The Missionaries visit all without distinction. I 
asked her how she broached the subject of religion. She said she 
generally begins by remarking that we are all sisters, that we have all 
souls, and must all die, and then goes on to speak of the way of salvation. 
She said the women are of course more difficult to deal with than the 
men, from IJieir being in so degraded a position that their ignorance is 
extreme ; but she sometimes has very pleasing conversations witii them, 
and they frequently ask her to return and tell them more about these 
things. A short time since she had a very interesting conversation with 
an old Braminl. Mrs. Burgess said that the Missionaries always attack 
idolatry, and the people always confess it is unreasonable and sinful (just 
as we nave invariably found them do), except in the case of crafty Brah- 
mans, who defend their creed by subtle arguments which are sometimes 
very difficult to meet ; for instance, if you allege the folly of worshipping 
a stone, they reply on Pantheistic grounds, that Grod is everywhere, an^ 
therefore, in that stone. To this Mr. Munger repUes, that although in a 
certain sense the Divine presence may be said to be in that stone, yet 
that there is a difference between God and the stone — ^the two are not 
identical. How remarkable it is that in all false creeds tiliose who really 
believe least are the most stubborn and astute in maintaining error. 
Some of the Brahmins do not quite like to allow their families to be 
visited by Missionaries. The Choukedar, who as usual is a "Ra-rw^ialii, 
told 0. that he was a Christian. 

Saturday, January 5th.— Grot into Serur about eight o'clock. This is a 
village with a regiment of Irregular Cavalry, in verjr neat comfortable lines. 

Monday, January 6th. — ^Kondapur is very prettily situated, with three 
or four idol temples close to the iBimgalow, and in one place a number of 
stones daubed with red were set up for worship. Mangal Sing, our clever 
young Bajput huntsman, laughed when he saw my little dog Motley 

E laying with one. He told my husband spontaneously, that " when he 
card the name of God he listened," but that he never loined in any 
idolatrous rites — for they were folly. This morning on the road there 
was a girl sitting perfectly motionless on a heap of stones ; C. said to 
Mangal, and his Mahratta horsekeeper, " See, does she not look like an 
idolP" They both laughed at the resemblance, when he told them it 
would be more reasonable to worship her who was God's workmanfilup 
than a senseless idol fashioned by man. 

Tuesday, January 7th. — We were questioning the Aga last evening as 
to who were permitted to see Mussalmani women unveiled ; they aw 
fathers, uncles, brothers, cousins, and husbands* fathers and brothers; 
but before the latter they generally draw their veils. A confidential or 
aged servant, who, as he expressed it, is like a father, is often allowed to 
see them, or a servant brought up in the house ; but, of course, Ihif 
degree of Uberty depends on the character of both husband and wife. 
He often speaks of his aunt as being such a £ne character, that everyone 
respects her. Her husband used to be absent for twelve months at a time 
on loumeys to Calcutta, and gave her full liberty to go where she liked» 
ana do what she liked, saying, " My heart is pure to you, and yoois to 
me; it is nonaenae for you to veil yourself, for I have full trust m yon.** 
She moDaged everything for ker kMLsb^ca^, e^^TL>us& ^XaJotU. This momuv 



AFGHANS AKD EASHIUBIS. 239 

I went in the Nagar cart or ckaise-garri with the Bibi Sahib, and being 
unable to sleep from the jolting, we talked a great deal. She told me 
that wives always address their husbands as " Aga," or " Aga Jan" (My 
Lord — ^Lord of my Life), and husbands their wives as " Bibi " until they 
have children, when they call them the mother of such a one« 

The Afghan girls do not marry before sixteen or twenty, not like the 
Hindustanis, when mere children. She said it was very bad to have 
more than one wife ; that when there were several, one always got every- 
thing fiiie wanted, and the others nothing ; there was incessant quarrelling 
among the wives and their children. She said, some she knew had nine 
wives. She said many of the sons of Shah Shujah were women, that they 
never did anything, but sit with a glass before them painting their eye« 
brows, putting suraaa on their eyes (which is reckoned a piece of effemi- 
nacy), rubbing their cheeks and nands with soap, to make them soft and 
white, and arranging their hair and turbans ; but that Dost Muhammad 
Eh4n*8 sons were sUlTnen (mardon). Dost Muhammad has about twenty 
children. She said Akbar Ehan was "very good," and so are his four 
brotiiiers. Their mother is still so young-looking that she is like the 
sister of her sons, with hair down to her knees, and very thick, long 
arched eyebrows— eyes so big — and beautiful nose and mouth. Akbar 
was her image. She is very clever, can do everything, and is always busy. 

Akbar left six children, and a great manv wives, all of whom, accor- 
ding to the detestable Afghan custom, have been married by his 
brothers. This is also done by the Kashmins, but her people, the E!az- 
zilbashis, only do it when the widow has been merely betrothed to the 
deceased brother. She spoke with a sorb of horror of the Afghan cus- 
tom. She says that the Pathans, as she called the Afghans proper, are 
a wicked race, though good fighters ; and that it would be very good if 
the British would take JSIabul, for that now there is nothing but fighting, 
and that but few " Kazzilbashis" remain, many have been killed, and 
numbers have left the country. We spoke of the beauty of the Kashmiri 
women, the ugliness of the ETashmiri men, and their extraordinary pro- 
pensity for scolding ; she said, what is perfectly true, that they are very 
industrious, very quarrelsome, and have their mouths full of bad words ; 
that they fi^ht with the tongue, but not with the hand ; that their hearts 
were very httle ; and then she grew quite animated in describing her 
own people,. how they drew the sword, put the beard into the mouth, 
bound their pagris over it (showing the action with her veil), and rushed 
into battle, repeating that they were "Bara Shamshiri" (great swords- 
men). Khan Shirin Khan still lives at K^bul. He is the head of the 
£azzilbashis. At Korig^, about a mile from Lunl, I got out to see the 
obelisk erected by Government, to commemorate the noble defence of 
this village, on the 1st January, 1818, bv Captain Staunton, in command 
of a battalion of the First Bombay G-renadiers and a small partir of 
Madras Artillery, against the Peshwa and the whole of his army, about 
40,000 strong, who completely surrounded them. The conflict continued 
throughout the day, and when, after the last charge, the Peshwa fotmd 
this little band as far as ever from being subdued, his heart failed him, 
ajid he drew offhis troops. The obelisk records, in English, Mahratta, 
and Hindui, the name of every ofScer and man, European and Nativei 
who was killed or wounded on t}iis glorious day. 

Puna. — Mr. Mitchell told us that some time affo, the Christian Ma- 
Mrs (who are the lowest among those who are reckoned people of caste) 
objected to eommunicate at the Lord's Table with the Swee^e.^ o^yc^^s^^J!^^ 
wmle the Brahman converts made not the &^lQL\>«e\i Oc»\qc^c»x« 



240 CONYXBTS— SOLDIESS* MBSTINOS. 

Thursday, January 9th.— C. accompanied Mr. Mitchell to a class of 
about twenty young men, consisting of the Monitors of the English 
school, and others who are employed under Crovemment, who meet to 
study Milton ; they begin with prayer and reading the Scriptures ; and 
two evenings in the week Mr. Mitchell lectures to them, ana th^ wiite 
essays on given suWects. They are now going through the ** Endences 
of Christianity." These young men hare lately petitioned Groyemment 
to give up teaching Hindu science in the college — a request they were 
wining enough to comply with, though they did not like to take the ini- 
tiative in abolishing it. This will greatly increase the usefulness of the 
Government schools. Why they should not long ago have utta4y 
refused to teach the puerile falsities of Hindu astronomy and geo^rapl^ 
is not very clear. Th^ can hardly be a&aid of an insurrection in sup- 
port of the platitude of the earth ! Some of the converts from the Poor* 
house, where Mr. Mitchell constantly preaches, came to Mahratta 
worship, which, when Mr. M. is occupied, is conducted by Narayan, a 
Brahman convert. One of these poor people was a Madras E<nnanist, 
another a blind woman, a third a Mahar whose daughter is married to 
a Brahman convert, who teaches a school of Mahars. We sdso saw a 
Tamal Christian convert who teaches a school. Narayan is much occu- 
pied in giving religious instruction to the schools in the city, which are 
taught by heathens. The people from the poorhonse are not required 
to attend worship, but do so when they choose. A great part of the 
Mission-house is occupied by the chapel, to which the Presbyterian 
soldiers are regularly marched on the Sabbath. There were about 20Q 
Presbyterians m Her Majesly's 83rd, which has just left. 

Some time ago, Colonel W. forbade the soldiers to meet for prayer, 
whereupon Mr. Mitchell gave them a room, which they have hi^ ever 
since. Poor man ! he told Mr. Mitchell that he had no objection to the 
soldiers meeting with him ; but for soldiers to meet by themselves was 
^ite contrary to all military rule I Mr. Fenton and Mr. Mitchell are 
great advocates for Teetotalism. They began by being merely Tempe- 
rance men, but they foimd the other plan more useiul. In many in- 
stances, intemperance has been the overcoming sin of apparently Christian 
soldiers ; in others, converts have been guilty of it, who, but for inter- 
course with Christians, would never have known the taste of wine. Mr. 
Mitchell considers that it is also a great check upon their servants, 
especially the Portuguese, who commonly drink. Mr. Mitchell has wine 
and beer at table /or his guests ; they are teetotalers after my own heart. 
Their reasons for being so are those of the xiv. Bomans (which Mr. 
Fenton at a temperance meeting called ** our chapter") ; and they are 
wholly free from the extravagancies by which many of its advocates, and 
many temperance papers, injure this good cause, to the infring^ement of 
Christian liberty. For instance, the Independents in America make 
teetotalism a sine qud jwn with their communicants. We have no right 
to add limits of our own to those which God has required ; and those 
who make tasting wine a sin, would have looked coldlv on Timothy ; but 
I think its use should be limited to cases of necessity, like that of Timothy, 
and other instances. We should abstain— first, on account of our n^^ 
Jbour ; secondly, on account of our health ; and thirdly, on account of 
our purse, which should be devoted to better objects. There is onlf 
one lady member of the Temperance Society, besides Mrs. Mitc^m. 
On the contrary, I am ashamed to say, the ladies are its most bitter 
cpppnentB, 

This watk the erening dl ike wAd^im' mi^xsiv^. ^^3qksq1^ forty or fiAy 



WANT OP MI8SI0NAEIKS. 241 

were present. Mr. Mitchell lectured on a chapter of the Confession of 
Faith (on Saving Faith) — a very plain earnest exposition of the difference 
between head and.heart belief, the origin, necessity and effects of the 
latter. 

