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SKETCHES 



BOSTON, 

PAST AND PRESENT, 



Of SOME FEW PLACES IM 



ITS VICINITY. 



" Honor to the Patt, On^tude for the Present, end Fid«1iljr to the Future * 



Wft* on* fowftte* to Cteentg SSiifltaWnffi. 

v. 

y BOSTON: 

PHILLIPS, SAMPSON, AND COMPANY, 

CROSBY AND NICHOLS. 

185 1. 



* '*-'*' " 



1 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by 

J. SMITH HOMANS, 

in tha Clark's Office of the District Court of the District of 
Massachusetts. 



/ 
CAMBRIDGE: 

STZBBOTYFBD AND PUNTXD ST 

IBTOALf AND OOIPANT, 

PEurrsas to thb untvibsitt. 



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TO 


JOSIAH QUINCY, LL.D. 


A 


RIPE SCHOLAR, 


AN 


ACCOMPLISHED CIVILIAN, 


AND THE 


PROJECTOR OF NUMEROUS PUBLIC WORKS, 


THIS VOLUME 


18 


RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 


BY 


A IfATIYE OF 


BOSTON. 


/ 

i 


- 



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PREFACE. 



The present volume is not intended as a formal history of the metropo- 
lis of New England, nor as a complete index to the many public institutions 
for which it is so famous. Our object has been to furnish a mere outline 
of the early history of the city, with notices of some prominent events : 
adding an account of some few institutions that are particularly deserving 
the attention of citizens and strangers. 

The Appendix will be found to contain much information relating to 
towns in the vicinity. For that portion which describes the beautiful 
"Forest Hills Cemetery ," we are indebted to the late General H. A. S. 
Dearborn, who little thought, when he was preparing the sketch in the 
month of May last, that he would so shortly 

" Rett his head upon the lap of earth." 
He died July 29th, 1851, some few days before this volume could be com- 
pleted for publication. 

The compiler takes occasion to express his acknowledgments to Dr. 
S. G. Howe, of Boston, and to Professors Bond, Horsford, and Francis, of 
Harvard University, and to. the Rev. J. B. Felt, of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, for copious materials furnished by them for this 
work. 

Boston, September, 1851. 



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SKETCHES OF BOSTON, 

PAST AND PRESENT. 



CONTENTS. 

Boston in the Times of the Pilgrims,.... 1 

Prominent Incident* in the History of Boston, 27 

The Churches of Boston,... 01 

The Bridges and Ferries of Boston, 130 

Faneuil Hall, 137 

Faneuii Hall Market, 138 

Grand Junction Railroad, 140 

Asylum and Farm School, 142 

The Islands in Boston Harbor, 143 

Boston in Districts, 146 

East Boston, 148 

The Theatres, 151 

Cochituate Water* Works, 163 

The New City Jail, 160 

The Eye and Ear Infirmary, 162 

The Boston Atheneum, 163 

The New Custom-House, 166 

The Club-House, 168 

The Boston Society of Natural History, 168 

The New Court-House, 171 

The New Almshouse, 172 

The State's Prison, 176 

Massachusetts General Hospital, 180^ 

The McLean Asylum for the Insane, 183 

The State-House, 186 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 188 

Provident Association for Savings, 191 

The Banks in Boston, 192 

Hancock House, * 193 



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CONTENTS. 



Boston Common, 195 

Perkins Institution for the Blind, 198 

The Public Schools of Boston, 203 

History of the Public Schools, v, 233 

Conclusion, 245 



PART SECOND. 

THE VICINITY OF BOSTON. 

Page 

I. ROXBURY,. 1 

II. Lynn,.,, 10 

HI. Watbrtown, 13 

IV. Cbarlbstown,.. 16 

V. Low«4L 23 

VI. Bsookunb, 26 

YU. CAWBiUPaBv 28 

Harvard College* 31 

Faculties of Harvard College, 44 

The Medical School, 46^ 

The BotAnic Garden, 60 

Dane Iaw School, 53 

The Theological School, 68 

The Observatory, 61 

Lawrence Scientific School, 66 

Library of the University, 71 

Christ Church 90 

Washington's Head-Quarters, 94 

The Riedeset House.......... 96 

Mount Auburn,........* 103 

Freeh Pond,.. ■. 109 

VIH. Wamtu*, ...,*,, , Ill 



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SKETCHE 

PAST A 

LIST OF 

] 

State Street, Frontispiece. 


S OF BOSTON, 
lND present. 




ENGRAVINGS. 

Page 1 
..Fourth Methodist Ep. Church, 

1.. Freewill Baptist Church, 

40. .Friends' Meeting* House,... . .. 

. .Grace Church,.. 


■age 
119 

84 


Old House in Ann Street, 

CHTTRCHKS. 

Baldwin Place Baptist Church, 


72 

109 


. .Harvard Street Church, 

81 . . Hawes Place Church,. 


103 
91 


103. . Hollis Street Church, 


7ft 


Bowdoin Square Church, 

Bowdoin Street Church, 

Bulfinch Street Church, 

Cathedral of the Holy Cross,.. . 
Central Congregational Church 

Chardon Street Chapel, 

Charles Street Baptist Church, 

Christ Church, 

Church in Brattle Square, 

Church of the Advent 

Essex Street Church, 

Federal Street Church, 

Fifth Universalis! Church,.... 
First Baptist Church, 


123..Mariuer8' Church, 


107 


101. .Maverick Church, 


80 


97. .New Brick, or Second Church, 

83. .New Jerusalem Church, 

111. .New North Church, 


68 

94 
74 


118. .New South Church, 


75 


. 89. .Old South Church 


7T1 


76.. Park Street Church, 


9(1 


73. .Phillips Church, 


9fi 


99.. Pine Street Church,.... 


104 


. 96 . . Ro we Street -Baptist Church, . 
. 77. .Salem Street Church......... 


122 

Iffi 


. 112. .Second Methodist Church, . . . 
. 69. .Second Universalist Church,. . 

. 87.. South Baptist Church, 

. 67. .South Boston Meth. Church,. 
, 88. .South Boston Universalist Ch. 
. 129. .South Congregational Church, 
. 82. .St. Augustine's Church, 


8£ 
9? 


First Christian Church, 

First Congregational Church,. 
First Independent Baptist Ch. 

First Methodist Church 

First Universalist Church,.... 


114 

86 

, nc 

106 
112 



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Vtii U8T OF ENORAVIN08. 

Page Page 

St. Mary's Church 1 16.. Hawes School 214 

St. Matthew's Church, 92. .Smiths School, 215 

St. Patrick's Church, 1 17. .Boylston School, 216 

St. Paul's Church,*..... 96.. Bowdoin School, 217 

St. Vincent de Paul's Church,.. 102. .English High School, 218 

Stone Chapel, 71.. Hancock School, 219 

Suffolk Street Chapel, 126.. Wells School, 220 

Third Methodist Church, 115. .Johnson School, 221 

Thirteenth Congregational Ch.,. 120.. Winthrop School, 222 

Trinity Church, 79.. Lyman School, 223 

Tuckerman Chapel, 125.. Endicott School, 224 

Twelfth Congregational Church, 100. . Mather School 226 

Warren Street Chapel, 124.. Brimmer School, 226 

West Church, 127. .Phillips School, 227 

. .Otis School, 223 

miscellaneous. .. D wight School, 229 

The National Theatre, 151.. Quincy School, 230 

Cochituate WaUr- Fountain,.. . . 153.. Primary Schools, 231 

The New City Jail, 160.. Ingraham School, 232 

Boston Athenauim, 163.. 

" " interior view, 164.. vicinity ov boston. 

New Custom-House, 166. .Grore Hall, Roxbury, 2 

New Court-House, 171.. Tail's Hotel, 3 

Almshouse, Deer Island,.. ...... 1 73. . 

Ground Plan of Almshouse, 174. .Forest Hills Cemetery, 8 

Massachusetts State Prison 176. .Railroad Depot, Lynn, 10 

Massachusetts Geo. Hospital,... 180.. Lynn High School, 11 

The State-House, 186. .Lynn Mechanics' Bank, ...... 12 

Statue of Washington, 187.. 

Carver Sword, 189.. View of Harvard College, 31 

Speaker's Desk 189.. Dane Law School 54 

Philip's Samp-pan, 190.. Cambridge Observatory, 61 

Provident Savings Institution,.. 191.. The Telescope, 63 

Bank of Commerce, *.... 192.. Lawrence Scientific School,.... 66 

Hancock House, 193. .Gore Hall......... 76 

Asylum for the Blind, 200.. 

..Christ Church, 90 

public school houses. ..Washington's Head-Quarters,.. 94 

Latin School, Bedford Street,... 209.. Riedesel House, 96 

Eliot School, 210. .Entrance to Mount Auburn,... 103 

Adams School, 2ll..Tombof Spuraheim, 107 

Franklin School, 212.. 

May hew School, 213.. Christ Church, Waltham, 112 



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BOSTON. 



SHAWMUT-TRIMOUNTAHf. 




[A brief sketch of tbe leading events in tbe early history of Boston had been pre- 
pared fer this little vol a me : but the following remarks were finally considered 
more appropriate, to precede views of Botton at it it in 1851. They form part of 
" An address to the citizens of Boston, on the 17th of September, 1830, the close of 
the second century from the first settlement of the city." By Josiah Ouincy, LL. D., 
than President of Harvard University.] 



Crnas and empires, not less than individuals, are chiefly Indebted for 
their fortunes to circumstances and influences independent of the labors 
and wisdom of the passing generation. Is our lot cast in a happy soil, be- 
neath a favored sky, and under the shelter of free institutions? How few 
of all these blessings do we owe to our own power, or our own prudence ! 
How few, on which we cannot discern the impress of long past genera* 
tions! 

It is natural that reflections of this kind should awaken curiosity con- 
cerning the men of past ages. It is suitable, and characteristic of noble 
natures, to love to trace In venerated institutions the evidences of ances- 
tral worth and wisdom ; and to cherish that mingled sentiment of awe and 
admiration which takes p oss es sion of the soul in the presence of ancient, 
deep-laid, and massy monuments of intellectual and moral power. 

Standing, after the lapse of two centuries, on the very spot selected for 
us by our lathers, and surrounded by social, moral, and religious blessings 
greater than paternal love, in its fondest visions, ever dared to fancy, we 
naturally turn our eyes backward, on the descending current of years ; 
seeking the causes of that prosperity which has given this city so distin- 
guished a name and rank among similar associations of men. 
jBrnssssamBsaasmssasssaasmtmaaassaB in m ili um aaggs^g 



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Happily its foundations were not laid in dark ages, nor is its origin to be 
sought among loose and obscure traditions. The age of our early an- 
cestors was, in many respects, eminent for learning and civilization. 
Our ancestors themselves were deeply versed in the knowledge and attain- 
ments of their period. Not only their motives and acts appear in the gen- 
eral histories of their time, but they are unfolded in their own writings, 
with a simplicity and boldness, at once commanding admiration and not 
permitting mistake. If this condition of things restrict the imagination 
in its natural tendency to exaggerate, it assists the judgment rightly to an- 
alyze, and justly to appreciate. If it deny the power, enjoyed by ancient 
cities and states, to elevate our ancestors above the condition of humanity, 
it confers a much more precious privilege, that of estimating by unequiv- 
ocal standards the intellectual and moral greatness of the early, interven- 
ing, and passing periods ; and thus of judging concerning comparative at- 
tainment and progress in those qualities which constitute the dignity 
of our species. 

Instead of looking back, as antiquity was accustomed to do, on fabling 
legends of giants and heroes, — of men exceeding in size, in strength, and 
in labor, all experience and history, and, consequently, being obliged to 
contemplate the races of men dwindling with time, and growing less 
amid increasing stimulants and advantages; we are thus enabled to view 
things in lights more conformed to the natural suggestions of reason, and 
actual results of observation ; — to witness improvement in its slow but 
sure progress ; in a general advance, constant and unquestionable ; — to 
pay due honors to the greatness and virtues of our early ancestors, and be, 
at the same time, just to the not inferior greatness and virtues of succeed- 
ing generations of men, their dependents and our progenitors. 

Thus we substantiate the cheering conviction, that the virtues of an- 
cient times have not been lost, or debased, in the course of their descent, 
but, in many respects, have been refined and elevated ; and so, standing 
faithful to the generations which are past, and fearless in the presence of 
the generations to come, we accumulate on our own times the responsibil- 
ity that an inheritance, which has descended to us enlarged and improved, 
shall not be transmitted by us diminished or deteriorated. 

As our thoughts course along the events of past times, from the hour of 
the first settlement of Boston to that in which we are now assembled, 
they trace the strong features of its character, indelibly impressed upon 
its acts and in its history ; — clear conceptions of duty ; bold vindications 
of right ; readiness to incur dangers and meet sacrifices, in the mainten- 
ance of liberty, civil and religious. Early selected as the place of the 
chief settlement of New England, it has, through every subsequent peri, 
od, maintained its relative ascendancy. In the arts of peace and in the 
energies of war, in the virtues of prosperity and adversity, in wisdom to 
plan and vigor to execute, in extensiveness of enterprise, success in accu- 



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I EARLY HISTORY. 3 

mulating wealth, and liberality in its distribution, its inhabitants, if not 
unrivalled, have not been surpassed, by any similar society of men. 
Through good report and evil report, its influence has, at all times, been so 
distinctly seen and acknowledged in events, and been so decisive on the 
destinies of the region of which it was the head, that the inhabitants of 
the adjoining colonies of a foreign nation early gave the name of this 
place to the whole country ; and at this day, among their descendents, the 
people of the whole United States are distinguished by the name of " Bos- 
tonians." 

Amidst perils and obstructions, on the bleak side of the mountain on 
which it was first cast, the seedling oak, self-rooted, shot upward with a 
determined vigor. Now slighted and now assailed; amidst alternating 
cnmshine and storm ; with the axe of a native foe at its root, and the light- 
ning of a foreign power, at times, scathing its top, or withering its 
branches, it grew, it flourished, it stands, — may it for ever stand ! — the 
honor of the field. 

Our ancestors have left no Corinthian temples on our hills, no Gothic ca- 
thedrals on our plains, no proud pyramid, no storied obelisk, in our cities. 
But mind is there. Sagacious enterprise is there. An active, vigorous, 
intelligent, moral population throng our cities, and predominate in our 
fields ; men patient of labor, submissive to law, respectful to authority, 
regardful of right, faithful to liberty. These are the monuments of our 
ancestors. They stand immutable and immortal, in the social, moral, and 
intellectual condition of their descendants. They exist in the spirit 
which their precepts instilled, and their example implanted. Let no man 
think that to analyze, and place in a just light, the virtues of the first set- 
tlers of New England, is a departure from the purpose of this celebration ; 
or deem so meanly, of our duties, as to conceive that merely local rela- 
tions, the circumstances which have given celebrity and character to this 
single city, are the only, or the most appropriate topics for the occasion. 
It was to this spot, during twelve successive years, that the great body of 
those first settlers emigrated. In this place, they either fixed permanently 
their abode, or took their departure from it for the coast, or the interior. 

Whatever honor devolves on this metropolis from the events connected 
with he first settlement, is not solitary or exclusive ; it is shared with 
Massachusetts ; with New England ; in some sense with the whole Unit- 
ed States. For what part of this wide empire, be it sea or shore, lake or 
river, mountain or valley, have the descendants of the first settlers of New 
England not traversed 7 what depth of forest not penetrated ? what dan- 
ger of nature or man not defied? Where is the cultivated field, in re- 
deeming which from the wilderness, their vigor has not been displayed ? 
Where amid unsubdued nature, by the side of the first log-hut of the set- 
tler, does the school-house stand and the church-spire rise, unless the sons 
of New England are there ? Where does improvement advance, under the 



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active energy of willing hearts and ready hands, prostrating the moss-cov- 
ered monarchs of the wood, and from their ashes, amid their charred 
roots, biddmg the greensward and the waving harvest to upspring, and 
the spirit of the fathers of New England is not seen, hovering and shed- 
ding around the benign influences of sound social, moral, and religious in- 
stitutions, stronger and more enduring than knotted oak or tempered 
steel ? The swelling tide of their descendants has spread upon our coasts ; 
ascended our rivers ; taken possession of our plains. Already it encircles 
our lakes. At this hour the rushing noise of the advancing wave startles 
the wild beast in his lair among the prairies of the West. Soon it shall 
be seen climbing the Rocky mountains, and, as it dashes over their cliffs, 
shall be hailed by the dwellers on the Pacific,* as the harbinger of the 
coming blessings of safety, liberty, and truth. • 

The glory, which belongs to the virtues of our ancestors, is seen radiat- 
ing from the nature of their design ; — from the spirit in which it was ex- 
ecuted ; — and from the character of their institutions. 

That emigration of Englishmen, which, two centuries ago, resulted in 
the settlement of this metropolis, was distinguished by the comparative 
greatness of the means employed, and the number, rank, fortune, and in- 
tellectual endowments of those engaged in it, as leaders or associates. 
Twelve ships, transporting somewhat less than nine hundred souls, consti- 
tuted the physical strength of the first enterprise. In the course of the 
twelve succeeding years, twenty-two thousand souls emigrated in one hun- 
dred and ninety-two ships, at a cost, including the private expenses of the 
adventurers, which cannot be estimated, in our currency, at less than one 
million of dollars. At that time the tide of emigration was stayed. In- 
telligent writers of the last century assert that more persons had subse- 
quently gone from New England to Europe, than had come to it during the 
same period from that quarter of the globe. A contemporary historian 
represents the leaders of the first emigration as ".gentlemen of good estate 
and reputation, descended from, or connected by marriage with, noble fam- 
ilies ; having large means, and great yearly revenue, sufficient in all rea- 
son to content ; their tables abundant in food, their coffers m coin ; posses- 
sing beautiful houses, filled with rich furniture ; gainful in their business, 
and growing rich daily ; well provided for themselves, and having a sure 
competence for their children ; wanting nothing of a worldly nature to 
complete the prospects of ease and enjoyment, or which could contrib- 
ute to the pleasures, the prospects, or the splendors of life." 

The question forces itself on the mind, Why did such men emigrate ? 
Why did men of their condition exchange a pleasant and prosperous home 
for a repulsive and cheerless wilderness ? a civilized for a barbarous vicini- 
ty ? why, quitting peaceful and happy dwellings, dare the dangers of 



• This, it will be recollected, was written aome year* before the gold diecoTeriea 
in California. 



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EARLY HISTORY. 6 

tempestuous and unexplored seas, the rigors of untried and severe climates, 
the difficulties of a hard soil, and the inhuman warfare of a savage foe ? 
An answer must be sought in the character of the times ; and in the spir- 
it which the condition of their native country and age had a direct ten- 
dency to excite and cherish. The general civil and religious aspect of the 
English nation, in the age of our ancestors, and in that immediately pre- 
ceding their emigration, was singularly hateful and repulsive. A foreign 
hierarchy contending with a domestic despotism for infallibility and su- 
premacy in matters of faith. Confiscation, imprisonment, the axe and 
the stake, approved and customary means of making proselytes and pro- 
moting uniformity. The fires of Smithfield, now lighted by the corrupt 
and selfish zeal of Roman pontiffs ; and now rekindled by the no less cor- 
rupt and selfish zeal of English sovereigns. All men clamorous for the 
rights of conscience, when in subjection ; all actively persecuting, when 
in authority. Everywhere religion considered as a state entity, and hav- 
ing apparently no real existence, except in associations in support of es- 
tablished power, or in opposition to it. 

The moral aspect of the age was not less odious than its civil. Every 
benign and characteristic virtue of Christianity was publicly conjoined, 
in close alliance, with its most offensive opposite. Humility wearing the 
tiara, and brandishing the keys, in the excess of the pride of temporal and 
spiritual power. The Roman pontiff, under the title of " the servant of 
servants/' with his foot on the neck of every monarch in Christendom ; 
and under the seal of the fisherman of Galilee, dethroning kings and giv- 
ing away kingdoms. Purity, content, and self-denial preached by men 
who held the wealth of Europe tributary to their luxury, sensuality, and 
spiritual pride. Brotherly love in the mouth, while the hand applied the 
instrument of torture. Charity, mutual forbearance, and forgiveness 
chanted in unison with clanking chains and crackling fagots. 

Nor was the intellectual aspect of the age less repulsive than its civil 
and moral. The native charm of the religious feeling lost or disfigured 
amidst forms, and ceremonies, and disciplines. By one class, piety was 
identified with copes, and crosiers, and tippets, and genuflexions. By 
another class, all these are abhorred as the tricks and conjuring garments 
of popery, or, at best, in the language of Calvin, as " tolerable fooleries " ; 
while they, on their part, identified piety with looks, and language, and 
gestures extracted or typified from Scripture, and fashioned according to 
the newest " pattern of the mount." By none were the rights of private 
judgment acknowledged. By all, creeds, and dogmas, and confessions, 
and catechisms, collected from Scripture with metaphysical skill, arranged 
with reference to temporal power and influence, and erected into standards 
of faith, were made the flags and rallying points of the spiritual swords- 
men of the church militant. 

The first emotion which this view of that period excites, at the present 



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day, is contempt or disgust. But the men of that age are no more re- 
sponsible for the mistakes into which they fell, under the circumstances 
in which the intellectual eye was then placed, than we, at this day, for 
those optical illusions to which the natural eye is subject, before time and 
experience have corrected the judgment and instructed it in the true laws 
of nature and vision. It was their fate to lire in the crepuscular state of 
the intellectual day, and by the law of their nature they were compelled 
to see things darkly, through false and shifting mediums, and in lights at 
once dubious and deceptive. For centuries, a night of Egyptian darkness 
had overspread Europe, in the " palpable obscure" of which, priests and 
monarchs and nobles had not only found means to enthral the minds of 
the multitude, but absolutely to loose and bewilder their own. 

When the light of learning began to dawn, the first rays of the rising 
splendor dazzled and confused, rather than directed, the mind. As the 
coming light penetrated the thick darkness, the ancient cumulative cloud 
severed into new forms. Its broken masses became tinged with an un- 
certain and shifting radiance. Shadows assumed the aspect of substan- 
ces; the eveneecent suggestions of fancy, the look of fixed realities. 
The wise were at a loss what to believe, or what to discredit ; how to quit 
and where to hold. On all sides sprang up sects and parties, infinite in 
number, incomprehensible in doctrine; often imperceptible in difference; 
yet each claiming for itself infallibility, and, in the sphere it affected to 
influence, supremacy; each Violent and hostile to the others, haughty 
and hating its non-adhering brother, in a spirit wholly repugnant to the 
humility and love inculcated by that religion, by which each pretended 
to be actuated ; and ready to resort, when it had power, to corporeal penal- 
ties, even to death itself, as allowed modes of self-defence and prosely- 
tisra. 

It, was the fate of the ancestors of New England to have their lot cast 
in a state of society thus unprecedented. They were of that class of the 
English nation, in whom the systematic persecutions of a concentrated 
civil and ecclesiastical despotism had enkindled an intense interest con- 
cerning man's social and religious rights. Their sufferings had created in 
their minds a vivid and inextinguishable love of civil and religious liberty ; 
a fixed resolve, at every peril, to assert and maintain their natural rights. 
Among the boldest and most intelligent of this class of men, chiefly 
known by the name of Puritans, were the founders of this metropolis. 
To a superficial view, their zeal seems directed to forms and ceremonies 
and disciplines which have become, at this day, obsolete or modified, and 
so seems mistaken or misplaced. But the wisdom of zeal for any object 
is not to be measured by the particular nature of that object, but by the 
naurre of the principle which the circumstances of the times, or of so- 
ciety, have identified with such object. 

Liberty, whether civil or religious, is among the noblest objects of hu* 



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BARLY BISTORT. 7 

man regard. Yet, to a being constituted like man, abstract liberty ban 
no existence, and over him no practical influence. To be for him an effi- 
cient principle of action, it roust be embodied in some sensible object. 
Thus the form of a cap, the color of a surplice, ship-money, a tax on tea, 
or on stamped paper, objects in themselves indifferent, hare been so in- 
separably identified with the principle temporarily connected with them, 
that martyrs hare died at the stake, and patriots have fallen in the field, 
and this wisely and nobly, for the sake of the principle, made by the cir- 
cumstances of the time to inhere m them. 

Now in the age of our fathers, the principle of civil and religious liber- 
ty became identified with forms, disciplines, and modes of worship. The 
zeal of our fathers was graduated by the importance of the inhering 
principle. This gave elevation to that seal. This creates interest in 
their sufferings. This entitles them to rank among patriots and martyrs, 
who have voluntarily sacrificed themselves to the causs of conscience and 
their country. Indignant at being denied the enjoyment of the rights of 
conscience, which were in that age identified with those sensible objects, 
and resolute to vindicate them, they quitted country and home, crossed 
the Atlantic, and, without other auspices than their own strength and 
their confidence in Heaven, they proceeded to lay the foundation of a 
commonwealth, under the principles and by the stamina of which, their 
posterity have established an actual anduncontroverted independence, net 
less happy than glorious. To their enthusiastic vision, all the comforts 
of life and all the pleasures of society were light and worthless in com- 
parison with the liberty they sought. The te mpestu ous sea was less 
dreadful than the troubled waves of civil discord ; the quicksands, the 
unknown shoals, and unexplored shores of a savage coast, less fearful 
than the metaphysical abysses and perpetually shifting whirlpools of des- 
potic ambition and ecclesiastical policy and intrigue ; the bow and the 
tomahawk of the transatlantic barbarian, less terrible than the flame and 
faggot of the civilised European. In the calm of our present peace and 
prosperity, it is difficult for us to realize or appreciate their sorrows and 
sacrifices. They sought a new world, lying far off in space, destitute of 
all" the attractions which make home and native land dear and venerable. 
Instead of cultivated fields and a civilised neighborhood, the prospect be- 
fore them presented nothing but dreary wastes, cheerless climates, and 
repulsive wildernesses, poss es s e d by wild beasts and savages; the Inter- 
vening ocean unexplored and intersected by the fleets of a hostile nation ; 
its usual dangers multiplied to the fancy, and in fact, by ignorance of 
real hazards, and natural fears of such as the event proved to be imagi- 
nary. 

" Pass on," exclaims one of these adventurers, " and attend, while 
these soldiers of faith ship for this western world ; while they and their 
wives and their little ones take an eternal leave of their country and kin- 



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8 B08T0N. 

dred. With what heart-breaking affection did they press loved friends to 
their bosoms, whom they were never to see again ! their voices broken 
by grief, till tears streaming eased their hearts to recovered speech again ; 
natural affections clamorous as they lake a perpetual banishment from 
their native soil; their enterprise scorned; their motives derided; and 
they counted but madmen and fools. But time shall discover the wisdom 
with which they were endued, and the sequel shall show how their policy 
overtopped all the human policy of this world." 

Winthrop, their leader and historian, in his simple narrative of the 
voyage, exhibits them, when in severe sufferings, resigned; in instant ex 
pectation of battle, fearless; amid storm, sickness, and death, calm, con- 
fident, and undismayed. " Our trust," says he, " was in the Lord of 
hosts." For years, Winthrop, the leader of the first great enterprise, 
was the chief magistrate of the infant metropolis. His prudence guided 
its councils. His valor directed its strength. His life and fortune were 
spent in fixing its character, or in improving its destinies. A bolder spir- 
it never dwelt, a truer heart never beat, in any bosom. Had Boston, like 
Rome, a consecrated calendar, there is no name better entitled than that 
of Winthrop to be registered as its " patron saint.' 1 

From Salem and Charleetown, the places of their first landing, they 
ranged the bay of Massachusetts to fix the head of the settlement. Af- 
ter much deliberation, and not without opposition, they selected this 
spot ; known to the natives by the name of ShaxomtU, and to the adjoin- 
ing settlers by that of Trimountain; the former indicating the abun- 
dance and sweetness of its waters ; the latter the peculiar character of 
its hills. 

Accustomed as we are to the beauties of the place and its vicinity, and 
in the daily perception of the charms of its almost unrivalled scenery, — 
in the centre of a natural amphitheatre, whose sloping descents the riches 
of a laborious and intellectual cultivation adorn, — where hill and vale, 
river and ocean, island and continent, simple nature and unobtrusive art, 
with contrasted and interchanging harmonies, form a rich and gorgeous 
landscape, we are little able to realize the almost repulsive aspect of its 
original state. We wonder at the blindness of those, who, at one time, 
constituted the majority, and had well nigh fixed elsewhere the chief seat 
of the settlement. Nor are we easily just to Winthrop, Johnson, and 
their associates, whose skill and judgment selected this spot, and whose 
firmness settled the wavering minds of the multitude upon it, as the place 
for their metropolis ; a decision, which the experience of two centuries 
has irrevocably justified, and which there is no reason to apprehend that 
the events or opinions of any century to come will reverse. 

To the eyes of the first emigrants, however, where now exists a dense 
and aggregated mass of living beings and material things, amid all the 
accommodations of life, the splendors of wealth, the delights of taste, 



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EARLY HISTORY. 9 

and whatever can gratify the cultivated intellect, there were then only a 
few hills, which, when the ocean receded, were interceded by wide 
marshes, and when its tide returned, appeared a group of lofty islands, 
abruptly rising from the surrounding waters. Thick forests concealed the 
neighboring hills, and the deep silence of nature was broken only by the 
voice of the wild beast or bird, and the warwhoop of the savage. 

The advantages of the place were, however, clearly marked by the 
hand of nature; combining at once present convenience, future security, 
and an ample basis for permanent growth and prosperity. Towards the 
continent it possessed but a single avenue, and that easily fortified. Its 
hills then commanded, not only its own waters, but the hills of the vicin- 
ity. At the bottom of a deep bay, its harbor was capable of containing 
the proudest navy of Europe ; yet, locked by islands and guarded by 
winding channels, it presented great difficulty of access to strangers, and, 
to the inhabitants, great facility of protection against maritime invasion 
while to those acquainted with its waters, it was both easy and accessi- 
ble. To these advantages were added goodness and plenteousness of wa- 
ter, and the security afforded by that once commanding height, now, 
alas ! obliterated and almost forgotten, since art and industry have lev- 
elled the predominating mountain of the place ; from whose lofty and im- 
posing top the beacon-fire was accustomed to rally the neighboring popu- 
lation, on any threatened danger to the metropolis. A single cottage, 
from which ascended the smoke of the hospitable hearth of Blackstone, 
who had occupied the peninsula several years, was the sole civilized 
mansion in the solitude ; the kind master of which, at first, welcomed the 
coming emigrants ; but soon, disliking the sternness of their manners and 
the severity of their discipline, abandoned the settlement. His rights as 
first occupant were recognized by our ancestors ; and in November, 1634, 
Edmund Quincy, Samuel Wildbore, and others were authorized to assess 
a rate of thirty pounds for Mr. Blackstone, on the payment of which all 
local rights in the peninsula became vested in its inhabitants. 

The same bold spirit which thus led our ancestors across the Atlantic, 
and made them prefer a wilderness where liberty might be enjoyed to 
civilized Europe where it was denied, will be found characterizing all 
their institutions. Of these the limits of the time permit me to speak 
only in general terms. The scope of their policy has been usually regard- 
ed as though it were restricted to the acquisition of religious liberty in 
the relation of colonial dependence. No man, however, can truly un- 
derstand their institutions and the policy on which they were founded, 
without taking as the basis of all reasonings concerning them, that civil 
independence teas ae truly their object aa religious liberty; in other 
words, that the possession of the former was, in their opinion, the essen- 
tial means, indispensable to the secure enjoyment of the latter, which 
was their great end. 



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10 BOSTON. 

The master passion of our early ancestors was dread of the English 
hierarchy. To place themselves, locally, beyond the reach of its power, 
they resolved to emigrate. To secure themselves after their emigration, 
from the arm of this their ancient oppressor, they devised a plan, which, 
as they thought, would enable them to establish, under a nominal subjec- 
tion, an actual independence. The bold and original conception, which 
they had the spirit to form and successfully to execute, was the attain- 
ment and perpetuation of religious liberty, under the auspices of a free 
commonwealth. This is the master-key to all their policy, — this the 
glorious spirit which breathes in all their institutions. Whatever in them 
is stern, exclusive, or at this day seems questionable, may be accounted 
for, if not justified, by its connection with this great purpose. 

The question has often been raised, when and by whom the idea of in- 
dependence of the parent state was first conceived, and by whose act a 
settled purpose to effect it was first indicated. History does not permit 
the people of Massachusetts to make a question of this kind. The honor 
of that thought, and of as efficient a declaration of it as in their circum- 
stances was possible, belongs to Winthrop, and Dudley, and Saltonstall, 
and their associates, and was included in the declaration, that " thb only 

CONDITION ON WHICH THEY WITH THBIB FAMILIES WOULD RBMOVH TO 
THIS COUNTRY, WAS, THAT THB PATBNT AND CHARTER SHOULD RBMOVB 
WITH THBM." 

This simple declaration and resolve included, as they had the sagacity 
to perceive, all the consequences of an effectual independence, under a 
nominal subjection. For protection against foreign powers, a charter 
from the parent state was necessary. Its transfer to New England vest- 
ed, effectually, independence. Those wise leaders foresaw, that, among 
the troubles in Europe, incident to the age, and then obviously impending 
over their parent state, their settlement, from its distance and early insig- 
nificance, would probably escape notice. They trusted to events, and 
doubtless anticipated, that, with its increasing strength, even nominal 
subjection would be abrogated. They knew that weakness was the law of 
nature in the relation between parent states and' their distant and de- 
tached colonies. Nothing else can be inferred, not only from their making 
the transfer of the charter the essential condition of their emigration, 
thereby saving themselves from all responsibility to persons abroad, but 
also from their instant and undeviating course of policy after their emi- 
gration; in boldly assuming whatever powers were necessary to their con- 
dition, or suitable to their ends, whether attributes of sovereignty or not, 
without regard to the nature of the consequences resulting from the exer- 
cise of those powers. 

Nor was this assumption limited to powers which might be deduced 
from the charter, but was extended to such as no act of incorporation, 
like that which they possessed, could, by any possibility of legal construc- 



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BAKLV HISTORY 1 . 11 

tion, be deemed to include. By the magic of their daring, a private act 
of incorporation was transmuted into a civil constitution of state ; under 
the authority of which they made peace and declared war ; erected judi- 
catures; coined money; raised armies ; built fleets; laid taxes and im- 
posts; inflicted fines, penalties, and death; and in imitation of the British 
constitution, by the consent of all its own branches, without asking leave 
of any other, their legislature modified its own powers and relations, pre- 
scribed the qualifications of those who should conduct its authority, and 
enjoy or be excluded from its privileges. 

The administration of the civil affairs of Massachusetts, for the sixty 
years next succeeding the settlement of this metropolis, was a phenome- 
non in the history of civil government. Under a theoretic colonial rela- 
tion, an efficient and independent Commonwealth was erected, claiming 
and exercising attributes of sovereignty, higher and far more extensive 
than, at the present day, in consequence of its connection with the gen- 
eral government, Massachusetts pretends either to exercise or possess. 
Well might Chalmers asserts, as in his Political Annals of the Colonies 
he does, that " Massachusetts, with a peculiar dexterity, abolished her 
charter " ; that she was always " fruitful in projects of independence, the 
principles of which, at all times, governed her actions." In this point 
of view, it is glory enough for our early ancestors, that, under manifold 
disadvantages, in the midst of internal discontent and external violence 
and intrigue, of wars with the savages and with the neighboring colonies 
of France, they effected their purpose, and for two generations of men, 
from 1630 to 1692, enjoyed liberty of conscience, according to their view 
of that subject, under the auspices of a free commonwealth. 

The three objects, which our ancestors proposed to attain and perpetuate 
by all their institutions, were the noblest within the srasp of the human 
mind, and those on which, more than on any other, depend human hap- 
piness £nd hope ; — religious liberty, civil liberty, and, as essential to 
the attainment and maintenance of both, intellectual poteer. 

On the subject of religious liberty, their intolerance of other sects has 
been reprobated as an inconsistency, and as violating the very rights of 
conscience for which they emigrated. The inconsistency, if it exist, is 
altogether constructive, and the charge proceeds on a false assumption. 
The necessity of the policy, considered in connection with their great de- 
sign of independence, is apparent. They had abandoned house and 
home, had sacrificed the comforts of kindred and cultivated life, had dared 
the dangers of the sea, and were then braving the still more appalling 
terrors of the wilderness; for what? — to acquire liberty for all sorts of 
consciences 1 Not so ; but to vindicate and maintain the liberty of their 
own consciences. They did not cross the Atlantic on a crusade in behalf 
of the rights of mankind in general, but in support of their own rights 
and liberties Tolerate! Tolerate whom? The legate of the Roman Pon> 



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12 BOSTON. 

tiff, or tbe emissary of Charles the First and Archbishop Laud 7 How 
consummate would have been their folly and madness, to hare fled into 
the wilderness to escape the horrible persecutions of those hierarchies, and 
at once have admitted into the bosom of their society, men brandishing, 
and ready to apply, the very flames and fetters from which they had fled ! 
Those who are disposed to condemn them on this account, neither realize 
the necessities of their condition, nor the prevailing character of the 
times. Under the stern discipline of Elizabeth and James, the stupid big- 
otry of the First Charles, and the spiritual pride of Archbishop Laud, the 
spirit of the English hierarchy was very different from that which it as- 
sumed, when, after having been tamed and humanized under the whole- 
some discipline of Cromwell and his Commonwealth, it yielded itself to 
the mild influence of the principles of 1688, and to the liberal spirit of Tit- 
lotson. 

But, it is said, if they did not tolerate their ancient persecutors, they 
might, at least, have tolerated rival sects. That is, they ought to have 
tolerated sects imbued with the same principles of intolerance as the 
transatlantic hierarchies ; sects, whose first use of power would have 
been to endeavor to uproot the liberty of our fathers, and persecute them, 
according to the known principles of sectarian action, with a virulence in 
the inverse ratio of their reciprocal likeness and proximity. Those who 
thus reason and thus condemn, have considered but very superficially 
the nature of the human mind and its actual condition in the time of our 
ancestors. 

The great doctrine, now so universally recognized, that liberty of con- 
science is the right of the individual, — a concern between every man and 
bis Maker, with which the civil magistrate is not authorized to interfere, 
— was scarcely, in their day, known, except in private theory and solitary 
speculation ; as a practical truth, to be acted upon by the civil power, H 
was absolutely and universally rejected by all men, all parties, .and all 
sects, as totally subversive, not only of the peace of the church, but of 
the peace of society. That great truth, now deemed so simple and plain, 
was so far from being an easy discovery of the human intellect, that it 
may be doubted whether it would ever have been discovered by human 
reason at all, had it not been for the miseries in which man was involved 
in consequence of his ignorance of it. That truth was not evolved by the 
calm exertion of the human faculties, but was stricken out by the collis- 
ion of the human passions. It was not the result of philosophic research, 
but was a hard lesson, taught under the lash of a severe discipline, pro- 
vided for the gradual instruction of a being like man, not easily brought 
into subjection to virtue, and with natural propensities to pride, ambi- 
tion, avarice, and selfishness. 

Previously to that time, in all modifications of society, ancient or mod- 
ern, religion had been seen only in close connection with the State. It 



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BARLY HISTORY. 13 

was the universal instrument by which worldly ambition shaped and 
moulded the multitude to its ends. To have attempted the establishment 
of a state on the basis of a perfect freedom of religious opinion, and the 
perfect right of every man to express his opinion, would then have been 
considered as much a solecism, and an experiment quite as wild and vis- 
ionary, as it would be, at this day, to attempt the establishment of a state 
on the principle of a perfect liberty of individual action, and the perfect 
right of every man to conduct himself according to his private will. 
Had our early ancestors adopted the course we, at this day, are apt to 
deem so easy and obvious, and placed their government on the basis of 
liberty for all sorts of consciences, it would have been, in that age, a cer- 
tain introduction of anarchy. It cannot be questioned, that all the fond 
hopes they had cherished from emigration would have been lost. The 
ag&ts of Charles and James would have planted here the standard of the 
transatlantic monarchy and hierarchy. Divided and broken, without prac- 
tical energy, subject to court influences and court favorites, New England 
at this day would have been a colony of the parent state, her character 
yet to be formed and her independence yet to be vindicated. Lest the 
consequences of an opposite policy, had it been adopted by our ancestors, 
may seem to be exaggerated, as here represented, it is proper to state, 
that upon the strength and united spirit of New England mainly depend- 
ed (under Heaven) the success of our revolutionary struggle. Had New 
England been divided, or even less unanimous, independence would have 
scarcely been attempted, or, if attempted, acquired. It will give addition- 
al strength to this argument to observe, that the number of troops, regular 
and militia, furnished by all the States during the war of the revolution, 

was 288,134 

Of these New England furnished more than half, viz. . . 147,674 
And Massachusetts alone furnished nearly one third, viz. . * 83, 162 

The non-toleration which characterized our early ancestors, from what- 
ever source it may have originated, had undoubtedly the effect they in- 
tended and wished. It excluded from influence in their infant settlement 
all the friends and adherents of the ancient monarchy and heirarchy ; all 
who, from any motive, ecclesiastical or civil, were disposed to disturb 
their peace or their churches. They considered it a measure of li self- 
defence" And it is unquestionable, that it was chiefly instrumental in 
forming the homogeneous and exclusively republican character, for which 
the people of New-England have, in all times, been distinguished; and, 
above all, that it fixed irrevocably in the country that noble security for 
religious liberty, the independent system of church government. 

The principle of the independence of the churches, including the right 
of every individual to unite with what church he pleases, under whatever 

• See " Collection! of tbe New Hampshire Historical Society," Vol. I. 



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14 BOSTON. 

sectarian auspices it may have been fostered, has through the influence 
of time and experience, lost altogether its exclusive character. It has be- 
come the universal guaranty of religious liberty to all sects without dis- 
crimination, and is as much the protector of the Roman Catholic, the 
Episcopalian, and the Presbyterian, as of the Independent form of wor- 
ship. The security, which results from this principle, does not depend 
upon charters and constitutions, but on what is stronger than either, the 
nature of the principle in connection with the nature of man. So long 
as this intellectual, moral, and religious being, man, is constituted as he 
is, the unrestricted liberty of associating for public worship, and the in- 
dependence of those associations of external control, will necessarily 
lead to a most happy number and variety of them. In the principle of 
the independence of each, the liberty of individual conscience is safefin- 
der the panoply of the common interest of all. No other perfect security 
for liberty of conscience was ever devised by man, except this independ- 
ence of the churches. This possessed, liberty of conscience has no dan- 
ger. This denied, it has no safety. There can be no greater human secu- 
rity than common right, placed under the protection of common interest. 

It is the excellence and beauty of this simple principle, that, while it 
secures all, it restricts none. They, who delight in lofty and splendid 
monuments of ecclesiastical architecture, may raise the pyramid of 
church power, with its aspiring steps and gradations, until it terminate 
in the despotism of one, or a few ; the humble dwellers at the base of the 
proud edifice may wonder, and admire the ingenuity of the contrivance 
and the splendor of its massive dimensions, but it is without envy and 
without fear. Safe in the principle of -independence, they worship, be it 
in tent, or tabernacle, or in the open air, as securely as though standing 
on the topmost pinnacle of the loftiest fabric ambition ever devised. 

The glory of discovering and putting this principle to the test, on a 
scale capable of trying its efficacy, belongs to the fathers of Massachu- 
setts, who are entitled to a full share of that acknowledgment made by 
Hume, when he asserts, " that for all the liberty of the English constitu- 
tion, that nation is indebted to the Puritans." 

The glory of our ancestors radiates from no point more strongly than 
from their institutions of learning. The people of New England are the 
first known to history, who provided, in the original constitution of their 
society, for the education of the whole population out of the general fund. 
In other countries, provisions have been made of this character in favor 
of certain particular classes, or for the poor by way of charity. But here 
first were the children of the whole community invested with the right of 
being educated at the expense of the whole society ; and not only this, 
— the obligation to take advantage of that right was enforced by severe 
supervision and penalties. By simple laws they founded their common- 
wealth on the only basis on which a republic has any hope of happiness 



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EARLY HISTORY. 15 

or continuance, the general information of the people. They denomina- 
ted it *' barbarism " not to be able " perfectly to read the English tongue 
and to know the general laws." In soliciting a general contribution for 
the support of the neighboring University, they declare that "skill in 
the tongues and liberal arts is not only laudable, but necessary for the 
well-being of the commonwealth " And in requiring every town, having 
one hundred householders, to set up a Grammar School, provided with a 
master able to fit youth for the University, the object avowed is, " to en- 
able men to obtain a knowledge of the Scriptures, and by acquaintance 
with the ancient tongues to qualify them to discern the true sense and 
meaning of the original, however corrupted by false glosses." Thus lib- 
eral and thus elevated, in respect of learning, were the views of our an- 
cestors. 

To the same master passion, dread of the English hierarchy, and the 
same main purpose, civil independence, may be attributed, in a great de- 
gree, the nature of the government which the principal civil and spirit- 
ual influences of the time established, and, notwithstanding its many ob- 
jectionable features, the willing submission to it of the people. 

It cannot be questioned that the constitution of the State, as sketched 
in the first laws of our ancestors, was a skilful combination of both civil 
and ecclesiastical powers. Church and state were very curiously and effi- 
ciently Interwoven with each other. It is usual to attribute to religious 
bigotry the submission of the mass of the people to a system thus stern 
and exclusive. It may, however, with quite as much justice, be resolved 
into love of independence and political sagacity. 

The great body of the first emigrants doubtless coincided in general re 
ligious views with those whose influence predominated in their church 
and state. They had consequently no personal objection to the stem dis 
cipline their political system established. They had also the sagacity to 
foresee that a system which by its rigor should exclude from power all 
who did not concur with their religious views, would have a direct ten- 
dency to deter those in other countries from emigrating to their settle- 
ment, who did not agree with the general plan of policy they had adopt- 
ed, and of consequence to increase the probability of their escape from 
the interference of their ancient oppressors, and the chance of success in 
laying the foundation of the free commonwealth they contemplated. 
They also doubtless perceived, that with the unqualified possession of the 
elective franchise, they had little reason to apprehend that they could not 
easily control or annihilate any ill effect upon their political system, aris- 
ing from the union of church and state, should it become insupportable. 

There is abundant evidence that the submission of the people to this 
new form of church and state combination was not owing to ignorance, 
or to indifference to the true principles of civil and religious liberty 
Notwithstanding the strong attachftient of the early emigrants to their 



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16 BOSTON. 

civil, and their almost blind devotion to their ecclesiastical leaders, when 
either, presuming on their influence, attempted any thing inconsistent 
with general liberty, a corrective is seen almost immediately applied by 
the spirit and intelligence of the people. 

In this respect, the character of the people of Boston has been at all 
times distinguished. In every period of our history, they have been sec- 
ond to none in quickness to discern or in readiness to meet every exigen- 
cy, fearlessly hazarding life and fortune in support of the liberties of the 
commonwealth. It would be easy to maintain these positions by a re- 
currence to the annals of each successive age, and particularly to facts 
connected with our revolutionary struggle. A few instances only will be 
noticed, and those selected from the earliest times. 

A natural jealousy soon sprung up in the metropolis as to the inten- 
tions of their civil and ecclesiastical leaders. In 1634 the people began 
to fear, lest, by reelecting Winthrop, they " should make way for a Gov- 
ernor for life." They accordingly gave some indications of a design to 
elect another person. Upon which John Cotton, their great ecclesiastical 
head, then at the height of his popularity, preached a discourse to the 
General Court, and delivered this doctrine : " that a magistrate ought not 
to be turned out, without just cause, no more than a magistrate might 
turn out a private man from his freehold, without trial. 1 ' To show their 
dislike of the doctrine by the most practical of evidences, our ancestors 
gave the political divine and his adherents a succession of lessons, for 
which they were probably the wiser all the rest of their lives. They 
turned out Winthrop at the very same election, and put in Dudley. The 
year after, they turned out Dudley and put in Haynes. The year after, 
they turned out Haynes and put in Vane. So much for the first broach- 
ing, in Boston, of the doctrine that public office is of the nature of free- 
hold. 

In 1635, an attempt was made by the General Court to elect a certain 
number of magistrates as councillors for lift. Although Cotton was the 
author also of this project, and notwithstanding his influence, yet such 
was the spirit displayed by our ancestors on the occasion, that within 
three years the General Court was compelled to pass a vote, denying any 
such intent, and declaring that the persons so chosen should not be ac- 
counted magistrates or have any authority in consequence of such elec- 
tion. 

In 1636, the great Antinomian controversy divided the country. Bos- 
ton was for the covenant of grace ; the General Court for the covenant of 
works. Under pretence of the apprehension of a riot, the General Court 
adjourned to Newtown, and expelled the Boston deputies for daring to 
remonstrate. Boston, indignant at this infringement of its liberties, was 

H about electing the same deputies a second time. At the earnest solicita- 
tion of Cotton, however, they chose others. One of these was also ex- 



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EARLY HISTORY. 17 

pelted by the Court ; and a writ having issued to the town ordering a new- 
election, they refused making any return to the warrant, — a contempt 
which the General Court did not think it wise to resent. 

In 1639, there being vacancies in the Board of Assistants, the governor 
and magistrates met and nominated three persons, " not with intent," as 
they said, " to lead the people's choice of these, nor to divert them from 
any other, but only to propound for consideration (which any freeman 
may do), and so leave the people to use their liberties according to their 
consciences." The result was, that the people did use their liberties ac- 
cording to their consciences. They chose not a man of them. So much 
for the first legislative caucus in our history. It probably would have 
been happy for their posterity, if the people had always treated like 
nominations with as little ceremony. 

About this time also the General Court took exception at the length of 
the "lectures," then the great delight of the people, and at the ill effects 
resulting from their frequency ; whereby poor people were led greatly to 
neglect their affairs ; to the great hazard also of their health, owing to 
their long continuance in the night- Boston expressed strong dislike at 
this interference, " fearing that the precedent might enthrall them to the 
civil power, and, besides, be a blemish upon them with their posterity, as 
though they needed to be regulated by the civil magistrate, and raise an 
ill-savor of their coldness, as if it were possible for the people of Boston to 
complain of too much preaching." 

The magistrates, fearful lest the people should break their bonds, were 
content to apologize, to abandon the scheme of shortening lectures or 
diminishing their number, and to rest satisfied with a general understand- 
ing that assemblies should break up in such season as that people, dwel- 
ling a mile or two off, might get home by daylight. Winlhrop, on this 
occasion, passes the following eulogium on the people of Boston, which 
every period of their history amply confirms: — "They were generally 
of that understanding and moderation, as that they would be easily guided 
in their way by any rule from Scripture or sound reason." 

It is curious and instructive to trace the principles of our constitution, 
as they were successively suggested by circumstances, and gradually 
gained by the intelligence and daring spirit of the people. For the first 
four years after their emigration, the freemen, like other corporations, 
met and transacted business in a body. At this time the people attained 
a representation under the name of deputies, who sat in the same room 
with the magistrates, to whose negative all their proceedings were sub- 
jected. Next arose the struggle about the negative, which lasted for 
ten years, and eventuated in the separation of the General Court into two 
branches, with each a negative on the other. Then came the jealousy of 
the deputies concerning the magistrates, as proceeding too much by their 
discretion for want of positive laws, and the demand by the deputies that 



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18 BOSTON. 

persona should be appointed to frame a body of fundamental laws in re- 
semblance of the English Magna Chart*. 

After this occurred the controversy relative to the powers of the magis- 
trates, during the recess of the General Court ; concerning which, when 
the deputies found that no compromise could be made, and the magis- 
trates declared that, " if occasion required, they should act according to' 
the power and trust committed to them," the speaker of the House in his 
place replied, — " Then, gentlemen, you will not bk obbtsd." 

In every period of our early history, the friends of the ancient hier- 
archy and monarchy were assiduous in their endeavors to introduce a 
form of government on the principle of an efficient colonial relation. 
Our ancestors were no less vigilant to avail themselves of their local situ- 
ation and of the difficulties of the parent state to defeat those attempts; 
— or, in their language, " to avoid and protract." They lived, however, 
under a perpetual apprehension that a royal governor would be imposed 
upon them by the law of force. Their resolution never faltered on the 
point of resistance, to the extent of their power. Notwithstanding Boa- 
ton would have been the scene of the struggle, and the first victim to it, 
yet its inhabitants never shrunk from their duty through fear of danger, 
and were always among the foremost to prepare for every exigency. 
Castle Island was fortified chiefly, and the battery at the north end of the 
town, and that called the " Sconce," wholly, by the voluntary contribu- 
tions of its inhabitants. After the restoration of Charles the Second, 
their instructions to their representatives in the General Court breathe 
one uniform spirit, — " not to recede from their just rights and privileges 
as secured by the patent." When, in 166*2, the king's commissioners 
came to Boston, the inhabitants, to show their spirit in support of their 
own laws, took measures to have them all arrested for a breach of the 
Saturday evening law ; and actually brought them before the magistrate 
for riotous and abusive carriage. When Randolph, in 1681, came with 
his quo warranto against their charter, on the question being taken in 
town meeting, " whether the freemen were minded that the General Court 
should make full submission and entire resignation of their charter, and 
of the privileges therein granted, to his Majesty's pleasure,"— Boston 
resolved in the negative, without a dissentient. 

In 1689, the tyranny of Andros, the governor appointed by James the 
Second, having become insupportable to the whote country, Boston rose, 
like one man ; took the battery on Fort Hill by assault in open day ; 
made prisoners of the king's governor, and the captain of the king's 
frigate, then lying in the harbor; and restored, with the concurrence of 
the country, the authority of the old charter leaders. 

By accepting the charter of William and Mary, in 1692, the people of 
Massachusetts first yielded their claims of independence to the crown. 
It is only requisite to read the official account of the agents of the colony, 

==SSSStJ===S— ====B5BaBBMMIMaBMMBM 



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EARLY HISTORY. 19 

to perceive both the resistance they made to that charter, and the neces- 
sity which compelled their acceptance of it. Those agents were told by 
the king's ministers, that they " must take that or none " ; — that " their 
consent to it was not asked " ; — that if " they would not submit to the 
king's pleasure, they must take what would follow." " The opinion of 
bur lawyers," says the agents, " was, that a passive submission to the 
new, was not a surrender of the old charter ; and that their taking up 
with this did not make the people of Massachusetts, in law, uncapable of 
obtaining all their old privileges, whenever a favorable opportunity 
should present itself" In the year 1776, nearly a century afterwards, 
that " favorable opportunity did present itself," and the people of Mas- 
sachusetts, in conformity with the opinion of their learned counsel and 
faithful agents, did vindicate and obtain all their " old privileges " of 
self-government. 

Under the new colonial government, thus authoritatively imposed upon 
them, arose new parties and new struggles; — prerogative men, earnest 
for a permanent salary for the king's governor ; — patriots, resisting such 
an establishment, and indignant at the negative exercised by that officer. 
At the end of the first century after the settlement, three generations of 
men had passed away. For vigor, boldness, enterprise, and a self-sacri- 
ficing spirit, Massachusetts stood unrivalled. She had added wealth and 
extensive dominion to the English crown. She had turned a barren wil- 
derness into a cultivated field, and Instead of barbarous tribes had planted 
civilized communities. She had prevented France from taking possession 
of the whole of North America ; conquered Port Royal and Acadia ; and 
attempted the conquest of Canada with a fleet of thirty-two sail and two 
thousand men. At one time a fifth of her whole effective male population 
was in arms. When Nevis was plundered by Iberville, she voluntarily 
transmitted two thousand pounds sterling for the reiief of the inhabitants 
of that island. By these exertions her resources were exhausted, her 
treasury was impoverished, and she stood bereft, and "alone with her 
glory." 

Boston shared in the embarrassments of the commonwealth. Her com- 
merce was crippled by severe revenue laws, and by a depreciated curren- 
cy. Her population did not exceed fifteen thousand. In September, 1730, 
she was prevented from all notice of this anniversary by the desolations 
of the small-pox. 

Notwithstanding the darkness of these clouds which overhung Massa- 
chusetts and its metropolis at the close of the first century, in other as- 
pects the dawn of a brighter day may be- discerned. The exclusive policy 
in matters of religion, to which the state had been subjected, began gradu- 
ally to give place to a more perfect liberty. Literature was exchanging 
subtile metaphysics, quaint conceits, and unwieldy lore, for inartificial 
reasoning, simple taste, and natural thought. Dummer defended the 



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colony in language polished in the society of Pope and of Bolinghroke. 
Coleman, Cooper, Chauncy, Bowdoin, and others of that constellation, 
were on the horizon. By their side shone the star of Franklin ; its early 
brightness giving promise of its meridian splendors. Even now'began to 
appear signs of revolution. Voices of complaint and murmur were heard 
in the air. "Spirits finely touched and to fine issues," — willing and 
fearless, — breathing unutterable things, flashed along the darkness. In 
the sky were seen streaming lights, indicating the approach of luminaries 
yei below the horizon ; Adams, Hancock, Otis, Warren ; leaders of a 
glorious host; — precursors of eventful times; "with fear of change 
perplexing monarchs." 

It would be appropriate, did space permit, to speak of these luminaries, 
in connection with our revolution; to trace the principles, which dic- 
tated the first emigration of the founders of this metropolis, through the 
several stages of their development ; and to show that the Declaration of 
Independence, in 1776, itself, and all the struggles which preceded it, and 
all the voluntary sacrifices, the self devotion, and the sufferings to which 
the people of that day submitted, for the attainment of independence, 
were, so far as respects Massachusetts, but the natural and inevitable 
consequences of the terms of that noble engagement, made by our ances- 
tors, in August, 1629, the year before their emigration / — which may 
well be denominated, from its early and later results, the first and original 
declaration of independence by Massachusetts. 

" By God' 8 assistance, tee will be ready in our persons, and ttith 
such of our families as are to go with us, to embark for the said plan- 
tation by the first of March next, to pass the seas (under God's protec- 
tion') to inhabit and continue in New England. Provided always, that 
before the last of September next, the whole government, together 

WITH THE PATENT, BE FIRST LEGALLY TRANSFERRED AND ESTABLISHED, 
TO REMAIN WITH US AND OTHERS, WHICH SHALL INHABIT THE SAID PLAN- 
TATION." — Generous resolution I Noble foresight! Sublime self-devo- 
tion; chastened and directed by a wisdom, faithful and prospective of 
distant consequences! Well may we exclaim, — "This policy over- 
topped all the policy of this world." 

For the advancement of the three' great objects which were the scope 
of the policy of our ancestors, — intellectual power, religious liberty, and 
civil liberty, — Boston has in no period been surpassed, either in readi- 
ness to incur, or in energy to make useful, personal or pecuniary sacrifi- 
ces. She provided for the education of her citizens out of the general 
fund, antecedently to the law of the Commonwealth making such provi- 
sion imperative. Nor can it be questioned that her example and influ- 
ence had a decisive effect in producing that law. An intelligent gener- 
osity has been conspicuous among her inhabitants on this subject, from 
the day when, in 1635, they "entreated our brother Philemon Pormonl to 



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BARLY HISTORY. 21 

become schoolmaster, for the teaching and nurturing children with us," 
to this hoar, when what is equivalent to a capital of two hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars is invested in school-houses, eighty schools are 
maintained, and seven thousand and five hundred children educated at an 
expense exceeding annually sixty-five thousand dollars. 

No city in the world, in proportion to its means and population, ever 
gave more uniform and unequivocal evidences of its desire to diffuse in- 
tellectual power and moral culture through the whole mass of the com- 
munity. The result is every day witnessed, at home and abroad, in pri- 
vate intercourse and in the public assembly ; in a quiet and orderly de- 
meanor, in the self-respect and mutual harmony prevalent among its 
citizens ; in the general comfort which characterizes their condition ; in 
their submission to the laws ; and in that wonderful capacity for self 
government which postponed, for almost two centuries, a city organiza- 
tion ; — and this, even then, was adopted more with reference to antici- 
pated, than from experience of existing, evils. During the whole of that 
period, and even after its population exceeded fifty thousand, its financial, 
economical, and municipal interests were managed, either by general 
vote, or by men appointed by the whole multitude ; and with a regular- 
ity, wisdom, and success, which it will be happy if future administra- 
tions shall equal, and which certainly they will find it difficult to exceed. 

The Influence of the institutions of our fathers is also apparent in that 
munificence towards objects of public interest or charity, for which, in 
every period of its history, the citizens of Boston have been distinguished, 
and which, by universal consent, is recognized to be a prominent feature 
in their character. To no city has Boston ever been second in its spirit 
of liberality. From the first settlement of the country to this day, it has 
been a point to which have tended applications for assistance or relief, on 
account of suffering or misfortune ; for the patronage of colleges, the en- 
dowment of schools, the erection of churches, and the spreading of learn- 
ing and religion, — from almost every section of the United States. Sel- 
dom have the hopes of any worthy applicant been disappointed. The 
benevolent and public spirit of its inhabitants is also evidenced by its 
hospitals, its asylums, public libraries, alms-houses, charitable associa- 
tions, — in its patronage of the neighboring University, and in its sub- 
scriptions for general charities. 

It is obviously impracticable to give any just idea of the amount of 
these charities. They flow from virtues which seek the shade and shun 
record. They are silent and secret out-wellings of grateful hearts, desir- 
ous unostentatiously to acknowledge the bounty of Heaven in their pros- 
perity and abundance. The result of inquiries, necessarily imperfect, 
however, authorize the statement, that, in the records of societies having 
for their objects either learning or some public charity, or in documents 
in the hands of individuals relative to contributions for the relief of suf- 



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22 BOSTON. 

feting, or the patronage of distinguished merit or talent, there exists evi- 
dence of the liberality of the citizens of this metropolis, and that chiefly 
within the last thirty years, of an amount, by voluntary donation or be- 
quest, exceeding one million and eight hundred thousand dollars. Far 
short as this sum falls of the real amount obtained within that period 
from the liberality of our citizens, it is yet enough to make evident that 
the best spirit of the institutions of our ancestors survives in the hearts, 
and is exhibited in the lives, of the citizens of Boston ; inspiring love of 
country and duty ; stimulating to the active virtues of benevolence and 
charity ; exciting wealth and power to their best exercises ; counteracting 
what is selfish in our nature ; and elevating the moral and social virtues 
to wise sacrifices and noble energies. 

With respect to religious liberty, where does it exist in a more perfect 
state than in this metropolis? Or where has it ever been enjoyed in a 
purer spirit, or with happier consequences 1 In what city of equal popu- 
lation are all classes of society more distinguished for obedience to the 
institutions of religion, for regular attendance on its worship, for more 
happy intercourse with its ministers, or more uniformly honorable sup- 
port of them ? In all struggles connected with religious liberty, and 
these are inseparable from its possession, it may be said of the inhabi- 
tants of this city, as truly as of any similar association of men, that they 
have ever maintained the freedom of the Gospel in the spirit of Christian- 
ity. Divided into various sects, their mutual intercourse has, almost 
without exception, been harmonious and respectful. The labors of in- 
temperate zealots, with which, occasionally, every age has been troubled, 
have seldom, in this metropolis, been attended with their natural and 
usual consequences. Its sects have never been made to fear or hate one 
another. The genius of its inhabitants, through the influence of the in- 
tellectual power which pervades their mass, has ever been quick to detect 
" close ambition varnished o'er with zeal." The modes, the forms, the 
discipline, the opinions which our ancestors held to be essential, have, in 
many respects, been changed or obliterated with the progress of time, or 
been countervailed or superseded by rival forms and opinions. 

But veneration for the sacred Scriptures and attachment to the right of 
free inquiry, which were the substantial motives of their emigration and 
of all their institutions, remain, and are maintained in a Christian spirit 
(judging by life and language), certainly not exceeded m the times of any 
of our ancestors. The right to read those Scriptures is universally recog- 
nized. The-means to acquire the possession and to attain the knowledge 
of them are multiplied by the intelligence and liberality of the age, and 
extended to every class of society. All men are invited to search for 
themselves concerning the grounds of their hopes of future happiness 
and acceptance. All are permitted to hear from the lips of our Saviour 
himself, that "the meek," " the merciful," "the pure in heart," "the 



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EARLY HISTORY. 23 

persecuted for righteousness* sake," are those who shall receive the bless- 
ing, and be admitted to the presence, of the Eternal Father; and to be 
assured from those sacred records, that, " in every nation, he who feareth 
God and worketh righteousness is accepted of him.' 1 Elevated by the 
power of these sublime assurances, as conformable to reason as to revela- 
tion, man's intellectual principle rises " above the smoke and stir of this 
dim spot," and, like an eagle soaring above the Andes, looks down on 
the cloudy cliffs, the narrow, separating points, and flaming craters, 
which divide and terrify men below. 

It is scarcely necessary to speak of civil liberty, or tell of our constitu- 
tions of government ; of the freedom they maintain and are calculated to 
preserve ; of the equality they establish ; the self-respect they encour- 
age ; the private ahd domestic virtues they cherish ; the love of country 
they inspire ; the self-devotion and self-sacrifice they enjoin ; — all these 
are but the filling up of the great outline sketched by our fathers, the 
parts in which, through the darkness and perversity of their times, they 
were defective, being corrected ; all are but endeavors, conformed to their 
great, original conception, to group together the strength of society and 
the religious and civil rights of the individual, in a living and breathing 
spirit of efficient power, by forms of civil government, adapted to our 
condition, and adjusted to social relations of unexampled greatness and 
extent, unparalleled in their results, and connected by principles elevated 
as the nature of man, and immortal as his destinies. 

It is not, however, from local position, nor from general circumstances 
of life and fortune, that the peculiar felicity of this metropolis is to be de- 
duced. Her enviable distinction is, that she is among the chiefest of that 
happy New England family, which claims descent from the early emi- 
grants. If we take a survey of that family, and, excluding from our 
view the unnumbered multitudes of its members who have occupied the 
vacant wilderness, of other states, we restrict our thoughts to the local 
sphere of New England, what scenes open upon our sight ! How wild 
and visionary would seem our prospects, did we indulge only natural an- 
ticipations of the future! Already, on an area of seventy thousand 
square miles, a population of two millions ; all, but comparatively a few, 
descendants of the eVrly emigrants ! Six independent Commonwealths, 
with constitutions varying in the relations and proportions of power, yet 
uniform in all their general principles; diverse in their political arrange- 
ments, yet each sufficient for its own necessities ; all harmonious with 
those without, and peaceful within ; embracing under the denomination 
of town*, upwards of twelve hundred effective republics, with qualified 
powers, indeed, but possessing potent influences ; subject themselves to 
the respective state sovereignties, yet directing all their operations, and 
shaping their policy by constitutional agencies ; swayed, no less than the 
greater republics, by passions, interests, and affections ; like them, exciting 



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21 BOSTON. 

competitions which rouse into action the latent energies of mind, and 
infuse into the mass of each society a knowledge of the nature of its in- 
terests, and a capacity to understand and share in the defence of those of 
the Commonwealth. The effect of these minor republics is daily seen in 
the existence of practical talents, and in the readiness with which those 
talents can be called into the public service of the state. 

If, after this general survey of the surface of New England, we cast 
our eyes on its cities and great towns, with what wonder should we be- 
hold, did not familiarity render the phenomenon almost unnoticed, men, 
combined in great multitudes, possessing freedom and the consciousness 
of strength, —the comparative physical power of the ruler less than that 
of a cobweb across a lion's path, — yet orderly, obedient, and respectful 
to authority ; a people, but no populace ; every class m reality existing, 
which the general law of society acknowledges, except one, —and this 
exception characterizing the whole country. The soil of New England is 
trodden by no slave. In our streets, in our assemblies, in the halls of 
election and legislation, men of every rank and condition meet, and unite 
or divide on other principles, and are actuated by other motives, than 
those growing out of such distinctions. The fears and jealousies, which 
in other countries separate classes of men and make them hostile to each 
other, have here no influence, or a very limited one. Each individual, of 
whatever condition, has the consciousness of living under known laws, 
which secure equal rights, and guarantee to each whatever portion of 
the goods of life, be it great or small, chance, or talent, or industry may 
have bestowed. All perceive that the honors and rewards of society are 
open equally to the (air competition of all ; that the distinctions of wealth, 
or of power, are not fixed m families ; that whatever of this nature exists 
to-day, may be changed to-morrow, or, in a coming generation, be abso- 
lutely reversed. Common principles, interests, hopes, and affections, are 
the result of universal education. Such are the consequences of the 
equality of rights, and of the provisions for the general diffusion of 
knowledge and the distribution of intestate estates, established by the 
laws framed by the earliest emigrants to New England. 

If from our cities we turn to survey the wide expanse of the Interior, 
how do the effects of the institutions and example of our early ancestors 
appear, in all the local comfort and accommodation which mark the gen- 
eral condition of the whole country ; — unobtrusive, indeed, but substan- 
tial ; in nothing splendid, but in every thing sufficient and satisfactory. 
Indications of active talent and practical energy exist everywhere. With 
a soil comparatively little luxuriant, and in great proportion either rock, 
or hill, or sand, the skill and industry of man are seen triumphing over 
the obstacles of nature; making the rock the guardian of the field; 
moulding the granite, as though it were clay ; leading cultivation to the 
hill-top, and spreading over the arid plain, hitherto unknown and unan- 



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BARLY HISTORY. 26 

ticipated harvests. The lofty mansion of the prosperous adjoins the 
lowiy dwelling of the husbandman ; their respective inmates are in the 
daily interchange of civility, sympathy, and respect. Enterprise and skill, 
which once held chief affinity with the ocean or the sea-board, now begin 
to delight the interior, haunting our rivers, where the music of the water- 
fall, with powers more attractive than those of the fabled harp of Orpheus, 
collects around it intellectual man and material nature. Towns and 
cities, civilized and happy communities, rise, like exhalations, on rocks 
and in forests, till the deep and far-resounding voice of the neighbouring 
torrent is itself lost and unheard, amid the predominating noise of suc- 
cessful and rejoicing labor. 

What lessons has New England, in every period of her history, given 
to the world ! What lessons do her condition and example still give ! 
How unprecedented ; yet how practical ( How simple; yet how power- 
ful I She has proved, that all the variety of Christian sects may live to- 
gether in harmony, under a government which allows equal privileges to 
all, — exclusive preeminence to none. She has proved, that ignorance 
among the multitude is not necessary to order, but that the surest basis of 
perfect order is the information of the people. She has proved the old 
maxim, that " No government, except a despotism with a standing army, 
can subsist where the people have arras, 11 is false. Ever since the first 
settlement of the country, arms have been required to be in the hands of 
the whole multitude of New England ; yet the use of them in a private 
quarrel, if it have ever happened, is so rare, that a late writer, of great 
intelligence, who had passed bis whole life in New England, and pos- 
sessed extensive means of information, declares, " I know not a single 
instance of it." She has proved, that a people, of a character essentially 
military, may subsist without duelling. New England baa, at all times, 
been distinguished, both on the land and on the ocean, for a daring, fear- 
less, and enterprising spirit ; yet the same writer asserts, that during the 
whole period of her existence, her soil has been disgraced but by fite 
duels, and that only two of these were fought by her native inhabitants t 
Perhaps this assertion ie not minutely correct. There can, however, be 
no question, that it is sufficiently near the truth to justify the position 
for which it is here adduced, and which the history of New England, as 
well as the experience of her inhabitants, abundantly confirms ; that, in 
the present and in every past age, the spirit of our institutions has, to 
every important practical purpose, annihilated the spirit of duelling. 

Such are the true glories of the institutions of our fathers ! Such the 
natural fruits of that patience in toil, that frugality of disposition, that 
temperance of habit, that general diffusion of knowledge, and that sense 
of religious responsibility, inculcated by the precepts, and exhibited in 
the example of every generation of our ancestors ! 

What then, in conclusion of this great topic, are the elements of the 

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26 BOSTON. 

liberty, prosperity, and safety, which the inhabitants of New England at 
this day enjoy 7 In what language, and concerning what comprehensive 
truths, does the wisdom of former times address the Inexperience of the 
future? 

Those elements are simple, obvious, and familiar. 

Every civil and religious blessing of New England, all that here gives 
happiness to human life, or security to human virtue, is alone to be per- 
petuated in the forms and under the auspices of a free commonwealth. 

The commonwealth itself has no other strength or hope, than the in- 
telligence and virtue of the individuals that compose it. 

For the intelligence and virtue of individuals, there is no other human 
assurance than laws providing for the education of the whole people. 

These laws themselves have no strength, or efficient sanction, except in 
the moral and accountable nature of man, disclosed in the records of the 
Christian's faith ; the right to read, to construe, and to judge concerning 
which, belongs to no class or cast of men, but exclusively to the indi- 
vidual, who must stand or (all by his own acts and his own faith, and not 
by those of another. 

The great comprehensive truths, written In letters of living light on 
every page of our history, — the language addressed by every past age of 
New England to all future ages is this ; — Human happiness has no per' 
feet security but freedom ; —freedom none but virtue; — virtue none 
but knowledge; and neither freedom, nor virtue, nor knowledge has 
any vigor, or immortal hope, except in the principles of the Christian 
faith and in the sanctions of the Christian religion. 

Men of Massachusetts f Citizens of Boston ! descendants of the early 
emigrants ! consider your blessings ; consider your duties. You have an 
inheritance acquired by the labors and sufferings of six successive gener- 
ations of ancestors. They founded the fabric of your prosperity, in a 
severe and masculine morality ; having intelligence for its cement, and 
religion for its groundwork. Continue to build on the same foundation, 
and by the same principles ; let the extending temple of your country's 
freedom rise, in the spirit of ancient times, in proportions of intellectual 
and moral architecture, — just, simple, and sublime. As from the first 
to this day, let New England continue to be an example to the world, of 
the blessings of a free government, and of the means and capacity of man 
to maintain it. And, in all times to come, as in all times past, may Bos- 
ton be among the foremost and the boldest to exemplify and uphold what- 
ever constitutes the prosperity, the happiness, and the glory of New 
England. 



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NOTICES 

OP 
PROMINENT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OP 

BOSTON. 



(The following narrative Ja but little more than an abbreviated compilation from 
Snow's Hiatory of Boaton. Holmea'a Ajinala, and other works, have been occasion- 
ally consulted.] 

If the city of Boston, and the surrounding communities, in their 
present state of population and general prosperity, are regarded as the 
successful issue of a great enterprise, conceived in the highest spirit of 
adventure, demanding in its commencement courage to overcome great 
obstacles and fortitude to endure sharp trials, and in its progress, judg- 
ment, energy, and that perseverance which keeps honor bright, its his- 
tory, however briefly written, must possess attractions for the contempla- 
tive mind. 

If, as has been observed, the relation is deficient in all those mysterious 
and uncertain traditions which claim to invest the local histories of the 
Old World with the charms of poetry, it will not be denied by those who 
trace the present stale of things from its humble beginning, and consider 
how comparatively short has been the 

" blossoming time, 
That from the seedness tbe bare fallow brings 
To teeming foison," 

that it abounds in features of development, and in incidents, which are to 
be counted among those truths more strange than fiction, upon which the 
thoughts and sympathies dwell, not with the evanescent feelings stimu- 
laud by tales of fancy, but with profound and lasting emotions of wonder 
and gratitude. 

To those who are familiarly acquainted with the nature of our people, 
and our city's institutions, and are fitly imbued with the spirit of the 
early founders of this republic, it must be always a pleasing occupation to 



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28 HISTORY OF 

paa« in review the various forms under which our social and political life 
has been unfolded here, in what may with propriety be called the seat 
and centre of its being. In Boston may be found the most perfect mani- 
festation of the New England character throughout all its phases, from 
the severe and exclusive Puritan, contending for "freedom to worship 
God," whose contest would never have witnessed its present triumph 
had he been less stern and exacting, that ie, less suited to the age in 
which he wrought, to the present advocate and practiser of universal 
toleration in religion and opinion, — the latter being the natural and 
rightful descendant of the former, — the liberty and independence once 
established (and for the first time on earth), expanding its broad wings to 
shield all sects and cover all doctrines. 

But while this subject must be one of special interest to Americans, 
and above all to the people of New England, still observers of less pene- 
tration, such as regard the history of this city only with that general 
concern belonginglo the affairs of men, cannot fail on looking back to 
discern and follow out a natural and necessary sequence of events, ac- 
cording to which the present extent and flourishing condition of Boston 
and its dependencies are only the natural expansion of an originally 
vigorous root. 

On the 19th of March, 1827-28, the council of Plymouth, in England, 
sold to some knights and gentlemen about Dorchester, that part of New 
England which lies between a great river called Merrimack, and a certain 
other river there called Charles. But shortly after this, these honorable 
persons were brought into an acquaintance with several other persons of 
quality about London, who associated with them, and jointly petitioned 
the king to confirm their right by a new patent, which he did in the fourth 
year of his reign. This patent, or charter, was dated on the 4th of 
March ; and it is singular that this day, which dates the beginning of 
the first social contract in the history of mankind based upon self-govern- 
ment, and the broadest principles of civil and religious liberty, should 
still be preserved in our Federal Constitution as the period of those peace- 
ful changes in the administration of the affairs of the nation, which, in 
their constant recurrence, demonstrate that self-government is the secret 
of society, — that democracy is successful 

This charter constituted the associates, and all others who should be 
admitted into the association, one corporate body politic, by the name of 
the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England. 
Their general business was to be disposed and ordered by a court com- 
posed of a Governor, Deputy -Governor, and eighteen assistants. Be- 
tween the time of the purchase above mentioned, and the grant of the 
charter, one expedition of fifty or sixty persons, and another of three 
hundred and eighty-six men, women, and children, were sent out by the 
company, and formed establishments at Charlestown and Salem. Adven- 



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tarera from the latter place were well received by the Indian Chief Saga- 
more, the Sachem of that tribe, who is described as a man of gentle and 
good disposition. 

The success attending these plantations, encouraged the company to 
persevere, and several of the principal members entered into an agree- 
ment to remove with themselves and families, provided the whole govern- 
ment, together with the patent, was legally transferred and established to 
remain in perpetuity with themselves, and the future inhabitants and free 
associates of the settlement. 

This last proposition was accepted with hesitation, but finally acceded 
to as an inducement to gentlemen of wealth and quality to embark in the 
expedition with their property and families. Without retaining in their 
own hands the administration of the government, they would not have 
consented to risk their fortunes and happiness on such an arduous and 
distant enterprise. It is not probable that the full importance of this 
measure was foreseen at the time of its adoption, even by our fathers. Ii 
was demanded as a means of personal security and independence, and 
was characteristic of that self-respect, personal pride of character, and 
jealous love of liberty, which, after their religious zeal, most distinguished 
the founders of the city. Who, however, not endowed with the gift of 
prophecy, could have anticipated all the consequences which lay intreas- 
ured in those weak beginnings ? 

But, if the men of that day, the kings and statesmen, the wise men of 
England, — wise in their generation only, we mean the hierarchy, — 
were utterly unconscious of the momentous results involved in their de- 
cisions, we, who live to witness those results, find no difficulty in tracing 
them back, through the progress of things, to their first elements. We 
must remember that the leading men in this enterprise were wealthy, and 
well connected at home ; that they had honorable pursuits, and were in 
possession of ' fruitful lands, stately buildings, goodly orchards and gar 
dens' in the country of their birth. They are spoken of as " persons of 
quality and distinction." They were, moreover, "an excellent set of 
real and living Christians." By separating themselves from all the estab- 
lished societies of the Old World, and occupying a fresh and open field 
of action in the New World, they were able, without obstacle or inter- 
ruption, to create a community embodying and exemplifying all their 
peculiar opinions and traits of character. 

The change in the affairs of the company before spoken of, occurred in 
August, 1829, and on the 20th of the ensuing October, a special court was 
held for the election of a Governor, Deputy-Governor, and Assistants, from 
among those who were about to emigrate. Mr. John Winthrop was 
chosen Governor, and Mr. Thomas Dudley, Deputy. 

Preparations were immediately begun for the embarkation of a great 
colony, and they were carried on with such vigor, that by the end of 

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JO HISTORY OF 

February, 1690, a fleet of fourteen sail was furnished with men, women, 
and children, with all the necessaries of life, with mechanics, and with 
people of good condition, wealth, and quality, to make a firm plantation. 
The number of the colonists embarked in this fleet was fifteen hundred, 
and the cost of the outfit of the expedition was about one million of dol- 
lars, at that time a very large sum. On the 14th of June, the Admiral 
of the New England fleet arrived at Salem. In the vessel that bore that 
distinction, Governor Winthrop and Mr. Isaac Johnson came passengers, 
and the Governor has left a journal containing a circumstantial account 
of the voyage, one event of which was, that the ship was cleared for 
action to engage a fleet of Dunkirkers, as they were thought to be ; but 
the Dunkirkers proved to be their own friends, and so their " fear and 
danger was turned into mirth and friendly entertainment." 

During this voyage, very strict attention to religious duties was oh* 
served, and the most rigid discipline enforced. 

The original design, that the principal part of the colony should settle 
in one place, to be called Boston, was frustrated by various circumstances. 
Governor Winthrop himself stopped at Charlestown, where several Bug- 
lish were already established ; detachments that had arrived in other ves- 
sels before the Governor, set themselves down at Watertown and Dorches- 
ter. Salem was already inhabited, though the colony was found in a sad 
condition. Above eighty deaths had occurred the winter before, and 
many of the survivors were weak and sickly. 

The first intention of the Governor, and those with him, was to make 
Charlestown their permanent abode, but from this he was deterred by the 
increasing sickness there also, attributed to the bad water, for as yet the 
inhabitants had found only one brackish spring, and that not accessible 
except when the tide was down. Besides those settled at Charlestown, 
there was one Englishman of the name of Samuel Maverick living on 
Noddle's Island, now East Boston, who made some figure in the history 
of the after times; and another named William Blackstone, an Episcopal 
clergyman, who resided in a small cottage on the south side of Charles 
River, near a point on the western side of a peninsula, which, at high 
water, appeared like two islands. The Indians called this peninsula 
Shatcmut, but the English settlers had given it the name of Trimoun- 
tain, on account of its presenting the appearance, when seen from 
Charlestown, of three large hills, on the westernmost of which were three 
eminences, whilst on the brow of one of these eminences appeared three 
hillocks. This singular repetition of the same form gave rise, probably, 
to the name of Trimountain. 

Mr. Blackstone, taking compassion upon the unhappy condition of the 
colony, invited the Governor and his friends to remove to his side of the 
river ; and in August, Mr. Johnson, an influential and leading man, to- 
gether with several others, began a settlement. But previous to this, on 



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31 

the 30th day of July, Governor Winthrop, Deputy-Governor Dudley, Mr. 
Johnson, and the Re?. Mr. Wilson, signed a covenant in the following 
terms: — 

"In the name of our Lord Jeeua Christ, and in obedience to hia holy 
will and divine ordinance, 

" We, whose names are here underwritten, being by his most wise and 
good providence brought together into this part of America, in the Bay of 
Massachusetts, and desirous to unite into one congregation or church, 
under the Lord Jesus Christ, our head, in such sort, as becometh all 
those whom he«hath redeemed and sanctified to himself, do hereby 
solemnly and religiously, as in his most holy presence, promise and bind 
ourselves to walk in all our ways according to the rule of the gospel, and 
in all sincere conformity to his holy ordinances, and in mutual love and 
respect to each other so near, as God shall give us grace." 

Others were soon added to this church. The covenant itself, and the 
immediate attention of the prominent individuals of the colony to re- 
ligion, and the establishment of a visible church, are introduced as sig- 
nificant indications of the true spirit of the time, and the objects of the 
expedition. 

The first meeting of the Court of Assistants under the authority of the 
new patent was held on board the ship Arabella, at Charlestown, on the 
83d of August, at which the first question propounded was, — How shall 
the ministers be maintained? That was met by ordering that houses 
should be built for them at the public charge, and that their salaries 
should be established. The minister at Watertown, Mr. Phillips, was to 
have thirty pounds a year, and Mr. Wilson twenty pounds a year, until 
his wife came over. All this was at the common charge, and Governor 
Winthrop undertook to see it executed. 

At the second meeting of the Court of Assistants, the name of Boston 
was given to the settlement of Trimountain ; this took place on the 7th 
day of September, 1630, which is the date of the foundation of the city, 
now preserved on the city seal. It is understood that this name was 
selected partly in compliment to the Rev. John Cotton, at that time an 
eminent dissenting preacher at Boston, in Lincolnshire, who was soon 
expected to join the colony, and partly because Boston had been one of 
the noted scenes of persecution of the Puritans, and partly again because 
several of the first settlers were born there. The name of Boston was 
originally designed for the chief city, and it is not improbable that Win- 
throp and Johnson had the sagacity to perceive that the peninsula pos- 
sessed all the physical features suited to great commercial prosperity and 
enterprise. 

Having now brought our fathers to the permanent earthly home of 
themselves and their posterity, let us endeavor to create to our minds 
some idea of the state and appearance of this now world-renowned spot, 



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32 HISTORY OP 

when it was in a state or almost savage nature, only inhabited by Aborigi- 
nal Indians. We look in vain for any recognizable trace of this period in 
the present condition of the region. The hills of Boston have been dug 
down and carried away for the convenience of building, and the loose 
material thus collected has been used to fill up large tracts of marsh and 
mud-lands ; woods have been cut down on the main land and the islands ; 
the forest of trees is supplanted by the forest of masts, the forest of na- 
ture by that of art ; and in every direction the tokens of a highly flour- 
ishing and populous society have usurped the seat of a comparatively 
bleak solitude. But the imagination of an agreeable writer, Mr. Lothrop 
Motley, of Boston, has supplied us with a picture of the original Shaw- 
mut, both graphic and natural, in his work called " Merry Mount," to 
which we must refer the reader. 

The third Court of Assistants sat at Charlestown on the 28th of Septem- 
ber. The first General Court of the Colony convened at Boston on the 
19th of October, every person being present who was free of the corpora- 
tion. 

We will complete our picture of the settlement by mentioning some of 
the events of the year 1630, which, in its infant state, it was thought 
worth while to record. 

" Oct. 25. The Governour began to discourage the practice of drink- 
ing toasts at table : so it grew by little and little to be disused. 

" 1631. March 4. Nicholas Knopp was fined five pounds for taking 
upon him to cure the scurvy by a water of no value, which he sold at a 
very dear rate ; to be imprisoned till be pay his fine, or give security for 
it, or else be whipped, and be liable to any man's action, of whom he had 
received money for the said water. 

" May 18. Election day at Boston ; Winthrop and Dudley are re- 
chosen by general consent. 

" July 1 The Governour built a bark at Mystick, which was launched 
this day, and called the Blessing of the Bay. In the course of the season 
this vessel made several coasting trips. 

" 26. Monthly trainings are ordered." 

It would be strange, indeed, to compare these incidents with those that 
now mark the progress of the times ; to contrast, for example, the build- 
ing of the little boat, the " Blessing of the Bay," the solitary instance of 
that year, with the annual productions of the teeming ship-yards thai 
now line the banks of the Mystic, either in number or size, 

" Your argosies with portly sail, — 
Like signiors and rich burghers on the flood, 
Or, as It were, the pageants of the sea " ; — 

to set the single voyage to Rhode Island to trade for a hundred bushels of 
corn, by the side of that commerce which has peopled the wide waste of 
waters from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and now surrounds the globe with 

■ ' I ' ~-»— — ~~— —«— -n -r-BBBBSSB— ■ 



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BOSTON. 33 

a constant procession of the white -winged messengers of peace and plen- 
ty. We may observe, that in the above record we have a picture in little 
of the modern days in some respects. There was a temperance move- 
ment, and there was an election day, and, moreover, there was quackery ; 
but the most noticeable thing is the ordering of the monthly trainings. 

This was the needful preparation for coming events ; the first manifes- 
tation of that military spirit, without which we should have inherited 
colonial submission, instead of national independence. The spirit of our 
fathers, happily, still shows itself in us in this, as in other respects. 

The year of the foundation of the city closed with lamentations. Sev- 
eral persons of distinction died from sickness occasioned by the residence 
in Charlestown. The chief of these victims was Mr. Johnson, the most 
wealthy of the planters, and second to none in ability, piety, and devo- 
tion to the interests of the colony ; and his wife, Lady Arabella, daughter 
of the Earl of Lincoln. 

Mr. Johnson has been called the father of Boston, he having persuaded 
the Governor to cross the river. He supplied many persons with the 
ins of joining the colony, and bequeathed a portion of his large prop- 
erty (his estates lay in Rutland, Northamptonshire, and Lincolnshire) to 
the company. His lot in Boston was the square bounded by Tremont and 
Washington, Court and School Streets, in the southwest corner of which 
he was buried by his own direction, and such was the strong attachment 
he had inspired that people ordered their bodies to be laid near his j this 
gave rise to the present chapel burial-ground. 

The death of Lady Arabella Johnson appears to have been regarded as 
an irretrievable calamity. She was the pride of the colony ; and among 
several other women of distinction who bravely encountered the perils 
of emigration, she was conspicuous for her devotedness. Her language 
to her husband places her in the class of those great and true characters 
from among whom the master-painter of the world has selected his im- 
mortal portraits. 

1 Whithersoever your fetall destinie shall dry ve you, eyther by the 
furious waves of the great ocean, or by the many-folde and horrible dan- 
gers of the lande, 1 wyl surely beare you company. There can no per y 11 
chaunce to me so terrible, nor any kinde of death so cruell, that shall 
not be much easier for me to abyde, than to live so ferre separate from 
you.' 

A true devoted pilgrim is not weary 
To measure kingdoms with his feeble steps; 
Much less shall she, that hath love's wings to fly ; 
And when the flight is made to one so dear. 

The danger of famine added to the other distresses of the colonists. 
Great suffering on this account was endured between the 24th of Decem- 
ber, when the winter set in, and the 5th of February, 1631, when Captain 



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34 HISTORY OP 

Pierce arrived in the ship Lion, laden with pro via ion*, and relieved ihem 
from their apprehension. 

In this ship came over the wife and children of Governor Winthrop, 
who were received with the first of those public celebrations since be- 
come so frequent, and the Rev. John Eliot. In February, 1631 , occurred the 
firei_fire. On the 8th of May, 1632, a General Court was held in Boston, 
at wuich, after reelecting the Governor and Deputy, it was ordered that 
two men should be chosen from each town to confer with the Court of 
Assistants. This order was the first step towards a house of representa- 
tives. In August of this year, the congregation of Mr. Wilson, who 
had returned from England, began the erection of a house for public wor- 
ship, and one for the residence of their pastor ; and in the autumn the 
first separate Congregational church was formed in Charlestown. At the 
same time a house of correction was built; a house for the beadle (the 
sheriff); and a fortification on Fort Hill, then Corn Hill, was carried 
rapidly forward. In these occurrences we witness the energy and decis- 
ion with which our fathers proceeded at once to organize the community, 
and lay the basis of a permanent settlement. 

The original owner of the peninsula, Mr. Blackstone, either preferring 
solitude or having no sympathy with the colonials, removed from Boston, 
having received thirty pounds for his rights in the place. He was an 
eccentric person, and when urged to join one of the churches, declined, 
saying. " I came from England because I did not like the Lord Bishops ; 
but I cannot join with you because I would not be under the Lord Breth- 
ren." His library, which contained one hundred and eighty -six volumes, 
proves him to have been a man of culture, and Mather speaks of him as 
a ' godly Episcopalian.' 

In September, 1633, Mr. Cotton, to the great delight of the people, ar- 
rived from England. 

Trading was begun already, and so well established that Thursday was 
appointed market-day ; the first house of entertainment, and the first 
shop, were opened in Boston. We get an idea of the progress of the 
colony from the fact that even at this early period Mr. Cotton thought it 
necessary to preach against luxuries and expensive fashions. Gold and 
silver laces, girdles, hat-bands, embroidered caps, large veils, and large 
sleeves, were specially condemned by the Court; and a sermon of Mr. 
Cotton, in Salem, led to the entire disuse of veils by the women. This 
indicated the reign not only of comfort, but of luxury. 

