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Physical Science Grade 10 Teachers' Guide 

- Siyavula WebBook 


Bridget Nash 

Physical Science Grade 10 Teachers' Guide 

- Siyavula WebBook 


Bridget Nash 


< http://cnx.Org/content/colll342/l.l/ > 


Rice University, Houston, Texas 

This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by Bridget Nash. It is licensed under the 

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by/3.0/). 

Collection structure revised: August 10, 2011 

PDF generated: August 10, 2011 

For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see p. 49. 

Table of Contents 

1 TG Physical Science - Overview 1 

2 TG Physical Science - Blog Posts 17 

3 TG Physical Science - Chapter Contexts 21 

4 TG Physical Science - Solutions 33 

5 On the Web, Everyone can be a Scientist 35 

6 FullMarks User Guide 39 

7 Rich Media 43 

Index 48 

Attributions 49 


Chapter 1 

TG Physical Science - Overview 1 

1.1 Overview 

Dear educator, welcome to the force of educators that make a difference by unlocking the marvels of the 
Physical Sciences to learners. What a privilege you have to guide the learners in becoming critical thinkers! 

To improve curriculum implementation and to meet the vision for our nation, the National Curriculum 
Statement Grades R - 12 (NCS) was revised, changed and is replaced by a national policy document developed 
for each subject. All Physical Sciences educators in the country have to use the National Curriculum 
and Assessment Policy Statement for Physical Sciences. This policy document replaces all old Subject 
Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines in Grades R - 12. These 
changed curriculum and assessment requirements come into effect in January 2012. As a Physical Sciences 
educator for Grade 10, you need to have a sound understanding of the National Curriculum and Assessment 
Policy Statement for Physical Sciences. 

This teachers' guide is divided into two main parts: 

• Part 1 deals with the policy document; and 

• Part 2 with the learners' textbook. 

Part 1 

The National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement for Physical Sciences has four sections: 

Section 1: Curriculum overview 

Section 2: Physical Sciences 

Section 3: Physical Sciences Content (Grades 10 - 12) 

Section 4: Assessment 

This part will assist you in getting to grips with the objectives and requirements laid down for the 
Physical Sciences at national level, and how to implement the prescribed policy document. 

Part 2 

The Grade 10 Physical Sciences textbook is divided into Chemistry and Physics. Each chapter in the text- 
book addresses prescribed content, concepts and skills. The range of activities includes practical activities, 
experiments, and informal and formal assessment tasks. 

1.2 Curriculum Overview 

From the beginning of January 2012, all learning and teaching in public and independent schools in South 
Africa is laid down in the National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (January 2012) (CAPS) 

lr This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40362/l.l/>. 


document. National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements were developed for each subject and 
replace all previous policy statements including: 

• National Senior Certificate: a qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF); 

• An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: a qualification at Level 4 on 
the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding learners with special needs, published in the 
Government Gazette, No. 29466 of 11 December 2006; 

• The Subject Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines for 
Grades R - 9 and Grades 10 - 12. 

The following sections in this document set out the expected norms and standards and minimum outcomes, 
as well as processes and procedures for the assessment of learner achievement in public and independent 

The national agenda and how the curriculum can serve this agenda: 

(a) The knowledge, skills and values worth learning for learners in South Africa are clearly set out in the 
National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement for Physical Sciences. The content links to the 
environment of the learners and is presented within local context, with awareness of global trends. 

(b) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R - 12 undertakes to: 

• equip all learners, irrespective of their socio-economic background, race, gender, physical ability or 
intellectual ability, with the knowledge, skills and values necessary for self-fulfilment to participate 
meaningfully in society as citizens of a free country; 

• provide access to higher education; 

• facilitate the transition of learners from education institutions to the workplace; and 

• provide employers with a sufficient profile of a learner's competencies. 

(c) The key principles (fuller described in the document) of the National Curriculum Statement for Grades 
R - 12 are: 

• social transformation: making sure that the educational differences of the past are put right, by 
providing equal educational opportunities to all; 

• active and critical learning: encouraging an active and critical approach to learning, not only rote 
learning of given facts; 

• high knowledge and high skills: specified minimum standards of knowledge and skills are set to be 
achieved at each grade; 

• progression: content and context of each grade shows progression from simple to complex; 

• human rights, inclusivity, environmental and social justice: being sensitive to issues such as poverty, 
inequality, race, gender, language, age, disability and other factors; 

• valuing indigenous knowledge systems: acknowledging the rich history and heritage of this country; 

• credibility, quality and efficiency: providing an education that is comparable in quality, breadth and 
depth to those of other countries. 

(d) The aims as listed in the National Curriculum Statement Grades R - 12 interpret the kind of citizen the 
education systems tries to develop. It aims to produce learners that are able to: 

• identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking; 

• work effectively as individuals and with others as members of a team; 

• organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively; 

• collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information; 

• communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes; 

• use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment 
and the health of others; and 

• demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem 
solving contexts do not exist in isolation. 

(e) Inclusivity is one of the key principles of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R - 12 and should 
become a central part of the organisation, planning and teaching at each school. 
Educators need to: 

• have a sound understanding of how to recognise and address barriers to learning; 

• know how to plan for diversity; 

• address barriers in the classroom; 

• use various curriculum differentiation strategies 2 ; 

• address barriers to learning using the support structures within the community; District-Based Support 
Teams, Institutional-Level Support Teams, parents and Special Schools as Resource Centres. 

1.2.1 Physical Sciences 

As economic growth is stimulated by innovation and research which is embedded in the Physical Sciences, 
this subject plays an increasingly important role to meet the country's needs. The nature of the Physical 
Sciences and the needs of the country are reflected in the curriculum. The specific aims direct the classroom 
activities that intend to develop higher order cognitive skills of learners, needed for higher education. 
The nature of the Physical Sciences is to: 

• investigate physical and chemical phenomena through scientific inquiry, application of scientific models, 
theories and laws in order to explain and predict events in the physical environment; 

• deal with society's need to understand how the physical environment works in order to benefit from it 
and responsibly care for it; 

• use all scientific and technological knowledge, including Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) to ad- 
dress challenges facing society. 

The specific aims of Physical Sciences 

The specific aims provide guidelines on how to prepare learners to meet the challenges of society and 
the future during teaching, learning and assessment. The Specific Aims of the Physical Sciences (CAPS 
document, stated below) are aligned to the three Learning Outcomes (NCS document) with which you are 
familiar. Developing language skills as such is not a specific aim for the Physical Sciences, but we know that 
cognitive skills are rooted in language; therefore language support is crucial for success in this subject. 

The specific aims for the Physical Sciences are: 

• Specific aim 1: to promote knowledge and skills in scientific inquiry and problem solving; the con- 
struction and application of scientific and technological knowledge; an understanding of the nature of 
science and its relationships to technology, society and the environment. 

• Specific aim 2: to equip learners with investigating skills relating to physical and chemical phe- 
nomena. These skills are: classifying, communicating, measuring, designing an investigation, drawing 
and evaluating conclusions, formulating models, hypothesising, identifying and controlling variables, 
inferring, observing and comparing, interpreting, predicting, problem solving and reflective skills. 

• Specific aim 3: to prepare learners for future learning (including academic courses in Higher Educa- 
tion), specialist learning, employment, citizenship, holistic development, socio-economic development, 
and environmental management. Learners choosing Physical Sciences as a subject in Grades 10 - 12, 
including those with barriers to learning, can have improved access to professional career paths related 
to applied science courses and vocational career paths. 

^Consult the Department of Basic Education's Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning (2010) 


Within each of these aims, specific skills or competences have been identified. It is not advisable to try to 
assess each of the skills separately, nor is it possible to report on individual skills separately. However, well 
designed assessments must show evidence that, by the end of the year, all of the skills have been assessed at 
a grade-appropriate level. Study the next section that deals with assessment. 

Developing language skills: reading and writing 

As a Physical Sciences educator you need to engage in the teaching of language. This is particularly 
important for learners for whom the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) is not their home language. 
It is important to provide learners with opportunities to develop and improve their language skills in the 
context of learning Physical Sciences. It will therefore be critical to afford learners opportunities to read 
scientific texts, to write reports, paragraphs and short essays as part of the assessment, especially (but not 
only) in the informal assessments for learning. 

Six main knowledge areas inform the Physical Sciences. These are: 

• Matter and Materials 

• Chemical Systems 

• Chemical Change 

• Mechanics 

• Waves, Sound and Light 

• Electricity and Magnetism Time Allocation of the Physical Sciences in the Curriculum 

The teaching time for Physical Sciences is 4 hours per week, with 40 weeks in total per grade. The time 
allocated for the teaching of content, concepts and skills includes the practical work. These are an integral 
part of the teaching and learning process. 


No. of Weeks Allo- 

Content, Concepts & 
Skills (Weeks) 

Formal Assessment 













Table 1.1 Topics and Content to be Dealt with in Grade 10 

(Consult the National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement for Physical Sciences for an overview 
of Grades 10 - 12) 




Introduction to vectors & scalars; motion in one 
dimension (reference frame, position, displacement 
and distance, average speed, average velocity, ac- 
celeration, instantaneous velocity, instantaneous 
speed, description of motion in words, diagrams, 
graphs and equations). Energy (gravitational poten- 
tial energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy, con- 
servation of mechanical energy (in the absence of 
dissipative forces). 