Friday, January lOfch. — ^Went about sunrise to see one of the girls' 
schools in tbe city. The streets are broad, airy, and clean, and many of 
iiie women carrymg water-pots are as fine looking as the Sikhs. I^his 
part of the town to which we went, is inhabited by shop-keepers, and the 
ffirls are consequently of that class ; there are eighteen, all of them 
MJahratis, except two jBrahmanis and one Mussalmani: the Pantoji, or 
teacher, is paidTfour annas a month for each scholar ; he fetches them 
from their own houses, and teaches them reading and writing ; another 
teacher goes round to the different schools, and instructs them in geo- 
graphy, &c. They all read fluently ; Mahrati is a very easy language 
to read, as every sound is indicated ; they write both the printed and 
running hand, on wooden tablets covered with brick-dust ; kam Chris- 
tian Catechisms and read the Scriptures ; Mr. Mitchell gives them 
religious instruction. They seemed very lively children, and pointed 
out the chief countries and cities in the world on a map ; they were then 
questioned on Christian doctrine, and answered quite as well as children 
of their age at home ;~as to our sinM nature ; — what Christ has done 
for us ; and similar points. Mr. Mitchell had brought some Httle books 
which they were very eager to receive. They are much less shy and 
timid than Hindustani children ; some of their mothers came in. 
' The old Pantoji amused me by his zeal and fierceness, tapping them 
with a little wand, calling to the people at the door to get out of the way, 
and making a great fuss which nobody seemed to mind. There are two 
other female 8<3loo1s, both taught by women. One of these consists almost 
entirely of Brahmani girls who come just as willingly as the other castes. 
In fact there is no limit to the number of female schools which mi^ht be 
established in Pima, but the want of Missionaries to supermtend 
them. No one with less than Mr. Mitchell's imwearied zeal and bodily 




taining female scholars of the higher castes. We then looked into a 
Maratnl boys* school containing about sixty boys, who are instructed in 
Christianity through the medium of their own language. After breakfast 
I accompanied C. and Mr. Mitchell to the English school, containing 
about 120 boys, and taught by Wazir Beg. He teaches the first class 
entirely, and superintends and examines the rest. His method of teach- 
ing is particularly animated, comprehensive and thorough, he cross- 
examines them upon everything bearing on the subject in question. 

Speaking of truth, he made them repeat in how many mstances the 
Shasters, !Kur^n and the Zendavesta permitted deceit, he made a Hindu 
boy show that Muhammad could not be a Saviour, and a Mussalm^n 
overthrow the claims of the Hindu idols. There was evidently not a 
particle of behef in their respective creeds in any one of them. In the 
third class the first boy was a young Mussalman who has only been at 
school a year, and already reads and answers in EngHsh. Next him 
stood a Parsl, a Brahman, and a Portuguese. These boys all learn the 
Shorter Catechism. The first class write English themes. I read one on 
the " Groodness of God," by a lad of eighteen. It would have been a 
very fair one for an English boy. I think a further use of the ^euL-sswiJA. 
be veiy advantageous in this school, letting l^o&e "^Vo Q^\£CksA. ^^ro^ \si. 

n 



242 IDOL WOBSHIF. 

Englifili do so in their vernacular tongues, for by making tliem write, 
you find out what has really entered into their minds, whetEer of thought 
or fact. The Hindus are better accountants than the ^Parsis ; the Mu- 
hammadans have less facility in this matter. 

Saturday, January 11th.— Went to see the temple of Parbati, which may 
be considered as the Court Chapel of the Peshwa, whose palace adjoined 
it, but was burnt soon after we took Puna in 1817. It is situated <mi a 
steep hill, which we ascended by a flight of very broad steps, and from 
below it reminded me much of some of the Italian monasteries. The 
view of the surrounding country and hills was very beautifid. From the 
parapet we saw the field of Kirkl, where the Peshwa lost his last battle. 
He witnessed the defeat of his troops &om the place where we stood. 
A leader who looks on generally does see such si^ts. 

They (the shrines) are aU pyramidical, and much carved. These 
heathen shrines are actually supported by Government Funds I If it be 
alleged that lands were set apart for tms purpose, let them either be 
app&ed te a better, or let En^ish Church leuids be restored to the Papal 
See. A Grovemment has no right to confiscate such legacies, but they 
are surely justified in applying them for the public b^efit, and with- 
holding them from idolatry. The hereditarv do^sser of Parbatl, a blind 
Brahman, has some impressions of the truth of Christianity. He once 
told Mrs. MiteheU, " I am the servant of the Grovemment, not of Par- 
bati." The whole place is surrounded by extensive ^proves of Mango 
trees, planted by the Peshwa as an atonement for his sms ! 

In front of Parbatl's Shrine we found several men touching and making 
salam to the image of a Bull in black stone, called Shlu's wah^n or seat, and 
then giving a stroke with thebell which himg from the canopy over it. They 
would not let us enter the temple, but brought lights that we might see 
into it. Before the doors were opened, those who had worshipped the 
Bull fell on their faces, or salamed at the entrance, and then putting 
l^eir faces close to the gate shouted to Parbati withm. When they 
opened the door we saw a brazen image with emerald e^es, dressed in 
white clothes with a turban on its head. It made one rejoice at the pro- 
mise " The idols he shall utterty abolish." A good many Brahmans 
came about us, and when Mr. Mitchell and C. spoke to them, they said 
they did not worship the images, they only used them "to put them in 
mind," exactly the Popish and old heathen evasion. They appeared to 
me to answer with levity, as if they had no belief in their own system. 

Hinduism is imdoubtedly a decaying superstition, so is Muhamma- 
danism. Of all the Hindu sects, that of the Jainas (a sort of amalgama- 
tion of Budhism and Brahminism) is said to have the most vitality, and 
to be the only one which now attempts to make proselytes. The first 
Jaina convert of Western India has just been oaptized at Eajkote. 
From a gallery opposite the temple proceeded sounds of wailingdiscor- 
dant music. Two performers on penny trumpets alternately took up 
the strain, accompanied by a drum. These were Parbati's matins. On 
our way down we met numbers going up to worship iJie idoL There is 
another very favourite idol in this part of the coimlry, called Kandoba. 
Children are constantly consecrated to him. If girls, they are called 
Elandoba*s wives, and are not allowed to marry honestly, — if boys, they 
are called Xandoba's dogs. On our wb.j home, Mr. MiteheU took me 
into the garden of a rich Pars!, the mad contractor. It was jperfect]y 
fiUed wim fiowers, and had many trellised walks with vines trained over 
^em. We went through the public Bungalow, where he receives his 
rwltors. It was fitted up wiiiSDi a piotasLOn oi Tmitoc^ and glasa chande- 



OSDINATIONS — BOABDING-SCHOOL. 243 

liers. In front of it is a very large stone basin with three fountains, and 
vines trained above it. Lamps are fixed to posts all over the garden. 
In the evening, Mrs. Mitchefl took me to see the Bund, which is an 
immense dam constructed across the river, at the joint expense of the 
Cfovemment and Sir Jamseiji Jijibhai, in order to secure abundance of 
water to the people of the city. They say the ParsI knight's motive was 
to obtain a sufficiency of water for his fire- temple. A young Bhll chief, 
4Uid his hereditary manager, have been sent to the Government College 
•by the authorities. They live with Wazir Beg, who has full charge of 
^em, and may give them as much religious instruction as he likes. The 
Bhils, being of very low caste, have no scruples about eating with any 
^ne. 

Sunday, January 30fch, 1851. — ^Public worship was at eleven o'clock. 
About 100 soldiers were present. We went in at the close of the Marathi 
affcemoon service, to see the congregation. A school of sweepers* chil- 
^dren, with their converted Brahman teacher, were present ; the nine 
boarders (girls) who live in the Compound ; some people from the poor- 
luxuse ; and a good many boys from the Marathi schools, besides the 
members of the church, about twenty in number. I read a very good 
sermon of Mr. Mitchell's, in which he speaks strongly of the distant 
manner of some Christians towards converts, as well as other natives. 
Wazir Beg had mentioned something of the coldness he had met wi^, 
even from Christians ; so I spoke to him on the subject of the usual 
incivihty of English manners. He said, at first he thought it was a 
mistake, but omers soon informed him it was intentional. 'No such 
distance and coldness prevails between different ranks in India (indeed, 
I beheve it prevails nowhere to the extent it does in England) ; and the 
Anglican want of courtesy (treating the natives of all ranks as inferiors 
and slightingly) is a ^eat obstacle to intercourse with them, and hinders 
the exercise of Christian influence over them, — especially over ihe 
haughty Mussalmans. In addition to four services, and family worship 
twice, Mr. Mitchell twice went to see a sick person. 

Monday, January 14th. — Mrs. Mitchell took me over to the boarding- 
school : it contains nine or ten girls, who are taught just Hke the schools 
in the city, i.e., instructed in reading, writing, geography, &c., by a 
Pantqji, and in Christianity by Narayan. They are imder the constant 
superintendence of a pious widow, who teaches them plain work, which 
they do beautifully. One little girl, a Portuguese, is a good reader and 
excellent sempstress, though she has been only five months in the school. 
She is aOi orphan, and was under the charge of her godmother, a Portu- 
guese Ayah, who treated her so harshly, that she got a Brahman to 
write a petition for her to the Bazar master, requesting his protection. 
He said, if she would name some house she would like to go to, he would 
place her there ; whereupon she went to the Mission, and asked if they 
-would take her in. From this extraordinary firmness and decision, in a 
child of only nine or ten years old, Mrs. Mitchell feared she might prove 
-diflBcult to manage ; but she is not in the least so. 

Drove in a phaeton to Karla, about thirty-four miles. The next 
morning set off for the caves. They are about a mile from the bungalow. 
The shape of the hills is most picturesque and abrupt. The Chaitya, or 
temple, is the finest in India : it is hollowed in the rock, and entirely 
Buddhistical ; and at (he lowest calculation is supposed to be two thou- 
sand years old. It is 126 feet long by 46 feet wide, and is much on the 
plan of a rude Gothic cathedral, with lofty vaulted TOQ>i, V>^ ^^"^ ^^JL 
teak. The nave is separated from the aide «a!^e^ \ys tq^^ ^"^ ^^«ss., 

b2 



244« CAVES AT KABLA — FICTUBE8QUE COSTUMES. 

placed so closely together that no light can penetrate beyond. The 
upper end of the temple is of a horse-shoe form, such as we find in some 
of the old German churches, with a row of columns behind the Dahgob. 
In all these Chaityas, the light is admitted solely from an arch above the 
door; it is therefore concentrated on the Dahgob (or beehive-shaped 
erection at the altar end, which is supposed to contain some relic of a 
Buddha), and the effect is very fine. Above the D4hgob is a wooden 
canopy, not unlike a sounding-l3oard. The entrance door is small and 
low : on either side of it are curious %ures in relief, supposed to repre- 
sent the inhabitants of the country. The vestibule or ^orch has at either 
end four elephants, in stone, supporting several stories of carved gal- 
leries, intended, I suppose, for musicians. Some very discordant music 
was sounding loudly, but we did not see the performers. 

