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'"^a/ ifmj 

Stamford Street. 


Cbaptbr XI. 

FROM ▲. D. 14M TO A. D« 14St. 


FroeeM against Carlo Zeno— H!« last yean and death- 
Affairs of Milan— Fadmo Cane— FiUppo-Maria Visconti— Bea- 
trice Tenda — Negotiations with Florence— Rise and disgrace 
of Francesco di Carmognuola — Ist War with MiUn^Slege and 
capture of Brescia— Peace— lid War with Milan— Battle of 
Casal Secco — Battle of Macalo— Release of Prisoners by Cor- 
magnuola— Peace— Hid War with Milan— Total destruction of 
the Venetian Flotilla— Camiagnuola invited to Venice — His 
condemnation and execution I 

FROM A. D. IMS TO A. D. 1430, 

Peace of Ferrar*— Bash enterprise and death of Maniilo da 
Carrara— War renewed with Milan — Origin of the Family of 
Sforxa— Treachery of the Duke of Maotua — Brilliant retreat of 
Oatta Melata— Francesco Sforza assumes the command of the 
Venetian Army— Siege of Brescia — Transport of a flotilla over- 
land to the Lago dl Oarda— Battle of Tenna— Singular escape 
of Piccinino— Sforca rejects overtures from the Duke of Milan 
— Sforxa surrounded at Martenengo — ^Terms unexpectedly 
offered by the Duke of Milan— Peace of Caprlana— Marriage of 
Sforza with the Princess Bianca— Death of Fillppo-Marla 
Visconti— His character— Milan declares herself a free Repub* 
lie— Engoget Sforza as her General— Battle of Caravaggi< 


Noble forbearance of Sforza — He makes Peace with Venice— 

Treachery of the Venetiana— Sforza bloclcades Milan— Its sur- 
render—He assumes the Docal Crown 

Chaptbs XIII. 

FROH ▲. D. 1450 XQ A.D. U79. 

Cootinuation of the War with Francesco Sforsa— Visit of the 
Emperor Frederic III to Ve^ce — Peace with Sforza— Treaty 
with the Turks— Bobbery of the Treasury of St. Mark's— The 
two Foscari— llie Inquisition of State— Turkish War— Crusade 
of Pius II — Death of Francesco Sforza — Iny^sion of Fruili— 
Fait of Croia— Siege of Scutan— Peace with Mahomet II. .... 86 

Chaptkb XIV. 

FROM A. D. 14M TO A. D. 1500. 

Giacopo Lusignano usurps the Crown of Cyprus — He marries 
Catarina Cornaro — His death — Insurrection of the Cypriote — 
Deposition of Queen Catarina — Cyprus becomes a Province of 
Venice — The Turks sack Otranto — Lodoyico the More usurps 
the Crown of Milan — Invites the Freneh into Italy — Invasion 
of -Charles VIII— He conquers Naples — Embassy of Philippe 
de Comines to Venice — ^Retreat of the French — Battle of For< 
novo — Victory claimed by the Venetians — Dethronement and 
Captivity of Lodovico Sforza — Wealth and dominion of Venice 
at tlie closa of the XVth Century— War with the Emperor— 
Ti'ucc— Jealousy of the great European Powers.. 138 

Chaptkk XV. 

FROM A. D. 1908 TO A. D. UM. 

Causes of the league of Cambrai— Julias II discloses it to 
the Venetians— Preparations for resistance — Evil omens— Total 
defeat of the Veoetiana at AgnadeUo— Louis XII at Meatre* 

COtfTUfTI* ^u 

Terror in yenice--LMi of ill her dootelMM on Terra Firmm— 
Fortitude of the OoTcmmcDt— Measures for defence— Decree 
releasing the Provinces from aUogiaace— F«v««rable negotia. 
tion with the Pope— Successful resistance of TrcTiso— Surprise 
of Padna— Maximilian prquures for ila siege— <}aptuic of Um 
Duke of Mantuar— Brilliant defence of Padoa— AchiereaMats of 
the Chevalier Bayard— TIic Oerman men at arms rcfiiae to 
moQDt the breachr— Maximilian raises the siege la diagnat^.. • 1S7 

Cbaptxb XVI. 

FROM ▲. D. liWe TO A. D. UlS. 

Reconciliation with Julius II— -Harangue of Louis Heiian 
at the Diet of the Empire — Campaigns of 1610 and 1611— The 
Holy League — Gaston de Foix commands the French — Storm 
of Brescia— Generosity of Bayard— Battle of Rarenna- Alii- 
ance between Venice and France — Accession of Leo X — 
Battle of Novarra— Battle of Molta— Accession of Francis I. 
—Battle of Alarignano— Death of D'Aiviano— Treaty of Noyon 
and conclusion of the Wars arialag o«l of the League of Cam> 
bra! 220 



Neceas^y for a temporising policy — Wars of Charles V and 
Francis I— Peace of Cambrai— Turkish War— Remarkable exes- 
tion of power by the X in procuring Peace— Treachery of tlie 
Venetian Secretaries— Thirty years' Peaco— Progress of tlie 
Arts— Titian— Ambition of Sellm II— Five in the Arsenal aft 
Venice — Selim declares War— Descent vspon Cypros— Siege and 
■capture of Nicosia— of Famagosta^ and entire conquest of 
Cyprus — Fate of Bragadino — ^Triple alliance between the Pope, 
Spain, and Venice — The Ottoman Fleet in the Adriatic— Don 
John of Austria commands the allies — Battle of Lepanto— 
Inactiyity of - the confederates — Peace between Turkey and 
Venice ,.... 359 



Chaftee XVIII. 

FROM A. D. 1578 TO A. D. leif. 

Visit of Henry III to Venice— Plague — ^Embellfsliinent of 
the Capital— The Rialto— Story of Bianca Cappello— Alliance 
with Henry IV— The Alchemist Bragadino— Interdict of Paul V 
—Triumph of Venice— Attempt on the life of Fra Paolo Sarpi j 

^Apology of James I— War of the Uscocchi 323 ' 

Chaptkb XIX. 

FROM A. D. 1«I8 TO A. D. 1660. 

Conspiracy of 1618— Sentence of Fnscarini — Attack upon | 

the Council of X— Venetian Manners— War of Candia 369 

Chaptvr XX. 

FROM A. D. IfiTO TO A. D. 1798. 

Trial of Morosini — Annulment of the Election of Gioyanni 
Sagredo — ^War with Turlcey— Conquest of the Blorea— Peace of 
Carlowitz — second War with Turkey — Loss of the Morea— 
Successful defence of Corfu, by Count Schullenburg — Peace of 
Passarowitz — Neutrality subsequently observed by Venice- 
Expeditions against the African Corsairs— Attacks upon the X 
—Demoralisation of Venice — Commencement of the French { 

RevolnUon — Campaigns of Bonaparte in Italy— Indecision of 
the Signory — Bloody affray at Verona— Capture of a French \ 

vessel at Lido — Bonaparte declares War — Imbecility of the | 

Government- Abdication of the Doge Manini — The French ^ 

occupy Venice — Venice transferred to Austria by the Treaty of 
Campo Formio 414 



I. Venice, as it appeared In 1 765 ■ ' J iro n titpiece, 

II . Skreen in St. Mark*«, p. 91. 

.III. Canale Grande«-Dogana dl Mare->Sta. Maria della Salate, 

p. 874. 
■^I V. Gates of the Arsenal, p. 481 . 


I. Men at Arms of the XlVth and XVth Centuries^ (from 

Titian), p. 40. 
II. Man at Arms of the XVth and XVIth Centuries, mounted 
(from Titian), p. 86. 

III. Francesco and Bianca Sforsa. From their Tomb at Milan. 

p. 137. 

IV. An Arquebusier, and a Soldier in Garrison— XVth Cen- 
tury (from Titian), p. 1S6. 

V. Scappolo or Faliia— Ordinary Oaleotto (from Titian), 
p. 819. 

VI. King of France — King of Spain (from Titian), p. 368. 
VII. Chief of the Uscocchl— Sforzato, or Galley-slare (from 

Titian), p. 323. 
VIII. A Brayo— A Vergognoso (from Titian), p. 968. 

IX. Venetian Lady dyeing her hair (firom Titian), p. 418. 

X. The Horses of St. Mark's, p. 449. 



10, line 4 from bottom, for • Vllth/ read * Vlth/ and correct 
the marginal date to 5^. 

19, line 9, /or ' ioTention,* read * Inrentlou.* 

21, line 9, dele * on.' 

41, line S6, dele * Mitylene.' 
413, line 6, for * sheet,* read 'sail.* 
444, running title, /or ' bbscriptign,* read • pro8C»iftion.» 





VROU A.D. 1404 TO A.D. 1488. 

Process against Carlo Zeno^Hls last years and death— Affairs of 
Milan— Facimo Cane — Filippo-Marla Vlsconti— Beatrice Tendfr— 
Negotiations with Florence— Rise and disgrace of Francesco dl 
Carmagniiola — I»t War with Milan — Si^eand captnre of Brescia 
—Peace— lid War with Milan— Battle of Casal Secco— Battle of 
Macalo— Release of Prisoners by Carmagnoola— Peace — III<t War 
with Milan— Total destruction of the Venetian Flotilla— Car- 
magnuola inyited to Venice— His condemnation and execution. 



1413. i.xyi. ToMASo Moncbnioo. 
1423. ULvu, Francesco Fobcari. 

About the hour of Vespers on the 17th of January, 
1406, reports of the death of Francesco da Carrara 
were circulated through Venice, with such varia- 
tions respectuig its attendant circumstances as the 
difficulty of obtaining correct knowledge of truth, 
or the danger of repeating more than the Govern- 
ment might be pleased to avow, attached, for the 
most part, to all great National transactions of the 



Bepublic. Some of the Imsy knots assembled in 
the Piazza mysteriously hinted the facts as they " 
really occurred, and loudly praised the indefeasible 
power and justice of their Rulers. The majority, 
with greater caution, averred that the Lord of 
Padua had died of a catarrh * ; «nd significantly 
congratulated one another by the application of 
the chief argument on which Giacopo dal Verme 
had rested the necessity and the policy of the 
bloody sentence, * A dead man makes no War ! ' f 
We know not whether it was during a period of 
former alliance, or after this unhappy Prince's 
death, that his statue was placed in the Hall of the 
Armoury of the Council of X. J ; but down even 
to our own days, the Members of the dark and 
despotic Tribunal by which was perpetrated the 
great crime of his murder, could never assemble 
to deliberate on fresh deeds of cruelty, without 
passing under the very image and likeness of their 
most illustrious victim. 

It is painful to remember that Carlo Zeno had 
any share in this most atrocious and unjustifiable 
process, and there is no one who will not be gra- 
tified to learn that, although he is named among 
the Commissioners to whom the first cognizance 
of it was entrusted, he does not appear to have 
voted for a higher punishment than imprison- 
ment §. Even such an infliction, however, would 
have been a gross breach of the Law of Nations ; 
for Carrara was an independent Sovereign, long 
recognized as such by Venice herself, and resting 

* Sanuto, 832, fu detto euer morto di eatarra, 
t Id, ibid, uom nutrto non/a guerra, 
t ettier Illumin ato, 31. $ S aaato, 82X 


Ms ^le on cbums to the fuU as legitimate as those 
of any other Italian Prince of his time. He had 
a plenary right oi Peace and War ; and, under 
, defeat, the sole penalties to which he could be 
justly subjected were those common to the van- 
quished; a curtailment or forfeiture of his domi* 
nions, and captivity till he should be ransomed. 
But even from these rights of victcnry his enemies 
were precluded by the engagements under which 
he had been decoyed to Venice ; and having freely 
confided himself to their safe conduct for the pur* 
pose of negotiation, he could be as little regarded 
a prisons of war, as an offender against laws to 
which he did not owe obedience. His condem* 
nation was a grievous and crying wickedness; 
and — ^would tliat it were without «iec^ a parallel ! — 
must be classed by Historians in the same page 
with that of the hapless Mary of Scotland. 

A most odious act of ingratitude towards the 
wisest, purest, bravest, and greatest individual of 
his times, yet remains to be recorded in illustra- 
tion of the detestable poliey of the Council of X. 
Immediatdy on the occupation of Padua, Commis- 
ftioners were appointed to inspect and register the 
property of the reeent Signor, and among these 
flhriders of the spoil. Carlo Zeno was numbered. 
The settlement, however, demanded a longer 
absence from home than his advanced years now 
rendeied convenient ; and, accordingly, he solicited 
vecall, and received the desired permission* In; 
arranging the papers of Carrara, a memoranduos 
was found touching the payment of 400 ducats tor 
Zeno ; an insignificant transaction, of which, by 
accepting the proffered C<mnnis8ioneridup, he wouli^ 



have possessed full power, if he had so wished, to 
obliterate every trace. The sum too was so utterly 
unimportant to a rich Venetian Noble, distin- 
guished by the boundless liberality of his general 
expenditure, and by the magnificent donations 
which he had bestowed upon the State during the 
War of Chiozza, that the most ingenious jealousy 
of suspicion could scarcely exaggerate this trifling 
payment into a bribe ; even if the long and splen- 
did services, the tried and established fidelity, and 
the spotless and unassailable honor of the per- 
sonage chiefly concerned, had failed of themselves 
to secure him from the possibility of a charge so 
monstrous. No whisper of corruption, however, 
was breathed, and not a shadow of doubt remained 
upon the minds of the Commissioners who de- 
nounced Zeno to the Awogadori, of the Avvoga^ 
dori who accused him to the X, or of the X them- 
selves who judged the cause, that the short and 
simple explanation offered by the defendant was 
in strict accordance with Truth. Zeno stated that, 
on passing through Asti, while on his route for 
investiture by Galeazzo Visconti with the Govern- 
ment of Milan, he found Carrara, at that time a 
prisoner, destitute of comforts and almost even of 
necessaries : Touched with pity for the low fortunes 
<»f a Prince at once a personal friend, an ally of the 
Republic, and a Venetian Senator, Zeno opened 
to him his own stores, loaded him with presents, 
and tendered that loan, of which the memorandum 
now produced was but a note of repayment, 
unwillingly accepted after Carrara's restoration *. 

* Nequepetenti, neque t>olenH, $ed obtHnath etiam recuiaitH, et 
fkmk irmto, Vit, G. Zeni apud Muratorl* ZIZ. 845. 


But this instinct of a frank and generous nature 
prompting the relief of a great .man in adversity, 
had nothing in it which could awaken sympathy 
in the cold and passionless assembly to which it was 
related. The charge upon which they had to 
decide involved a money-transaction with a foreign 
Potentate ; to lend to such a one was inconsistent 
with the strict duty of a Venetian, but to receive 
from him became a high State crime. The iron 
and unbending despotism of the Venetian Law 
refused to admit any qualification or excuse for a 
transgression of its literal code: and the very 
splendour of Carlo Zeno's name, as it rendered 
his deviation more conspicuous, was to be received 
not as a plea for pardon, but in aggravation of 
penalty. He was sentenced to dismissal from all 
nis offices, and imprisonment for two years. 
That such a judgment should be passed accords 
as closely with the general character of the Govern- 
ment which inflicted it, as implicit and unmurmur- 
ing submission does with that of Zeno : but if it be 
asked why his fellow-citizens did not rise as one 
man, and demand the liberation of their great and 
guiltless Hero, the chief glory of their Country 
and their Age ? the problem must be resolved either 
by the want of feeling of the Many, or their want of 
power, when opposed to authority, which, although 
administered without regard to Justice, was never- 
theless strongly and discreetly organized for its 
own maintenance and preservation. 

The remaining years of Carlo Zeno's life were 
spent almost in as full activity as those of his 
youth. We read of a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 
of his employment as commander of the Cypriotes 


in repellhrg an inyaelon of the Genoese, and even 
Qi his re-marriage, when now long past the Psal- 
mist's limits of the age of Man. Fully reftaining 
all his faculties till the latest moment, he expired 
on the 8th of Mayv 1418, a few days after the 
completion of his eighty-fourth year. His foody^ 
when preparing for the last rites, exhibited scars 
of no fewer than thirty- five woands; it was in- 
terred with . magnificent honours becoming his 
unexampled merits; attended by the Doge and 
Senate, and the whole marshalled population of 
his fellow-ckizens ; and borne, at their zealous 
and express d^ire, by the mariners wIm) had served 
under him, and who eagerly thronged to support 
in turn the precious burden. The Latin Funeral 
Oration spdken at his grave by Leonardo Justnu^ 
ani is still preserved to us ; and if it cannot rank 
in eloquence with those of Pericles and Mark 
Antony, still the facts which it relates of him who 
is its subject places him most deservedly among 
those very few of mankind, who, not less by their 
solid virtues l^ian by their dazzling exploits, have 
attained the summit of Human Glory. 

It is to Milan that the thread of our Historj 
now for a while reconducts us. Few periods of 
heavier calamity ever afflicted the always suffer-* 

ing Lombard cities tiian that which is com* 
y^' prized in the ten years succeeding the de« 
. . mise of Giovanni Galeazzo YiscontL Of 
the Regency of hb widowed Dutchess Catarioa, m 

have already 8p<^cen; it was stained by 
f&4' weakness, cruelty and bloodshed, and it 

terminated in her imprisonment and viokat 
death by poison. Giovanni- Maria, the eldest of 


t^raleazto's two kgitiBiate Soafl, on his emancifMi- 
tion from tutelage and aocetsion to the throne 
«f Milan, abandoned himself to the wildest im- 
pulses of insane ferocity ; and if the Chroniclers 
may be believed, he slaked his unnatural thirst 
for blood by training his hounds to the chase 
of criminals, and feeding them upon human flesh* 
To his brother FHippo-Maria, had fallen tfa« 
Sovereignty of Pavia; but duiing the weakness 
of that Prince's minority, the virtual rule had 
been wrested from him by the ambition of Facimo 
Cane, the neighbouring Lord of Alexandria; 
who found little difficulty in soon afterwards ex* 
tending his dominion over Milan itselE That 
he stiU permitted the brothers whom he had 
dethroned to live, must be attributed to his own 
want of issue ; and the terrified Milanese, perceiv* 
ing, while the usurper, after several vears peace- 
able rule, lay on his death-bed, that his authority 
was abomt to revert to the monster whose savage 

nature had been awhile controlled, rose m 
^^' a body and massacred Giovanni- Maria. 

Faeimo Cane survived but a few hours 
after this outrage, and in his last words, as if he 
hintself had preserved inviolate allegiance, he de-^ 
nounced the treachery which had thus cut off 
the legitimate Sovereign of Lombardy, and disre* 
garded the natural rights of the Son of her ancient 
Lord. It was at first supposed that Fiiippo- Maria 
would be involved in a fate similar to that of his 
brother, and that the throne would be transferred to 
Hector, a son of the late Bemabo Visconti : but 
{"ilippo, with a foresight little expected from his 
youth, lost not a moment in securing the castle of 


Pavia and proffering his hand to the widow of 
Facimo Cane. Their disparity of years (the 
Prince was twenty, Beatrice Tenda, whom he 
espoused, double tnat age) weighed little against 
the substantial advantages of this alliance ; which 
secured the support of all the followers of Cane, 
and firmly established Filippo-Maria in the Duke- 
dom of his late father. Scarcely however did he 
feel his power rooted, before, disregarding all 
bonds of gratitude, the treacherous Prince threw 
off his disguise. Beatrice, no longer necessary to 
promote his ambition, proved an encumbrance 
upon his pleasures ; and, at the expense of an 
atrocious crime, he eagerly sought relief from her 
oppressive virtues and his own burdensome sense 
of obligation. A false charge of infidelity hurried 
her to the scaffold; and the pathetic circum- 
stances attendant upon her undeserved fate — her 
meek yet noble bearing — her unshaken avowals 
of innocence even under the agonies of the rack, 
and in the teeth of a confession extorted by 
similar terrors from the wretched youth Michaele 
Orombelli, with whom it was attempted to crimi- 
nate her, — her dignified, yet not bitter upbraidings 
of his weakness — and her firm reliance that 
Heaven, though now pressing sorely on her in its 
visitation, would hereafter rescue her memory from 
dishonour — might be turned to good account* 
from the pages in which Andrea Billio * has re- 
corded them, by any future Poet who may venture 
once again to dramatize the parallel sad tale of 
Smeaton and our own Anna Boleyn. 