• 30 hours 

Waves, Sound & Light 

Transverse pulses on a string or spring (pulse, am- 
plitude superposition of pulses); transverse waves 
(wavelength, frequency, amplitude, period, wave 
speed, longitudinal waves (on a spring, wave- 
length, frequency, amplitude, period, wave speed, 
sound waves); sound (pitch, loudness, quality 
(tone), ultrasound); electromagnetic radiation (dual 
(particle/wave); nature of electromagnetic (EM) ra- 
diation, nature of EM radiation, EM spectrum, na- 
ture of EM as particle - energy of a photon related 
to frequency and wavelength). 

• 16 hours 

continued on next page 


Electricity & Magnetism 

Magnetism (magnetic field of permanent magnets, 
poles of permanent magnets, attraction and repul- 
sion, magnetic field lines, earth's magnetic field, 
compass); electrostatics (two kinds of charge, force 
exerted by charges on each other (descriptive), at- 
traction between charged and uncharged objects 
(polarisation), charge conservation, charge quanti- 
zation ); electric circuits (emf, potential difference 
(pd), current, measurement of voltage (pd) and cur- 
rent, resistance, resistors in parallel). 

• 14 hours 

Matter & Materials 

Revise matter and classification (materials; het- 
erogeneous and homogeneous mixtures; pure sub- 
stances; names and formulas; metals and non- 
metals; electrical and thermal conductors and in- 
sulators; magnetic and non magnetic materials); 
states of matter and the kinetic molecular theory; 
atomic structure (models of the atom; atomic mass 
and diameter; protons, neutrons and electrons; iso- 
topes; energy quantization and electron configu- 
ration); periodic table (position of the elements; 
similarities in chemical properties in groups, elec- 
tron configuration in groups); chemical bonding 
(covalent bonding; ionic bonding; metallic bond- 
ing); particles substances are made of (atoms and 
compounds; molecular substances and ionic sub- 

• 28 hours 

continued on next page 

Chemical Systems 

• 8 hours 

Chemical Change 

Physical and chemical change (separation by phys- 
ical means; separation by chemical means; conser- 
vation of atoms and mass; law of constant composi- 
tion; conservation of energy); representing chemical 
change (balanced chemical equations); reactions in 
aqueous solution (ions in aqueous solutions; ion in- 
teraction; electrolytes; conductivity; precipitation; 
chemical reaction types); stoichiometry (mole con- 

• 24 hours 

Table 1.2 An Overview of Practical Work 

Educators now have clarity regarding the role and assessment of practical work. This document specifies 
that practical work must be integrated with theory to strengthen the concepts being taught. Practical work 
can be: simple practical demonstrations; an experiment or practical investigation. In Section 3 practical 
activities are outlined alongside the content, concepts and skills column. The table below lists prescribed 
practical activities for formal assessment as well as recommended practical activities for informal assessment 
in Grade 10. 


Prescribed Practical Activi- 

Recommended Practical Ac- 

ties for Formal Assessment 

tivities for Informal Assess- 

Term 1 

Experiment 1 (Chem- 

Practical Demonstration 

istry) :Heating and cooling 

(Physics): Use a ripple tank 

curve of water. 

to demonstrate constructive and 
destructive interference of two 
pulses or 
Experiment (Chemistry): 

Flame tests to identify some 
metal cations and metals. 

continued on next page 


Term 2 

Experiment 2 (Physics): 

Electric circuits with resistors in 
series and parallel - measuring 
potential difference and current. 

Investigation (Physics): 

Pattern and direction of the 
magneticfield around a bar mag- 
net or 
Experiment (Chemistry): 

Prove the conservation of matter 

Term 3 

Project: Chemistry: Purifica- 
tion and quality of water. or 
Physics: Acceleration. 

Experiment (Physics): Roll 
a trolley down an inclined plane 
with a ticker tape attached to 
it, and use the data to plot a 
position vs. time graph or 
Experiment (Chemistry): 
Reaction types: precipitation, 
gas forming, acid-base and redox 

Term 4 

Experiment (Chemistry): 

Test water samples for carbon- 
ates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, 
pH, and look at water samples 
under the microscope. 

Table 1.3 

Weighting of topics [40 week programme] : 

Grade 10 







Waves, Sound & Light 



Electricity & Magnetism 



Matter & Materials 



Chemical Change 



Chemical Systems 



Teaching Time (Theory and Practical Work) 



Time for Examinations and Control Tests 



Table 1.4 

Total time = 40 hours/term x 4 terms = 160 hours per year 

1,2,2 Physical Sciences Content (Grade 10) 

This section of the CAPS document provides a complete plan for: time, topics, content, concepts and skills, 
practical activities, resource material and guidelines for educators. You need to consult this section of the 
document regularly to check whether your classroom activities fall within the requirements and objectives 
of the prescribed curriculum. Use the condensed work schedule below which is aligned with Section 3 and 
the learner's book as a pacesetter to check your progress. Work Schedule 



Term 1: 36 Hours or 9 Weeks 

Chemistry (Matter 

& Materials) 



Practical Activities 


Week 1 (4h) 

Revise matter & clas- 

Prescribed exper- 


sification (from Grade 

iment for formal 

Formal Assessment: 

9). The material(s) of 

assessment: Start 

1. Control Test 

which an object is 

with ice in a glass 



beaker and use a ther- 


Mixtures: hetero- 

mometer to read the 


geneous and homoge- 

temperature every 10 

1. At least two 

neous, pure substances: 

seconds when you deter- 


elements and com- 

mine the heating curve 

exercises as homework 

pounds, names and 

of water. Do the same 

and/or class work 

formulae of substances. 

with the cooling curve 

(every day, if possible 

Metals, metalloids and 

of water starting at the 

cover all cognitive 

non-metals, electrical 

boiling point. Give your 

levels) . 

conductors, semicon- 

results on a graph. 

2. One practical 

ductors and insulators, 

activity per term. 

thermal conductors 

3. At least one 

and insulators, mag- 

informal test per term. 

netic and non magnetic 

materials. States of 

matter and the kinetic 

molecular theory.Three 

states of matter, Kinetic 

Molecular Theory. 

continued on next page 


Week 2 (4h) 

The atom: basic 
building block of all 
matter (atomic struc- 
ture). Models of the 
atom, atomic mass and 
diameter, structure of 
the atom: protons, 
neutrons and elec- 
trons, isotopes, electron 

Week 3 (4h) 

Periodic table (posi- 

Recommended ex- 

tion of the elements; 
similarities in electron 

periment for in- 
formal assessment : 

configuration and chem- 

Flame tests to identify 

ical properties amongst 
elements in groups 1, 2, 
17 and 18). 

some metalcations and 

Week 4 & 5 (8h) 

Chemical bonding 

(covalent bonding; 
ionic bonding; metallic 


Week 6 (4h) 

Transverse pulses on 

Recommended ex- 

a string or spring 

(pulse, amplitude super- 
position of pulses) . 

periment for infor- 
mal assessment: Use 

a ripple tank to demon- 
strate constructive and 
destructive interference 
of two pulses. 

Week 7 (2h) 

Transverse waves 

(wavelength, frequency, 
amplitude, period, wave 

Week 7 (cont.)(2h) 

Longitudinal waves 

(on a spring, wave- 
length, frequency, 
amplitude, period, wave 
speed, sound waves). 


nued on next page 



Week 8 (2h)(2h) 

Longitudinal waves 
(continue) .Sound 
(pitch, loudness, quality 
(tone), ultrasound). 

Week 9 (4h) 

Electromagnetic ra- 
diation (dual (parti- 
cle/wave), nature of 
electromagnetic (EM) 
radiation, nature of 
EM radiation, EM 
spectrum, nature of 
EM as particle - energy 
of a photon related to 
frequency and wave- 

Table 1.5 


Term 2: 30 Hours or 7,5 Weeks 

Chemistry (Matter & Materials) 



Practical Activities 


Week 1&2 (8h) 

Particles substances 
are made of (atoms 
and compounds; molec- 
ular substances and 
ionic substance form 
due to bonding). 

Chemistry (Chemical Change) 

Week 3 (4h) 

Physical and chem- 
ical change (separa- 
tion by physical means; 
separation by chemical 
means; conservation of 

Recommended exper- 
iment for informal 
assessment:Prove the 
law of conservation of 
matter by 

atoms and mass; law 
of constant composition; 
conservation of energy) . 

• reacting lead(II) 
nitrate with 
sodium iodide; 

• reacting sodium 
hydroxide with 
hydrochloric acid; 

• reacting Cal-C- 
Vita tablet with 

Week 4 (4h) 

Representing chemi- 
cal change (balanced 
chemical equations). 

Physics (Electricity & Magnetism) 

Week 5 (2h) 

Magnetism (magnetic 
field of permanent mag- 
nets, poles of permanent 
magnets, attraction and 
repulsion, magnetic field 
lines, earth's magnetic 
field, compass). 