The government of the town was placed, from the beginning, in the 
hands of individuals selected for the purpose by vote, but the name of 
Selectmen was not given to them till 1641. 

In May, 1634, the fort was completed, and ordnance was mounted, and 
in the same year the first Bbacon was set on the Sentry Hill to give 
notice to the country of any danger. This year was also marked by a 



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resolution of the General Court, appointing a committee to draw up the 
first body of laws of the colony. 

Ships continued to arrive from the mother country. During one week 
m May, six ships with passengers and cattle anchored in Boston. On 
the 6th of October, 1636, there arrived two other ships ; in one of which 
was Mr. Wilson, the pastor of the Boston church, and in the other the 
famous Henry Vane. The celebrity of the latter, after his return to 
England, during the civil wars and the reign of Cromwell, as well as his 
conduct while here, give interest to that portion of the colonial history 
with which he was connected. At the time of his arrival he was only 
twenty-three years of age, but such was his ability, and religious fervor, 
that he soon acquired a controlling influence in the affairs of the colony, 
and in May, 1636, was elected Governor. His administration was at first 
very satisfactory and popular, but towards the end of the year the people 
grew weary and discontented. About this time there occurred a schism 
in -the church, which was attributed in some degree to the character of 
the Governor. A Mrs. Hutchinson, wife of a gentleman of good reputa- 
tion in England, who, after he came to Boston, served several times as a 
Representative of the town in the General Court, established religious 
meetings at her bouse, (in imitation of those held by the men), for the dis- 
cussion of sermons and doctrines. The meetings of the men had hitherto 
excluded the other sex. 

Mrs. Hutchinson's meetings were well attended, and at first were ap- 
proved by the community ; but, as might have been expected, they soon 
resulted in the dissemination of distinctions and dissensions, and the dis- 
turbance of public and private peace. Mrs. Hutchinson only allowed two 
or three of the ministers to be sound men, under the covenant of grace ; 
the rest she condemned as under the covenant of works. Several new 
tenets were advanced by these enthusiasts ; one of which was that cer- 
tain persons might be favored with immediate revelations of the Divine 
will, which deserved to be regarded as equally sacred with the Scriptures 
themselves. Of course, Mrs. Hutchinson was one of those individuals 
who not only might be so distinguished, but actually had enjoyed Divine 
inspiration. Another one of those tenets was the personal union of the 
Holy Ghost with a justified person. It was not long before private dis- 
agreements resolved themselves into open quarrels. On one side of the 
controversy were ranged Mr. Winthrop and Mr. Wilson ; on the other 
Mr. Cotton and Governor Vane. Precisely as in the controversies of the 
present day, differences of opinion engendered pride and angry feelings, 
and these in turn gave rise to bitter criminations that could neither be re- 
called nor forgotten. The most excited of the agitators, then, as now, 
assumed the most unquestionable right of judgment, not of the conduct 
alone, but of the thoughts and motives of their opponents, which they 
naturally found to be wholly censurable; claiming for themselves a 



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36 HISTORY OF 

special portion, at the same time, of that charity that is not puffed up, 
that thinketh no evil, and, above all, that rejoiceth in the truth. After 
much difficulty, and unprofitable discussion, the church of Boston found 
itself opposed to all the other churches in the country, and ministers and 
magistrates everywhere arrayed against her. Finally the Court, in a 
formal manner, called in the aid of the clergy to assist in the extermina- 
tion of heresy. In the course of the conference growing out of this call, 
Mr. Peters, who seems to have been a man of courage as well as penetra- 
tion, took occasion to remind Governor Vane that before his coming the 
churches were at peace ; he counselled the Governor to remember that 
his own experience was too short to be trusted, and advised him to be- 
ware of the hasty and peremptory conclusions into which he was liable 
to be betrayed by his temper. 

No event in the history of Boston appears to have engaged the pas- 
sions of the people more than this Antinomian controversy, as it was 
called. At the next election Mr. Vane and his supporters were left entire- 
ly out of office, and the former, having completed the breach of inter- 
course between Governor Winthrop and himself, sailed for England in 
August, 1637. This departure deprived Mrs. Hutchinson, notwithstand- 
ing her revelations, of her chief support. She, however, continued her 
lectures, for which she found ample encouragement in the uproar and 
disturbance they created A Synod was held at Newtown to purify 
Boston from heresy, which was unanimous in its recommendations of 
restoration to peace, but in vain. The General Court then took up the 
subject; several of the most offensive disturbers of the harmony of 
society were necessarily expelled, for it was now evident that it was their 
determination not to desist from agitation till they had produced a divis- 
ion of the colony. In 1638, on the 22d of March, Mrs. Hutchinson was 
"cast out of the church for impenitently persisting in a manifest lie." 
In the year 1642, she, and her family consisting of sixteen persons, were 
all, with one exception, killed by the Indians in the Dutch country, where 
she had removed. The exception was a daughter, carried into captivity. 

The first military expedition of the colony was fitted out in 1637, 
against the Pequod Indians, which was successful. The Rev. Mr. Wil- 
son accompanied it, as chaplain, with much faith and joy. The year 
after this expedition, the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company was 
formed, having at first the character of an association for improvement 
in military exercises. 

In 1644, a separation took place between the deputies and magistrates, 
and the two houses sat apart, their proceedings being communicated to 
each other in a parliamentary way. This was the origin of our present 
Senate. The revolution going on in England now arrested the attention 
of the colonial government. The authorities here, acquiesced in the suc- 
cessive changes of government that occurred during the civil wars in 
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BOSTON. 37 

England, and in 1644, an order was passed condemning any one who 
should attempt to make a party in favor of the king. Very soon after, a 
great tumult was raised by the seizure of a Bristol ship in the harbor, by 
the captain of a London ship acting under the authority of a commis- 
sion from the Parliament. This affair, in which may be discerned the 
first demonstration of the Boston spirit of liberty, and determination to 
maintain its chartered rights, owing to the prudence of the magistrates, 
terminated peaceably. 

" tn the beginning of the year 1649, Boston suffered a mournful loss in 
the death of Governor Winthrop. From the first moment of placing his 
foot on the peninsula he had been its firmest friend. His resolute perse- 
verance in opposition to Dudley's plan of establishing the capital at Cam- 
bridge, laid the foundation of Boston's greatness, and the endeavors of 
Endicott and his party to obtain the same honor for Salem, were rendered 
unavailing through the wisdom and prudence of Winthrop. He was one 
of the earliest Selectmen, and frequently served on that board. Jn almost 
every event of any moment we find him bearing part, and except for one 
short period he was an oracle and favorite with the people. Or, as Cotton 
expresses it, he Was their friend in all things by his counsel, a help for 
their bodies by physic, and in their estates by law. 

" He was a pattern to the people of that frugality, decency, and tem- 
perance, which were necessary in their circumstances, and even denied 
himself many of the elegancies and superfluities of life, which he had en- 
joyed elsewhere. This he did, both that he might set others a proper ex- 
ample, and be the better enabled to exercise that liberality in which he 
delighted. His charity indeed was unbounded. He would often send his 
servants on some errand, at meal times, to the houses of his neighbors, 
to see how they were provided with food, and if there was a deficiency 
would supply them from his own table. He mingled with his sterner vir- 
tues a happy portion of well-timed wit." 

His remains were deposited in the family tomb on the north side of the 
chapel burial-ground. His portrait is preserved in the Land-Office at the 
State House. 

The death of Governor Winthrop may be marked as an epoch in the 
history of Boston. 

The population of the town had greatly increased ; the extension of 
trade had led to the construction of wharves and other improvements ; 
the public instruction of youth was instituted ; and a regular system of 
police established. 

With regard to the trade, it must excite not a little surprise to learn 
that even as early as this, the surplus produce of the land was sent to 
Virginia, the West Indies, Great Britain, Portugal, Spain, and Madeira; 
in exchange for which were received the fruits, wines, and manufactures 
of those countries. Mr. Hugh Peters is noticed in Winthrop's Journal 

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33 HISTORY OF 

as laboring with great success to promote the commercial spirit, especial- 
ly in Salem, which owed her first distinction to his counsel. But as the 
Bostonians of that period were strictly a church-going people, the most 
satisfactory idea of the advance of population will be furnished by the 
dates of the erection of the churches, a lew of which may be given in 
chronological order. 

The second meeting-house in the town was built at the head of the 
North Square, in 1649. 

In 1669, a third house of worship was erected on the spot where the 
Old South now stands. 

And by the close of the century (1698), the seventh religious society, 
which was the fourth Congregational or Brattle Street Church, was formed 
in Boston. 

The first important event in the colony that followed the death of 
Governor Winthrop, was the death of Mr. Cotton. His body * was most 
honorably interred, with a most numerous concourse of people, and the 
most grievous and solemn funeral that was ever known, perhaps, upon 
the American strand ; and the lectures in his church, the whole winter, 
were but so many funeral sermons upon the death and worth of this ex- 
traordinary person.' His memory did not receive so much attention from 
his contemporaries without his deserving it, for in the language of the 
" Old Men's Tear*," he was in his life, light, and learning, the brightest 
and most shining star in their firmament. Others of the first settlers 
passed from the active scenes of life about this lime ; among them Captain 
Keayne, who died as late as 1656. He was the father of the Great Artil- 
lery ; and is distinguished among the early benefactors of the town, a 
class of public-spirited and benevolent men for which Boston has been 
famous beyond all other places. * His will contains bequests to Harvard 
College, to his pastor, to the Artillery Company, to the poor of the 
church, and those of the town, for the foundation of a library, and to the 
free school. 

The year 1653 is rendered memorable by the first great fire. In the year 
1655, Mrs. Ann Hibbins was tried, and in 1656 executed, for witchcraft. 
Her husband, who died in 1654, was an agent for the colony in England, 
for several years one of the Assistants, and a merchant of note in the 
town. The worst offence of this miserable old lady seems to have been, 
that the loss of property had so soured her disposition as to render her 
odious to her neighbors. This was the third execution for witchcraft in 
New England. 

In 1657-9, the first town-house was built. An examination of the 
Probate records of this period shows that the inhabitants of the town 
were abundantly supplied with the elegancies and luxuries of life, in fur- 
niture, dress, the table, and in servants. 

We have already observed that the people of this colony sympathized 



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BOSTON. 39 

in the revolutionary movements in England, and notwithstanding that a 
very loyal address was sent out upon the restoration of the monarchy, the 
complaints, long before begun on account of independence of the colony, 
now found an opportunity to make themselves heard. The result of this 
clamor was the appointment, by Charles the Second, of a commission to 
hear and determine all matters in dispute, and to restore peace to the 
country. Four commissioners arrived in July, 1664, with these powers, 
one of whom, Samuel Maverick, Esq., was an implacable enemy of the 
colony. One of them became involved in a quarrel with a constable, by 
the name of Mason, and so unfavorable was their report, that the king de- 
manded that five persons should be sent out to answer for the conduct of 
the colony. This was the apparent beginning of those troubles which 
ended in the Revolution, and of which Boston was the principal theatre. 
In the interval between the next period of disturbance with the mother 
country, and this date, the Baptists, who had suffered fines, whipping, 
imprisonment, and banishment, for their faith's sake, obtained a finally 
permanent footing in Boston, for which they were indebted to the inter 
foreoce of the government at home, and not to any liberality on the part 
of the descendants of the original settlers. 

The death of Mr. Wilson, the first pastor of the First Church, occurred 
in 1667. He was in his seventy -ninth year. He left the reputation of an 
able, pious, amiable, and benevolent man. 

In 1676, the Indian war with King Philip broke out, in which Boston 
necessarily took an active part. . Several companies of horse and foot 
joined the body of Massachusetts and Plymouth forces, and contributed 
to the success of the campaign. 

One of the Indian chiefs, John Monacho, or one-eyed John, had threat- 
ened to burn down the town ; but he was caught and hung at the town's 
end in September, 1676. In the same year, another great conflagration 
destroyed forty three dwelling-houses, some other buildings, and a meet- 
ing-house. 

In 1679, the first fire-engine was procured, and the first fire company 
organized, the members of which were then, as now, exempted from 
training. Another terrible fire broke out at midnight, on the 8th of Au- 
gust of this year, and converted the town into a scene of desolation. 
Eighty and more dwelling-houses, above seventy warehouses, and several 
vessels with their cargoes, were consumed. The loss was estimated at 
£200,000, and it was supposed to be the work of incendiaries. 

After this calamity, a law was made to prevent the erection of wooden 
buildings, either houses or stores. 

The old house now standing at the comer of Ann Street and Market 
Square, a picture of which we give on the next page, is one of the few 
specimens which remain to us, of the architecture of that time. It was 
|i bsih in 1680, soon after this fire. 



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HISTORY OP 



fiMffte, 




" The peaks of the roof remain precisely as they were first erected, the 
frame and external appearance never having been altered The timber 
used in the building was principally oak, and, where it has been kept dry, 
is perfectly sound and intensely hard. The outside is covered with plas- 
tering, or what is commonly called roughcast. But instead of pebbles, 
which are generally used at the present day to make a hard surface on 
the mortar, broken glass was used. This glass appears like that of com- 
mon junk bottles, broken into pieces of about half an inch diameter, the 
sharp corners of which penetrate the cement in such a manner, that this 
great lapse of years has had no perceptible effect upon them. The figures 
1680 Were impressed into the rough-cast to show the year of its erec- 
tion, and are now perfectly legible. This surface was also variegated with 
ornamental squares, diamonds, and flowers-de-luce. The building is only 
two stories high, and is about thirty-two feet long and seventeen wide ; 
yet tradition informs us that it was once the residence of two respectable 
families, and the front part was at the same time occupied for two shops 
or stores." 

In 1681, the Council granted an act of incorporation to the projectors 
and proprietors of the old wharves ; one of the principal objects of which, 
so far as the town was interested, was protection against the ships of an 
enemy, that should succeed in passing the Castle. They were never re- 
quired for that purpose, and the profits arising from the undertaking were 
so small that the wharves were suffered to go to decay, and no trace of 



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them is now to be seen. Those who are curious in such matters, must 
consult one of the old plans, to understand the nature of the project. 

In 1684, another example was given by the freemen of Boston, of their 
desire and determination to resist to the utmost the attempts to deprive 
them of their charter and privileges, by passing a resolution at a town 
meeting urging the General Court not to submit to a quo warranto issued 
against the charter, which had been brought out by one Edward Ran- 
dolph, a man who had become infamous, and hated by the people as a spy 
upon their liberties. In 1681, this Randolph obtained a commission from 
the crown as collector and surveyor of the port of Boston, and appears 
not to have been permitted to exercise tbe duties of his office. 

The fa^Lof the old charter was followed by the appearance of Sir 
Edmund Andros, in 1686, with a commission from James the Second, con- 
stituting him Governor of the whole country, and empowering him to 
make laws and raise money, without any assembly, or the consent of the 
people. 

He soon showed himself a worthy instrument of his master, and, in 
1689, on hearing of the accession of William and Mary, tbe people of 
Boston seised his Excellency and Council, and put them in confinement. 
The old magistrates were reinstated, and, in 1690, by an order from the 
king approving the course adopted, Sir Edmund was sent to England. 
This was another instance of the habitual intolerance of wrong, and re- 
sistance to oppression, always displayed by the Bostonians, and was also 
another act of preparation for the Revolution. 

In 1688-9, the first Episcopal church was built; it was a wooden 
building with a steeple, and stood on the ground occupied by the present 
stone chapel. 

In 1694, tbe Quakers were relieved from persecution so far as to 
venture upon the construction, in Brattle Street, of a place of worship. 
About the same time the French Protestant church was embodied. These 
events are mentioned as illustrations of the increase of population, and 
of the gradual introduction of new people, and consequent growth in 
liberality and religious toleration. 

The Eighteenth Century. 
From the arrival of Sir William Phips, in 1692, as the first Governor 
under the new charter, to the period of the conquest of Canada, the 
colony, and with it the capital, seems to have enjoyed during tbe greater 
part of tbe time, a respite from the vexatious troubles that had hitherto 
marked the intercourse with the home government. One or two events 
happened, to show that the spirit and love of independence of the Bos- 
tonians had not altered. But the most interesting incidents during this in- 
terval of sixty-five or seventy years, are those of peaceful progress, only 
interrupted by those devastating fires which were the peculiar evil of the 

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42 HISTOKY OF 

town. One of these greet misfortunes, the sixth in number, occurred on 
the 30th of June, 1691 ; and the seventh in March, 1702. Another great 
fire, more fatal than the preceding, in 1711, laid in ruins all the houses 
on both sides of OornhiU, from School Street to Dock Square. 

In 1704, the first newspaper, published in the English colonies in North 
America, appeared in Boston. It was printed on half a sheet of pot paper, 
with small pica type, folio, and was entitled, — 

W. 36L TXnrnb. !• 

The Boston News-Letter. 



$uulfs$eti b$ &ut!)otft£» 



From ittoitfia^ April 17, to ittouoaj, April 24, 1704. 

The year 1706 Is rendered for ever memorable in the annals of Boston, 
as the date of tho birth of Benjamin Franklin. 

In 1710, a post-office was established, and a mail ran to Plymouth and 
Maine once a week, and to New York once a fortnight. 

An evidence of the great increase of commerce is afforded by the law 
passed in 1715, directing the erection of a lighthouse on the southern- 
most part of the Oreat Brewster Island, For the evidence of the rapid 
augmentation of the number of inhabitants, we shall resort again to the 
multiplication of the churches. 

The society of the new North Church was formed in 1712, and the 
meetinghouse dedicated in 1714. The formation of the new South 
Church and society originated in the year following. 

In 1721, the new brick church, as it was called, was dedicated* After 
these, followed the second Episcopal Christ Church, in 1723; the Federal 
Street Church in 1729; the Hollis Street Church in 1732, the year of its 
completion and dedication; the Trinity Church in 1734; and between 
this period and 1748, were gathered the ninth, tenth, and eleventh Con* 
gregational churches. For all historical details of interest concerning the 
different churches, the reader is referred to a subsequent portion of the 
work. The dates of their foundation are inserted in this place, as one^of 
the moat accurate and accessible means of arriving, at an estimate of the 
population of the town in its steady advancement. 

On December 21, 1719, the second newspaper published in Boston made 
its appearance, under the title of the Boston Gazette; and the third 
newspaper, called the New England Courant, came out on August 17, 
1721 ; both of them were printed, and the latter published, also, by James 
Franklin. In the Courant appeared the early anonymous pieces of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, which were the first public displays of an intellect that 



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BOSTON. 43 

was destined to confer immortal benefits upon the native land of its pos- 
sessor, and to gratify and enlighten the world. 

We hare omitted to mention in chronological order the construction of 
Long Wharf in 1709-10, an interesting event in the commercial history 
of the town. On the 24th of February, a great tide occurred, which is 
described, as follows, by Cotton Mather : — 

" It rose two feet higher than ever had been known unto the country, 
and the city of Boston particularly suffered from it incredible mischiefs 
and losses. It rose two or three feet above the famous Long Wharf, and 
flowed orer the other wharves and streets, to so surprising an height, that 
we could sail in boats from the Southern battery to the rise of ground in 
King Street, and from thence to the rise of ground ascending toward the 
North meeting-house. It filled all the cellars, and filled the floors of the 
lower rooms in the houses and warehouses in town." 

The fourth newspaper, styled the New England Weekly Journal, ap- 
peared in March, 1727 ; this also was printed on a half sheet of foolscap 
size, folio. 

In the year 1740, the arrival of the celebrated George Whitefield dis- 
turbed the state of general quiet, which the religious community of Bos- 
ton had enjoyed for fifty years. His powerful preaching revived that 
strictness of principle and zeal in practice for which the first comers were 
so prominently distinguished. It is said that more than twenty-three 
thousand persons listened to his farewell sermon on the Common. Vari- 
ous opinions were expressed as to the good accomplished by his visit, 
though there is no doubt of the strength and permanency of the impres- 
sion. In the same year, Peter Faneuil proposed to present the town with 
a structure, to be undertaken and completed at his own expense, for a 
market. The proposal being accepted, it was finished in 1742, and pre- 
sented to the selectment. At a town meeting in July, a committee was 
appointed " to wait upon Peter Faneuil, and in the name of the town to 
render him their most hearty thanks for so bountiful a gift, with their 
prayers, that this and other expressions of his bounty and charity may 
be abundantly recompensed with the divine blessing." It was also voted 
to call the hall over the market, " Faneuil Hall," in honor of the donor, 
who has thus acquired a world- wide celebrity. Faneuil'e death took 
place in 1743, and a funeral oration, the first oration ever heard within 
those walls, destined to echo to the soul-stirring eloquence of so many 
future heroes, statesmen, and orators, was delivered on this occasion. 

In 1747, the old hall was burned, and in the year following repaired 
and rebuilt, somewhat on its present much enlarged and improved plan. 
A serious tumult was occasioned the same year, by the impressment of 
some seamen and mechanics by an English squadron lying in the harbor. 
The house of Governor Shirty was attacked, and the mob determined to 
seize and detain the naval officers who were in it. Captain Erskine, of 



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44 HISTORY OF 

the Canterbury, and several inferior officers, were secured. The squadron 
was commanded by Commodore Knowles, who afterwards forsook the 
service of his country, and entered into that of the Empress of Russia. 
Notwithstanding the Governor's remonstrances, and representations of the 
confusion and indignation caused by this outrage, the Commodore refused 
all terms of accommodation, and even threatened to bombard the town if 
the officers were not set at liberty. His discretion, or his instinct, per- 
haps, seems to have persuaded him to better counsels. The military 
were called out, and serious consequences were apprehended, when, upon 
the interference of the General Court, which was in session at the time, 
and the condemnation in town meeting of the riot, as well as of the act 
of impressment that had given rise to it, the difficulty was reconciled, 
and most, if not all, of the persons impressed were dismissed. 

A most calamitous fire occurred on the 20th of March, 1769, the loss in 
which was estimated at £ 71,000 ; and another in the month of January, 
1761, causing great damage. The weather was so intensely cold that the 
harbor was frozen over for several days. The interior of Faqeuil Hall 
Market was again consumed, but the walls were left standing. It was 
immediately repaired, the General Court granting a lottery for that pur- 
pose. 

We have now arrived at that period of our history, not only the most 
eventful for the city of Boston, but also for the nation and for mankind. 
Between the years 1760 and 1776, were enacted those important scenes, 
which preceded and attended the first steps of the Revolution. 

Boston was the principal theatre of these scenes. Immediately after 
the conquest of Canada in 1759, the home government seemed to be in- 
spired with a blind and headlong spirit of hostility towards the English 
colonies in North America. It is easy to conceive that this spirit had 
its immediate exciting cause in the difference between the political condi- 
tion of the Canadas themselves, and that of the ancient colonies. The 
former were tubject provinces, the conquests of war; the latter were in- 
dependent States, accustomed to recognize no other government than 
their own. The humiliation of the former must have exhibited the pride 
of freedom in the latter in a striking contrast; but, at the same time that 
we look to this as an immediate provocation, we must not forget that a 
party had always existed from the year 1692, which opposed submission 
to the present charter, and encouraged, by word and deed, a resolute op- 
position to every seeming act of encroachment upon the privileges con- 
ferred by the first patent. Indeed, as far back as the year 1676, one hun- 
dred years before the Declaration of Independence, the Court of the 
colony had distinctly announced the fundamental principle of the Revo- 
lution ; that taxation without representation was an invasion of the 
rights, liberties, and property of the subjects of his Majesty. When, 
therefore, at the later period in question, the government of Great Britain 



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BOSTON. 45 

renewed its attacks, it encountered the resistance, not prompted by sud- 
den excitement, but proceeding from a sedate conviction of duty and 
fconor, matured through several generations of men. Ignorant or regard- 
less of this, it formed plans for changing their forms of government, 
crippling their trade, and raising revenue by means of taxes laid by Par- 
liament without the consent of the people. Without attempting any 
connected history of the measures by which these objects were to be 
accomplished, it is necessary to refer to them occasionally, in order to 
L explain the events we are about to record. 

* The order from the Board of Trade, for application for Writs of Assist- 
ance, was, as is well known, the first of these measures. Between that 
time and the passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, ample time was afforded 
to prepare the minds of the people for coming events; and that time was 
well improved. Brave and eloquent leaders were not wanting to direct, 
nor willing and fearless followers to pursue, the course to which freedom 
pointed. 

The appointment of Andrew Oliver, as distributor of stamps for Mass- 
achusetts, occasioned the first popular outbreak of passion proceeding 
from the love of liberty. An effigy of Mr. Oliver and a boot (the emblem 
of Lord Bute) with the devil peeping out of it, having the Stamp Act in 
his hand, besides various other satirical emblems, were found, at break of 
day, hanging on a large elm tree, at the head of Essex Street, opposite 

JBoylston Market. The Lieutenant-Governor directed the Sheriff to have 
the effigy removed ; but his officers reported that it could not be done, 
without peril of their lives. The excitement continued all day. A build- 
ing, intended, as was supposed, for a stamp office, was entirely demol- . 
ished. At eleven o'clock at night, the Lieutenant-Governor and Sheriff 
m ventured to approach the people, to persuade them to disperse, and were 
received with a volley of stones. The next day the violence was re- 
newed ; the houses of Mr. Storey, Register Deputy of the Admiralty, 
and of Mr. Hallowell, Controller of the Customs, were attacked and in- 
jured. This is the origin of the " Liberty Tree," so dear to every true 
Bostonian. 

The house of the Lieutenant-Governor was also attacked. Every thing 
movable was destroyed in a most minute manner, except such things of 
value as were worth carrying off; among which were £ 1,000 sterling in 
specie, besides a great quantity of family plate, <fec. An attempt was 
made to destroy the, house. The next day the streets were found scat- 
tered with money, plate, gold rings, &c. The respectable part of the 
community, however, were as far from justifying these outrages as they 
were strenuous to oppose the imposition of internal taxes by the authori- 
ty of Parliament. A town-meeting was held the next day, at which the 
citizens expressed their detestation of the violent proceedings of the past 
night, and unanimously voted, that the Selectmen and Magistrates be 



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HIBTORT OF 



desired to use their utmost endeavors to suppress such disorders for the 
future. Another demonstration of the public feeling followed upon the 
arrival of a quantity of the stamps in the month of September. This 
occurred on the day on which the Stamp Act was to take effect. 

An account of the proceedings of the 1st and 5th of November is to be 
found in the Massachusetts Gazette, from which it appears that several 
obnoxious persons were burnt in dhgy in company with figures of the 
pope, the devil, and other effigies of tyranny, oppression, and slavery. 
The whole affair was conducted with great spirit, but without violence. 

In the early part of December, Mr. Oliver was compelled by 'the Sons 
of Liberty, as they styled themselves, to appear under the Liberty Tree, 
and, in the presence of the Selectmen, merchants, and principal inhabi- 
tants of the town, to make a public resignation, unreserved and un- 
qualified, of his office of Distributor of Stamps. The Liberty Tree be- 
came a sort of idol with the people. On the 14th of February, 1766, it 
was pruned after the best manner, agreeably to a vote, — passed by the 
true born Sons of Liberty, — so that the tree became a great ornament to 
the street This tree stood at the corner of Essex Street, opposite the 
Boylston Market, and was cut down by the British soldiers while they had 
possession of the city, in the winter of 1775-76, and converted into fuel. 

The 20th of February, being the dsy fixed for burning one of the Stamp 
Papers in the principal towns in every colony, this ceremony was con- 
ducted in Boston with great decency and good order, and the effigies of 
Bute and Grenville, in full court dress, were added to the bonfire. On 
the 24th, a vessel arrived from Jamaica with stamp clearances. The 
Sons of Liberty directed one of their number ' to go and demand in 
their name those marks of Creole slavery.' Upon being received they 
were exposed at the stocks upon a pole, and finally burnt in the centre 
of King (now State) Street. 'While the smoke was ascending, the execu- 
tioner said in a loud voice, ' Behold the smoke ascends to heaven, to wit- 
ness between the isle of Britain and an injured people i ' Three cheers 
were given, and the street was cleared in a few minutes without disorder. 
We find in the Boston Gazette of March 17th, the determination ex- 
pressed to spill the last drop of blood, if necessity should require, rather 
than live to see the Stamp Act in operation in America. This is the first 
intimation of the possibility of an appeal to arms. When information 
of the repeal of the Stamp Act reached Boston, on the 16th of May, the 
inhabitants were as loud and active in the demonstrations of their joy as 
they had been before of their resentment. The bells were rung, and the 
cannon was fired under the Liberty Tree, and in other parts of the town. 
The 19th was appointed for a day of general rejoicing. Such was the 
ardor of the people that the bell of Dr. Byles's church, the nearest to the 
Liberty Tree, was rung at one o'clock in the morning, and soon answered 
by the other bells of the city. The drums beat and guns were fired ; the 



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BOSTON. 47 

Liberty Tree was decorated with flags, and colors were displayed from 
the houses. In the evening the town was illuminated, and fireworks 
were let off in every direction, especially on the Common. Appropriate 
sermons were preached from several pulpits on succeeding days. 

The accidental arrival of a detachment of Royal Artillery, served, in 
addition to the angry and offensive language of the British government 
and its officers here, to keep op the public excitement in Boston, until the 
passage of the bill imposing duties on tea, &c, and the act changing the 
_ administration of the customs in America. Consequent upon these, a 
I town-meeting was held on the 28th of October, at which the illustrious 
I Otis was chosen Moderator. At this meeting an address was read re- 
commending economy and manufactures ; and the town took into con- 
sideration the petition of a number of the inhabitants, ' that some effec- 
tual measures might be agreed upon to promote industry, economy, and 
manufactures,' thereby to prevent the unnecessary importation of Euro- 
pean commodities which threatened the country with poverty and ruin. 

" Messrs. John Route, Wm. Greenleaf, Melatiah Bourne, Sam' I Aus- 
tin, Ediw. Payne, Edm. Quincy, tertius, John Ruddock, Jona. Wil- 
liams, Josh. Henshaw, Hend. Inches, Solo. Davis, Joshua Winslovt, 
and Thos. Gushing, were appointed a committee to prepare a subscrip- 
tioD paper, for the above object. Accordingly, they brought forward a 
form, in which the signers agree ' to encourage the use and consumption 
of all articles manufactured in any of the British Amer. colonies and 
more especially in this province, and not to purchase, after the 31st of 
Dec next, any of certain enumerated articles, imported from abroad ; 
and also strictly to adhere to the late regulation respecting funerals, and 
not to use any gloves, but what are manufactured here, nor procure any 
new garments upon such an occasion, but what shall be absolutely neces- 
sary.' Copies of these articles were directed to every town in this prov- 
ince, and to all the other principal towns in America, where they were 
generally approved and adopted." 

Difficulties which occurred between the crew of his Majesty's ship 
Romney, and several town-meetings, from which emanated remonstrances 
to the Governor, and resolutions to avoid, as far as possible, importations 
from Great Britain, supplied General Gage with the desired pretext for 
sending regular troops to Boston. When this intention was known, 
another town-meeting was held, which was opened with prayer by the 
Rev. Samuel Cooper. A committee was appointed to wait upon his Ex- 
cellency, and request him to communicate the reasons for the troops being 
ordered here, and also to ask him to issue precepts for the General As- 
sembly. The refusal of the Governor to comply with the latter request, 
led to the first State Convention ; the idea of which originated in Boston. 

On Friday, September 30th, 1768, the British troops landed at Long 
Wharf. The Town-House and Faneuil Hall were converted into tempo- 
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48 HISTORY OP 

rary barracks, and Boston become a garrisoned place. About this time, 
two hundred families in town had agreed to abstain entirely from the use 
of tea. Other towns, and the students of Harrard College, followed the 
example. All amusements were given up, the British officers attempted 
to get up assemblies, but were unable to secure the presence of any ladies 
out of their own families. The women of Boston refused to Join in 
fashionable gayeties while their country was in mourning. 

On the night of the 30th of January, 1769, a fire broke out in the jail, 
from which the prisoners were rescued with difficulty. In the morning, 
the walls alone were standing. At this fire, the city and soldiers were 
seen acting in harmony for the last time. At the time of the annual 
election for Representatives, the Selectmen requested General Mackay, 
the commander of the troops, to remove them from the town, which 
being refused, the town met, and entered upon their records a declaration 
of their right, and a protest against being compelled to proceed to election 
under such circumstances. Disputes between the people and the servants 
of the crown now became frequent, but nothing produced greater excite- 
ment than an attack upon Mr. Otis by a number of army, navy, and 
revenue officers at the British Coffee House. In October the town pub- 
lished an appeal to the world, or vindication of Boston, from the asper- 
sions of Bernard and others. In January, 1770, the merchants renewed 
their agreement not to import British goods. At one of the several meet- 
ings held in Faneuil Hall, in connection with this subject, Lieutenant- 
Governor Hutchinson sent a message directing the meeting to disperse 
After a calm consideration of the message, it was unanimously voted to 
proceed. 

Hitherto the altercations between the people and those in authority, 
had been limited to angry words and language of defiance ; but now the 
union for liberty was to be cemented by blood. The first victim was a 
boy of eleven years of age, named Christopher Snyder. He was killed 
by one Ebenezer Richardson, known as the informer, who had created a 
riot by attempting to pull down a pole on the top of which the faces of 
several importer* were carved. He was killed on the 23d of February, 
and buried on the 26th. All the friends of liberty were invited to attend 
the funeral of this little hero and first martyr to the noble cause! The 
corpse was set down under the Tree of Liberty. The coffin bore several 
inscriptions. On the foot, "Latat anguis in herba"; on each side, 
" Hseret lateri lethalis arundo " ; and on the head, " Innocentia nusquam 
tuta." Four or five hundred school-boys preceded the body ; six of the 
child's playfellows bore the palL After the relatives, followed a train of 
thirteen hundred inhabitants on foot, and the procession was closed by 
thirty chariots and chaises. A week after this event, the Boston mas- 
sacre occurred. It originated in an attempt of three or four young men 
to force a passage by a sentinel, In which one of them received a slight 



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BOSTON. 49 

wound. This encounter soon attracted a crowd, a part of which • threat- 
ened an attack upon the sentinel at the Custom-House. On the alarm 
being given, a sergeant and six men were sent to his support ; and the 
commander of the guard, Captain Thomas Preston, upon being informed 
of this, followed to prevent mischief. By this time the bells were rung, 
and people collected from all quarters. The soldiers were soon surrounded 
by men armed with clubs, and pressing close upon them, while those at a 
distance threw sticks of wood, snowballs, and pieces of ice at them. 
The crowd defied them to fire. Finally, thinking the order was given, 
they fired in succession from right to left. Three citizens were killed 
instantly, two received mortal wounds, and several were more or less in- 
jured. Upon this, the mob increased to the number of four or five thou- 
sand, and most of the troops were called out, or got under arms. Several 
officers were knocked down by the mob, and one very much injured. It 
was with difficulty that the Lieutenant-Governor, at the head of the 29th 
Regiment, persuaded the people to retire. A body of a hundred men, 
composed of some of the most distinguished inhabitants, remained and 
organized themselves into a Citizen's Guard. Captain Preston surren- 
dered himself, and Was committed to prison that night. The eight soldiers 
were committed the next day. At eleven o'clock in the morning of the 
next day, a town-meeting was held, and a committee was appointed to 
wait on the Lieutenant-Governor and Colonel Dalrymple, to express to 
them the opinion of the town, that it was impossible for the soldiers and 
inhabitants to live in safety together, and to urge the immediate removal 
of the former. The answer to this application not being satisfactory, the 
committee Were sent back to the Lieutenant-Governor, armed with a 
more urgent remonstrance. After some cavils, the Lieutenant-Governor 
offered to remove one of the regiments, when Samuel Adams promptly 
replied, " If the Lieutenant-Governor, or Colonel Dalrymple, or both to- 
gether, have authority to remove one regiment, they have authority to 
remove two ; and nothing short of a total evacuation of the town by all 
the regular troops, will satisfy the public mind and preserve the peace of 
the province." Hutchinson, by the advice of the Council, complied with 
this demand, and both regiments were removed to the Castle in less than 
fourteen days. The funeral solemnities which followed the massacre 
brought together a great concourse of people. The four bodies were de- 
posited in one grave. Wilmot, charged with the murder of Snyder, was 
acquitted ; Richardson was brought in guilty, but was ultimately par- 
doned by the king. About this time an attempt was made to smuggle in 
some tea, in a cargo from London, but the owners were forced to send it 
back, the traders and people adhering in good faith to their agreement, not 
to import or use imported goods. The trial of Captain Preston com- 
menced in October. He was defended with masterly ability by John 
Adams and Josiah Qulncy, Jr., Esq., who, to use the words of Tudor, " in 



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50 HISTORY OP 

so doing, gave a proof of that elevated genuine courage, which ennobles hu- 
man nature. For leaders on the patriotic side, the attempt, while the pub- 
lic were in a state of such high exasperation, to defend an officer who was 
accused of murdering their fellow-citizens, required an effort of no ordi- 
nary mind : it was made successfully, and will ever hold a distinguished 
rank among those causes that adorn the profession of the law ; in which 
a magnanimous, fearless advocate boldly espouses the side of the unfor- 
tunate, against the passions of the people, and hazards his own safety or 
fortune in the exertion." Captain Preston was acquitted, as were also 
six of the soldiers. A verdict of manslaughter was brought against the 
other two, who were slightly branded and discharged. The anniversary 
of the Boston massacre was commemorated the following year, and the 
first of the " Boston Orations " was delivered by Master James Lovell. 
In November, 1772, the following proceedings took place at a town- 
meeting : — 

'- It was then moved by Mr. Samuel Adams, that a Committee of Cor- 
respondence be appointed, to consist of twenty -one persons, — to state the 
Right of these Colonists, and of this Province in particular, as men, as 
Christians, and as subjects : to communicate and publish the same to the 
several towns in this province and to the world, as the sense of this town, 
with the infringements and violations thereof, that have been, or from 
time to time may be, made. Also requesting of each town a free com- 
munication of their sentiments on this subject; and the question being 
accordingly put, passed in the affirmative, nem. con. 

" Also voted, that James Otis, S. Adams, Joseph Warren, Dr. B. Church, 
Wm. Dennie, Wm. Greenleaf, Jos. Greenleaf, Thomas Young, Wra. Pow- 
ell, Nath. Appleton, Oliver Wendell, John Sweetser, Josiah Quincy, Jr., 
John Bradford, Richard Boynton, Wm. Mackay, Nath. Barber, Caleb 
Davis, Alex. Hill, Wm. lftolineux, and Robert Pierpont, be, and hereby 
are, appointed a Committee for the purpose aforesaid, and that they be 
desired to report to the town as soon as may be." 

The English East India Company, having obtained a license to export 
a quantity of tea to America, free from the payment of any customs or 
duties whatsoever, despatched the ship Dartmouth, which arrived in Bos- 
ton on the 28th of November, 1773, with one hundred and twelve chests 
of tea. Information of the intention of the company had been received 
long before the arrival of this ship, and caucuses were held in various 
parts of the town, to induce the consignees to make a public resignation 
of their commissions. The day after the arrival of the Dartmouth, the 
following notice was circulated in Boston and the neighboring towns : — 

" Friends, Brethren, Countrymen ! 
" That worst of plagues, the detested TEA, shipped for this port by the 
East India Company, is now arrived in this harbor. The hour of de- 



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BOSTON. 51 

struction, or manly opposition to the machinations of Tyranny, stares 
you in the face. Every friend to his country, to himself, and to posterity, 
is now called upon to meet at Faneuil Hall, at nine o'clock, this day (at 
which time the bells will ring), to make a united and successful resistance 
to this last, worst, and most destructive measure of administration. 
" Boston, Nov. 29, 177a" 

The number of people brought together by this notice was immense, 
and the meetings were continued by adjournment during this and the 
following day. A watch was appointed to prevent the landing of the tea, 
and it was " Voted, that it is the determination of this body to carry 
their votes and resolutions into execution at the risk of their lives and 
property." Another ship arrived on the 1st of December, and a brig 
about the same time. No preparation having been made by the owners 
and consignees for the departure Of the vessels, another and fuller meeting 
was held on Thursday, the 16th of December, which remained in session, 
with a short recess, until five o'clock in the afternoon. A refusal having 
been received at that time from the Governor of a permit for the vessels 
to pass the Castle, the meeting broke up with most admired disorder, and 
the multitude rushed to Griffin's wharf. Thirty men, disguised as In- 
dians, went on board the ships with the tea. In less than two hours, two 
hundred and forty chests and one hundred half-chests were staved and 
emptied into the dock. The affair was conducted without tumult, and no 
injury was done to the vessels, or the remaining cargo. No opposition 
was made to this adventure by the ships of war or the troops. The 
names of the adventurers have never been made known. This act led to 
the determination to subdue America by force of arms. On the 31st of 
March, 1774, the king gave his assent to the Boston Port Bill. On the 
13th of May, the town passed the following vote : — * 

" Voted, That it is the opinion of this town that if the other colonies 
come into a joint resolution to stop all importations from G. B. and ex- 
portation* to G. B. the same will prove the salvation of N. America and 
her liberties. On the other hand, if they continue their exports and im- 
ports, there is high reason to fear that fraud, power, and the most odious 
oppression will rise triumphant over right, justice, social happiness, and 
freedom. And ordered, That this vote be transmitted by the Moderator 
to all our sister colonies in the name and behalf of this town." 

General Gage arrived the same day, and on the 1st of June the Custom* 
House was closed. The solemnity of these sad times was increased by 
the occurrence of a fire, on the 10th of August, in which several persons 
perished. The new charter made it unlawful to hold any town-meetings, 
but the people of the country assembled at Dedham, and afterwards at 
Milton. At the close of the year 1774, Governor Gage had under his 
command at Boston eleven regiments, besides four companies of artillery. 



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52 HISTORY OF 

In the year 1775, an association was formed in Boston, of upwards of 
thirty persons, chiefly mechanics, for the purpose of watching the move- 
ments of the British, the members of which watched the soldiers, by 
patrolling the streets all night. It was this association that gave notice of 
the expedition to destroy the stores at Concord, preparations for which 
had been made in profound secrecy. Towards the end of May, consider- 
able reinforcements arrived at Boston from England, accompanied by 
Generals Howe, Clinton, and Burgoy ne. On the 17tb of June, the battle of 
Bunker Hill was fought. Afier which, Boston was effectually guarded 
and brought into a state of siege. No provisions were allowed to enter, 
the troops and inhabitants were reduced to great necessities, and the 
breaking out of the small-pox added to the general wretchedness. On 
the 2d of July, General Washington took command of the American Army. 
Such was the scarcity of fuel during the following winter, that the Old 
North Meeting-house and above one hundred other large wooden build- 
ings were taken down and distributed for firewood. The Old South 
Church was transformed into a riding school; Hollis street, Brattle 
street, the West and the First Baptist Meeting-houses, were occupied as 
hospitals or barracks for the troops. 

On the 18th of March, 1776, the British troops embarked and aban- 
doned the town. The inhabitants of Boston speedily returned to their 
homes, and on the 29th of March, a regular meeting was held for the 
choice of town-officers. 

At the meeting for the choice of Representatives, in the ensuing May, 
it was unanimously resolved, to advise their Representatives " that, if 
the honorable Continental Congress should, for the, safety of the colonies, 
declare them independent of the kingdom of Great Britain, they, the in- 
habitants, would solemnly engage with their lives and fortunes, to sup- 
port them in the measure." 

The Declaration of Independence was made public at Boston on the 
18th of July, with great parade and exultation. Although Boston con- 
tributed its full proportion of men and means to support the cause of the 
Revolution, it ceased from this time to be the seat of war. It remained 
firm in its determination to make no terms with Great Britain, unaccom- 
panied with an acknowledgment of independence. But the intelligence 
of peace, which was received on the 23d of April, 1783, called forth the 
most lively demonstrations of joy and satisfaction. The adoption of the 
Federal Constitution was equally an occasion of rejoicing, and was cele- 
brated by a numerous procession, composed of all classes and trades, with 
appropriate badges. 

The beacon upon Beacon Hill was blown down in the autumn of 1789, 
and the monument commemorating the principal events of the Revolu- 
tionary War was commenced the next year, and completed in the spring 
of 1791. It was a plain column, of the Doric order, built of brick and 



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BOSTON. 63 

stone, and encrusted with a white cement ; the top surmounted by a gilt 
eagle, supporting the American Arms. The height of the column, to the 
top of the eagle, was sixty feet. The east side of the monument bore an 
inscription, the sentiment of which should ever be freshly remembered, — 

" AMERICANS : 
WHILE PROM THIS EMINENCE, SCENES OP LUXURIANT FERTILITY, OP 
PLOURI8HINO COMMERCE, AND THE ABODES OP SOCIAL HAPFINE88 
MEET TOUR VIEW, POROBT NOT THOSE, WHO BY THEIR EXERTIONS 
HAVE SECURED TO YOU THESE BLESSINGS." 

Our history of those erents which, in Boston, preceded and led to the 
national independence, illustrates in an honorable manner the fidelity of 
its inhabitants to those principles of conduct which always directed j 
their fathers in the settlement of this province. It requires no common 
sagacity to perceive, upon retrospection, the wisdom and nobleness of 
those principles, or to estimate the abundant reward of those virtues ; 
neither will it be difficult to understand, from the few pages yet before us, 
how well they were suited, under the blessing of God, to constitute the 
permanent basis of the soundest social polity, and of general and indi- 
vidual happiness. While we are inspired with sentiments of devout grati- 
tude to those who have preceded us, for the works they have left behind 
them, of which we are reaping the mighty benefits, we cannot but enter- 
tain an equally devout hope that we may be so guided and governed by 
their great examples, as to preserve a state of constant progress, and con- 
tinue faithful to that honor. 

" The jewel of our house, 
Bequeathed down from many ancestors ; 
Which were the greatest obloquy in the world 
In us to lose." 

In writing the history of Boston up to this period, we have been record- 
ing events that belonged io the history of the province, and of the whole 
country. This was owing to the prominent position occupied by Boston 
in the affairs of the colony, and to the spirit of her citizens. But the 
successful issue of the Revolution having secured that independence and 
stability for which Boston had contended from its first foundation, and 
removed all apprehensions of their being again disturbed, the energies of 
the people were hereafter chiefly devoted to the labors of peace, to the 
improvement of those advantages of situation and government, which 
held out (o them the highest prospects. Accordingly, our attention here- 
after will be principally given to subjects of merely local interest. 

The first great undertaking after the peace, the greatest at that time 
that had ever been projected in America, was the construction of a bridge 
over Charles River, between Boston and Charlestown. The wisdom of 
this project was doubted at the time by many persons, who thought it 



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54 HISTORY OP 

would be unable to withstand the ice. An act of incorporation, however, 
was granted, on the 9th of March, 1785, to the stockholders, and the 
work was prosecuted with such vigor, that the bridge was open for pas- 
sengers on the 17th of June, 1786. This occasion was celebrated with 
appropriate festivities; salutes of thirteen guns were fired at sunrise 
from Bunker and Copps's hills, the sounds of which contrasted joyfully 
in the public mind, with those, which on the same day, eleven years be- 
fore, had awakened the same echoes. The procession consisted of almost 
every respectable character in public and private life, and included both 
branches of the Legislature. The number of spectators was estimated at 
twenty thousand, and eight hundred persons sat down to a dinner pro- 
vided for their accommodation on Breed's Hill. The Town Records show 
that this bridge had been discussed as early as 1720. The cost of it is 
said to have been £ 15,000, lawful money. 

The next great undertaking was the bridge and causeway from the 
west end of Cambridge street to the opposite shore in Cambridge. The 
causeway was begun on the 15th of July, 1792, and that and the bridge 
were open for passengers on the 23d of November, 1793. The cost of the 
two was estimated at £23,000, lawful money. 

Old South Boston Bridge was opened for passengers in the summer of 
1805, and Canal or Craigie's Bridge in the summer of 1809. 

The Western Avenue, or Mill-Dam, making a sixth Avenue into the 
city (five of which are artificial), was fairly begun in 1818, and com- 
pleted in the summer of 1821. 

On the 20th of April, 1787,' a disastrous fire occurred, which destroyed 
the Hollis Street Church, and one hundred other buildings, of which sixty 
were dwelling-houses. 

In the year 1793, the foundation was laid of the present range of build- 
ings in Franklin street ; the spot on which they stand had been up to 
this time neglected, and a slough or quagmire existed in the lower part 
of it. 

In July, 1794, another distressing fire occurred, which laid waste the 
square from Pearl street to the water. Six or seven ropewalks were de- 
stroyed, and one hundred stores and dwelling-houses. The ropewalks 
were afterwards removed to the bottom of the Common, and were twice 
destroyed by fire; once in the winter of 1805-6, and again in the autumn 
of 1819. In 1824, they were removed to the Neck and Mill-Dam. 

In the month of May, 1795, the town purchased of Governor Hancock's 
heirs the land on which the State-House stands t and transferred it to the 
commonwealth. The corner-stone of this edifice was laid with great, 
ceremony on the 4th of July, by the Governor, assisted by the' Grand' 
Masters of the Masonic Lodges. A silver plate bearing the name of the 
depositors, and many pieces of current money, were placed beneath the 
stone. On it was inscribed, — " This Cornerstone of a building, intended 



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BOSTON. 55 

for the use of the Legislative and Executive branches of Government of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, was laid by His Excellency, Samuel 
Adams, Esq., Governor of said Commonwealth, assisted by the Most Wor- 
shipful Paul Revere, Grand Master, and the Right Worshipful William 
Sedley, Deputy Grand Master, the Grand Wardens and brethren of the .' 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, on the fourth day of July, An. Dom. 1795. ' 
A. L. 5795 being the XXth anniversary of American Independence." 

The Nineteenth Century. 

The new Alms-house, in Leverelt street, which stood till 1825, was 
built in the year 1800. The old Alms-house, Work-house, and Bridewell, 
together with the Granary, were situated on Park street. The Granary 
was a storehouse for grain for the accommodation of the poor, and was 
under the direction of a committee. It may be mentioned here, that the 
first Alms-house appears to have been open for the reception of patients 
in 1665; and this being destroyed by fire in 1682, another was erected in 
1686. 

About 1803 or 1804, the ground on which these buildings stood was sold, 
and the block of four houses in Park street adjoining the church was put 
up. This was one of the earliest improvements near the State-House and 
Common. 

In 1804, houses were erected on Beacon street, at the upper corner of 
Park street. 

Hamilton Place was finished in 1806, and Bumstead Place shortly 
after. Pinckney street, Myrtle street, Hancock street, and the whole ex- 
lent of Mount Vernon, which, at the end of the last century, were a 
dreary waste, began to exhibit signs of improvement, and by the year 
1806, some of the handsomest houses in the town were built in this neigh- 
borhood. Beacon hill and the hills west of it were cut down, and the 
materials were used to fill up the Mill-pond; the proprietors of which 
had been incorporated by the name of the Boston Mill Corporation, as 
early as 1804. One of the first improvements on the Mill-pond (as it was 
called), was a street from the Boston side of Charles River and bridge, 
which shortened the distance between Charlestown and the centre of Bos- 
ton. The fiiling up of the pond gradually progressed subsequently to 
that time, by which the area of the peninsula was increased about forty- 
three acres. 

In December, 1801, another destructive fire occurred, and about a year 
afterwards the law was passed prohibiting the erection of wooden build- 
ings more than ten feet high. The improvements of the city were car- 
ried rapidly forward. 

In 1806, the digging away of Copps Hill, and the erection of brick 
buildings in Lynn street, was commenced. 

Broad street, India Wharf, and India street, extending from the head of 



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66 HISTORY OP 

the latter to the head of Long Wharf, were the next improvement*, and 
the stores and houses on them were ready to be occupied in the course of 
1807 - 1809. To these great improvements we must add in the same quarter 
that of Central Wharf, one hundred and fifty feet in width, with a line of 
fifty-four stores in the centre, four stories high. As a place of commer- 
cial business, combining every possible convenience, Central Wharf is 
probably not surpassed by any in the world. The projector of these great 
enterprises, Mr. Colling, originated at the same time the plans of Market 
and Brattle streets, with their fine buildings, the first which were made 
to rest on granite pillars. The houses on the east side of Market street 
were built the next year, and enjoy the distinction of being the first stone 
block in the town. 

The changes above enumerated were chiefly for the purposes of busi- 
ness and trade, but the means of accommodation for a population rapidly 
increasing in wealth and numbers, kept equal pace with the improved 
facilities of commerce. 

Fort Hill was repaired, and the adjacent lot was sold to individuals, 
who raised the brick block called Washington Place. The neighborhood 
of the Massachusetts Hospital, formorly marsh and pasture ground, or 
used for ropewalks only, was covered with handsome houses. Beacon 
street, on the west side of the Common, and Tremont street on the east 
(mostly built in 1811), were adorned with elegant dwellings, and before 
the year 1822, many courts, rows, squares, and places, added to the 
beauty and convenience of the city. In the mean time, the old Custom- 
House had been built, and the Boston Exchange Coffee-House, an im- 
mense pile, seven stories in height, and covering twelve thousand seven 
hundred and fifty -three square feet of ground, was completed. It stood 
with its front on Congress street, and took in the site of the present Ex- 
change Coffee-House. It was destroyed by fire in 1818. 

The atone Court-House, in Court Square, now City Hall, built in 1810, 
Boylston Hall in the same year, and the City Market, so called, at the 
foot of Brattle street, next to Dock Square, built in 1819, bring to a close, 
for the present, our list of improvements, — dry, perhaps, to the indifferent 
reader, but replete with interest for tho Bostonian, who is thus made 
familiar with the mode of growth of his native city. 

It has been the fashion of our day to listen with too much patience to 
sneers upon the ssverity of the life and manners of our Puritan fathers. 
It is apt (very naturally) to escape the unreflecting, that the work they 
had to perform, — that of raising amid the gloom of ignorance, bigotry, 
and licentiousness, and in a distant wilderness, a social structure resting 
upon the broad and secure basis of religious and civil freedom, — was not to 
be accomplished with laughter and revelry, " the brood of folly, without 
father bred," — but with seriousness, with grave meditations, and the 
awful persuasions of an exalted faith, — the walls of their new city of 

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BOSTON. 67 

refuge were not to be built with music, or if with music, not of that 
pro&ne sort to the idle sounds of which the stones of the heathen capital 
danced into their places, but with the sage and solemn tunes of peni- 
tential psalms, of hymns of joyful thanksgiving, — the music of the full- 
voiced choir heard 

" In service high and anthems clear," 

which Drought all heaven before the eyea of him who listened with faith 
and love. 

The present state of the fine arts in the city of Boston affords the best 
possible evidence that the sterner qualities of the Puritan character were 
by no means inconsistent with the higher graces of the mind. Indeed, 
the former, like the hardest materials in inanimate nature, seem capable 
of receiving the most exquisite polish. And when we allude to the in- 
troduction of a taste for art, and for the more refined enjoyments of social 
life, we do not mean to speak or think of it as something contradictory 
to the sentiments of the original founders of this colony, — for that, in- 
deed, would discover ignorance of their wealth, their education, and social 
position at home,— but as something necessarily wanting until the 
struggle for existence and for safety had ceased, — as the adornments of 
the edifice, not the less comprised in the original plan, because they do 
not appear until the pillars on which they repose are standing upon their 
firm bases. Moreover, the highest refinements of social life have always 
followed in the path of commerce, which is not more the constant friend 
of liberty, than of knowledge and art. 

The first building especially appropriated to public amusements was 
erected in the year 1756. This was Concert Hall, at the head of Hanover 
street. It was designed for concerts, dancing, and other entertainments. 
It was subsequently enlarged and improved at a great expense, and was 
the place in which the British officers conducted their amusements while 
in. possession of the town. A law of the province passed about the year 
1750, prohibited theatrical exhibitions under severe penalties. An effort 
to obtain a repeal of this law in 1792, failed. Notwithstanding which, 
plays were performed under the title of moral lectures, in the " new ex- 
hibition room in Board Alley," now Hawley street. A majority of the 
town regarded the prohibitory laws as " unconstitutional, inexpedient, 
and absurd," and in obedience to the public wishes, the theatre in Fed- 
eral street was built, and opened in 1794. To this was added the Hay- 
market Theatre, in 1796, which stood near the foot of the mall, on the 
spot now occupied by the three story buildings south of Colonnade Row. 
Various other places of public entertainment, including several museums, 
were opened subsequently to the year 1790. Institutions of a more 
elevated character preceded and accompanied these provisions for the 
mere enjoyment of the people. The American Academy of Arts and 



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53 HISTORY OP 

Sciences was incorporated in the year 1780. The design of this institu- 
tion was " to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance 
the interest, honor, dignity, and happiness of a free, independent, and 
virtuous people." The Memoirs of this Academy have done, and are now 
doing, much to enlarge the bounds of human knowledge. It is now in a 
state of great activity and usefulness, and enrolls among its fellows and 
honorary members the most eminent names in science and literature in 
this country and in Europe. 

In 1794, was incorporated the Massachusetts Historical Society, which 
had for its object the collection, preservation, and communication of 
materials for a complete history of the country. In the same year the 
Boston Library Society came into existence, and very soon filled its 
shelves with valuable works of science and general literature, particularly 
those which, on account of their cost, are not commonly accessible. 

The present fine institution of the Athenaeum originated in the year 
1806, by the establishment of a reading-room, containing valuable foreign 
and domestic periodicals, publications, and books of general reference. 
The proprietors of this institution were incorporated in 1807, and through 
the untiring spirit and inexhaustible liberality of private individuals, it 
has risen to its present state of usefulness and honor; its building is one 
of the chief architectural ornaments of the city, and its library and rooms 
of statuary and painting are the habitual resort of the lovers of knowl- 
edge and art. 

Passing over many minor literary associations, we must make a hasty 
enumeration of those charitable institutions which, if a selection were 
made, must be designated as the most prominent characteristic of Boston. 
There is no general sentiment, not even the love of liberty, which, from 
the early foundation of the colony, has displayed itself with more force 
and harmony. Its objects are numerous, and upon some of them " all 
sorts of persons, rich and poor, orthodox and heretics, strong and weak, 
influential and influenced, male and female, young and old, educated and 
uneducated, unite their efforts, and the result is such a combination of 
charities as has never before been found in any city of its size." The 
tardy self-reproach of Lear 

"0,1 have ta'en 
Too little care of this!" 

will not visit the pillow of the mechanic or merchant, the lawyer or 
tradesman, of Boston. If their sagacity has first pointed the way to 
wealth, and their boldness has followed it successfully, they have not for- 
gotten the " houseless heads and unfed sides, the looped and windowed 
raggedness," that are to be found in every, the most prosperous, com- 
munity. 
We will merely give the names of some of these charitable institutions. 



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Among those which hare been incorporated are the Massachusetts 
Humane Society, the Massachusetts Charitable Fire Society, the Massa- 
chusetts Charitable Mechanics 1 Association, the Boston Dispensary, the 
Boston Female Asylum, the Howard Benevolent Society, the Asylum for 
Indigent Boys, the Provident Institution for Savings, the Society for the 
Religious and Moral Instruction of the Poor, the Penitent Females' Refuge, 
the Female Orphan Asylum, the Lying-in Hospital, the Blind Asylum, 
the Eye and Ear Infirmary, the Massachusetts General Hospital, the 
Farm School, and the Insane Asylum. Besides these, and many more of 
the same kind, there are charitable provisions made by every religious 
society for its own poor, and there is a public establishment called the 
Ministry at Large, the object of which is, to inquire into all descriptions 
of destitution, and to apply the necessary alleviation. The views of the 
societies above named, are general and comprehensive, but there are other 
institutions not less active, though more limited in their scope. Such 
are the Samaritan and Fragment Societies ; the Fatherless and Widows' 
Society ; the Society for the Relief of the Distressed ; the Episcopal 
Charitable Society; the British Charitable, the Irish Charitable, the 
Massachusetts Charitable, and the Fuel Societies; the Needlewoman's 
Friend and the Seaman's Friend Societies ; the Prison Discipline Society, 
Ac., dec If we add to these many strictly private associations for benev- 
olent purposes, we may without vanity repeat the words of Increase 
Mather, who said, " for charity, he might indeed speak it without 
flattery, this town hath not many equals on the face of the earth." 
From this topic we pass, by an easy and natural transition, to our 
system of free schools, and other means of education, the indispensa- 
ble support of republics. The Massachusetts system of free schools hi 
too well known throughout the world to require that its history or meth- 
ods should be given here. The earliest trace of it is found in the Boston 
records under the date of April 13th, 1635, — that is, five years after the 
settlement. A subscription " towards the maintenance of a free school- 
master," at the head of which stand the names of Governor Vane, Gov- 
ernor Winthrop, and Mr. Richard Bellingham, is found on the last leaf of 
the oldest volume of town records ; and the same records show, that the 
subject has continued from that time to the present, to command the 
unintermitted, faithful, and earnest attention of the authorities of the 
town. Among the fruits of this system of free education, may be counted 
several voluntary associations of young men, having for their object in- 
structions of a higher degree, so organized as to be accessible to all ; 
such as the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the Mercan- 
tile Library Association, the Mechanics' Institute, &c. The best minds 
of the State and country are employed in delivering courses of public 
lectures before these societies every winter. Neither must we omit to 
mention that noblest of private foundations, the Lowell Institute, — the 

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00 HISTORY OP 

work of a wise, patriotic, and munificent spirit, who, by means of it, has 
done so much for his city, and for the promotion of knowledge, 
" That Christendom shall ever speak his virtue." 

In 1822, the act of the Legislature was passed, conferring upon Boston 
the name and privileges of a city. This change had engaged the atten- 
tion of the people of Boston as early as the year 1651, and from that time 
forward, at considerably long intervals, ineffectual attempts had been made 
to bring it about. The charter was not accepted finally without opposi- 
tion. The first Mayor was the Hon. John Phillips, who, during a year 
of some excitement, administered the new form of government in a man- 
ner suited to conciliate the feelings of its opponents. The adoption of 
the city charter, and the election of the Hon. Josiah Quincy to the office 
of Mayor on the second year, must be regarded as a most important era 
in the history of Boston. " The destinies of the city of Boston," said 
Mr, Quincy, in one of his inaugural addresses, " are of a nature too plain 
to be denied or misconceived. The prognostics of its future greatness are 
written on the face of nature too legibly and too indelibly to be mistaken. 
The indications are apparent from the location of our city, from its har- 
bor, and its relative position among rival towns and cities ; above all, 
from the character of its inhabitants, and the singular degree of enter- 
prise and intelligence which are diffused through every class of its citi 
zens." To hasten the fulfilment of those prognostics, to interpret those 
indications, to unfold and direct those destinies, Mr. Quincy applied all 
the powers of a mind, vigorous, inventive, resolute, and expanded, with 
such prudence and courage, that he has added lustre to a name distin- 
guished in the annals of this colony, and of the country, from the date 
of the first patent to the present day. 

Quincy Market, which has been justly styled "one of the boldest, most 
useful, and splendid public improvements that have taken place in the 
Eastern States," is not only a great advantage to the city, but a fitting 
monument of Mr. Quincy's genius. 

How well the impulse to improvements given by Mr. Quincy has been 
followed out, the subsequent pages of this volume, containing pictorial 
and other descriptions of the public buildings and places of the city, will 
abundantly show. 

The introduction of Railroads, the first two of which were opened for 
public travel in 1835, supplied a means of further progress, well suited 
to the Character of our people. The union of this city with the great 
lakes on one side, and England on the other, with the Canadas on the 
north, and the States on the south, has rendered it one of the principle 
depots of commerce, and one of the chief mediums of travel. 

We mentioned on a former page, that in 1711, a Southern and Eastern 
mall ran once a week to Plymouth and Maine, and a Western mail once 



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BOSTON. 61 

a fortnight to Connecticut and New York. In 1791, a new telegraph was 
invented by Mr. Grout, of Belchertown, with which he boasted that in 
less than ten minutes he had asked a question and received an answer 
from a place ninety miles distant. 

We introduce these facta hereto suggest to the reader a moment's re- 
flection upon the great changes and improvements which seem to mark 
our age as one of the most favored in history. The rapid increase of 
Boston in wealth, population, and all the elements of greatness, reminds 
us that no small portion of the benefits of this favored age has fallen to 
our share. When the first bridge to South Boston was built, that whole 
peninsula contained but ten families, and now it numbers the population 
of a small city. In 1831 , there was but a single family on Noddle's Island, 
East Boston; it now contains twelve thousand inhabitants. Both these 
parts of the city are in the most flourishing condition, and share largely 
in the general prosperity. When justice is done to South Boston, by a 
judicious improvement, which will confer upon it a portion of the water 
advantages to which East Boston owes its more rapid gain, South Boston 
will also become the seat of commerce as well as of manufactures. 

But. we must close here our brief, and to us unsatisfactory, abridgment 
of the history of Boston. It would be impossible, however, for a native 
Boetonian, when on this theme, to lay down his pen without grasping at 
some of the rich fruit, — the " apples of gold in pictures of silver," — the 
instructions of that wisdom which speaketh in the streets of our city, to 
those who are able to heed her voice. If this history teaches -any thing, 
and such a pregnant history must contain many precious maxims, it 
teaches this, that implicit obedience to law is, in a republican communi- 
ty, the only security for life and property ; that the Union of these States 
is the most important element in our commercial prosperity ; and apart 
from those personal interests which must, more or less, influence the 
conduct of all men, we find the strongest inducements to the support of 
our commercial prosperity in this consideration, — that commerce is the 
human instrument which, above all others, has been employed by the 
Creator of the Universe in promoting the physical, moral, and intellectual 
advancement of mankind. 






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66 CHURCHES OP BOSTON 

CHURCHES OF BOSTON. 

The first church building erected in Boston was in the year 1632. Its 
location was near the present corner of State street and Devonshire 
street. Mr. Emerson, in his historical sketches of the church, states its 
location as not far from the spot on which the former Exchange Coffee- 
House was built. The church covenant of the first society was in the 
following words : — 

" In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in obedience to his holy 
will and divine ordinance, 

" We, whose names are here underwritten, being by his most wise and 
good providence brought together into this part of America, in the Bay 
of Massachusetts, and desirous to unite into one congregation or church, 
under the Lord Jesus Christ, our head, in such sort, as becometh all those 
whom he hath redeemed and santified to himself, do hereby solemnly and 
religiously, as in his most holy presence, promise and bind ourselves to 
walk in all our ways according 10 the rule of the gospel, and in all sincere 
conformity to his holy ordinances, and in mutual love and respect to each 
other so near, as God shall give us grace.." 

The second church in Boston was erected in 1649, at the head of the 
North Square ; " when the northeast part of the town being separated 
from the other with a narrow stream cut through a nick of land by in- 
dustry, whereby that part is become an island." 

The first Episcopal Society was formed in Boston in the year 1686, when 
the service of the Common Prayer Book was introduced. Such was the 
inveterate opposition of the early colonists to the adoption of any other 
form of worship than their own, that it was with great difficulty that the 
Baptists, Quakers, Roman Catholics, and Episcopalians, obtained a foot- 
ing in the city. The Old South Church was forcibly taken possession of 
in that year, the ministers who were previously consulted having agreed 
" that they could not, with a good conscience, consent to the use of their 
churches for the Episcopal service." 

The first Baptist Society was formed in the year 1665, when prosecu- 
tions against members of that denomination were commenced. Their 
first house of worship was at the corner of Sttllman and Salem streets. 

The first Quakers who appeared in New England arrived at Boston in 
the year 1666. The General Court passed sentence of banishment against 
them. Three years afterwards, two members of this denomination were 
executed on account of their religious tenets. In 1661, King Charles the 
Second issued instructions that no more prosecutions should be made. 

A Roman Catholic Church was first formed in this city in the year 1789. 

The first Methodist Church, erected in Boston, was opened by a Meth- 
odist Missionary in the year 1796. This building was erected in Hanover 
Avenue. 

The first Universaliet Society was established in the year 1785, when 
they purchased the meeting-house at the corner of Hanover and Bennett 
streets. 



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FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 




FIRST CONGREGATIONAL. CHURCH. * 

This ancient Congregational Church, the first in the metropolis, was 
regularly embodied at Charlestown, 27th August, 1630. In 1632, the first 
house of worship was built. It had mud walls and a thatched roof, and 
stood on the south side of what is now State street. The second meeting- 
house was erected in 1639, on the spot that " Joy's buildings " now occu- 
pies, in Washington street, and was burned down in the great fire of Oct. 
2, 1711. In 1806, the present house in Chauncy place was solemnly ap- 
propriated to Christian worship. 

PASTORS. 
J. Wilson, ftom 1632 to 1667. J. Cotton, from 1633 to 1603. J. Nor- 
ton, from 1656 to 1663. %J. Davenport, from 1668 to 1670. J. Allen, 
from 1668 to 1710. J. Oxbnbridgb, from 1670 to 1674. J. Moody, from 
1684 to 1692. J. Bailey, from 1693 to 1697. B. Wadsworth, ftom 1696 
to 1737. T. Bridge, from 1705 to 1715. T. Foxcrapt, from 1717 to 1769. 
C. Chauncy, D. D., from 1727 to 1787. J. Clarke, D. D., from 1778 to 
1798. W. Emerson, from 1799 to 1811. J. L. Abbott, from 1813 to 
to 1814. N. L. Froth ingham, D. D., from 1815 to 1850. 



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SECOND CHURCH. 




NEW BRICK, UR SUCO.SD CHURCH. 

The preceding cut represents the New Brick, or Second Church, Hano- 
rer street, which belonged to the Congregationalism from 1660 till 1845. 
The Society was gathered in 1650. Their first edifice was built in North 
Square in 1649, burnt in 1676, rebuilt in 1677, and torn down for fuel by 
order of the British General Howe, in 1775. It was then called the Old 
North. The building now represented was dedicated May 10, 1721, and 
called the New Brick, by seceders from the New North. This building 
was demolished in the year 1844, and a splendid edifice erected on its site 
during the ministry of the Rev. Chandler Robbins. In 1845 the Society 
sold their new building to the First Methodist Church, and in 1850, pur- 
chased a Chapel in Freeman Place, where they now worship. 
PASTORS. « 

John Mato, from 1655 to 1672. Incrbabb Mathbr, D. D., from 1669 
to 1723. Cotton Mather, D. D., from 1686 to 1728. Joshua Gbb, from 
1723 to 1748. Samuel Mathbb, D. D., from 1732 to 1741. Samuel 
Chbcklby, Jr., from 1747 to 1768. John Lathrop, D. D., from 1763 to 
1816. Henri- Warb, Jr., D. D., from 1817 to 1830. R. W. Emerson, 
from 1829 to 1832. Chandler Robbins, ord. 1833, present Pastor. 



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FIRST BAPTIST CHCRCH. 




FlttST BAPTIST CHURCH, UNION STREET. 

This Church was gathered in Charlestowa, on the 28th of May, 1665 ; at 

I its formation it consisted of nine members. The first house of worship 
was built in 1679, at the corner of Stillman and Salem streets. In 1771 a 
new house was built on the same spot, which was afterwards considerably 
enlarged. The present edifice, which is situated at the corner of Union 
and Hanover streets, was dedicated June 18, 1829. The house is built of 
brick, and is surmounted by a handsome tower. It contains 106 p»w& 
The pulpit is of mahogany, and in front, connected with it, is the Baptis- 
tery, which is so situated that every person in the house may see the ordi- 
nance performed while seated in their pews. 
PASTORS. 
Thomas Gould, from 1666 to 1675. John Russkll from 1675 to 1660, 
John'Milbs, to February, 1683. John Emblem, from 1684 to 1699. El- 
lis Callbndbr, from 1708 to 1718. Elisha Callbndbr, from 1718, to 
1738. Jbrbmiah Condy, from 1739 to 1764. Samuel Stillman, from 
1765 to 1807. Joseph Clay, from 1807 to 1809. Jambs M. Winchbll, 
from 1814 to 1820. P. Wayland, Jr., from 1821 to 1826. C. P. Grovbs- 
nor, from 1827 to 1830. W. Haoob, from 1831 to 1837. R. H. Nbalb, 
September, 1837, present Pastor. 

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70 



OLD SOUTH CHURCH. 




OLD SOUTH CHURCH, WASHINGTON STREET. 

This Church was formed in Chariestown, on the 12th and 16th of the 
third month, i. e. of May, 1669, O. S. At its formation it consisted of 52 
members. There have been two buildings erected upon the spot where 
the Old South Church now stands, at the corner of Washington and Milk 
streets. The second, or present Church, of which the above is a repre- 
sentation, was first occupied for public worship on the 26th of April, 1730, 
O. & 

PASTORS. 

Thomas Thatohhr, from 1670 to 1678. S. Willard, from 1678 to 
1707. Ebbmbcer Pbmberton, from 1700 to 1717. Joseph Sew all, T> D., 
from 1713 to 1769. Thomas Princb, from 1718 to 1768. Albxandkr 
Cummino, from 1761 to 1763. Samuel Blair, from 1766 to 1769. John 
Bacon, from 1771 to 1775. John Hunt, from 1771 to 1775. Joseph Ece- 
lbt, D. D., from 1779 to 1811. Joshua Huntington, from 1808 to 1819. 
Benjamin B. Wisnbr, D. D., from 1821 to 1832. Samuel H. Stearns, 
from 1834 to 1836. Geobob W. Blaodbn, D. D., installed September 28, 
1836, present Pastor. 



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8T0NB CHAPEL. 




STONE CHAPEL, TREMONT STREET. 

This Society, originally EpiacopaJian, met with much opposition from 
the inhabitants of Boston, and it was only through the authority of Gov- 
ernor Andros, that they succeeded in performing the Church service pub- 
licly in the Old South Church on the 23d of March, 16S7. In the year 
1639 the first edifice, which was built of wood, was erected on the spot 
where the present one now stands, but did not occupy so much ground. 
In the year 1710 it was enlarged to nearly double its former size, and in 
1749 the corner-stone of the present edifice was laid by Governor Shirley. 
This Church is situated at the corner of School and Tremont streets. 
CLERGY. 

R. Radcliffb, ancfR. Clark, from 1686 to 1689. S. Miles, from 1689 
to 1728. G. Hatton, A. M., from 1693 to 1696. C. Rudgb, A.M., from 
1699 to 1706. H. Harris, from 1709 to 1729. R. Price, from 1729 to 
1746. T. Howard, A. M., from 1731 to 1736. A. Davenport, A. M., 
from 1741 to 1744. H. Cane, D. D., from 1741 to 1776. C. Brockwell, 
A. M., from 1747 to 1755. J. Troittbeh, A. M., settled 1775, left 1775. J. 
Freeman, from 1783 to 1835. S. Carv, from 1809 to 1815. F. W. P. 
Greenwood, D. D., from 1824 to 1843. E. Peabodt, present Pastor, 
settled in 184-. 



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72 



FKIBNDS' MiiUXl-NG HOUSE. 




FRIENDS' MEETING-HOUSE, MILTON PLACE. 

There are but few Quakers in Boston. They occasionally hold meet- 
ings here, but the persons composing these meetings are generally resi- 
dents of other places ; they are chiefly from Lynn. 

Their Meeting-House is quite small, built of stone, and is a very neat 
edifice. It is in Milton Place, situated a little back from Federal street. 
Like the Friends themselves, it is so quiet and retired that a person might 
pass through the street a number of times, and not observe the building. 
From the year 1664 to 1808, the Society of Friends held regular meetings 
in Boston. They built the first brick meeting-house in the town, in Brat- 
tle street, and another of similar materials in Congress street. The for- 
mer was sold in 1708, the latter was erected prior to 1717, and stood till 
April, 1825, when the building was sold and demolished. Connected with 
this house was a burial ground, in which the dead of the Society were in- 
terred. Their remains were removed to Lynn in the summer of 1826. 
The land was sold in 1827, and the stone building opposite the west end of 
Lindall street, occupies the site of the old Church. The first Quakers 
who came to Boston, arrived in May, 1656. The laws against the sect 
were very severe in the Colony, and every Quaker found in it was liable to 
the loss of one of his ears. Four were put to death. 



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BRATTLE STREET CHURCH. 



78 




CHURCH IN BRATTLE SQUARE. 

Thia was the seventh religious Society formed in Boston. The earliest 
data of which it is mentioned, is January 10, 1696, when Thomas Brattle 
conveyed to them a piece of land known as Brattle's close, which now 
forms a part of the Church lot. The Church was early called the Mani- 
festo Church, from a declaration of principles published by the "under- 
takers " or founders of the Society. The first house of worship, a wooden 
building, was taken down in May, 1772, to make room for the one which 
now stands in Brattle Square, which was built upon the same spot, and 
consecrated July 25, 1773. 

PABTOR6. 

B. Colhan, D. D., from 1699 to 1747. W. Cooru, from 1716 to 1743. 
S. Coops*, from 1746 to 1783. P. Thachbr, from 1786 to 1802. J. & 
Buckminstsr, from 1806 to 1812. E. Evkrbtt, D. D m LL. D , from 1814 
to 1815. J. O. Palfrbt, D. D., from 1818 to 1830. S. K. Lotbrop, D. D., 
installed June 17, 1334, present Pastor. 



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74 



NEW NORTH CHURCH. 




NEW NORTH CHURCH, HANOVER STREET. 

The New North was the second Congregational Church built at the 
north part of Boston, and the fifth in the order of the other Churches of 
that name. The first house was dedicated May 5, 1714, and the second, 
which is the present, May 2, 1804, or nearly ninety years afterwards. It 
is a substantial brick edifice, at the comer of Hanover and Clark streets. 
The original cost was $ 26,570, exclusive of the land. Nearly all this sum 
was realized from the first sale of pews. The inside is a square of 72 feet, 
two ranges of Doric columns under the galleries, and Corinthian columns 
above them support the ceiling, which was in an arch of moderate eleva- 
tion in the centre, — the whole well adapted for sight and sound. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. John Webb, ordained October 20, 1714, died April 16, 1750. 
Rev. Pbter Thachbr, installed January 28, 1723, died March 1, 1739. 
Rev. Andrbw Eliot, D. D., ord. April 14, 1742, died September 13, 1778. 
Rev. John Eliot, D. D., ordained Nov. 3, 1779, died February 14, 1813. 
Rev. Francis Parkman, D. D., ord. Dec. 8, 1813, resigned Feb. 1, 1819. 
Rev. Amos Smith, ordained December 7, 1842, resigned June 5, 1848. 
Rev. Joshua Young, present Pastor, ordained February 1, 1849. 



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NEW SOUTH CHURCH. 




NEW SOUTH CHURCH. 

This Church is situated at the junction of Summer and Bedford streets. 

The first meeting of the proprietors on record, was held " at the Bull, 
in Boston," July 14, 1715. The Church was dedicated January 8, 1717. 
The present edifice was dedicated December 29, 1814. 

PASTORS. 

Rev. Samuel Chbckley, ord. April 15, 1719, died Dec. 1, 1769, a«?ed 73. 

Rev. Pbnubl Bowbn, ord. colleague, April 30, 1766, left May 12, 1772. 

Rev. Joseph Howe, ord. May 19, 1773, died August 25, 1775, aged 28. 

Rev. Oliver Everett, ord. January 2, 1782, left May 27, 1792, died Nov. 
19, 1802, aged 50. 

Rev. John Thornton Ktrkland, ord. Feb. 5, 1794, left Nov. 4, 1810, in- 
ducted Pre*. Harvard College, Nov., 1310, died April 26, 1840, aged 69. 

Rev. Samuel C. Thayer, ord. May 15, 1811, died Jan. 2, 1818, aged 32. 

Rev. F. W. P. Greenwood, ord. Oct. 21, 1818, left June 24, 1821, died 
Aug 2, 1843, aged 46. 

Rev. Alexander Youno, ord. Jan. 19, 1825, present Pastor. 



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78 



CHRIST CHURCH. 




CHRIST CHURCH, SALEM STREET, 

The corner-stone was laid in 1723, and the Church was opened for pub- 
lic worship the same year by the Episcopal denomination. It is situ- 
ated on Salem Street, opposite the street leading to Copp's hill. It is built 
of brick, is 70 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 33 feet high, with a steeple 175 
feet in height, having an area of 24 feet square. This Church contains a 
set of eight bells (the only peal in the city), which were put up in 1774. 

HECTORS. 
Rev. Timothy Cutler, D. D., settled Dec. 29, 1723, died Aug. 7, 1765. 
Rev. Jambs Gr baton, settled May 30, 1760, left Aug. 31, 1767. 
Rev. Mather Br lbs, Jr., settled Sept., 1768, left April, 1775. 
Rev. Stephen Lewis, settled Aug., 1778, left Sept., 1784. 
Rev. William Montague, settled June, 1787, left May, 1792 
Rev, William Walter, D. D., settled May 29, 1792, died Dec. 5, 1800. 
Rev. Samuel Haskell, settled May, 1801, left Sept., 1803. 
Rev. Asa Eaton, D. D. t settle.! Aug. 23, 1803, left May, 1829. 
Rev. William Croswbll, A. M., inst. June 24, 1829, left June, 1840. 
Rev. John Woart, A. M., instituted Nov,. 1. 1840. left Jan.. 1851. 



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FEDERAL STREET CHURCH. 



77 




FEDERAL. STREET CHURCH. 

The Society worshipping in this house belongs now to the Congrega- 
tional denomination, but was originally Presbyterian. The Presbyterian 
was exchanged for the Congregational form of government, by a unani- 
mous vole, August 6, 1786. Three houses of worship have stood on this 
same spot. The present house was dedicated November 23, 1809. 

The house is of the Gothic style of architecture, built of brick and sur- 
mounted by a wooden spire. In the building which preceded this, the 
State Convention sat which adopted the Constitution of the United States 
in 1788, and in consequence the name of the street was changed from Long 
lane, which it originally bore, to Federal street. 

* PASTORS. 
Rev. John Moorhbad, settled March 31, 1730, died December 2, 1773. 
Rev. Robert Annan, inst. 1733, dismissed 1786. 
Rev. Jeremy Belknap, D. D., inst. April 4, 1787, died June 16, 1796. 
Rev. John S. Popkin, D. D., ord. July 10, 1799, dis. November 28, 1802. 
Rev. Wiluam E. Channino, D. D , ord June 1, 1803, died Oct. 2, 1842. 
Rev. Ezra S Gannett, D. D., ordained June 30, 1824, present Pastor. 



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78 



HOLLIS STREET CHURCH. 




HOLLIS STREET CHURCH. 

This Church was gathered November 14, 1732. The first Church of 
wood, was built on the ground where the present church stands, in 1732, 
and was destroyed by fire in 1787. The second church, also of wood, was 
built in 1788, and was taken down and removed to Braintree, in 1810. 
The present edifice was built the same year, and was dedicated January 1, 
1811. The Church, which is of brick, is 79* feet by 76, exclusive of the 
tower. It contains 130 pews on the lower floor, and 38 in the gallery, be- 
sides seats for the choir. The steeple is 196 feet high. Hollis Street 
Church is Unitarian in sentiment. 

MINI8TER8. # 

Rev. Mather Byles, ordained Dec. 20, 1733, left Aug. 9, 1776. 

Rev. Ebbnbzbr Wioht, ordained Feb. 25, 1778, left 1788. 

Rev. Samuel West, installed March 12, 1789, died April 10, 1808. 

Rev. Horace Holley, installed March 9, 1809, dis. Aug. 24, 1818. 

Rev. John Pibrpont, ordained April 14, 1819, left 1845. 

Rev. David Fosdick, Jr, settled 1846, left 1847. 

Rev. Thomas Starr Kino, present Pastor, installed December, 1848. 



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TRINITY CHURCH. 




TRINITY CHURCH, 8UMMBR STREET, 

The corner-stone of the first edifice was laid April 15, 1734, by Rev. 
Roger Price, minister of King's Chapel, as Commissary of the Bishop of 
London. It was first opened for divine worship Aug. 15, 1734. The old 
Church was taken down Aug., 1828, and the new Church was consecrated 
Not. 11, 1829. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. Addington Davenport, inducted May 8, 1740, died Sept. 8, 1746. 
Rev. William Hoopbr, inducted Aug. 23, 1747, died April 5, 1767. 
Rev. Wm. Walter, D. D., Asst. Min. Oct. 1763, Rector 1767, lea 1775. 
Rev. Samuel Parker, D. D m Asst. Min. 1774, Rector 1779, d. Dec. 7, 1804. 
Rev. John S. J. Gardiner, D. D., Asst. Min. 1792, Rector, 1805, d. 1830. 
Rev. George W. Doank, D. D., Asst. Min. 1823, Rector 1830, left 1833. 
Rev. John H. Hopkins, D. D., Asst. Min. Feb., 1831, left Nov., 1832. 
Rev. Jonathan M. Wainwrioht, D. D., Rector Mar., 1833, left Jan., 1839. 
Rev. John L. Watson, Asst. Min. June 1, 1836. 
Rt. Rev. Manton Eastburn, D. D., Rector 1843. 
Rev. Thomas M. Clark, Asst. Min. 1847, left 1851. 
Rev. Henry Vandyke Johns, D. D., Asst. Min., elected May, 1851. 






80 



MAVERICK CHURCH. 




MAVERICK CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 
EAST BOSTON. 

The Maverick Church at East Boston, was gathered in May, 1836, and 
consisted of 10 members. It was recognized by the sister churches on 
the 31st of May, 1836, by the name of the First Congregational Church in 
East Boston, which name was subsequently changed to its present. 

The Society worshipping with the Church, was incorporated by the Leg- 
islature in 1838, by the name of the Maverick Congregational Society. 

The first house of worship was built and dedicated in 1837. The Soci- 
ety continued to occupy this house until 1844, when the present structure 
was erected. The building is centrally and eligibly situated on the cor 
ner of Sumner street and Maverick Square, and is of sufficient capacity 
to accommodate from 700 to 800 persons. The Church at the present 
time (May, 1851) contains 156 members. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. William W. Nhwhll, the first Pastor, installed July 19, 1837, left 

July 21, 1841. 
Rev. Amos A. Phelps, installed March 2, 1842, left June 2, 1845. 
Rev. Robert S. Hitchcock, installed Nov. 18, 1846, left Nov. 6, 1850. 



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BALDWIN PLACB BAPTIST CHURCH. 




BALDWIN PLACB BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This church was organized July 27, 1743. At its formation it consisted 
of seven members. The first Meeting-House was dedicated March 15, 
1746, enlarged in 1788, and again enlarged in 1797. The corner-stone of 
the present edifice was laid May 2^ 1810, and the house was dedicated 
Jan. 1, 1811. The present church is built of brick, and its dimensions 
are 80 feet by 75, exclusive of a tower 38 feet by 18. The first sermon 
in the old meeting-house,,was preached March 15, 1746. The latter was 
originally a frame building, 46 by 33 feet, finished in a plain style, and 
contained a fount or cistern in which the members were immersed. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. Ephraim Boand, ordained Sept. 7, 1743, died June 18, 1765. 
Rev. John Davis, ordained Sept. 9, 1770, dismissed July 19, 1772. 
Rev. Isaac Stillman, D. D., commenced Sept. 1773, left Oct. 7, 1787. 
Rev. Thomas Gair, inst. April 22, 1788, died April 27, 1790. 
Rev. Thomas Baldwin, D. D., inst. Oct. 11, 1790, died Aug. 29, 1825. 
Rev. Jambs D. Knowlbs, ord. Dec. 28, 1825, dis. Sept. 20, 1832. 
Rev. Baron Stow. D. D., inst. Nov. 15, 1832. left July 1, 1848. 
Rev. Lkvi Tucker, D. D., settled Dec. 31, 184S, present Pastor. 



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FIRST UNIVRRSALIST CHURCH. 




FIRST UNIVRRSALIST CHURCH, HANOVER 
STREET. 

In the year 1785, the society of the late Samuel Mather sold their place 
of worship to Shippie Townsend and others. In 1792, the then proprietors 
voted to enlarge the house. In 1793, Rev. John Murray, who had preached 
for the Society for several years, was installed as Pastor. In 1806, the So- 
ciety was incorporated by an Act of the Legislature. In 1838, the old 
house was removed, and a new and commodious brick church erected on 
the same spot. It was dedicated on the first day of January, 1839. 

From this Society, in about half a century, have emanated several oth- 
er Societies, who have erected for themselves places of worship in the 
city and vicinity, all of which are fully attended. 
PASTORS. 

Rev. John Murray, installed 1793. 

Rev. Edward Mitchell, installed 1810. 

Rev. Paul Dran, installed 1813. 

Rev. Sebastian Strrbtsr, installed 1824. 



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CATHEDRAL OP THE HOLY CROSS. 




CATHEDRAL. OF THE HOLY CROSS, FRANKLIN 
STREET* 

ThU Church was consecrated by Rt. Rev. Dr. Carroll, on the 29th of 
September, 1803. It was afterwards considerably enlarged by Bishop Fen- 
wick, who also, in 1827, converted the basement into a Chapel capable of 
containing 2,000 children. Rev. J. J. Williams has the charge of it. 

This Church is situated on Franklin street, is of large size, and capable 
of containing a very great number of persons. The architecture is of the 
Ionic order, after a plan given by Charles Bulfinch, Esq. 

PA8TOK8. 
Rev. Francis Mationon, D. D., from 1803 to 1810. 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Chevbrus, from 1810 to 1823. 
Very Rev. William Taylor, from 1823 to 1825. 
Rt. Rev. B. Fenwick, installed December, 1825, died August 11, 1846. 
Rt. Rev. John B. Fitzpatrick, succeeded Bishop Fenwick in 1846, and is 

the present Bishop. . 



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84 



VKBEWILL BAPTIST CHORCH. 




FREEWILL, BAPTIST CHURCH, NORTH 
BENNET STREET. 

This substantial and spacious edifice, in North Bennet street, was 
erected In the year 1828, for the First Methodist Episcopal Society, and 
dedicated by Rev. Stephen Martindale, E. Wiley, then pastor. From this 
Church, which was the first Methodist society in the city, hare sprung 
eight others, numbering several thousand members. In the year 1849, 
that Society purchased of the Unitarian, or Second Church, their new edi- 
fice in Hanover street, and removed to it in October of that year. 

In 1850, the Freewill Baptist Society purchased the edifice in North 
Bennet street, here represented, and removed to it. This Society had first 
occupied Marlboro' Chapel, and afterwards worshipped in Boylston Hall ; 
then removed to Richmond street, where they remained till the yearWS50. 

The Baptists of the 16th and 17th centuries, and at earlier periods, were 
persecuted with great severity. A proclamation was issued against them 
throughout England in 1538, and several were burnt at Smithfield. f 

MINISTERS. 
Rev. E. Notbs, first pastor, until 1848. 
Rev. Ransom Dunn, from 1848 to 1851. 



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SECOND METHODIST CHAPEL. 




SECOND 



BROMFIELD 



METHODIST CHAPEL; 
STREET. 

The above is a good vignette of the Second Methodist Chapel in Brom- 
field street, as it appeared in 1849. It is built of brick, measures 84 
by 54 feet, and is a remarkably neat building. In the middle course of 
hammered stone, in the foundation, is a block taken from the celebrated \ 
rock on which our forefathers landed at Plymouth. 

It was dedicated Nov. 19, 1806. Sermon by Rev. S. Merwin, Pastor of 
the Church. In 1835, the Chapel was raised several feet, and a commodi- 
ous Vestry and two stores fitted up beneath. 

This was the second Methodist Chapel built in Boston. Number of 
Methodists in the city at that time, 237. Since the dedication of this 
Chapjl, the pulpit has been successively occupied by 30 to 35 different 
ministers, in accordance with the usages of the Church. Rev. J. B. 
Husted was the Pastor in 1843, and has been succeeded by Rev. S. Rem- 
ington, Rev. C. Adams, Rev. S. H. Higgins, Rev. L. Crowell, and Rev. 
Isaac A. Savage, present Pastor. Number of members, 412. There are 
now ten congregations connected with the Methodist Church in this city. 