Filippo-Maria by no means dissembled that it 

• Hitt MedioU III. 51, apud Marat XIX. 


was his intention to attempt the recovery of his 
entire hereditary dominions, and in the event of 
his success, Venice, among other Powers, must 
prepare for restitution. Of all those Governments 
which had regarded the progress of Visconti with 
jealousy and combated it with vigour, none con- 
tinued more forward in demonstrations of vigi* 
lance and opposition than Florence ; and in their 
common danger she earnestly solicited the acces- 
sion of Venice to a general League of Northern 
Italy against the overweening ambition of Milan. 
It is not often that History, before the invention of 
the Art of Printing, affords documents so precise 
as those with which this transaction may be 
illustrated ; for Sanuto, an author of high rank 
and of indisputable veracity, who wrote within 
fifty years of the events has presented us with a 
transcript of the very speeches delivered by the 
Doge Moncenigo in the debates relating to this 
Florentine negotiation. They are copies, as the 
Chronicle assures us, from the original MS. com* 
municated by the Doge himself; and they must 
be received therefore not as representing such 
arguments as the Historian imagined tnigfU have 
been employed, but those which really and abso- 
lutely fell from the mouth of the speaker. The 
great advocate in the Venetian Council for this 
alliance' and for War against Milan was Francesco 
Foscari, one of the Procuratori ; a Sage whose wis- 
dom was matured by the experience of fifly win- 
ters, yet whom Moncenigo nevertheless addresses 
throughout as * Youthful Procuratore /' He presses 
him by arguments from a most extensive range of 
•History both Sacred and Profane, not always, 


it miiet be confessed iikdeed, drawn with yery strict 
Logical precision. ' God,* he says, as tJie sub- 
stance of his speech may be paraphrased, * created 
the Angels and gifted them with Free-will, but un^ 
happily they chose Evil instead of Good, and there^ 
fore they fell ; ev«n so have the Florentines fallen 
hy preferring War to Peace, and so shall toe also 
fall if we imitate their example. God created Adoua 
wise, good and perfect, and it was by disobedienctt 
^at he lost Paradise : the Florentines have done in 
lake manner, and even so shall we do also if we 
permit omrselves to be sedueed by the youthful 
Procuratore. As in the Deluge, ail men except 
the just Noah and his Family were drowned, so 
will the Florentines be obliged to take refuge in 
our Ark from the destruction which they are call- 
ing down upon themselves. As afiber the Deluge, 
the race of Gmnts, forgetting the fear of Crod, had 
•their single Tongue split into sixty-six Languages, 
«nd in the end separated from each other and dis- 
appeared for ever, so will the Fiorentme Language 
give place to sixtynux Dialects, and the inhabitants 
of that City will be scattered widely over the £art& 
It was Peace which constituted the magnificence^ 
of Troy, swelled her population, increased her Pa- 
laces, multiplied her treasures, enhanced her Artsi, 
and strengthened her with powerftai throngs of 
Chiefs, Knights, and Barons ; War on the other 
^nd was her destruction, as War will be the de- 
struction of Florence. It was the Idola^ of So>- 
iomon and the apostacy of Rehoboam which gave 
birth to the Schism of the Ten Tribes : even so* 
"—continues the Orator, although here the thread 
of his argument is too iSnely spm to be retained 


by our graq>— ^ the towns now ruled by Ftorenc« 
will be transferred to Milan. Bomef thanks to her 
Government and to Peace, became great and pow* 
erful' — an assertion which either betrays on the part 
of the Dc^e no small unacquaintance with the States* 
cr^ of the Eternal City, or else exhibits no slight 
dexterity in appropriating to his purpose a very stub» 
bom and inapplicable argumoit. ' The 1st Punic 
War, but for Scipio, would have occasioned her 
overthrow, and h^ succeeding restlessness and 
ambition subjected heito the tyranny of C«esar; 
^o Florence, by her love of War, is preparing far 
li^'self a military deapotism/ Aiier these awl 
many similar reasonings, expanded far beyond the 
compressed form in which they a^^ear above, we 
eie presented with a very singular and impor* 
tant Tabular view of Lombardo- Venetian Coat* 
merce, in which the exports and imports from the 
JLagune are valued at the great annual sum of 
28,800,000 ducats*. Well might Monoenigo 
ask, *' 'Diink you not this a very pretty gardea 
lor Venice, youthful Procuratore!' The floien* 
tines however, in a new embassy, sought arguments 
from the Doge's own School, and employed them 
«?ith equal precision of application. * If Venice/ 
jthey said, ' did not come to their succour, they 
isust act like Samson, who uprooted a column, in 
order that by destroying Dagon's Temple he 
might whelm his ^demies together with himselC' 
In spite of this r^esentation, the pacific counsels 

* The agreeaUe writer of the HUtmy of Italy under the Btme of 
Oeorge Ferceyal, calculateB the current ducat of that time at 3'6<'( 
the golden ducat (of which Venice coined a million annually) at 
t^s aadaioQ«7BtalM«telz time* Ht present TBl^e. (I(.74.) 


of the Doge prevailed, and^ while his life continued^ 
the League was deferred, and a Treaty of ten years' 
alliance confirmed with Visconti. Moncenigo, find- 
ing his end approaching, assembled the chief Sena- 
tors round his sick bed, and having once more re- 
newed his exhortations for the careful avoidance of 
rash and hasty measures which might embroil the 
State in a ruinous War, he ran over to them the 
characters of those Nobles who might probably be 
candidates for the succession after his death ; and 
having commended most of them for virtue and 
ability, he concluded by adding that ' those who 
may propose to you Francesco Foscari cannot have 
deliberated profoundly on their intention. God 
preserve you from such a choice ! for if it be made, 
you will have War: then those who have 10,000 
ducats will be reduced to 1000, those who have 
ten houses will retain but one, and everything also 
will be diminished in similar proportion. Repu- 
tation, credit, property will be at an end: and 
instead of remaining masters of your hired sol^ 
diers, you will find yourselves reduced to be their 

Moncenigo died in the Spring of 1423, at the 
advanced age of eighty. He was well versed in the 
commercial and maritime affairs of his Country, 
and he advanced them to unexampled prosperity; 
A Census taken under his reign fixed the popu- 
lation of the Capital at 190,000 souls; and the 
embellishment of his great Metropolis was a 
favourite object with thiswise Prince. By him was 
laid the foundation of the Library of St. Mark, to 
the construction of which he apportioned 4000 
ducats yearly from the. Duties on Salt; but the 


work was often interrupted, and not renewed with 
activity till a century after his death. If we hesi- 
tate respecting his claim to eloquence, we must 
willingly concede to him the praise of sound dis- 
cretion ; and of his singular firmness of purpose 
and disinterestedness a very remarkable instance 
remains to be produced. An accidental fire, 
having destroyed great part of St. Mark's, injured 
much also of the ancient Ducal Palace ; yet the 
jivvogadori, ever anxious to depress the majesty 
of the Prince, while they proceeded to the imme- 
diate restoration of the Cathedral, procured a decree 
rendering it highly penal for any one to suggest 
the rebuilding of the Palace ; and affixing a fine of 
1000 ducats to the bare advancement of such a 
proposal. Moncenigo, at one of the meetings of 
the Senate, poured the stipulated fine on the 
Council-table ; and having purchased full liberty 
of speech at that lavish price, he persisted in 
urging upon the Nobles the necessity of lodging 
their Chief Magistrate in an edifice becoming the 
dignity of the Republic, till he obtained their 
assent to the commencement of that pile which 
contributes so largely, at the present hour, to the 
magnificence of Venetian architecture. 

After a deliberation of six days, in the course of 
which nine scrutinies occurred, Francesco 
Fosc ARi, the very Procuratore whom Mon- ^^* 
cenigo had denounced, was elected Doge, 
by dint of gold ; and the ascendency of the War- 
faction was thus established. When he was about to 
be announced to the Populace in the hitherto cus- 
tomary form, ' We have chosen Francesco Fos- 
cari Doge, if such be your pleasure,' the Grand 


Chancellor Bdmewhat naivdy inquired, ^ aad if the 
People were to say " No," what would you do V 
This question suggested a danger which it was 
thought politic to avoid, and accordingly the Elec- 
tion was notified to the assembled Commons, for 
^e first time, in these words, ' We have chosen 
Francesco Foscari Doge ;' a formula which hence- 
forward prevailed on all subsequent accessions, 
and which swept away the single remaining me ^ 
morial of the original popular privileges*. 

The opening of Foscari's reign was unpropitious, 
for the Plague reappeared in December, and car- 
ried off full 16,000 souls ; and now for the first 
time, notwithstanding the oflen repeated visitations 
which we have had occasion to notice and the 
mortality consequent upon them, were public mea- 
sures adopted to prevent the recurrence of a like 
fearful calamity. The rudiments of the Health 
Office and the foundation of the Lazaretto veccMoy 
on the island still devoted to the same important 
use, are attributed to this period. Five years 
of alliance still remained unexpired between 
Milan and Venice, yet Florence was un- 
ceasing in her efforts to produce a rupture of 
the Treaty. In the field, she had been every- 
where unfortunate, and de^at rapidly succeeding 
defeat rendered fordgn aid indispensable if she 
hoped to preserve a shadow of independence. But 
the very necessities which increased her ui^ency 
diminished the value of her alliance ; and when her 
ambassadors, admitted by the Senate to their third 
audience, declaimed against the ambition of Yis- 
conti, and impressed upon the Venetians that their 
Uberty would not long survive the overthrow of 

• Sanuto apud Murat. zxli. 967. 


Iloience, the Council, notwithstanding the avowed 
tendency of Foecari's wishet, lent but a cold ear to 
their entreaties. The coimter-deciarationg of the 
Duke of Milan, whose Envoys vaunted the con- 
stant amity which their master had exhibited 
towards the Republic, and the moderation, justice 
and pacific temper, which he had manifested by 
his cession of Verona, Vicenza, and Padua, all in-^ 
disputably ancient possessions of his House^ 
were not likely to be received by the Senate afr 
altogether true ; but it was impossible to deny the- 
soundness of that principle which recommended 
tiiem not to seek by injustice a security which they 
already possessed, which had never been violated, 
and which War was far less likely to guarantee 
than Peace. To these powerful arguments neither 
the Florentines, nor the Doge who espoused their 
cause, could offer any satisfactory reply ; and this 
mission, like those which preceded it, would pro- 
bably have been unavailing, but for the unexpected 
kifiuence obtsuned and exercised at the moment by 
a foreigner, now a disgraced fugitive from Milan, 
and once a formidable enemy to Florence. 

The later Princes of the House of Yisconti, 
however successful in War, exhibited but little 
military enterprise in their own persons ; and 
they were indebted for victory far more to their 
prudent choice of Commanders than to any skill 
or prowess of their own. Necessity however, at 
the moment of Facimo Cane's death, had compelled 
Filippo- Maria to appear at^the head of his troops ; 
and in a rencontre under the walls of Monza, dur-^^ 
ing that short critical period in which his fortunes 
welre wavering in the balance, he had noted with 


especial admiration the distingiiislied gallantry of 
one of his followers. Francesco Buffo, the son of 
a peasant at Carmagnuola, dashed forward from- 
the ranks in which he served as a private ; and 
closely pursuing Hector Visconti, (the shadow 
whom the antagonists of Fiiippo-Maria opposed 
to him,) but for a stumble of his horse, would have 
captured the flying Prince, in spite of the resist- 
ance of a numerous suite by which he was pro- 
tected. Filippo praised and rewarded the service 
on the spot, and fresh instances of valour led 
rapidly to fresh promotions. Placed at length at 
the head of the Milanese armies, Carmagnuola 
fully justified the high confidence reposed in him ; 
and in a brilliant career of eight years of uninter- 
rupted glory, he won for his hitherto not ungrateful 
master twenty rich Cities in that strong district of 
Lombardy which is bounded by the Adda, the 
Tesino, and the Alps. Genoa also, and even the 
difficult passages of St. Gothard, submitted to him ; 
and he carried Victory on the sword's point from 
the frontiers of Piedmont to those of the Territory 
of the Church. Wealth, station, favour, and pa- 
tronage for awhile were lavished on the Hero ; he 
was created Count of Castelnuovo ; he received the 
hand of a natural daughter of his Prince ; and this 
connexion with the reigning Family was still 
more closely cemented by a formal adoption, and 
by his investiture with its name as Francesco Car** 
magnuola de' Visconti. 

But it is easy for the Favourite of a jealous and 
despotic master to jperform services which awaken 
suspicion instead of gratitude ; and Carmagnuola 
was already too rich, too brave, too powerful, and 


too fortunate for his own safety. Whether the 
capricious attachment of Visconti was satiated and 
required change; whether the possessor of his 
favour ahused it by importunity ; or whether those 
whom the elevation of Carmagnuola had de<^ 

Eressed, discovered a fitting season to undermine 
im, cannot now be affirmed with certainty : but 
most probably all three causes were in some 
degree united in giving birth to the coldness with 
which Filippo began to regard him, and afterwards 
in rapidly increasing this coldness to disgust 
Numerous petty slights, and breaches of faith as 
well as of courtesy, testified this change. An 
important command, already promised to Car- 
magnuola, was bestowed, without explanation, upon 
another and a much inferior officer; the troops 
most attached to his person were sedulously 
withdrawn from him ; and his remonstrances were 
received with . haughty and contemptuous silence. 
Irritated by these marked and repeated affronts* 
Carmagnuola repaired hastily to tne Palace, and 
demanded a special audience ; but he was stopped 
in the antechamber by some frivolous pretext of 
the Duke's engagements, and he there terminated 
an angry scene of expostulation by open reproach 
and menace. Perceiving that his fall was de- 
termined, he instantly took horse, and, throwing 
up all his employments, rode at full speed to the 
Frontiers of Savoy, and sought protection from 
Amadeus VIII., the first Duke of that Province, 
to whom he was by birth a vassal. Having 
revealed to that wise Prince enough of the 
ambitious designs of Visconti to excite appre- 

VOL. II. c 


Ii^ision and awaloeii -m. koBtile feeli&g, Catrnw* 
gnuola pae&edon through TrentaBid Treviso 
tifi *® Vcaatce, where he was rBceired by Foscari 
widi open arms, and immediateiy enga,ged 
with three hundred lances m the service of the 
Eepublic. No pains were spared by him to 
Mndle the skiBibering ;flames of War; but the 
Senate, although glad of securtag a CommandeT 
of so high distinction and ability, still warily 
hesitated to bestow full confidence on his repre^ 
sentations. His rupture with Visconti might after 
all be only simulated, in order t^at, availing him- 
self of pretended disgrace, he might become 
tK^quainted with the secret councils of doubtM 
iiriends. Such treachery was Air from being ua* 
precedented, and unha^^ily too much chaiacter- 
ized the policy of Milan. Even when the enraged 
Duke proceeded to confiscate the fugitive's pro- 
perty, and sequestered a rental of forty thousand 
florins, the conviction of the Signory as to the 
sincerity of Carmagnuola was still incomplete: 
nor was it till an attempt upon his life by poison 
was traced by evidence not to be impugned, to 
the agency of Filippo-Maria, that implicit credence 
was given to the truth of that Prince's hatred 
against his former favourite. 

It was at this moment that the Florentines 
made their last appeal ; and Foscari, perceiving 
the backwardness of the Council to second his 
own eager desire for War, dexterously employed 
to his purpose the strong feeling which Carma- 
gnuola's recent escape from assassination had ex- 
cited. At the close of the debate, he asked permis- 

. lauMVM Amjonmt thoomvi. Jf 

teon to iatvoduee his injiiped friend to ibe Seaatc^ 
in order that they might profit by hk intimate 
acquaintance with the affairs of Milan. Camuk 
^Hola was accordingly admitted to the Council* 
daamber ; and there, the vivid picture which he 
drew of his own personal wrongs, the warmth 
which i^ frwnk spirit of the Soldier indued into 
the pleadings of the Orator, and the bold and 
abrupt eloquence wlueh vented itself in denuncia* 
ticms^ vengeance and predictions of victory, tm 
far gained upon the kindled pasMons of hb 
9uditor8, that when they proceeded to ballot, a 
laEge majority decided for War. A Treaty there* 
fore was speedily concluded with Floience, by 
which the two Republics engaged to furnish, at 
their joint expense, 16,000 horse and half as many 
foot : a Venetian fleet was to ascend the Po, while 
the Florentines equipped a maritime expedition 
against Genoa : the Apennines were to form the 
.boundary line in a division of conquests, and 
neither party was to conclude a separate Peace. 
The Marquis of Ferrara, the Lord of Mantua, the 
King of Arag<Hi, the Duke of Savoy, and the 
Citizens of Sienna were admitted to this 
League, which was signed on the 27th j^j^" 
of January, when Carmagnuoia was de- 
clared Captain General of the Army of Venice. 

In the following March, Carmagnuoia opened 
the campaign by a bold attempt on Brescia, a 
City which had been wrested from the Princes 
della Scala by Galeazzo Visconti, had been occu* 
pied during the minority of his son by the Malar 
testi of Himini, and had latterly been won back for 
Filippo- Maria .by Carmagnuoia himself. Few 

c 2 


places were more distracted by internal schism, and 
the partizans of the ancient Guelph and Ghibelline 
factions respectively occupied distinct Quarters of 
the City. Carmagnuola still maintained an intimate 
connexion with the last-named party, and it was 
chiefly through their assistance that he now hoped 
to compass his enterprise. In order to understand 
his operations, it should be borne in mind that 
Brescia, far from presenting a single line of walls, 
might in truth be more properly described as com- 
posed of many separate Fortresses*. Three several 
ramparts, at considerable intervals from each other, 
encompassed a hill, and all of these were in pos- 
session of the Milanese faction. It was into ano- 
ther quarter, on the plain, that Carmagnuola was 
secretly admitted on the night of the 17 th of 
March, and even then the gate which communicated 
with the upper town remained in the hands of his 
enemies. The rapidity of this movement took 
Visconti by surprise, and his troops were but 
assembling in Romagna when he received intelli- 
gence of his disaster : to remedy which he put in 
motion such masses of cavalry as were already 
concentrated, under four of the roost distinguished 
Condotlieri of the Age, Angelo della Pergola, 
Nicolo Piccinino, Guido Torello, and Francesco 
Sforza. The short time however which Carma- 
gnuola had gained in advance was actively and most 
effectually employed ; and in order both to protect 
his own position from the sallies of the garrison, 
and also to prevent the relief of the City by the 
army which he doubted not would soon attempt to 

- • The site of Brescia is very clearly described by Foggio Brae- 
ciolioi, Hiit, FloreHt, ▼. a/itMl Marat, zix. 840. 


raise the Biege, he (Commenced and completed, 
notwithstanding an interruption by illness which 
Compelled him to have recourse to the Baths of 
Padua, a military work which writers of the timo 
describe as unparalleled in the History of War. 
Between those portions of the City which still 
held out and that occupied by himself, he traced a 
strong line of contravallation, and in his. rear a 
similar circumvallation. The circuit of the outer 
work was not less than five miles in length : each 
line presented a breast-work surmounted by wooden 
towers at frequent intervals, and strengthened by 
a ditch twelve feet deep and twenty broad. Whe- 
ther from the difficulty of combining their scattered 
forces, or from the mutual jealousy which almost 
invariably accompanies a divided command, the 
Milanese Captains were slow in advance ; and 
when, towards the middle of May, they encamped 
with 15,000 men within sight of Brescia, the works 
of Carmagnuola' (whose numbers were almost of 
the same amount,) although not yet finished, pre-^ 
sented a face which della Pergola thought much 
too formidable to be attacked. So stupendous 
indeed were these lines considered, that an officer 
of the Milanese army, upon hearing that they 
were projected, expressed his joy at the design. 
* Nothing,' he said, ' was more to be desired 
in an enemy than an attempt so extravagant and 
insane ; to execute which must not only exceed 
the wealth and power of Venice, but would exhaust 
even the immeasurable resources which Fable had 
attributed to Xerxes.' 

If the strength of Carmagnuola's lines deterred 
the Milanese when they first reconnoitred them. 


every hour contributed to ineveaae the difficulty 
of assault, and when fiRished they were really im- 
pregnable. While the Generals of Yisconti wasted 
their time in unworthy dissensions, and their forces 
in unconnected skirmishes, or straggling, predatory 
excursions, Carmagnuola vigorously pressed the 
gairrison, now hopeless of relief and Buffering from 
fomine. Out of 1 400 men of which it was originally 
Composed, scarcely 400 now remained fit for ser- 
vice ; yet these defended their several fortifieation« 
foot by foot; and it was not tiH after a close 
siege of eight months, during which they were 
exposed, day and night, to a destructive artillery 
and to almost hourly assaults^ that, drfven within 
Iheir last shattered rampart, they capitulated on 
the 20th of November, with the fullest honours of 
war ; and marched out from the citadel amid general 
expressions of respect and admiratioB even from 
their conquerors. 

