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Tin- Bureau of American Ethnology from its foundation has taken 
a deep interest in all researches relating to the antiquity of man in 
America, and its attitude in considering the various questions that 
have arisen has l>een conservative. In the earlier years of the investi- 
gation there existed a rather marked tendency on the part of students, 
and especially on the part of amateurs and the general public, hastily 
to accept any testimony that seemed to favor antiquity, and the con- 
servative attitude of the Bureau was cmphasi/cd by a desire to coun- 
teract and correct this tendency. Kvidence of the great antiquity of 
man in the Old World is abundant and convincing, and the assump- 
tion that like conditions exist in America seemed reasonable and was 
perhaps justifiable, although it led to the general acceptance of much 
that was without satisfactory verification. 

It has l>een the practice of the Bureau when discoveries l>elieved to 
have an important l>caring on the question of human antiquity in 
North America have l>een announced to seek to determine their just 
value. In pursuance of this plan its representatives have IMMMI sent 
on occasion to New Jersey, to the Ohio valley, to sites on the Potomac, 
to Minnesota, to California, to Florida, and to Kansas, to make the 
necessary investigations. On receipt of reports of the discovery in 
Nebraska of human crania of low tyjx 1 and possibly of great geolog- 
ical antiquity, prompt action was taken. Doctor Hrdlicka. an accom- 
plished student of human osseous remains, was sent to Lincoln to ex- 
amine the |H*culiar remains and to make such investigations regarding 
the conditions under which they were discovered as he might find 
possible at that wason of the year. When this discovery was an- 
nounced, the Bureau was alxtiit to send to press a paper by Doctor 
Hrdlicka embodying descriptions of all the known American human 
remains for which geological antiquity had been claimed. This 
pa|>er was withheld from publication, however, until the Nebraska 
-jM-cimeiis could lx examined, so that the present bulletin includes 
descriptions of these as well as of all kindred remains brought to 
in North America up to the present time. 

W. II. Hoi.MRS, Ch'tff. 


I. I nt n Mlnct ion 

II. l.i-t "f tlu skeletal n-main- 14 

III Tin- New Orleans skeleton 15 

I V. The ijueliec skeleton 16 

V. The Natchez |>elvie bone 16 

VI. The Uke Monroe (Florida) Ixmes 1 

VII. The Soda Creek skeleton 20 

VI 11. The Charleston l*mes 20 

IX. The Calaveraa skull '21 

History '.'1 

Physical characters 22 

Cnnijiarisons 25 

X. The Rock Bluff cranium 28 

XI. The Man of Penon 32 

XII. The crania of Trenton 35 

The Burlington County skull 36 

The Riverview Cemetery skull 36 

Kai'ial ailiniti.- i.i the Burlington County ami Riverview Ceme- 
tery skulls -41 

XIII. The Trenton femur 4 

XIV. The lousing skeleton 47 

Somatological characters 4H 

Conclusion 52 

XV. The fossil man of western Florida 53 

The Osprey skull 53 

The North Osprey l>ones 54 

The Hanson landing remains 55 

The South ( )sj>rey remains 55 

Examination of the sjH'cimens 56 

Physical characters 57 

Resume tiO 

Report of Dr. T. \Vayland Vaughan '4 

XVI. Mound crania (Florida) ....". 6 

XVII. The Nebraska " loess man " 

History of finds "" 

Description of the mound 

Examination of the InnieH 


X V 1 1 1 . ( icneral conclusion 

XIX. Apjx-ndix: Recent Indian skulls of low type in the t*. S. National 

M ns -ii n i 

Index "> 



PUATK I. The Calaveras (California) skull as it was in 1902 

II. Skulls from Illinois 30 

III. Skull from Kurlington county, New Jersey 37 

IV. Skull from Uiverview cemetery, Trenton, New Jersey 37 

V. The Ionising (Kansas) skull 49 

V I . Skulls f rom Florida 57 

VII. The North Osprey ( Florida) femur and til.ia 59 

VIII. The South Osprey (Florida) skeleton 59 

IX. Osseous remains in prix-ess of siliciiication, found at South Osprey, 

Florida 4 

X. Skulls from < iilder mound HO 

XI. Skulls from < iilder mound HO 

XII. Skulls with low foreheads ( Davenport Academy of Sciences) 95 

XIII. Mound-builder skulls ( Davenjtort Academy of Sciences) 95 

XIV. Skull from mound in North Dakota (I'. S. National Museum no. 

228H7H) 99 

XV. Skull of Piegan from Montana (T. S. National Museum no. 243B73)- 99 
XVI. Skull from mound near Browning, Schtiyler county, Illinois (I*. S. 

National Museum no. 1M778) 99 

XVII. Skulls with low fort-heads, from Illinois ami Nevada 96 

XVIII. Skulls with low foreheads, from California 99 

XIX. Skull from Santa Cruz island, California (I". S. National Museum 

no. 241927) 99 

XX. Skulls with low foreheads, from California and Wisconsin 99 

XXI. Skull from mound in Orange county, Indiana (I*. S. National Mu- 
seum no. 243855) 99 

FIG. 1. Geological formations concerned in human history 

2. The Natchez j>elvic l>one (after Ix-idy) IS 

'3. Cave skull, Calaveras county, California; side view '-*> 

4. Remnant of the skull of the "Hoinhre del I'efion" (after Barcena. in 

La Xnturalezu, vn, no. 16) " -M 

6. Front view of two of the Bremen chanuctvphals 44 

6. Side and top views of one of the Bremen chamiccephals. 4"> 

7. Comparison of the naatan-opisthion an-s, geometrically constructed, 

of the I^ansing skull and three modern Indian crania... 

8. Sketch map of Osprey and vicinity 

9. Section of debits showing jwwition of the Osprey skull ; . HI 

10. Shore line at Sout h Osprey 

11. Section of the layers at the locality of the South Osprey find 63 

TJ. Antero-poHterior arcs of skulls no. H and no. 6 

13. Antero-poHterior arcs of skulls no. 4402, Davenjx.rt Academy of 

Sciences, and no. 6, Gilder mound 

14. A ntcro- |H interior arcs of skulls no. 4402, Davenport Academy of 

Sciences, iiii-l no. 8, Gilder mound 

15. Antero-jMisterior arcs of skulls no. 242982, I". S. National Museum. 

and no. >, < iilder mound 

lii. Antero-|M,..t,.rior arcs of skulls no. 2429H2, V. S. National Museum, 

and no. S. (iil.ler mound 



Hy AI.KS lliiMi.n K\ 

According to current classification of geological time, the Ceno- 
y.oic era (the era of modern life) is divided into two jNriods, the 
Tertiary and the Quaternary. The former, which is the older, 
comprises three subdivisions, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, and 
the latter two subdivisions. Pleistocene and Recent. These ]>criods 
are indicated in figure 1 in the order of the formations representing 

Man made his apj>earance in the Old World probably during the 
Tertiary period through differentiation from the primates, the class 
of animals to which he presents 
the closest structural analogies. 
Primates of the higher forms were 
not found in America : they ex- 
isted only in the warmer parts of 
Asia, Africa, and Kurojx>. and it 
is there that we must look for the 
first traces of man's appearance. 
Accepting this view, it follows 
that America was peopled by im- 
migration from the Old World, 
which could not have taken place until after great multiplication and 
wide distribution of the human sjx'cies and the development of some 
degree of culture. This implies a vastly later date than that which 
miiM In- assigned to man's origin. A wide dispersion of the race over 
the earth could hardly have taken place liefore the later stages of the 
Ceno/oic era. 

In considering the question of the apjxarance of man in America, 
special interest attaches to the Pleistocene, during several phases of 
which jx-riod man is known to have existed in central and western 
Kuroj>e: there i- absolutely no indication that he reached the Ameri- 
can continent U'fore that time. The American Pleistocene, which is 
synchronous with the (Jlaeial |>eriod. is marked by certain well-known 
geological dcpo-it-. which arc particularly abundant and character- 

iii-ol,<ii nl fiirmati<>ii> roti. i-rni-l in 
human history. 


istic in the. regions over which the glaciers extended. These forma- 
tions include especially the so-called glacial gravels which have 
received particular attention at the hands of students of early 
man in this country. 

The several irregular ice invasions extended at their maximum as 
far south on the Atlantic coast as Long Island. In the Delaware 
valley they reached Easton, Pennsylvania; in the Ohio valley, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio; and in the Missouri valley, the vicinity of St. Louis. 
Beginning with the earliest subdivision, the several successive stages 
of this period, with the few and uncertain chronological approxima- 
tions that have been made, are 'thus given by leading American 
geologists : 6 

Time In years since cli- 
max was rcaclu-d 

I. The Snb-Aftonian, or Jerseyan, the earliest known 

invasion (?) 

II. The Aftonian, the first known iiiterglacial interval. (?) 
III. The Kansnn. or second invasion now recognized- __ .TOO. 000 to 1.O20, 000 
IV. The Yarmouth, or Buchanan, the second interglacial 

interval (?) 

V. The Illinoian, the third invasion ^___ 140,000 to 540, 000 

VI. The Saogauion, the third interglacial interval (?) 

VII. The lowan, the fourth invasion GO, 000 to .100, 000 

VIII. The Peorian, the fourth interglacial interval (?) 

IX. The Earlier Wisconsin, the fifth invasion 40, 000 to 150,000 

X. The fifth interval of deglaciation, as yet unnamed ( ?) 

XI. The Later Wisconsin, the sixth advance 20, 000 to 00, 000 

XII. The Glacio-Lacustrine substage. 
XIII. The Champlain substage. 

The glacial invasion closed apparently with a gradual recession of 
the ice, and thus terminated considerably earlier in southern tharf in 
northern latitudes; this should be kept in mind in considering the 
date of the ultimate disappearance of the ice in any limited region. 
The precise date of the final recession of ice in any locality must 
always remain in a large degree conjectural. The climax of the 
final, or Champlain substage, in the latitude of the St. Lawrence 
river, was apparently reached considerably more than ten thousand 
years ago. c 

Should it be assumed that man existed on the North American 
continent before the present geological period, and taking into account 
his osseous remains only, two important questions arise, namely, where 

The term early, as employed In this paper, npplles only to the Pleistocene and older 
geological periods. 

"After Thomas C. Chamberlin and R. D. Salisbury's Geology, in, 3S3. 420. New York, 
1906 ; reversed In arrangement. See also Salisbury's The Glacial Geology of New Jersey, 
Geological Survey of Xetc Jersey, v, Trenton, 1902. It should not be understood that all 
of the given divisions apply to the entire vast glaciated area ; some of the terms relate 
only to somewhat localized phases of the period. 

" A summary of the whole question of estimates by years is given In the chapter on 
* the Glacial period in volume in of Cnamberlin and Salisbury's Geology. 

-Kl l.l I \l. l:i. MAINS 1 1 

Mich remains likely to occur and how is their antiquity to IN- 
determined. Tin- iii-st of these queries is angered with compara- 
tive ease. Maii's greatest necessities a iv food ami water, and univ 
strained -ett lenient of primit i \ peoples \va- guided e\ ervwhere (o a 

large extent ly facilities for obtaining these requisites. The only 
other -tron^ motives wliich generally influenced the choice of dwell- 
ing -ites \\eiv the iv<|iiiiriiu>nts of comfort (including primarily H 
favorable climate) and of safety. It may be assumed, therefore, 
that the habitations of the earliest Americans were established on 
defensible sites along the seashore and larger streams where the food 
supply, consist ing of mollusks, fish, and game animals, as well as of 
fruits, was particularly abundant, and in regions free from the ex- 
tremes of climate. Thus it is mainly on and about elevated sites 
along the sea coasts and in the valleys of the temperate zones of the 
|>eriods of occupation that bones of early man should first l>e looked 
for. If there are contemporaneous rock recesses, especially caves, 
these should receive attention, for such shelters were utilized by all 
primitive peoples for l>oth dwelling and burial. Hog deposits, which 
naturally offer favorable conditions for the preservation of the bones 
of those who jxrished in such places, also deserve examination. 

Proper identification of human Ixjnes as those of early man is of 
the first im]x>rtance, and at the same time is fraught with exceptional 
difficulties. Finds of osseous remains suggesting man of other than 
the recent jxriod should l>e photographed in situ, and should Ix- 
examined by more than one man of science, including especially a 
geologist familiar with the particular formations involved: and the 
chemical and somatological characters of the hones should receive the 
closest attention with the view of determining their l>caring on ques- 
tions involving the antiquity of the remains. The history of a ma- 
jority of archeological finds suggestive of early man in this country is 
particularly instructive in this connection," illustrating as it does 
many of the difficulties attending efforts at chronological identifi- 

A point requiring especial attention is that of the possibility of 
intrusive burials. Men of recent times have inhabited many of the 
>ites that may have IMMMI occupied by early man, and it will l>e readily 
appreciated that human remains of different periods might often 
IM- closely associated or even intermingled. Where such an occurrence 
i- -uspr<-te|. chemical and somatological tests are of particular value. 

See specially the paper* of W. II. Holmes on Traces of Glacial Man In Ohio, Journal 
f <i,<,l<,,iv. i. 147 UW. IVI.runry-March. 1K03 ; Veatlxea of Karly Man In Minnesota. 
Amcrinin <;, ,/.,</ir \i. _!!> :MO. April. IHft.'t ; Are there Truo-n "f Man In the Trenton 
Uravfls? Ji,urniil <{ >;,<,l.,,,,i. i. 1"- :". .lanuary-Keliniarjr. l>!:i; Primitive Man In the 
iH-laware Valley. NHctic,. n. K.. vi. s-j s-.-.i. is;7. nnd Review of the RvMence relating 
to AiirirenuiH travel Man In California. SinUh<>nian tf</>orf for 18W). 410-472, Wash- 
ington. 1901. 


although their application may prove arduous and is not certain of 
affording satisfactory results. 

A geologically ancient bone may be safely expected to show some 
degree of infiltration and replacement of its constituents by mineral 
matter, while modern bones are generally little changed: yet there 
exist in some localities conditions which greatly retard or facilitate 
the processes of mineralization, so that ancient bones may show I nit 
little evidence of fossilization, while, on the other hand, undoubtedly 
recent bones may have undergone decided change. The latter con- 
'dition is far more frequent. There is a possibility that the kind or 
the degree of the change may make it practicable to distinguish 
Ixjtween recent and ancient fossil ization; but there are as yet no 
satisfactory means of testing this matter. 

Somatologically, the bones, and particularly the skull, of early man 
may be confidently expected to show some differences from those of 
modern man, especially in the direction of lesser differentiation. 
Unfortunately the knowledge of the osseous structures of early man 
in other parts of the world is still meager, and this lack of informa- 
tion is felt very keenly. We do not know as yet whether the human 
beings of the geological period just before the recent differed so 
from the present man that even the extreme individual variations 
in the two periods (the most advanced evolutionally in the old and 
the least advanced among modern individuals) would stand appre- 
ciably apart. Very likely they overlap and dovetail considerably. 

Yet the difficulties which may attend the separation on the morpho- 
logical basis of ancient from recent man should not be insuperable. 
Tf a find should consist of a series of well-preserved skulls or skeletons 
geologically ancient and of a similarly well-preserved series of skulls 
or skeletons of recent man, it is the firm conviction of the writer that 
in a large majority, if not in all, of the cases, their separation would 
be practicable. The greater the number of male adult normal, and 
in no way deformed, crania in each find, the easier it would become to 
make the necessary distinctions; and it may be safely assumed also 
that the greater the separation of the two groups in time the more 
distinct would l>e the somatological differences. 

There is no such thing as absolute stability in any human struc- 
ture. Every organic feature, of whatever consistency or importance, 
is the result of all the factors by which it was affected. With the 
skeletal parts by far the strongest of these factors, in itself a very com- 
posite one, is the potentiality of heredity, next to which in impor- 
tance comes habitual muscular action, particularly muscular use due 
to long-established habits of whole groups of people. Heredity, how- 
ever, especially in so far as it applies to the latest acquired charac- 
teristics of the skeleton, is subject to incidental irregularities as well 
as to gradual modifications. IIal>its of muscle action, on the other 

I.I I \I. KKM.MNS 18 

I in i H I. change \\iili en\ if on ii lent niiil en It iif*-: such changes in art i\ n n-~ 
may take place much nimv slowly in some localities than in other-, yet 

the\ are iMUIIul to mailife-t the|||-e|\r- i- \ rr V \V hefe ill the collf-c of 

ages and to !* followed by corresponding and recurring structural 
alteration-. Tin- great skeletal diversity of inuiikind to-day can lc 
iinted for in no other manner. The alterations in the skull or 
bones need not l>e general or even of prime importance, and may re- 
quire for tlieif discovery detailed study and extended comparisons; 
l>ui in tin- case of an individual from the earlier stages of the period 
immediately preceding the recent they should IH> pronounced enough 
lo IK- easily apprehended." The geologically ancient crania of Kuroj>e 
may IK- cited in support of this statement. In the case of single fea- 
tures, however, or with scanty material, all far-reaching conclusions 
must IH> avoided, for in such cases we can not lx certain that we are 
outride of the territory of semipathological occurrences, and features 
of reversion, degeneration, or purely accidental variation limited to 
individuals or small numl>ers of persons. 

In this connection it is necessary to bear in mind also human 
migrations, resulting in a replacement of physical types. While 
the stability of the same stock of jn-ople is much greater in some 
localities than is generally appreciated, it is probable that in a large 
majority of places one or more replacements of population have 
occurred even during recent geological time. On this account alone 
the explorer is very likely to find in recent burials racial ty|>es dis- 
tinct from those found in older burials. The greater the differ- 
ence in age Ix'tween two sets of osseous human remains the greater 
the improbability, for the reason just given alx>ve, that they In-long 
to one physical variety. 

To summarize, identification of human lx>nes as those of early 
man that is, man of geological antiquity demands indisputable 
suatigraphical evidence, some degree of fossilization of the bones, 
and marked serial somatological distinctions in the more important 
osseous parts. A skeleton or a skull not fossilized or one (whether 
fos- ili/.ed or not) agreeing in most of the more essential feature** 

It has l>een stated on good authority (A. Thompson and I>. Kawlnll Mnclvir. The 
Ancient Itnri's of tln Tlu-i-niil. Oxford. 11M5 ; and 1'has. 8. Mjrera. Contributions to 
Egyptian Anthro|H>uu>try. Journal of thr .lnf/>rujio/(/i<-al ln*titut>\ xxxv. 8O-91. llMi.'ii 
Hint i In- most mi. -lent known Inhabitants of KK.vpt. dating from about ncven thotmand to 
eluhl thousand ymrH ago. show no Important difference of type from certain Kcyptlan 
natives ..f tin- |in-sent day. If definitely nettled, the fact would be of much Importance: 
It iI.M-M not ap|M'iir. however, that much attention wan paid to numerouH feature* of the 
skulls such at do not enter ordinarily Into anthro|N>metrlf determinations, but which mny 
pl.-iv n InrL'e part In making distinctions. It Is often possible to detect Just such sec-ond- 
ary r !* i-miiinonly Htudled characteristics in different localities amotitr the Imllans. even 
though thew In-long to the same general ty|x>, and It may be confidently asserted that 
tlu-y would U- found to differentiate recent from ancient man In any locality. It should 
\*> lH,rn<- In mind aim. In connection with the Kgyptlan crania that seven thousnnd or 
eight thousand year* la really but n short period geologically. ei|iiallng pn.tmbly lens than 
half of tin- recent ra. See en this subject also I-:. Schmidt, in tin- .lc*. /. Anthrop., xrn, 
180 et w?q.. 1888. 


with a skeleton or a skull of recent, or not very ancient, man in the 
same locality, can not lx> accepted as geologically ancient, mile th<- 
geological evidence should be absolutely decisive. Feature- charac- 
teristic of inferior stages of human development, though to be . \ 
pected in all geologically ancient skeletal parts of man, are not of 
themselves necessarily proofs of antiquity; their presence only 
strengthens the case if associated with other evidence of great age of 
the specimens. 


Interest in man's antiquity in this country began to manifest it -elf 
at about the same time as the growth of interest in man's natural 
history in general, and with the rise of the science of anthropology 
during the earlier part of the nineteenth century. The work of 
Morton in this country and of Priehard in England doubtless had 
great influence in this direction ; Morton's Crania Americana a par- 
ticularly drew attention to the remains of the human skeleton. The 
first find of importance of bones that seemed tg indicate the pres- 
ence of early man was made in 1844, and similar discoveries followed 
from time to time. The finds so far made include fourteen speci- 
mens or groups of specimens, the majority of which call for careful 
consideration. They are as follows: 

A. The New Orleans (Louisiana) bones, discovered in 1844 

B. The Quet>ec (Canada) skeleton, discovered in (?) 

C. The Natchez (Mississippi) pelvic bone, discovered in 18415 

D. The Lake Monroe (Florida) bones, discovered in _ l.ST>2r l.XT:i 

E. The Soda Creek (Colorado) skeleton, discovered iii-_ 1800 

F. The Charleston (South Carolina) remains, discovered in (?) 

G. The Calaveras (California) skull, discovered in 

H. The Rock Bluff (Illinois) skull, discovered in 

I. The Pefion (Mexico) skeleton, discovered in 

J. The Trenton (New Jersey) skulls, discovered in__ 

K. The Western Florida skull and bones, discovered in lsTl-1888 

L. The Trenton (New Jersey) femur, discovered in 1899 

M. The Lansing (Kansas) skeleton, discovered in lixrj 

N. The Nebraska " loess man," discovered in 1SS>4-1!HM; 

A majority of these specimens have been previously examined and 
reported upon,'' and within the last few years the writer has re. \ 
amined and compared all the more important available material 
and besides has been able to visit the localities of the heretofore unde- 
scribed western Florida skeletons. The crania and other remains are 
dealt with according to chronological sequence of discovery, with the 
exception of those from Florida, which are placed near the last for 
the reason that, although brought to light some years ago. they had 

Philadelphia, 18:<!>. 

'For bibliographical references, see the reports In this paper on the several flnds. 


lint Ix'cti studied until the la-t year. Tin- whole inve-t igatimi lui- 
Iteeii carried .m without prcmnccixed opinions in regard to cither the 
presence in or the absence from northern America of early man und is 
in the main a -imple anatomical comparison. 


In a nunilxT of the older writings touching on the subject of man's 
antiquity in North America, particularly in Nott and (iliddon, are 
found references to the discovery of an apparently ancient skeleton 
at New Orleans, Louisiana. The original rej>ort on this find, usually 
credited to D. B. Dowler, 6 is by Prof. D. Drake,* and reads as 
follows : 

In 1844 I visited two gas tanks. t>aich JO feet In diameter and lt> fe<>t deep, 
recently sunk in tin* back part of the city (I. e.. New Orleans], and ravlvcd 
frniii the intelligent sii|erlntendent, I>>ctor Rogers, an account of what wax 
met with In excavating them. At first they encountered will and Koft river 
mini, then harder laminated l.lue alluvion, then deep hlack mold resting on 
\\et bluish (|uicksand. . . . The roots ami tfie basis or stumps of no fewer 
than four successive growths of trees, apparently cypress, were found standing 
at different elevations. The tlrst had a diameter of 2 feet < inches, the stn-otid 
of G feet, the third of 4 feet, and the fourth of 12 fet. at a short distunec 
up. with a base of 28 feet for the roots. It is embedded In a soft d>ep-hlack 
mold. When cut with the sjwde much of this wood resembled cheese In tex- 
ture, but hardened on drying. . . . At the depth of 7 and 1(5 feet burnt WMH! 
was met with. No shells or bones of land animals or fish were observed, but 
in a tank previously excavated, at the depth of 10 feet the skeleton of a man 
was found. The cranium lay between the roots of a tree and was in a tolerable 
state of preservation, but most of the other bones crumbled on pressure. A 
small 'm ilium, which I saw, indicated the female sex. A low and narrow fore- 
head, moderate facial angle, and prominent widely separated cheek bones 
seemed to prove the skull of the same race with our present Indians. No 
chan-oal. ashes, or ornaments*, of any kind were found around It. 

On the basis of the foregoing rather defective data and calcula- 
tions as to the probable age of the stumps. Doctor Dowler con- 
cluded (page 17) that the "human race existed in the delta more 
than fifty-seven thousand years ago." On a little reflection this 
estimate shows so many weak points that it can not l>e accepted 
for anything more than an individual opinion. The notes concern- 
ing the skull, so far as they go, indicate that the specimen resembled 
in the main the skull of an ordinary Indian, but this conclusion 
has little value. It is nowhere stated what became of the skeleton. 
Drake's remark that " most of the other bones crumbled on pressure " 
makes it probable that few, if any, parts of it have been preserved, 
and also clearly indicates that the bones were in no degree fossilized. 

Type* of Mankind, chap. xl. numeroun will Ion*. Philadelphia. 
* Tableaux of New nrh-anx, 8-0, New Orleans, no date ( published In the 
'A Systematic Treatise on the Principal IHeaae of the Interior Valle 
America, etc.. 76-77, Cincinnati. 1850. 



According to Doctor Usher" a fossil human >keleton. " which was 
dug out of the solid schist-rock on which the citadel .-land-." \\a- 
preserved in the museum at Quebec. There are no particulars in 
print concerning the find; the skeleton is not preserved in the Laval 
University Museum, the only museum in the city containing ohjert- 
of natural history, and nothing could be learned concerning it 
during the writer's recent visit to Quebec. The absurdity of the 
statement that a human skeleton was "dug out of the solid schist- 
rock " will IH> apparent when it is remembered that the rock is 


In 1840 Dr. M. W. Dickeson exhibited at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences at Philadelphia a collection of fossil bones obtained by him 
in the vicinity of Natchez, Mississippi, among which was a piece of a 
human pelvis. An account of this specimen, which appeared in the 
Proceedings of the Academy in 1840 (page 107), reads as follow-: 

This ancient relic of our species is that of a young man of about 10 years 
of age. as determined by its si/e and form, and by the fact that the epipliyscs 
have separated from the tuberosity of the ischium and from the crista of the 
ilium. Nearly all the os pubis is wanting, the upi>er posterior part of the 
ilium is broken away, and but half the acetabulum remains. That this Imne 
is strictly in the fossil state is manifest from its physical characters, in which 
it accords in every respect of color, density, etc., with those of the Megalonyx 
and other associated bones. That it could not have drifted into the position 
in which it was found is manifest from several facts : 1. That the plateau of 
blue clay & is not appreciably acted on by those causes that produce ravines in 
the superincumbent diluvial; 2. That the human bone was found at least 2 feet 
below three associated skeletons (f the Megalonyx, all of which, judging in mi 
the apposition or proximity of their several parts, had been quietly dei>osited in 
this locality, independently of any active current or other displacing power: 
and lastly, because there was no admixture of diluvial drift with the blue day. 
which latter retains its homogeneous character equally in the higher part that 
furnished the extinct quadruiKHls, and its lower part that contained the remains 
of man. 

The find obtained a wide publicity and received the particular 
attention of Sir Charles Lyell on the occasion of his visit to this 
country in 1840. Lyell examined the locality and in his report 6 
thereon took a rather skeptical view as to the antiquity of the 

W. Usher, Geology and Paleontology In Connection with Human Origins, chap, si. In 
Nott ami (iliddon's Types of Mankind. 

6 The stratum that contained this and the megalonyx bones "Is a tenacious l>lue clay 
that underlies the diluvial drift of N.-udic/.. and which diluvial deposit abounds in bones 
and teeth of tin- Mnntmlon iiii/iinti'iiin " (p. lot!). 

'Second Visit to America, n, 191 et seq., 1840. 


remain-. In a Hihxcqucnt \\ork" In- -tate- that ihc pelvic bone wa.s 
taken from a comparatively iv.-ent channel kno\\n a> the Mammoth 
rax inc. at tin- l>a-e of a high cliff. 
Tin* cliff consists >f a Cretaceous base, u layer of Kocetie inuterlnl, and a Hur- 

I'M"-.- dc|M.sit of Iniilii or 10688. 

From u clavr.x iii-posit Immediately below the yellow loam, bone* of the 
Mnxtoilon nhintii-Hn. u s|ecles of Mcgalonyx. tomes of the genera />/*. HOH, 
and others, some of extinct and other presumed to IM> of living s|HK'leM, hud 
il.-t.-K lii-il. falling to the l>ase <if the cliff. Miir_-li-l with the rent, the 
IN, IK- of man os Iniiomlimtuni watt obtained by Doctor Dickeson, of 
Natchez. In whose collection I Haw It. Jt up|Mureil to be quite in the same 
stati' of preservation, ami was of the same black color as the other fossils. 
and \\as believed to have come, like them, from a depth of alxiut ''' feet 
from the surface [of the cliff]. 

In my Secoud Visit to America (u, 197, 1S4) I suggested, as a iMmslhlc 
explanation of this association of a human IMIU> with remains of a Mastodon 
and .Mi-iraliiii\ \. that the former may |M>ssibly have l>een derived from the 
vegetable noil at the top of the din", whereas tin- remains of extinct mammalia 
were dislodged from a lower i>osition, and both may have fallen into the same 
heap or talus at the bottom of the ravine. The pelvic bone might, I eoiHvlved, 
have acquired its black color by having lain for years or centuries In a dark, 
superficial, iteaty soil, common in that region. I was informed that there 
were many human Inmes, in old Indian graves in the same district, stained of 
as black a dye. . . . No doubt, bad the pelvic bone belonged to any m-ent 
maininifcr other than man. such a theory would never have been resorted to; 
but so long as we have only one Isolated case, and are without the testimony 
of a geologist who was present to behold the bone when still engaged in the 
matrix, and to extract it with his own hands, it is allowable to suspend our 
judgment as to the high antiquity of the fossil. 

The Natchez pelvic bone was described in detail and illustrated by 
E. Schmidt in 1872. 6 This author takes issue with Doctor Dickeson's 
-tatement that the bone belonged to a young individual; he con- 
>i<lcrs it that of an adult, but damaged in such a way that it resem- 
Ut - an immature specimen. He takes issue also with Sir Charles 
Lycll regarding the antiquity of the bone, declaring his l>elief that 
it is not recent, but dates from the Champlain epoch. r Schmidt 
docs not furnish any new important facts concerning the find, but 
attempts to substantiate his view by a different interpretation of the 
known conditions. Lyell apparently did not accept Schmidt's con- 
clusions, for the last edition of the former's Geological Evidcm .- 
the Antiquity of Man contains exactly the same statement concerning 
the Natchez bone as those published previously; and. a< he was a 
geologist and visited the locality a short time aft-T the find had 

The Geological Evidence* of the Antiquity of Man, 3d *d., fM> "t "'! Ix>nc!<.n. !Htt3; 
tli .<!.. I 1 :'-'', i-t si|.. London. 1M7.T 

Zur rriceHchU-hti- NordnmeclkaB. Arch. f. Anthrop., v, 244 ' I 1^71-7'J. 

'The references of SHunldt t<> tin- riinniplaln epoch " Indent.- u different nollon of 
this period and a greater anll<|iilty than that now accepted by American geologists. See 
particularly paw 'jari ot hi* paper. 

O7 2 


[urn.. 33 

fossils with which it was found associated. 

been made, it seems that his opinion should carry moiv weight than 
that of Doctor Dickeson. 

Examination and measurements of the -pecimen gave Schmidt 
nothing extraordinary, and racial identification of the bone wa> 
justly declared by him to be wholly impossible. 

The-Xatche/ pelvic bone came eventually to the attention of Prof. 
Joseph Leidy, and he reported on it in the Transaction* of the Wayner 
Free Institute of Science, 1889 (n, 9-10). According to this 

the collection of fossils, yet contained in the museum of the academy, are 
well preserved, firm in texture, and stained chocolate brown from ferruginous 
infiltration. The fossils consist of a nearly entire skull and other bones of 
Mr(ialnij.r Jcffcrsoiri, teeth of Mcyalonyf <lixnimilin and Ercptodon prim-as. 
bones of Myhtdon Hurlani, bones and teeth of Manttitlon atncricanus, and teeth 
of Ktiuus major and of Rimm laiifrunx. The human iimominatum. somewhat 
mutilated, presents the same condition of preservation and color as the other 

It differs in no respect 
from an ordinary aver- 
age siiecimen of the cor- 
responding recent lx>ne 
of man. 

Sir Charles Lyell, 
in an interview with 
Professor Leidy 
expressed the opinion 
that, although the hu- 
man bone may have 
been contemporaneous 
with those of the ex- 
tinct animals with 
which it had l>een 
found, he thought it 
more probable it had 
fallen from one of the 
Indian graves and had 
become mingled with 
the older fossils which 
were dislodged from the 
deei>er part of the cliff. 
... At the time of 
making his communica- 
tion Doctor Dickeson 
intimated that the hu- 
man hone was found at 

a lower level, beneath Ixnies of the Megalonyx, etc., but this would not prove its 
age to be greater than or contemporaneous with the latter. In the wear of the 
cliff the upper i>ortion, with the Indian graves a.nd human lones. would he 
likely to fall first and the deeper portion with the older fossils subsequently on 
the latter. 

Fio. 2. The Natchez pelvic hone. (After Leidy.) 

HRM.H--KA) >M I.I I \|. Ill \| MNS !'. 

IVofe in- I^'i<ly gave tin- ;u < ompaiiving illustration (figure _') <-f 

the pchic bone ill qilc-tion. It i- *eeli t< IN- :i defective right OS 

innominatum, which, on comparison with a -iiiiilar recent Indian 
. -!M>\\- nothing |x'culiar. This is really nil that can lx sail 
it. ami it would 1> quite useless to speculate as to its 
:iutii|iiity. Had the geological evidence IMMMI conclusive in referring 
the find to th<> Chaiiiplaiii or aimthi-i- late geological |n-i-ioi|. tin- soina- 
tc logical feature- of the l>one would not form an insujx-rahle objee- 
lion to this disposition of it. 


In W. I'sher's chapter on Geology and Paleontology in connection 

with human origins, in Nott and (iliddon's Types of Mankind." we 
find an account by Professor Agassi/, of fossilized and sup|M-4'dly 
ancient human "jaws with |xrfect tH>th and portions of a foot," 
discovered apparently alnuit 18;VJ or 18;">:i by Count K. de 1'ourtales 
" in a bluff u]N)ii the shores of Lake Monroe." Florida. "The mass in 
which they were found is a conglomerate of rotten coral-reef lime- 
stone and shells, mostly ampularias of the same species now found in 
the St. John Kiver. which drains Lake Monroe." The de|>osit is of 
lacustrine origin and contains remains of animal forms that are still 
in existence. Its age Agassi/, could not give with precision: it was 
considered certain by him, however, that "the whole of the southern 
extremity of Florida, with the Everglades, has l>een added to that 
part of the. continent since the basin has IMHMI in existence, in which 
the conglomerate with human IMHICS has IHHMI accumulating." Cal- 
culations based on the growth of the peninsula and its duration in 
a desert state left Professor Agassi/ still "ten thousand veal's, dur- 
ing which it should IH> admitted that the mainland was inhabited 
by man." 

The foregoing, unfortunately, seems to IK- the only account of the 
specimen. It is mentioned by Lyell '' without any further particu- 
lars. It is not stated at what depth the human IMMICS were discov- 
ered or in what association. There is, finally, nothing known as to 
the physical characteristics of the sjM'cimens l>eyond the fact that 
"the teeth were j>erfect." and nothing as to their fate. On the 
whole, the claim to antiquity of this particular find is not a strong 
one. Fossili/ation itself means in Florida but little, as the process 
i- even now going on in many portions of the peninsula. Then* is but 
one possible conclusion regarding the I^ake Monroe Ixmes. which is 
that they can not, on the existing evidence, be accepted as proofs of 
the pre-ence of early man on this continent. 