In 1849 this Chapel was repaired and materially improved-, and it now 
presents a somewhat different appearance from this representation. 



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86 



METHODIST CHURCH. 




SOUTH BOSTON METHODIST EPISCOPAL 

The Methodist Episcopal Church in South Boston originated in the 
summer of 1834, under the labors of Rev. Abel Stevens, then pastor of the 
Methodist congregation in Church street. He commenced occasional 
preaching in a private room which had been procured by a few pious indi- 
viduals for the purpose of holding a public prayer meeting. The numbers 
attracted by the interesting and eloquent address of Mr. Stevens, soon 
rendered it necessary to seek a more ample place of worship. " Harding's 
Hall" was procured, which they entered Oct. 31, 1834. In May, 1836, 
they removed to " Franklin Hall," and leR in 1840. 

Their house of worship, having a pleasant central location on D street, 
between Fourth street and Broadway, was consecrated for Divine service 
June 17, 1840. It is a plain, neat edifice, of the Gothic style of architec- 
ture, and capable of seating about 550 persons. This Chapel in 1851 was 
enlarged and remodelled. The basement was raised six feet. 
PA8TOK8. 

F. P. Tracy, 1836. O. R. Howard, 1837. J. Macmadino, 1838. J. 
Mudgb, Jr., 1839. H. C. Dunham, 1840. I. A. Savagk, 1841 -42. J. 
Whitman, 1843-44. J. W. Merrill, 1845. G. F. Pools, 1846-47. 
H. V. Dbobn, 1348-49. E. Cookh, 1850-51. 



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FIRST CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 




F1R8T CHRISTIAN CHURCH, CORNER OF 
SUMMER AND SEA STREETS. 

This Church was organized July 1, 1804, with seven members. Their 
first meetings were held in a large wooden building in Friend street, then 
adjoining the Mill Pond. They afterwards occupied a hall in Bedford 
street, and Dec. 29, 1825, dedicated the brick meeting-house at the corner 
of Summer and Sea streets. 

This Society have had many preachers who hare generally remained 
only a short time. When they are without a minister, the parishioners 
exhort among themselves. This is a privilege extended to members of 
other denominations. The Rev. Abner Johnes, of Hartland, Vermont, 
was the first minister over this Society, which was the fifth of the denom- 
ination organized in this country. 

Number of members in 1844, 192. 

PA8TOBS. 

A. Johnbs, from 1804 to 1807. E. Smith, from 1816 to 1817. S Clouoh, 
from 1819 to 1824. C. Morgridge from 1825 to 1826. I. C. Goff, from 
1828 to 1829. J. V. Himes, from 1830 to 1837. S. Clouoh, from 1837 to 
1839. E. Burnham, from 1839 to 1840. J. S. Thompson, from 1841 to 
1844. E. Edmonds, present Pastor, 1814. 



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FIRST INDEPENDENT BAPTIST CHURCH. 




FIRST INDEPENDENT BAPTIST CHURCH, 
BELKNAP STREET. 

This Church was constituted under the title of the " African Baptist 
Church," on the 5th day of August, A. D. 1805. It was incorporated 
under its present title, A. D. 1838. 

The building was erected for the use of colored persons, and was dedi- 
cated in December, 1806, when the Rev. Thomas Paul was installed as 
minister. The house is 48 by 40 feet, of 3 stories, and built of brick. 

The building, which was built by subscription, is situated in a court 
near Belknap street, adjoining the "Smith School " edifice. It is very 
plain and commodious, being capable of seating 600 persons. The pro- 
prietors have it in contemplation, if the necessary means can be raised, to 
modernize, and otherwise improve the premises. 

PASTORS. 

T. Paul, from 1805 to 1829. W. Christian, ind. 1832, lea 1832. S. 
Gooch. from 1832 to 1834. J. Given, from 1834 to 1835. A. Archer, 
from 1836 to 1837. G. H. Black, from 1838 to 1841. J. T. Raymond, 
from 1842 to 1847. W. B. Serrinoton, from 1847 to 1849. A. T. Wood, 
inst. 1850, left 1850. W. Thompson, settled October, 1850, present Pas- 
tor 



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THIRD BAPTIST CHURCH. 




THIRD BAPTIST CHURCH, CHARLES STREET. 

This Church, consisting originally of 19 members from the Second 
Baptist Church, and of 5 from the First, was constituted August 5, 1807. 
On the same day the Meeting- House was dedicated to the worship of God. 
It is built of brick, and exclusive of the tower, is 75 feet square. It is an 
elegant edifice, adorned with a cupola and bell, and cost #27,000. That 
portion of the street on which this Church was built, was reclaimed from 
the flats. The bell here used, was the first used in Boston by the Bap- 
tists. 

On the 5th of October, 1807, Rev. Caleb Blood, of Shaftsbury, Vt., 
accepted an invitation to become its Pastor, and the relation between Mr. 
Blood and the Church was dissolved June 5, 1810. The present Pastor, 
Rev. Daniel Sharp, D. D., entered on his pastoral labors on the first Sab- 
bath in March, 1812, although he was not installed until the 29th of April, 
1812. 

Dr. Lowell, of the West Church, is the oldest pastor in Boston now 
officiating. Settled in 1806. Dr. Sharp of this Church is the next. Set- 
tled in 1812. 



8 



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90 



PARK STREET CHURCH. 




PARK STREET CHURCH, 

(.A* seen from the Common, near the big Elm.) 

This Church was gathered February 27, 1809. At its formation it con- 
sisted of 26 members. The corner-stone of the church edifice was laid 
May 1, 1809, and consecrated January 10, 1810. 

This Church is situated at the corner of Tremont and Park streets, — 
one of the most commanding and delightful spots in the city. The archi- 
tectural beauty of the spire, elevated 218 feet above the pavement, adds 
much to the appearance of the metropolis, and forms one of its most 
striking features when viewed from the harbor or the surrounding country. 

Number of members in July, 1842, 596, of whom 432 are females. 
PASTORS. 

E. D. Griffin, from 1811 to 1815. S. E. Dwioht, from 1817 to 1826. 
E. Beecher, from 1826 to 1830. J. H. Linslby, foom 1832 to 1835. S. 
Aiken, from 1837 to 1848. A. L. Stone, present Pastor, installed Janu- 
ary 25, 1849. 



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HAWBS PLACB CHURCH. 



91 




HAWE8 PLACE CHURCH, SOUTH BOSTON. 

The Hawes Place Congregational Society was incorporated in the year 
1818. The Church was formed Oct. 27, 1819. and consisted of 14 members. 
The Church was built in 1832, and dedicated January 1st, 1833. 

This society in South Boston originated in the desire of a few individu- 
als, mostly of the Rev. Dr. Harris's congregation in Dorchester, to be ac- 
commodated with a nearer place of worship. 

The appearance of the Church has lately been greatly improved by re- 
moving the steps in front, and by other alterations. 

Mr. Hawes, the founder of the Church, died Jan. 20, 1826, aged 88 years, 
leaving by his will sufficient funds for the support of the ministry. 

The first minister, Mr. Wood, received ordination as an Evangelist, from 
a Council assembled at Weymouth, Nov. 13, 1821, and died in 1822, with- 
out sustaining a pastoral relation to the society. The Rev. Lemuel Capen 
was invited to become their minister Jan. 28, 1823, and sustained this re- 
lation to the society without a formal installation, in consequence of his 
connection with the Public School. He was installed as Pastor, Oct. 31, 
1827, and left in 1839. Rev. Charles C. Shackford was ordained May 19, 
1841, left 1844. Rev. George W. Lippet was ordained 1844, left 1851. The 
pulpit is at present unsupplied. 



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ST. MA'iTUBW'S CHURCH. 




MATTHEW'S PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL 
CHURCH, SOUTH BOSTON. 

This Church was organized in March, 1816, and for about two years ser- 
vices were held in the school-house, conducted by a lay reader. The 
services of the Protestant Episcopal Church were celebrated for the first 
time, in that part of the city called South Boston, on Sunday, March 31, 
1816. 

This Church is situated on Broadway, and is a neat and commodious 
brick building. The expenses of its erection were chiefly defrayed by be- 
nevolent members of Trinity and Christ Churches. 

PASTORS. 

From 1818, till 1824, the public services were performed by laymen, or 
by clergymen who made occasional visits to the Church. The first or- 
dained minister was 

Rev. J. L. Blakb, June, 1824, left June, 1832. 

Rev. M. A. D'W. Howb, Aug., 1832, left Oct., 1832. 

The Church was then closed till Feb., 1834. 

Rev. E. M. P. Wells, Feb., 1834, left April, 1835. 

Rev. H. L. Conollt, May, 1835, left May, 1838. 

Rev. JosBPH H. Clinch, June, 1838, present rector. 



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SECOND UNIVEHSALIST CHURCH. 




SECOND UNIVEHSALIST CHURCH, SCHOOL 
STREET* 

The Second Universalis* Church, standing in School street, was conse- 
crated October 16, 1817. The present Pastor, Hosea Ballou. was installed 
on the 25th of the following December ; having commenced his labors in 
the Church the Sabbath following its dedication. The Church was formed 
the third Sabbath in December, 1817. As this communion is free to 
all who profess Christ, the number varies, ranging from one hundred to 
one hundred and fifty, the larger part females. 

The house is a plain brick building, without a steeple, 75 feet long and 
67 broad. With the corner-stone a silver plate was deposited, being the 
gift of Dr. David Townsend, bearing the following inscription : — 

" The Second Universalist Church devoted to the service of the true 
God, Jesus Christ being the chief corner-stone, May 19th, 1817." 

In 1846, Rev. E. H. Chapin became connected with this society as an 
assistant to Rev. Mr. Ballou, he left in 1848. Rev. A. A. Miner, settled 
May 31, 1848. 

The Unity of God is advocated by the Pastor of this Society. 



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CIIAPKL PHILLIPS PLACE. 




THE CHAPEL, PHILLIPS PLACE, TREMONT 
STREET. 

This cut represents a front view of the hall in Phillips Place, where the 
Boston Society of the New Jerusalem formerly worshipped. This Society 
was instituted August 15, 1818, at which time it consisted of 12 members. 
It had had no consecrated place of public worship for a number of years, 
but met in Phillips Place. The Society erected a Church on Bowdoio 
street, in 1844, and removed to it in 1845. 

The members of this Society are believers in the doctrines of the New 
Jerusalem, as revealed in the writings of Emmanuel Swedenborg. The 
three following are the principal doctrines of this Church. First, that 
God is one in Essence and in Person, and that he is the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Secondly, that the Word or Sacred Scriptures is Divine Truth, that it con- 
tains internal senses within the literal, by means of which it is adapted to 
all the various stales of angels and men. Thirdly, that man is regenerated 
and thus prepared for heaven by living according to the Ten Command- 
ments, and by acknowledging that his power to will and do them is the 
Lord alone. 

Thomas Worcester, present Pastor, settled in 1828. 



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ESSEX STREET CHURCH. 



95 




UNION CHURCH, ESSEX STREET. 

This Church was gathered August 26, 1822. The Meeting-House in 
Essex street was dedicated in December, 1816, and is owned by the Essex 
Street Congregational Society. It was rebuilt in 1840-41, and reopened 
March 28, 1841. The tower of this Church is new, and is seen to the best 
effect from the corner of Harrison avenue and Essex street, as presented 
in the engraving. The side walls of the old house, with the roof, were 
carried up 12 or 15 feet, and a new floor inserted above the ground floor. 
A commodious and well-proportioned lecture-room now occupies a part of 
the original floor of the house, entirely above ground. A marble pulpit, 
the first of that material in Boston, was placed in the Church when it was 
rebuilt. There is also a pedestal Font of white marble in the Church. 

The part of the city in the vicinity of this Church has lately been much 
improved by the erection of handsome blocks of dwellings, and the open- 
ing of a new street opposite the Church from Essex street to Beach street. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. Samuel Green, inst. March 26, 1823, dismissed March 26, 1834. 
Rev. N eh bmi ah Adams, present Pastor, installed March 26, 1831. 

The whole number of members July, 1842, was 676, of whom 130 were 
males, and 446 females. 



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06 



ST. PAUL'S CHURCH. 




ST. PAUI/S CHURCH, TREMONT STREET. 

The corner-stone was laid September 4th, 1819, with appropriate solem- 
nities. The Church was consecrated June 30, 1820. 

This edifice is situated on Tremont street, between Winter and West 
streets, and fronts towards the Common. It is built of fine gray gran- 
ite, and is an imitation, so far as respects the architecture, of a Grecian 
model of the Ionic order. The body of the Church is about 112 feet long 
by 72 feet wide, and 40 feet high from the platform to the top of the cor- 
nice. The portico projects about 14 feet, and has six Ionic columns, 3 
feet 5 inches in diameter, and 32 feet high, of Potomac sandstone, laid in ' 
courses. The interior of St. Paul's is remarkable for its simplicity and 
beauty. The ceiling is a cylindrical vault, with panels which span the 
whole width of the Church. It makes an imposing appearance, and is a 
credit to the city. 

Sectors. 
Rev. Samuel Farmer Jarvis, D. D., instituted July 7, 1820, connection 

dissolved August 22, 1825. 
Rev. Alonzo Potter, D. D., inst. Aug. 29, 1826, dissolved Sept. 6, 1831. 
Rev. Dr. John S. Stone, inst. June 19, 1832, dissolved June 7, 1841. 
Rev. Alexander H. Vinton, instituted June, 1842, present Rector. 



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BULFINCH STREET CHURCH. 



97 




BULFINCH STREET CHURCH. 

The house is of brick, and is 74 by 70 feet, having for its front a pedi- 
ment in wood supported by half columns, the centre ones in imitation of 
freestone, and the outer ones white/corresponding with the entablature. 
There are three principal entrances to the Church in front. It is sur- 
mounted in front on each corner by cupolas, in one of which is an excel- 
lent toned bell. The proportions and arrangement of the interior are in 
good taste both for speaking and effect. 

The Society worshipping at this Church was incorporated by an Act of 
the Legislature, January 21st, 1823, by the name of the " Central Univer- 
salist Society." The corner stone was laid October 7th, 1822, and the fol- 
lowing is the principal inscription on the plate deposited underneath : — 

•' HE that built and sustain* all things ia Jehovah. This house, deroted to the 
worship of Almighty God, and the promulgation of his great Salvation through 
Jesus Christ, the Chief Corner-Stone, was commenced, and this stone laid October 
VII., in the year of our Lord MDCCCXXII., of the Independence of the United 
States the forty-sixth, and of the Institution of the city of Boston, the first." 

PASTORS. 
Paul Dban, installed May 7, 1823, resigned May 3, 1840. 
Frederick T. Gray, present Pastor, installed November 26, 1839. 






98 



PHILLIPS CHURCH. 




PHILLIPS CHURCH, SOUTH BOSTON. 

This Church was gathered December 10, 1823, consisting at that time 
of thirteen persons. Rev. Prince Hawes, who had been some time preach- 
ing for them, was installed over them April 28, 1824. A house of worship 
was erected at the junction o Broadway and A street, and dedicated 
March 9, 1825. Mr. Hawes was dismissed April 18, 1827, and on the 22d 
of November of the same year, Rev. Joy H. Fairchild was installed, and 
was dismissed at his own request, May 16, 1842. The place of worship 
being too small, a larger one was erected on the same location and dedi- 
cated May 4, 1836. 

The number of members in 1843 was 240. 

The house is built of wood, and has 104 pews on the lower floor, and 
will accommodate, including the gallery, about seven hundred persons. 

MINISTERS. 
Princk Hawks, installed April 28, 1824, left April 18, 1827. 
J. H. Fairchild, installed November 22, 1827, left May 16, 1842. 
W. W. Patton, installed January 18, 1843, left in 1846. 
John W. Alvord, installed November 4, 1846, present Pastor. 



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CHURCH OF THE ADVENT. 




CHURCH OF THE ADVENT, GREEN STREET. 

This Society was incorporated in 1846, and worshipped formerly in a 
hall at the corner of Lowell and Causeway streets. In December, 1848, 
they removed to the Green Street Church. The seats in this Church are 
free, and supported by the free-will offering of the worshippers. The 
number of communicants is about 200. Rev. William Croswell, D. D., has 
had pastoral charge of the parish from its first organization. 

The Meeting-House in Green street was consecrated for Divine wor- 
ship, October 25, 1826. This religious society arose out of the labors of 
their pastor, Rev. William Jenks, D. D., who was installed over them on 
the day of the consecration of their house of worship, October 25, 1826. 

This building is plain, but neat. It is surmounted by a square tower of 
a single story, from a classic model. The seats can conveniently accommo- 
date about 750 persons. In 1848 this building was sold to the Episcopal 
denomination, and is now occupied by the Church of the Advent, being 
the eighth organized Protestant Episcopal Church in Boston. 

The Rev. W. Croswell, D. D., the present rector, was appointed at the 
season of Advent, (December,) 1844 ; and the Rev. F. W. Pollard, called 
as assistant minister in 1845. The Rev. O. S Prescott is now assistant. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



100 



TWELFTH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 




TWELFTH CONGREGATIONAL. CHURCH, 
CHAMBERS STREET. 

Early in the year 1823, several gentlemen resolved to attempt the forma- 
tion of a new Congregational society, and the erection of a meeting-house 
for their accommodation in the western part of the city. In a few weeks 
102 persons subscribed the sum of 1 23,300 for the building. An Act of 
incorporation was granted by the legislature on the 14th of June, 1823, for 
the " Twelfth Congregational Society in the city of Boston." The corner* 
stone of the new house was laid May 10, 1824, and the building was dedi- 
cated on the 13th of October following, on which occasion the sermon 
was preached by the Rev. John G. Palfrey. 

The Church is pleasantly located on Chambers street, between Allen and 
McLean streets, and cost (land included) 1 34,000. It has 152 pews, and 
will accommodate 1,000 persons. The Rev. Samuel Barrett, of the Cam- 
bridge Theological School, became the pastor, and on the 9th of February, 
1825, was ordained, and has since remained the pastor. 

The parish library was established in the year 1826, and the Sunday 
School in 1827. The Society comprises about 200 families, is free from 
debt, and expends annually for the support of public worship, about thirty- 
one hundred dollars. 



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BOWDOIV STRBBT CHURCH. 




BOWDOIN STREET CHURCH. 

The Bowdoin Street Congregational Society, or Church, was organized 
July 18, 1825, under the name of the Hanover Street Church, and the cor- 
ner-stone of the first Meeting- House was laid in Hanover Street, by the 
Rev. B. B. Wisner. It was dedicated to the worship of God on the 1st 
day of March, 1826, and burned down on the morning of the 1st of Feb- 
ruary, 1830. Soon after this bereavement, the church and congregation 
adopted measures to repair the loss, purchased a lot of land in Bowdoin 
Street, where the present house was built, and obtained a charter from the 
legislature of the State, as the " Bowdoin Street Congregational Society." 

Whole number of members in May, 1851, were 447. The edifice is a 
massive stone structure, 75 feet front by 98 feet in depth, built in the 
primitive Gothic style. The tower is 23 feet by 20, projecting 6 feet from 
the main wall. The house is in the centre of Bowdoin street. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. .Lyman Bbbchbb, D. D , inst. March 22, 1326, dis. Sept. 36, 1832. 
Rev. Hubbard Winslow, inst. Sept. 26, 1832, dismissed 1844. 
Rev. Jarbd B. Watbrburv, D. D., present Pastor, inst. Sept. 2, 1846. 



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102 



8T. VINCENT DE PAUL'S CHURCH. 




ST. VINCENT DE PAUL'S CHURCH, ROMAN 
CATHOLIC, PURCHASE STREET. 

The cornerstone of this edifice was laid September 7, 1825, and the 
house was dedicated on Thursday, August 24, 1826, for the use of the 
Unitarian denomination. 

The building is constructed of rough hewn granite, and covers a space 
of 81 by 74 feet. It stands near Liverpool wharf, where the famous Tea 
vessels were moored during the memorable 16th of December, 1773. The 
pastors were Rev. George Ripley, ordained November 8, 1826, and Rev. 
James I. T. Coolidge, ordained February 9, 1842. 

Owing to the many changes that had occurred in that portion of the 
city, the Unitarian Society worshipping in this Church decided, in the 
year 1347, to erect a new building in a more central position, for the 
greater convenience and accommodation of the majority of the members. 
A lot was accordingly purchased during that year for this purpose. 

In May 1848, the Society removed to their New Church at the corner of 
Harrison avenue and Beach street. The Purchase Street Church has been 
owned by the Roman Catholics since that period, and is now known as St. 
Vincent de Paul's. Rev. M. P. Galigher, Pastor, from May, 1848, and at 
present officiating. 



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HARVARD STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 



103 




HARVARD STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This Church was constituted March 27, 1839, consisting of 121 members, 
derived chiefly from the various Baptist Churches in the city. They now 
number 600. As they met at first in Boylston Hall, they took the name 
of the Boylston Street Church, which has been changed to that of the 
Harvard Street Church, since their removal to the new place of worship. 
Prom Boylston Hall they moved to the Melodeon, and thence to the new 
Church. 

The corner-stone of the Church was laid in May, 1842. It is situated 
at the comer of Harvard street and Harrison avenue. It is a beautiful and 
commodious edifice, wiih a stone front. It will accommodate between 
1,100 and 1,200 persons. The inside is distinguished for great neatness and 
convenience. 

Their first Pastor was the Rev. Robert Turnbull, who was installed 
August 25, 1839. Rev. Joseph Banvard, settled as minister in 1846, and 
is the present Pastor. The Baptists were, as a Society, much persecuted 
in the seventeenth century, and prosecutions by the civil authorities were 
numerous against them in Boston, about the year 1665. In 1729, the leg- 
islature of Connecticut passed an act to exempt Baptists and Quakers 
from ministerial taxes. 



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104 



PINE STRBBT CHURCH. 




PINES STRBET CHURCH. 

This Church, consisting of 42 members, was organized Sept. 2, 1827. 
The corner-stone of the Church edifice was laid June 20, of the same year, 
and the house dedicated by the Congregational denomination, Dec 25, 
1327. The house has been extensively repaired, and some material alter- 
ations made in the year 1851. It is 71 feet in width and 80 in length, and 
contains 182 pews. The whole exterior is of a classic form, modelled af- 
ter the Temple of Theseus at Athens. On the south side is a pleasant 
Green. The interior of the edifice was remodelled in 1842. In the base- 
ment is a Vestry, 46 by 40, and a Committee room, 27 feet by 20. The 
front gallery is furnished with a handsome clock. Present number of 
members is about 200. 

PA9TOB8. 
Rev. Thomas. H. Skinnbr, D. D., inst. April 19, 1828, left Aug. 27, 1828. 
Rev. Joma. Brown, D. D., inst. March 14, 1829, left Feb. 16, 1831. 
Rev. Amos A. Phelps, inst. Sept. 13, 1831, left March 26, 1634. 
Rev. Artbmas Boies, inst. Dec. 10, 1834, left Nov. 9, 1840. 
Rev. Austin Phelps, inst. March 31, 1842, left May, 184a 
Rev. H. M. Dbxtbr, present Pastor, ordained 1849. 



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SALEM 8TREBT CHURCH. 



106 




I ft. 




SALEM STREET CHURCH. 

This Church was organized September 1, 1827. At its formation it con- 
sisted of 97 members, viz. 34 males and 63 females. The comer-stone of 
the Church edifice was laid July 17, 1827. It was consecrated January 1, 
1823. The whole number of members united to the Church, including the 
first organization, is 867. The number of members remaining November 
14, 1842, 567 ; of whom 185 are males, and 382 females. 

This Church is built of brick, and is situated at the corner of Salem and 
North Bennett streets. It has a swelled front, and is a commodious build- 
ing, containing 134 pews on the lower floor, and 32 in the gallery, and two 
vestries in the basement. The body of the house is 74 by 71 feet. The 
vestibule projects in front about 12 feet. The ceiling is a simple arch from 
side to side, springing from a projecting belt of stucco which extends 
around the entire building. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. Justin Edwards, D. D., inst. Jan. 1, 1828, dis. Aug. 20, 1829. 
Rev. Gboroe W. Blagden, inst. Nov. 3, 1830, dis. Sept. 5, 1836. 
Rev. Joseph H. Towns, installed June 2, 1837, lea Dec. 27, 1843. 
Rev. Edward Bbbchrr, inst. March 13, 1844. 



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106 



SOUTH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCII. 




SOUTH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH* 

This Church edifice was erected in 1828, and was intended for the min- 
istrations of Rev. Dr. Holley, who formerly preached in the Hollis street 
pulpit. Mr. Holley was on his return from Kentucky to take charge of 
it, when suddenly his melancholy death disappointed the hopes of his 
friends who had erected the Church. The Church was dedicated Jan. 30, 
1828; the Rev. Mellish Irving Motte, who had formerly been an Epis- 
copal clergyman in Charleston, S. C, but had become a Unitarian, was 
invited to settle as Pastor, and May 21, the same year, was ordained. Dr. 
Channing preached the sermon. The Society, under Mr. Motte, consist- 
ed of about 160 families. It showed great zeal in paying off a heavy debt 
that had been incurred in building the Church. In July, 1842, Mr. Motte 
requested that his connection with the Society might be dissolved. In 
September, the same year, Mr. Frederick D. Huntington, of the Theologi- 
cal School, Cambridge, was invited with great unanimity to take charge 
of the congregation, and on the evening of October 19, was ordained. 

The house contains 124 pews on the floor, and 42 in the gallery. 



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MARINERS' CHURCH. 



107 




MARINERS' CHURCH, PURCHASE STREET. 

This Church is under the charge of the Boston Seamen's Friend Society, 
formed in January, 1828. The Society previously worshipped in the hall 
on Central wharf. 

The comer-stone of this church edifice was laid August 11, 1829, and 
was dedicated January 1, 1830. A Church of 9 members was organized, 
for the special benefit of seamen and their families, January 20, 1830. 

The Mariners' Church is situated in Purchase street, on the easterly 
side of Fort Hill, fronting the harbor. Over it waves the Bethel Flag, in- 
viting the hardy seamen of Columbia to gather around the altar of their 
God, and each Sabbath day witnesses these gallant men, who never bent 
to a victor, on their knees before Him, in his house. 

PA8TOR8. 
Rev. Jonathan Grbbnlbaf, chosen February 13, 1830, dismissed No- 
vember, 1833. 
Rev. Daniel M. Lord, installed Nov. 11, 1834, dismissed July 20, 1848. 
Rev. Gboroh W. Bourns, installed February 15, 1849, present Pastor. 



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108 



SEAMBN'8 church. 




SEAMEN'S CHURCH, OR BETHEL, 
NORTH SQUARE. 

The Bethel, in North Square, is owned by the Port Society for the city 
of Boston and vicinity, and cost $ 28,000. 

In the year 1823, several gentlemen of our city, of the Methodist Epis- 
copal persuasion, urged by an enlarged philanthropy, organized themselves 
into a society, for the moral and religious instruction of seamen, to be 
called " The Port Society of Boston and its vicinity." The Bethel was 
the first fruits of their design, and no one of our public charities has re- 
ceived a greater share of public eulogium. Another early act of the 
founders was to procure and settle a pastor over the Bethel, and their 
choice fell upon the Rev. Edward T. Taylor, who still continues to labor 
among his " children," as he affectionately terms the seamen, and his la- 
bors are attended with eminent success, alike creditable to himself and 
the great cause he advocates. 

The edifice, of which the above is a representation, is all built of brick, 
with the exception of the basement, which is of unhammered Quincy 
granite. It is 81 by 53 feet, and is capable of containing 1,500 persons. A 
part of the basement is used for a reading-room, for the benefit of those 
seamen who have leisure and inclination to visit it. 



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GRACE CHUKCH. 



109 




GRACE CHURCH, TEMPLE STREET* 

This Society was formed in 1829, and continued to increase very gradu- 
ally until towards January, 1835, when it was incorporated under the title 
of " Grace Church in the City of Boston." 

The corner stone of the Church edifice was laid June 30, 1835, and It 
was consecrated by the Right Reverend Bishop Griswold, June 14, 1836. 

The architecture of this Church is generally much admired, and it is a 
better specimen of the Gothic style than is ordinarily found in New Eng- 
land. The interior is beautifully painted by M. Bragaldi. The exterior 
of the building, including the towers (which are of the octagonal form), 
is 87 feet; breadth 63 feet. The basement is divided into 2 large rooms 
for lectures, Sunday-schools, &c. The height from the main floor above 
the basement to the centre of the main arch, is 45 feet ; an arch is thrown 
over each of the side galleries, which is intersected by arches opposite the 
three windows on each side, and resting on each side upon four cluster col- 
umns of 24 inches diameter. 

HECTORS. 

Rev. Thomas M. Clark, instituted November 13, 1836, left 1843. 

Rev. Clement N. Butler, D. D , instituted 1844, left 1847. 

Rev. Charles Mason, present Pastor, instituted 1848. 



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FOURTH UXIVKKRALIST CHf'R'JM. 




FOURTH UNIVERSAL.IST CHURCH, SOUTH 
BOSTON. 

This edifice is situated at the corner of B street and Broadway. It was 
built, and is now occupied by the "Fourth Universalis! Society," which 
was gathered in April, 1830, under the labors of Rev. Benjamin Whitte- 
more, who was installed April 10, 1833. Rev. Thomas D. Cook, present 
minister, installed in 1844. From a small beginning the Society has grad- 
ually increased in numbers and prosperity. The Society was organized 
May 30, 1831, and incorporated April 19, 1837. 

Connected with the Society is a Church, numbering about 80 members. 
Also a Sabbath School with 280 scholars and 45 teachers. 

The Church edifice presents nothing very remarkable to the eye in point 
of architecture. It is built of wood, with a brick basement, which con- 
tains two stores and the Vestry. The furniture and interior ornaments 
are neat, and well adapted to the comfort and convenience of the speaker 
and auditory. The origin of the denomination of Universalists in Amer- 
ica, was in the year 1770. Mr. John Murray commenced preaching near 
New York ; visited Philadelphia and several parts of New Jersey ; came 
in 1773 to Newport, and thence to Boston, where he arrived on the 26th of 
October of that year. 



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CENTRAL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 



HI 




CENTRAL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 
WINTER STREET. 

This Church was organized May 11, 1835, consisting of 62 members, 
and commenced public worship at the Odeon, August 6, 1835, under the 
name of the Franklin Street Church. 

The corner-stone of the Church edifice was laid May 27, 1841, and the 
Church consecrated Dec. 31, 1841. The Central Congregational Society 
was organized Dec. 7, 1841, and the Franklin Street Church assumed the 
name of the Central Congregational Church, Dec. 24, 1841. The number 
of members in January 1, 1850, was 462. 

The front of this Church is of the Corinthian order; the two fluted col- 
umns and beautiful capitals of Quincy granite sustaining the entablature, 
that, united, form an elevation of about 53 feet from the ground, and of 44 
in width, present an imposing appearance. The interior arrangement of 
the house embraces all modern improvements in this department of archi- 
tecture. 

PA8TOR8. 

Rev. William M. Rogers, installed August 6, 1835. 

Rev. George Richards, installed October 8, 1345. 



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112 



FIFTH UN1VBRSALIST CHURCH. 




FIFTH UN1VERSALIST CHURCH, WARREN 
STREET* 

The Fifth Universalis Society was formed January, 1836. It wor- 
shipped in Boylston Hall three years, when it removed to the Meetings 
House erected for its use in Warren, near Tremont street. The house 
was dedicated in February, 1839. 

The Meeting-House is built of brick, with a granite basement, and con- 
tains 162 pews, and will seat about 1,100 persons. It is furnished with 
a fine-toned organ. In the basement there is a large vestry and three 
school-rooms. 

The Church, which originally consisted of 85 members, was formed in 
1837. It has now about 360 members. The communion is administered 
once a month. There are connected with the Society two Sabbath Schools, 
consisting of about 300 children, and 70 teachers. There are also two fe- 
male charitable associations connected with the Society. 
PASTORS. 

Rev. Otis A. Skinner, settled January, 1837, resigned April, 1846. 

Rev. J. S. Dennis, installed January, 1847, resigned June, 1848. 

Rev. Otis A. Skinner, reinstalled March, 1849. 



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ST. AUGI'PTINtf's CHl'RCH. 



113 




ST. AUGUSTINE'S CHURCH, SOUTH BOSTON. 

This Church was erected in 1819, by the Catholic Congregation of Bos- 
ton, with the approbation and assistance of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Cheverus. 
It was enlarged, rendered fit for Divine service, and afterwards consecrated 
by Bishop Fenwick, in 1833. A tablet in front of the building bears the 
following inscription : — " Erected by the Catholic Congregation of Bos- 
ton, with the approbation and assistance of Right Reverend Bishop 
Cheverus, A. D. 1819." 

This building is not at present used as a regular place of worship, but is 
occasionally used as a cemetery Chapel. A large cemetery is attached to 
the Church lot, on Dorchester street, South Boston. 

The house is surrounded and nearly hidden by large Elm trees ; and the 
traveller as he passes it is surprised with its rural beauty in the summer, 
no less than by its mournful and desolate aspect in the winter. 

PA8TOB8. 

Rev. Thomas Lynch, from the year 1833 to 1838. 
Rev. John Mahonv, from the year 1836 to 1839, 
Rev. M. Lynch, from the year 1839 to 184a 
Rev. F. Fitzsimmons, December 21, 1840. 



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114 



SOUTH BAPTIST CHURCH. 




SOUTH BAPTIST CHURCH, SOUTH BOSTOX. 

On the 28th of August, 1828, 19 individuals were constituted a branch 
of the Federal Street Baptist Church. This branch was publicly recog- 
nized as an independent Church, March 27, 1831, then numbering 52 
members. 

The branch originally met for public worship in a small house formerly 
occupied by the Methodists. They were aided for several years by the 
" Baptist Evangelical Society." Their present house was dedicated to the 
worship of God, July 22, 1830. It is on the corner of C street and Broad- 
way. The building has nothing remarkable in its appearance, though to 
the antiquarian there are interesting associations connected with its his- 
tory. 

PASTORS. 

R. H. Nkalb, who had supplied the pulpit nearly three years, from 1833 
to 1834. T. R, Cbbssby, from 1834 to 1835. Thomas Dribr, from 1838 
to 1843, Duncau Duwbab, from 1844 to 1845. Obobob W. Bosworth 
assumed the charge February 22, 1846, present Pastor. 



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CHURCH 8TREBT CHURCH. 




THIRD METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

This Church was gathered and the first sermon delivered on the 4th of 
July, 1834. The Church at that time consisted of between 20 and 30 in- 
dividuals, and was soon increased to 60, from other Methodist Churches 
in the city. From the time of its commencement, it has steadily in- 
creased, and at the present time its numbers are 320. The building was 
erected in 1827, for a Presbyterian Church, under the pastoral care of 
Rev. Jas. Sabine. In 1829, Mr. Sabine and a part of his Society withdrew 
from the Presbyterian connection, and embraced the sentiments of the 
Episcopalians; in consequence of which the Meeting-House became va- 
cant until occupied by the above Society. 

PASTORS. 



Rev. Abel Stevens, 
Rev. M. L. Scudder, 
Rev. Edward Othsman, 
Rev. Jambs Porter, 
Rev. T. C. Pierce, 
Rev. William Smith , 



Rev. Daniel Wise, 
Rev. George Pickering, 
Rev. Minor Raymond, 
Rev. A. D. Merrill, 
Rev. T. C. Pibrcb, 
Rev. J. D. Bridge, 



Rev. Loranus Crowell, Pastor, 1861. 



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116 



ST. MARY'S CATHOLIC CHURCH. 




ST. MARY'S CHURCH, EXDICOTT STREET* 

This Church was consecrated by Bishop Fenwick, of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church, on the 22d of May, 1836. 

This Church is situated on Endicott street, at the corner of Cooper 
street. It is built of rough stone, and is a beautiful and durable edifice. 
It has a spacious and convenient basement. 
PA8TOIS. 

Rev. William Wilbt, from May, 1836, to April, 1837. 

Rev. P. O'Bbirnb, from 1837 to 1838. 

Rev. Michael Hbaly, from 1838 to 1841. 

Rev. Thomas O'Flaherty, from January, 1841, to March, 1842. 

Rev. John Fitzpatrick, from March 4, 1842, to 1847. 

Rev. John P. Flood, from 1847 to 1849. 

Rev. John McElroy, present Minister, 1851. 

Rev. F. B. Krobs, and Rev. Francis Lachat, assistant Ministers. 

The first movements of the Roman Catholics to form a Society in Bos- 
ton were in the year 1784. These were prompted by the Irish and French 
emigrants, under the pastoral charge of the Abbe La Poitrie, a chaplain 
in the French navy. 



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ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH. 



117 




ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH, NORTHAMPTON 
STREET. 

This Church was consecrated on the 1 lth of December, 1836, by Bishop 
Fenwick, for the use of the Catholics at the South end. 

First and present Pastor, Rev. Thomas Lynch. 

This Church is located at a section of Boston, where the population, 
particularly the foreigners, is rapidly increasing. It is uniformly thronged 
with devoted worshippers. 



HOLT TRINITY CHUCRH, SUFFOLK STREET. 

The corner-stone of this Church was laid on the 26th of June, 1842, by 
Bishop Fenwick. It is situated in Suffolk street, and when completed 
will be appropriated to the use of the German Catholics of this city. Its 
Pastor is the Rev. P. Roloff. 

The Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church who have resided at Boston, 
have been as follows. Rt. Rev. J. De Cheverus, afterwards Archbishop of 
Bordeaux till 1846. Arrived in 1796, departed in 1823. Rt. Rev. B. J. 
Fenwick. Arrived 1825, died 1846. Rt. Rev. I. B. Fitzpatriclc. Arrived 
in 1840. Now at the Church of the Holy Cross, Franklin street. 



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118 



CHARDON STREET CHAPEL. 




CHARDON STREET CHAPEL OP THE 
ADVENTISTS. 

Chardon Street, Erected 1838. 

This Church was gathered February 14, 1836. At its formation it con- 
sisted of 16 members. They commenced public worship at Lyceum Hall, 
in Hanover street, and removed from that place to Chardon Street Chapel, 
which was built by said Church and Society, and dedicated Nov. 6, 1838. 

This Church was gathered by the labors of Rev. Joshua V. Himes (for- 
merly Pastor of the First Christian Church, corner of Summer and Sea 
streets). In the spring of 1843, the Church divided on the question of 
the Second Advent. A portion of them removed to the Melodeon, and 
soon ceased to be. The remaining portion, with Mr. Himes, removed to 
the Advent Tabernacle, in Howard street, and from thence to Central 
Hall, in Milk street. In July, 1848, the Church of Mr. Himes returned 
to the Chardon Street Chapel, where they have since remained. He be- 
ing their pastor at this period, the Church is known as the Chardon Street 
Church of Second Adventists. 

The building is of wood, and plain in its exterior appearance, but neat 
and convenient in the interior. It will seat comfortably 500 persons. 



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FOURTH MKTHODISf CHUIICH. 



M 




FOURTH METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 
NORTH RUSSELL STREET. 

This Church was constituted A. D. 1837, with 60 members, Under tht, 
pastoral care of Rev. M. L. Scudder. Their first meetings were held ir 
the Wells School-House, in Blossom street. The Chapel was dedicated 
A. D. 1838. It is erected on a plan designed for further improvement, as 
we learn the edifice will be elevated, and that the buildings in front will 
be removed, to make a more spacious court. 

The ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church are stationed an- 
nually, and according to the present usage are not appointed to the same 
station more than two years successively. 

The whole number of members in June, 1842, was 430, of whom 127 
were males, and 303 females. 

MINISTERS. 

Mosbs L. Scxtddkr, from 1837 to 1839. Jefferson Hascall, from 
1839 to 1841. Charles K. True, from 1841 to 1843. George Landbn, 
from 1843 to 1845. William H. Hatch, from 1845 to 1847. William 
Rice, from 1847 to 1849. Mark Trafton, from 1849 to 1851. E. Col- 
bbioh, present Minister, stationed 1851. 



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THIRTEENTH CONGREGATIONAL, CHURCH. 

This Society was formed in the year 1825. The place of worship was lo- 
cated at the corner of Purchase and Pearl streets. The Rev. George Ripley 
was ordained as Pastor in 1826, and after the lapse of almost fifteen years, 
his connection was dissolved, for reasons which affected, not the least, the 
relations of friendship and mutual respect between the parties. The Rev. 



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ROWB STRSBT BAPTIST CHUECH. 121 

tfemee L T. Coolidge, the present incumbent, was ordained in 1842. So 
great had been the changes in that section of the city, by the influx of 
business and foreigners, that the society was forced to remove to another 
section of the city ; and on the 3d of May, 1647, the corner-stone of their 
present beautiful building was laid at the corner of Harrison Avenue and 
Beach Street On the 3d of May, 1848, the new Church was completed 
and dedicated. The Society was incorporated under the title of the Pur- 
chase Street Congregational Society, but by reason of removal, it was 
obliged to change its name, and it is now known as the Thirteenth Congre- 
gational Church and Society. 

The size of the body of this house of worship is 62 by 92 feet, exclusive 
of the buttresses, tower, and chancel. The chancel projects 6 feet and the 
tower 7 feet ; making the entire length 107 feet. The side buttresses pft- 
ject 1 foot 8 inches, making the entire width 63f feet. The height of the 
front gable is 66 feet from the sidewalk, and the height of the side walls 32 
feet, above which rises the clear story wall to the height of 47 feet from the 
sidewalk on Beach street. The tower, which is at the corner of the build- 
ing, rises to the height of 93 feet to the base of the spire, and is supported 
by massive buttresses at the angles, which terminate with minarets and 
finials at the height of 85$ feet, and 7$ feet below the base of the spire, 
where the tower finishes with gables on four sides. 



ROWE STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This Society formerly worshipped in the Federal Street Baptist Church, 
the corner-stone of which was laid September 25, 1826, and the building 
dedicated July 18, 1827. At that period the Society consisted of sixty-five 
members. 

In consequence of the many changes in Federal Street, and its gradual 
transformation into a mere business street, the Society determined in the 
year 1844, to dispose of the property and remove to a more central posi- 
tion. The building was occupied for the last time on the 23d of February, 
1845, soon after which it was demolished. 

The corner-stone of the present edifice, in Rowe street, was laid the 27th 
of April, 1846, and the building was dedicated on the 7th of April follow- 
ing. In the mean while, the Society held their public meetings in Amory 
Hall and the Melodeon. The present Church is in the pointed Gothic 
style of architecture; built of dark red sandstone, having a tower at the 
corner, surmounted by a spire rising to the height of 175 feet above the 
sidewalk. The interior of the building is finished with black walnut, and 
contains 158 pews. The organ was made by Mr. Appleton, of Boston, and 
is placed in the front angle corresponding with the towers. 



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ROWE STREET BAPTIST CHURCH* 

By an act of the Legislature, the name of iliis Society was subsequently 
changed to the " Rowe Street Baptist Society." The present number of 
members is about 450. 

P18TOE8. 

Rev. Howard Malcom, from Nov. 13, 1827, to Sept., 1835. Rev. 
George R. Idk, from Dec. 30, 1835, to Dec, 1837. Rev. Handel G. Notp, 
from May 23, 1839, to May, 1840. Rev. William Hague, from Sept., 1840, 
till 1848. Rev. Baron Stow, D. D., the present Pastor, installed 184a 



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BOWDOIN SdUARB BAPTIST CHURCH. 




BOWDOIN SQUARE BAPTIST CHURCH. 

Opposite the Revere House. 

This edifice stands on the north side of Bowdoin square, beautifully 
opening to the view from all the streets which radiate from the square. 
The cornerstone was laid April 1, 1840, and the building dedicated No- 
rember 6, 1840. It is one of the most agreeable locations in Boston. It 
is 96 feet in length, inclusive of the tower, by 73J feet wide. Its front, 
with its tower and its six turrets, is of granite. The tower projects 10 
feet from the main building; is 28 feet square, and 110 feet high. The 
cost of the building, including furniture and organ, was upwards of seven* 
ty-thousand dollars. 

The Church was constituted Sept 17, 1840, with 137 members. Pres- 
ent number, 337. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. R. W. Cushmak, installed July 8, 1841, left July, 1847. 
Rev. Phakcbllus Church, D. D., installed Sept., 1843, present pastor. 



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124 



WARRBN STREET CHAPEL. 




ift&iltihstit; 



1+ ■.■ngi.ntiiuj iyDu..- 



WARREN STREET CHAPEL. 

This Institution, established A. D. 1835-36, through the liberality of 
several private individuals, belonging to the Congregational Unitarian de- 
nomination, and placed under the charge of Rev. C. F. Barnard, is de- 
voted to the general objects of the Ministry at Large, particularly in their 
relation to the young. It contains various free schools for instruction in 
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, and Sewing, intended for those who cannot 
obtain such advantages elsewhere, and open at such hours as their conve- 
nience requires. There are two valuable libraries for readers of different 
ages. Two or more large classes are taught the elements and practice of 
vocal music. A Sunday School occupies the morning and afternoon of 
the Lord's Day, followed by religious exercises generally adapted to the 
wants and capacity of the young. Occasional meetings of a social or in- 
structive character are added, with an annual visit to the country, and other 
means of rational enjoyment. There are connected with the building a 
garden and a cabinet of Natural History. The current expenses of the 
institution are defrayed in part by annual subscriptions or donations, and 
in part through the proceeds of a course of Lyceum Lectures, by occasional 
concerts, and by sales of flowers upon the Common on the Fourth of July. 



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TUCKERMAN CHAPEL. 



125 




h]lllU!IHn(IJI;lrnirlL!U?IUffll£l'' 

TUCKERMAN CHAPEL, PITTS STREET. 

The corner-stone of this building was laid July 7, 1836. It was dedicat- 
ed by the Congregational Unitarian denomination the following Novem- 
ber. It is a neat brick building, 76 feet by 44, two stories in height. 

Dr. Tuckerman entered upon his duties as Minister at Large, Nor. 5, 
1826. His purpose was to visit among the poor, and to be to such as 
were not visited by any other clergymen, a Christian Pastor and Friend. 
In Feb., 1827, he had 60 families under his charge ; in six months, 90 fam- 
ilies, at the close of the year, 170 families, and in six months more, 250 
families. 

Rev. F. T. Gray became a colleague with Dr. Tuckerman in 1834, and 
continued in this ministry until 1839, when the Rev. R. C. Waterston was 
ordained to take charge of the labor. m 

PASTORS. 

Rev. Dr. Tuckerman, installed 1826, died April 20, 1840. 

Rev. Frederick T. Gray, ordained Nov. 1834, left 1839. 

Rev. R. C. Waterston, ordained Nov., 1839, left in the spring of 1845. 

Rev. Andrew Bioblow, installed May, 1845, left Sept., 1846. 

Rev. Samuel H. Winklbt, inst. Sept., 1846, present pastor, July, 1851. 



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SUFFOLK STREET CHAPEL. 




SUFFOLK STREET CHAPBIi. 

This Chapel constitutes one of the branches of the Ministry at Large, 
and was built by the " Fraternity of Churches " in 1839. On the 23d of 
May, in that year, the corner-stone was laid with appropriate services, and 
the dedication took place on the 5th of February, 1840. 

This edifice is situated at the extreme south part of the city, opposite 
the Southern Cemetery, and is the largest of the Chapels connected with 
the Ministry at Large. The cost of the building was about $ 15,000, ex- 
clusive of the land, which was given by the city according to a grant in 
1806, to the first religious association that should promise to build a Church 
thereon. The congregation gathered here met originally in a small school- 
room in Northampton street, from which they were transferred to Suffolk 
street. The architectural style of this Chapel is somewhat imposing and 
peculiar. It is built of rough stone with rustic finishings of granite, and 
has a massive granite porch in front, supported by five piers of the same 
material. 

PASTORS. 
Rev. John T. Sarobnt, ordained Oct. 29, 1837, left Dec., 1844. 
Rev. Samuel B. Cruft, ordained Jan., 1846, present pastor, 1851. 



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LTNDE STREBT CHURCH. 



127 




WEST CHURCH, LTNDE STREET. 

The West Church waa gathered January 3, 1737, in Lynda street, then 
termed New Boston, and then the only Church in that division of the 
town. The first was a well-proportioned wooden building, begun Septem- 
ber 26, 1736, and finished in April, 1737, when it was furnished with a hand- 
some steeple. It was situated commodiously to give signals to the Conti- 
nental troops at Cambridge, on the opposite shore. The British officers 
suspected it had been used for this purpose, and the steeple was taken 
down by them in 1776. 

The corner-stone of the present edifice was laid April 4, 1806, and the 
Church was dedicated November 27 of the same year. It is 75 by 74 feet, 
and contains 114 pews on the lower floor, and 50 in the gallery. It is situ- 
ated- in Lynde street, corner of Cambridge street. The number of fami- 
I lies in the parish is about 320. The Church is Congregational. 

Digitized by (jOOQ LC 



128 PIRST METHODIST CHURCH, HANOVER 8TRBBT. 

Dr. May hew, the second minister of the West Church, one of the ablest 
men our country has produced, was ordained June 17, 1747, and died July 
9, 1766, aged 46 years. Just before his death, on his departure to attend 
an ecclesiastical council at Rutland, he wrote a letter to James Otis, Esq., 
suggesting the plan of a correspondence or " communion " among the col- 
onies, which was afterwards adopted, and conduced much to the happy 
result of their struggle for freedom. « 

In 1805, there were nine Congregational Churches in Boston, the West 
Church being ranked the ninth, though it was in fact the eighth, as the 
church in Federal street did not join the Congregational communion till 
1787. These churches were in fellowship, and their ministers exchanged 
with one another, and assisted each other in ministerial labors as occasion 
required. This fellowship was maintained between this Church and the 
eight other Churches till 1821. 

The square in front of the Church, on Cambridge street, has been this 
year ornamented with a substantial iron railing, 369J feet in length. The 
cost of this railing and the fountain was about $5,000. Dr. Lowell, the 
present minister, is the oldest minister in Boston. 

PASTORS. 
William Hooper, from Scotland, ordained May, 1737, resigned 1746. 
Jonathan Mayhbw, D. D., from Martha's Vineyard, ordained June 17, 

1747, died July 9, 1766, aged 46. 
Simeon Howard, D. D., from Bridgewaler, (West Parish,) ordained May 

6, 1767, died August 13, 1804, aged 71. 
Charles Lowell, D. D., Boston, ordained January 1, 1806. 
Cyrus Augustus Bartol, of Freeport, Me., ordained March 1, 1837. 



FIRST METHODIST CHURCH, HANOVER 
STREET. 

That branch of the Methodist Episcopal Church worshipping in this 
edifice was originally gathered in 1792, under the labors of the Rev. Jo* 
seph Lee, whose first sermons in the city were preached on the Common. 
Their first house of worship was erected in Hanover street, in 1796, when 
about 60 members belonged to it. They removed to a new edifice in North 
Bonnet street, (see page 84,) in the year 1828, which house was sold to the 
Freewill Baptist Society in the year 1850. 

In the year 1850, this Society purchased the elegant building erected for 
the Second Unitarian Society, (under Rer. Chandler Bobbins,) of which 
the following is a correct representation. 



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FIRST METHODIST CHURCH. 



129 




PASTORS. 

Ephraim Wiley, 1828-29. J. Bonnet, 1830. A. D. Merrill, 1831. 
J. Lindsay, 1832-33. D. Fillmore, 1834-36. Abel Stevens, 1836. 
A. D. Sargent, 1837. J. C. Pierce, 1838-39. J. Porter, 1840-41. 
Mark Trafton, 1842-43. J. D. Bridge, 1845. Miner Raymond, 
1846. William H. Hatch, 1847-48. S. Hale Higoins, and Moskly 
Dwioht, 1849. Joseph Commings, 1850-51. 



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130 BOSTON BRIDGES AND MUUUB8. 

BOSTON BRIDGES AND FERRIES. 

I. WEST BOSTON BRIDGE. 
This was the second bridge built over Charles River. It if a convey- 
ance from the west end of Cambridge street to the opposite shore in Cam* 
bridge-Port. A number of gentlemen were incorporated for the purpose of 
erecting this bridge, March 9, 1792. The causeway was begun July 15* 

1792, and suspended after the 26th of December, till the 20th of March, 

1793, when the work was resumed. The wood work of the bridge was be- 
gun the 8th of April, 1793, and the bridge and causeway opened for pas- 
sengers the 23d of November following, being seven months and a half from 
laying the first pier. The sides of the causeway are stoned and railed ; on 
each side of which was formerly a canal about 30 feet wide. 

The bridge stand, on 180 piers, is ... . 2,483 feet long. 

Bridge over the gore, 14 " . .... 275 " 

Abutmenti Boston side, 87*" 

Causeway, 3,344 " 

Distance from end of the causeway to Cambridge Meet- 
ing-house, 7,810 " 

Width of the bridge, 40 " 

Railed on each side for foot passengers. 

To the Proprietors a toll was granted for 70 years from the opening of the 
bridge, which together with the causeway, was estimated to have cost 
£ 23,000 lawful money. The principal undertaker for building the bridge 
was Mr. Whiting. 

D. BOSTON SOUTH BRIDGE. 
The building of this bridge grew out of the project for annexing Dor- 
chester Neck, so called, to Boston, as a part of the city. In the latter end 
of 1803, there were but 10 families on that peninsula, which comprised an 
extent of 569 acres of land. These families united with several citizens of 
Boston in a petition to the town for the privilege of being annexed thereto, 
<' upon the single condition that the inhabitants [of B.) will procure a 
bridge to be erected between Boston and Dorchester Neck." On the 31st of 
January, 1804, after several confused meetings on the subject, the town 
agreed to the proposition, on condition " that the place from which and 
the terms on which the bridge should be built, shall be left entirely to the 
Legislature. Application was made to the General Court, and measures 
were in train for authorising a bridge from South street to the point. The 
inhabitants of the south end of the town, having opposed this measure in 
vain thus far in its progress, formed a plan at this juncture, in which they 
proposed to erect a bridge where the present bridge stands, and to obviate 
the objection that such a bridge would not lessen the distance from the 



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BOSTON BRIDGES AND FBRRIKS. 131 

point so much as the South Street Bridge would, they offered to construct a 
commodious street across the flats from Rainsford's Lane to the head of 
the proposed bridge. They presented a petition to the Court to be incor- 
porated for these purposes, upon the presumption that no liberty would be 
granted for the erection of any other bridge, to the northward of their 
bridge, unless at some future period the increased settlement of this part of 
the country should be such, that the public exigencies should require the 
same. This plan and petition met with so favorable a reception, that the 
Dorchester Point proprietors were induced to make a compromise with the 
South end petitioners, in which it was agreed, that the South Street Bridge 
should be abandoned, and that the South end Bridge should be transferred 
to the Dorchester company, and the proposed street be carried forward by 
the petitioners. A joint committee made a report on the basis of this com- 
promise, which was accepted in concurrence Feburary 23d ; and on the 6th 
of March, bills were passed for the three objects, the annexation of Dor- 
chester Neck to Boston, the incorporation of the Proprietors of Boston 
South Bridge, and also of the Front Street Corporation in the town of 
Boston. 

Messrs. William Tudor, Gardiner Green, Jonathan Mason, and Harrison 
Gray Otis, were the proprietors named in Boston South Bridge Act. Sev- 
enty years' improvement was allowed from the date of the first opening of 
said bridge for passengers, which took place in the summer of 1806. 
On the first of October, it was the scene of a military display and sham 
fight. This bridge is 1,661 feet in length, and cost the proprietors about 
$ 56,000. In 1832, the proprietors sold the bridge to the city for $ 3,600 ; 
sine* which it has been put in thorough repair by the city, at an expense 
of $ 3,600, in addition to the amount paid by the Corporation, and has 
been made a free highway. 

ffl. CANAL (OR CRAIGIE'S) BRIDGE. 
This bridge runs from Barton's Point in Boston to Lechmere's Point in 
Cambridge. Its length is 2,796 feet; its width 40 feet. The persons 
named in the Act incorporating this bridge, were John C. Jones, Loammi 
Baldwin, Aaron Dexter, Benjamin Weld, Joseph Coolidge, Jr., Benjamin 
Joy, Gorham Parsons, Jonathan Ingersoll, John Beach, Abijah Cheever, 
William B. Hutchins, Stephen Howard, and Andrew Craigie. This bridge 
differs from those previously built, in being covered with a layer of gravel 
on the floor of the bridge. It was first opened for passengers on Com- 
mencement day, August 30, 1809. The bridge on the Cambridge side is 
united to Charlestown by Prison Point Bridge, which is 1,821 feet long, 
and 36 feet broad, having but one side railed for foot passengers. The Bos- 
ton and Lowell Railroad runs parallel with, and about 100 feet north of 
Craigie's Bridge. 



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132 BOSTON BRIDGES AND FXRBIB8. 

IV. WESTERN AVENUE. 

This splendid work was projected by Mr. Uriah Cotting, who with oth- 
ers associated, received an act of incorporation, June 14, 1814, under the 
title of " The Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation " ; the stock of which 
is divided into 3,600 shares of $ 100 each. It was commenced in 1818, 
under Mr. Cotting'a direction, but be did not live to witness its comple- 
tion. His place was supplied by Col. Loammi Baldwin, and the road was 
opened for passengers, July 2, 1821. There was a splendid ceremony on 
the occasion ; a cavalcade of citizens at an early hour entered the city 
over the dam, and was welcomed on this side by the inhabitants, who 
waited to receive them. This Avenue, or Mill-Dam, leads from Beacon 
street in Boston, to Sewall's Point in Brookline, and is composed of solid 
materials water-tight, with a gravelled surface, raised three or four feet 
above high-water-mark. It is one mile and a half in length, and a part of 
the way 100 feet in width. This dam cuts off and incloses about 601 acres 
of the southerly part of the Back or Charles River Bay, over which the 
tide before regularly flowed. The water that is now admitted is rendered 
subservient and manageable. Very extensive mill-privileges are gained by 
the aid of a cross dam, running from the principal one to a point of land 
in Roxbury, which divides the Reservoir or rail basin on the west from 
the empty or running basin on the east. There are five pair of- flood- 
gates in the long dam, grooved in massy piers of hewn stone ; each pair 
moves from their opposite pivots towards the centre of the aperture on 
a horizontal platform of stone, until they close in an obtuse angle on a 
projected line cut on the platform, from the pivots in the piers to the 
centre of the space, with their angular points towards the open or unin- 
olosed part of the bay, to shut against the flow of tide and prevent the 
passage of water into the empty basin. In this manner all the water is 
kept out from this basin, except what is necessary to pass from the full 
basin, through the cross dam, to keep the mill-works in operation. The 
reservoir is kept full by means of similar flood-gates, opening into the full 
basin (when the rising of the tide gets ascendancy over the water in the 
reservoir), and fills at every flow, and closes again on the receding of the 
tide. In this way, at every high tide, the reservoir is filled, and a contin- 
ual supply of water, to pass through sluice-ways in the cross dam suffi- 
cient to keep in motion, at all tiroes, at least 100 mills and factories. At 
low water the flood-gates of the receiving basin open and discharge the 
water received from the reservoir. 

From this avenue there are excellent roads leading to Roxbury, Brook- 
line, Brighton, and Watertown, which are very extensively travelled. Be- 
sides the income from the mill-privileges, the corporation receives a toll, 
which is granted by the act of incorporation to be perpetual 



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BOSTON BBIDGB8 AND FBBBIBS. 133 



V. BOSTON FREE BRIDGE. 

Within two years after the erection of the Boston South Bridge, an 
attempt was made for another to run* from Sea street to South Boston. 
Many other attempts hare been made since that time, to establish a bridge 
at this place, but they were strongly opposed till the passage of an Act 
March 4, 1826, authorizing the erection of the present bridge. The com- 
mittee of the Legislature, to whom was referred the subject, gave this reason 
for reporting in favor of the bill : " that if the public good or public inter- 
est required that the proposed bridge should be constructed, then the 
prayer of the petition should be granted; that indemnification should be 
made for property taken for the use of the bridge, but to no greater extent ; 
that the navigable waters being public property, the Legislature had the 
right to control the use of them. The committee therefore considered the 
only question arising was, whether the public exigency required this 
bridge. It appeared that about 100,000 people, if this bridge were erected, 
would be saved a travel of one mile by coming from the south shore over 
this bridge, instead of over the Neck; that an increasing intercourse 
would take place between the centre of business in the city and South Bos- 
ton, and the distance be lessened half a mile, which in a dense popula- 
lation was equal to ten or twenty miles in the country. The only objec- 
tions to this bridge arose from persons in Roxbury, at the south end of Bos- 
ton, and from a part of the proprietors of the present bridge ; that it did 
not appear that any others would be injured, and that these persons would 
not be injured to the extent they imagined. It was admitted that the nav- 
igation might be made a little inconvenient, but not so much so as was ex- 
pected. It appeared that the present channel might, by individual right, 
be narrowed to three hundred feet, which would increase the current more 
than the proposed bridge ; that the present current was about one mile the 
hour, while that at Charlestown Bridge was three miles ; that the increase 
to the price of wood, if the bridge were erected, would be only six cents the 
cord ; and that with one or two exceptions all the bridges in the State had 
been granted without any indemnity for consequential damages, other than 
compensation for property converted to the use of such bridges. The com- 
mittee came to the conclusion, that no person ought to claim damages for 
an interruption of navigable waters; that these waters were held by the 
Legislature in trust for all the citizens, and that no individual had the right 
to be secured indemnity for damages arising therefrom, when the public 
accommodation required such interruption." 

This bridge was completed in 1828, by a company of gentlemen who 
were proprietors of lands at South Boston, and by residents of that sec- 
tion, and who transferred it to the city in October. 



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134 BOSTON BRIDGES AND PEHRIBS. 

VI. WARREN BRIDGE. 

The subject of erecting a free bridge to lead from Boston to Charlestown 
was agitated in 1822. Subscriptions were raised, and a petition presented 
to the Legislature for an act of incorporation, which was opposed with great 
skill and perseverance by the friends and proprietors of Charles River 
Bridge. The subject before the Legislature was deferred from one session 
to another, till the winter of 1827, when a bill for a free bridge passed both 
houses, and only wanted the Governor's signature to become a law. The 
Governor returned the bill, with a message, giving his reasons for not sign- 
ing it. The petition was again renewed, but so varied as to make a toll 
bridge. Great principles were involved in this subject, which the repre- 
sentatives of the people calmly and deliberately considered before they de- 
cided. The final bill was passed in the House of Representatives, February 
29; yeaa 152, nays 134. In the Senate, March 9; yeas 19, nays 17, and 
the Governor approved the act March 12, 1828. The distinction which 
was said to have been made by the Governor, between this bill and the one 
to which he refused his sanction the year previous was, that the Legisla- 
ture had, in the passage of the present act, virtually decided that the pub- 
lic convenience and necessity, aside from consideration of tolls, required 
another avenue over Charles River, which was not the case with the pre- 
vious bill. 

The erection of this bridge was commenced on the 11th of June follow- 
ing, and while in progress, the proprietors of Charles River Bridge made 
an application to the Supreme Judicial Court on the 28th of June, by a bill 
in Equity, for an injunction against further proceedings in the erection of 
Warren Bridge. The court decided that the time for hearing should be ex- 
tended to the 5th of August, and a special session was held at that time, 
acting as a Court of Chancery, when Messrs. Shaw, Gorham, and Webster, 
appeared as a counsel for the applicants, and Messrs. Fletcher and Aylwin, 
for the respondents. After hearing the parties by their counsel, on the 
12th of August the court refused to grant the injunction ; but at the same 
time informed the defendants that they proceeded at their peril; if the 
court should afterwards, in deciding on the merits, pronounce the act void, 
they would loose all they laid out. In October, 1829, the case was heard on 
the merits, and went in favor of the Warren Bridge proprietors. The 
court being two and two, the Chief Justice (Parker) said, " as no decree 
for relief can be passed, there will be a decree against the plaintiffs, in or- 
der that they may avail themselves of the right secured by the Constitu- 
tion and laws, of a revision by the Supreme Court of the United States, 
where it is highly proper that this question, depending, as I think it does, 
mainly on the Constitution of the United States, should be ultimately de- 
cided." Accordingly, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and was argued at the next term, February, 1830, the last 



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BOSTON BRIDOB8 AND PERR1EB. 136 

week of the term ; the court intending to give their opinion at their next 
meeting ; but in consequence of sickness and death from time to time, the 
six judges who heard the cause argued, never assembled together again. 
At the January term of the court, 1837, the cause was again argued before 
a full bench, by Messrs. Dutton and Webster, for Charles River Bridge, 
and by Messrs. Oreenleaf and Davis for the Warren Bridge, and decided 
in favor of the latter. 

This bridge was so far finished by the 25th of September, 1838, as to ad- 
mit of persons walking over it, and was opened as a public highway on 
the 25th of December following. It is a more complete and elegant struc- 
ture than any other bridge in Boston. It is placed on 75 piers, about 18 
feet from each other, and measures 1,390 feet long ; is 44 feet wide, allow- 
ingJX) feet for the carriage-way, and seven feet on each side, which is 
railed, for foot passengers. The floor of the bridge consists of hewn tim- 
ber, one foot thick, on which is spread four inches of clay, then a layer of 
gravel six. inches, over the whole surface, and finished by Macadamizing 
eight inches thick ; making the whole thickness of the bridge 30 inches. 
This bridge is placed lower than any of the other bridges, that the timbers 
might be occasionally wet by the highest tides, which it is supposed will 
tend to their preservation. 

The proprietors were granted a toll, the same as the Charles River 
Bridge, until reimbursed the money expended, with five per cent, interest 
thereon, provided that period did not extend beyond the term of six years 
from the first opening of the bridge ; at which time (or sooner if the re- 
imbursement by the receipt of tolls should permit) the bridge was to re- 
vert to the State in good repair. By the act of incorporation the proprie- 
tors were required to pay one half the sum allowed Harvard College, 
annually, from the proprietors of Charles River Bridge. This bridge was 
declared free March 2, 1836, with a surplus fund on hand, accruing from 
tolls, of $ 37,437, after paying all expenses of erecting the bridge, and 
keeping the same in repair ; since which, the interest of the fund has kept 
the bridge in repair and paid expenses. 

VJI. WINNISIMMET FERRY. 

This ferry, which has become an important avenue to the city, is be- 
tween the northerly end of Hanover street and Chelsea, and is one mile and 
three eighths in length. It is the oldest ferry in New England, and is be- 
lieved to be the earliest established in the United States. Its name is de- 
rived from the Indian name of Chelsea. 

There are five steam ferry-boats, for the transportation of passengers, 
horses and carriages. Some one of these leaves each side every ten or fif- 
teen minutes from sunrise to 11 o'clock at night. 



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136 BOSTON HARBOR. 

VIII. EAST BOSTON FERRY 
b a short ferry between North and East Boston, established by a li- 
cense from the City Government in 1835, and is owned by an incorporated 
company. There are three large steamboats, two of which are constantly 
prying from daylight until 12 at night, every day in the year. Tolls : — 
For foot passengers, 2 cents each way ; yearly ticket for a family consist- 
ing of two persons, $ 8. 



BOSTON HARBOR. 

Thb Harbor extends from Nantasket to the city, and spreads from Chel- 
sea and Nahant to Hingham, containing about 75 square miles. It is be- 
spangled with upwards of 50 islands or rocks, and receives the waters 
from the Mystic, Charles, Neponset, and Manatticut Rivers, with, several 
other smaller streams. The most noted islands are Governor's Island and 
Castle Island, both of which are fortified : the former is now called Fort 
Warren, the latter Fort Independence. They lie about two and a half miles 
easterly from the city, dividing the inner from the outer harbor, about one 
mile distant from each other, and the only channel for large ships passes 
between them. Belle Isle and East Boston lie to the northeast of the 
city on the Chelsea coast, which, together with most of the islands in the 
harbor, come within the jurisdiction of the city. Deer Island, about five 
mile east, and Long Island, about five and a half east by south, command 
the outer harbor. Thompson and Spectacle Islands lie southeasterly to- 
wards Squantum, and within the parallel of Long Island. Rainsford, or 
Hospital Island, is about one mile southeasterly from Long Island. Gallop, 
George, and Lovel's Islands, lie east by south, from seven to eight miles 
from Boston, and between Broad Sound and Nantasket Road. Pethick's 
Island lies south of Nantasket Road, or Hingham Bay. The Lighthouse 
Island, on which the Lighthouse stands, lies south 69 deg. east, 8} miles. 
The Brewsters, Calf Island, Green Island, &c., lie northerly from the Light- 
house, forming a chain of islands, rocks, and ledges about three miles, to 
the Graves Rocks, between which no ships attempt to pass. The water in 
this harbor is of a sufficient depth to admit 500 ships of the largest class 
to ride at anchor in safety ; while the entrance is so narrow as scarcely to 
admit two ships abreast. Boston is finely situated for commerce, and has 
more shipping than any other city in the United States, except New York. 
The wharves and piers are extensive, — provided with spacious stores and 
warehouses, with every convenience for the safe mooring and securing of 
vessels. 

The city exhibits a very picturesque and beautiful view when approached 
from the sea, and its general appearance is much admired by strangers. 



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FANEUIL HALL. 137 

FANEUIL, HALL. 

The history of Faneuil Hall, which has been very properly styled the 
" Cradle of American Liberty," is intimately connected with that of our 
country. The original building, commenced in 1740, was the noble gift of 
Peter Faneuil, Esq., to the town of Boston, for a town hall and market 
place. The inside woodwork and roof of this building were destroyed by 
fire on the 13th of January, 1761. It was again repaired in 1763, with 
some slight alteration in the work, but the size of the building remained 
the same, two stories high and 100 feet by 40. The enlargement, by which 
it was extended in width to 80 feet, and a third story added, was proposed 
by the selectmen in May, 1805, and completed in the course of the year. 
The building has a cupola, from which there is a fine view of the harbor. 
The great hall is 76 feet square, and 28 feet high, with galleries of three 
sides upon Doric columns ; the ceiling is supported by two ranges of Ionic 
columns ; the walls enriched with pilasters and the windows with archi- 
traves, <fec. Platforms under and in the galleries rise am phi theatrically 
to accommodate spectators, and from trials already made on various occa- 
sions of public interest, it appears favorable for sight and sound. 

The west end is decorated by an original full length painting of Wash- 
ington, by Stuart, presented by Samuel Parkman, Esq., and another paint- 
ing of the same size, by Col. Henry Sargent, representing Peter Faneuil, 
Esq., in full length, copied from an original of smaller size. 

Above the great hall is another 78 feet long and 30 wide, devoted to the 
exercise of the different military corps of the city, with a number of 
apartments on each side for depositing the arms and military equipments, 
where those of the several Independent Companies are arranged and kept 
in perfect order. The building also contains convenient offices for the 
Overseers of the Poor, Assessors, &c. 

During the summer of 1827, the city government thoroughly repaired 
the building and divided the lower story, which had formerly been used 
for a market, into eight elegant and convenient stores, which give to the 
city upwards of $ 4,600 per annum. The building was at the same time 
painted a light Portland stone color. 

In the annals of the American Continent, there is no one place, more 
distinguished for powerful eloquence, than Faneuil Hall. That flame 
which roused a depressed people from want and degradation, arose from 
the altar of Liberty in Faneuil Hall. The language which made a mon- 
arch tremble upon his throne for the safety of his colonies, and which in- 
spired New England with confidence in a cause, both arduous and bold, 
unprepared and unassisted, against a royal bulwark of hereditary authori- 
ty, had its origin in Faneuil Hall. Those maxims of political truth which 
have extended an influence over the habitable globe, and have given rise 
to new republics where despotism once held a court, glutted with the 



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138 FANEUIL HALL MARKET. 

blood that would be free, were first promulgated in Faneuil Hall. Tyran- 
ny, with all its concomitant evils, was first exposed, and the great ma- 
chine of human wisdom, which was to emancipate man from the rapacious 
jaws of the British lion, was put in active operation in Faneuil Hall. 
The story of our country's future greatness, her power, her learning, her 
magnitude, her final independence, was told prophetically in the same im- 
mortal forum. 



FANEUIL. HALL. MARKET. 

Faneuil Hall Market is situated at the east end of Faneuil Hall, between 
two streets called North and South Market Streets, having two streets 
passing at right angles at the east and west fronts, the one being 76 feet, 
and the other at the east end, 65 feet wide. North Market street is 65 feet 
wide, the South 102 feet, each street having a range of stores four stories 
high with granite fronts ; the range of stores on the north side 520 feet, 
and 55 feet deep ; on the south 530 feet, and 65 feet deep ; (an arched ave- 
nue in centre of each range, five feet wide, communicating with the ad- 
joining streets ;) the facade of which is composed of piers, lintel, and 
arched windows on the second story. The roofs are slated, and the cellars 
water-proof. The height and form of the stores were regulated by the 
conditions of sale. The purchaser was required to erect, within a limited 
time, a brick store with hammered stone front, (granite piers) in strict 
conformity with a plan drawn by Mr. Alexander Parris. 

The first operation for locating and building this spacious and superb 
market house commenced on the 20th of August, 1824, by staking out the 
ground for the same, and for the North Market street ; the old buildings 
standing on the premises having been previously purchased by the city, 
but not removed. 

Shortly after the razing of these buildings, the filling up of the docks, 
and other work, necessary for clearing the wide area, and preparing for 
laying the corner-stone of the structure, were simultaneously entered upon, 
and carried through, to the raising of the splendid dome, without the in- 
tervention, we believe, of a single accident, or occurrence affecting hu- 
man life. 

The cornerstone of this building was laid with much ceremony. The 
plate deposited beneath it bears the names of the Mayor, Aldermen and 
Common Council, Building Committee and principal Architect, besides 
the following inscription : — " Faneuil Hall Market, established by the 
city of Boston. This stone was laid April 27, Anno Domini Mdcccxxv. 
In the forty-ninth year of American Independence, and in the third of the 
incorporation of the city. John Quincy Adams, President of the United 
States. Marcus Morton, Lt. Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the 



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PANEUIL HALL MARKET. 139 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The population of the city estimated 
at 50,000; that of the United States 11,000,000." 

In length it is 666 feet 9 inches, in width 60 feet, wholly built of gran- 
ite, having a center building 74fr by 56 feet, projecting 2& feet in the north 
and south fronts. From the centre buildings are wings on each side, 173 
by 600 feet, the wing continues, from a projection of 6 inches, 46 feet 3 
inches, and 51 feet in width, on each facade of which are 5 antaes, pro- 
jecting 6 inches, finishing with a portico at each end of the building, 
projecting 11 feet 7$ inches. The porticos consist of 4 columns, 3$ feet 
diameter at base, and 2 feet 10 inches at neck, each shaft in one piece, 20 
feet 9 inches long, with a capital of the Grecian Doric. The columns sup- 
port a pediment, the tympanum of which has a circular window for ven- 
tilation. The wings are of two stories, the lower one 14 feet, the upper 
14$ feet, the lower windows have circular heads. The building is finished 
with a Grecian cornice 16 inches in depth, and 21 inches projection, 
worked in granite. The roof is slated, and gutters copper. The height of 
the wings from the sidewalk to the top of the cornice is 31 feet. 

The fecade of the centre building, up to the under side of the second 
story windows, is composed of five recesses of piers and arches of grooved 
ashler, on the top of which are again formed recesses by antaes, support- 
ing a frieze and cornice, similar to the wing building ; in each recess is a 
circular headed window, the centre a Venetian ; on the top of the cornice 
is a blocking course, and an octagon attic, 6 feet high, with two elliptical 
sawtells, surmounted by a dome covered with copper, and crowned by a 
lantern light. At each angle on top of the centre building is a pedestal, 
in which are placed the necessary flues. 

The whole edifice is supported by a base of Quincy blue granite, 2 feet 
10 inches high, with arched windows and doors, communicating with the 
cellars. 

The building is approached by 6 steps of easy ascent; each wing has 6 
doors. The centre building in the north and south front, a pair of folding 
doors, enter a passage 10 feet wide, paved with brick, laid on ground arch- 
es ; the wings have also a passage way of smaller dimensions to corres- 
pond. 

The principal entrances are from the east and west porticos, which com- 
municate with the corridor, 512 feet long, 12 feet wide, with entablatures, 
finished with a cove ceiling. The interior is divided into 128 stalls, and 
occupied as follows, viz : 14 for mutton, lamb, veal and poultry ; 2 for 
poultry and venison; 19 for pork, lamb, butter and poultry; 45 for beef; 
4 for butter and cheese ; 19 for vegetables ; and 20 for fish. 

On the south front are four doorways opening to staircases, leading to 
the second story, in the centre of which is a hall, 70 by 50 feet, having a 
dome, springing from four segmental arches, ornamented with panels and 
rosettes, in the crown of which is an elliptical opening, 14 by 12 feet. 



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140 GRAND JUNCTION RAILROAD. 



THE GRAND JUNCTION RAILROAD. 

It ia the design of thia corporation to establish an extensive freight de- 
pot, at East Boston, adjoining the Eastern Railroad and British Steam- 
ship Depots, on the deepest and best sheltered part of Boston harbor, for 
the accommodation of, and forming a junction with, the several railroads 
terminating in Boston. The area of this depot is about thirty-five acres ; 
and, united with the Eastern, which it adjoins, makes one grand freight de- 
pot, for the shipping interest, of fifty acres; extending from the Ferry 
wharf, southerly, on Marginal street, 2,160 feet, and westerly, 1,100 feet, 
to the Cominissionenr' Line, in the harbor-channel. It is more particular- 
ly designed, however, for the great Northern line of roads now built and 
in progress of construction through the principal manufacturing districts 
of this State, and thence through New Hampshire and Vermont into both 
Canadas, and reaching Northern New York at Ogdensburgh, on the St. 
Lawrence, at the mouth of the Oswegatchie, connecting Boston by the 
shortest and most expeditious route with the great West. By the estab- 
lishment of this depot, the carrying trade of the Canadas will be secured 
to the United States, and more especially to Boston. 

Samurl S. Lb wis, Es*., is the projector of this enterprise, and we are 
glad to observe that some of our most intelligent and energetic citizens are 
associated with him in carrying it out. 

The Railroad connecting the Depot lands at East Boston with the East- 
ern, Boston and Maine, and Lowell and Fitchburg roads, is nearly graded, 
and will be completed and in operation in the summer of 1851. 

The charter of this company allows any other railroad corporation to 
establish depots on their premises, and authorizes such railroad corpora- 
tions as may establish depots there, to hold lands necessary therefor, in fee 
simple, or otherwise. Boston, from its favorable position, being nearer 
than New York to the Upper and Lower British Provinces, and also 
to Europe by sailing vessels, from four to seven days, and by steam, from 
one and a half to two days, is destined to become a great export city, 
when her railroads now in progress of construction shall have reached the 
Canadas, the Lakes, and the great West, affording facilities to bring to her 
port for shipment the vast products of the West. The road is now com- 
pleted to Ogdensburgh, and the advantages of Boston as a shipping port 
will be more fully developed, and will be found equal to any in the Union. 
It is also predicted that by our railroad connections, commencing at the de- 
pot of this Company, on the deepest water in the harbor, extending and 
communicating with both the Canadas by the shortest and most expedi- 
tious route, Boston will also become the port of entry for the Canadas, and 
that goods arriving h.ere in the steamships, after a passsage of twelve to 
thirteen days, may be delivered in Montreal and Upper Canada within 
fifteen days of their shipment in Liverpool, and chargeable with no other 



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BAST BOSTON. Hi 

expenses than freight on shipboard and railroad ; thus placing the Canada 
importer, by the way of Boston, on an equal footing as to time (and with 
but trifling additional expense) with the New York importer via Boston. 

"The objects of this Company, though somewhat various, are all and 
eminently designed to pmmote the trade and commerce of the city ; to fa- 
cilitate the operations of commerce with the interior trade of the country ; 
to aid in distributing the productions of other countries, and in the export 
trade of our own. By the use of our wharves and railroad, the cars for 
the interior are brought into immediate connection with vessels from every 
port, and the freight of the ship may be exchanged for that of the cars 
without any other agency than that afforded by the accommodations of this 
Company. A ship from England may unload her cargo of merchandise 
to go to Canada, on one train of cars, and receive her cargo of flour for the 
return voyage from the next. Or, by our warehouses, the same cargo of 
merchandise, or the same freight of flour, may be placed in store or bond 
until required, and it will be seen that whatever the commodity, wherever 
it came from, or where designed to be sent, the saving of expense in the 
facilities aflbrded by this Company would equal a large part of the cost of 
conveying it to the interior from the ship, or to the ship from the interior. 

"The geographical relations of the city of Boston, being almost an 
island, are peculiar. Although the extent of the city proper, at the pres- 
ent time, is estimated to be nearly double its original size, its capacity is 
all improved; dwelling-houses are constantly giving room to stores ; and 
the increasing business of the city is still demanding further and larger 
accommodations. In fact, Boston has not only spread itself out, as it 
were, in all directions, but has actually extended its limits across two arms 
of the sea, and, once a city of three hills, is fast becoming a city of three 
cities ; and, at the same time, as if in this number was to be found the 
magic of the city's greatness, three other cities have grown up around her 
by the same impulse, — all indicative of the industry, activity, and enter- 
prise of the New England character." 

Officers. — Samuel S. Lewis, President; Dexter Brigham, Jr., Treas- 
urer; J. p. Robinson, Clerk; William L. Dearborn, Engineer. Direct- 
ors, — David Henshaw, Charles Paine, John W. Fenno, Ichabod Goodwin. 



East Boston. — This portion of the city was originally known as Nod- 
dle's Island. Within the last twenty years It has become an important 
part of Boston, and now forms with the islands in the harbor the second 
ward, with a population of 9,000 persons. The Cunard line of steamers 
have their wharf at East Boston. There are several ship-yards within the 
limits of this ward, also a large Sugar Refinery. The Eastern Railroad 
commences at the wharf in East Boston. 



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142 BOSTON ASYLUM AND FARM SCHOOL. 

BOSTON ASYLUM AND FARM SCHOOL, OX 
THOMPSON'S ISLAND. 

In the year 1813, several gentlemen formed a society for the relief and 
education of such boys as might be found destitute of parental and friendly 
superintendence. 

In February, 1814, an Act of Incorporation was granted them, and the 
society was organized, with the title of the Boston Asylum for Indigent 
Boys. For many years it was located at the corner of Salem and Charter 
streets, in the house formerly occupied by Governor Phips. 

On the 9th of June, 1835, the boys, 52 in number, were removed to 
Thompson's Island, which is within the limits of the city, and about four 
miles of the City Hall. 

A number of gentlemen in the city were very desirous that an institution 
should be established here, to which children either already corrupted, or 
beyond parental control, might be sent without the intervention of a legal 
conviction and sentence ; and in which such employments might be pur- 
sued by the children, as would make the institution, in the strictest sense, 
a school of industry. A plan for this object was submitted to a few gentle- 
men, by whom it was approved and matured ; and a meeting was held in 
the hall of the Tremont Bank on the 27th of January, 1832, when a board 
of directors were chosen. Subscription papers were opened, and $23,000 
were soon obtained. In the summer of 1833 following, Thompson's Island, 
containing 140 acres, was purchased for the objects of the institution; and 
a building is now completed there, which, besides ample accommodations 
for the officers of the establishment, is quite sufficient for the charge of 
mors than 300 children. A suggestion having been made of the expedi- 
ency of connecting the proposed Farm School with the Asylum for Indi- 
gent Boys, conferences were held between the directors of these Institu- 
tions ; and in March, 1835, they were united under the style of the Boston 
Asylum and Farm School. 

The objects of the present institution are to rescue from the ills and the 
temptations of poverty and neglect, those who have been left without a 
parent's care; to reclaim from moral exposure those who are treading the 
paths of danger ; and to offer to those whose only training would other- 
wise have been in the walks of vice, if not of crime, the greatest blessing\ 
which New England can bestow upon her most favored sons. On the 1st 
of January, 1837, there were 107 boys ; all of whom, as well as all other per- 
sons connected with the establishment on the island, were in good health. 
The occupations and employments of the boys vary with the season. In 
spring, summer, and autumn, the larger boys work upon the garden and 
farm. The younger boys have small gardens of their own, which af- 
ford them recreation when released from school. In the winter season 
most of them attend school, where they are instructed in the learning usu- 



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ISLANDS IN BOSTON HARBOR. 143 

ally taught in our common schools, and some of them -are employed in 
making and mending clothes and shoes for the institution. The winter 
evenings are occupied with the study of geography and the use of globes ; 
botany, and practical agriculture ; lecturing on different subjects ; singing 
and reading. Every boy in the institution is required to be present during 
the evening exercises if he is able. As to the success of the boys in the 
farming operations, Captain Chandler, the superintendent, says, " they 
have succeeded far beyond my expectations', I think that they have done 
more work, and done it better, than the boys of their age who have been 
regularly brought up to the business in the country, generally do." And 
as to the comfort and contentedness of the boys, he says, " they are all com- 
fortably clad with woollen clothes, shoes, stockings, and caps, and appear 
to be as happy in their present situation, as boys generally are under the 
paternal roof. The boys are well supplied with books, and required to 
keep them in order, — their library containing about 400 volumes of well- 
selected books." 

Opportunities are occasionally offered to the friends of boys at the insti- 
tution, of visiting them on the island in the summer months. Twelve 
have been indented, principally as farmers. Toe present number is 100. 

The annual subscription is $ 3 ; for life membership $ 25. This institu- 
tion bids fair to become one of the most useful in our city. 



ISLANDS IN BOSTON HARBOR* 

Thb islands in Boston harbor are delightful resorts for citizens and 
strangers during the hot summer weather. If there are natural beauties, 
romantic elevations, or silent and wild retreats, in the vicinity of Boston, 
worth the poet's and philosopher's attention, they are in the harbor; but 
to be admired they must be seen. These islands are gradually wearing 
away, and where large herds of cattle were pastured sixty years ago, the 
ocean now rolls its angry billows, and lashes with an overwhelming surge 
the last remains of earth. From the appearance which the islands present 
at this period, these were once round, or in other words, were nearly circu- 
lar at the base, and rose above the water like a dome; but the northern 
blasts, in connection with the terrible force of the tides accompanying 
such storms, have completely washed away every one of them upon the 
north side, in such a manner that they actually appear like half an island, 
— having had a vertical section, and hence there is a perpendicular bank 
facing the north, while the south and west gradually slope to the edge. To 
the east, the tide has made some destruction, but it bears no proportion to 
the north. This peculiarity is observable in all the islands which have 
soil. Towards the outer lighthouse, the islands are almost barren ledges 
of rocks, — having been washed of the earth from time immemorial. It is 

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144 ISLANDS IN BOSTON HARBOR. 

on the northeastern sides that the most danger is to be apprehended. 
Thompson's Island, lying between the Castle and Moon Head, is secured 
by natural barriers, as the former receives and resists the force of the tide 
before it reaches Thompson's ; but Long Island, although defended in a 
measure by Rainsford, Gallop, George's, and Lovel's Islands, has lost con- 
siderable soil. Spectacle Island, so called from its supposed resemblance 
to a pair of spectacles, is sifting away by slow degrees, and nothing will 
prevent it. 

GEORGE'S ISLAND. 
This island is the key to the harbor, — commanding the open sea, afford- 
ing one of the best places for fortifications of any among the number. 
There is an elevation on the east and northeast, nearly 50 feet above high- 
watermark, in some places, with an easy ascent towards the south and 
southwest to the channel. This is the property of the United States. 
Fifty thousand dollars have been expended by Government for building a 
sea wall on the northeast. A trench was dug at the foot, below the low- 
water-mark, in which the foundation has been laid. This was made of split 
stone, of great weight, and bolted together with copper. We have never 
seen any masonry that would compare with it, in point of strength and 
workmanship. On this a second wall has been erected, equally formida- 
ble, on which the artillery is to be mounted. Under the superintendence 
of Captain Smith, whose good judgment has been exercised from the begin- 
ning, we may expect a fort in the outer harbor that will bid defiance to all 
the ships of war that ever sailed. 

CASTLE ISLAND, 
On which stands Fort Independence, was selected as the most suitable 
place for a fortress for the defence of the harbor, as early as 1633. It was 
built at first with mud walls, which soon fell to decay, and was afterwards 
rebuilt with pine trees and earth. In a short time, this also became use- 
less, and a small castle was built with brick walls, and had three rooms in 
it; a dwelling- room, a lodging- room over it, and a gun-room over that* 
The erection of this castle gave rise to the present name of the island. 
Great improvements are in progress here by the United States Govern- 
ment. 

GOVERNORS' ISLAND, 
Lies about one mile north of Oastte Island, and was first called Conant's 
Island. It was demised to Governor Winthrop in 1632, and for many 
year* after was called the Governor's Garden. It is now in the possession 
of James Winthrop, Esq., a descendant of the first Governor, excepting a 
part conveyed by hkn to the United States, for the purpose of constructing 
a fortress, now catted Port Warren. Its situation is very commanding, and 
in some respects superior to Castle Island. 



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ISLANDS It* BOSTON HARBOR. 145" 

NODDLE'S ISLAND 

Was first occupied by Samuel Maverick. He iru on ft when the settle- 
ment of Boston commenced. He buHt a fort in which be mounted four 
cannons, and afterwards bad a pant of it from the General Court. In 1814, 
a strong fortress was built on this island by the citizens, and called Port 
Strong, in honor of the Governor. This island is now known by the nam* 
of Boat Boston. 

POINT SHIRlY 

Formerly bad the name of Pulling Point The name which it now bears 
was given to it by the proprietors, as a mark of respect to the lata Gover- 
nor Shirly. 

DEER BLAND 
b «denghtftil island, and is owned and leased by the efty. It was for- 
merly a place of great resort in the summer season let parties of pleasure. 
Hem 'm a large and convenient boose, with a spades* baH-room and other 
convenience*, for the accommodation of visitors. The general government 
for several years past have been building a sea-wall round it of a formidable 
.character. The first appropriation of Congress towards the object was 
eighty-seven thousand dollars. 

HGHTHOTJSET ISLAND, 
Was known for many years by the name of Beacon bland. The first 
lighthouse was erected in 1714V Pilots are established at this place, pro- 
vided wtlh excellent boats, and a piece of artillery to aa«wer signals. 

THOMPSON'S ISLAND. 
Hue is a promontory, nearly a mile and a half long, jotting into the har- 
bor, opposite Spectacle Island. The Boston Farm School Association have 
purchased this island, and established here their Farm School. 

NIX'S MATE 
b an Irregular, barren, and reeky base of an Island, bet ween Gallop and 
Long Island Head, almost entirely concealed at high water. Them is a 
beacon of split stone m the centre, nearly forty foot square, As se rt ed to- 
gether by copper bolts, which perfectly secures it from the tremendous 
force of the waves in times of northeasterly gales. To speak mora defi- 
nitely, the shape is a parallelogram, the sides being 12 foot high, and as- 
cended by stone steps on the south side. On the top of thii, is a six-sided 
pyramid of wood, 90 feat high, with one window to the sooth. This Is the 
tcortapicaous part of the beacon, and serves as a prominent warning to sea- 
:merr, to keep from the dangerous shoal on which it stands. At low tide, 
more than an acre of land is visible, and at high tide, only small bnats can 



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146 BOSTON IN DISTRICTS. 

sail to the monument. A very aged gentleman states, that he can remem- 
ber when Nix's Mate was a verdant island, on which a large number of 
sheep were pastured. Forty-fire years ago, although the soil is now com- 
pletely gone, there was pasturage for 60 head of sheep, entirely abore bigh- 
water-mark. 