The loss of Brescia was the chief disaster which 
Yisconti suflered during this short campaign. The 
Venetian flotilla indeed had mounted tl^ Po to 
Cremona, the bridge of which it had destroyed, 
and afterwards had insulted Favia itself; but the 
Milanese army was unimpaired, for it had not yet 
been engaged ; its conduct however had been un- 
satisfactory, and the condition of the Duchy was 
not without hazard. The sole ally whom Filippo* 
Maria retained in Italy was Pope Martin Y., a 
Prince scarcely less ambitious than himself; and 
who saw in the a»al which it suited the Duke of 
Milan to profess for the Church, bright hopes of 
that increase of Ecclesiastical power which chiefly 

Tncomi MAKsa wmacu. tS 

McufnedhinowrsthovghfeBw Bythemediatiiooofthal 
FsBtiff a Peace waa ooaduded, for the at* 
iMBMevt oi whidk Visconti was content to '^4^0* 
abandoa to Venice hk eiaim upon Bxescia* 
ami muok of its Mrroonding district ; and to the 
Ihike- of Savoy a few unhnportaiit fotta upon which 
he had seized. Carmagnuola waa not forgotten in 
tilts' ne^tiattKNai ; and one express condition of the 
Treaety stipulated that his famity should be rdeased 
from the imprisonment to which they had been 
consigned on his flight from Milan. As a further 
lestiiDony of the gratitude of V^ice, his name waa 
(•nrotted in her Golden Book. 
. The avnouncemeniof this Peace, sodishonoorabla 
ta their Cowitry, was recdved with deep marmura 
by the Milanese Nobles, and they remonstrated i& 
•nergetie • terms wiik Filippo- Maria against its 
ratiiealioa. They implored him to rely upon the 
raloar -and fidelity which they swore to dedicate k> 
his serrice, to accept the sacrifices which they werer 
prepflu^d to make in his si]q)port, and to appoint 
Captains over the 10,000 horse, and an equal 
iKiBiber of infantry, which tliey engaged to raise 
And maintaia at their own expense, provided^ only 
tfiat he womki intrust the revenue to their adminis- 
tration.' The Dvke accepted their offers ; but jealous 
of any mvasion of his despotism by an exercise^ 
however trifling, of asistoeratical influence, he re^ 
fitted lite conditions with which they were accom* 
}Hinied« In order yet ^Eurther to recruit his army, 
wiale the Venetianfl, as yet unsuspicious of his 
intentioAs, dkbanded their Condottieri^ he carefully 
tili^aged tbem himself, and swelled his ranks by' 
IlieeardfQss-fiicility with which, mercenaries, if they 


do 'but receive full security for pay, are content to 
pass from one service to another the most directly 
opposite. Thus strengthened, he . eluded, under 

various pretexts, the evacuation of the posts 
U27/ which he had agreed to surrender, . and 

early in the following Spring invaded the 
territory of Mantua. 

It would afford little entertainment if we were 
to pursue with minuteness the events of the re- 
newed, war. The state of Carmagnuola's health, 
apparently never strong, and now more than usually 
affected by a fall from his horse, prevented him 
from assuming the command immediately on this 
aggression; and the Milanese, in consequence^ 
obtained some advantages, notwithstanding that 
their flotilla on the Po, after two days* bloody 
combat near. Cremona, was totally, destroyed. 
When . Carmagnuola rejoined the army^ fortune 
for a short time continued to vary ; Casal Magr 
giore was taken and retaken, and its recovery 
enabled the Venetians to advance upon Cremona,- 
with the intention of engaging in its siege. . The 
Milanese, equally prepared to oppose, this de- 
sign, were reinforced by 15,000 volunteers from 
their Capital, and Filippo- Maria, for the first 
time, encouraged his army by his presence.. The; 
l^ostile forces were encamped opposite each other 
at Casal Secco, about three miles in front of Cire-. 
mona, and a natural fosse which separated their 
lines, was for some time a barrier which neither of 
them cared to pass. On the 1 2th of. July, however, 
the Milanese, eager for distinction under the imme* 
diate eye of their Prince, attempted to force that, 
defence, and some squadrons succeeded in penetrat-. 


nig the Venetian camp. There, enveloped in clouds 
of summer dust, the cavalry charged at hazard, 
without the power of distinguishing either their own 
movements or those of their enemy : the confusion 
became general ; and, had they been duly seized* 
opportunities occurred on both sides of capturing 
most of the leading officers of the opposite party. 
Carmagnuola was dismounted, and fought for a 
considerable time on foot ; the Duke of Mantua 
was separated from his followers and surrounded 
by enemies ; and Sforza found himselfj in like 
manner^ abandoned by his suite, and left in the 
very heart of the Venetian camp. The affiray, for it 
was no other, terminated indecisively, and without 
farther advantage to either side, than such as the 
Venetians mignt claim from the retirement of 
the Milanese to their own lines. Filippo-Maria 
had seen enough of war, and hastened back to 

The dissensions existing among his Generals 
induced the Duke of Milan at this season to intrust 
the chief command of his army to one whose high 
lineage would, as he imagined, ensure implicit 
obedience ; and Carlo Malatesta, son of the Lord 
of Rimini, made his first essay in arms at the close* 
of this campaign. From a very natural anxiety to 
create a reputation commensurate with that of the 
great leaders who served under him, he was im* 
patient for battle, and soon hazarded a rash and 
ill-advised engagement. Carmagnuola, early in 
October, was advantageously posted among the 
Cremonese marshes, not far nrom the town of 
Macalo. His ground was well chosen, he had per« 
spnally reconnoitred every point of it, and he nad 


OMtted lio ewe te» ddead ita mily pncticahle ap» 
proaek by directiiig upon it the crQ«» fire of ni*. 
merotts naskecl bsttmes; every finner spel also 
vittek be foimd tenable amid the fenny groondr was; 
Qceapted by tzoopi fdaieed in ambufcade bd^ind 
iphatever cover it afforded ; atad the main body o# 
his infantry fronted a long, winding, narrow, and' 
iBtiicate causeway, by whidi, if the Milanese in- 
tended to attack,, they must of necessity advance,/ 
and whieh, therefore, was left apparently unguardedy 
in. order to allure them. Two thousand horse> 
meanwhile were d^ached to turn the morassy 
with orders, if an engagement should ensue, to 
fiill upon the Enemy's rear. In opposition, as it' 
is said, to the opinion and judgment of each of the 
four chief CondMieriy to control whose Bratnat 
jeabusy Matatesta had been commissioned, he 
determined to force thia periloaB causeway* 

Scarcely, however, had his columns become 
Oet. 11. entangled en its path, before they were 

assailed on both flanks by uaexpeeted 
ladieys of every speciea of missile. The narrow: 
space forbade them from attempting any change o£ 
front ; and even if this could have been efiected,^ 
their enemy was concealed and separated £rom then&* 
by impaasable bogs. While therefoce, confusedi 
and wavering, they knew not whether to advaaee> 
or to retreat, Carmagnuola, seizii^ the favourable 
nument, made a signal for his cavalry to charge, 
in rear, and himself advanced vqfKm the causeway 
in front AIL was now rout and panic:. Guides 
TorelLo, accompanied by bis son, plunged into the 
marshes, and escaped; Sfoiza, wlio commanded the 
reserve, had the good fortune to regain his csn^;. 


^kcinifio, with almost ineredible bniveiy, cot 

liis way through the yerj front of his enemy ; but 
Malatesta himself, after an atmmt bloodle8»coBte8l» 
for it has been stated that not one roan o# his di* 
Tision was killed, surrendered witk all hi» stimdardsi 
luggage, stores, and treasures, and mere than 
8000 pn'soners. 

The campaign might now be considered at an 
end, for the great numerical advantage wWiek Car- 
magnuola obtained by this decisive victory, forbade 
the Milanese from any hope of renewmg fiirthev 
operations at present. But Venice had yet to learn 
the dangers and disadfvantages connected with the 
employment of foreign mercenaries. Indifferent to 
the result of the qoarrcl which he is purchased to sup* 
port, the hixed stranger chiefly regards his plunder 
and his pay, and personal safety is idx more hif 
object than success ; for against him whose trade is 
wmr, the market would be closed by uninterrupted 
conquest. The strong motives supplied by ancient 
livalry and nati<mal pride, by patriotism and a 
thirst for glory, are wholly wantmg to the adventure 
who draws his sword for gam ; and> on the other 
hand, if he be opposed in battle tO soktier» of the 
saihe class wi^h himself, there may exist nomeroua 
ties between them, resulting from simflaiity of 
habits ; they may have served together as comrades 
In some former war, and may have then contracted 
>ude but enduring bonds of military friendship, 
by which they are far more likely to be influenced 
tiian by any regard for the interests of the pai^ 
ticular State to which they are pledged, only for 
the moment, by a cold and heartless bargain. Sucfa» 
on this occasion, was the position of the victors 


towards the vanquished ; and, far from being actuated 
by any animosity, they cherished a community of 
feeling and a sense of brotherhood in arms with those 
whom nothing except chance happened to range 
under conflicting standards. Many of them recog- 
nized their captives as former intimates ; all had, at 
some time, served under Carmagnuola, when he 
commanded for Milan ; and it was not possible that 
men so circumstanced should long retain even an 
appearance of hostility. Accordingly, in the course 
of the night which succeeded this engagement, 
the victorious army released almost all its prisoners, 
reserving only their horses, arms, and other booty. 
On the morrow, when the Provveditori disco- 
vered the unexpected abandonment of the chief 
and most important fruits of their success in the 
field, they remonstrated loudly and earnestly with 
Carmagnuola. No sooner however had they retired 
than the General, partaking of the same spirit 
which actuated his followers, and pretending ig- 
norance on a point with which he was fully 
acquainted, inquired what number of prisoners 
still remained unreleased ? He was answered about 
four hundred : * Well then,' he concluded, ' if the 
kindness of my soldiers has ^ven liberty to the 
others, I must follow the ordinary custom and 
dismiss these also.' * 

Malatesta and his liberated troops returned to 
their camp, and the Milanese army in a few days 
presented numbers equally formidable with those 
which it had counted before its late defeat. Two 

* Ego, si eeeterU nostrorwn be»evolet^id eafortuna conUgit, istot 
quoque fubeo soHtd lege dimitti. Andrea Billias, t1. apud Mttrirt. 
six. 104. 

PBACX. 29 

armourers of the Capital offered to furnish sufficient 
fresh equipments to the soldiers, and money was 
plentifully at hand for the purchase of horses. The 
power of Filippo-Maria therefore was still unbroken; 
and when Carmagnuola, although strongly urged 
by the Proweditori^ reiiised to advance upon Milan, 
from which he was scarcely three days' march, the 
brilliant hopes which had been founded upon his 
victory were speedily dissipated ; and the Campaign 
shortly afterwards closed by his occupation of some 
few unimportant posts on the Oglio. 

This war, however short, had wearied all parties 
engaged in it excepting the Venetians, whose appe* 
tite for continental acquisition was hourly increas* 
ing ; but pressed by their allies to negotiate, 
they were compelled to assent. Peace was ^420.' 
signed in the Spring of 1428, and the Sig- 
nory, far from manifesting any chagrin or resent- 
ment at the ambiguous conduct of Carmagnuola, 
received him with distinguished honours on his return 
to the Capita] ; the Bucentaur was despatched for 
his conveyance, and he was conducted with much 
splendour to a Palace bestowed upon him as a 
National gift : 3000 ducats were added to his pen- 
sion from the public coffers, and a land rent of 
12,000 more from estates in the Provinces which he 
had conquered. Not many days after his arrival, 
attended by his Staff and the chief officers of Go- 
vernment, he solemnly deposited in St. Mark's, 
amid the trophies of his victories, the Standard of 
the Eepublic, which had been committed to him 
at the opening of the late war. Little now ap- 
peared wanting to his prosperity. Fortune at length 
seemed to have renewed her former kindness, and 


lie reposed c<Mi£dently umder the fijurotur imd ]m>- 
tection of hk adopted Country. 

Peaoe however was but of short duration ; old 
jealousies were revived, and fresh causes of disseo- 
eion readily u*ose between parties which had never 

been cordially reconciled. Hostilities were 
^481. accordingly renewed by aH the Powers 

which had coalesced in the former alliaaee, 
except the Duke of Savoy; and Carmagnuola 
once more took the command, with orders to invest 
Cremona, while Piocinnuio and Sfbrza were again 
liis opponents. His outset was unfortunate ; some 
officers of the enemy whom he endeavoured to cor<- 
xupt, betrayed him in turn, and he was entrapped 
into an ambuscade, from which he personally es* 
caped not without much difficulty and with the lots 
of 1 600 prisoners. These, probably, were restored 
Jto him, after the fashion of Macalo ; for within two 
days he advanced towards the Po with 12,000 horse 
and as many foot, and prepared to combine his 
operations with a flotilla, which awaited this junc- 
tion about three miles below Cremona. The 
Venetian armament, commanded by Nicolo Trevi- 
sani, consisted of thirty-seven large ships and 
above one hundred small craft; to oppose which the 
Duke of Milan had prepared a powerful force of 
vessels, inferior in size but far superior in numbec, 
under the orders of Pacino Eustachio. 

Meantime Piccinino and Sforza made a demon- 
stration in front of Carmagnuola's lines, and by 
that feint withdrew him from the bank of the river. 
Pains were taken on the following night to deceive 
him by false intelligence ; and so convinced was 
he that dispositions had been made to attack him 


ia the Boming, that he perempterily nlbied the 
<eame6t ap|4icati(m made by Trevisaiii for a rein- 
ioreenent, and pleaded that his own ponition warn 
£eur too critieal to idlow him to detach any portkm 
of his army. Sforza, having succeeded in this 
•Btratagem, threw himself, during the sane night, 
with a large body of picked men, into 
JSustaehio's ships ; and at the dawn of day, *' 
when Carmagnnola displayed his line and awaited 
>battle, no force confronted him except a few Hght 
troops, which, as he advanced, fell back upon 
their main body, now sheltered under the gnus of 

Too late discovering his error* Carmagnuola 
•hastened h9,ck to the Po, in order to render that 
assistance to Trevisani which he now perceived to 
be so needful. But the flotillas were already 
engaged, and the Milanese, before cenmencing 
4heir attack, having cautiously dropped down on 
the left bank of the river, had succeeded in cutting 
oif all communication between the land*force of 
the Venetians and their ships, which had been 
driven to the opposite shore. The battle raged 
•with unwonted fury, for the confined tract within 
which the combatants were pent, was more fitted 
for a display of personal strength and valour than 
•of nautical skill. The vessels grappled with each 
other, and their crews fighting as on one con- 
tinued platform, with little employment of their 
artillery, pressed on, hand to hand, by boarding ; 
a mode of attack in which the ironclad soldiers 
by whom the Milanese galleys were principally 
manned, possessed incalculable advantage over 
the exposed and lightly armed Venetiafn mariners. 


Carmagnoola meantime, forced to remain an in- 
active spectator on his own bank, within speaking 
distance of his comrades, yet wholly unable to 
employ for their assistance those overwhelming 
numbers with which he lined the river*, had the 
mortification of seeing ship after ship submit to 
the enemy. Trevisani and many of his Captains 
took to their boats and escaped ; twenty-eight 
galleys, including that of the Admiral himself, 
and forty-two transports, were captured; three 
thousand men were killed; an immense booty 
famong which Billius mentions so large a store of 
Cretan wine as enriched all the Paduan cities) 
fell into the hands of the enemy, and the loss to 
Venice, thus signally worsted on her own peculiar 
element, was estimated at sixty thousand florins. 

A period of inaction on both sides, for which 
it is by no means easy to account, succeeded this 
great disaster. The Generals of Filippo- Maria 
contented themselves with ravaging the territories 
of Montserrat ; and Carmagnuola, as if palsied or 
stupified, made no attempt to redeem his tarnished 
honour. Even when Victory seemed to proffer 
herself to his embrace, he slighted the invitation ; 
and dispirited by his late reverses, dissatisfied with 
the service in which he was employed, deprived of 
earlier vigour, or perhaps (for it is impossible but 
that such a surmise must cross even the least 
suspicious mind) entangled by some intrigue with 

* Stabant orantes primi troHsnUttere eursum, 
Tendebantque tnatuu rip^ulterioris amore.— £xsiD, VI. 314. 
Neither accurately nor even grammatically rendered by Dryden } al- 
though perhaps his words are more to our purpose than the original. 

t he shivering army stands. 
And press for passage with extended hands. 


his foTtnet- master, be turned away from favour- 
able cbances of success. One of his officers, in 
the command of a reconnoitring detachment, suc- 
ceeded by a bold attempt in establishing himself 
on an ill-guarded part of the very rampart of 
Cremona, the main object of the campaign. He 
instantly communicated to his General the import- 
ant advantage which he had secured, and gallantly 
maintained his conquest for two days. Neverthe- 
less Carmaoniuola refused to traverse the short 
space which separated him from the City ; raised 
a thousand pretexts against such a movement; 
urged the probability of stratagem on the part 
of the enemy ; and finally, almost under his own 
eyes, and when the fall of Cremona seemed but 
to depend upon a single word, permitted the liand- 
ful of brave men who had won for him this golden 
opportunity to be overwhelmed and cut to pieces. 
Little more than this last great failure in duty 
was wanting to seal the fate of Carmagnuola, and 
that little was soon afterwards supplied by his 
permitting the enemy to occupy some advan- 
tageous posts on the very borders of the Lagune, 
which he might easily have maintained. Even if 
the Senate absolved him from any charge of 
treachery, to which he had but too obviously ex- 
posed himself, he had ceased to conquer, and his 
removal therefore was most desirable. The course 
which they adopted was in all points consistent 
with their ordinary dark policy, and it is well ex- 
plained by Machiavelli. * Perceiving that Carma- 
fnuola,' says the acute author of the Prencipe^ ' had 
ecome cold in their service, they yet neither 
wished nor dared to dismiss him, from a fear of 



losing that which he had acquired for them : for 
their own security, therefore, they were compelled 
to put him to death*.' Yet it may be believed that, 
however unscrupulous in their State-craft were the 
Bulers of Venice, they were, in this instance, 
actuated by more powerful motives than those of 
long-sighted precaution; and that they inflicted 
punishment for offences already committed, as 
well as guarded against the possibility of a future 
commission. The conduct of their General had 
long been an object of discussion, for it is re* 
corded that, while residing in Venice, during the 
short interval of Peace, and laden daily with new 
honours, as he one morning attended the Levee 
in the Ducal Palace, he found the Prince but just 
returning from a Council which had sat in 
debate all night. * Shall I offer good morrow or 
good even?* was the sportive and unsuspecting 
inquiry of the Soldier. ' Our consultation has 
been indeed protracted,* replied the Doge with a 
gracious smile, * and nothing has more frequently 
occurred in it than the mention of your name/ 
Then, as if recollecting that he had outstepped the 
bounds of. caution, he artfully diverted the con- 
versation to other topics. It i« not possible to 
reject the great mass of concurrent testimony 
which assures us that the precise measures which 
the Government ultimately adopted were decided 
upon fully eight months before their execution ; 
and it appears a matter of no small pride, not 
only to the pensioned Historian Sabellico, but 
even to the exalted and independent spirit of 
Paolo Sarpi, that, although the secret resolution- 

* Cop. zii. 


was well known during that long period^ to at 
least three hundred persons, who had themselves 
assisted in framing it, — ^many of them intimately 
and familiarly acquainted with their intended 
Tictim, some oppressed by poverty which they 
might have exchanged for immediate affluence by 
a disclosure, — yet not one whisper was breathed 
from a single tip which could, in the slightest de« 
gree, compromise the mysterious design of the 
Senate*. The fact perhaps speaks quite as strongly 
for the terror inspired by the Venetian Govern- 
ment as for the fidelity of its agents. 
The Senate concealed their determination till 
the blow could be struck without a chance 
^^* of failure ; and it was not until the follow* 
ing Spring that Carmagnuola received a 
summons to Venice, under pretexts of high re- 
spect and consideration which might have deceived 
the most veteran intriguer. Sanuto, indeed, may 
perhaps seem to imply, and if he does so it is with 
the most unflinching gravity, that'some misgiving 
might have crossed the General's mind if he had 
paid due attention to the ill-favoured counte* 
nance of the pale and cadaverous Secretary of the 
ChancellcHT who bore the messaget : but, with this 
one equivocal exception, no pains were spared to 
lull suspicion. Negotiations for Peace were stated 
to have commenced, ambassadors from the chief 
Belligerents were assembled at Piacenza, and it 
was to assist the Great Council in its deliberations 
npon the proposals submitted to it, that the pre* 

• Sabellico, Dee. III. 1. P. Josttiiiaal, YII. F. SarpI, ClpMom^ 
Heeania td Oaoarao dtUm Rep* F«m. 32. 