Recommended Prac- 
tical Activities 
Informal Assess- 
ment Investigation 

(Physics) :Pattern and 
direction of the mag- 
neticfield around a bar 

Formal Assessment 

1. Prescribed 
experiment in Physics 
on electric circuits. 

2. Mid-year examina- 
Informal Assessment: 
1. At least two 


n, eSerHsEf^sPBSfhework 

and/or class work 
(every day, if possible 
cover all cognitive 
levels) . 

2. One practical 
activity per term. 

3. At least one 
informal test per term. 



Week 5 (cont.)2h)Week 
6 (2h) 

Electrostatics (two 
kinds of charge, force 
exerted by charges on 
each other (descriptive), 
attraction between 
charged and uncharged 
objects (polarisation), 
charge conservation, 
charge quantization). 

Week 6(cont.) (2h) 
Week 7 (4h) Week 8 

Electric circuits (emf, 
potential difference 
(pd), current, measure- 
ment of voltage (pd) 
and current, resistance, 
resistors in parallel). 

Prescribed experiment 
for formal assessment 
(Physics) :Electric cir- 
cuits with resistors in 
series and parallel - 
measuring potential 
difference and current. 

Week 8 &9 

Mid year examination. 

Table 1.6 

Term 3: 36 hours or 9 weeks 

Chemistry (Chemical Change) 



Practical Activities 


Week 1 & 2 (8h) 

Reactions in aque- 

Recommended ex- 

Formal Assess- 

ous solutions (ions in 

periment for infor- 

ment :Recommended 

aqueous solutions; ion 

mal assessment: 

Project For Chem- 

interaction; electrolytes; 

Test water samples for 


conductivity; precipita- 

carbonates, chlorides, 

1. Purification and 

tion; chemical reaction 

nitrates, nitrites, pH 

quality of waterorRec- 


and look at water 

ommended project- 

samples under the 



1. Acceleration. 

continued on next page 


Week 3 & 4 (8h) 

Stoichiometry (mole 

Physics (Mechanics) 

Week 5 (4h) 

Introduction to vec- 
tors & scalars. 

2. Control test 



1. At least two 
exercises as homework 
and/or class work 
(every day, if possible 
cover all cognitive 
levels) . 

2. One practical 
activity per term. 

3. At least one 
informal test per term. 

Week 6 & 7 (8h) 

Motion in one di- 
mension (reference 
frame, position, dis- 
placement and distance, 
average speed, average 
velocity, acceleration. 

Week 8 & 9 (8h) 

Instantaneous speed 
and velocity and the 
equations of motion. 

Recommended ex- 
periment for infor- 
mal assessment: 

Roll a trolley down an 
inclined plane with a 
ticker tape attached to 
it and use the data to 
plot a position vs. time 

Table 1.7 

Term 4: 16 hours or 

4 weeks 

Physics (Mechanics) 



Practical Activities 


Week 1 & 2 (8h) 

Energy (gravitational 
potential energy, kinetic 
energy, mechanical en- 
ergy, conservation of 
mechanical energy (in 
the absence of dissipa- 
tive forces)). 

Formal Assess- 
ment :Final examina- 

continued on next page 



Chemistry (Chemical Systems) 

Week 3 & 4 (8h) 



1. At least two 

Week 5 up to end of 

Revision and formal 

Table 1.8 

exercises as homework 
and/or class work 
(every day, if possible 
cover all cognitive 
levels) . 

2. One practical 
activity per term. 

3. At least one 
informal test per term. 

Chapter 2 

TG Physical Science - Blog Posts 1 

2.1 Blog Posts 
2.1.1 General Blogs 

Educator's Monthly - Education News and Resources 

• "We eat, breathe and live education! " 

• "Perhaps the most remarkable yet overlooked aspect of the South African teaching community is its 
enthusiastic, passionate spirit. Every day, thousands of talented, hard-working educators gain new 
insight from their work and come up with brilliant, inventive and exciting ideas. Educator's Monthly 
aims to bring educators closer and help them share knowledge and resources. 

• Our aim is twofold . . . 

• To keep South African educators updated and informed. 

• To give educators the opportunity to express their views and cultivate their interests." 


Head Thoughts - Personal Reflections of a School Headmaster 

• blog by Arthur Preston 

• "Arthur is currently the headmaster of a growing independent school in Worcester, in the Western 
Cape province of South Africa. His approach to primary education is progressive and is leading the 
school through an era of new development and change." 


Reflections of a Science Teacher - Scientist, Educator, Life-Long Learner 

• blog by Sandra McCarron 

• "After 18 years as an Environmental Consultant, I began teaching high school science and love it. My 
writings here reflect some of my thoughts about teaching, as they occur. I look forward to conversations 
with other thoughtful teachers." 


The Naked Scientists - Science Radio and Naked Science Podcasts 

• " "The Naked Scientists" are a media-savvy group of physicians and researchers from Cambridge Uni- 
versity who use radio, live lectures, and the Internet to strip science down to its bare essentials, and 
promote it to the general public. Their award winning BBC weekly radio programme, The Naked 
Scientists, reaches a potential audience of 6 million listeners across the east of England, and also has 
an international following on the web." 

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40364/l.l/>. 




2.1.2 Chemistry Blogs 

Chemical Heritage Foundation - We Tell the Story of Chemistry 

• "The Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) fosters an understanding of chemistry's impact on society. 
An independent, nonprofit organization, CHF maintains major collections of instruments, fine art, 
photographs, papers, and books. We host conferences and lectures, support research, offer fellowships, 
and produce educational materials. Our museum and public programs explore subjects ranging from 
alchemy to nanotechnology." 


ChemBark - A Blog About Chemistry and Chemical Research 

• blog maintained by Paul Bracher 

• "The scope of this blog is the world of chemistry and chemical research. Common subjects of discussion 
include ideas, experiments, data, publications, writing, education, current events, lab safety, scientific 
policy, academic politics, history, and trivia." 


Chemistry World Blog 

• "This blog provides a forum for news, opinions and discussion about the chemical sciences. Chemistry 
World is the monthly magazine of the UK's Royal Society of Chemistry." 


Chemistry Blog 

• "A brand new site for chemists and the home of the international chemistry societies' electronic network. 
The site provides interesting features and useful services for the chemistry community. The information 
you find has been made available by various national chemistry societies for dissemination on a single 
site. Currently around 30 such societies are providing varying levels of information." 


Master Organic Chemistry 

• blog by James A. Ashenhurst 

• "I'm James. I've been an organic chemist for ten years. I love organic chemistry and I want to put the 
image of organic chemistry as a horror movie to rest (or at least make it less scary and more campy). 
The main goal for this site is that it be a place for conversation between students and educators. I also 
hope that it will be useful and valuable for students of organic chemistry." 

• Chemistry 

• This website is full of great chemistry information, including Chem 101, science projects, elements, 
plus many interesting articles, including a daily "This Day in Science History" 



2.1.3 Physics Blogs 


• blog by Rhett Allain 

• "This blog is about physics. Not crazy hard physics, but nice physics. You know, like physics you 
would take home to your mom. I try to aim most of the posts at the physics level an advanced high 
school student could understand." 


Think Thank Thunk - Dealing with the Fear of Being a Boring Teacher 

• blog by Shawn Cornally 

• "I am Mr. Cornally. I desperately want to be a good teacher. I teach Physics, Calculus, Programming, 
Geology, and Bioethics. Warning: I have problem with using colons. I proof read, albeit poorly." 



Chapter 3 

TG Physical Science - Chapter Contexts 1 

3.1 Overview of Chapters 
3.1.1 Units 

This chapter explains the huge role measuring plays in the Physical Sciences and the importance of units. 
Examples given illustrate that experiment and observation becomes meaningful when expressed in a quantity 
and its particular unit. The SI unit system with its seven base SI units is introduced. Details are provided 
for the correct way to write units and their abbreviations. For example: the SI unit for length is meter 
(lower case) and the abbreviation is "m", while the volume of a liquid is measured in litre "f . When a unit is 
named after a person, then the symbol is a capital letter. The 'newton' is the unit of force named after Sir 
Isaac Newton and its symbol is "N". When writing a combination of base SI units, place a dot (•) between 
the base units used. Metres per second is correctly written as "m • s _1 ". 

Currently learners are expected to round off correctly to 2 decimal places. The text in the learner's book 
illustrates the big difference to the answer when rounding off digits during a calculation. As an educator you 
often need to remind your learners only to round off the final answer. Learners also need to be able to write 
and translate data into the correct units and dimensions using scientific notation. To develop learners' skills 
to do conversions and calculations use the table of unit prefixes, conversion diagrams and worked examples. 

3.2 Chemistry Overview 
3.2.1 Matter and Materials What are the Objects Around us Made of? 

Learners will learn that all objects are made of matter, and that different objects are made of different 
types of matter or materials. These different properties will be explained by studying material's microscopic 
structure (the small parts that make up the material). We will explore the smallest building blocks of matter, 
atoms, their unique properties and how they interact and combine with other atoms. 

Revision of concepts related to molecules, their molecular and empirical formulae, and models to represent 
compounds will assure that all learners have the necessary prior knowledge to understand new concepts. Classification of Matter 

To link to Grade 9, matter is classified according to its different properties. The diagram below summarises 
the sequence in which content, concepts and skills are developed in this chapter. 