Tradition says, that the master of a vessel, whose name was Nix, was 
murdered by his mate, and buried on this island, some, century and a half 
ago. The mate was executed for the horrid crime, but declared he was in- 
nocent of the murder, and prophesied that the island, as an evidence of his 
innocence, would be entirely washed away. He was executed nearly en 
the spot where the pyramid is erected. The total disappearance of the 
land, above water, has led many to believe the truth of his assertion, — 
that he was unjustly put to death. The circumstances were handed down 
from one generation to another, till the erection of the beacon, when by 
general consent, among seamen, it look the name of Nix's Mate. It wis 
the custom about a century ago to hang pirates in chains on this island, to 
strike a terror to sailors as they come into port, thai the influence might 
deter them from the commission of such wickedness. 



BOSTON IN DISTRICTS. 

NORTH BOSTON. 
Boston, like many other large cities, has been, by common co n se nt, di- 
vided into districts, with names indicating the location of each. Thus we 
have North Boston, West Boston, East Boston, South End, and South Bos- 
ton. The first section embraces the north end of the city, or all that part 
lying north of Faneuil Hall, and what was the Canal, or Mill-Creek. This 
is the oldest part, and formerly had the advantage of the principal trade. 
The streets hero are generally narrow and crooked, and some of them re- 
main much as they were when first constructed, on the model of the old 
towns in England. " The government of the town, soon after its settle- 
ment, endeavored to correct some of their early errors, yet they seem to 
have had an utter aversion to straight lines or right angles; and though 
their moral walk was upright, they took little pains to make their crooked 
highways straight." This irregularity, however, was partly occasioned 
by the uneven surface of the ground when the city was first buHt, and it is 
by no means certain that this ancient disposition of the streets, manifests 
a want of taste, or baa materially in jured the appearance of the city. On 
this subject* writer observes, "the forms and turnings of the streets of 
toadon, and other old towns, am produced by accident, without any origi- 
nal plan or design; but they are not always the less pleasant to the walker 
or spectator, on that account On the contrary, had they been built on 



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BOSTON III DISTRICTS. 142 

— J 

the Regular plan of Sir Christopher Wren, the effect might have been, as it 
is in some new places, rather unpleasing." In North Boston the building*: 
are mostly old, and many are built of wood, and exhibit the different styles 
of architecture used for a period of more than a century and a halt Ex- 
cept a portion of what was formerly the Mill-Pond, the only spot of land 
not covered by buildings at present is on Copps Hill, and the greater part of 
this is occupied for a burial ground. From this hill the British cannon* 
aded the town of Cbarlestown in 1775, during the memorable battle of 
Bunker Hill, when the village was principally destroyed by conflagration. 
They left a small fort standing on this hill, which remained a favorite re- 
sort for the recreation of school boys till 1807. The natural situation of 
this section of the city gives it an advantage over any other part ; whether 
considered as a place for comfortable and healthy residence or its conven- 
ience for trade. The channel of Charles River runs close to the shore, and 
has depth and width sufficient to accommodate ships of the greatest bur- 
den. The spirit for improvement, recently awakened in North Boston, 
shows that the citizen* begin to appreciate its advantages. 

WEST BOSTON. 

This part of the city lies between the Common and Canal street, west of 
Hanover and Tremont streets, and has been recently built. The buildings 
are principally of brick, erected in a handsome style, and are mostly used 
as dwellings. The State-House, Hospital, National Theatre, Court-House, 
and Jail, are located In this section. 

SOUTH END. 
The South End comprises all the peninsula south of Summer and Win- 
ter streets, and extends to Boxbury. About one fourth of the buildings in 
this section are of wood Those that have been most recently erected are 
of brick and granite, exhibiting an improved style of architecture. The 
buildings here,^lso, are generally occupied for dwellings, except the lesser 
stories of those on Washington street. 

SOUTH BOSTON. 
South Boston is that section of the city which is separated from the pen- 
insula, or the ancient town, by an arm of the harbor reaching to Box- 
bury. It contains about 560 acres, and, except East Boston, is the newest 
and most unsettled part o the city. Within a few years the population 
has increased rapidly, and a considerable number of buildings has been 
erected, principally of brick. This one was a part of Eorchester, and 
embraces the hills formerly known as Dorchester Heights, so famed in the 
annals of the American Revolution. There are two free bridges that con- 
nect this with the older part of the city ; — one is at the South End near 
the commencement of the Neck ; the other leads from Wind-Mill Point, 
and was built in 1818. There is one bank located here. 



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148 BOSTON IN DISTRICTS. 



EAST BOSTON. 

This is an island, formerly known as Maverick's, Noddle's, and Wil« 
Hams' Island. In 1814, the citizens of Boston erected a fort on its eastern 
extremity, which was called Fort Strong. In 1830, some eight or ten of 
our most enterprising capitalists, purchased this island and commenced 
laying it out into streets and lots, with a view of making it an important 
part of the city. 

Among the important improvements in that portion of the city termed 
East Boston, we enumerate I. The introduction of the Cochituate water 
by the city of Boston. II. The construction of the Grand Junction Rail- 
road, now near its completion. ID. The construction of the sea-wall 
across the Basin, thus reclaiming a large quantity of low lands which were 
hitherto partially covered by the tide- waters. These lands consist of marsh 
and flats to the extent of about ninety-five acres, lying between West wood 
Island and the Eastern Railroad. 

The population of East Boston at this time amounts to 10,500, exclusive 
of a great number of mechanics and laborers who here find employment, 
but whose families reside elsewhere. The number of births during the 
year was 408, the number of JamUies resident in Bast Boston on the 1st 
of April, 1861, was 2,032, the number of houses 1,894, of which 48 were 
erected in I860. There was also ejected a fine block of brick warehouses 
by the East Boston Wharf Company on Lewis street, at a cost of 035,000, 
sixteen wooden buildings for workshops and other purposes, and one 
church, (now being completed,) making a total of 1,615 buildings. 

The religious advantages of East Boston are sufficiently varied and ex- 
tensive to suit ait shades of opinion. Seven different denominations main- 
tain the preaching of the Gospel, viz:— Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, 
Catholic, Universalis!, Unitarian, and Episcopal. Five of these societies 
have commodious church edifices, the others worship in large and conven- 
ient hattt; together, they furnish accommodations for seating 3,750 per- 
sons. The educational advantages of East Boston are most ample. There 
are two Grammar Schools with 20 teachers, and an attendance of 1,083 
scholars; and 19 Primary Schools with 19 teachers and an attendance of 
about 1 ,042 scholars. Besides the above Public Schools, 2 Pri vate Schools 
are sustained on the Island. We have also a Library Association, which 
was established in 1849, and which now has a library of over 700 volumes. 
Able and valuable lectures are given before this Association during the 
winter months. 

A Benevolent Society for the relief of the destitute is also sustained by 
our citizens. A Savings Bank and a Fire Insurance Company are also lo- 
cated in East Boston. 

The following summary of statistics will exhibit the amount of capital 



at. 



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BOSTON IN DISTRICTS. 149 

invested in manufacturing sad mechanical business la East Boston, the 
number of hands employed, and the amount of annual prefects. 

Business. CapitaL 

Manufacturing and Mechanics! f 1,868,000 
Ship Building, .... 71,000 
Lumber, Wood, Coal, &c, . 45,000 

Teaming, Trucking, Ac, . . 32,000 
Curing and Packing Fish, . 49,000 



No. of 


Annual 


hands, 


product 


1,192 


3,769,91* 


296 


851,300 




332,000 


275 


140,000 


23 


138,500 



* 2,056,000 1,785 6,231,716 

Steam power is used in 20 of the establishments mentioned in the table, 
and three others are making preparations to use it. At the different ship- 
yards there were built the past year 14 ships and barks, making an aggre- 
gate tonnage of 14,035 tons. During the first six months of 1851, the ships 
launched or now on the stocks, include 10,896 tons. 

East Boston, with its superior location for commercial and manufectmv 
ing purposes, will doubtless soon double its present population. It, has a 
water frontage of 17,000 feet on the deep water of the harbor aa well 
adapted and better protected for commerce than wharves in the city prop- 
er. This has been fully proved by the late severe gale; while wharves in 
the other parts of the harbor and shipping received great damage, none, 
comparatively speaking, was sustained at the wharves at East Boston. 

The Grand Junction Railroad with its large and commodious shipping 
depot is nearly completed. This road will unite East Boston with all the 
principal roads from the city, thus affording an unbroken chain of railroad 
communication from the deep water wharves in this section of the city 
through the great manufacturing districts of £fcw England to the Canada*, 
the lakes, and the great West, greatly to the advantage of the commerce 
of Boston, by bringing to and taking from the ships and warehouses all 
merchandise intended for the interior, and product* and manufactures des- 
tined for shipment, free from expense of transhipment. 

The East Boston Company are now about closing contracts for building 
a block of fire-proof granite warehouses upon their depot grounds. 

It is confidently expected that a large shipping business will soon be 
commenced at these depots, greatly to the advantage of East Boston. 

The Grand Junction Railroad can extend its tracks whenever the public 
convenience shall require it, around 23,000 feet frontage of the deep water 
in Boston Harbor, the whole front of Chelsea and East Boston, from the 
free bridge in. Chelsea Creek to Jeffries Point. 

The great railroad system of New England, radiating from Boston in 
all directions, is nearly pompleted. There are now finished and in oper- 
ation, three great lines of road from Boston to the Canadas and Great 



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150 SMfOV IM DtlSTWCTS. 



WMt.MMltwD other Udm axe pftrtiailjfinkhed. Tte lines completed anf) 
in operation am tew Western, the Ssuthern, and the Northern routes, 
through New Pampshire end Vermont. The line* partially completed, ait 
the Passurapsic and Troy. When all thete fire gnat Una* are in full oper- 
ation, -reachinf the Canada* and Great West at different pointe, Boston wi| 
realize the full benefit of Jier magnificent enterprise and enormous expen- 
ditures in perfecting this great work, which must prove so advantageous 
to both her local and commercial business. The eligibility of her locatio*j 
as a shipping port for the Canadas, and an export city for the West, win b» 
seen by the following statement of distances, as compared with New 
York. 

To Boston. To New York. 

From Liverpool, via Halite 2,876 miles. 3,018 miles. 

" " direct 9,866 " 8,013 " 

From Halifax 368 " 480 « 

From Montreal 314 « 388 " 

The difference between Liverpool and Montreal, in favor of Boston ore* 
New Yotk, is an miles. 

The import and export business of the lake harbors in 1861, may be as} 
down as equal to $900,000,000, exclusive of the trade of the Canadas. Col- 
onel Abert of the United Slates Topographical Engineers Corps estlmetsp 
the annual increase of the lake business at 17| per cent. ; at that rate the 
bosinsss will double in less than every six years. 

The segregate of exports from Canada West in 1848, was ft 10,000,00% 
and the late Secretary Walker, says the trade with the Canadas, under 
free trade regulations, would amount to ft 40,000,000, annually. 

The commerce of the Canadas, after our railroads are completed, fs 
doubtless to be carried on through the United States, under recent ecu at 
C o ngr ess designed for this purpose, allowing goods and merchandise m 
frenettw to pass through the country free of duty. The advantages of Bos- 
ton In the competition for this trade are so manifest that their importance 
WW be readily appreciated. Cargoes from Liverpool, in sailing vessels 
from the Canadas, may be delivered, via Boston, in thirty days, and twelve 
days toy steamships, and subject only to the freight on shipboard and rail- 
road; and the productions of the Canadas and Great West, may be shipped 
by the way of Boston at the same expense, and free from all charges of 
t ran s h ipment, Ac A fair proportion of this fomettee ttm'neee wttl here- 
s4W* (tow ever our several lines of railroad $o the deep water wharves In 
Boston Harbor, fbTshrpmeot. 



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THXATRKS IN BOSTON. 



161 



THSATRBS IN BOSTON. 

Tb> Theatres of Boston are limited in number, and rather ordinary in 
appearance. They are as follows : — l. The National Theatre, corner of 
Portland and Travel* street*. 2. The Boston Theatre, formerly known as 
the Odeon, in Federal street. 3. The Howard AthensMim, in Howard 
street. The Museum, inTremont street, is also open for theatrical per 
formances. 




THE NATIONAL THEATRE. 

This theatre, planned and erected by Mr. William Washburn, is 190 by 
75 feel, exclusive of the saloons, refreshment-rooms, &c., which are con* 
taiaed in an adjoining building, 80 by 60 feet, fronting on Travel* street, 
and communicating with the lobbies. The leading architectural features 
are Doric, presenting broad pilasters with slight projections on the froot, 
which support an unbroken entablature and a pediment, 18 feet high at 
each end. The roof is covered with slate and sine, and is surmounted by 
an octagonal lantern, 12 feet in diameter and 18 feet high, baying a win- 
dow on each of its sides. The structure is covemd on the exterior walls 
with cement, 4n imitation of granite, which gives an unHbrm and beauti- 
ful ap pea r a n ce. The interior comprises a pit with 500 seats, three tiejs *>f 
boxes, with 335 seats each, and a gallery with 300 seats. The —loops, lob- 
bies, refreshment-rooms, Ac., are spacious, convenient, and well ventilated 
by large windows on the two streets, and in rear. The boxes have fire 
rows of seats each, and are accessible from both streets, affording, in case 
of fire or other cause of alarm, ready egress from the house. The main 
roof is supported by 18 hard-pine pillars, 36 feet high and 10 inches square, 



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162 THBATRBS IN BOSTON. 

which also support a portion of the boxes, and divide them from the lob* 
bies. The remaining boxes an supported by two octagonal pillars of the 
same material, 9 inches in diameter. The main ceiling is a single arch, of 
65 feet span, rising within 9 feet of the ridge. The gallery is entirely 
above the level cornice of the building, having an arched ceiling which 
rises five feet higher than the main ceiling, and is ventilated by a large 
round window placed in the centre of the tympanum. The procenium 
presents an opening 40 feet wide and 33 feet high. It is composed of pi- 
lasters, having ornamented capitals and bases, which support a beautifully 
enriched arch, crowned with the American eagle. The depth of the stage 
is 61 feet. The circle of boxes is so arranged, that in every part of the 
house a full view is had of the stage. The decorations are in good 
taste. The lower tier of boxes is adorned with paintings of the battles of 
the United States Navy ; the second tier bears the arms of the States, and 
the upper parts have appropriate scenes from the Iliads. 

The prices of tickets are for boxes, $1 ; dress circle, GO cents; family 
circle and pit, 25 cents ; gallery, 12} cents. 



THE BOSTON THEATRE 

Is situated on the comer of Federal and Franklin streets. This build- 
ing, when first erected, war 140 feet long, 61 wide, and 40 feet in height. 
In 1824, an addition was made to the west end of the building, of about 12 
feet, with corresponding improvements in the interior. It was first opened 
February 3, 1794, with the tragedy of Gustavas Yasa Erickson, the deliv- 
erer of Sweden, under the management of Mr. Charles Stewart Powell. 

Mr. Williamson having failed as manager of the Federal street Theatre, 
it was taken by Messrs. Barrett and Harper, in 1797. During the season 
this Theatre was destroyed by fire, on the afternoon of February 2, 1796. 
Messrs. Barrett and Harper applied for the use of the Haymarket Theatre, 
and were refused. 

The theatre having been rebuilt, was opened under the management of 
Mr. Hodgkinson, October 29, 1798. The pieces performed were a prelude, 
called "The First Night's Apology, or all in a Bustle," "Wives as they 
Were," and the " Purse." 

The Boston Theatre opened in 1828, under the management of Mr. 
Charles Toung, for the proprietors. This season proved a most unfortu- 
nate speculation. The opposition was carried on between this and the Tre- 
mont Theatre with great spirit and great loss. Stars were engaged not 
merely on their own terms, but frequently at much more than their mod- 
esty would permit them to ask. Second-rate performers, both male and fe- 
male, had their hundred dollars per night t 



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BOSTON WATKR-W0BK8. 



163 




THB FOUNTAIN ON BOSTON COMMON. 

BOSTON WATER-WORKS. 

No Improvement of greater magnitude or importance has erer been 
undertaken by the city than the Water-Works. Boston, though origi- 
nally selected as a place of residence for its abundance of pure water, for 
many years has not contained within itself an adequate supply. As early 
as Feb. 27, 1796, the Boston Aqueduct Company was incorporated for the 
purpose of introducing into the city the water of Jamaica Pond, in Rox- 
bury. This pond, at its highest elevation, is 49 feet above tide-water, and 
is capable of a maximum daily supply of about 50,000 gallons. In 1845, 
the company had laid about 5 miles of 8 and 4 inch iron pipe, and 10 
miles of wooden pipe, conveying the water to nearly 3,000 houses. This 
was inadequate to meet the wants of the city. 

At the taking of the census in 1845, a careful examination to ascertain 
the supply of water in Boston was made, with the following results : — 

a._. «f n«.. M . Owned by Not owned Tft , . 

•MMofHoitMt. Occupant, by Occupant. TcUl 

Inhabited houses, 3,201 7,169 10,370 

Houses having wells, .... 1,986 3,301 5,287 

Welto whose water is drinkable, . . 1,685 2,639 4,824 

Wells affording a supply 1,750 2,485 4,235 

Wells whose water will wash with soap, 75 139 214 

Houses having cisterns, .... 1,634 2.811 4,445 

Houses which take aqueduct water, 973 2,237 8,210 

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1,731 


3,202 


4,933 


1,215 


3,868 


6,083 


301 


662 


963 


236 


816 


1,052 


1,911 


3,162 


6,073 


1,516 


4,530 


6,046 


1,667 


4,358 


6,925 


2,228 


4,932 


7,160 


1,470 


3,967 


5,437 



164 morrow wAnu-wosKS. 

Houses supplied with soft water, 

Houses having no wells, 

Wells whose water is not drinkable, . 

Wells which do not afford a supply, 

Wells whose water will not wash with soap, 1,911 

Houses without drinkable well water, 

Houses having no cisterns, . 

Houses which do not take aqueduct water, 2,228 

Houses not supplied with soft water, 

Various Commissions had been constituted by the city, at different 
times between 1825 and 1844, to examine the waters in the neighborhood, 
for the purpose of selecting one which could properly be introduced into 
the city. None was, however, definitely agreed upon. In August, 1844, 
Messrs. Patrick T. Jackson, Nathan Hale, and James F. Baldwin were 
appointed Commissioners " to report the best mode and expense of bring- 
ing the waters of Long Pond into the city " ; and they reported on the 
9th of November following. At the next session of the Legislature, an 
act was passed giving authority to the city to construct the works, but on 
submitting it to the people, the act was not accepted. In 1845, another 
Commission, consisting of John B. Jervis, of New York, and Walter R. 
Johnson, of Philadelphia, was a pp ointed to report the best sources and 
mode of supply. Their report was made November 18, 1845, and recom- 
mended Long Pond. An act, granting the necessary powers, with author- 
ity to create a city debt of $3,000,000, was passed by the Legislature, 
March 30, 1846, and accepted by the legal voters of the city, April 10, 
1846. Other necessary preliminary measures were taken. Nathan Hale, 
James F. Baldwin, and Thomas B. Curtis were appointed on 4th May, 
1846, Water Commissioners, and they entered immediately on the dis- 
charge of their duties. In consequence of the increased expenditures on 
the work, an additional act of the Legislature was passed May 1, 1849, 
authorizing an additional debt of $ 1,500,000. 

Long Pond, or Lakk Cochituatb, as it was named in 1846, lies in the 
towns of Framingham, Natick, and Wayland. The gatehouse of the 
aqueduct is in Wayland, near the Natick line. It contains 659 acres, and 
drains about 11,400 acres, and is in some places 70 to 80 feet in depth. It 
is divided into two sections by a dam at the wading place, on the highway 
across the lake from Framingham to Cochituate Village. The northerly 
section, connected with the aqueduct, contains about 200 acres; and the 
southerly section, which is held in reserve, to be drawn upon as wanted, 
contains about 469 acres. It will supply, according to the lowest estimate, 
10,000,000 gallons of water daily. 

Two Compensation Reservoirs, to supply the water rights on Concord 

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BOSTON WATER-WORKS. 166 

Hirer, instead of Long Fond, bar* been constructed. The Whitehall res- 
ervoir in Hopkinton, containing 576 acres, and capable of yielding, for 
three months, 12,000,000 gallons of water each 24 hours ; and the Port 
Meadow Brook re se rv o i r in Marlborough, containing 390 acres. 

The range between high and low water will be about 7} feet At its 
highest elevation it will be about 12 feet above the bottom of the aque- 
duct at the outlet, and 136 feet above high-water at Boston. At its low- 
est level the water will be 124.86 feet above high-water. The fan from the 
Lake to the Brookline reservoir is 4.26 feet, making the height of the res- 
ervoir at its lowest level, 120.60 feet above high- water-mark. The reser- 
voir will, however, retain the water safely 2} feet higher, or 123 feet above 
high-water, or 16 feet above the floor of the State House. The Fountain 
Basin on the Common is about 24} feet above high-water, or 96 feet below 
the minimum level of the Brookline reservoir, and a 3 inch jet has been 
raised thence 92 feet, or within 4 feet of its source, though that source is 
at a distance of 4$ miles. In the lower parts of the city, the water, con- 
veyed through a hose of the ordinary sise of 2} inches, attached to one of 
the hydrants, will throw a column of water, without the aid of a fire en- 
gine, by the feme of the head on the pipe, to the height of 76 or 80 feet. 
The Fountain on the Common is supplied with the means of furnishing a 
great variety of jets, many of which are of great beauty, and attract gen- 
eral notice and admiration. One of these is given in the accompanying 
cut. 

The distance from the Lake to Beacon Hill reservoir is as fellows : — 

FMt. 

From the Gatehouse at the lake to the West bank of Charles 
River, near Newton Lower Falls, ...... 41,187 

Thence to the West end of the Brookline reservoir, . 36,051 

Total, from the Lake to Brookline reservoir, .... 77,238* 
From West end of Brookline reservoir to the Gatehouse at the 

East end, 2,000 

Thence to Beacon Hill reservoir, 24,898 

Total from West end of Brookline reservoir to Beacon Hill reser- 
voir, 26,898 f 

From Uie Lake to Beacon Hffl reservoir, «... .104,1361 
The Brookline Reservoir is a beautiful structure, of irregular, elliptic 
shape. The land purchased, including the surrounding embankment, with 
the necessary margin for its protection, was 38 acres. The area of the 
surface of the water is about 22} acres, it is capable of containing about 
1 100,009,000 gallons of water, a quantity sufficient for the city for a period 
of two weeks, should the supply by any accident be interrupted so long. 

• Or 14.125 milei. t Or 5.004 mile*. J Or 18.719 mU—. 



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196 



BOSTON WATBB-WOftKB. 



1^ Beacon HiUressrvokn^ structure of massive stenw masonry. Us 
exterior dimensions are, on Dome street 199 foot and 3 inchM; en Tempi* 
street 182 feet and 11 inches; on Hancock street 191 feet and 7 inches; 
and on the rear of Mount Yemen attest 206 feet and 5 inches. Ita height, 
from the foundation to the top of the coping, exclusive of the railing, 4s, 
on Den* street 66 feet, and on the rear of Mount Vernon street 43 feet. 
The foundation or substructure which is to support the basin, or reservoir, 
of water, rests on arches of immense strength, 14f feet span. The latere! 
basin walls which are to retain the water are 19 feet within the feces of 
the exterior walls on the streets. They are raised from the bottom of the 
reservoir or basin to the height of 15 feet and 8 inches, including 2fr inches 
of coping. The contents of the basin will be equal to 2,678,961 wine gal- 
lons, and it* mean horisental section equal to 28,014 squaw feet. The 
lias or level, at this reservoir, corraspondingto the maximum level of the 
water in the reservoir at Breofclme, which is about 123 feet above marsh 
level, or high-water-mark, will run about 7 inches on the coping, or 14 
feet and 7 inches above the bottom of the basin; and the minimum level 
of the Broekline reservoir will be 2} feet below this line. It must be ap- 
parent that whatever may be the height of water at Brodkline, it must, 
when flowing, be at a lower level on Beacon hHL The difference in the 
height of water in the two reservoirs win vary with the supply and dta- 



On the northerly side of the reservoir are two granite tablets, on which 
are cut; the following inscriptions^: -- 



B08TON WATER-WORK** 

begun aug: 1846. watbh introduced ocr : 1848 

JOSIAH QOTNCIT, JR., Mayo*. 

(NATHAN HALE, 
COMMISSIONERS, "2 JAMES F. BALDWIN, 
C THOMAS B. CURTIS. 



B08TON WATER-WORK*. 

THB RBSERVOIB COMPLETED NOV., 1849, 

JOHN P. B1GELOW, Mayo*. 

^^^^ r"W. 8. WHTTWELL, East Dnr. 
EN6INEERSXE. S. CHESBROUGH, West Div. 
< JOHN B. JERVIS, Consulting. 



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BOSTON WATERWORKS. 167 

The South Boston reservoir is situated on Telegraph Hill, the old " Dor- 
chester Heights." It is entered by a 20 inch pipe from the main in Tre- 
mont, through Dover street, over the South Free Bridge. The water is 
about 16 feet deep, of the same height as Beacon Hill reservoir, and it will 
contain 7,000,000 gallons. 

The water is conveyed from the Lake to the Brookline reservoir in an 
aqueduct, excepting 966 feet across the valley of Charles River, where 
are two parallel iron pipes of 90 inches in diameter. There are two tun- 
nels, one in Newton of 2,410} feet, and another in Brookline of 1,123} feet. 
The former passes through a hill 86 feet below the surface, at its highest 
elevation. Hie aqueduct is built principally of brick masonry, in an 
oval, egg shape, 6 feet 4 inches in height by 5 feet in width, and has a grad- 
ual fell for the whole distance, including the pipe section, of 3£ inches to 
the mile, nearly. With this fall, and a depth of 3 feet 10 inches of water, 
when, the conduit is two thirds full, it is estimated to convey 11,000,000 
gallons per day. From the Brookline reservoir it is conveyed to the city 
in two main 36 inch iron pipes. 

In May, 1851, the Cochituate Water Board purchased the property of 
the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Company (excepting a small lot of land) for 
the sum of ft 46,000. This transfer of property and interest was made by 
a corporate act of the latter to and confirmed by the individual transfer 
of shares held. This purchase was recommended by the Water Com- 
missioners in December, 1846, at a cost not exceeding ft 80,000. The re- 
ceipts of the Jamaica Pond Company have been of late years #38,000 per 
annum and the net revenue ft 22,000. 

The following shows the power by Which the "Cochituate Water 
Board " recently purchased the property and franchise of the Jamaica 
Pond Aqueduct Corporation : 

" The Cochituate Water Board shall have and exercise all the powers 
Tested in the City Council by an act of the Legislature of Massachusetts, 
passed on the thirtieth day of March in the year eighteen hundred and 
forty-six, entitled an act for supplying the city of Boston with pure wa- 
ter." — Ordinance of the city. 

The following is the section of the Act of the Legislature, referred to in 
the above ordinance. 

" The said city of Boston is hereby authorized to purchase and hold all 
the property, estates, rights, and privileges, of the Aqueduct Corporation, 
incorporated by an Act passed February 27th, in the year one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-five, and by any convenient mode may connect 
idie same with their other works. " 

In order to supply every portion of the city with the Cochituate water, 
pipes have been laid from the Fitchburg Railroad depot (Haverhill Street) 
to East Boston. This has been accomplished by placing pipes under the 
Warren Bridge leading to Charlestown, across Charles River, and under 



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158 BOSTON WATJBRWORK8. 

Chelsea bridge across Mystic River. Then led into other pipes leading 
through Charlestown and Chelsea, and thence to the reservoir at East Bos- 
ton. 

From the Annual Report of the Water Board, dated December 10, 1890, 
we learn that the receipts of the Water Department, for water rates, from 
January 4 to December 4, 1850 (eleven months), were 097,943.14; and 
from other sources, $7,171.90. And the number of water takers had in- 
creased to 13,463. During the same period the expenditures of the Water 
Board were $47,095. 

The total length of distribution pipe laid in that period, was as fol- 
lows : — 

In Boston proper, 260 feet. 

In South Boston, 1 mile, 1,702 feet. 

In East Boston (including main pipe from Haymar- 
ket Square), 12 miles, 1,146 feet 



Total, 13 miles, 3,108 feet. 

The total length laid from the commencement of the works, till Decem- 
ber, 1850, in all parts of the city, in Brookline, Rozbury, Charlestown, and 
Chelsea, was 96 milts, 4,301 feet ; excluding the service pipes, of which 
there were 15,143 in number. 

The entire cost of au the works, except the East Boston branch, has 
been, $4,106,166 

And the branch to East Boston, • 846,000 

Total cost, $4,451,166 

The number of fire hydrants now established Is, , 
In the City proper, . . 791 
" South Boston, ... 154 
East Boston, ... 35 



lnRoxbury, .... 6 
Charlestown, . . 11 



1 Chelsea, .... 8 
"Brookline, 

Total, 1,006 

The main pipe for the supply of East Boston is 20 inches in diameter, 
and commences at Haymarket Square. It crosses Charles River on the 
lower side of the Warren Bridge, partly on independent pile work, passing 
the draw by means of an inverted syphon which leaves sufficient space for 
the largest class of vessels that can pass this bridge. Thence it passes 
through the Square and Chelsea street in Charlestown, and thence across 
Mystic River, on independent pile work, by the upper side of Chelsea 
Bridge. In passing this stream, two inverted syphons were placed oppo- 
site the draws in Chelsea Bridge, one near the Charlestown shore, and the 
other near the Chelsea shore. The latter leaves a clear space of 50 feet, 
which is considerably more than the width of the draw opposite. The en- 
largement was made on account of the possibility of a larger class of ves- 

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BOSTON WATERWORKS. 159 

sels being built at Med ford than has been constructed there heretofore. 
The main then passes along the Salem Turnpike, and through Williams and 
Marginal streets in Chelsea, and about 400 feet beyond the grounds of the 
United States Marine Hospital it turns and crosses Chelsea Creek to the 
reservoir on Eagle Hill. The channel of this creek is passed by a flexible 
pipe, instead of a pile bridge and syphon near the East Boston Free Bridge, 
as it was originally contemplated. 

This change was made with the concurrence of the Water Committee, 
and it is believed will result in a saving of $ 30,000 in the first cost of the 
work, besides shortening the length of the main 1 1-5 miles, and conse- 
quently making a material increase in its capacity to discharge water into 
the East Boston Reservoir. This reservoir is 30 feet deep, and will hold 
when filled to a level 3 feet below its top, 5,591,816 wine gallons. 

To the main pipe there has been attached 11 fire hydrants in Charles- 
town, and 8 in Chelsea. These are to be used only on the occurrence of 
fires, and not for any other purposes. 

During the year two general examinations of the interior of the aqueduct 
have been made. On the upper portion of the line a great many small 
leaks into the aqueduct exist. Those have been there, with but little ex- 
ception, from the commencement, and it was impossible to keep them out 
at first, without very great expense, and serious delay in the completion of 
the work. As similar springs were known to exist in some portions of the 
Croton Aqueduct, without injuring the stability of that structure, it was 
believed that they would be equally harmless here ; and the result of our 
experience thus far confirms this belief. Occasionally a spring is known to 
bring in sand or other material, from the outside of the conduit. When- 
ever this occurs, it is deemed important to stop the spring ; but in no case, 
so far, has there been any difficulty ; and those places which at first caused 
some anxiety on this account, have ceased to do so. 

Several portions of the aqueduct were built on puddled embankments. 
Though a very economical mode of construction, it was looked upon as 
somewhat of an experiment. But the result shows that where these em- 
bankments were made of sand and gravel, the aqueduct has already come 
to a firm bearing, and has given very little trouble with regard to repairs. 
Where the aqueduct was built upon puddled clay the result has not been so 
satisfactory ; but even with these it has not been necessary to make any 
repairs during the year, except in one place ; and then the amount expend- 
ed was very small. 

The external structures along the line of the works are all in good order. 
The excessive rains of the past season have washed the embankments very 
little. Owing to the lateness of the season at which the Beacon Hill reser- 
voir was finished last year, it was not advisable to point the joints of the 
masonry then. This caused some leakage, which, though trifling in 
amount, gave an unsightly appearance to portions of the structure. 

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100 



HBW CITY JAIL. 




NEW CITY JAIIi. 

Ths expediency of erecting a new Jail has been considered in Boston by 
every City Council for the last twelve years ; and complaints have often 
been made against the city by different grand juries, for not providing bet- 
ter accommodations than are afforded by the Leverett Street Jail. Various 
projects, sites, and plans have been brought forward, but none was defi- 
nitely agreed upon until December, 1843, when the plan of the one now in 
the process of erection was adopted. 

This building is located on a street to be a continuation of Charles 
street northerly, between it and Grove street, on land reclaimed from the 
ocean, about 100 feet north of Cambridge street, between that street, and 
the Medical College and the General Hospital on the north, and about as 
far from Cambridge street as the New Eye and Ear Infirmary is south of 
it, so that all four of these public buildings are in the same part of the 
city. They will be seen on the whole length of Cambridge Bridge, in ap- 
proaching the city from the west. Coming in from Cambridge, the Eye 
and Ear Infirmary, a brick building, will appear on the right of the east- 
ern extremity of the bridge ; the new Jail on the left, a centre with wings 
of split granite, facing the west ; farther north the Medical College, a 
brick building, and farther north still, the noble building, the General Hos- 
pital, a centre with wings, facing the south, all of them open to the wa- 
ter, and to the pure air coming across it. 

The jail is " cruciform " in plan, consisting of a centre octagonal build- 
ing, having four wings radiating from the centre. The west wing will 
measure 55 feet in width, and 64 feet in length, and of uniform height with 
the three other wings ; it will be four stories in height, the lower one of 
which will contain the family kitchen and scullery of the jailer; the 



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IHMIMHnHBBBBSBBBBS9HB9BB9=BSaBB9aS==9=SSS-| 

nbw crrr jail. 161 

second story hare the jailor's office, officers' rooms, and jailor's family 
parlors ; the third story will be devoted entirely to the sleeping rooms of 
the jailor's family and officers, and the fourth story will be appropriated 
for the hospital and chapel. 

The centre octagonal building will measure 70 feet square, and 86 feet in 
height above the surface of the ground. It will be but two stories in 
height, the lower one of which will contain the great kitchen, scullery, 
bakery, and laundry, and will be on a uniform level with the lower story 
of cells in each of the three wings which contain the same. The upper 
story will be finished as one " great central guard and inspection room," 
reaching from the ceiling of the first story up to the roof of the building ; 
this room will measure 70 feet square, and will contain the galleries and 
staircases connecting with the galleries around the outside of the cells in 
the three wings. 

The north, south, and east wings, to contain the cells, are to be con- 
structed upon the " Auburn plan," being a prison within a prison ; the 
north and south wings will each measure 80 feet 6 inches in length, and 
55 feet in width, and 56 feet in height above the surface of the ground ; 
the block of cells within each of the north and south wings will measure 
63 feet 6 inches in length, 21 feet in width, and 54 feet in height, and will 
be divided into five stories ; each story will contain ten cells, each of 
which will measure 8 by 11 feet, and 10 feet high, thus giving to each of 
these two wings 50 cells. 

The east wing will measure 164 feet 6 inches in length, 55 feet m width, 
and 56 feet in height above the surface of the ground ; the block of cells 
within this wing will be 146 feet 6 inches long, 31 feet wide, and 54 feet 
high ; it will also be divided into five stories in height ; each story will 
contain 24 cells of uniform size with the cells of the northern and southern 
wings, before described, thus giving to this wing 120 cells. 

The spaces around the outside of each block of cells in each of the 
wings (between the cell walls and the exterior walls of the said wings), are 
to be " areas," which are to be open from the floor of the lower story of 
cells in each wing, to the ceiling of the upper story. Galleries of iron 
will extend! the entire length of each of these spaces, outside of the cells, 
on a level with each of the floors. These galleries will form a communi- 
cation with other galleries, which are to encircle the interior of the " cen- 
tre octagonal building," on the same uniform level with the other galleries. 
Each cell will contain a window and a door communicating immediately 
with the galleries of the areas. 

All the areas around the outside of the cells of the north, south, and 
east wings, receive light from the great windows of the exterior walls. 
These windows will be thirty in number, each measuring 10 feet in width, 
and 33 feet in height, beneath which other windows, 10 feet wide and 9 feet 
in height, will be placed, thus yielding an amount of light to the interior 






162 SVS 1MB BAB WnBMAKT. 

of the cells probably four times m greet m say prison yet constructed 
upon the Auburn system. The jail kitchen end guerd or Inspection room, 
of the centre octagonal building, will receive light from windows of uni- 
form size, and arranged in the same manner as thoss windows in the ex- 
terior walls of the wings. The guard or inspection room wiU receive ad- 
dittomd light from circular windows placed above the great windows, and 
from a skylight in lis ceiling. The various stories of the west wing will 
be lighted from windows arranged uniformly with those in the exterior 
walls of the wings. 

The exterior of the structure is entirely of Quincy granite, formed 
with split ashler in courses, with cornices, and other projecting portions 
hammered or dressed ; the remaining portions of the entire building, both 
inside and outside thereof, are of brick, iron, and stone, excepting the 
interior of the west wing, which are finished with wood. 

Designed by Louis Dwight and G. J. F. Bryant, Architect*. 

Builder*, Luther Munn, Joel Wheeler, Asa Swallow, Samuel Jepson, 
Charles W. Cummings, and Geo. W. Smith. 

Etimated Egpmm, 1*3,458 feet of land and filling up, 0165,646, or 
about 82 cents per foot; foundation and building, ft248>900; total cost 
1 409,645. 



ETS AND BAR INFIRMARY. 

This institution was established in 1824, and incorporated in 1827. It is 
intended exclusively for the poor, and no fees are permitted to be taken. 
The new building erected for its accommodation in 1849, .is situated on 
Charles street, a short distance southerly of Cambridge bridge. It con- 
sists of a main building 67 feet front by 44 feet deep, and 40 feet 4 in. high, 
and two wings 25 feet front and 34 feet high, one 62 feet deep, and the oth- 
er 63 feel. The front of the principal building ie embellished by stone 
dressings to afl the windows, doors, and cornices, in Italian style. The 
wings retire from the front 11 feet, and are perfectly plain. Li the base- 
ment are the kitchen, wash-room, laundry, refractory wards, baths, store- 
rooms, &c In the first story in the main building are rooms for the ma- 
tron and committee, and receiving and reading rooms ; in the wings are 
the male wards, with operating, apothecary, and bath rooms. In the sec- 
ond story are accommodations for the matron and private female wards. 
The building ie heated by two furnaces, and provided with a thorough sys- 
tem of ventilation, and the whole surrounded by a spacious, airy ground, 
shut out from the street by a high brick wall. Architect, Edw. a Cabot. 
Contractor, Jonathan Prestoo. Cost, land, • 26,000; building, about 
$29,000; total, ft 54,000. 

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NKW ATBMSMVU. 




THE HEW ATHKIVJEUM. 

Tn abore illustration is a view of the front elevation of the new build- 
ing erected for the Boston Athenaeum, on the southerly side of Beacon, 
between Bowdoin and Somerset streets. It is 114 feet in length; of ir- 
regular breadth, covering the entire space between the street and the Gran- 
ary Burying Ground ; and 60 feet in height. In the design of this building 
several objects were to be regarded : — 1st, a library of 40,000 volumes, 
with provision for increase ; 2d, suitable places for the exhibition of works 
of art; and third, a museum for miscellaneous collections; beside the 
usual offices for such a building. The want of unity of plan, together 
with the extremely irregular form of the lot and the slightly disproportion- 
ate height of the stories, made the design one of considerable difficulty, 
which was sought to be obviated in effect by presenting to the "eye a suc- 
cession of horizontal lines from the base upwards toward the cornice. 
The elevation is in the later Jtalian style of architecture, and resembles 
In the general arrangement some of the works of Falladio, though some of 
the details belong to a still later style. The material is of Patterson free 
stone, known here as "Little Fall gray rock, 1 ' the color of which is a 
light gray, slightly varying in different stones, and the texture considera- 



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164 NEW ATHBNAUM. 

My harder than the free stones in general use. The building is 10 feet 
back from the street, and the ground space in front is surrounded by a 
bronze lacquered iron balustrade, with stone coping. 

The basement story Is constructed of solid masonry, supporting the 
.first floor upon groined arches of brick ; a room is here fitted up for the 
use of the janitor and his family. Here also are a furnace with flues, con- 
ducting the heat to all parts of the building ; rooms for fuel, for binding 
and packing books, apparatus for hoisting to the upper story, &c. 

The entrance to the building is into the first story, by a doorway 14 
feet high by 10 feet broad. It opens on a vestibule, or main entry, 32 by i 
23 feet, which contains staircases ascending to the upper stories, and light- 
ed from the roof and large windows in front. From this vestibule, 
designed to be finished in beautiful style of architecture, doors open to 
all the rooms in the building. 




In the first story is a hall 80 feet in length, designed for the Sculpture 
Gallery, entered through the vestibule directly opposite the front door. It 
ia surrounded by a row of iron columns opposite each window pier, for 
supporting the floors above. Fitting into these columns above are still 
others supporting the third floor, thus making continuous supports to the 

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J 



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NBW ATHENJSUM. 165 

floors of each story, in addition to the walls. On the right of the vesti- 
bule are two apartments, designed for reading rooms, one in the front for 
newspapers, the other in the rear for other periodicals. On the left of the 
vestibule is the Trustees' room. All these apartments are as yet unfin- 
ished, but are intended to be in appropriate ornamental style. 

The second story is appropriated to the library. The main hall extends 
the entire length of the rear of the building, and is surrounded by an iron 
gallery, accessible by iron spiral staircases. It is divided by an archway, 
one copartment displaying the books in cases lining the walls, the other in 
alcoves between the pillars. It is highly finished, in Italian style, with 
decorated ceiling. For advantages of light, air, retirement, and an open 
southern aspect, this hall can hardly be surpassed. It contains over 
40,000 volumes. The foregoing is an interior view of this room. 

In front of this hall are two rooms ; one on the right designed for the li- 
brarian's room, the other on the left for miscellaneous collections, both to 
be finished like the library, with iron galleries and spiral iron staircases. 
They are capable of containing 30,000 volumes. 

The third story is designed for pictures, and is divided into four apart- 
ments. The side walls are but 13 feet high, so that no picture can be 
placed too high to be seen distinctly. The light is admitted to each 
apartment by a skylight, and transmitted through a horizontal ground 
glass window. 

The building is to be heated by a cast-iron steam furnace, requiring but 
one fire, and the hot air distributed and the various apartments ventilated 
by means of flues within the centre walls. The Cochituate water is car- 
ried throughout the building, which is furnished with water closets, and 
other conveniences connected therewith. Gas is also distributed through- 
out, and so arranged as to be applicable to the exhibition of works of art, 
as well as to ordinary purposes. 

In the year 1848 the corporation purchased the library of General Wash- 
ington, at a cost of upwards of 1 4,000. This sum was contributed by 
about one hundred gentlemen of Boston, Salem, and Cambridge ; seventy 
of whom subscribed fifty dollars each for this object. In the year 1846. 
the Athenaeum realized the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, the gift 
of the late John Bromfield, "three fourths of its annual income to be 
invested in the purchase of books, and the remainder to be added to the cap- 
ital." Mr. James Perkins gave for the use of the institution, in 1821, his 
own costly mansion in Pearl Street, which was occupied for library pur- 
poses until June, 1849, and which was sold in February, 1860, for the sum of 
1 45,000. Mr. Thomas H. Perkins and Mr James Perkins, Jr. , in 1826 gave 
|8,000 each for the then library; and $36,000 was afterwards subscribed 

J by various citizens through the efforts and influence of Messrs. N. Bow- 
ditch. F. C. Gray, Geo. Ticknor, and Thomas W. Ward. The total Cost 
has been, for land | 55,000 ; and for the building $ 136,000. 



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166 



THB NEW CUSTOM H0U8B. 




THE NEW CUSTOM HOUSES. 

Situated at the head of the dock between Long and Central Wharves, 
fronts east on the dock, west on India street, and is in the form of a Greek 
Cross, the opposite sides and ends being alike. It is 140 feet long north 
and south, 76 feet wide at the ends, and 95 feet through the centre, (the 
porticos 67 feet long projecting 10 feet on each side,) and is from the side 
walk to the top of the entrance story floor 10 feet, 4 inches, to the top of 
principal story floor 26 feet 4 inches, to the eaves 52 feet, to the ridge 68 
feet 6 inches, and 95 feet to the top of the skylight of the dome. 

It is built on about 3,000 piles, fully secured against decay ; the con- 
struction throughout is fire proof and of the very best kind. 

The exterior of the building is purely Grecian Doric, not a copy, but 
adapted to the exigencies and peculiarities of the structure, and consists 
of a portico of 6 columns on each side, on a high flight of steps, and an 
order of engaged columns around the walls, 20 in number, on a high 
stylobate or basement ; the order of engaged columns terminating with 4 
ante at their intersection with the porticos. The columns are 5 feet 4 
inches in diameter and 32 feet high, the shaft being in one piece, each 
weighing about 42 tons. 

The roof of the building is covered with wrought granite tile, and the 
intersection of the cross is surmounted by a dome terminating in a sky- 
light 25 feet in diameter. The dome is also covered with granite tile. 

The cellar, which is 10 feet 6 inches high to the crown of the arches, is 
principally used for the storage of goods, which are conveyed to it through 
the basement story. The steam apparatus for warming the whole buildr 



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THS KWW CUSTOM HOVSB. 1<7 

ing (Which it does effectually) is situated in the cellar, having easy access 
to the coal vaults under the sidewalk outside of the building. 

The principal entrances to the basement story are at each end. They 
are for the receipt of goods for storage. Near the northwest comer, on 
the west side, is an entrance to the Night Inspectors' apartments, also to 
the private staircase leading to the Collector's room and the attic. South 
of the west portico is the entrance to the heating-apparatus room, and on 
the south end is the entrance to the Custom House Truckmen's room. 
This story contains rooms for the Night Inspectors, Custom House Truck- 
men, and Engineer of the Heating Apparatus, also three sets of Water 
Closets : the remainder is used for the storage of goods, weigher's tubs, 
*c. 

The principal ingress to the entrance story, is through the porticos, but 
it can be entered from the Collector's private staircase, and fiom two oth- 
er private staircases from the basement. This story contains apartments 
and offices for the Assistant Treasurer, the Weighers and Gangers, the 
Measurers, Inspectors, Markers, Superintendent of Building, &c. In the 
centre is a large vestibule, from which two broad flights of steps lead to 
the principal story, landing in two smaller vestibules therein, lighted by 
skylights in the roof, and these vestibules communicate with all the apart- 
ments in this story. The several rooms are for the Collector, Assistant 
Collector, Naval Officer, Surveyor, Public Store Keeper, their Deputies 
and Clerks ; and for the facilities of doing business this arrangement is not 
surpassed. The grand, cross-shaped Rotunda, for the general business of 
the Collector's department, in the centre of this story, is finished in the 
Grecian Corinthian order ; it is 63 feet in its greatest length, 69 feet wide, 
and 62 feet high to the skylight. 

The dominical ceiling is supported on 12 columns of marble, 3 feet in 
diameter and 29 feet high, with highly wrought capitals ; the ceiling is or- 
namented in a neat and chaste manner, and the skylight is filled with 
stained glass. 

The building was commenced in 1837, and entirely completed in 1849; 
it has cost about $ 1,076,000, including the site, foundations, «fcc. It was 
designed by A. B. Young, A. M., Architect, and erected under his imme- 
diate supervision throughout. The execution of the whole was under the 
general direction of a Board of Commmissioners, appointed by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury of the United States. This Board consisted of Sam- 
uel S. Lewis, Esq., as chairman, Robert G. Shaw, Esq., disbursing agent 
and commissioner, and the Collector of the ports of Boston and Charles- 
town for the time being. Jonathan P. Robinson was Clerk to the Board 
of Commissioners. In one of the panels of the Rotunda is inserted a 
Tablet of marble, containing the following inscription : — 

" Boston Custom House Building. Authorized by the 23d Congress, 
A. D. 1835. Andrew Jackson, President U. S. A. ; Levi Woodbury, Sec'y 



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■— ^— ■— — — — ssssBsssaam w^— — — — *— 

VBQ TOM MKW C0VBT BOOTH. 

of the Tiee»ury.~Oi>ei>ed August 1st, AD. 1847. James K. Folk, Pres- 
ident U. S. A ; Robert J. Walker, Sec'y of the Treasury ; Marcus Mor- 
ton, Collector of the Port; Samuel S. Lewie, Robert G. Shaw, Commis- 
sioners i Ammi Bumham Young, Architect." 



NEW CLUB HOUSE, 

Th« new Club House, situated on the northerly aide of West street, ie 
worthy of notice among the improvements of the city. It ie 38 feet it 
front, 80 feet deep, and 62 feet high. The front eleration ie built of Con- 
necticut freestone in Italian style, and combines great architectural beau- 
ty. The first story is occupied by two stores, and a central passage to the 
second story, in which is a lobby, reading room, and three padors. In the 
third story is a hall 35 by 63 feet, and 22 feet high. 

Erected by an association of gentlemen. Architect, H. Billings. Build- 
er$, Masons, Messrs. Wheeler and Drake ; Carpenter, Chas. Dupee; Esti- 
mated cost of land and building, #45,000. 



BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

Tens institution has recently purchased the estate in Mason street, 
formerly occupied by the Massachusetts Medical College, and remodelled 
the building to adapt it to its present purposes. It contains 9 rooms, one 
of which is occupied by the librarian, and each cf the others by objects 
of interest in the different departments of natural history. The whole 
estate cost about | 30,000, which was obtained by subscription from the 
liberal citizens of Boston. All who desire k hare free access to the cabi- 
net erery Wednesday, and strangers in the city, who cannot conrenient- 
ly risit it on that day, can obtain admission at any time by application to 
an officer of the Society. Fire routines of the Boston Journal of Natural 
History, and three of the Proceedings of the Society at its Monthly Meet- 
ings, hare been published, containing contributions from our most distin- 
guished naturalists, illustrated by engrarings. 



THE NEW COURT HOUSE, ERECTED 1833-1835. 

Tub comer-stone of this building for the accommodation of the Courts 
of Iaw of Boston was laid on the 29th of September, 1883, Theodore Ly- 
man being then M*ror of the city. The original cost of the undertaking 

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THJI NSW OODBT MOUSB. 109 

TO about $179,000, but a further ram of $17,000 to appropriated in 
1830 for the purchase of land for the formation of a street -and p assag e s 
around the building, making the total cost of the ground and edifice 
about $200,000. A portion of the land, however, on which the structure 
stands was formerly the site of the old Jail and belonged to the County, 
and its value is not included in the above estimate. The building is sit- 
uated in the centre of Court square, between Court and School street*, 
and is surrounded by a flagged pavement which extends southerly along 
the spacious area between it and the City Hall. The form of the edifice 
is that of a parallelogram, extending in length 176 feet by 64 feet in 
breadth. The altitude is 67 feet to the cornice, consisting of a basement 
and three stories : the first story above the basement being 12 feet, the 
second 20, and the third 18 feet in height. The material composing the 
building is of cut or hewn granite from the Quincy quarry, and at each 
front or extremity is a handsome portico of the Doric model, supported by 
four columns of fluted granite each twenty-seven feet in height and four 
and a half feet in diameter. These pillars are in the solid mass, and weigh 
about 25 tons each. The northern end or front of the building is parallel 
with Court street, but retired on a platform off the thoroughfare a few 
yards, while the southern front faces the rear of the City Hall or old Court 
House, and is approached from School street through the latter building 
and by avenues on either side of it. The main body of the new Court 
House is simple and unadorned, but the massive symmetry and superior 
design of the front entrances, tend somewhat to relieve the general plain- 
ness of its architecture. The interior is plain and substantial, without 
presenting much novelty of plan in its construction. An entrance hsU, 
commun i cating with the southern portico and opening upon side doors, 
traverses nearly the full length of the building : and staircases ascendinf 
to the right and left of the two porticos lead directly to the galleries ot 
the principal Court rooms ; while the centre and side flights conduct to the 
various apartments in the several stories. The first floor contains rooms ft* 
the Police Court and Justices Court, the United States Marshal's 
room, and the Offices of the Clerks of the Supreme Court, Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and Police Court. The second story contains the room* ol 
the United States and the Supreme Judicial Courts, as also the Law Libra- 
ry, the rooms for the Judges of the United States and Supreme Courts, 
and the Clerk's office of the United States Court. The upper or third sto- 
ry includes the Common Pleas and Municipal Court rooms and ths rooms 
of the Judges of those Courts, the Jury rooms of the several Courts, the 
Clerk's office and the witness rooms of the Municipal Court, and the Grand 
Jury room. The Court rooms are spacious, and comfortably furnished, 
measuring 50 feet by 40, and contain ample accommodation fop the Bar 
and ordinary attendance. Some triflin? disadvantages might )<e appre- 
hended to result from the location of the Court of Common Pieas. t he 

«««l«WM^IOTMMM«niMII<«MnMMMHBlWaWl 

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17& «■ mnr count soots. 

general resort of litigants, in the upper story, but the arrangement of the 
rooms for the most part is satisfactory, and the offices for the respective 
apartments are as large and commodkraa as could be desired. The United 
States pay to the city for the use of their apartments in the building the 
annual rent of #3,000. The Court room allotted to them is the same 
from which the slave Shadrach was a short time since rescued. The 
United States Circuit Court before Judge Woodbury is held in this apart- 
ment on the 15th of May and October in each year, and the District 
Court before Judge Sprague on the 3d Tuesday in March, the 4th Tuesday 
in June, the 2d Tuesday in September, and 1st Tuesday in December, and 
specially at the discretion of the Judge. The Supreme Judicial Court sils 
at the South end of the building, for the hearing of legal arguments on the 
first Tuesday of March, and the term for the trial of Jury causes commen- 
ces on ths 7th Tuesday next after the 4th Tuesday of September. The 
Common Pleas Court for the County of Suffolk are held in the Court room 
in the 3d story on the 1st Tuesday of January, April, July, and October, 
and the Municipal Court, of which the Justices of the Common Pleas are 
ex officio Judges, is held in the room appropriated for that purpose on the 
1st Monday of every month. The Police Court is busied every day in the 
trial of criminal offenders, and also sits every Wednesday and Saturday as 
a Justice's Court for determining civil causes under $20. The Social Law 
Library room on the 2d floor is a comfortable and well-lighted apartment, 
and contains a good selection of Juridical Text-books, including writers 
in general law, and the English and American Reports. The society was 
first organized in the year 1804. At a later date, 1814, an act of incorpo- 
ration was obtained which granted to the proprietors for the purpose of en- 
larging the collection all sums of money which should be paid by way of 
tax or excise by persons admitted to practice as Attorneys of the Boston 
Court of Common Pleas. For many years the Library, being but small, 
was kept in the office of a Member of the Bar who acted as Librarian, and 
subsequently it occupied a closet adjoining a large room in the old Court 
House then used for meetings of the Grand Jury. At a later period the 
whole room was devoted to the Library, to which when the present Court 
House was built a spacious apartment was appropriated, in which it has 
since been kept. A catalogue of the Library was printed in 1824. At that 
time the number of volumes was 1,473, in 1849 it had increased to 4,077, 
and in May, 1851, embraces about 4,200 volumes. A large number of. the 
books, including some of the most valuable, were presented by the Hon. 
Charles Jackson ; but the Library is also indebted for donations to other gen- 
tlemen. The names of the donors are given under the titles of the works 
presented by them. The advantages of the Library are not confined to 
the Bar of Suffolk, but it is constantly and freely used by gentlemen of 
the profession from all the other counties in the State, by the Judges of 
the Courts, Members of the legislature and Judges and Jurists from all 



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THB N«W COURT HOTTS*. 



171 



OF THB NEW COURT HOUSE, 
COURT SQUARE. 




ERECTED 1833-1835. 



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172 NEW ALMSHOUSE ON DBKR ISLAND. 



parts of the United States. The by-laws provide for the admission of 
new members on payment of $ 25 a share and $5 annual assessment, and 
admit also subMribers on payment of an. annual sum of $£, But the 
members of the Bar of other Counties (except those who usually prac- 
tice at the Suffolk Bar) hare the privilege of consulting the books of the 
Library at all times without expense. Each member is allowed to take 
from the Library one book at a time for a term not exceeding 24 hours, but 
no volumes are allowed to issue during the law term of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court when the mil bench is in session. The Librarian is appointed 
by the President and Trustees who have the general management of the 
affairs of the society and direct in the purchase of books, &c Mr. 
Boyle is at present the Librarian. 



NEW ALMSHOUSE ON DEER ISLAND. 

Thb form of this structure is that of a " Latin Cross," having its four 
wings radiating at right angles from a " central building." The central 
building is four stories high ; the lower story (on a uniform level with the 
cellars or workrooms of the north, east, and west wings) Contains the 
bathing-rooms, cleansing-rooms, furnace, and fuel-rooms ; the two next sto- 
ries contain the general guard-room, to be used also as a work-room ; the 
next story is the chapel ; and the upper story is the hospital. The south 
wing is four stories high ; the lower one contains the fiunily kitchens and 
entry of the superintendent's family; the second is appropriated for the 
family parlors of the superintendent, and a room for the use of the direct- 
ors, together with the entrances and staircases, and the opening or carriage 
way, for receiving the paupers. The staircases communicating with the 
guard-room, and with the cleansing-rooms in the lower story of the central 
building, are also located in this story. The two remaining stories will 
be used for the family sleeping-rooms, superintendent's office, officers' 
rooms, and bathing-rooms,— together with the entries, passages, closets, 
and staircases. Each of the north, east, and west wings is three stories 
high, with basements and attics over the whole surface of each wing. 
The basements are for work-rooms. The remaining stories, including the 
attics, contain the wards, hospitals, and day-rooms for the inmates, to- 
gether with the sleeping and inspection rooms for the nurses and attend- 
ants. 

There are eight circular towers attached to the exterior walls of the 
north, east, and west wings ; they contain the water-closets requisite for 
the inmates of the building; two of them contain, staircases. The water- 
closets are placed on the level of every story, and entered immediately 
from the floors thereof, and are disconnected from the main building by a 

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NEW ALMSHOUSE ON DKER ISLAND. 173 

column of air pawing through upright openings, in the exterior walls of 
the towers, opposite to each other, and placed near the walls of the build- 
ing. • 




The dimensions of the building are as follows, in round numbers : Tho 
centre building is 75 feet square and 75 feet high, each perpendicular cor-; 
ner being subtended by the section of a circle. The superintendent'^ 



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174 



WW ALMSHOUSE ON DESK ISLAND. 




house, if the building laces the west, makes the west side of the centre 
building , except the circular corners, and is thrown out by these corners 
60 feet by 60 on the ground, and 60 feet high ; so that it stands almost as 
much separated from the main building as if it were entirely disconnected 
with it, and is still near enough for the convenience of the superintendent. 
The north wing, intended particularly for women, is 100 feet by 60, and 
60 feet high, i. e. twice as large as the superintendent's house. The south 
wing, intended particularly for men, is 100 feet by 60, and 50 feet high, 
the same dimensions as the north wing ; and both these wings are separ- 
ated from the superintendent's house, and thrown out from the centre 
SWBJg^ M ,..umjL ■.■uj.iiuL.ai.JS.isu.su mi i II 



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NBW ALM8H0USB ON DBER ISLAND. 175 

building, like the superintendent's house, by the semi-circular corners, for 
purposes of better supervision and ventilation. The east wing, intended 
for the accommodation of different classes, and for different purposes, in 
the different stories, is 200 feet by 60, and 60 feet high, »'. e. twice the di- 
mensions of the north and south wings, and four times the dimensions of 
the superintendent's house. The north, east, and west wings have three 
stories, each 12 feet high, above the basement and beneath the attic. The 
auic is 9} feet high, and the basement 81 feet high. The south wing is four 
finished stories high, and the floors of these stories are uniform with those 
of the three other wings. The circular-towers attached to the exterior wall of 
the north, east, and west wings, are each 65 feet high and 13 feet in diameter. 

The proportions of the building are arithmetical : — the centre building 
is a cube 75 feet, with the corners subtended ; the superintendent's house 
is a cube of 60 feet; the north wing is two cubes of 60 feet each; the 
south wing is two cubes of 60 feet each; and the east wing four cubes of 
60 feet each. 

The paupers, as they arrive, are received at a central point, under the eye 
of the superintendent, in his office, as they approach ; thoroughly cleaned, 
if necessary, in the basement central apartments for cleansing; and distrib- 
uted, when prepared for distribution, to those parts of the building as- 
signed to the causes to which they belong. 

There is a chapel, with a gallery, occupying 76 by 75 feet, on the third 
floor of the central building, equal in height to two stories. The floor of 
the chapel is on a level with the attic floors of the wings. It is well light- 
ed, in a central position, of convenient access from all parts of the estab- 
lishment, and is commodious enough for those who are able to attend re- 
ligious worship, out of even a larger population than 1,200. 

Large folding-doors, or traveraing-doons, are an original feature of this 
plan, and answer, by being opened wide, and by turning, in different di- 
rections, important ends, in making rooms for particular purposes, when 
they are wanted ; and when such rooms are not wanted, in being opened 
wide, or turned back, so as to leave the supervision unobstructed, and 
change the circulation of the air throughout the establishment. 

It is not absolutely a fire-proof building, but the roof is slated ; the floors 
are double, and laid with mortar between them : the ceilings under the 
floors and over the rooms consist of joists, and the botttom of the lower 
side of the double floors; the walls are brick, built hollow, and without 
lath and plaster on the inside, or coverings of any kind on the outside : 
the windows are wooden sashes, but they are set in a thick double brick 
wall, and may each of them burn without burning another. All the wings 
are separated from the centre building by thick brick walls, covered and 
secured, in all their openings, with iron doors and shutters, and rising above 
the rooft of the wings, so as to make a barracade against fire, behind which 
the inmates of a wing on fire may retreat, and firemen may be protected. 



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PRINCIPLBS OB8BRVBD IN THB PLANS. 177 

PRINCIPLES OBSERVED IN THE PLANS. 
In all the plana of these bufldings there are certain great principle! ob- 
serred, among which are the following : — 

1. Sixe. The site of these buildings allows from 600 to 1,000 cubic 
feet of space to each indiridual ; besides their proportion of space in the 
eatfor rooms, school-rooms, hospital, and chapel 

2. Pr+portions. The proportions are arithmetic and harmonic, a cube 
being their germ. 

a Concentration. These buildings are all in the form of a cross, bar- 
ing four wings, united to a central octagonal building; one for the super- 
intendent and his tally, and three of them for Inmates ; the kitchen be- 
ing in the centre, in the 1st story of the octagon; the superrisor's room 
orer the kitchen; the chapel orer the superrisor's room ; and the hospital 
orer the chapel. 

4. Extension. The parts all radiating from a common centre, can be 
extended without disturbing the central arrangements and architectural 
design. 

6. Co n ven i e n ce. The keeper's or superintendent's office, eating-room, 
and sleeping-room are all in proximity to the great central octagonal 
building; so that the keeper has eyelets and ready access to the kitchen, 
superrisor's room, chapel, and hospital, and all the wings ; and he can go 
through the establishment without going out of doors. The Inmates re- 
ceire their food from a large central kitchen ; the wings are all under su- 
perrieion from one central superrisor's room. The inmates assemble in 
the chapel and hospital from all the wings without exposure, and without 
leering the house. 

6. Ctassijlsatitn. The men and women, the old and young, the skk 
and well, can all be separated, in different wings, and different stories of 
the building ; and all these classes can be kept distinct by placing them In 
different wings, by the power of central obserration and control. 

7. Supervision, etutsiae and inside. All the areas, apartments, win- 
dows, walls, galleries, staircases, fastenings, external yards, and external 
yard walls, except the space outside at the ends of the wings, are under su* 
perrieion from the centre. One man can do more, in these buildings, In 
consequence of the facilities for superrision, than many men can do in 
some of the old establishments, containing an equal number of Inmates. 

8. Security against Escape. In Prisons and Houses of Refuge, where 
security against escape Is of great importance, the construction Is such, 
that, if an inmate breaks out, he breaks In ; —that la, if he escapes from 
his dormitory into the area, he has still another wall or grating to break, 
while at the same time he Is in sight from the superrisor's room. There 
Is, therefore, rery little encouragement to try to escape from the dormito- 
ries. And if the inmates are in the yards, gardens, or grounds around, 



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178 PRINCIPLE* OBSERVED IM THE FLAME. 

the supervision extends outside so easily and perfectly, that it affords 
great security against escape. 

9. Security againttfire. Although buildings according *o these plans 
are not wholly fire proof, still, the cell floors being stone or iron, the walls 
brick or stone, the galleries and staircases iron, the doors and gratings iron, 
the roof slate, and the gutters copper, much of the material is incombusti- 
ble. Besides, the separate rooms or dormitories are literally fire proof; 
and the remaining parts are extensively exposed to constant observation ; 
so that a fire, in its first beginning, is easily discovered and extingaiehed. 

10. Warming by steam, hot water, or warm air. The constroetion 
of these buildings is favorable to either mode of warming. If by steam, 
the steam may be generated in the centre building, and distributed in one- 
inch wrought iron pipes, under the windows, in four rows of pipes, one 
above the other on the upright wall, three inches apart, to be inclosed in 
a box eighteen inches square, made by the floor for the bottom, the outer 
wall for the back, a board cover for the top, and an upright board for the 
front ; the pure air to be received through orifices in the outer wall, and 
the warm air to be passed into the area, through orifices in the front of 
the box. If the heating is to be done by hot water, substitute a cast-iron 
pipe, 6 inches in diameter, near the floor, and near the wall, under the 
windows, within a box, similarly constructed to the box around the steam- 
pipes. 

If the heating is to be done by warm air, place in the centre building, 
and in the areas, the Boston School Stove, or, which are on the same prin- 
ciples, Chilson's furnaces, or any other heating apparatus which is, at the 
same time, a ventilating apparatus. 

11. Lighting. Gas light in the areas will light all the dormitories, and 
wherever distributed, will be easily supervised and controlled from the 
centre building. 

12. Sunlight. Care is taken in these buildings, to have a large surface 
exposed to the morning, noonday, and afternoon sun. This can be done 
with the large windows in the outer wall, but it cannot be done with a 
small window in each small dormitory or cell. Much more sunlight can 
be brought to shed its healthful and cheering influence, over the inmates 
of these buildings, than if the windows in the external wall were as small 
as they must be, if the rooms within were made of a small size and placed 
on the external wall. 

13. Artificial Ventilation. Each small room, dormitory, or cell is pro- 
vided with a ventilator, starting from the floor of the same, in the centre 
wall, and conducted, separate from every other, to the top of the block, 
where it is connected with a ventiduct, and either acted upon by heat or 
Emerson's ventilating cap. Both at the top and bottom of the room there 
is a slide, or register, over orifices, opening into this ventilator, which are 
capable of being opened or shut. These ventilators are intended to take 



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PRINCIPLES OBSERVED IN THB PLANS. 179 

off impure and light air. la the external wall are provided orifices, pitch- 
ing outward and downward, to take off carbonic acid gas, which may be 
fatal to life, if allowed to accumulate in the lowest part of the building. 
The large rooms are provided with such orifices, by carrying every third 
or forth window to a level with the floor. These means are used to take 
off the impure and light air, and the heavier and more fatal gases. To 
supply pure air, all the heating is made by ventilating apparatus. 

14. Natural Ventilation. Through the large windows, when opened, 
the air can have free course with ail the varying winds, throughout the 
building, from north to south, from east to west, from south to north, 
and from west to east, and obliquely in every direction, according to the 
direction of the wind, through the octagonal centre building. 

15. WaUr/or cleansing and bathing. For cleansing, water is let on 
in every room, and furnished liberally in every story : and in different 
parts of the building large means are provided for bathing. Nothing is 
more indispensable in the plans of such buildings, than convenient and 
liberal supplies of pure water for cleansing and bathing. 

16. Employment. Large provision is made, in all these buildings, of 
floors and space for employment, under cover, with good and sufficient 
light, convenience, and supervision. In many old buildings there has not 
been employment, because there was no place suitable for it. This diffi- 
culty has received great consideration, and every effort has been made 
entirely to remove it, so that all the inmates of these buildings should be 
kept out of idleness, which is the mother of mischief. Labor is favorable 
to order, discipline, instruction, reformation, health, and self-support. 
But there can be but little productive industry without a place for it. 
Suitable places have been provided in all these buildings, whether prisons, 
almshouses, or houses of refuge, for employment. 

17. Instruction. School-rooms, privilege-rooms, chapels, more pri- 
vate rooms and places, comfortably large single rooms, are provided, in 
which all kinds of good instruction can be given. 

18. Humanity. The humanity of these buildings is seen in there be- 
ing sufficient space, large light, abundant ventilation, and airing in sum- 
mer, good places of labor and instruction, and good hospital accommodation 
for the sick. 

19. Care of the sick. The hospital is large, light, convenient, easily 
accessible, well warmed and well ventilated, so that if suitable care is not 
given to the sick it will not be because there is no place for it, no suitable 
hospital accommodations. 

20. Notifying in sickness. The separate rooms are so located and dis- 
tributed, under supervision, from the centre building, that a gentle knock 
on the inner side of the door of each separate lodging-room will be heard 
by the person on duty in the central room for supervision and care ; and 
thus relief can be immediately secured ; or, in case of a fit, or sudden and 



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MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL. 



violent attack, without consciousness, the sick person wiJl in aU probabili- 
ty be heard, from any separate dormitory in either wing, by the person on 
duty in the supervisor's room in the centre building. 

21. Level Floors. It is designed to have no stumbling place, in either 
building. But on the contrary, that the officers and inmates may walk 
over any part of the whole, by day or by night, on level floors. The stairs 
are the only places where it is impossible to make level floors. 

22. Economy. Great economy is used in these structures, in the finish, 
which is perfectly simple, unadorned, and substantial ; affording no harbor 
for vermin, no place of concealment for fire, and yet durable and decent. 

We have thus endeavored to give an outline of the principles which en- 
ter into these structures, of their adaptation to the purposes for which they 
are erected, and of the importance of carrying out the designs according to 
the plans. 



MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL. 




This is one of the most noble institutions in the world. Its design was 
to afford the most relief to invalids, and as far as possible to reach the ne- 
cessities of every class of persons, the benefits of it to be administered to 
all who stand in need, at as low a rate as possible. There are two buildings 
under the control of the Corporation. 1st. The General Hospital in Bos- 
ton, as above delineated, and 2. The McLean Asylum for the Insane, loca- 
ted in the town of Somerville. 



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MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL H08PITAL. 181 

The Massachusetts General Hospital was incorporated February 25. 
1811 : and entitled to an annual income not exceeding thirty thousand dol- 
lars, for the support and maintenance of a general hospital for sick and 
insane persons. The act granted to the hospital a fee simple in the estate 
of the old Province-House, on the condition that $ 100,000 should be raised 
by subscription within ten years. Large donations for this purpose were 
made by 1047 persons in the year 1816, at which time the trustees pur- 
chased the lot on which the McLean -Asylum was built, then in Charles- 
town. 

The Hospital building had a front of 168 feet, and a depth of 54 feet, with a 
portico of eight Ionic columns, but was extensively enlarged in 1846. 

It was built of Chelmsford granite, the columns of their capitals being of 
the same material In the centre of the two principal stories are the 
rooms of the officers of the institution. Above these is the Operating 
Theatre, which is lighted from the dome. The wings of the building are 
divided into wards and sick rooms. The staircase and floorings of the en- 
tries are of stone. The whole house is supplied with heat by air flues 
from furnaces, and with water by pipes and a forcing pump. The beauti- 
ful hills which surround Boston are seen from every part of the building, 
and the grounds on the southwest are washed by the waters of the 
bay. 

The premises have been improved by the planting of ornamental trees 
and shrubs, and the extension of the gravel walks for those patients whose 
health will admit of exercise in the open air. 

By the Act of June 12, 1817, it was provided that the stone to be furnish- 
ed for the building should be hammered and fitted for use by the convicts 
of the State Prison. By the act of February 24, 1818, establishing the 
Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, it was provided that the 
corporation should pay to the trustees of the General Hospital, for the use 
of the Hospital, the third part of its net profits. By the act of April 1, 
1836, establishing the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company, it 
was provided that one third of its net profits should be paid annually to 
the Hospital fund. A similar provision was adopted in the charter of the 
State Mutual Life Assurance Company at Worcester, in March, 1844. 

By the last Annual Report of the Trustees of the General Hospital (Jan- 
uary 22, 1851), it seems that its capital now yielding an income to the in- 
stitution is $ 171,119. And that the income for the year 1850 was $38,- 
517, viz. : From property of all kinds $ 16,917 ; Extra dividend of the 
Hospital Life Insurance Company $ 18,000 ; Subscriptions for free beds 
$ 2,100 ; and Surplus from the McLean Asylum $ 1,500. 

The expenses for the year were $ 29,024, viz. : For stores * 10,574 ; Wa- 
ges « 7,801; Fuel $2,845; Medicine $2,355; Furniture $1,523; Re- 
pairs $1,463, Salaries $1,850; Miscellaneous $523. The admissions to 
the hospital in 1850 were 746, viz. : — 
(BHBaBHMEHaBBBBB i BaBiBBBBBBSaEBaBBB i 



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182 MASSACHUSETTS GKNBRAL HOSPITAL. 

Malts. F« males. Total. 

Patient* pay log board 201 41 242 

" paying part of the time ... 68 19 77 
" entirely free 183 244 427 

442 304 746 

Of these, 209 paid #3; 32 paid $6; 14 paid $4; and 4 paid $10 per 
week. Total, 319. 

Proportion of deaths to the whole number of results, one in ten. 

Greatest number of patients at any visit in private rooms, 7 ; greatest 
number of paying patients, 33 ; of free patients, 103 ; greatest total, 136 : 
least number in private rooms, 2 ; least paying, 15 ; free, 68 : least total, 83. 

Number of accidents admitted during the year, 98. 

Average number of patients, 106. Males, 59; females, 49. 

Average number of paying patients, 11 American and 11 Foreign; to- 
tal, 22. 

Greatest number of paying patients, 16 American and 17 Foreign ; least 
number of paying patients, 8 American and 7 Foreign. 

Total males, 442. Of this number, 47 were in private rooms. 

Total females, 304. Of these, 5 were in private rooms. A little over 
one third of the free patients were female domestics ; one sixth were male 
laborers, most of them foreigners. 

Average time of ward-paying patients is two weeks and six days ; and 
of free patients, six weeks. 

Proportion of ward beds occupied by free patients, a fraction lees than 
three to one. 

The whole amount of board charged to all the patients, during the year, 
was $ 17,186.49. Of this sum there was charged to the Trustees, for the 
board of free patients, • 12,960.22; and the balance, #4,226.27, has been 
received from paying patients. 

If the gross amount of the annual expenses be divided by the average 
number of patients, it will give 1 4.90 for the weekly expease of each pa- 
tient. 

" The expenses of the Hospital for the year 1850 have been $ 29,024. Of 
this sum, only $4,226.27 has been received from paying patients, leaving 
a balance of nearly $ 26,000 to be drawn from the treasury of the Institu- 
tion. When it is considered that the income of our present capital fund 
must fall short of this demand, even under the most favorable circumstan- 
ces, to the extent of nearly $ 10,000, it will be readily yielded that we 
must continue year by year to depend upon the benevolent charity of the 
friends of our Institution for its progress and support." 

The Board of Trustees annually appoint two practitioners in Physic and 
two in Surgery, who constitute a board of Consultation. At the same 
time, they appoint six physicians, six surgeons, an admitting physician, 



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MCLEAN ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. 183 

and a superintendent of the Hospital. Applications for admission of pa- 
tients must be made at the Hospital in Allen Street, between 9 and 10 A. 
M., on each day of the week except Sunday. In urgent cases, however, 
application may be made at other times. Applications from the country 
may be made in writing, addressed to the admitting physician, and when 
a free bed it desired, a statement of the pecuniary circumstances of the 
patient must be made. During alternate terras of four months in each 
year, two physicians and two surgeons have the care of the patients. No 
visitors are admitted to the Hospital without a special permit from the of- 
ficers or trustees. The patients may be visited by their friends daily be- 
tween 12 and 1 o'clock. 

Any individual subscribing one hundred dollars shall be entitled to a free 
bed at the hospital for one year. All subscriptions for this purpose com- 
mence on the 1st of January in each year. The whole number of free beds 
is never less than thirty- seven. Two of thqse are reserved for cases of ac- 
cidents. 

The officers of the Institution for 1851 are as follows: William Apple- 
ton, president; Robert Hooper, vice-president ; Henry Andrews, treasurer; 
Marcus Morton, Jr., secretary ; twelve trustees, and four physicians, who 
act as a Board of Consultation. Two of the trustees form a visiting com- 
mittee for a month, and thus by turns each member serves one month dur- 
ing the year. 

The McLean Asylum for the Insane 

This Asylum for the Insane was opened to receive boarders, October 1, 
1818, under the direction of the Trustees of the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, it being a branch of that Institution. It is situated in Somerville, 
about one mile from Boston, on a delightful eminence, and consists of an el- 
gant house for the Superintendent, with a wing at each end, handsomely 
constructed of brick, for the accommodation of the inmates. Though suf- 
ficiently near to Boston for the convenience of the visitors and trustees, 
who generally reside in the city, it is not directly on any of its principal 
avenues, and is sufficiently retired to afford the quiet and rural serenity 
which in all cases is found to be conducive to a calm and healthy condition 
of mind. The name of McLean was given to this Hospital in respect to 
John McLean, Esq., a liberal benefactor of the General Hospital. 

The number of patients in the house, on the first day of the year 1850, 
was one hundred and eighty-four ; ninety-five of whom were males, and 
eighty-nine females. During the year 1850, eighty males and ninety-three 
females were admitted, being one hundred and seventy-three. 

The following is the number of admissions, discharges, and results, since 
the Asylum has been under the management of Dr. Bell, the present phy- 
sician and superintendent. 



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184 McLBAN A8TLUM FOR THE INSANE. 

Whole n^ed'im' R«m«i«- A*€rmge 

•v. - ij_:,,.j D»«- number TkimA *,,„„.,/ J-J Recov- in* at number 

Yeer. Admitted. cbarg-d . undtr Died. ««£«*.•* ered# en * d of of 

•«•• eSfunflU !'«• !*»"»'• 

1837 120 106 19i 8 85 72 86 80 

1838 138 131 324 12 45 74 93 95 

1839 132 117 226 10 38 69 108 112 

1840 166 138 263 13 60 75 125 128* 

1841 167 141 283 11 56 75 142 135 

1842 129 138 271 15 43 80 133 143 

1843 127 126 260 18 45 63 134 131 

1844 168 140 292 19 49 68 152 146 
1846 119 120 271 13 33 74 151 149 

1846 148 126 299 9 62 65 173 164 

1847 170 170 343 33 60 87 173 172 

1848 143 165 316 23 60 82 155 171 

1849 161 137 321 15 68 64 184 177 
1860 173 157 357 28 51 78 200 201 



2030 1901 227 644 1026 

The Hon. William Appleton of Boston contributed # 10,000 in Decem- 
ber, 1843, " for the purpose of affording aid to such patients in the McLean 
Asylum, as from straitened means might be compelled to leave the Institu- 
tion without a perfect cure." On the 9th of November, 1850, the same gen- 
man contributed the further sum of # 20,000 for the purpose of erecting 
two additional edifices, sufficiently large to accommodate eight males and 
eight females, with such conveniences and facilities as shall enable each 
to have, not only the care, attention, and comforts, but the luxuries and re- 
tirement which they had enjoyed at home. 

The superintendent states that the elevation and improvement of the en- 
tire establishment have, as usual, not been overlooked during the pest year. 
A large and handsome hall, fifty feet long by twenty-five wide and fourteen 
high, has been constructed, by raising a story upon one of the buildings 
of the male side, which furnishes ample room for two billiard tables, — 
ever an interesting and useful exercise for the insane ; and also makes a 
sort of conversation and reading room, where patients from the different 
sections may meet for some hours in the day for recreation and inter- 
course. 

The expenses of the McLean Asylum for 1860 were #40,623, vis : For 
Stores f 17,627 ; Wages #6,173 ; Salaries # 4,500 ; Furniture, Repairs, and 
Improvements $ 10,310 ; Diversions #1,332 ; Miscellaneous # 2,385. From 
which deduct the proceeds of the farm and garden # 1,704. 

It seems to be generally understood through the country that this insti- 
tution is the most safe as well as the most economical place of resort In all 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THB STATE HOUBB. 185 

difficult and dangerous cases, especially such as require operation ; one of 
the consequences of this general sentiment in regard to the Hospital, is, 
that many diseases are presented there which are in their nature incurable, 
— whence it has followed, that, as the reputation of the institution has in- 
creased, the number of cases reported incurable or not relieved has also in- 
creased. The patients, under the daily care of skilful, intelligent, and emi- 
nent surgeons and physicians, are watched over by faithful and attentive 
nurses, and in truth the minor officers and domestics, under the vigilant 
eye of the superintendent and matron, continue to give the tick poor all 
the comfort and relief, with all the chances df restoration, which the kind- 
ness of friends, or the influence of money, could command for those fa- 
vored with both. 



THB STATE HOUSE. 



Iliis elegant and spacious edifice, situated in Boston, on elevated ground 
adjoining the Common, and near the centre of this ancient and flourishing 
city, was erected in 1795. The corner-stone was laid on the fourth of Ju- 
ly, by the venerable and patriotic Samuel Adams, then Chief Magistrate 
of Massachusetts (assisted by Paul Revere, Master of the Grand Lodge 
of Masons), fie succeeded Governor Hancock, who died in October, 1793. 
Governor Adams made a short address on the occasion of laying the cor- 
ner-stone, and said, " he trusted that within its walls liberty and the rights 
of man would be forever adrocated and supported. 11 The lot was pur- 
chased by the town of Boston of the heirs of Governor Hancock, for which 
the sum of $ 4,000 was paid. The building was not finished and occupied 
by the Legislature till January, 1793 ; when the members of the General 
Court walked in procession from the Old State House at the head of State 
Street, and the new edifice for the government was dedicated by solemn 
prayer to Almighty God. The Old State House, so called from the time of 
building the other, was long the place in which the General Court of the 
Province of Massachusetts was holden. It has lately been well repaired, 
and was formerly the place of the meetings of the city authorities and for 
public offices. 

The corner-stone of the present Capitol was brought to the spot by fif- 
teen white horses, at that time the number of States in the Union. The 
building is seen at a great distance in all directions, and is the principal 
object visible when the city is first seen by those who visit it. The form 
is oblong, being one hundred and seventy-three feet in front, and sixty-one 
feet deep, or at the end. The height of the building, including the dome, 
is one hundred and ten feet ; and the foundation is about that height above 

m 



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186 THE STATE HOUSE. 

the level of the water of the bay. " It consists externally of a basement 
story twenty feet high, and a principal story thirty feet high. This, in 
the centre of the front, is covered with an attic sixty feet wide, and twen- 
ty feet high, which is covered with a pediment. Immediately above arises 
the dome, fifty feet in diameter, and thirty in height ; the whole terminating 
with an elegant circular lantern, which supports a pine cone. The base- 
ment story is finished in a plain style on the wings, with square windows. 
The centre is ninety-four feet in length, and formed of arches which pro- 
ject fourteen feet, and make a covered walk below, and support a colonnade 
of Corinthian columns of the same extent above. 

The largest room is in the centre, and in the second story (the large 
space below in the basement story is directly under this) ; it is the Repre- 
sentatives' Chamber ; and will accommodate five hundred members; and 
sometimes they have been more numerous. The Senate Chamber is also 
in the second story and at the east end of the building, being sixty feet by 
fifty. At the west is a large room for the meetings of the Governor and 
the Executive Council; with a convenient antechamber. 

The view from the top of the State House is very extensive and variega- 
ted ; perhaps nothing in the country is superior to it. To the east appears 
the bay and harbor of Boston, interspersed with beautiful islands ; and in 
the distance beyond, the wide extended ocean. To the north the eye is 
met by Charlestown, with its interesting and memorable heights, and the 
Navy Yard of the United States ; the towns of Chelsea, Maiden, and Med- 
ford, and other villages, and the natural forests mingling in the distant ho- 
rizon. To the west, is a fine view of the Charles river and a bay, the an- 
cient town of Cambridge, rendered venerable for the University, now 
above two hundred years old ; of the flourishing villages of Cambridge- 
port and East Cambridge, in the latter of which is a large glass manufac- 
turing establishment ; of the highly cultivated towns of Brighton, Brook- 
line, and Newton ; and to the south is Roxbury, which seems to be only a 
continuation of Boston, and which is rapidly increasing : Dorchester, a 
fine, rich, agricultural town, with Milton and Quincy beyond, and still 
farther south, the Blue Hills, at the distance of eight or nine miles, which 
seem to bound the prospect. The Common, stretching and spreading in 
front of the Capitol, with its numerous walks and flourishing trees, where 
" the rich and the poor meet together, 1 ' and the humblest have the proud 
consciousness that they are free, and in some respects (if virtuous), on a 
level with the learned and the opulent, — adds greatly to the whole scene. 

Near the Capitol, on the west, is the mansion house of the eminent patri- 
ot, the late John Hancock, now exhibiting quite an ancient appearance ; and 
on the east, about the same distance, was, until recently, situated the 
dwelling of the late James Bowdoin, another patriot of the Revolution, a 
distinguished scholar and philosopher ; and who, by his firmness, in the 
critical period of 1786, contributed most efficiently to the preservation of 



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THS 8TXTB H0U8B. 



187 



order and tranquillity in the Commonwealth. Large sums have been ex- 
pended in repairs on the State House, both within and without, since it 
was erected, and in improving the grounds and fences about it ; and it is 
now in a condition of great neatness and elegance. 

On the 12th of June, 1827, the Legislature 
adopted a resolution "that permission be 
hereby given to the trustees of the Washing- 
ton Monument Association to erect, at their 
own expense, a suitable building on the north 
front of the State-House, for the reception 
and permanent location of the Statue of 
Washington by Chantrey. , 

The building was erected and the trustees 
passed a vote as follows : " The trustees of 
said Association do confide and intrust, as 
well the said edifice erected at their expense, 
as the noble statute, the work of the first ar- 
tist in Europe, to the care and patriotism of 
the government of the State of Massachu- 
setts, for the use and benefit of the people 
of said State to all future generations." 

In pursuance of which, a Resolve was 
passed on the 9th of January, 1823, " that the 
legislature of this Commonwealth accepts 
the Statue of Washington upon the terms 
and conditions on which it is offered by the 
Trustees of the Washington Monument As- 
sociation; and entertains a just sense of 
the patriotic feeling of those individuals, 
who have done honor to the State by plac- 
ing in it a statue of the Man whose life was 
among the greatest of his country's blessings, 
and whose fame is her proudest inheritance." 

This statue was procured by private subscription, and was placed in the 
State-House in the year 1828. 

The costume is a military cloak, which displays the figure to advantage. 
The effect is imposing and good : but, instead of confining himself to a 
close delineation of features, the sculptor, like Canova, has allowed some 
latitude to his genius in expressing his idea of the character of the subject. 

The lot on which the State-House was built was conveyed to the Com- 
monwealth by the town of Boston, on the 2d day of May, 1795. The 
Commissioners on the part of Boston to make this conveyance were Wil- 
liam Tudor, Charles Jarvis, John Coffin Jones, William Eustis, William 
Little, Thomas Dawes, Joseph Russell, Harrison Gray Otis, and Perry 




168 MA88ACHU8BTT8 HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Morton. The ground is termed in the deed, the Governor's Pasture, or 
Governor Hancock's Pasture ; and the dimensions were stated as follows. 
Running eastwardly on Beacon Street, 543 feet 3 inches, thence northward- 
ly up a passage way to the summit 249 feet, thence westwardly to the 
northeast corner of the lot, 235 feet 3 inches, thence to the first corner 37 1 feet. 

The purchase money was " four thousand pounds lawful money." The 
Commissioners or agents for the erection of the new State-House were 
named in tbe deed, viz. Thomas Dawes, Edward Hutchinson Robinson, and 
Charles Bulfinch. 

Owing to the present want of accommodation for the various public of- 
fices, the State library, and for other purposes connected with the execu- 
tive and legislative departments, it is proposed to enlarge the building. 
Plans for this enlargement have been submitted to the legislature by Mr. 
Bryant, architect of Boston. 

The extension is proposed to consist of a building 41 J feet wide and 58 
long, 4 stories high, to be located back of the one story portion of the 
State House containing Washington's statue, and to extend from the rear 
wall of that portion back to Mount Vernon Street, to be built in style 
conforming to the present edifice. Tbe lower story to be wholly above the 
surface of the sidewalk ; the second, on a level with the Doric hall or rotun- 
da of the present building, and to contain the library, statues, Ax. The 
third story, on a level with the lower part of the Hall of Representatives, 
to contain two committee rooms, so arranged that they can be made into 
one by the removal of the partition at any time, as with folding doors. 
The fourth story to contain 4 committee rooms. There are two entrances 
proposed for the extension, one from Mount Vernon Street, another from 
the eastern side of the present rotunda, through the entry near the foot of 
the stairway leading to the cupola. Estimates prepared by competent 
mechanical judges make the cost to be about $ 15,000. 



the Massachusetts historical society, 

AND THE PBOVIDENT INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS. 

Both these institutions have rooms in the Granite Building in Tremont 
Street, near the Stone Chapel. The house is owned jointly by the two 
Societies. 1. The Massachusetts Historical Society. 

In 1790, the Rev. Jeremy Belknap and four others agreed to form such 
an Association. On the 24th of the next January, they and five more were 
fully organized. Their main object was to collect manuscripts and books 
to illustrate the history of their own Republic. Their beginning was small 
but their progress however gradual, has been succesful. At present, the 
Society have about 7,000 printed volumes and over 200 volumes of man- 



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MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 169 

uscripts. They have had issued from the press, 30 volumes of their Col- 
lections. Formerly it was their endeavor, more than now, to gather other 
relics of the past. Of these, the three following are selected. 



t* 



Carver Stoord. 

This is the memento of a worthy pilgrim. It was owned by John 
Carver, who was among the most valuable men that left England and em- 
igrated to Holland, for the conscientious enjoyment of their religion. He 
was a prominent member of John Robinson's Church in Leyden. He took 
an active part in obtaining the Patent., under which the settlers of New 
Plymouth came over. When these were intending to land and dwell on 
Cape Cod, his name headed the subscribers to the constitution, which they 
adopted for their civil government. They unanimously chose him as their 
first chief magistrate. As the guide of so small a commonwealth, sur- 
rounded by imminent perils, and especially by that of being destroyed by 
the adjacent natives, whose wrongs from some of the white race filled 
them with a thirst for revenge upon the whole of them within their reach, 
he and his associates felt the need of arms to protect themselves and fami- 
lies. Hence the reason why his sturdy blade was not beat into a plough* 
share, but was worn by him as an instrument of defence. While ready to 
use it as he tliought obligation might require, he was summoned, April, 
1621, to enter on eternal realities, and, as we trust, on the reward* of a 
faithful steward. 

The desk delineated in this cut 
was long used by the successive 
speakers of the Representatives of 
Massachusetts, in the old State 
House. It continued to be so em- 
ployed till the new edifice of this 
name was prepared for the legis- 
lature, whose first session in the 
latter was January 11, 1798. The 
desk was then laid aside, as too 
antiquated for modern taste. But, 
well for its preservation, members 
of the Historical Society had an 
eye of favor towards it, for the ful- 
ness of its past usefulness. They 
obtained it, and ever since it has Speaker** desk, and Winshto'i chair. 