On the left hand, outside the entrance, is a curious monolith, called 
the lion-pillar, with sixteen sides, and four lions at the top, much broken. 
I sketched the entrance, which is very fine. Nmnbers of European 
soldiers were visiting the caves, and among them a young iresh-coloured 
woman, just out from England, to whom 1 lent a thick parasol : she had 
only a handkerchief over her head. It is no wonder they die of fever, 
especially as the doctors never warn them, considering it of " no use." 
I certainly think commanding officers and doctors together might con- 
trive some measures to prevent their men from wantonly throwing away 
their lives. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

In the evening, drove to Khandala, where we found Mr. Grey's com- 
fortable bungalow ready for us. It is in a lovely situation, surrounded 
by the most romantic and rugged hills : the air is delightful. Left about 
three a.m., on Thursday, and reached Panwell bv eight o'clock. The 
descent of the Ghat we performed in palkis. The hills looked most 
beautiful in the bright moonlight ; ana our subsequent drive was not 
much less so. Met droves of bmlocks, laden with cotton for the Bombay 
market. Embarked in a Bimder-boat, with the Aga and his wife, and 
some of the servants. The horses were sent round by Tanna, to avoid 
the voyage. The Bibi was ^eatly struck with her first view of the sea, 
and asked innumerable questions about the ships, fire-ships, i.e. steamers, 
buoys, flags, &c. We reached the Bunder — ^the Bombay name for land- 
ing-place — about half;-past four. On the steps, we met first, a fine group 
of Beluchis with their long black hair and sturdy forms ; one of them 
with a hawk on his wrist : ?ust after, a negro with bright turban ; then 
Bhattas (merchants) with their high red turbans, and some gaily dressed 
women in crimson satin and gold ornaments. 

Bombay presents a far more varied and picturesque scene than Cal- 
cutta, both male and female costumes are more varied and gay. Many 
of the houses are beautifully carved, others are painted and omamenteOf 
so as to resemble gaudy bird-cages. 

Tuesday, January 2l8t. — Went into the Fort. Took Mary, Aga 
Sahib, and Karim, to see the Chinese shop, with which ih.ey were 21 
much pleased. Colonel Watson in the most obliging manner showed 
the Aga over the Arsenal. On his return, Aga Sahib related what he 
had seen of the riches of Bombay to Xarim, whose emphatic remaik 
was: " What a glorious place for a chappao !" (raid or foray). At tlie 
Chinese shop I saw a Chowxi, made en^dy o^ ^wi^jaJL^ood. This most 



FBEE SIBK INSTITUTION. 245 

l)rittle material is first cut into ribbons, about half an inch wide, and 
^en split into hairs, but how it can be done is a mystezm 

Weonesday, January 22nd. — ^Went to the Free KirkListitution. We 
were delighted with the Institution, though it labours under great disad- 
vantages. The situation is bad, and the house extremely hot and con- 
fined. It contains about 300 boys, chiefly Hindus; among them are 
About thirty Portuguese, some English boys, one Parsi, a few Mussal- 
mans, and several Jews. We first went round the Bible classes ; they 
all answered well ; the junior class read a portion in English, and several 
of the boys repeated a part of the " Sermon on the Mount," from 
memory ; were questioned on it : ** What is salt ?" " When are we like 
salt P" " If we speak bad words, are we like salt P" " What is the use 
of saltP" A boy answered, " To keep things from being bad." Then 
they translated the passage, and then: own explanations, into Marathi. 
Another class of Portuguese boys named all the chief parables ; and 
related one or two. The senior class cross-examined each other on the 
** History of Joseph ;" when asked, what was to be learnt from the Life 
of Joseph P one said, " To trust in God, and He wotdd take care of us, 
98 He did of Joseph in his troubles." Another said, " We learn the 
g^race of Grod, and Joseph's love to his brethren." We saw the ques- 
tions which they are required to write on each chapter : some were very 
much to the pomt. C. explained everything to Aga Muhammad, who 
was much interested ; Karim and divers of our servants came also. Two 
classes were examined in geography, and answered very well. One 
lively little boy made a sort of compromise between European and Hindu 
ideas, and said that Ceylon was only haff gold. My husband told them 
lie was sorry to say there was verv little gold there. They then asked, 
if the people were not giants. We tola them of their long hair and 
womanish appearance. 

Narayan Sheshadri, who is the principal teacher (next to Mr. Mitchell, 
who spends all his mornings at the school), has a peculiar gifl for com- 
municating instruction. He examined his class on Soman and Greek 
History, irom Barth ; they answered perfectly : then on the French 
[Revolution; they gave the date, the causes, — ^bad laws, unfair taxes, 
irreligion, infidel writers, and their names, in a manner which showed 
how well they had been taught. He questioned them in a lively ener- 
getic manner, giving them information as he went on, and leading them 
to think of the causes of events. We then heard the senior class of all 
examined on difierent points of doctrine, such as, " Does obedience pre- 
cede salvation, or salvation precede obedience P" Mr. Mitchell instructs 
this class, which consists of the teachers, daily. Then we questioned them 
on the infiuence of the school, the opinions entertained by natives of the 
European character, of Christianity, and other points which you will 
gather from their answers, which were as follow : — They said, the native 
opinion of Europeans was, that " they did not tell lies, but that they 
were drunkards. That their infiuence was sometimes good, sometimes 
bad, perhaps generally bad ; that there were many bad, and a few very 
good; most educated natives distinguish between real and nominal 
C/hristians. Hinduism is losing ground ; thejr themselves are disgusted 
with it, especially with the worship of idols, with the Hull festival, with 
tiie false science of Hinduism (we said, " Name anything which strikes 
you as bad," — some named one, some another); they may not speak of 
religion in their own families, but they often meet to speak of it with 
other educated young men. They would all wish to h»?i^ ^^vjai^^ 
wives> and would like to teach their own, \>ut ^ey <»jmao\», Qvi^R,<5«^iS55s» ^t 



246 OPINION OF CHBISTIANITY. 

the system of every member of a family living in the same house ; if they 
were to begin tfp instruct their wives, their mothers and sisters would 
take her away. Yery few teach their wives ; most natives now know 
something of the nature of Christianity, they all admire its morality, but 
they do not like the doctnne of the Atonement. The Mussalmans espe- 
cially cannot bear the Divinilgrof Christ, or the idea that so holy a bemg 
was really crucified. They said the young men fipom the Government 
Schools were generally infidels and atheists. One mentioned, that a 
friend of his told him he did not believe any religion was divine, but 
that Christianity was a beautiful system. Mr. Mitchell told us, that a 
man high in office lately said to him, — " We want lads froinyour school, 
those from the Government Schools cannot be trusted." He also said, 
he thought edl of this class spoke the truth. One said, that tiiie thought 
struck mm, Hinduism has no external evidence, but Ohristiaiiity has. 
Among their objections to Hinduism one stated, " I am not a BraWin,. 
but why should I not read the Shasters as well as a Brahmin P" They 
did not think Christianity would prevail, but they thought Hnifiniifni 
would soon fall. 

A few, amon'g them Vincent and a clever young Mussalman, then 
formed a logic class ; Mr. Mitchell examined them, m)m Whately, made 
them transpose syllogisms, invemt some in each figure, and then turn 
them, — ^point out the error in some of the specimens given by Whately;. 
in regard to one syllogism, one of the young men remarked, ** If you 
grant the premise, the conclusion is just," thus showing that he thought 
as well as reasoned correctly. 

We were exceedingly pleased with this school. I do not think they 
are in anywise behind the Institution in Calcutta, except that they have- 
fewer first-rate teachers, the only one here being I^arayan Shlshadri. 
As there are no scholarships, and the Institution is not able to offer high 
salaries, the most advanced pupils always seek situations under Gk>vem- 
ment, or elsewhere. We saw one young man who is employed by a 
lUjah, not far from Bombay, in teaching a school. There is a great need 
of a better building, both on account of the health of the Missionaries, 
and to afford room for an increase of the number of pupils. We asked 
as many of the young men as felt inclined to give us in writiiur the 
views dr the educated natives towards Christianiiy. 

Some time after, I received papers, and that they had, according to our 
request, written frankly and boldly just what they thought, is proved by 
the first paper I happened to read, which was one by a youth who had 
only been in the Institution two months. I copy the extracts verbatim 
et literatim. He begins thus *. " There are inany religions, as Hinduism, 
Muhammadanism, Parslism, and Christianity. Among which, Hinduism 
is the best. Though I have not properly studied Christianity, still, from 
what I know, and what I have read, I am obliged to say that E[induism 
is the best." He then asks why, if this is the case, do any Hindus be- 
come converts P " The answer is, that they do not study their own reh- 
ffion well. . . . Some are converted through the love of money. . . . 
^ow look at the state of the man that is converted. He who ^ets him- 
self converted is guilty in the sight of God. He breaks the advice of his 
5arents. Every one hates him. Even the Missionaries do not like them, 
'hey are laughed at by the Missionaries, though not outwardly. Do- 
you think, that after the death of these converts, they are carried to their 
burial by the Missionaries P No, the Mahars (lowest caste) are to cany 
tbem, Tizesepoor Brahmins are entirely deceived by this way. . . . See, 
Ibr instance, Mr. Narayan. Sbishadiee. 1. visn. %>ax^ ^()i[^\, \^ ^ba entirely 



OPINION OF OOYEBKMENT SCHOOLS. 247 

deceived By his convertto/i, what aa immensity of sorrow he has 

heaped on his parents, as well as his friends. Is this the ohject of the 
Creator, that he should hurt the feelings of his parents and his friends P 
- . . Do you think that by doing so they woxdd enjoy the eternal happi- 
ness P No, but they would suffer the eternal helL" The ideas of heaven 
and hell are wholly opposed to Hinduism, and is one of those which the 
Mahrattas seem to have imbibed from the Portuguese. The youns 
writer continues. " See this man (Narayan Shishadri) has acquired 
great deal of knowledge, and many languages, but this does not beautiiP^ 
nim. I am sure, that if he would have acquired the same knowledge, 
and would have remained in Hinduism, he would have occupied the 
second chair of Bolshastri. Therefore, O my countrymen, I adyiseyou 
that (you) never become Christians. Christianity is a brass, while Hin- 
duism is a gold. (Signed) " vbnka.tbsh Gomsm" 

The second paper describes the change of feeling produced by attending 
Christian instruction. " When a Hindu boy enters an English Christian 
school, with the intention of receiving instruction in the English lan- 
guage, he shows a strong attachment to his own religion, and even 
stronger to the superstitions of his ancestors. This time he cherishes 
such abhorrent feeungs towards Christianity, that if he find the name of 
Christ when he is reading a small tract, he will tear the book and throw 
it off. Soon after, the instructions which he receives from his masters in 
the school have such an effect on his mind that he forgets aU his former 
conduct, and seems divested of all the superstitions which he was so 
exceedingly fond of. If we inquire into the cause of this change, we 
can ascrioe it to nothing else but the truth of the Gospel. The Mis- 
sionaries in this country are labouring very hard for propagating the 
truth of the Grospel among the Hindus, and it is on them that the wel- 
fare of this country defends. They have been executing their duty 
with such zeal, by giving liberal instructions, public lectures, and 
preaching the true word of God to the natives. I have some good ground 
to believe, that the Missionaries of the Eree Church of Bombay have 
sown numerous sweet seeds in many native minds, which are nmo grcb- 
Aaally springing up, and which they will have the advantage of seeing 
fuU grown. The writer, who has been only six months in the Institu- 
tion, then states what appear to him the most important arguments 
in supx>ort of Christianity, naming the fulfilment of the prophecies 
respecting the Messiah, and the spread of Christianity throiu^hout the 
world, fie ends thus : " It is very difficult for natives .to ^ow this 
system, though they have been long inclined to it, heivfi a divine <me* 
besides, they have been bred up &om their infancy under the Oriental 
pomp and temporal pleasures, and, therefore, how would they like to be 
stripped, at once, of their pleasures, and lead a pure Chnstian life P 
Happy is the day that Christianity would revive in native minds ! 