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40363/l.l/>. 





I I 

Homogeneous Heterogeneous Elements Compounds 


Metals Non-metals 

— ' 1 

Magnetic Non-magnetic 

Figure 3.1 

Diagram: the Classification of Matter 

The terms: mixture, heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures are defined and explained in a learner- 
friendly way. To clarify concepts and support understanding, a lot of interesting examples linked to everyday 
lifestyle are given. For example: a pizza is described as a heterogeneous mixture, as each slice of pizza will 
probably differ from the next one, because the toppings like cheese, tomato, mushrooms and peppers are not 
evenly distributed and are visible. Ways to separate mixtures is extended by explaining the dialysis process 
and how centrifugation is used to separate cells and plasma in blood. 

In the section on pure substances, learners will learn about: elements, the periodic table of elements 
and compounds as well as to decide what the difference is between a mixture and a compound by using 
molecular models. The time spent on the guidelines provided for naming compounds and the exercise to 
consolidate understanding will be worthwhile! You ought to find that the learners will easily understand 
the text explaining the concepts: metals, semi-metal, non-metals, electrical conductors, semi-conductors and 
insulators, thermal conductors and insulators as well as magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The text also 
elaborates on where the specific properties of the listed materials are used in buildings, industrial and home 
environments as well as in animals and humans. Point out to the learners that as students of the Physical 
Sciences they need to understand how the physical environment works in order to benefit from it. 

The learners need to engage in the three practical investigations listed in this chapter to strengthen their 
practical ability in a "hands on" way. 


• The separation of a salt solution 

• Electrical conductivity 

• Magnetism 

The detailed summary at the end of the chapter and the summary exercise provide a useful self-assessment 
checklist for the learner and the educator, to make sure that all aspects have been effectively addressed and 
learnt . 

23 The Atom 

In this section the idea that matter is made of very small particles (atoms) is developed further and learners 
are guided in understanding the microscopic nature of matter. Studying the atomic models illustrates that 
scientific knowledge changes over time as scientists acquire new information. 

Studying the atomic models of Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr contribute to form a 'picture' of how 
an atom looks, based on evidence available at that stage. The concepts related to the structure of the 
atom: protons, neutrons and electrons, isotopes, atomic number and atomic mass are explained in a way 
that learners will understand. To consolidate learning, learners need to engage in studying the worked 
examples and do the exercises. By taking part in the suggested Group Discussion activities, learners have 
the opportunity to develop critical thinking skills and express themselves using the scientific language. The 
effective use of diagrams clarifies abstract concepts, such as energy quantisation and electron configuration. 
The text urges learners to understand electron configuration, as valence electrons of the atoms will determine 
how they react with each other. The Periodic Table 

The CAPS document requires that learners understand the arrangement of elements in increasing atomic 
number, and show how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to electronic 
structure of the atoms in the periodic table. The content of this section in the learner book will enable learners 
to understand the underpinning concepts and to develop the skill to use the periodic table to extract data. 
For example: 

• the lower the ionisation energy, the more reactive the element will be 

• how to predict the charge on cations and anions by using the periodic table Atomic Combinations 

This section explores the forming of new substances with new physical and chemical properties when different 
combinations of atoms and molecules join together. This process is called chemical bonding, one of the most 
important processes in chemistry. The type of bond formed depends on the elements involved. Three types 
of chemical bonding: covalent, ionic and metallic bonding are discussed. 

Covalent bonds form when atoms of non-metals share electrons. Why and how atoms join is described 
and explained by using Lewis dot diagrams and Couper notation to represent the formed molecules. Names 
and formulae of several covalent compounds are presented. 

Ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred. Ionic bonding takes place when the difference in 
electronegativity between the two atoms is more thanl,7. The cations and anions that form attract each 
other with strong electrostatic forces. Details of how ionic compounds form is clarified with Lewis notation. 
When learners become familiar with the diagram of the crystal lattice arrangement in an ionic compound 
as NaCl they will be able to derive the properties of ionic compounds. 

Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal 
atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal. The unique properties of metals as a result of this arrange- 
ment are described in detail. States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) 

Educators should not skip this section assuming that learners know the KMT because they have been exposed 
to it in previous grades. As an educator you should challenge the learners to move mentally between the 
three ways of thinking and talking about matter, as shown in the diagram above. 

Use the learner's book to revise the following concepts: 

The kinetic theory of matter states that: 


• all matter is composed of particles which have a certain amount of energy, which allows them to move 
at different speeds depending on the temperature (energy); 

• there are spaces between the particles and also attractive forces between particles when they come 
close together. 

States of Matter 

• Matter exists in one of three states: solid, liquid and gas. 

a solid has a fixed shape and volume; 

a liquid takes on the shape of the container that it is in; 

a gas completely fills the containers that it is in. 

Matter can change between these states by either adding heat or removing heat. 

Melting, boiling, freezing, condensation and sublimation are processes that take place when matter 

changes state. 

In Grade 10 the learners should understand chemical bonds, intermolecular forces and the kinetic theory to 
assist them in explaining the macroscopic properties of matter, and why substances have different boiling 
points, densities and viscosities. 

3.2.2 Chemical Systems The Hydrosphere 

The hydrosphere is made up of freshwater in rivers and lakes, the salt water of the oceans and estuaries, 
groundwater and water vapour. This section deals with how the hydrosphere interacts with other global 
systems. On exploring the hydrosphere, an investigation is proposed and guidance is given on how to choose 
the site, collect, and interpret the data. The very important function that water plays on our planet is 
highlighted, as well as threats to the hydrosphere. To cultivate an attitude of caring and responsibility 
towards the hydrosphere, learners are encouraged to engage in the proposed discussions on creative water 
conservation and investigations: how to build dams and to test the purity of water samples. As an educator 
you will appreciate the hints supplied for a project on water purification. 

3.2.3 Chemical Change Physical and Chemical Change 

This section starts by distinguishing between physical and chemical changes of matter. Matter does not 
change during a physical change, it is the arrangement of molecules that change. Matter changes during 
chemical changes through decomposition and syntheses reactions. Physical and chemical changes are com- 
pared with respect to the arrangement of particles, conservation of mass, energy changes and reversibility. 
The role of intermolecular forces during phase changes (a physical change) is highlighted. Understanding of 
concepts is enhanced by examples which include diagrams, experiments and investigations. Representing Chemical Change 

As a Physical Sciences educator you will welcome this section as it will bridge the gap learners might 
have in conceptual understanding and skills to represent chemical change. The content revised includes: 
common chemical symbols, writing chemical formulae and balancing chemical equations by applying the law 
of conservation of mass. The four labels used to represent the state (phase) of compounds in the chemical 
equation are: 


• (g) for gaseous compounds 

• (1) for liquids 

• (s) for solid compounds and 

• (aq) for an aqueous (water) solution 

Learners will develop the skills to balance chemical equations when they study and apply the steps discussed 
in the text. Learners need to do the proposed investigation and work through the examples and exercises to 
assess understanding and consolidate learning. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 

Many reactions in chemistry and all reactions in living systems take place in water (or aqueous solutions). 
In almost all these reactions ions are present. We explore: 

• ions in aqueous solutions; 

• electrical conductivity; and 

• the three main types of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions, namely precipitation, acid-base and 
redox reactions. 

Ions in aqueous solutions 

Learners need to understand why water is a polar molecule, to apply their knowledge in further discus- 
sions. It is this unique property that allows ionic compounds to dissolve in water. In plants and animals 
water is the carrier of these dissolved substances making life possible. The process of dissociation is thor- 
oughly explained using words, a definition, image and an equation. The equation for the dissolution of 
sodium chloride is: 

NaCl (s) -» Na + (aq) + CI' (aq) 

Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity 

Concepts are explored using: definitions, equations and experiments. 

• Conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. The more ions in the 
solution, the higher its conductivity. 

• An electrolyte is a material that increases the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. Electrolytes 
are divided into strong and weak electrolytes. 

• A non-electrolyte is a material that does not increase the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. 
The substance that goes into a solution becomes surrounded by water molecules separate from each 
other, but no chemical bonds are broken. This is a physical change. In the oxygen the reaction is 
reversible because oxygen is only partially soluble in water and comes out of solution very easily. 

2 (<?) -> 2 (aq) 

Step by step guidance is given to understand precipitation reactions and to apply the knowledge when 
testing for the anions: chloride, bromide, iodide, sulphate and carbonate. 

Acid-base and redox reactions also take place in aqueous solutions. When acids and bases react, water 
and a salt are formed. An example of this type of reaction is: 

NaOH (aq) + HC1 (aq) ^NaCl (aq) + H20 (1) 

Redox reactions involve the exchange of electrons. One ion loses electrons and becomes more positive, 
while the other ion gains electrons and becomes more negative. These reactions will be covered in more 
detail in Grade 11. Quantitative Aspects of Chemical Change 

As introduction to this topic, educators need to spend time on explanations, so that learners can acknowledge 
the very small size of atoms, molecules and ions. In the reaction between iron and sulphur, every iron (Fe) 
atom reacts with a single sulphur (S) atom to form one molecule of iron sulphide (FeS). But how will we 


know how many atoms of iron are in a small given sample of iron, and how much sulphur is needed to 
use up the iron? Is there a way to know what mass of iron sulphide will be produced? Concepts to be 
developed to answer these questions are: relative atomic mass, the mole, molar mass, Avogadro's constant 
and composition of substances. Learners need to understand and manipulate the equation below to calculate 
the number of moles, mass or molar mass of a substance. 

n = — 

When learners engage in the suggested group work: "Understanding moles, molecules and Avogadro's 
number" and the multiple exercises set on moles and empirical formulae and molar concentration of liquids, 
they will be able to do basic stoichiometric calculations to determine the theoretical yield of a product in a 
chemical reaction, when you start with a known mass of reactant. 