Kxc*rpt her* tilven nre from loth *d.. .1.12-35.1. 1871. 

The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man. 3d ed.. 44-45, lx>ndon. IMS. 



Soda creek is situated in Colorado, in longitude 105 40', latitude 
39 35', at an altitude of about <'>.." 70 feet. There are numenm- 
springs in the locality, some hot and some cold, the water of which 
deposits mineral substances. In September, I860, according to a 
report by E. L. Berthoud, C. E. a 

Two miners, who had been for two months and a half owning a mining claim 
alMuit -<>0 yards southwest of the springs and ait the foot of the hill marked 
on the map of Soda hill, reached at last in the gravel, l>owlders, and rocky 
de|M>sits of Soda bar a depth of '22 feet; here at this depth and about U yard.- 
from the foot of the hill slope they found a human skeleton lying on its face 
and emlKxlded in a deposit of gravel, sand, small bowlders, and fragments of 
the adjacent rock in situ. . . . The skeleton, all whose larger l>ones, 
though very light and porous, were yet intact, and whose skull was also entire, 
was in a very tolerable state of preservation. Under the skeleton and alxnit 2 
feet lower down they found ujnm the surface of what the miners call " red 
rock," the trunk, limbs, and roots of a small pine tree, identical in all respects 
with the red pine (/'. variabiliis) of the adjacent slopes. The bark appeared 
charred and blackened, the wood was light, yellow, and apparently sound. 
. . . On exposure to air, however, it soon became soft and crumbled, more 
like rotten or water-soaked wood. The roots and limbs appeared as if vio- 
lently compressed or forced in the seams of the underlying rock. There, then, 
was a point conclusively shown namely, that prior to the cause which covered 
Soda hill. Soda bar, and Dry Diggings hill with its enormous beds of gravel, 
sand, and lowlders, and its native gold . . . man roved and dwelt in this 
region. . . . Whatever cataclysm buried this member of the human family, 
be he Aztec, Indian, Esquimaux, or Mound-builder, he is for the region above 
mentioned " liomo dilui-ii tcstis." 

Berthoud's account leaves much to be desired from the standpoint 
of geology. It gives the impression that the material covering the 
human remains and the pine may have been talus of no great antiq- 
uity. The skeleton represented undoubtedly an intentional burial, 
otherwise the bones would have been crushed. It did not seem to 
present anything very extraordinary and was not fossilized. There 
is no report of a scientific examination of the bones, and no clew is 
given as to what became of them. Under these circumstances it is 
impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion regarding the antiquity 
of the find. What evidence there is speaks more against than for any 
considerable geological age of the skeleton. 


Emil Schmidt, in his Zur Urgeschichte Nordamerikas, 6 gives nearly 
all that is known concerning these specimens. It appears that Prof. 
F. S. Holmes, geologist and paleontologist, of Charleston, while ex- 

Description of the Hot Springs of Soda Creek . . . together with the remarkable 
discovery of a human skeleton and a fossil pine tree In the bowlder and gravel formation 
of Soda bar, Oct. 13, 1860, Proceedings of Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
xvin, 342-345, 1866. 

"Arch. f. Anthrop., V, 250 et seq., 1871-72. 

i i i A I. I: I. MAINS 21 

ploring tin* banks of tin- A-liU-y river about 1<) mile- above the 

ritV. di-covered llllllllll) IKHIC-. fragment- of pott. TV. etc., together 

with the hour- of tlu mastodon. Professor I/'idy. who was sent by 
tin- Philadelphia Academy of Science- to examine tlic locality, actu- 
ally found human l>ones as-ociated with thos4 of the mastodon, hut 
there apjH'ared in the same connection also a fragment of jxuvelain. 

Later, in following his investigations in the same region, Pro- 
fessor Holme- di-covered further evidences of the coexistence of 
man with extinct animals: these were particularly a human lower 
jaw. a tihia, a femur, some stone implements, and ]>otsherds, which 
were dugout |xrsonally from an undisturU'd old deposit. The lower 
jaw was that of an adolescent, and showed a prominent chin and 
>lrong muscular impressions; the teeth were normal. The femur also 
showed strong development. 

It seems that Professor Holmes has never puhlished his account of 
the finds just mentioned, and there is consequently hut little to aid 
us in the effort to reach a conclusion. Schmidt was inclined to accede 
to the opinion that the Ixmes were geologically ancient, and sug- 
gested that they In-longed to a man of the Champlain i>eriod. This 
view can not IH> sustained in the ahsence of more definite information. 
Chemical and detailed physical characteristics of the skeletal parts 
are wanting, and the fate of the bones is unknown. They are not in 
the Charleston Museum. 


The specimen known as the Calaveras skull is a portion of a some- 
what fossilized human cranium preserved in the Pealxxly Museum 
at Cambridge. Prof. F. W. Putnam, director of this museum, 
kindly |>ermitted the writer to examine the specimen thoroughly and 
furnished the two photographs which accompany this section. 

It is not necessary to review in t.his place all that has l>ecn written 
alxmt the skull in question; the original detailed account of it will 
IK- found in J. I). Whitney's Auriferous (travels of the Sierra Nevada 
of California," and a resume of this, with additional information and 
critical remarks, is contained in W. II. Holmes's thorough Review 
of the Evidence relating to Auriferous Gravel Man in California. 
published in the Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 189J). 6 
It -uflice- to -ay that the skull was reported as having l>een found 
in 1H(H>. in Hald hill, near Altaville. Calaveras county, California. 
l>\ a mine operator, in a shaft which he had sunk, at the depth of 

P.-.*.- --.7 ..i s,-., : ramhrldK*. HM.. 1*79. * I 'UK.- lt'> 7'_' : Wn*tiliuM..n 10O1. 


about 130 feet from (he surface, win-re there \v;is a layer of gravel. " 
This gravel lay beneath seven alternate layers of lava and gravel, 
and dates from about the middle Tertiary period. The skull had 
adhering to it, or at least to the lower part of its face and to it^ ICIM-. 
a "conglomerate mass of ferruginous earth, water-worn pebbles of 
much altered volcanic rock, calcareous tufa, and fragments of bone-." 
and "a thin calcareous incrustation appears to have covered the 
whole skull when found/' (Whitney, page 208.) On chemical exam- 
ination by Mr. Sharpies, the specimen was found to * k have lost nearly 
all its organic matter," and " a large portion of the phosphate of 
lime had been replaced by the carbonate (phosphate of lime 33.70, 
carbonate of lime 02.03 parts in 100). In other words, it was in a 
fossilized condition." 

After the lapse of more than two years from the date of its <li-- 
covery the skull came indirectly into the possession of Profes-or 
Whitney, at that time State Geologist of California, and was finally 
placed in the Peabody Museum. The specimen has received much 
attention in the pi-ess. The archeplogical aspect of the find has been 
dealt with by Prof. W. II. Holmes in two reports,'' which give ac- 
counts not only of the skull, but of all the reported California gravel 
finds indicating the presence of early man, and their well-substan- 
tiated conclusions should be consulted in this connection. As to the 
physical characteristics of the skull, the only original data extant are 
thoKe of Professor Wyman, included in the report of J. 1). Whitney. 
There are three subsequent accounts, by E. Schmidt," J. Kollmann,'' 
and George A. Dorsey, c respect ively; but all of these are based on 
Wyman's measurements and on study of the illustrations of the skull, 
not on personal examination of the specimen. This deficiency will be 
remedied in this paper so far as possible. 


The specimen (plate i) is rather heavy (15$ ounces=44f> grains), 
though its weight is due mainly to adhering mineral matter. It is a 
very defective skull, lacking nearly the whole occipital, both parietals, 
the right temporal, parts of the left temporal, sphenoid, and superior 

" It is nowhere stated on the authority of the finder or of Professor Whitney that the 
sknll was actually dug out from the gravel. Mr. Mattison, who found It In the mine, 
states simply (Whitney, p. 268) that "he took the skull from his shaft, In February, 
1HGO, with some pieces of wood found near it." 

5 Preliminary Revision of the Evidence relating to Auriferous Crave! Man in Califor- 
nia, American Anthroitolot/M, n. s., I, 107-llM. i'.l I tit:,. IS'.W; Review of the Kvi-l.-nc.- 
relating to Auriferous Oravel Man in California, Smithsonian Hcport for ls!i!t. !'. I7J. 
Washington, IftOl. 

r /ur Urgeschichte Nordamerikas, An-h. f. Anthrui>.. v. IT..", U.V.. 1S71-7L': also in Die 
illfesten Spuren dt-s Mcnschen In Nordamerika, 4.". H SM|.. Hamburg. 1SS7. 

Holies Alter <I'M- Mdisclicurasscti. Xi-itxrlii: f. Ktluntl.. xvi. IS". I'M. l*sl. 

' In Holmes's Review of the Evidence relating to Auriferous Cravol Man in California. 



a Front \ i. . b -nl- view 

KDLIOU] ! I I \l. Ill M \!NS 

ni:i\ill:i. iiml lit.- ln\\i-r ja\\. Tlif ba-ilar proce-vx an. I tin- antra of 
'i more -h<w MUM.- lirinly adhering material referred in as gravel. 
and in many plan-- the -|>e<-imrii lias remnants of a coating (0.25 to 
!.." nun. thick) of apparently calcareous stalagmite. 

Tin- general somatological asjicct of the skull is in no way extraor- 
dinary. It i- plainly a male skull and |H-|,,II^,.,| i,, an individual of 
advanced years, hut not of extreme age. In form it was in all prob- 
ability mesocephalic, and of medium height. The face was only mod- 
erately broad for a male: its height can not lx ascertained on account 
of an advanced Absorption of the np|>er alveolar protvss. hut was 
apparently in no respect unusual. The nose is very slightly plat- 
yrhynic (nasal index r>tt.5), a form that occurs quite commonly 
among Indian crania: and the orhits (with hreadth measure<l from 
dan-yon) are megaseme (index of right 5>.">, of left 5)1). a condition 
not infrequent among Indians. Facial prognatiuam was insignifi- 
cant : aveolar |>rognathism can not IK' determined. 

The forehead is of medium height and prominence, showing no 
sloping such as might lie expected in a male skull of a low form. The 
temporal ridges are not pronounced or high. The supraorhital 
ridges are stfcmg. hut not more so than in some modern masculine 
Indian crania: they extend, however, along the whole superior 
U>rder of the orhits, a much less common form. The glal>ella is a 
little less prominent than the ridges; as a result of this formation 
there is l>etween the latter a shallow depression. 

The face is somewhat damaged, hut permits of a iiumlx*r of desir- 
able determinations. The nasion depression is pronounced: there is 
nothing peculiar alxnit the nasal bridge or Ixmes: the nasal ajx>rture 
i- pyriform, with the left notch somewhat lower than the right: 
there are shallow nasal gutters (not rare in the Indian) : and the 
spine was well developed. The orhits are slightly ovoid in shape. 
their distal part lx>ing higher than the proximal, and deep: their 
borders are not sharp. The malar- are of ordinary form and mod- 
erate -i/.e. not unusually protruding: the marginal process is jiot 
large: the xvgonue are strong: the submalar ("canine") fossa 1 are 
fairlv well hollowed. The upjx'r alveolar Iwirder -how- a loss of all 
the teeth and in front an advanced alveolar absorption (to within 
11 mm. of the nasal notch on the right, and to within even a shorter 
di-tancu on the left, side) : but as an indication of age these condi- 
tion- do not agree with the state of the sutures, and are there- 
fore probably of pathological origin. The palate offers nothing 


What remain- of the temporal Ixmcs presents ordinary features, 
with a medium-H/.ed masculine mastoid. 

A for the \\\\^>, the glenoid cavities are deep and rather narrow 
anter.i |M,-i,-riorly : their are high spinous, and quite high vaginal, 


processes, but the styloids were apparently not much developed, a 
condition often observed in the Indian. The petrous portions are 
seen in a moderate depression between the basilar process and the 
sphenoid, about as in the average Indian." 

Yentrally may be seen a moderately high metopic crest; impressions 
of brain convolutions are perceptible, especially over the orbital roof, 
but are not pronounced ; the sella turcica is normal, the clinoids are 
rather stout, the anterior and posterior lxing united on the left : the 
dorsum sellae shows in its superior border a deep (4 mm.) median 

The thickness of the frontal bone is not greater than in many 
Indian crania (see measurements). 

There are traces of the nasal suture, but its exact state can not be 
determined ; the naso-maxillary and the naso-frontal articulations 
seem to be patent on both sides; the malo-frontals show no oblitera- 
tion; there is no trace of metopic separation; the spheno-frontal, 
which can be seen on the left, seems to show some synostosis, but the 
spheno-malar and the spheno-temporal sutures appear open; there 
are no signs of obliteration in the coronal and in the right spheno- 
parietal suture, and the same statement applies to what remains of 
the right temporo-parietal and the temporo-occipital articulations. 

Irrespective of its large defects, the specimen shows remarkably 

few injuries, and it is wholly inconceivable that it should have been 

rolled about in a stream bed or subjected to pressure in gravel deposits. 

The measurements permitted by the condition of the skull are as 

follows : 

Diameter frontal minimum centimeters.. 10. 1 

Diameter frontal maximum, about do 12.0 

Nasion-bregtua arc do 13. 1 


Height (nasion to lowest point of notch l>order) 

Right side do 4.9 

Left side__ ..-do 5.05 

Breadth, maximum T do 2. 7 


Right do 3.8 

Left _ do 3. 55 

Breadth (from dacryon) 

Right do__ 4.0 

Left do 3. 9 

Interorbital diameter do__ 2.5 

Greatest surface length of the left temporal (measured with a tape) -do 9. 95 

Thickness of bone at frontal eminences millimeters__ 5 to 6 

Maximum thickness of frontal bone, near bregma do 8 

Diameter bizygomatic maximum, about centimeters. _ 14.3 

" In undeveloped and low-form crania the inferior surface of the petrous bones IB on a 
level with the neighboring surfaces, while In the best developed skulls of whites and 
other races the petrous portions appear deep In a depression. 

r-KI 1 .1 I \l. IMMXINS 25 

\ -tudy of tin- Calaxera- -Unll a- compared with other crania, 
particularly with th < of California Indians, has lieen made by 
Dr. .TeliYeys \Vyman ami I>r. <i<'.>rre A. Dorsey. Doctor Wyman's 

conclusion-, are that 

i 1 i Tin- -ixull presents no sinus of having lclongcd to an Inferior rare. In 
Its breadth It agres with the other crania from ralifornla. except those of the 
IHgger-. ''in surpasses them In tln> other particulars In which comparisons hare 
IHH-H nuiilc. Tlii- is cs|>ecially ohviotiK In tin* greater prominence of tin- fore- 
head ami the capacity of its chanilxr. (2) In so far as It differs In (llinenMloiiH 
from the other crania from California, it approaches the Ks<|ulmaux. 

In this re|Hrt there are two points to which exception must be 
taken. The skull lacks l>oth pnrietals and one whole teni|>oral; there- 
fore a measurement of its breadth (given by Wyinan as 15 cm.) 
is impossible, and even an approximation to it must remain uncertain : 
and there is absolutely nothing about the specimen which approaches 
the high and narrow-nosed, broad and Hat-faced, and narrow, keel- 
vaulted Eskimo. Doctor Dorsey's account 6 is more circumstantial, 
but unfortunately is based on a comparison of the Calavcras skull as 
known from Whitney's account and measurements, including the 
>lightly misleading illustrations, and not from the specimen itself. 
with a skull of a Digger Indian from Calaveras county. Dix'tor 
Dorsey recognizes the skull as that of a male, and in summarizing 
Mates that 

While the comimrison of nn actual skull with the drawings of a fragment 
of another must be unsatisfactory, yet the conclusion is nevssary that the 
two skulls have the same general features and may easily be pronounced of 
one and the same tyi>e. 

The National Museum collection includes two crania and some 
fragments of skulls from caves in Calaveras county, collected and 
donated in 1857 by J. S. Hittell, of San Francisco. All these sjx'ci- 
men> had, and most of them still retain, inside and outside, a coating 
of grayish calcareous, stalagmitic deposit, much like that which 
partially covers the Calaveras skull; in fact, on fracture, the de|x>sit 
in the two cases, so far as the unaided eye can perceive, is identical in 
character. None of the cave skulls or fragments show any adhesion 
of gravel. Both the entire specimens are male adult skulls, but one 
(cat. no. J'J.'ilTl) does not appear entirely normal, and its orbits are 
a fleeted in form and size by very heavy supraorbital ridges, so that 
only one of the specimens (cat. no. 2*25172) ap|>cars fit for comparison 
with the Calaveras skull. It is a mesocephalic cranium (cephalic 
index ?.".. ') of moderate height (basion-bregma 13.f> cm.) and general 
good development : it belonged to a person of aln>ut fifty-five years of 

J. I). Whitney. Aurlferou* UravrU .f tin- Sl<-rra NVvmla. l'T3. Cambridge. Maw.. 1879. 
Mn William II. II. .lm.-~- l.v\ lew ..f tin- Kvtili-nrr relating to Aurlferoua Gravel Man In 
California. Umithmmian i;<i>wt for 1K10. 405-400. Washington, 1901. 



'nr.M.. :-: 

age. It is not a fresh skull ; the hones are quite brittle and seem to be 
largely devoid of animal matter, but no claim is made that it is very 
ancient, and there is no probability that it is so. 

This cave skull (figure 3) is in all essential features closely related 
to the Calaveras specimen. It has similarly strongly developed 
supraorbital ridges, extending along the entire superior border of the 
orbits; similar depression between the ridges, over the glabella; simi- 
larly marked nasal depression below the glabella, and about the same 
development of the marginal process of the malar, of this bone itself, 
of the zygoma, and of the nasal spine. There seem to have been pres- 

FIG. 3. Cave skull, Calaveras county, California ; side view. 

ent also slight nasal gutters. The orbits in the specimen catalogued 
as no. 225172 are slightly more quadrangular, but otherwise are nearly 
like those in the Calaveras skull. The alveolar process in no. 225172 
has suffered no absorption ; owing to this fact and to the absence from 
the cave skull of injuries, the lower parts of the faces of the two speci- 
mens differ in appearance, but this dissimilarity is not morphological. 
The forehead in no. 225172, though slightly narrower than that in the 
Calaveras skull, is very nearly as well arched. On the whole, the 
structural resemblance between this cave skull and the Cal:iv.-r;i- 
cranium are close enough not only for racial, but even for tribal, 


>Kl III \i. 1:1 M \IN< 


The mea-IIIVliielit- (if Ixilh -|>eci||ieli> \\hich colil, I U- x-riired exactly 

\\itli a choe decree of approximation an- a- follows: 


OM (kali 


Diameter fmtitjil minimum I 10 1 


1 'in in. -I. r in mini maximum 1ZO 

11 s 

NMtoo-bregnui arc 14.1 


II ;^lii. maximum 5.05 

5. 8S 

Breniltli. iiinxiiniini 2,7 


Index, max im inn U.6 

to. 5 

Mean height ' 


Menu 1 in -a<l ih ' 3.86 

3 90 

Mean index its 


IiitiTurliitHl iliameiiT 2.5 


OlMlii 1 i iiifni li mtili fl fl I in | nil MM in in i 1 n IHi n lii|n. 1 1 


luium I<T liixyKoiuntU- inaxiinitm a 14 3 

" 1 I .4 

' A|>ir<ixlmate. 

The thickness of the frontal IMMII* eouKl not be measured in the cave 
skull on account of the stala^iuitic (lej>osit insitle, hut it is apparently 
very nearly the same as that in the Calaveras sjH'cimen. 

Tin- measurements show a somewhat smaller frontal lx)iie in no. 
225172, which probably indicates that the Calaveras skull as a whole 
\\ ;i- larger. At all events such differences are not outside of the seojx; 
of individual variation within a single |>eople. The remaining meas- 
urrinriii-. particularly the important nasal and orbital indexes, are so 
much alike that on the basis of these and of the other resemblances it 
is impossible to do otherwise than to pronounce the two s|ecimens of 
the same tyjx*, which necessarily leads to the implication that the 
Calaveras skull is geologically recent. 

There is one feature connected with the Calaveras skull U'sides the 
-rureity of secondary injuries which may not have received the con- 
sideration it deserves; this is its calcareous coating, which, though col- 
ored on the surface, is white and crystalline on fracture, exactly like 
that of the cave skulls. How could such a coating have IKHMI formed, 
and formed with much uniformity, over the surfaces of a skull packed 
in sand or mini and gravel of an ancient river? It is probable that, 
under >|>ccial circumstances, I tones manifest some affinity for ealcare- 
oii- matter in solution, and it is known that animal fossils with some- 
what ^imilar coating have Iteen recovered from ancient sands or jjrav- 
el-. Thi- phenomenon is most commonly observed in caves or crevices 
into which water percolates, carrying lime in solution, and, in view of 
the pre-ence of numerous such caves and crevices in the Calaveras 
region, the occurrence of typical cavern de]x>sits on the surfaces of the 


Calaveras specimen must have great weight in favor of its cavern 
origin. A mass of gravel, bones, etc., adhered to the base of the skull 
when discovered, but this was not firmly solidified and could be 
removed without injury to the bone. It had very much the appear- 
ance of debris from some cave or crevice, cemented to the sped mm 
while the latter was being coated with stalagmitic deposit. The infil- 
tration or fossilization of the Calaveras skull furnishes no reliable 
test of its antiquity. It will be shown later in this paper that even 
siliceous fossilization of bones can take place near the surface of the 
ground, and in all probability has taken place within a geologically 
insignificant period. The process is regulated wholly by the local 
mineralogical conditions and the results are of little or no value as 
chronological criteria. 


The specimen known as the Rock Bluff skull was reported on by 
Meigs, Schmidt, 6 and Kollmann," and its claim to geological antiq- 
uity is based mainly on certain remarks found in Schmidt's account. 
According to Meigs, the skull was found, with a lower jaw 

... in June, 180(5, in a fissure of the rock, at Hock Bluff, on the Illinois river 
where it is crossed by the fortieth parallel. The fissure, which is 3 feet wide, 
was filled with the drift material of this region, consisting of clay, sand, and 
broken stone, the whole being covered with a stratum of surface soil. In this 
bed, which apparently had been undisturbed since the deposit, was found the 
skull under consideration, at the depth of 3 feet. 

After giving a description of the specimen, which contains several 
inaccuracies, Meigs speaks of a number of Indian crania which show 
resemblances to that from Rock Bluff, and concludes as follows: 

Bearing in mind the locality in which it was found, the skull under considera- 
tion is so far unique in its ethnical character, that I do not feel authorized to 
refer it to any of the aboriginal American cranial forms with which I am 
acquainted. If the position in which it was discovered be any evidence of its 
age, it belongs, in all probability, to an earlier inhabitant of the American con- 
tinent than the present race of Indians. 

At the time of Doctor Meigs's writing there was apparently extant 
no important evidence of the geological antiquity of the find, and had 
not the skull been of rather inferior type, it would hardly have 
attracted particular attention. Four years later, however, Schmidt 
gave a detailed description and measurements of the skull accom- 
panied by the statement that he was in possession of a letter from 

J. Altken Meigs, Description of a Human Skull In the Collection of the Smithsonian 
Institution, Umitlixoniiin AV;>orf for 1807, 41--415, Washington, istis. 

E. Schmidt, '/Mr rdfresi-hlchU' Nnrclamcrikas. An-h f. Anthri>.. v. n:t7-'J44. 1871-72, 
' J. Kollmann, Holies Alter der Menscuenrassen, Zeitechr. (. Ethnol., zvi, 101-103, 


Professor Raird, fit that tim- lary <>f the Smith-onian 

rn-titution. In tin- ellcct that tin* locality at which the Knck IllutT 
skull \va- discovered had been examined ly " .McConnell." who found 
that the drift in which the specimen lay wa-> in n< way di-turU'd and 
that, therefore, the -Uull wa< not intru-ive, but coincided in age with 
the formation of the deposit. Schmidt end- In- account with the 
opinion that the age of the two specimens (skull and lower jaw, th 
latter of which he con-idered as l>clonging to a different liody). pro- 
\ided it i- e-tahlished that they were found in undifltorbed drift, is 
very considerable and referable to "the Champlain, or even to the 
glacial, ejx>ch." 

A search in the archives of the Smithsonian Institution resulted 
in finding two letters from Mr. McConnell, of Jacksonville, Illinois, 
the donor of the skull. It is not disclosed who Mr. McConnell was; 
there appear to be no contributions under that name to the literature 
of either geology or anthropology. In his letter of June 4, 1806, 
addressed to Prof. Joseph Henry, is the following: 

I hare sent to you by express u small !H>X containing n human skull of an 
unusual shape and formation. It is evidently not deformed, hut a natural 
skull, aixl from its sha|x> and the place where it was found it is believed not to 
have belonged to any race of men now known to exist, and it is conjectured 
it may have belonged to a preadamite race, if there was any such race. . . . 
I have never met with such a formed head, either living or dead, as this, aiul 
for this reason I send it to you, supi>osing from your opportunities in this 
branch of science you might determine if I am right in sup|M>sing this s|x>cimcn 
not to have belonged to any one of the present races no-.v extant. I now will 
refer particularly to the place where this skull was found. The Illinois river 
. . . has cut through the various stratas down to n level, and in many cases 
below the up|>er coal-deix>sits. Along the Illinois bluff the strata of rock cover- 
ing this coal deposit crop out. and this rock is quarried for building puri>oses. 
In one of these quarries a few miles south of the fortieth degnv of north lati- 
tude this skull was found, several feet of clay. sand, and broken stone were 
taken off of the strata, and, in quarrying, a rift or seam in the rock was found, 
about 3 feet wide, filled with the same material that covered the quarry, and 
in this rift or seam in the rock, tlrmly embedded in this clay. sand, and broken 
material, this skull was found. Examination showed that it had evidently l>ecn 
thrown, or washed. Into that opening in the rock with the material that sur- 
rounded it. 

In the neighborhood of this quarry and indeed all along the Illinois river 
an- found many mounds, called in this country Indian mounds, but evidently 
(they) have no connection with the present race of Indians. 

Ill an additional note to Professor Henry, of June 11, 18GC, Mr. 
McConnell, besides enumerating various persons who would vouch 
for his character, says: 

I have been a long time in the valley of the Mississippi and have traveled 
over most <>f it and have always had a pfexft/on for hunting up old relics and 
studying this and geology by actual personal examination. 


He remarks in closing that 

Tin- only apparent doubt about tin- j;re:it antiquity of this skull is its perfect 
preservation, but this in owing to the material in which it was found. There are 
other Instances in this same locality of like preservation nut IK trifled. 

The foregoing excerpts constitute the total of extant records con- 
cerning the find. It is plain that Mr. McConnell was an amateur 
collector and geologist and that the Rock Bluff skull attracted his 
attention mainly by its unusual shape. His notes concerning the 
geology of the find are so meager that no important conclusion can 1> 
based on them. That Schmidt, and after him Kollmann, were in- 
clined to class the skull as geologically ancient could have been due 
only to an imperfect acquaintance with these records and to the low 
forehead of the cranium. At the time of Schmidt's and Kollmann's 
writings sufficient osteological material from the valley of the Illi- 
nois river did not exist to enable them to determine the range of 
cranial variation in that region. 

The skull itself (plate n, a) is now part of the National Museum 
collections. Though somewhat injured, especially about the face, it is 
remarkably well preserved, in no way de-formed or affected by disea-e. 
and not at all fossilized. It is dirty yellowish-white in color and 
shows on the left side superficial injuries, which appear as if due 
partially to cutting with an edged implement and partially to the 
gnawing of rodents, but these are of little significance. Morpho- 
logically, the skull is quite remarkable. Its most noteworthy fea- 
ture, and that which gives it the appearance of a specimen of a low 
type, is its greatly developed supraorbital ridges. These are not in 
the form of arcs, however, as in anthropoids and in the human skulls 
of Spy, Neanderthal, and, to a less extent, in the two Calaveras speci- 
mens, but involve, as general among Indians, only about the median 
three-fifths of the supranasal and supraorbital portions of the frontal 
bone. They project greatly forward, however. The extent of pro- 
jection amounts to 1.1 cm. on the right and 1 cm. on the left side in 
front of a plane passing through points situated on the dorsal side of 
the middle of the supraorbital borders, or 2.5 cm. on the right and -J.4 
cm. on the left side, in front of a vertical plane touching on each 
side the anterior extremity of the malo-frontal suture. This rivat 
prominence of the ridges brings forward the whole supranasal region. 
making the forehead, naturally quite low, appear still lower and 
unusually sloping. It is this extraordinary development of the 
median part of the supraorbital ridges more than deficient develop- 
ment- of the frontal part of the cranial cavity that gives this skull 
its aspect of inferiority. There is still another feature which points 
to mediocre development of the cranium, and that is the position 
of the petrous wedges in relation to the neighboring parts of the 

" Both unusually broad In this specimen. 




u Tin- U-H-k Biuff nknll, siU- view; 6 .-kiill from mound 
in-nr Alinii. *i<lf \n-\\ ; ,- kiill from inouiicl IK-HT . \llmnv. 


base. When tho base of tin* skull i-> viewed from it i- 
tlnit tin- inferior Mir face of the rirlit peiroii- portion i> l>ut -lightly 
depressed, while that of tin- left i- on the level, and aiiti-riorly even 
-liirhtly above the level, of tin- neighboring part- always a .-ign of 
rather Deficient expansion of the cranial cavity, for in a well expanded 

iinen the |>et rotis portion- are seen in a dtCldafj hollow. 'I lie 
skull .-hows large mastoids and a well-develo|xul sii|>erior occipital 
.iv-t. indicating a j>owerful musculature; but the temporal ridges 
an- not pronounced and their nearest approach to the sagittal suture 
amounts on each side to nearly <> cm. The face was apparently but 
moderately prognathic, as is general in Indians, and the malars and 
the y.vgonue were not alx>ve medium in strength. The nasal spine 
is low and not very prominent, but this feature constitutes no great 

ption among Indian crania. The palate, the dental arches, and 
the teeth were of only ordinary dimensions; the injured condition 
of the arches and absence of the teeth prevent the giving of meas- 
urements. The foramen magnum is large, indicating probably tall 
-tat ure. The glenoid cavities are deep and spacious. The lower 
jaw, which was originally with the specimen, is wanting, but accord- 
ing to Meigs's illustration and Schmidt's account, it showed nothing 
that would l>e uncommon in the lower jaw of a modern Indian. 

The National Museum collection contains a good series of Indian 
crania obtained from mounds along the Illinois river, with which the 
Rock Bluff skull can be compared; and there are several skulls 
from the Albany mounds, Illinois, in the Davenport Academy of 
Sciences, which can also be utilized in this connection. These mound 
crania are certainly not geologically ancient, though they probably 
antedate the advent of whites into the valley. They show some variety, 
due possibly to tribal mixture, but the predominating type is dolicho- 
cephalic, having rather low orbits and, in males, strongly developed 
.-upraorhital ridges, with narrow, low, and occasionally very sloping, 
forehead. Mesocephalic forms appear occasionally. With most of 
these skulls the Rock Bluff specimen agrees fairly in every essential 
particular that goes to form a cranial type. Its supraorbital ridges 
alone are quite equaled by those of no. 4401, Davenport Academy 
(plate xui, a), and in several other specimens they are closely ap- 
proached. Were the Rock liluff skull mingled with the rest of the 
Illinois River male crania no observer would l>e likely to single it out 
I e-pecially remarkable. It agrees with most of them even in color. 
The peculiarities it presents are well within the scope of individual 
variation. The following table and illustrations (plate n, 6, c) show 
the resemblances, which are still further strengthened by an exami- 
nation of the whole series of specimens from the Illinois valley. 

In view of the above facts, and irrespective of the wholly unsatis- 
factory geological evidence, the Rock Bluff skull, though regarded 



[Bl'LL. 33 

as of a low type, must be classed with crania from the Illinois River 
mounds, with which it has much in common. The differences are not 
sufficient to indicate any distinct cranial variety, and the specimen 
can not properly be regarded as evidence of a geologically early man 
in North America. 

Measurement* of the l\<x-k Rlnff xkull and of four masculine Indian crania from mounds 

along the JHinoin rirer.'i 



Cat. no. 

Cat. no. 

Cat. no. 


Cat. no. 

imi i IK,. 
3," Albany 
of Sciences. 

Diameter antero-posterior maximum, centime- 
ters . . 






Do. from ophryon . .centimeters.. 





13 7 





Cephalic index 


71. S 



76. 8 

Basion-bregma height . centimeters 






5 25 

5 10 

5 25 

5 25 

5 66 






50. 5 





Height of right orbit centimeters.. 






Breadth of right orbit do 



3 9 





87. t 

Diameter frontal minimum centimeters 


9 2 




Thickness of left parietal millimeters 






Circumference maximum, above ridges, centi- 





Cranial capacity . cubic centimeters 

1 430 




aSeveral of Schmidt's measurements cf the Rock Bluff skull, particularly that of the breadth of the 
specimen, are inaccurate, in all probability on account of a defective instrument. 
6 Damaged. 


The remains of the so-called man of Pefion consist of a portion of 
the skull and of fragments of other parts of a skeleton, embedded 
in a variety of limestone, discovered accidentally in 1884 in the 
Valley of Mexico. It was reported on in the following year by 
Mariano Barcena, and in 1886 the find was described by Barcena 
and Antonio del Castillo in La Naturaleza, in Mexico. The essential 

Mariano Barcena, Notice of Some Human Remains Found near the City of Mexico, 
The American Xaturdlist, xix, 739-744, August, 1885; also, by same author, The 
Fossil Man of PefSon, Mexico, ibid., xx, 633-635, July, 1886; Noticla acerca del hallazgo 
de restos humanos prehistoricos en el Valle de Mexico, por Mariano Barcena y Antonio 
del Castillo, La Natural' ?a, vn, 256-2C4, entrega 16, Mexico, 1866; Nuevos datos acerca 
de la antlguedad del hombre, en el Valle de Mexico, por Mariano Barcena, Ibid., 17, 
265-270, Mexico, 1886; Discuslones acerca del hombre del Teflon: Carta del I'rof. New- 
berry al editor de La Triliuna, Ibid., 18, 284-285, Mexico. 1886; Contestaclon a las 
observaciones de la carta anterior, por Mariano Barcena, ibid., 286-288. 


point- concerning the specimen, according to tin--*' reports, are as 

In tin- month of .January. l ss l. -<>me quarrying was In-ing done 
by means of dynamite at tin- foot of the >mall hill known as u Penon 
de los Banns,'' about 2$ miles east of the City of Mexico, and in the 
rocks of the uppcrmo-t layer loosened by the explosions a number 
of human Ixmes were found. These were collected by Col. A. Obre- 
gon, who HI pcrvised the work, and were delivered by him to the 
minister of public works, who appointed Harcena to make a study 
of them. Several days afterwards Barcena and Castillo, the latter 
a professor of geology, explored the locality of the find. It was 
seen that the human bones came from the uppermost layer of cal- 
careous tufa (in another place called silicified calcareous rock), 
covered with a " recent formation of vegetable earth and marl," 
containing numerous fragments of pottery of Aztec and of modern 
origin. The calcareous rock was found not to constitute an uninter- 
rupted layer and yielded no lx>nes of animals or pieces of pottery. 
Some shells discovered in it belong to the Quaternary as well as to 
the present-day waters. Softer calcareous rocks were found in the 
neighborhood where were also remains of pottery and roots of plants 
clearly modern. In the eastern part of the hill there is a hot-water 
spring, which forms sediments somewhat similar to those containing 
the bones; but the formation of the rock from this source is very 
slow and not extensive. The conclusions of Barcena and Castillo 
were that the deposit containing the human bones was of lake origin 
and belonged to the " Upper Quaternary, or at least to the base of 
the present geological age." Professor Xewberry's opinion, expressed 
in the Tribune (see bibliography, page 32), was that the rock is a 
comparatively recent travertine or sediment from the thermal waters 
of that locality. 