^Ftk mmndnf giiMWiiJ dJmpeM, Natuia dOa etmoaUoHm, U qpei^ 
wmiifuoem pdHU •mof^o.—Saaato^ i|k Marat, sxii. 1027. 



sence of Carmagnuola was required in the Capi^ 
tal. Every precaution wLich the Council of X, 
adopted in order to secure his person, from the 
first moment after he left the camp, was so astutely 
contrived, that he received it with satisfaction as 9, 
token of more than ordinary respect ; and although 
he remarked the unusual caresses which were la- 
vished on him, probably he did not feel, certainly 
he did not express, any suspicion as to the motives 
in which they originated*. The Lord of Mantua 
never quitted his side ; on setting foot in the ter- 
ritory of Vic^nza, the Commandant met him at 
the head of a considerable body of troops, and 
escorted him to the opposite frontier ; a like guard 
of honour, as he believed it to be, awaited him at 
Padua ; where the Governor, Contarini, insisted 
that he should partake his bed, a compliment 
agreeable to the manners of the times, and, in this 
instance, well answering the double purpose for 
which it was designed. When he embarked on 
the Laguntj to the borders of which Contarini 
attended him, he found in waiting the Signori di 
Notte (certain Police Magistrates) with their Offi- 
cers ; and at the entrance of the Capital^ eight 
Nobles, who were posted to receive him, intreated 
that, instead of proceeding immediately to his own 
Palace, he would accompany them, in the first 
instance, to that of the Doge. On entering the 
Prince's mansion, its gates were closed, all stran* 
gers were excluedd and the Count's suite waa 
dismissed, with an intimation that their master was 
to be entertained with a banquet by the Doge 

* Onde td detto Conie moltoparve do nuooo, essendogRfatte tat^M 
HreMse oltre qudlo die soleva euet^U/atto quando driP altre voUe 
tMin'fMi a Veitmda. Ma pwt M» dine vicwin CMa.--SAoato« «yp« 
Morftt. zxii. 1027. 


Foscari. While Carmagnuola^ awaiting his au« 
dience, remained in conversation with the Mem* 
bars of the CoUegio^ the Doge ezcuBed himself tiU 
the following morning, on a plea of indisposition. 
As it grew later, the unsuspecting prisoner took 
his leave, and the attendant Nobles, seemingly in 
order to pay yet farther respect to their illustrious 
visitor, accompanied him to the Palace court* 
There, as he took the ordinary path to the gates^ 
one of them requested him to pass over to the 
other side, towards the Prisons : ^ That is not my 
way,' was his remark ; and he was significantly 
answered, ' It is your way V As he crossed the 
threshold of the dungeon, the fatal truth flashed 
upon him, and he exclaimed with a deep sigh, ' I 
see well enough that I am a dead man ;' and, in 
reply to some consolation offered by his compa- 
nions, he added words fully expressive of hi» 
conviction that life was forfeited*. For three 
days he refused all sustenance. At their ex* 
piration, when he was led, by night, to tlie Chanw 
bar of Torture, and stripped for the Question, an 
arm, formerly broken by a wound received in the 
service of his Judges, prevented the Executioners 
from lifting him to the height requisite to give full 
effect to the inhuman application of the strappado. 
. His feet, therefore, were brought to the stoves ; 
and it was reported that ample confession of trea* 
chery was speedily wrung from him by the acute* 
ness of his sufferings, and confirmed by the pro- ' 
duction of Letters under his own hand, and by 
-the testimony of agents whom he had employed. 

* Vedo ben ch* io ton morto • ; • UeceUi ehe non Mono da lot* 
■ dare, non aono da prendere, Sannto, 10S8— Uie latter words mo^fc 
Ukely are proYerbial* 


-fiut t^e mysteries of die Cotmcil of X. weie impe- 
netrable ; and all that can be stated with certainty 
4>f his Trial, if sadi it may be caMed, are the terms 
4>f his acdisatiaii; namely^ 4hat he was in eomx 
pact with I^lqpipo-MaTia to refuse assistance to 
Trevisani, and not to take Cremona. He lingered 
'in prison for nearly three weeks after this exami- 
fiation, and was then conducted, after Vespers, on 
4he 5th of May, to the Two Columns. Either 
to prevent him from exciting pity by an enumera- 
tion of his former great deeds, or ^om appealing 
f^ainst a punishment inflicted without due evi- 
dence of guilt, his mouth was carefully gagged ; 
und Sanuto, who has min«itely recorded the parti- 
culars of his last moments, thus describes the dress 
in which he appeared upon the scaffold. He was 
dad in scarlet hose, a cap of velvet from his own 
^native town, a crimson mantle, and a scarlet vest 
with the sleeves tied behind his back. It was not 
till the third stroke that his head was severed from 
-his body ; and his remains were then buried by 
.torch-light in the Church of San Prancesco della 
Vigna. In later days they were transferred to 
Sta. Maria dei Frari, where at the descent into the 
Cloysters, his wooden coffin was shown not many 
years since, perhaps may still be shown, covered 
with a black velvet pall, upon which was placed a 

' To decide upon the justice of CarmagnuolaVi 
doom, lighted only by that uncertain glimmering 
which the Rulers of Venice permitted to be thrown 
. upon their judicial transactions, was scarcely pos- 
sible even at the time x>f its execution; and the at- 
tempt at the present day tmist be worse than hio|to- 

* ForeaHero ilivminato, 2l2. 


less. Eveiy generous £eeliiig of our nature is 
arrayed agaiuBt the baK and umidious artifices 
employed to entrap him, and the inyisible pro* 
cesses used in his condemnation ; and profound 
interest cannot fail to be eacited by the ignomi* 
nious, even if mer^d death of one who had be- 
fore deserved and obtained so rich a prize of glory: 
But it should be remembered that, in the instance 
of Carmagnuola, some semblance at least of 
Civil proceeding was maintained, and that he 
was reserved for the sword of the Law ; while in 
after times, another, and in this instance a less 
scrupulous Government, dispatched Wallen stein, 
who had equally outgrown control, by the hand of 
an assassin. Each of these great Captains lived in 
the hearts of his soldiers, and the extenuating plea 
in each case therefore would be that, although pro- 
scribed, he was impregnable in his own camp. It 
may be added that many authorities near the times 
of Carmagnuola, and such indeed as were uninflu- 
enced by any fear' of Venice, more than imply a 
belief that he had earned his fate*. In our own 
days his innocence bas been advocated by a writer 
of distinguished genius ; but in the Tragedy of Man- 
zonithe spirit of the Drama demanded that the Hero 
should be represented guiltless ; and .Poets more- 
over are not always the most faithful assertors of 
veritable History. If, however, our Milanese'con- 
temporary has at all deviated from fact in the con* 
ception of his leading character, he has more than 
compensated for sud^i aa •exercise of Poetical pri- 

* Poggio BraccioHni re^^resents him as PhUippi adverta fartwue 
mUerttu — {Hist. Fiorent, vi. apud Murat. zx. 351.) And again, 
Venetorum mores perUenu a fide prolapsus, (ib. 376.) — Billius, in 
recountipg' his last campaign, states that he was believed in e& re 
veteris amicitUis memorem FhUtppo operam prcfbidsse, (105.) 

vileg'e, by the bold, masterly, and correct portrait 
wbich he has placed before our eyes of the miseries 
endured by Italy during the existence of the Con- 
dotlieri. It would indeed be difficult to select any 
mssage from the whole range of Poetry in which 
Truth ia more closely intertwined with Imagina- 
tion, than in that magnificent Chorus by which 
Manzoni has concluded the 11"^ Act of II Conte 
Di Caruagnuola*. 

* S' ulea datra ano tguUla ^ Irtmia, $c. 



FROM AJ). 1432 TO AJ>. 1450. 

Peace of Ferrara— Bath eoterprUe and death of If araUio da Car* 
rara — War renewed with Milan— Origin of the Family of Sforza 
—Treachery of the Duke of llantua— Brilliant retreat of Gatta 
If elata — Francesco Sforsa aatamee the command of the Venetian 
Army — Siege of Breacia— Transport of a flotilla orerland to tha 
Lago di Garda— Battle of Teona— Singular escape of Plcclnino 
^-Sforxa rejects overtures from the Duke of Milan— Sforxa sur- 
rounded at Martencngo— Terms unexpectedly offered by the Dnka 
of Milan— Peace of Capriana— Marriage of Sforsa with the Prio* 
cess Bianca— Death of Fllippo-Maria Visconti— His character^ 
Milan declares herself a free Republic — Engsges Sforsa as her 
General — Battle of Carayaggio— Noble forbearance of Sforxa^ 
He makes Peace with Venice— Treachery of the Venetians^' 
Sforxa blockades Milan— Ita sorrender— Ha assumea the Ducal 


Francesco Foscari. 

Within twelve months from the execution of Car- 
tnagnuola, the War with Milan, which had Ian* 
guished through another campaign* was termi« 
nated by a Peace so framed as to leave ample 
grounds for a renewal of hostilities, whenever either 
party had sufficiently profited by its breathing time. 
Even during the short interval of apparent friend- 
ship which succeeded, Filippo-Maria found occa- 
sion to embarrass Venice; and he induced the 
last survivor of the ill-fated Lords of Padua to 
make a fruitless attempt for the recovery of his 


patrimony, by false promises of assistance from 
himself, and by equally false representations of a 
powerful armament to be furnished in his behalf by 
the Veronese and Vioentines. During thirty years, 
Marsilio, the only remaining son of Francesco da 
Carrara, had escaped the consequences of his 
proscription by Venice, in tranqidl and contented 
exile ; and he was now allured from the safe asy- 
lum which Germany had afforded him, to be sacri- 
€ced as a victim to the intrigues of the Duke ot 
Milan, Encouraged by an assurance that his par- 
tisans within his ancient Capital waited but for his 
Appearance to proclaim him their Sovereign, he 
-set out on this rash and hazardous enterprise, dis* 
jguised as a merchant, and accompanied by no more 
than ten followers. While on his route through 
the mountains of Veraaa, he was denounced to t^de 
Council of X., arrested by their agents, and con- 
veyed to Padua. Thence, ' having first been ex- 
hibited in chains to the popular gaze, through the 
most open parts of the City, in order that his per« 
son might be fully recognized, he was transferred 
to Venice. No compassioil was likely to await 
him in the slaughter-house of his Father and his 
Brothers, and, after an examination of four hours 
in tlie Chamber of Torture, he was adjudged to 
the scaffold. 

The confessions of that unhappy Prince and of 
his companions in misfortune so clearly evince<) 
the perfidy of Filippo- Maria, that War, as a 
necessary result, was speedily declared against 
him : and the Signory, anxious to engage in their 
service the most consummate military talent of the 
time, offered the command of their army to Fran^ 


cesoo Sforzo. Of thlii great man we iiave liillierto 
fjwken only as of a biave and sucoesfiful Con* 
dottiere ; but the distinguished character which he 
assumed in the complicated events upon which we 
Itfe about to enter, and the high elevation to which 
he ultimately won his way as&e founder of a race 
of Princes, demand a larger notice both of his 
«ffigin and his progress. His father, Giaoomuzio 
d* Attenduli, was born at Cotignola, a petty towB 
of Romagna, between Im(^ and Faenza, of a far 
mily which has been traced to the Royal blood of 
^Dacia : and the Emperor Robert is said to have 
acknowledged the line of those Princes in the 
person of Giacomuzio, at the same time at which. 
4n reward for his distinguished courage, he 
gave him an honourable augmentation of Us 
armorial bearings, and placed the Orange-branch 
'of the Attenduli in the left paw of a lion, ele- 
vating his right in an attitude of menace*. 
•Whether this family preserved its opulence is 
<4doubted ; but that Agriculture was its chief em- 
jployment, during the early years of Giacomuzio's 
life, is ascertained by a tradition preserved and 
•fondly cherished by his descendants in their sub- 
sequent great prosperity, (j^aoomuzio, they said, 
•even in his boyhood, felt a strong passion for 
:arms, and, weaned by the daily and unvaried toib 
of husbandry to which he was condemned, he 
,aecretly resolved to abandon them for the pro- 
'fession whidi he coveted. While meditating on 
*4iis future pursuits and chances, the impatient boy 
caught up a mattock with which he had beeii 
digging, and threw it into an oak-tree hard by ; 

* Laurent. Bonincontrii, AmndJ. apud Ifurat. xxl. IS. 

44 giaComuzio d'attenduli 

remembering, as Paulus Jovius, (from whom wd 
derive these particulars, but who does not appear 
to attach much credit to them,) would persuade u», 
tliat the Oak was consecrated to the God of War« 
and therefore was well fitted to afford a martial 
augury* If the mattock should fall to the ground, 
Giacomuzio determined to continue his rustie 
labours ; if it should lodge in the branches, he 
would forthwith become a soldier. It lodged, as 
he doubtless wished and took good care that it 
should do ; and, although no more than twelve 
years of age at the time of this divination, the 
yoking adventurer, easily satisfying himself that 
he was now under the special guidance of Pro- 
vidence, quitted his father's house clandestinely, 
with the intention of engaging himself to Alberic 
di Barbiano, the chief leader of Condottieri at the 
time. ' To that mattock of Giacomuzio,' said 
his grandson, when displaying the magnificence of 
his Palace to the Historian, ' do I owe all these 
treasures*.' On his way to Alberic's quarters, the 
youth was forcibly detained by a soldier belonging 
to the Commandant of the Papal Cavalry, irom 
•which officer he received instructions during four 
yearst. Passing then to the service of Counft 
Alberic, he entered in the very lowest grade, and 
officiated as groom and horseboy t to the camp : 

• We give this story as we find it in the VUa Magni SfartUt, 
e. 3, by Faalos Jovius. It is told with a sUght variation, for which 
we have not been able to trace equally good authority, both by 
M. de SismoodI and Daru. 

t Bonincontritts, 89. 

X LUta—taeeomatuto, Benvenuto dl Sao Georglo, Hi»U itfonlte* 
ferrati, apud Murat.zziii. 7i5> 


yet, even while engaged in those mean employ- 
ments, his high spirit and great bodily strength 
won distinction among his comrades, from whom 
ke frequently obtained by violence more than hia 
sliare of booty. In a squabble upon one of those 
occasions, appeal was made to the Commander 
himself, who decided against Attendulo, and, to 
his surprise, was met by a bold remonstrance. 
'- By my troth,' replied Count Alberic, not dis- 
^pleased with the freedom of the answer, * this boy, 
by and by, will not spare ourselves. As you gain 
every thing by force^ for tlie future you must be 
called SfoTza^ The name, bestowed in jest, 
superseded that of his Family, and is the one by 
which both himself and his posterity are known in 

It is not our purpose to follow the elder Sforza 
minutely in his brilliant career. The fortunes of 
a CondoUiere depended largely upon his personal 
valour, and, with that quality, as well as with an 
active and penetrating intellect, the Peasant of 
Cotignola was eminently gifted. In the service 
of Naples, he acquired not only reputation, but 
wealth and substantial power ; and not lonff 
before his death he was invested with the high 
dignity of Grand Constable of that Kingdom, 
lanked as a feudatory Lord by the possession of 
rich Fiefs both in the patrimony of St. Peter and 
of Sieniia, and was created Count of his native 
village by Pope John XXIII., as a compensation 
for a debt of 14,000 ducats. The Free Bands 
abo which he headed were distinguished from 

* Bonincontrlus, 54 


others of their class, not less by their strict dis- 
ciplme than by their unlimited devotion to the 
Chief who had raised and maintained them. They 
were bound to him, partly, by individual attach* 
ment, which he took sedulous pains to cultivate by 
affability, attention to their wants, and generous 
largesses ; and, partly, by the spirit of Clanship, 
if we may so say, with which the numerous re* 
kitions and connexions whom he had enlisted in 
his ranks were deeply imbued. The aggrandise-' 
nent of their General was tlie main object of 
desire among l^ese faith&l adherents, and, with 
such followers at his command, scarcely any 
enterprise appeared too daring for the ambition of 
their leader. But the jealousy of a rival adven- 
turer, Braccio di Montone, retarded the great 
projects which Sforza had, no doubt, long medi- 
tated ; and an untimely death, before they were 
matured, lefit their completion to be achieved by^. 
his equally brave and still more fortunate son.. 
The elder Sforza was drowned, while crossing, 
the Pescara, in an unavailing attempt to rescue- 
one of hiB Pi^s from a similar fate. Moved by 
the cries of the unhappy youth, he turned hia 
horse from a ford into deep water, where the 
animal lost his footing, and, having thrown hia 
rider, gained the land. Sforza himself, nnable to. 
swim ftom the oppressive weight of Ms armour^ 
and too £u* from the bank to receive assistance^ 
sank beneath the flood. Twice he rose to ther 

surface, clasping his gauntleted hands as: 
fl^ in despair, and was then swept away by the; 

torrent, and disappeared for ever. 


FraBcesco Sforza, at the time of that calamityv 
had not yet attained his four and twentieth 
year, but he had afaready shown much pro* 
mae of great future eminence. He was the 
eldest, and, although illegitimate, the favourite 
son of his father; who diligently trained him 
to miMtary exercises by his own side, and 
saw him, in his first essay of arms, give 
proofs of valour which might have done ^^^ 
credit even to a veteran Captain. Soon 
afterwards, he espoused one of the richest 
widows in Italy, Polissena Rufia, a daughter of 
the Count of Montalto, who brought that town 
and other large possessions in Calabria as her 
dower. The three precepts which the youthful 
Bridegroom received from his father, when he 
quitted the paternal roof to enter upon his own 
Lordships, were 1st, To treat his vassals with 
gentleness ; 2ndly, Never to strike a domestic, 
or, if he did so, immediately afterwards to dismiss 
him ; and lasUy, almost as if with some foresight 
of the destiny whidi awaited himself, never to 
mount a restive horse, and on all occasions to 
look particidarly to his shoes; *from casting 
which,' said the experienced Soldier, * I have more 
than once been sorely perilled in the field*.' 