(Signed) "Sxtpashew NAJttAYUf." 

It wiU be seen that the young writer of the above is folly convinced of 
the truth of the Gospel, and anxious for its ^revailin^ in India. 

^^Inother writer complains of the '.difficulties cast in the way of the 
young Hindus by their parents and relatives, who oblige them to leave 
school as soon as they are able *^ to read, spell, and write a little, for fear 
of their minds being changed from llie religion in which they are bom, 
to a foreign hwt better one, of which the old parents are ignorant." ^The 
consequence is that "when they get hold or an. offioe^ ws^ ^gcs^ ^s:^ "^^ 
study, and spend time in vain conyerBaAaoa «xvd T^^^^—vsA^'TOftJ^Ss^'assx^ 



248 HINDUISM DECAYING. 

worse, they forget what they previously learnt. Let us turn our atten- 
tion to those young men who Jbave receiyed liberal education, notwith- 
standing the strong barriers laid across the irp ath of improyement. Most 
of theml)elongin^ to institutions where the Word of God is not preached* 
have become deists, some haye imbibed the principles of Epicurus — 
namely, eat, drink, and be merry — and others haye become infidels. 
Others attending institutions where the Word of Grod is preached, 
acknowledge their sinful nature, feel the necessi^ of atonement of an 
infinite value, can wi^ boldness proclaim that the Sible is the real Word 
of Grod, and all other religious books are false. The difficulty that 
comes in their way is, how to leave their kindreds with whom they Hved 
for several years, and embrace Christianity. Most of the young men 
before they entered missionary schools were bigoted Hindus, but after 
a year or two, that is, when they began to imderstand the Word of God, 
were changed in their sentiments. 

(Signed) " Eamachandba Jagannath." 

In accordance with the above is the statement of Anunta Bagoba. He 
names Hinduism, Parslism, Muhammadanism, and Christianity : states 
that the followers of the three first are completely involved in idolatry, 
while those of the latter " are the worrfiippers of the true and Hving 
Grod. But it has so happened that the mrst three, particularly the 
Hinduism, has been losing ground irom. the minds of those youths who 
are educated both in Missionary as well as Government Schools. . . JBhi' 
dmsm has scarcely any firm abode in their miTids" He mentions that 
although Christian insta^iction has shown some of the M^hammadan 
boys " a little of the false doctrine of their Prophet, yet it cannot be said 
that their religion is also led to the same point of decay." He aigues 
against idols, and adds, "But the reason that hinders them from 
imitating it (Christianity) is, that they complain of having a father, 
mother, wife, and relations, whom they are quite unable to part with. 
This evidently shows that Christianity has not as yet made a veiy stronjS 
impression on their minds ; but I hope that by the grace of God this 
will no longer continue. As for me, I also am of the same opinion with 
these my companions." 

An unfinished paper by Dinamorabel bears the same testimony as to the 
universal disbeHef of Hinduism among the educated :roung men. " I must 
acknowledge (says he) that the unspeakable superstition which exists in 
tJie Hindu community cannot bear the attacks of conscience and the 
light of science. The faults in the Purans with regard to science, vix., 
the elements being five, the non-sphericity of the earth, — ^its not revolving 
round the sun, and so forth, have agitated their minds so much that they 
cannot see what to do. This being the case, almost all of them 8ecretly» 
if not openly profess of the Shastras not being from Grod, whom thef 
see &om the hght of nature steady in His rules as a rock." Tins is suf- 
ficient toprove that the education given in the Grovernment schools over- 
throws Hinduism as completely as Christian instruction does. The dif- 
ference is that the Government schools give nothing in place of the enir 
they destroy, so it is not astonishing tiiat the young wnter adds: ** Soiv 

of them, I am exceedingly sorrjr to say have become atheists The 

learned, who are convinced of the fallacy of their Shastras, wish for a 
lyfamuUion. They say, that we might assemble together under a meet- 
ing, and make a complete reformation. But how could they make a 
leiormaidon when the^ had no xevealed religion P I would better invite 
ibem to ti^ JBible^ wmch oontsana l^e ^\io\<d \i^Vsc^ oi nAaor-his inter- 



BESULTS OF MISSIONABY TEACHINa. 249 

nal constitution — ^what is he — the disease which he is suffering under — 
and the remedy which God has provided him with." 

Another paper draws a lengthened contrast between tiie Government 
and Missionanr institutions. " In the former, attention is paid only to 
ike intellectuals of the children, while the morals of the youth are totally 

neglected Hence it is not to be wondered at that the pupils of 

the institutions where relij^ous considerations are banished at all, should 
imbibe largely of the deistical principles, if not altogether atheistical 
cast of mind. Though at first they do not deny the existence of God, 

they absolutely come to that conclusion ui course of time ^^7 

atudy Nature without so much as lookiog up to Nature's God. Self- 
dependence is one of the first princijples they instil in their minds, and 
nothing is there that they want but it may be obtained by self-exertions. 
Qliey implore not aid from above to bless their studies." How trul.v this 
describes the self-sufficing school of Channing ! The paper continues 
*' By the by I should have mentioned here that there are some among 
them who admit the importance of attending to the subject of religion, 
and so reserve it for some future period .... but alas ! it so happens 
that that fiitiure period scarcely ever comes. 

*' On the other hand, the youths attending the Missionary schools pre* 

sent ui their conduct a striking contrast to meirs Great attention 

is paid to the morals of the youths. They are at first brought to a habi- 
tual sense of their entire dependence on their Maker and preserver, as 

human, and tiberefore fallen beings Humility, that ornament to 

humanity, is the first lesson that is taught them, and thus a sense of aU- 
sufficienpy and self-dependence is comparatively put down, if not abso- 
lutelv destroyed. Hence the reverential fear with which we ought to be 
filled up at viewing the Jehovah's infinitely holy character, begins to 
take possession of their mind, and the principle of the wise man ' the 
fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom ' becomes realised in them 
.... As nature is remiss, or, in other words, as she is iacapable of 
showing the Lord's attribute of holiness in all its perfection, because she 
gives us the impression of His imperfect government in her bosom in 
suffering vice very often to triumph over virtue, so equaUy remiss or in- 
capable IS she, in, or of exhibiting the attribute of His mercy in all its 
fulness. Where then is the wonderful provision of His infinite mercy 
made P It is made in the gracious gift of His only-begotten Son. And 
here the student is strikingly led to observe the propriety and reason- 
ableness of tJ^e great Truth, God so loved the world that He spared not 
His only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him should not 

perish, but have everlasting hfe, John i What an overpowering 

instance at once of His iofinite mercy and unsullied holiness ! Oh, that 
Jehovah's name might be known among men in these two distinct views 
of his character : ' Jehovah is a flaming sword, Jehovah is all love.' 

'* By this time the student has been impressed with a deep sense of his 
fallen nature, and the heinous guilt attached to it. He no longer trusts 
to his self-exertions and self-righteousness. He feels strongly the abso- 
lute necessity, and, therefore, of the infinite v|due of the Great Sacrifice 

anade for him to be his substitute and surety Henceforward he 

looks to the merits and righteousness of the Son of Man. . • • • Two 
things he now thinks are wanting to make him meet for the kingdom of 
-God — these are the doctrines of justification and sanctification." He 
then speaks of the " cold apathy " shown b:^ the scholars of the Elphin- 
stone Institution to the cause of true religion ; but adds, " I «kcssiL^ \i^ 
very sorry to omit that some of the pTe&emt anii ^%a\i %^<:3^3ke& qI "^s^a 



250 BE8FECT FOB COKYEBTS. 

said institution have of late formed a sort of religious brotherhood, sup- 
ported as it is on the principles of natural religion Th^have 

taken largely from the Bible as far as morality is concerned. . . . May 
the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is wonderful in counsel, 
and excellent in working in wonders, * make of my mother country, even 
India, a royal priesthood and a holy nation ;' and may He grant an eariy 
fulfilment of my desires, is the sincerest prayer of Hari Narayan.'* 

I shall give but one more extract. The writer, Mahadew Bulajii 
speaks of the benefits conferred on India bv the British as having their 
source in the Bible, and thus describes the feelin|^ of many of his 
educated countrymen: — "Many of the youths wnte and discuss for 
hours, and it may be for days, with the Missionaries ; they join with 
them in prayers, they attend the Sabbath classes, and anxioushr and 
patientl;^ near the evening sermons. Many of them observe the Saobaih, 
and all, if not many, attend any lectures connected with religion. To 
some the doctrines of the Trinity, of the resurrection, of the ju^ification, 
and sanctification, appear easy and exactly fitted to their wants. To 
oUiers they seem difficult -, but in no degree unsatisfactory. The tho- 
roughly educated and noble-minded youth rejoice at ihe conversion of 
their friends to Christianity. They wonder at their boldness, and speak 
highly of them among their friends and relatives. In short, they dedaie 
that had they not been surrounded by difficidties, they would have em- 
braced Christianity within a moment. .... Many of the young men, 
especially those connected with the Missionary institutions, pray to God 
every day, and that^a^^er they offer in the name of Christ, The^ have 
come to the conclusion mat they cannot save themselves by their own 
righteousness. They require the righteousness of one who was infinitely 

holy and infinitely great They would wish Christianity to be tiie 

universal religion. I have often heard many of them repeat, *We 
should embrace Christianity if a hundred of us had joined together."* 
He then examines why the natives do not embrace Christianity, when 
they are convinced of its truth. " 1st. The natives do not possess the 
spirit of Martin Luther. They are more afraid of the i^ersecutions of 

men than of the wrath of Grod &id. Early marriages is one of 

the obstacles to the embracing of the truth 3rd. Worldly riches, 

worldly fame engage our attention God says ' Confess me openhr 

before all men ;' we say, * We shall confess thee in a comer.* .... Goa 
says, * Thou shalt not make any graven image,' and we make millionB 
and millions of images. God says, ' I have given my Son to atone fi» 
thy sins,' and yet we go to Yithoba and KhandobS., Bama and Tuka- 
i§ma. All this clearly shows that the 'heart is deceitful above all things 
and desperately wicked.'" He says also, "That the Board of Edu- 
cation are afraid to put the Scriptures into the hands of students," 
adding, " The Board should not cmtivate merely the intellect, but also 
the heart." 