The human Ixmes are firmly embedded in and their cavities are 
filled with the rock, which is brownish gray in color and very hard. 
The exposed parts are portions of the skull, clavicle, vertebra?, ribs, 
and the bones from the upper and the lower limbs. They lie in dis- 
order, but are apparently parts of the same skeleton. The bones are 
yellowish in color and present aspects of fossilization. 

A- to the anthropological characteristics of the bones, Barcena 
writes as follows: 

The greater j>art of the cranium having neon destroyed. It was not possible 
t determine Its dinineter nnd thus elussify It. ... The odontological char- 
M. i.-risiic-s Indleate that this man thonged to au unmixed race, the teeth being 
set with regularity and eorresixmding perfectly the upper with the lower. They 
present the |eculiiirit.v. lx>sides. that the eanlne teeth are not conical, but have 

Thr American \atnrali9t, xix, 743, 1880. 
3463 Xi. ttl 07 - 3 



[urn.. 33 

the mum? shape as the incisors. . . . The size and shape of the bones of the 
limbs corresixmd to those of a man of ordinary stature, and from the appear- 
ance of the teeth the man must have lx>en about 40 years old. 

The writer saw the specimens in 1902. The illustrations in La 
Nattiraleza (vn, no. 10) and in The American Naturalist (xix, no. 8, 

FIG. 4. Remnant of the skull of the " Hombre del Penon." (After Barcena, 
in La Xaturalesa, vn. no. 16.) 

1885), particularly the former, give a fair view of the mass containing 
the skull (figure 4). Altogether, there is not enough of the material 
to warrant any conclusion as to the race of the individual; what 
there is suggests the Indian. There is no excessive prognathisin or 


ling lower j:i\v. >uch a might IM- r\j ,.(., I in L'.-ologically ancient 
iniin. The teeth an- <f ordinary i hey an- worn olF to a quite 

marked extent, a condition which point- in rather coar-c vegetable 
diet, a ml i- general among Indian- a fter early middle age. The canines 
in no \\ay morphologically peculiar, hut their points have been 
\\orn off lo the level of the inci-or-: thi- ha|i|M>ns invariably, unless 
the teeth HIT displaced, a- the process of attrition advances. 

There is, on the whole, nothing connected with the remnants of the 
1'enon skeleton which would indicate man of a type earlier than, or 
radically di (Fen-tit from, the Indian. 


There is no other region oji this continent that has l>een brought a- 
conspicuously to the attention of archcologists and students of man's 
antiquity as that along the Delaware river in and about Trenton, New 
Jersey. This district is rich in deposits of glacial gravels, and for 
nearly thirty years these have IXMMI searched wherever exposed for the 
remains of early man and his art. For nearly twenty years, with a 
few intermissions. Prof. F. W. Putnam, of the Pealxxly Museum, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, has carried on. principally through Mr. 
E. \ r olk, careful explorations of these gravels, with the view of deter- 
mining the question of man's presence in the Delaware valley before 
the advent there of the Indian. The deposits in the valley have 
yielded many remains and relics of the Lenape (I)ela wares), who 
occupied it up to and even for some time after the apj>earanee of the 
whites. They have yielded also implements which were thought to 
l>elong to an earlier culture, and parts of human skeletons of a seem- 
ingly earlier people. Unfortunately, the geological evidence of the 
presence of early man in the region is not conclusive, and the age of 
many of the remains is still unsettled. The idea that during post- 
(ilacial time or even before the close of the Glacial period man lived 
where Trenton now stands has found adherents, but the best-qualified 
students of the question, including Professor Putnam himself, main- 
tain a careful reserve. 

It was under these circumstances that the writer was invited 
by Professor Putnam, in 1898, to examine all the osteological 
material recovered in the Delaware valley and to determine what 
the anatomical features of the remains indicate as to the antiquity of 
the Trenton man. A detailed account of this examination was pub- 
lished in the Bulletin of the American Museum of Xatural Hitttory, 
in 1WVJ, and the essentials are here given, with additional observations 
l >ax-d on the \\ liter's more recent knowledge of certain reports on 


Most of the skulls and other bones examined were readily recog- 
nized as those of Indians, and the so-called "gasometer" -kull could 
be referred to no other people. There were also a few morphologi- 
cally insignificant fragments, the identity of which remained doubt- 
ful, but there were, in addition, two crania which, on account of their 
peculiar features, could not possibly be referred to the Delawares 
(Lenape) or to any other known American aborigines. These were 
the so-called Burlington County skull and another skull found on 
the site of the Riverview cemetery. These specimens proved to be 
of so much interest that the writer feels justified in repeating here 
their full history and the results of his examination. 


This specimen was presented to the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, 
in 1879, by Dr. Charles C. Abbott, of Trenton, who at that time was 
actively interested in the archeology of the valley. The skull was 
discovered accidentally in a field near a small settlement known as 
Sykesville. It had rolled out of the bank of a brook running 
through a field. The geology of the locality is cretaceous, and here 
the green sand marls and stratified clay and sand are overlaid by 
the " southern-drift," as the white pebbles and yellow sand are called. 
Above is a rich alluvial deposit, but this is not a uniform covering, 
the drift often being exposed over considerable areas. It was in this 
drift, unassociated with other bones, that the skull lay. 


This specimen, now also in the Peabody Museum, was procured in 
1887 by Mr. Volk, whose account of the find is as follows: 

A man with whom I was acquainted, employed in digging graves in the 
Riverview cemetery, told me of a skull he had found in a new plot in which 
no burials had been made before. On my arrival at the cemetery he showed 
me the place ; it was an elevated part of the ground, and now there is one grave 
there. The man told me that when he dug that grave he struck with his 
spade, at the depth of about 3 feet, a human skull. There were no other bones 
there, but he noticed a few black lines in the soil. 

The workman gave the skull to Mr. Volk, who in turn gave it to 
the Peabody Museum. On examining the deposits as disclosed in 
the grave, Mr. Volk found from " 6 to 10 inches of black soil, about 
18 inches of yellow drift, and then stratified sand and gravel. This 
skull, according to the information of the man who found it, was 
in the apparently undisturbed sand and gravel." 

See original publication in Bulletin of American Mtmevm of natural History, xvi. 
23-62, 1902. See the same paper for bibliography. 



.1 Front vit-w; ;. !>[ view 



a Fnmt view; b nick* view: top view 


The Burlington County skull (no. I'.i.Mo. IValnidy Mii-eum) is 
(lint of a female, fully adult luit not of advanced age. This skull 
\ mmetrical and not deformed or diseased. (Plate in.) The Ixmes 
are thin, but of considerable hardness. A slight warping causes a 
partial o|>ening of the right coronal and temporo-sphciioidal suture-. 
The lone- apparently ivtain some animal matter. Their surface has 
suffered a considerable -caling off. hut as yet tin- diploe i- not visible. 
The facial part- an> much damaged, the superior' maxilla l>eing 
almost entirely ab-ent. The mastoids are broken, and the bone above 
them, particularly on the left side, shows numerous perforations; 
there i-. however, no indication that these latter are the result of 
disease. The lower part of the occiput is damaged, and the sphenoid 
hotly i- broken across in front of the basi-sphenoid articulation, but 
the-e injuries have not affected the form of the skull. There is no 
unnatural depression of the region about the foramen magnum. 
The right squama shows a small perf oration, probably a recent 
injury; the bone exposed is scaly almost throughout. There are no 
-cratches now visible on the surface of the skull, but such may have 
ted and disappeared with the outermost layer of the bones. 
There are no discolorations with the exception of a peculiar narrow, 
regular band, lighter than the neighboring lx>ne, that obliquely 
encircles the whole cranium. It seems that a narrow firm band, or 
some contrivance provided with such a band, was applied to the head 
or skull and left its impression thereon. There is no metallic dis- 

The skull has very marked peculiarities of form, visible at a glance. 
It is unusually low throughout its whole extent ; the outlines of its 
planes are rounded, not angular, and the portion of the specimen 
behind a vertical plane passing through the auditory meati is quite 
markedly larger than the portion anterior to the plane. 

Enough of the face is left to show that it was very narrow, and 
the malars, both preserved, are even less prominent than those which 
we find in an average white female skull. The orbits are megaseme, 
their borders quite sharp, their angles rounded; depth 4 cm. The 
na-al bridge, well preserved, is of fair height, slightly concave in its 
upper half, and not very broad. Nasion depression moderate. Gla- 
bella large, of medium convexity. There are no supraorbital ridges 
proper, but an elevation appears on each side of and adjoining the 
glabella. The interorbital septum measures 2.4 cm. (24.G per cent 
of the line U-tween the orbital ends of the malo- frontal sutures). 

The forehead is very low, though not sloping. Diameter: Frontal 
minimum ..:. frontal maximum 11.6; nasion-bregma arc 11.6 cm. 
(33.2 per cent of the total arc from nasion to opisthion). 

The parietals show considerable quite uniform convexity from 
above downward and slightly less so from before backward. The 


sagittal region is but very slightly elevated. The bregma-lamlxla 
arc measures 11.8 cm. (33.8 per cent of the arc from nasion to 
opisthion). There is only one parietal foramen (right), of moderate 
size. Temporal ridges were not high in position and are barely per- 

The occipital region is quite full, not protruding; the right side is 
very little more prominent than the left. Occipital ridges and 
depressions are very faint. The temporal regions show moderate 
bulging. The squamro are low. The zygoma? are quite slender. 
Pterions are of II form, rather narrow. 

The sutures show as yet no traces of ossification. Their serration 
is superior to that in any of the Lenape skulls. A distinct serration 
is seen in the posterior third of the temporo-parietal sutures, a condi- 
tion which is uncommon. There are no Wormian bones. 

The base of the skull is rather flat. The foramen magnum is 
quite large, measuring 3.8 cm.' in its antero-posterior and about 2.9 
cm. in its maximum lateral diameter. The plane of the opening, if 
extended forward, would pass only about 1 cm. beneath the nasion. 
The processes are low, the foramina of moderate size except the fo- 
ramina ovale, which are smaller than the average in female crania. 
The styloids are broken ; they were, particularly the left, very slen- 
der. The glenoid fossae are of fair depth, the right being slightly 
more spacious than the left. 

The ventral surface of the skull shows but few and shallow impres- 
sions of the convolutions; it is scaling off similarly to the outer sur- 
face. Thickness of the left parietal 3 to 4 mm. 

The differences between this specimen and the various Lenape and 
eastern crania, as shown by the inspection, are even more plainly 
indicated by the principal measurements and indices (see tables, 
page 41). The most characteristic features of the specimen are its 
considerable breadth coupled with extreme narrowness of the face; its 
extremely small height, which is noticeable even if we compare the 
auriculo-bregmatic instead of the basi-bregmatic heights, and which 
gives rise to very low height-length and height-breadth indices, and 
the megaseme character of its orbits. Differences of such nature and 
so great in number are entirely beyond the scope of individual varia- 
tion. When found in a normal skull, as this is, they can represent 
only racial characters. In this case they effectually differentiate 
the Burlington County cranium from all those crania recognized as 

The Riverview Cemetery cranium (no. 44280, Peabody Museum) 
is that of a male about fifty years of age. It is somewhat damaged, 
but enough of the face as well as of the vault is preserved for almost 
all of the more important measurements. (Plate iv.) The skull 

Hm.i.itiu] I I \l. Ill M MNS .'t'.l 

i- normal with tin- following except inn- : Then- i- M -li^lit depres- 
sion In-hind the left lower |Hirii(>M of tin- face, ami (In- angle lctwecn 
the plain- f the posterior nan-- and tin- ha-ilar process i- someuhat 
nmn- acute than u-ual: tin- left lx>rder of tin* foramen magnum is 
j-lightly irregular, and on tin- left -id.- the npixT half of the border 
of tin- occipital is situated somewhat higher than that of the parietal 
IMMIC. The left maMoid al-o is situated a little more posteriorly than 
the right. All of the features indicate some disturbance in the devel- 
opment of the inferior i>ortum of the left side of the skull. These 
defect- \\ere not of a serious enough character, however, to affect the 
general conformation of the skull, and the vault together with other 
parts is symmetrical. 

The surface of the skull shows a large abrasion on the left parietal, 
and several cuts, such as could IK? made with the edge of a not very 
sharp shovel, on the left parietal l>one; considerable and deep scaling, 
particularly over the frontal and left parietal regions; and two dark- 
greenish (copjx'r or brass) discolorations of oval shape about "2 cm. 
in the longer diameter, situated one on the left squama l>ehind the 
pterion, the other near the middle of the right squama, on the parietal 
bone adjoining. Both squanue and the occipital bone give evidence 
of defects caused by injuries. 

Inspection as well as measurements show the Riverview skull to 
be very closely allied to that from Burlington county and in common 
with the latter to differ radically from all other crania descril>ed in 
this paper. The Riverview skull presents similar rounded outlines 
of its planes, similar small height, narrow face, and megaseme orbits, 
in comparison with that from Burlington county. The differences 
between the two are only slight, such as are commonly met with in 
the two sexes." 

The face in the Riverview skull is orthognathic, but this character 
is undoubtedly due in part to the previously mentioned backward 
depression of the facial parts. The alveolar process, fairly well 
preserved, presents also but little slanting. The alveolar arch is 
regular and massive; it is rather low (alveolar point to nasal 
lx>rder 1.85 cm.), but not very narrow (maximum external width 

The peculiar features of these rranla were well recognized by Prof. F. W. Putnam 
as early as 18K8, and are aim) acknowledged by Ihictor Kuss.-ll In his paner on the Human 
l:-in:ilris fn.iii the Trenton (travels ( 148-150). Doctor Kuiwell wrote under the difficulty 
of lurking sufficient material, a circumstance which undoubtedly Influenced his Incorrect 
final conclusions. Professor Putnam's remarks, made after the presentation by Mr. Volk 
of the IMvTvli-w Cemetery specimen to the Peabody Muiteum, are as follows (Peatiody 
Mui- inn Id-port, iv, no. 2, 35, 1888): "This human skull (the Hlrervlew specimen) Is 
mall and of a remarkable form, and agrees with two others (Kurllngton County and 
'Gasometer' skulls) which we have from New Jersey, one of which was certainly from 
the gravel. These three skulls are not of the Delaware Indian type," etc. The only 
error In these remarks relates to the gasometer skull which, after all, was shown to be 
closely similar to tin- crania of the Lenape (see The Crania of Trenton. Bulletin of 
American Miucvm of .Natural UUtory, xvi, L'.'t, New York, 1902). 


5.6 cm.). The alveoli of the second incisors and those of all the 
molars are largely obliterated. Judging from the size of the remain 
ing alveoli, the teeth must have been of somewhat submedium size; 
their number and position were normal. The palate is symmetrical 
and presents nothing extraordinary; its length, from the alveolar 
point to the end of the spine (which is small) is 4.8 cm., its maximum 
width 4.1 cm., height, in front of the first molars, where the bone 
has suffered but little change, 1.45 cm. Posterior nares regular, 
slightly wider near the palate than above; height in middle 2.9, 
width in middle 2.6 cm. 

The nasal aperture is regular, of pyriform shape, with sharp bor- 
ders; there are two small subnasal fossae. The nasal index shows a 
low mesorhyny. 

The submalar fossae are well marked. The malars are not massive 
and show no prominence except directly above the fossae just named. 

The orbits are of moderate size and megaseme index ; they approach 
the quadrangular shape; borders quite sharp, depth 4.4 cm., inter- 
orbital septum 2.65 cm. (27.5 per cent of the line between the orbital 
ends of the malo- frontal sutures) . 

Nasal bridge slightly submedium in height, moderately wide. Gla- 
bella quite prominent; the same is true of the ridges which extend 
above the median halves of the orbits. 

The forehead is low, but not sloping. Above the supraorbital 
ridges the frontal bone shows a moderate depression which, in the 
present state of the specimen, is accentuated by the scaling of the 
outer table of the bone. Frontal eminences ordinary. There is a 
persistence of the metopic suture. Diameter frontal minimum 9.6, 
diameter frontal maximum 12.6 cm.; nasion-bregma arc 12.1 cm. 
(32.1 per cent of the total nasion-opisthion arc). 

The parietal bones show nothing unusual. The eminences are not 
prominent. Temporal ridges low, scarcely traceable. No parietal 
foramen. Bregma-lambda arc 14 cm. (36.8 per cent of the nasion- 
opisthion arc) , showing considerable antero-posterior development of 
the bones. 

The occipital bone shows on the left side above the superior ridge a 
moderate bulging, which produces the before-mentioned somewhat 
greater elevation of the superior half of the occipital over the adjoin- 
ing parietal border on that side. The superior occipital ridge and 
inion elevation are well marked. 

The temporal regions show moderate bulging. The squama? are 
quite low. The zygoma; were apparently of only moderate strength. 
Styloids masculine, not very massive. 

Base of the skull: The foramen magnum is, as already stated, 
slightly irregular; its size is moderate (diameter antero-posterior 
3.65, diameter lateral maximum 3.2 cm.). There is no depression of 



the I MUM'S alxmt tl;- foramen. Tin- plane <>f the foramen, prolonged 
forward, passes 1.2 cm. lieneath the na-ion. Tin- po-terior rondyloid 
foramina an- obliterated: tin- ranftining o|>enins in tin- l>a^e pn-ent 
nothing untiHial. Tin- processes, including the styloid-, are all well 
develop!. The j)ct rous portion-* arc Init -lightly sunken below the 
1. \. I if the surrounding parts; the middle lacerated foramina are 
-mailer than in average whites, (ilenoid fossa 1 fairly deep. 

The Mitures of tin' skull show a fine, not very deep serration. 
Obliteration i- noticeable only in the sagittal suture, at vertex and 
al)out oU'lion, and at a point in front of the pterion, on the left side 
in the coronal suture. The pterions are of the II form, but quite 
narrow. There are no Wormian bones. 

Measurement* of the Burlington County and Ilivervietc Cemetery */./<//*. icith 
minium and maxima of measurement* of Lcnapc and other eastern Indian 
erania of the name general type. 

The Burling- 
ton County 
skull (no. 
body If OW- 
urn) fe- 

The River- 
view Ceme- 
tery -k ii 11 
(no. -M-JNI. 
Peabody Mu- 
seum ) 

Minima and 
maxima 0.47 
eastern In- 
.lian skull 

Minima and 
maxima of 21 
eastern In- 

.liali skill K 

Capacity (Flower's method) 






Diameter lateral niaximuni 



16.9 - 18.5 
12.1 - 13.9 

17.1 - 19.7 
13.0 - 14 6 

Height (baslon-bregma) 



12. 4.V- 13.5 

13 7 14 6 

SI. 9 


66 1 - SO 8 

67 i - 83 8 

lli'inhi li'imtli index. 



66.9 - 79. t, 

71. a - 83.8 

Height-breadth index 



89.9 -10S 

9* 6 -109. 8 

Nation-ill voon height 



6.2 - 72 

7.1 - 8.4 

Diameter byzigomatic maximum 


12. 1 

11.9 - 13 75 

13 5 - 14 7 

Facial index 



i8 8 - 56 5 

50.0 - 57 9 

orbital height average 

3 6 

S 25 

2 87- 3 7 

3.2 - 3.5 

Orbital breadth, average 



3. 6 - 4. 25 

3.K5- 4 l. r > 

Orbital index, average 



79. 7 - 91. 1 

79. 5 - 88. t 

Height of mi-ill aperture 



4. 5 - . r > 2 

4. 7 - 6.1 

Breadth of naal aperture 



2.2 - 2.66 

2.2 - 3.0 

Naaal index 



45. 1 -66.7 

it. 9 -63.8 

Baalon-alveon line 


7 9 

9 2 - 10 5 

10.1 - 11 

Basion-naxion line 



9.26- 10 6 

10 3.%- 11.45 

Unathic index ( Flower) 


. . 

95. f -10!, 

9.1 6 -104 \ 

Approximately 1,275 cubic centimeters. * Between 1,R(H> and 1,4(H) cubic centlmeterx. 

' Approximate. 



The inevitable conclusions are that the Burlington County skull 
and that from the Riverview cemetery at Trenton are of a type totally 
diuYivnt from that of the Lenape, or of any other Indian crania 
from the East or -Ur where of which we have thus far any knowledge. 


They are skulls of people of a different rare with which no further 
acquaintance has yet been made in this country. What this race was, 
the writer was not able to show at the time of the publication of the 
report in 1902. Two possibilities suggested themselves at that time: 
One, that the crania represented some non-Indian people who pre- 
ceded the Lenape about Trenton ; the other, that they might be crania 
of later intruders or immigrants into that region. The former 
theory could not be accepted without further proof, and the immigrant 
idea seemed hardly plausible, for the Delaware valley had been settled 
largely by Swedes, whose cranial type is radically different. On the 
whole, there are very few localities known, in Europe or elsewhere, 
where normally very low skulls had l>een observed. 

The problem was slowly followed up, a search being made in the 
American collections for examples and in European literature for 
reports of crania similar to the two skulls under consideration. As 
to other specimens on this continent, it was found that in very rare 
instances a low skull occurs normally among the Indians, but none of 
the few examples seen were of the type of the two Trenton crania, 
the faces especially differing therefrom. The whole research strength- 
ened the conclusion that the Burlington County and Iliverview Ceme- 
tery skulls are not Indian. The quest in literature, however, had a 
result which may come very near a definite explanation of the enigma. 
In 1874 Virchow reported a number of extraordinarily IOW T skulls 
mainly from northwestern Germany, from the Elbe to the coast of 
Holland, drawing attention at the same time to several " Batavian " 
specimens and others of the same nature from the islands in the Zuy- 
der Zee that had been'pictured or described previously. 6 All of these 
skulls were comparatively recent, the oldest not dating beyond about 
the ninth century of our era. The majority ranged in form from 
mesocephaly to brachycephaly ; in capacity, from 1,215 to 1,700 
c. c. ; and in vertical height/' from 12 to 12.85 cm. Several of the 
skulls showed a depression of the base; the majority were free from 
any indication of a pathological condition. Virchow recognized 
these skulls as constituting a distinct cranial form and called the type 
chamcecephaly. He thought he recognized it in some Dutch paint- 
ings. As to its significance, he w r as undecided. 

A year later J. W. Sprengel published an account-* of some Zuyder 

R. Virchow, i'ber elne nledrige SchUdelform In Norddeiitschland. Zcitschr. f. Eth- 
nol., vi, 239-251, taf. xvli, 1874. See also Zcitachr. f. Ethnol., ix, 41, 1877, and consult 
In this connection nis and Rutlmeyer's Crania Helvetica. 

'Particularly In Blumenbach's Decades cranlorum, pi. Ixlll, and In v. d. Hoeven's Cata- 
logue cranlorum. 

Virchow measured this height from basion to the highest point of the skulls anterior 
to the middle of the sagittal suture. This measurement exceeds that of baslon-bregma 
by from 1 to 5 mm. 

Schadel von Neanderthal Typus, Arfih. f. Anthrop., vin, 49-66, pi. v-vlll, 1875. 


-Kl ! I PAL l:i M UNfi 


Mand-" -knlN, in lowiic-^ :iiil in other fi-:iinn-i approximating 

to tin* t\| f ill.- Neanderthal cranium. < )nc of the-*- -pecimen~. a 

female skull from the Marken island, showed a height (German 
method ) of only I'J t-in. 

r'inalh. toward tin- end of 1^7:. .1. ( Jildcmeister published a very 
interesting account of a scries of remarkably low skulls, from burials 
in tin- dune under tin- Bremen cathedral.'' The burials, about 30 
in number, were all of comparatively modern date, tbe oldest being 
from the ninth or tenth century of the present era. The majority 
of the crania Monged to the ordinary type, showing tt fair height; 
thirteen of the skulls, however, presented ehanw'ccphaly, six of them 
to a most extraordinary degree (see ap(>ended measurements). Gilde- 
meister regards these specimens as representative of a distinct phys- 
ical and hence ethnic type, persisting along parts of the northwestern 
oast of Europe to modern times. The resemblance of this type to 
that of the Neanderthal skull is striking, though the lowness of the 
forehead of the latter and its great supraorbital ridges are not 

Gildemeister's measurements of the six most pronounced of the 
Bremen low skulls follow: 

Characters. No. 1. 

No, 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

Sex Male. 






Capacity c.e.. 1,480 






Length cm.. 20.0 






Breadth cm.. 15.0 


16. 3 




Height (vertically above tnision) 11.9 
Cephalic index "> 






llriKlii-lcngth index 60.6 






II.-ii:lit tin-mil li index 79.1 







The specimens, it is seen, are dolichocephalic to mesocephalic, differ 
greatly in si/e, and are extremely low. The height -length indices 
are the lowest recorded from any part of the world. None of the 
skulls is rejx>rted as in any way pathological. 

The foregoing accounts, which do not seem to have been followed 
ly any additional observations of importance on similar material, 

That In, Markcn. Schoklnnd. I'rk. The account Includes roexnmlnatlon and Illuatra 
tln of Mliimenliach'H " Hutnt-us <n nuiim-." Decades crnnloriim, pi. Ixlll. See also II. 
Welrker. CranlolojjlKclH' MltthcllunK?n. Arch. f. Anthrop., I. 153. 18(10. footnote; reports 
<>n 15 HkiilU from Trk and Marken. with the average height of 12.7 cm. 

1'elxT elnljje nledrlw SchHdel aus der I>omdllne zti Bremen. Abhamll. natunr. 
. Hi; m, n. iv. 513-524. taf. xll-xlv, 1875. Alo Neue Rchadelfnnde nm IKmaberx'e 
r.ii Kreiiieti. \ <rhan<ll. der Berliner Ocelleh. f. Anthrop., Ethitol.. and rryttch., 12O. 
lUTlln. is?:,. 

'The height-lent:! h Index, baaeil on the vertical, or maximum, height, average* In white* 
near 75 and In generally ahove 7U. 



[BULL. 33 

r.-t.-iblish the presence in parts of northwestern Germany and Holland 
in or up to recent times of a cranial type characterized by precisely 
the feature which renders so extraordinary the skulls from Burlington 
county and Riverview cemetery, namely, very low height. The 
cephalic index and the capacity of the European chanmcephals 
show a wide range, which easily includes the same characteristics of 
the Trenton specimens. The facial measurements are lacking in tin- 
German reports, but Gildemeister speaks of a narrow face, a feature 

marked also in the two skulls 
from New Jersey ; and one of the 
latter, it will be remembered, 
shows a trace of basal depression, 
such as noticed in a more pro- 
nounced degree in some of Vir- 
chow's low crania. The illustra- 
tions of the European chamffi- 
cephals (see figures 5 and' 6) 
show remarkable general resem- 
blances to the two Trenton 

, v w7 /* "- - skulls there are the same 

\ /JJ^iiH rounded outline, without sagit- 

tal elevation, of the anterior and 
the posterior plane, similar shape 
of the superior plane, and simi- 
lar aspect of the face. There 
can be no doubt of the relation- 
ship of the two forms, and it now 
remains to account for the occur- 
rence of identical forms in re- 
gions so remote from each other. 
That such marked similarity 
of any two normal, important, 
extreme, and repeated forms 
in cranial morphology could be 
of accidental origin has never 
been demonstrated, and, in fact, 
is not conceivable. 
Similarity of skull form due to pathological conditions is rather 
common; furthermore, the same pathological agency, such as prema- 
ture closure of a suture, affects all skulls in similar manner, giving 
rise to typical forms, the best known of which are plagiocephaly and 
scaphocephaly. A depression of the base, such as was noticed by 
Virchow in several of his low crania and is present to a slight degree 
in the Riverview Cemetery skull, is due to abnormal softness of the 
bones at some period during development, and causes a diminution 

Fio. 6. Front view of two of the Bremen chamse- 



in hciirht. Hnl thi- condition, ca-ily jwrcrivahle, affects the rest of 
(In- -ktill irregularly and ran not poil>ly account for the large number 
of the low crania, inclihlin^ lliat from Hurlin^ton county, in which 
ihcrc i~ noihinir ahnonnal, anl for ihc <-haina > (vphalic type as a whole. 
tyjic. thouirh not as y-t known with all the detail desirable. 

Flo. . Side and top views of one of the Bremen chanuecepbalii. 

appears to represent a racial or tribal form, which in some instances 
may naturally be modified, or enhanced in some particular, by patho- 
logical conditions. 

There remains, then, only the question of racial affinity, and this 
narrows down to the following limits: The European and the Dela- 
ware Valley chamu'cephals are palpably alike, and both differ greatly 


in at least one important character, from the rest of the whites on 
one side, and in all features from all the Indians of whom there is 
any knowledge, on the other. In view of these facts, the conclusion 
is unavoidable that close kinship exists between the European and the 
New Jersey specimens. 

Granted that the western European and the Trenton skulls referred 
to proceed from practically the same people, we have not yet solved 
their chronological relation. A type of so pronounced character- 
istics is probably old, and may be very ancient; and as its repre- 
sentatives have been found on opposite sides of the Atlantic ocean, 
which might have been traversed accidentally or otherwise thou- 
sands of years ago, the possibility that the American representatives 
of that type may be much more ancient than those found in European 
burials can not be excluded. However, the probabilities are against 
the ancient origin of the crania. The detailed records of New Jer- 
sey show that, while the Delaware valley was settled to a large 
extent by Swedes, there were also some immigrants from Holland, 
among whom were very likely individuals of the low cranial type. 
The deposits in which the Burlington County and the River- 
view Cemetery skulls were found do not preclude comparatively 
recent burials. On the whole, it seems safer and more in line with 
the known evidence to regard the two low Trenton crania as of rela- 
tively modern and European origin than as representatives of Qua- 
ternary Americans. 


The specimen known as the Trenton femur is a portion of a human 
thigh bone discovered in December, 1890, by Mr. E. Volk, under the 
employ of Prof. F. W. Putnam, in a railroad cut within the limits of 
the city of Trenton. The bone lay 7 feet (2.280 meters) below the 
surface, in sand, under an apparently undisturbed deposit of glacial 
gravel, and was photographed in situ. Shortly after its discovery 
Professor Putnam kindly submitted the specimen to the writer for 
examination, and soon thereafter reported on it in a preliminary way 
before section II of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. The detailed account of the find, w r hich Professor Putnam 
has been preparing, has not yet been published. The antiquity of 
this specimen must rest on the geological evidence alone. The bone 
is undoubtedly part of a human femur, from a little below the tro- 
chanters. It shows ordinary dimensions, with a flattening at its 
upper end such as occurs with especial frequency in Indians, but 

" Winter meeting of the section, at New Haven ; there Is no published report of this 

Hnu<*A] : I I iL i:i.M \INS 47 

there i- no |>o--ilility of definite racial determination. The specimen 
bears evidence of what appear 1<> IK- traces of human workmanship: 
tin- detail- of the>e. h<>\\ c\ IT. a- \\ell as the details of the phy-iral 
examination and the archeology <>f the find, will IK? dealt with by 
PmlVv-or Putnam. 


Tlie -Ueleton of an adult and a portion of the lower jaw of an infant 
were di>i -overed in February, UKhi, by the sons of Mr. M. Coneannon, 
a farmer near Lansing, Kansas, in digging a tunnel which was to 
MTve for storing apples and other farm products. This tunnel enters 
horizontally into a low Ixnich or terrace situated at the base of the 
Missouri river bluffs at the entrance to a small side valley. The, 
child's jaw lay alxnit (>0 feet, the adult skeleton al>out 70 feet, from 
the entrance of the tunnel and "20 feet lxlow the surface. The deposit 
in which the lx>nes were embedded and which forms the bulk of the 
U'nch is an undisturbed loess-like silt, through which at all levels an? 
scattered fragments of limestone and shale, the whole presenting great 
variety of composition and considerable irregularity of accumulation. 

The find Ix'came known to men of science through Mr. M. C. Long, 
curator of the museum of Kansas City, who, on reading of the discov- 
ery in a local pajx'r, immediately visited the locality in company with 
Mr. E. Butts, a civil engineer. Before the end of 10OJ the locality 
had lx?en visited and examined by many prominent geologists, and a 
deep exploratory trench was sunk near the tunnel by Mr. (i. Fowke, 
under the direction of Professor Holmes of the Bureau of American 
Kthnology. Scientific reports concerning the find were published by 
Williston, Upham, 6 Winchell/ Chamberlm/* Holmes/ and Fowke/ 
It appears that no question has lx i en raised as to the correctness of the 
accounts regarding the location of the human bones; but there an; 
important differences of opinion concerning the geological age of the 
dejxisits and consequently the antiquity of the skeleton. Without 
going into details, it may be said that Professors Williston, Upham, 
and Winchell favored a considerable antiquity for both the dejx>sits 
and the specimens, regarding the former as true loess, while Profes- 
ChainU'rlin, Calvin, Salisbury, and Holmes, with Fowke, judged 
the dcpo-it- to Ixi not true loess but of a much more; recent formation. 

Science, Aujtnst 1. 19O2. 

/ViV/irr. August L'9, 19O'J ; American Ocolofilnt. September. 1902; America* AntHro- 
ftologlgt, n. 8., ir, no. 3, r>00, 1902. 

"i.MV./n UrologiKt. September, 19O2. 

' Journal of Ocoloyv. October-November, 19O2 ; nlno notes by Calvin and Salisbury In 

Amcrh-nn .1 Mf/iro/i/>i. tint. n. ., IV, no. 4, 743-7.12. 1!>O2. 

' llullttin 30 of tin Uurttiu of American /.'f/Mi. ,/..././. pt. 1, 1907. 


In tin* words of Professor Holmes," whose opinion agrees closely with 
that of the other opponents of the geological antiquity of the find 
The preferred Interpretation of the phenomena Is that the relic-bearing 
deposits of the Concannon bench were not laid down In glacial times by tli 
silt-charged waters of the Missouri, but that they are a remnant of delta-like ac- 
cumulations formed In comparatively recent times within and about the mouth 
of the tributary valley by local subaerial agencies, all save the more prot'< t.-.i 
portions having been removed by late encroachments of the ever-changing river. 

The importance of -the find made it very desirable to consult the 
testimony of the bones themselves. In October, 1902, the writer 
therefore visited the locality of the find 6 and by the 'courtesy of Mr. 
Long and Prof. E. Haworth was enabled to examine all of the 
bones recovered. A report of the results of this examination and of 
a subsequent study of the skull at the National Museum was read 
before the International Congress of Americanists at its New York 
meeting in the fall of 1902 and was subsequently published.* In 
order to avoid double reference, the essential portions of the report 
are herein reprinted with a few minor modifications in the text. 


The skeleton is fairly complete, but many of the constituent parts 
are damaged and many fragments are wanting. 