190 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

held an honorable place. Were it endowed with speech, what thrilling 
tones /of eloquence and what interesting facts could it repeat relative to 
the unwritten and forgotten proceedings of our colonial and provincial 
legislation I 

The second article is a large oak chair, fitted for the patriarchal table 
around which it was often placed. When our eyes behold it, we think of 
the many, once buoyant with the hopes of life, who rested upon it when fa- 
tigued, and were cheerfully refreshed from the hospitable board, and took 
part in the varied topics of social conversation, but who, long since, have 
gone the way of all the earth. Among these, was its worthy proprietor, 
Edward Winslow. The tradition is, that, made in London in 1614, it was 
brought over by him in the May-Flower among the effects of the first em- 
igrants to New Plymouth. After having sustained the highest offices of 
the colony with honor to himself and usefulness to others, he died May 
8th, 1655, aged 61, in the service of the crown, as commissioner to super- 
intend an expedition of the English against the Spanish West Indies. The 
chair and desk are now both in a good state of preservation, and are well 
worthy the attention of the antiquary. 

This article of Indian antiquity awakens 
within us trains of thought, which partake ft 

more of sadness than of gayety. It carries J '* 

us to the royal wigwam at Mount Hope in 
Rhode Island, introduces us to the family of 
its owner, busily occupied in satisfying 
their appetite with the corn and beans, 
which it often presented as the products 
of their own culture and preparation. Philip's Samp-pan. 

Around it, the joys of domestic intercourse, the expressions of affectionate 
hearts between children and parents, the gratulationa of relatives and 
friends, abounded. But the crisis came, and the whole scene was convert- 
ed to utter desolation. The proprietor of such a relic was Philip, the 
Sachem of Pokanoket, the youngest son of Massaaoit. He succeeded his 
brother, Alexander, 1657, renewed friendship with the English, 1662, and 
began a desolating warfare with them, 1675. His principal object appears 
to have been to arrest the progress of Christianity among his own people 
and other tribes, and thus prevent their assimilation to the principles and 
civilization of their European neighbors, and, as he feared, their final ex- 
tinction. After the exhibition of much physical and intellectual power, 
he was compelled to flee before the superior discipline of his opponents. 
He took refuge in secret places around his home. He was discovered and 
shot in a swamp, Aug. 12th, 1676. His head was cut off, placed on a pole, 
and shown publicly at Plymouth, as the punishment of a traitor. Thus 
fell one who was a hero in the estimation of his friends, while his foes de- 
nounced him as a powerful traitor. Though this difference may exist on 




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BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF BOSTON. 



191 



earth, there is a tribunal where all will receive according to their deserts. 
The right, whether of barbarous or civilized, will there be acknowledged, 
confirmed, and rewarded. 




Provident Institution for Savings. 

The charter for this institution was granted on the 13th of December, 
1816. Its first location was in the old Court House, then in Court street, 
afterwards in Scollay's buildings in Court street, and finally in the building 
erected for it and now occupied by the institution in Tremont street, a few 
yards north of the Stone Chapel. 

# The statistics of the Provident Institution for Savings indicate that it 
has been productive of great good to the community, and especially to the 
poorer classes, for whose benefit it was more especially intended. The 
amount deposited by customers during the last year (ending 90th June, 
1861) was $1,181,182, and the amount withdrawn was $957,536. The 
aggregate of deposits on the 1st day of July, 1851, was $3,916,026.50. 



BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF BOSTON. 

There are now (July, 1851) thirty Banks established In the city of Bos- 
ton, with an aggregate capital of $ 21,760,000. Two others were chartered 
in the year 1851, which will probably commence operations during the 
present year. 

None of these are remarkable for their architectural beauty or display. 
The Suffolk Bank is the point of redemption for nearly all the bank circu- 
lation of New England. This institution redeemed, in the year 1850, 
$221,000,000, and during the first six months of 1851, $ 120,700,000. 

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192 



BANK OF COMMERCE. 



The accompanying engraving represents the front of the new Bank of 
Commerce on State street. The front is of Connecticut sandstone, and the 
style of architecture, Italian. The ground floor is occupied by Insurance 
Offices, and the second or principal story by the Bank of Commerce ; the 
upper stories are used as offices for different purposes. The builder of the 
above Bank was T. W. R. Emery, Esq., and the design was furnished by 
Charles E. Parker, architect. 




The Bank of Commerce, — Erected 1850. 

The building has a front on State Street of 27 J feet, and is four stories in 
height ; with a depth of 69 feet to Doane street. The Cashier's room, fac- 
ing State street, is 25 by 14 feet, and the main banking room back of it, 54 
by 25 feet. The banking rooms are all on the second floor. 

As a model for new bank buildings this is deserving an examination, be- 
cause it combines economy in space with ample light for the officers, ele- 
gance of appearance, and many conveniences that are essential in the 
arrangement and construction of such an edifice. 



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HANCOCK HOUSB. 



193 




THE HANCOCK HOUSE, BEACON STREET. 

The annexed engraving exhibits a view of the mansion house of John 
Hancock, the celebrated governor of that name, and whose bold and manly 
signature is so much admired on the charter of our liberties. 

It is situated on the elevated ground in Beacon Street, fronting towards the 
south. The principal building is of hewn stone, " finished, not altogether 
in the modern style, nor yet in the ancient Gothic taste." It is raised 
twelve or thirteen feet above the street ; and the ascent is through a gar- 
den, bordered with flowers and small trees. Fifty-six feet in breadth, the 
front terminates in two lofty stories. While occupied by Governor Han- 
cock, the east wing formed a spacious hall ; and the west wing was appro- 
priated to domestic purposes, — the whole embracing, with the stables, 
coach-house, and other offices, an extent of 220 feet. In those days, there 
was a delightful garden behind the mansion, ascending gradually to the 
high lands in the rear. This spot was also handsomely embellished with 
glacis, and a variety of excellent fruit trees. From the summer-house, 
might be seen West Boston, Charlestown, and the north part of the town ; 
the Colleges, the bridges of the Charles and Mystic rivers, the ferry of Win- 
nisimmet, and " fine country of that vicinity, to a great extent." The 
south and west views took in Roxbury, the highlands of Dorchester and 
Brookline, the blue hills of Milton and Braintree, together with numerous 
farmhouses, verdant fields, and laughing valleys. Upon the east, the 
islands of the harbor, " from Castle William to the Light House, engaged 
the sight by turns, which at last was lost in the ocean, or only bounded by 
the horizon." 

In front of this edifice is an extensive green, called " the Common," 
containing forty-eight acres, where, in the Governor's time, " an hundred 
cows daily fed." It was then handsomely railed in, except on the west, 



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194 HANCOCK HOU8B. 

where it was washed by the river Charles and the Back Bay. The mall, 
bordering the Common on the east, is ornamented with a triple row of 
trees ; and " hither the ladies and gentlemen resorted in summer, to inhale 
those refreshing breezes which were wailed over the water." Upon days 
of election, and public festivity, this ground teemed, as it does now on 
similar occasions, with multitudes of every description ; and here " the 
different military corps performed," as at the current day, " their stated 
exercise." 

Governor Hancock inherited this estate from his uncle, Thomas Han- 
cock, Esquire, who erected the building in 1737. At that period, the 
" court part of the town " was at the " north end," and his fellow citizens 
marvelled not a little that he should have selected, for a residence, such an 
unimproved spot as this then was. 

In the lifetime of that venerable gentleman, the doors of hospitality were 
opened to the stranger, the poor and distressed ; and annually, on the an- 
niversary of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, he entertained 
the Governor and Council, and most respectable personages, at his house. 
The like attentions were shown to the same military body by Governor 
Hancock, who inherited all the urbanity, generous spirit, and virtues of 
his uncle. 

" In a word, if purity of air, extensive prospects, elegance and conven- 
ience united, are allowed to have charms," says one who wrote many 
years past, "this seat is scarcely exceeded by any in the Union." This 
statement, however, must be received with some qualification, in 1861. 
The premises are not entirely as they were. It is true, there is the same 
noble exterior, which the edifice possessed at its erection, nor nave any 
important alterations been made in the interior. The greater part of the 
flower garden remains in front ; nor do we know of a want of pure air, ele- 
gance, or convenience in the establishment. But the " stables and coach 
house " are not to be found ; and the " prospect," though still very beau- 
tiful, has been materially abridged by the adjacent buildings. 

The garden behind the mansion, glacis, fruit trees, and summer house 
have all disappeared. Even " the high lands," beyond, have been much 
reduced, to make room for public avenues and stately dwellings, in that 
part of the metropolis. Among the many private residences upon the 
grounds in the rear, may be named that of the Hon. Benjamin T. Pickman, 
formerly president of the Senate of Massachusetts. 

Every governor of the commonwealth, from the time of John Hancock 
to that of the present chief magistrate, has been lodged or entertained, 
more or less, in this hospitable mansion. Indeed, it has a celebrity in all 
parts of the country ; and most strangers, on visiting the capital of New 
England, endeavor to catch a glimpse of " the Hancock House." 

It is now, we believe, the property of some of the descendents of Gover- 
nor Hancock, and rented as a private dwelling. But, as we have indica- 



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BOSTON COMMON. 



ted, since the demise of that eminent man, the haad of time and improve- 
ment has been constantly contending around and against it. It cannot long 
resist such attacks ; and, before many years elapse, this famous mansion 
will probably be razed to the ground, " and its place supplied by others." 



BOSTON COMMON. 



Contains 48 acres. The iron fence is 5,932 feet in length, and cost up- 
wards of * 100,000. 

The Common has many historical associations to attach it to the hearts 
of the people. From the earliest settlement of Boston, it attracted atten- 
tion, which has been increasing ever since. It has several times been in 
dagger of invasion, but thanks to the wisdom which then preserved it, and 
which has since rendered it inaccessible. The example should be heeded 
by all bodies who legislate for the health and happiness of posterity. Had 
this delightful spot been sacrificed to satisfy the cravings of public or pri- 
vate cupidity, language would fail in attempting to describe the injury it 
would have inflicted upon the city, or the contempt that would have cov- 
ered the perpetrators of the deed. 

Anxiety, however, for the future welfare of the Common may well re- 
main unaroused, as under the auspices of the City Government it must re- 
ceive proper improvement. Much is now doing to render the place still 
more attractive. Great credit is due our worthy Mayor, for the efficiency 
which has been exhibited in improving it the present year. A superin- 
tendent has recently been appointed to take charge of it, whose efforts are 
giving it an additional beauty. Several years since, the ashes and dirt that 
were carted on the Mall were found to operate against the healthy con- 
dition of the trees. Plantain weeds sprang up, also, to the great injury of 
the grass. This year, these evils have been remedied. The ashes have 
been removed, and about thirty loads of the plantain carried off. The con- 
sequence is, a healthier appearance among the trees, and a more luxuriant 
growth of grass. 

Il* Early History. — Commissioners were appointed to dispose of un- 
occupied lands, in 1634, and were instructed to leave out portions for new 
comers, and \Me> further beneJUs of the town. Among this reserved ter- 
ritory was our present beautiful Common, which it is believed has always 
been public property. For many generations it served the double purpose 
of a training field and pasture, for which it was laid out by the town, ac- 
cording to depositions of the then oldest inhabitants, taken before Gov. 
Bradstreet, in 1684. The city ordinance forbidding its use as a pasturage 
bears the date of 1833. The late militia laws have rendered its use, as a 

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196 BOSTON COMMON. 

" training field," in a measure obsolete; it is now used for the parades of 
our independent companies. 

Attempts to possess the Common have been made at different times. In 
one instance, a citizen petitioned for half an acre, for a building lot, but 
these attempts were all unsuccessful. We may be permitted to record an 
act which came very near making it private property. The proprietors of 
the Rope Walks, in 1795, had the misfortune to have their property 
burned. The town generously offered them that portion of the Common 
which is now the Public Garden, rent free, for rebuilding, which offer was 
accepted. In 1819, the rope walks were again destroyed by fire, and the 
owners proposed to cut the land into building lots and sell it. To this the 
citizens strongly objected, and so intense was public feeling upon the sub- 
ject, that it was left to referees, and as it appeared that the proprietors of 
the walks had ground for their claim, they were awarded the sum of $ 50,- 
000 to relinquish it, which the town authorities paid. 

A clause was inserted in the City Charter, making the Common public 
property for ever, and placing it beyond the power of the city to dispose 
of it. 

The Fence. — Previous to 1836 the Common was Inclosed by a plain, 
unpretending, wooden post, three-rail fence. The present substantial iron 
fence was built at this date, and makes an imposing appearance. 

The Malls are wide, gravelled, and smooth, and are deemed the most de- 
lightful promenade grounds in the world. They are beautifully shaded by 
majestic elms and other trees, to the number of upwards of one thousand, 
some of which were planted over a hundred years ago. 

The time-honored elm still stands, the most significant and attractive of 
all, and crowds on all public days pay it a special visit. It has been 
strengthened by the aid of art, and it is inclosed by a fence to prevent its 
admirers from plucking a remembrancer from its rough exterior. By its 
side lies the frog-pond, but not the one of yore. Cochituate Lake now 
pours her glistening stream upon its rocky bed, and its waters leap and 
seem to laugh for joy that they have come to visit the far-famed garden 
of liberty. The wants of visitors have been anticipated, and, to give all 
the privilege of drinking the pure beverage, hydrants have been placed in 
different parts of the Common. 

In early times the name of " Crescent Pond " was given to this sheet of 
water, and it has been known as " Quincy Lake," but none have been in i 
so common use as that of " Frog Pond," which now claims precedence 
only by custom. I 

The grounds of the Common have been greatly improved the last year, 
under the superintendence of Mr. Sherburne. The paths have been re- 
gravelled, and the trees trimmed and washed with composition. Many of 
the young trees have had guards placed around them. The following is a 
list of the kind and number of trees. 



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PUBLIC 8V7ARB8. 



American Elms, 
English Elms, 
Linden Trees, 
Tulip Trees, 
Oaks, . 
Sycamores, 
Hemlock, 
Jingo, 

Sippery Elm, 
Total, 



. . . 664 


49 


. . . 6S 


. . 17 


. . . 8 


. . 10 


. . . 1 


1 


1 



Buttonwood, . 

Black Aspen, 

Black Ash, . 

While and Silver-leaf Maple, 

Rock Maple, 

Arbor Vitas, . 

FirTrees, .... 

Spruce Trees, . 



197 



Of the above, 202 trees were set out in April and May, 1850. Many of 
the decayed trees were thoroughly repaired. For this purpose, 900 yards of 
duck and 40 barrels of composition were used. Fifteen barrels of compo- 
sition were used in filling up the hollow in the " Big Elm," near the pond. 
Forty loads of plantain and seventy-five loads of knot-weed were carried 
away, and twelve bushels of grass-seed and eight bushels of oats were 
sown last season. There was also taken from Tremont Mall 6,104 loads 
of coal ashes, which were carried over to fill up near the Charles street 
Mall. Fifteen thousand and nine hundred bushels of Somerville gravel 
were used in improving Tremont and Charles street Mails. 

Iron Fences. — The Iron Fence around the Common has been thorough- 
ly cleaned, and 652 pounds of pales were put into it. Besides the iron 
fence, 8,1 10 feet of joist were used in stopping up paths made by persons in 
walking across the lots. 

There are on the Common 201 seats, of which 171 are wood, and thirty 
are stone. Of the wooden seats, 50 were put up and covered with zinc, 
in 1860; the remaining 121 are covered with sheet iron. 

Boston Neck. — On this beautiful avenue there are 240 American elm 
trees. 

Fort ffiU. — At this place there are fifty American elms, five ash trees, 
and one rock maple ; all of which have been trimmed and washed. The 
fence has also been repaired. 

In Summer, Franklin, Cambridge, Charles, and other streets, the trees 
have been fixed up in good style, and they are now repaying us, by their 
vigorous appearance, for the attention bestowed upon them. 

PUBLIC SQUARES. 

A residence on the Neck is made more agreeable by the additional at- 
tractions derived from the beautiful public squares, completed and contem- 
plated at the South End. 

Blacktfne Square contains 106,000 feet of land, and is handsomely or- 
namented with trees. The fence is about 1,300 feet in length, and cost 



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198 MASSACHUSETTS BLIND ASYLUM. 

about $ 5,000, of which sum $2,000 was paid by the private subscription 
of the residents in the immediate neighborhood. There is a fountain in 
this square, which, exclusive of the pipe and vase, cost about $ 750. 

Franklin Square, in size, cost, and appearance, is similar to Blackstone 
Square. 

Cheater Square, near Northampton and Tremont streets, contains 62,- 
000 feet of land, inclosed by an iron fence, 967 feet in length. The cost of 
the fence was nearly $4,000, and that of the fountain, complete, about 
$1,000. 

Union Park, previously known as Weston street, has been graded this 
season, and is handsomely laid out,, bet ween Suflblk and Tremont streets. 
It contains about 16,500 feet of land, and will be appropriately ornamented 
with trees, walks, and a fountain. There are one hundred and eight bouse 
lots in the immediate vicinity of this square, which will soon be covered 
with neat and substantial buildings. 

Worcester Square, between Washington street and Harrison avenue, 
will be completed in a short time, and will resemble Union Park. 

The Square in front of Dr. Lowell's church, on Cambridge street, has 
been beautifully ornamented. The substantial iron fence is 369$ feet in 
length, which, together with the fountain and improvements, cost about 
$5,000. 



PKRKTNS INSTITUTION, AND MASSACHUSETTS 
ASYLUM FOR THB BLIND. 

In the year 1838, the late lamented Dr. J. D. Fisher called the attention 
of the people of Boston to the neglected condition of the Blind, and made 
an appeal in their behalf. In consequence of this, several benevolent gen- 
tlemen associated themselves together, and in 1829 were incorporated by 
the name of the New England Asylum for the Blind. During several years 
various attempts were made to put a school in operation, but they were 
not successful until the year 1832, when Dr. Samuel G. Howe undertook its 
organization, and commenced the experiment of instructing six blind chil- 
dren. Before the experiment was concluded the funds were exhausted, 
but it was persevered in to tbe end of the year, and then an exhibition of 
the pupils was made before the legislature and the public, and an appeal 
was made for aid. This was promptly and generously met. The legisla- 
ture voted to make an annual grant of $6,000; tbe ladies raised $ 14,000 
by a Fair in Faneuil Hall ; contributions were raised in all the principal 
towns of the State, and finally Thomas H. Perkins offered his valuable man- 
sion house in Pearl street, provided the sum of $50,000 should be secured 



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MASSACHUSETTS BUND ASYLUM. 199 

to the funds of the institution. The condition was accepted, and the lib- 
eral merchants of Boston made up all that was needed. 

Thus, as soon as it was proved that the hitherto neglected blind could be 
instructed, the public were called upon to provide the means. They did 
so, eagerly and generously; and rapidly laid broad the foundation, and 
raised high the walls of an institution which will probably endure as long 
as blindness is inflicted upon the community. 

1 This institution may be considered as part of the Common School sys- 
tem of Massachusetts. All citizens having blind children may send them 
here and have them boarded and taught, not as a matter of charity, but of 
right. 

As soon as the success of the enterprise was insured at home, efforts 
were made to extend the blessings of the system to the blind of the coun- 
try generally, and the Director with his pupils visited thirteen other States, 
and exhibited their acquirements. In consequence of this, the legislatures 
of all the New England States, and of South Carolina, made liberal appro- 
priations for sending their blind to the new school ; and the foundations 
were laid in Ohio, Kentucky, and Virginia, for what are now large and 
flourishing institutions for the blind, —New York and Pennsylvania hav- 
ing in the mean time moved of their own accord. 

The readiness and eagerness with which the public came forward in an- 
swer to the appeal in behalf of the blind is creditable to the age and to the 
country. 

The pupils in the School are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geog- 
raphy, history, natural philosophy, natural history, and physiology. They 
are carefully instructed in the theory and practice of vocal and instrumen- 
tal music Besides this they are taught some handicraft work by which 
they may earn their livelihood. In this institution, for the first time in 
the world's history, successful attempts were made to break through the 
double walls in which Blind-Deaf-Mutes are immured, and to teach them 
a systematic language for communion with their fellow men. Laura 
Bridgman and Oliver Caswell are living refutations of the legal and popu- 
lar maxim that those who are born both deaf and blind must be necessari- 
ly idiotic. They are pioneers in the way out into the light of knowledge, 
which may be followed by many others. 

In 1844 a supplementary institution grew out of the parent one, for the 
employment In handicraft work of such blind men and women as could 
not readily find employment at home. 

This establishment has been highly successful. A spacious and conven- 
ient workshop has been built at South Boston, to which the workmen and 
women repair every day and are furnished with work, and paid all they 
can earn. 

The general course and history of the Perkins Institution has been one 
of remarkable success. It has always been under the direction of one per- 



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200 



MASSACHUSETTS BLIND ASYLUM. 



son. It has grown steadily in public favor, and is the means of extended 
usefulness. In 1832 it was an experiment ; it had but six pupils ; it was 
in debt ; and was regarded as a visionary enterprise. In 1833 it was taken 
under the patronage of the State ; it was patronized by the wealthy, and 
enabled to obtain a permanent local habitation and a name. 

In 1834, it had 34 pupils from Massachusetts, New York, New Hamp- 
shire, Connecticut, Ohio, and Virginia. The number has steadily grown up 
to 110; the greatest number ever in the institution at once. The pupils 
remain from 5 to 7 years, and are discharged. The average number is 100. 




Perkins Institution, South Boston. 

The building originally conveyed to the trustees by Col. T. H. Perkins 
for the uses of the Asylum, in the year 1833, was afterwards exchanged for 
the present building on Mount Washington, South Boston. This latter 
property includes about one acre of ground. 



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MASSACHUSETTS BLIND ASYLUM. 201 

The terms of admission are as follows : the children of citizens of Mas- 
sachusetts, not absolutely wealthy, fret; others* at the rate of • 160 a 
year, which covers all expenses except for clothing. Applicants must be 
under 16 years of age. Adults are not received into the institution proper, 
but they can board in the neighborhood, and be taught trades in the work- 
shop gratuitously. After six months they are put upon wages. 

This department is a self-supporting one, but its success depends upon 
the sale of goods, at the depot No. 20 Bromfield street. Here may be found 
the work of the blind ; all warranted, and put at the lowest market pri- 
ces ; nothing being asked or expected in the way of charity. The institu- 
tion is not rich, except in the confidence of the public, and the patronage 
of the legislature. 

It is open to the public on the afternoon of the first Saturday in each 
month, but in order to prevent a crowd, no persons are admitted without a 
ticket, which may be obtained gratuitously at No. 20 Bromfield street. 
A limited number of strangers, and persons particularly interested, may be 
admitted any Saturday in the forenoon, by previously applying as above 
for tickets. 

The number of pupils entered in the institution, up to 1851, has been sev- 
eral hundred. 

The Asylum is yearly in receipt of * 9,000 from the State. 

Articles manufactured by the Blind and kept constantly for sale at the 
sales-rooms, No. 20 Bromfield street : — Mattresses, of all sizes, of superi- 
or and common South American hair, Cocoanut Fibre, Cotton, Moss, 
Cornstalk, Palmleaf, Straw, &c. ; Improved spiral-spring Mattresses, Palm- 
leaf Palliasses, and Cushions of all kinds, made to order. Beds, of live 
geeae and Russia feathers ; the feathers are cleansed by steam. Comforters, 
of all sizes, wadded with cotton or wool, Sheets and Pillow Cases, Bed 
Ticks. Crash, Diaper, and Damask Towels, from $1 to $4 per dozen. 
Satchels and Travelling Bags, of all sizes. Entry Mats, Fine woven Mats 
of Cocoanut Fibre, with colored worsted bodies, equal to imported goods, 
and at less prices. Very heavy Woven Mats for public buildings. Also, 
Manilla, Jute, Palmleaf, and open-work Fibre Mats, of various qualities 
and prices. Sofas and Chairs repaired and restuffed, and Cane Chairs re- 
seated. Particular attention given to making over, cleansing, and refitting 
old mattresses and feather beds. Mr. J. W. Patten is agent for the sale 
of them articles, at No. 20 Bromfield street. 

The asylum realized, in the year 1847, the handsome sum of $ 30,000, by 
the will of the late William Oliver of Boston. 

The experience of the officers of the institution has induced the convic- 
tions, — 1. That the blind, as a class, are inferior to other persons in mental 
power and ability ; and 2. That blindness, or a strong constitutional ten- 
dency to it, is very often hereditary. The Superintendent says, — " I believe 
that a general knowledge of the existence of this stern and inexorable law 






202 MASSACHUSETTS BLIND ASYLUM. 

will do more to diminish the number of infirmities with which the human 
race is afflicted than any thing else can do. 

"The experience of many years, an acquaintance with several hundreds 
of blind persons, and much personal inquiry, have convinced me that 
when children are born blind, or when they become blind early in life, in 
consequence of diseases which do not usually destroy the sight, the pre- 
disposing cause can be traced to the progenitors in almost all cases. 
Moreover, I believe, that, where the predisposing cause cannot be so 
traced, it is only in consequence of our ignorance, and not because there 
are exceptions to the rule. 

" The hereditary tendency to disease among the progeny of persons relat- 
ed by blood, or of scrofulous or intemperate persons, or of persons whose 
physical condition is vitiated in various ways, is not seen at once, and may 
be entirely overlooked, for various reasons. In the first place, there may 
be only a strong tendency or predisposition to some infirmity, as blind- 
ness, deafness, insanity, idiocy, <fcc., which is not developed without some 
immediate exciting cause." 

The two blind mutes, Laura Bridgman and Oliver Caswell, whose in- 
struction was of course entirely different from that of the other pupils, have 
made very satisfactory progress. They each of them required special 
care, and the almost undivided attention of a teacher. They continue to 
be most interesting persons in their way ; and would be distinguished any- 
where, among youth with all their senses, for their happiness, gentleness, 
affection, and truthfulness. 

Among the books published by this institution for the use of the Wind 
are the following : The Bible, Lardner's Universal History, Howe's Geog- 
raphy and Atlas, The English Reader, two parts, The Pilgrim's Progress, 
Life of Melancthon, Constitution of the United States, Political Class 
Book, Principles of Arithmetic, Natural Philosophy and Natural History, 
Book of Common Prayer, Tables of Logarithms. The entire number of 
volumes issued, up to 1846, was forty-one. 

If a fund could be established which would yield a regular and perma- 
nent income of $2,500, it would secure to nearly fifty blind persons the 
means of supporting themselves independently of any other aid. Such a 
fund would in reality constitute an independent establishment, and might 
be made useful through coming generations. 

The number of inmates reported on the first of January, I860, was one 
hundred and two. Of these, fourteen have left, while twenty-one new 
ones have entered, so that the present number (January 13, 1851) is one 
hundred and nine. This is the largest number ever connected with the in- 
stitution at one time. 

Eighty-three are connected with the school, and are for the most part of 
tender age. Twenty-six are adults belonging to the work department, 
most of whom were formerly pupils in the school. 

m 



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e 



THE PUBLICf SCHOOLS OF BOSTON. 

BY ISAAC F. SHEPARD. 



Thb Company who settled in Boston in June, 1630, under Winthrop, 
were most of them men of sound learning, far-sighted vision, and noble 
spirit. Stem as were their religious views, their sentiments upon politi- 
cal prosperity were sound and healthy ; and the deep foundations which 
they laid for social and public happiness are truly wonderful. With the 
Bible for a basis, they erected a fabric of intelligence and learning, which 
is, at this day, the glory of their descendants, and the crowning excel- 
lence of entire New England It has, indeed, been the pride of each sub- 
sequent generation, not to deface nor mar the walls of our fathers 1 build, 
ing, but to beautify, perfect, and adorn them, extending their area, and 
elevating their towers of grandeur in all strength and fair proportion. 
Hence it is, that the religious element of our character has ever been 
eclipsed by the intelligence, knowledge, and sound wisdom of the people 
at large. Almost at the moment of landing, they began to teach the chil- 
dren ; and as early as April 13, 1635, the Records give ample evidence of 
the establishment of a " Free School," —and from that hour to the pres- 
ent have the inhabitants of Boston cherished and fostered these invalua- 
ble Institutions, —so that the history of the Boston Schools is, in a good 
degree, the history of the people themselves. 

The generous public spirit of our citizens, proverbial as it is, shows in 
nothing so conspicuously as in the support of schools. The Masters of 
the Latin and English High Schools, have a salary of $2,400 each, per 
annum ; the Sub-Matters of both schools have • 1,600 each, and the 
Ushers have • 800 for the first year of service, with an annual increase 
of $ 100 for each additional year of service until the salary amounts to 
• 1,300, at which sum it remains fixed. All the Grammar and Writing 
Masters have • 1,600 per annum ; all Sub-Masters in the Grammar 
Schools 91,000; all Ushers *800; all Head Assistants #400, and all 
other Assistants $300 each. The Teachers of all Primary Schools re- 
ceive each $300 per annum, with $35 extra allowance for the care of 
their rooms. The Teachers of Music receive # 100 per annum, for ser- 
vices and the use of a piano forte. 

Pew people are aware that the vast sums spent each year in the city of 
Boston, for public instruction, —larger than in all Great Britain,— are 



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201 PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN BOSTON. 

almost entirely a voluntary offering. The laws of the Commonwealth, 
even as early as 1647, do, indeed, require the support of public schools in 
all the towns within its jurisdiction; but a single school will meet the 
demands of the law in most towns ; and in our large city itself, but three 
schools and three teachers would meet the intent of the statute. Two of 
these must be teachers "competent to instruct children in Orthography, 
Reading, Writing, English Grammar, Arithmetic, and good beharior " ; 
and the other must be "a master of competent ability and good morals, 
who shall, in addition to the branches of learning before mentioned, give 
instruction in the History of the United States, Book-keeping, Surveying, 
Geometry, and Algebra; the Latin and Greek Languages, General Histo- 
ry, Rhetoric, and Logic" These three teachers might cost the city, at 
the present rate of salaries, #4,500, with the expense of interest for 
houses added; in all, perhaps, 1 7,000. Instead, however, of being satis- 
fied to fulfil the letter of the excellent law, our citizens take pride in 
supporting a Latin School, an English High School, twenty-two Gram- 
mar Schools, and one hundred and eighty-eight Primary Schools, with a 
corps of three hundred and seventy teachers, whose combined salaries 
amount to $ 175,100 ! Add to this, perhaps, * 1,000,000 vested in school- 
houses, besides apparatus and incidental expenses of fuel, superintend- 
ents, and et ceteras, and the sacrifice of property, for the good of future 
generations, stands forth without a parallel, probably, in the world's his- 
tory. 

The present school system of Boston is nearly complete, and almost 
perfect. Until the year 1792, the selectmen of the town bad the entire 
charge of the schools, and all matters pertaining to them. At that time 
there was but six schools,— the North Reading, and the North Writing 
Schools, the Centre Reading, and the Centre Writing Schools, the South 
Reading, and the South Writing Schools. On the 12th day of March in 
that year, " at a meeting of the freeholders and other inhabitants of the 
town of Boston, duly qualified and legally warned, in public Town Meet- 
ing assembled in Faneuil Hall, the article in the warrant, via. 'To 
choose a School Committee,' was read," and on motion it was " voted, 
that in Addition to the Selectmen, twelve persons shall now be chosen." 
In accordance with the vote, Hon. Thomas Dawes, Rev. Samuel West, 
Rev. John Lothrop, Rev. James Freeman, John C. Jones, Esq., Dr. Thom- 
as Welch, Dr. Nathaniel Appleton, Jonathan Mason, Jr., Esq., Dr. Aaron 
Dexter, Christopher Gore, Esq., George R. Minot, Esq., and William Tu 
dor, Esq., were chosen by ballot. These gentlemen, with the Selectmen, 
constituted the first legitimate School Committee in the town, and ever 
since this Board have had their election direct from the people. At pres- 
ent, by a special enactment by the Legislature, in 1835, twenty- four per- 
sons are annually elected to this office, two from each ward of the city, 
I who with the Mayor and the President of the Common Council, consti- 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN BOSTON. 205 

tute the School Committee, and have the superintendence of all the Public 
Schools. 

The first meeting of the Board is required to be held early in January, 
and the Mayor is ex officio, Chairman. A visiting Committee for each 
school, consisting of five for the Latin and English High Schools, respec- 
tively, and three for each of the other Schools; a Committee on Books, 
consisting of five members ; a Committee of Music ; a Committee of Con- 
ference with the Primary School Committee ; and a Committee on the 
erection, alteration, and ventilation of School-Houses, of three members 
each, are appointed by the Chair, subject to the approval of the Board. 
Stated quarterly meetings are held at the room of the Common Council, 
on the first Wednesday of February, May, August, and November. The 
sub-committee are required to examine the individual schools at least once 
in each quarter of the year, and to visit them not less than once each 
month, without previous notice to the instructors. Reports of these ex- 
aminations must be made in writing, at the quarterly meetings, together 
with all circumstances of note appertaining to the schools. The appoint- 
ments of instructors take place annually, in August, — the masters by 
ballot, — the salaries are then*fixed and voted, and no change in amount 
can be made at any other time. The teachers all hold office for one year, 
unless sooner removed by vote of the Board, and no longer except by re- 
election. At the May meeting two examining committees are annually 
appointed, of three members each ; one for the English Grammar Schools, 
and one for the Writing Schools. In May, June, or July, these commit- 
tees must critically examine the pupils of the first class in all the studies 
prescribed for the first, second, and third classes, in order to ascertain the 
condition of the schools, and report before the election of masters, that 
the appointments maybe judiciously made. Similar examinations, and 
for similar purposes, are also made by the Visiting Committees of the 
Latin and English High Schools, and these Reports, after being accepted, 
are printed and distributed among the citizens, one copy to each family. 

The laws of the Commonwealth provide that " no youth shall be sent 
to the Grammar Schools, unless they shall have learned, in some other 
school, or in some other way, to read the English language, by spelling 
the tame." This law excluded from the benefits of public instruction a 
large number of children whose parents were unable to pay for their tui- 
tion in private schools ; but it was not till 1818, that any provision was 
made for remedying the evil. At a legal meeting of the inhabitants of 
the town of Boston, assembled in Faneuil Hall. June 11, 1818, notified for 
the purpose of considering the subject of establishing Primary Schools, 
the following vote was passed, and 8 5,000 appropriated for the first year's 
support of these schools. 

" Voted, That the School Committee be instructed, in the month of 
June, annually, to nominate and appoint three gentlemen in each ward 



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206 PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN BOSTON. 

whose duty collectively, shall be to proride instruction for children be-. 
t ween four and seven years of age, and apportion the expenses among the 
several Schools." 

In accordance with this Vote of the Town, the original Committee lor 
Primary Schools was appointed; and from year to year it has been con- 
tinued, and the number enlarged. It is now one of the standing regula- 
tions of the Grammar School Board, to appoint annually, in January, a 
suitable number of gentlemen, whose duty shall be to provide instruction 
for children between four and seven years of age, by means of the Prima- 
ry Schools. The Committee of these Schools are authorized to organize 
their body and regulate their proceedings, as they may deem most conve- 
nient ; to fill all vacancies which may occur in the same during the year, 
and to remove members at their discretion. 

It having been found that there were many children in the CHy, who 
were old enough to attend the Grammar Schools, but who could not read 
well enough to be admitted there, application was made to the City Gov- 
ernment, at an early period, for the establishment of Schools for this neg- 
lected class of our population. But it was not till 1838 that any provision 
was made for their instruction. In March of that year, an Order was 
passed by the City Council, which, in December, 1846, was amended as 
follows: — 

" Ordered, That the Primary School Committee be, and they are hereby 
authorized to admit into one or more Schools, to be by them selected, in 
each of the school Districts, any child who is more than seven years of 
age, and is not qualified for admission into the Grammar Schools." 

These lest are called Intermediate Schools, and are the last link in the 
chain of public instruction. The system, then, may be summed up as 
follows : — 

First. The Primary Schools, — each taught by one female teacher, 
elected annually, in July, by the District Committees. 'These Schools re- 
ceive all applicants between four and eight years of age. Here are taught 
the Lord's Prayer and Ten Commandments, Beading, Spelling, the use of 
the Sate, the first principles of Arithmetic, and plain sewing, at discre- 
tion. At eight years of age, every scholar, if deemed qualified, receives 
a certificate of transfer to the Grammar Schools. Transfers may take 
place on the first Monday of any month, when deemed necessary, but the 
regular time for them is semi-annually, on the first Monday in March, 
and at the time of the July vacation. Monthly, quarterly, and yearly ex- 
aminations are obligatory upon the different committees, — the last by the 
Executive Committee in the first two weeks of May. The Intermediate 
Schools, for the special instruction of children over eight years of age not 
qualified for the Grammar Schools, belong under the Primary organization* 

Second. The English Grammar and Writing Schools, — taught by 
Masters, Ushers, and female Assistants. These receive all children who 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN BOSTON. 207 

apply and " can read easy prose/' at the age of eight years, and chil- 
dren only seven may be admitted, " when they shall satisfactorily appear, 
on examination by the Grammar Master, to be otherwise qualified for 
admission." New pupils can be admitted on the first Monday of the 
Calendar months only ; but transfers from one Grammer School to another 
can be made at all times. If the applicant does not come from a Primary, 
or another Grammar School, he must bring a certificate from a physician 
as evidence of his previous vaccination. Boys retain their places in these 
Schools until the next annual exhibition after they are fourteen, and girls un- 
til after they are sixteen years of age. Special leave from the Sub-Commit- 
tee may, however, be given for longer attendance. In these Schools are 
taught, chiefly, Spelling. Reading, English Grammar, Geography, History, 
Writing, Arithmetic, Algebra, Natural Philosophy and Drawing. Geom- 
etry, Physiology, and Natural History, are, however, allowed, and Vocal 
Music is taught by a Professor, semi-weekly. Every school is furnished 
with a set of philosophical apparatus, globes, outline maps, a pianoforte, 
and all other desirable aids to the complete illustration of the subjects 
taught. The departments are subdivided into four grades or classes, with 
prescribed text-books and courses of study to each, and no pupil is allowed 
to attend without a full supply of the former. In addition to the above 
studies, Vocal Music is taught in all the Grammar Schools, twice each 
week, by a teacher specially employed. 

Third. 2%e English High School, — under the charge of a Master, 
Sub-Master, and so many assistants as shall give one instructor to every 
thirty-five pupils. Boys only are admitted to this school, and candidates 
must be at least twelve years old, and can remain members of the school 
only three years. This school was instituted with the design of furnish- 
ing a complete English Education to those young men of the city not in- 
tended for a collegiate course. Instruction is given in the elements of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, with their application to the scien- 
ces and the arts, in Grammar, Rhetoric, and Belles Lettres, in Moral Phi- 
losophy, in History, Natural and Civil, and in the French Language. 
This institution is furnished- with a valuable mathematical and philosoph- 
ical apparatus, and a fine telescope. Examinations for admission can be 
made only once a year, — on the Thursday and Friday next succeeding the 
exhibition of the school in July. 

The Fourth and last grade in the system of Public Instruction is the 
Latin Grammar School. The instructors are the same in number and 
rank as the High School, and like the last must have been educated at 
some respectable College. The rudiments of the Latin and Greek Lan- 
guages are taught, and Scholars are fully qualified for any College. In- 
struction is also given in Mathematics, History, Declamation, and English 
Composition. The qualifications and the time for admission are the same 
as with the High School, and the regular course of instruction continues 



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206 PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN BOSTON. 

five yean. Special permission may, however, be given for longer attend- 
ance. 

Thus hare we given a pretty mil, and, we trust, accurate view of our 
justly boasted School System, — which, strange as it may seem, is scarce- 
ly comprehended by one citizen in a hundred. The work, we believe, will 
be a valuable and acceptable one, and to enhance its interest, we sub- 
join a chronological sketch of each individual school, with an accurate en- 
graving of each house. We have said that the system was " nearly com* 
plete and almost perfect." There is, however, one hiatus, of vast magni- 
tude, and that is the want of a High School for Girls. It is rather a hu- 
miliating truth for a Bostonian to utter, when questioned as to our public 
aids to female culture, that we have no public institution to perfect young 
ladies in an advanced education. Some superior private schools we have, 
but they are only fortunate accidents, and liable to be broken up at the 
will of an individual, and subject only to his whims and caprices. The 
subject has been, at various times, ably and feithnilly presented to both 
the School Committee, and the City Council. Reports have been favorably 
passed upon, and much feeling elicited upon the matter, but thus fer noth- 
ing has been effected. How long the " Athens of America " shall contin- 
ue to be the only large town in Massachusetts that does not furnish a su- 
perior seminary for females, at the public expense, is a problem that we 
have now no means of solving. 



BOARD OF SCHOOL COMMITTEE FOR 1851. 

John Prescott Bigelow, Chairman, > nm+a 

Francis Brinley, President of Common Council, { Qfficu*. 



By Election from Ward*. 



Ward 

1. Rev. Edward Beecher, D. D. 
Benson Leavitt. 

2. Dr. William H. Thomdike, 
Silas B. Hahn. 

3. Dr. Edward D. G. Palmer, 
Rev. Pharcellus Church. 

4. Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, 
Rev. Hubbard Winslow. 

5. Frederick Emerson, 
Loring Norcross. 

6. Sampson Reed, 
Frederick U. Tracy. 



Ward 

7. Hamilton Willis, 

Dr. Zabdiel B. Adams. 

8. Rev. James I. T. CooUdga, 
Samuel W. Bates. 

9. Joseph M. Wightman, 
Samuel E. Guild. 

10. Rev. Joseph B. Felt, 
Rev. George M. Randall. 

11. WiUliam H. Foster, 
George Eaton. 

12. Alvan Simonds, 
Francis Alger. 



NATHAN BISHOP, Public Softool Superintendent. 
SAMCJEL F. McCLEARY, Jn., Secretary of the Board. 

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LATIN SCHOOL. 



209 




LATIN SCHOOL, BEDFORD STREET. 

Established 1647, Erected 1844, Cost * 57,510.81. 
EPES SARGENT DIX WELL, Master; CALEB EMERY, Sub-Master. 
This School was instituted, in the language of our ancestors, "to the 
end that learning may not be buried in the graves of our forefathers in 
Church and Commonwealth." Its origin seems to hare been in hostility 
to His Satanic Majesty ; — in the statute words, " it being one chief proj- 
ect of Satan to keep men from the knowledge of the Scriptures, as in 
former times keeping them in unknown tongues, so in these latter times 
by persuading from the use of tongues, that so at last the true source and 
meaning of the original might be clouded and corrupted with false glosses 
of deceivers." So far as making thorough scholars is concerned, it has 
doubtless had its effect. From time immemorial it was located in School 
street. The old house was rebuilt in 1812, and in the interim the School 
occupied " a building in Friend street, called the Spermaceti Works." 
This second house was demolished in 1844, the Horticultural Hall now oc- 
cupying its site, and the present edifice was erected. We have only room 
for a list of the masters since the School Committee was instituted, in 
1792, and from this date we give all the masters of the Grammar Schools. 
S Hunt was in office at the close of the last century, and till 1805 ; S. C. 
Thatcher succeed him temporarily ; W. Bigelow, of Salem, was in office 
from 1805 to 1814 ; B. A. Gould, from 1814 to 1828 ; F. P. Leverett, from 
1823 to 1811 ; C. K. Dillaway, from 1831 to 1836. E. S. Dixwell, 1836. 



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210 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




ELIOT SCHOOL, NORTH BEN NET STREET. 

Established 1713, Erected 1838, Cost $24,072. 
W. O. AYRES, Grammar Master; L. CON ANT, Writing Matter. 
A public school was kept long before the date of the establishment of 
the Eliot. " Att a generall meeting upon publique notice, the 13th f y« 
2nd month, 1635, it was then generally agreed upon yt or brother Phile- 
mon Permont shal be intreated to become a scholemaster for the teaching 
& nourtering of children with us," — and on "the 10th of y« 11th mo. 
1644, It's ordered that Deare Hand shall be Improved for the maintenance 
of a Free Schoole for the Towne." Whether " Philemon" was the fore- 
father of the Eliot school, and whether it flourished with the " seaven 
pounds per yeer," which James Penn and John Oliver paid for " Deare 
Hand," is not now to be determined. Certain it is, however; it was two 
different schools, one in " Love Lane," and one in " Robert Sandiman's 
meeting-house. " In 1 792 a new house was bu ilt on the site of the present, 
and the lower room was " appointed to the writing and the upper to the 
reading school." This was the first union of two schools in one build- 
ing. Samuel Cheney and John Tileston, were the masters. It was de- 
demolished in 1837, and the present house was built, with repairs, altera* 
tions, and considerable additions in 1850. 
Pupils, 406 ; average 366. 



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ADAMS SCHOOL. 



211 




ADAMS SCHOOL, MASON STREET. 

Established 1717, Erected 1848, Cost $20,000. 

SAMUEL BARRET, Grammar Master; B. WOOD, Sub-Master. 

This was formerly two distinct Schools, one in Queen street, now Court, 
called the Centre Writing School, and the other " in front of the new 
Court House,"— now City Hall,— called the Centre Reading School, 
gathered in 1789. In 1812 the town ordered this last to be removed, and 
the Latin School-House, in School street, was rebuilt, and enlarged to ac- 
commodate all three. The Reading School was afterwards removed to 
West street, in the same building with the South Writing School, and in 
1819, the Writing School followed, the South being removed to Franklin 
Hall, and the two Centre Schools were united. The old house was rebuilt 
in 1822, and was occupied by a boys' school, as it has been latterly. For 
many years this latter building was excessively inconvenient, — the most 
so of any house in the city, and in 1847 it was demolished, and the pres- 
ent elegant and commodious edifice erected. It received its name with 
other schools in 1821. The last reports show 340 pupils, with 268 aver- 
age attendance. Medals were given at their first institution, in 1792, but 
the recipients are not recorded. During the siege of Boston, the schools 
| were all intermitted, except one kept by Dupee, and it is said to have 
held its sessions in the old house in West street. This, however, is un- 
certain. 






212 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




FRANKLIN SCHOOL, WASHINGTON STREET. 

Established 1785, Erected 1845, Cost * 18,394. 

S. L. GOULD, Master; S. A. M. CUSHING, Principal Assistant. 

This, like the Eliot and Adams, was formerly two distinct schools, — 
the South Writing and the South Reading Schools. The former was lo- 
cated in Mason street, and the latter in Nassau street. In 1819 the for 
mer was established at " Franklin Hall," over the Nassau Street School; 
they were united as two departments of the same school, and were named 
the same year. In 1826 a new house was erected on Washington street, 
the site of the present, after considerable difficulty in locating it, and the 
schools removed from Common street. It was injured by fire in 1833. In 
the great fire of 1844, it was totally destroyed, and the present edifice was 
erected on the same spot, and on the plan of the Brimmer and Otis. Its 
Grammar Masters have been Elisha Ticknor, Samuel Payson, Foster Wa- 
terman, Asa Bui lard, S. Payson, Ebenezer Bailey, William J. Adams, 
William Clough, R G. Parker, Barnum Field, who died on the — of May, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Gould, two weeks after. Its Writing Masters 
were John Vinal, Rufus Webb, Otis Pierce, and Nathan Merrill, who re- 
signed in 1848. It was then placed on the single-headed plan, with two 
female assistants, with increased salaries, instead of a Sub-Master. Mas- 
ter Webb was a noted and worthy man, with much " pride of office," 
and left a legacy to the school, to buy books for indigent pupils. It is a 
girls' school, with 561 pupils. 431 average attendance. The old school, 
in Nassau street, was established in April, 1785. 



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MAYHBW SCHOOL. 



213 




M1YHEW SCHOOL, HAWKINS STREET. 

Established 1802, Erected 1847, Cost * 35,792.69. 
SAMUEL SWAN, Master; WINSLOW BATTLES, Sub-Matter. 
In 1803 a number of citizens of West Boston petitioned for a new 
school, and a piece of land was bought for it of Mr. Lyman, at the corner 
of Chardon and Hawkins street, so " as' at the same time to accommodate 
those who are near the centre of the town," and the old house was the re- 
sult, which was opened to accommodate the two schools in April of the 
same year, although considerable dissatisfaction at first existed as to its 
location. It was named for Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, in 1821. This is 
now a boys' school, as it was at first, and " Master Holt " will be remem- 
bered for a long day by rery many men still living. It has, however, at 
some periods of its existence been a mixed school, and many mothers of 
its present pupils were its scholars. The first house is now standing, but 
was converted into a stable in 1847, and the present building was finished 
the same year. The Grammar Masters have been Cyrus Perkins, Hall J. 
Kelly, John Frost, R. G. Parker, William Clough, Moses W. Walker, W. 
D. Swan. Its Writing Masters were Benjamin Holt, Benjamin Callan- 
der, Aaron Davis Capen, and John D. Philbrick. At the organization of 
the Quincy School, Mr. Philbrick was transferred to that, and the May. 
hew was reorganized on the one-headed plan, as it is at present. Pupils, 
408, average attendance 330. 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




HA WES SCHOOL, SOUTH BOSTON. 

Established 1811, Erected 1823, Cost ft 5,889.29. 
JOHft A. HARRIS, Master; CHARLES A. MORRILL, Stob-Master. 
Previous to May, 1807, about three rears after the annexation of South 
Boston —before a part of Dorchester—- to the town, no school existed in 
the place, other than private. In this year a petition was circulated, and 
it appearing that the people paid ft 1 ,000 taxes, and yet had no public 
school privileges, the town voted 8300 for the purpose of sustaining "a 
woman's school," on condition that the appointment of teachers should 
be with the general School Committee. This was paid several years, but 
the Committee did not immediately .take the school under their supervis- 
ion. A house was built on some public land where no street was laid out, 
at a cost of ft 400, and this remained as the School House of South Boston, 
until the present house was erected on land given by Mr. John Hawes. 
The first house was built by a Mr. Everett, under the direction of Mr. 
Woodard, and some questions as to ownership arose in 1823. Us teach* 
ers were at first in part supported by subscription ; in 1821, the teacher 
was " put on the same footing as the ushers," and in 1833, the Master 
was made equal to others. It was not known on the records, as the 
" Hawes," until 1827. It had but one male teacher, or master, until 1835, 
when Mr. Harris was elected Writing Master. Its Masters previous were 
Z. Wood, L. Capen, B. Field, J. Lincoln, M. W. Walker, J. Harrington. 
Jr. Mr. H. became the Grammar Master, was succeeded by Mr. Qtafts, 
and the school remained with two departments until January, 1848. 

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SMITH SCHOOL. 



815 




SMITH SCHOOL,, BELKNAP STREET. 

Established 1812, Erected 1834, Cost $ 7,485.61. 
THOMAS PAUL, Master; JAMES C. JOHNSON, Music Teacher. 
This school is for colored children of both sexes. A school for Africans 
was commenced by themselves, in 1798, the Selectmen having first grant* 
ed permission, and was kept in the house of Primus Hall. The yellow 
fever broke it up, and three years afterwards it was revived by Rev. Drs. 
Morse of Charlestown, Kirkland of Harvard College, Charming, and Low- 
ell, and Rev. Mr. Emerson of Boston. They provided for. its entire sup- 
port two years. It was then proposed to have the colored people hire a 
building, and a carpenter's shop was selected adjoining to the old church, 
and this continued three years. The site of the meeting-house was then 
selected, and purchased by subscription, and the African Baptist Church 
erected a house, of which the school occupied the basement. The room 
was completed in 1808, and immediately occupied by the school, and the 
reverend gentlemen mentioned supported the school, with aid from sub- 
scriptions, until 1812, when the town first took notice of it, granting 
9 200 annually. In 1815, Abie! Smith, Esq., died, and left a legacy of 
about • 5,000, the income of which is to be appropriated " for the free in- 
struction of colored children in reading, writing, and arithmetic." The 
present house was built in 1833 - 35, and on the 10th of February, 1836, 
the school was named for its benefactor. Pupils 65 ; average 37. 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




BOYLSTON SCHOOL., FORT H1L.I* 

Established 1819, Erected 1818, Cost % 13,343.73. 

J. C. DORE, Grammar Master; C. KIMBALL, Writing Master. 

The Boylston School waa named by vote of the town, — the first in the 
city, — at the time it was gathered. The present building in Washington 
Place, Fort Hill, was finished in 1819, and the schools took possession of 
it on the 20th of April, under John Stickney, Master of the Reading 
School, and Ebenezer E. Finch, of the Writing School. For two or three 
years a " Monitorial School," under Mr. William B. Fowle, was kept in 
the building, with what success we are not aware, but in 1822 he resigned 
his office, and the school was discontinued. Charles Fox succeeded Mr. 
Stickney, and was succeeded in 1844 by Thomas Baker, then usher in the 
Mayhew, who resigned in 1849, and was succeeded by Mr. Dore. Fred- 
erick Emerson, Esq., now of the School Committee, followed Mr. Finch, 
and when the Writing Master's office was abolished, in 1830, he left the ser- 
vice ; and on its restoration, in 1833, Abel Wheeler, the usher in the school, 
was elected Writing Master, succeeded by Aaron B. Hoyt, and he by 
Mr. Kimball, in 1840. The institution of this school was the occasion of 
uniting the two departments into one school, throughout the city, and the 
house was then thought to be without a parallel, although in 1848 it was 
by far the poorest house in the city, and in 1849 was completely remod- 
elled. It is very finely located on Washington Place, opposite the Square. 



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BOWDOIN SCHOOL. 



217 




BOWDOIN SCHOOL, MYRTLE STREET. 

Established 1821 , Erected 1848, Coat ft 44,980. 14. 
A. ANDREWS, Grammar Master; J. ROBINSON, Writing Master. 
This house contains one large hall in the third story, with two rooms 
for recitation, and another smaller apartment for the use of the Gram- 
mar Master; two large rooms, connected by sliding doors, two recitation 
rooms, and one room for the Writing Master, in the second story ; two 
large rooms, with a recitation room to each one on the first floor. The 
school is for girls only. The building is furnished with desks and chairs 
of the most approved style. It has 560 seats for pupils. The school, af- 
ter having been at the Masonic Temple nearly a year, took possession of 
the new building on Myrtle street, on the 15th of May, 1848. On this 
occasion addresses were made by Mayor Quincy, President Quincy, Pro- 
fessor Parsons, and Sampson Reed, and G. B. Emerson, Esqs. It was 
first established in Derne street, on the site now occupied by the reservoir, 
and was taken down to make room for that structure, in June, 1847. 
Both sexes, for about ten years after its first establishment, attended its 
instruction. The first Masters were Warren Peirce, and John H. Belcher. 
Mr. Peirce died near the close of the first year, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Andrews, in June, 1822, who was previously principal of a private school 
in Charlestown. Mr. Belcher was succeeded by Mr. Robinson. 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL, BEDFORD STREET. 

Established 1821, Erected 1844, Cost, see Latin. 
THOMAS SHERWIN, Master; LUTHER ROBINSON, Sub-Master. 
This school originated in the growing desire for extended means of 
thorough education, and was one of the latest and best fruits of the com- 
bined action of the citizens of the " old town " of Boston. Some of the 
latest " warned town meetings " were in reference to the establishment of 
this school, and it was finally and heartily commenced in the year 1821, 
in the second story of the old Derne Street School-House, then newly 
erected. George Barrell Emerson, now of the School Board, was chosen 
its. first Master, February 19, 1821. It continued in the Derne street 
house until a building was erected for it in Pinckney street, which it first 
occupied in February, 1824. The plan of the School has already been de- 
scribed in our introductory remarks, and it is only necessary to add, that 
its increased usefulness and popularity are only excelled by the pride our 
citizens take in it It not only receives its proportion of Franklin Med- 
als, but in 1846 the Hon. Abbott Lawrence made it a donation of • 2,000, 
the interest of which is annually distributed in prizes. A liko donation 
he also made to the Latin School. In 1844 it became necessary to build a 
new house for the Latin School, and a plan was projected of having the 
two schools in one building, and the High School was removed from 
Pinckney street to Its present location. 



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HANCOCK SCHOOL. 



219 




HANCOCK SCHOOL, RICHMOND PLACE. 

Established 1822, Erected 1847, Co* $69,603.15. 

GEORGE ALLEN, Jr., Master; P. W. BARTLETT, Sub-Mater. 

This school was first located in Middle street, now Hanover, and was 
opened in June, 1823, by an address from the Mayor. The old house still 
stands, and is converted into Primary School-rooms, and a Ward Room. 
It has, for several years, been a girls' school, and one of the first rank 
in the city. Its first Masters were Nathaniel K. G. Oliver, and Peter 
Mcintosh, Jr. The latter held office till his death, in 1848, and was a 
most estimable man, and a universal favorite with his pupils and associ* 
ates in office. At his decease the school was placed upon the single- 
headed plan, and Mr. Bartlett, usher in the Brimmer School, was elected 
Sub-Master in September. The old house was very incommodious, and 
under the exemplary zeal of James H. Barnes, Esq., after several years' 
effort, the present site was selected, a most elegant building erected, and 
on the 10th of April, 1848, it was dedicated with appropriate services. It 
is quite similar in construction to the " Quincy," four stories high, with 
a large hall in the highest story, that will seat six or seven hundred, and 
several separate rooms for assistant teachers on the lower floors. The 
house cost several thousand dollars more than any in the city, and is not 
surpassed in any respect. Its location is very good, between Prince and 
Richmond streets. It has 466 pupils, average attendance 399. 



290 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




WBLLS SCHOOL., McLEAN STREET. 

Established 1833, Erected 1833, Cost $28,098.87. 
C. WALKER, Grammar Master', R. SWAN, Jr., Writing Master. 
This school was gathered on account of the crowded state of the neigh- 
boring schools, in December, 1833, under the present Grammar Master, 
who was previously Master of the Eliot School, and Benjamin Callender, 
Writing Master. The latter held office about six months, was succeeded 
by John Lothrop, who left the school in 1836, and Mr. Swan, formerly of 
the Harvard School, Charlestown, was elected his successor. It was at 
first a school for both sexes, and so continued till the organization of the 
Otis, in 1845, when the boys were transferred to that and the Phillips, and 
the Wells became a girls' school, and so remains. It was named for the 
Hon. Charles Wells, fourth Mayor of the city, in the years 1832 - 33. Dur- 
ing the year 1860, the house was considerably enlarged, an additional 
story placed upon the original structure, and the halls furnished with the 
latest conveniences and aids to teaching. Last returns show 413 pupils, 
with 364 average attendance. The first medals were given in 1834, but 
the recipients are not on record. The district for this school embraces 
the whole of Ward Five, and within its limits there was, in 1848, no pri 
vate school kept, except a small one by a female teacher ; and in the same 
limits there were but fourteen girls who attended any other school. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



JOHNSON SCHOOL. 




JOHNSON SCHOOL, TREHOHT STREET. 

Established 1836, Erected 1836, Cot ft 26,715.14. 
R. G. PARKER, Master N. School; J. HALE, Master S. School 
This school, for girls only, was organized in September, 1836, in conse- 
quence of the increasing wants of the South end. It was at first opened as 
a " one-headed " school, and Mr. Parker, at that time Master of the May- 
hew School, was elected Principal. A Writing Master, specially em- 
ployed, visited this and the Winthrop School, on alternate days, — the 
Masters teaching all else. This plan continued till 1841, when it was 
changed, and Mr. Joseph Hale of the Phillips School, Salem, was chosen 
to the head of the Writing Department. It retained this form until Jan- 
uary, 1848, when the scholars were separated into two distinct schools, 
Mr. Parker being Principal of the one, and Mr. Hale of the other, each 
with female assistants only. The School has a small library, presented by 
Amos Lawrence, Esq. The name " Arbella " was prefixed at the request 
of the Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong, then Mayor, but it is known simply as 
the "Johnson" School. This was the third entire girls' school in the 
city, and the full attendance through the entire year shows how the hab- 
its of our citizens have changed since 1822, when the School Committee 
considered whether girls " might not be allowed" to attend school in the 
winter months ! Medals were first awarded to Misses E. M. Emmons, M. 
L. Crymble, M. H. Ireland, E. W. Keith, S. L. Stlnson, A. C. Cheever. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




WINTHROP SCHOOL, BAST STREET. 

Eatabltihed 1896, Erected 1835, Coat #23,897. 
HENRY WILLIAMS, Jr., Matter. 
This school was originally organized like the Johnson, in the latter part 
of 1835, and the boys took possession of this house in September, 1836, 
under Franklin Forbes. All branches, except writing, were taught by the 
master. Mr. F. resigned in December, 1837, and Mr. Williams succeeded 
him in January, 1848. The school continued under its original organisa- 
tion till April, 1841, when it was made a mixed school, and Samuel L. 
Gould was chosen Writing Master. In 1847 the boys were sent to form 
the Quincy School, then organizing, and the girls were separated into the 
North and South Winthrop Schools, which were entirely distinct and in- 
dependent of each other, and so remained* until May, 1851, when Mr. 
Gould was transferred to the Franklin School, and the North and South 
Winthrop Schools were consolidated into one, under charge of Mr. Wil- 
liams. Before this change the house was without many indispensable 
conveniences. Dr. Thomas M. Brewer, Chairman of the School, inter- 
ested himself in the matter, and after untiring efforts, succeeded in hav- 
ing the house enlarged and improved after a plan projected by Mr. Wil- 
liams, dividing the two stories into four separate rooms each. Its interior 
arrangements are now commodious and superior, as well as the school it- 
self. 



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e 



LYMAN SCHOOL. 




LYMAN SCHOOL, BAST BOSTON. 

Established 1837, Erected 1846, Coat * 13,596.27. 

HOSEA H. LINCOLN, Master of Boys* School. 

ISAAC F. SHEPARD, Master of Girls* School. 
This school was first gathered with forty pupils, kept in a chapel, and 
was named for the Hon. Theodore Lyman, fiah Mayor of the city in 
1884 - 35. A handsome Library was presented to the school by this gentle- 
man, in 1847. The original house was built in 1837, and was destroyed 
by fire in January, 1846. The present building was erected the same year, 
upon the same site, on the plan of the Brimmer, and will seat 366 pupils 
in the main rooms. Four rooms on the lowest floor are also occupied, 
each sealing 52 pupils, and three rooms in an adjoining building. Albert 
Bowker, previously usher in the Eliot School, was the only Master, from 
the time of its establishment, till his resignation, in December, r845. In 
March, 1846, Mr. Lincoln, then usher in the Brimmer School, was elected 
his successor. The school was then reorganized ; from a mixed school, it 
was changed to separate schools for each sex. Mr. Lincoln took charge 
of the boys' school, and Mr. Ordway, usher in the school, took charge of 
the girls' school. He was subsequently elected Master. The schools be- 
gan to be in a very crowded state in 1847, and in 1848 incipient steps were 
taken to accommodate the surplus scholars, which finally resulted in the 
formation of the Chapman School. 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




ENDIOOTT SCHOOL, COOPER STREET. 

Established 1839, Erected 1840, Cost $22,337.07. 

J. W. JENKS, Master of Girls' School. 
JOHN F. NOURSE, Master of Boys' School. 
This school, for both sexes, was first gathered in April, 1839, ami until 
the building was completed, occupied the Pitts Street Chapel, and the 
Ward Room in the old Hancock School House. George Allen, Jr., then 
usher in the Mayhew School, and previously in the Adams, was elected 
Grammar Master, and Loring Lothrop, usher in the Eliot School, Writing 
Master. It took its name from the second Governor of the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay, John Endicott, and has been a school of marked pros- 
perity. The Rev. Sebastian Streeier was Chairman of the Committee of 
the School for several years, and to his deep interest in its welfare is to he 
referred much of its usefulness. The house is large and well ventilated, 
and its location is very good. The city, in 1843, purchased a lot of land 
on which to erect an addition, for the better accommodation of the 
schools, and in 1850, a complete remodelling of the building was effected. 
In September, 1847, Mr. Allen was transferred to the Hancock School, 
and the organization was changed. Two distinct schools were formed, 
Mr. Lothrop being made Master of the Girls' School, and Mr. Nourse, 
then of Beverly Academy, was chosen Master of the Boys'. Mr. Lothrop 
was transferred to the Chapman School, when it was organized in 1850. 



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MATHBB SCHOOL. 




MATHER SCHOOL, BROADWAY, SOUTH BOSTON. 

Established 1842, Erected 1842, Cost 921,314.80. 
J. A. STEARNS, Gram. Master; J. BATTLES, Jr., Writing Master. 

The Mather School wai first gathered in 1940, under Mr. Battles and 
female assistants, as a branch of the Hawes, and occupied Franklin Hall 
until their fine house was built. The school was named in 1842, in mem- 
ory of the celebrated Mather family, and was removed to the edifice erect- 
ed for it in March of the same year. An exhibition of the pupils in dec- 
lamation, and other exercises, occurred on the occasion. Alvan Simonds, 
Esq., now of the Common Council, was then, and for several years after, 
Chairman of the school, and to his energetic and faithful labors does the 
school owe much of its superior privileges and character. It continued 
under the charge of Mr. Battles, previously in the Hawce School, and I. 
F. Shepard, previously in the Endicott, ushers, till August, 1843, when it 
was fully organized, and Josiah A. Stearns, usher in the Adams School, 
was elected Grammar Master, and Mr. B. Writing Master. A Library 
of 1,000 volumes is connected with the school, for which it is chiefly in- 
debted to the liberality of Amos Lawrence, Esq., who made a similar gift 
to the Johnson School. A nucleus for it existed, however, from the ori- 
gin of the school, as a part of the results of a " moral association," origi- 
nated, it is believed, by Mr. Harrington, while at the Hawes School A 
similar association exists in the Mather, called the Lawrence Association. 



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226 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS* 




SCHOOL, COMMON STREET. 

Established 1843, Erected 1843, Coat #22,151.21. 
J. BATES, Jr., Grammar Master; J. H. BUTLER, Writing Matter. 
The Brimmer School for boys was established in 1843, to accommodate 
the surplus in the Adams, the Winthrop, and the Franklin Schools. The 
Franklin had previously been a mixed School, but on the establishment of 
the Brimmer, it became a girls' school, and its male pupils were all trans- 
ferred to this last ; thus it commenced with full numbers and advanced 
pupils. The house was first occupied in December. Dedication services 
were held on the occasion, and addresses were made by several distin- 
guished gentlemen. Mr. Bates, the Grammar Master, was elected from 
the Winthrop School, Charlestown, of which he had been Principal sev- 
eral years. Mr. Shepard was previously usher in the English High School. 
The school was named in compliment to the late Hon. Martin Brimmer, 
the ninth Mayor of the city, in 1843-44, and a liberal friend to public 
schools. This house is well situated on the site of the old Franklin School, 
and built on the same model with the Otis. The school has had a very 
high rank, from the time of its establishment. It has a library of about 
two hundred volumes, and they are used with much benefit. The whole 
number of pupils last returned was 341 ; average attendance 301. The 
first medals were awarded in 1845, to 6 F. Stoddard, C. H. Hovey, F. A. 
Tuttle, I. J. Harwond, H. W. Barrey, and F. Smith. 



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PHILLIPS SCHOOL. 



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PHILLIPS SCHOOL, PHtfCKJTOT 8TRBET. 

Established 1844, JE7rec/ed 1823-25, Cost ft 24,484.03. 

J. HOVEY, Grammar Master ; BENJ. DBEW, Writing Master. 

This house was first erected for the use of a Grammar School, and 
named the " Bowdoin School." Previous to its occupancy, the name was 
transferred to the old Derne Street School, and the building was devoted 
solely to the purposes of the English High School ; but upon the removal 
of this last to the new house in Bedford street, the building, at a cost of 
f 2,945.59, was refitted for a Grammar School, required by the growing 
population of the West End, and named in honor of the Hon. John Phil- 
lips, the first Mayor of Boston, in 1822. Samuel S. Greene was the first 
Grammar Master, and at his resignation in 1849, was succeeded by the 
present incumbent. Mr. Swan has been connected with the School from 
the Commencement. The School assembled in November, 1844, and on the 
first of the next February, the building was materially damaged by a fire, 
which took from the hot air flues of the furnace. The repairs cost ft 1,005, 
and some alterations were recommended by the last annual examining 
committee, " which would greatly benefit both the masters and the pu- 
pils." The school is for boys only, of whom 386 were reported in the last 
semi-annual returns, with an average attendance of 321. The location of 
the district from which the school is gathered, is one of the most favorable 
in the city, as its pupils generally come from the first class families. 
While this fact is beneficial in many respects, it almost necessarily keeps 
the school " young," as its pupils are enrly transferred to higher schools. 



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PUBLIC SCHOOIS. 




OTIS SCHOOL, LANCASTER STREET. 

Established 1844, Erected 1844, Cost $ 25,791.78. 

I. F. SHEPARD, Grammar Master ; B. DREW, Jr., Writing Master. 

This School-House when erected was considered the best in the city, al- 
though it is now quite behind the models. It contains two large halls, 
with two recitation rooms attached to each, and will seat, in the large 
rooms, 464 pupils. The school was first gathered as the New North School, 
in 1843, and until the present building was erected, occupied the ward 
rooms in the old Hancock and the Eliot school-houses. Samuel S. Greene, 
usher of the English High School, was chosen Grammar Master, who was 
transferred to the Phillips School, at its organization, and Mr. Shepard, 
then usher in the Adams School, was elected his successor. Mr. Drew 
had been usher in the May hew School. The school took possession of the 
new house Feb. 6, 1845, and dedicatory services were held on the fifth day 
of March, at which Mayor Davis presided. Appropriate addresses were 
made by the venerable Harrison Gray Otis, for whom the school was 
named, His Excellency Gov. Briggs, Dr. Ezra Palmer, Jr., and others. A 
fine Library was presented to the pupils by Win. S. Dararell, and remains 
a noble memento of his benevolence. The house is badly located, and a 
special committee have reported in favor of a new building on the site of 
the old jail in Leverett Street. 



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DWIOHT SCHOOL. 



2&J 




DVVICHT SCHOOL,, CO. V CORD STREET. 
Established 1844, Erected 1845, Cost #30,000. 

G. B. HYDE, Master G. School; J. A. PAGE, Master B. School. 

The School-House contains two large halls, with two recitation rooms 
attached to each, and will seat 528 pupils. The school was first gathered 
as the New South School, in 1844, and until the present building was 
erected, occupied the basement of the Suffolk Street Chapel. Mr. Hyde 
was the sole master of the school until 1850, when it was made into two 
distinct schools, like the Endicott, Mr. H. retaining the girls, and Mr. 
Page, then Sub-Master, was elected Principal of the boys' school. A 
small Library of reference books was presented to the school by Hon. Ed 
mund Dwight, the distinguished gentleman whose name it bears. Upon 
this subject of Libraries, we give the language of a Committee appointed 
in 1847. " In most parts of this State, school libraries are established, 
and our noble Commonwealth, in its wise munificence and forecast, opens 
its treasury to encourage them. Our Board does nothing. We establish 
no library for master or pupil. We leave both to private liberality and 
private charity. We claim not our rights of the State. We profess to be 
friends of the teacher, and yet leave him without a school library, and to 
sue in vain at the Public Library. Guardians of the purity of the chil- 
dren, and knowing the safeguard there is in a collection of well-selected 
books, we leave the moral and intellectual welfare of our charge to the 
proverbial delicacy and taste of the circulating library." 



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230 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




CtUINCY SCHOOL, TYLER STREET. 

Ettablithed 1S47, Erected 1847, Cost #60,210.18. 
J. D. PHILBRICK, Matter; C. E. VALENTINE, Sub-Matter. 
This school-house contains most of the modern improvements, for 
many of which it is indebted to the indefatigable exertions of James H. 
Barnes, Esq., a member of the School Board, and Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on the " Erection and Alteration of School Houses." It is four 
stories high, and contains twelve school rooms, each of which accomo- 
dates 56 scholars, and a hall furnished with settees, which will seat 700 
pupils. It has also six small recitation rooms. Its greatest improvements 
consist in having a separate room for each teacher, and a separate desk 
for each scholar. It was dedicated on the 26th of June, 1843. Addresses 
were made by Mayor Quincy, who presided, Dr. T. M. Brewer, Chairman 
of the Sub-Committee, the venerable Ex-President Quincy, second Mayor 
of the city, from 1823-28, for whom it was named, Rev. Mr. Wat erst on. 
and the Principal, who announced the fact that the liberal donation of 
$ 200 had been made to the school for the purpose of procuring a Library 
for the pupils. For some remarks upon the library facilities of the 
schools, the reader is referred to the notice of the Dwight School. Previ- 
ously to his transfer to this school, Mr. Philbrick had been one year 
usher in the English High School, and two years Writing Master of the 
May hew School Mr. Valentine had been usher in the Winthrop School. 



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PRIMARY SCHOOL. 



231 




PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

Established 1818, Expenses 95,000. 
The Primary Schools were originally but twelve in number, and with 
few conveniences provided by the city. For several years the teachers 
hired their own rooms, furnished them, and of course were subjected to 
many and great evils. Even the $ 5,000 that these schools cost was loud- 
ly talked of as a great expense, and it was not until 1833 that the city 
owned rooms where the schools were located. Now 113 schools are kept in 
city buildings ; some of them in the basements of Grammar School- 
Houses, and some in houses erected expressly for them. Three of these 
were built in 1847, and a view of one in Tremont street is given above. 
Another follows on the next page, and they have been erected with special 
regard to the comfort and convenience of teachers and pupils, while atten- 
1 lion has been paid to neatness and architectural accuracy. The prosperity 
j of the Primary Schools is the surest indication of the deep interest taken 
by the people in popular education. In 1820 there were only 1,381 pupils 
in them, while now there are 11 ,788. The scholars have increased at the 
j rate of 230 per cent., while the population has increased only 130 per cent. 






PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 




INGRAHAM SCHOOL, SHEAFE STREET. 

For 3 School; Erected 1848, Cost $ 12,425.70. 

This house was dedicated Monday, March 27, 1848. Joseph W. Ingra- 
ham, Esq», under whose direction the plans for the building were pre- 
pared, presided, made an address, and was followed by Hon. Horace Mann, 
and others. Mr. Billings was the architect, and Dr. H. G. Clark, and F. 
Emerson, Esq., arranged its ventilating apparatus, which is very superior. 
The house is 63 feet in length, 25 in width, containing three principal 
apartments (or the schools, with recitation rooms, closets, and other mi- 
nor apartments. It is fitted up with all the modern improvements and 
appliances. 

Mr. Ingraham died on the 28th of August, in the 48th year of his age, 
much lamented. He was most zealously interested in the cause of educa- 
tion, an early, and the senior member of the Primary School Board, and 
was recently appointed a member of the Board of Education. He was an 
estimable man, with the noblest and purest impulses, guided by a profound 
sense of the great truths of Christianity. His funeral took place at Christ 
Church, in Salem street. The house was crowded with the friends of the 
deceased, among whom were the members of the School Committees, the 
Primary School Teachers, officers of the city, distinguished friends of 
Education, and a large number of children. In honor of his memory this 
school house was named by the Board, the " Ingraham Primary School." 



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' PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 833 

Trb foregoing sketches of the individual schools, — as full as the space 
allotted would allow, — it is believed are quite accurate, and but little of 
note is to be added We have said that the establishment of a public 
school is to be traced as far back as 1635, only five years after Winthrop 
"sat down in a goodlie place." It was then that Philemon Permont be 
came "schole master," and he probably followed that vocation until 1639, 
when he " was dismissed to join Mr. Wheelwright and others at Piscata- 
que." His school was free, although supported by subscription, according 
as each man felt disposed to give. Daniel Maude was chosen to the same 
office in 1636. and probably kept a distinct school, as Winthrop tells us in 
his Journal, nine years subsequent, that " divers free schools " were creat- 
ed. Maude was a minister, and removed to Dover, N. H. The names of 
Woodbridge, Woodmansey, and Benjamin Thompson, — a very learned 
man and a poet, — occur soon after. Ezekiel Cheever came next, and is 
well regarded as the Father of American Pedagogues, since he was not on- 
ly famous for his labors in other settlements, but elevated the character of 
the Boston School, till it was regarded as the " principal school " in the 
land. With the law of 1647, before referred to, the Latin School had its ori- 
gin, and has been continued ever since. The first distinct Writing School 
was kept by John Cole, in 1684. In 1713 Captain Thomas Hutchinson built 
a school-house at his own expense, known as the North Latin School, and 
Recompence Wordsworth was the Master. A house on Love Lane, here- 
after referred to, was built by the same family in 1718, for a Writing 
School, and kept by Jeremiah Condy. A Writing School in Mason street 
was opened the year before, under Amos Angier. These were the only 
schools previous to the Revolution, when they were all interrupted, and 
there was but one school during the siege of Boston, and that kept gratu- 
itously by Mr. Elias Dupee. In November of 1776, they were, however, 
all resumed, under the care of the Selectmen. The first provision for the 
support of these schools, we have already said, was by voluntary contribu 
tion. The oldest volume of town records shows a subscription list for this 
purpose, headed by Sir Henry Vane, — the Puritan Hero, —who gave 
£ 10, in company with Gov. Winthrop and Richard Bellingham. This 
method of raising money was not sufficiently permanent, and in 1641 
the town voted to apply the rent money from " Dere Hand " to support 
schools. Other public income was soon after applied, and for two centu- 
ries our city has not been without schools supported from the public treas- 
ury. Doubtless they have acted upon each other with reflex influence ; 
furnishing a forcible commentary upon the sacred precept, — " There is 
that giveth and yet increaseth ; there is that withholdeth more than is 
meet, and it tendeth to poverty." 

The changes, great as they are, that have occurred in our school system, 
are marked by peculiar eras. Previous to the year 1789, boys only were 
taught in the public schools, of which six were in existence. Thirty-one 



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231 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

years before this, in May, 1758, there were only five schools, and the whole 
number of pupils at them was only 841. The number now belonging to 
the public schools of the city, is shown by the actual returns to be no 
less than the vast multitude of 21,870 1 In the year mentioned, 1758, an 
examination was held, by the Selectmen appointed for the purpose, which 
must have been a great affair, and conducted with becoming dignity, 
judging from the record of their Report. They took with them " the 
Hon. John Osborn, Richard Bill, Jacob Wendell, Andrew Oliver, Stephen 
Sewall, John Erving, Robert Hooper, Esquires, the gentlemen Representa- 
tives of the town, the gentlemen Overseers of the Poor, the Rev. Minis- 
ters of the town, Mr. Treasury Gray, Joshua Winslow, Richard Dana, 
James Boulineau, Stephen Greenleaf, Esquires, Dr. William Clarke, and 
Mr. John Buddock " ; — and yet, with all this great array of Royal Hon- 
orables, Esquires, Gentlemen, Overseers, Reverends, Doctors, and Plain 
Misters, the Educational Committee give the result of their labors by 
simply telling us that they " found in the South Grammar School 115 
scholars ; in the South Writing School 240 ; in the Writing School in 
Queene Street 230 ; in the North Grammar School 336 ; in the North 
Writing School 220 ; all in very good order ! " A capital Report that, 
and a lucid idea it gives us of the state of instruction a hundred years 
ago! Perhaps "good order" did not mean in those days what it does 
now ; but if so, it can hardly be wondered at that the little fellows were 
still, and fixed to their seats, at seeing some thirty pairs of knee-buckles, 
breeches, and long hose come parading into the school-houses, "all in a 
row, with their ruffled wristbands, cocked hats, powdered wigs, and spec- 
tacles, to say nothing of parsons' gowns and doctors' saddle-bags." Veri* 
ly, it must have been a rare sight to look at ! 

In those days the extent of instruction was in the branches of Reading, 
Writing, and Arithmetic, if we except Latin, which was taught in two 
schools, one in School Street, and one nearly upon the spot now occupied 
by the Eliot School in Bennet Street. But in the year 1789, the people 
waked up to the necessity of improvement, and measures were taken ia 
town meeting, " for instructing both sexes, and reforming the present sys- 
tem." It was determined that there should be one school only, in which 
the rudiments of the Latin and Greek Languages should be taught, and 
that there should be one Writing and one Reading School at the South, at 
the Centre, and at the North parts of the town; that in the Writing 
Schools children of both sexes should be taught Writing, and also Arith- 
metic in the various branches usually taught in the town schools, includ- 
ing vulgar and decimal fractions : that in the Reading Schools, " the chil- 
dren of both sexes be taught to Spell, Accent, and Read both prose and 
verse, and also be instructed in English Grammar and Composition." 

This, with the appointment of a School Committee, was the first ap- 
proach to any thing like a system, and yet three years after, at the first 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 236 

meeting of the School Committee, opposition to the improvements was to 
be met, and violent prejudices combatted. A petition to the town was 
referred to the Committee, and the School Masters were invited to meet 
the petitioners, who were represented by Mr. Sweetser, and others. The 
Masters accordingly attended the Committee, — a general conversation 
ensued on the subject of the petition, Mr. Sweetser and Deacon Bailey 
stated their objections to the present system, which they thought par- 
ticularly injurious to the lads destined to business, which required a read- 
iness in Arithmetic ; they wished that such lads might spend the whole 
of their last year in Writing and Arithmetic, Instead of dividing the 
time between those objects and reading. The Masters were severally 
questioned on the advantage of the existing plan of education, and unani- 
mously gave their opinion in favor of it, — explained their mode of teach- 
ing, — and the Writing Masters were fully of opinion that the boys made 
as great proficiency in Writing and Arithmetic, as under the old mode, 
and that the time devoted to Arithmetic was fully sufficient to qualify any 
youth for the common business of a counting-house. Upon the whole, it 
appeared that the reformed system had produced the great advantage of 
giving education to a great number of females, without depriving the boys 
of their share of the Master's attention. 

Thus was the system established, and the school-house in Pleasant 
Street, occupied by Mr. Ticknor, became the South Reading School ; and 
the school-house in West Street, occupied by Mr. Vinal, the South Writ- 
ing School ; a building was hired for the Centre Reading School, and the 
school-house in Tremont Street, occupied by Mr. Carter, became the Cen 
tre Writing School ; the building in Middle Street, occupied by Mr. Che- 
ney, was retained as the North Reading School ; and the school-house in 
Love Lane, at which Mr. Ti lesion taught, was continued as the North 
Writing School. The North Latin School, contiguous to the last, was 
given up, and the school-house in School Street, occupied by Mr. Hunt, 
became the School for instruction in the Latin and Greek Languages. The 
location of these houses is by no means an uninteresting matter. Mr. 
Tlcknor's was nearly on the spot where the Brimmer now stands, in Com- 
mon Street; Mr. Vinal's was near where the Adams now is : Mr. Carter's 
was a wooden continuation of Scollay's building, which nearly reached 
across the street, to Rev. S. K. Lothrop's house; Mr. Cheney's in Middle 
Street, now Hanover, opened where Parkman place now is, and "Love 
Lane " has since taken old Father Tileston's name ; the old North Latin 
School stood where the Eliot now is, and on its discontinuance the last 
two houses, almost contiguous, were united. Mr. Hunt's School was on 
the site of the Horticultural Hall ; and the room for the Centre Reading 
School was in an old wooden building that stood nearly opposite the latter, 
in the present yard of the City Hall. 

A good story is told of the Boston boys who attended the School that 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



was kept in West street, during the Revolution. In November, 1776, the 
General Court ordered four brass cannon to be purchased for the use of the 
artillery companies in Boston. Two of these guns were kept in a gun- 
house that stood opposite the Mall, at the corner of West street. The 
school-house was the next building, and a yard inclosed with a high fence 
was common to both. Major Paddock, who then commanded the com- 
pany, having been heard to express his intention of surrendering these 
guns to the British army, a few individuals resolved to secure for the 
country a property which belonged to it, and which, in the emergency of 
the times, had an importance very disproportionate to its intrinsic value. 

Having concerted their plan, the party passed through the school-house 
into the gun-house, and were able to open the doors which were upon the 
yard, by a small crevice, through which they raised the bar that secured 
them. The moment for the execution of the project was that of the roll- 
call, when the sentinel, who was stationed at one door of the building, 
would be less likely to hear their operations. 

The guns were taken off their carriages, carried into the school-room, 
and placed in a large box under the master's desk, in which wood was kept. 
Immediately after the roll-call, a lieutenant and sergeant came into the 
gun-house to look at the cannon, previously to removing them. A young 
man who had assisted m their removal, remained by the building, and fol- 
lowed the officer in, as an innocent spectator. When the carriages were 
found without the guns, the sergeant exclaimed, " By O—, they 're gone! 
I Ml be d d if these fellows won't steal the teeth out of your head, 

while you 're keeping guard" They then began to search the building for 
them, and afterwards the yard ; and when they came to the gate that 
opened into the street, the officers observed that they could not have 
passed that way, because a cobweb across the opening was not broken. 
They next went into the school-house, which they exsmined all over, ex- 
cept the box, on which the master placed his foot, which was lame ; and 
the officer, with true courtesy, on that account excused him from rising. 
Several boys were present, but not one lisped a word. The British officers 
soon went back to the gun-house, and gave up the pursuit in vexation. 
The guns remained in that box for a fortnight, and many of the boys were 
acquainted with the fact, but not one of them betrayed the secret. At the 
end of that time, the person who had withdrawn them, came in the even- 
ing with a large trunk on a wheelbarrow ; the guns were put into it and 
carried up to a blacksmith's shop at the South end, and there deposited 
under the coal. After lying there for a while, they were put into a boat in 
the night, and safely transported within the American lines. 

In locating a Reading and a Writing School in each section of the town, 
the Committee had done something towards meeting the wants of the peo- 
ple, it being quite natural thai the children would attend the school near- 
est their places of residence. But no local limits were assigned to the eev- 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 237 

end schools, discontents end preferences grew up, and many pupils were 
to be found in all the schools, who came from the most remote parts of the 
town. North end children went to the South end Schools, the South end 
to the North, both to the Centre, and the Centre children wandered off to 
each of the other sections, according as they liked masters, while children 
living in the immediate vicinity of a school were often excluded there- 
from, or subjected to great inconvenience in their attendance. Further 
than this, the schools were, in a great degree, distinct from each other, 
each of the Writing Schools being composed of children from the several 
Reading Schools, and each of the Beading Schools was made up of chil- 
dren from the various Writing Schools. In* many instances children at- 
tended the Reading Schools without going to a Writing School, and vice 
versa. This brought about great inequality as to numbers, some masters 
having more than four hundred pupils, while others never counted two ; 
and the attendance often varied from 100 to 260. 

The evil consequent upon so much looseness of arrangement became so 
great, that in 1819, when the Boylston School was established, Peter O. 
Thatcher, Benjamin Russell, and Samuel Dorr, were appointed a Commit- 
tee npon districting the town and further systematizing the schools. 
These gentlemen, all now deceased, entered upon the work, and originated 
what has ever since, with slight variation, been our school system. They 
reported that it would " improve the order of the schools if each should be 
considered as consisting of two divisions; one for Writing and Arithme- 
tic, and the other for Reading, and the other branches of an English edu- 
cation ; that when a child entered one of these divisions he should be con- 
sidered a member of, and be required to attend upon, the other ; that the 
masters of both should have a concurrent jurisdiction over all the pupils 
in respect to discipline and instruction, — both divisions being accommo- 
dated with separate rooms in the same building. 1 ' This plan was pleasing 
to the Committee, and the erection of the Boylston school-house, and the 
creation of a new Writing School in Franklin Hall, over the Reading 
School in Nassau street, made it so convenient to adopt it, that it was com- 
menced, and has so continued until the present day, with such variation* 
as have been noted under the different schools. It was by this Committee, 
and at the same time, that the " Franklin " School was named, end Mr. 
Webb of the Centre wss transferred to the new Writing School, who la- 
bored in conjunction with Mr. Payson of the Reading School. Mr. Snell- 
ing J s Writing School in the Latin School- House, School street, was discon- 
tinued, and he took Mr. Webb's place in Mason street, where Mr. Haskell 
was Master of the Grammar School. The West Schools, under Messrs. 
Perkins and Holt, in Hawkins street, became one, as well as the North 
schools in Bennet street, under Messrs. Crosby anil Tileston, and Masters 
were elected to the Boylston Schools, on Fort Hill, thus making five 
schools, esch with two departments and two masters. 



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<£*> PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The system worked well, with only such accidental frictkms as are con- 
sequent upon all similar arrangements, and for twenty years brought about 
good results. In 1830, however, strong efforts were made for " reform" 
and change, and with partial success ; but very much of bitter feeling and 
strong partisan prejudice was excited among members of the Committee, 
The changes, such as they were, did not work well, however, from what- 
ever cause, and in a few years the schools were all again organised upon 
the plan of 1819, and so continued till the memorable " campaigns " of 
1846-47, following in the blaze of the battle between the " Thirty-One," 
and the Honorable Secretary of the Board of Education. Changes again 
occurred, noted under the respective schools, and whatever practical good 
or evil may result from either old or new plans, it is no doubt true, that so 
much harmony of feeling, confidence, and good will between committees 
and teachers, and esprit du corps among the teachers themselves, never 
existed as at the present lime. 

The establishment of the boy's High School In 1821, was another pro- 
gressive step in popular education, and its complete success not only sat- 
isfied the most sanguine expectations of its friends and promoters, but at 
length gave an impulse to a similar provision for the girls of the city. 
The Rev. John Pierpont, for many years a most active member of the 
School Board, took a lively interest in this matter, and in 1825 the project 
was carried into operation. An appropriation was made for it by the City 
Council, it was located in an upper room of the Derne Street school- hoase, 
under the charge of that accomplished teacher, the late Ebenezer Bailey, 
Esq., — but it did not meet with that warm sympathy and determined 
zeal necessary to overcome all the impediments in the way of its complete 
success, and after two or three years it was finally abandoned. 

The Institution of the Franklin Medals took place in the year 1792, and 
have since been one of the most interesting, and we sincerely believe, useful 
features in the schools. These are of silver, six in number, presented on 
the day of the annual exhibition, to the most deserving pupils, — "gen- 
eral scholarship taken into consideration," — in each of the respective 
boys' schools, that is full or nearly full. They originated from the follow- 
ing clause of the will of Dr. Franklin, who died April 17, 1790 : — 

" I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my first instructions in 
literature to the free grammar schools established there. I therefore give 
one hundred pounds sterling to my executors, to be by them, the survivors 
or survivor of them, paid over to the managers or directors of the free 
schools in my native town of Boston, to be by them, or those person or 
persons, who shall have the superintendence and management of the said 
schools, put out to interest, and so continued at interest for ever, which in- 
terest annually shall be laid out in silver medals, and given as honorary 
rewards annually by the directors of the said free schools, for the encour- 
agement of scholarship in the said schools belonging to the said town, in 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



such manner as to lbs discretion of the selectmen of the said town shall 
seam meet." 

This donation has bean successfully applied. The fuad now (1848) 
amounts to $ 1,000, which is invested in five per cent, city stock. The 
interest is annually appropriated for purchasing medals, which are distrib- 
uted in the schools. v 

A little more than two years after Franklin's decease, this gift became 
available, and a Committee, consisting of William Tudor, Esq., Rev. Mr. 
Clarke, and Mr. Charles Buifinch, was appointed "to ascertain the ex- 
pense of procuring medals to carry into effect the intention of the late Dr. 
Franklin, in his donation." The Committee reported in the matter, 
awarding twenty-one medals, — three to the Latin, three to each of the 
Grammar, and three to each of the Writing Schools. That report has 
been the basis of apportionment from that time to this, although the fund 
amounts to but $ 1,000 vested in five per cent, city stock, yielding only 
• 50 per annum, while the cost of the 68 Franklin Medals for 1848, 
amounts to i 136, — thus leaving more than one half the "Franklin" 
Medals to be paid for out of the city treasury. We have thought it worth 
while to have a foe-simile of the original Medal engraved, from the draw- 
ing on record. On one side is an open book, surmounted by two pens 
crossed, encircled by the words "The Gift of Franklin." In June, 1795, 
it was determined that the device on those designed for the Latin Gram- 
mar School should be a "pile of books, the words — Detur digniori— 
inscribed on the same side." 




The old dies have been worn out, and renewed two or three times, and 
the appearance of the Medals somewhat changed. William Savage, one of 
the original recipients, lost his, it having been stolen from his house, and 
he petitioned to the city for a new one in 1820, which was readily granted. 

On the reverse of the original Medal, were the words found in the fac- 
aimile. 