3.3 Physics Overview 
3.3.1 Vectors 

Physics describes the world around us. In mechanics we study the motion of objects and the related concepts 
of force and energy. It takes two qualities: size and direction, to describe force and motion. A vector is such a 
quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Vectors are not Physics but vectors form a very important 
part of the mathematical description of Physics. In this section, learners will develop the understanding 
of the concepts of vectors. They need to master the use of vectors to enable them to describe physical 
phenomena (events). 

The text will direct learners to: 

• know and explain with examples the differences between vectors and scalars; 

• define vectors in words, with equations, mathematical and graphical representations; 

• express direction using different methods as: relative directions (right, left, up, down), compass direc- 
tions (North, South, East, West) and bearing (in the direction 030); 

• draw vectors; 

• explore the properties of vectors like equal vectors and negative vectors; 

• add, subtract and multiply with vectors; 

• define the resultant vector in words, graphically and by calculation; and 

• apply their understanding by doing the exercises. Motion in One Dimension 

This section explains how things move in a straight line or scientifically move in one dimension. Three ideas 
describe exactly how an object moves. 
They are: 

1. Position or displacement which tells us exactly where the object is; 

2. Speed or velocity which tells us exactly how fast the object's position is changing or more familiarly, 
how fast the object is moving; and 

3. Acceleration, which tells us exactly how fast the object's velocity is changing. 

When studying motion, you need to know where you are, your position relative to a known reference point. 
The concept frame of reference, defined as a reference point combined with a set of directions (east, west, 
up down), is explained with illustrated examples. The illustrations on position are linked with learners' 
everyday experience, making it easy for them to describe position and to understand that position can be 
positive or negative, relative to a reference point. The displacement of an object is defined as its change 
in position, a vector quantity, mathematically described as Ax. In Mathematics and Science the symbol A 
(delta) indicates a change in a certain quantity. For example, if the initial position of a car is a^and it moves 
to a final position of Xf, then the displacement is Xf X{. Displacement is written as: 


Ax = Xf — Xi 

Each of the concepts: speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity and acceleration that describe 
motion are developed in words; definitions are stated, and suitable examples are discussed using illustrations. 
Equations are also used to interpret motion and to solve problems. Graphs, another way of describing 
motion, is also introduced in this section. The three graphs of motion: position vs. time, velocity vs. time 
and acceleration vs. time are discussed and presented simultaneously, starting with a stationary object. 
Learners will benefit by the way in which the content is developed, showing that graphs are just another 
way of representing the same motions previously described in words and diagrams. The text guides learners 
to extract information about movement from graphs by calculating the gradient of a straight line and the 
area under a graph. 

The multiple examples discussed will clarify concepts developed, and by doing the exercises learners 
can assess their understanding. This section ends with the equations of motion, another way to describe 
motion. The curriculum prescribes that learners must be able to solve problems set on motion at constant 
acceleration. The text familiarise learners with these equations, and provides ample examples and exercises 
of problems to solve, set on real life experiences. Mechanical Energy 

This section revises the concepts weight and mass, and explores the difference between mass and weight as 
an introduction to the energy concepts. 

Gravitational potential energy is defined as the energy of an object due to its position above the surface 
of the Earth. In equation form gravitational potential energy is defined as: 

Ep = mgh 

m = mass (measured in kg), g = gravitational acceleration (9; 8m • s~ 2 ) and h = perpendicular height 
from the reference point (measured in m). 

Refer to the chapter on units. By showing that the units kg • m ■ s~ 2 are equal to J, and mixing units and 
energy calculations will assist learners to be more watchful when solving problems to convert given data to 
SI base quantities and units. 

Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion. The kinetic energy of an object can be 
determined by using the equation: 

E k = imv 2 

In words, mechanical energy is defined as the sum of the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic 
energy, and as an equation: 

E M = E P + E K = mgh + ±mv 2 

Both the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of mechanical energy are states. To solve 
problems the latter is applied in the form: 

Utop — (^bottom 

Eptop + -Ejftop = -Epbottom + -Ejfbottom 

To assess their degree of understanding of the content and concepts, learners are advised to engage in 
studying the worked examples and do the set problems. 

3.3.2 Waves and Sound and Electromagnetic Radiation Transverse Pulses 

Transverse pulses on a string or spring are discussed, but first the questions are asked: What is a medium? 
What is a pulse? The following terms related to transverse pulse are introduced, defined and explained: 
position of rest, pulse length, amplitude and pulse speed. When a transverse pulse moves through the 
medium, the particles in the medium only move up and down. This important concept is illustrated by a 
position vs. time graph. When learners engage in doing the investigation, drawing a velocity-time graph 
and studying the worked example, they will get to grips with the concepts. When two or more pulses pass 


through the same medium at the same time, it results in constructive or destructive interference. This 
phenomenon is explained by superposition, the addition of amplitudes of pulses. Transverse Waves 

A transverse wave is a wave where the movement of the particles of the medium is perpendicular to the 
direction of propagation of the wave. Concepts addressed include: wavelength, amplitude, frequency, period, 
crests, troughs, points in phase and points out of phase, the relationship between frequency and period, i.e. 
/ = ^ and T = 4, the speed equation, v = /A. Longitudinal Waves 

In a longitudinal wave, the particles in the medium move parallel to the direction in which the wave moves. It 
is explained how to generate a longitudinal wave in a spring. While transverse waves have peaks and troughs, 
longitudinal waves have compressions and rarefactions. A compression and a rarefaction is defined, explained 
and illustrated. Similar to the case of transverse waves, the concepts wavelength, frequency, amplitude, period 
and wave speed are developed for longitudinal waves. Graphs of particle position, displacement, velocity and 
acceleration as a function of time are presented. Problems set on the equation of wave speed for longitudinal 
waves, v = fX, concludes this section. Sound Waves 

Sound is a longitudinal wave. The basic properties of sound are: pitch, loudness and tone. Illustrations are 
used to explain the difference between a low and a high pitch and a soft and a loud sound. The speed of 
sound depends on the medium the sound is travelling in. Sound travels faster in solids than in liquids, and 
faster in liquids than in gases. The speed of sound in air, at sea level, at a temperature of formula 21 C 
and under normal atmospheric conditions, is 344m • s -1 . Frequencies from 20 to 20 000 Hz is audible to 
the human ear. Any sound with a frequency below 20 Hz is known as an infrasound and any sound with a 
frequency above 20 000 Hz is known as an ultrasound. 

The use of ultrasound to create images is based on the reflection and transmission of a wave at a boundary. 
When an ultrasound wave travels inside an object that is made up of different materials such as the human 
body, each time it encounters a boundary, e.g. between bone and muscle, or muscle and fat, part of the wave 
is reflected and part of it is transmitted. The reflected rays are detected and used to construct an image of 
the object. Ultrasound in medicine can visualise muscle and soft tissue, making them useful for scanning 
the organs, and is commonly used during pregnancy. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive method of looking 
inside the human body. Electromagnetic Radiation 

In this section it is explained that some aspects of the behaviour of electromagnetic radiation can best be 
explained using a wave model, while other aspects can best be explained using a particle model. The educator 
can use the descriptions and diagrams in the text to explain: 

• how electromagnetic waves are generated by accelerating charges; 

• that an electric field oscillating in one plane produces a magnetic field oscillating in a plane at right 
angles to it, and so on; and 

• how EM waves propagate through space, at a constant speed of 3a;10 8 m • s _1 . 

The colourful visual representation of the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of the frequency and 
wavelength also showing the use of each type of EM radiation, will assist learners to connect physical concepts 
to real life experiences. The penetrating ability of the different kinds of EM radiation, the dangers of gamma 
rays, X-rays and the damaging effect of ultra-violet radiation on skin and radiation from cell-phones are 


The particle nature of EM radiation is stated and the concept photon is defined. The energy of a photon 
is calculated using the equation: E = hf where h = 6, 63 x 1CF34 J • s is Planck's constant, f = frequency, 
and where c = 3 x 10 8 m • s~lis the speed of light in a vacuum. Learners can calculate the energy of an 
ultraviolet photon with a wavelength of 200 nm by using the equations given. 

3.3.3 Electricity and Magnetism Magnetism 

Magnetism is a force exerted by magnetic objects without touching each other. A magnetic object is sur- 
rounded by a magnetic field, a region in space where a magnet or object made of magnetic material will 
experience a non-contact force. Electrons inside any object have magnetic fields associated with them. The 
way the electrons' magnetic fields line up with each other explains magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials 
(e.g. iron), magnetisation, permanent magnets and polarity of magnets. These concepts are explored with 
descriptions, diagrams and investigations. 