All the parts of the skeleton show a nearly uniform yellowish- 
white color and all are of similar consistency. Portions of the bones 
show adhering soil, which now, in its dry state, is uniformly gray. 
In addition there are spots at which is a closely adhering, hard, 
brittle, grayish, apparently calcareous concretion. 6 

The bones are quite hard and not very brittle; they are not suffi- 
ciently chalky to mark a blackboard. They fully preserve their 
structure and exhibit no perceptible traces of fossilization. 

The skeletal parts are all entirely normal that is, free from anom- 
alies or disease with one exception; a few of the articular surface- 
are surrounded by moderate marginal exostoses, such as occur fre- 
quently in older individuals or in certain forms of arthritis. 

The skeleton is distinctly that of a male of about fifty-five years 
of age. The man was of medium stature (about 1.65 m.) and of 
ordinary strength. The bones of the lower extremities indicate better 
development than those of the upper, showing relatively greater use 
of the former. 

" American Anthropologist, n. s., iv, no. 4, 751, 1902. 

* In examining the site where the skeleton was said to have lain, a piece of hone, in 
all probability a portion of a human phalanx, was found In situ in the wall of the tunnel. 

By this time the skull only was in Mr. Long's keeping, the rest of the bones being In 
the care of Professor Haworth at the State University, Lawrence, Kansas. Since then the 
skull has been deposited In the National Museum. 

'American Anthropologist, n. s., v, no. 2, 1903. 

Some of this concretion covers the edges of breaks, as In the humerus and femur, 
showing these breaks to be ancient, while more adheres to the occipital and parletals 
within the cranium. 




a Front view of skull, with femur and tibiu: b side view of skull, with right femur 

\l. KKMAIN8 4'.' 

Considered anthropologically, all tin- parts of tin- -keleton. ami the 
.-kull in particular, approach do-ely in every character of impor- 
tance tin- a\-ra^c -keleton of tin- present-day Indian of the Central 
<>. Zoologically, as well as in growth, tin- Lan-ing -keleton and 
the skeleton of the typical pn-eiit lay Indian of the up|M-r Mississippi 
region are of the same decree and quality. 

There i- no re-emblance whatever I N't ween the Lansing skull and 
the low skull.- from Trenton." 

\ to the skull, the vault is fairly well preserved, but the facial 
part- and the ba-e are to a large extent destroyed. When recovered 

by Mr. I ir the -pecimen was in pieces, but it lias l>een well repaired 

and i- suitable for measurement. (Plate v, a, b.) The skull shows 
good development and is in no way artificially deformed. It exhibits 
-light a-ymmetry, the left part of the frontal bone protruding 
somewhat more than the right; such asymmetry is quite common and 
is not due to any detectable abnormal condition. Viewed from side, 
top. or la-e, the skull is ovoid in shape, the smaller end forward; 
from front and back, particularly the latter, it appears pentagonal, 
with the summit of the figure upward. The forehead is somewhat 
low and sloping when compared with that of a well-developed skull 
of a white man, but appears normal in comparison with the forehead 
of undeformed skulls of Indians. 

The temporo-parietaJ region shows but moderate convexity; the 
parietal Ixxsses, however, are well defined, though not unduly prom- 
inent. The sagittal region is somewhat elevated, forming a moderate 
.-agittal ridge, which extends from about the obelion to bregma; a 
slight ridge is also seen along the metopic line over the middle third 
of the frontal bone. These ridges which, separated or more often 
joined, are common in Indian skulls, give the cranium, when viewed 
from the front or from the back, its pentagonal apjx'arance. Alxmt 
midway between the bregma and lambda the ridge, which from this 
point backward rapidly diminishes, forms a quite marked but in no 
way abnormal summit. 

The occiput is rather bulging, as common in dolichocephaly. The 
1 ;!- is much damaged, but so far as can l>e determined it agrees 
in its general features with that of an average skull of the modern 
Indian. The lower jaw also is somewhat damaged; it agrees in 
-exual character with the rest of the skeleton; it may be described 
as about medium in all its features and in no way peculiar; the chin 
show- fair prominence. There are nine teeth remaining in the lower 
jaw, all of about, average male size and all considerably worn down; 
such attrition i-> the rule with older individuals among the Indians. 

The thickness of the cranial vault and the weight of the skull are 

Bee p. 35 et eq. 

07 4 


in no way extraordinary; the thickness of the left p.u-H'tal lx>low 
the temporal ridge ranges from 4 to 5 mm. 

The supraorbital ridges are quite pronounced, but not unusual 
for a male; they are restricted, as is the case in many Indian crania, 
to the median half of the supraorbital distance. The glabella is 
not very prominent. The temporal ridges are moderate; nearest 
approach to sagittal suture 4.5 cm. Occipital ridges, except the 
superior, quite indistinct. The zygoma? and mastoids are broken; 
the remnants show nothing unusual. 

The nasion depression is well marked; the interorbital distance is 
moderate (at level of nasion, 2.6 cm.). Nasal bones show fair breadth 
(8 mm. beneath nasion, right 7 mm., left 5 mm., broad). The walls 
of the orbits are rounded, not unduly heavy; orbital depth ordinary. 

Parietal foramina absent, mastoidal moderate. The situation and 
inclination of the foramen magnum (so far as it is possible to judge) 
and the depth of the glenoid fossae are as in an ordinary Indian skull. 

The sutures show medium complexity and are considerably in- 
volved by synostosis (senile). This is most marked in the coronal 
and the anterior part of the sagittal suture, but extends in les-n- 
degree through the rest of the sagittal and the whole lambdoid. All 
the sutures about the temporal bone, and the fronto-sphenoidal, 
fronto-malar, fronto-nasal, and internasal articulations are still free. 

Ventrally the skull shows but few brain impressions, except on the 
temporals, as among modern Indians. The metopic crest is low. 
The capacity must have exceeded 1,500 c. c. 

The skull is dolichocephalic (cephalic index, 73.75) and quite high 
(basion-bregma very nearly 14.0 cm.). The nasal index can not be 
determined. The orbits were probably mesoseme. 

Detail measurements 

Diameter antero-posterior (glabell<M>ccIpltal)__ _ -centimeters 18.9 

Diameter antero-posterior from ophryon do 18.8 

Diameter lateral maximum-- __do 13. 9 

Diameter bregma-basion. near do 14. 

Diameter bregma-opisthion do l.~>. r, 

Diameter bregnia-blauricular line _. do 12. G 

Diameter frontal minimum.- do__ !>. 4 

Diameter frontal maximum (along coronal suture )__ do _ 11.3 

Nasion-bregma arc __do__ . _ 12. S 

Bregma-lambda arc.. __do__ _ 12. 1 

Lambda-opisthion arc __do__ 12. '. 

Circumference maximum (above supraorbital ridges) do _ 52.0 

Thickness of left parietal, below temporal ridge millimeters.- 4-5 

Thickness of left parietal, above temiwrnl ridge.. do <>-S 

Estimated capacity cubic centimeters 1,525-1,550 

The remaining parts of the skeleton have the following character- 
istics : 

Femora. Maximum length of right, 44.0 cm. ; left, broken. 


Tor-inn and inrlinat ion if neck modi-rate. I/im-a a-|M-ra rather 
pronounced Inn not abnormal. Tin- hoiu-s m-e quite -Iroiig. Tin- 

>haft piv-4-nt- a \\rll marked upper nbtroduuitcrM fetteniogj us is 

coininon in the femora f>f Indians. There is on each femur a rough, 
long. l"\\ rlr\ati>n in tli<> lo<-atioii where the so-called third trochan 
tcr is sometimes found. Tliis low ridge represents a iniisi'iilur inser- 
tion (^Intfii- max.). and its mnrkcd <U'vrlopiniMit is a sign of inus- 
rular activity. 

Til>i<i. Ma \inni in Icnjrth of h-ft tihia, minus spino, nl>out lir.7 cm. 
K'iirht til>ia, broken. Hones of inodiiini inasi-ulinc strength, showing 
neither in form nor in inclination of head anything abnormal. 

I'"ihu1< in fragments, no unusual features. 

Ilumcri. length (maximum) of right, nearly .'J'2.0 ('in.; left, 
defective (part lost). No unusual torsion. There was apparently a 
bilateral moderate perforation of the fossa. 

Kadii. length (maximum) of left, 25.4 cm. ; right, broken. The 
length of the radius as compared with the humerus is somewhat 
greater than in whites, but such proportion is not rare in Indians. 

Ulna in fragments, no special features. 

All the Inmes of the upper extremity are somewhat slender. 

Pelrix much damaged, but enough remains to indicate that it was 
rather small and masculine. The superior semicircular lines are 
represented by a marked elevation. 


Femora: I rm. rm. 

Olunfter anlenv|Kw(erior maximum HI middle 2.75 2. H 

liinim-ti-r lateral maximum at middle 2. 7.S 2.6 

Diameter a|iten>-|Mitcri<r at U|>|KT fla liming 2.45 2.3 

Diameter lateral maximum at II|>|HT ttatleniiiK 3.25 :i.85 

Shape of haft, riKht. appnmchim; I . 
SluqH- of nhaft. left. 4. 


Left, diameter anlum-|MMUcrior HI miilille 

Left, diameter lateml at middle . 



Shape of shaft, txith, 3 and wimewhat 4. 

Diameter antero-pfwterior at middle LJB ' 1.5 

Diameter latent! maximum at middle 2.2 ma 

Sw llrdllrka. Typlral Forms of Shaft of I.OIIK Hones. / ..... ./m,/, of the I .., ,,,f,,, . 

../ tmrriraw An<itini*t*, 14th Annual Srailon. .".:.. 1IMN). 

As these measurements show, the shaft of the tibia as well as the 
humerus is somewhat flattened. 

The height of the individual, judgiug from the long l>ones, by 
Manouvrier'> tables,'' was about l.('. r > in. 

l/.m </< /.< .<.... ./ MnfAro/*. dr I'ari*, 2 #r., IT, 1892. See also Reruc Jlrttt. de I'f.cole 
J'Anthrofi. de I'arit, n, I'l'T. 



[BVI.I,. 33 


The inevitable conclusion from the above examination, which \\;i- 
conducted with a hope that the sprcinicn might prove beyond doul>t 
an ancient one, since such a discovery would oe of the greatest impor- 
tance to American and even to general anthropology, is, as expresM-l 
before, that the Lansing skeleton is practically identical with tin- 
typical male skeleton of a large majority of the present Indians of 
the Middle and the Eastern states. Any assumption that it is many 
thousands of years old, dating from a past geological period, would 
carry with it not only the comparatively easily acceptable assump- 
tion of so early an existence of man on this continent, but also the 
very far-reaching and far more difficult conclusions that this man was 
physically identical with the Indian of the present time, and that 
his physical characteristics during all the thousands of years assumed 
to have passed have undergone absolutely no important modification. 

In order to present further evidence in support of the view here 
taken the writer has selected from the collection in the National 
Museum several modern male adult crania of individuals belonging to 
tribes that occupy or occupied sections not far distant from that in 
which the Lansing skeleton was found. The measurements of th'-<' 
skulls, contrasted with those of the Lansing cranium, are appended, 
with an illustration (figure 7). The similarities are very apparent. 
If the Lansing skull differs in any way from the others, it is in its 
somewhat better development, particularly over the frontal region. 
But the type of the skulls is the same. It would have been well to 
include some Potawatomi and Kickapoo crania, but these tribes are 
poorly represented in our cranial collections. 

Comparative measurements of the Lansituj xkull and the skulls of other Plain* 



skull (796, 


skull (152, 

skull (550, 

Pa wnee 

Skull ,rxil. 

Diameter antero-posterior maximum 
(glabella-occipital) centimeters.. 

Diameter lateral maximum do.... 
Basion-bregma height do.... 

a 14.0 





Cephalic index 


75. S 



7*. 5 

Diameterfrontal minimum. centimeters.. 

Diameter frontal maximum (along coro- 
nal suture) centimeters.. 






Nasion-opisthion arc centimeters. . 

Circumference maximum (above the 
ridges) centimeters. . 






Thickness of left parietal below tem- 
poral ridge millimeters. . 






Cranial capacity cubic centimeters. . 

. (6) 





Approximate. Between 1,525 and 1,550 cubic centimeters (calculated). 


-ing -kcl.-toii \va- fuinul a portion of (ho UJI|MT jaw 
of U rliilil -l\ in v,. \.-n vrar- of age. Thr INIIH- -how- nothing c\ 
1 1 ;i<>nliii:ii -\ . Thivr of t hr (<( h (first drill it ion jMvniolar- ami if | i 
HIM molar) an- -till |iv-T\v<l : their -i/- i< moderate; tin- 

Km. 7. foupnrlRon of th natilon-optathlon arcs, (c< k ometrlcally contructo<l. of the I^an 

B|DR skull and three modern Indian crania. Lansing skull ; Kaw skull 

(152, N. M.) ; Pawnee skull <5. r 0, N. M.) ; .. .. .. Ponca skull <790, N. M.). 

enamel is white, quite bright, and without any cracks. The first JHT- 
manent molar shows three roots and four cusps. 


^veral lots of human bones, more or less thoroughly fossilized in 
various ways, were discovered on different occasions during the latter 
part of the last century along the western coast of Florida, south of 


This find dates from 1871. On June 4 of that year Mr. J. G. Webb, 
of Osprey, Manatee county (set 1 figure S). wrote to Prof. Joseph 
Henry. Srnvtary of the Smithsonian Institution, as follows: 

I ilis<-<ivciv<l in ditching in my linmiiKx-k a r- i' 1 *'*' 1 skull. It was unfortunately 
brcikrii in dinninu It out. but I shall si-mi tin- pltivs ami you will find no 
diil'M-ulty iu Killing It Into jMTfiM-t slia|K>. was intentionally burltnl (without 
iloiibt i race up. lyini: on its luu-k. alMiut t<> 4 feet In-low the snrfai--. but had 
!,, MM- siirriiiiiiili-d l>y a s. .ft. ferrutfl ~ rtM-k. which is cmistanily fonuiliK 
\\ IhTt-vcr a spring cmiu-s to the surfa . I live on a shell uiound adjoining the 



[BI-I.I.. 83 

The specimen was sent by Mr. \\ Vt>l> as a gift to the Smithsonian 
Institution, and what remains of it is now in the collections of the 
division of physical anthropology of the National Museum. A .short 
account of it was published in 188i) by Prof. Joseph Leidy." On 

continuing the excavation 
in the same place some ad- 
ditional pieces of human 
I tones were found, but Mr. 
Webb does not now know 
in what condition they were 
or what became of them. 


About 1872, in digging 
another ditch in a shallow 
dry pond bed on the north- 
ern part of his property, 
about ten minutes' walk 
from the location of the 
above-mentioned skull, Mr. 
Webb and his son, J. W. 
Webb, discovered, " less 
than 3 feet deep," another 
lot of fossilized human 
bones, and these also were 
sent to the Smithsonian 
Institution. b There was no ferruginous or other rock in the neigh- 
borhood of these bones, and their fossilization is of a different nature 
from that of the Osprey skull. Most of these specimens, which are 
in very good condition for study, are preserved in the National 
Museum, a few pieces are in the Peabody Museum, Cambridge (men- 
tioned in the Seventh Annual Report of that institution, 1874, 
page 26), and a few other portions are in the Army Medical Museum. 

"Notice of Some Fossil Human Bones, Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of 
Science, n, 9-12, Philadelphia, 1889. 

" The exact location is described by J. W. Webb, in a recent letter, as follows : " North 
of the old sugar mill, on the road to Ouptrel, is a ditch running east and west, which 
drains the ' Banana ' pond ; the ditch which now runs on line between the lowland on 
the south and the sandy land on the north used to run through the lowland. If a 
point Is takeu In a line of the second row of orange trees east of the road a little more 
than halfway from the northernmost tree to the ditch, It will about correspond to the site 
of the old ditch where the bones were taken out. In this lot there were arm and leg 
bones and parts of skull and part of a jaw. They were less than 3 feet deep.' 

FIG. 8. Sketch map of Osprey and vicinity. 

I I \|. l:l M MXS 55 

Tin 1 1 \\-'.\ L\ M>I \. Ki M MSB 

^ mile- north of ( )-pivv and on (In- -amc line of -hoiv is a 
locality railed, after it- owner. ||aii-on'- landing, ami hen- al-o -ome 
fo il human INUIC-. ron-i-tin: of a -knll and several other part- of 
tin- -kcleton. \\cre discovered. Karly in 1880 this locality was vi-ited 
liy Prof. Angelo Hcilprin and Mr. Joseph Wileox, and several part- 
of a foili/ed h ii IIKIII -keleton were actually found in situ. Pro- 
fessor Hcilprin desxTil>ed the find" as follows: 

I wits <-..ii(lnrinl to a s|Mit whr It had lieen re|*>rted a human skeleton lay 
emlN-dd*d lii the rock. Tlie nn-k I found- to he u partially Indurated forniBl- 
innii s:ni(lston, nMiiovtHl hut a short distance from the sea and hut harelj* ele- 
\i\if\\ alHtve It; the condition of Its 4tft|Msurc was doubtless the result of nn-ent 
MA waste. I was much surprised to find actually cinlx>ddcd In this rock 
mid more or less firmly united with it the skeletal remains of a mammalian 
which I had little difficulty in determining to IM> the -rim- homo. Most of the 
jmrts. including the entire head, had at various times IKHMI removed hy the 
curiosity seekers of the nclKhltorhood. hut enough remained to indicate the 
jiositlon cxvupied hy the Ixxly in the matrix. The depression which meived 
the head wag still very plainly marked, hut unfortunately the outline had 
l-rrii too much ili-iurliril to ]>rnuii of any satisfactory impression l..-in- taken 
1'nun it. I was ahle to disengage fr>m a confuse! mass of stone and skeleton 
two of the vertehrae, which I)o<-tor IxMdy has kindly determined for me to l>e 
in all probability the last dorsal and first lumbar. The distinctive caiuvllated 
structure of lone is still plainly visible, but the Inrne lts<lf has IKHMI completely 
replaced by limonite. 

The same locality was visited nfjnin the following spring hy Mr. 
Wilcox, who obtained several specimens of fossilized human Ixines, 
among which was a fairly well-preserved calcaneum. Finally, on 
still another (M-casion, Mr. Wilcox secured at Hanson's landing ** a 
piece of the rock containing the end of a human thigh Ijone, also 
altered into limonite/' which sjHicimen he gave to the University of 


About 1888 Mr. J. G. Webb and his son-in-law, Mr. Griffith, in 
looking for "phosphate rocks"'' along the shore, discovered almut 
a mile and a half south of Osprey the remains of a human skeleton 
cmU'dded in and partly projecting from the exposed nx-k. The 
following interesting notes concefning this Iind were furnished by 
Mr. J. G. Webb in a letter addressed to Dr. W. II. Dall, dated October 
_".. IS'.MI: 

[The human bones embedded in rock] were found on the shore washed by 
t-vrfv tide, luit not so always or very long. The mainland shores of the hay 

TraMartion* of the Wagner Frer Itulitutc of 8cir*cr, I. 14-15, Philadelphia. 1887. 

The no-railed phoKphato rooks ID this reiclon numlm of ancient wnter-worn fosxll 
bonea. particularly rllw of large cetaceans. These fosalls are found, already In their 
water worn condition, cemented In the shore rock* and are now being washed out wherever 
the rocks are exposed to the action of the waves. 



[BULL. 88 

are wearing away very rapidly in places a score of feet since I first knew 
the bay. Not so much In this place, hut some. The rock in which this sped 
men is embedded was not long ago covered by the soil and subsoil, which has 
been washed away. Now all along the shore in places, not continuously, are 
beds or masses of a conglomerate rock, ferruginous, varying in color from red 
to black, and which the late Professor Meek said was bog Iron ore, and con- 
taining pebbles, many of them- phosphate of lime. It was in this hard rock 
that I found and sent Professor Wilcox pieces of Indian jK>ttery, though he 
discovered some himself before that. These beds of conglomerate rest uix>n 
sand, and so did this other kind of rock I sent you, and you will see projec- 
tions on the bottom of it where the mud of which it was made was cast into 
holes and inequalities in the sand. . This same rock, containing occasionally 
an oyster shell, lies in places on top of the hard conglomerate, which would 
seem lib show that the skeleton was embedded subsequent to the formation of 
the hard conglomerate, but by an agency similar or identical. 

The bones consisted of the larger part of the thorax, lying, particu- 
larly as regards the vertebra?, fairly well in situ. Two pieces of the 
rock in which the bones were included were chiseled out and sent to 
the Smithsonian Institution and are now preserved in the National 
Museum. Both Mr. Webb (J. G.) and Mr. Wilcox found small 
fragments of pottery in the rock in several places along the shore of 
the bay adjoining Mr. Webb's property on the south; one of these 
potsherds, apparently a piece of a simple Indian cooking pot, is also 
preserved in the National Museum. 


With the exception of a brief report on the Osprey skull and the 
Hanson Landing calcaneum by Leidy, the western Florida fossil human 
bones until now have not been described. In undertaking the de- 
scription of the more important of the specimens, it was recognized 
that the first desideratum was a competent chemical analysis. This 
was kindly made at the Museum chemical laboratory by Mr. W. C. 
Phalen. Four different specimens were analyzed at the same time 
by exactly the same method, and the results were as follows : 



North Os- 
prey bones. 

a Florida 

Fossil mas- 

Oxide of silica (SiO 2 ) 





Phosphoric acid ( PjOs) ' 





Oxide of iron ( Fe-^Oa) 













Oxide of lime (CaO) 









Water (H.O) 



f ai2.09 

a 6. 49 



i &5.12 


a Calculated by difference. 

b Calculated theoretically. 




a Front view of Osprey ckull : h, c remains of fare of North Osprey 


Air. I'halen's figures indicate thai. except as regards oxide of alii 
ininiiin. loth the < Kprey -kull ami the North Osprey bones show 
greater alteration in their inorganic constituents than do the bones 
of tin- fo-- il ma-todon. 

Tin- ( )>prey r-kull presents a marked diminution of the phosphoric 
acid that is. the phosphates as well as of oxide of lime, and a pro- 
nounced increase of -ilica and especially of iron. It is plain that a 
portion of tin- pho.-phates and calcium compounds have been replaced 
hy -ilica and iron, and in that decree the bone is a fossil. 

The North ()-prey bone-, -how a somewhat smaller loss of their 
original inorganic constituents than the Osprey specimen and a eor- 
re-pondingly smaller gain of iron; but the increase in silica is about 
the -a me a- in that skull, and there is present a considerable jmrtion 
of oxide of aluminum, absent from the Osprey cranium. The l>ones 
an- therefore to be looked on as being slightly less fossilized than the 
Osprey skull and as fossilized in a different manner. 

The chemical determinations accordingly leave no doubt that the 
bones in question are fossilized in a considerable degree, a condition 
which has been very generally regarded as an important indication 
of antiquity. 


The Osprey skull (plate vi, a) was thus reported by Leidy : a 

The specimen consists of the base of a skull, the vault broken off nnd lost 
but retaining part of the face nnd n fragment of the mandible. The alveolar 
portions of the jaws and teeth are also absent The fossil beneath is embedded 
In a mass of hard bog ore, while the bottom of the cranial cavity is occupied by 
fine, coherent, siliceous sand. 

The fossil skull itself is converted into limonite, and the portions where 
exposed are well preserved and not in the slightest degree eroded or water- 
worn. The HiNH'imen Indicates a well-proportioned ovoid skull, and closely 
approximates in shape an ordinary prepared French skull, such as the writer 
has lying at the side of the fossil. The forehead and contiguous portions of 
the fa-e accord with the usual condition in a white man's skull. The super- 
ciliary ridges are but moderately produced and the nasal bones are large and 
prominent The occiput has the usual appearance, while its muscular markings 
are not more developed than commonly. Comparative measurements of the 
fossil with a French skull are as follows: 

Komi I French 

kull skull 

Glabella to occipital protuberance 170mm. 178 mm. 

Breadth above the auditory meatl 131mm. 132mm. 

I'.readth of forehead at the temporal ridges 102mm. 104mm. 

To the above description may be added the following: The speci- 
men i< a Miiall adult or nearly adult and apparently masculine cra- 

Notice of Some Foiwll Human Bones, by Prof. Joseph I*ldy. Transaction* of th 
Wayner Free Imtitutc of Science, n. 11-11'. Philadelphia, 1880. 


riium, in no way deformed or diseased. The nasal bones are not 
above medium in size or prominence, and Leidy must have compared 
them with unusually small specimens to arrive at the conclusion that 
they are " large and prominent." The glabella and supraorbital 
ridges are of moderate masculine dimensions, and remind the observer 
in no way of primitive cranial forms. There is but little left of the 
forehead, but what is present shows a fair degree of arching. The 
orbits are not massive and were mesoseme^or slightly megaseme in 
form. The mastoids are well developed, masculine. The walls of 
the skull are of moderate thickness only. The maximum antero- 
posterior diameter (from glabella to most prominent point of occi- 
put) measured accurately amounts to 16.9 cm., but it must have 
been a little greater before the specimen was damaged; the greatest 
breadth can not be measured, but must have been near 14 cm. ; in all 
probability the skull was mesocephalic. The sutures, so far as shown, 
are all patent, or were so before the fossilization took place. There 
is nothing unusual about the remaining visible parts. 

As to the geological age of the skull, it is safe to say that from the 
somatological standpoint there is absolutely nothing about the speci- 
men which could not be found in recent crania of Florida Indians. 
All anatomical indications of great antiquity are wholly lacking. 
The small size of the skull as well as its form is very nearly dupli- 
cated by nos. 228451 and 228452, two comparatively modern Indian 
skulls in the National Museum collection, from south of Lake Okee- 
chobee, Florida. 

The North Osprey bones in the Museum collection consist of about 
twenty pieces of one or two adult skulls, parts of two left oon 
innominata, a femur, a tibia, parts of an. ulna and of two fibula?, 
several vertebrae, portions of ribs, a patella, and a number of tarsal 
bones and phalanges. 

The skull pieces are rather above medium (Indian) in thickness 
(the right parietal C to 9 mm.), but show no compression or any 
abnormality. It is not possible to reconstruct enough of either 
cranium to show its size and form, but the size can be judged of as 
quite ordinary, and as to the form the uniform convexity of the 
occipital bone speaks against any higher grade of dolichocephaly. 
The upper jaw (plate vi), which is left almost entire, shows a 2.6 
cm. wide nasal aperture, a high and strong nasal spine, and quite a 
marked grade of alveolar prognathism less than in the negro and 
about equal to that of the present-day Indian. There were 16 
second dentition teeth of moderate size, the canines and the incisors 
being rather submedium. All the teeth that are still present show 
a moderately advanced degree of wear. The palate measures, ex- 
ternally, about 5.4 cm. in length and 6.2 cm. in greatest breadth, 
and is quite deep and parabolic in form. The lower jaw is appar- 





eiilly (luit of a male (a- an* in all probability all the other .skull 
fragment-): it -how> a fairly \\ell developed chin ami alveolar pro- 
tru-Moii in a moderate degree. Hori/ontal length of tin- lower ramu* 
I|M>II( **.* cm.: height at xymphisis i* :\.:> cm. Tin-re \\.-re 16 
lo\ver ^-eond dentition teeth; the molars of moderate -i/.e, the others 
rather >iihmcdium ; the remaining teeth arc iiormul in form, but are 
somewhat worn down. The up|>er and lower jaws fit well together 
and undoubtedly In-long to the same cranium. 

The t\\<> o>v ;l innominata indicate medium masculine size and 
ma i \riic~- and are in no way peculiar in form. One measured 
ahout 19.5 cm. in greatest height and 14.2 cm. in greatest breadth 
<l N-t ween the interior-superior and the |x)sterior-siiperior spines). 
The femur (plate vn) measures 40.5 cm. in the bicondylar and 40.7 
cm. in maximum length; the neck shows an angle of 130; the shaft 
approaches type 1, or the prismatic, in form and is of moderate 
strength; the index of the subtrochanteric flattening is 75.8; and 
there is present a quite pronounced third trochanter. The tibia 
(plate vn ), measured without the spine but with the malleolus, is 
"I <-m. long and moderately platyeiwmic (index at middle 04.9, at 
nutritive foramen G3.8). The inclination of the head is such as 
would l>e considered alxwt medium in an Indian; traces of some 
slight superficial inflammatory process are apparent on the lower 
third of the l>one. The remaining Ixmes and fragments are all char- 
acterized by moderate dimensions, and none show any disease or 

When compared with ordinary recent Indian skeletons, it is found 
that not a single piece of the North Osprey lx>nes exhibits any charac- 
teristic that is beyond the range of normal variation of modern 

>| imens. As with the Osprey skull, there is again possible only 

one conclusion, namely, that there is absolutely nothing in these Imnes 
which would suggest great or even considerable antiquity, geologic- 
ally speaking. 

As to the Hanson Landing finds, all seem to have belonged to one 
skeleton, buried in the ground, Ix'forc its consolidation t<x>k place. 
Alnuit all that can be said of the lx>nes from the somatological stand- 
point is contained in the report of Professor Ixidy, 6 who states, with 
special reference to the better-preserved sjH'cimena of Mr. Wilcox, 
" They do not differ in any respect from corresponding recent human 

The South Osprey fossils (plate viu, a, b) in the hands of the 
writer, an- so defective and so embedded in the rock that but little 
can lx said regarding them anatomically. There are visible parts 

8e Typical Forms of Shaft of Long Bonm. l'roc diny* of the Attortatlo* of Ameri- 
can .\nnti, mi*t*. 14th s.-ssi..ii. :,:, ,-t x.i| . I'.NMI. 

ZYanGcMon of the Wauntr Free Jnttitute of Science, n, 10, Philadelphia, 1S88. 


of eight dorsal vertebrae, a number of ribs, and a remnant of the 
sternum. All of these bones are plainly parts of a single adult, 
apparently male skeleton, and their relative positions, with the ver- 
tebrae still in situ, indicate burial, intentional or accidental, of the 
whole body. They show no unusual features. 


Summarizing briefly, it may be said that the fossil human bones 
from the west coast of Florida show, somatologically, marked like- 
ness to recent Indian bones, and not a single feature indicative of 
a zoologically lower or otherwise substantially different type of 
humanity. The anthropological evidence of these bones as to any 
considerable geological antiquity must be regarded, therefore, as 
wholly negative. 

The above decisive results of somatological examination when con- 
trasted with the fossilized condition of the Osprey bones suggested 
the desirability of an exploratory visit to the locality, and such a 
visit was made by the writer, under the auspices of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, in February, 1906. As it was apparent that 
the problems involved were largely geological, the Director of the 
U. S. Geological Survey was requested to detail a geologist familiar 
with the Florida formations to accompany the writer in the explora- 
tion. The request was kindly granted and Dr. T. Way land Vaughan 
was assigned to this duty. His interesting report is embodied in sub- 
sequent pages. 

Osprey was found to be a very small settlement on the little Sara- 
sota bay, about 12 miles south of the town of Sarasota and about 70 
miles south of Tampa. Mr. Webb's property lies on and at the base of 
a promontory which projects west ward nearly half a mile into the bay. 
For about one-third of a mile along the southern shore of this prom- 
ontory runs a well-preserved artificial shell mound. This mound com- 
mences near the point and reaches an elevation of from 15 to 16 feet, 
with a maximum breadth of about 125 feet. Mr. Webb's main house 
stands in the middle of the widest and highest part of the mound, 
which is truncated or platform-like. From this point the mound 
diminishes in width toward the mainland and eventually tapers off to 
a point. Before the shell heap was erected the promontory was ver3 T 
low, and it seems that the pile may have been raised gradually by the 
aborigines for the purpose of giving a high and dry location for their 
dwellings. The structure consists entirely of closely packed shells of 
different sizes, all of existing species. Many of the inner shells of the 
mound show but slight traces of decay and not a few still preserve in 
large part their color. In the course of earlier excavations in this 
mound, undertaken by Mr. Norman Spang, it was found that old fire- 

SKI I.I I \l. l:i M UN'S 


place- are irregularly scattered throughout the mass of shell- at dif 
nt level-. Shell implement^ and -ome fragment- of culinary pot - 
.'iv encountered. lut no burial-. 

Situated near the base of the promontory and not covered l>y the 
.-hell mound i- the so-called hummock land, a layer of hhiek soil com- 
po-ed largely of decayed organic matter mixed with -and. Then' are 
ral depressions in thi- |>iece of land, \\hich to-day is covered ly 
::n orange orchard. One such depression is situated l>et ween the 
shell mound, near it- southeastern end, and a low burial mound over 
which passes a wagon road leading to Mr. Webb's residence. It was 
in this hollow, le than 30 feet from the base of the burial mound, 
that Mr. Webb discovered in 1871 his first human fossil, the specimen 
now known as the Osprey skull. Mr. Webb, who is still alive and 
in gooil health, conducted the writer to the locality, and there, with 
the assistance of a laborer, a trench was dug 15 feet long, (5 feet wide, 
ami a little, more than 3 feet deep. No bones were found, but the 
character and condition of 
the deposits was seen to ad- 
vantage (figure {)). Imme- 
diately talow the surface were 
from 15 to 20 cm. (6 to 8 
inches) of black soil, somewhat 
mixed with white sand, under 
which was a layer of white 
-and. Two feet below the sur- 
face this layer showed patches 
of yellowish to rusty discolora- 
tion, due without doubt to dep- 
osition of iron. Some shells 
were found in this sand, but no concretions. Seventy-four cm. (20 
inches) In-low the surface was encountered a more compact, greenish 
layer, consisting of sand, clay, and fine gravel; this extended to the 
full depths of the excavation. The limonite skull was recovered from 
the middle of the sandy layer, and presumably, from the description, 
near its base. 

The exact location of the North Osprey find was not rememtared 
by Mr. Webb (the information given was obtained subsequently 
from his son) and in consequence the spot could not be located, but it 
a l-o was in the dry bed of a small pond. 

It remained to explore the locality where the South Osprey skeleton 
was found. Mr. Webb led the party to the spot. Since the date of 
the find the shore has suffered some.ln liy ero-ion, but the general 
conditions remain unchanged (figure 10). The pliore is low, the 
elevation averaging perhaps _' feet al>ove high tide. Beginning at the 
surface the soil con-i-t- (figure 11) of a layer of A Drying depth much 

Fin. 9. Section of deposits showing poxltion of the 
Osprey skull. ". Black soil mixed with mnd. 15 to 
20cm. (6 to 8 in.); 6, White (tand, showing in lower 
parts yellow patches due to ferruginous deposits, SO 
to GO cm. (20 to 24 in.); <-, About where Osprey skull 
lay: '', Greenish clayvy, xandy, and gravelly layer, 
74 cm. (29 in.) below aurface. Extent unknown. 



mixed with white sand, and of sand, which is more or less replaced over 
large areas by flat, irregular masses of fine or coarse fossil-bearing 
conglomerate of widely differing consistency, ranging in color from 
gray to dark brown or blackish. These masses, which in spots reach 
20 inches and even more in thickness, rest upon the irregular surface 
of a more clayey deposit, allied to the greenish basal layer of the 
Osprey skull locality and less permeable by water than the sand and 
soil above it. In this deposit were seen small waterworn pebbles, 
but no larger rocks or consolidations. As to the conglomerate, that 
found at the surface, which forms in places a detachable layer look- 
ing not unlike a lava flow, is finer grained, more grayish in color, and 

FIG. 10. Shore line at South Osprey. 

contains but few fossils. In places it is as hard as flint, while in 
others, sometimes in close proximity, it lacks firmness and crumbles 
to pieces readily, hardening somewhat, however, on exposure in dry 
places. Below this layer, which is very variable in thickness, and 
sometimes in places where it is absent, is found the coarser conglom- 
erate, of a darker color, in places visibly ferruginous, also differing in 
consistency from spot to spot and containing fossil sharks' teeth and 
many waterworn fossils of cetaceans. These fossils, jasper-like in 
appearance and hardness and plainly not contemporaneous with the 
rock that holds them, are being slowly washed out by the waves to lie 
along the beach. The human skeleton was found in a grayisll-black 
portion of the upper, finer conglomerate. 