Friday, January 24th, — ^It was very hot. Hormaz^ji came, and 
brought Bachu. He told me that there was less prejudice among the 
firsts than formerly, but that they form such a compact and determined 
body, that he has little hope of individual conversions, but thinks thev 
wiU come in en masse. Only one Parsi has attended the Free £inc 
School since he and Dhanji were converted, ten years a^. Mr. Mitchell 
said, that the very success of the school has hindered it, for it is lodked 
upon by the natives as a cxmverting institution. Caste is far stiongor 
here man in Bengal or the upper provinces. There it is raie to see any 
one with idolatrous marka oil tibieib: iote\ie«j^ \\i«t«, ^2a&»^ ^e^qct posoQ 



HOBlLiZDJi's COKYEBSIOK. 251 

wears them conspicuously, sometimes in the form of a spot, at others in 
horizontal lines, sacred to Shiva, or perpendicular ones to Vishnu. Cap- 
tain Davidson, who went with us to the institution, was in a great 
measure the means of Hormazdji's conversion. The latter attended a 
Sunday-class taught by a Mr. Payne, who being ill, Captain Davidson 
took his place, and spoke so solemnly on the necessity of reh^ion, that 
Hormazdji and another young Parsl agreed that they must lay me matter 
to heart. Hormazdji came forward for baptism not long after ; but his 
Mend went back. Captain Davidson never knew the effect of his words 
until long afterwards. 

Captain Davidson called with the E;ev. David Wood and a young tra- 
velling companion, Mr. Kavanagh. They have 'traversed Norway, 
Sweden, Bussia, Persia, Syria, Egypt, and are now for a short time m 
India. Mr. Wood seems a pious large-hearted man. He said he had 
seen no Mission which gave mm such unmingled pleasure as that of the 
Americans, Dr. Perkins and his colleagues, among tibe Nestorians. All 
the Nestorians are under a Patriarch, who lives on the Turkish side of 
the frontier, and who, being of very high church principles, and seeing 
the good done by the American Missionaries, wrote to the late Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and asked for a teacher. The Archbishop xmfortunately 
sent a Mr. Badger, now chaplain at Aden — a very high churchman. The 
American mission consists of about six married members, with two tm- 
married ladies, Miss Fisk and Miss Eeed. There are four Bishops on 
the Persian side, one of them. Mar Yohanan, is a man of great piety — ^he 
has been in America ; two others appear to be Christian men ; andi even 
the fourth, who is ^uite a worldly man, and a great sportsman, speaks of 
the Missionaries with the greatest respect and esteem, and forwards their 
views. 

Mr. Badger is about to publish a work on the doctrines of the Nesto- 
rians, which have been greatly disputed, some considering them as the 
Protestants of the East, while others maintain that they are no better 
than Greeks or Armenians; but Mr. Wood considers that even an 
account of their faith, from their authorized standards and Hturgies, wiU 
not give a correct idea of their present belief, because many works that 
were standards are so no longer. The Missionaries work by preaching, 
making tours, distributing books, and by their male and female schools. 
The senior classes leani and understana English. The Missionaries do 
not generally officiate in the Nestorian churcnes ; and their object is not 
to form a separate Church, but to kindle the flame of true piety in the 
Church as it exists. The four Bishops most h^artpy co-operate with 
them : many candidates for the ministry are trained in their schools. At 
their family worship, they generally called upon one of the Nestorian 
priests or deacons present to lead in pra^rer. 

Mr. Wood said this Mission interestedhim beyond all others, because the 
fruit was so manifest and so abundant. He said, aU the American Mis- 
sionaries he had met were devoted hard-working men ; and we cordially 
agreed with him. Captain Davidson spoke of the different fields occu- 
pied by the Free Elirk Mission and the American one, at Nagar ; the 
object of the latter being to pervade the people with a knowledge of the 
Gospel, bv means of preachmg regularly tmroughout stated districts (a 
practice that might be advantaj^eously imitated by other Missions), and 
by vernacular schools ; that of the Free Church being to form native 
agents, for the future evangelization of the country, by giving them as 
complete and high an education as possible. The toura of tk^ ^^^\.^6^s^ 
Missionaries are necessarily more desultory, aniSi ^^ii^taScj \a.^T^^R^^^ 



252 EFFECT OF FBEACHIKG. 

unvisited districts ; each scheme being the needftd complement of the 
other. 

In some points the American Christians interpret the Divine aphorism, 
"the labourer is worthy of his . hire," more liberally than we do. For 
instance, they provide tneir Missionaries with houses, and all needM 
repairs or additions are made hy the Board, which is much more conve- 
nient than giving them a larger income andrequiring them to find houses 
for themselves. Then their travelling expenses are paid by the Mission ; 
so that the Missionaiy tours are more adapted to the necessities of the 
country, and less limited by the finances of the Missionary. When a 
man's whole soul, and talents, and time are given to his Missionary work, 
surely the least we can do is to free him from all worldly anxieties and 
care ; and I think our Missionary committees might advantageously copy 
their American brethren in this matter. The generous and open-hearted 
hospitality of all the Missionaries, of every denomination, and " the riches 
of their liberality,'* in all cases of distress are truly wonderful. I have 
known an American Missionary, with two children, and a salary under 
:200Z. a year, send a large donation to the starving Irish, and another give 
lOO rupees to a tract society, and then start on a journey of some hundred 
miles with sixteen rupees in his pocket. But it is still greater self-denial 
in others to renounce the pleasure and honour of literary success, which 
they might so easily attain, for the sake of their work, whose praise is 
" not of men, but of Grod." 

The simple preaching of the Word of Grod doubtless is a means of far 
jgreater spiritual good to the hearers than is ever manifested to others in 
this life. The following incident, related by Mr. Clarkson, proves this :— 
" I had pitehed my tent on the banks of the Mye, amongst the Xolis, an 
aboriginal tribe, reputed by Montgomery Martm * savage andunreclaun- 
able.' I preached day irfter day the doctrine of repentance towards God 
and faith m Jesus Christ. These doctrines I illustrated in every way I 
thought adapted to reach the consciences of the people. One day, after 
addressing them on these suWects, and exhorting them to weep on account 
of their past sins, I asked, * Do any of you weep on account of your sins P* 
To my utter delight, a young Koli, about twenty-two years of age--a 
farmer — said, with considerable feeling, * I weep on account of my sins. 
Ah ! my eyes do not weep, but my soul weeps, on account of my sin.* 
I replied, * If so, what do you wish to do P' He said, * To believe on Jesus 
Ohnst.* ' What do you know of Christ P* aaked I, with intense interest. 
'I know that He died for my sins.' This Koli had never heard the 
Gospel but from me, and had only listened to me two or three times; 

5robably he had not heard me speak more than four hours altogether, 
hat man was baptized, and is a consistent beHever at the present time." 
Tuesday, January 28th. — Drove to Mrs. Seitz's boarding-school. The 
girls read both En^sh and MaratU, and were cross-exammed on Scrip- 
ture History and Doctrine, and Geography. Qliey showed a manifi^t 
improvement since last year. They quoted texts to prove particular doc- 
trines, related parables from memory, and showed a very good knowledge 
^f Scripture. They work beautifully, both fancy and plain work. I 
sketched one of them, Saguni, a convert. We saw the fittle Arab giri, 
whom her mother brought to school, Gaurbi by name; she has a very 
enga^g manner. Captain D. afterwards gave nie a curious instance ci 
the timidity even of those who are considered Christian men in regard to 
religion. Having effected the settlement of the revenues of a hu^e dis- 
tn'ct on terms very favourable to the inhabitants, he proposed to G^vem- 
ment tiiat instead of abaolately teimXi^^ \)cl«& tf[\i<^^ vmss^mt of the 



A. BATTIA2 SITTEB. 25S 

difference between the former and present tax, a part of it should be 
reserved for educational purposes within the district. Coming at the 
same time as the reduction, both would be received as boons ; whereas, 
if it were proposed at any subsequent period to raise a sum for the sup- 
port of schools, it would be looked upon as a tax and a hardship. Sir 
G. Arthur cordially approved of the scheme ; but begged Captain David- 
son to omit a passage m his letter, to the effect that ne wished this edu- 
cation might be of a Christian character. Captain Davidson declined 
doin^ so, thinking there would be a certain degree of meanness in not 
avowing his principles. 

Thursday, January 30fch. — ^Took Aga Sahib and the Bibi to see the 
Mint. Several of our servants went also. The Bibi was greatly pleased 
with her drive through the Baz^r, which presents a most varied and 
lively scene. Here you see the tall austere JBedouin stalking along with 
bis loose burnouse, or cloak, floating behind him, and a shawl handker- 
chief drawn over his head, leaving his sad and grave features in deep 
shadow ; the handsome Arab Jew, with a fairer complexion than Euro- 
peans generally retain in this country, or a group of wild-looking 
Siluchus, with their long black hair and piercing eyes, surmounted by 
the cylindrical Sind cap ; the intelligent Parsi, with his clean white gar- 
ments, hawk ^e and nose, thick moustache, whiskers, and eyebrows, 
shaved chin, and side-locks, appearing from imder a cap not much unlike 
the Sindian, but cylindrical only in front, and sloping backwards from 
the forehead. Then there are tne Bombay people themselves, with more 
curious head-dresses than were ever devised Tby any other set of men, 
enormous turbans, generally red, some towering upwards, others of vast 
circumference. Then there are the Portuguese, with complexions as 
dark as the darkest native, but wearing the Eur^ean dress. 