Magnets have a pair of opposite poles, north and south. Like poles of a magnet repel; unlike poles 
attract. It is not possible to isolate north and south poles - even if you split a magnet, you only produce 
two new magnets. The magnetic field line around a bar magnet can be visualised using iron filings and 
compass needles. Learners need to be reminded that the field is three dimensional, although illustrations 
depict the fields in 2D. To show the shape, size and direction of the magnetic fields different arrangements 
of bar magnets are investigated and illustrated. 

The pattern of the Earth's magnetic field is as if there is an imaginary bar magnet inside the Earth. Since 
a magnetic compass needle (a north pole) is attracted to the south pole of a magnet, and magnetic field lines 
always point out from north to south, the earth's pole which is geographically North is magnetically actually 
a south pole. The Earth has two north poles and two south poles: geographic poles and magnetic poles. The 
geographic North Pole, which is the point through which the earth's rotation axis goes, is about 11,5 away 
from the direction of the Magnetic North Pole (which is where a compass will point). Learners are made 
aware of the importance of the earth's magnetic field acting as a shield to stop electrically charged particles 
emitted by the sun from hitting the earth and us. Charged particles can damage and cause interference with 
telecommunications (such as cell phones). 

Solar wind is the stream of charged particles (mainly protons and electrons) coming from the sun. These 
particles spiral in the earth's magnetic field towards the poles. If they collide with particles in the earth's 
atmosphere they sometimes cause red or green lights, or a glow in the sky which is called the aurora, seen 
at the north and south pole. Electrostatics 

Electrostatics is the study of electric charge which is static (not moving). Remind learners that all objects 
surrounding us (including people!) contain large amounts of electric charge. There are two types of electric 
charge: positive charge and negative charge. If the same amounts of negative and positive charge are brought 
together, they neutralise each other and there is no net charge; the object is neutral. However, if there is 
a little bit more of one type of charge than the other on the object, then the object is electrically charged. 
The concepts: positively charged (an electron deficient) and negatively charged (an excess of electrons) are 
explained mathematically and with illustrations 

The unit in which charge is measured is coulomb (C). A coulomb is a very large charge. In electrostatics 
we often work with charge in microcoulombs ( l^tC = 1 x 10~ 6 C) and nanocoulombs ( InC = 1 x 10 _9 C). 

Objects may become charged by contact or when rubbed by other objects. Charge, like energy, cannot 
be created or destroyed - charge is conserved. When a ruler is rubbed with a cotton cloth, negative charge 
is transferred from the cloth to the ruler. The ruler is now negatively charged and the cloth is positively 
charged. If you count up all the positive and negative charges at the beginning and the end, there is still the 
same amount, i.e. total charge has been conserved! 

An electrostatic force is exerted by charges on each other. The electrostatic force between: 


• like charges are repulsive 

• opposite (unlike) charges are attractive. 

The closer together the charges are, the stronger the electrostatic force between them. 

Perform the suggested experiment to test that like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other. 
The electrostatic force also determines the arrangement of charge on the surface of conductors, because 
charges can move inside a conductive material. On a spherical conductor the repulsive forces between the 
individual like charges cause them to spread uniformly over the surface of the sphere, however, for conductors 
with non- regular shapes, there is a concentration of charge near the point or points of the object. 

Conductors and insulators: All the matter and materials on earth are made up of atoms. All atoms 
are electrically neutral i.e. they have the same amounts of negative and positive charge inside them. Some 
materials allow electrons to move relatively freely through them (e.g. most metals, the human body). These 
materials are called conductors. Other materials do not allow the charge carriers, the electrons, to move 
through them (e.g. plastic, glass). The electrons are bound to the atoms in the material. These materials 
are called non-conductors or insulators. There can be a force of attraction between a charged and an 
uncharged neutral insulator due to a phenomenon called polarisation. The latter is explained in terms of 
the movement of polarised molecules in insulators. Learners are also introduced to the electroscope, a very 
sensitive instrument which can be used to detect electric charge. Electric Circuits 

This section starts by revising concepts learners have dealt with in earlier grades such as: uses of electricity, 
closed circuits, representing electric circuits using symbols, how to connect resistors in series and in parallel, 
series and parallel circuits and alternative energy. 

The text guides learners to gain a better understanding of potential difference. They need to know 
that charges will not move unless there is a force provided by the battery in the circuit. A parallel is 
drawn between the change in potential energy of an object in a gravitational field and electric potential 
difference. The amount of work done to move a charge from one point to another point equals the change in 
electric potential energy. Note: it is a difference between the value of potential energy at two points, therefore 
potential difference is measured between or across two points. Potential difference is defined as: the difference 
in electrical potential energy per unit charge between two points. The unit of potential difference is volt (V). 
1 volt = 1 joule (energy)/l coulomb (charge). Electrical potential difference is also called voltage. 

The concepts of potential difference across resistors connected in parallel and in series in electric circuits 
are explored in depth. Diagrams show the points between which the potential difference is measured, how 
the voltmeter (an instrument that measures potential difference) is connected and the voltmeter readings 
obtained. The concept emf as the voltage measured across the terminals of a battery is developed in a 
similar way. 

Current is defined as the amount of charges that move past a fixed point in a circuit in one second. Use 
the picture in the learners' book and description to explain to learners that the charges in the wires can only 
be pushed around the circuit by a battery. When one charge moves, the charges next to it also move. The 
current flowing can be calculated with the equation: I = Q, where I is the symbol for current measured in 
amperes (A) and Q the symbol for charge measures in coulomb (C). One ampere is one coulomb of charge 
moving in one second. 

The current in series and parallel circuits are investigated first using the brightness of a light bulb as 
indication of the amount of current flowing, and then an ammeter is connected to measure the amount of 
current through a given circuit element. 

Resistance slows down the flow of current in a circuit. On a microscopic level, resistance is caused when 
electrons moving through the conductor collide with the particles of which the conductor (metal) is made. 
When they collide, they transfer kinetic energy. The electrons therefore lose kinetic energy and slow down. 
This leads to resistance. The transferred energy causes the resistor to heat up. We use the symbol R to 
show resistance and it is measured in units called ohms with the symbol CI. Ohm = V ■ A^ 1 


An important effect of a resistor is that it converts electrical energy into other forms of heat energy. Light 
energy is a by-product of the heat that is produced. 

Learners need to see the bigger picture and be able to explain why batteries go flat. In the battery, 
chemical potential energy (chemical reactions) is converted to electrical energy (which powers the electrons 
to move through the circuit). Because of the resistance of circuit elements, electrical energy is converted to 
heat and light. The battery goes flat when all its chemical potential energy has been converted into other 
forms of energy. 

3.3.4 Safety in the Laboratory 

It is very important for learners to know the general safety rules and guidelines for working in a laboratory, 
as a laboratory can be a dangerous place. The learners must also know the common hazard signs, and be 
able to identify them and know what they mean. 


Chapter 4 

TG Physical Science - Solutions 1 

4.1 Solutions 

The solutions to the exercises can be found embedded throughout the textbooks on Connexions. 

The Physical Science textbook can be accessed at 

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40367/l.l/>. 

2 Siya,vula, textbooks: Grade 10 Physical Science [CAPS] <> 



Chapter 5 

On the Web, Everyone can be a Scientist 1 

5.1 On the Web, Everyone can be a Scientist 

Did you know that you can fold protein molecules, hunt for new planets around distant suns or simulate 
how malaria spreads in Africa, all from an ordinary PC or laptop connected to the Internet? And you don't 
need to be a certified scientist to do this. In fact some of the most talented contributors are teenagers. The 
reason this is possible is that scientists are learning how to turn simple scientific tasks into competitive online 

This is the story of how a simple idea of sharing scientific challenges on the Web turned into a global 
trend, called citizen cyberscience. And how you can be a scientist on the Web, too. 

5.1.1 Looking for Little Green Men 

A long time ago, in 1999, when the World Wide Web was barely ten years old and no one had heard of Google, 
Facebook or Twitter, a researcher at the University of California at Berkeley, David Anderson, launched an 
online project called SETI@home. SETI stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. Looking for life 
in outer space. 

Although this sounds like science fiction, it is a real and quite reasonable scientific project. The idea is 
simple enough. If there are aliens out there on other planets, and they are as smart or even smarter than 
us, then they almost certainly have invented the radio already. So if we listen very carefully for radio signals 
from outer space, we may pick up the faint signals of intelligent life. 

Exactly what radio broadcasts aliens would produce is a matter of some debate. But the idea is that if 
they do, it would sound quite different from the normal hiss of background radio noise produced by stars 
and galaxies. So if you search long enough and hard enough, maybe you'll find a sign of life. 

It was clear to David and his colleagues that the search was going to require a lot of computers. More 
than scientists could afford. So he wrote a simple computer program which broke the problem down into 
smaller parts, sending bits of radio data collected by a giant radio-telescope to volunteers around the world. 
The volunteers agreed to download a programme onto their home computers that would sift through the bit 
of data they received, looking for signals of life, and send back a short summary of the result to a central 
server in California. 