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210 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The inscription on the reverse of the Latin Medals dittoed slightly 
from the other*. It ran " Franklin's Donation adjudged by the School 
Committee of the town of Boston, to A. B." 

We have inserted the name of Dr. Warren, because it stands as the very 
Jirat on the record, he being then a pupil of the Latin School. We know 
not how the venerable man regards this distinction among other honors of 
his brilliant and successful career, but we have heard H said that the Hon. 
James Savage has, not very remotely, remarked, that " he looked upon the 
day he took a Franklin Medal as the proudest of his life." The Boston 
Almanac for the year 1849, from which these materials are taken, contains 
the names of the first Medal Scholars in each school. 

Through some means, — certainly not by the authority of the phraseol- 
ogy in the will, —the custom has been perpetuated of giving these med- 
als to boys only. When Franklin went to the schools, to be sure, only 
boys attended upon them; but this makes no law against bestowing his 
medals upon female pupils. To remedy this inconsistency, the School 
Committee, in 1821, voted to give an equal number to the girls, calling 
them " City Medals." In the progress of educational discussion, how- 
ever, strong ground has been taken against all such motives to emulation, 
and by some of our most judicious educators,— although we think mis- 
takenly, — and In 1847 they were refused to the girls, the boys receiving 
them only because no power existed to annul Franklin's will. In 1848, 
however, a reaction took place, mainly through the commendable zeal of 
Mr. Joseph M. Wightman, and the City Medals have been restored, and 
it is hoped may be continued. In addition to the medals to the first class, 
six handsome diplomas of merit are now awarded to each of the three 
lower classes in all the schools, —so far as it is known, with happy and 
healthful influences. 

Specific names to the schools did not exist previous to the year 1821, if 
we except the Franklin and the Boylston. It was ordered in 1819, " that 
the School now located in Nassau street, take the name of ' Franklin,' in 
honor of the benefactor of the Schools," and the Schools on Fort Hill 
were known as the "Boylston Schools "from their commencement in 
1818. The others were known tjy the localities, till the year above men- 
tioned, 1821, when a Committee, appointed for the express purpose, 
reported that " the propriety and expediency of giving specific names 
cannot be doubted," and recommended that thereafter the school in Ben- 
net street be called the "Eliot,"— that in Hawkins street, the "May- 
hew,"— that In Mason street, the "Adams,"— the "Franklin" and 
" Boylston " be so continued, — and that in School street be named the 
" Latin " School. The other Schools have been named as they were insti- 
tuted, a custom having obtained of taking the names of the Mayors as far 
they will go. The names of Mr. Davis and Mr. Armstrong, are the only 
ones of the Mayors not so honored, —but doubtless thsy will yet be. 

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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 241 

The vast progress that has been made in the system of instruction, and 
the character of the schools, has been fully equalled in the improvement of 
the school-houses. To those who remember the small rooms, tha- incon- 
venient forms, and the torturing benches of the old schools, the present 
noble buildings, and spacious, convenient, and finely-furnished rooms are 
a perfect luxury. But the greatest of all the improvements in this partic- 
ular, have reference to ventilation. This is a new feature in their excel- 
lence, added within the last two years, — and probably there are not twen- 
ty public buildings in the world that can equal them in this respect. For- 
merly the rooms in these school-houses, like most other school-rooms 
throughout the country, were warmed in winter by close stoves, without 
any means of ingress or egress of air, except through the doors or windows, 
and the same air with which the school started in the morning, was liable 
to remain in the school-room till night, circulating only through the lungs 
of the scholars, and over the surface of the hot iron stove. The well- 
known school-house odor was perceptible to a visitant before he crossed 
the threshold of the outer doors. These evils are now completely reme- 
died in Boston, and the public school-rooms, both in winter and summer, 
are now at all times supplied with a wholesome atmosphere of an agree- 
able temperature. 

The mode of ventilation adopted for the winter season, consists, first, in 
admitting a large quantity of moderately warmed air into the room, either 
through a furnace, or through a stove constructed on the principle of a fur- 
nace ; and, secondly, in discharging an equal quantity of air from the 
room through ventilators. The warmed air is introduced at one extremity 
of the room, and the place of discharge of air is at the opposite extremity. 
Hence all the air admitted into the room passes over the whole area, and 
escapes after it has been used in the respiration of the scholars. The 
ventiducts that take off the foul air extend from the flooring of the room 
through the ceiling, and through the roof of the building, where they are 
surmounted by ventilators. In each ventiduct there are two apertures to 
receive the air from the room, one at the flooring, and one at the ceiling. 

The improvement to our schools, both moral and physical, consequent 
on their ventilation, can hardly be too highly appreciated, and it is but 
just that, in this connection, credit should be bestowed upon those to 
whom we are Indebted for it. Mr. Combe, in one of his lectures in this 
city, about the year 1843, urged this subject upon his hearers, and a writer 
in the " Teacher of Health " took his text from him, and urged some 
pointed facts. This article attracted the attention of a member of tin 
School Committee, Mr. F. Emerson, who caused it to be printed and cir- 
culated in some public rooms, especially badly ventilated, and some im- 
provements ensued. From that time increased attention has been given 
to the subject ; Mr. Emerson has invented and perfected an improved ven- 
tilator, whose utility is only surpassed by its extreme simplicity. Its pe- 

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242 PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

culiar top may be seen extending from the roof of the May hew School, as 
well as several others in the engravings. It was not till the year 1847, 
that appropriations were made by the City Council, to ventilate the school- 
rooms, and to the scientific and efficient services of Dr. Henry G. Clark of 
the School Committee are we mainly obligated for the successful issue of 
this vast improvement. Dr. Clark's reports, and records of experiments, 
are documents of infinite value, and the health and comfort of thousands 
of children, in all coming time, will be largely indebted to his philanthro- 
py, together with that of the other gentlemen who have cooperated with 
him. 

It remains to notice but one new feature in our educational system., and 
that is the election of a superintendent of all the Public Schools in the 
City. The creation of such an office began to be urged as important 
about eight years since, and was warmly discussed, meeting as strong op- 
position as any measure ever proposed. It is not necessary here to de- 
tail any of the arguments upon either side, which were frequently brought 
forward both in the Board of School Committee and the Common Council, 
until the Committee of 1851 formally voted that such an office would be 
advantageous to the scholars, and applied to the Council for an appropria- 
tion of • 2,500 for the salary of such an officer. 

Recapitulation. — Masters 36; Sub-Masters 5 ; Ushers 20; Assistants 
121; Pupils 367 in Grammar School; English High School 121; Lat- 
in School 59; total, 547; Deer Island 121 ; House of Reformation 211; 
Whole number in Grammar School, 10,082. 

We had intended to give some idea of the modes of discipline practised 
in our schools, before the " masterly inactivity " of the rod and ferule. 
But limits forbid it, and we must conclude our sketch. Our schools are 
worthy of our pride, and are to be cherished as of the utmost importance 
to the perpetuity of freedom. Education is the corner-stone of liberty, 
and we cannot better close than by quoting the recent language of Presi- 
dent Everett. " I hold, Sir, that to read the English language well, that is, 
with intelligence, feeling, spirit, and effect ; —to write with despatch, a 
neat, handsome, legible hand (for it is, after all, a great object in writing 
to have others able to read what you write), and to be master of the four 
rules of Arithmetic, so as to dispose at once with accuracy of every ques- 
tion of figures which comes up in practical life ; — I say I call this a good 
education ; and if you add the ability to write grammatical English, with 
the help of very few hard words, I regard it as an excellent education. 
These are the tools, — you can do much with them, but you are helpless 
without them,— they are the foundation ; and unless you begin with these, 
all your flashy attainments, a little natural philosophy, and a little mental 
philosophy, a little physiology and a little geology, and all the other olo- 
gim and otophiea, are but ostentatious rubbish." 

The Council readily passed he appropriation, and on the 13th of May, 



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PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 243 

after eight ballotlnga, the choice of the Committee fell upon Nathan 
Bishop, Esq., then Superintendent of the Schools in Providence, R. I. 
On the Saturday following, His Honor, Mayor Bigelow, formally intro- 
duced that gentleman to the teachers, at the Council Room, in a pertinent 
speech, which was responded to by Mr. Bishop, accepting the office, and 
pledging his hearty cooperation to the Masters in aty their labors. Mr. 
Sherwin, in behalf of the Masters, welcomed his appointment, and with 
the best possible circumstances, the new functionary came to his new la- 
bor to test the result of what all regard as an experiment, — which it is 
hoped may eventuate to the increased eminence and usefulness of our 
school system. His duties are thus defined by the School Board. 

" The Superintendent, in the discharge of his duties, shall act in accord- 
ance with the established regulations of the Public Schools, and in all 
cases be subordinate to the School Committee, and act under their ad- 
vice and direction. 

" He shall examine the Public Schools, and, semi-annually, shall present 
a report to the Board, of their condition, and shall suggest by what meas- 
ures their efficiency and usefulness may be increased, and whether by any 
means the expenses of our school system can be diminished without prej- 
udice to its interests. 

" He shall at all times render such aid arid communicate such informa- 
tion to the Sub-Committees as they may require of him ; and he shall also 
assist in the annual examination in such manner, as shall be desired by 
the annual Examining Committee. 

" He shall devote himself to the study of our School System, and of the 
condition of the Schools, and shall keep himself acquainted with the prog- 
ress of instruction and discipline in other places, in order to suggest ap- 
propriate means for the advancement of the Public Schools in this city. 

" He shall make investigations as to the number and the condition of 
the children in the city, who are not receiving the benefits offered by the 
Public Schools, and, so far as is practicable, shall find out the reasons 
and suggest the remedies. 

" He shall consult with the different bodies, who have control in the 
building and altering of school-houses, and with all those through whom, 
either directly or indirectly, the school money is expended, that there may 
result more uniformity in their plans, and more economy in their expen- 
ditures. 

" He shall perform such other duties as the School Committee shall pre- 
scribe, or from time to time direct." • » 



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244 PVBUC SCHOOLS. 



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CONCLUSION. 246 



CONCLUSION. 

Wi cannot bettor close the present • ketch of Boston and of a portion 
of its public institutions, than by using the observations of a contempo- 
rary, in reference to the influence of the Commonwealth. 

Massachusetts has always been eminent among the American States. 
Her metropolis has ever been the metropolis of New England. Her ex- 
ample has been imitated and her influence has been felt, wherever the 
eons of New England are found, or the name of New England is known. 
Her deeds are such as to justify even her own eons lor an allusion to 
them. 

Her Puritan forefathers established the first system of self-gorernment, 
combining law and order with liberty and equality, and based upon pure 
morality, universal education, and freedom in religious opinion, as the 
only foundation which can insure its permanency and prosperity. And 
in her cradle was rocked the first child that drew its first breath under its 
benign influence. 

She has her Concord, her Lexington, and her Bunker Hill, all marked as 
the first battle-fields in that great struggle which severed the children 
from the parent, and made them free ; into their soil was poured the 
blood of the most worthy and the most noble patriots the world has ever 
known ; and " the bones of her sons, falling in the great struggle for in- 
dependence, now lie mingled with the soil of every State from New Eng- 
land to Georgia, and there they will lie for ever." 

The thirteen united colonies furnished for the regular service of the 
Revolutionary army, besides militia, 231,779 men, — an average of 17,830 
each. Of these, Massachusetts furnished 67,907, or 29 per cent, of the 
whole, 35,968 more than any other State, and 60,077 men more than, or 
nearly four times, her equal proportion. And she poured out her treasure 
for the outfit and support of her eons in the regular or militia service, and 
for the support of their families whom they left behind, and for other 
public purposes, in nearly the same proportion, and with the same liberal 
hand, as she did her physical force and her blood. 

She established, more than two hundred years ago, and near the begin- 
ning of her exietence, free schools, open alike to all ; and they have been 
cherished and supported, from that time to the present, by money drawn 
from the treasuries of towns, replenished by taxes on the inhabitants. 
She expended in this way, in 1849, for these free schools, #830,677.33, — 
a sum equal to $3.87 for every child in the State between the ages of four 
and sixteen. The whole State has been dotted over with school-houses, 
like " sparkling diamonds in the heavens," giving in tel lec tu al light to 
all that come within their sphere. 
asassssssssssssssssm i s===gg=ggga«M— — 

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246 CONCLUSION. ' 

She established in the United States the first system for the public 
registration of births, marriages, and deaths, by which the personal his- 
tory and Identity, and the sanitary condition of the inhabitants, may be 
ascertained. She founded the first Blind Asylum ; the first State Reform 
School; and aided in founding the first Deaf and Dumb Asylum; and 
her money, public and private, has flowed freely in the support of all the 
noble charities and religious enterprises of the age. 

One of her sons first introduced into the United States the remedy of 
vaccination for the prevention of smallpox, which has deprived that 
terrific disease of its power, whenever used, and rendered its approach 
generally harmless. Another of her sons has the honor of making the 
great discovery of etherization, by means of whose wonderful capabilities 
the surgeon's Instrument Is deprived of its sting, and labor of its sorrow ; 
the operator is permitted to pursue his work undisturbed, while the pa- 
tient remains passive, unconscious, and unmoved by the horrors which 
without it might be Inflicted. The blessings of this great prevention of 
human suffering are already acknowledged and felt the world over. 

For these and very many other useful and honorable deeds, which might 
be specified, she has been named, by distinguished men of other States 
and countries, "the forefather's land," "the moral State/ 1 " the en- 
lightened State," " the patriotic State," " the philanthropic State," ." the 
leading State," " the pattern State," " the noble State," " the glorious 
old Bay State." And many an ejaculation has gone up in all sincerity, 
" God bless her ; " " God save the Commonwealth of Massachusetts ! " 



"Cmzmrs or Boston! — Consider your blessings; consider your 
duties. You have an inheritance acquired by the labors and sufferings 
of six successive generations of ancestors." 



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ROXBURY, NORFOLK COUNTY. 




Roxbury was settled in the year 1630, in which year it was incorporated 
as a town. Its surface is uneven, and in numerous places rocky ; afford- 
ing many beautiful sites for dwelling-houses, gardens, and other improve- 
ments. Much taste is displayed throughout in the construction of coun- 
try seats, pleasure grounds, fruit and flower gardens. 

In the year 1827 omnibuses commenced running between Roxbury and 
Boston, making a trip every hour. Now the intercourse is so general be- 
tween the two cities, that a coach leaves the Norfolk House eight times 
every hour. Coaches also run from Mount Pleasant and other parts of the 
city several times every hour. The cars of the Providence Railroad Com- 
pany stop at two stations provided for the accommodation of the many 
Boston merchants who reside in Roxbury. These stations are 2$ and 5 
miles, respectively, from the Boston depot. Fare by the omnibus 6 cents ; 
by the cars 8 cents. 

Roxbury was the residence of the celebrated apostle of the Indians, 
John Eliot, In 1632, to whose memory a monument has been erected in 



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2 



ROXBURY, NORFOLK COUNTY. 



Forest Hills Cemetery. Here General Warren, the hero of Bunker Hill, 
was bora in 1740. 

Roxbury now contains 4 Unitarian churches, 1 Universalis^ 3 Baptist, 
2 Episcopal, 2 Orthodox, 1 Methodist, and 1 Roman Catholic. The 
Athenaeum, adjoining the Norfolk House, contains about 3,000 volumes. 

The population of Roxbury in 1845 was 13,929, and in 1850 about 18,000. 
The principal hotel is the Norfolk House, situated on an eminence which 
commands a beautiful view of Boston, Cambridge, Somerville, and the 
harbor. In addition to this, is the public house known as 




GROVE HALL. 

The above cut represents Grove Hall, a public house now resorted to by 
parlies from Boston. It is distant from Boston about 4 miles, and was 
formerly the residence of T. K. Jones, Esq., an eminent merchant of the 
city. 

Roxbury, until 1851, embraced 10,636 acres, and has remained essential- 
ly the same in extent for 220 years. A charter was granted to it as a city 
in 1846, which, was accepted by popular vote on the 25th of March in 
that year; the vote being 836 yeas to 192 nays. The city was there- 
upon divided into eight wards. In the year 1849, the city purchased the 
property known as Brook Farm (for some years used by the Fourierite as- 
sociation) at a cost of 8 20,000, and converted it into a Poor Farm for the 
employment of paupers. 

In 1851 the city was divided by an act of the legislature, and now con- 
sists of Roxbury with a population of about $ 15,000, and West Roxbury 
with a population of about 3,000. 

West Roxbury, as a separate town, now comprises what was formerly 
called West Roxbury and Jamaica Plain, and is one of the most magnifi- 



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ROXBURY, NORFOLK COUN.TY. 3 

cent towns in the Commonwealth. It contains about 7,500 acres of land 
Jamaica Plain, with its beautiful lake, is known the world over as the 
most charming place in the vicinity of Boston, renowned as she is for her 
suburbs. The territory of West Roxbury is not so well known, and it is 
not too much to say that a very large portion of this part of the new town 
contains some of the most desirable locations for elegant country resi- 
dences that are to be found, fully equal to the best part of Brookline, Wa- 
tertown, or Cambridge. 




ROXBURY HOUSE, OR TAFT'S HOTEL. 

This house has been occupied about fifty years as a hotel. It is on the 
Dednam turnpike, six miles from the old State-House in Boston. Mr. Taft, 
the present proprietor, has been the landlord upwards of forty years. Par- 
ties visiting this part of West Roxbury, will find ready access by the Ded- 
nam Branch railroad, which has a station within fifty yards of the hotel- 
Tafi's hotel is in that portion now termed West Roxbury. 

Roxbury has been for some years too accessible for the foreign paupers, 
who arrive by thousands afBoaton. In the last five years the relative 
increase of foreign and native population has been 91.58 per cent, of the 
former, to 6.64 per cent, of the latter. During the last year, Roxbury 
supported 1,122 State paupers, or about one fifteenth of all the State pau' 
pers in the Commonwealth. 

There are remains yet to be observed of the Revolutionary fortifications. 



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FOREST HILLS CEMETERY, ROXBURY, 

Is situated between the Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike, Walk Hill, Can- 
terbury and Scarborough streets, and includes an area of about seventy 
acres, a large portion of which is covered with most of the varieties of 
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants which are indigenous to New England. 
The topographical features are diversified in a remarkably picturesque and 
impressive manner, by numerous hills, valleys, glades, precipitous clifls, 
isolated masses of moss-covered rocks, dales, and lakes. 

Avenues. — The carriage avenue^ and foot-paths have been laid out on 
the principles of landscape gardening, in such a manner as to render the 
approach to all parts of the ground facile and beautiful ; and so numerous 
and extensive are they, that the aggregate length of the former exceeds 
three miles, and of the latter two ; but when the whole of them have been 
completed, there will be nearly five miles of avenues, and three of foot- 
paths. 

Burial Lota. — The burial lots are fifteen feet wide, and twenty feet 
deep, with spaces between them six feet wide. There are borders six feet 
in width on each side of all the avenues and paths, which, with the spa- 
ces between the lots, may be ornamented by the cultivation of trees, 
shrubs, and flowering plants, by the proprietors of the lots ; and in the 
event that it is not done by them, it will be by the Commissioners. The 
avenues are sixteen feet wide, and the paths six, which are to be defined 
by lines of sods one foot wide. The surfaces of the avenues and paths 
will be gravelled and made slightly convex., with a gutter on each side for 
conducting off the water. The foundations of both will be formed of 
stone, from two to three feet deep, as the earth is required for grading lots, 
and the materials for filling up the excavations can be obtained from va- 
rious parts of the grounds in sufficient quantity for that purpose. This 
mode of constructing the avenues and paths will not only insure a perfect 
drainage, but render them so substantial that the labor and expense of an- 
nual repairs will be greatly diminished. Not only the stones for the 
road-beds, but excellent gravel, for the completion and replenishment of all 
the thoroughfares, can be obtained within the Cemetery. 

Prominences. —The range of four heights in the south-western portion 
of the grounds has been designated as the Eliot Hills, to commemorate the 
name and pious labors of the venerated John Eliot, who was appointed 
"Teacher" in the first Church in Roxbury, in 1632; over which he pre- 
sided for nearly sixty years. He founded the first Indian Protestant 
church in North America, in Natick ; and such was his holy zeal to civilize 
the savages, that he translated the whole of the Scriptures into the lan- 
guage of the Natick tribe, and a number of other religious works, from 
which he justly obtained the title of the APOSTLE ELIOT. 

Two hills on the northern side of the Cemetery have received the names 



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FORKST HILLS CRMBTBRY. 5 

of Consecration and Chapel as the services of the consecration were per- 
formed on the eastern slope of the former, and the other has been appro- 
priated as the site for a sacred temple, where funeral rites may be per- 
formed, in conformity to the mode which has been adopted by the various 
religious sects. 

Warren Hill. — The largest bill south of the former, bears the name 
of the most honored, native-born citizen of Roxbury, — WARREN, —the 
illustrious patriot and hero, who gloriously fell in the ever-memorable bat- 
tle of BUNKER HILL, while gallantly contending for the FREEDOM 
and INDEPENDENCE of his country. 

Snoto Flake Cliff. — A lofty rocky eminence, west of Lake Dell, is 
called Snow-Flake Cliff, from a rare and beautiful American plant, which 
is found in a meadow near its base. 

Elevations. — There are five other hills, which have been named 
Fountain, Dearborn, Clover, Strawberry, and Juniper. On the first the 
office of the Commissioners has been erected, and in front of it a sundial 
has been placed upon a rough bowlder, which is covered with lichens, to 
which a brass plate with the following epigraph has been secured, 
HORAS NON NUMERO NISI SERENAS. 

A rustic OBSERVATORY has been formed round a large oak tree on 
the summit of Consecration Hill, twenty-five feet high, and vistas have 
been opened through the grove of trees which surround it, in such a man- 
ner as to reveal to persons standing in the gallery which surmounts it, the 
entire range of the Blue Hills, and portions of the villages of Randolph, 
Milton, Dorchester, Quincy, Jamaica Plain, Brookline, Brighton, and 
Cambridge, Dorchester Bay, and several of the islands in that broad ex- 
panse of water. Each of the other hills commands views of greatly di- 
versified interest and beauty. 

Fountain Hill Spring. — Near the northeastern base of Fountain Hill 
is a natural SPRING, which has been enlarged and surrounded by an em- 
bankment covered with rough stones and wild plants ; and over a portion 
of it a flat stone has been placed to preclude the sun's rays from the water. 
On the front side of a large stone which surmounts that over the eastern 
portion of the spring, a bronze tablet has been affixed, with the following 
inscription, 

WHOSOSVBE PRINKBTH OP THIS WATER WILL THIRST 

AGAIN; BUT THE WATER THAT I SHALL GIVE, WILL 

BE IN HIM A WBLL OF WATBR SPRINGING UP INTO 
BVBRLA8TING LIFB. 

The small lake east of Consecration Hill, has been designated Woodbine 
Mere, and two other lake3 will be formed by excavating the meadow east 
of Mount Warren and Fountain Hill, by removing the loam as a valuable 
material for covering the lots after they have been graded, previous to the 
sods being laid. 



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6 WEST R0XBURY. 

The grounds have been inclosed in most of their extent by a substantial 
pale fence, seven feet high, supported by excellent red cedar posts, which 
were all obtained from the cemetery grounds, and over a thousand were 
required for that purpose. 

Entrances. — The chief gateway has a front of one hundred and sixty 
feet. The carriage entrance is through an Egyptian portico, twenty-four 
feet high and forty in width at the foundation. It was copied from the 
ancient portico at Garsery, above the first cataract of the Nile, and is em- 
bellished by two massive columns, richly sculptured, and a winged globe 
on the entablature of the exterior side. On each side of the main gate 
are lodges for the superintendent's office and for the gate-keeper. These 
three structures, and the piers for the small gates and termini of the 
gateway have been painted and sanded in such a manner as to resemble 
Jersey freestone. 

The fences between the large gateway and the lodges, as well as all the 
gates, are formed of round pales over two inches in diameter, which are 
alternately surmounted with lotus blossoms, and buds, and have been paint- 
ed to resemble bronze. 

Inscription. — On the external architrave is the following inscription in 
metallic gilded letters, 

THOUGH I WALK THROUGH THB VALLEY OF THB SHADOW OP DEATH, I 
WILL PEAR NO EVIL. 

On the interior architrave are these words of our Saviour, and the date 
of consecration, 

I AM THH RESURRECTION AND THB LIFE. 

Consecrated June 28, 1848. 

There are entrances on the southern side of the Cemetery, from Walk 
Hill street, and on the eastern, from Canterbury ■street, through gates 
supported by Egyptian piers, which have been painted and sanded like 
the large gateway. 

TYrms for Lots. — The price of a lot containing three hundred square 
feet, has been established at sixty dollars ; but a smaller quantity of land, 
from a half to a sixth of a lot, can be purchased, at twenty cents per foot, 
in many parts of the grounds ; and there is a large compartment, on the 
southern side of the Cemetery, called the field of hachpblah, which is 
inclosed by an arbor vit» hedge, and the area divided by foot paths and 
embellished with trees and shrubs, in which a grave can be secured for 
seven dollars ; while on the eastern side a tract has been appropriated for 
the interment of deceased persons, free of expense, if their friends are un- 
able to pay for a place of sepulchre in neither of the other positions which 
have been named. 

Approach from Boston. — The distance from Guild Hall, over the turn- 
pike, and through Forest Hill and Scarborough streets to the Cemetery, 



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FOREST HILLS CEMETERY. 7 

has been measured, and ascertained to be only two miles and three quar-, 
ters, and that route is one of the most rural and interesting in the environs 
of the capital. On returning, the ride or walk may bJ varied, by passing 
out of the Cemetery at the southern gate, and proceeding through Jamai- 
ca Pond village to Tremont street ; or through the eastern gate into Can- 
terbury street, and from thence by East or Warren streets, to Washington 
or Harrison streets; or, on leaving the northern Egyptian gateway, and 
passing from Forest Hill into Walnut street, another line of communica- 
tion is afforded with Washington street, which with Tremont and Har- 
rison streets constitute the great avenues connecting Boston with Roxbury. 
But each of those lines of travel presents numerous deviations, which 
will admit of a ride being extended through the northwestern part of 
Dorchester to South Boston ; or the northeastern portions of Brookline 
and Brighton to Cambridge, and from thence by crossing the bridge, or 
from the two preceding towns, over the Western avenue to Boston. 
There are also numerous picturesque drives south of the Cemetery, which 
may be united with most of the roads that have been named, should it be 
desirable to extend an excursion into the country, when the forest 
crowned hills, umbrageous valleys, verdant fields, and numerous orchards 
and gardens, are arrayed in all their diversified magnificence, and the air 
is redolent with the aroma of vernal or summer flowers, or 

" the ripe harvest of the new-mown hay 

Gives it a sweet and wholesome odor." 

Progress. — Since the consecration of the Cemetery, on the twenty- 
eighth day of June, 1843, nearly five hundred lots have been sold, —over a 
hundred have been inclosed with iron fences, — seventy monuments have 
been erected, and there have been four hundred and ninety interments. 

TVees. — A nursery was commenced in 1849 for raising forest and other 
ornamental trees and shrubs, to be set out in such portions of the grounds 
as may be required. Besides over 30,000 plants, which have been raised 
from the seed, — including the elm, rock and white maple, beech, ash, 
chestnut, yellow, white, red and English oaks, horsechestnut, mountain 
ash, hickory, black walnut, and other trees, there have been imported 
from England and set out in the nursery, and various parts of the ceme- 
tery, 20,750 trees and shrubs, including twenty-two kinds. 

There have been expended h? the construction of the Avenues and Foot 
Paths, the erection of Gateways and Fences, and other purposes of im- 
provement and embellishment, with the interest on the cost of the land, 
between thirty and forty thousand dollars, all of which has been received 
for lots and for preparing them for interment. 

Conclusion. — The results which have so for been attained are much 
more favorable than was anticipated within so short a period, and fully 
illustrate the propriety of having thus early laid the foundation of an es- 



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O WEST ROXBUKY. 

tablishment which will annually increase in grandeur and importance . 
for there must finally repose a large portion of the present, and of all the 
future generations of Roxbury, until " the dust shall return to the earth a.- 
it was, and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it." The living ol 
each successive year will be anxious, from the dictates of affection, respect, 
and piety, to establish and perpetuate the sepulchres of revered relatives and 
honored friends in such a retired, umbrageous, magnificent, and sacred gar 
den, which will continually augment the number and variety of funerea 
monuments, as well as insure the erection of such other structures as ma> 
be deemed expedient, and thus ultimately render the grounds as eminent 1> 
distinguished for the admirable manner in which the rural and artistical 
embellishments shall have been harmoniously combined, as they are for 
appropriateness of location,— the best to subserve the holy purpose for 
which they were solemnly consecrated. 

Entrance to Forest Hills Cemetery. 




It is proposed to erect a suitable monument in the Forest Hills Cemetery 
to the memory of the Apostle Eliot, of whom it was said by Mather : 
"There is a tradition amongst us. that the country could never perish, so 
long as Eliot w as alive." And hy the Rev. Thomas Shephard : " I think 

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FOREST HILLS CEMETERY. 9 

we can never love and honor this man of God enough." It has been esti- 
mated that the expense of an appropriate monument will not exceed four 
thousand dollars, and it is confidently believed that not only the citizens 
of the city and town of Roxbury, but all who were born in Massachusetts, 
wherever they may reside, will cheerfully aid in doing honor to that illus- 
trious Patriarch, who may truly be considered as one of the earliest and 
most eminent benefactors of New England. 

The superintendence and management of the Cemetery have been con- 
fined to five Commissioners, and the proceeds of the sales of lots are ex- 
clusively devoted, by an Act of the legislature, to the payment for the 
land and the improvement and embellishment of the Cemetery. 

Commissioners of Forest Hills Cemetery, June, 1851. 
H. A. S. Dearborn, Alvah Kittrbdgb, Francis C. Head, Henrt 
Codhan, George R. Russell. Superintendent, Daniel Brims. 

Forest Hills Cemetery is about 5 miles from the Boston State House. 
Those who wish to visit the Cemetery from Boston can procure carriages 
at a cost of one dollar per hour. No tickets of admission are required. 
Access may be readily had, also, by means of theDedham Branch Railroad, 
distance five miles from the Boston depot in Pleasant Street. There afe 
eight trains daily, which stop at the Cemetery station, about one third of 
a mile from the southern entrance. Fare fifteen cents. 

By an act of the legislature passed in 1851, the Cemetery of Forest 
Hills forms a part of the new town of West Roxbury, but is free from tax- 
ation. 



Churches in Roxbury, 1851. 



Name. Location. 

First Church. Eliot Square. 

Second Unitarian Church. West Roxbury. 

Third Unitarian Society. Jamaica Plain. 
Mt. Pleasant Congregational Ch. Dudley Street. 

First Baptist Church. Dudley Street. 

Second Baptist Church. Jamaica Plain. 

Third Baptist Church. Ruggles Street 

First Universalist Church. Dudley Street. 

St. James's (Episcopal) Church. St. James St. 

St. John's (Episcopal) Church. Jamaica Plain. 

Eliot Church (Presbyterian). Kenilworth St. 

West Roxbury Society. Centre Street. 

First Methodist Episcopal Ch. Williams St. 

St. Joseph's Church (R. C.) Circuit Street. 



Pastor. 
Rev. George Putnam, D. D. 
Rev. Dexter Clapp. 
Rev. G. Reynolds. 
Rev. W. R. Alger. 
Rev. T. D. Anderson. 
Rev. W. Hague. 
Rev. J. S. Shailer. 
Rev. W. H. Ryder. 
Rev. J. Wayland, D. D. 
Rev. E. F. Stafter. 
Rev. A. C. Thomson. 
Rev. C. Marsh. 
Rev. L. Boyden. 
Rev. P. O. Beirne. 



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Eastern Railroad Station, Lynn. 

Lynn was first settled in the year 1629, having received its name from 
Lynn Regis, a town in England, from which some of the early settlers 
came. The Indian name of the settlement was Saugus, which is yet re- 
tained as the name of a town between Chelsea and Lynn. 

In the year 1645 the first iron works in Massachusetts were established 
at Lynn, by order of the general court 

Lynn is about nine miles north from Boston, by way of the Eastern 
Railroad, commencing at East Boston, and about five miles South of Salem. 
The population in 1850 was 13,613. The principal business consists in 
the manufacture of ladies' shoes, in which there is a capital of about 
$ 1,050,000 invested. The number of shoe factories is 155, the annual prod- 
uct of which is $ 3,430,000. In these factories are employed 295 cutters, 
3,770 workmen or cordwainers.. 6,400 females, who are termed binders. In 
1350 there were produced 4,691,000 pairs of womens and children's shoes, 
'roots, and gaiters. 

Lynn has at this time fifteen Churches, thirty four Public Schools, one 
\carlemv. two Banks, one Saving Bank, two Insurance Offices, together I 



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with a number of literary, social and charitable institutions. The emi 
nences surrounding the town afford fine views of the harbor and the ocean. 
To visitors the most attractive spot is High Rock, on which has been, 
erected a public house, from which a view of fifteen miles in extent ma; 
be had, including Nahant, Salem, and Boston. In clear weather the Blue 
Hills may be seen nineteen miles distant, also the outline of Cape Cod. 

Extensive views may be had also from Forest Rock, Lover's Leap, Pine 
Hill, Tower Hill, Sagamore Hill, Poquanum Hill, Wenepoykin Hill, and 
other eminences. 

Visitors are recommended to take the cars at East Boston, via the ferry 
foot of Hanover Street. Trains leave at 9 and 10 A. M. , and at other 
hours of the day. Distance nine miles. Fare 25 cents. 
Lynn High School, erectetl 1850. 




The above cut represents the Lynn High School-house, built in 1850, ai 
an expense of ft 9,500, including also the grading, fencing, &c The build 
ing itself, which cost $ 7,000, was dedicated January 8, 1851. The main 
school- room is 46 feet square and 16 feet in height. 

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Lynn Mechanics' Bank Building. 




The above building accommodates the Lynn Mechanics' Bank, the Lynn 
Mechanics' Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and the Lynn Institution 
for Savings. 

The railroad to Boston was opened for travel in the year 1839. The 
Station house is 10 miles 170 rods from Boston, 5 miles 96 rods from Sa- 
lem, 5 miles 184 rods from Marblehead. 

Among the public institutions of Lynn are two banks, viz. the Lynn 
Mechanics' Bank, and the Laighton Bank; one Savings Bank, City Hall, 
Lyceum Hall, Exchange Hall, Sagamore Hall, the Lynn Mechanics' Fire 
and Marine Insurance Company. 

Lynn remained a town until May 13, 1850, when it was incorporated as 
a city. The cities previously incorporated in Massachusetts were Boston, 
Salem, Lowell, Roxbury, Cambridge, Charlestown, New Bedford, and 
Worcester. 

Lynn extends about six miles on the seashore from east to west. In 
the northeastern part of the town is the Village of Gravescnd, which oc- 



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WATERTOWN. 13 

cupies a plaia around a beautiful shallow water called Weimchus Lake. 
There are five other lakes in this neighborhood. The city of Lynn con- 
tains 8,360 acres of land, and is rapidly increasing in population and busi- 
ness. The population in 1790 was 2,291, in 1810, 4,087, in 1830, 6,138, in 
1840, 9,367, and in 1850, 13,61& 




NAHANT. 

Having examined some of the elevated points near Lynn, the visitor 
should then proceed to Nahant, which is noted as a summer resort for cit- 
izens of Boston. Nahant is a narrow peninsula, three miles in length, at 
the point of which is the Nahant Hotel, one of the most attractive spots 
in extremely warm weather. There are several other public houses, which 
are generally well filled with visitors during the summer season. 

A steamboat plies between Boston and Nahant daily during the summer 
months, leaving Boston at 9 A. M. and returning about 6 P. M. Fare 
25 cents. For the sake of variety, the visitor may return by Railroad 
cars to Boston through Lynn. 



WATERTOWN. 

Watertown is accessible by two railroads : first by the Fitchburg, and 
I secondly by the Worcester ; the former running directly into the village, 



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14 WATBRTOWK. 

and the latter taking passengers to Newton Corner, within half a mile of 
the centre of Watertown. The trains are numerous by both routes, the 
fare is but 20 cents, and the place may be reached in thirty minutes from 
the city. 

Watertown was settled in the year 1630, by a portion of the Charles- 
town settlers from the West of England. It was in that year determined 
by the General Council, that " Trimountain be called Boston ; Mattapan, 
Dorchester; and the town on Charles River, Watertown." The leading 
names among the original settlers were Sir Richard Saltonstall (ancestor 
of the families of that name in Salem and other places), Rev. George 
Phillips (the first pastor of the town, and ancestor of many families of 
that name in Boston and vicinity), Coolidge, Stone, Whitney, Brown, and 
Mayhew. Mr. Phillips was succeeded in the ministry by the Rer. John 
Sherman, one of the most eminent men in the early colonies of New Eng- 
land ; and from him are descended several families of the name, now 
among us. 

Prom investigations that have been made into the early history of 
Watertown, it would seem that its original name was Waterton (and so 
spelt in some of the earliest records), and derived from a small place of 
that name in the West Riding of Yorkshire (England), not far from the 
residence of the then Saltonstall family. 

After the 19th of April, 1775, the Provincial Congress assembled and 
continued their meetings in the old meeting-house of Watertown, which 
stood on the spot now used as a* burial-ground, near the village. The 
Council met in a house now owned by the Fowle family, " selected for the 
purpose on account of its vicinity to the meeting house." 

In June, 1778, Watertown became again the seat of government, in con- 
sequence of the prevalence of the small-pox in Boston. 

In the year 1836, a new meeting-house was built and dedicated by the 
Congregational Society, on a spot nearer to the centre of the village. In 
the summer of 1841, the new meeting-house was destroyed by fire, and 
in the following year the present beautiful edifice was erected and dedi- 
cated on the same spot. 

The leading object of interest to visitors is the U. S. Arsenal at Water- 
town. The site of this was selected in 1816 by Major Talcot, and the 
State ceded to the General Government the jurisdiction orer it, not exceed- 
fng sixty acres. In 1820 the buildings were completed and occupied. The 
ground now occupied is somewhat more than forty acres A new maga- 
zine was erected in 1829. There are now two magazines of stone, of the 
best construction : also two large warehouses, two buildings for officers' 
quarters, two barracks, two workshops, and other buildings. All the build- 
ings are placed on the four sides of a parallelogram, facing the cardinal 
points, the spaces between the buildings being filled by a wall fifteen feet 
in height. The area inclosed is about three hundred and fifty feet by two 

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WATKRTOWN. 13 

hundred and eighty feet. The magazines are placed at a distance of sev- 
eral hundred feet from the other, buildings. This establishment is both a 
depot and an arsenal of construction. 

Watertown is 6| miles from Boston by the carriage road through Gam- 
bridge. It is bounded on the north by West Cambridge ; on the east by 
Old Cambridge : on the south by Charles River and by Newton ; and on 
the West by Waltham. It is pleasantly situated on the north bank of 
Charles River, which in its beautiful windings decorates the scenery, at 
the same time that it confers more substantial advantages. In extent, 
Watertown is one of the smallest towns in the Commonwealth,— there 
being only 3833 acres, including land and water. This consists of half of 
Charles River, 75 acres ; part of Fresh Pond, 58 acres ; small stream and 
pond, 3 acres ; land, including roads, 3697 acres. 

Another object of interest is the dwelling of Mr. John P. Cushing, 
about two miles from Harvard University. This is one of the most elabo- 
rate and costly private edifices in New England. The grounds comprise 
about sixty acres, commanding a very extensive prospect, and including 
every tree, shrub, plant and flower that will live or flourish in this lati- 
tude. These grounds are laid out with exquisite taste, m spacious lawns, 
groves and walks, — extensive outbuildings for maintaining a uniform de- 
gree of temperature throughout the year for the cultivation of the flowers 
and fruits of every country and climate of the world. Portions of Fresh 
Pond and Mount Auburn also lie on the eastern borders of the town. 

We are indebted for many of these particulars to an interesting "His- 
torical Sketch of Watertown, by Convers Francis, D. D., of Cambridge/ 1 
a pamphlet now scarce, but which should be reproduced for the benefit of 
thousands of the present generation, who would be glad to see the sketch 
in a cheap form. 

The valuation of Watertown at the present time, according to the re- 
port of the State Valuation Committee, is $2,180,696, and in that re- 
spect is exceeded by only three other towns in the county, viz. Medford, 
Newton, and Waltham. 

There are in the town five places of public worship, viz. Unitarian, of 
which Rev. Mr. Davis is pastor ; Baptist. Rev. Mr. Edwards ; Methodist, 
Universalist, and Catholic. The Unitarian Church was formerly under 
the charge of the Rev. Dr. Francis, now of Harvard University. It has 
once been destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt with groat taste and elegance. 

In this town, one of the first mills for the manufacture of cotton fab- 
rics was established by the late Seth Bern is, Esq. He was the first in this 
county to manufacture cotton duck, and it shows the great advance made 
in the means of locomotion, to state that Mr. Berais was in the habit of 
sending his duck to Baltimore and other Southern places in wagons, 
which were gone for a month, or more, bringing home flour, tobacco, and 
other Southern products in return. There is also in the town a paper mill. 



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CHARLESTOWN, 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 




Charlestown was settled in the year 1628. It is the oldest town in Mid- 
dlesex County, and one of the oldest in the State. It derives its name 
from King Charles I., the reigning sovereign of England at that time. The 
Indian name of the settlement was Mishawam. 

The objects well worth visiting in Charlestown are 1. Bunker Hill Mon- 
ument. 2. The Navy Yard. 3. The State Penitentiary. 4. The Ice 
Houses. 

Charlestown is situated on a peninsula, with the harbor on the east, the 
Mystic river and Chelsea on the north ; Charles river on the South ; and 
on the west Somerville, with which it is connected by a narrow strip 
of land called the Neck. With Maiden on the northwest, Charlestown 
is connected by a bridge 2420 feet in length, opened for travel on the 23d of 
September, 1788. A bridge one mile in length leads from the Navy Yard 
due north to Chelsea. This was formerly the great thoroughfare from 
Boston to Salem, via Chelsea and Lynn. Now the bridge is used for local 
travel only, the Eastern Railroad being the general means of conveyance 
to Lynn, Salem, Newburyport, Nahant, thence to Portsmouth, Portland, 
&c. 

There is here a terminus of the Fitchburg Railroad, and the depot for 
the freight received by this road, from Vermont and portions of Massachu- 
setts. 

Bunker Hill and its monument are among the noted obectS in the vi- 



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CHARLBSTOWN. 17 

cinity of Boston. These should not be neglected by the stranger in his 
visit to the metropolis. 

Tht Navy Yard. — Admittance to strangers is readily granted. An 
omnibus leaves Brattle street, Boston, every hour for the Navy Yard, fere 
10 cents, or the visitors, after examining the monument, will find the Na- 
vy Yard within rive minutes reach, at the foot of Bunker Hill. The walls 
of the yard enclose about sixty acres. At this time the Ohio 74 and the 
Vermont 74 gun ships are moored at the wharf. The frigate Independence 
lies a few yards in the stream, and is used as a receiving vessel for new re- 
cruits. The timber dock near the dry dock is used as a receptacle for tim- 
ber, where it is kept some years, preparatory to its deposit under the large 
timber shed. 

The Dry Dock is one of the first objects to visit. Its dimensions are as 
follows : — Length of floor from bead mitre sill, 228 feet ; depth of the dock, 
39 feet ; width of body of the dock, 86 feet ; width at top altar, 82 feet 
second. 78 feet ; third, 70 feet, Sec. ; width of passage at the floating gate, 
61 } feet; whole length of stone work, 23S| feet. This work was corn* 
menced on the 10th July, 1827, and occupied six years in the course of con- 
struction, under the direction of Col. Loammi Baldwin. The entire cost 
was $677,589, including the cost of engine house, engine and pumping 
apparatus. The dock was opened for public exhibition on the 24th of June, 
1833. The frigate Constitution was the first vessel docked here. 

Bunker Hill Monument should bs visited in clear weather only. The 
view from its summit is probably not exceeded in extent or beauty by that 
from any eminence in the country. 

Visitors from Boston can ride over in one of the omnibuses which leave 
Brattle Street every half hour. Distance 4 mile. Fare 10 cents. Ad- 
mission to the monument 12$ cents for each person, payable at the en- 
trance. All the money received here is appropriated to improving the 
grounds and keeping them in order. 

The corner-stone of the monument was laid on the 17th of June, 182$, by 
General Lafayette, in the presence of a vast multitude, among whom were 
forty of the survivors of the battle, precisely fifty years after the memora- 
ble battle of Bunker Hill. At the laying of the corner-stone, an address was 
delivered by Daniel Webster. The depth, however, at which the comer- 
stone was laid was insufficient to resist the action of the frost, and anoth- 
er foundation was laid twelve feet under ground, and on the 21st of July, 
1827, the base, fifty feet in diameter, was completed. The work was su- 
perintended by Mr. Solomon Willard, who generously contributed one 
thousand dollars in aid of the monument fund and gave three years' servic- 
es without remuneration. 

The structure consists of ninety courses of Quincy granite (six below 
the surface of the ground and eighty-four above), each course two feet 
eight inches in thickness. The whole quantity of stone used was about 



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18 CHARLBSTOWN. 

6700 tons, of which 2800 tons were laid in the first fourteen courses. The 
base is thirty feet square, and the column gradually lessens until it be- 
comes fifteen feet at the apex. 

The inclosure on Bunker Hill, in the centre of which the monument 
stands, contains nearly six acres, being 417 feet from North to South, and 
400 feet from East to West. The work received essential aid from the 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association. 

At the great battle on the 17th of June, 1775, there were about eight hun- 
dred of the British killed, and eight hundred wounded and missing. Among 
the killed were not less than eighty officers. Of the Americans them 
were one hundred killed, and three hundred wounded, and thirty or forty 
missing. The battle began about three o'clock P. M. and continued be- 
tween two and three hours. The number of troops engaged in defence of 
the fort and ground was about 3,000, and that of the British was estirna- 
mated at 4,000. 

The foundation of the Monument is laid in lime mortar, the other pot* 
tions of the column are laid in lime mortar, intermixed with cinders, iron 
filings, and hydraulic cement. Within the shaft is a round, hollow cone, 
the outside diameter of which is ten feet, and at the top is six feet. This 
hollow chamber is seven feet in diameter at the base. It was here that the 
practical demonstration was made, in May, 1851, of Mr Foucault's illus- 
tration of the rotation of the earth. 

Around this hollow chamber winds a spiral flight of stone steps, two 
hundred and ninety-five in number, with a rise of eight inches each. In 
the monument, and the cone also, there are numerous apertures for con- 
veying light and air into the whole interior of the structure. Having as- 
cended these steps, the visitor arrives at a chamber seventeen feet in 
height, and eleven feet in diameter, with four windows, opening to the 
four cardinal points. Above this chamber is the cap piece of the apex, 
a single stone weighing two and a half tons, and three feet six inches thick, 
and four feet square at its bare. This was raised on the 23d of July, 
1842. The precise height of the monument is 221 feet 

In September, 1840, a fair was held in Faneuil Hall, under the manage- 
ment of the ladies of Boston, for the purpose of raising sufficient funds 
for the completion of the monument. With the proceeds of the fair, added 
to private donations, the sum of $ 55,000 was raised, which was sufficient 
to complete the work. The entire cost of the monument was $ 156,276. 

The completion of this great enterprise was celebrated on the 17th of 
June, 1843, (eighteen years after its commencement,) on which occasion 
Daniel Webster was again the orator. President Tyler and his cabinet 
were then present. In the upper chamber of the monument may be seen 
two small cannon, which had been used in the battle of 1775, and which 
afterward came into the possession of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company. These two cannon have been named Hancock and Adam*. 



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OHAKLBSTOWN. 19 

The latter was burst by the company in firing a salute. The following in- 
scription appears upon each gun, — 

"SACRED TO LIBERTY. 
This is one of four cannons which constituted the whole train of field 
artillery possessed by the British Colonies of North America at the com- 
mencement of the war, on the 19th of April, 1775. This cannon and its 
fellow, belonging to a number of citizens of Boston, were used in many 
engagements during the war. The other two, the property of the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, were taken by the enemy. By order of United 
States in Congress assembled, May 19th, 1788." , 

North Window. — From the north window the visitor may perceive 
Maiden northwest, Chelsea on the north, and Lynn, Nahant and Beach, 
on the northeast. Chelsea bridge lies on a line with Nahant, whose beach 
appears at this distance like a tape string. On the left of the bridge may 
be seen the Naval Hospital of the United States, with the dwelling-house 
of the superintendent, and extensive grounds attached. Maiden is 4} 
miles from the monument. 

Between Chelsea and Lynn is the ancient town of Saugus, nine miles, 
one of the stopping places of the Eastern Railroad. Phillips' beach in 
Lynn is also visible, a place much resorted to in the summer. Cape Ann, 
In the dim distance, is the most northerly point of land in Massachusetts 
Bay. 

East Window. — From this opening the visitor beholds the Navy 
Yard, at the foot of Bunker Hill, together with the rope walk, ships of 
war, dry-dock, &c. (For particulars see the page devoted to the Navy 
Yard, page 17.) One mile beyond the Navy Yard is seen East Boston, 
with the Cunard steamers, railroad, iron foundry, East Boston sugar-house, 
Eastern Railroad depot, the Maverick hotel. Beyond East Boston may be 
seen Governor's Island, with an indistinct view of Fort Warren on its 
summit, and in the distance, Long Island lighthouse, and also the Boston 
(outer) lighthouse. The latter is a little to the left of the East Boston 
sugar-house. Also Deer Island, on which may be conspicuously seen the 
new almshouse, described on page 174 of this work. 

On the right of these objects may be seen Castle Island, distant three 
miles, on which is built Fort Independence. Thompson's Island, with the 
farm school for boys. From this window the observer has a full view of 
Boston harbor, extending from Nantasket on the north to Hingham on the 
south, including about seventy-five square miles, and about one hundred 
islands. On the outside of the harbor, over the ship-houses of the Navy 
Yard, may be seen the outer Brewster island. 

West Window. — From this position the larger part of Charlestown is 
visible, — its public square on the left and Town Hall, — on the right, the 
State's prison, newly enlarged ; the Fitchburg, Lowell, and Boston and 
Maine railroads, each having a separate bridge across Charles river; be- 






20 CHARLSSTOWN. 

yond them, over the State's prison, may be seen East Cambridge and it 
court house and glass-works ; the tall chimney, 230 feet in height, used lor 
the escape of the smoke of the glass-works ; Cambridgeport in the same di- 
rection, two miles ; Brighton, five miles. Due west will be seen Old Gam* 
bridge, with its college buildings, observatory, churches, Ac ; Mount An* 
burn in the dim distance, five miles from the monument; the McLean 
asylum for the insane, 14 mile, is a conspicuous building. In the same 
direction, Somerville, a new town laid off from Charlestown. To the 
right of these is West Cambridge, distant six miles; Medford six miles, 
a little to the north, on the Mystic river, a famous place for ship building. 

From this window (immediately over the observatory) may be seen, in 
clear weather, Wachuset mountain, near Princeton, Worcester county, 
fifty-two miles distant from Boston, west by north, 2018 feet above the 
harbor of Boston. (This harbor is also visible from the summit of the 
mountain.) Also Monadooc mountain (over West Cambridge), Kearsage 
and the White Mountains, all in New Hampshire. Near the hospital 
may be seen Winter hill, the location of Washington's army in 1775-76, 
also the ruins of the Catholic convent on Mount Benedict. This building 
was destroyed by a mob in the year 1834, but no reparation has yet been 
made by the town or by the State. (In Philadelphia and Baltimore, simi- 
lar outbreaks occurred, and those cities were compelled to reimburse the 
parlies for tbeir losses in property.) 

Within the limits of the town may be seen the old burial-ground, where 
lie the remains of John Harvard, the founder of the University, who died 
September 26, 1628. Within a few yards of the monument may be seen 
Charlestown high school, dedicated June 17, 1848. 

South Window. — From lhis,position we observe the whole city of 
Boston, with its three hills, — Fort hill, Copp's hill, and Beacon hiH. 
The gas works at the end of the first bridge ; Charles river bridge, 1603 feet 
in length; Warren bridge, 1390 feet; the Fitchburg railroad bridge; the 
Maine railroad bridge ; Lowell railroad bridge ; East Cambridge bridge ; Old 
Cambridge bridge, l\ mile distant ; the Western avenue leading to Brook- 
line. On the ext rejne left of the city of Boston may bo seen the shipping, 
Long wharf, Central wharf, the old North church, Ac. In the centre, the 
Fitchburg railroad depot (Egyptian architecture), Boston and Lowell rail- 
road depot, Boston and Maine railroad depot. 

The Stale House is the most prominent object, with its immense dome, 
to the left of which are the Park Street and Hollis Street Church steeples. 
Over the North End church, farthest to the left, with a tall spire, is visi- 
ble in the distance the asylum for the blind, a prominent object ; and, in 
the horizon, the towns of Weymouth, Quincy, Dorchester; and in the har- 
bor, Sheep island, Thompson's island (with the farm school), Quincy bay, 
Squantum, Savin hill in Dorchester, a summer resort ; the Old Colony rail- 
road, immediately over the Old State House ; Roxbury, Mt. Pleasant, Ac. 
ss^assssss^sssssm ' ■ i 'i i tasssassasssaaBBsssBsssssssssssaBsasaam 



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LOWELL, MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 




This thriving city was incorporated as a town, March 1, 1836, and be* 
came a city in February, 1836. It was originally termed Wametit, and in 
the year 1726 was annexed to the town of Chelmsford. 

"The first efforts to promote manufactures in this place were made in 
1813. In consequence of the restrictions that were laid on commerce, and 
of the war with Great Britain, the attention of many enterprising men 
was directed to domestic manufactures. Capt. Phineas Whiting and 
Capt. Josiah Fletcher, having selected an eligible site on Concord river, at 
the Wamesit falls, about a hundred rods from the Merrimac, erected, at 
the expense of about $ 3,000, a large wooden building for a cotton menu* 
factory. In 1818, they sold their buildings, and their right to the water- 
power, to Mr. Thomas Hurd. Mr. Hurd afterwards fitted up the wooden 
factory, and erected a large brick one and several dwelling-houses, and 
improved the same for fabricating woollen goods. The woollen factory was 
destroyed by fire on the 30th of June, 1826, but wa% rebuilt immediately 
after. Mr. Hurd continued the business till the great pressure in 1828, 
when he was compelled to assign his property for the benefit of his credi- 
tors, and which was afterwards purchased by the Middlesex Company. 

" About the year 1820, Messrs. Patrick T. Jackson, Nathan Appleton, 
and Kirk Boott, of Boston, entered into a design to form a company for 
the purpose of manufacturing cotton goods, particularly calicoes. They 
accordingly commenced an inquiry for a suitable water privilege. A large 
number of privileges were examined, and, for various reasons, rejected. 
At length Mr. Paul Moody, then connected with the manufacturing estab- 



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LOWKLL, MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



lishments at Wattham, while on a visit to his friends in Amesbury, met 
with Mr. Worthen, a gentleman of taste, with views congenial to his 
own, to whom he mentioned that an exlensire water privilege was wanted 
by the above-named gentlemen. Mr. Worthen replied, ' Why do they not 
purchase the land around the Pawtucket (alls, in Chelmsford ? They can 
put up as many works as they please, and never want for water/ This con 
venation resulted in a visit of these gentlemen to this place, and from ob- 
servation they were both satisfied that the privilege was exactly what was 
wanted. The Pawtucket canal was immediately purchased by Messrs. 
Jackson, Applelon, and Boott. 

" This canal was projected about the year 1790, and the proprietors 
were incorporated in 1792, by the name of ' The Proprietors of the Locks 
and Canals on Merrimac River. 1 It was open for the purpose of facili- 
tating the transportation of wood and lumber from the interior to Newbu- 
ryport. It is about one mile and a half in length, had four sets of locks, 
and was built at the expense of 1 50,000. It* direction is nearly east, and 
it enters Concord river, just above its junction with the Merrimac, where 
the water is thirty-two feet lower than at the head of the Pawtucket 
falls. 

" It is worthy of remark, that a few years before the purchase was made 
by Messrs. Jackson, Appleton, and Boott, an engineer was sent to exam- 
ine this place, by a number of gentlemen in Boston, who made a report 
that there was no water privilege here. The company made the first pur 
chase of real estate on the 2d of November, 1821. They began their work 
about the 1st of April, 1822. On the 10th of July, they began to dig the 
canal broader and deeper, and let the water into it about the 1st of Septem- 
ber, 1823. Five hundred men were constantly employed in digging and 
blasting. The gunpowder used in blasting amounted to $ 6,000, at one 
shilling per pound. The whole expense of digging the canal was about 
$ 120,000. It is now sixty feet wide, has three seta of locks, and the water 
in it is eight feet deep, and is calculated to supply about fifty mills. In 
digging this canal, ledges were found considerably below the old canal, 
which bore evident traces of its having once been the bed of the river. 
Many places were found worn into the ledge, as there usually are in falls, 
by stones kept constantly in motion by the water ; some of these cavities 
were one foot or more in diameter and two feet deep. 

" The company was first incorporated by the name of the ' Merrimac 
Manufacturing Company.' In 1825, a new company was formed, called 
the ' Proprietors of Locks and Canals on Merrimac River/ to whom the 
Merrimac Manufacturing Company roM all the water privilege and all 
their real estate, together with the machine shop and its appurtenances, 
reserving water power sufficient for five factories and the print works, and 
al*o the buildings occupied for hoarding- houses, and the land on which 
I hey are situated." 



d^C^^^ 



LOWELL, MIDDLB8BX COUNTY. 



23 



Lowell has grown very rapidly since its first settlement in the year 
1822. In 1830, the travel and business between Boston and Lowell had 
become se great, that a charter was obtained for the Lowell Railroad. 
This work was prosecuted with great energy, and was opened for travel in 
June, 1836. The distance from the Boston depot to Lowell is twenty-five 
miles and one thousand feet. An expensive cutting through solid rocks 
on this route, 600 feet in length, was made at a cost of 1 40,000. There 
are now eight trains daily between the two cities. Fare, sixty cents for a 
single ticket. Season tickets, for three months, $22.60; six months, 
#41.26; twelve months, #75. 

The population of Lowell, in 1828, was 3,632; in 1840, It was 20,796 ; 
in 1860, it was 33,385. The present capital employed in the mills and 
■hops is above ft 16,000,000. 



THE LOWELL MANUFACTORIES. 

The following statistical details have been derived from a letter sheet cir- 
cular issued at the office of the Lowell Courier. 

They show the capital, number of mills, number of spindles, number 
of males and females employed in each of the Lowell Mills. Together 
with the weekly consumption of cotton and wool ; the number of yards 
made, dyed, and printed, weekly. Also, the annual consumption of coal, 
charcoal, firewood, oil, starch and flour, in each of the mills, and the gen- 
oral aggregates. To which are added the dates when operations were com* 
menced, and the current prices of their stocks in the Boston market, June, 
1861. 





| 


3 




| 


i 




J. 


t 


£ 


o 


I 


Merrimac Man. Co., 


1823 


f2,fiooono 


6 


69,440 


2,108 


Hamilton Man. Co., 


1825 


1,2(10.000 


4 


38,416 


1,124 


Appleton Company, 
Lowell Man. Co., 


1828 


600/O0 


2 


17,920 


600 


1828 


i.aoo.ooo 


3 


11.362 


164 


Middlesex Company, 


1832 


1,000.000 


4 


16,340 


403 


Suffolk Man. Co., 


1832 


. 600.000 


3 


17,628 


690 


Tremont Mills, 


1832 


600.000 


2 


14,660 


667 


Lawrence Man. Co., 


1833-4 


1,600.000 


5 


44,800 


1,382 


Lowell Bleachery, 


1832 


262,400 








Boott Cotton Mills, 


18% 


1.200.000 


5 


49.434 


1,432 


Mass. Cotton Mills, 
Lowell Machine Shop, 


1640 


1,800.000 


6 


45,720 


1,566 


184.3 


600.000 








Total, 12 Companies, 




• 13 362 100 


40 


325,620 


9,906 



24 



LOWELL, MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 



Name of Companies. 



it 






•3 

I 

4 



it 



n 



Merrimac Man. Company, 
Hamilton Man. Company, 
Appleton Company, 
Lowell Man. Company, 
Middlesex Company, 
Suffolk Man. Company, 
Tremont Mills, 
Lawrence Man. Company, 
Lowell Bleachery, 
Boott Cotton Mills, 
Mass. Cotton Mills, 
Lowell Machine Shop, 



1,614 
840 
400 
650 
730 
400 
400 

1,200 
20 
870 

1,260 



645 
325 
120 
225 
675 
100 
100 
200 
200 
262 
250 
700 



340,000 
200,000 
150,000 
110,000 
20,477 
120,000 
140,000 
260,000 

320,000 
475,000 



74,000 
66,000 
60,000 
♦ 86,000 
t 33,000 
48,000 
42,000 
95,000 

90,000 
150,000 



299,000 
90,000 



9,000,500 



Total, 12 Companies, 8,274 | 3,702 1 2,136,477 744,000 § 9,889,000 



Name of Companies. 



ANNUALLY. 



Merrimac Man. Company, 
Hamilton Man. Company, 
Appleton Company, 
Lowell Man. Company, 
Middlesex Company, 
Suffolk Man. Company, 
Tremont Mills, 
Lawrence Man. Company, 
Lowell Bleachery, 
Boott Cotton Mills, 
Mass. Cotton Mills, 
Lowell Machine Shop, 



7,500 
3,780 

350 
2,600 
4,000 

340 



3,556 
2,148 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,600 
900 

1,000 3,000 

3,000 

1,100 1,800 
2,000 
15,000 



2,700 
1,800 



400 
200 



700 
30 
50 
120 
600 
70 
100 
100 



7,260 
6,000 
4,000 
17,000 
45,000 
2,500 
3,600 
8,217 
2,000 
7,000 
12,000 
3,000 



206,000 
130,000 
76,000 



100,000 
75,000 
140.000 
260,000 
190.000 
220,000 



Total, 12 Companies, 



28,520 34,993 2,270 107,677 



1,390 000 



It will be seen that the average rates of sales of stock are from 58 to 64, 
and that only two of them are above par. 
Average wages of females, clear of board, per week, $ 2,00. 
Average wages of males per day, clear of board, $ 0,80. 

♦ 50,000 lbs. cotton, 36,000 lbs. wool fWool. J Total, 1,190,000 yards 
cotton, 20,477 yards woolen, 15,000 yards carpets, 40 rugs. $ 394,000 
yards printed, 9,515 yards dyed. 



Digitized 



by Google 



LOWBLL, MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 





ANN. 




•f 


J* 


Name of Companies. 


1 


1 






* 


1 


I 


Merrimac Man. Co., 
Hamilton Company, 
Appleton Company, 
Lowell Man. Co., 


750 
200 


Steam. 


I. Hinkley, 
John Avery. 
George Motley. 
Alexander Wright. 


$ 1,160 to 1,180 
720 to 760 
600 to 700 
400 to 600 


Middlesex Company, 


\ 


Fur. & 
Steam. 


W. T. Mann. 


800 to 900 


Suffolk Man. Co., 
Tremont Mills, 
Lawrence Man. Co., 
Lowell Bleachery, 
Boon Cotton Mills, 
Mass. Cotton Mills, 
Lowell Machine Shop, 


60 
600 
40 


Steam. 
« 

n 
<( 
tt 


John Wright. 
C. L. Tilden. 
W. S. Southworth. 
C. A. Babcock. 
Linus Child. 
Joseph White. 
W. A. Burke. 


600 to 700 
600 to 600 
700 to 780 
200 to 220 
850 to 900 
700 to 760 
600 to 626 


Total, 12 Companies, 


1,640 









Medium produce of a loom, No. 14 yarn, yards per day, 45. 

Medium produce of a loom, No. 90 yarn, yards per day, 33. 

Average per spindle, yards per day, If 

The Middlesex Company make use annually of 6,000,000 teasles, 
1,716,000 lbs. fine wool, 80,000 lbs. glue, $60,000 worth dye-stuffs, and 
ft 17,000 worth of soap. They also own the Wamesit Carpet Mill, on the 
Concord river, where are consumed annually, 93,600 lbs. coarse wool, and 
36,400 lbs. of worsted yarn, producing 91,000 yards ingrain carpeting. 

In addition to the above, the Merrimac Manufacturing Company use 
1,000,000 lbs. of madder, 380,000 lbs. copperas, 60,000 lbs. alum, 50,000 
lbs. sumac, 40,000 lbs. soap, 45,000 lbs. indigo, per annum. 

The mills are now lighted with gas, — lessening thereby the consump- 
tion of oil. 

Other manufactures are produced in the city, than those specified above, 
of a value off 1,500,000, employing a capital of ft 400,000, and about 1,500 
hands. 

There are four Banks,— the Lowell, capital $200,000; the Railroad, 
capital ft 600,000; the Appleton, capital ft 150,000; the Prescott, capital 
ft 150,000. 

The population of Lowell, in 1828, was 3,532. In 1840, it was 20,796 ; in 
1860, it was £3,386. Increase in ten years, 12,689. 

The Lowell Machine Shop, included among the above mills, can furnish 
machinery complete for a mill of 6,000 spindles, in three months, and a 
mill can be built in the same time. 

The several manufacturing companies have established a hospital for 

3 Digitized by G00gle 



26 BROOKLINE, NORFOLK COUNTY. 



the convenience and comfort of persons employed by them respectively 
when sick, which is under the superintendence of one of the best surgeons 
and physicians. 

There are two institutions for savings, the Lowell and the City. The 
Lowell had on deposit, the first Saturday in November, 1850, from 4,609 
depositors, $ 736,628. 12. The City, at the same time, had on deposit from 
615 depositors, $75,970.51. The operatives in the mills are the principal 
depositors in the above banks. 

A vast amount of laudable and successful enterprise of a more strictly 
private character might not be inappropriately alluded to in this place, 
not the least of which are the extensive powder mills of Oliver M. Whip- 
ple, Esq., and the paper and batting mills of Perez O. Richmond, Esq., 
both pn the Concord river, within the precincts of the city. Messrs. 
Fiske 8c Norcross's extensive lumber-yard and sawmills, on the Merrimac, 
are also worthy of notice. 

A reservoir of great capacity has been built on the high ground in Bel- 
videre, east of the city, for the purpose of furnishing a ready supply of 
water to any part of the city in cases of fire. The water is conveyed into 
the reservoir by force pumps from the Lowell Machine Shop. Pipes are 
laid from the reservoir to various parts of the city, at which points hose 
can be attached to the hydrants without delay, when necessary. 



BEOOKLINE, NORFOLK COUNTY. 

This is one of the most delightful towns in the vicinity of Boston. It 
is one of the many towns within a small circuit of the metropolis, that 
are becoming the residences of the Boston merchants. Brookline lies on 
the north bank of Charles river, and distant from two to five miles from 
Boston. Wood, in his " New England's Prospect," in 1633, says : — " The 
inhabitants of Boston, for their enlargement, have taken to themselves 
farm-houses in a place called Muddy River, two miles from the town, 
where there is good ground, large timber, and store of marsh land and 
meadow." 

In December, 1686, the inhabitants of Muddy River bad obtained an or- 
der from the President and Council that said hamlet should henceforth be 
free from town rates to the town of Boston, and have the privilege of 
meeting " annually to choose three men to manage their affairs." The 
conditions of this grant were, that the town should bear their own ex- 
penses, erect a school-house, and maintain alreading and writing master. 

Brookline was incorporated as a town, November 13, in the year 1705. 
It is supposed that the name was adopted from the circumstance that 
Smelt-brook was a boundary between this town and Cambridge; and that 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BROOKLINB, NORFOLK COUNTY. 



27 



another brook, which falls into Muddy River, was the boundary between 
Brookline and Roxbury. Further particulars of the settlement of the 
town may be found in the Century Sermon, delivered by the late Rev. 
Doctor Pierce. He remarks, — "Previously to its incorporation in 1705, 
it formed a part of Boston ; and was denominated Muddy River, from the 
stream which is one of its eastern boundaries. It was assigned to the in- 
habitants of Boston, on account of their narrow limits within the penin- 
sula. They used to transport their cattle over the water to this place, 
while the corn was on the ground at Boston, and bring them to town in 
the winter. Finding it highly inconvenient to attend town business in 
Boston, and increasing in numbers and in wealth, they were at length in- 
corporated." 

In the year 1717, the first church in Brookline was established, and in 
1718, the Rev. James Allen was ordained first minister. 

The Western avenue, leading from the foot of Beacon Street in Boston 
to Brookline, was an important improvement for both towns, and was 
opened for public use on the 2d of July, 1821. 

There are yet remains of the Fort on Sewall's Point, one of the breast- 
works erected in Brookline in the Revolutionary war. A road now divides 
this relic of the struggle for liberty in 1776-76. This was one of the 
strongest positions taken by the American army at that period. 

Brookline, in 1851, is noted for its variety of surface; numerous gar- 
dens, highly cultivated ; fine dwellings; picturesque views and pleasant 
drives. It furnishes some of the most beautiful sites near Boston for the 
erection of private residences. Brookline contained, in the year 1840, 1 , 123 
inhabitants ; in 1850, the number had increased to 2,353. During the 
same period, its property valuation had increased from $ 700,000 to 
65,400,000. There are now three churches, and another about to be 
erected ; five public school-houses, including a part of the town bouse 
used for school-rooms. The town covers about 4,400 acres, and is to a 
great extent under high cultivation. 

The leading object for visitors is the Cochituate reservoir, an elegant 
structure, of an elliptic shape. The west end of this reservoir is distant 
8,966 yards from the Beacon Hill reservoir, and about one mile from the 
depot in Brookline. The former has a surface of 22$ acres, and will hold 
one hundred millions of gallons of water, a quantity sufficient for the sup- 
ply of Boston for the space of two weeks. A branch of the Worcester 
Railroad runs from the main stem, 2$ miles from Boston, to the Brookline 
station, distant four miles from the depot in Beach street. On thia 
branch road there are nine trains daily. Fare, ten cents, or twelve tick- 
ets for one dollar. Per annum, thirty dollars. 






CAMBRIDGE, 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 




To the stranger passing from Boston to Cambridge, tbe first impressions 
of the latter city are far from prepossessing. Huge staring warehouses, 
exhibiting a marvellous deficiency of paint; unsightly and dilapidated 
dwelling-houses, singly or in blocks, sad memorials of a short-lived pros- 
perity^ innumerable cabins, of mushroom growth, the unmistakeable lurk- 
ing-places of tbe Irish ; with here and there a half filled cellar and heaps of 
charred and blackened timbers, partially overgrown with weeds, or the yet 
smouldering mass of ruins, attesting the fearful visitations, more or less 
recent, of the law-defying incendiary; — these are the objects which meet 
his eye as he passes along the road, through the "Lower Port," to the 
second or " Little Bridge," so called. A few rods from the latter, on the 
left, is the extensive establishment of Messrs. Davenport and Bridges, for 
the manufacture of Railway cars, — almost the first evidence of healthy 
life and activity which relieves the monotonous desolation of this district.. 
— and not far beyond, in a fork of the road, stands the Universalist Meet- 
ing-house, with a tall flag-staff before it, reared in honor of Lafayette, who 
visited Cambridge in 1824. Signs of life have been more and more appa- 
rent as the passenger has approached this point ; and now he is in tbe cen- 
tre of the business section of the " Port." Following the course of the no- 
ble avenue which stretches away, between rows of trees, to the old town, 
something like a mile beyond, and leaving the Baptist Meeting-house on 
the left, the first object which attracts attention is the new Athenaeum. It 






CAMBRIDGE. 



29 



is not yet finished ; but coming events cast their shadows before, and one 
can see that it will be a tolerably good-looking building. There, on the op- 
posite side of the way, with a beautiful lawn in front, and shaded by fine 
old trees, is a truly noble mansion. Previous to the Revolution it was owned 
and occupied by Ralph Inman, a wealthy tory, who was unceremoniously 
dispossessed, and his fine house assigned as headquarters to the redoubta- 
ble General Putnam. The street which leads up to the side entrance of 
the house perpetuates the name of its original owner. Time was, when 
not a solitary dwelling stood between the " Inman House " and the man- 
sion of the late Judge Dana, on Dana Hill. But times have changed, and 
the eye of the beholder now rests upon rows of fine houses and tasteful gar- 
dens, the residences, for the most part, of gentlemen who daily visit the 
metropolis for purposes of busi^ss, while they find in Cambridge a pleas- 
ant retreat from the noise and bustle of the crowded city. The ridge of 
laud called Dana Hill, which is approached by an almost imperceptible as- 
cent, forms the natural boundary between the " Port " and " Old Cam- 
bridge." On the summit of this ridge, on the right-hand side of the road, 
was located one of the chain of redoubts erected by the Americans at the 
outset of the Revolution. Traces of it have been visible within a very few 
years, but they are probably now obliterated in the march of improvement, 
— that same spirit of progress which made it necessary to cut a road 
through another old fort, a little beyond the one just mentioned, on the 
opposite side of the way. The land never having been required for build- 
ing purposes, this redoubt continued in a fine state of preservation, and its 
embankment and fosse were plainly distinguishable, even at considerable 
distance. What remains thereof is now concealed by the intervening 
houses on Putnam street. Still following the " Main street," it is not 
long before the turrets of Gore Hall, — the library building of the Univer- 
sity, — come in sight, and aside glimpse of the other College buildings is 
obtained through the trees. On the left, opposite Gore Hall, is seen a 
large, square, old-fashioned house, at a little distance from the street, 
which is noted as having been the residence of Burgoyne, while prisoner 
of war, after the battle of Saratoga. With the College yard still on our 
right, and leaving the University Bookstore and Press on the left, we come 
to the venerable mansion, which, for more than a hundred years, has been 
the residence of the Presidents of the College. It is now occupied by the 
Hon. Edward Everett, Mr. President Sparks preferring to remain in his 
own house, which is situated in the rear of the College buildings, on the 
corner of Quincy and Kirkland streets. Next comes the Law School, and 
then the other College buildings, and here we are at the grand entrance to 
the College grounds. Opposite is the Unitarian Meeting-house; to the 
right is that of the Baptists ; hard by the latter are the buildings of the 
Scientific School, and in its rear the residence of the late Rev. Abiel 
Holmes, the well-known American Annalist. Beyond the Unitarian 



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30 UNIVERSITY AT CAMBRIDGE. 

Meeting-house, with the ancient grave-yard between, is Christ Church ; 
and still farther beyond may be seen the waring branches of the venerable 
Washington Elm; while to the north stretches the Common on which 
was mustered the little army, whose responsive shouts first welcomed the 
great Chieftain of his country. 



THE UNIVERSITY AT CAMBRIDGE, 

commonly called Harvard College, and frequently, though with little pro* 
priety, Harvard University ; — terms indiscriminately applied, by those ig- 
norant of its true organization, to one and the same Institution, composed 
of five distinct Departments, each complete in itself, with its own par- 
ticular government and body of Instructors, each having its separate 
funds, its own pupils, and its peculiar objects, but all subject to one su- 
preme head. 

These five Departments are, the Academic, or more properly, Collegiate 
Department, or Harvard College as originally constituted ; and the 
several Professional and Scientific Schools which have been successively 
gathered around it. They are all under the general superintendence and 
management of a board of seven members, called the Corporation, subject 
to the visitatorial power of the Board of Overseers. 

The Corporation is composed of the President, five Fellows, and a 
Treasurer, respectively chosen, when a vacancy occurs, by the remaining 
members, with the concurrence of the Overseers. They constitute "one 
body politic and corporate," established by the Charter of May 31st, 1660, 
and legally styled " The President and Fellows of Harvard College " ; but 
being the first, and, during the whole of the 17th century, the only corpo- 
rate body in the then Province, they acquired the familiar title of " The 
Corporation." With this board rests the power of appointing all officers, 
of every description, subject, however, to the approval o the Overseers; 
and it is their duty to prescribe the general rules by which each Depart- 
ment is to be governed, and to see that they are carried into effect. The 
President is the presiding and executive officer of the Corporation ; and 
it is his duty to call meetings of the board, to report thereto such meas- 
ures of the Faculty as require their concurrence and approbation, and to 
act as the ordinary medium of communication between the Corporation 
and the Overseers. 

The Board of Overseers derives its existence from the Act of the 
General Court of September 8, 1642, as amended by the Legislature, in 
March, 1810, and February, 1814. It consists of the Governor, Lieutenant- 
Governor, Executive Council, and Senate of the Commonwealth, of the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and of the President of the Uni- 
versity, for the time being, and of fifteen clergymen and fifteen laymen, 



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HARVARD COLLEGE. 31 

chosen by the whole body, as vacancies occur, for life, or until they resign 
their office. His Excellency the Governor, or, in his absence, the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, or the oldest executive or legislative member of the 
Board, presides at all meetings of the Overseers. It is made the duty of 
the President to attend the meetings of the Board of Overseers, to report 
those proceedings of the Corporation which require their concurrence, and 
annually to make a report to the Overseers, at their legislative session, of 
the general condition of the University ; at which time it is also the duty 
of the Treasurer to present a general statement of the receipts and expen- 
ditures of the Institution. 

Each of the five Departments of the University,— the Collegiate De- 
partment, and the Medical, Law, Theological, and Scientific Schools, — is 
under the direction of its appropriate Faculty, of which the President is 
ex-ofieio the head. The senior Professor of the respective Professional 
and Scientific Schools acts as head of the Faculty of the same, and pre- 
sides at its meetings and on its public occasions, unless the President is 
present and presides. A Dean may also be appointed by the Faculty of 
each Professional School, if deemed expedient by the Corporation. The 
funds which have been given for the support of these several Schools have 
been placed in the hands of the Corporation, who act as trustees for the 
donors, to carry their purposes into effect. 

All the officers of instruction and government In the University are 
chosen by the Corporation, with the concurrence of the Overseers, and are 
subject to removal for inadequate performance or neglect of duty, or mis- 
conduct. The President is the executive and official head of the Uni- 
versity, and it is his duty to preside on all its public occasions, and to 
exercise a general supervision over its concerns ; to see that the course of 
instruction and discipline Is maintained ; and to give all orders necessary 
to that end, and not inconsistent with the laws. 

The Annual Commencement is on the third Wednesday In July, on 
which occasion a public literary exhibition takes place, in the Meeting- 
house of the First Parish, the various customary and honorary Degrees are 
conferred, and the ceremonies of the day conclude with the Public Dinner 
of the Alumni and guests of the University, in Harvard Hall. The regu- 
lar degrees conferred at this time are those of Bachelor and Master of 
Arts, for students, in good standing, of the Collegiate Department ; and 
Bachelor of Laws, Doctor in Medicine, and Bachelor in Science, for such 
student in the Law, Medical, and Scientific Schools, respectively, as have 
fulfilled the conditions required by the statutes of those Schools. Stu- 
dents in the Divinity School receive an appropriate certificate upon the 
completion of their course of study. 

With these preliminary remarks, we will now proceed to give a succinct 
view of the history, operations, and present condition of the Institution, 
in its two great branches, the Collegiate Department or College proper, 



a— eggs 

32 CAMBRIDGE. 

and the Professional and Scientific Schools. The former of these consti- 
tutes, not merely the historical foundation, but the substantial basis of the 
Institution, as a seat of liberal education ; while the latter have grown into 
an importance which forcibly illustrates the foresight of our fathers, who, 
in the Constitution of the Commonwealth, bestowed upon it the name 
of " Thb University at Cambridge," and declared it to be the duty of 
legislatures and magistrates, in all future periods, to cherish its interests. 

HARVARD . COLLEGE. 

FACULTY. 
JARED SPARKS, IX. D., President. 

James Walker, D. D. ; Henry W. Longfellow, A. M. ; Cornelius C. Fel- 
ton, LL. D., Regent ; Benjamin Pierce, LL. D. ; Joseph Lovering, A. M. ; 
Evangelinus A. Sophocles, A. M. ; Francis J. Child, A. M. ; George M. 
Lane, A. M. ; John M. Marsters, A, B. ; Thomas Chase, A. B., Regis- 
trar; Josiah P. Cook, A. B. 

The foundation of Harvard College was laid by the General Court of the 
Colony of Massachusetts Bay, in September, 1636 ; when " it agreed to 
give £ 400 towards a School or College ; the next Court to appoint where 
and what building." In the following year, 1637, the College was ordered 
to be erected at Newtown, and twelve of the most eminent men of the 
Colony were appointed " to take order therefor." In 1638, the regular 
course of Academic studies seems to have commenced, and degrees were 
conferred, four years afterwards, upon nine young men, most of whom sub- 
sequently attained respectability and eminence both in this country and 
in Europe. In March, 1638-39, it was ordered that the institution 
should be called Harvard College, in honor of its first and great ben- 
efactor, the Rev. John Harvard, of Charlestown, who bequeathed one half 
of bis whole property, and his entire library, amounting to £ 779.17.2 in 
money, and more than three hundred volumes, for its benefit. 

In August, 1640, " at a meeting of the magistrates and elders at Boston, 
the Rev. Henry Dunster was by them invited to accept the place of 
President of the College," which had hitherto been under the supervision 
Of one Nathaniel Eaton, with the title of Master or Professor, "and to 
him was committed the care and trust of finishing the College buildings 
and his own lodgings, and the custody of the College stock and such dona- 
tions as might be added to the increase thereof." 

In September, 1642, an act was passed by the General Court, establishing 
the Board of Overseers. It consisted of the Governor. Deputy-Governor, 
and Magistrates of the Colony, with the Teaching Elders of the six next 
adjoining towns (Cambridge, Watertown, Charlestown, Boston, Roxbury, 
and Dorchester); who, with the Governor, were intrusted with the sole 
care and management of the College. This body being found too large to 



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HARVARD COLLEGE. 33 

have the immediate direction of the institution, on the 31st of May, 1650, 
it was made a Corporation, and received a Charter under the Colony Seal, 
which subsists to this day. 

" The first two Presidents of the College were educated in England ; but 
from 1672 to the present time, our Alma Mater has been under the charge 
of men who were her own Alumni, who received all their instruction from 
her, and who devoted themselves to repay the debt by laboring, in every 
way, to promote her prosperity." 

The following is a list of the Presidents of the College and University, 
from its establishment until the present time : — 

Henry Dunster, 1640-1654; Charles Chauncy, 1654-1671-2; Leonard 
Hoar, 1672 - 1674 - 5 ; Urian Oakes, 1675 - 1681 ; John Rogers, 1682 - 1684 ; 
Increase Mather, 1685- 1701 ; Samuel Willard, Vice-President, 1701-1707; 
John Leverett, 1707 - 8 - 1724 ; Benjamin Wadsworth, 1725 - 1736 - 7 ; Ed- 
ward Holyoke, 1737-1769 ; Samuel Locke, 1770- 1773 ; Samuel Langdon, 
1774-1780; Joseph Willard, 1781-1804; Samuel Webber, 1806-1810; 
John Thornton Kirkland, 1810-1828; Josiah Quincy, 1829-1845; Ed- 
ward Everett, 1846-1849; Jared Sparks, 1849. 

" Young men are admitted, when qualified by a prescribed amount of lit- 
erary attainments, into the Academical [or Collegiate! Department, at about 
the average age of sixteen ; and they pursue the usual course of a four 
years' College education, under the immediate instruction of nine Profes- 
sors, four Tutors, and three special Instructors. During the first two years 
all the studies are prescribed, and a pretty thorough acquaintance is ob- 
tained with Greek, Latin, and Mathematics ; and the study of History, 
Rhetoric, Chemistry, Natural History, and Modern Languages is begun. 

" In the last two years of College life, the pursuit of the higher branches 
of Mathematics, and the attainment of critical skill in the Ancient Lan- 
guages, together with further acquaintance with the Modern Languages, 
are made elective studies ; and the others which have been enumerated 
are continued, with the addition of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, 
Physics, and Political Science, in order to complete what is regarded as 
necessary for the foundation of those acquirements, and those habits of 
mind, which are indispensable to all who desire to be considered as culti- 
vated or well-educated men, in the present age of the world. 

" Four of the College buildings are occupied by the Undergraduates as 
lodgings, and afford accommodation for about half of their number, the 
rooms being assigned to the students, from time to time, by the Faculty. 
Four other buildings are used for public purposes. Harvard Hall contains 
a lecture-room, the cabinet of minerals and shells, with a few fossils, and a 
large hall for Commencement dinners and other occasions on which the 
Alumni assemble. This hall is adorned with the portraits of many of the 
past officers and benefactors of the Institution. Holden Chapel is convert- 
ed into lecture- rooms, used at present for the lectures on Anatomy and 



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34 CAMBRIDGE. 

Chemistry. University Hall contains the Chapel and several recitation 
and lecture-rooms. Gore Hall contains the library. 

"The funds which have been given for the support of the A cade mic al 
[or Collegiate] Department, which is the earliest of the Schools here es- 
tablished, the original and true Harvard Collbgb, are the following : — 

Funds given by various persons towards the payment of 
the salaries of Professors, and maintaining the Botanic 

Garden, 4980,296.81 

Funds appropriated to the Library, 10,960.99 

Funds for Prizes, 7,930.86 

Funds for Exhibitions, or aid to indigent students, . . 33,993.77 
The stock account, or general rand derived from unre- 
stricted donations, and from occasional balances. The ac- 
tual value of this fund at the present time is . 191,920.60 

Total, $825,093.03 

" The income of this sum, at five per cent, per annum, which is as 
much as can be obtained, on an average of years, is $ 26,264.65, whereas 
the annual expenses of the College now exceed $40,000. It will be ob- 
served that more than $ 330,000 are appropriated, by the donors, to salaries 
of Professors, the Library, Prizes, and Exhibitions ; while, beside these 
objects, there are salaries to be provided for many other necessary officers, 
and funds for repairs, and unavoidable expenses of various descriptions ; 
so that it can be no matter of wonder to any one who considers the facts, 
that an annual deficiency of about $ 20,000 is to be made up by a tax on 
the students. This is about $ 75 or $ 80 each ; and if it were by itself, not 
mingled with other charges necessarily incurred in consequence of the re- 
moval of the young man from the paternal roof, it would by no means be 
regarded as excessive, for the amount of instruction obtained. Good 
schools, in many parts of the country, for younger persons than Under- 
graduates, often cost as much, and even more. It is undoubtedly burden- 
some to many, and for that reason the importance of the Beneficiary Fund 
is very great ; and the advantage derived from it, as well as from another 
fund in the hands of trustees for a like purpose, is inestimable. But it is 
easy to see that so large an apparatus of officers and buildings can hardly 
be maintained at less cost ; and that the best way in which the liberally 
disposed can now serve the interests of education at Cambridge, is by un- 
restricted donations. 

" It should be seen, also, that the pecuniary resources of the College, 
properly so called, instead of amounting, as is supposed by many persons 
who take a hasty glance at the annual statement of the Treasurer, to nearly 
$ 800,000, in reality amount only to the above-named sum of $ 525,000 ; and 
even from this a large deduction should be made, on account of property 



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HARVARD COLLEGE 



35 



of an unproductive nature held by the College. In tact, the productive 
funds of the institution do not exceed $ 450,000." 

By the laws of the Institution, no person is permitted to hold any ex- 
ecutive office in Harvard College, who has the pastoral care of a Church, 
that of the University alone excepted, or who sustains any civil office ex- 
cept that of Justice of the Peace ; and whoever accepts such pastoral 
care, or civil office, is considered as resigning his place, and the same is 
thenceforth deemed vacant. 

The immediate care and government of the Undergraduates, or students 
in the Collegiate Department, is vested in the President of the University, 
the Professors not exempted by the tenure of their office, and the Tutors ; 
who are denominated the " College Faculty." When requested by the 
President or by the Board, those Professors and other officers, usually 
exempted from the duty of attendance upon the meetings thereof, are 
associated, with, and act for the time as, members of the Faculty. The 
Faculty appoint one of their number to act as the particular officer 
of each Class, and to serve as the ordinary medium of communication 
between the student and the Faculty. Monitors are also appointed, and 
their duties and compensations fixed, by the Faculty. One of the Faculty 
is appointed by the Corporation to the office of Registrar, and .receives 
a salary determined by the Corporation. It is his duty to keep a record of 
the votes and orders passed by the College Faculty, furnish certified copies 
of the same when requisite, and perform such other services, properly per* 
taining to his office, as may be directed by the President or the Faculty. 

The officers resident within the College walls constitute a permanent 
standing committee, called the Parietal Commutes. This Committee 
has particular cognizance of all offences against good order and decorum. 

It being the design of the Government of the University that the Fac- 
ulty should be invested with ample power to administer the instruction 
and discipline of the College, they are desired and expected, at all times, 
to propose to the Corporation such laws and measures as they may deem 
requisite or useful for the effectual discharge of their functions. 

The Qualifications for Admission to the Collegiate Department are 
from time to time determined and prescribed by the Faculty, with the ap- 
probation of the Corporation. Tbe examination of candidates for admis- 
sion to the Freshman Class occupies two days, and takes place in Univer- 
sity Hall, on the Monday and Tuesday of the Commencement week, 
beginning precisely at 6 o'clock, A. M., on Monday morning. Attend- 
ance on both days is required. No candidate will be examined unless it is 
intended that, if admitted, he shall immediately join his class; and no 
person will be received at any other time than the beginning of a Term, 
except in extraordinary cases, at the discretion of the Faculty. 

Candidates for admission to the Freshman Class are examined in the 
following books : — 

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36 CAMBRIDGE. 

Latin Department. — The whole of Virgil; the whole of Caesar's 
Commentaries ; Cicero's Select Orations, Folsom's edition ; Andrews and 
Stoddard's Latin Grammar, including Prosody ; and in writing Latin. 

Greek Department. — Feiton's Greek Reader; Sophoclee's Greek 
Grammar, including Prosody ; and in writing Greek with the Accents. 

Mathematical Department. — Daviee's and Hill's Arithmetics ; Eu- 
ler's Algebra, or Daviee's First Lessons in Algebra to " The Extraction of 
the Square Root " ; and " An Introduction to Geometry and the Science of 
Form, prepared from the most approved Prussian Text-Books," as far as 
the Seventh Section, " Of Proportions." 

Historical Department. — Worcester's Elements of History, ( " An- 
cient History " ; ) Worcester's Geography, ( " Ancient Geography.") 

Students may be admitted to advanced standing, at any part of the Col- 
lege course previous to the Second Term of the Senior year. In order to 
such admission to advanced standing, the candidate must appear, on ex- 
amination, to be well versed in the following studies : — 1. In the studies 
required for admission to the Freshman Class. 2. In all the required 
studies pursued by the class for which he is offered. 3. And, in the elec- 
tive studies, one out of the three departments of Greek, Latin, and Math- 
ematics, pursued by the class for which he is offered. He must also pay 
to the Steward, at the rate of 1 45 per annum, according to the standing 
to which he is admitted. Any student, however, who has a regular dis- 
mission from another College, may be admitted to the same standing, if, 
on examination, he is found qualified, without any pecuniary considera- 
tion. This charge for advanced standing is also remitted to indigent stu- 
dents 

Every candidate, before examination, must produce proper testimonials 
of a good moral character, and, after being accepted on examination, must 
give a bond, with sureties, of which one at least must belong to this Com- 
monwealth, to the satisfaction of the Steward of the College, in the sum 
of four hundred dollars, to pay all charges accruing under the laws and 
customs of the University. A certificate that such bond has been given 
must be exhibited to the President, before any person can be admitted to 
the privileges of the institution. 

The Lectures and Exercises, to be attended and performed by the stu- 
dents, are arranged, from time to time, in the manner most favorable to 
their progress, by the College Faculty. The following is the arrangement 
at the present time. 

Freshmen. — First Term. — Greek, Latin, Mathematics, and History. 
Second Term. — Greek, Latin, Mathematics, and Chemistry. 