8KEL1 PAL l:i M \ 

A clo-cr examination of the land along the -liol'e liort I) \\ :i r< I . i 

well as southward, revealed many inteiv-ting condit ion-. Beginning 
with Mr. Webb's hou-e. it wa- found that a -liort di-tain-r -a-t \\ard 
from I In- -pot where tin- O-prey skull wa- di-covered and near tin- 
end of tin' shell mound a -mall -ttvam of brownish water flow- into 
tin- bay: at tin- month of tin- -tream i- a U-d of irregular, ferru- 
ginous limonite concretion-, nio-tly connected, lint ea-ily detachable. 
Tin- -on< -n-tioii- apjH-ar to IH at alnmt the level of the sand which is 
marked ly ferni^inon- di-eolorat ions at the l(K.iility of the Osprey 
skull. They re-t on a clayey and sandy deposit containing no solid 
io<-k. proliaMy an ancient IKM! of the bay. The surface of the con- 
cretion- neare-t the mound was seen to include some shells of recent 
species, which may have formed part of the grtfat shell heap. In 

''. ''i'. 1 '.::' .. ; ''";' ''o ' ' " mm ' . 

- If 


l'i<;. 11. S--tlon of the laycTH at the locality of the South Osprey find. a. Soil mlxe<l 
with Hand. '.. l.i^lii flne-uralnod rock In which the human Ixmen were found, r. Darker 
coarser-grained conglomerate containing ancient fottsils. /. Greenish sandy and clayey 

these concretions, which resemble those in which the Osprey skull 
i- held, were found also small pieces of ordinary Indian pottery. 
For a considerable distance east and south of this locality no rock i> 
exposed, but about half a mile to the south ferniirinoiis concretions 
and al-o >onie washed-out "phosphate rocks," consisting of cetacean 
('< il-. appear on the beach and in the shore; thence tlv case 

southward until near the place of the South Osprey fifi 1 ' u !i<'i'' they 
form a sultantial part of the shore. They are co\-re i the gray- 

i>h finer conglomerate above described. They exten ' ' ;ui unknown 
distance south of this l<K'ality, and wherever thff exist the beach is 
lined with pieces of rock, undermined by the wn\"- and broken down 
by their own weight, a- well as with remnant "f <>ld fossils washed 
out from this rock. A careful and re JK- a tec? arch failed to bring to 


light any Iniinan hones, hut there were found in different place-. em- 
l>edded in the grayish rock of varying degrees of hardne-s. many 
recent shells, including, especially, numerous oyster shells, a fV\\ 
pieces of partially mineralized animal bones (deer astralagus and cal- 
caneum) that showed no attrition, as do the old fo>sil>. a conch shell 
of a living species with ferruginous concretionary matter adhering to 
it much like that in the case of the Osprey skull, and, finally, root> of 
a burnt pine, still lying on the beach, about which the concretion was 
in process of formation. (Plate ix.) Everything seen strengthened 
the impression that the solid deposits visible are largely if not 
wholly of recent formation. While these rocks where exposed art- 
being slowly disintegrated by the action of the waves, in all proba- 
bility they are actually forming in other localities, as about the 
above-mentioned pine roots. All the waters in the district, even 
those of artesian origin, are more or less mineralized; they sink 
readily through the surface soil into the underlying sand, but can not 
penetrate so easily into the clayey layer beneath. The result, po 
sibly furthered by some chemical affinity of the sand, is a gradual 
deposition of mineral, principally ferruginous, matter, which in the 
course of time becomes sufficient in some places to cement into hard 
rock the sand and whatever the latter contains. The mineralogical 
conditions seem to favor also in an extraordinary way the infiltra- 
tion of the bones and even replacement of their normal constituents, 
the latter process constituting fossilization. This is, at least, the sum 
of the unbiased impressions carried away by the writer as a result 
of the examination of the Osprey and South Osprey formations from 
which fossil human bones have been obtained. These impressions, 
the result of independent personal observations, are fortunately sup- 
plemented by the more expert observations embodied in the report of 
Doctor Vaughan, transmitted to the Chief of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology by the Director of the United States Geological Survey. 
The essential portion of Doctor Vaughan's report follows: 


Osprey is situated on a narrow tongue of land rising some 1~> to 20 feet above 
sea level, about one-third of a mile long and from 100 to 150 feet wide. The 
ridge of the tongue is formed by an Indian shell mound. There is an Indian 
burial mound at its base, on its northeast side, and about one-fourth of a mile 
east of Osprey. Portions of a skeleton enveloped and partly replaced by liuion- 
ite were found at this locality. Doctor Hrdlicka had a pit about 3J feet deep 
dug at this place, and exposed the following section : 

4. Black soil, about 1 foot 

3. Grayish or white sand, about 2 feet 

2. Irregular bed of yellowish sand, continuous with the 

above A few inches. 

1. Greenish, argillaceous, and sandy layer Thickness unknown. 

The yellowish sand is the layer in \\hich the skeleton was foundL 





A study i'f the lo\\er end of (In* shell mound on Its side next to tin- hay gave 
tin- follow in:: 

4. Klack -"il ______ . ___________ Several inches. 

3. Shells, IllinieroUS S|N-cleS. III! f \vllil-l. .lit. 

almiit ....... ______________________ . ______ _ 4 feet 

- riii- base of tlu> nniiiiiil contains shells, ninny of 

wlili-h are cemented together :unl tilled with ferru- 

ginous -..Miil-ii'iie ; others are tilled with LM.-.-MI-II 

sand. All stages from thi green Band to tin- fer- 

ruginous sandstone are represented. Tin* lay'r Is 

not uniformly de\el<i|N-d. < ccnrrlng only In pl.-n-e* tl inches. 
1. (Jreen sand to the water level In the bay ---------- Thickness iinleternilnel. 

A collection of sliells WHS made from nuinliers II and .". of the -< tii.n and were 
determined l>y Dr. Win. II. I tall. 

All the s|NM-ii-s i .un.i in no. 2 were also found In no. ::. and all r them nre 

The ReoloRlr :iu- of '2 and 3 if poKt-I'loi8t(Mvne. Itoth from the <-ontaine<l 
fossils and nt rat (graph le relations they nre younger than the I'lelsto<iMie of 
North creek. The material in whi-h the fossil human remains were found 
In the old burial mound seem* to corres|N>nd to the ferruginous layer at the 
buse of the shell mound, and ran scanvly be older that Is. the human remains 
are iMmt-I'leistorene in age. 

The ftmsllized condition of the hunmn skeleton was considered < f particular 
ini|M>rtance. A study of the prix-esses at present going on at the base of the 
shell mound clearly shows that no im|tortancc can IN* attached to the ferruginous 
replacement of the I>one8. All stages in the transformation of the uiiconsoll- 
dated greenish sand filling the shells to a tilling with sand cemented by limonite 
and the cementation of the whole by limonitlc material can IH> SH'II. Numerous 
seepages or springs <ccur along the up|>er surface of the green sand IMS!. It 
is evident that this water contains considerable <|iiantities of oxygen, and that it 
is transforming the gnt'ii colored ferrous silicate into red or brown ferric oxide 
and silica. Idtal conditions are here realized for this transformation of one 
form of Iron Into another. 

The conclusions regarding the skeleton found at Osprey are: First, no 
importance can l>e attached to ItH state of fossilization; second, the strati- 
graphic relations of the skeleton are such as to indicate a |>ost-I'leistocene. or. 
expressed In other words, a geologically mvnt age. 

The human bones found along the shore between 1 and II miles south of 
Osprey were calcareous hut impregnated with minerals. The ferruginous 
material which has ln>en described as from the lower end of the shell mound 
at Osprey is found southward, otvurring disouitinuously for several miles. 
The upiM>r part of the bank along the beach is a sandy, often hummocky. soil. 
The iron near the water's edge <vmeuts together jM-bbles. shells, or whatever 
hapiM-ns to be there. The material whence the human bones were obtained Is a 
lighter colored, more sandy Incrustation over the ferruginous layer. There I.- 
nothing in the geological conditions under which they were found to indicate 
other than a geologically mvnt age. 

\\ccn twenty-four and twenty-five years ago a skull was found in ferru- 
ginous material a short distance nlnive the pier, at Hanson's landing. The 
>kull was", at least partially, rephuvd by ferruginous matter. The locality 
was studied geolo^ieally. The ferruginous material there is similar to that 
at osprey. It im<leili.> -urface soil and sand, consists of sand bound together 

3463 No. 33 O7 - 5 

66 BUHKAr OF AMKKK'AN K I 1 1 N ( >LOGY |nn.L. 

by the brown oxide of iron, and occurs noncontinuously just above the \v:iicr's 
iMlge. There In no evidentv to suggest its not being a re<vnt formation. All 
tht> conditions under which tliis skull was found seem to |K identical with those 
under which tht out' at Osprey occurred. Therefore I am of the opinion that 
the Hanson skull tx-curs in a geologically recent formation. 


1. No importance can le attached to the fossilized condition of the human 
remains found at any one of the three localities studied. 

2. At Osprey, where paleontologic and stratigraphic evidence is available, the 
evidence is in favor of the human remains being geologically recent. 

:.. Positive paleontologic and stratigraphic evidence is absent at the locality 
between 1 and 2 miles south of Osprey and at Hanson's landing. In each 
locality, however, there is no evidence to favor the remains being geologically 
as old even as Pleistocene. 

4. ,'<!! of the jtositive evidence and the conditions under which these fossili/.ed 
human hones were found in Florida favor the opinion that man geologically is a 
recent immigrant into that area. 


On further exploration of the Osprev region it wa. fc found that it 
had l>een Avell peopled by the Indian tribes up to comparatively recent 
times. A large artificial shell mound (see figure 8) occurs near the 
shore just north of Mr. Webb's property, not very far from the North 
Osprey find of fossil human bones. On the mainland near the South 
Osprev find was a small earth-and-sand mound containing ashes. On 
Caseys key, which lies opposite the Osprey promontory and about 
three-quarters of a mile distant, is another large artificial platform- 
like shell heap, and a little south of this were discovered on digging 
many pieces of human bones and even entire l>ones, apparently quite 
recent, representing probably a secondary multiple Indian burial. 
Finally, 6 or 7 miles south of Osprey, near Laurel, occurs a large sand 
mound which contained many Indian burials: similar mounds north 
of Osprey were learned of, especially about Sarasota and on a key 
opposite Sarasota. A skull which the writer recovered from the 
Laurel mound is in form much like the Osprey skull: and the bones 
from the Casey Key burial are ill general much similar to the fossils 
of North Osprey. 


After having concluded the above review )i the older discoveries 
of human remains in North America to which considerable antiquity 
has been attributed, the writer was fortunately afforded the oppor- 
tunity of making detailed studies of the most recent example of finds 
of that class the so-called Nebraska "loess man." The following 
pages embody the results of these investigations. 


HIM.. in or Fixnfl 

In .June. l^'.'l. during a ^earch for tin- buried remains of the 
famous Indian chief Black IIn\\k. M ---r-. !'. T. Parker, William 
Morris, ami Charles S. Huntingdon, all of Omaha. Nebraska, dug 
into a low eminence on the ciwt of a wooded ridge known as \AH\H '- 
hill, -niiaic.l near ami running parallel with the Missouri, atamt 3 
inilo north of Florence and 10 miles north of Omaha. According 
to Mr. Miintingion. the only survivor of the three, they made a 
moderate-sixed excavation in the elevation. When the work had 
progressed to a depth at which Mr. Huntingdon's head was, as he 
expresses it, "about on a level with the surface of the ground " (his 
height is 5 feet T inches), he uncovered on one side, in the wall of 
" \dlow dirt,"" about 'JO inches'' above the floor of the pit or trench, 
a skull which fell out with the earth surrounding it, and on coining 
in contact with the ground separated into a numln'r of pieces/ Mr. 
Huntington says that he was impressed at once with the unusual 
forehead of the sjx'cimen, a feature which induced him to carry the 
fragments home with him. No other skulls or large tames were 
uncovered, and as the mound yielded no archeological objects, the 
work of excavation was soon abandoned. The fragments of the 
skull were placed in the garret, and there lay unnoticed until the 
latter part of 11)0(5, when, reading of the (Jilder discoveries, Mr. 
Iluntington recalled his own find; thereupon he gathered the pieces 
and sent them, through Mr. (Jilder, to the University of Nebraska. 
This specimen, which is truly remarkable, has ta*en skillfully recon- 
structed in the geological lata>ratory of the university, and is now 
known as skull no. 8 of the (Jilder Mound series. 

A second episode in the exploration of the mound is best told in 
the words of one of the explorers. The following account, prepared 
for the writer by Mr. K. F. (Jilder, a journalist and amateur arche- 
ologist, residing in Omaha, was received February 15, 1907: 

the early summer of 1!NN>, in looking for Hint implement*. I came 
:n-i-idi'iii:illy across the moutul in the summit of Izmir's hill. dug into twelve 
years before by Messrs. I'arker. Morris, and Iluntingtoii. The excavation was 
about 4 feet square and '2 feet deep, and was filled with leaves from the adja- 
cent trees and refuse mold from the ground aihout the o|M>nliiK. 

Karly in Septeml>er I iwisiti-d l.oiiir's hill and found that in the interval 
sonic <>iif had been dimrin^ in the old excavation. A few piet-es of human hones 
lay on the comparatively fresh earth, and I found later that Mr. Itankey. a 
lu-iiclilx-rin- farmer, had picked up on the mound itortioug of the upper find lower 
jaws from the riu'lit side of a skull. 

Mr. Iluntlnfcton makes no distinctions In the depnalts beneath the 10 or 12 Inches of 
dark surface earth, referring to them In general ax " yellow dirt." 

'Mr. HiintliiKton Indicated about tlii- height from the floor, on the Hide of his safe. 

A. i-.-nHiii: to a later rti-ollcrtlon of Mr. llnntliiKton. the skull wan taken from the 
earth In one piece ; It was tilled with clay and later separated Into fragments. 


Three days thereafter I started ni.v first ditch through tin- old excavation, 
beginning on the east side of the hole and running eastward. The bottom of 
the hole was tilled with loose earth, which h:nl been recently moved. I did 
not find anything that day and only made fair progress through the mound, 
as I worked from top to bottom, a depth of about ."> feet. 

The Sunday following, areompanied by Omer Butler, an artist on the \\'nrlil- 
Hcralil, I continued my work at the hill. . . . The very first shovelful of 
earth brought out a large femur and then immediately a mass of bones were 
brought to light, many of which were broken. 

I then cleared off the surface and worked down from above. The upper part 
of the mound consisted of earth which I knew had been moved. ... At 
2A feet . . . small pieces of charcoal, bits of mussel shell as large as my 
tinger-nail. and quartxite spalls were found in the earth. I judged the burial 
to be similar to other (fire) burials in that and other sections which 1 had 
previously encountered. Beneath the blackened mass I found fragments of 
calcined clay, bits of which I have retained, while beneath this again, at a 
depth of 4J feet from the surface, the ground was so hard and compact that it 
was removed with the greatest difficulty in my rather crami>ed quarters in the 
trench. Four inches beneath this compact earth which at the time I believed 
to have been hardened by fire and nearly 5 feet from the surface, I brought 
out skull no. i>. There was no other bone near it. I was obliged to return to 
the city, but. before the skull was removed Mr. Butler made a sketch of it as it 
lay in the ground and of the trench and its surroundings. I held my tape 
measure from the surface to the skull so that it would I>e accurate, and the 
tape was sketched in the picture. 

I have unearthed many skulls in this vicinity of what I term ancient and 
modern Indian tyi>es. and I at once noted the vast difference between them 
and the one I held in my hand. 

After securing the first skull I worked in the hill at every available moment, 
but I was accompanied by personal friends whom I requested to memorize 
everything pertaining to the bones, skulls, and environment. 

With my stepson, George C. Clark, I began on the south side of a 20-foot 
circle from what I took to be the mound's center and drifted in toward the 
point whence I had taken the skull, expecting to strike the skeletal parts. Our 
trench was wider than my first. We were compelled to build smudge fires to 
keep the mosquitoes away, but we worked several hours and found the larger 
bones of a skeleton at a level 12 inches (tape measure) above the level of no. r> 
skull. No other skull was found; the femurs and shin bones were in good con- 
dition. Skulls nos. 3 and 4 were also taken at this point, but several inches 
lower than the femur bones. The earth was as- hard as plaster, and digging 
was exceedingly difficult. Whatever bones were found near the skulls were 
combined with them as if belonging to the crania. 

The following day Mr. Clinton A. Case accompanied me. We widened the 
ditch I had first dug and carried it 8 feet to the west. We then cut off the 
intersecting corner of the first ditch and that which I had run with my stepson. 
At 3 feet deep we secured skulls nos. 1 and 2 ... and some of the up|H>r 
parts of the skeleton bones. They lay with their heads toward the center, skele- 
tons radiating from the center. We also took a skeleton without skull lying at 
same level. 

The following day I worked alone. I sunk a ditch from the surface, 5 feet 
long and 3 feet wide, 2 feet south of the ditch running east and west, and 
secured the lower leg and foot bone of the skeletons recovered with Mr. Case. 
In the south corner of this ditch I sunk a shaft 4* feet and brought out the 
inaudible of a skull. No other bones were within 15 inches of It. I tunneled 

MKM.I&KA] I I M. fcttt/| id.- north ami south < dug with in.v -i.-|.-..n mul found a jumble of 
what I Itelieve an- the skeletal part* ..f :i vnth. 

The next o|icrations were made \\itli Mr. Itaiikcy. We tiM.k n .'l-foot 
level <>ii tin- northeast corner of the Intersect! ...... f Ixith ditches. or at the north 

n.l of the north and south ilit.-h. a badly mashed skull In some si-ore <>r more 
of pieces. I Itelieve this is no. \ in the <i>llcetloii. The skull IH wry thin, anil 
when taken out it was linn I to tell wlileh way It ln.v. There were also two 
femur Indies revising vertically, which led to the Mlef tltat tlie Itody liad been 
buried squatting. 

I hail determined when at work with my -i-|.-on and again rerifleil In my 
own mind when working with Mr. Case that an intrusive Inirlal had taken 


I llrst showed the crania of nog. :t. 4. and ft to |M>ople In the ofli<-e of the U'or/rf- 
Hiniltl. then to Dr. E. C. Henry. demonstrator of anatomy at Crelgliton Medical 
College In Omaha, and Doctor Henry wrote a description of them, which we 
published. I took the three skulls to Lincoln and showed them to Doctor Ward 
and Professor Harbour. . . . When the featured article In the H'or/rf- 
Ili-riilil of October HI reached my brothers and ulsters in New York, they noti- 
fied Prof. Henry Kalrchild Oshorn. win) came at once to Omaha, examined the 
material and gave me a statement for publication, tjkulls n..-. 1 and 2 had 
l>cen added sini-e Doctor Ward and Professor Itarliour had seen the collection. 
and I > r>fessor OslM>rn immediately noted a variation and called on me for an 
explanation, which was given him as I give it to you. 

A week after my story was tijnired In the Wnrhl- Herald of Octolier -.1. .Tseplfs 
father .-ailed me by telephone and told me that his son had a skull similar to 
the ones figured. I visited his house and saw the similarity to my own crania. 
His mother told me to take It, that her sou was at the university, and that she 
knew he would IK> fjlad to have it no with the others. 

The lad came to see me a month afterwards. He said he had been looking for 
Indian turnip* in the ncighl>orhood of Ixuig's hill and had come onto the old 
excavation made by the three men twelve years ago. He said he had. with the 
aid of his knife and sticks, penetrated into the old loose earth and run onto 
skull no. '' when he had gotten down to a level of his shoulders. He Is nearly 
<! feet tall. It took him a half day to get it out with a large |M>cket knife, and 
he also found a |>ortion of another. He thought it was an Indian skull and 
took it home. With the skull was a piece of a jaw (lower), and this fitted 
exactly with the one found by Mr. Itmikey. 

I have said little almut this skull. Joseph thinks he can get a fortune 
for It ... 

With or near the Ixwes discovered by Mr. Gilder were several 
stone, implement-. amoii them two Hint blades of ordinary form. 
There was no trace of pottery. The better-preserved Ixmes were 
collected and kept alxnit Mr. Gilder's house until the question of 
possible <reolopical antiquity of the deeper burials arose, when they 
were transferred to the University of Nebraska, at Lincoln. 

On Novt'inlx?r 10 Prof. E. II. I Jarbour, geologist and paleontologist 
of the 1'niversity of Nebraska, by arrangement with Mr. Gilder, took 
rh:ir<re of the further excavations. As the work progressed he became 
ronvinced that the bones of the lower levels that is, those more than 
t feet, approximately, from the surface, were contemporaneous with 
the original (lacustrine) loe depo-it.s: ami thenceforth the excava- 


lions, in what came to IK- known as the "Gilder mound.' were pi. 
cuted with particular care. Shafts were sunk in several localities. 
and one of these was carried down 1*J feet. The results of this work, 
which continued with the assistance of Doctor Condra and >everal 
others as long as the weather permitted, were not very Mriking: 
the- finds, however, consisted of about 200 fragments of hones, which 
were attributed to the ancient and undisturbed loess deposits. They 
were found very much scattered, there being only about " five or >i\ 
bits to the cubic yard." These showed no regularity of distribution, 
and grew scarcer with increasing depth. The piece of what i- prob- 
ably human bone found at the greatest depth was 114 feet below 
the surface. Some of the fragments lay apparently outside of the 
mound proper. There were no r.nim;;! bones, implements, or pottery. 

The first notice of the discovery in a scientific journal was pub- 
lished by Professors Ward and Barbour in Science of Xoveml>er K'.. 
11)00, and since then there have appeared a nuinlx'r of other papers 
dealing with the subject." In Science of January 18, 1007, Professor 
Barbour expressed definitely his belief in the antiquity of the deeper- 
lying bones and proposed to designate the "primitive type" which 
he was convinced they represented, as the " Nebraska loess man." 

Extracts from several of the papers referred to, embodying the con- 
clusions of the writers regarding the '* loess man," are given in 
the following pages. As the matter thus presented is necessarily 
incomplete, however, and may possibly do- injustice to the authors, 
the student of the subject is advised to consult the original pub- 

RARBOI-R and WARD. Science, November 10. 100(5. " The skulls of the Nebraska 
man seem to be inferior to those of the mound builder, but for the present at 
least will be viewed as early representatives of that tribe. In eormboration 

BU>licyrai>Jiit : OILDKK, K. F. First notice, World-Herald, Omaha. October -1. l!!Hi. 

RAitBorn. E. II., and II. R. WABD. I'rellmlnary Keport on the Primitive Man of 
Nebraska (October 26, 1006), Sebraska Geological Kurrey, li, pt. ~>. lilO-.TJ", 4 HK. 

BAKBOCK. K. II.. and II. R. WARD. Discovery of an Early Type of Man In Nebraska 
(October '24), Science, Noveml>er If., 10O6. 

(iiLDKK, It. F. A Primitive Human Type in America: the Finding of the "Nebraska 
Man," Putnam'* Maaazinr, 407-400. 2 figs.. January. 1007. 

WAKD, II. B. Peculiarities of the " Nebraska Man." I'ntnain'x Magazine. 410-413. 
3 HKS.. January. 1!H)7. 

ItARBOfK. K. II. Prehistoric Man in Nebraska, I'Mtntnn'x \l<i<i<i:iix. 11.". 41.'., r.oi'-r.o:;. 
3 f\K*.. January, 1007. 

OSBORN. II. F. Discovery of a Supposed Primitive Race In Nebraska, fYnfiir//. ::~1 -:t~.">, 
7 flps., January, 1007. 

BAKBOI'R, E. II. Evidence of Man in the I.oess of Nebraska, Neience. 11O 1I_'. January 
18, 1007. 

(iiLDKK. K. F. The Nebraska l.oess Man, ItwonlM of ttn- I'axt. vi, pt. li, :{t>-:{0. r> tigs., 
February, 1007. 

BARBorit. K. II. Ancient Inhabitants of Nebraska, Hct-onl* of tin- 1'iixt. vi. pt. L'. 
40-46, 5 ftp?.. February, 1007. 

BARBOCK. K. II. Evidence of IXK-SS Man In Nebraska, \ebranka (i<i>l',<iii-<il NH/KI/. n, 
3L'0-:{45, with figures. 1007. 

RLACKMAN, E. E. Prehistoric Man In Nebraska, R words of the 1'ast, vi, pt. 3, 76-79, 
March, 1907. 


tin- Hint implements or C|I||H found aw4oclalcd \\ltli tin- HkilllH and hone*, 
ami tin- mode of burial." 

OflHOKN. I't-ntHi-H \lti<in:in< . .Innniiry. I'.mT. I 'age .'":'.. "Tin- parts of the older 
four iTMiilii found beneath tin* clay laxer an* of tin- -aim- t\p-. it lielng proba- 
ble thai difference In age may a. mil for tin- slight differences In tin- <|.-v.-|..|. 
nil-lit of tin- stipraorhltal rldg*^. In each tin- facial profile IH almost tin- 
sail M-. . . . This profile Is seen to IH- of a mil h more primitive < li;ir.i.-ti-r. -in 
rounding a hone with a inon> depressed frontal area than that of tli- -Knll- 
foiintl alM>v> tin- day. luturtunately tin- hark part of each of these four crania 
Is wanting, and until this ran ! --. nr.-"l through -nl>-e.|iient .li-. ..\i-rn- It IK 
ini|Ntsslhlc to give an exact estimate of the cranial capacity or hraln weight of 
this primitive man. Kstimatlng the hack of the skull as . I the sanu height as 
that of the normal Indian skull. . . . we still have a very low cranial capacity 
and a type of skull resembling that of the Australian negro, which is virtually 
the lowest existing ty|M> known at present. While the supraorhltal ridge* are 
not more pronounced than that of the Australian negro." the forehead is even 
more recetlhu; and flattened. In other words, the (Minions of the cranium pre- 
served indicate. -< far as they go, a man of small cerehral capacity, having a 
brain inferior to that either of the Indian or the typical mound builder." 

Page 37. r . "To return to the recent discovery in Nebraska, the comparisons 
which we are able to make now prove that thi- cranium is of a more recent 
t\|N- by far than that of the Neanderthal man. It may prove to l- of more 
recent ty|N. even, than that typified by the early Neolithic man of Kuro|ie. 
Kven If not of great antiquity it is certainly of very primitive ly|e and tends 
to increase rather than diminish the probability of the early advent of man in 

(Ju.iiKR, l'n t mi in'* Minni ;in, . January. 1!M)7. In commencing the excavations 
In the me. HIM! I mine, "at 4 feet IxMieath the surrounding level, upon what ap- 
l>eared to !H a compact clay INI!, differing from the loess covering in which I 
had leen working. There were visible evideii<-es of ancient fire. What I took 
to In- a clay led burned into a semblance of brick proved to be the original top 
of the loess hill. Fire had been built ii|M>n it. and on the ashes an upicr layer 
of hones was laid. It was so hard as to resist the spade. I managed, however, 
to make a considerable hole through the surface, and few Inches down I found 
the up|N>r portion of a human cranium. 

" In drifting in another ditch, from the south side. I encounters! the same 
stratum of baked earth. Fifteen feet from the Iteginning of the Hitch I cro*s- 
sectioncd the mound from west to east and then cleared a circle S feet in diam- 
eter. . . . This gave me a much lietter op|M>rtnnity to work from alx>ve tli- 1 
Ixuies. KvidciH-c of tire above the IMHICK was very marked. The earth Itciicath 
tin- ash IMH! was very dry and extremely hard, and I was pu/./.lcd not a little as 
to how the burial had Itccn made. Nor was I able to tell precisely how the 
skeletons had l>ccn laid, but ap|N>aranc<>s indicated that the heads l.iy toward 
the <-cnter and that the feet radiated therefrom. Two seemed to have Ix-en placed 
in a squatting position the femurs and spinal vertebne licing In a vertical 
|N)sitlon close together. 

"The manner of burial diffcr>d radically from that observed In other mound 
I had o|M>ncd in this vicinity and elsewhere It seemed that a lower stratum of 
skeletons had been placed in the mound, ami Unit earth had then been piled 
on top and burned to the consistency of a plaster wall. In another part of th<> 

' " It will IM* imdri ^l..,..| I hut nf lln- I'xlNtltlK i>|'.-- f NH\ Hired mill nl.<i k'tiifi IIHVC. 
tlirmiKli Miirvlvtil or d.-^.-n.-i al l..n. .1 -HIM 1 1. -r rninlnl i-ii|iM<-lly tlinli tin- nnr^wlnm of tin- 
Kuro|N>an IV|H-K. Fr i>xni|>li-. tli<* llntm-mln Inilliitii of Itrnill are drcrllMKl an harlnR a 
Terjr low typ4 of cranium." 


mound, some .' feet distant, l.-iy tin- upper layer of skeletons; lint with thrc 
exceptions these skeletons had been disarticulated and more or less scan 
about. Over tlie liones had been laid a covering of loess. scra|>ed up and carried 
to the wound for the pur|>osc. Through tills covering were scattered small 
pieces of shells of a kind very different from the bivalves of the streams in this 
vicinity at the present day." 

GILDER, Kccttrds of the Past, February, 11K)7. Skull no. r. " lay in what I took 
to be n baked clay matrix. Before I reached the sknll I had worked through 

earth similar to other coverings of remains in the neighltorh 1 and thrmiirli 

several inches of what appeared to be earth and ashes, beneath which was the 
stratum which looked as if it had IMHMI burned. I had not at that time learned 
that an intrusive burial had taken place, and naturally concluded that the earth 
had been baked over the skull in order to prevent the leaching of the bones by 

WARD in HARBOUR and WARD, Nebraska Geological fturvcy. n, part .">. I'.KMj. 
Page 321. " The limb bones are massive and large, indicating a stature of 6 
feet, and uncommonly rough, indicating a people who were very mus'-ular. 
particularly in the lower extremities'. The strikingly large protuberances sup- 
port this view. The crania are low In-owed, with heavy, protruding sujtercil- 
iary ridges, and receding foreheads, which lack frontal eminences. In life 
these people had flat heads, protruding muzzles, large chins, and heavy brows, 
shading eyes deep set and close together. The low-browed crania are not the 
result of head-binding, nor are they those of idiots, nor are they malformed. 
Instead they are normal and represent the cranial development of the time. 
Though showing many i>oints of similarity as well as differences, on the whole 
they seem inferior to the mound builder, and we may fur the present at 
least consider the Nebraska man as a very early or degenerate mound builder. 
In corrolxn-ation are the crude flint implements or chips, whichever they are, 
associated with the bones, and the mode of burial in mounds." 

Page :*2o. " The writers have frequently seen examples equally ancient, but 
these are the first authentically located." 

Page .'527. " The Inmes of the lower layer seem synchronous with the loess for- 
mation and antedate the hill itself, while those of the upper layer are younger 
than the loess and subsequent to the hill." 

WARD. Putnam's Magazine. January. 1907. "The skeletons collected by Mr. 
Ilobert F. Gilder all present such striking characteristics that even at first 
glance one is compelled to recognize their peculiar type. The individual bones 
are well preserved, but heavy, brittle, and without the sj>ongy character of such 
as have been exposed to the leaching of water in the soil. 

"All the long bones of the skeleton are massive, of more than average length, 
and distinguished by the very unusual prominence of the rough areas for muscle 
attachment and also of the protuberances which subserve the same function. 
In these particulars the leg bones are the most striking. Their development 
indicates clearly the platycnemic condition usually regarded as characteristic 
of primitive people. The femur has a strong curve forward, which is not lack- 
ing in modern skeletons but has been noted by many as peculiarly characteristic 
of ancient femora. 

"Judging from the location of the glenoid cavity and the length of the lower 
jaw, the latter probably did not -project very conspicuously. This lower jaw 
is one of the most remarkable parts of the skeleton. It is relatively short, very 
massive, and double the thickness of a modern mandible." 

The skulls show that "the Inuie is on the whole massive beyond the usual 
limits in modern skulls." 

"The sutures are usually distinct, sometimes simple, sometimes complicated. 


inarkiil liy lillliieroti- Worilliall u*-i, I,-.. .MM! iii ( r;i|. \\illi :i large tri.::r_'lll:il- 

illtcrparictal l-t\\i-li Illf o.-< Ipll: I .UK) parietal IxtlieH. 

" Iii the < alvaria. tin- UNO ino-t onspi. lions element- are tln> eiiormou-l\ de 
iil superciliary ridges ami tin- low arch of tin- t-rown. 

"Tlii- parietal diameter or maximum breadth of tin- skull n-a.lnil 1 |n t<> l.Vi 

I. mi. Tin- rephalic index could Hot !' . a!< lllalfil \\itll fllll accuracy "li :i<-iiilllit 
lf the illl|M*rflM-tiii||S ilf till* S|McimcnS. Illlt III nlic ca-e \\.i-. I '-I i 1 1 ia t ci I JIM T'.t Illlll 

iii ii second was somewhat less. In two of the skulls from tin' dither level of 
tlu> in. .iiml. III.- <. 'phalli- index was 71 ami TS. \\ hil.- Ih.-ir iiinxlliiuni breadth \vnM 
I.'W iiml 141 nun., \\hi.-h serves to Indicate tin- proinlntMit difference* In fonn 
I'.-iuccn th<> two Croups of calvarla. In th.- skulls of the up|x>r layer, more- 
over. tln> IM.IH- is \cry much thinner ami has an entirely .lilT.-r.-ni appearance 
anil texture. 

"All In all the skeletons* of the lower layer show many points In common with 
primitive t\ p.- of the human race. In some particulars these primitive char- 
acters a^i'.'i- with thos<> of the mounil-liull<lirs. anil yet jMtlnts of ilifTcreni'e an* 
also ohsvrvahle. Compared with the irilii- of Indians which inhahited this 
region immediately liefore the coming of the Caucasian, these remains show 
radical differences." 

I'. MU-.I.I K, >/(//. January IS, 1)M)T. " IXIIIK'S hill . . . is a hill of erosion, 
and no ili^.-oviTahl.' land slip has complicated its simple Keolo^y. On Its sum- 
mit is <iilder's mound, in the su|M'rt1cial layer of which were found inound- 
Ituilder remains and in the dee|>er layer ciirht skulls ami many lones of a still 
luore primitive ty|>e." 

The np|N>r layer, in which the two " mound-luiilders' " skulls were discovered. 
" has a thickness of LM feet. Below it was an unilistiirlwil layer of unmistak- 
able loess and iu it numl>crless fragments of human hones and an occasional 
animal (Mine, loess shells, and stray angular |M>l>hles. 