No situation could require greater promptitude 
and sounder judgment than that in which Francesco 
Sforza stood at the moment of his father's death. 
His fifee troops were not only the most important 
portion of his heritage, but they were, indeed, its 
sole guarantee ; for through them alone could he 

* Paolus Joyhi% «i lup. e,_77» Bonincontrimi, ut mp, U6« 


hope to prevent the resumption of the Fiefs held 
under the Neapolitan Crown, by the Court which 
had bestowed them far more in expectation of 
future services than as a reward for the past. Yet 
the charm which bound together and restrained 
the fierce, rude, and licentious spirits composing 
bis army was broken and dissolved with the last 
breath of his deceased father; and indeed, not 
long before the elder Sforza*s death, some symptoms 
of disaffection from the son had been plainly mani- 
fested. With consummate skill, however, Fran- 
cesco not only assumed the chief command, 
although he was the youngest leader in the band, 
but he continued to retain the obedience and to 
preserve the discipline of his followers, by em- 
ploying them in unremitted service ; till he had 
secured their willing affections, and established 
himself in as uncontrolled a mastery as that which 
had been possessed by his father. Thus strength* 
ened, he commanded the favour of Naples ; and, 
having received full confirmation in his Lordships, 
he passed, as we have already seen, with so much 
distinction to himself and so much advantage to 
the Prince who engaged him, into the service of 

Milan. The support of Filippo-Maria 
"i^* enabled him, at the close of the last war 

with Venice, to wrest the March of Ancona, 
by force of arms, from Eugenius IV. ; and tlie 
subsequent necessities of that Pontiff yielded to 
him a recognition of his doubtful rights, together 
with the title of Marquis and the additional high 
dignity of Gonfaloniere of the Church. Eugenius, 
it is true, afterwards regretted this surrender, and 
endeavoured to recover his dominion by the as* 


sassination of its new Sovereign ; but a seasonable 
disclosure of tbe plot, on the night before its 
intended execution, reserved Sforza for yet greater 
acquijsitions. His ulUmate views had long been di- 
rected to the throne of Milan ; a brilliant object 
which might probably be attained, could he, now 
a widower, win thehandofBianca, the illegitimate 
daughter of Filippo-Maria, who was without male 
issue. Those nuptials were indeed promised him 
by Visconti ; but that astute and wily Prince was 
too fully acquainted with the value of the im- 
portant prize which he had to bestow, not to make 
It available in every new political intrigue ; and 
each aspirant who could assist any favourite project 
of the moment, during that moment received his 
turn of assurance that Bianca should be his 
reward. The policy of Sforza, therefore, who was 
intimately acquainted with the dissimulation, the 
perfidy, and the inconstant temper of Filippo* 
Maria, and who perceived that fear alone could 
obtain the fulfilment of this long- promised and 
perpetually eluded alliance, was to render himself 
necessary to his present master's ambition : and, 
accordingly, on the renewal of the War 
between Visconti and Florence, he engaged j^^* 
in the service of the latter ; acutely deter- 
mining in his own mind that the consent of his 
expected father-in-law was more likely to be ex- 
torted by compulsion than to flow voluntarily from 
gratitude. In the following year, when 
Venice became a partner in the War, she \'^ 
sought Sforza, as has been already stated, 
for her commander, and, on his refusal, she 
entrusted her army to Gian-Francesco di Gonzaga 

VOL. 11. E 


of Mantua, by whom she was foully betcayed and 

From a coldness which, ensued between the two 
Republics, partly on account of their common 
desire for the same General, Florence made a 
short separate Peace ; and Sfoxsa, wisely persist- 
ing in his former course of action, was no 
^489.' )3ooner disengaged than he embraced the 
offers of the Signory. On the formatioa 
of a new League i^ainst Milan, in which Rqme, 
Florence and Genoa united with Venice, the 
powers of Sfonza were very largely increased, aad 
the chief command of the confederate armies was 
intrusted to his hand. The two greatest masters 
of the Art of War whom that time produced, and 
who had frequently fought as comrades und^ 
the same banner, were now arrayed against 
each other; and the memorable struggle which 
ensued between Sforza and Nicolo Piccinino, 
who headed the Milanese army, forms a splen« 
did portion of Military History ; from which how- 
ever it does not accord with our plan to select 
more than a very few of the most striking incidents. 
During the preceding year, in which Venice 
had been engaged single-handed, Brescia, 
f^' which she garrisoned, was the great object 
of contention. In tiie outset of the cam- 
paign, Gatta Melata, who commanded the Vene- 
tian army, had distinguished himself by a retreat, 
not exceeded in skill by the most brilliant ma- 
noeuvre on record. The treacherous desertion of 
the Duke of Mantua, who, quitting his first alliesi 
transferred his whole force to the Milanese service, 
intercepted the communications of Gatta Melata 


wilh the Venetian States, and placed him between 
two hostile aimies. Compelled therefore to giva 
way, and unable, irom want of boats, to cross the 
Lago di Gaida, which affimrded the most obvioua 
passage, he boldly resolved to make its circuitt 
and to penetrate to the Veronese through the 
mountains of TyroL That difficult and intricato 
march, over more than forty leagues of an unex- 
plored district, was commenced at the beginning 
of winter ; and his army, ill-equi{^ped and scan^ 
tily provisioned, had to force its way through an. 
almost impracticable country, over snows, torrenta, 
precipices and glaciers; in constant apprehension 
of pursuit by the superior force before which it was 
retiring, and daily exposed to harassing attacks 
from the native mountaineers, jealous of their vio» 
lated neutrality. Even when almost the last 
defiles were passed, more than one engagement 
was to be fought with the Mantuan troops, before 
the Venetiuis could descend into the plains of 
Verona : but the intervening heights were carried 
sword in hand, and merited vengeance was 
wreaked on the perfidious Gonzaga, by a wide 
ravage of his territories. Piccinino, dissatisfied 
with the opposition presented by his new ally to 
an enemy whom he had considered beset with 
inextricable toils, spoke with bitter sarcasm of the 
puny efforts of the Duke of Mantua, and ex* 
claimed, alluding sportively to Gatta Melata's 
name, *• By St. Antony ! this Cat has shown him* 
self far wiser than the Mouse ! ** 

Gatta Melata, thus disengaged, turned imme- 

* * Per lo <K Sant 'Antonio, n* ha aaputojriu la Oatta the H 

Smrda^.SoidotZU.BroBeUma, ofod Moratori, joci. 700. 

E 2 


diately to the relief of the City of Brescia, which 
he had been compelled to abandon to its fate ; and ■ 
whose little garrison, not amounting to one thou- 
sand regular soldiers, had been invested, for more 
than two months, by twenty thousand men under 
Piccinino. The Milanese batteries were mounted 
with artillery of similar huge calibre to those 
monsters which we have had occasion to describe 
more than once before ; and fifteen of their gigan- 
tic bombards discharged stones of the enormous 
weight of three hundred pounds. The defence was 
intrusted to the Podestd^ Francesco Barbaro, one of 
the most distinguished personages of his time 
both in Arts and Arms. Besides the great actions 
recorded of him by Soldo, himself an eye-witness 
of most of them, there is left to us a Commentary 
upon this Siege by Evangelista Manelmus ; who 
writes indeed with inflation when he compares 
his hero to Orpheus, Argus, and Briareus, but 
who at the same time adduces numerous instances 
both of magnanimity and wisdom which amply 
justify the utmost extent of his more sober pane- 
gyric. More than once did Barbaro, when in 
the extremity of distress, reject with horror and 
indignation, projects submitted to him for the 
assassination of Piccinino. Often when the spirits 
of the inhabitants appeared to droop, he revived 
their courage by spreading reports that safety was 
to be obtained no otherwise than by persevering 
resistance, since the enemy had resolved not to 
admit of terms, and had proclaimed a war of exter- 
mination, without pity either for sex or age. By 
night, he fixed in parts of the external walls, 
anows to which were fastened billets, addressed 


to the chief Ci^ns, and purporting to be written 
by friends without. Good care was taken that 
these despatches should be found in the morning, 
and that they should contain such tidings and advice 
as best suited the views of Barbaro. After dex* 
terously pacifying the feuds by which conflicting 
factions distracted the City, he succeeded in rous- 
ing the inhabitants to supply the want of regular 
troops, and in arraying the whole population 
against the enemy. Burghers, Artizans, Monks, 
Priests, Ladies of high rank and their hand* 
maidens, young and old, every class and condition, 
performed garrison duty without a murmur. ' We 
worked within,* says Soldo, ' while the foe worked 
without ;' and, to the astonishment of the besiegers, 
whenever a line of rampart fell shattered by their 
bombardment, fresh defences, raised by the inde- 
fatigable toil of hands unused to war, appeared 
behind, and forbade their entrance. Among the 
women^ a heroine of gentle birth, named Brayda, 
is especially noticed ; her comrades of the same 
sex were distributed in battalions, mustered at the 
sound of the drum, and were greatly useful in 
carrying baskets of earth by torchlight, to frame 
these secondary works. But the Plague, which 
had commenced its ravages before the approach 
of the enemy, now spread far more widely than at 
first ; and it was attended by Scarcity, the usual 
accompaniment of a long siege; so that, in the 
simple words of Soldo, who partook of the mise- 
ries which he records, ' the dearth was strong, the 
pestilence was stronger ; and it seems to me that 
the Citizens could not but desire to die, so evil 


was their condition*,' Not more than two thou- 
Band men remained fit for service, and scarcely 
eight hundred of those could be supplied with arms : 
yet two thirds of this little band watched nightly 
on the walls, and, not content with repulsing 
hourly assaults, they had the almost incredible 
daring to hazard frequent sorties. On one occa- 
sion, when a storming party had reeeived orders 
to advance, it was deterred by the air of confident 
security with which the garrison awaited it. The 
two hostile divisions stood under arms, gazing at 
each other for more than six hours, till the Bres- 
cians, insulting the backwardness of their enemy, 
danced on the ramparts to the music of their fifes 
and trumpets. The Milanese at length retired 
within their lines, and the brave garrison, seizing 
that favourable moment, rushed down unexpect- 
edly, and put many to the sword, with small loss 
to themselves. * The slain were numerous,' writes 
one of the combatants, in a Letter to the brother 
of the Doge Foscari, * because we had little incli- 
nation for prisonerst.' Both that correspondent 
and Soldo speak with infinite glee, and almost in 
the same words, of a fortunate discharge made by 
one of their great pieces of ordnance, (la nostra 
Bronzina grossa,) No fewer than three hundred 
men (a number which, in spite of this concurrent 
testimony, must be rejected as an exaggeration) 
perished by the fatal bullet ; and the enemy^ stupi- 
fied at the sight of the numerous limbs, each of 
which is specifically described, flying through 
the air in horrible commixture, hastily gave 

* Ut sup. 809. t Sanato, 10C9. 

way. *■ Tbere might you have seen many helmets 
crowned with waving plumes, and filled with 
almost living heads, forced with irresistible vio- 
lence heyond a very distant part of the wails*.* 

The besiegers, nevertheless, secure under the 
protection of their field-works, every day pressed 
their approaches nearer; their lines already reached 
the ditch which they had drained ; more than 
a single breach exposed the naked City ; and mines 
penetrated into its very centre. One assault 
would have succeeded, but for the accidental fall of 
a shattered curtain outwards instead of inwards ; 
the besiegers had taken the unavailing precau- 
tion of shoring up the exterior, and if the huge 
masses of stone had grven way in an opposite 
direction, they would have choked the inner ditch* 
and bridged it with a causeway for their passage. 
That combat, which began at dawn and ter- 
minated only at sunset, was renewed, as murder- 
ously and as ineffectually, on the following morn- 
ing. It was then, on the 30th of November, that 
the enemy descended once more into the ditch and 
gained the rampart, * but, by the grace of God, 
they were repulsed,' writes Soldo, whose words we 
are employing ; *' and to behold their men at arms 
with their plumed morions, tottering headlong 
from the battlements, was a great consolation* 
The air was darkened by the bombards, musque- 
toons, javelins, and stones discharged on both 
sides. Here might you see many dead corpses 
borne off, one killed by a cannon-shot, another by 
small arms, a third by a spear ; one half of the 
body, perhaps, carried away by the ball, the other 

• Soldo, 804. 


not to be found anywhere. Hard by stood women, 
lamenting, *' O my son !" or " O my husband !" 
No one felt any security that he should not be 
shattered in pieces, even to the very nails ofhisfeeL^ 

* On all sides women and children, and such as 
were unarmed or could not fight, flocked to the 
ramparts, bearing to every spot at which the 
battle was raging with the most fury, bread, cheese, 
or wine to refresh their defenders*/ The enemy 
was beaten back on that day also, and on 
some others which followed, with the most destruc- 
tive slaughter ; till at length, in the middle of 
December, Piccinino, exhausted by the severity 
of his losses and dispirited by repeated failures, 
dismantled his batteries, burned his engines^ 
and, retiring to winter-quarters, threw up sonde 
redoubts on the principal approaches to the town, 
and converted its siege into a blockade. 

The relief of these heroic citizens, still gallantly 

supporting themselves under complicated 

f;.?' ills, was one of Sforza's earliest objectSt 

' on assuming command, in the following 
Spring: but, for that purpose, it was requisite that 
he should first penetrate the strong lines within 
which Piccinino remained immovably intrenched 
on the Adige ; thus hazarding a general engage- 
ment at considerable disadvantage. Abandoning 
that project as almost hopeless, Sforza next thought 
of finding communication by the Lago di Garda. 
If supplies could once be embarked and transported 
across those waters, a small escort might convoy 
them to the neighbouring gates of Brescia, or a 

• Soldo, 801. 


Blight effort of the garrison itself might secure 
their admittance ; for if Piccinino should interpose 
between the City and the Lake, he would leave 
unprotected the approaches which he now masked. 
But in what manner was the command of the 
Lake to be obtained? The enemy navigated it 
with a strong flotilla, and occupied even the 
peaceful haunts of that Sirmio which the memory 
of Catullus could not secure from the ravages of 
War. The Venetians, on the other hand, did not 
possess a single boat upon its surfiice, and the 
immediate passage to it by the Mincio was closed 
against them since the defection of the Duke of 

These difficulties, after many days' consideration, 
appeared insurmountable to the Senate, when 
their attention was drawn to a proposal, which, at 
first, seemed to them but as the wild fancy of an 
insane visionary. Sorbolo, a Candiote, who 
had accurately reconnoitred the whole line of 
country which was to form the scene of his 
projected operations, offered, if he were provided 
with ships and funds, to transport a flotUla from 
Venice itself to the Lago di Garda. The astonish- 
ment of the Council at this unheard-of design was 
mixed with pity for the madman who could enter- 
tain it ; and they treated as devoid of reason one 
who imagined that it was within the compass of 
human power to convey a naval armament more 
than 200 miles, first through a difficult, inland 
navigation, and then over land itself. Sorbolo, 
however, who anticipated this reception, and was 
by no means discouraged at encountering it, per- 
severed in his representations; produced ample 


tegthnony of the Boundnees of his intellect and of 
his abilities as an Engineer ; submitted tbe gene- 
ral outline of his plan to the Senators ; explained 
its details, silenced th^r objections, stimulaled 
their hopes, and at last obtained permission to 
attempt the experiment. Six galleys, two of them 
of the first rate, and five and twenty barks were 
intrusted to him ; and, with that force, he com* 
menced and accomplished an enterprise which^ 
although subsequently disregarded, if not forgotten, 
from the want of any result adequate to its mag- 
nitude, may be reckoned among the most stupen- 
dous triumphs of human skill, and assuredly is 
without parallel in History. The much vaunted 
operation by which Mahomet 11. obtained posses- 
sion of the harbour of Constantinople, was bold and 
ingenious, but it cannot justly be assimilated to 
that of Sorbolo. The ground which Mahomet 
had to pass is described by Gibbon as ' uneven 
and overspread with thickets,' yet it was suffi- 
ciently level to admit a broad, wooden platform, 
along which the vessels, rolling smoothly and as- 
sisted by their sails, completed their course in the 
narrow compass of a single night. Three other 
transportations of ships over land are mentioned 
by the same Historian ; one by Hannibal, through 
a single street of Tarentum, from its citadel to the 
harbour ; another acknowledgedly fabulous, across 
the easy slip of the isthmus of Corinth, by Augustus 
after the Battle of Actium ; and a third, on the same 
spot, by Nicetas, a Greek General of the X^ 
Century*. Gibbon adds that it is not impossible 

• DeeHne and Fall, ch. Ixviil., vol. xil. p. 210. Phransa is the au. 
thority cited for the>peration8 of Augnstiu and Nic«ta8 ; Polybioa 
(viii. ad Jin.) for that of Hannibal. 


Sorbolo might be the adviser and agtot of Maho- 
met, a conjecture in which he has been preceded 
by the copious and indefiitigable Knowles * : and 
as there was a lapse of only fourteen years be- 
tween the two transactions, such a supposition it 
not forbidden by anachronism. 

The flotilla, having sailed to the mouth of the 
Adige, was towed, against its current, to a spot 
about eight leagues below Roveredo, probably that 
at which the little stream Comeraso discharges 
itself into the larger river. From that position to 
Torbolo, the nearest port on the North Eastern 
extremity of the Lago di Garda, is a distance in 
a straight line of nearly fifty miles. Somewhat 
more than half way is a small Lake called by the 
contemporary writers Sant* Andrea, and now 
known as the Lago di Loppio. To that Lake^ 
along a tract which is for the most part level, the 
smaller vessels were transported on carriages, and 
the galleys, having been mounted on rollers, were 
dragged by the joint labour of men and oxen { 
about three hundred of the latter being required 
for each ship. On the opposite bank rose Peneda, 
a part of the lofty and precipitous mountain-range 
of Baldo, stemming the waters over which it hung 
with an impregnable rampart, and presenting but 
a single narrow opening, formed by the slender 

Bnrclihardt, in his MaieriaU for a Hiatory of the Wahdbys, men- 
tions a bold oflTer made by an Englishman, in 1813, to Mohammed 
Aly, Pacha of Egypt. He proposed to convey a frigate from 
Alezaadria to Cairo by water, «nd tlience across the Desert t* 
Snea, a distance of about eighty miles. ' He seemed confident that 
the undertaking was practicable, but his project deviated too much 
from the usual routine of things to be adopted by the Turlcs.' 862. 

• Historic qfthe Turkes, p. S44. 


thread of a winter torrent By the slow toil of 
many thousand peasants collected from the neigh- 
bourhood, the base of that hard rock was levelled, 
the trees which choked, the bed of the almost 
headlong stream were felled, and its channel was 
sufficiently enlarged to admit the breadth of a 
galley; meanwhile the fragments of stone and 
the trunks and boughs of the trees which had fallen 
beneath the axe were employed to found a rude 
causeway, the surface of which was covered with 
earth ; and up this abrupt and tortuous passage, 
extending for more than a mile, the ships were 
painfully forced by levers, pulleys and windlasses, 
to the summit of the mountain, which is described 
as difficult of ascent at all times even to a lightly 
clad and unarmed traveller. Sabellico, who visited 
the spot, about fifty years afterwards, when assured 
that it was the line of this march, viewed it with 
astonishment and incredulity ; nor was his unbe* 
lief removed till the guides pointed to manifest 
traces, and shewed a deep rut worn into the rock, 
an eternal monument, as it were, of the mighty 
work of Sorbolo *. 

A small portion of table-land which crowned 
the mountain's head was speedily crossed, and, at 
its extreme verge, the wished-for Lake was de- 
cried. But here fresh and still greater difficulties 
than had hitlierto been encountered were to be 
overcome ; for the rock, for about half a mile, was 
almost scarped, thickly wooded, and untracked even 
by the slippery paths of a hunter or a goatherd. 
It seemed as if on such a spot the flotilla must be 
4estined to certain destruction : but the trees were 

•DecUI. Ub.d. 


again felled, and the |uckaxe hewed out a shelving 
coarse, dislodging huge masses of granite which^ 
as they thundered below, contributed to diminish 
the fearful height. After a few days' preparation, 
the ships, harnessed, if we may so say, to powerful 
machinery, and obedient to the huge tackling by 
which they were restrained, glided, slowly and almost 
insensibly, through a groove worn by their own 
weight, into the waters which bathed the foot of 
the mountain. One only, it is said, of the whole 
armament was disabled in this most extraordinary 
enterprise, which occupied three months in its per- 
formance ; fifteen days of which were consumed 
in the passage over land*. 

This labour and ingenuity, however, was after 
all but fruitlessly exerted ; for scarcely had the 
armament crossed the Lago di Garda when Pic- 
cinino overwhelmed it with a superior force, 
frustrated every movement which Sforza attempted 
in its support, and captured or destroyed the. 
greater number of its vessels. Thus baffled in his 
projects, irritated by disappointment, and feeling 
that his reputation demanded success for its main- 
tenance, Sforza determined on penetrating, at all 
hazards, to Brescia, now reduced to extremity. 
Want was at its height in that devoted City, and 
the streets, crowded with the dead or dying, 
echoed only to the cries of famished children, 
• Bread 1 Bread ! for the love of God, Bread !'t 
No other route, however, was open to the Vene- 
tian army than a dhrect countermarch by those 

* We hare here chiefly followed the minute narratire of Pogglo 
Bracciolini, Hiat, Flor, apud Muratori, XX. lib. Til. p. 
t Soldo, 819. 