The biggest surprise of this project was not that they discovered a message from outer space. In fact, 
after over a decade of searching, no sign of extraterrestrial life has been found, although there are still vast 
regions of space that have not been looked at. The biggest surprise was the number of people willing to help 
such an endeavour. Over a million people have downloaded the software, making the total computing power 
of SETI@home rival that of even the biggest supercomputers in the world. 

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40353/l.l/>. 



David was deeply impressed by the enthusiasm of people to help this project. And he realized that 
searching for aliens was probably not the only task that people would be willing to help with by using the 
spare time on their computers. So he set about building a software platform that would allow many other 
scientists to set up similar projects. You can read more about this platform, called BOINC, and the many 
different kinds of volunteer computing projects it supports today, at 2 . 

There's something for everyone, from searching for new prime numbers (PrimeGrid) to simulating the 
future of the Earth's climate ( One of the projects,, involved 
researchers from the University of Cape Town as well as from universities in Mali and Senegal. 

The other neat feature of BOINC is that it lets people who share a common interest in a scientific topic 
share their passion, and learn from each other. BOINC even supports teams - groups of people who put their 
computer power together, in a virtual way on the Web, to get a higher score than their rivals. So BOINC is 
a bit like Facebook and World of Warcraft combined - part social network, part online multiplayer game. 

Here's a thought: spend some time searching around BOINC for a project you'd like to participate 
in, or tell your class about. 

5.1.2 You are a Computer, too 

Before computers were machines, they were people. Vast rooms full of hundreds of government employees 
used to calculate the sort of mathematical tables that a laptop can produce nowadays in a fraction of a 
second. They used to do those calculations laboriously, by hand. And because it was easy to make mistakes, 
a lot of the effort was involved in double-checking the work done by others. 

Well, that was a long time ago. Since electronic computers emerged over 50 years ago, there has been 
no need to assemble large groups of humans to do boring, repetitive mathematical tasks. Silicon chips can 
solve those problems today far faster and more accurately. But there are still some mathematical problems 
where the human brain excels. 

Volunteer computing is a good name for what BOINC does: it enables volunteers to contribute computing 
power of their PCs and laptops. But in recent years, a new trend has emerged in citizen cyberscience that 
is best described as volunteer thinking. Here the computers are replaced by brains, connected via the 
Web through an interface called eyes. Because for some complex problems - especially those that involve 
recognizing complex patterns or three-dimensional objects - the human brain is still a lot quicker and more 
accurate than a computer. 

Volunteer thinking projects come in many shapes and sizes. For example, you can help to classify 
millions of images of distant galaxies (GalaxyZoo), or digitize hand- written information associated with 
museum archive data of various plant species (Herbaria@home). This is laborious work, which if left to 
experts would take years or decades to complete. But thanks to the Web, it's possible to distribute images 
so that hundreds of thousands of people can contribute to the search. 

Not only is there strength in numbers, there is accuracy, too. Because by using a technique called valida- 
tion - which does the same sort of double-checking that used to be done by humans making mathematical 
tables - it is possible to practically eliminate the effects of human error. This is true even though each 
volunteer may make quite a few mistakes. So projects like Planet Hunters have already helped astronomers 
pinpoint new planets circling distant stars. The game Foldlt invites people to compete in folding protein 
molecules via a simple mouse-driven interface. By finding the most likely way a protein will fold, volunteers 
can help understand illnesses like Alzheimer's disease, that depend on how proteins fold. 

Volunteer thinking is exciting. But perhaps even more ambitious is the emerging idea of volunteer 
sensing: using your laptop or even your mobile phone to collect data - sounds, images, text you type in - 
from any point on the planet, helping scientists to create global networks of sensors that can pick up the 
first signs of an outbreak of a new disease (EpiCollect), or the initial tremors associated with an earthquake 
(, or the noise levels around a new airport (NoiseTube). 

There are about a billion PCs and laptops on the planet, but already 5 billion mobile phones. The 
rapid advance of computing technology, where the power of a ten-year old PC can easily be packed into a 

2 http://boinc. 


smart phone today, means that citizen cyberscience has a bright future in mobile phones. And this means 
that more and more of the world's population can be part of citizen cyberscience projects. Today there are 
probably a few million participants in a few hundred citizen cyberscience initiatives. But there will soon be 
seven billion brains on the planet. That is a lot of potential citizen cyberscientists. 

You can explore much more about citizen cyberscience on the Web. There's a great list of all sorts of 
projects, with brief summaries of their objectives, at 3 . BBC Radio 4 
produced a short series on citizen science 4 and 
you can subscribe to a newsletter about the latest trends in this field at 5 . 
The Citizen Cyberscience Centre, 6 which is sponsored by the South African 
Shuttleworth Foundation, is promoting citizen cyberscience in Africa and other developing regions. 


4 http:// 





Chapter 6 

FullMarks User Guide 1 

6.1 FullMarks User Guide 

FullMarks can be accessed at: 2 . 

Siyavula offers an open online assessment bank called FullMarks, for the sharing and accessing of 
curriculum-aligned test and exam questions with answers. This site enables educators to quickly set tests and 
exam papers, by selecting items from the library and adding them to their test. Educators can then download 
their separate test and memo which is ready for printing. FullMarks further offers educators the option of 
capturing their learners' marks in order to view a selection of diagnostic reports on their performance. 

To begin, you need to a create a free account by clicking on "sign up now" on the landing page. There is 
one piece of administration you need to do to get started properly: when you log in for the first time, click 
on your name on the top right. It will take you to your personal settings. You need to select Shuttleworth 
Foundation as your metadata organisation to see the curriculum topics. 

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40356/l.l/>. 
2 http:// 




6.1.1 What Can I do in FullMarks? 

Access and 
share questions 


Create tests \ / 
from questions/ *y 

class lists 

Create \ 
scoresheets ) 

/Analyse learners'^ 
V performance J 

Figure 6.1 

6.1.2 How do I do Each of These? Access and Share Questions 

Sharing questions: use either the online editor or OpenOffice template which can be downloaded from the 
website (Browse questions — > Contribute questions — » Import questions). Take your test/worksheet/other 
question source. Break it up into the smallest sized individual questions that make sense, and use the 
template style guide to style your page according to question/answer. Upload these questions or type them 
up in the online editor (Browse questions — > Contribute questions — > Add questions). Do not include overall 
question numbering but do include sub numbering if needed (e.g. la, 2c, etc.). Insert the mark and time 
allocation, tag questions according to grade, subject i.e. a description of the question, and then select the 
topics from the topic tree . Finalise questions so that they can be used in tests and accessed by other 
FullMarks users. 

Accessing questions: there are three ways to access questions in the database. Click on "Browse questions" 
— > click on the arrow to the left of the grade, which opens out the subjects — * keep clicking on the arrows 
to open the learning outcomes or, following the same process, instead of clicking on the arrow, click on the 
grade — > now you can browse the full database of questions for all the subjects in that grade or, from the 


landing page, click on "Browse questions" — > below the banner image click on "Find Questions" — > search by 
topics, author (if you know a contributor), text or keywords e.g. GrlO mathematics functions and graphs. Create Tests from Questions 

So, you have all these bits of tests (i.e. many questions!), but what you really want is the actual test. How 
do you do this? Well, you can simply click "add to test" on any question and then click on the "Tests" tab at 
the top right of the page, and follow the simple instructions. Alternatively you can create a test by starting 
with clicking on that same "Tests" tab, and add questions to your test that way. Once done, simply print 
off the PDF file of the questions and the file for the memo. Issue your test, collect them once complete, and 
mark them. Create Class Lists 

But now you are asking, how can I keep track of my classes? Is Johnny Brown in class A or B? Well, you 
can make a class list by clicking on the "Class lists" tab at the top right of the page, and either import a 
CSV file, or manually enter the relevant information for each class. Now you can issue tests to your classes, 
and have a class list for each class. And what about capturing their marks? Create Scoresheets 

For each test you can create a scoresheet. Select the "Tests" tab at the top right, click on "Marks" below 
the banner image, and select the test and follow the instructions to input their marks. You can then export 
these as a CSV file for use in spreadsheets. Analyse Learners' Performance 

And finally, you can print out reports of class performance. Click on "Reports" at the top right of the page, 
which opens various reports you can view. There are reports to see class performance, learner performance, 
class performance per topic, class performance per question, learner strengths and weaknesses, and learner 

So now you know how FullMarks works, we encourage you to make use of its simple functionality, and 
let it help you save time setting tests and analysing learner marks! 


Chapter 7 

Rich Media 

7.1 Rich Media 
7.1.1 General Resources 

Science education is about more than physics, chemistry and mathematics... It's about learning to think and 
to solve problems, which are valuable skills that can be applied through all spheres of life. Teaching these 
skills to our next generation is crucial in the current global environment where methodologies, technology 
and tools are rapidly evolving. Education should benefit from these fast moving developments. In our 
simplified model there are three layers to how technology can significantly influence your teaching and 
teaching environment. First Layer: Educator Collaboration 

There are many tools that help educators collaborate more effectively. We know that communities of practice 
are powerful tools for the refinement of methodology, content and knowledge as well as superb for providing 
support to educators. One of the challenges facing community formation is the time and space to have 
sufficient meetings to build real communities and exchanging practices, content and learnings effectively. 
Technology allows us to streamline this very effectively by transcending space and time. It is now possible 
to collaborate over large distances (transcending space) and when it is most appropriate for each individual 
(transcending time) by working virtually (email, mobile, online etc.). 