" In brief, the conclusion Is that in the case of the upi>er Inme layer there was 
a buria! : in the lower, deposition. Those in the loess doubtless antedate 
the hill itself, while those in the up|M>r layer are subsequent to it. That archaic 
burial could have taken place in loess without detection is altogether improb- 
able. Of necessity there would ri'sult a mixture 1 of black with light soil and a 
breaking up of the lithologic structure. Where these Inmes occur, the IIK-SS 
'-(rui-ture and color is perfectly preservid. and it contains characteristic' vertical 
lime-tulK's, concretions, and shells, precisely as is customary. Out of the evi- 
dence at hand the writer concludes that b:nes of this layer were strictly syn- 
chronous with the litcss formation in which they were found, in substantiation 
of which comes the fragmental nature of all of the loncs. their waterworn condi- 
tion, their range of distribution, and disassociation of parts. 

"One would scarcely think of such conditions l>eing |x>ssihlc in the case of 
human burial ; l>esides. It is Improbable that a primitive |>coplc would dig graves 
to a depth of 12 feet" 

As to the age of the supposed loess man. Professor Barlxmr says: "The chief 
IMiint is the evidence that human remains have been found in the loess, and 
whether this is the very oldest or newest IIM-KS seems n secondary considera- 
tion. The IIK-SS here Is not leached of lime salts, hut Is actively effervetwent at 
all levels, arguing for r.-.-.-n.-y of deposition. _ All recognize the chronological 
diversity in the loess formation, and whether Ixmg's hill Is In the main litess 
l>->dy. as we Itelleve It to be. or in n much more recent one does not materially 
affect the relation of the hones to some stage of glaciation. the precise glacial 
or interglacial age lielng as yet undetermined. 

" Tlie loess in question rests on Kansan drift, and though as young as the later 
Wisconsin sheet or younger, it is nevertheless old." 

74 StTRK.vr OF VMK.mrAN KTI! N< >!.<><; \ |nn.i.. : 

I'.\KI:M K. \rlii-nxkii Uniloiiirnl NH/TC//. H. part ',. I'.xiT. Km- the nio*t p:ii-t the 
same \vinls :is in Nc/Vm-r. January IS. 

Addition*. Page .'{">. " Respecting the antiquity of the remains, the chief evi- 
dence paleontologically must lie derived from the skulls, which seem to be of 
the Neanderthal type. Evidences from other skeletal parts are subject to error. 
owing to the wide range of variation in human l>ones. The association of 
loess fossils is significant, and when even a remnant of any extinct species N 
found it will he final. No sign of stratification, which would he valuable evi- 
dence, can be reported." 

Page 346. "The skulls are of the Neanderthal tyie, with thick protruding 
brows, low forehead devoid of frontal eminences, large parietal eminences, nar- 
row temples, thick skull walls, and small brain capacity." "They ;ire higher 
in the human scale than Neanderthal man, but lower than the mound builder. 
They resemble the man of Spy." 

Page .">47. " Skull S scarcely varies in size and sha|>e from I'itlim <itlironu* 

As to the age of the man in the Nebraska loess. Professor Barlnnir rei>eats. 
with but slight modifications, his conclusions on the subject published in Nr/Vir 
of January 18. The discovery is believed to carry " man in America back to 
Glacial times." But he adds that " In several places adjacent to (illder's 
mound exposures of human bones in supposed loess are already known, and 
investigation promises to extend the present known limits of the supjtosed 
human bone bed." 

BLACKMAN, Records of the I'axt, March, 19O7. No personal observations on 
Gilder mound or specimens from the same. Quotes Professor BarlKMir as fol- 
lows: "From a geologist's standpoint there is scarcely a iK>ssihility -that these 
bone fragments were ever buried by human hands. Instead, the lumen were 
doubtless deposited with the loess, the age of which may be safely reckoned at 
ten thousand to twenty thousand years or more." 

Further on (page 77) Professor Blackmail records the following interesting 
observation: "I suggested to Doctor Barbour the possibility that gophers may 
have worked the bones from the higher to the lower level. I have found buf- 
falo bones 10 feet deep in gopher holes. It was very difficult to observe the 
moved loess which filled the hole, as all the hill was the same kind of deposit. 
But the Doctor assured me that this could not possibly be the ease." 

Professor Blackmail finishes by giving brief notes on several other finds which. 
may have bearing on the question of man's antiquity in Nebraska and the 
neighboring States. 

Toward the end of January, 1007, the writer was directed by the 
Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology to visit the University 
of Nebraska and examine the Gilder Mound bones. The specimens 
were placed at the Avriters disposal in the most lil>eral manner by 
Professors Barbour and Ward, and every needed assistance was 
accorded. When the examination was completed these gentlemen, as 
well as Mr. Gilder, accompanied him to the mound, which, fortu- 
nately, was almost wholly free of snow and could l>e fairly well 
observed. In the following pages is given a brief account of I lie 
mound and its examination. 


North of the small town of Florence, and to the west of the Mis- 
souri, the country presents some rather bold elevations, composed of 


.mutation*, of fine lor--, modified in contour by the action of 
wind and rain. The -out hern |>ortion of one of the mo-t prominent 

of the-e elexation*.. known a- Long'- Ilill. coli-i-t- ( in tin- part nearer 
ID Florence) of a ridge alnuit <'.<Ml yard- long, rnnninir parallel 
with the Missouri. Thi- ridge i- covered \\ith timlicr of recent 
growth, tin- original fore-t having been cut by contractors for the 
1'nion 1'acilic railroml. Geologically the ridge is com|>osed of car 
iMuiiferoii- ^irata forming the base 1 , on wbicli rest from 10 to Ifi feet 
of glacial drift containing Sioux <|uartxiti> and granitic lH>wIdcrs; 
aln.\c thi- is alxnii !.">() fwt of Hue lijrht-lmff I<HS.S (HarlxHir). A 
\\a;:on road, which lias IHHMJ washed out until it forms quite a deep 
ravine, runs alonjj the whole ItMijrth of the ridge, rising gradually to 
it-> crest. Near the southern end of this crest is seen a small eleva- 
tion, which might easily pass for a natural feature of the hill; its 
center originally could not have l>een more than 'J or X feet alnive the 
line of the crest, and, while its circular form is appreciable, its outer 
IxMindaries are so indistinct that measurements of its diameter can 
not In 1 more than approximations. This is the (Jilder mound. A 
fr\v yards to the north is visible another low dune-like swell, |M>S- 
sibly also an artificial mound; some years ago another low elevation, 
alnmt 'J50 yards north of this, was dug into and yielded human 1 Mines. 
and alxHit the same distance still farther in the same direction, three 
imperfect human skulls were found by Mr. (Jilder in the west bank 
of the road, within less than *J feet of the surface. 

The structure of the (Jilder mound, which was examined so fu- 
ns the partially frozen condition of the ground |Mrmitted. is as fol- 
lows: The whole knoll is covered to a depth of 10 inches with dark 
surface soil, which contains roots and other vegetable matter. 
Itcneath this is the loess, apparently entirely free from coarse mate- 
rial. The color of this deposit is deejM'r in its up|MT |M>rtion, fading 
out gradually to the characteristic yellowish hue of the dry loess 
beneftth. The darker color al>ove is due in part to moisture, in part 
to a thin admixture of ashes and occasional minute bits of charcoal. 
The signs of fire are most noticeable toward the center of the mound, 
where they extend to a depth of nearly '.\ feet. An effort was made 
to ascertain whether there is a led of baked earth U'licath the super- 
ficial layer, as reported by Mr. (Jilder. but without success, on account 
of the fro/en condition of the ground. It was plain, however, that 
;:i no point had the baking progressed so far as to render the earth 
impervious to water. No definite line of separation between the SU|M- 
rior and the inferior levels in the mound was ol>served. and there 
i- no |M-rccptible difference in the density or structure of the ltHss at 
different levels: in fact, the exposed surfaces, In'ing every win ' 
smoothed by the shovel or trowel, showed no trace of structure what 
ever. T\\<> large rodent burrows, one running very deep, \\cn- 


exposed during the little digging that was done. There were found 
idso several channels, left by the decay of roots, which passed deep 
down into the loess. One small phalanx and two slivers of l>one, 
were discovered in situ in the exposure previously made l>y Harbour, 
one of the slivers occurring at a depth of 5, the phalanx at nearly 
('), and the other sliver at a depth of 7J feet from the surface. What 
were pointed to as excavations outside of the mound were difficult 
to distinguish as such, there being no lines of demarkation to indicate 
the limits of the mound. 



A past-middle age, masculine, moderate sized, slightly asymmetric, btit not 
pathological cranium, found by R. F. (xilder, about 3 feet deep in the Gilder 
mound. Large port ions of the right side and of the base are wanting: part of 
the left side has been repaired, but warping prevented a good restoration. 

Color pale yellowish, agreeing with that of other s]>ecimeiis from the mound : 
there are a few sjH)ts of slight black discoloration, such as are met with on 
many of the other specimens from this locality. There is no trace of fossiliza- 
tion, in fact the bones appear quite recent. 

The skull is nearly dolichocephalic. The angles of all the planes are 
rounded. The antero-i>osterior surface-arc is elliptical and shows no distinct 
summit. The supraorbital ridges are of approximately medium masculine pro- 
portions, and extend over but little more than the median half of each supra- 
orbital space. The forehead is not high, but presents a fairly well-marked 
vaulting; the left side is slightly more anterior than the right. There Is but 
little sagittal elevation. The temporal regions present no special features; 
the temporal ridges are not prominent, and their nearest approach to the 
median line is 5.5 cm. on the right and 0.1 cm. on the left side. The occiput, 
moderately convex, shows a pronounced, but not excessive, superior crest, 
and marked depressions for the attachment of the smaller recti muscles; the 
right side is slightly more prominent than the left. The right mastoid (left 
mastoid wanting) is of moderate masculine size. The glenoid fosse, which 
are well preserved, are of ordinary form and good depth. The serration of 
the sutures approaches, especially in the lambdoid. about the medium form, 
as observed in whites. In the right half of the lamltdoid are two small and 
two larger sutural bones. Obliteration has advanced externally in the coronal 
below the temporal ridges, and in the posterior half of the sagittal, with traces 
in the lambdoid ; veiitrally the three sutures are wholly occluded, with the 
exception of small end portions of the lambdoid. The thickness of the left 
parietal ranges from 4 to mm. 

A portion of the face, separated, shows an apparently mesorhynic nose, 
moderate alveolar prognathism, somewhat prominent malars. and well-marked 
submalar fosse. The lower jaw (somewhat damaged) is of moderate mascu- 
line size and massiveness, with chin slightly squarish and well protruding; 
diameter bigonial 10.5, vertical height at symphisis 3.3 cm. ; the angles show 
rather strong effects of muscular attachment. The teeth in both jaws are of 
medium size and, so far as can be seen, of ordinary form ; they are all much 
worn off. The enamel is everywhere of good luster and uucracked. On the 


right side In tin- lower Jaw may IM- MI.-.| the absence of one Incisor. due 
apparently t. iiondcvelopmcnt ; ..n tin- li-ft there arc two ln-l*.r*. Inith small. 
The tlilnl iiiolarK. now absent, 11111*1 have lieeii small: their cavities show a 
single root of rather stihincdlnm pro|ortioii.. 

Mca*umn<'HtM f ulcull nn. I 


IHameter antcrojiostcrior maximum . .. ___ 18.0 

Krcadth maximum. approximately.. - 14.4 

('phalli 1 index. alMHit ________ , _____ 7*1 

.llasion hregma height, approximately 1 .''..!) 

Diameter hlzygomatlc maximum, approximately _ . 14. .'t 

Circumference maximum, above supraorhital ridges ."_.:: 

Arc n.-ivioii l.i-ft:iii:i. ]::._': hrcKma-lamlxla. 12.(t; lambda-oplstblon, rj.."i ; 

total antero-|Mst'rior art 1 .. . .'{".7 

SKILL xu. -2 

A very ilofeotivo atlult SIKH-IIIUMI. foil nil in (Jiltlor niouiul, hy Mr. (Jlldcr, at u 
depth of alxtut ". !'.!: w\ uiuvrtain. though proliahly ft>inal>; itilor dirty 
yellowish, ventrally and to a slight extent dorsally with s|Mits of hlackish dis- 
coloration ; no fosslli/.ation. no as|Mi-t of ^reat antiquity: minium of PKM! size, 
normal ; sha|e oldoii};. contours rounded, outline of jKisterior plane approaching 
:iMitau'"ii:il ; supraorliital ridges above meilium feminine, or sulimiHlium tnaHeu- 
llne, limiti-d to median half of each supraorhital spacv. Forehead low hut 
vault lirnd distinct (above the bend the (tone sloi>es backward); diameter 
maximum (aloii coronal suture), approximately 11.<> cm., nasion-bremna arc 
12.7 cm. No sagittal ridge. Thickness of left parietal .' to ~t mm. Sutures 
(coronal, sagittal) patent, serration fair. No brain impressions ventrally. 

SKIM. X<>. l\ 

A good-Bized adult female cranium (defective) showing a slight asymmetry. 
otherwise normal. Dlm-overed ly Mr. (Jilder in the mound now named after 
him; exact depth of tind uiuvrtain. but probably not more than 4 feet. Color 
pale dirty yellowish: no fossili/.ation has the ap|M>aran<-e of a fairly reivnt 
>|Mi-inii-n. Was apparently dollcbocephallc ; greatest length 1S.J) or 1!) cm. 

The contours of the skull are but little angular. The supraorbital ridges are 
of alMiut nuHlium feminine si/.e. The forehead is of miMlcratc height and fairly 
good vaulting; the right side is somewhat more prominent than the left. 
Diameter frontal minimum H.ii. frontal maximum 11.1 cm., nasion-hrcgma arc 
12.1. There is scarcely any sagittal elevation. The tcni|*oral ridges are but 
tdightly marked and are distant from the median line. The glenoid foss.-e are. 
deep. A slight dchisivm-e. such as occurs quite frequently in the Indian. IM 
seen in the Moor of the left auditory meatus. All the remaining sutures are 
patent, serration suhmedium. Thickness of left parietiil 4 to ." nun. 

-MM. NO. 4 

Only the frontal and parts of the parietals remain. Found "deep" (though 
lew than i> feet from the surface) In the mound by Mr. (iilder. 
ently a good-sized adult normal male skull. Color dirty yello\ 


dark discoloratioiiH, IIH on other specimens from tliis locality : there is no 
I>ereept'ble fossilization, the bones appearing quite recent. The skull is rather 
broad hou-li not brachyceplwlic. Th<> snpraorhital ridges are of snhinctlium 
masculine size. The forehead is low and rather sloping, hut the vault-bend Is 
quite marked; diameter frontal minimum !.T, frontal maximum ll-M <-m.. 
naslon-bregma arc near 13 cm. Temiwral ridges not pronounced: nearest 
approach to median line on the right f>. on the left 4.8 cm. There is a slight 
sagittal elevation. The remaining sutures are all patent; serration of coronal 
submedium, of sagittal about medium ; a moderate-sized accessory hone exists 
on each side in the coronal, in the locality of the fetal antero-median fontanel. 
Ventrally the frontal bone everywhere shows good impressions of brain-convo- 
lutions. Thickness of left parietal (as far as preserved), 4 to <J mm. 

This specimen bears on its surface marks of cutting an interesting feature 
which occurs on many other bones from this mound. The incisions extend along 
the whole lx>rder of what remains of the right parietal and over 4 of that 
of the left parietal, running nearly parallel with the coronal suture. Numerous 
vertical cuts or markings on the left resemble very closely imitations of the 
articular surface of the frontal Iwme. Another evidence of cutting is seen on 
the anterior part of the sj>ecinien, where a portion o f the right supraorbitai 
ridge was thus removed. The incisions were all made with some sharp Instru- 
ment, and the clear-cut edges and ridges produced are not j>ereeptibly worn off. 

SKI u, NO. ;"> 

Frontal part only. The forehead, which is quite low, shows two well-defined 
depressions which mark it as abnormal, and on this account the specimen can 
not well be utilized for comparisons. 

KKl'1,1, NO. 

This specimen (plates x. It, xi, b; figures VI, 13, 15), which was dug out from 
the Gilder mound, at an estimated depth of 5 feet, by a farmer's boy named 
Joseph, is the cranium pictured in Professor Osborn's account and in the Rar- 
bour-Ward pai>ers. It is a moderate-sized defective adult male normal cranium. 
Color pale yellowish, with black discoloration on the dorsal surface of the vault. 
No perceptible fossilization ; all the parts look quite recent and still retain con- 
siderable animal matter. 

The skull was apparently mesocephalic, with a cephalic index of about 79. 
The anterior plane shows a moderate sagittal elevation, the lateral and sui>erior 
planes are ovoid with the smaller extremity anteriorly, and the ix>sterior plane 
is pentagonal forms all quite common among Indians. The supraorbitai ridges 
are pronounced, about as in the Hock Bluff and the Albany Mound crania 
described In another part of this paj>er (see page 28 et seq.). and their distal 
extension aids in the formation of a complete, though not very heavy, supra- 
orbital arch. The forehead is quite low and sloping, yet some vaulting and 
frontal bend are distinctly noticeable. The temi>oro-parietal region is somewhat 
fuller than in the other skulls from the mound, showing otherwise nothing 
unusual; the temporal ridges are moderately marked and their nearest approach 
to the median line is 5 cni. on the right and 4 cm. on the left side. The occiput 
Is not protruding; it shows a prominent superior ridge and a separation of the 
supraoccipital part (epactal bone). The right mastold is of about average mas- 
culine size. The ventral surface shows nothing peculiar. Thickness of left 




UM.\V (lie foramen magnum, mi Hi.- rklit -i.|.-. tin- IMHH- litis IMI-II . in a\\.i\ 
in.- extent \vltli it sharp Implement ; on tin- I.-M tin* iHt-lplitil squama In 
tills Im-allty is mi damaged tinii tin* original IU-.-M-U. ..r :il.-ii..- ..{ ii> 
niiirks <-nii n.'t IM- i|-i, -i min. -<| 

A |Mrli.iii <t' tin* up|er finv ami a lower Jaw an- said ti> have IM-CII found 
with this skull. Inn on account of the defects they <-an nt l- iitt.-|. They 
agree with tin- skull in color ami lioth lM.k quite fresh. They show the 
piVNcin-r df alveolar prnuiiatliisin of a medium grade, sii.-li as occurs In ^i-n.-ral 
111 the Iiuliaii. The n.-isal apertun- was apparently niesorhyiilr ; Its niaxliiiiini 
hreadth is l'..Vi mi. The na>.il spine IM now hut of fair length; the honlers 
of the nasal ajiertures are sharp. The stilunalar fosHji- were of C<MM| depth. 
Tht- height <>( the up|M>r alve>lar prot-exs in the median line IK very moderate. 
.iiiK.iintiiiL' to "lily 1.7 em., without (N'reeptihle atrophy. The pahite was well 
formed . iii.-ixiiuuni external hreadth ''..I em. A hluish -hhiek discoloration 

Flo. 12. Anteru-pOMtprior arcs of Hkulls no. K aud no. l. No. 8 , no. _______ 

is apt'ii on the left side of the nmxilla. The lower jnw " has 
strueted from several phn-eK, and uninteiitioiially the separation of the ram I 
has heen Increased. It Is n normnl si>ecimcn of mMlerate stretiKth. and is n 
part of the name fare to which iH'longs the alMive-dewrilted up|Nr Jaw; It 
shows a square chin and unite prominent and pronounced effects of muscular 
attachment on the external surfacw of the angles. The vertical mini with 
their processes and notch present nothing unusual. The teeth of l>oth Jnws 
an- of moderate size: all are much worn off: only two molars exist on tin- 
left side in the up|N>r jaw (right side hroken). and on the right xide in the 
lower one. The dentine and enamel of all the remaining teeth are in |erfeet 
condition, the latter preserving its normal luster. There in ultsolutely no feature 
of Inferior development alnuit these s|eclmens. 

The lower jaw depleted In I'rofeiutor Ward'* paper. In Putnam'* M>i<in:iin for Jan- 
uary. UNIT (page 4i:<). and innrked "lower Jnw of Nehranka skull no. A." IB a specimen 
illfTVn-nt from th<* <>no In-re dewrlhed ; It would aeeni that there must have been an 
error In UHH|UII|HK the Ward speflmen to this skull. 


Mcaxurt mcnta of skull no. G, with accomimiiiiiiii/ loin r jaw 

Vault : cm. 

Diameter antero-iMstcrior maximum is. r, 

Diameter lateral maximum, about 14.7 

I Iriu'ht medium. 

Diameter frontal minimum.- ^ ^ 

Diameter frontal maximum : _ 11.65 

Nasion-bregma arc 1 1. r. 

Bregnm-lnmbda arc . _ 11.8 

Lower jaw : 

Vertical height iu middle ::. I 

length of right horizontal ram us 10.8 

Ix'iigth of left horizontal mums 10.5 

Height of right vertical minus . 0.8 

Least breadth of right vertical rarnus 3.75 

SKULL NO. 8 (plates x, a, xi, ay figures 12, 14, 1C) 

Discovered in 181)4, at a depth of less than 5 feet, in Gilder mound, by Charles 
S. Iluntington. A moderate-sized imperfect adult masculine cranium, recon- 
structed in the proper way and without distortion, from about a dozen frag- 
ments. The specimen shows a most interesting conformation but is In no way 
diseased or deformed. Color pale-yellowish to grayish, with some dark dis- 
coloration similar to that shown in patches by almost all the crania and many 
other lK>iies from the same source. The dorsal surface of the vault shows a 
tendency to scaling, but there Is no chalkiness of the bone, which has a firm 
structure and no perceptible trace of fossilization. 

The skull is mesocephalic, with length-breadth index of approximately 78. 
It is ovoid in shape, with the smaller end anteriorly, when viewed from the side 
or the top, while the outline of its posterior plane approaches the pentagonal. 
Its most striking and anthropologically interesting characteristics are a very 
deficient vaulting of the forehead and a large forestructure to the same, con- 
sisting of a pronounced supraorbital crest and ridges. In this respect it can 
best be described as neanderthaloid. It does not equal the well-known Neander- 
thal skull in its crest, ridges, and flat forehead, but approximates it quite closely. 
The supraorbital ridges and crest are so pronounced that along their whole 
length a well-marked depression exists between them and the forehead. There 
Is no trace of frontal bosses and but little vaulting. The glal>ella lies in a 
depression 2.5 mm. deep between the excessive ridges. There are :i slight 
metopic ridge and a little more pronounced sagittal elevation, terminating ;ir 
the middle' of the sagittal suture In a well-marked summit. The temporo- 
parietal regions, moderately convex, show nothing unusual. The temi>oral 
ridges, nowhere pronounced, are marked over the anterior half of the parietals 
by a depression: their nearest approach to the median line on the right is 4.5 
cm. (left?). The occiput shows medium convexity and a pronounced sii|Mrior 
crest. The right mastoid Is of rather subinedinin male pro|x>rtlons. The 
sutures show suhmedium serration; obliteration is visible externally in the 
posterior four-fifths of the sagittal, and in small spots along the lamttdoid. 
The base is wholly lacking. Ventrally there is no special feature. Thickness 
of left parietal, 5 to 7 mm. 



a Side view of *kull no. 8; b ride view of skull no. 6 






a Top view of xkull no. *; b top view of *kull no 6 

IIKIII.I&U] ; i i \i. 1:1 M vixs 81 

I/' ii !// ;;/ nt* nf xkllll no. .V 

IHameter antem-f^i'Tinr ni:i\innini -------------------------- lv I 

Diameter lateral inaxiiiiiini ---------- ---------------- 14. :: 1-> II. I 

Height. in. ilium. 

Naslitn <>|ist!iiini diameter -------- 13.3 

I Miiincter frontal uilnliinitii ________ -_ ------- 0.0 

Diameter frontal inaxiiiiiini ------------ _ 11.3 

OreumfereiHv iiiaxliiitiiii. aliove suprnorbltiil ridges. alMiut ____ -------- 50. 2 

An- nasii.n l-H'-ma. I'-'.T : hrcirnia-hiinhda, 12.7; lambda-oplsthlon, 11.8; 
t..t.ii tuutoa <>|ii>thioii ________________________________________________ 37.2 


This Is the skull of an approxinmtoly (l-year-old child, found by Mr. Glider 
1'iiritil rathi'i- >n|Tii-ially in tlio Gilder nioiiiid. It is apparently quite recent. 
\\.-ll developed, thin, and decidedly brachycephalic. A Hinall |H>rtinn of the 
nri-ipital IMIIH- :iln.\ the foramen m.-iu'inini has l>-cii cut away in nearly a straight 
line, with S4iiiie sharp instrument. The color of this s|eciiiien is brownish yellow, 
not radically different from that of other boues in the wound. 


This specimen was recovered In two widely separated pieces from the OI1- 
<lt>r mound by Trofessor Itarliour. It lay 4 feet lielow the surface. It Is a i>or- 
tion of an adult, and apparently normal, male skull, of medium thickness. It 
shows moderate masculine ridjies and nlal>ella. and a quite well vaulted fore- 
head. Diameter frontal minimum, O.rt cin. Color agrees with that of other 
specimens from the mound. No fossilization. 


Found in Gilder mound by Professor Harltour. at the depth of 4 feet. It is 
the jaw of a young subject (posterior molars not yet erupted) and shows in 
every way an ordinary Indian fonn. The chin is square, fairly prominent. 
The dental arch indicates moderate prognathism. The teeth were all lost after 
<l.uh except three of the molars, which are of moderate size and normal form ; 
the anterior molars show each five cusps; the one median molar presents four, 
fts usual in modem skulls. The enamel looks fresh. The l>one shows no trace 
of fossil ization. 

The point of the left eoronoid pnx-ess had leen cut off with some sharp 


Pound "deep" in the Gilder mound by Professor Harbour. The fragment 

sts of about two-thirds of the left horizontal ramus, without the chin or 

angle. The jaw was apparently masculine and rather strong, but, so far as 

Pictured In Professor Harbour's paper In the Ktcordt of the Pa*1, u, pt. 2, 43, Feb- 
ruary, 1907. 

8463 No. 3307 - 6* 


can bo seen, in no way extraordinary. Tin- teeth art- of mod. -rate si/..-, much 
worn; the molars show diminishing six..- from front to ivar. as in reeent skulls. 
The enamel Is Insterless and cracked; the dentine is also cracked. The bon 
Is not fossilized, but has the appearance of greater age than any of the other 


Found in the Gilder mound by Professor Harbour at a depth of 5 feet. The 
only part remaining is the left vertical ramus. This is 5.7 cm. high, 3.55 in. 
broad at its narrowest part, and but moderately thick ; it shows a notch of 
good depth and a feminine angle. There Is no perceptible fossilization. 

About 200 yards north of the eminence from which skulls nos. 1-8 
were recovered, another similar elevation on the ridge was dug into 
in 1894 by the Parker, Morris, and Huntington party; some human 
skulls and other bones were found here, but nothing was preserved. 
Still farther north, in the wast bank of the wagon road that runs 
along the ridge, toward the end of 1906 Mr. Gilder found, not more 
than 2 feet below the surface, three defective female skulls. Two of 
these are apparently dolichocephalic, while one the best preserved 
is mesocephalic (cephalic index 79.3). These crania are all darker 
in color than the specimens from the Gilder mound a fact which 
may be due to their more superficial position; the surfaces of all 
three show many minute pits and furrows, root-erosions. In skull 
no. x, the occipital squama above the foramen magnum has been cut 
away on each side of the median line, leaving two quite symmet- 
rical curved defective portions. This suggests the cutting in the 
Joseph skull (no. 6, Gilder mound) in the same location. 


Five entire bones (of which two form a pair) and 12 pieces of distinct 
humeri, recovered from the mound by Mr. Gilder at various depths not ascer- 
tained. All show good, but not extraordinary, sizes and dimensions, and in 
flatness of the shaft, its shape, and in the frequency of perforation of the 
septum between the coronoid and the olecranon fossa?, approximate closely 
the humeri of Indians. A rare feature in two of the specimens, although one 
not unknown in Indians, is the presence of ridges 3 and 4 mm. high, respec- 
tively, at the highest point, in the locality of the supracondyloid process. None 
of the bones show any trace of fossilization. On three of them are seen border 
scratches, cut-marks, or marks resulting from the gnawing of rodents the 
scratches, smaller cuts, and teeth marks can not well be distinguished one from 

Pictured In Professor Harbour's paper In the Records of the Patt, u, pt. 2, 45, Feb- 
ruary, 1907. 


: ll \i. HIM \l.\s 







;- riornt 


Index >t 

0,0 right .... 

34 H 


1 00 


f, i.-it 



e. rixlii 


2 50 

i to 


d left 


2. IS 

72 1 

r. |-(t 



1 35 

57 4 



1 45 

04 4 

y -. ; 



1 76 

, . , 



. . 

1 50 





1 70 




1 50 




1 70 


^ .... 



1 05 

70 2 

I'rovlnional <lf*ign*tiua; u and b to th 

8hap<a of shaft. Specimens o. It, and */ = iwnr prismatic (tj-jx? 1 ).*> 
( and r=nenr lateral prism (ty|H 2t. SIKH-IIIHMIS <l, y, j, o, p=neur plano- 
convex, or pliiiKM-onvcx ^tyjH' IH\). In a. It, c, nml r there Is also a tendency 
toward the rephHvinent of the anterior Itorder ly a fourth surface ( tyin? 4). 

Perforation* bcttcecn cvronoid and olccranon fossa- (in specimens where the 
lower end of the IKHIC is preserved) : 

Ilumerus none, 
lluineriis b none. 
IliinieniK r=none. 
Ilumerus f/^lnrne. 
Ilumerus r=larj;e. 
Ilumerus 7i -small. 

Humenis i=two small and one pin- 


Ilumerus A'=lar>?e. 
Ilumerus /none. 
Humenis ;/i = none. 

Total, five (5O ier cent) with and five without |K>rforation. 


Found " deep " in the nuuind by Professor Harbour. Sha|e of shaft at mid- 
dle, nearly plano-convex; diameter of aiitero-|Ksterlor at middle. 1.8 cm.; 
diameter lateral, . r cm.; index, 7-. Lower end lacking. No fossillzation. 


Found "deep" in the mound by Professor Harlnmr. 
with prismatic shaft (ty|ie no. 1). In no way (>eculinr. 
on the Interosseous Itorder and anterior surface. 

An adult female IKHIC, 
No fossillzation. Cuts 

Typical Forms of Shaft of Long Ilonen. I'rurrciHnu* of the AttociaHon of Ameri- 
can Anatomittx, ltli session, 55-OO, Dec., 1000. 



Throe whole good-sized adult nornuil radii (among which two are from one 
subject), recovered from the mound ;it unrecorded depths, by Mr. (Jildcr; 
these show no unusual features. Lengths : a 1 , right, 27.8 ; a 1 , left, '21 A ; b, left, 
23.3 cm. 


Eight entire adult bones (in which there are three pairs), with nine pieces 
and three femora of small children, obtained from the mound by Mr. (Jildt-r 
at various depths, not ascertained. Two of the whole bones (a pair r 1 , c*> 
show an abnormal curvature forward; the rest are normal and indicate good 
stature and strength of the people. The general shape and the subtrochanteric 
flattening (platymery) of most of the bones indicate a close approximation to 
Indian femora. There is no fossilization. 

Detail* Measurements 


Length (bi- 

Subtrochanteric flattening. 

(B x 100). 

breadth (A). 

antero- poste- 
rior dimen- 
sion (B). 


a 1 right 

46. 1 




77. 1 

a 2 , left 

b 1 , right 

b, left 

ei, right 

c=, left 

d, left, nltout 

e, righ t 

(j, right 

h, left 

j, left 

Jk, left 

1, left" 

TO, left 

In two pieces; one found by Gilder, November 1, 
November 7, 1906. 

1906 ; the other, at a deeper level, 


Iii seven instances (a 1 , a 5 , b 2 , c~, g, j, 1) the shape is indeterminate; in six 
(&*, c 1 , d, e, f, m) it is the prismatic (type no. 1) or approximate thereto; and 
in two (ft, i) the shaft is nearly cylindrical. In c l and c 2 is 'shown, as a com- 
pensation for the curvature, excessive linea aspera. 

Two entire adult bones (a pair) and ten pieces, obtained by Mr. Gilder 
from various levels (unnoted) in the mound. The bones are of good length 
and strong; they show ordinary forms and only moderate inclination backward 
of the bead. They approximate in general the tibiae of Indians without showing 


SKI IJ ' \l III \! MS- 


the . Handling met uilli in wniie parts ,,t tli.> country. Three of the 

IM.IH-N tt\\o uf which In-long to one skeleton I art- discaMd i probably syphllltii- 1 . 
ami mi three pieces with tli' head lacking an % H4-en in tin- superior border 
(txviii- in tin- |Nistrrlor part thereof i what arc apparently cuts ; some of these 
marks. ln>\\ r\er. re-cinhlc marks iua<li> hy rodents' teeth. Nolle of the tqitviiii<-ii- 
>!i"\\ any trace of fnssili/.ation ami a few look quite fresh. 

It, In Hit .l/r<iMurrmrnf 


a, right. 
a, l.-ft... 
ft, l.-ft . . 
e, rte ht . . 
d'. rluht. 
e, right., 

0. right.. 

1, left.... 





Index at 

Anti-r.. |- 
iiinl-IH- (A). 


tali-rat HI 
middle* (B). 














































Shapes of the nhaft. Six of the spf<-inifiis (', a 1 , b. <: f, i) are if. or clowly 
upproximiite to, the prisiuutlc (tyi>e no. li ; three (d 1 , /, k) show a tendem-y 
to rhoinboidul form (tyi>e no. 4) ; in c the internal surface is hollowtnl out 
(type no. :j), and y shows a lat-k of dilTerentiation of the external l>order. 


One adult s|>e<-iinen, nhout .T0.. r > cm. long, of normal form and Rood strength, 
found in the mound l>y Mr. (iilder at n depth unnoted. No fossi lixation. 

A fnigment of a fibula, dug out of the mound at an unknown depth, and 
given |y Mr. (iilder to the writer. lears plain marks of rutting with loth some 
sharp instrument and small rodents' teeth. 


Found hy Professor Biirhour In the (iilder mound at a depth of M to f> feet. 
A defective left shoulder blade of moderate s'ize and not unusual form. The 
thin body i>f the Inme looks fresh, and no part shows any fossllization. The 
Mi|.-iiir larder has been cleanly cut off along nearly Its whole length clone to 

the >pine. 


Three pio<-es of ribs, found " deep " In the mound, of moderate proportions and 

niiiiary form. N<* fossjlixation. On one of the specimens are seen marks 
which may have ln-cn made with a knife or hy the teeth of rodents. 



Several dorsal and lumbar vertebra 1 belonging, apparently, to one bo<ly. found 
"deep" In the mound by Professor Harbour. The l>ones are of modi-rate dimen- 
sions. The Ixxlies of several of the vertebra 1 show asymmetry, while the twelfth 
dorsal presents, In addition, somewhat i>eculiar lateral processes, a deviation of 
the spinous process to the left, and a plain trace of a formerly existing separa- 
tion of the left hunclla from the base of this process, conditions all pointing to 
disturbance In ossification of this spine. None of the bones show any 


Found " deep " in the mound by Professor Harbour. The l>one is composed 
of five segments and shows normal size and form, with moderate curvature. 
Height, 11.5 cm. ; maximum breadth, about 11.4 cm. No fossilization. 