62 BATTUE (XfraamA^ 

mountains over which Gatta Melata had effected 
his skilful retreat ; and that difficult course was^ 
accordingly, undertaken. But Piccinino carefully 
watched the progress, of his adversary, hung upon 
his steps, and, secure of the navigation of the 
Lago di Garda, was able to choose at pleasure the 
most ^Eivourable moment for attack. It was on 
die 9th oi November that Sforza presented him* 
self before the fortress of Tenna, which commands 
a narrow defile on the North-western angle of the 
Lake ; and Piccinino, unwilling to abandon that, 
important post, no longer deferred battie. The 
Venetians, entangled on disadvantageous ground^ 
fought with resolution, but with little hope of 
victory ; till the appearance of a detachment from 
llie garrison of Brescia on the neighbouring^ 
heights, whence they rolled heavy stones into the 
plain, struck the Milanese, whose rear they me- 
naced, with an ill-justiiied panic. Terror ran along 
their wavering lines till the rout became general ; 
and whole divisions, throwing away their arms, 
sought escape by flight, which, for the most part, 
only exposed them as a more easy prey to the 
pursuit of their enemies. Piccinino himself, with 
no more than ten companions, found refuge within 
the Castle of Tenna ; which afforded indeed safety 
for the moment, but, from its scanty garrison and 
slight defences forbade hope of any continued resist- 
ance. The Venetians, meantime, secure of their 
prisoner, disposed sentinels round the fortress, as 
evening fell, and confidently awaited his surrender 
on the following morning. To traverse the field 
of battle undetected, and to penetrate not only 
through the cordon of armed men by which the 


fort itself was surrounded, but, even through the 
Qiain Venetian army encamped in its rear, might 
be supposed an impossible attempt ; yet such was 
the daring enterprise upon which Piccinino unhe* 
sitatingly resolved. His difficulty was increased 
by liis infirmities, for, in consequence of former 
wounds, he was unable to walk without support^ 
and no horse could be procured in his present re* 
treat. Relying, however, on the tried fidelity of 
one of his attendants, a German, remarkable for 
extraordinary bodily strength, he placed himself in 
a sack half filled with rags ; and quitted his 
hiding-place, in the dead of night, borne on the 
shoulders of his trusty and vigorous guardian. 
When the Venetian sentinels challenged the Ger- 
man as he crossed the field of battle, he seemed 
and replied as if he were one of those Camp- 
followers whose hateful trade is to despoil the 
dead ; asserting that his present occupation was a 
search for booty, and his burden one of the slain 
who appeared of sufficient value to repay the 
trouble of carriage. Under that disguise, perhaps 
not wholly without connivance — for it was with 
CondotUeri that he was dealing, and Piccinino 
was beloved by all who at any time liad served 
under him — he gained a spot of safety and found 
means to provide bis master with a horse. A few 
hours placed the fugitive beyond the reach of pur« 
suit, and restored him to his companions in arms*. 

* Tbere are some Blight Tmriations in the different accovmts of 

this escape of Piccinino. We have followed that given by PlatiQa, 

H%8t. Mant apud Murat. XX. 829. and three lines which corroborate 

it in the Novw Man degettu N. Piceinini of Laurentius Spiritna 

of Perugia. 

Ftcesi detUro un taccho pn hvma morto 
La noete trarefvor molfo nascoso, 
Perirnt^ diUmianperJimo oijBorte.— ^IL 67 


In the following campaign, during the greater part 
of which Sforza continued to be successful, 
ilS' Brescia was at length permanently relieved. 
Both armies continued in perpetual activity; 
but to abridge the narrative of their numerous, ra- 
pid and inconclusive operations, would be no more 
than to frame a confused and ill-assorted patch- 
work. Winter terminated the operations of the field; 
and so soon as Sforza retired to cantonments, he re- 
ceived full proof that he had rightly estimated the 
policy which he might most advantageously adopt 
mhis transactions with Filippo- Maria. Although 
the arms of the Condottieri m the service of Milan 
had been unfortunate, they were still clamorous 
for reward : and, if the Duke had complied with 
their demands, he must have partitioned his do- 
minions among them. In order to disengage him- 
self from this rapacity, he made secret overtures 
to Sforza, [and again held out the glittering lure 
of a union with his daughter as the price of trea- 
chery to Venice. The situation of the Venetian 
General was at that moment full of peril. The 
bad faith of the Duke of Milan always rendered 
his proffers suspected, and hitherto he was not 
sufficiently distressed to find his interest in sin- 
cerity: nevertheless, although Sforza distinctly 
perceived that the hour had not yet arrived which 
was to elevate his fortunes to the lofty pinnacle 
he ever kept steadily in view; and although 
he determined to avoid any present committal of 
himself to the tempter by whom he was beset ; still 
a knowledge that he had been in communication 
with Milan was not likely to escape the keen and 
vigilant eye of the Venetian Signory ; and the fate 
of Carmagnuola announced the fearful conse- 


quences of their awakened jealousy. In order 
therefore to escape the possibility of suspicion, 
Sforza employed tiie winter in a visit to the Capi- 
tal, where he undisguisedly disclosed the proposals 
of Visconti, and was treated with that confidence 
and distinction which had been earned both by his 
loyalty and his valour. Francesco Barbaro and a 
hundred noble Brescians, his comrades, were in* 
vited at the same time to receive substantial tes- 
timonies of the gratitude of the Republic ; and the 
festivities in honour of all those illustrious guests 
were heightened by firesh rejoicings to celebrate 
the marriage of Giacopo loscari, a son of the 
Doge. The customary splendour of justs and 
tournaments, and the display of the Bucentaur 
freighted with the noblest and fairest matrons 
whom Venice could boast, formed the least gor- 
geous portion of those magnificent spectacles; 
during which a bridge was thrown across firom 
the Church of San Samuele to the Riva di San 
Bamabdf in order that the nuptial pomp might 
proceed on horseback to convey the Bride from 
the Palace of her Father Contarini. 

This absence of Sforza from his quarters enabled 
Piccinino to open the campaign with con- 
siderable success ; and the parsimony of \^i 
Venice had so far crippled her General, that 
in the middle of the ensuing summer his forces 
were altogether inadequate to face his opponent. 
By a series of skilful manoeuvres, however, he 
avoided any general engagement; and, having 
gained a march upon his enemy, he sat down be- 
fore the fortress of Martenengo, which intersected 
the communication between Bergamo and Brescia. 

VOL. II. p 


But tliat Caatie was rtrongly garrisoned; and 
Piccinino, first extending his mu^ superior num* 
bers, and then gradually contracting their circle, 
at last completely surrounded the hostile camp, 
cut oiF its supplies, made retreat impossible, and 
threatened its rear if the operations of the Siege 
should be continued. The forage and provisions 
ef Sforza were already exhausted; no convoys 
could penetrate the lines by which he was envir 
roned ; day and night his troops were harassed by 
real or false attacks ; and, even if he should at* 
tempt, as a last hope, to cut his way through the 
Milanese, his own means were so feeble when 
compared with the great strength of his enemy'^ 
position, that the escape of any part of his army 
was more than doubtful. Every hour contributed 
to increase his peril, and he already surrendered 
himself to the most melancholy forebodings ; the 
sun of his glc^ appeared about to «et in darkness ; 
the loss of his bands involved in it the total de- 
struction of his power; and all those long and 
fondly cherished dreams of future Sovereignty 
which he had lately deemed approaching their 
realization, were now, alas ! to be dissipated for 

But the Duke of Milan had far too much si^a* 
city not to perceive that, if he completed the de- 
struction of Sforza, he should at the same time 
deprive himself oif the single counterpoise by 
which he could hope to balance his own refractory 
Generals ; and, paradoxical therefore as it might 
seem, Sforza never possessed so commanding an 
influence as at this very moment in which he 
appeared to stand on the brink of ruin. While he 

Tiscoirri omits pxacb. 67 

kftooded despondmgly orer his eheerless prospects, 
one of the most oonfidentiAl agents or Filippo* 
Maria was introduced, at midnight, to his tent. 
After vividly pourtraying the certain dangers to 
wlach the Venetian army was exposed and th« 
impossibility of its escape, that envoy represented 
also the motives which induced his master not to 
press his triumph to extremity ; and he concluded 
with an unexpected offer of Peace; to obtain 
which the Duke of Milan would not only abandon 
all the conquests made by Piccinino during the 
present campaign, but would also immediately 
complete the marriage between Sforza and his 
daughter, bestowing upon her as a dowry the 
territory of Cremona. There could not now be 
any reason for mistrusting the sincerity of this 
proposal; for Sforza was already in Visoonti's 
power, and it was unnecessary to deceive him» 
Equally astonished therefore and overjoyed, the 
Venetian General, although not intrusted with 
plenary autfaor^y, accepted the welcome condi* 
tions on his ovm responsibility. The prelimina- 
ries were signed ait the moment; and, on the 
morrow, both Picdnino in the Milanese camp 
and the Proweditori in that of the Venetians, 
teceived, with similar wonder although with far 
different satistaetion, tibe announcement that hos- 
tilities had ceased. The former, heart-stricken at 
perceiving the fruits of a whole life of toil and 
peril wrested from his grasp at the moment in 
wluch he felt most secure of their possession ; 
imd learning the aggrandisement of his rir al when 
he most confidently anticipated his utter humilii^ 
ttcm, at first refused obedience ; and, when conw 

F 2 


pelled by threats of coercion to fulfil his orders^ 
he bitterly denounced the proverbial ingratitude 
of Princes. It was now, said the veteran war- 
rior, that he first painfully felt the overwhelming 
burden of old age. He had wasted his best years, 
had endured loss of health and vigour, and had 
become infirm from wounds, in the service of a 
master who, at the close of a life devoted to the 
advancement of his interests, deemed him un- 
worthy of admission to his Councils; and be* 
stowed the very Provinces, which himself had so 
often either defended or conquered, upon that 
enemy from whom they had been either shielded 
or regained. 

Yet in spite of these just reproaches, which 
Piccinino uttered against Visconti, he consented 
to an interview with Sforza, and the two great 
Generals met with apparent confidence and cor* 
diality. The small suite which accompanied them 
was unarmed, and each expressed and probably 
felt for the other profound, sentiments of esteem. 
Their camps were no longer separated, and in 
their union they exhibited a scene of unbounded 
festivity. Meantime, the decided step which Sforza 
had taken was notified and approved at Ve- 
nice. Perhaps, he might not be wholly without 
misgiving as to the judgment which would be 
passed upon it by his employers. But the Sig*- 
nory loudly applauded his prompt exercise of dis* 
cretion; their Plenipotentiaries attended a Con- 
gress at Capriana, whence the Peace there con- 
cluded derived its name; and when Sforza had 
received the hand of his youthful Bride, who is 
described to have possessed rare beauty joined 


to yet rarer talents, he was invited, together with 
the Princess, to the Venetian Capital, where they 
were entertained with im wonted magnificence. 

The few remaining years of the Duk6 of Mi- 
lan's life continued to be agitated by liis former ever* 
fluctuating policy. At one moment in alliance^ 
at the next engaged in war with Sforza; now 
provoking Venice by hasty infractions of the 
Treaty of Capriana, and then as unexpectedly 
negotiating with her; this subtle, restless, in- 
triguing and unhappy Prince remained unchanged 
on his very death-bed, dissembled to the public 
eye the malady by which he was oppressed, and 
expired before any one, except liis Physicians, 
suspected his danger or even his disorder. 
The personal habits of this last Duke of ^^^* 
the House of Visconti have been drawn, Aug.V« 
with singular minuteness, by one accu- 
rately qualified for the task, Pietro Candido De* 
cembrio*, a son of the private Secretary of Gio* 
vanni Galeazzo, and who himself filled more than 
one high ofifice in the Court of Filippo- Maria. 
The character which he has described presents an 
odious mixture of cunning, superstition and cow- 
ardice; paralleled, in many instances, by one 
whose biography has been almost as closely re- 
corded, the detestable Louis XI of France. Some 
of the particulars which we give below may, per- 
haps, be considered almost unworthy even of the 
trifiing pages of a Memoir-writer ; but we tran- 
scribe them as illustrative not only of the manners 
of a remarkable individual^ but in some measure 
of the general habits of his Age. 


The person of FiUppo-Maria was most for* 
bidding*, and extreme meagreness in youth was 
succeeded, as life advanced, hj a more than pro^ 
portionale obesity. His eyes were large, fiery 
and piercing, ever wandering with a restless glare, 
as if unable or unwilling to continue long fixed 
in repose on a single object. From weakness is 
bis legs, he always employed a stick, and, during 
his whole reign, no one ever saw him walking 
without the support of an attendant. Although 
choice in the richness and fashion of his clothes, 
he was negligent, even to uncleanliness, in the 
processes of shaving and combing. In other per- 
sons he abhorred any s|^ndour of attire, and 
forbade those who used it from approaching his 
presence : insomuch, tha^ when, on one occasion^ 
Amadeus, a Piedmonteoe Prince, connected widi 
him by marriage, presented himself, at an ao* 
dience, in a fimtastic mode borrowed from the 
French, and at that time very prevalent among 
personages of distincttou, the Dvke of Milan 
ordered his Forester to bring up some hounds 
Strapped in those hunting doublets which were 
worn for protection in the wild-boar^hase ; and 
pointed, in derision, to the lea^em-girt dogs as 
^tting mates for his tightly appardiled visitor. In 
his diet he was most whimsical; tumeps and 
quails were among his chief luxuries ; yet, such 
was his detestation of fat, that every morsel of it 
was carefully pared away from the latter b^ore 
ihey were dressed. But the livers of all ani* 

* Decembrio does not allow the iU-fayonredness of his master | 
yet It certainly may be deduced from some ot his eiqpresstont* 
iEneas Sylrios affirms It In tke ptadnat terms. 


mals formed lus choicest dainty, and his Cook 
was frequently summoned in the dead of night to 
kill a cfl^f and prepare that favourite repast. The 
fowls destined ioi his table were generally plucked 
in his presence. His chief amusements were 
fidd- sports, and so retentive was his memory on 
subjects connected with the kennel and the 
stable, that he could tell the breed of a puppy but 
once se«i*, and knew accurately the number of 
bridles which he ought to find in his harness* 
room. Many of his dogs were imported from 
Britain ; yet however passionately fond he might 
be both of them and of horses, to each he was a 
eaprickras and, sometimes, a cruel master: thus, 
if a hound committed a fault, he would dismount 
and flog him savagely with his own hand ; if a 
horse nei^ed unseasonably, he would mutilate 
his tongue ; and if the poor animal champed the 
bit, he would pull out his teeth. Within doors* he 
occasionally employed himself in reading, for all 
the Viscmiti cultivated Literatuns ; and he had the 
good taste to prefer livy, Dante, and Petrarch to 
moat other writers. Yet not a few of his leisure 
hours were devoted to the inspection, perhaps 
to the actual management, of a Puppet^howf, 
upon which toy he had expended the great sum of 
1500 pieces of gokU 

For the most part, howev^, he lived in close 
seclusion ; and even his Pages underwent a long 
discipline of tuition to qualify them for the morose- 
Bess and aseetidsm of their future master. They 

• Like Che glutton of the Satirist/— 

Qui semel atpecH lUiui He^ai ecMni. 


were separated from their families during two 
years, and exercised in silence and solitude under 
fitting governors, till they became accustomed to 
the habits of the melancholy Court which they 
were about to enter. Clinging strongly to life» 
and contemplating its termination with alarm, 
Filippo-Maria daily recounted to his Physicians, 
with the minutest particularity, all curcumstances 
affecting his health, listened with trembling 
anxiety to their reports in answer, and yielded 
implicit obedience even to their most frivolous 
prescriptions. All conversation which might 
bring Death to mind was carefully avoided in his 
presence, and, if the discourse at any time hap- 
pened to involve any allusion to mortality, ne 
shrank from it with manifest uneasiness. Evea 
when bodily infirmity increased upon him, and 
when in his latter years he was afflicted with 
almost total blindness, so unwilling was he to 
expose that defect to observation, that his attend- 
ants were instructed to warn him secretly of ail 
objects or persons near at hand, so that he might 
not inadvertently betray his want of sight. If he 
walked abroad, he appeared absorbed in incessant 
devotion, repeating prayers in a low voice and 
counting them on his fingers; insomuch that 
Religion seemed with him not an acknowledg- 
ment of God's goodness, but a laborious propitia- 
tion of the Divine wrath ; and, whenever his daily 
sum of prayer was in any part forgotten or 
curtailed, he endeavoured to compound for the 
omission by a proportionate excess of almsgiving, 
prompted not by charity, but by terror. His 
sleep was so uncertain and disturbed, that he 


frequently changed his couch thrice in the course 
of a single night, lying not in the ordinary 
manner lengthwise, but across it; or he arose 
and paced his cliamber, for many hours succes- 
sively, with some of the attendants, who always 
watched in an ante-room. If his dreams had 
been evil, he prayed in tones scarcely audible* 
turning, at intervals, to each of the four Cardinal 
points ; and in order that the silence which he 
dreaded in his dark hours of sleeplessness might 
be broken, many night-birds were confined in the 
Palace Courts, whose screams were more grateful 
to his ears than uninterrupted stillness. A belief 
in judicial Astrology was prevalent in his times, 
and he may be forgiven for addiction to a folly by 
which even the wise have been enslaved. It but 
little, therefore, surprises us to hear that he was a 
rigid Fatalist ; that during conjunction, opposition, 
sextile, square and trine, he shut himself up in his 
Cabinet, and denied audience even to his Ministers ; 
that he struck a golden medal, impressed with 
planetary characters, as a talisman against light* 
ning ; that he raised a double wall in his bed* 
chamber to protect himself from thunder; and 
that, during storms, he fell prostrate in a remote 
comer before an Imaffe of Sta. Barbara. In those 
points he but shared the superstitions common to 
his Age ; but we regard with equal astonishment, 
contempt, and pity, a Prince who thought it un- 
lucky if he fastened his right shoe on his left foot; 
who on Friday dreaded the encounter of persons 
who were unshorn, and forbore on the same day 
from handling any bird, especially a quail ; who 
would not mount a horse on the Feast of John the 


Baptist, nor wear any emit but green cm tbe let ol 
May ; and who refused to eat on one occasion, till 
the dishes had been removed and ref^aced, be*, 
cause the Sewer, while decking the table, had 
unwittingly approached it with the wrong foot 
foremost. Sudi, however, were a few of the 
anilities recorded of one who has been esteemed 
&e most politic Sovereign of his time ; and who, 
if the wisdom of Kings is to be graduated by no 
other scale than th^ of the mastery which they 
attain of simulation and dissimulation, abundantly 
merited the unenviable distinction which he 
coveted and enjoyed. 