Many more women are seen in the streets of Bombay than in those of 
Calcutta ; one meets them in flocks, carrying water for the use of their 
families, or walking about on their own errands. There are the Parsi 
women, with their hair closely concealed under a white skull-cap. I 
saw two in canary satin saris, but they are oftener in grave purple and 
black. The Hindu women of the lower class wear tbeir clothes veiy 
far above the knee, very small bodices, and a chaddah over the head. 
A few Mussulm^mls are sometimes seen with linen boots tied at the 
knee, and the rest of the person enveloped in a sheet, with a thick veil 
over the face, a piece of gauze opposite the eyes to enable them to 
see a little. I sketched a liandsome little boy, the son of a Jain broker, 
and a Battiah, or merchant, very intelligent, very dirty, and very rich. 
His red turban is somewhat in the form of a mitre, folded in the most 
elaborate manner. I asked some of the Battiahs if ihey undid their 
turbans daily. " Oh, no," they said, " only when they are dirty — every 
six weeks or two months !" Mr. Coles soon after overheard my sitter 
talking to his friends in Guzeratd. He said, '* The Madam Sahib is 
very clever, and has made a very good picture. Do you think she 
would give me a copy P I would ^ve her two or three rupees for it — 
not mare" The Bibi was much dismayed at seeing in Mr. Coles* room 
a small figure of Venus rising from the sea. She fixed her eyes upon it, 
and inquired in a severe tone, ** What is thatP Her clothes, where are 
they?" So not being able to give a better explanation, I told her 
it was a Pari (fairy). She could not get over ner horror at it for a 
long time, and inquired of Mary, " wliy English people made such 
£^es P" 

Dined at Parell to meet Sir Charles Napiet, \VJdccd2k. ^^cw^Vi SaiT^oscc^ 



^4 THBEE BILUCHIS. 

bay seems much less stiff and formal than in Calcutta. The ladies dress 
much more in the Enghsh style, and much more simply. There was also 
an excellent band. Lady Falkland is an excellent hostess, taking great 
pains to make her house agreeable. Sir Charles was most coi^ial to 
us. 

One day, being at Mr. Grey's office, I sent our Afghan servant Blarim 
to catch some BHuchis, and bring them in a buggy. He soon returned, 
and with great glee informed me he had got three Biluchis. They 
were rather stout square men, with straight, well-made noses and bril- 
liant eyes ; their hair a very dark brown. I gave one of them a gmi 
to hola, and he stood like a rock, in the attitude of raising it to take 
abn. They were very dirty, but their independent, frank manner 
pleased us much. They walked about, looked at everything, told us 
about their tribe, and all in the most cheer^, social way possible. 
AnotJier day, Mulla Ibrahim brought me two Arabs, Ezra, a Jew of 
Basrah, and Syad Othman, the son of the Kazi of that place ; the 
former an extreniely handsome man, with a very independent manner. 
Ibrahim dresses just like an Afghan, in white, with a buff-coloured 
chogah, faced inside with blue silk, but Ezra wore tiiie fez (the red cap, 
with an immense blue tassel) and a small shawl twisted round it. The 
Xazi's son wore a jammawar (striped shawl) turban. He had a cou^ 
and was incessantly asking for water, which Ezra brougut hini in Mi, 
Grey's tumblers. Mr. Mmray Mitchell took me for a drive to Mama 
Hadjini's tomb. Parsis and Hindus visit this tomb as well as Mussal- 
mans, and Mr. Mitchell told me he had seen Bindus making oSeting^ 
at the Bomanist shrines, near Bombay. 

Sunday, February 2nd. — ^Went to the Murray Mitchells*. Mr. Mit- 
chell then brought m three young Beni Israel (who, with some other of 
their tribe, come to him on the Sabbath), and we had a very interesting 
conversation with them. Their people, who are numerous in Western 
India, especially near Bombay, are supposed to be descendants of the 
ten tnbes. Nothing is known of the date of their arrival in India; but 
until the Church of Scotland Mission first took an interest in them, about 
fifteen years ago, th^ were sunk in idolatry, used images and worshipped 
the serpent. One of these young men told me that his father hadhSped 
to remove and destroy the images in their houses. They kaew nothmg 
of the Talmud ; hardly a copy of the Old Testament was to be founH 
among them ; and it was only by the observance of some of the principal 
Jewish rites that their descent could be authenticated. They are as 
dark as other natives, and of the same stature and appearance, though in 
some the Jewish cast of feature is very strongly marked. They wear a 
ringlet in front of each ear. They were in a very low condition, sociaDy 
as well as intellectually, being chiefiy oil-sellers ; but since schools have 
been opened for them, and the Bible put into their hands, there is a great 
change. As these young men said, " they have become industrious, and 
anxious to rise in the world :" some are carpenters, and numbers are 
Sepahis in the Bombay army. These young men are convinced of the 
truth of Christianity, and are in the habit of daily prayer — one of them 
once a day, the others tr^'ice— for about a quarter of an hour at a time. 
They reaa the Scriptures daily, and pray to be led into the truth— to 
know it and to receive it ; but they seenoi rather afraid of going a step 
further, by praying to be taught if the religion of Jesus be true, and for 
strength to embrace it. I tola them, nothing could put them back into 
the position of those who knew not the Gospel ; that their responsibiHty 
^ras equal to that of nominal C\ma\ivaa& *, xkaX, «^«rj ^otd ttey read or 



CONVICTION — ^WANT OF SCHOLAB8HIP8. 265 

i increased it ; and that, by refusing to confess Christ before men, 
were despising His love aod His most precious blood. They con- 
d that this was aU true, and that many who were in some degree 
essed with the importance of religion while at school, soon lost all 
est in it when they returned to their homes, and tiie love of the 
i took possession of them. When asked to name the chief difficulty 
le way of their professing Christianity, one said, "Love of the 
1;" the other two, "Love of their relations;" one added, "Our 
s would scorn my relations, if I became a Christian." They were 
interesting young men, and spoke in English. Mr. Mitchell ex- 
5d them to pray that if the religion of Christ were true, that Grod 
d enable them to embrace it. I promised them a copy of " The 
dm's Progress." Mr. Mitchell said that there had been fruit from 
f other class— ^Farsls, Hindus, Mussulmans, Jains — ^but none as yet 
lis side of India from the Jews, 
ler they left, Mr. Mitchell brought in a young Brahman, who has 

teaching a school belonging to the Sajah of . His companion, 

adii, who was tutor to the lUgah, was a most promising young man, 
convinced of the truth of Christianity, and many think that he had 
y^ embraced it ; but he was cut off by a fall from his horse, before he 
ly confessed Christ. On his death-bed he had the Scriptures read 
m. This young man has now returned to the institution for frirther 
action ; but though he comes to Mr. Mitchell every Sabbath, ex- 
sly to receive Christian instruction, and, as he said, intends to be a 
stian some time or other, yet he has no thought of becoming so a4; 
. He prays and reads the Bible — ^but not every day. I asked him 
b was the chief obstacle to confessing Christ : he said, " The scom- 
>f the people " — a very characteristic answer from a Brahman, 
le voung Ben-i-Israel appeared to me in a much more softened state 
ind. It is wonderful that so many young men should not only be 
lectually convinced of the truth of the Gospel, but should willing 
constantiy seek religious instruction, and put themselves in the way 
>nstant Christian exhortation, and yet not have any fixed intention of 
ing their own faith. Surely frequent prayer should be made for them. 
L has done all that he can do : the sacrifice is prepared and laid up<m 
dtar ; only the fire from heaven is wanting. May He swiftly send it 
Q, so that India ^fi a nation may stretch forth her hands unto God. 
)me among the Farsis as well as Hindus have advanced beyond this 
3, and are earnestly praying for grace to enable them to confess 
&i openly, whom they already believe on in their hearts ; and these 
k brethren, who as yet come to Jesus only by night, have a still 
iger claim on our prayers and sirmpathy. 

acre is another way m which any one wlbo is willing could do incal- 
ble good, at very trifling expense. The best scholu*s of the Institu- 
leave before their education is fuUy completed (as in the instance of 
y^oung man just mentioned), because they can obtain salaries, eitiier 
rovernment offices or from private individuals, and there are no 
tlarships to enable them to remain at the institution, 
[le funds of the Mission are too low to allow of their giving good 
ries to the monitors, so that they also leave as soon as they are well 
ified. Scholarships of from Q^yq to fifteen rupees a month (i. e., ten 
lirty shillings) would be most acceptable, and would enable the insti- 
>n to retain her best pupils at the very period when they are most 
bble of profiting by instruction, and most likely (humanly a^eaJsms^ 
nbrace the Gospel. Many are obliged to \ewe \sy ^Q^««^iS • ^^:^««^ 



256 MB. BOWEN, OF THE AMEBICAN MISSION. 

such scholarsliips would also greatly increase the efficiency of the insti- 
tution by supplying a far superior class of monitors to those which can 
now be obtained. I cannot omit that the Queen of Saxony, a Bomau 
CathoHc, has often denied herself a new shawl or a new dress, that she 
might have to give to them that need. Cannot Protestant ladies whose 
private station makes fewer demands on their purse do likewise? 



CHAPTEE XXV. 

Tuesday, Febbxtaey 4th.-— Went with Mr. Candy to see the schools 
in connexion with the Church of England Mission. First saw a female 
school, containing also some boys, fifty-seven in all, under the care of 
Miss White, a most zealous and energetic Indo-Briton, who has seven 
other schools under her charge. The children are taught by Pantojis, 
and all of the class we heard (a large one containing some very little 
girls) read Marathi well. Some of them were girls of fourteen or there- 
abouts. They come regularly, and imbibe much Christian truth; many 
of their mothers also come to hear. They are of all castes. It was at first 
a great difficidt^ to get girls of different castes to sit in the same school ; 
but now there is none. We next went to Mr. Candy's own school^ 
cldefly for children of European descent, on one or both sides, then to 
the Money Institution — a Christian school, under charge of Mr. Jerrom 
— ^founded about ten years ago, to commemorate the excellencies of Mr. 
Money, an admirable Christian civilian. It contains about 200 boys : 
the lower school learn Marathi, the upper English. 
- In so hurried a visit I could only observe that the monitors taught and 
the boys answered in a very animated manner, so that the eagerness of 
the answerers often prevented those who were tyros in En^ish from 
getting out the words in time. As we passed, two classes were hemg 
examined in grammar, in which they answered well — another equally so 
in geography. Some difficult sums were written on the boards, h&ng 
the mormng exercise in arithmetic. We heard the senior class answer 
well in mechanics. The pupils are made to write essays in English. 
Mr. Jerrom complained that it was rather difficult to keep up Iheir 
knowledge of Marathi, as they are not made to write themes in that lan- 
guage after entering the English division. The^ only translate into 
uneir mother tongue. The number of boys attendmg this excellent In- 
stitution at present, are as follows : — ^English department— Brahmins 
and other Hindu caste, 175; Mussulmans, 7; Parsls, 7; Boman 
CathoHcs, ao ; Ben-i-Israel, 6 ; Protestants, 10 : total, 236. The Chmdi 
Missionary Society act on the principle that if any one professes belief, 
and there is nothing to disprove his profession, he should be baptized; 
whereas the Free Church require some proof that his belief is reaL 

Met Mr. Bowen, of the 'American Mission ; a most devoted, but sin- 
gular yoim^ man. He has renounced his salary from the Boaid o£ 
Missions ; hves in a native house, on about seven rupees a month, and, 
as nearly as possible, in the native maimer, eating no meat, taking only 
one meal a day, teaching all the morning to support himsel]^ imd 
preaching all the rest of the day. He is worn to skm and bone. He 
thinks this the right method of influencing the natives ; it may havie 
some advantages, but I do not see any to compensate for throwing away 
his life by such incessant mental toil. Paul wrought as a tent-maker, 
manual, not mental labour, and in his native country. The yalue of 
0Uob men ib so great, and tiieic \o&& %o ixte^m^oX^.^orc ^««i» often, that I 



7TTNSBAL PILES. 257 

fed quite angry with them when they do not take proper care of their 
healUi. 