Two adult male pelves, found in the mound by Mr. Gilder; depth not recorded. 
The specimens in every respect are normally develoj>ed. and approximate in form 
the pelvis of the Indian. One. accompanied by several of the lumbar vertebra 1 , 
shows some senile marginal exostoses, such as are common in aged whites and 
occur also in old Indians. 

Pelvis o, somewhat defective; is strongly built. Diameter external maximum 
(bi-iliac). 31.4 cm.; height maximum, about 22.7 cm.: greatest breadth of right 
ilium. 17.1 cm.; of left ilium, 17 cm.; greatest transverse diameter of the 
superior strait, 10.8 cm. The sacrum consists of five segments, but the last 
lumbar shows on the left side a tendency to assimilation; curvature medium: 
height. 11.1 cm.: greatest breadth, 12.9 cm. 

Pelvis It, defective; shows bones of moderate strength. Greatest height of 
right os innominatum. 22.9 cm.; greatest breadth, 10.7 cm. Sacrum damaged; 
curvature moderate; was comi>osed, apparently, of six segments. Neural canal 
shows posteriorly throughout its height a defect, due to imi>erfection of the 
neural arches of the vertebra 1 composing the bone. 


Found "deep" in the mound. Form quite ordinary. No fossilization. 
Greatest length, 7.8 cm. ; height at middle, 4.25 cm. ; smallest breadth at middle. 
3.15 cm. 


Several phalanges and pieces thereof from " deep " in the mound. The 
bones are of moderate size and show no special features. Some of the slivers 
look very fresh. 


Found "deep" in the mound by Professor Harbour. The bones are slender, 
but normal ; the right femur measures, minus epiphyses, 10.7 cm. The bones 
look quite fresh, and certainly retain a good proportion of animal matter. The 
ends of the apophyses, except where broken off, show the delicate cancel lous 
tissue in a perfect state of preservation. 

HRPUfiKA] -Kl i I I \l .IK \l MNS 87 

I >!>< I 

The examination of the IIIIMIMM ivmum- from \\\<- Gilder !iioiin<l 
In'ing concluded :iiul their BOmfttologicsJ character^ d-M-ril>ed in 
detail. it i- now ncccv-ary to consider tin- <|iieMion of their probable 
relation- to the geological formation with which they were associated 
and the U'aring of ihc-c relations on the question of antiquity. 

It U not <|tie-t ioned that the various explorations have been intel- 
ligently conducted and that sincere effort has IKHMI made to ascertain 
and promulgate the entire truth regarding the finds, but if the pres- 
ent knowledge concerning these. specimens is impartially considered) 
it i- apparent that the theory of a more than recent geological origin 
of any of them meets with serious objections, while, on the other 
hand, no insurmountable obstacle appears in connection with the 
assumption that all are comparatively recent. If the existence of 
geologically ancient man in any part of this country is to be generally 
accepted, the evidence should IK' free from serious doubts and uncer- 
tainties. That this condition is not fulfilled in the present case will 
become manifest when due weight is given to the following consid- 

(&) Within a depth of 5 feet or less, the Gilder mound contained 
the remains of apparently about a dozen bodies. There were male 
and female skeletons, ranging in age from the infant to the senile 
subject. Two or three of the skulls, with some accompanying bones, 
lay within 2} foet or less of the surface. Below this, according to 
the explicit statements of Mr. Gilder, was a layer of clay of undeter- 
mined area, hardened by fire." This is an occasional feature in 
burial mounds of this general region.'' the purpose of the baking being 
po ibly to protect the bodies from animals which otherwise might 
prey on them. Beneath this cover of hardened earth lay in some pro- 
miscuity, but in numerous instances in partial natural association, the 
skeletal remains of eight or nine lx>dies. r At still lower levels, 
down to the depth of 11} feet, were found here and there pieces of 
human l>ones. Instances of anatomical association extended to the 

A small piece of clay secured by Mr. (illder anil recently sent for examination to 
tin- writer by Professor Harbour, dhows iiiimiMtakabIt* -kn- of partial burning. Port Inns 
of tin" piece are of the color and nearly of the consistency of a ll-lit dnnu-il brick. A 
ample of this nature, while not conclusive proof of an extended flre-hardened layer. U 
nevertheless confirmatory of Mr. <!llder's earlier statements as to the exUteuce of such a 

'See C'yriiH Thomas, Keport on the Mound Exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology. 
TII i If Hi .\nnunl /.'/<"// of the Hurcau of Amrrinin Ethnology, WaxhlnRton. ivi; and 
l'rr<!. -rick Starr, Summary of the Archeology of Iowa (with Bibliography of lowan 
AntlqiiltlcKi. I'l-ix-ii'ling* of the Darrnport Academy of Science*, vi, 1895. 

" According to Information received from Profesnor Barhour Mnrch .">, a block of loes* 
whirl) wan taken t<> tin- lalmratory In MM entirety, allowed partu of another akeleton. 
Tin* (tones began at 4 fi-t Inche* from the xurface and extended down to feet, several 
of them plainly showing anatomical association. 


depth of 6 or G4 feet. Below this everything was disconnected and 

Now, ordinarily, the interpretation of these facts would be quite 
simple, as the conditions observed are in general characteristic of the 
ordinary low mound of the region. Some of the bodies seem to have 
been buried immediately after death; others, after having l>een ex- 
posed to the elements on scaffolds, or otherwise (rented. Later 
burials by the same or other peoples appear to have been made about 
the margins of the mound and also above the hardened clay. In tin- 
writer's view it is impossible that the nine or more bodies beneath 
the fire-hardened clay should have drifted into that position at any 
time or that they should have come there in any manner other than 
as direct burials; and it is highly probable that, were it not for the 
large supraorbital ridges and low foreheads of some of the crania, 
the question of geological antiquity would never have been raised 
with respect to any of these remains. 

There is nothing in the conditions connected with the bones which 
came from the levels between 2| and G feet to suggest particular 
antiquity. The depth at which they were found is in no way excep- 
tional ; in fact, this depth is quite the rul^ in low mounds. The 
absence of surface soil of darker color is not remarkable, since, 
except where charcoal is present, the color resulting from decay of 
vegetal matter soon disappears through chemical changes and leach- 
ing. The presence in the neighborhood of the bones of small pebbles 
and fossil shells would be natural, if these objects existed originally in 
the loess of the locality, for no one burying a body would sift the earth 
with which to cover it. The baking of the earth over the bodies was 
not accidental, for the signs of fire diminished toward the periphery of 
the mound, and, besides, as already stated, it was not a rare practice 
of the aborigines of the Missouri valley to bake the surface of 
burial mounds. It is likewise evident that this baking can not be 
attributed to the people who buried the two or three bodies above it : 
they would hardly have chosen a spot over a deposit of human bones 
belonging to a previous geological age and then, after baking the 
earth immediately covering the deposit, have buried their own dead 
on this floor, carrying to the place 2 feet of earth for the purpose 
of covering the bodies. It is more reasonable to suppose that these 
people resorted to a regular burial mound of their own or of another 
comparatively recent tribe. 

Besides the skeletal parts, which maintained more or less their 
natural relation, there were found at deeper levels in the mound, 
and possibly a little outside of it, human bones in small pieces. 
These fragments were scattered and comparatively few in number 
not more than " one bit of bone " to 5 or 6 cubic feet of earth. The 
fragmentary character of these bones and their wide dispersal 

I I I \i. 1:1 M \IN- >' 

through the formation have IM-.-H regarded a^ evidence that they 
\\en- deposited i out em |Mraiieoii^|y with that formation (loe>>) ami. 
hence, that they are of great age. antedating the shaping of the hill 
it.-elf. Kight line. however, we an- run fronted with a |M*rplexin;r 
dilemma. If thr-i- fragments found more than ' feet l-lo\\ the 
Mirface air admitted to proceed from the remains de|M>sited alxive 
the '> foot level and just l>elow the haked earth the remains of 
|M>ople of the low foreheads, we must then almndon the assumption 
that they are as ancient as the deposits of loess immediately alxMit 
them, and also the idea that these deposits have remained nndisturl>ed 
>ince their formation. On the other hand, should the fragments he 
regarded as distinct in origin from the skeletons found l>etween the 
loot and (5-foot levels, as they must be if the formations have re- 
mained HIM I i-t url >!. the problem takes on a new phase, and we must 
account for several distinct deposits of human remains within or 
beneath the mound. In that case the inferior tyjx' of some of the 
skulls from the layer just l>elow the baked earth can have no lxaring 
on the antiquity of the fragments deejxT down. Furthermore, the 
higher fragments found IxMicath the (5-foot level could scarcely then 
be regarded as of the same origin as the lower ones, for the reason 
that the distance between these two groups of pieces is far greater 
than that between the higher-lying fragments and the superimposed 

The fact that the lx>nes between the 2 i -foot and <-f<x>t levels were 
mixed and broken and parts were missing may lx diflicult to explain, 
but similar conditions are common in mound burials as well as in other 
burials, and are especially to lx expected where the excavation has 
not been conducted from the beginning with the utmost care. Inequal- 
ities in decay, natural movements of the earth, the burrowing and 
direct dragging by rodents, the penetration of roots, and occasional 
unrecorded disturbances of the soil produce remarkable results of 
this nature. Whole limbs, or the entire head, and sometimes a large 
part of the Ixxly, may thus disappear, or the remains may be 
broken, teeth lost, and the lx>nes scattered. There must have l>een a 
similar occurrence even with the uppermost or intrusive burials, for of 
one of the Ixxlies, that of a child, which is regarded as the most recent, 
there is only the incomplete skull, while but little more was found of 
the other two bodies inhumed alx>ve the fire-hardened earth. The 
fact that there is no break or horizon of separation in the deposits 
between the lx>ncs of the principal deposit and those below, and that 
larger fragments were discovered only in the proximity of these 
main burials. >peak< much for the common origin of all the specimens 
under consideration. That some slivers could have been so displaced 
M to lie actually U-yond the limits of the mound does not seem 


(b) Observing the condition of the bones, it is noted th'at the color, 
surface markings, consistency, discolorations, and other character!- 
tics are much the same at all levels; the differences are no greater 
than those observed in the different parts of a single skull -or in 
specimens in immediate proximity to one another. Such could 
hardly be the case if some of the bones were thousands of years more 
ancient than others. The chemical action of the soil, coupled with 
that of organic elements within it, on human bones in some instances 
may be very slight, yet it is incredible that no marked differences 
should be perceptible in the effects of these agencies on bones of the 
Glacial or the immediately post-Glacial period and those of recent 

This brings us directly to the very important concurrent fact of 
the total absence from any of the bones of perceptible fossilization. 
Such a condition would be hard to explain in bones dating from the 
period of the original loess deposit and under the circumstances in 
which the specimens in question were found. It is true that minor 
grades of mineralization, which ma}^ be difficult of detection, occur in 
rare instances in certain pleistocene sands or in perpetually dry cave 
deposits, but the fine Nebraska loess presents different conditions. 
The fire-hardening at one of the higher levels in the mound was not 
sufficient to keep out moisture and air, whose presence facilitates 
physical and chemical changes in inclosed bones. At the time of our 
visit to the locality in January the earth was found to be frozen at a 
level lower than the baked layer. To overcome this difficulty of 
absence of perceptible mineral replacement, and even of infiltration 
of the specimens, those who would prove that the deeper-lying bones 
from the Gilder mound are geologically ancient should produce satis- 
factory specimens of bones, unquestionably ancient yet non fossilized, 
from deposits of the same nature and existing under the same con- 

Only one piece, the fragment of a lower jaw, shows changes such 
as cuiild have been produced by exposure to the elements, even for 
a moderate length of time. On none of the other bones do we find 
the easily recognizable results of bleaching or cracking caused by 
exposure to the sun, or of superficial abrasion that could be attrib- 
uted to water action. The etching or pitting of the surface observed 
in some of the bones is due to the action of minute roots or to corro- 
sion by chemical agencies in the soil or in percolating water-. 
These features are common to bones embedded for even short periods 
in various soils. 

(c) Numerous bones from the different levels show marks due to 
the gnawing of rodents and also cuts made by some sharp implement 
wielded by human hands. The tooth marks indicate that at some 

\i. 1:1 \l MNS '.! 

time rodent-. <li<l li;i\r ;i.'c- l> lilt--.' piece-, and a^ none (if tin- -|)6Ci- 
men> lliil^ marked -how \\ealhcring. they luu.-t have ta-en readied by 
animal-* burrowing in the mound." Tin- -mallei- fragment- of tame- 
\\<idd tlm- certainly U- dragged and di-placed, and it is very likely 
that -me of them \\ould eventually come to rest at much lower 
levels than In-fore. The results of the caving in of the IUIITOWS. 
e-peciall\ of tin- -.parlous chamlM>rs charact eristic of the dwellings 
of certain rodent-., must also IKJ considered in this connection. The 
depth the hits of tame could thus reach would ta limited only by the 
depth of the burrowing, and that this may have reached in the fine 
loc-s 11.1 feet, or even more, will not ta denied. It is apparent that 
tin- agency is sufficient to account for the presence of some, if not 
of all. of the smaller tames at the lower levels. 

(d) The presence of knife marks on a numta>r of the tames has an 
important tawing on the question of relationship of the tames of 
different layers to one another. These marks are seen, as has tarn 
noted, on tames from the more superficial as well as on some from 
the deejMT layers. They are of similar character, occurring mostly 
on the edges or margins of the bones and in nearly all cases are 
restricted to the long tames and to the skull. Their similar location 
on the skull namely, in the rear of the foramen magnum indicates 
an identity of custom such as might develop, for instance, in the 
not unusual practice of cleaning the bones before secondary burial. 
This peculiar cutting is seen on skull no. (i, which is descrita'd as 
representing the ancient loess man. as well as on the child's skull, 
which is regarded as the most recent, belonging to the topmost layers 
above the baked earth, and also on one of the female skulls taken out 
near the surface in the bank of the road. The advocates of great 
antiquity will need to explain these coincidences. It is difficult to 
imagine jK'oples, ages apart and in a locality subject, doubtless, to 
changes of population, engaging in exactly the same very ]>eeuliar 
and unusual practice of whittling away a particular |M>rtion of the 

On March 14 the writer received from Professor Harbour several teeth, found with 
a crushed skull In one of the blocks of " innlKim i.-,l " loess containing pieces of human 
IN, in-, at the depth of .'.; feet. All these teeth were Identified, with the aid of Ir. M. W. 
I. you. of the division of mammals, 1 . H. National Musi-inn, a thoxe of Oromyn bur<ir(u, 
or the common modern pocket gopher. See In this connection I'rofegnor Itlacknutn'g 
siali-mi-nt on p. 74. 

k Snperllclal cutting IH present alno. an described In another part of this paper, on the 
left -n|.- <>f the vault of the Kock Bluff .skull, from Illinois. Beside* this Instance, the 
wrlii-r found practically Identic-ill cultliiKH In the occipital, hack of the foramen magnum, 
In tin- National Museum skull no. L'4:IO17. from a mound at the mouth of the Illinois river 
'-.h.iws aU<i mis about the orbits) : and In nos. S'Jol'Sl*. I!28h70. L'L'8877, ^28878, 22888O, 
_ ::_ J3. and L'43238. parts of Professor Montgomery'* collertlon, from 
tniiiinils In North (inkotn. None of these specimens have any claim to geological 
nnlii|iilty. Soini- of tin- mounds explored by Professor Montgomery and from which the 
above skulls are derived showed also the peculiarity of baked earth above the remains of 
the skeletons. 


No animal bones of any kind have been found in the excavation, 
unless they are represented by one specimen which does not resemble 
a normal human bone, but may be the proximal half of a human 
clavicle," pathologically altered. What were mentioned in one of the 
recent publications relating to these finds as " presumably the bones 
of a young wolf, with epiphyses wanting," are the long bones of a 
very young child. 

(e) The principal support for the notion of the great antiquity 
of the deeper-lying remains from the Gilder mound is the low type 
of several of the skulls, especially those numbered G and 8. The 
particular features indicative of low type are a remarkably low 
forehead and pronounced supra orbital ridges. The size of the crania, 
as indicated by their external measurements, their form in general, 
as well as in particular parts, and the thickness of their walls, show 
considerable uniformity among themselves and present no excep- 
tional features when compared with those of Indians. Notwithstand- 
ing the low foreheads, the skulls do not impress one as those of 
idiots or imbeciles, although the possibility that one or more of them 
are remains of such defectives can not be excluded. Imbecility occurs 
among probably all peoples. The writer is inclined to regard these 
low-browed crania as examples of individual peculiarities. Their 
special features, which are really exaggerations of definite sexual 
characters, may indicate degeneration or they may possibly be rever- 
sions. The fact that several of the same type are found in one 
locality will be readily understood by those acquainted with the 
principles of heredity; besides, it will be remembered that only one 
of the skulls shows the inferior features in a very pronounced form. 
Exceptional cases of this nature are known to occur among all 
peoples with which we are acquainted; they are met with even 
among civilized whites. Skulls with low foreheads and pronounced 
ridges certainly do occur among the Indians, and it is very suggest- 
ive that the majority of the crania of this type thus far observed 
have been discovered in mounds of the general region in which are 
located the present finds. This region extends, so far as we may 
now judge, over portions of Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin, reaching 
the Dakotas, and the burials from which they are derived have no 
claim to geological antiquity. The better-known instances of these 
finds are as follows: 

In The American Naturalist (xxm, 185-188, 1889), Clement L. 
Webster reports in brief on the exploration of ancient mounds at 
Floyd, Iowa. 6 The mounds were three in number and were sit- 

Another exception Is the pocket-gopher teeth mentioned In the footnote on p. 91. 

b Abstracts of this, as well as of the following Webster paper, may be found In 
F. Starr's Summary of the Archeology of Iowa, Proceedings of the Davenport Academy 
of Sciences, vi, 64, 78, 1895. 

>M ! I I \|. KKMAINR '.''; 

ufltrd on tln> \\i-t vii|,. of ( Velar rivrr. In tin- largest of tin-*- mounds 
I circular in form and alnuit :io frrt in diamrtrr. but only '_' fi-rt high) 
\M-IV found, at a drpth of a littlr moiv than 5 feet from the surf 
tin- \\rll-piVMT\rd remain^ of I'm- Unlit-. This mound showed 
ral piM-idiaritu-, among which \VMV a layer of '. % arth mixed with 
:i-lir-. -nun- di>taii<v above the bodies, and a halting of the remaining 
earth above tln-e allies. One of the skeletons was that of an 
"a\erage -i/.ed woman in mi. I. lie life," one of an infant, one of a 
larirt- aged man. and two of young adults, sex undetermined. The 
bone- of the woman (?) "indicated a person of low grade, the 
evidence- of unusual muscular development being strongly marked.* 
The skull of this personage was a wonder to behold, equaling, if 
not rivaling in some resjH'cts, in inferiority of grade, the famous 
'Neanderthal skull.' The forehead (if forehead it could IK? called) 
is very low. lower and more animal-like than in the A Neanderthal ' 
specimen. This skull is quite small for an adult individual." 

I^ater in the same year and in the same journal ( pages (J50-('55) Mr. 
Webster reports on excavations in the mounds near Old Chickasaw, 
Iowa, on the west side of Little Cedar river. All these mounds were 
"circular, with oval tops, and with a diameter varying from i2 to 
51 feet, and a height of from 1] to "> feet." In the center of the 
first mound examined three human skeletons were found. Alxive 
them were li feet of mixture of earth and ashes, made very hard, 
with a few small pieces of charcoal scattered through it. The 
remaining 31 feet of material composing the mound was a yellow, 
clayey soil, unlike anything found on the surface in the vicinity. 
"The crania of all three individuals showed an extremely low grade 
of mental development; the foreheads Ix'ing, in one case, even lower 
than in the specimen found in the Floyd mound." " The upjxr 
anterior portion (back of the eyes) of one of the crania under con- 
sideration was quite narrow, but expanded rather rapidly postero- 
laterally." The frontal l>one " sloped abruptly backward, forming 
a slightly concave area back of and al>ove the eyes." The largest of 
the three skulls measured fij by 5 inches (15.8 by 12.7 cm.). 5 "No 
relics of any description were found with the bodies exhumed," 
including those from neighlx)ring mounds/ 

Another group of low-browed, inferior-type crania was dealt with 
in a previous chapter of this paper. They are the specimens from 
along Illinois river, including the Rock Hluff skull (plate n, a), the 

It ! quite evident that an error has been made In the aex Identification, and that the 
keleton was that of a man. 

k Nothing IB atated a* to how theae meaxurementa were taken. 

'The Illustrations accompanying the two accounts of Mr. Webater can scarcely be 
regarded otherwise than as overdrawn, but the description points clearly to low-type 
crania. The specimens are still In the possession of Mr. Webster, at Charles City. Iowa, 
but a personal request that they be sent to the writer for examination, or that they be 
photographed for his use, brought no answer. 


\MI.I:I. \.\ i. in N<>I.<M;Y 

Albany (Illinois) Mound skull, no. 3, in the Davenport Academy of 
Sciences, which the writer was able to examine on hi-; return fi 
Nebraska, and the other Albany Mound skull, no. 242982, of the U. S. 

Fio. 13. Antero-posterior arcs of skulls no. 4402, Davenport Academy of Sciences, and 
no. 6, Gilder mound. No. 4402, ; no. 0, 

FIG. 14. Antero-posterior arcs of skulls no. 4402, Davenport Academy of Sciences, and 
no. 8, Gilder mound. No. 4402, ; no. 8, 

National Museum. To the foregoing may be added another remarkable 
low-order specimen, namely, no. 4402, in the Davenport Academy of 
Sciences, from mound 1, near Albany, Illinois. The accompanying 




a Side view <>( lllitn>i inniiiid-liuildcr ckull (no. 4402. l>uvcii|-.rt Academy o( Sciences): 
6 aide view of modern Sioux skull (DVfnport Academy of Sciences) 





i -i.l.- \ i. u t .f skull fr.nii Illinois , no. linl. l>u\. n|.ri Aradt'inyi; /, Mile view <>f 

ii skull 




illn-tration^ (jtlntc-. MI. ,/. MII. ,/. li^un- \:\ \i\) \\i|| IN-HIT 
than inliliti()ii:il words could the I\|M- of tln-4- crania and tlu-ir n-la 
lion to tin- -|>r.-iiiifh- from tin- inoiin.l in Nrhrusku. 

Flo. 15. Antero-poBterlor area of skulls no. 242982, U. 8. National MIIHCIIIII, and no. 0, 
Glider mound. No. 24298'J, ; no. 0, _ 

Fi-.. 16. Antero-poaterlor arcs of skulls no. 242082, U. 8. National MiiHeum. and no. 8, 
Glider mound. No. 242982, ; no. 8, 

Still other specimens of low-type Indian crania may be adduced 
in this connection. Low forehead, or the absence of the frontal 
vaulting, occurs in rare instances mainly in consequence of an appar- 
ently natural innvax' in volume of such sexual characteristics as the 
supraorbital ridges in males among even the other class of mound 


skulls, namely, the l>rachvcephals of Arkansas and farther xmth. 
and also among the skulls of recent Indians. Two such -peci- 
mens, both from the Davenport Academy collectio.ii, arc. t lie- 
first, a normal, undeformed, Arkansas mound skull (plate xm, b) 
and the other a skull of a modern Sioux (plate xn, &), who died a- a 
captive near Davenport. A recent examination of the great cranial 
collection in the U. S. National Museum showed the presence of the 
following additional skulls with remarkably low foreheads: 


From Indian burials in California.. 22."H7<>. 241 111, 

241912, 2419115, 241927, 241939, 241998, 242009, 242014, 242148, IMJJix. 

From mounds in North Dakota __. 22887(5, 228878 

From a mound in Florida-. it;:;:;:; 

From a mound in Illinois l.".f.77N 

From a mound in Illinois 21- 

From a mound near Alton, Illinois 24:'.x>7 

From a mound in Orange county, Indiana.. 243865 

From a mound near Sculleyville. Iowa__ 225290 

From a mound at Eagle Point, Iowa._ 243845 

From a mound at Albany, Iowa 243847 

A Ka\v, Kansas. _ 243544 

From a burial at Choptauk, Maryland.. 243933 

From a burial in Missouri 218993 

A Piegan, Montana.. 24:',t;7:t 

From a burial at Durango, New Mexico __ 24.'? - J7.' 

From a burial at Pistol river. Oregon.. 243602 

From a burial at Pistol river, Oregon.. 24.".r,<i:; 

A Paiute, Nevada.. 243817 

A Pawnee, Kansas. . 243531 

A Ponca, Kansas.. 2254KI7 

A Sioux, Dakota.. 225238 

A Sioux, Dakota.. 243710 

A Ute, Utah__ 22G084 

From a burial at Hagley, Wisconsin.. 207S74 

From a burial in Wisconsin 243290 

In most of these cases the lowness of the forehead and often also 
the volume of the ridges equal those of skull no. G from Long's hill, 
and in several instances they exceed this specimen in these particular 
characters; no. 136778 shows even a lower forehead than the Gilder 
Mound skull, known as no. 8 (plates x, a, xi, a; figures 12, 14, 16). 

It is thus seen that the Gilder mound skulls are by no means unique 
in their low-order form, and that no definite conclusion as to their 
antiquity can be based on this inferiority or peculiarity of type 
alone. The occasional and apparently nonpathological occurrence 
of such forms in the males, particularly among the mesocephalic to 
dolichocephalic ethnic element of the upper Missouri and Missis- 

Suggesting In many ways the Californlans ; compare the writer's Contribution to 
the Physical Anthropology of California, 1'ninrxilii of California Publications, American, 
Archeoloyv ond Ethnology, iv, no. 2, Berkeley, 1906. 


i, burying its dead in low circular mounds, the upper layers of 
which in numerous cases were hardened by fire. offer^ one of tin- mo-t 
interesting problem-^ to American anthropologists, largely because 
vrrything points to the fart that these low cranial shapes are com- 
paratively recent phenomena and not occurrences of geological antiq- 
uity. Additional >y-tematic exploration on a large scale of the 
mounds in the Central states is very much to be desired in this 

(/) The size of the Nebraska skulls and the thickness of bone (see 
detailed examination) are in no way exceptional when compared 
with similar dimensions in skulls of Indians. The thickness of the 
parietal IXHIC exceeded in no case at its maximum 7 mm. and was 
mostly a little l>elow this. Professor Harbour in his paper in the 
Record* of the Pott mentions that the wall of one of the broken 
skulls measured 1) mm. in thickness, but this measurement must have 
been taken on a bone other than the parietal. None of the fragments 
of the latter l>one that passed under the writer's observation approxi- 
mated such a dimension: but even if a very thick skull had coexisted 
with the others, the fact would justify no conclusion concerning the 
antiquity of the specimen. Thick Indian crania of a very moderate 
antiquity are very common in Florida and certain parts of Mexico, 
and occur also in other parts of the country. 

(g) The long bones recovered from the mound show absolutely 
no type differences or racial distinction at the different levels, and 
in many of their characteristics approximate so closely to the cor- 
responding bones in the Indian that their identification as Indian 
is permissible. Of particular value for this identification are the 
thickness and shape at the middle of the burner!,' and here is found 
the slight relative thickness of the bone as well as the predomi- 
nance of the plano-convex shape, both characteristic of the Indian. 
The platymery of the femora points in the same direction. The 
tibia? are stronger and less platycnemic than on an average in the 
Indian, but were by no means unequaled among the Plains Indians 
who lived largely by the chase. The stature of the group of jxople 
represented in the Gilder mound, estimated from the long bones, 
was nearly 6 feet in the males, which is not uncommon also among 
the Sioux and other of the Plains hunters. Examination of the parts 
of the skeleton besides the skull furnishes substantial evidence that 
the bones have in general much more affinity with those of the Indian 
than with those of any other people. Speculation as to what par- 
ticular tribe of Indians this group belonged would probably be 
fruitless, and is really not of great importance. The Omaha, it is 

A monograph showing In detail the pronounced differences In these bone* between the 
white, negro, and Indian races Is under preparation by the writer. 

3458 No. 3307 7 


well known, were a comparatively recent arrival in that country. 
They may have been preceded in the region along the Missouri north 
of Omaha by the Mandan, the Pawnee, or the Arikara, or possibly 
by some offshoot of the Sioux. East of this region were the Oto and 
the Iowa, while little-known tribes of the Algonquian confederacy 
were settled in what is now the state of Illinois." 

(/<) Besides all preceding considerations, it should be remembered 
that the ridge of Long's hill contained also at least one other mound 
which yielded human bones, and still another aboriginal burial. 
Such high places were the favorite locations for burials with the 
Indians on both sides of the Missouri, and it appears probable that 
the Gilder mound belongs simply to this category of Indian mortuary 


The various finds of human remains in North America for which 
geological antiquity has been claimed have been thus briefly pas-ed 
under review. It is seen that, irrespective of other considerations, in 
every instance where enough of the bones is preserved for compari- 
son the somatological evidence bears witness against the geologic:) I 
antiquity of the remains and for their close affinity to or identity 
with those of the modern Indian. Under these circumstances but 
one conclusion is justified, which is that thus far on this continent 
no human bones of undisputed geological antiquity are known. This 
must not be regarded as equivalent to a declaration that there was 
no early man in this country; it means only that if early man did 
exist in North America, convincing proof of the fact from the stand- 
point of physical anthropology still remains to be produced. 

Referring particularly to the Nebraska " loess man," the mind 
searches in vain for solid ground on which to base an estimate of 
more than moderate antiquity for the Gilder Mound specimens. The 
evidence as a whole only strengthens the above conclusion that the 
existence on this continent of a man of distinctly primitive type and 
of exceptional geological antiquity has not as yet been proved. 

There may be discouragement in these repeated failures to obtain 
satisfactory evidence of man's antiquity in America, but there is in 
this also a stimulus to renewed, patient, careful, scientifically con- 
ducted and checked exploration; and, as Professor Barbour says in 
one of his papers on the Nebraska find, "' the end to be attained is 
worth the energy to be expended." A satisfactory demonstration 
of the presence of a geologically ancient man on this continent 
would form an important link in the history of the American race. 
and of mankind in general. The Missouri and Mississippi drainage 
areas offer exceptional opportunities for the discovery of this link of 
humanity if such really exists. 

Bee Bulletin SO of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pt. 1, 19O7. 



a Side view; 6 top view 



a Hide view: ' tup view 



MUSEUM NO. 136778) 

a Side view: 6 top view 




a Bide view of skull (nun niouiul n.-nr All. .11. IMini< 1 1'. S. Smiium! MU-. nm im. 
' view cif wkull of I'niiii.-. NVvuiln I* S. Niitiotml Miiwiun no .'!:>]: 




a Bide virwnf tkiill from Cain vent* county (I*. S. National MIIM-IIIII im. -.-j.'ilT.; : / Mdo 
view of ukull fruui Santa Barbani ttmnty (I*. S. National MIIM-UIII no. jiivu 



a 8lik- vii-w; b top vii-w 




a Side view of ukull from Kiinta Cruz island. California il". S. National Maeutn no. 2U916) 
6 aide view of nk ii 11 from mound near Hurley, \\ i-. ..nin . f. s. National Mum-urn no. JOTI . 




u Side \ : . b top view 




Tin- | (receding paper shows that in numerous cases great weight has 
given to the low and sloping forehead, esjH'cially when accom- 
panied by heavy brows, as an index of low tyi>e ami on occasion as 
evidence of antiquity. 

The notion that the low forehead signifies low intelligence gained 
wide acceptance in the early part of the last century through the 
teachings of phrenology, while the connection of heavy supraorhital 
arches and low front with human antiquity is principally due to the 
fact that these features in an exaggerated form characterize the 
crania of Neanderthal and Spy (no. 1), the latter specimen, at least. 
l>eingof undoubted geological Antiquity. Subsequent to the discovery 
of these crania it liecame customary, even among men of science, to 
regard massive supraorbital ridges and low foreheads as necessary 
MHiiatological accompaniments of antiquity in the human skull. This 
led to the rather premature acceptance of the view that early men in 
general were characterized by these features, that, in other words, 
these anatomical characters represent a developmental stage of man; 
and from t! s it was but a step to the acceptance of the notion that 
ail occurrences not clearly pathological of similar formation a IT 
reversions an impression which is prevalent to this day. 

Following the intense interest produced in scientific circles by the 
discovery of the Neanderthal. Spy. Most (Bruex). Pod ha ha. and other 
skulls referred to the Quaternary period in Europe, there came in the 
course of time a number of reports by Busk, Davis, Blake. I'runer- 
Bey. Turner, Godron, and others, of more or less recent crania with 
" neandert haloid " features that is, heavy brows and low fore- 
head from different parts of Kuro|>e as well as from Asia ami Aus- 
tralia. An account of most of these sjx'cimens will l>e found in Qua- 
trefage^ and Hamy's Crania Kthnica (i livraison, "21 et seq.. Paris, 
-77), and should l*e jx>rused in this connection. The anomaly 
\va- iimv-n vrdly ascribed to atavism. 

NonptthoJogical recent American crania with pronounced supra - 
orbital ridge- and low foreheads thus far have not been made the 
-ubject of a -pi-rial report, yet -in -h specimens are not very rare in 
our collection-. The National Mii-eimi alone jiossesses a eonsider- 



able number (enumerated on page !M), and the writer will utili/c 
occasion to give a brief description, with illustrations, of the more 
remarkable of these specimens, without attempting to explain the 
exact Mature and cause of their peculiar feature-. 

The whole subject of exceptionally large supraorbital arches and 
low foreheads deserves exhaustive anatomical study. A low sloping 
forehead does not occur or has not yet been observed in the fetus 
and in infants and is extremely rare in the female sex. The i-aim- is 
true also of heavy supraorbital ridges. Hence both of these characters 
must l>e regarded as primarily adult and sexual. Their relation is not 
constant. Most frequently heavy ridges and low forehead coexist 
and accentuate each other, but low front can be found, as will be 
seen in some of the specimens to be described, associated with only 
moderate ridges, and prominent brows are occasionally observed in 
skulls with good frontal arching. The ridges themselves offer sev- 
eral points for study. Ordinarily they form elevations which extend 
over from one-half to two-thirds of the median part of the supra - 
orbital space, but in rare cases they extend along the whole supra- 
orbital border, constituting an uninterrupted arch which may have 
a significance different from that possessed by the ridges of the more 
usual character. They are affected in volume by the frontal sinuses. 
but large ridges may coexist with relatively small sinuses and vice 
versa, showing that some range of variation is inherent in the bony 
elevations themselves. The corrugator supercilii muscle attached 
to the glabella may also have some influence on the development of 
the parts of the ridges nearest to this attachment. A closer compara- 
tive anatomical study is necessary in this connection. Heavy supra- 
orbital arches and sloping forehead are found in the adult male 
gorilla, but these features are much less apparent in the orang. 
chimpanzee, or gibbon, where we usually find a fairly well arched 
front, as well as in most of the lower primates. 