Sophomores. — First Term. —Rhetoric, Mathematics, Greek, Latin, 
Chemistry, and French. Second Term. — Rhetoric, History, Mathemat- 
ics, Greek, Latin, French, and Natural History. 

Juniors. — First Term. — Philosophy, History, Physics, Rhetoric, and 



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HARVARD COLLEGE. 37 

Greek Literature (the latter by Lectures). Second 7Vrm.— Rhetoric, 
Physics, Philosophy, and Roman Literature (the tatter by Lectures). 

Seniors. — First Term. — Philosophy, Rhetoric, Physics, and Modern 
Literature (Che latter by Lectures). Second Term. — Political Science, 
History, Rhetoric, Philosophy, Physics, and Modern Literature (the lat- 
ter by Lectures). 

Elective Studies. — In addition to the above, which are prescribed 
studies, every member of the Junior and Senior Classes must, from several 
others, select one in which he will hare three exercises a week throughout 
the year, as follows : — 

A student in the Junior Class must select either Greek, Latin, Mathe- 
matics, Spanish, or German ; and, in the Senior Class, either Greek, Lat- 
in, Mathematics, Spanish, German, Italian, or Hebrew. Only one of these 
studies can be taken ; and after the choice is made, the student must con* 
tinue in the same study during the year. He receires credit on the scale 
for his recitations in this as in the prescribed studies. 

Any student, who desires it, may have additional instruction three tiroes 
a week in some one of the studies mentioned above which he does not se- 
lect. That is, members of the Junior Class, who choose Latin, Mathe- 
matics, or Spanish, may join the section in Greek, or German ; and those 
who choose Greek or German, may do the same in Latin, Mathematics, or 
Spanish. And members of the Senior Class, who choose Greek, Italian, 
or German, may take, as an extra study, Latin, Mathematics, Spanish, or 
Hebrew; and those who choose Latin, Mathematics, Spanish, or Hebrew, 
may take, as an extra study, Greek, Italian, or German. No credit will 
be given on the scale of rank for recitations in an extra study, and no 
student can take more than one such study. Every student, who enters 
upon an additional study, must continue in it at least one Term, and at- 
tend all the exercises of the section which he joins. 

On or before the first day of June, in each year, every student Is re- 
quired to make a written statement to the Faculty of the elective studies 
he wishes to pursue the following year, and leave the same at the Re- 
gent's office, accompanied, if he be under age, by the approval of his pa- 
rent or guardian ; it being understood that the branches elected shall, in 
the opinion of the Faculty, be sufficient, with the prescribed studies, to 
occupy his time, that the whole is subject to revision by the Faculty, and 
that the arrangement thereupon made shall, in the case of the required 
election, be binding for one year. If such notice be omitted, the Faculty 
makes the selection. 

Lectures on Rhetoric, Modern Literature, Electricity, Geology, and 
Mineralogy, during the First Term, and on Intellectual Philosophy, His- 
tory or Political Economy, Modern Literature, Magnetism and Electro- 
Magnetism, Anatomy, Zoology, and Chemistry, during the Second Term, 
before the Senior Class ; and on History, Electricity, and Greek Lltera* 



sssBssa 



38 CAMBRIDOB. 

Uin, daring ths Firit Term, and on Maf neiism and Electro-Magnetism, 
Botany, and Soman Literature, during the Second Term, before the Jui»- 
ioe Class ; are delivered by the Profeeeors in those respective depart, 
meats. Attendance upon thete Lecture* is in some case* required, in 
others optional, but in all, advantageous. A course of Lectures on Chem- 
istry is also given to the Freshmen and Sophomores, in connection with 
recitations from a text-book. 

A Public Examination of all the Classes takes place each Term. The 
Committees of Examination are appointed annually by the Overseers, at 
their meeting in January, either from their own body, or from the com- 
munity at large; and a day is appointed by the Faculty, for the examina- 
tion of each class in every branch of study pursued by them, at such times 
as the Faculty may deem expedient; seasonable notice thereof being giv- 
en by the President to each member of the Examining Committees, who 
make report to the Overseers of the general condition of each department, 
and of the degree of thoroughness and exactness with which each branch 
of study has been pursued 

Pbaybbs, with the reading of the Scriptures, are attended in the College 
Chapel morning and evening. All the Students are required to be pres- 
ent; as they are also at public worship in the Chapel on the Sabba t h, ex- 
cept such as have special permission, at the request of their parents or 
guardians, to attend the Episcopal Church or other Congregations in the 
city of Cambridge, or elsewhere. 

There are two Public Exhibitions each year, one at each of the semi- 
annual visitations of the committee of the Overseers. The exercises for 
these Exhibitions are assigned by the Faculty to meritorious students of 
the two higher classes. They consist of original compositions for the Sen- 
iors, and of translations into and from various languages for the Juniors. 
The refusal of a student to perform the part assigned him, on either of 
these occasions, or any act of indecorum in its performance, is regarded 
as a high offence. 

In addition to the above, the following rewards and encouragements for 
literary exertion and good conduct have been established in the Univer- 
sity. 1. Dbtubs. —A distribution of books, called " Deturs," is made 
from the income of the Hopkins Foundation, at the beginning of the Ac- 
ademic Year, to meritorious students of the Sophomore Class, and to 
those Juniors who entered the Sophomore Class, and whose merit would 
have entitled them to this distinction ; and also to such members of the 
Junior Class, as, not having received them in the Sophomore year, shall, in 
the course of that year, make decided improvement in scholarship. 2. 
Bowboin Pbisbb. — Prizes are annually awarded, by the Faculty, in the 
Second Term of the Academical Year, to such . Resident Graduatee and 
membsrs of the Senior and Junior Classes as shall write the best and sec- 
ond best Dissertations on subjects given out for that purpose, as follows :— 



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HARVASO COLLEGE. 39 

A prise oi fifty dollars for the best Dissertation by a Reaident Graduate, 
oq either of the subjects proposed for writers of thai standing ; 

A prize of forty dollar* for the best, and a prise of thirty dollar* tor 
the second best Dissertation by a member of the Senior Class of Under* 
graduates, on either of the subjects proposed for that class ; 

A pries of forty dollar* for the best, and a prise of thirty dollar* for 
the second best Dissertation by a member of the Junior Class, on either of 
the subjects proposed for that class ; 

Provided there be so many Dissertations worthy of prises in the opinion 
of the judges. Instead of the sums of money above named, gold medals of 
equivalent value will, if preferred, be given to the successful competitors. 
The merit of the Dissertations is adjudged by Committees appointed for 
that purpose by the Faculty, but not of their own number. Prises are 
also assigned from the Bowdoin Prize Fund, for Latin and Greek Compo- 
sitions, Prose and Verse, under the following regulations : — 

A prise of twenty dollar* for the best composition in Latin Prose, or 
Greek Verse, by a member of the Senior Class. 

A prise of fifteen dollar* for the best composition in Latin Verse or 
Greek Prose, by a member of the Junior Class. 

The value of the prise will be given in books or money, at the option of 
the successful competitor. 

The subjects for the compositions are given out and the prises awarded 
by the Latin and Greek Departments, acting, in conjunction with the 
President, as a committee of the Faculty for that purpose, and no prize 
will be awarded unless the absolute merit of the composition shall be such 
a*4o deserve It. The foregoing prizes are paid from the income of a fund 
bequeathed by the Hon. James Bowdoin, "for the advancement of useful 
and polite literature among the residents, as well Graduates as Under- 
graduates, of the University, in such way and manner as shall be best 
adapted to excite a spirit of emulation among such residents." 3. Boyls- 
tom Priees. — Agreeably to the institution of the " Boylsten Prizes for 
Elocution," on the day after Commencement in each year there will be 
held in University Hall, or in the Meeting-house of the First Parish in 
Cambridge, a public exhibition and trial of the skill and improvement of 
the Students of the University in elocution. The speakers are not to re- 
hearse their own composition; but to select pieces in prose or verse from 
English, Greek, or Latin authors, the selections to be approved by the 
Boy 1st on Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, the proportion in English 
being at least two out of three. The competitors must be Graduates of 
the year, or Undergraduates of one of the next two classes ; and their 
names must be entered with the Professor, at the latest, fourteen day* 
before Commencement, no applications being received after that time. 
The Corporation will, each year, select five gentlemen distinguished for 
their elocution, either at the bar, in the pulpit, or in the senate, who, with 



srewgr 



40 CAMBRIDGE. 

the Corporation, or a major part of them, will judge of the merits of the 
competitors, and award the prizes. They will assign five prizes ; two first 
prizes, namely, fifteen dollars, or a gold medal of that value, to each of 
the two best speakers ; and three second prizes, namely, ten dollar*, or a 
gold medal of that value, to each of the three next best ; provided that, if 
the judges shall be of opinion that none of the competitors have exhibited 
sufficient skill and improvement to be entitled to the first prizes, they may 
withhold them. At this exhibition no prompting of the speakers is al- 
lowed; and a failure of memory in any one will exclude him from being 
considered in the assignment of the prizes. 

Various bequests and donations have from time to time been made to the 
President and Fellows, the income of which is appropriated for the aid of 
deserving students in narrow circumstances. The annual amount thus die* 
tributed from. thj8 source is about fourteen hundred dollars, which has 
heretofore been given as a gratuity, in sums ranging from twenty to sixty 
dollars. As some students prefer to receive the aid in the form of a loan, 
the Corporation have determined to divide the income of their beneficiary 
funds into two parts ; one of which shall still be given as a gratuity, and 
the other granted on loan to such students as prefer to receive the aid in 
that form. Applications for aid from the Bknkpiciart Fund are ad* 
dressed to the President, and must be presented to him on or before the 
16th day of May in each year, by the parent or guardian, or by the stu- 
dent himself, if of age. The application should state particularly the 
circumstances of the case, and whether a gratuity or a loan is desired. 

In addition to the beneficiary funds here described, of which the Presi- 
dent and Fellows are trustees, there is a " Loam Fund," raised a few 
years since by subscription among the friends of the University, the inter- 
est of which, now amounting to about one thousand dollars, is annually 
distributed to meritorious students desirous of receiving it, in sums rang- 
ing from twenty to eighty dollars. This fund is under the control of a 
Board of Trustees, in Boston; Edward Wiggles worth, Esq., Treasurer. 
Although it has been in operation but about ten years, one thousand dollars 
have been already added to the principal by reimbursements to that ex- 
tent. The applications for the Loan Fund, made in the same manner as 
for the Beneficiary Fund, by the parent or guardian, or by the student 
himself, if of age, should be addressed to the President as early as thedOtk 
day of November. 

Beside the foregoing provisions for the aid of meritorious students, the 
various Monttorships, Ac, amount to about three hundred and fifty dol- 
lars a year, which may be considered as an addition, to that extent, to the 
Beneficiary Funds of the institution. 

Meritorious students, whose circumstances require It, may, at the 
discretion of the Faculty, be absent for a limited time not exceeding thir- 
teen weeks, including the winter vacation, for the purpose of keeping 



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HARVARD COLLEGE. 41 

schools ; the studies and exercises of their class, during the time of their 
absence, being afterwards performed by them, according to such rules as 
may be established by the Faculty. Applications for permission to keep 
school must be presented to the President as early as the 15* A day of No- 
vember, in each year, and no absence will be allowed till a certificate of 
such permission has been first obtained from the President. 

The Academical Tear is divided into two Terms and two Vacations. 
The First Term begins six weeks after Commencement on Thursday 
morning, and continues twenty weeks. The First Vacation begins at 
the end of the First Term, Wednesday evening, and continues six weeks. 
The Second Term begins at the end of the First Vacation, Thursday 
morning, and continues twenty weeks. The Second Vacation begins at 
the end of the Second Term, Wednesday evening, and continues six 
weeks. . 

The students have leave to pass the Annual Thanksgiving with their 
friends, and for this purpose are allowed to be absent from College from 
Tuesday evening preceding, to Sunday evening following that day. A sim- 
ilar recess takes place in the course of the Second Term, beginning on the 
Tuesday preceding the last Wednesday in May. There are no literary exer- 
cises in College on Christmas Day, nor on the Fourth of July. With the 
foregoing exceptions, no student is permitted to be absent from College 
over night, in Term-time, without leave previously obtained of the Presi- 
dent, or the officer designated for that purpose. 

No student, who is not an inhabitant of the city of Cambridge, is al- 
lowed to remain in Cambridge during any vacation without leave from the 
Faculty ; and all students so remaining are subject to the laws of the Uni- 
versity, enjoining orderly conduct, and to those respecting the lodging and 
boarding-houses of the students. 

The Public Exhibitions take place on the third Tuesday of October, 
and on the first Tuesday of May. 

The Dudlsian Lectors is on the second Wednesday of May. 

The Senior Class Dat is on the fourth Friday next preceding Com- 



The CoMMENCBifENT is on the third Wednesday of July, when a public 
literary exhibition takes place at the University, previous to conferring 
the Degrees. The parts in the performances are assigned by the Faculty ; 
and no student, although otherwise qualified, will receive a Degree, who 
refuses or neglects to perform his part, or who performs it in an unbecom- 
ing manner. The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred on each 
member of the Senior Class in good standing; but no student is recom- 
mended by the Faculty to the Government of the University for the Bach- 
elor's, or Finrt, Degree, except on the production of a Certificate from the 
Steward that he has paid his College dues, and one from the Librarian that 
he is not a delinquent at the Library ; which Certificates must be pro- 



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42 CAMBRIDGE 

ducod on the day before the Commencement, at the lateet, or the degree 
will not be conferred that year. 

The degree of Master op Abtb is conferred in course on every Bache- 
lor of Arte of three years' standing, on the payment of the usual fee, who 
shall, in the interval, have sustained a good moral character. Graduates 
of longer standing may also have the Master's degree upon the same con- 
dition. In both cases, application should be made at the Steward's Office, 
either personally or by letter, as soon as the second day before Commence- 
ment. The fee, including the Diplomas, is five dollars, payable in ad- 
vance. 

The necessary sinenses of an undergraduate for a year, Included in the 
College bins, are as follows : — 

Instruction, Library, Lecture rooms $ 75.00 

Rent and Care of Room " 15.00 

Board for 40 weeks at $2.50 per week 100.00 

Text books (average) 12.00 

Special Repairs, &c • from 1 to 2.00 

$204.00 

Other expenses must vary with the economy of each student. Wood 
and coal ready for use are delivered at the students' rooms, by the lessee 
of the College wharf, at the market price, usually at $ 6.60 per cord for 
wood, and $ 7 per ton for coal. The rent of rooms in private houses, from 
$30 to $60 per annum. Board in the town, from $2.50 to $3.90 per 
week. The students find their own beds and furniture. 

The bills containing Coilegechargea are to be made out by the Steward, 
at the end of each Term; and muet be settled within a week f rem the 
commencement of the eueceemtng Term, lawful interest being charged on 
every bill not settled by the expiration of that period. The bill for 
the Second Term of the Senior year muet be paid two dmye at learnt be- 
fore Commencement; and no Degree can be conferred until mil bookt 
are returned to the Library, and all dues to the College are diocharged. 

The parent or guardian of every student subject to the Patron Law shall 
be informed what are the necessary annual expenses included in the Term- 
bills ; and hs shall also be informed by the Patron what funds for the sup- 
port and use of bis son or ward must be remitted to him ; and the Patron 
is to have the whole control of the same, under the direction of the fac- 
ulty ; and no such student is allowed to contract any debt without an or- 
der from the Patron, or from his parent or guardian. Every student 
subject to the Patron Law is to be charged in his term-bill at the rate of 
two and a half per cent., as a compensation to the Patron for the dt* 
bureements made on hie account ; and no student, subject te this law, 
shall be permitted to continue at the Univereity, unless he comply with it. 



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HARVARD COLLSQM. 



Inasmuch as circumstances may render it unnecessary or inconvenient 
to apply the foregoing law in all cases, it has been determined, for the 
present, that those students only shall be placed under the care of the Pa- 
tron, whose parent* or guardians shall signify to the President their desire 
to that effect, and their willingness to allow the commission above men- 
tioned for his services. Mr. Elijah F. Valkntinb, of Cambridge, As* 
sistant Steward, has been appointed Patron, and is confidently recom- 
mended to parents and guardians as a gentleman in whose discretion and 
fidelity to the trust entire confidence may be placed. 

" The contrast between Harvard College as it was in 1642, and what it 
Is at the present moment, Is striking. The first four cl as ses consisted of 
twenty pupils, and the instructors were the President, and, perhaps, a Tu- 
tor or two. There was a single building for the accommodation of the en- 
tire institution, and somewhat less than three acres of land constituted 
the whole of its fixed properly. At this moment, the pupils, in all the 
departments, number six hundred, or thereabouts, with a good prospect of 
increase; the instructors are twenty-five acting Professors and Lecturers, 
five Tutors, and four teachers of the modern languages. Beside these, 
are three Astronomical Observers, two Librarians, and various other offi- 
cers of government, of account, and of record. The buildings are fourteen 
in Cambridge, including the Observatory, and one in Boston. . The in- 
closure in which are situated the greater number of the buildings contains 
twenty-three or twenty-four acres, and the institution possesses, besides, 
various pieces of real estate in the cities of Cambridge and Boston. Its 
other property, for the purposes of all the departments, amounts to about 
seven hundred thousand dollars. 

"There is nothing more remarkable in the character of the College, 
throughout its whole history, and especially in its later years of develop- 
ment and expansion, than the ease with which, from its organization, and 
its unobserved influence over reflecting minds, it is enabled speedily to 
adapt itself to the varying and growing wants of the public. I la organi- 
sation is a singular specimen of skill and good fortune combined. It is 
sufficiently under direct responsibility to the community, through the 
large and constantly changing Board of Overseers ; it is sufficiently steady 
in its course of action, from the comparatively slow changes which take 
place in the Corporation. It is efficient in instruction, from securing the 
services of leading minds in every branch of knowledge ; and it is tolera- 
bly sure of future growth, from the influence it has justly acquired in the 
community by its usefulness. As long as it shall retain this power of 
adaptation to the public wants, as long as knowledge shall be desired, free- 
dom valued, religion and virtue reverenced, may Harvard College continue 
to perform its appropriate duties, bestow and receive its appropriate hon- 
ors, be cherished by the public, and live in the hearts of its Alumni. 1 ' 



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MBDIOAL SCHOOL. 45 



MEDICAL, SCHOOL. 

Thb first separate School which was connected with Harvard College 
was the Medical School, for which the earliest donation was given in 1770, 
by Dr. Ezekiel Hereey, who bequeathed one thousand pounds, lawful 
money, to the President and Fellows of Harvard College, " the interest 
thereof to be by them appropriated towards the support of a Professor of 
Anatomy and Physic, and for that nee only." In 1782-83, Medical 
Professorships were first established, and Drs. Warren, Sen., Water- 
house, and Dexter, were installed in their respective offices. Other dona- 
tions and appointments soon followed, and the School began to be well 
known and esteemed, as early as the beginning of the present century. 
Dr. Warren, the first Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, resided in Bos- 
ton, and gave a portion of his lectures in that city, — a practice which 
was almost the inevitable consequence of the peculiar- circumstances at- 
tending the pursuit of this branch of study ; both from the greater facili- 
ties for instruction to be enjoyed in the metropolis, and also from the 
importance of securing the services of the most eminent men in the pro- 
fession, who would naturally be found there. The School was, neverthe- 
less, considered as situated at Cambridge ; and undergraduates, as well as 
professional students, were permitted to attend the lectures given at the 
College, for a fee somewhat less than other persons. After the establish- 
ment of a Hospital of considerable extent in Boston, the advantages to be 
enjoyed there by the student, in every department of the profession, were 
manifestly so much greater than at Cambridge, that a strong effort was 
made by the Professors to effect the. removal of the institution to Boston, 
and its permanent establishment there. Application was made to the Leg- 
islature for aid; and through the strenuous exertions of the Medical Pro- 
fessors, in conjunction with those of the President (Kirkland), and some 
members of the Corporation, a portion of the large grant obtained in 1814 
was appropriated to the erection of the Medical College in Mason street, 
Boeton. From that epoch the growth and prosperity of the School has 
been uninterrupted. It retained, in most respects, its original organisa- 
tion, until September, 1831, when new statutes were proposed and adopted 
by the Corporation, and approved by the Overseers, constituting the Presi- 
dent of the University, and the Professors and Lecturers, authorized to 
give instruction to Medical Students, the Mkdical Faculty, with author- 
ity to elect a Dean and adopt rules for their own government, provided 
they do not contravene the laws of the University ; and establishing the 
principles, times, and modes of the matriculation of students in Medicine, 
the examination to which the candidate for the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine shall be subjected, and the conditions with which he must comply to 
be entitled thereto. 



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46 MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

At the present time, Lectures, of the highest value, are delivered every 
year, by seven Professors, in different departments, and the students have 
every advantage which can be derived from attendance on the Hospital 
practice. The building in Mason street, erected but thirty years ago, not 
more with a view to the actual wants than the probable growth of the 
School, having ceased to accommodate the increasing number of students, 
measures were taken, in the spring of 1846, to erect a new one. A lot of 
land in the immediate neighborhood of the Massachusetts General Hospi- 
tal was given for the purpose by Dr. George Parkman ; an advantageous 
sale was made of the property in Mason street; a liberal subscription on 
the part of the friends of the University furnished what further assistance 
was required ; and the new edifice was opened, with appropriate ceremo- 
nies, on the 6th of November, 1846. 

The new buTId7ng~wifl accommodate more than three hundred students, 
beside affording ample space for the Cabinet which has been collected for 
medical and anatomical purposes, as well as for all the other objects of the 
institution. Its situation is highly &vorable, being more free from sur- 
rounding buildings than that on Mason street ; and its vicinity to the 
Hospital will greatly promote the convenience of its students. 

This change can hardly fail to be regarded as a decisive mark of im- 
provement in the prospects of a School whose prosperity has long been 
progressive ; and nothing now seems wanting to the rapid and great in- 
crease of the number of pupils, but a more general acquaintance with the 
advantages offered by the means of instruction here accumulated, and the 
talents and experience of the Professors. 

The Mrdical Lkctubbs, on the various branches specified by the Stat- 
utes, are delivered at the (new) Massachusetts Medical College, in North 
Grove street, Boston, where they begin, annually, on the first Wednesday 
in November, at 12 o'clock, noon, and continue four months. Students 
matriculate with the Dean, by entering their names in a book kept by him 
(which contains an obligation to submit to the laws of the University and 
to the direction of the Faculty of Medicine), and by paying three dollars. 

The following are the Courses of Lectures delivered in this College. 
Obstetric* and Medical Jurisprudence, —Walter Channino, M. D. 
Materia Medicaand Clinical Medicine, — Jacob Bioklow, M. D. 
Theory and Practice of Physic,— John Wars, M. D. 
Anatomy and Physiology, — Oliver W. Holmes, M. D. 
Pathological Anatomy, — John B. S. Jackson, M. D. 
Surgery, — Hbnry J. Biorlow, M. D. 
Chemistry,— Ebbn N. Horsford, M. D. (pro tern). 

The Clinical Lrcturrs in Medicine and Surgery are given to the class, 
on cases in the Massachusetts General Hospital, three times a week. Sur- 
gical operations at the Hospital are frequent. An abundant opportunity is 
thus furnished to students for practical observation and study. 



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MBDIOAL SCHOOL. 



47 



The Lecture* on Anatomy end Physiology are delivered daily, and are 
arrranged in each connection that each branch ehall serve to illustrate 
the other. The demonstrations are aided by a largo cabinet (the Warren 
Anatomical Museum), which is increasing by regular accessions from a 
fund appropriated to the purpose, and from individual contributions. 

The operations of Sumsry are illustrated by anatomical demonstra- 
tions of the parts concerned. All the new operations are particularly 
shown. The Professors in this department have provided an extensive 
collection of valuable preparations in wax, to show various tumors and 
diseases of the skin, some colored casts in plaster of Paris, many beauti- 
ful magnified drawings of subjects in anatomy and surgery, and also the 
newly invented surgical instruments. 

Mi»wmRY and Medical Jubisprvdbnob form one department. 
Lectures are regularly given on the Principles and Practice of Midwifery; 
separate Lectures are given in Operative Midwifery. Abundant opportu- 
nity is furnished to each member of the class to learn -the use of instru- 
ments. The Lectures are illustrated by models made in Florence, and by 
plates. The Lectures on Medical Jurisprudence are very much confined 
to the statement of principles, which are illustrated by cases. 

The Lectures on Matbua Mbmoa consists of the history of the vari- 
ous articles used in medicine, their physical and medicinal properties, 
their application to the treatment of disease, and the forms, modes, and 
quantities in which they are administered. Specimens of each medi- 
cine, and colored engravings of medicinal plants, are exhibited at the 
Lectures, while an opportunity to observe the effect of those most in use 
is afforded in the Clinical Lectures given by the Professor at the Hospital. 

The Lectures on the Pjuhciplss of Sobobby and Clinical Subobby 
continue four months, during which the students visit thesurgical patients 
at the Hospital, and attend all the operations. 

In the QumoAL Lsctobbs, the Professor speaks of the cases admitted 
mto the surgical department of the Hospital, describes the disease, gives 
the diagnosis and prognosis, with the mode of treatment. In the Clini- 
cal Lectures are described the surgical operations which are performed, 
with such remarks as to the mode of performing them, and the particular 
manner in which each operation is done, as are thought likely to be useful 
and instructive to the students. 

A collection, made in Europe, of plaster models, colored to represent 
various surgical diseases, has been recently introduced into this depart- 
ment. 

The Chxmical Lbotobbs are continued during four months, four Lec- 
tures being given each week. The chemical apparatus, to which additions 
are constantly made, is very extensive, and enables the Professor to illus- 
trate the various subjects with all the requisite experiments. 

The course of the Trkoby and Pbacticb op Physic embraces the Lee 



'" 



48 MBOICAL SCHOOL. 

tures given at the Medical College on the general principles of Pathology 
and Therapeutics, and on the history and treatment of particular diseases, 
and the Clinical Lectures given at the Massachusetts General Hospital. 
A collection of preparations in plaster, to the number of about fifty, admi- 
rably colored, has been recently imported from Paris, for the use of this de- 
partment. These preparations not only serve to exhibit the morbid anat- 
omy of the particular diseases of which they are examples, but also con- 
stitute a serieaof illustrations of the various elementary forms of disease. 
Morbid post-imrtem appearances, in recent specimens, form very impor- 
tant means of pathological instruction in this department. This subject 
is also fully illustrated in the special course of Lectures delivered by the 
Professor of Pathological Anatomy. 

The Clinical Lbcturbs on Medicine at the Hospital are given twice a 
week, and occupy two hours each. Students have an opportunity of visit- 
ing all the cases, and of observing and learning the symptoms and treat- 
ment of each case, and particularly of the exploration" of the body for the 
physical, signs of disease, by palpation, auscultation, and percussion. 

Medical Students may attend gratis the public Lectures given by any of 
the Professors, to Undergraduates, at the University in Cambridge. 

Two Annual Prizes are assigned, from the Foundation of Ward Nich- 
olas Boylston, for the best Dissertations on Medical subjects, proposed by 
a Committee appointed by the President and Fellows of the University. 
Each of the prizes is of the amount of sixty dollars, and may be taken 
either in money, or in the form of a gold medal of that value ; but no 
prizes are awarded if no one of the Dissertations presented is thought to 
be of sufficient merit. 

The Faculty holds two examinations, annually, for the medical degree, 
at which three members are a quorum for business. The first examina- 
tion is held on the day next succeeding that on which the winter courses 
end, at ten o'clock, A. M. The second, on the Monday next but one pre- 
ceding the Commencement, in July, at ten o'clock, A. M. In extraordi- 
nary cases, the Faculty may bold meetings for examination at other times. 

The following are the conditions on which students are admitted to ex- 
amination. 

1. Each candidate shall furnish evidence that he is twenty-one yean 
old. 

2. He shall have attended two full courses of the Lectures in this Col- 
lege. Nevertheless, a similar course in any other College or University, 
approved by the Medical Faculty, may take the place of one of these. A 
third course may be attended without fee. 

3. He shall have studied three full years with a regular physician, and 
be of good moral character. 

4. If not graduated in the Arts, he shall satisfy the Faculty in respect 
to his knowledge of the Latin language and experimental philosophy. 



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MSD1GAL SCHOOL. 49 

Certificates of competent persons will be received as satisfactory proof 
of these feci*. 

Four weeks before examination, he shall hand or send to the Dean a 
Medical Dissertation written by himself, certificates of time from the 
Physicians with whom he has studied, tickets to the Lectures, and the 
graduating fee, which is twenty dollars. The Dean shall submit the Dis- 
sertations to the Faculty. 

Each candidate having complied with these statutes shall be examined 
separately in Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Mid- 
wifery, Surgery, and the Theory and Practice of Medicine, and upon his 
Dissertation. The decision in regard to each shall be made and declared 
to him at the close of his examination, by the votes of the major part of 
the members of the Faculty present, and, if favorable, shall be recorded 
by the Dean, and by him certified to the President, to be laid before the 
Scnatu* Academicus. 

Those candidates who have received from the Senatu* Academicus the 
final approbation and degree will, after the spring graduation, receive their 
diplomas from the Dean ; and those who may be approved at the summer 
examination will receive their degrees and diplomas in Cambridge, on 
Commencement-day. 

The fee for matriculation is $ 3. This fee is to be paid to the Dean by 
all persons who propose to attend any of the courses, and is appropriated 
to the increase of the Library ; which numbers about 1,200 volumes, and 
contains all the most important elementary works, and those most used by 
students, with the writings of the early Greek and Latin medical Fathers, 
and the later medical classics, beside numerous valuable modern publica- 
tions. For this Library, the School is principally indebted to the liber- 
ality of its first Professors, by whom it was collected, chiefly from their 
own resources, for the benefit of their pupils, and presented, in November, 
1819, to the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Although by the 
formal deed of conveyance the inspection and control of <( the Library of 
the Massachusetts Medical College" was thus (upon certain conditions) 
vested in the Corporation, they were exonerated from any expense in 
the matter, and the Medical Faculty assumed the whole care and man- 
agement of the Library as one of their College duties. In addition to the 
contributions of its early patrons and founders, valuable donations have 
been made by Benjamin Vaughan, Ward Nicholas Boylston, and Edward 
Everett. 

Dr. J. C. Warren has exhibited another instance of his truly liberal sci- 
entific spirit, by placing in the School an extensive anatomical cabinet, 
containing the donations of Dr. Nichols, formerly of London, and others, 
with a large number of preparations by himself. Valuable additions have 
already been made to this collection by Drs. Hay ward and Lawrence. A 
fund has been given by Dr. Warren for its preservation and increase, and 



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60 1KB BOTANIC GARDEN. 

it Is probable that a few yean will produce a Museum which will bear a 
favorable comparison with the best to be found elsewhere. 

The lee for the whole course is • 80. Fees for tickets to the Lectures 
are required to be paid when the tickets are taken out, and no person can 
be admitted to a Lecture who does not exhibit his ticket for the same, 
when called for. 

The Hospital and Library are gratuitous. Tickets for the Dissecting- 
Room, |5. A sufficient supply of subjects is provided by the existing 
laws, furnishing to the class ample means of pursuing the important 
branch of practical anatomy. Board is as low as in any of our cities. 

The fee for graduation is ft 20; which is deposited with the Dean when 
application is made to him for examination. 

Taking into view the amount of instruction given in this School, the ex- 
tensive apparatus with which it is furnished, its connection with the nu- 
merous cases and operations of ons of the best conducted hospitals in the 
United States, together with the generally thorough acquisitions and high 
respectability of its graduates, it may be doubted whether any seminary 
in the country oilers the means of a more complete professional education 
than may be obtained In the Medical School at Boston. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN, 

was established at Cambridge with a view to facilitate the acquisition of 
botanical knowledge, by the introduction of plants from various parts of 
the world, and also by the cultivation of such indigenous shrubs, trees, 
and herbaceous plants, as are worthy of attention on account of their 
medicinal properties, or their uses in domestic economy and the arts. 

So long ago as January, 1784, an attempt was made by the Corporation 
to induce the Legislature of the State to found a Botanic Garden, in con- 
nection with the-University, in consequence of an oiler made by the King 
of France, through Mr. St. John, his Consul-Oeneral at New York, " to 
•furnish such garden with every species of seeds and plants, which may be 
requested from his royal garden, at his own expense." But the design re- 
ceived no countenance from the Legislature, the embarrassments of the 
period, both political and financial, affording an ample apology for the re- 
jection of this and other similar applications. 

Early in the year 1806, a number of gentlemen in Boston and its vicinity 
raised by subscription a sum exceeding i 90,000, and laid the foundation 
of a Professorship of Natural History m the University. By the arti- 
cle* of its constitution, its rands were placed in the hands of the Treasurer 
of Harvard College, subject to the control of a Board of Visitors, who were 
intrusted with the selection and purchase of a site for a Botanic Garden, 
and with mil powers of doing whatsoever in their judgment would enlarge 



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THB BOTANIC GARDEN. 61 

arid improve the institution, so for as to render it " most useful to promote 
the arts and agriculture of the State, and the interest of the University at 
Cambridge." Mr. William Dandridge Peck having been chosen by the 
subscribers their first Professor, and having been approved as such by the 
Corporation and Overseers, was authorized, immediately after his election, 
to embark for Europe, for the purpose of obtaining a knowledge of the 
best and most economical means of effecting the objects of the institution. 
In October, 1807, a site for a Botanic Garden was purchased, which, hav- 
ing been enlarged by a liberal donation of four acres of adjoining land from 
Andrew Craigie, Esq., of Cambridge, the Visitors proceeded to cause all 
the requisite buildings to be erected. On the return of Mr. Peck from 
Europe, he entered upon his official duties, and, with the occasional as- 
sistance of a committee of the Board of Visitors, had the superintendence 
of the Botanic Garden until his death, in October, 1822. 

In establishments of this kind it is usual to employ some person solely 
in collecting plants; hut the funds of this institution not being sufficient 
to meet such an expense, no person could be regularly engaged in this ne- 
cessary employment, and the number of native plants was consequently 
much smaller than it otherwise would have been. Those friends of the 
institution who possessed green- houses in the vicinity, kindly contributed 
such exotics as they contained ; gentlemen who had visited the tropical 
regions of the East and West Indies, and Africa, also presented plants and 
seeds ; and seeds were received from some of the Botanic Gardens in Eu- 
rope. From these various sources the collection was enriched with many 
choice and curious plants, of which a Catalogue (occupying some fifty pa- 
ges) was published by Professor Peck, in 1818, " by direction of the Board 
of Visitors, for the use of Visiters, and of Students of Botany in Harvard 
College." A small fee was demanded for admission to the Garden, and 
annual tickets were issued for the convenience of those families and indi- 
viduals with whom congeniality of taste made it a favorite place of resort. 

In November, 1822, in consequence of the inadequacy of the funds to 
support a Professor, the Board of Visitors " resolved to assign the care of 
the Garden to a committee, one of whom shall be a Curator, charged with 
such general duties relating thereto as are devolved by the statutes of the 
-Professorship on the Professor"; and the Corporation expressing their 
satisfaction and full concurrence in the measures adopted by the Board, 
Mr. Thomas Nuttall was, in the same month, appointed Curator of the Bo- 
tanic Garden, to hold his office during the pleasure of the Board, with the 
same powers of supervision as the statutes vested in the Professor. 

In May, 1831, the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
•Agriculture, as part of the Visitors of the Professorship of Natural His- 
tory, being of opinion that, since the discontinuance of the grants of the 
legislature, and in the state of the funds of the Professorship, its true in- 
terest required the whole control of the Botanic Garden to be vested In 



== 



THJt BOTANIC QARDBN. 



the Corporation, as possessing the best means and the most favorable sit- 
uation for the maintenance and improvement of the institution, they made 
known to the Corporation their desire to surrender their trust. While 
they yielded to this proposal, the Corporation expressed their "grateful 
sense of the deep interest which has always been manifested by the Trus- 
tees in the Botanical Institution, and of the great benefits it had derived 
from their friendly care and oversight " ; and assured them that they 
would constantly endeavor to maintain and support it, so far as the posses- 
sion of any funds which could be properly applied to that object would en- 
able them so to do. 

Mr. Nuttall continued to perform the duties of the office to which he 
had been appointed, until his resignation, in 1834 ; from which time till 
the appointment of a new Professor of Natural History, on another Found- 
ation, in 1842, the care of the Botanic Garden devolved upon Mr. W. E. 
Carter, the Gardener, while the charge of instruction in this department 
was committed to gentlemen temporarily appointed for that purpose by 
the Corporation. 

The ancient glory of the Botanic Garden has long since departed. 
Tear by year the funds for its svpport were sensibly diminished, while the 
wants of the establishment increased with more than an inverse ratio of 
rapidity. The hot-house and fences became so dilapidated that it was 
scarcely possible to repair them, and there were no means for renewal ; 
the disposable funds of the College being too small te warrant such an out- 
lay as would be necessary to place the institution in a proper position, at 
a time when there were so many other claims, of the most pressing char- 
acter, upon its bounty. Year after year the College Treasurer, like a 
faithful monitor, warned the community that the means of giving instruc- 
tion in Natural History were rapidly failing ; that the dilapidation of the 
buildings in the Botanic Garden, and the diminution of its funds, were 
still going on ; that it was in danger of becoming a memory of the past 
rather than the hope of the future, —a result which, though it might be 
delayed for a brief period, was finally inevitable, unless speedy aid were 
afforded to the drooping establishment, —and that the fate of an institu- 
tion, in which the public had once taken such an interest, must now de- 
pend upon the exertions of those who desired to see Natural Science en- , 
couraged and cultivated, and exerting its proper influence on the charac- 
ter of the country. 

Although the aid so earnestly intreated for has not been forthcoming, 
and some time has now elapsed since the Green-house was abandoned, the 
Garden still drags on a lingering existence; and " it is to be hoped" (to 
use the words of another) " that the liberality of those particularly inter- 
ested in this department of Science is not yet exhausted, but that this 
branch of the College may be soon replaced in the flourishing condition 
in which it once stood, and which its importance deserves. 

■ 



DAMS LAW SCHOOL. 63 

DANES LAW SCHOOL. 

Thb design of this institution is, to afford a complete course of legal ed- 
ucation for gentlemen intended for the Bar in any of the United States, 
except in matters of mere local law and practice; and also a systematic 
course of study in Commercial Jurisprudence for those who intend to de- 
vote themselves exclusively to mercantile pursuits. It dates, strictly, from 
the year 1817, when, at the suggestion of the Hon. Isaac Parker, then 
Chief Justice of Massachusetts, the Hon. Asahel Stearns was appointed 
University Professor of Law ; with the charge of such students as might 
choose to pursue their professional studies at Cambridge, and avail them- 
selves of his instruction and of the incidental advantages to be enjoyed 
there. The Royall Professorship of Law, it is true, had been established 
in 1815, under the will of the Hon. Isaac Royall, who bequeathed to Har- 
vard College a large tract of land, "to be appropriated towards the en- 
dowing a Professor of Law in said College, or a Professor of Physic or 
Anatomy, whichever the Corporation and Overseers of said College shall 
judge best for its benefit"; and in 1816, Chief Justice Parker had been 
chosen the first Professor on that Foundation. But as he did not reside at 
Cambridge, and gave only a partial attention to the instruction of mem- 
bers of the School, it is principally to the fostering care and eminent 
qualifications of Professor Stearns, that its earliest success must be at- 
tributed. 

In June, 1829, both of the Professors having retired from their respective 
offices, a new and unexpected impulse was given to this department, by 
the liberal proposition of the Hon. Nathan Dane, to lay the foundation of 
another Professorship of Law in the University ; coupled with a request 
that the Hon. Joseph Story might receive the first appointment thereto. 
Mr. Dane's proffered donation was accepted by the Corporation, and, in 
accordance with his wish, Mr. Justice Story was immediately elected 
Dane Professor of Law ; and at the same time the Royall Professorship 
was filled by the appointment of John Hooker Ashmun, Esq., of North- 
ampton, to the vacant chair. After four years of valued service, Mr. 
Ashmun was removed by death from the station which be so much hon- 
ored, and his place was supplied by Professor Oreenleaf. Under the joint 
administration of Professors Story and Greenleaf, the School continued 
to increase in numbers, importance, and resources; and since the de- 
cease of Judge Story, it has maintained its position, under the care of 
Professor Greenleaf, and, for one year, of Judge Kent, who have been suc- 
ceeded by Judge Parker, of New Hampshire, and the Hon. Theophilus 
Parsons. 

In October, 1831, Mr. Dane advanced the sum of 1 5,000 towards the 
erection of a Law College ; and proffering, at the same time, a loan of 
$ 2,000 more, to enable the Corporation to begin the work immediately the 



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M DANE LAW SCHOOL. 

requisite measures were forthwith taken for the building of Dane Hall, 
which was completed hi October of the year following, (1832,) and dedi- 
cated on the 23d of the same month. 

The prosperity of the Law School continuing uninterrupted, and the 
prospects of the institution being such as to justify, and even require, an 
enlargement of the building appropriated to its use, in compliance with 
the wishes of its officers, a considerable portion of its funds was in 1844 
devoted to that purpose ; and the building now affords ampls accommoda- 
tions for a school of two hundred and fifty or three hundred students, with 
rooms for the Professors, Librarian, &c, &c., together with a fine apart- 
ment for the Library. The subjoined cut is a fair representation of the 
edifice at the present time. It is of brick, two stories in height, and 
shaped like the letter T, with a portico in front, supported by four Ionic 
columns. 




The course of instruction in this School is not unlike thai pursued 
in other establishments of the kind. The reading of the students Is di- 
rected by the Professors, who examine into the results of study, and the 
attainments made by their pupils ; Lectures are delivered upon the most 
important branches of law, following, in general, the course of some text- 
book ; and moot-courts are held, under the direction of the Professors. 
Students may enter the School in any stage of their professional studies or 
mercantile pursuits ; but they are advised, with a view to their own ad- 
vantage and improvement, to enter at the beginning of those studies, 
rather than at a later period. No examination, and no particular course 
_ _ ^^ 



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DAMB LAW SCHOOL. 55 

of previous study, are necessary for admission; but the student, if not a 
graduate of some College, must be at least nineteen years of age, and pro- 
duce testimonials of good moral character. He also gives a bond, in the 
sum of $200, to the Steward, with a surety resident in Massachusetts, for 
the payment of College dues ; or deposits, at his election, • 150 with the 
Steward, upon his entrance, and at the commencement of each subsequent 
Term, to be retained until the end of the Term, and then to be accounted 
for. No student ia matriculated until such testimoniala are produced, and 
security given. 

Instruction is given by oral lectures and expositions, (and by recitations 
and examinations, in connection with them,) of which there are at least 
nine every week. 

The Coubsb of Studies ia ao arranged as to be completed in two Aca- 
demical years; and the studies for each Term are also arranged, aa far aa 
they may be, with reference to a course commencing with that Term, and 
extending through a period of two years ; ao that thoae who are beginning 
the atudy of the law may enter, at the commencement of either Term, upon 
branches suitable for them. Students may enter, also, if they ao desire it, 
in the middle, or other part, of a Term. But it is recommended to them 
to enter at the beginning of an Academical year, in preference to any 
other time, if it be convenient. They are at liberty to elect what studies 
they will pursue, according to their view of their own wants and attain- 
ments ; but, as a general rule, it is advisable for them, during the first 
Term, to confine themselves to few branches, aa aubjecta of regular study, 
giving attendance, however, upon all the Lectures. 

When a student is desirous of pursuing a branch of study which does 
not form the subject of general instruction in that particular Term, the 
Professors will render him aid in its pursuit as a private study. 

The Couass of Instruction for the Bar embraces the various branches 
of the Common Law, and of Equity ; Admiralty, Commercial, Interna- 
tional, and Constitutional Law; and the Jurisprudence of the United 
States. Lectures are given, also, upon the history, sources, and general 
principles of the Civil Law, and upon the theory and practice of Parlia- 
mentary Law. 

The Couass of Instkoction for the mercantile profession ia more lim- 
ited, and embraces the principal branches only of Commercial Jurispru- 
dence ; namely, the Law of Agency, of Partnership, of Bailments, of 
Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes, of Insurance, of Shipping, Nav- 
igation, and other maritime concerns, of sales, and, if the students desire 
it, of Constitutional Law. 

Lectures and instruction are given, throughout the course, on the Law 
of Real Property, the Civil Law, and Criminal Law, by the Hon. Lu- 
ther S. Cushimo, Lecturer. The studies in these branches will be under 
his direction, with aid from the Professors in his absence. 



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56 DANK LAW SCHOOL. 

'No public instruction is given in the local or peculiar municipal juris- 
prudence of any particular State; but the students are assisted by the Pro- 
fessors, as occasion may require, in the private study of the law and 
practice peculiar to their own States. 

Two Moot Counts are held in each week, at each of which a cause, pre- 
viously assigned, is argued by four students, and an opinion delivered by 
the presiding Professor. Clubs are formed among the students, in which 
dissertations upon legal subjects are read, and cases argued. 

The Law Library consists of about 14,000 volumes, and includes all the 
American Reports, and the Statutes of the United States, as well as those 
of all the States, a regular series of ail the English Reports, including the 
Year-Books, and also the English Statutes, as well as the principal trea- 
tises in American and English Law; besides a large collection of Scotch, 
French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, and other Foreign Law ; and a 
very ample collection of the best editions of the Roman or Civil Law, to- 
gether with the works of the most celebrated commentators upon that 
Law. 

The Library is open for the use of students during the Term, and those 
who desire it pursue their studies there, especially in the preparation of 
their Moot Court cases. 

Prizes are annuaHy awarded, at the close of each Academic year, for 
the beet and second best Dissertations, written by students of the Law 
School, on subjects given out by the Law Faculty, as follows : — 

A prise of sixty dollars for the best, and ofjffty dollar* for the second 
best Dissertation, by a student who has attended the Law School three of 
the four Terms immediately preceding the award. 

A prize of fifty dollar* for the best, and forty dollar* for the second 
beet Dissertation, by a student who has attended two of the three Terms 
next preceding the award. 

The merit of the Dissertations is adjudged by Committees of Counsel- 
lors-at-Law, appointed by the Law Faculty ; and no prize will be awarded, 
if no Dissertation offered shall be deemed to have sufficient merit. 

Students, who have pursued their studies for the term of eighteen 
months in any law institution having legal authority to confer the degree 
of Bachelor of Laws, one year of said term having been spent in this 
School ; or who, having been Admitted to the Bar after a year's previous 
study, have subsequently pursued their studies in this School for one year : 
are entitled, upon the certificate and recommendation of the Law Faculty, 
and on payment of all dues to the College, to the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws. 

The Acadmical Tbar, which commences on Thursday, six weeks at 
ter the third Wednesday in July (August 28th, 1851), is divided into two 
Terms, of twenty weeks each, with a vacation of six weeks at the end ef 
each Term. 



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PANS LAW BCBOGC 57 

The fees are ft 50 a Term, and ft 25 for half or any less fraction of a 
Term; for which sum, without any additional Charge, students have the 
use of the lecture-rooms, the Law and College libraries, and the text- 
books ; and they are admitted free to all the courses of public Lectures 
delivered to the undergraduates in the Academical Department of the 
University. 

Upon the payment of a fee of • 5 for each course, the Law Students 
may also attend the Lectures delivered in the Lawrence Scientific School, 
on ZoiUogy and Geology, by Professor Agassis; on Comparative Anatomy 
and Physiology, by Professor Wyman ; on Botany, by Professor Gray : 
and on payment of a fee of $ 10, the Lectures on Chemistry, by Professor 
Hereford. They may also study any one of the foreign languages taught 
in the University, on payment of a fee of ft 10 per annum. 

The other expenses for a Term are as follows ; — 
Board, twenty weeks, from ft 2.50 to ft 3.60 per week, from ft 50 to $ 70 
Room-rent, including care of room, but not making fires, « 26 to 52 
Furniture, (if the student does not furnish his room), . 10 to 20 

Washing 7 to 15 

Fuel, for the First or winter Term, from August to January, 12 to 21 

" for the Second or summer Term, from February to July, 
from t6 to $10. 
Servant (if one is employed) to make fires, &c, . . 5 to 10 



• 110 to 9188 
Fuel, prepared for use, is furnished by the lessee of the College wharf, 
at the market price, if the students desire it. 

The Law School is now so extensively known, and its direct and inci- 
dental advantages are so highly appreciated, it has so long maintained an 
elevated rank, and the prospect of its continuance in a similar position is 
so favorable, that it may be considered as well established in public favor. 
Its choice and valuable Library, which contains most of the standard works 
in English and American Law, and in the Civil Law, together with a se 
lect assortment of those of the writers of France, Germany, and Spain, 
and which is steadily increasing in size, has already cost nearly ft 40,000, 
without including the large donations which it has received from private 
beneficence. The annual fee paid for all its advantages is but one hundred 
dollars. The funds appropriated to the Law School amount to between 
forty and fifty thousand dollars, a large portion of which has accumulated 
from its own resources, beside the sum mentioned above, as having been 
paid for its Library. At a future period, this flourishing department of the 
University will receive the benefit of the late Mr. Bussey's munificent 
bequest, which will probably afford the means of supporting two additional 
Professors, as well as a permanent Librarian. 



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68 THBOLOOICAL SCHOOL. 

THEOLOGICAL. SCHOOI* 

Tra Theological School first began to be spoken of, as a separate Institu- 
tion, at about the time when the Law School was established. Instruction 
in Theology had, for a long period, perhaps from the foundation of the 
College, been given to graduates ; at first by the President, subsequently 
by the Hollis Professor, or by the two together, and, since May, 1811, by 
the Dexter Lecturer ; but in 1816 an effort was made to extend the means 
of this instruction, and a society was formed for the purpose of " promoting 
theological education in Harvard College. " Something was done at this 
time, in the way of raising money, although the funds of the society were 
chiefly employed, for several years, in cooperation with those of the Cor- 
poration, in extending pecuniary aid to theological students; and It was 
not until 1819, that the " Theological School " received a more formal or- 
ganization, when the Hollis Professor of Divinity, the Hancock Professor 
of Hebrew, and the Alford Professor of Natural Religion and Moral Phi- 
losophy were authorised, and undertook, to assist in the instruction of 
the School; and Mr. Norton, who for several years had given lectures on 
the Dexter foundation, was appointed Dexter Professor of Sacred Litera- 
ture, and associated with tbem. An increased number of students in this 
department soon began to appear, and after a few years another combined 
effort was made, and a new board of Directors constituted and incorporated, 
by the name of " The Society for the Promotion of Theological Education 
in Harvard University " ; under whose auspices an edifice for the accom- 
modation of theological students was erected, which, at its dedication, in 
August, 1826, received the name of " Divinity Hall.* 1 It is situated on 
"Divinity Hall Avenue," at some little distance from the other College 
buildings, in a northeasterly direction. It is of brick, and contains a 
Chapel for religious services, an apartment for the Library, and a reading- 
room, together with apartments for the students, Ac., &c The Library is 
small, numbering only about three thousand volumes, consisting mostly 
of select works in modern Theology, with some of the early Fathers in the 
original; but the students have free access to the Public Library of the 
University, which in some measure compensates for the deficiencies of 
their own. Means have been recently devised for adding to the Library, 
as published, valuable modern works in the various departments of The- 
ology and Morals. 

The Couuss of Instruction comprises Lectures, Recitations, and other 
exercises, on all subjects usually included in a system of theological ed- 
ucation, embracing,— 

The Hebrew Language; 

The Principles of Criticism and Interpretation ; 

The Criticism and Interpretation of the Scriptures; 

Natural Religion, and the Evidences of Revealed Religion ; 
BSBBSssaBSEBBssasssamamBSB^sss 



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e 



THBOLOG10AL SCHOOL 00 

Systematic Theology, and Christian Ethics; 

Church History, and Church Polity; 

The Composition and Delivery of Sermons ; 

And the Duties of the Pastoral Office. 

The members of the two upper classes have a weekly exercise in the 
practice of extemporaneous speaking, and the members of the Senior 
class preach in the Meeting-house of the First Parish during the summer 
Term. 

Students are entitled to receive instruction from the Instructor in the 
German Language, and to attend gratis all public Lectures of the Univer- 
sity, given to undergraduates in the Academical Department. 

Candidates for admission are requested to present themselves on the 
first day of the Term, and it is considered of great importance that those 
who enter the School should bs present at the beginning of the first 
Term. If unknown to the Faculty, they are to produce testimonals of 
their moral and serious character. Those who am not Bachelors of Arts 
will be examined in the following books : — 

Latin Grammar, Virgil, Cicero's Select Orations, and Sallnst. 

Greek Grammar, Fskon's Greek Reader, the first four books of Xeno* 
phon'e Anabasis, and the first book of Herodotus, or the first two books of 
Xenophon's Memorabilia. 
- Geography, Arithinetic, Geometry, and Algebra. 

Whately's Logic and Rhetoric, (or some other approved treatises on 
Logic and Rhetoric,) Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, Stew- 
art's Element* of the Philosophy of the Mind, Palsy's Moral Philosophy, 
Joufiroy's Introduction to Ethics, and Butler's Analogy. 

Candidates for admission to an advanced standing must have been en* 
gaged in the study of Theology as long as the class into which they pro- 
pose to be received, and must pass an examination in the studies which 
I that class has pursued. 

Each student must possess a copy of the Old and New Testament Scrip- 
tures in the original languages, the latter in GrieBbsch's or Tischendorf 'e 
edition. A copy of all other class-books is furnished on loan. Three 
years, including the vacations, which amount to twelve weeks in each 
year, complete the term of residence, and are deemed necessary for a prop- 
er course of preparation for the duties of the profession. 

Prizes are annually awarded, at the close of each Academical year, for 
the best and second best Dissertations, written by students of the Divinity 
School, on subjects givsn out by the Fsculty, as follows : — 

A prize of fifty dollars for the best, and of forty dollars for the second 
best Dissertation, written by a member of the Senior class. 

A prize of forty dollars for the best, end thirty dollars for the second 
best Dissertation, written by a member of the Middle class. 

The merit of the Dissertations will be adjudged by Committees ap- 



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60 THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL. 



pointed by the Faculty of the Divinity School ; but no prize wiU . be 
awarded if no Dissertation offered shall be deemed to hare sufficient mer- 
it ; and the Faculty are authorised to withhold the award from any student 
who, in their judgment, has not been faithful in his attendance upon the 
stated exercises of the School, and in the performance of his required du- 

Students are required to reside* in or near Divinity Hall. They give 
bonds in the sum of • 100 for the payment of term-bills, which, including 
charges for instruction, rent and care of room and furniture, and use of 
class-books, amount to $66 annually. Board may be had in the city at 
various prices from $ 2.60 to • 3.60 a week Indigent students are aided 
from Foundations, and other sources 

" It has happened, singularly enough, that the connection of this School 
with the College has been thought disadvantageous by the especial friends 
of both institutions. The patrons of the School have thought it to be 
harmed by its union with the College, and the particular friends of the 
Academic Department have thought this to be injuriously affected by hav- 
ing a Unitarian School associated with it. An injury to its reputation, 
with other denominations of Christians, it may have been; but, as the 
reciprocal influence of the School and College on each other is practically 
nothing, it seems impossible that the real character of either should suffer H 
by the connection. The Theological School has no more direct influence 
on the College than the Law School, — not so much, indeed, — and it seems 
to be forgotten by many persons, that the only connection between them, 
as between any other two departments, is, that they are under the general 
direction of the same board, the Corporation. There is little or no associ- 
ation between the students in any two departments, and the funds are en- 
tirely distinct. Not a dollar of the money given for the support or in- 
struction of undergraduates has ever been diverted from its legitimate 
purpose to the benefit of either of the Schools connected with the College. 
The Parkman Professorship, as is well known, was expressly devoted by 
Its principal founder, the Rev. Dr. Parkman, to the purposes of the The* 
ological School ; and the large addition made to the Dexter foundation, 
in 1841, by the Society for the Promotion of Theological Education, was, 
in like manner, expressly appropriated by that society to the same insti- 
tution; provision being made for the removal of the latter funds, in case 
the School should ever be separated from the College." 

The funds for the support of the institution have been gradually increas- 
ing, till they now amount to upwards of $80,000, and two Professors have 
charge of from twenty to thirty pupils. The annual charge for instruction 
is low, being less than $70, while there are considerable funds for the aid 
of indigent students. The bequest of Mr. Bussey will probably afford to 
this School, as well as to the Law Department, the means of supporting 
two more Professors. 



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'GRAND REFRACTOR, CAMBRIDGE." 



Digitized by VjOOQ LC 




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Digitized 



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CAMBRIDGE. Ot 

THE CAMBRIDGE OBSERVATORY. 

This observatory is situated on a commanding eminence called Summer 
House Hili, the summit of which is about fifty feet above the plain on 
which are erected the buildings of the University. This height is found 
to give from the dome an horizon almost uninterrupted to within two or 
three degrees of altitude. The grounds appropriated to the use of the Ob- 
servatory comprise about six and a half acres. It is distant nearly three- 
fourths of a mile northwest from University Hall, and three miles and a 
half in the same direction from the State House in Boston. 

The wonder and admiration caused by the unexpected appearance of the 
great comet in March, 1843, was a great incentive to, and, indirectly, one 
of the principal causes of, the erection of this now 'celebrated Observa- 
tory, although for many yearn before it had been a favorite project with 
John Q. Adams, Nathaniel Bowditch, and other distinguished advocates 
of astronomical science. But few decisive steps were taken, however, un- 
til the sudden appearance of this brilliant comet, in 1843, when it was 
found that the instruments in Cambridge were entirely inadequate to make 
accurate observations on such a body. This roused the public-spirited 
Bostonians to a sense of the importance of an Astronomical Observatory, 
with instruments of sufficient accuracy to make the necessary observations 
on the heavenly bodies. Accordingly, an informal meeting was held in the 
office of the American Insurance Company, Boston, by several public- 
spirited citizens who were interested in the cause. Soon after, a large 
meeting of merchants and others was held in the hall of the Marine So- 
ciety, where it was resolved to raise by subscription the funds necessary 
for procuring an equatorial telescope of the first class, and twenty-five 
thousand dollars were immediately subscribed. Mr. David Sears, of 
Boston, headed the list by a donation of five hundred dollars for this ob- 
ject, besides giving five thousand dollars for the erection of a suitable 
tower to contain this Instrument. Another gentleman of Boston sub- 
scribed one thousand dollars towards the telescope ; eight others contributed 
five hundred dollars each, for the same object ; eighteen gentlemen gave 
two hundred each, and thirty others gave the sum of one hundred dollars 
each. The American Academy of Arts and Siences made a donation of 
three thousand dollars, and the Society for the diffusion of Useful Knowl- 
edge gave one thousand. Besides these, the principal Insurance Compa- 
nies of Boston contributed largely. The American, Merchants', and Na- 
tional Insurance offices, and the Humane Society, gave five hundred each ; 
two other companies subscribed three hundred ; and two others gave, re- 
spectively, two hundred and fifty, and two hundred. Thus in a short 
time an amount was subscribed sufficient for procuring the instrument 
which has contributed so much to the advancement of astronomy gen- 
erally, besides reflecting so much honor on the country at large. 



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62 THK OBSERVATORY. 

The Sean Tower. — The engraving annexed is a correct representa- 
tion of the Grand Refractor, which is placed in the Sears Tower, or cen- 
tral building of the Observatory. A correct view is also given of the 
south front of the Observatory and its two wings. 

The site of the Observatory was purchased by the corporation of Har- 
vard University. The Sears' Tower, so called, in honor of David Sears, 
whose generous donation we have already mentioned, is built of brick, on 
a foundation of granite, laid with cement. It is thirty-two feet square on 
the outside, while on the inside the corners are gradually brought to a 
circular form for the better support of the dome, forming a massive arch. 
This dome, covering the grand equatorial, is a hemisphere of thirty -two 
feet interior diameter, formed with stout ribs of plank, and covered exter- 
nally with copper. There is an opening five feet wide, and extending a 
few degrees beyond the zenith ; which is closed by means of weather 
proof shutters, and worked by means of an endless chain and toothed 
wheels. 

On the lower side of this dome is affixed a grooved iron rail, and on the 
granite cap of the wall is placed a similar rail ; between these grooves are 
placed eight iron spheres, accurately turned, on which the dome is re- 
volved. The apparatus for moving the dome consists of toothed wheels, 
geared to a series of toothed iron plates, fastened to its lower section. By 
means of this, the whole dome, weighing about fourteen tons, can be 
turned through a whole revolution, by a single person, in thirty-five sec- 
onds. In this dome are placed the " Grand Refractor," and one or two 
smaller instruments. The Comet Seeker, a small instrument of four 
inches aperture, by Mere, is used from the balconies of the dome. Thi» 
is the instrument with which the younger Bond has discovered no less 
than eleven telescopic comets, before intelligence had reached him of their 
having been seen by any other observer. From these balconies a most 
extensive and beautiful view of the neighboring towns meets the eye, 
their numerous hills, spires, Ac. • 

On either side of the tower is a large wing. Of these, the eastern is 
used as a dwelling for the observer ; the western, on which is placed the 
smaller dome, is used for magnetic and meteorological observations. This 
wing was erected in the years 1860-51, and adds greatly to the architec- 
tural Aeauty of the Observatory. In this dome is placed the smaller equa- 
torial, of five feet focal length, and an object glass of four and one-eighth 
inches, made by Mere, which is a remarkably fine instrument. 

The " Grand Refractor," justly considered second to none in the workt. 
has already become celebrated in the hands of the skillful and scientific di- 
rector and his assistant, from the many brilliant discoveries which have 
been made with it. Among these we may particularly mention the new 
ring and satellite of the planet Saturn. It has also enabled the observer* 
tn resolve the principal nebula, particularly those in the Constellation* 



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CAMBRIDGE. 6Q 

Orion and Andromeda. The object glass was made at the celebrated man- 
ufactory of Men and Mahler, in Munich, Bavaria, who also were the ma- 
kers of the celebrated telescope at the Pulkova Observatory, which is of the 
same size and mounting as that in Cambridge. The same artists also made 
the Washington and Cincinnati equatorials, besides many others of a 
smaller size in the United States. The extreme diameter of this object 
glass is fifteen and a half inches, although the effective diameter is only 
fourteen and ninety-five hundredths inches : the focal length is twenty-two 
feet six inches ; the total weight nearly three tons; yet the friction is so 
successfully relieved by the judicious arrangement of wheels and counter- 
poises, that it could be pointed to any quarter of the heavens by the finger 
of a child 

A sidereal motion is communicated to the telescope by clock-work, by 
which means an object may be constantly kept in the field of view, which 
essentially aids the observer in delicate examinations of celestial objects. 
The right-ascension is read off by means of an hour circle, eighteen inches 
diameter, reading to one second of time by a vernier, while the declination 
circle is twenty-six inches in diameter, reading also to one second of time 
or four seconds of arc. The total cost of the instrument was 1 19,842. 
The object glass arrived in Cambridge on the 4th of December, 1846, but 
the tube and mounting did not arrive until the 11th of June following. 
The instrument was mounted on the 23d of June, 1847, and on the even* 
ing of the same day was first pointed to the heavens. 

The tube of the telescope is of wood, veneered with mahogany and pol- 
ished on the outside. Within, it is lined with paper, and is strengthened 
with iron diaphrams. The flexure of the tube is counteracted and its 
balance preserved by two brass rods, seventeen feet in length, having at 
their extiemities nearest the eye-end, brass spheres filled with lead, eight 
inches in diameter. These rods turn on a universal joint near the middle 
or centre of motion, and oppose the influence of gravitation on the longer 
and heavier part of the tube in every position. The centre of motion of 
the whole instrument is twelve feet nine inches above the floor of the 
dome. The focal length of the finder telescope is forty-five inches, and 
its aperture three inches. 

The transit circle is by Sims of London. The object glass, by Sterz, is 
four and one eighth inches aperture, and sixty-five inches focal length. The 
circles are four feet in diameter, being cast in one piece, and are both grad- 
ated on silver from 0° to 360° into five minute spaces, which are again 
subdivided by micrometers, a single division of the micrometer head be- 
ing equal to one second of arc, and may be read to two-tenths of a second. 

Besides these, the Observatory is furnished with many smaller instru- 
ments, and a complete set of meteorological instruments, an astronomical 
dock, and sidereal chronometers. 

One of the most ingenious contrivances connected with the Obserra- 



T^^oSgT^ 



64 THB OBSERVATORY. 

tory is the " observer's chair," invented by the director. By means of 
this chair, the observer can transport himself to any part of the dome 
without moving from his seat. 

The new method of finding the motion of the earth has been tried at 
the Observatory, and also by Professor Horsford, at the Lawrence Scien- 
tific School. 

During the summer of 1343, the director being engaged with the United 
Slates Coast Survey in determining differences of longitude, turned his 
attention to the electro-magnetic method of recording astronomical obser- 
vations. The apparatus which it has been found convenient to adopt at 
this Observatory consists of a Grove's battery ,& circuit- breaking sidereal 
clock, and a "spring-governor." These are connected by means of cop- 
per wires leading to all the principal instruments. 

The spring-governor is a machine devised to carry a cylinder with an 
equable rotary motion, so that it may make one entire revolution in one 
minute of sidereal time ; on this cylinder the commencement and termi- 
nation of each second of the astronomical clock is recorded in exact coin- 
cidence with the beats of the clock, the observer at each telescope is 
furnished with a break-circuit key, by means of which he is enabled to 
cause a record of his observation to be made on the paper covering the 
cylinder of the spring-governor among the second marks of the clock, in 
such a manner that the tenths, and even hundredths of a second may be 
read off without difficulty, as the sheet of paper, when unrolled, presents 
the vertical columns in even minutes, and the horizontal in seconds. 

The clock signals are also readily connected with the lines of the tele- 
graph offices, by means of properly arranged switches, so that in effect 
the beats of the Cambridge clock are as distinctly heard at the offices in 
Boston, Lowell, Burlington, and elsewhere, as they are within a few feel 
of the clock, the only limit being the power of the battery ; by commenc- 
ing at the even minute, the time is given all along the line, and this is 
found very convenient in regulating the starting of the Railroad trains. 
This method has been subjected to a long and satisfactory trial, and is now 
considered as a permanent regulation in this Observatory. 

The instrument is mounted according to the German form, which has 
been objected to from the fact that it requires reversal whenever the object 
under examination crosses the meridian. This is felt as a practical incon- 
venience in the Cambridge equatorial, only in small zenith distances, since 
in most instances the telescope passes the meridian by more than an hour 
of right-ascension, and always by more than two hours in southern decli- 
nations. 

There are but one or two points In which the instrument has been found 
susceptible of improvement. The arrangement of both the declination 
and hour circles is inconvenient, causing some needless trouble in reading 



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LAWBBNCB SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 



LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

Practical instruction in the Mathematical, Physical, and Natural Scien- 
ces, upon a more extended plan than that pursued in the undergraduate de- 
partment of Harvard, had been a subject of discussion previous to the 
time of President Everett. The materials for it had been accumulating. 
In addition to the Scientific men connected with the College, and the 
largest Library in the country, there were valuable collections of appara- 
tus, numerous specimens of Natural History, a Botanic garden, and an 
Observatory of the first rank in progress of erection. 

President Quincy, through whose efforts chiefly the Observatory had 
been commenced, had the satisfaction of seeing this edifice and its ap- 
pointments far advanced at the time of his resignation. 

In the inaugural address of President Everett, the project of a separate 
Scientific School received its first distinct announcement. About this 
time a vacancy occurred in the Rumford Professorship by the resignation 
of Professor Treadwell. This situation was filled by the election of Pro- 
fessor Horsford of New York, who soon after bis arrival in Cambridge sub- 
mitted to the Corporation a plan for the erection and furnishing of a Lab- 
oratory for instruction in Chemistry and its applications to the arts, con- 
templating an expense of $50,000. This plan, in an able letter from the 
Treasurer, Hon. Samuel A. Eliot, was laid before Hon, Abbott Lawrence. 

To this appeal Mr. Lawrence responded in a spirit of munificence al- 
together unexampled. The gill was accompanied by a letter, proposing, 
in addition to the erection of suitable buildings, including a Laboratory, to 
found two new Professorships, pne of Zoology and Geology, and another 
of Engineering, which with the Rumford Professorhips were to constitute 
the nucleus of a School for the " acquisition, illustration, and dissemina- 
tion of the practical Sciences." 

Soon after the receipt of the donation of Mr. Lawrence, Professor Agas- 
siz of Switzerland was invited to the chair of Zoiflogy and Geology, and 
at a later period Lieut. Eustis of the army to that of Engineering. At 
the Commencement of 1848 the Corporation conferred upon the Institution 
the name of Lawrbxcb Scientific School. 

In the summer and autumn of 1849, a Laboratory, unsurpassed in Europe 
even, in its conveniences for practical instruction, was erected and fur- 
nished, and in the year following a building was constructed for the tempo- 
ry accommodation of the departments of Zoology, Geology and Engineering. 
Besides the Professors already mentioned, the Faculty of the Scientific 
School embraces Professor Peirce in the department of Mathematics, Pro- 
fessor Loverlng m Physics, Professor Gray in Botany, Professor Wyman 
in Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, and the Messrs. Bond at the Ob- 
servatory. 



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66 LAWMHCB aODKNTIFIO SCHOOL. 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION. 

Our readers are furnished with an accurate engraving of the main build- 
ing occupied by the Lawrence Scientific School. The frame building on 
the left is the School for Engineering. We will now proceed to detail the 
courses of instruction in the Lawrence Scientific School, Cambridge. 

Instruction is given in practical exercises, lectures, or recitations, accord- 
ing to the nature of the study, and at the discretion of the instructor. 

Candidates for admission must hare attained the age of eighteen years, 
must hare received a good common English education, and must be quali- 
fied to pursue to advantage the courses of study to which they propose to 
give their attention. They must furnish satisfactory evidence of good 
moral character, and give bonds, in the sum of 1 200, with a surety resi- 
dent in Masachusetts, for the payment of all dues to the School. 

Members of the School, on leaving it, will receive a certificate of the 
number of Terms for which they have been attached to it, and of the stud- 
ies pursued by them. 

It is in contemplation by the corporation to give diplomas to members 
of the School who shall have passed a satisfactory examination in any of 
its departments. 

The number and choice of studies to be pursued are optional on the part 
of the students, who will, however, be counselled on these points by the 
Professors. Attendance on the lectures and recitations is voluntary. For 
this as well as other reasons, the government of the University wish whol- 
ly to discourage the resort of young men to the Scientific School who do 
not, in the opinion of their parents and guardians, possess that stability of 
character and firmness of purpose which will insure a faithful perform- 
ance of duty, without academic discipline. 

1. Chemistry. — Professor Horsford will receive special students to the 
course of experimental instruction in Chemistry, who will give their at- 
tendance in the Laboratory from 9 o'clock A. M. till 6 o'clock P. M. 

The course, at the conclusion, of elementary qualitative and quantita- 
tive analysis, will be modified to meet the wants of those designing to pur- 
sue practical analysis, manufacturing, metallurgy, medicine, engineering, 
agriculture, instruction, or research, and proportioned in duration to the 
objects and previous acquisitions of the student. Excursions will be made 
in term-time to manufacturing establishments in the neighborhood, where 
the practical application of Chemistry to the arts may be witnessed. 

2. Zoology and Geology.— The instruction in this department con- 
sists, alternately, of a course of Lectures by Professor Agassis on Zoology, 
embracing the fundamental principles of the classification of animals, as 
founded upon structure and embryonic development, and illustrating their 
natural affinities, habits, geographical distribution, and the relations which 



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LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 6/ 

exist between the living and extinct races ; and of a course on Geology, 
both theoretical and practical. The course on Geology will be delivered 
during the first term. 

Besides the instructions of the lecture-room, Professor Agassix will af- 
ford to the students access to his laboratory during certain hours, in order 
to show them how to observe isolated facts, how to determine living and 
fossil animals, how to identify rocks of different formations, and how to 
conduct a regular geological survey. For those who intend to make a fur- 
ther study in these sciences, excursions in the neighborhood will be made in 
term-time, and longer excursions in vacation, to those parts of the country, 
near or remote, which offer the most instructive field of observation. 

3. Engineering. — Professor Eustis will receive special students to the 
course of instruction in Engineering, who will give their attendance at the 
School from 9 o'clock A. M. to 5 o'clock P. M. 

The course will include instruction as follows: — 1. Descriptive Ge- 
ometry, with its application to masonry and stone-cutting, the construc- 
tion of arches, &c. 2. The theory of shades, shadows, and perspective, ' 
illustrated by a course of drawing and mapping in all its branches. 3. 
Surveying, with the use of the instruments, and actual operations in the 
field. 4. The nature and properties of building materials, and their appli- 
cations to the construction of railroads, canals, bridges, Ac. For those 
who are not sufficiently prepared, the course will commence with a review 
of such parts of practical mathematics as may be required. 

4. Botany. — Professor Gray will give, during the Second Term, at the 
Botanic Garden, a course of twenty-four Lectures, or lessons, on Structu- 
ral Botany and Vegetable Anatomy, with microscopical demonstrations. 

5. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. — Dr. Wyman will give 
special instruction in this Department, consisting, — 

1. Of a course of microscopic examinations of the different tissues of 
animals. 2. Of a series of dissections illustrating the anatomical charac- 
ters of the different subdivisions of the Animal Kingdom. 3. Of demon- 
strations of the physical and physiological phenomena of animals. 4. Of 
the study of Embryology and the development of tissues. 

During the year a course of Lectures will be given to special students 
on Comparative Anatomy and Physiology ; also a course on Human Anat- 
omy and Physiology, to the members of the Senior Class, to which mem- 
bers of the Scientific School are admitted without charge. A Laboratory 
is provided for the use of students, and the Anatomical Museum is ar- 
ranged for the purpose of study. 

6. Astronomy. — Practical Astronomy and the Use of Astronomical 
Instruments will be taught at the Observatory, by Mr. William C. Bond, 
Director of the Observatory, and Mr. George P. Bond, Assistant Observer. 



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63 LAWRENCB SCIENTIFIC 8CHOOL. 

7. Mathematics. —Instruction will be given in the Higher Mathemat- 
ics, and especially in Analytical and Celestial Mechanics, by Professor 
Pierce. 

Private instruction in the various branches of Mathematics will be given 
to those desirous of receiving it, by competent instructors residing at the 
University. 

The following courses of Lectures delivered to Undergraduates will be 
open without charge to members of the Scientific School. I. A course on 
Mineralogy, by Professor Cooke. 2. A course on Systematic Botany ac- 
cording to the Natural System, by Professor Gray. 3. A course on Phys- 
ics, by Professor Lovering. 4. A course on Human Anatomy and Phys- 
iology, to the Senior Class, by Professor Jeffries Wyman. 

The formation of a Museum of Natural History, on an extensive scale, 
has been commenced, under the superintendence of the Professors in the 
several Departments. The Mineralogies! Cabinet of the University, the 
Rumford and Philosophical Apparatus, the Anatomical Museum, the Bo- 
tanic Garden, the Observatory, and the Public Library, will be accessible 
to the students of the Scientific School. 

Pees. — For special instruction of those who become private pupils of - 
any Professor, and pursue studies, practical exercises, experimental re- 
search, or make excursions, under his particular direction, the fees 
are,— 

In the department of Chemistry, for instruction six days in the week, 
per Term of twenty weeks, fifty dollars. For laboratory apparatus, and 
supplies, twenty-Jive dollars. For three days in the week, two thirds, and 
for one day, one third of the above sums. 

The special students in Chemistry will also supply themselves, at their 
own expense, with such articles of apparatus as are consumed in using, 
such as flasks, corks, tubing, lamps, crucibles, &c., together*wilh alcohol 
and platinum, gold and silver solutions. 

Students who have passed two years in the Laboratory will be thereafter 
entitled to instruction with the charge only for Laboratory apparatus and 
supplies. 

In the Department of Engineering, for instruction six days in the week, 
fifty dollars per Term. For three days in the week, two thirds, and for 
one day, one third of the above sum. 

The special students in Engineering will supply themselves with conven- 
iences for drawing, necessary text-books, dec. 

In the Department of Zoblogy and Geology, fifty dollars per Term. 

In the Department of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, for three 
days in the week, twenty-fivt dollars per Term. 

In any of the other Departments, the fees for special instruction may be 
agreed upon with the instructor, but shall not exceed fifty dollars per 
Term. 



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LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 69 

The other expenses for a Term are as follows : — 
Board, twenty weeks, from 1 2.50 to 1 3.50 per week, from f 50 to f 70 

Room-rent, including care of room, but not making fires, . 26 to 52 

Furniture (if the student does not furnish his room), . 10 to 20 

Washing, 7 to 15 

Fuel, for the First or winter Term, from August to January, 12 to 21 

1 ' for the Second or Summer Term, from February to July, 
from $6 to $10. 

Servant (if. one is employed) to make fires, Ac., . . 6 to 10 



1110 tof 168 

For any further information that may be wanted by persons at a dis- 
tance concerning the School, application may be made to Professor £. N. 
Horsford, Dean of the Faculty, at Cambridge. 

The Lawrence Scientific School was opened for instruction to Students 
on the 7th of November, 1848. On that day the Class in Chemistry en- 
tered the Laboratory erected by funds provided by Mr. Abbott Lawrence. 

The building of the new Laboratory was commenced under the personal 
directions of the founder. 

The Laboratory of the Scientific School is forty-four feet wide by eighty 
feet long, and consists of two main stories of eighteen feet each, besides a 
basement of nine and a half feet. Each main story is, at the north end 
of the building, divided into two stories of eight and a half feet each. 
Two clusters of chimney- flues rise from near the centre of the edifice, pro 
viding ample ventilation for all the working apartments, and meeting the 
wants of the furnaces and various pharmaceutical apparatus. The base- 
ment includes apartments for a steam-boiler and engine, for fuel, storage, 
and for coarser laboratory work. 

Upon the first floor, occupying the front half, is a lecture-room. In im- 
mediate connection, lying beside the clusters of flues, is the pharmaceuti- 
cal laboratory. These, with the Professor's private laboratory, are of the 
full height. The Professor's study, the apparatus-room, and magazine of 
substances below, and a sales-room for chemicals and apparatus for special 
students, and a room for chemical preparations above, each eight and a 
half feet high, with the hall and stairways, complete the fijrst main story. 

The second floor is occupied in front for instruction in analysis. The 
furnace-room, with its conveniences for organic analysis and distillation, 
is in immediate connection. Both apartments are of the full height. 
Opening into the furnace-room is, on one side, an apartment for appara- 
tus to be loaned to students, and on the other, a room for reagent supplies 
for the instruction- room or analytical laboratory. At the north end of 
this floor, distant from noise and gases, are three well-lighted apartments, j 
one for a library, another for the air-pump, hydraulic press, and for desic- 
cation, and the third for balances. Above, the corresponding apartments 
are occupied by the Janitor's, family and the Assistant. 

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70 LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

The entire edifice, and the Professor's dwelling in connection, are 
wanned by steam, from the boiler in the basement of the Laboratory. Be- 
side heating the suite of apartments, the steam is employed to pump wa- 
ter from a cistern in the basement into the boiler, and also into a reservoir 
in the attic, from which it is distributed throughout the building. It also 
heats a large water-bath and steam drying-chamber, and discharges distilled 
water in the analytical laboratory ; and is arranged to fulfil similar offices 
in the Professor's private laboratory, and the pharmaceutical laboratory. 

Each student's working place is nearly five feet in length, js supplied 
with a suit of about forty reagents, a closet for apparatus, and six drawers. 
Each pair of places has a supply of rain-water, a bowl, and waste. The 
apartment will accommodate thirty-six chemists, and, if required, the fur- 
nace-room and pharmaceutical laboratory would accommodate, though less 
conveniently, sixteen more. 

The enlightened tfews of the founder, and the ample means appropriat- 
ed to the erection and furnishing of the Laboratory, will ultimately have 
made the conveniences for instruction equal to those of any similar estab- 
lishment in the world. 



RESIDENT GRADUATES. 

Graduates of the University, or of other Collegiate Institutions, desir- 
ous of pursuing their studies at Cambridge without Joining any of the 
Professional Schools, are permitted to do so, in the capacity of Resident 
Graduates. They are allowed to enjoy the use of the Library and scien- 
tific collections, on the payment of Jive dollars a year, one half in advance 
at the beginning of each Term. 

They give the same bonds as Law Students for the payment of College 
dues, and are subject to the same laws and regulations, as far as they are 
applicable ; and they may attend all the Lectures given in the University, 
upon the same terms as Students in the Professional Schools. 



SUMMARY. 

Whole number of those who have received Degrees at the University, 7941 

Of whom have died, 4679 

Number still living. ........ 3363 

Whole number of graduates in the Collegiate Department, 6342 

Of whom have died, 4166 

Number still living, ... .... 2177 

Whole number of graduates, for the ten years preceding and ending 
with July 15th, 1851 : — 

In the Collegiate Department, 625 

" " Medical " 351 

" " Law " 418 

" " Theological " 85 

" " Scientific " 4 



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LIBRARY Or THE UNIVBR81TT. 



LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

' The Library is coeval with the establishment of the College. Its found- 
ation was laid in the bequest of John Harvard, who, in that first munifi- 
cent oblation upon the altar of civil, religious, and intellectual freedom, 
included a collection of works by no means insignificant either in number 
or value. His example, noble In itself, was, perhaps, still more valuable, as 
an incentive to exertion in others. " The Honorable Magistrates and Rev- 
erend Elders " acknowledged its influence, by a voluntary contribution cf 
£200 value, in books; while individuals at home and abroad, — promi- 
nent among whom stands the name of John Winthrop, the honored Father 
of the Massachusetts Colony,— followed with donations, not only of 
books, but of types to print them. In 1675, Dr. John Lightfoot, one of the 
most learned and eminent of English divines, bequeathed to Harvard Col- 
lege "his whole library, containing the Targums, Talmuds, Rabbins, Poly- 
glot, and other valuable tracts relative to Oriental literature " ; and this in 
valuable bequest was soon followed by that of the eminent Theophjlus 
Gale, D. D., who, in the spirit of far-reaching benevolence and judicious 
liberality which had characterised his whole life, devoted his whole estate, 
real and personal, at his decease in 1677, to the advancement of education 
and the promotion of learning ; and with that view left his entire library, 
one of the most select and valuable in the possession of a private individ- 
ual at that day, to the " School of the Prophets " in New- England ; an ac- 
cession, say the records of the period, " which was more than equal to all 
that was in the College library before." In the year 1719, was received the 
first remittance of books from Thomas Hollis, — the first in that long 
series of benefactions, continued through a period of fifty-five consecutive 
years, by three generations and six individuals of the same family and 
name, affording an instance of " unparalleled and unceasing munificence " 
which may well challenge the admiration of succeeding ages. The son of 
a parent distinguished for liberality, Hollis " caught and wore the paternal 
mantle with a ready and enduring spirit. His appointment as one of the 
trustees of the legacy of his maternal uncle, Robert Thomer, to Harvard 
College, first turned his attention and thoughts to this Institution ; and. 
once fixed, they were never afterwards withdrawn. The interest he took 
in its prosperity was general, constant, and unwavering. His benefactions 
commenced the year succeeding his father's death ; and from that time his 
bounty flowed towards the College in one continuous stream. He was in 
the practice of transmitting, almost every year, trunks of books, generally 
well selected and valuable, with directions to his correspondent, Dr. Col- 
man, ' to examine them, take out for the College such as its library had 
not already, and to give the rest to specified individuals, or to such young 
ministers, who may need and make good use of them.' His seal for the 
College library was intense. He contributed to it liberally himself, and was 






e 



72 CAMBRIDGE. 

urgent in soliciting his friends for their assistance. Through his instru- 
mentality the College received donations of books from Isaac Watts, Dan- 
iel Neal, William Harris, John Hollis, and others. He first suggested to 
the Corporation the want of a catalogue, which, he writes, if he pos- 
sessed, he should be able materially to serve the College, since many were 
deterred from sending books, through fear that they might be already in the 
library. The Corporation immediately ordered a catalogue to be prepared, 
and, when it was completed, sent eight dozen copies to Hollis for distribu- 
tion." In addition to the valuable contributions of Hollis, donations or 
bequests, for the library, were received, during the first half of the 18th 
century, from the Rev. Thomas Cotton of London, Dean Berkeley, the So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel, William James of Jamaica, and 
the Hon. William Dummer. 

In January, 1764, Boston being infected by the Small Poz, the General 
Court was adjourned to Cambridge. The College Library was occupied by 
the Governor and Council, and the hall below by the Representatives. At 
midnight of the 24th of January, " in the midst of a severe cold storm of 
snow, attended with high wind," a Are broke out, which destroyed Har- 
vard Hall, with all its contents, consisting of the library, philosophical 
apparatus; and many articles belonging to different persons, who had 
rooms in tbe building. The other College edifices were in imminent dan- 
ger, and took fire several times; but by the vigorous efforts of the citizens 
of Cambridge, united with those of the members of the Legislature, the 
progress of the flames was arrested, and all were saved except Harvard, 
the most valuable of the halls, which, with the best library and philo- 
sophical apparatus in America, comprising the collections and donations of 
more than a century, utterly perished. Thus, at one fell swoop, were de- 
stroyed the entire libraries of John Harvard, Dr. Lightfoot, and Dr. Gale, 
with the donations of Sir Kenelm Digby, Sir John Maynard, Bishop 
Berkeley, and a host of other distinguished benefactors ; the foal of types, 
Greek and Hebrew, the books, Sec., presented by the first Thomas Hollis, 
together with " his picture, as large as the life " ; the telescopes, the globes, 
the philosophical instruments, the College records, and a long catalogue 
of articles, " which, if they had been preserved to our day, would have 
been of incalculable and inexpressible interest to the literary and scientific 
inquirer, as well as to the historian, the antiquary, and the bibliographer." 
The library contained at this time above five thousand volumes, all of 
which were consumed, except a few books in the hands of members of the 
House, and two donations, from Lieutenant-Governor Dummer and Hollis, 
the younger, which, having been but lately received, had not been un- 
packed, and thus escaped the general ruin. "Great as this misfor- 
tune was, it happily occurred at a moment when the Legislatfte of the 
Province had just evinced a favorable disposition to the College by the 
erectioo of Hollis Hall, and when the people of Massachusetts were guided 



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LIBRARY OF THK UNIVERSITY. 73 

by those distinguished men, who soon after led the way to national inde- 
pendence. Many of them were Alumni of the College ; and they all ac- 
knowledged the importance of the institution, and united in measures to 
repair the losses it had sustained." The Legislature resolved, unanimous- 
ly, that Harvard Hall be rebuilt at the expense of the Province, granted 
£ 2,000 to begin the edifice, and appointed a committee of both branches 
to superintend the work. The corner-stone of the new building — the 
present Harvard Hall — was laid on the 26th of June, 1764, by His Excel- 
lency, Governor Bernard, accompanied by the Committee appointed by 
the General Court to rebuild the same, and the edifice was completed in 
June, 1766, at an expense of 1 23,000. In a few years, by the concen- 
trated efforts and influence of individuals and the Provincial Government, 
a library was collected within its walls, which soon attained an extension 
corresponding to the increase and prosperity of the Colonies. Foremost 
among those who stepped forward at this time to repair the loss of the Li- 
brary, was Thomas Hollis, the younger, usually called " of Lincoln's Inn." 
As soon as he was apprised of the event, he subscribed ,£200 sterling 
for the purchase of new apparatus, and the same sum for the library ; 
which ne also enriched, at different times, with a great number of curious, 
valuable, and costly works. His donations to the College during his life- 
time exceeded £ 1,400 sterling ; and at his death, in 1774, he bequeathed 
an additional sum of £ 600. 

In 1775, immediately after the battle of Lexington, an army befan to 
collect at Cambridge, the College buildings were converted into barracks, 
and the government and students were removed to Concord, where they 
continued fourteen months ; the library and apparatus having been previ- 
ously conveyed to Andover, and a part of it afterwards to Concord, by or 
der. and at the expense, of the Provincial Congress. In the summer of 
1776, they returned to Cambridge, and on the 21st of June the students 
were again assembled within the College walls, though the library and ap- 
paratus, in consequence of the unsettled state of affairs, were not restored 
until the summer of 1778, more than two years from the time of their re- 
moval 

The origin and early progress of the College Library, and its destruction 
and restoration, have been related, and its history has been brought down 
to the period of the American Revolution. In 1764, at the time of its loss 
by fire, the number of its volumes was estimated at five thousand ; and in 
the year 1790, at twelve thousand. The subsequent additions have been 
numerous and valuable, but few of them can be particularized here. Be- 
side the benefactions of Thomas Hollis, the younger, and of Thomas Brand- 
Hollis, the names of Hancock, Hubbard, Erving, Boylston, Thomas, and 
Taylor, with a legion of others, might be mentioned as having honored the 
institution and themselves by their contributions. Samuel Shapleigh, " a 
virtuous son and faithful Librarian of Harvard College." devoted his whole 



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74 CAMBEIDO*. 

estate (with the exception of a few legacies), amounting to $3,000, to the 
increase of its Library., in the department of polite literature. In the year 
1818, Israel Thorndike purchased the library of Professor Ebeling, of Ham- 
burgh, at a cost of $6,500, and presented it to the University ; thue secur- 
ing to his native country one of the most complete and valuable collectkma 
of works on American history extant. Thomas Palmer, a worthy son of 
Harvard, whose name bad already been enrolled among its distinguished 
benefactors, at his death in 1820, exhibited his affection for the place of his 
early education by bequeathing to it bis whole library, consisting of twelve 
hundred select and valuable works, valued at $ 2,600. In 1823, Samuel A. 
Eliot, of Boston, presented Warden's extensive collection of books on 
American History, consisting of nearly twelve hundred volumes, beside 
maps, charts, and prints, at a cost of upwards of $ 5,000. In 1833, Samuel 
Livermore, Esq., another talented son of Harvard, bequeathed to bis Alma 
Mater his whole library of foreign law, consisting of the works of the 
leading civilians and jurists of continental Europe, and amounting in num- 
ber to upwards of three hundred costly volumes, valued, in the inventory 
of his estate, at $ 6,000. As a collection of rare and curious learning, it is 
said to be probably unsurpassed, and perhaps not equalled, in value, by any 
other collection of the same siae in America, if it be in Europe. In 1842, 
a subscription was made for the Library, by thirty-four gentlemen, to the 
amount of $ 21,003. In 1844, Horace A. Haven, a graduate in the Class of 
1842, xut down in the freshness of early promise, marked bis devotion to 
the cause of Science by bequeathing the sum of $ 3,000 for the purchase of 
mathematical and astronomical works. In 1845, the Hon. Judge Prescott 
having bequeathed, for the increase of the Library, the sum of $ 3.000, it 
was appropriated to the purchase of a valuable collection of works on 
America, from the well-known Mr. Rich, of London; thus giving some- 
thing like completeness to what had become one of the most important 
departments of the Library. 

For nearly seventy years, Harvard Hall had been the repository of the 
College Library. This edifice is not fire-proof; and, weakened by time, it 
gave indications of being unequal to support the weight of the increasing 
number of volumes, and of the concourse of persons to which H was sub- 
ject on public occasions. The library, too, had outgrown the capacity of 
the building, and more space was requisite for the arrangement and preser- 
vation of those treasures, the accumulations of public and private munifi- 
cence, which, if once lost, could hardly be replaced. Actuated by these 
considerations, the Corporation resolved to apply a portion of the munifi- 
cent bequest of the Hon. Christopher Gore to the erection of a suitable ed- 
ifice for the accommodation and protection of the library ; and it was de- 
termined, after consultation with his friends, that, since this application of 
his funds was deemed imperative, the building erected should be of suf- 
ficient capacity to contain the probable accumulation of books during the 



LIBRARY OF THB UNIVERSITY. 