Wednesday, February 5th. — The Bungalows on the Island of Bombay 
are the prettiest I have seen. Thev have generally beautiful verandahs, 
wide and high, with lofty porches for carnages to drive under, and the 
whole surrounded with fine shrubs and flowers. Went to the Fort to 
look at some goods brought by Borahs (the same that I have been accus- 
tomed to call Boxwalas) . Ibr^im was there, and said, "Whenever 
these people enter my house, my head turns, and I tremble all over, for 
women always need a thousand things." I drove home by the sea-shore. 
It was just sunset, and we saw numbers of Parsis, standing with their 
books in their hands, praying towards the setting sun. One of them 
ended by turning round several times against the course of the sun. 
We were troublea by a smell which surpassed everything that had ever 
reached my nostrils. I found that the shore was Hned with smoking 
Leaps, the remains of Hindu funeral piles. We shortly after came to 
one still burning fiercely; it was a small square, the wood was nearly 
burnt to a level with the ground, and the only remnant of mortality was 
a small black piece in the centre. A crowd of men were sitting to wind- 
wart^ watching it very composedly. The deceased had died that 
morning! 

Friday, February 7th. — ^Went into the Fort to draw. Both my husband 
and Ibrahim have been exerting themselves to get me some Bedouin 
Arabs as sitters, but in vain ; they make appointments and do not keep 
them. 

To-day, being again disappointed, Ibrahim went out to lay hold of a 
Bedouin, if it were possible. He found one, but when it was proposed 
to hhn to come, he said, " Why should I go to the house of the English? 
JGtod alone knows what m^ befal me there 1" and nothing could induce 
him to run the risk, until Ezra, the Jew of Basrah (whom he knew), and 
another man, stood security for his safe return. The Arab was a tall, 
austere, sad-looking man, who never could have been otherwise than in 
earnest during the whole of his life, and who was, I suppose, too 
thoroughly convinced of the dangers of sorcery and magic to feel 
ashamed either of his fears or his precautions, when he found me alone as 
his only enenay, he being accompanied by a stout Bedouin attendant, 
beside Mull4 Arahim. He was not handsome, having plain irregular 
features and deeply sunk eyes, yet there was something aunost awful in 
the imperturbable ^vity and austerity of his gaze. During the whole 
time i was sketchmg him, he kept his eyes fixed on me, without the 
slightest change of expression. He looked like a man accustomed to 
hardships from his birth. I have often reflected on the cause of the diflS- 
•culty I fiad in taking the likeness of a European, as compared with that 
of an Oriental. The expression of the one can be caught in an instant, 
that of the other is not only more vanring, but more complicated, and I 
■suppose it to be from the simplicity of their lives, as compared with ours. 
•Consider the infinite variety of objects which engage our attention and 
interest ; the infinite variety of thoughts and emotions which these give 
rise to, and you will see that it is impossible for a cultivated European to 
retain the repose of feature and the unity of expression which is observ- 
able in the Oriental. Add to this, our habit of suppressing the outward 
manifestation of feeling (for, when an Oriental really feels deeply, he 
shows it much more freely than we do, except where he is obliged to 
feign), and the generally imerior intensity of the passions \\i"Ew:xcs^<i,'»sA. 
you will see why the countenances vary. T\i\a AibDo ^:«®> \3^^ tclq^X. ^^-^^^ 

s 



253 JLBAB STVAGOGUE. 

gpecimen I ever saw, of a man of few and simple emotions. He could 
understand hatred for an enemy, and love for a &iend ; bodily priyations 
he is accustomed to disregard,— bodily suffering to endure ; probably this 
comprises the circle of his feelings ; how can such a one, accustomed to 
hardships, to soHtude smd exertion, be made to understand the thousand- 
and-one aims and striyiugs of civilized lifeP He is a being of another 
sphere, and moves among the crowded streets with neither interest nor 
comprehension for the world and its ways ; there w&s no harshness in his 
expression, but it was the calm indifference of an ascetic. Are not these 
men, in some respects, wiser than we P gifted with a truer insight than 
we are into the nothin^ess of the world, though not of the great realities 
of life? This man could both write and read; his name was Ali Suklawi, 
of Kuwed, and when C. came and spoke with &ank cordiality to him, 
both he and his companion seemed more satisfied that we were not 
3>jinns. He wore the long ChogBh, or cloak, nearly touching the ground, 
a many-coloured handkerchiet on his head, bound round b^ a coil of 
camel's hair hy way of a turban ; the ends of the handkerchief htmcnng 
down on each side of his face threw his countenance into deep shacCSw: 
he had but scanty beard ; on his feet were sandals ; both hands, feet, and 
ankles finely shaped, bony and strong, but not more delicate than a 
European's of spare make. 

Saturday, February 8th.— My husband being very busy, Mr. Murray 
Mitchell landly accompanied me to the Synagogue of the Arab Jews. It 
was a lovely cool mommg. The service had begun, but Ibrahim had left 
a servant and little Firna to show us the way. I wanted the child to 
come into the carriage as usual, but the servant objected, as it was the 
JSabbath. We were in some doubt whether I should be admitted iato 
the body of the synagogue, but Ibrahim came forward to meet us, and 
led us to the "chief seats," placing us between himself and David 
Sassanan, the richest Jew in Bombay, a very fine-looking old man, with 
an eye like a hawk for brilliancy and depth. The synagogue was a long 
room with a high divan all round it, on which the worsmppers sat cross- 
legged. A chair waa provided for me to put my feet on. Down the 
middle were two benches, back to back, for the boys of the congregation, 
and nearer the door a desk, like a high sideboard, at which the reader 
stood, opposite to which was a curtained recess, containing the law. All 
present wore veils, generally white with blue striped borders and a single 
fringe at each comer, but some of the young^er boys had them of spotted 
net, adorned with little tufts of wool of various colours. I never saw a 
handsomer set of men, and this with their varied dresses of rich colours 
and the beauty of the little children who, gaily dressed and covered with 
ornaments, were curled up by the side of tneir fathers or sitting on their 
knees and ever and anon roving about or eating sweatmeats asbribes to 
be quiet, rendered it a most picturesque scene. But thouffh this was my 
first impression, it soon changed to astonishment at beholding the heart- 
lessness of their worship, which excels anything I have ever seen as a 
mockery of devotion. Every man had a prayer-book, but the aarvice was 
gabbled over in a way that rendered it impossible even for Mr. Mitchell 
who is a good Hebrew scholar, to follow it. The boys seemed to strive 
who shomd read loudest, and shouted " amin, amin, amin/' as if it were 
very amusing, looking about and laughing the while/The men were 
talking, and I soon found there would not be the slightest objecticMi to 
my sketching the scene. Water was brought me, and I took tke group 
on my left hand. No sooner did David Sassan&n perceive that I was 
aketching bim, than he put dowii\^\>ooV ^xA «i^xead hia hand upon it 



BA8TEBK CHTJBCHES. 259 

that I might obsenre his valuable diamond and ruby rings. Several were 
called up to the desk in succession to read different parts of the service, 
which they did in a sort of loud chaunt, rocking themselves to and fro. 
Several young boys, after reading, came to kiss the hand and fringes of 
David Sassanan and a venerable old man who sat next him, who laid their 
hands on the head of the bovs. It was a pretty action on both sides. 
One or two little girls were there with their oooks. 

During one part of the service each man collected the fringes at the 
four comers of his veil and kissed them repeatedly, touching ooth eyes 
with them. Most of them did it in the same " perftmctory" style in 
which Somanists generally cross themselves. Then they drew the veil 
over the right side of the face and uttered a lamentable ci^. Then the 
whole congre^tion turned towards the west, and, bendmg, uttered a 
confession of sm. This was the only part of the service in which there 
was the slightest appearance of earnestness. Towards the end of the 
service severed Jews that I had seen before came to speak to me, and 
also a rabbi from Jerusalem. One of them ushered me into the small 
chamber allotted to tiie women, with a pard&h between them and tiie 
synagogue, through which they can see without being seen. There were 
not above a dozen theire, including Hannah, Miriam, and their mother. 
All of them were covered with ornaments, many with their eyes painted 
with surma, and some I strongly suspected of rouge. They all wear 
&Ise hair. They seem to be generally of low stature — ^less than the 
Afghan women— but with very fair complexions. They welcomed me 
very cordially. 

On our way home Mr. Mitchell told me that this extraordinary irre- 
verence in the form of worship prevails throughout all the Eastern 
Churches, Christian as well as Jewish. In the Coptic Cathedral at 
Cairo, he heard one correct the reader by calling out, " You pig ! that's 
wrong." David Sassan^ corrected the reader several times, but in a 
more seemly^fashion than this. 

Sunday, Februaiy 9th. — The Communion.— Mr. Taylor, of Belgam, 
gave an excellent address before distributing the bread and wine. This 
IS as it should be. I like to see the Minister of one Church officiating 
in another, and thus testifying to their oneness in Christ. This is the 
first opportunity we have had of communicating since the 23rd Decem- 
ber, 1849, at Loodiana. Is not this a proof that the more frequent cele- 
bration of the Lord's Supper is expedient? After dinner, spoke to 
Harrichand, a young Branmin from the Assembly's Institution, who 
comes with three others fitjm the Elphinstone College to receive Scrip- 
tural instruction from Mrs. Mitchell. For the past month or six weeks 
he and three of his friends (I think the same who accompany him on the 
Sabbath) have met daily to read together. Their present study is His- 
tory, and they have begun with Grenesis, as being the oldest historical 
book. They have also read Wesley's Sermons. 