Although Filippo-Maria died without legitimate 
issue, he claimed a right to bequeath his do- 
minions by Will, and four of those Instruments 
were produced on his demise. The first two 
named distant relatives, a thixd recognised the Prin<» 
eess Bianca as sole legatee, and in the last, signed 
not many days before his death, at the very mo« 
aaent at which he affected a renewal of con- 
fidential intercourse with Sforza, he <Msinherited 
his daughter, and appointed as his suceesaot 
Alfonso King of Naples. But the Milanese were 
ill inclined to submit their liberties to the pleasure 
of a deceased master ; and although two parties 
within the wails respectively advocated the pre- 
tensions of Sforza and Alfonso, a great migorily 
of the Citizens persisted in the assMrtioii of in* 
dependence, and Milan declared herself a free 
Republic. Sfoxza, reduced to his single fief of 
Cremona, exposed to the resentment of Venice 
whose alliance he had abandoned, and iax too 
weak to press by arms any claim to the succession 


of his Father-in-law, de&teroiuly iemponsed with 
this new Govemment, and accepted the connnand 
.<of its forees. The overtmes for Peace whkh the 
Milanese, oa their fimt assertion of liberty, had 
made to Venice, were rejected by that haughty 
State; and she paid dearly in Uie end for thia 
mists^en policy upon which the future eleveiion of 
Sforza was mainly founded. 
• In the ensuing campaign, Sforsa was eminently 
ancceasfuL He took Piacenza, the second City 
in Lombardy, by storm ; and at Gasal Maggiore 
he whi^y destroyed a large Venetian fl<£iUa. 
The Brescianos if e<Miquered, had been stipuhkted 
as the price c^his services, and thither acc<adingly 
he earnestly wished to march immediately afttt 
this vietory. But it was for their own security, 
not for the aggrandisaoient of their General, that 
Ihe Milanese were warring, and they peremptorily 
iostnieted him to bedege Caravaggio, a strongly 
fortified town, in the marshes between the Adda 
smd the OgMo ; which, next to Lodi, was the most 
formidable possession of Venice in the Cremasca 
Sforza did not yet find it seasonable to disobey; 
and he sat down before Caravaggio in an en^ 
trenched camp, completdy environing the town, 
and defended both by the numerous canals which 
every where intersected the neighbourhood, and 
hf lines carefully thrown up in his rear aa well as in 
his fronts Within three days after hia occupation 
oi that post, he was followed by the Venetians under 
Attendolo, who pitched his tents close at hand, 
-and str^igthened hia camp by similar field-works* 
Daily ^rmishes ensued with the cost of many 
irras on both sides, but each party was too cautious 
Jn hazard a general acticm ; nor was it till after 


more than thirty days diligently employed in form* 
ing his preparations for attack, and increasing 
those for defence, that Sforza opened his batteries 
on Caravaggio. A breach was shortly reported 
to be practicable, but even then he was apprehen* 
sive of assaulting in the presence of a vigilant 
enemy. In the Venetian camp, much variety of 
opinion prevailed respecting future operations^ 
Attendolo himself and his more experienced Offi* 
cers calculated that the want of confidence evident 
between Sforza and the Government of Milan^ 
the jealousies known to exist among the hostile 
Generals, and their daily-increasing difficulty of 
obtaining supplies, must ere long compel them to 
abandon their present quarters ; and therefore that 
the necessity of risking a battle might be avoided. 
But, on the other hand, a hotter spirit was found 
in Tiberto Brandolini, who, having penetrated to 
Sforza's lines in disguise, felt confident that he 
had ascertained a passage by which not only 
Caravaggio might be relieved, but the besieger's 
army itself, also, might be surprised and routed. 
The Senate was appealed to for decision between 
the conflicting plans, and, notwithstanding its habi« 
tual caution, it pronounced in favour of the boldest 
One extremity ofSforza's camp rested on a morass 
covered with high brushwood, which was deemed 
impassable ; but it was through that difficult tract 
that Brandolini had discovered a secure approach* 
On the 15th of September, Attendolo, leaving 
his whole infantry and about sixteen hundred horse 
in his camp, with instructions to amuse the enemy 
by the usual show of skirmishing, entered the mo* 
rass without being discovered, at the head often 
thousand cavalry. The time chosen was about 


noon, on a Sunday, Sforza, who, with his principal 
officers, was attending Mass in a chapel ot the Vii^ 
gin, near the walls of Caravaggio*, was advised 
that some movement had taken place in the ene* 
my's camp ; and, not knowing on what quarter to 
expect attack, he rode forward, unarmed, to recon* 
noitre. Meantime Attendolo disengaged his troops 
from the wood, and put to flight a small patrol 
which first encountered him under Carolo Gonzaga; 
who, havinff received a slight sabre cutintheftice* 
turned his horse at full speed, nor stopped till he 
announced at Milan a total defeat of his comrades. 
The camp, as it was thought, was now surprised 
in flank, and victory appeared certain to the assail- 
ants. But Tiberto, in his reconnoissance, had not 
observed a deep wet fosse, which protected it on 
the side of the morass ; and which cutting also the 
narrow platform already gained, midway between 
the wood and Caravaggio, effectually obstructed 
at that point the advance of the heavy-armed ca» 
valry. On the inner bank of that fosse, Sforza, 
who now penetrated Attendolo's design, collected 
his main force, and although still but half armed, 
with his cuirass hastily buckled on and without 
greaves or brassarts, he watched the moment at 
which his enemy would be checked by this unex- 
pected barrier. Their van was led by an officer 
well known to Sforza, Roberto Bodiense; who, 
mounted on a fiery horse and clad in glittering 
armour, looked every where around him for a pas- 
sage, and throwing a confident glance on the ranks 
opposed to him, called out with military bluntness^ 
* Count, you have no chance to-day of escaping 
from hot water ! ' * Trust me, Roberto,' was Sforza's 

• p. Jottiniani, vlii. p. 194. Sabellico, Ui. p. 872. 


answer, m a similar tone of raillery, ' you are noi 
tikely to get away without paying your host hig 
full reckoning ! ' and, at the word, orderii^ a draw- 
bridge behind the Venetians to be lowered, he 
directed a charge upon them so unexpectedly ia 
«ar, that they wavered and gave way. As he 
observed the uncertain quivering of the hostile 
lances, wben the two lines first encountered, ht 
lecognized it as a sure sign of victory, and ex* 
claimed that the day was his own. A second bridge 
poured forth upon their now shattered mass a fvesii 
column in front ; till, despairing of success, Uiey 
betook themselves to the morass, as afifording the 
BcAe chance of escape. Few, however, could regain 
the firm path by which they had advanced, and dieix 
pursuers, allowed than to plunge into the miry 
depths, from which they were extricated only to be^ 
Gome prisoners* Among the first who surrendered 
was their leader, Roberto Bodiense, who, in the 
vain hope of disengaging himself, and aiming now 
at safety instead of triumph, had dismounted and 
stripped off his heavy armour. Sforza, leaving 
belund him the prey of which he was certain 
OB his return, pressed forward to the enemy's 
camp, Ibrced its lines and captured the £ye thousand 
infontry by which it was defended. Stores, bag* 
-gage, tents and treasure, arms, horses, standards, 
and artillery, almost all the chief officers, and nearly 
fifteen thoijusand prisoners, were the firuits of this 
•day's easy, although most complete, victory. Every 
.iiorse-boy of the Milanese, it is said, returned 
opulent with pillage. Attendolo himself had the 
good fortune to escape, singly, from the rout, and ht 
endeavoured to collect at Brescia the scattered 
remnant of his army, now amounting in all but to 

«xwiB)OsiTY OF srosiA. 79 

two thousand men. The prisonen, according to the 
cuBtom of the time, and in this instanoe also from 
the difficulty which the conqaerors found in guaid* 
ing numbers almost equal to their own, were 
stripped of their arms and aoooutrementa, and then 
restored to freedom. 

Among his captives none couM afford higher 
gratification to Sforaa than the two Yenetiail 
Proweditori ; and in his treatment of one of them 
lie exhibited a brilliant instance of dignified for* 
bearance. Machiavelli, die contemporary His* 
torian, who preserves this noble tcait of character, 
does not inform us whether it was Hermolao 
Donato or Gerardo Dandolo*, who from the com* 
mencement of hostilities had indulged in rude and 
unmeasured invectives whenever Sforsa's name waa 
mentioned. The * Bastard' and the Mowbom* 
were the terms by which he had been used to dis* 
tinguish him. Exposed by his capture to the 
merited vengeance of him whom he had thus in* 
suited, he was led to the Count's tent overpowered 
with terror, and there, meanly humble in proper-* 
tion to his former insolence, he bowed down at hie 
feet, with tears and 8a{^ications for pardon* 
Sforza raised hhn gently, and, taking his hand^ 
bade him be of good cheer, and apprehend no ilL 


* There can be no doubt from the narrative of Poggio BraccioIInf^ 
|^BI«#. Ftorent. yiiL ap, Marat, zx. 424.) that It was Dandolo } an4 
flMt he had employed much more than hard vordc agaioat Sforav 
whoiBe life he pntonaUy Bought, on one occasioa, with great farf^ 
when the Count was embarrassed by a horse which had been shot 
under him at the Siege of Piacenza. Donato, it seems, after the 
battle of Caravaggfo, might have escaped, but he preferred surren* 
derii^ himself, stating, at the same Ume, that if he retomed (• 
Venice in freedom, after so great a defeat, he knew the fate wliicb 
he must expect from the Council of Z* 


* I wonder/ he continued, ' that a person of your 
gravity and prudence should have fallen into the 
grievous error of speaking ill of one undeserving 
evil report. As for the matters concerning 
which you have accused me, I know not what passed 
between my Father Sforza and my Mother Lucia. 
I was not present, nor had I any means of regu- 
lating the connexion, whatever it might be, wliich 
subsisted between them. On such a point, I do 
not think therefore that either praise or blame can 
deservedly attach to me. But for those things 
which belong to my own share, I have ever en* 
deavoured so to act as to avoid reproach, and to 
the truth of this assertion both yourself and your 
Senate are able to bear testimony. For the future, 
let me admonish you to be more charitable in 
speaking of others, and more cautious in your own 
affairs*.' Self-restraint indeed was one of Sforza's 
most eminent virtues : an instance of it in a much 
earlier part of his life, which his Biographer 
Simoneta has detailed at lengthy but which, as it 
does not belong to our narrative, would be mis- 
placed here, is a more remarkable example of the 
triumph of generous moral feeling, than even the 
well known Continence, as it is called, of Scipio f. 
If Peace were necessary to Venice after these 
great losses, it was scarcely less desirable for 
Sf ilan, whose General had now conquered for him* 
self the right of independence. But from the 
hostile City, already in the enjoyment of the fruits 
of victory, no very advantageous terms were to be 
expected by the Signory ; to Sforza, on the con- 
trary, they had much to offer, and from him there- 

* Machiar. Isi. Fior. t!. 
t Simoneta de reb gett, F, Sforia ap, Murat. zzi» 962. 


fore much in return might be obtained. Sforza, 
in the following negotiation, which was conducted 
through some of his priaonera, has been taxed with 
perfidy to the State oy which he was employed : 
out it is obvious that each party had been lonff 
weary of connexion with the other ; that the bond 
uniting the Condattieri with those by whom he 
was hired, was at all times easy to be loosed; and 
that upon the alliance offered by Venice appeared 
to depend the attainment of that substantial prize, 
to the pursuit of which he had dedicated the best 
years of his life. His choice lay between the 
realization of all his brilliant hopes if he withdrew 
from his present unsatisfactory engagement, and 
the probability of ungrateful rejection by those 
whom he had already so largely and so thanklessly 
benefited, if he adhered to it. So that the ded* 
sion which he finally adopted may be palliated, by 
considering it rather an act of self-defence than ft 
breach of good faith. In the course of October, he 
agreed to surrender to Venice the entire Cremasco, 
and all his conquests in Bergamo and Brescia, and 
in return he was recognized and guaranteed as 
successor to the other dominions of Filippo- Maria, 
to procure the submission of which the Signory 
promised both men and money. Victory, it would 
seem, was little necessary for the aggrandisement of 
a Power which, on the total destruction of a fleet 
and an army, could found the acquisition of a 

Before the close of the following year, Venice 

occupied all the promised fortresses, and 
1449.* then, for the first time, manifested coldness 

to her new ally. Her crooked State-craft 

VOL. II. o 

89 {Duei^cxTY 'OF 'Ybhics. 

instnicted her Ihat Ao divide the Milanese iota 
two separate small donuiDiaiHS was far jaaore to dier 
own adva(iitage:thaii te'eetahyfih^Mie BtiMmg GoveciH 
nient, in a single hand ; and, in the very teeth -of 
her recent .guarantee, «he (concluded Peace with 
Milan, requiring Sforza to acknowledge that Re- 
public, And to 'rest ^content with. a amall aliotmeiit 
for himself, carved out from the former territaiy 
of Visconti. War, as may ^be supposed, was «e* 
newed between the Count and the Stgnory. Duong 

many months he blockaded Milan, till F«- 
1460.' mine raged within it in its extremest 

horrors. The Venetians, *meantinae, weve 
satisfied to observe the 'besieging army,. and to in- 
tercept the suq!>plie6 of Sforaa's camp with oao kflg 
certainty than he did those of fiiiilan. Their posi- 
tion was securely chosen ; they relied .mote upon 
time than upon the sword for ultimate success^ 
and they abstained from any attempt io relieve 
their allies, from a detestable calculation that the 
Citizens must ultimately submit, and that the 
chances were in favour 'of their opening their gates 
to Venice as their future mistreBa, rather thiui to 

But this cruel inaction frustrated its own pur« 
pose. The famished populace, stimulated by their 
own misery and by the indiforence of their nominal 
friends, surrounded ihe Palace in which the Mt^ 
gistrates were discussing ithe necessity 4>f throw- 
ing themselves into the arms of Venice. The 
proposal when comiminicated to the people was 
received with indignation ; «nd an ilMimed address 
from the Venetian envoy, Leonardo Venieri, who 
employed menaces instead of conciliation, roused 


Hbem. to'acto^^f'violeBce of'vrliick he became %ke 
eariiest victhn. This «efltton, remltkig more 
fiMmi impatienoe nf catttiHied eiiiferiiig Ahim from 
mi^ prearranged design, fientanued IbMMigh the 
night BBoeeediiig a day mlach, had been itaiaed 
bv -hloodBhed : and, tm 4be morrow, when 4he 
t^ief'Qiftizflns again aaeemhled and denumded wlMft 
•rere the ^iflhee of the infangenU, no «ne mm 
fvepared to euggeet .any vbfinite course ; but .the 
umTerBal ¥oioe rejected, wilh •equal labhoneiMcv 
eobmisBian neither to Sferufor to ^ Yeneliaofl, 
She inrmer, iHnwvar, was nat wd^ient saeret agents 
within the walk, skilled In Ahe suhde tdireotien of 
popukr movements, and .ready to <psofit by suck 
c9mportunitie8 as it nvas ifomseen onust oceur. One 
en those partizanB, eeiaing a favourable moment^ 
addressed 'the rabble ; painted m strong ofdours the 
XKcapaoity of every other pioteotor who had been 
named ; waunted the power, the goodness, and the 
nlemency <of S&nrza ; and asserted his akoost legi- 
timate and hereditary pretensions, as the adopted 
son 'ofitheiriate Fiance, and the husband of his 
daughter. Saoh a connexion, he urged, moot 
appear the meat natural which they could esta- 
b&i^ ; 3t twould ensure immediate Peace ; and, on 
the ;v:ery niomeBt at 'whioh it was announced, it 
would terminate their present most intolerable 
sufferings. This iprei|Msot of instant relief, ao 
adroitly exhibited, was the master-key to ttha 
passions of the onultitude. The loud curses whioh 
nad before pursued the name of Sforza were ex- 
changed for equally clamorous bursts of applause; 
he was hailed as the lawful Sovereign and the 
only delivever of Milan ; and his wily agent, Gas* 



paro di Vilmercato, was deputed to convey to hioiy 
at the instant, the adhesion of his new subjects. 

Sforza, apprized of the state of popular feeling, 
was already approaching the walls, and, as a 
pledge of friendly intention, each horseman in his 
escort bore with him an ample provision of bread. 
Far in advance of the city, he was met by an eager 
crowd, whose shouts of joy were increased by this 
welcome and unexpected distribution of food 
among their starving ranks. But to the Count's 
surprise, when he arrived at the ramparts, the 
gates were closed and the drawbridges raised; 
while a small band of the nobler class addressed 
him from within, and^ as a condition of his en- 
trance, proffered an oath which might secure the 
immunities of the State and preserve it from the 
rule of an unrestricted master. Vilmercato again 
succeeded in removing this new obstacle; and 
Sforza, confident in the support of his armed fol« 
lowers, hurried on by the enthusiastic violence of 
the rabble, and little willing to render that throne 
conditional which might be his own without stipu- 
lation, so soon as the gate was opened rode on at 
once to the Cathedral ; and there, at its porch in 
the open street, unable to dismount from the pres- 
sure of the countless throng which surrounded 
him, offered up a brief thanksgiving for the boon 
which Heaven had vouchsafed. Then, having 
distributed troops in such posts as might best se- 
cure possession of the City, he returned to his 
Camp. Within a month the remainder of Lom* 
bardy was subdued or tendered its submission ; 
and on the 25th of March, Sforza, accompanied 
by Bianca and his children, made a solemn entry 
into his Capital., The Magistrates had prepared 

DUKB or WLAN. 83 

foi him a triumphal car and the rich canopy 
which appertuna to Royalty, but he rejected those 
gaudy trappings as unsuited to his habits ; and 
assuming his Fiincedom, as he had fought for h, 
in a Soldier's guise, on horseback, he received the 
homage of his Citizens, and transferred the Ducal 
Crown of Milan to the line of The Pbjlbant or 




FBOM A.9. U» TO A«D. U7*» 

Continuation orthe War with Francesco Sforza— Visit «of the Etar- 
peror Frederic III. to Venice — Peace with Sfona^TVeaty wHb 
the Turlcs— Robbery of the Treasury of St. Mark's— The two 
Foscari— The Inquisition of State— Turicisfa War— Crusade of 
Pius II. — Death of Francesco Sforzfi— Invasion of Friuii— Fall of 
Croia— Siege of Scutari— Peace with Sfahomet II. 



FitANCBsco FoseABi— deposed. 
1457. L£7iii. Fasoalb Mujpibrx. 
1462. uux. Chbistoporo Moro. 
1471. ixx. Niooix) Tbono. 
1473.' unci. N1C01.0 Maroblio. 


The title of Eranoesoo Sforza to the Dukedom of 
Milan was- not vscognized by Venice till four years 
after he had obtained virtual posflession of the 
Crown, and that period was occupied by an indeci- 
sive and uninteresting war. Each party sedulously 
avoided the haiaid of a general engage m e n t; and 
the singular expedient whieh Sforza adopted on 
one occasion, with the seeming wish of provoking 
his enemy to combat, was far more probably em- 
ployed in order that- he might escape the imputa« 

ms ywKMVtAif ARinr. 87 

tion of liackwavdneBSy tluw diet he might really 
oixtun* a final appeal to avms. After a campaign 
of varied' maaoeuvree^ in which each Com- 
mander successfully eltnked his adversary, ^* 
tiie Duke of Milan despatched a Herald to 
Ibe Camp of Gentile LeoniSBa, ^e General of 
Ae Repablie, bearing a bloody gauntlet and invi* 
ting him< to a pitched battle : &e plain of Monte*' 
ehiaro was named as the field, the time was left to 
Ae duHce of ^e Venetians. This formal cartel, 
the words of wkich< were precisely dictated by 
Sfona; himself wasarfbimaJly answered*. Two 
gauntlets and two lances dipped in blood t were 
BBtmrned by the Herald, as pledges of faith, and 
tiie defiance' was- accepted- for the third' succeeding 
day, between* three and four hour» after sunrise. 
Meantime, instructions were issued similar to those 
which regulated a combat in the lists, and the pre» 
liminaites> were adjusted wit^ nice attention to the 
habita of Chivalry. When the Milanese displayed 
their line upon the plain on the appointed morning, 
a thick fog prevented th^n from discovering their 
enemy; and, as- it withdrew, only a smail detach- 
ment appeared in sight. The remainder were 
partly intrenched under cover of the neighbouring 
woods, or protected from attack by strong, 
marshy ground ; partly threatening ^e scantily 
guarded Camp of their opponents. A heavy rain 
prohibited Sforzi^s adi^ance, and after having 

* Botti Sfbiia*8«BaU«ii8»snA'£Mnbn!tTeplr «« ^rm at Imgia 
by- aiinoaeta* ap4 Muiait. xjci» S29. 

t Ancus Martins instituted a similar custom aft Borne on a decia* 
ration of War. Fieri solitumt ut Fecialet hastatn ferratam out san* 
galneam frtmtttam a^JiuM'€9nmftrret, JAwj I," 


erected a column on Ihe plain, upon which ihie 
gauntlets of Leonissa were suspended as trophies, 
he retired to his quarters, claiming victory hecause 
he had first offered defiance. 

While engaged in this harassing and inglorious 
conflict, the Republic nevertheless exhibited in hex 
Capital a scene of extraordinary rejoicing. Fre- 
deric III., twelve years after his election to the Em- 
pire, assumed the Imperial diadem at Home. The 
Iron Crown of Lombardy, which in our own times 
has been the coveted prize of the greatest conqueror 
in Modem History, was disregarded by the weak 
Austrian Prince; because it was preserved at 
Monza in custody of the new Duke of Milan, whose 
title he refiised to confirm. On returning fi*om 
his Coronation, Frederic, with his newly married 
Consort, Eleonora of Portugal, revisited Venice, 
through which City he had before passed on his 
progress to Rome. The eternal Bucentaur, sur« 
rounded by unnumbered vessels of every name and 
burden, glittering with brocade and tapestry, gold, 
silk and banners, — ^the Doge and his Court, — the- 
Patricians and their noble Dames, — all of dignity 
and beauty which Venice could display, poured 
forth to honour the Imperial guests, on their days 
of separate arrival. A long and brilliant . course 
of festivities succeeded ; and, at a public Ball, the 
illustrious pair condescended to mingle personally 
in the dance. Besides a golden Crown set with 
jewels presented to Eleonora herself, the Senate, 
as a pledge of affection and fidelity to a generation 
yet to come, offered to the babe of which the Em- 
press, although not yet fifteen, already ^ave pro- 
mise, a costly mantle, and a purple coverlid for its 


eradle, richly interwoYen with pearls. If we are to 
believe Justiniani *, the Emperor, at a Banquet in 
the Ducal Palace, foretold that this bribe to the 
unborn infant would prove unavailing ; and turn- 
ing to Foscari, while he protest iiis own un* 
changeable attachment to Venice, at the same time 
lamented the injuries which he foresaw would 
hereafter be inflicted on her by his descendants. 
There is yet another anecdote connected with this 
Imperial visit, which, for the credit of the chief 
actor in it, might be wished forgotten. Among 
the presents tendered to the acceptance of Frederic 
was a magnificent service of the purest crystal 
glass, from the furnaces of Murano, long the chief 
emporium of that once rare and difficult manu- 
facture. The Emperor, who weighed gills by 
other standards than those of taste and beauty, 
was disappointed in the material. He made a 
sign to the Court jester who accompanied him, 
and the adroit knave, as if inadvertently stumbling 
against the table, overset and shattered the frad 
vases with which it was covered. ' Had they 
been of gold or silver,' was the sordid and un- 
mannerly comment of the Prince, ^ they would 
not have been thus easily brokenf/ 

The lingering hostilities with Sforza were ter- 
minated to mutual advantage by a Treaty 
concluded at Lodi in the Spring of 1454, ^45^' 
in which he was acknowledged Duke of 

t The Titit of Frederic is described by Sanuto, ap. Murat. zxil. 
1143, Sabellico, Dec. Ui. lib. 7. p. 690, and P. Justiniani, lib. yiU. 
p. 198. The last anecdote given aboye we have not traced beyond 
Langier, vol. yii. lib. zzr. p. 41f andDaru, yol. 11. lib* ztL p. 6^. 