75 



present century, that it should be as far as possible fire-proof, and that in 
material and architecture it should be an enduring monument to his mem- 
ory, and worthy to represent the liberal spirit of so distinguished a bene- 
factor of the Institution. Accordingly, on the 25th of April, 1838, the 
Corporation laid the corner-stone of a building to which they gave the 
name of their once honored associate, the late Governor Gore. 




GORE HALL. 

This edifice was begun in 1837, and completed in 1839-40, at a cost 
of $73,512.28; and the books were safely removed, and deposited therein, 
in the summer of 1841. The building presents a very pure specimen of 
the Gothic style of the fourteenth century in its form and proportions, 
while the hard sienite or Quincy granite, of which it is constructed, 
made it necessary to omit the elaborate ornaments with which this style 
is usually wrought. The towers, buttresses, drip-stones, and all the parts 
which form projections, or the sides of openings, are, however, finished 
by smooth, hammered feces ; while the walls are rough, but laid in regu- 
lar courses. In its plan, the building forms a Latin cross ; the length of 
the body being 140 feet, and that of the transepts 81 i feet. The principal 
fronts are south and north ; with octagonal towers rising from the ground, 
on each side of the principal entrances, to the height of 83 feet. These 
four towers are connected only with the walls of the vestibules ; and in 
the form and position of these, as well as in the proportions of the body of 

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76 CAMBRIDGE. 

the building, exclusive of the trrfnsepts, the design of the exterior was 
taken from King's College Chapel, at Cambridge, England. 

On entering the interior of Gore Hall, we are presented with two ranges 
of columns, ten in each range, which rise from the floor to the ceiling. 
This open space resembles the nave of a small cathedral, being 112 feet 
long and 35 feet high. The ceiling is formed of groined vaults, ornament- 
ed by ribs rising from the columns and intersecting each other in various 
points. The appearance of the whole is imposing ; hardly surpassed, in 
effect, by any room in this country. The books are placed in the alcoves, 
which are formed by partitions running from the columns to the walls of 
the building, somewhat in the form of the chapels in the aisles of many of 
the Catholic churches. The partitions, which form the alcoves, rise from 
the floor to the ceiling, 86 feet, and this space is divided by a gallery, which 
is formed over the whole space outside of the columns, at the height of 12$ 
feet from the floor. The gallery floor is supported entirely by bars of 
wrought iron, passing from one partition to another, across the alcoves. 
The side of this gallery, between the columns, is guarded by a light iron bal- 
ustrade ; the whole, therefore, intercepting m no essential degree the view 
of the ceiling, or any part of the interior, from the floor. The ascent to 
the gallery is made by light staircases placed outside of the columns, and 
there are narrow openings through the partitions, above the gallery, be- 
hind each column, to give a passage from one alcove to another. The low- 
er part of the west transept is formed into a convenient room for the libra- 
rian, while above the gallery it forms a large alcove open to the body of the 
building. The heads of the windows are equilateral arches, and the mid- 
lions and tracery are copied from buildings of the age to which the design 
of this belongs. Ground glass has been used in all the windows, though 
it is to be hoped that, hereafter, its place may be supplied, at least in the 
windows of the principal fronts, by paintings. 

la the construction of this edifice, it was determined, at the outset, to 
use every precaution which the funds of the College would aUow, to guard 
the library from destruction by fire. In every part of the structure, there- 
fore, wood has been rejected, where its place could be supplied without a 
very great increase of cost in the construction, or inconvenience of some 
kind in the use, by stone, brick, or iron. No timber is used m the main 
floor, which is formed by brick vaults, filled to a level upon the spandrels, 
and covered by boards. This covering being thought necessary to guard 
against the cold and dampness of the great mass of masonry Which consti- 
tutes the supporting vaults. The roof contains no wood whatever, except 
the boards or laths to which the slate are fastened. The place of rafters is 
supplied, throughout, by trusses made of light bars of wrought iron, which 
are supported by the walls and by iron purlins ranged through the building 
upon the tops of the Gothic columns which rise through the ceiling for 
this purpose. The thrust of these trusses is prevented by iron rods, which 



LIBRARY OF TOT OTHVBBSITY. 77 

take the place of the tie-beams of wooden roots. The weight of the iron 
of this roof is not more than half as great as would be required if it were 
formed of timber ; while, from calculation and experiments made with 
some of the trusses, it is believed that it would sustain a load, uniformly 
distributed over it, equal to that of a body of men standing close to each 
other and covering a space as great ae that inclosed by the building. 

As none of the other halls of the University present any claims to excel- 
lence in architecture, the attention of strangers is naturally directed to 
Gore Hall, as the principal ornament of the College Square. 

Tot Univbrsitt Library is at present divided into four branches, viz. 
Theological, Medical, Law, and Public ; which last, beside books in all 
other departments of learning, embraces also an extensive collection of 
works on Theology, Medicine, and Law. 

The Theological Library is in Divinity Hall ; and persons entitled to its 
privileges must be connected with the Theological School. The Medical 
Library is in the Medical College, in Boston, being placed there for the 
convenience of students attending the Medical Lectures. The Law* Libra- 
ry is in Dane Halt It is designed for the use of the officers and students 
of the Law.Department. The Public, or College Library, as it is familiarly 
called, is kept in Gore HalL This is very much larger than the others, 
and ia'rapkuy increasing. It is for the common use of the whole Univer- 
sity, in this respect differing from the other branches of the University 
Library. The whole number of books is about 60,000. Of these, about 
2,600 are duplicates, and 1,000 belong to the " Boyhton Medical Library," 
which is im m ediately connected with it, and is designed for the special use 
" of the Professors and students in the Medical School, and also for those 
members of the Massachusetts Medical Society resident within ten miles 
of the University. 

The whole number of books in the Libraries of the University is esti- 
mated as follows : — 

Public Library about 69,000 

Medical " « 1,200 

Law " « 14,000 

Theological Library " 3,000 

Society Libraries of the Students .... " 12,000 

Total about 89,200 

The Public Library op thb University is open to the public, under 
certain regulations and restrictions ; and its privileges are also granted to 
persons, hereafter specified, who are not connected with the University. 
Beside many of the most rare and costly printed books, it contains a num- 
ber of valuable ancient manuscripts ; with a few Oriental specimens, of 
great beauty. Here are also manuscript works of different learned men of 



^CoogT 



e 



76 CAMBRIDOB. 



modern times; a great part of which, however, have been printed. It h 
hoped that it will hereafter be an object with the friends of learning and of 
the University, to collect and deposit in the library, not only ancient man- 
uscripts, but the papers of modern scholars, and especially of distinguished 
sons of the University. 

All donations of books, on the same subject, to the amount of $ 1,000, 
or upwards, are kept together in one place in the Library. In all cases 
when books are given, or money for the purchase of books, the names of 
the donors are written in the volumes thus given or purchased, and are 
also recorded in a book kept for that purpose ; and the names of the donors 
of books to the amount of $ 1,000, or upwards, (as also the names of do- 
nors which were displayed in the old Library, before the removal to Gore 
Hall,) are placed over or in the Alcoves containing such books, or in some 
other conspicuous place in the library, — generally on the face of the gal- 
lery, below the balustrade. 

No person, except the Librarian and Assistants, is allowed to go into any 
of the Alcoves of the General Library, or take any book from the shelves 
therein 9 , without special permission ; the books most suitable for the use 
of the Undergraduates being separated from the rest, and kept in the Li- 
brarian's room, where they are accessible to the students, at all times, 
(during Library hours,) and without restriction. All persons, while in the 
Library, are expected to remain uncovered, and to refrain from loud con- 
versation, or other improprieties of speech and deportment. 

The following persons, only, have a right to borrow books from the Li- 
brary :— The members of the Corporation and of the permanent Board of 
Overseers ; the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, President of the Senate, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth ; the Officers of Instruction and Government in the University, 
and the Steward ; Resident Graduates, and Resident Professional Students, 
giving bonds, with the consent of the Faculty ; Undergraduates of the 
College; the members of the Council, Senate, and House of Representa- 
tives, during the session of the General Court, on application made by a 
written order of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, the President of 
the Senate, or the Speaker of the House ; the members of the Examining 
Committees of the University, during the year for which they hold their 
appointment; former Officers of Instruction and Government, residing in 
Cambridge ; benefactors to the Library to the amount of $40, while resi- 
dent in Cambridge, and benefactors to the Library, residing in any other 
town of this Commonwealth, who have made a donation to the amount of 
$200, on application to the Corporation, and on such conditions as may by 
them be required; regularly ordained Clergymen, of all denominations, 
who have been educated at any public College or University, or who have 
received a degree at this University, living within ten miles of the Libra- 
ry, upon the same terms as the Overseers; and other Clergymen, within 
1 1 a LJ - AJ = g — gCTM c '" 

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CAMBRIDGE. 79 

the same distance, not coming under the foregoing description, upon appli- 
cation to the President, and at the discretion of the President or Corpora- 
tion. Persons not inhabitants of Cambridge, but having a temporary 
residence therein, for the purpose of study, may borrow books from the 
Library with permission of the President, according to the prescribed con- 
ditions and regulations, application being made in writing to the Libra- 
rian ; and -the Corporation may, for special reasons, grant the privilege of 
the Library to other persons than the foregoing. 

In Term-time the Library is open on the first four secular days of the 
week, from 9 A. M. till 1 P. M., and from 2 till 4 P. M. ; and on Fridays, 
from 9 A. M. till 1 P.M. ; excepting the first Friday of each Term, Christ- 
mas-day, the days of Public Fast and Thanksgiving, and the Fridays follow- 
ing them, the Fourth of July, and the days of public Exhibitions and the 
Dudleian Lecture, during the exercises. In the Vacations the Library is 
open every Monday, from 9 A. M. till 1 P. M. AH persons who wish to 
have access to the Library, or to bring their friends to see it, are expected 
to make their visits on the days and within the hours above named. 

Cambrtdob is pleasantly situated, in a plain, about three miles west 
from Boston. It is bounded on the northeast, north, and west by Somer- 
ville, West Cambridge, and Watertown, and on the south and east by 
Charles River, which separates it from Brighton and Boston. From the first 
settlement of the country, it has ever been a place of importance, and so 
intimately connected with Boston in all the social, political, and intellec- 
tual relations, that, but for municipal distinctions, it might almost be con- 
sidered an integral part of the metropolis. Within its ancient limits, — 
probably never very exactly defined, — was embraced a large extent of 
territory, comprehending the present towns of Lexington, West Cam- 
bridge, Newton, and Brighton, together with the greater part of Billerica, 
and watered by the Concord, Shawshin, and Charles Rivers. Long since 
shorn of these fair proportions, nature and accident divided what remained 
of her original domain into three sections, still familiarly known as Old 
Cambridge, Carobridgeport, and East Cambridge. Of late years a dispo- 
sition to sunder even this small remnant, and to erect therefrom two dis- 
tinct corporations, was frequently manifested in at least one of the sec- 
tions. To prevent all further agitation of this subject, (which was a 
constant source of uneasiness in many quarters, and which had. at length, 
in 1844 -46, assumed an active form,) and effectually to preclude all possi- 
bility of such a separation, an Act of the Legislature was obtained, March 
17, 1846, permanently uniting the three sections under one charter, with 
the corporate privileges of a city. The charter was accepted by the in- 
habitants, in town-meeting assembled, by a vote of 645 yeas to 224 nays ; 
the first election of city officers took place in April ; and the city govern- 
ment was duly organised upon the 4th of May following. 



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80 CAMBRIDGE. 

The Crrr is divided into threa wards, so bounded as to conform to the 
usual and long familiar designations of the three principal Tillages. Wakd 
Okh, or Old Cambridge, embraces the original settlement, and extends 
westerly and northerly to the towns of Watertown, West Cambridge, and 
Somerville. A ridge of higher land separates it from Ward Two, on the 
east ; while Charles River forms a natural boundary on the south. The 
Fitchburg Railway crosses Its northerly section, the Watertown and Lex- 
ington Branches traverse its western frontier, and the Harvard Branch 
sweeps boldly in to its very centre. Near the Fitchburg station is the suf- 
ficiently notorious " Market Hotel," better known as " Porter's." (where 
a Cattle Market is held every Wednesday,) not very for removed from 
which is that disgrace to the city, not to say humanity, the Race-c< uree. 
In this ward are five Meeting-houses and Churches, and three school- 
houses; also the new and elegant Alms-house; together with most of the 
objects of interest for a stranger, — the Washington Elm, and the elegant 
residence of Professor Longfellow, formerly Washington's Head-quarters, 
the various buildings and grounds of the University, the State Arsenal, 
Fresh Pond, the entrance to Mount Auburn Cemetery, &c., &c. 

Wajid Two occupies an extensive plain, bounded on the south and east 
by Charles River, on the north by Somerville and the marshes which sep- 
arate it from Ward Three, and on the west by the ridge of higher land be- 
fore mentioned, a portion of which is known by the name of Dana Hill. 
Here are the City Hall and the several public offices for the transaction of 
municipal afluirs, eight places of public worship, seven school-bouses, to- 
gether with the City High School, the new Athenaeum, (that is to be,) ex- 
tensive manufactories of various kinds, and several elegant private resi- 
dences. 

Wakd Thrbb\ known as Lechmere Point and East Cambridge, is a 
bluff, separated from Boston and Charlestown by the waters of Charles 
River, and from Ward Two by extensive marshes and narrow creeks, the 
line of demarkation teing the North and Broad Canals. Although of re- 
cent growth, East Cambridge is a very busy and flourishing place, and its 
progress within the last few years has been extremely rapid. It is the seat 
of the County Courts, (Cambridge being one of the shire-towns of Middle- 
sex County,) and is connected with Boston by Craigie's Bridge and by the 
viaduct of the Boston and Lowell Railway. The chief manufactories of 
the city are located in this section, and are very numerous, extensive, and 
prosperous. Among the principal establishments may be mentioned the 
Glass-works, so deservedly celebrated, the Soap and Candle, and Brush fac- 
tories, and the Granite works. The soil in this part of the city being 
clayey, and peculiarly adapted to the purpose, large quantities of brick 
are annually made. In this ward are six places of worsh : p, and five 
school-houses; also one of the Courthouses and Jails of Middlesex 
Countv, a House of Correction, and various County Offices. The Cou-i 



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CAMBRIDGE. 81 

house has of late been entirely remodelled at an expense of over $ 70,000. 
Two spacious wings have been erected, containing two of the best Court- 
rooms in the State, and the apartments occupied by the Registers of Deeds 
and Probate have been much enlarged and improved, and rendered fire- 
proof 

Notwithstanding its uniformly level surface, Cambridge is by no means 
deficient in pleasant scenery. It can boast, also, many elegant private res- 
idences, some handsome public buildings, good schools, flourishing church- 
es, and — a commodious Alms-house. These advantages, with its proxim- 
ity to Boston, and the readiness and ease of communication therewith, 
contribute much to the increase of its population, great numbers of mer- 
chants, professional men, and mechanics being induced to reside in Cam- 
bridge, while Boston is the sphere of their business operations. 4 

Thb Cambridge and Boston Omnibuses, (Main Street Line,) leave 
Brattle Street, Boston, for Harvard Square, (the Colleges,) Cambridge, ev- 
ery fifteen minutes, from one quarter before 8 o'clock, A. M. to 8 o'clock, 
P. M., and at 8}, 9, and 10 o'clock, evening. Leave Harvard Square, 
Cambridge, for Brattle Street, every fifteen minutes, from one quarter be- 
fore 7 o'clock, A. M., to 7 o'clock, P. M., and at 7 f , 8, and 9 o'clock, eve- 
ning. 

The Harvard Street Line leaves Brattle Street, Boston, at 20 minutes 
past every hour, from 20 minutes past 8 o'clock, A. M., to 20 minutes past 

7 o'clock, P. M. Leaves Harvard Square, Cambridge, at 20 minutes past 
every hour, from 20 minutes past 7 o'clock, A. M., to 20 minutes past 6 
o'clock, P. M. 

Fare*. — From Boston to Old Cambridge, 8 tickets for $ 1 ; 44 for #5 ; 
Single fore 15 cents. From Boston to Mount Auburn gate, 6 tickets for 
1 1 ; single fore 20 cents. Per quarter, in and out, once a day, $ 10. 

Sunday Omnibus, Main Street Line, leaves Brattle Street, Boston, for 
Harvard Square, Cambridge, at 12$, 6, 8, and 9 o'clock, P. M. Leaves 
Harvard Square for Brattle street, at 9$ o'clock, A. M., and at 2$, 6$, and 

8 o'clock, P. M. 

The Harvard Street Line leaves Brattle Street for Harvard Square, at 
12$, 5, and 8 o'clock, P. M. Leaves Harvard Square for Brattle Street, at 
9$ o'clock, A. M., and at 2$ and 7 o'clock, P. M. 

Fare*. — From Boston to Old Cambridge, (Colleges,) 20 cents, or a 
ticket and 8 cents. From Boston to Cambridgeport, 15 cents, or a ticket 
and 7 cents. 

Fitchburo Railway. —Trains leave Boston, for Cambridge (Colleges) 
at 7.40, 9.45, A. M. ; 124, 2.10, 6J, 7*, 10$, P. M. Leave Cambridge for 
Boston, at 7, 8$, 10$, A. M. ; 1.40, 3», 6.40, 7.40, P. M. 

Fare, 15 cents, on which a discount is made to those purchasing 
tickets. 



— gggggggggggggagi i i ■ i i 

,yL.C 



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t$i CAMBRIDGE. 

The following table will show the increase in the population of Cam- 
bridge, from the year 1790 to the present time : — 

1845. 1860. 

State 
Census. 
14,852 

Valuation of Estates and the number of Polls, with the Votes polled, in 
Cambridge, since 1840. 



1790. 


1800. 


1810. 


1820. 


1830. 


184a 


1845. 


18 
U.S. 
Census. 


. 2,115 


2,453 


2,323 


3,295 


6,072 


8,409 


12,490 


15,216 



Year. 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
♦1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 



Polls. 
2,262 
2,377 
2,619 
2,496 
3,060 
3,151 
3,224 
3,387 
3,639 
3,720 
3,436 



Valuation. 
7,585,950 
7,310,076 
7,018,716 
7,137,441 
7,852,149 
8,600,366 
9,312,481 
9,806,529 
12,575,015 
10,667,272 
11,469,618 



Votes 
1,398 
1,247 
1,372 
1,467 
1,767 
1,266 
1,311 



Value of Real and Personal Estate in Cambridge, a* estimated by the 
Assessors, for the year 1850 : — 

Real Estate in Ward I., $2,645,426 

" " " Ward II., 3,379,480 

'« " " Ward III., 1,765,642 



Total assessed value of Real Estate, .... $7,790,548 

Personal Estate in Ward I., $1,739,986 

" " " Ward II„ . . ... . 1,389,478 

" " Ward UI., 649,606 



Total assessed value of Personal Estate, . . . , $3,679,070 

Tax assessed in Ward I., $ 29,001.26; in Ward IL, $ 34,658.42 ; in Ward 
m., $ 17,534.05. Total amount, $81,193.73. Rate of taxation for 1860, 
$6.30 on $1,000. 

Number of Polk in Ward I., 915 ; in Ward II., 1,538 ; in Ward HI., 96a 
Total number of Polls, 3,436. Poll Tax, $1.50 Number of dwelling* 
houses in Cambridge, 2,372. Number of families, 2,859. 

Two bridges connect Boston and Cambridge : — one from the foot of Lev- 
erett street, called Craigie's Bridge; the other, which is nearly seven 
eighths of a mile long, from the foot of Cambridge street, called West Bos- 
ton Bridge. The construction of these two bridges i» similar; and both 
are furnished with lamps placed at regular intervals, which hare a singu- 
larly pleasing effect on a dark evening. The rates of toll are the same on 



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CAMBBIDOK. 83 

both ; but passengers to and from Cambridge over Prison-point Bridge are 
not subject to toll. 

West Boston Bridge was opened November 23, 1793. It stands on 180 
piers, and is 2,768 feet in length, and 40 feet in width; abutment and 
cause way, 3,432 feet ; total length, 6,190 feet. The bridge is railed on each 
side, for foot passengers ; the sides of the causeway are stoned, capstaned, 
and railed ; and on each side there is a canal about 30 feet wide. Revenue 
in 1834, * 12,928. 

Canal or Craigie's Bridge was incorporated February 27, 1807, and 
opened on Commencement-day, August 30, 1809. It extends from Bar- 
ton's Point, in Boston, to Lechroere Point, in Cambridge ; and is 2,796 
feet in length, and 40 feet in width. On the Cambridge side it is united to 
Charlestown by Prison-point Bridge, which is 1821 feet long and 36 feet 
broad. Net receipts in 1834, $ 3,173. 

To the proprietors of West Boston Bridge, a toll was granted for seventy 
years from the opening of the bridge, which, with the Causeway, was es- 
timated to have cost $ 76,700. This term was subsequently extended to 
seventy years from the opening of Craigie's Bridge ; West Boston Bridge 
being charged with an annuity of £200, payable to Harvard College, and 
Craigie's being required to pay £ 100 per annum to West Boston during 
their joint existence. The community becoming impatient of the length 
of time which must elapse before these bridges would be free, a company 
was organized, in 1846, for the purpose of hastening that event ; and hav- 
ing been incorporated by the Legislature, under the name of the Hancock 
Free Bridge Company, with power to negotiate for the purchase of the 
two bridges, and to adopt such measures as would conduce to the desired 
object, they succeeded in effecting a purchase, and on the 1st of July, 1846, 
obtained from the West Boston Bridge Corporation a transfer of all their 
rights and privileges. At present, tolls continue to be collected on both the 
bridges; but it is expected that in a few years, a sufficient sum will have 
been collected to defray the original cost, with interest, and to constitute 
a fund, the interest of which will keep them in repair for ever. They will 
then be opened to the public free of charge. 



One of the first subjects which engaged the attention of the Massachu- 
setts Colonists was the selection of a suitable location for a fortified town, 
— one which would at once^serve them as a place of refuge, in case of in 
vasion, and also as the metropolis of their new republic At length, on the 
23th of December, 1630, " after many consultations, they this day agree 
on a place on the northwest side of Charles River, about three miles west 
from Charlestown ; and all except Mr. Endicott and T. Sharp (the former 
living at Salem and the latter purposing to return to England) oblige them- 
selves to build houses then the following spring, and remove their ord- 
nance and munition thither; and first call the place Niwtowv." Ac* 
Um^ mm m mtm m mmmmm mmmmmmmmBBBmsatssaasBSBStt^Bmm 

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84 CAMBRIDGE. 

cording to agreement, the Deputy-Governor, (Dudley,) Secretary Brad- 
street, and other principal men of the Colony, in the spring of 1631, 
entered upon the execution of their plan, with a view to its speedy com- 
pletion. The Governor set up the frame of a house where he first pitched 
his tent; and the Deputy-Governor finished his house and removed his 
family. On some considerations, however, " which at first came not into 
their minds," the Governor, in the ensuing autumn, took down his frame, 
and removed it to Boston, with the intention of making that the place of 
his future abode ; greatly to the disappointment of the rest of the compa- 
ny, who were still desirous of building at " the New Town," and much to 
the displeasure of the worthy Deputy, who was " a principal founder of 
the town, being zealous to have it made the metropolis," and who could 
not readily forgive the Governor for what he considered a breach of faith. 

Notwithstanding the partial failure of the original plan, various orders 
of the Court of Assistants show that " the New Town," still designed 
for the seat of government, was taken under legislative patronage. On 
the 14th of June, 1631, " Mr. John Masters having undertaken to make 
a passage from Charles River to the new town, twelve feet broad and 
seven deep, the Court promises him satisfaction " therefor ; and a tax was 
soon after levied on the several plantations to defray the expense. Two 
houses having been burnt down, in Boston, in the spring of this year, in 
consequence of the chimney of one of them taking fire, and communi- 
cating to the thatched roof; " for prevention thereof in our new town," 
observes the Deputy-Governor, " intended to be built this' summer, we 
have ordered that no man there shall build his chimney with wood, nor 
cover his house with thatch." Neither was the design of a fortified town 
yet abandoned ; as is evident from an order of the Court, February 3, 1632, 
"that j£60 be levied out of the several plantations towards making a 
palisado about the New Town " ; which resulted in the enclosure of about 
a thousand acres with a fosse and palisade, — doubtless at the suggestion 
of Dudley, who still continued to reside here. The place must have grown 
very rapidly during the first two years of its settlement ; for we find it de- 
scribed by a writer who returned from this country to England in 1633, as 
" one of the neatest and best compacted towns in New England, having 
many fair structures, with many handsome contrived streets." The town 
was laid out in squares, the streets intersecting each other at right angles. 
One square was reserved for the purpose of a market, and remains open to 
this day. It long retained the name of "Market Place," but it is now 
called Winthrop Square. 

The first considerable accession of inhabitants appears to have been in 
the summer of 1632, when " the Braintree Company,, which had begun to 
set down at Mount Wollaston, by order of Court removes to Newtown." 
This was " Mr. Hooker's company." Mr. Hooker not having yet arrived, 
they were still without a settled minister ; but in anticipation of his com- 



MM 

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111 ■ ^ Tl 

CAMBRIDGE. 85 

ing, the inhabitant* began to make preparations for the regular observance 
of religious ordinances, and accordingly, in the course of the year, they 
"built the first house of public worship, with a bell upon it." Their 
hopes were at length realized, in the autumn of 1633, by the arrival of the 
Rev. Messrs. Hooker and Stone, who reached Boston, in company with 
the famous John Cotton, John Haynes, afterwards Governor of Connecti- 
cut, and many other passengers of distinction, on the 4th of September. A 
Church was immediately gathered in this place, of which Thomas Hooker 
was chosen Pastor, and Samuel Stone, Teacher ; and on Friday, the 11th 
of October, they were ordained to their respective offices. 

As originally laid out, between Charlestown and Watertown, "the New 
Town," we are told, was " in forme like a list cut off from the broad-cloalh 
of the two fore-named towns," and appears to have contained merely a 
tract of sufficient extent for a fortified town. Hence, it is not long before 
we find the inhabitants complaining of " straitness for want of land," and 
desiring " leave to look out either for enlargement or removal." Their 
request was granted by the Court, and temporary relief was obtained by 
accepting " such enlargement as had formerly been offered them by Boston 
and Watertown." But Mr. Hooker and his people had become dissatisfied 
with their situation, and were bent upon removal to Connecticut ; and not- 
withstanding the great reluctance of the General Court to accede to their 
wishes, they finally obtained permission to go where they pleased, pro- 
vided they remained under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. They ac- 
cordingly left this spot in a body, for Connecticut, in June, 1636; having 
previously disposed of their houses and lands to another company, which 
had arrived from England in the autumn of 1635, with the " faithful and* 
famous " Thomas Shepard, their future Pastor. On the 1st of February, 
1636, a new Church was organized here, with much form and solemnity, 
in the room of that which was about to remove ; and Mr. Shepard was 
soon after ordained as its Pastor. The following have been his successors 
in the Ministry: — 

Thomas Shepard, ordained , 1636. died Aug. 25, 1649, aged 44. 

Jonathan Mitchel, ordained Aug. 21, 1650, died July 9, 1668, aged 43. 
Urian Oakes, ordained Nov. 8, 1671, died July 25, 1681, aged 60. 
Nathaniel Gookin, ordained Nov. 15, 1682, died Aug. 7, 1692, aged 34. 
William Brattle, ordained Nov. 25, 1696, died Feb. 15, 1717, aged 55. 
Nathaniel Appleton, ordained Oct. 9, 1717, died Feb. 9, 1784, aged 91. 
Timothy HiUiard, installed Oct. 27. 1783, died May 9, 1790, aged 44. 
Abiel Holmes, installed Jan. 25, 1792, dismissed Sept. 26, 1831. 
Nehemiah Adams, ordained Dec. 17, 1829, (Shepard Society,) dismissed 

March 14, 1834. 
William Newell, ordained May 19, 1830. (First Parish.) 
John A. Albro, installed April 15, 1835, (Shepard Society.) 



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86 CAMBRIDGE. 

The descriptive, and somewhat indefinite, appellation of "the New 
Town/' had become recognized and adopted, under the form of New- 
town ; which name was retained until May, 1638, when it was exchanged 
for that of Cambridge, in grateful remembrance of the place in England 
where so mtiny of the principal men of the Colony had received their edu- 
cation. 

In 1639, the first Printing-press in British America was set up here, un- 
der the management of Stephen Day. The first article printed was the 
Freeman's Oath, the next an Almanac, and the next a metrical version of 
the Psalms ; the latter being the first production of the Anglo-American 
press which attains the dignity of a book. 

The cause of education ever received from our Fathers that attention 
which it deserves, and we therefore find them at an early period making 
provision for the instruction of their children. Speaking of the College at 
Cambridge, in 1643, a writer of that day observes : — " By the side of the 
Colledge [is] a fair© Grammar Schoole, for the training up of young achol- 
lars, and fitting of them for Academical learning: Master Corlet is the 
Mr., who bath very well approved himself for his abilities, dexterity, and 
painnilnesse in teaching and education of the youths under him." 

In 1647, the town " bargained with Waban, the Indian, for to keepe 
about six score heade of dry cattle on the south side of Charles River." 
The lands in that part of Cambridge, as well as those at Shawshin, Menot- 
omy, and " the Farms," were chiefly used for pasturage ; which, as it 
could not be found in the settled portion of the town, the inhabitants, — 
" most of them very rich, and well stored with Cattle of all sorts," — were 
obliged to seek on the outskirts of the settlement, where extensive tracts 
were granted them, at different times, until their territory included the 
whole of the present township of Lexington, and the principal part of Bil- 
lerica. Here, we are told, they had "many hundred Acres of ground 
paled in with one general fence, about a mile and half long, which secures 
all their weaker Cattle from the wilde beasts. " 

In 1648, it was ordered " that there shall be an eight penny ordinary 
provided for the Townsmen [i. e. Selectmen] every second Munday of the 
month upon there meeteing day ; and that whosoever of the Townsmen 
faile to be present within half an houre of the ringing of the bell (which 
shall be half an houre after eleven of the clocke) he shall both lose his din- 
ner, and pay a pint of sacke, or the value, to the present Townsmen." 
The first license for an inn appears to have been given in 1652, when " the 
Townsmen granted liberty to Andrew Belcher to sell beare and bread, for 
entertainment of strangers, and the good of the towne." 

The people of Cambridge had hitherto confined themselves to the origi- 
nal settlement, which was of small extent, and "compact closely within 
itselfe " ; but they now began to venture off to a greater distance, and " of 
late yeares some few straggling houses " were built on the outskirts of the 



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CAMBRIDGE. 67 

town. On the 29th of May, 1656, those who lived at Shawshin, or Shaw- 
shinock, (which had been granted to Cambridge, on certain conditions, in 
June, 1642, and had begun to be settled about ten years after, by a number 
of respectable families, some from Cambridge, but the greater part origi- 
nally from England,) were incorporated as a distinct plantation ; and in 
May, 1656, the Court" granted the name of the place to be called Billsri- 
ca. " As early as 1658 nineteen of its inhabitants entered into engagements 
with the Rev. Samuel Whiting, Jr., in reference to his settlement in the 
Ministry among them, and a Meeting-house, erected by vote of the town, 
was finished in 1660 ; but a Church was not gathered, and a Pastor settled, 
until November 11, 1663, on which day Mr. Whiting was duly ordained to 
the Pastoral office. The inhabitants of Cambridge Village, too, as that part 
of the town was called which embraced the Nonantum of the Indians, 
had become so numerous, by the year 1656, as to form a distinct congre- 
gation for public worship; and an annual abatem en t was made of " the 
one halfe of their proportion to the Ministryes allowance, during the time 
they were provided of an able Minister according to law." The first 
Church was gathered there July 20, 1664, and the Rev. John Eliot, Jr., son 
of the Apostle, was ordained Pastor the same day. The settlement was 
subsequently called New Cambridge, but in 1691, (December 8,) was in- 
corporated by the name of Nswton. 

In 1666, the inhabitants of Cambridge consented to pay each his propor- 
tion of a rate to the sum of £ 200, " towards the building a bridge over 
Charles River." The bridge was erected about the year 1660, and for many 
years was called " The Great Bridge." Previous to this time the commu- 
nication with the south side of the river had been by means of a ferry, 
from the wharf at the foot of Water (now Dunster) street, — the principal 
street of the original settlement, — to the opposite shore; from which 
point "a highway" conducted to the road leading to Roxbury. The 
bridge was rebuilt in 1690, at the expense of Cambridge and Newton, with 
some aid from the public treasury ; and in 1734 the town received .£300 
from the General Court towards defraying the expense of repairing it, in 
addition to a " very bountiful " contribution from individuate, for the same 
purpose. In 1700, the highway on the south side of the river was given 
" for the use of the Ministry in this town and place." 

About this time a House of Correction was built ; and in 1675, certain 
persons were appointed " to have inspection into familyss, that theare be 
noe by-drinking or any misdemenor wheareby sine is committed, and 
persons from theare bouses unseasonably." The Jail (an ancient wooden 
building, not much used after the erection of a stone one at Concord, in 
1789,) stood at the southwest corner of Market (now Winthrop) Square, as 
late as the beginning of the present century.. The County Court-house, 
which many people will remember as occupying the site of the present 
Lyceum Hall, on Harvard Square, was erected in 1756. In 1656, certain 






88 CAMBR1DOB. 

persons were appointed by the Townsmen to execute the order of the Gen- 
eral Court, " for the improvement of all the families within the limine of 
this towne in spinning and cloathing " ; and the year following, James 
Hubbard hae " liberty granted him to foil some small timber on the Com- 
mon, for the making him a loome." In 1668, some of the most respecta- 
ble inhabitants were chosen " for katechiseing the youth of this towne." 

Whalley and Gofie, two of the Regicides, on their arrival in New Eng- 
land, in July, 1660, immediately repaired to Cambridge, where tbey resided 
until February following, experiencing the greatest kindness and hospi- 
tality from the inhabitants, and enjoying the friendship of the Rev. Mr. 
Mitchet, by whom they were permitted to attend upon the religioue ordi- 
nances of the Church, and were even allowed to participate in the Sacra- 



In September, 1666, the town was thrown into consternation by a visit 
from five Mohawk Indians, "all stout and lusty young men," who sud- 
denly issued from a swamp, one afternoon, and walked into the bouse of 
Mr. John Taylor. Although well armed, they suffered themselves to be 
arrested by the authorities, without resistance, and committed to prison. 
They were subsequently released, with an injunction not to come armed 
into any of the English settlements again. The English had often heard 
of these Indians from the Massachusetts tribes, (who lived in constant fear 
of them,) bat had never seen any of them before. Hence the great alarm 
which their unexpected visit occasioned. 

At a town-meeting in 1676, called " to consider about fortifiemg of the 
towne against the Indians," it was judged necessary " that something 
bee done for the fencing in the towne with a stockade, or sume thing 
equivalent," and the requisite materials were accordingly prepared ; but 
King Philip being killed, the " great Indian War " was soon after termi- 
nated, and the Townsmen were ordered to " improve the timber, that was 
brought for the fortification, for the repairing of the Great Bridge." 

The extent of the town at this period may be inferred from a vote of Jan- 
uary 8, 1682. " that 500 acres of the remote lands, lying between Woburn, 
Concord, and our bead line, shall be laid out for the use and benefit of the 
Ministry of this town and place forever." It is whispered in our ear, that 
of late years the town has not been quite so liberal toward its Ministers. 

On the 15th of December, 1691, "Cambridge North-farms " were incor- 
porated as a Parish, by the name of "North Cambridge." October 21, 
1696, a Church was gathered, composed of " ten brethren dismissed from 
the Churches of Cambridge, Watertown, Woburn, and Concord, for this 
work " ; and Mr. Benjamin Estabrook (who had been employed to preach in 
this Parish since 1692) was chosen and ordained their Pastor. Some six- 
teen years after, on the petition of " the farmers," that they might " be 
dismissed from the town, and be a township by themselves," their request 
was granted, on certain conditions ; and " Cambridge Farms " were incor- 



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porated, by the name of Lbxinoton, March 90, 1712-13. In 1732, the 
inhabitants of the northwesterly part of Cambridge were, by an Act of the 
Legislature, formed into a separate Precinct. A Church was gathered by 
the Rer. John Hancock, of Lexington, on the 9th of September, 1739, and 
the Rev. Samuel Cooke ordained its Pastor, on the 12th of the same month. 
On this occasion, the First Church voted that £ 26 be given out of the 
Church stock to the Second Church in Cambridge, " to furnish their 
Communion Table in a decent manner." The Indian name of this dis- 
trict was Menotomy, which it now exchanged for that of the Northwest, or 
Second Precinct, or West Parish, of Cambridge ; and it was finally in- 
corporated, February 27, 1807, as Wbst Cambridge. It does not appear 
how early permanent settlements were made in that part of Cambridge on 
the south side of the river; but a house of worship was built there in 
1774, and a Parish incorporated May 11, 1779. In 1780, the Church-mem- 
bers, on that side presented a petition, " signifying their desire to be dis- 
missed, and incorporated into a distinct Church, for enjoying the special 
ordinances of the Gospel more conveniently by themselves.' 1 The First 
Church voted a compliance with their request, and a Church was accord- 
ingly gathered, February 26, 1783; the Records of which are entitled, 
" The Records of the Third Church of Christ in Cambridge." The Rev. 
John Foster was ordained its first Pastor, November 1, 1784. This village 
bore the name of " Little Cambridge," or the South, or Second Parish, of 
Cambridge, until its incorporation as a town, February 24, 1807, by the 
name of Brighton. 

About the year 1769, several gentlemen, each of whose income was 
deemed adequate to the support of a domestic Chaplain, manifested a de- 
sire for the establishment of an Episcopal Mission at Cambridge. Their 
wishes meeting with a ready response, those adherents of the Church of 
England residing in Cambridge and its vicinity united, in the year 1760, in 
the foundation of a Church, under the patronage of the English "Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," and laid the corner- 
stone of the beautiful structure here represented. 

The edifice was first opened for Divine Service, on Thursday, October 
15, 1761, by the Rev. East Apthorp, D. D., who had been deputed as the 
Society's first Missionary to this place. It is considered, by connoisseurs 
in architecture, as one of the best constructed Churches in New England. 
The model is said to have been brought from Italy ; and the plan was fur 
nished by Mr. Harrison, of Newport, R. I., the architect of King's Chapel, 
Boston, and of the Redwood Library. 

Mr. Apthorp was a native of Boston, but received his education at the 
University of Cambridge, in England ; where he took orders, and received 
the appointment of Missionary to the newly established Church in this 
place. He is said to have been a very ambitious man, and to have had hit 
eye upon a Bishopric*, which he fondly hoped would be established in 



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90 



New England, having Cambridge lor its centre, and himself the Metropo- 
litan. It must be confessed, that the stately mansion which was erected 
for his use, — still jocosely styled " the Bishop's Palace," — far surpassing 
in pretensions the generality of houses at that day, gives some counte- 
nance to the traditionary report of his aristocratic predilections. But 
whatever may have been his expectations, they were doomed to disap- 
pointment. The publication of his sermon at the opening of Christ Church 
inflamed the Episcopal controversy to such a degree, (if it did not give rise 
to it,) and exposed him to such a whirlwind of denunciation from all points 
of the compass, that his situation became fiur from comfortable, and after 
a few years he relinquished his rectorship, and returned to England, where 
he subsequently obtained valuable preferments in the Church, and died, at 
an advanced age, in 1816. His house, — the same which, a few years after 
the departure of its original proprietor, received the haughty Burgoyne be* 
neath its roof, not as a master, but as a discomfited prisoner of war, — yet 
retains unmistakeable traces of its former elegance. It is now owned and 
occupied by Dr. Plympton and Mrs. Manning, and is situated in a square 
formed by Main, Linden! Chestnut, and Bow streets. 




CHRIST CHURCH. 

The successor of Mr. Apthorp was the Rev. Winwood Serjeant, who 
continued Rector from 1767 till the outbreak at the Revolutionary War, in 
1775, when his Pariah was entirely broken up, his fine Church turned into 

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' 



CAJfBRIDOB. 91 

barracks, and its beautiful organ demolished, and himself and family 
obliged to fly for safety. The stormy period of the Revolution passed, men 
began to take breath, and look about them. Christ Church was repaired, 
and on the 11th of July, 1790, was reopened, with a sermon by the Rev. 
Dr. Parker, of Trinity Church, Boston ; who also accepted the rectorship 
of thiB Parish, on condition of supplying it by a Curate, and officiating oc- 
casionally in person. During the first quarter of the present century, the 
Church was sorted by different clergymen and readers ; among whom may 
be mentioned the late Rt. Rev. Dr. Dehon, Bishop of South Carolina, the 
late Rev. Dr. Harris, of Dorchester, the Rev. Dr. Jenks, of Boston, and the 
Rev. Dr. Wainwright, of New York. 

•In 1826, the building was again repaired, (the Corporation of Harvard 
College contributing $ 300 for the purpose,) and the Rev. George Otis, Pro- 
fessor in the University, officiated until his death, in 1828. The succeed- 
ing Rectors hare been the Rev. Messrs. Thomas W. Coit, D. D., from 
1829 to 1835, Mark Anthony De Wolfe Howe, D. D., 1835-36, and Thomas 
H. Vail, from 1837 to 1839,. when the present incumbent, the Rev. Nicholas 
Hoppin, entered upon his duties. 

In 1769, " all the common lands, fronting the XTollege, commonly called 
the Town Commons, not heretofore granted or allotted to any particular 
person, or for any special or particular use," were granted by the proprie- 
tors " to the town of Cambridge, to be used as a Training Field, to lie un- 
divided, and to remain for that use for ever." These " Commons" were in 
after years a fruitful source of controversy ; and it was only after a tedious 
suit at law that their indosure, <— authorized June 5, 1830, —was effected 
and submitted to. The time may yet come when the " Training Field " 
of their fathers will be regarded by their descendants as one of the choic- 
est ornaments of the " City of the Plain." 

Under express instructions from His Majesty's Secretary of State, 
three sessions of the General Court were holden in Cambridge, in 1770, in 
direct violation of the Charter, and the wishes of the people. This meas- 
ure, excused on the plea of the political excitement at this time rife in Bos- 
ton, was very far from allaying that excitement ; and in fact, but added 
new fuel to the flame, — now smouldering in the ashes of discontent, — 
which was soon to bunt forth with inextinguishable and overmastering 
fury. 

In the opening scenes of that awful drama which resulted m the inde- 
pendence of thirteen British Colonies, the people Of Cambridge exhibited 
that spirit which so strongly characterised the period : and when the crisis 
approached, and the great question of Independence was agitated, they sol- 
emnly and with one accord, pledged their lives and fortunes to the cause of 
liberty. From the commencement of hostilities at Lexington, April 19, 
1775, Cambridge shared the common fate of the towns in the vicinity of 
Boston, and its usual tranquillity gave place to the din and tumult of war. 






98 CAMBRIDGE. 

It was here that General Washington fixed his first encampment, and as- 
sumed the command of the first American army ; and here were the head- 
quarters of that army, till the eradiation of Boston by the British troops, 
in 1776. It was here, in the venerable old Meeting-house, (which stood 
between the Presidential mansion and the Law School,) that the Provincial 
Congress assembled, in 1774 and 1775, — two sessions out of four in the 
former year, and one in the latter. Many of the inhabitants left, the town, 
and retired into the interior. The College was deserted, and its buildings 
were occupied by troops ; the Episcopal Church was dismantled for the 
same purpose, and its organ-pipes (if we may credit tradition) melted into 
bullets ; while the elegant houses of its members were assigned as quarters 
to the American officers. 

Poor Ralph InmanI How could he expect that his well-stocked form 
and ample larder would escape notice ? It was altogether too rich a prise 
to be passed by,— so thought " Old Put," —and it would hare been the 
height of impropriety not to have made good use of the bounties thus 
placed within his reach. What cared he that the former proprietor 
groaned in spirit, as he saw his fat beeves diminishing, at a fearful rate, 
before the rapacious appetites of the Yankee soldiery ? " The earth is the 
Lord's, and the fulness thereof" ; and they were the Lord's soldiers. Bit- 
terly did the good man complain, that he, " a gentleman of fortune and 
figure," should now be obliged " to purchase things from his own form " ; 
the sturdy " rebels " having " taken every thing from him except his wear- 
ing apparel, only because he had been one of the King's Council" ! A 
hard case, this, to be sure ; but no harder than that of the Olivers, the Va*» 
salls, the Ervings, and hundreds of others, who saw themselves suddenly 
stripped of honors, wealth, and estate, and driven from their homes, — to 
expiate, in some measure, by their personal sufferings and mortification, 
the crying sins of the wicked ministry whose servants they were. 

Let the stranger stroll along the old road to Watertown, — the Brattle 
Street of the modems. Leaving the venerable Brattle mansion on the left, 
— now cast into the shade by the " Brattle House," recently erected on a 
portion of its once elegant domain, — and passing beyond the more thickly 
settled part of the village, he will find, on each side of the way, spacious 
edifices, belonging to some former day and generation ; extensive gardens, 
farms, and orchards, evidently of no modern date; and trees, whose giant 
forms were the growth of years gone by. Who built these stately man- 
sions,— so unlike the usual New England dwellings of ancient days, — 
with their spacious lawns, shaded by noble elms, and adorned with shrub- 
bery ? Who were the proprietors of these elegant seats, which arrest the 
attention and charm the eye of the passing traveller ? Who were the orig- 
inal occupants of these abodes of aristocratic pride and wealth, — for such 
they must have been, —and whose voices waked the echoes in these lofty 
halla?— A race of men which has passed away for ever ! Men of lofty 



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CAMBRIDGE. 93 

ideas, ample fortunes, large hearts, and unbounded hospitality, — the an- 
cient nobility of New England's capital, —the grave Magistrates and sage 
Councillors of the Province, — old English country-gentlemen, — proud 
scions of a noble stock, who sought, at this distance from the metropolis, 
a retreat from the cares of state and the pursuits of business, and here 
erected dwellings which should remind them, in some faint degree, of their 
ancestral halls in Old England. Here, upon their extensive estates, in the 
midst of affluence, nay, in the very lap of luxury, rivalling in splendor the 
nobility of other lands, they dwelt in sumptuous ease, each under his own 
vine and fig-tree, with none to make him afraid. To their femilies, — al- 
lied by blood, or by the ties of friendship, —life was but as a summer holi- 
day. Without care, without anxiety, their days were spent in pleasure, 
and their nights in merriment. Amid the delights of social intercourse, 
the song and the dance, music and feasting, the moments passed uncount- 
ed, and time was but as a flitting shadow, which left no trace behind. 
With no thought but for the present, with no dream of the morrow, they 
heard not the mutterings of the distant thunder, they saw not the black 
cloud on the verge of the horizon, they heeded not the gathering storm, 
till it burst in awful fury above their heads ; — and lo I they are scattered as 
dust, their homes are desolate, and the places that knew them now know 
them no more. — Where are they ? Ask of the winds which sigh forth 
their requiem through the tops of those venerable trees, whose branches 
were once outstretched to shield them from the Mazing glories of a noon- 
day sun. Inquire of the breeze which mournfully whispers the dirge of 
the dead in yonder graveyard, or sweeps by the Church where they wor- 
shipped. They are gone. Their tombs are in a distant land, — even their 
names have passed from remembrance, — and nought remains to tell of 
their sojourn here save these stately piles, whose walls once echoed to the 
sound of pipe and harp, and whose courts reverberated with the notes of 
their national anthem. 

Prominent among these residences of the Royalists of olden time, is 
that of Col. John Vassall, which became, in July, 1775, the headquarters 
of General Washington ; an edifice even more elegant and spacious than 
its fellows, standing at a little distance from the street, surrounded with 
shrubbery and stately elms. At this mansion and at Winter Hill, in Som- 
erville, Washington passed most of his time, after taking command of the 
Continental army, until the evacuation of Boston, in the following spring. 

" The mansion stands upon the upper of two terraces, which are ascend* 
ed each by five stone steps. At each front comer of the house is a lofty 
elm, — mere saplings when Washington beheld them, but now stately and 
patriarchal in appearance. Other elms, with flowers and shrubbery, beau- 
tify the grounds around it ; while within iconoclastic innovation has not 
been allowed to enter whh its mallet and trowel, to mar the work of the 
ancient builder, and to cover with the vulgar stucco of modern art the 



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CAMBRIDGE 



carved cornices and panelled wainscots that first enriched it. There might 
be given a long list of eminent persons whose former presence in those spa- 
cious rooms adds interest to retrospection, but the/ are elsewhere identified 
with scenes more personal and important." The present owner is Profes- 
sor Henry W. Longfellow. 




WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTER ft. 

In connection with Washington's Headquarters, as an object of interest 
to the stranger, should be mentioned the Washington Elm, beneath 
whose broad shadow, says tradition, he first pitched his tent, and drew his 
sword in the cause of freedom, on the 3d of July, 1775. It stands on 
Garden street, near the westerly corner of the Common ; and may proba- 
bly have belonged to the primeval forest. " Amid the changes which have 
taken place in the world, and particularly in America and New England, 
it has stood like a watchman ; and if it could speak, it would be an inter- 
esting chronicler of events. The early settlers of this country had hardly 
finished their rude tog houses before they proposed to make the village in 
which it stands the metropolis of the country ; and but few years elapsed 
before they laid the foundation of Harvard College so near it that it may 
almost be shaded by its branches. Not far from it was the spot where the 
public town-meetings were held ; and also the tree under which the Indian 
council-fires were lighted, more than two hundred years ago. When the 
drum was used in Cambridge, instead of the bell, to summon the congre- 
gation to the place of worship, or to give warning of a savage enemy, the 
sound floated throughout its trailing limbs; and when the officers of the 



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CAMBRIDGE. ^ 95 

College discharged the duty of inflicting corporal punishment on young 
men with their own hands, who knows but their lugubrious lamentations 
may have mingled with the breezes that disturbed its foliage? Of how 
many College sports and tricks might it toll; such deeds, too, as no one 
who had not been educated in the halls of Old Harvard would ever have 
dreamed of? Among the graver subjects of which it might make report 
are the lessons of truth and piety which fell from the lips of Whitefield, 
when he stood in its shade and moved a vast multitude by his eloquence. 
And subsequently, it seems, it has been heralding war and liberty ; for the 
revolutionary soldiers who stood shoulder to shoulder, — blessings be on 
their heads, — tell us that when Washington arrived at Cambridge, he drew 
his sword, as Commander-in-chief of the American army, lor the first time 
beneath its boughs, and resolved within himself that it should never be 
sheathed till the liberties of his country were established. Glorious oh) 
tree, that bast stood in sight of the smoke of Lexington and Bunker's Hill 
battles, and weathered the storms of many generations, — worthy of rev- 
erence. Though In the spirit of modern improvement, guide-boards may 
be nailed to thy trunk, thou pointest to the past and to the future. All 
around are scattered memorials of what has been. Generations of men 
have died and been buried, and soldiers of the revolution sleep near thee. 
Thou lookest down upon monuments in the churchyard, robbed of their 
leaden armorial bearings that they might be converted into musket-balls in 
the day of our national poverty and straggle; and the old spikes still fast- 
ened into the beams of Massachusetts Hall tell of suspended hammocks 
where the weary soldier took his rest. Across the river, where one Black- 
stone lived, and where Governor Winthrop took up his residence, because 
he found a good spring of water there, the forest has been cut away, the In- 
dian wigwam has disappeared, and a city grown up, containing 138.000 in- 
habitants, whose sails whiten every sea, whose merchants are princes, and 
whose traffickers an the honorable of the earth. May no unkind hand 
mar the last tree of the native forest. Though it may have stood century 
after century, like a sentinel on duty, defying the lightning and the storm, 
still let it stand, an interesting and sacred memorial of the past and the 
present, and continue to be associated, for many years to come, with the 
history of our country. And let the illustrious name which it bears, and 
which it derives from one of the most important events in the life of the 
Father of his country, preserve it to remind the coming generations of his 
invaluable services and labors." 

In 1777, Cambridge became the headquarters of another army ; but how 
different in character and circumstances from that which had been gath- 
ered here seme two years previous, radiant with hope, and impatient for 
an opportunity to close in deadly conflict with the enemies of their coun- 
try. Whq would have recognized in these dispirited troops, — which now 
sought a temporary resting-place before their final departure from a land 






96 CAMBRIDGE. 

r ft 

which they had failed to conquer, — the once proud army of Bvkootns ? 
And yet it was even so. They had experienced the uncertain fate of war, 
and had been forced to pass beneath the yoke with which they had so con- 
fidently threatened their present victors. The officers and men were, with 
some difficulty, furnished with suitable accommodations, under the super- 
intendence of General Heath, and the sequestrated dwellings of the Roy- 
alists were again appropriated to the use of the sons of Mars. A few rods 
above the residence of Professor Longfellow, is the house in which the 
Brunswick General, the Baron Riedesel, and his family, were quartered, 
during the stay of the captive army in this vicinity, — " one of the best 
houses in the place," writes the Baroness, " which belonged to Royalists." 
The subjoined view of its southern front is from a pencil sketch by Mr. 
Longfellow. 




RIEDESEL. HOUSE. 

"In style it is very much like that of Washington's headquarters, and 
the general appearance of the grounds around is similar. It is shaded by 
noble linden-trees, and adorned with shrubbery, presenting to the eye all 
the attractions noticed by the Baroness of Riedesel in her charming let- 
ters. Upon a window-pane, on the north side of the house, may be seen 
the undoubted autograph of that accomplished woman, inscribed with a 
diamond point. It is an interesting memento, and is preserved with great 
care " by the present occupant, Francis Bowen, Esq., the awe-inspiring 
Editor of the North American Review. 

The present Constitution of Massachusetts was framed by a Convention, 
which assembled at Cambridge, on the 1st of September, 1779. The in- 
habitants of this town, " willing to give up their own opinion in lesser 
matters, in order to obtain a government whose authority might not be dis- 

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97 



puted, and which they wished might soon be established," while they 
offered several amendments for the consideration of a future Convention., 
instructed their representative, "in their name and behalf, to ratify and 
confirm the proposed form, whether the amendments be made, or not " ; 
and in the memorable Insurrection of 1786, the same patriotic sentiments 
which had actuated them on former occasions were exhibited in a vote of 
the town, expressing " their attachment to the present constitution and 
administration of government," and declaring their aversion to the use of 
any irregular means for compassing an end already provided for by the 
Constitution; "as we know," say they, "of no grievances the present 
system of government is inadequate to redress." 

This town has ever been remarked for its exemplary observance of the 
laws for the maintenance of the poor ; of which the proportion, from va- 
rious causes, has generally been large, while the provision for their subsis- 
tence and comfort has always been competent. The earliest Alms-house 
in Cambridge, of which there is any record, was purchased of Deacon 
Samuel Whittemore, in 1779, at an expense of £ 37 10s., and stood at the 
corner of Brighton and South streets, in Ward One. The second is still 
standing, at the northeasterly corner of the Race-course, and was pur- 
chased, repaired, and devoted to the use of the poor in 1786; £60 being 
paid to the former proprietor, Dr. William Gamage, for the estate, which 
comprised nearly five acres of land. Upon the division of the town in 
1807, and the incorporation of Brighton and West Cambridge, the Alms- 
house was left in a remote part of the present city, and the rapid progress 
of the eastern section (Cambridge Port) rendered its transfer to that quar- 
ter a measure of obvious expediency. The first brick Alms-house was ac- 
cordingly erected in Ward Two, in the year 1818, at an expense, for house 
and land, of about $ 6,600. At the opening of this house, (which stood on 
the corner of Norfolk and Harvard streets,) September 17, 1818, a formal 
address was made to the inmates, by Royal Makepeace, Chairman of the 
Board of Overseers, and a sermon delivered by the Rev. Dr. Holmes, 
which was published. This building having been destroyed by fire, in 
1896, a new one was erected, at an expense of more than $ 7,000, on the 
bank of the river, between Western Avenue and River Street. 

The Nbw Alms-housb, recently erected, is finely situated, on the road 
leading to West Cambridge, in the extreme northwestern section of the 
city, about two miles from its centre ; and within sight of the spot where 
the second establishment was located, more than sixty years ago. It is 
built upon an upland, of moderate elevation, and commands a perfect 
view of the whole farm upon which it stands. It is constructed of stone, 
taken from the quarry on the farm, within twenty rods of the building ; a 
material of greater solidity and endurance than any other which could 
easily have been obtained, and well agreeing with the spirit and design of 
such an institution. The edifice presents, outwardly, that plain, massive, 



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substantial appearance, so singularly appropriate in structures of this 
character. It consists of a central building, four stories tat height, baring 
four circular quadrant comers, and measuring 60 feet square outside its 
walls. The first story is 9 feet 6 inches high, the second and third sto- 
ried each 10 feet, and the fourth story 18 feet. The roof is hipped on all 
sides, and rises to meet an octagonal observatory of 16 feet square, which 
is surmounted by an ornamental vane. Three wings radiate from three of 
the sides of the central building, each three stories in height, beside attics. 
Two of the wings measure 40 feet square; the first story of each is 9 feet 
6 inches high, the second and third stories each 10 feet, and the attic story 
9 feet. The third wing measures 40 by 30 feet square ; the first, second, 
and third stories are of the same height as those in the other wings; the 
attic story is 8 fest high, only. The roofr of all three wings bare pedi- 
ment ends. The east wing is appropriated to males, the west to females, 
and the south exclusively to the accommodation of the keeper's family, 
la the third story of the building are rooms appropriated exclusively to 
the American poor. Here are hospitals, male and female, apartments fbf 
the sick, &c, Ice. The fourth story is occupied by a fine Chapel, which 
extends over the whole octagonal floor of the central building, terminating 
only with the roof. 

The farm on which the present Alms-house stands was purchased in 
1849, for t 12,000. It contains 33 acres, and is situated partly in Somer- 
ville. Alewive Brook forms part of its western boundary. The soil is of 
a warm and early character, a portion being a sandy loam. There is a 
small quantity of marsh, easily convertible into meadow. On the premi- 
ses is a quarry of Argillaceous Slate, of superior quality, as also beds of 
sand, suited for building purposes. The various advantages of this loca- 
tion, — its pure water, its fishery, its warm, rich soil, and its valuable 
ledge of stone, — with the inadequate accommodations of the building on 
Western Avenue, and other considerations, sufficiently obvious, soon in* 
duced the belief that it would be the part of wisdom, no less than of econ- 
omy, to erect on the City Farm, as soon as practicable, a building of such 
materials, and on such a plan, as should unite permanency of structure 
with the greatest possible convenience of arrangement. The result was 
the present edifice ; which was designed by the Rev. Louis Dwight and J. 
L. F. Bryant, of Boston, and erected at a cost of about i 30,000. 

The " Indigent Sick," not on the town's list, are, in a considerable 
measure, provided for by voluntary charity. The relief of this class of the 
poor is the special object of " The Cambridge Humane Society," formed in 
the year 1814 ; as also of " The Female Humane Society of Cambridge," 
established soon afterwards. 

Before the erection of a bridge across Charles River to Boston, the lands 
in the eastern part of Cambridge were chiefly valued for the hay and forage 
afforded by the salt-marshes, which extended to a great distance from the 



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CAMBRIDOB. 99 

banks of the river, composing, indeed, a principal part of this district. 
The grounds being low, without roads, and with no means of communica- 
tion with Boston, save by boats, or the circuitous route of Charlestown or 
Roxbury, the situation was far from inviting, and it remained almost an 
isolated tract, detached from every other. In the course ef a year very 
few persons passed down into " The Neck," as it was called, unless for 
farming purposes, or for fishing and fowling. Below the seat of the late 
Chief Justice Dana, (on Dana Hill,) there were but four dwelling-houses, — 
one on the Inman place, lately owned and occupied by Samuel P. Allen, 
Esq. ; one nearly opposite, on a form of Judge Dana, formerly the Soden 
farm, south of the main road ; one on the Phips form, owned by Mr. An- 
drew Boardman ; and one at Lechmere's Point. 

There had been considerable effort to have the first bridge over Charles 
River carried from West Boston to Cambridge ; but the expediency of 
making the first experiment across the narrower part of the river, to 
Charlestown, was so apparent, that the (then) town of Boston expressed 
an opinion almost unanimous (1,238 to 2) in favor of the latter course, and 
the bridge was accordingly erected " in the place where the Ferry between 
Boston and Charlestown was kept." This great undertaking (as it was 
then considered) having been successfully accomplished, a number of 
gentlemen were incorporated, March 9th, 1792, for the purpose of building 
a bridge from what was called Pest-house Point, at the west end of Cam* 
bridge street, over Charles River, to the opposite shore in Cambridge. The 
causeway, on the Cambridge side, was begun July 15, 1792, and suspended 
after the 26th of December, till the 20th of March, 1793, when the work 
was resumed. The wood-work of the bridge was begun the 8th of April, 
1793, and the bridge and causeway opened for passengers the 23d of No- 
vember following, being seven months and a half from the time of laying 
the first pier. 

The building of West Boston Bridge, as it was called, had a very 
perceivable influence on the trade of Cambridge, which bad previously 
been inconsiderable. By bringing the travel from the northward and west- 
ward through the centre of the town, it lent a fresh impulse to business in 
that quarter, while at the same time it gave rise to a thriving trade in the 
immediate vicinity of the bridge; where a store was erected and opened, 
by Messrs. Vose and Makepeace, in December, 1793, within a month after 
the opening of the bridge. This was the first framed building set up be- 
tween Old Cambridge and Boston after the opening of the great road. The 
following year a large house, designed for a tavern, was built by Leonard 
Jarvis, Esq., and soon after were erected six other houses and stores. In 
January, 1801, the Inman Farm, so called, was divided into lots, and sold 
to numerous purchasers ; and from this time the settlement rapidly in- 
creased. Several large stores were put up the next year, and soon after 
dwelling-houses, principally built and occupied by young men, from vari- 






WO GtMBJUDOB. | 

ous parts of the Commonwealth, who came hero to establish themselves in 
businessi In 1808, a school-house was built, cm a piece of land presented to 
the town for that purpose by Mr. Andrew Boardman. ha coet wae about 
$600, of which ram upwards of $300 were paid by the Town of Gam- 
bridge, and the remainder wae contributed by the inhabitant*. In 1804, a 
large quantity of land wae laid out into house-lots, and the settlement, 
hitherto confined to one street, extended rapidly on all sides. Streets were 
now opened in all directions ; ditches were dug, and dikes thrown up, to 
drain off the waters, and to prevent future inundation ; canals were cut, 
communicating with Charles River, of a sufficient depth for coasting-ves- 
sels; and wharves were built on the margins, for their accommodation. 

In 1806, an Act was passed by the Congress of the United States, making 
Cambridge a Port of Entry ; from which circumstance this section of the 
town thenceforth took the name of Caitbkidgb-Port. In June of the 
same year, Royal Makepeace and others were incorporated by toe General 
Court, for the purpose of building a Meeting-house, and supporting public 
worship therein, under the name of " The Cambridge-Port Meeting-house 
Corporation." In 1808, a spacious brick Meeting-house, furnished with an 
organ and a bell, was erected on a square of about two acres, which had 
been laid out for public uses ; and on the first day of January following, it 
was dedicated to the worship of God with appropriate ceremonies. This 
year (1806) and the two preceding, witnessed a great accession td the set- 
ttement, both m population and in buildings. More than one hundred and 
twenty houses and stores, many of them brick, were erected during this 
period. Within the spate of about five years previous to January 1, 1807, 
upwards of one hundred families had settled here, and the number of in, 
habitants at this time was estimated at more than one thousand. 

On the 1st of March, 1808, an Act was passed by the General Court, set- 
ting off the easterly part of Cambridge into a Parish, by the name of 
Cambridge-Port Parish; and on the 2d day of February, 1809, the Cam- 
bridge-Port Meeting- house Corporation conveyed the Meeting-house, 
organ, bell, &c., to the new Parish, and itself became extinct. From the 
time of the dedication of the bouse, in 1807, Divine Service had been con- 
stantly performed therein, at the expense of the Corporation ; but from this 
period it was supported by the Parish. On the 14th of July, 1809, a 
Church, principally composed of members dismissed and recommended 
fromofher-Churchss, was gathered and organized ; and oh the 19th of Jan- 
uary, 1814, the Rev. Thomas B. Gannett was ordained their first Pastor. 

In 1809, a large school-house was erected on land presented to the town 
by Judge Dana, It cost upwards of $800, above $ 300 of Which were paid 
by the Town, and the remainder by the District. Cambridge-Port Parish 
was this year divided into two School Districts, and a permanent school in 
each ordered to be kept, under the direction of a School Committee annu- 
ally chosen by the Town. In 1810, a bridge was built across Charles River, 

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GAMSRIDOB. 101 

between Cambridge-Port and Brighton, and a road made at an expense of 
between nine and tea thousand dollars; one half of which was defrayed by 
•ubacription of individuals at Cambridge-Port, and the other part by the 
proprietor* of the West Boston Bridge. 

The original projectors of the now flourishing settlement at " the Port," 
were for from realizing the bright anticipations Which had lured them 
on, step by step, in the prosecution of their extensive plans. The enter* 
prise, although, for a while, apparently crowned with success, proved to 
hare been premature, and resulted in serious embarrassment and loss to 
those concerned; while, in the fearful reaction which followed, many a 
purse was drained, and many a worthy man plunged in irretrievable ruin. 
But notwithstanding a protracted season of lethargic inactivity, during 
which all life and exertion seemed to have been paralyzed beneath the 
weight of some mysterious incubus ; and although the opening of Quincy 
Market, in Boston, and the construction of the numerous lines of Railway 
which centre in the metropolis, have almost annihilated her once extensive 
trade with the country towns, even as far back as the borders of Vermont 
and New Hampshire ; — " the Port " still continues to be the principal bu- 
siness section of the city, and the last five years have witnessed a great 
change in its appearance and prospects. 

Am m the-case of Ward Two, the settlement of that part of Cambridge 
which now constitutes the Third Ward was coeval with, and must be at- 
tributed to, the opening of a new avenue of communication with the neigh- 
boring town of Boston; although a Causey to Lechmere Point had been 
built many years previous, and several houses had been erected in this 
otherwise desolate region : — one, the elegant seat of CoL Spencer Phips, 
afterwards Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts, which was destroyed by 
fire many years since. In the year 1806, a bridge was built over Charles 
River, from Barton's Point, in Boston, to Lechmere's Point, in Cambridge ; 
and on the 3d of March, 1810, the " Lechmere Point Corporation " was 
incorporated. Several dwelling-houses and other buildings were soon 
erected near the bridge, and in 1813, the sunt of $ 50 was granted by the 
Town " for providing a school at Lechmere Point." The population of 
this section, which did not now exceed twenty families, increased rapidly 
during the next two years ; and as the disadvantages of its isolated situa- 
tion became more apparent, the claims of the inhabitants upon the Town 
became more frequent and urgent, until, in May, 1817, a report of the Se- 
lectmen, recommending " the erection of a School District at Lechmere 
Point," was accepted, and $ 100 appropriated " for the support of a school 
that season." The boundaries of the District, however, were not defined 
until June, 1818, when " all that part of the Town of Cambridge lying 
north of Broad Canal, and east of North Canal and the creek leading there- 
from to Miller's River," was established as the fifth School District of Cam- 
bridge The Town also granted $400 towards the erection of a school- 






102 CAMBRIDGE. 

house, and the District having rawed an additional sum for the same object, 
a one-story building, 42 feet by 22, was erected on a lot of land presented 
by the " Lechmere Point Corporation." 

The first Grammar School in the District was established in 1819. On 
the 22d of May, 1822, the Lechmere Point Library Association was insti- 
tuted. In 1825, a handsome two-story building, with a cupola, was erected, 
at an expense (including the land) of $1,469, which, for several years, 
was the best school-house within the limits of the town. The highly ben- 
eficial effects of a measure adopted by the Town in 1834, were visible here 
as elsewhere, in promoting the prosperity of the public schools. The 
old-fashioned District system was abolished, and the town was divided into 
three Wards, as at present constituted ; and all prudential duties relating 
to the schools devolved upon the School Committee. 

The first Methodist Episcopal Society in the town was constituted in 
this District, and incorporated June 14th, 1823. The corner-atone of their 
present bouse of worship was laid by the Rev. Elijah Hedding, now Bishop 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in September of the same year ; and 
the house was dedicated in June following. The first stationed Preacher 
was the Rev. Damon Young. The Third Congregational Society in Cam- 
bridge was formed here June 30, 1827, and their present house of worship 
built the same year. The first Pastor was the Rev. Warren Burton, act- 
tied March 5, 1828. 

As has already been remarked, the principal manufactories of Cambridge 
are located in this section of the city. The New England Glass Company 
was established here in the year 1818, for the manufacture of Flint Glass. 
The works of this Company are very extensive, and produce some of the 
finest specimens of cut-glass ware manufactured in this country. In 1650, 
a brick chimney was erected, 230 feet in height, or the purpose of receiv- 
ing and carrying off the smoke from the different furnaces, which commu- 
nicate with this common flue by means of horizontal flues beneath the 
surface of the ground. The cost of this gigantic piece of masonry was 
$ 14,500. Present capital of the Company, $400,000. Number of per- 
sons employed, 420 ; of whom 406 are males, and 14 females. Annual 
value of manufactures, $450,000. 

Postscsipt. — The writer of the foregoing article wishes it distinctly 
understood, that— being by nature extremely lazy himself, and entirely 
unscrupulous, withal, in the appropriation of the fruits of others' labors, 
when, without too much trouble, they can be turned to his own advantage 
— he has not hesitated together his materials wherever he could find them, 
availing himself, in the freest manner, not only of the researches of his 
predecessors, but even of their very language, whenever it happened to suit 
his purpose ; and he therefore lays claim to no other merit than that of in- 
genuity in making such a tolerable piece of patchwork out of so many 
scraps of divers colors and varying shapes : — in which be is responsible 
for nothing but the ttUche*. 



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MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 



103 




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MOUNT AUBURN. 

The Cemetery of Mount Auburn, justly celebrated as the most interest- 
ing object of the kind in our country, is situated in Cambridge and Water 
town, about four miles from the city of Boston. It includes upwards of 
one hundred acres of land, purchased at different times by the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, extending from the main road nearly to the 
banks of Charles River. A portion of the land nest to the road, and now 
under cultivation, once constituted the Experimental Garden of the Socie- 
ty. A long watercourse between this tract and the interior woodland 
formed a natural boundary, separating the two sections. The inner portion, 
which was set apart for the purposes of a Cemetery, is covered, throughout 
most of Its extent, with a vigorous growth of forest trees, many of them 
of large size, and comprising an unusual variety of species. This tract is 
beautifully undulating in its surface, containing a number of bold emi- 
nences, steep aecHrities, and deep shadowy valleys. A remarkable natural 
ridge, with a level surface, runs through the ground from southeast to 
northwest, which was for many years a favorite walk with the students of 
Harvard. The principal eminence, called Mount Auburn, is 125 feet above 
the lerel of Charles River, and commands from its summit one of the finest 
prospects which can be obtained in the environs of Boston. On one side 
is the city in full view, connected at its extremities with Charlestown and 
Roxbury. The serpentine course of Charles River, with the cultivated 
hills and fields rising beyond it, and the Blue Hills of Milton in the dis- 
tance, occupies another portion of the landscape. The village of Cam- 



101 CAMBRIDGE. * 

bridge, with the renerable edifices of the University, are «ituated about a 
mile to the eastward. On the north, at a very small distance, Fresh Pond 
appears, a handsome sheet of water, finely diversified by its woody and 
irregular shores. Country seats and cottages in various directions, and es- 
pecially those on the elevated land at Watertown, add much to the pictur- 
esque effect of the scene. It is proposed at some future period, to erect on 
the summit of Mount Auburn, a tower, after some classic model, of suffi- 
cient height to rise above the tops of the surrounding trees. This will 
serve the double purpose of a land-mark, to identify the spot from a dis- 
tance, and of an observatory commanding an uninterrupted view of the 
country around it. From the foot of this monument will be seen in detail 
the features of the landscape, as they are successively presented through 
the different vistas which have been opened among the trees; while from 
its summit a magnificent and unbroken panorama, embracing one of the 
most delightful tracts in New England, will be spread out beneath the eye. 
Not only the contiguous country, but the harbor and the bay of Boston, 
with their ships and Islands, and, in a clear atmosphere, the distant moun- 
tains of Wachuset, and, probably, even of Monadnock, will be compre- 
hended within the range of vision. 

The grounds of the Cemetery have been laid out with intersecting ave- 
nues, so as to render every part of the wood accessible. These avenues are 
curved and variously winding in their course, so as to be adapted to the 
natural inequalities of the surface. By this arrangement, the greatest 
economy of the land is produced, combining at the same time the pictur- 
esque effect of landscape gardening. Over the more level portions, the 
avenues are made twenty feet wide, and are suitable lor carriage roads. 
The more broken and precipitous parts are approached by foot-paths, six 
feet in width. These passage-ways are smoothly gravelled, and planted on 
both sides with flowers and ornamental shrubs. Lots of ground, contain- 
ing each three hundred square feet, are set off, as family burial-places, at 
suitable distances on the sides of the avenues and paths ; the perpetual 
right of inclosing and of using these lots, as places of sepulture, being 
conveyed to the purchasers of them, in the first instance, by the Horticul- 
tural Society, and subsequently by the new proprietors. 

It appears to be generally conceded that Mount Auburn Cbubtbht 
owes it* origin to Dr. Jacob Bigelow, of Boston, a gentleman who early 
became impressed with the impolicy of burials under churches or in grave- 
yards approximating closely to the abodes of the living. By htm the plan 
for the rural cemetery was first conceived, and the first meeting on the sub- 
ject called at his house, in November, 1825. The project met the favorable 
consideration of his friends, among whom may be mentioned the late Judge 
Story, General Dearborn, John Lowell, George Bond, and William Sturgis, . 
Esqrs., the Hon. Edward Everett, Nathan Hale, and others, men whose 
judgment in such matters was known to be correct, and whose influence 



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MOUNT AUBURN CKMBTBRY. 105 

proved to be finally effective ; although it was not until the lapse of nearly 
five years that a suitable place was fixed upon, when Dr. Bigelow ob- 
tained from George W. Brimmer, Esq., the offer of the land then called 
" Sweet Auburn," for the purpose of a cemetery. 

In the year 1829, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was estab- 
lished; and while in its infancy, and when the project for the Cemetery, 
also, was but in embryo, it was thought by the parties concerned, that by 
an union of the objects of each, the success and prosperity of both would 
be finally insured The Horticultural Society, therefore, after due consid- 
eration, decided to purchase the land of Mr. Brimmer, (then comprising 
about 72 acres,) for $ 6,000 ; and it was determined to devote it to the pur- 
poses of a rural cemetery and experimental garden. The ground was in* 
closed and consecrated in September, 1831 ; on which occasion an eloquent 
address was pronounced by Mr. Justice Story. The Experimental Garden, 
for reasons unnecessary to mention here, was subsequently given up; 
and, after a certain time, the proprietors of the Cemetery lots resolved 
to purchase the land from the Horticultural Society, and to appropriate its 
whole extent as a place of interment. This arrangement was amicably 
made, and an Act of Incorporation was obtained from the Legislature by 
the new proprietors in 1835, by which the Cemetery is exempted from pub- 
lic taxes, and its management vested in a Board of Trustees. 

It is now twenty years since the place was first set apart for the purpose 
of sepulture. The enterprise appears to have been the first of the kind in 
this country ; and it is, perhaps, the first example in modern times of a 
large tract of ground selected for its natural beauties, and submitted to the 
processes of landscape gardening, to prepare it for the reception of the 
dead. The success of the undertaking, and its acceptance with the pub- 
lic, have been sufficiently manifest in the large list of its proprietors, and 
in the numerous imitations which may be found in different parts of the 
United States. 

By the Act of Incorporation of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, it is 
provided that the moneys which shall arise from the sale of lots shall be 
for ever devoted to the preservation, improvement, embellishment, and en* 
largement of the said Cemetery, and to the incidental expenses thereof. 
In pursuance of these provisions, the Trustees have expended a large por- 
tion of the surplus income derived from sales, in carrying into effect, as 
far as practicable, the original objects which were announced to the pro- 
prietors at the commencement of the undertaking. 

The first inclosure of Mount Auburn was of pales, with a lofty en- 
trance-gate in the centre, constructed of wood, but rough-cast, In imitation 
of stone. In 1843, the portal was reconstructed of Quincy granite, after 
the same design, and in the same style of architecture, — the Egyptian, — - 
as at first ; and H presents to the eye of the beholder an imposing struc- 
ture, whose very massiveness and complete workmanship insures a dura- 



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CAMBRIDGE. 



tfon to be measured by ages. . It is less heavy, howeTer, than tbe common 
examples of that style, and its piers have oat the pyramidal or sloping 
form so common in Egyptian edifices, but are vertically erect, ia imita- 
tion, essentially, of some of the gateways of Thebes and Denderah. The 
massive cornice by which it is surmounted is of a single stone, meaamring 
24 feet in height by 12 in breadth. It is ornamented with the " winged 
globs," and fluted foliage of the Egyptian style, and bears underneath this' 
insoripjUon, in raised letters, between its fiUetted mouldings :— 

" THBN SHALL THX DUST BBTUlUf 
TO THB EARTH AS IT WAS, 
AND TieB SPIRIT SHALL RBTURH 
UMTO GOD WHO GAVE IT." 

"MOUNT AUBURN, 
Consecrated September 24, 1831/* 

The two low structures at tbe sides are rooms occupied an the Porter's 
lodge and the office of the Superintendent. 

The, gateway of Mount Auburn opens from what is known as the Old 
Cambridge road, and in front of Central Avenue, on the north boundary 
line of the Cemetery. This avenue forms a wide carriage-road, and is one 
of the most beautiful openings ever improved for such a purpose,. 'With 
the exception of the necessary grading, levelling, and cutting down of the 
brushwood, and the planting of a few trees, it has been left as nature made 
it. On either side it is overshadowed by the foliage of forest trees, ore, 
pines, and other evergreens ; and here you first, begin to see the monu- 
ments, " starting up from the surrounding verdure, like bright remem- 
brances from the heart of earth." 

In 1844, the increasing funds of the Corporation having been found suf- 
ficient to justify the expenditure, a massive iron fence, about ten feet in 
height, with pajes nearly two inches in diameter, was erected on the 
whole front,, measuring about half a mile in length. It is supported on 
granite posts, extending four feet underground, each haying a base three 
feet wide in a direction transverse to the fence. Owing to tbe favorable 
time at which the contracts were made, the whole cost of this fence did 
not exceed ft 15,000; that of the gateway was about 1 10,000. The iron 
fence has since been extended along the eastern side, and a more conven- 
ient entrance for carts, dec, there provided. On the south and west 
boundary a substantial timber fence has been erected, in place of the light 
palisade of former days. 

The first monument which meets the eye after entering the Cemetery is 
that o^Spubzhbim, situated on the. left of the main avenue. It is con- 
structed of polished Italian marble, and is a copy of the tomb of Scipio Af- 
ricanus, at Rome. The simple name is the only record which it bears, I 



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MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 



107 



" all other inscription or epitaph being left to the hand of fame, or to the 
suggestive imagination and peculiar feelings of such as may visit the 
shades where rest the remains of an energetic and hopeful foreigner." 




TOMB OF SPURZHEIM. 

John Gaspar Spurzheim was born in December, 1776, near Treves, in 
Prussia, where he received his education. He afterwards studied Medicine 
at Vienna, where he became the pupil of the celebrated Dr. Gall, and em- 
braced with zealous enthusiasm the peculiar doctrines of that Professor. 
In 1805, the master and pupil undertook a course of travels through various 
parts of central Europe, for the purpose of disseminating phrenological 
doctrines, and examining the heads of criminals and others in the public 
institutions. In 1807, Dr. Gall, assisted by Spurzheim, delivered his first 
public lectures on Phrenology, in Paris. Dr. Spurzheim afterwards lec- 
tured in various places in Europe, and received the honors of a number of 
literary institutions ; but determining to try a new field of labor, he em- 
barked at Havre for the United States, and arrived at New York, August 
4th, 1832. While in Boston he tasked himself severely in public lectures 
before schools and societies ; and his great intellectual efforts, together 
with the effects of our climate, seriously impaired his health. Being at- 
tacked by fever, medical assistance proved unavailing, and after a short 
illness he breathed his last on the 10th of October, 1832. His body was 
embalmed, and a cast of his head taken. Appropriate services were per- 
formed at the Old South, in the presence of an immense concourse of spec- 



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106 CAMBRIDGE. 

tators; after which his remains, escorted by the Boston Medical Associa- 
tion, as a body, and by a procession of citizens, were conveyed to the 
cemetery of the Park Street Church, where they were deposited until the 
tomb at Mount Auburn could be prepared for their reception. The monu- 
ment represented in the engraving, was the result of a movement among 
the friends of the deceased, who admired him as a man and a lecturer, irre- 
spectively of bia peculiar tenets ; but the expense was eventually defrayed 
by the liberality of the Hon. William Sturgis, of Boston. 

With the double purpose of affording a suitable place for funeral services, 
which are often most conveniently performed within the grounds, and in 
order to provide for the reception of statues, busts, and other delicate 
pieces of sculpture, which are liable to injury from exposure to the weath- 
er, a Chapel has been erected at Mount Auburn. It is situated- upon ele- 
vated ground, on the right of Central Avenue, not for from the entrance, 
and with its slender pinnacles, forms a picturesque object, as a view of it is 
caught ever and anon from the various turnings. It is built of granite, 
measuring 66 feet by 40, and about 80 feet in height The details are mostly 
those of the continental Gothic, taken chiefly from approved examples in 
Germany and France. The exterior is surrounded with a row of octagonal 
buttresses and pinnacles, and the clerestory is supported by Gothic pillars. 
In reference to the proposed appropriation of the interior, the light is ad- 
mitted only from the ends, and the clerestory ; and care has been taken to 
give it that mellow and solemn tint which is most consonant with the es- 
pecial object of the edifice, and, at the same time, is the most favorable for 
statuary and other sculptural decorations. The windows, which are of 
stained glass, with emblematic designs, were made under the direction of 
Mr. Hay, of Edinburgh, and executed by Messrs. Ballantyne and Allan, of 
Glasgow. In the head of the large nave window is a beautiful allegorical 
representation of peaceful death. The outline of this* design is taken 
chiefly from Thorwaldsen's celebrated bas-relief of "Night"; and con- 
sists of a winged female figure, asleep, and floating in the clouds, bearing 
in her arms two sleeping infents. In the centre of the large ornamental 
rose-window, which forms a conspicuous part of the front, is a painted de- 
sign, emblematic of immortality, consisting of two cherubs from Raphael's 
Madonna di San Sisto, gazing upwards, with their well-known expression 
of adoration and love, into what, in this instance, is a light or " glory," 
proceeding from beyond the picture. — The entire cost of the Chapel was 
about ft 25,000 ; nearly a third of which sum was obtained by subscription. 

In 1844, a channel six feet deep was dug from Forest Pond, in Mount 
Auburn, into Charles River. It is ascertained that there are within the 
inclosure of the Cemetery about eight acres of boggy, or inundated land. 
By the aid of the new channel, these acres can at any time be drained, and 
the whole, or any part of them, raised by new earth so as to become of 
equal value with the rest of the Cemetery. The cost of this channel was 

BaBVBBBBSSSSBaSSSSSSSaESSSaE 



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109 



about $ 3,000, including the perpetual right of drainage through the inter- 
vening estates. 

The improvements next contemplated are, 1. To erect a tower or ob- 
servatory on the top of the highest hill, from which a view may be ob- 
tained of the whole Cemetery, and of the surrounding country. 2. To 
drain and raise the low land within the inclosure, so as to make it availa- 
ble for Cemetery purposes. 3. To extend, improve, and adorn the avenues, 
walks, and watercourses, which the picturesque character of the place has 
rendered capable of almost indefinite improvement. 4. To reserve from 
the proceeds of sales a sufficient sum to constitute a permanent fund, the 
income of which may be for ever adequate to keeping the cemetery in 
good order, and its structures in proper repair. 

The present price of a lot is • 100 for 300 superficial square feet, (16 by 
20,) and in proportion for a larger lot ; with $21 additional for a deed, and 
the choice of location. It is not the intention of the Trustees to allow 
smaller lots to be laid out, but it necessarily happens, at times, that spots 
of land remain untaken which are less than the standard size. Where 
this is the case, such lots may be purchased at the same rate, and a pur- 
chaser is entitled to admission as a proprietor, though not a member of the 
Cemetery Corporation. The construction of tombs is not now allowed by 
the Trustees, upon any newly purchased lots, except those along the west- 
ern line of the cemetery. 

Each proprietor is entitled to receive from the Secretary one ticket of 
admission into the cemetery with a vehicle, under certain regulations, the 
violation of any of which, or the loan of the ticket, involves a forfeiture of 
the privilege. Strangers can receive, on application to any Trustee, or to 
the Secretary, a permit to enter with a carriage, on any day other than 
Sundays or holidays ; on which days no persons are admitted to the ceme- 
tery except proprietors and members of their household, or persons accom- 
panying them. The gates are opened at sunrise and closed at sunset. The 
gate-keeper is allowed to receive no money, except the price which may 
be affixed to the various guide-books, deposited with him for sale ; some 
one of which is indispensable to the stranger, and, indeed, to any one who 
is not perfectly familiar with the intricacies of this Labyrinth of the Dead. 



FRESH POND* 

This beautiful sheet of water, in size more like a lake than a pond, is 
situated on the borders of Cambridge and Watertown, and distant from 
Boston about four miles. It lies directly north of Mount Auburn, from 
which it is separated by a small tract of land, so that strangers visiting the 
Cemetery generally take the same opportunity for seeing Fresh Pond. It 
Is, besides, a favorite resort of parties from Boston and Cambridge, who are 



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U« OMMWDOX. 

desirous of enjoying the sailing, fishing, sec, for which ample accommo- 
dation* are afforded at the Freeh Pond Hotel, on the east side of the Pond. 

The water is remarkably clear and transparent, and the ioa which it pro- 
duces is considered equal to any in the world. It is well worth a risk to 
the Pond in winter to see the wonderful apparatus of Mr. Wyeth for 
cutting blocks of ice of suitable size and shape, which are afterwards 
packed in bis warehouse by steam machinery. Mr. W. has the largest ice- 
house in the world, and annually exports. The Pood itself ie divided into 
lott t which are owned by different individuals in the vicinity, principally 
by Mr. Wyeth, by which each owner is entitled to the ice covering his 
lot. 

It is also a favorite resort of the University students, being a pleasant 
walk from the College buildings. la winter many agreeable parties are 
formed for enjoying the skating, which is unusually fine at this Pond. 

On the south and east shores the land is hilly and well cultivated, but 
on the other sides it is low and marshy, affording a capital place for gath- 
ering the celebrated " Pond Lilies," which are among the most beautiful 
flowers In New England. 

Fresh Pond ice is now an article of every-day use by almost every family 
in Cambridge, Boston, and other towns. It may also be found among the 
luxuries of the West India Islands, South American ports, Mexican ports, 
and the East Indies, as well as Europe. 

In 1847, there was stored in the several ice-heuees near Fresh Pond, 
96,700 tons ; at Spy Pond, 28,000 tans ; at Wenham Pond, 13,000 tons; at 
Little Pond, Cambridge, £,400 tons; at Medford Pond, 4.000 tons; at 
Eel Pond, Maiden, 2,000 teas; at Horn Pond, Woburn, 4,000 tens; at 
Summers Pond, 1,200 tons ; an aggregate of 141,300 tons. In the winter 
of 1860 - 51, Fresh Pond alone produced 86,000 tons of ice. 

The first shipment of ice was made by Frederic Tudor, Esq., (the Ice 
King,) in 1805, from a pond in Saugus. His shipment resulted in a loss of 
$4,500. In 1815, be made shipments of ice to Cuba; in 1817, to Charles- 
ton ; in 1818, to Savannah; in 1820, to New Orleans; and in 1833, the first 
shipment was made to the East Indies. In the year 1847, the export of ice 
from Boston alone amounted to 74,478 tons, — 61,887 of which was coast- 
wise, and 22,591 tons to foreign ports, — the average rate of freight was 
about • 2.50 per ton, equal to $ 186,000. The export of ice ie accompanied 
by exports of fruits, vegetables, and provisions to the West Indies, Calcut- 
ta, kc., which otherwise could not be made. Of these there were, in 1847, 
no less than twenty-nine cargoes. In Havana, Ice sells at 64 oeats per 
pound, being a monopoly, while in New Orleans it sails at 1 qsm per 
pound, and the annual consumption there is upwards of 30,000 tons. In 
Calcutta the consumption is about 3,000 tens, at 6 oeats per pound; Bostou 
about 30,000 tons. 



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WALTHAM, 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

Waltham was formerly the West Parish of Watertown, until the year 
1738, when it became incorporated as a separate town. There is a railroad 
communication with Boston, ten miles distant, by means of the Fitchburg 
Railroad. The surface of the town is uneven, with numerous elevations, 
which afford beautiful sites for residences, farms, and gardens. Prospect 
Hiil, within the limits of the town, is 482 feet above the level of the sea, 
and affords an extensive view of Boston, its harbor and islands, and of 
some few towns adjacent. The first cotton-mill upon an extensive scale, 
in this Commonwealth, was erected at Waltham, in 1814. For many 
years the Waltham cotton-mills enjoyed a high reputation for sheetings 
and shirtings. 

The comparative population of various towns, described in this volume, 
for 1840 and I860, was as follows : — 

1840. 1850. 

Cambridge, 8,127 14,825 

Charlestown, .... . . 10,872 15,933 

Lowell, 20,961 32,620 

Waltham, 2,693 4,483 

Watertown, 1,896 2,592 

Roxbury, 8,310 18,316 

Lynn, 9,075 13,613 

Brookline, 1,123 2,363 

The first ministers settled in the town of Waltham were as follows : — 
Rev. Warham Williams, in 1723. Rev. Jacob Cushing, D. D., in 1752, and 
Rev. Samuel Ripley, in 1809. 

Waltham Plain is a beautiful tract of land, two and a half miles in 
length, and one mile in breadth, containing many elegant dwellings and 
highly cultivated gardens. Among the latter is the well-known garden of 
the late Theodore Lyman, comprising several acres, and embellished by 
nearly all the varieties of fruit trees, shrubs, and flowers, both native and 
exotic. This garden is not probably exceeded in costliness and beauty by 
any private establishment of the kind in the United States. 

Waltham has of late years become the residence of many Boston mer- 
chants, and may be considered one of the most desirable retreats from the 
noise and bustle of the city. The common roads in the vicinity are re- 
markably good, ana the town is improving and increasing rapidly in popu- 



112 



WALTHAM. 



lation and wealth. The following cut represents a neat specimen of t 
rural architecture which prerails in the neighborhood of Boston. 




CHRIST CHURCH, WALTHAM. 

This Church was erected in 1849. It was designed by Mr. Billings, of 
Boston, and built by Mr. Gideon Johnson, of Waltham. It is a very neat 
Gothic structure, containing sittings for about 900 people. It is 76 feet 
long by 32 in width ; with a tower on one corner, and a vestry of the same 
style and finish in the rear. It is very pleasantly situated, in a spacious lot 
on Central street, and is one of the most beautiful rural Churches in the 
vicinity of Boston. The parish with which it is connected was organised 
a little more than two years since, under the ministry of the Rev. A. B. 
Patterson. Its present Rector is Rev. Thomas F. Fates. Although the 
services of the Protestant Episcopal Church had never been held in Wal- 
tham previous to the first Sunday in December. 1848, they are now quite 
fuUy attended, and the prospects of this young parish are full of promise. 



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