Our textbooks have been uploaded in their entirety to the Connexions website 
( 2 ), making them easily accessible and adaptable, as they are under an 
open licence, stored in an open format, based on an open standard, on an open-source platform, for free, 
where everyone can produce their own books. Our textbooks are released under an open copyright license - 
CC-BY. This Creative Commons By Attribution Licence allows others to legally distribute, remix, tweak, 
and build upon our work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation. With them 
being available on the Connexions website and due to the open copyright licence, learners and educators 
are able to download, copy, share and distribute our books legally at no cost. It also gives educators the 
freedom to edit, adapt, translate and contextualise them, to better suit their teaching needs. 

Connexions is a tool where individuals can share, but more importantly communities can form around 
the collaborative, online development of resources. Your community of educators can therefore: 

• form an online workgroup around the textbook; 

• make your own copy of the textbook; 

• edit sections of your own copy; 

1 This content is available online at <http://cnx.Org/content/m40357/l.l/>. 



• add your own content into the book or replace existing content with your content; 

• use other content that has been shared on the platform in your own book; 

• create your own notes / textbook / course material as a community. 

Educators often want to share assessment items as this helps reduce workload, increase variety and im- 
prove quality. Currently all the solutions to the exercises contained in the textbooks have been uploaded 
onto our free and open online assessment bank called FullMarks ( 3 ), with 
each exercise having a shortcode link to its solution on FullMarks. To access the solution simply go to 4 , enter the shortcode, and you will be redirected to the solution on FullMarks. 

FullMarks is similar to Connexions but is focused on the sharing of assessment items. FullMarks contains a 
selection of test and exam questions with solutions, openly shared by educators. Educators can further search 
and browse the database by subject and grade and add relevant items to a test. The website automatically 
generates a test or exam paper with the corresponding memorandum for download. 

By uploading all the end-of-chapter exercises and solutions to the open assessment bank, the larger 
community of educators in South Africa are provided with a wide selection of items to use in setting their 
tests and exams. More details about the use of FullMarks as a collaboration tool are included in the FullMarks 
section. Second Layer: Classroom Engagement 

In spite of the impressive array of rich media open educational resources available freely online, such as 
videos, simulations, exercises and presentations, only a small number of educators actively make use of 
them. Our investigations revealed that the overwhelming quantity, the predominant international context, 
and difficulty in correctly aligning them with the local curriculum level acts as deterrents. The opportunity 
here is that, if used correctly, they can make the classroom environment more engaging. 

Presentations can be a first step to bringing material to life in ways that are more compelling than are 
possible with just a blackboard and chalk. There are opportunities to: 

• create more graphical representations of the content; 

• control timing of presented content more effectively; 

• allow learners to relive the lesson later if constructed well; 

• supplement the slides with notes for later use; 

• embed key assessment items in advance to promote discussion; and 

• embed other rich media like videos. 

Videos have been shown to be potentially both engaging and effective. They provide opportunities to: 

• present an alternative explanation; 

• challenge misconceptions without challenging an individual in the class; and 

• show an environment or experiment that cannot be replicated in the class which could be far away, 
too expensive or too dangerous. 

Simulations are also very useful and can allow learners to: 

• have increased freedom to explore, rather than reproducing a fixed experiment or process; 

• explore expensive or dangerous environments more effectively; and 

• overcome implicit misconceptions. 

We realised the opportunity for embedding a selection of rich media resources such as presentations, simu- 
lations, videos and links into the online version of the FHSST books at the relevant sections. This will not 
only present them with a selection of locally relevant and curriculum aligned resources, but also position 
these resources within the appropriate grade and section. Links to these online resources are recorded in the 
print or PDF versions of the books, making them a tour-guide or credible pointer to the world of online rich 
media available. 

3 http:// 
4 http:// 

45 Third Layer: Beyond the Classroom 

The internet has provided many opportunities for self-learning and participation which were never before 
possible. There are huge stand-alone archives of videos like the Khan Academy which cover most Mathematics 
for Grades 1-12 and Science topics required in FET. These videos, if not used in class, provide opportunities 
for the learners to: 

• look up content themselves; 

• get ahead of class; 

• independently revise and consolidate their foundation; and 

• explore a subject to see if they find it interesting. 

There are also many opportunities for learners to participate in science projects online as real participants. 
Not just simulations or tutorials but real science so that: 

• learners gain an appreciation of how science is changing; 

• safely and easily explore subjects that they would never have encountered before university; 

• contribute to real science (real international cutting edge science programmes); 

• have the possibility of making real discoveries even from their school computer laboratory; and 

• find active role models in the world of science. 

In our book we've embedded opportunities to help educators and learners take advantage of all these re- 
sources, without becoming overwhelmed at all the content that is available online. 

7.1.2 Embedded Content 

Throughout the books you will see the following icons: 




Aside: Provides additional information about con- 
tent covered in the chapters, as well as for exten- 


An interesting fact: These highlight interesting 
information relevant to a particular section of the 

continued on next page 



Definition: This icon indicates a definition. 

Exercise: This indicates worked examples through- 
out the book. 


Tip: Helpful hints and tips appear throughout the 
book, highlighting important information, things to 
take note of, and areas where learners must exercise 

FullMarks: This icon indicates that shortcodes 
for FullMarks are present. Enter the shortcode into 23 , and you will be redi- 
rected to the solution on FullMarks, our free and 
open online assessment bank. FullMarks can be ac- 
cessed at: 24 

Presentation: This icon indicates that presen- 
tations are in the chapter. Enter the shortcode 
into 25 , and you will be 
redirected to the presentation shared on SlideShare 
by educators. SlideShare can be accessed at: 26 

continued on next page 


Simulation: This icon indicates that simula- 
tions are present. Enter the shortcode into 27 , and you will be redi- 
rected to the simulation online. An example is 
Phet Simulations. The website can be accessed at: 28 

Video: This icon indicates that videos 

are present. Enter the shortcode into 29 , and you will be 
redirected to the video online. An example is 
the Khan Academy videos. The website can be 
accessed at: 30 

URL: This icon indicates that shortcodes are 
present in the chapter and can be entered into 31 , where you will be redi- 
rected to the relevant website. 


Table 7.1 

23 http: 
24 http: 
25 http; 
26 http; 
27 http: 
28 http: 
29 http: 
30 http: 
31 http: 




Index of Keywords and Terms 

Keywords are listed by the section with that keyword (page numbers are in parentheses). Keywords 
do not necessarily appear in the text of the page. They are merely associated with that section. Ex. 
apples, § 1.1 (1) Terms are referenced by the page they appear on. Ex. apples, 1 

B Blogs, §2(17) 

C CAPS, § 1(1), § 2(17), § 3(21), § 4(33) 
Citizen cyberscience, § 5(35) 

F FullMarks, § 6(39) 

G Grade 10, § 1(1), § 2(17), § 3(21), § 4(33) 
Grade 10 Maths, § 5(35), § 6(39), § 7(43) 

P Physical Science, § 1(1), § 2(17), § 3(21), 

§ 4(33) 
R Rich media, 


S Siyavula, § 1(1), § 2(17), § 3(21), § 5(35), 
§ 6(39), § 7(43) 
Solutions, § 4(33) 

T Teachers Guides, § 4(33) 

Teachers' Guide, § 5(35), § 6(39) 
Teachers' Guides, § 3(21), § 7(43) 



Collection: Physical Science Grade 10 Teachers' Guide - Siyavula WebBook 

Edited by: Bridget Nash 


License: http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by/3.0/ 

Module: "TG Physical Science - Overview" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Pages: 1-16 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 


Module: "TG Physical Science - Blog Posts" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Pages: 17-19 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 


Module: "TG Physical Science - Chapter Contexts" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Pages: 21-31 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 


Module: "TG Physical Science - Solutions" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Page: 33 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 


Module: "On the Web, Everyone can be a Scientist" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Pages: 35-37 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 


Module: "FullMarks User Guide" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Pages: 39-41 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 



Module: "Rich Media" 

By: Bridget Nash 


Pages: 43-47 

Copyright: Bridget Nash 

License: http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by/3.0/ 

Physical Science Grade 10 Teachers' Guide - Siyavula WebBook 

The Teachers' Guide for our Grade 10 Physical Science CAPS aligned WebBook. 

About Connexions 

Since 1999, Connexions has been pioneering a global system where anyone can create course materials and 
make them fully accessible and easily reusable free of charge. We are a Web-based authoring, teaching and 
learning environment open to anyone interested in education, including students, teachers, professors and 
lifelong learners. We connect ideas and facilitate educational communities. 

Connexions's modular, interactive courses are in use worldwide by universities, community colleges, K-12 
schools, distance learners, and lifelong learners. Connexions materials are in many languages, including 
English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Vietnamese, French, Portuguese, and Thai. Connexions is part 
of an exciting new information distribution system that allows for Print on Demand Books. Connexions 
has partnered with innovative on-demand publisher QOOP to accelerate the delivery of printed course 
materials and textbooks into classrooms worldwide at lower prices than traditional academic publishers.