The following descriptions and measurements of individual skulls 
show that in American crania low forehead and prominent supra- 
orbital ridges are generally not associated with pathological con- 
ditions of the skull, or with premature occlusion of any of the 
sutures; where synostosis was observed, it was plainly senile in 
character. A number of the skulls show small size and according to 
the ordinary classification would be ranged as microcephals. but 
Indian skulls of these dimensions are not rare, and it is impos- 
sible to say that the small size of the brain of the individual is 
causally connected with the character of the front of any of the 
specimens. In two of the cases it will l>e seen that the cranial 
capacity is very fair for Indians. It is an interesting fact that, 
with one not very pronounced exception, all the low-front crania 
in the National Museum collection are dolichocephalic or mesocephalic, 


although tin- numlx'i f l.rachycephalie >ku!K examined \va> quite 
larp-. Tin- \\riter i- acquainted with only a single brachyccphaiic 
>knll that how> a low sloping forehead. Thi- i- tin- Indian craniuni 
pictured in plate xin. f>. of tin- preceding pap 

Tin- antiquity of tin- specimen- here descrilx-d in no ca^c i- jjreat. 
ami several of tlu- skulls an- quite iiHxlern. 

Tin- cranial capacity was measured l>y the writer's met lux 1, ex- 
plained in Sri, i,,,. I'.KW i p.-iirc 1011 et eq.)- 

The illustrated skulls arc placed in the alveolo-rondyliaii plane. 


(Plate XIV) 

A symmetrical niul not diHeaxo*! > raiiiiun of a man of about '" vcurn of iiK'e. 
The saKittal and 4-oronal Hiittires show :il\ am .-d. tin- lamb<l<i(I slight. (x-cliiHion, 
wlilch :I|I|M-:II-S lii no \vay premature: 

The s|MH-imen is rather heavy. Its low forehead is very striking. The supra- 
orbital ridges and lalella are very pronounced. The ridp-s are n'strlettnl t 
the nuHllaii three-Hfths >f the siipraorliital spav; the remaining ]Mrtlon of the 
border alxtve each >rblt proje*'ts also forward. t>ut is not massive, and is distinct 
from the ridge pro|H>r. 

The slojH? of the forehead is uniform and the moderate convexity of the frontal 
IMIIH- presents n> trace of the frontal eminences. From near the Klahella to the 
vertex of the skull runs a median elevation, which is especially well marked 
back of the bregma and gives the transverse plane of the skull in this region 
the outline of a jx>inted arch. The temporal ridges are well marked and reach 
on the right to within 2.2 cui., on the left to within l.5 cm., of sagittal suture. 

The face shows nuxlerate prognathism. well-marked nasal gutters, and strong 
nialars as well as zygoma'. The skull as a whole l>ears evidence of a strung 

The teeth are of ordinary size and present no abnormality. 

The base shows an anomalous fenestrum. formed by a process of bone passing 
from near the base of the external pterygoid plate to the sphenoid just outside 
of the foramen ovale. 

Cuts in the rear of the foramen magnum :md on the fa<v indicate in all proba- 
bility cleaning Ix-fore a secondary burial. 

Diameter antero-posterlor maximum _____ ,_centlmeter8__ 1ft. 5 

Diameter antero-posterlor from ophryon.. _______ do ---- 1ft. 

Diameter lateral maximum ___ J ______________ ________ do ---- 13.7 

Cephalic Index __________ _______ 6B. ft 

Kasjon l>rcgnm height ___ .centimeters 13. 3 

Cranial module (mean diameter) _______ _________ 15.53 

Circumference alxive the ridges ________________ ________ centimeters __ 52.0 

Capjieity __________________________________________ euble centimeters.. 1.47. r 

Thiekncss of left parietal above the squamous suture _______ millimeters.. 5-6 

Dlnmetcr frontal minimum _______________ ..... _____ cent I meters. _ 9.1 

Diameter frontal maximum (along coronal) ----- . --------------- do ---- 11.4 

Basliiii-nasiiin length _______________________________ ---------- do ---- 10. 5 

Facial height . ........ _______ ........ (?) 

breadth i diameter bizygomatie max.) -------------- centimeters.. 13.8 



(Plate xv) 

Skull of an aged male, without any sign of disease or deformation. The 
coronal, sagittal, and lamhdoid sutures are, with most of the facial articulations, 
almost wholly occluded, but it does not appear that the shape of the skull on 
this account is in any way altered. 

The supraorbital ridges and the glabella are voluminous (particularly the left 
ridge) ; the former are restricted to a little more than the median half of the 
supraorbital space. Above the ridges and along nearly the whole hreadtb of 
the frontal is a well-marked depression. The forehead is low and sloping, 
nevertheless It shows a distinct bend and small frontal eminences. There Is a 
moderate, broad, median elevation of the region in front of the bregma and 
of a narrower ridge along the anterior fourth of the sagittal suture, giving to 
the anterior and i>osterior planes of the skull a pentagonal appearance. Tin- 
parietal bosses are quite prominent. 

The face is but slightly prognathic. The lower jaw is high; the chin promi- 

There is no Indication of an extraordinary musculature. 

The teeth are of average size. The denture shows the following anomalies: 
Congenital lack of all the third molars, and of the left lateral upper incisor: 
submedian size of the right upper lateral incisor and an anomaly of the median 
tooth'; and a small supernumerary tooth between the right upper canine and the 
first bicuspid. 

Measurement H 

Diameter antero-posterior maximum centimeters 10.4 

Diameter antero-posterior from ophryon do 18.9 

Diameter lateral maximum do 14. lli 

Cephalic index 72.9 

Basion-bregma height .-centimeters 12.9 

Cranial module 15.48 

Circumference.-. centimeters 52.2 

Capacity .cubic centimeters 1,47< 

Thickness of the left parietal-. -..millimeters 3-"t 

Diameter frontal minimum .-centimeters 9. rt 

Diameter frontal maximum do 11.1 

Basion-nasion length do 10.0 

Facial height, total (teeth slightly worn)-. do 13.2 

Facial height, upper do 8.1 

Facial breadth .-do 14..", 


ILLINOIS (NO. 136778) 

(Plate xvi) 

This cranium shows the lowest natural forehead of any American skull with 
which the writer is acquainted. 

It is regrettable that the specimen is very Imperfect; the whole face and 
everything below the parietals, with a small portion of the occipital, are lacking. 
Further, this skull Is not absolutely normal, for the surface of the upper part 
of the frontal and of the parietals shows several irregular depressions, which 
may be senile, or due to some old weakness or lesions of the bones. These 


are not extensive; they .|. not extend to the Inner table of tin- 

Nines mid hail only lix-itl 'ffect mi the Khupe of the uteull anil in |H-p-eptllile 

on tin- lowness of tin- forehead. Tin- extre front of tin- sknll is somewhat 

asymmetrical, the right side protruding forward more than tin- l-ft. This 
asymmetry Is also market vcntrally. Imt <|<M>M not affct the r-st of the skull. 

Tin- gliilN-lla Is v-ry prominent, and the same statement applies to the m<llan 
\tn-miii.". of tin- supraorbltal riL'.-s. The latter are limited to the median 
thrce-tiftlis of tin- snpraorliltal spav, hut owing to tin- small forward extension 
of tin- forehead, the remainder of the horder on earh Hide shows also a con- 
spicuous projection. AlMve the ulaU-lla and rldgex Is a depreMHlon. behind 
wlili-h rlm>H the very llmitiil areh of the forehead. The wiglttal n-ylon IN 
Noinewhat elevated. Itetwi-en the vertex and lulon the skull shows slight eom- 
prewlon. due proliahly to t-radle-lNiard pressure. 

The 8|MK-lmen Is rather small (the greatest length measures about 1H.4 cm.). 
l>nt as the bones are not thick the capacity was probably In excess of 1.300 c. c. 

Vent rally the sutures are wholly obliterated, while dorsally most of tho 
coronal, a part of the sagittal, and most of what is present of the lambdoid 
appear still open. There Is uo evidence that the state of the sutures ban 
Influenced in any way the sha|>e of the skull. 

The tem|M>ral ridges are only partially traceable. Indicating no strong mus- 

The minimum frontal diameter in this skull amounts to only N.T cm.; the 
frontal maximum to 10.7 cm. 


(Plate xvn. a) 

The specimen Is not deformed and, except in a part of the alveolar process, 
shows nothing pathological. It is plainly a masculine skull and lielonged to 
an aging individual. The sagittal, median one-third of the lambdoid. and the 
coronal suture below the teni|K>ral ridges show, with some of the facial articu- 
lations, advanced senile occlusion. 

It present* pronounced supraorbital ridges (restricted to the median three- 
fifths of the supraorbital border), somewhat less voluminous glabclla. and very 
low forehead, with but feeble frontal bend and but a trace of the eminences. 
The sagittal region is only slightly elevated. The ridges and other feature's 
indicate moderately strong musculature. 

The face shows average (Indian) alveolar prognathism. The teeth are of 
ordinary size; third molars have never erupted (the skull is that of an Indi- 
vidual at least ."< years of age; the lower Jaw is missing). 

The base shows the same anomaly as no. 22887(1 (page 101) a fenestrum 
formed by a narrow bony septum, reaching from the lower part of the external 
pteryRold plate to the sphenoid, externally to the foramen ovale. 

Diameter antero-posterior maximum . centimeters 17.8 

Diameter antero-posterlor from ophryon do 17.4 

Diameter lateral maximum do 13.5 

Cephalic Index 75.8 

Basion-bregma height centimeters.. 13.4 

Cephalic module. 14.00 


Circumference centimeters-. \:>. :: 

Capacity cubic centimeters.. 1.256 

Thickness of the left parietal millimeters. 7 \ , 

Diameter frontal minimum : centimeters.- '..; 

Diameter frontal maximum do 11.4 

Hasion-nasion length do in. ^ 

Facial height, upper do__ l.r> 

Facial breadth do 14.4 


( Plate xvir. b'\ 

An uudeformed and in no way diseased skull of an adult male. No trace 
remains of the basilar suture, but the remaining cranial and facial sutures sm- 
all open. 

The specimen is quite heavy and bears evidence of strong, though not exces- 
sive, musculature. It shows a prominent glabella ; moderate masculine supra- 
orbital ridges (limited to the median two-thirds of the supraorbital space) ; 
a gradually sloping, low forehead with only a trace of frontal bend and no 
sign of frontal eminences; and a median elevation which extends over the upper 
four-fifths of the frontal squama and up to obelion along the sagittal suture, 
giving the top of the skull a scaphoid appearance. 

The face presents, a rather marked alveolar prognathism. The lower jaw 
shows no special features. The teeth were of ordinary size (all are now broken 
owing to exposure). The denture in the upper jaw is anomalous, there being 
three supernumerary teeth: one of these existed between the median incisors, 
and the second between the left lateral incisors and somewhat anterior thereto, 
while there is a socket on the left also for a somewhat diminutive extra tooth in 
the rear of the three molars. Notwithstanding the presence of 19 teeth in the 
upper jaw, the dental arch and palate are quite symmetrical, and there Is 
nothing to correspond with the anomalies in the lower maxilla. 


Diameter antero-posterior maximum centimeters.. 18.3 

Diameter antero-posterior from ophryon do 17.8 

Diameter lateral maximum do 13.4 

Cephalic index 73.2 

Kasion-bregnia height centimeters 13.0 

Cranial module 14.90 

Circumference centimeters 50.7 

Capacity - cubic centimeters 1,290 

Thickness of the left parietal.. millimeters.. 4-6 

Diameter frontal minimum centimeters 8.9 

Diameter frontal maximum.- do 10.9 

Basion-nasion length -do 10.2 

Facial height, total (about).. 12.0 

Facial height, upper -do 7. .1 

Facial breadth-- __do__ 14.0 


K. 6KI 1.1 Ilt.'M , \I.\\IK\- .,,1 NM. Al.m.lCMV IN... _'_' ,M , 

i Pint.- xvin. ./ i 
Tin- S|MS inu-n. it skull of an aging male. !* not deformed, ami with the ox -|- 

tloil of Ml) r\ostosJN lM-t \\ccll tin- right IliaStoid >|ll(l Vagill.ll pHM-ettMeM tflloW* 

nothing patliological. The various filial--, and other features indlciite strong 
though nut i-\< evolve IMII-. iil.itur.- TIu> sagittal suture IH occluded. :in<l tho 
tt>r<iii:il. lamlKlold. :ind several of the facial articulations Khow advanced physlo- 
lo-u-al -\ Mostosis. 

Tli siipniurliitiil rid^t* are pronounoetl. witliout exceellnK the normal varia- 
tion in tins rc.|Mi-t iiiniiim male IndlanM; the)' extend over the median three- 
Hftlis of the supraorltltal SJMKV. The forehead Is qnlte low and gradually 
l-n-sciitiiiL: sulavenij;e fnmtal l-cml and .eminences. There is hut a 
fxti-rnal metopic and Ha^ittal <ret. so that the outline of the transverse plane 
of the skull su|>eriorly is hut little |Mlnted. 

Tliere Is a moderate alveolar pronathisni. The lasi- pr(>s>nts several minor 
anomalies, and the exostotiis above referred to, whk-h is prohuhly the result of 
a small tumor. The teeth are txmsiderably worn off. but pretteut nothlnK 
abnormal In size or number. 


Dlamet.T antero-posterlor maximum centimeters.. 17.7 

Diameter antero-posterior from ophryon.. do 17.5 

Diameter lateral maximum do 14. li 

Cephalic index . 80. 2 

Basion-hreguia height. .. centimeters.. 12.3 

Cranial module 14.73 

Circumference -_. cent! meters. _ 150.5 

Capacity . ..cubic centimeters.. 1,265 

Thickness of the left parietal milliiiM-tcrs 5-7 

Dtauieter frontal minimum .centimeters 9.2 

Diameter frontal maximum do 11.3 

ion-nasion length do 10.0 

Facial height, total (teeth worm 11.8 

Facial height, upper. do 7.3 

Facial breadth __do 14.2 


(Plate xviu. b) 

A small, but plainly masculine, skull, from an aging, not very muscular indi 
vldual. It Is damaged, but In no way deformed or diseased. The sagittal 
suture is wholly occluded, a condition apparently somewhat premature, as the 
rest of the cranial and facial articulations are still patent; but this condition has 
imt affected the shai>e of the skull. 

The supraorbital ridge* are pronounced, though not excessive for a male; 
they are limlt^l to the median two-thirds of the supraorbital space. The fore- 
head is very low and sloping, without distinct frontal bend or eminences. The 
upper part of the frontal squama shows a quite prominent median ridge, which 
broadens out as It proceeds backward and for a short distance Is continuous 


along the sagittal suture, on account of this ridge the arch of the trans\ 
plane of the skull is moderately pointed. . 

The teini>oral ridges are fairly well marked, but the muscular impressions ami 
ridges on the occiput are weak. 

The face shows a moderate grade of alveolar prognathism. The teeth are not 
large and present no anomaly. 

The base shows on the left side one complete (proximal) and one slightly in- 
complete (distal) pterygo-spinous foramen or fenestrum. both formed on the 
median side of the foramen ovule. 


Diameter antero-posterior maximum-. -centimeters 17.1 

Diameter antero-jtosterior from ophryon __do 1 16.6 

Diameter lateral maximum __do 13.4 

Cephalic index . 78.4 

Rasion-bregma height - centimeters 12.3 

Cranial module 14.27 

Circumference . _ .centimeters 47.2 

Capacity (?) 

Thickness of the left parietal. _ ..millimeters... 3-4 

Diameter frontal minimum-- ..centimeters 8.75 

Diameter frontal maximum _ do 10.4 

Basion-nasion length do 9.7 

Facial height, total__ __do 11.8 

Facial height, upper. _ do 7.2 

Facial breadth, approximately.. __do 13.3 


(Plate XIX) 

A symmetrical, nonpathological skull of a male of about 50 years of age. 
There is advanced occlusion in the sagittal, and some synostosis in the lainb- 
doid suture, but all the other articulations are still patent. The condition 
of the teeth, which are somewhat worn, corresponds well to the state of the 
sutures, so that any premature ossification of the latter may be excluded. 

The supraorbital ridges (limited to the median half of the supraorbital 
space) are of average masculine proportions and the same statement applies 
to the glabella, yet the forehead is low and sloping, presenting only a very 
moderate arching and no eminences. The region just anterior to the bregma 
and along the proximal half of the sagittal suture shows a well-marked eleva- 
tion, which gives the skull a scaphoid appearance. 

The face shows a medium grade of prognathism. and somewhat atypiml. 
not very large nasal gutters. The zygome, with other features of the skull, 
indicate strong musculature. The teetli present nothing special. The base is 
free from anomalies of any importance. 


Diameter antero-posterior maximum centimeters 18.2 

Diameter antero-posterior from ophryon do 17.6 

Diameter lateral maximum do 13.8 

Cephalic index 75.8 

MMM Ml\ 

Baslon-hrogma height 

Cranial module 
Thlcknem of th 
Diameter frontal minimum 
Diameter fnuitnl 

Facial heL'ht. total 
Facial height. upper 
Fa-ial breadth 

lit ccntim.' 
1.'.. IT 

cubic centimeter- 
'1 parietal millimeters.. 
minium <viitltiieterM 



a \imnm <1<>__ 


h --do 
p__ _do 




I. -i.i II n;..M SANTA <'Rt'fc l-l \M>. CALIFORNIA (SO. *J4191) 

(Mate xx. a I 

An undefiinncil inawuliiu' HKiill. Th' -niiir.- and ttn'tb indicate a |H>rtw>n 
50 or sonu'whnt more than fiO yearn of age. There IH no trace of premature 
syiiostiisis in any of the artlculationn. 

The snpraorhital rldjres extend over the median three-fifths of the supra- 
orbital spat-e and. while prominent, are not excessive. The glabella lies in a 
small depression between the ridges. The forehead, low and sloping, presents 
but moderate arching and mere traces of frontal eminences. The sagittal 
region anteriorly is slightly elevated. 

The fa<v shows a marked alveolar prognathism. The teeth are considerably 
worn off and several have been lost through disease, which affected to some 
extent also the left alveolar pnx-ess. but there was apparently no anomaly of 
number or conformation. 

Diameter antero-posterior maximum 

Diameter antero-|M>sterior from ophryon 
Diameter lateral maximum 

Cephalic index 

Haslon-bregma height 

Cranial module . 



Thickness of the left parietal. 

Diameter frontal minimum 

Diameter frontal maximum 

Hasion-uasion length 

Facial height. upjM-r (lower jaw missing) 
Facial breadth .^. !T>^_ 


*V (IMate xx, 6) 

The only portions remaining of this s|eclinen are the frontal bone and a small 
piece of each parietal. It was an adult masculine cranium. The sutures 
an* patent dorsally hut obliterated ventrally, (minting to an individual of more 
than 4<> years of age. 


18. 1 



74. r> 



15. 00 

. .centimeters. _ 


cubic centimeters.. 




.-entl meters 

!. 1! 



>. !> 

).. __do 



13. (I 


The supraorbital ridges show good but not extraordinary m.-isc -ulinp develoi>- 
nient ; they extend along the median three-fifths of the supraorbital space. 

The forehead is low and very sloping. Its slight arching is gradual, show 
ing no distinct frontal bend or emineiu-es. A well-marked elevation is observed 
in the median line from above the ophryon to near the bregma. Sagittnl eleva- 
tion was not pronounced. 

'The skull was apparently of good size. The diameter frontal minimum 
measures 9.3 cm. 


(Plate XXI) 

This specimen is reconstructed on a plaster base from pieces, and while in 
point of repair not perfect the main features of the vault are easily discerni- 
ble. It is a long and narrow but not in any degree scaphocephalic or otherwise 
deformed skull, with a low, sloping, and but moderately. arched forehead. 

The supraorbital ridges and glabelln are quite pronounced, but their extent and 
volume are not clearly appreciable owing to the defective condition of the 
fragments. These features and the good-sized mastoids indicate a masculine 

The sagittal region is quite elevated, giving the transverse plane above the 
shape of a pointed arch. The temporal ridges and occipital crests suggest 
strong musculature. 

Occlusion is advanced in the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, and extends in 
some measure into the coronal, but there is no sign that the process in any place 
was premature. 

The thickness of the skull is moderate and its capacity must have been good. 


AIIIKITT. DR. CHAHLKS C.. donor <>f 

KnrlliiKton County skull ::f. 

Anili .\. advent of man In ! 

:/. l'i:"i >:sH<iR, on I.;ik.- MOII 

roe bones 1J> 

ALBANY MOUNDM. crania from. 31. 7*. 9H-95 

rial |M-rlod. i 

AMERICA, peopled from old World- i* 



general dlscinwlon 9-14 

In Ielaware valley 35 

ID Florida - 19 

In North America.- 98 
AIM KARA, arrival <>; In (illder 

Mound region 98 

Al:KAN8AM MOl'ND HKlI.l. 96 

AM\. advent of mnn In 9 


luiiin. PROF. 8. K.. cited on locality 

of Rock Bluff skull 21 

ltx\Ki i. Mi: . (illder Mound remains 

discovered by 7. tt 


Nebraska "loess man"__ 70-71. 
72. 7H 

acknowledgments to 74 

Wilder Mound material fur- 
nished by !U 

<>n geological formation of 

I/ong'* hill 7.'> 

on human remain* from (Mlder 

mound 78. 87. 7 

on Nehranka " loew man " 69 Tit 

72. 73-74 
quoted on antiquity of man In 

North America 1R 

Homatologlcal deitcrlpllon of 
^ finds made by. 81-82.83.88,86 

N \. MAK i \N". on Man of 

IVrton 32. S3-34 

:\\ i-KANIA 42.43 

ItKRTiiorn. i-:. i.., quoted on Soda 

I'n-fk Hkeleton i'o 

Iti.x. KM vs. l'i;.,i i: K .. cited on 
prehlHtorlc man In Ne- 
hraaka 70 

BLAKE, rlted on recent low-browed 

crania 99 

1 1 1. 1 Ml Ml \. II 

cited on Knropean cbama> 
' I'tial- and /.ii\i|< r / 

Islands Hkiillii 42.43 

!'.'. i-i r.'sns. examination of 11 

BoructtMi INIHAXK. cranial type of. 71 




roll n. -.lie in With 

<>llder Mound n-malnii 74 

weatern Florida fossil man 60 

HfRIAI.H. INTRf8IVE . 11-12 


history 3rt 

phyHlcal character!* . _ 37-3X, 39. 41 

racial affinltlea 41 4l 

BrsK. cited on recent low-browed 

crania '.!> 

BrTLKK. IIMCI:. connection of with 
<illder Mound explora- 
tion 8 

Bi-rrs. K.. liwallty of l.nusln^ Hkele- 
ton vUlted by. - 47 


SKI'LL-- lO.'i 


i-oiii|inrlsoiis with other crania. 25-2K 

history . 21-22 

pbyHlcal diHraclers 22-24. 3O 

preserved In I 'en body Museum. 21 


MAIXS 27-2K 


with Calaveras skull 2.% 

CALVIN. PROFESSOR, cited on tan- 
sing skeleton 47 

CAHE, CLINTON A., connection of 
with Glider Mound ex- 
ploration 8 


CAVES, use of by primitive man 11 

CEXOZOIC ERA. divisions of 9 

CHAM.GCEPHALM. an a cranial type.. 42-4H 

on (ilaclal period Hi 








CI.AHK. GEORGE C., connection of 
with Gilder Mound explo- 

CONCANNON, M., owner of site of 
I, alining skeleton 

COXDRA. DOCTOR, connection of with 
< lililer Mound exploration- 

CRANIA, comparison of undeveloped 
and developed 

DAM,. UK. WM. H. 

description of South Osprey re- 
mains received by 

Osprey shells determined by 

DAVIS, cited on recent low-browed 

DKI.A \VAKKS, remains of In Delaware 
valley 35. 36, 


remains found In 35-36, 


( Nrr almt Trenton crania. Trenton 
femur, Trenton gravels.) 


DICKEXOX, DR. M. W.. connection of 
with Natchez pelvic hone_ 



cited l>y \\'. II. Holmos on Cal- 
averas skull 

quoted on Calaveras skull 

DOWLER, DR. D. B., quoted on antiq- 
uity of man in Missis- 
sippi delta .- 

DRAKK. PROF. I)., quoted on New 
Orleans skeleton 

EARLY MAN, definition of term 

EGYPTIAN CRAXIA. ancient and 



KUROPE, advent of man in 



FIRE, use of in mortuary mounds 


antiquity of man in 

bones of fossil mastodon in 

mound crania 

(flee also Hanson Landing re- 
mains, I,;ikp Monroe 
hones. North Osprey 
bones, Osprey skull. South 
Osprey remains. > 

FLOYD .\iorxns 


absent from Gilder Mound 




in Florida 

FOWKE, G., cited on Lansing skele- 










GEOLOGICAL, TIME, classification of.. : K> 
GILDEMEISTER. .1.. cited on Bremen 

chamecephals 43,44 


an Indian mortuary strticture.- 

loiicliiion of i.niifs In 90 

crania from, compared with In- 
dian skulls :.; 

description 67-76 

description of remains from 76-82 

distribution of remains In 87-80 

human remains from vicinity.. sj si, 

low-browed crania from 92-97 

marks on l>ones from 9O-92 

type of long bones from 97-98 

(Kce ulna Nebraska " loess man." > 

acknowledgment to 74 

cited on Nebraska " loess man " TO. 

linds made by, near Gilder 

mound 75. vj s::. X-HT, 86 

on use of fire In Glider mound- _ 87 
quoted on exploration of Gilder 

mound 7-rt'. 

results of examination of finds 

made by 76-78, 

81, 82. 84-85, 86 


GLACIAL PERIOD In North America,. '.' lo 
GLIDDEX. quoting I'sher on Lake 

Monroe bones 19 

GODROX. cited on recent low-browed 

crania !>9 

GRIFFITH, MR., South Osprey re- 
mains discovered by 55 


geological report of Doctor 

Vaughan *'>."> '',; 

history 55 

physical characters 59 

HA WORTH, PROF. E., acknowledg- 
ments to 4s 


Landing remains 55 

HEXRY, DR. E. C., cited on crania 

from Gilder mound '>' 

HEXRY, PROF. JOSEPH, report on Os- 
prey skull received by 

HEREDITY, influence of on skeletal 

parts 12 

His AXD RUTI: MEYER, cited on Euro- 
pean chamsecephals 42 

HITTEI.L, J. S., donations by to Na- 
tional Museum 25-2S 

v. D., cited on European 

chama>cephals - 

HOLMES, PROF. F. S.. Charleston 

bones discovered by 2>-21 


on Calaveras skull 21. 22 

on early man 

on Lansing skeleton 

HUMAX REMAIXS, general discussion 

of _. 11-15 






13, 71 


56. 66 

!>2-93 : HOEVEX. 







excavation* near Glider mound 

by 82 

skulls found In Glider mound 

by 7. so 

! ixvAHioNs In North America 10 


SKt'LLH 10L' 1"! 


rranla from 31,. 12. 03-94 

geology of 28, 20 


I V|.| \\ , CAM A 

mpared with HurllDKton 

*'iiimty and UlvervUw 

Cemetery Hkulls -41 

from Houthern Florida .'is 

low-browed type 

general discussion 00-101 

specimens described . . O.V07. 

<>f Plains tribes .">'_' 

secondary characteristics 1.1 

thick types of moderate tin 

tlijult.v !7 


along Illinois river.. 'JO, .11 

use of fire In.. . 87-80. on. 01. 07 


physical chnriicterlstlm 4tt 

present skeletal structure 40.50 


absent from Gilder Mound tames Oo 
as a process In fogslllzatlon.- 12 

conditions of 2S 

IXTRfSIVE W KIAL8 1 11-12 

|ow\. arrival of In region east of 

Glider mound OS 

KOI. I.MAS. J.. cited on 

Culaveras skull 22 

Kock Bluff crjinliim.. _ 28.30 


1. \\-~l \<. Shi I.KTON 

accompanying remains .":{ 

compared with Trenton crania 40 

conclusion 32 

history _ 47-48 

somatologlcal characters 48-51 


on Charlestnn bones 21 

on Hanson Landing remains .. rfl, 50 

<>n Naichez pelvic Inme 18-10 

MI (ispr.y skull 54.57.58 

I tNM-i. n-malns of In Ielaware val 

!> . 35. 3. 41-42 

I^'N-.. M. <'.. cited In connection with 

I, anslne skeleton 47.48 

s HI 1. 1.. i.v (Slider mound.) 
1.^ 1 1. 1.. Silt CHARLKS 

Lake Monroe bones mentioned liy 10 

n Natchez pelvic bone 16-18 

M"s. IR. M. W.. Identification of 

gopher's teeth by 91 

McCONNKLU MR., quo t Ml on Rock 
Blnff skull 

MANDAX. arrival of In <:tlder Mound 

region 98 

MAX <-i |'KS"N :rj .1:. 

MAN y Xi-\ 

compared with Nebraska " loeaa 

man " 74 

physical cliarnctert ,_ .''" 

MAKKKX ISI.ANI>, skull from 4.1 

MAHTODON, bones of 16, 17, IK. 21 

MATTISOX, MR., quoted by Whitney 

on Calaveras skull 22 


with human bones 16, 17. 18 

Mi: M.S. .1. AiTKEN. on Rock Bluff 

cranium 28 


MIOCKXK I'KRHii) defined-. 

MONTANA low-browed I'legan skull 102 
MOXTGOMERY, rROFKssnii. cited In 

connection with North 

Dakota mounds 01 

MORRIS. WILLIAM, excavations by In 

and near (Jllder mound-- J7, 82 
MORTON, work of n>Kardli)K antli) 

ulty of man 14 

MOST il:i:i i\i SKt'M- _ 00 


artificial markings on 01 

specimens described lul-104 

with low foreheads 02 

Mrscri.AR ACTION, Influence of on 

skeletal parts . r_' 
MYKHS. CHAS. S.. cited on ancient 

Egyptians 1.1 


\ i: \ \MKKTIIAI SKfLL- 

compared with Bremen chamn>- 

cephals . 4.1 

compared with Iowa mound 

cranium 0.1 

compared with Nebraska " loess 

man " _ . 71, 74, 80 

physical characters 30.09 


bibliography _ 70 

conclusion as to antiquity 98 

history of finds 07-70 

somatologlcnl description of re- 

from Gilder mound 76-82 

from vicinity of Glider 

mound 82-86 

views of men of science on 7O-74 

(See alto Gilder mound.) 



of Peilon .12. .1.1 



SKII.I. 101 




chemical analysis 56-57 

history 54 

physical characters 58-50 

site of find 61 

NOTT AND GLIDDBN, quoting Usher on 

Lake Monroe bones in 

OIIUKCON, Cot,. A., connection of with 

Man of Pefion 33 

< M.I' WOULD, as place of man's origin. 

OMAHA, arrival of in Gilder Mound 

region 97-08 

cited In connection with Ne- 
braska " loess man "_ 60, 70, 78 
quoted on Nebraska " loess 

man" 71 


chemical analysis 56 B7 

geological report of Doctor 

Vaughan 64-65,66 

history _. 53-54 

locality of find 60-61, 63, 64, 60 

physical characters 57-58 

OTO, arrival of In region east of 

Gilder mound 98 



PARKER, F. T., excavations by in 

and near Gilder mound _ 67, 82 
PAWNEE, arrival of in Gilder Mound 

region 98 

I'EXON, MAN OF 32-35 

I'HALEN, W. C., chemical analysis by 
of western Florida fossil 

man 56-57 

PHOSPHATE ROCKS, description of __ 66 


I'ithccanthroptu crcctus 74 

PLAINS INDIANS, physical characters 

of 52,97-98 




roe bones discovered by 19 
PRICHARD, work of on antiquity of 

man 14 

PRIMATES, descent of man from 9 

PRUNER-BEY, cited on recent low- 
browed crania 09 


acknowledgments to 21 

cited on Trenton femur 46-47 

explorations In Trenton gravels 


(See also Volk, E.) 
QUATERNARY PERIOD defined ________ 


recent low-browed crania.. 
QUEBEC SKELETON _________________ 

RANDALL-MACIVER, cited on ancient 





history ; 86 

physical characters 3841 

racial affinities 41-46 


compared with Gilder Mound 

skull no. 6 78 

history 28-30 

physical characters 30-32, 93 

superficial cutting evidenced by. 91 
RUTIMEYER, cited on European 

charujecephals 42 

SALISBURY, PROF. R. D., cited on 

glacial period 10 

Lansing skeleton 47 


SKULL 105-106 




on Calaveras skull 22 

on Charleston bones 20, 21 

on Natchez pelvic, bone 17-18 

on Rock Bluff cranium. 28-29,30,31,32 
on variations between ancient 

and modern crania 13 

SCHOKLAND ISLAND, skulls from 43 

SHARPLES, MR., quoted on Calaveras 

skull 22 


arrival of in Gilder Mound re- 
gion 98 

stature of 97 

Sioux SKULL, modern 96 

SKULL, HUMAN, variations in 12-14 



geological report of Dr. Vaughan 65, 66 

history 5556 

locality of find 61-62, 63, 64, 66 

physical characters 5060 

SPANG, NORMAX, excavations by in 

Osprey mound 60-61 

SPRENGEL, J. W., cited on Zuyder 

Zee Islands skulls 43 

SPY, MAN OF. (See Man of Spy.) 

archeology of Iowa 87, 92 


TERTIARY , ;f>n<J fined 

THOMAS, L-*. CYBCS, cited on mound 

exploration 87 

cited on ancient Egyp- 
tians 13 

TRENTO.V CRANIA 3-">-36. 40 

(See also Burlington County 
skull. Rivervlew Cemetery 



(See also Trenton crania, Tren- 
ton femur.) 
TURNER, cited on recent low-browed 

crania _. 09 



l'i<..ri:ssii;. Hied nn 


I I.K isi.AMi. skulls fn m 
In: XV 

,|u..t,-l <>n guelHv Hkeleton ----- 
AKMHH!/. "ii Lake M>n 

XU..MW I>. T. \V.\M. NII. connec- 
tion ( wiili wen torn 
Florida fossil man... 60, 

VIKI-HOW. .ii,., | on ciTtnln Kuropean 
low HkullB. ...... ______ 

V-.IK. I 

-v|>lorailon of Trenton gravel* 
by ____ .............. _ 

Trenton femur (Uncovered by --- 
\V\ui>. I 'HI IF. II. B. 

acknowledgment to ___________ 

cited In connection with (Slider 
Mound Kkull no. 6 ______ 

on Nebraska "loess man". 7O-71. 
WEBB. J. G. 

home site described _____ ..... _ 

North Osprey bones discovered 
by _____ ........ ______ 

on Osprey skull ----------- 

on South Osprey remains ------ 











I XX' . . oMIH-rllolI of Wilt) 

Norlb OHprey bones 54 

I.K. ' 'i i MI N r L., on explor.i 
ilon of ancient Iowa 


XX i I.. KI i:. II riled on Xnyder 

Islands skulls 43 

XX I ->| I ex I--I...IHHI T..SHIL MAN. 

Hanson landing remain*. 

North Osprey hour-*. <>* 

prey skull, South Osprey 


WHITNEY, J. !>.. on Calaveras skull. 21.22 
Win-ox. JOSEPH 

connection of with Hanson 

Landing remains .".* 

limls made by at South Osprey "' 

WILLISTON, PRnpEssoR, cited on 

Ionising skeleton 47 

WISCHELL. I'noFEssoR, cited on I^an- 

sing skeleton 47 

WYMAN, DR. JEFFREYS, on Calaveras 

and California Indian 

crania 22.25 


3453 Bull. >' 07- 


Skeletal remains suggesting or 

TITLE ~ ; : 

attnouted to early man in 




Skeletal remains suggesting or 
attributed to early man in 
North America.