Harrichand said he did not think there was much difference between 
the pupils of Christian and Grovemment institutions ; he said many of 
the latter wished to read the Bible, and did read it. I asked him what 
made them wish to read it. He said, they find allusions to it in other 
books, and this makes them curious to read it ; but added, "that those 
who do not beheve in Clmstianity believe in nothing." He said that 
educated young men naturally wished for educated wives ; but that the 
chief obstacle is, that so soon as a girl is married she is wholly taken up 
with her household duties, so as to prevent her having any tvcaa ^ot 
learning. He said a relation of his, who died, oi^y ^3ia^)^^«i'^^ ^^-o^. 

82 



260 DIFFICULTY OF BEING A CHfilSTIAK. 

cholera, and who was the daughter and wife of rich men, so as to have 
everything done for her, was very learned, and even read Sanscrit. 
When I urged on him and his companion ^e necessity of confessing 
Christ, he said we could not understand the difficulties and trials that a 
Hindu had to endure, — that it was very easy for us to speak thus, — and 
expressed himself with much warmth and even eloquence on the subject. 
I granted that we had not the same outward trials to undergo ; but en- 
deavoured to explain that all mankind must belong to one of two classes 
— ^ihat every man must be a child of Grod or a child of the Devil — must 
be unconverted, that is, alienated from God and without love for Him, or 
converted, that is, filled with such a love to Christ that he counts all 
things but nought in comparison to Him ; that it was, indeed, easy for 
us to be nominal Christians, but that it was not a bit easier for us to be 
real Christians than for them ; that being nominal Christians only en- 
hanced our condemnation ; that those who were such were very much in 
the condition of Harrichand himself— that is, intellectually assenting to 
the Gospel, without receiving it with the heart ; that conversion was the 
work of the Spirit alone, and was the same work in the heart of a Euro- 
pean as in that of a Hindu ; and that unless a European was filled wi^ 
such love to Christ as would enable him cheerfully to renounce all things 
for His sake, he is no more a Christian than the Hindu who shrinks 
from actually renouncing them ; that God alone could read the heart, 
and see whether this love existed ; but that it was clear that without it 
no one could be saved. I assured them that we felt most deeply for 
them. 

I., the Jew, toldmie that his brother to the last acknowledged Jesus 
as the true Messiah, but that he himself was very much ashamed of con- 
fessing Him. Many of the Jews in Bombay secretly read the New 
Testament ; but although they know the difference between Protestants 
and others calling themselves Christians, yet the idolatry of the Eoman- 
ists and Armenians is a great stumbHngblock in their way. 

Tuesday, February 11th. — Paid a farewell visit to Ibr§ihim*s family, 
taking Mrs. Mitchell, Bachu, and the Bibl with me. A good many 
Jewesses were there. Ibrahim retreated when they came in, as it is not 
the custom of the Jewish ladies to see strangers. I sketched a Jewess 
with a very sweet countenance, smoking the huq^, and also her half- 
sister, a little girl of twelve, who is betrothed to a son of D^ud Sassan&n. 
The young man is now in China, with which country his father carries 
on a great trade, principally in opium. I also drew the daughter of the 
elder lady, a ^irl of thirteen, who has been lately married. Their dress 
consists of a tight-fitting coat reaching to the feet, and open on each side 
nearly as high as the knee, to allow or walking. This is generally- of gay 
colours, striked or figured — in one instance it was of silver brocade. It 
is cut down m front below the bosom, which is covered (besides under- 
garments) by a sort of stomacher of musHn, embroidered in gold and 
colours, while numerous necklaces, pendants, and chains surround the 
throat. The sleeves are tight, and over this long dress (under which 
they wear trousers, and are always curious to know if we ao the same) 




in front by false hair of a bright auburn, cut straight half-way down the 
forehead, and looped up in plaits at the side. The real tresses are 

pJaited, and hang down the back wiih. silver tassels and coins at the end. 

!uiejr often wear the Eez, or TeiT'vxrVaB\i c«5 V\^;^l ^\aa tassel, roimd 



FABSI LADIES. *26I 

wliich is a small muslin tnrban of colours on a wHte ground ; a hand- 
kerchief of the same is folded over the head and crossed under tiie chin 
(only the unmarried ^1 was without this) ; and over all are bands of 
gold, pearls, and jewels, crossing the head in every direction, strings of 
pearls passing imder the chin from one ear to the otJier. Hiey wear 
gold coms, some of them very large, fastened to their chains ; bracelets, 
rings, and inunense gold bangles on their ankles. One lady had hers 
covered with a muslm case. They mostly wear stockings or socks. 

The Bibi was very much pleased with their cordial manner. Ibrahim 
gave us some deUcious tea, called Paho. We then embraced his family 
and parted. Several of the ladies wore rouge, but neither Miriam nor 
her mother do so, for their skins were like satin to the touch. I then 
took the Bibi to see the wife of Nassirw^ji, a rich Farsi broker. We 
had to ascend innumerable stairs, till we reached the highest story of 
the house, which was handsomely furnished with many mirrors and 
ornaments, much in the French st^le. Our host made a self-acting 
piano play for us : he used to play hmiself, but now has no time. He 
then took the Bibi and me into some ioner apartments richly furnished, 
where his wife sat on a velvet sofa. She was a verv pretty person, but 
disfigured by having her hair wholly covered witn a white skull-cap. 
She was richly dressed in a satin Sari, and with a short jacket under- 
neath. She wore very handsome diamond earrings, pearl necklace, and 
handsome bangles ana rings, but she was veir inanimate, did not rise at 
our entrance, and scarcelv made a salam. She had two beautiful chil- 
dren, both dressed in little black velvet tabards with spangles, and caps 
of the same. A very pretty little girl, about nine, sat on a chair near 
her, as immovable as herself, so we concluded it was the Parsi mode. 
The Bibi was highlr indignant at it, and declared our fair hostess was 
''just like an idol, for she neither rose nor made salam \* and the onl^y 
tmng she said was to ask if I was a Madam Sahib or a Baba. ThiB 
extreme apathy of the Parsi ladies is the more remarkable, as the men 
are very animated in their demeanour. It by no means follows, how- 
ever, that they are as ^uiet as they appear, for a friend of mine saw one, 
when irritated by the impolite behaviour of an English lady, and admo- 
nished b^ her husband not to show her displeasure, dash her hand into 
his face m the presence of the whole company in i^e most contemptuous 
manner. 

Nasirwanji spoke of hiding the women's hair, as ''an abominable 
custom," and one that would certainly be abolished in a few years. 
Their religion does not allow them to speak, walk, or eat with their 
heads uncovered. He then brought my husband dnd Agha Muhammad 
in to see his wife, as the Parsi ladies may receive visitors, though they ' 
do not go out in public. 

It is astonishmg that the most enlightened and enterprising race in 
India should profess so utterly childish a religion — one which gives 
minute directions for cutting and burying the hair and nails! and 
teaches that the star Sirius is a bull with golden horns. It is a religion 
wholly devoid of external evidei^ce. No one knows who Zoroaster was, 
or whether there was one or sis ; a few Parsis acknowledge the inspira- 
tion of the Zendavesta only, of which the text is corrupted, ana the 
meaning almost unknown : others acknowledge as sacred the Pehlevi 
and Persian writings, which are all modem ! 

Our kind hostess, Mrs. G., has a very nice Ayah, who is a learned 
woman, and reads the Kuran daily, without TiaidsttfaiiivXY^^ ^-^cs^ ^jl*-^* 
The Aga said she reminded him of a devout Isins^cn&aai c»l \^)^^^^^ ^^ 



262 ^ CAVKS AT BLOfiA. 

a Munshi to read to her the " Martyrdom of Hasan and Hoeejn." As 
the lecture proceeded, she became more and more affected, wept^ tore 
her hair, beat her breast, sobbed and groaned, imtU the irreyerent 
Munshi burst out laughiug, and told her he had been xeading tiie Lores 
of Majnun and Leila ! 

How great is the want of missionaries at this place ! The Listitatioii 
alone requires at least two to itself, besides the natiye brethren. Baz^ 
preaching is a field for as many as can be found ; the Fortugoese com- 
munity require a missionary to themselves ; so do the Pands : so do the 
Ben-i-Israel ; the Mussahnans have been sadly neglected. 

Sunday, 16th February. — Puna. — There was ihe communion in 
Marathi. We both partook of it. About eleyen female conyerts and 
twelve or fourteen men oonmiunicated. We saw two SepSihis who had 
made the last campaign, both of whom were baptised by Mr. Allen. 
One of them is now pensioned, having been wounded ; the other is in 
the 3rd Bombay Native Lifantry. He is a Madras man. lliese weie 
the first Christmn SepSihis I have ever seen. There are a good many 
Bonoianists and some Protestants both in the Bombay and MimHw 
armies. I never heard of one in Bengal. Some yean ago a vety 
gradlant Sepahi Havildar — a Mussalman I think — was converted, and 
the Grovemment were so much alarmed at it that they forced him to 
retire on a pension : but times are greatly changed now. 

Friday, Februaiy 28th. — Doulatabad .---Started about sunrise, rode « 
high as we could, and then climbed up to the top of Doulntabad, buOl 
by Muhammad Toghlak. This £imous fortress, " The City of RidieB,'' 
was impregnable by assault, but is now in ruins. It rises abruptly from 
the phun, exactly in the form of a tent ; the walls of the tent represent- 
ing the scarp, and the sloping fiy the upper part of the fortress. It is a 
fi&tiguing ascent. The wm^ng arched gateway, the Elilladar's house at 
the summit, and niany passages and staircases, still remain, with ont 
soUtary minar. The view from tiiie top is fine. We saw a curioai 
^hteen-pounder, of immense length. We then went to the vineyiidB. 
The vines grow like small trees; the stem five or six indieB round. 
There are two kinds of grapes — an oblong, sweet, fleshy, white gn^s^ 
very like a cherry in taste ; and a black grape, of hi^ier flavour, nd 
eight times the price. We saw the Pamgra tree, wxmoot leavoa, hoi 
covered with a beautiful crimson blossom ; and also a delicioiiB littk 
straw-coloured rose. On returning to oor t^ifts, we paased a poor 
donkey which had just been killed bya panther ; favit thouc^ the gentie* 
men went after the latter, it got awa^. 

In the afternoon went cm to Bozah to see die tombs. Amran^fseb lioi 
here, with no m<mument whatever — tmhr a white doth over hia tomb* 
stone. Close by is the shrine of a Pfr, whidi they would imt aDow us ti 
enter: ^e doors seenied to be of silver, and a row of ostrich mkb kmg 
above the tomb. This place is mider the care of the stingy liawab a 
Jafierabad ; so it is not astomdiing that it ia not in good order. Tlw 
mueazin was calling to evoiing prayer. 

Satordi^, Mardi 1st. —