Milan. This Pdftce was- no doufot* aocelefvateob b^ 
the fearful' state- of the Bast ; fbv all Chfkiteiidom 
had beeir shaken* to« its base by tha overwhelming^ 

triumph of the- Turks, and thdr* establi^o 
ii^.' ment in permanent dominion at Constan- 

tmople upon the* ruift» of the- Greek fimt* 
pire. Even during his preparaiion ibr the siege 
of the Imperial Cit^r, tlie lid Mahomet haal 
ekarly evinced that his sword wae little- prepaved 
to respect neutrality ; and- the wreck of a Vene^ 
tian galley, which he sank wil^ a single bullet 
for infringing his blockade of the Thracian Strait, 
^ad the mouldering^ bones of her oommander 
whom he impaled, and of thirty of her crew whom 
lie beheaded, fearfully attested the* vengeance of 
the Barbarian.*. Among th& 40,0d0 Chpistiaiis 
who- perished' in the last memorable and fatal 
assault of Constantin'opK many of noble Vene- 
tian descent were to be counted ; their Bailo was 
dragged from his peaceful residence in Pera and 
massacred in cold blood, after the storm ; and^ 
in the pillage and confiscation which ensued; the 
loss of the Republic was estimated at 200,000' 
ducats. Far, however; from being inspired with 
the generous zeal which the Holy See endea« 
Toured', and' in some ineftances not unsuccessfully, 
to rekindle against the Infidels, Venice was tha^ 
first ChriiBtiaii Power which sought accommoda- 
tion with Mahomet Resentment was swallowed* 
up by terror or by avarice ; and the Merchant- 
Queen, in order to preserve inviolate her Le- 

*" Oibben, eh. Ixviii. roL xli. p. IM. W« hure referred to hi* 
•nthoritlee tn rwhtf b«t Saonto hev mentloiwd tiM impaleaMntr 
oftheVeMtlanCapteln,,afkMiuiit.zjBlLllM. j 


▼antihe commefce* and her aettlements in the 
Archipelago^ waa^ content to humble herself at 
the earliest suppliant at the fbotstool of the Sul* 
tan. Her embassy was received with fa- 
Tonr ;- she was permitted to- ransom het * "^454, 
eaptives, to re-establish her factories in 
Fera, once again to waft riehes in» her traders txi 
the- ports of the Empire, and to retain, as in tiie 
times of the Pakeotogi, the right of administering 
justice by her own Magistrates to her own resi^ 
dents. I^ one object of negotiation she failed^ 
The seamless vesture of the Redeemer was^ stilf 
fbund, or supposed to be- found, in the Reliquaries^ 
of Constantinople; and the great price of 10,000 
ducats was tendered for it by Venice, and refused 
by the U»believei«» 

But a- few years before this holy- purchase was- 
contemplated, the precious hoard of simi- 
lar treasures already possessed by the Re* \i^] 
public had narrowly escaped dispersion. 
Among the suite of a Prtnee of the House ot 
£ste, indulged^ according to custom, with' an in« 
spection of the wonders of the Treasury of St. 
Mark's, was a Candian named Statnmato, in* 
whose bosom the isaered spectacle awakened more- 
dcisire than venera^on. Watching his opportu- 
nity, and dosely noticing the localities of th» 
spot, this ingenious plunderer secreted himself 
beliind an altar in the body of the Cathedral, and 
when discovered in this- first hiding-place by » 
Priest, obtained fresh access by means of false 
keys. After numerous difficulties and by the 
laJbour of many successive nights, he removed 
one compartment of the marble panelling which. 


girded the lower part of the Treasury. Having 
thus gained access at will to its interior, he care* 
fully replaced the panel, leaving it removable at 
pleasure ; and, renewing his nightly visits, he 
selected, without fear and without suspicion, such 
portions of the entire spoil at his command as 
most gratified his fancy. It was doubtless a lust 
for gold which allured him in the first Instance 
to the Beretta of the Doge, studded with gems 
of inestimable price; but nothing short of an 
insatiate love of virtd could have prompted him 
to secure the accredited Horn of a Unicom, too 
cumbrous for removal while entire, and requiring 
the tedious process of the saw before it could he 
borne away. More fortunate than the Egyptian 
Robber, whose bold exploit, perpetrated under very 
similar circumstances, must have already suggested 
itself to every reader of Herodotus*, Stammato, but 
for his vanity, might have enriched himself, and 
escaped to his native shores, unharmed and un- 
detected. Simply to possess this boundless wealth, 
however, appeared but little in his eyes; for its 
full enjoyment it became necessary that another 
should know of his possession. Accordingly, 
having exacted a solemn oath of secrecy from one 
of his Countrymen, Grioni, a Candian of noble 
birth, he led him to an obscure lodsringt, and 
poured before the astonished eyes of his com- 
panion the dazzling fruits of his plunder. While 
the Robber watched the countenance of his friend, 
he mistrusted the expression which passed across 

• II. 121. 
f Perhaps the site may tUU be traeedi Sannto notes It with 
precision, neSa CaUt da Ca»a Saiomotu a Sta, Maria Fonnota, 


it ; and the stiletto was already in his grasp to 
ensure his safety, when Grioni averted uie peril 
by stating that the first sight of so splendid a 
prize had well nigh overpowered him. As a 
token of benevolence, perhaps as a bribe, Stam- 
mato presented his unwilling accessary with a 
carbuncle, which afterwards blazed in the front of 
the Ducal bonnet; and Grioni, seeking excuse 
for a short absence, and bearing in his hand this 
well-known and incontestable evidence of his 
truth, hastened to the Palace and denounced the 
Criminal. The booty, which amounted to the 
scarcely credible sum of 2,000,000 ducats of 
gold, had not yet been missed, and was recovered 
undiminished. Stammato expiated his offence 
between the Two Columns ; the rope with which 
he was executed having previously been gilt, in 
order that, like .Crassus, he might exhibit in his 
death a memorial of the very passion which had 
seduced him to destruction*. 

The reign of Francesco Foscaii had now been 
prolonged to the unusual period of thirty- 
four years, and these years had in one re* i^] 
spect at least fully verified the prophecy 
hazarded by his predecessor Moncenigo. They 
were marked by almost continual warfare ; during 
which, however, the courage, the firmness and the 
sagacity of the illustrious Doge had won four rich 
Provinces for his Country, and increased her 
Glory not less than her dominion. If we were 

* Saonto, op. Marat, zzil. 1132. Sabellico, Dec. Hi. lib. yLp. 677» 
P. Justinianl, lib. vUi. p. 198. It is only by the last-named writer 
that the gilding of the rope is mentioned ; Sanuto giyes the official 
process drawn up by theX. 


•to Abide by tbe smooih oonative of. the Histo- 
TiogTspher Sabellioo, we .might believe that the 
;la8t days of this distingiUBhed Prince ¥^ere given 
to a voluntary and boncnirable repose ; and that, 
•having attained the .great age of 84 years, and 
.being debarred by infirmity from dedicatii^g him- 
iself to State* affrurs, he resigned the ficeptre to a 
younger hand. We are told also that the grey- 
ffiaired Prince, having laid aside the insignia of 
Sovereignty Jind retired 4o his former level of 
Mobility, and retaining to the laet, although in a 
'shattered frame, the unextinguished vigour of b 
ffeneeous spirit, died a few days after tbe now 
accession, fiya decree of the Council, the trap- 
fungs lof ^supreme power 'of which he had diveated 
viimself while 'Hving, were restored to him when 
idead; and he was interred, with Ducal magni- 
£oence, in the Church of the M incites ; present 
ing the first instance on record, since the pri- 
vilege of associating a joint Chief Magistrate 
had been abolidied, in which one Doge ^mourned 
at the Funeral of another*. Such is the tale 
authorised by the Council of X., and which they 
commanded to be enroUed as History; but a 
darker, and, it is lo be feaxed, a truer version is 
to be drawn from sources more worthy of oonfi- 
^fflaoe; and to the £nglish Header it is one of 
the few portions of the Romance of Venetian 
History whidi does not faring with it the aest of 

Ardent, enterprising, and ambitious of the glory 
of conquest, it was not without nraoh opposition 
that Foscari had obtained the Dogeship ; and he 

• Sabelllcoy Dec. Ui. lib. Tlil.p. 714. 

fO0n diaooversd ihaX Ae tfaratte wlrich he had 
coveted with ao gvest «ainesinMe was far from 
htaag a seat of repose. Acooidiii^iy, at tho 
Peace of Femva, wluoh m 1488 succeeded a 
oakoxntouB war, fancseeing the appaoadi of fiwak 
and 6till .greiter itfovbles, and woaiied hj tiie 
£ictioB8 which aaoribed all dieaaterB to the I^cnice, 
he'teadered his abdication to the Senate, :and waa 
sefiiaed. A Hke .offer was renewed by him when 
nine yean ^rther experiense of sovereignty had 
4Mmfirined his lormer ^eirtimate of its oaies ; and 
the Council, en this second 'oecasion, much man 
fromadherence to existing siBtitutions than fnmi 
any Atttacfament to the petson of the Doge, 
accompanied their megaftive with the 'exaction of 
an oath that be wouM Tstain his burden some 
dignity for life. Too early, alas ! was he to be 
taught that life, on svch conditions, was the 
heaviest t>f curses ! . Three out of his four sons 
were already dead ; to Giaoopo, the survivor, he 
looked for the continuation 4)f his name and the 
support 'of his declining age ; and, from that 
youth's intermarriage with the iUustrious House 
of Contaidni, and the popular joy wkh which, 
it will he remembered, his nuptads were cele- 
brated, llie iDoge :drew favourable auspices for 
future happiness. Eoor years, however, had 
scarcely elapsed irom the conclusion of that well*- 
omened marriage, when a -series of calamities 
began, from wfioh death alone was to relieve 
ekher the son or his yet more wretched Father. 
In 1445, Giaeopo Foscari was denounced to the 
X. as having received presents from foreign 
Potentates, and «specially from Filippo-Maria 


Viaconti, The offence, according to the Law, was 
one of the most heinous which a Noble could 
commit; and we have before seen, in the pro- 
ceedings against Carlo Zeno, how wide a circle 
was comprehended by the prohibitory Statutes. 
Even if Giacopo were guiltless of infringing them, 
it was not easy to establish innocence before a 
Venetian TribunaL Under the eyes of his own 
Father, compelled to preside at the unnatural 
examination, a confession was extorted from 
the prisoner, on the rack; and, from the lips 
of that Father, he received the sentence which 
banished him for life to Napoli di Romania, 
compelled him to appear once every day before 
the Governor of that settlement, and adjudged 
liim to death if he attempted escape. On his 
passage, severe illness delayed him at Trieste ; 
and, at the especial prayer of the Doge, a less 
remote district was assigned for his punishment 5 
he was permitted to reside at Treviso, and his 
wife was allowed to participate his exile. 

It was in the commencement of the winter of 
1450, while Giacopo Foscari rested, in compara- 
tive tranquillity, within the bounds to which he was 
restricted, that an assassination occurred in the 
streets of Venice. Hermolao Donato, the Prov 
veditore whom Sforza took prisoner at CaravaggiO) 
and who now filled the more important post of a 
Chief of the X., was murdered on his return from 
a sitting of that Council, at his own door, by un- 
known hands. The magnitude of the offence and 
the violation of the high dignity of the X. de- 
manded a victim ; and the coadjutors of the slain 
Magistrate caught with eager grasp at the slightest 


clue which suspicion could afford. A domestic in 
the service of Giacopo Foscari had heen seen ia 
Venice on the evening of the murder, and on the 
following morning, when met in a boat off Mestre 
by a Chief of the X, and asked • What news ?* 
he had answered by reporting the assassination, 
several hours before it was generally known. It 
might seem that such frankness of itself disproved 
all participation in the crime ; for the author of it 
was not likely thus unseasonably and prematurely 
to disclose its committal. But the X thought dif- 
ferently, and matters which to others bore convic- 
tion of innocence, to them savoured strongly of 
guilt. The servant was arrested, examined, and 
barbarously tortured ; but even the eightieth ap* 
plication of the strappado failed to elicit one 
syllable which might justify condemnation. That 
Giacopo Foscari had experienced the severity of 
the Council's judgment^ and that its jealous watch* 
fulness was daily imposing some new restraint 
upon his Father's authority, powerfully operated 
to convince the X that they must themselves in 
return be objects of his deadly enmity. Who else, 
they said, could be more likely to arm the hand of 
an assassin against a Chief of the X, than one 
whom the X have visited with punishment ? On 
this unjust and unsupported surmise, the young 
Foscari was recalled from Treviso, placed on the 
rack which his servant had just vacated, tortured 
again in his Father's presence, and not absolved 
even after he resolutely persisted in denial unto 
the end, *■ Giacopo Foscari,' as the memorable 
sentence pronounced against him, still existing 
among the Archives of Venice, declares, ' accused 


t$ Rl« INNOCflfreS PROTSD. 

jof tbe murder of Hermolao Donato, has beto 
arrested and examined, and, from the testimony, 
'evidence, and documents exhibited, it distinctly 
4xppears that he is guilty of the aforesaid crime ; 
nevertheless, on account of his obstinacy, and of 
enchantments and spdls in his possession, of 
which there are manifest proofs^ it has not been 
possible to extract from him the truth which is 
clear &om parole and written evidence ; for, while 
be was on the cord, he uttered neither word nor 
groftn^ but only murmured somewhat to himself 
indistiiictly and under his breath; therefore, as 
the honour of the State requires^ he is condemned 
to a more distant banishment in Candia/ There, 
ihe aeiiteness of his mental and bodily suffieringB 
produced temporary loss of reason ; a short abode 
in Venice was permitted for its restoration, and he 
was then remanded to his former exile. Will it 
be credited that a distinct proof of hb innocence, 
obtained by the discovery of the real assassin, 
wrought no change in his unjust and cruel sen- 
lence? that he was enjoined still to remain at 
Canea, although Nicolo Erizco, a Noble infamouB 
for other crimes which Donato had punished, con« 
fessed to the Priest who- ministered to him on 
bis death-bed, that it was beneath his dagger the 
fnurdered Counsellor had fallen ? 

The wrongs, however, which Giacopo Foscari 
etMlured had by no means chilled the passionate 
love with which he continued to reg^ard his un* 
grateful Country. He was now excluded from all 
communication with his family, torn from the 
wife of his affecttons, debarred from the society 
of his ehildxen, hopeless of again embracing those 

HIS THISD ntlAt. §9 

ftateioi» wlio Ind already far outstripped the 
Batural term of human existence ; and to his 
Imaginatloii, for ever centering itself upon the 
single desire of return, hfe presented no other 
object deserring pursuit ; till, for the attainment 
of this wkh, life itself at length aj^esred to be 
scarcely more tlian an adequate sacrifice. P^yed 
upon by this fever of the heart, after six years* 
unavailing suit lor a remission of ponishnent, in 
the summer of 1456 he addressed a letter to the 
Duke of Milan, imploring his good offices with 
tiie Senate. That letter, purpos^y lef^ c^en in a 
^ce obvious to the spies by wiiom, even in his 
exHe, he was surrounded ; and afterwards intrusled 
to an equally treacherous hand for delivery to 
l^orza, was conveyed, as the writer intended, to 
the Council of X ; and die result, which equally 
fulfilled his expectation, was a hasty summons 
to Venice to answer for die heavy crime of solicit- 
mg foreign intercession widi his native Govern* 

For a third time, Francesco Foscari listened to 
the accusation of his son ; for the first time he 
heaid him openly avow the charge of his accusers, 
and calmly state that his offence, such as it was^ 
had been committed designedly and aforethought, 
with the sole object of detection, in order that he 
might be brou^t back^ even as a malefactor, ta 
Venice. Th» prompt and voluntary declaration^ 
however, was not sufficient to decide the nice 
heskatlon of his Judges. Guilt, they said, might 
be too easily admitted as well as too pertinaciously 
denied ; and the same process therefore by which, 
at other times, confession was wrested from the 

H 2 


hardened criminal might now compel a too facile 
self- accuser to retract his acknowledgment. The 
Father again looked on while his son was raised 
on the accursed cord no less than thirty times, in 
order that, under his agony, he might be induced 
to utter a lying declaration of innocence. But 
this cruelty was exercised in vain; and, when 
Nature gave way, the sufferer was carried to the 
apartments of the Doge, torn, bleeding, senseless, 
and dislocated, hut firm in his original purpose. 
Nor had his persecutors relaxed in theirs ; they 
renewed his sentence of exile, and added that its 
^rst year should be passed in prison. Before he 
embarked, one interview was permitted with his 
&mily. The Doge, as Sanuto, perhaps uncon- 
scious of the pathos of his simplicity, has narrated, 
was an aged and decrepit man, who walked with 
ihe support of a crutch, and when he came into 
the chamber, he spake with great firmness, so that 
it might seem it was not his son whom he was ad- 
dressing, but it was his son — ^his only son. ' Go, 
Giacopo,' was his reply, when pray^ for the last 
lime to solicit mercy ; ^ Go^ Giacopo, submit to 
the will of your Country, and seek nothing farther.' 
This effort of self-restraint was beyond the powers, 
not of the old man's enduring spirit, but of his 
exhausted frame ; and when he retired, he swooned 
in the arms of his attendants. Giacopo reached 
his Candian prison, and was shortly afterwards 
released by death. 

Francesco Foscari, far less happy in his sur- 
vival, continued to live on, but it was in sorrow 
and feebleness which prevented attention to the 
duties of his high office : he remained secluded ia 


his chamber, never went abroad, and absented 
himself even from the Sittings of the Coundls. 
No practical inconvenience could result from this 
want of activity in the Chief Magistrate ; for the 
Constitution sufficiently provided against any ac- 
cidental suspension of his personal functions, and 
his place in Council, and on State occasions, waa^ 
supplied by an authorised deputy. Some in*^ 
dulgence, moreover, might be thought due to the 
extreme age and domestic griefs of Foscari ; since 
they appeared to promise that any favour which 
might be granted would be claimed but for a short 
period. But yet farther trials were in store* 
Giacopo Loredano, who in 1467 was appointed 
one of the Chiefs of the X, belonged to a family 
between which and that of Foscari an hereditary 
feud had long existed. His Uncle Pietro, after 
gaining high distinction in active service, as 
Admiral of Venice, on his return to the Capital, 
headed the political faction which opposed the 
warlike projects of the Doge; divided applause 
with him by his eloquence in the Councils ; and 
so far extended his influence as frequently to 
obtain majorities in their divisions. In an evil 
moment of impatience, Foscari once publicly 
avowed in the Senate, that so long as Pietro 
Loredano lived he should never feel himself really 
to be Doge. Not long afterwards, the Admiral, 
engaged as Proweditore with one of the armies 
opposed to FiHppo- Maria, died suddenly at a 
niiiitary banquet given during a short suspension 
of arms; and the evil-omened words of Foscari 
were connected with his decease. It was re- 
marked also, that his brother Marco Loredano, 

tat BmrBtrex OF 6IAC0PO z^axvAiro* 

one of tbe AwagadoH^ died, m a somewkat 
similar manner, while engaged in instituting a 
legal process against a 8on-i]i4aw of the Doge, 
for peculation upon the State. The foul rumours 
partially recited by these untoward coincidences, 
for they aj^ar in tml^ to have been no more, met 
with little acceptation, and were rejected or for- 
gotten except by a single bosom. Giacopo, the 
son of one, the nephew of the other deceased 
Loredano, gave. &tll credit to the accusation, in- 
scribed on his Father's tomb at Sta. Elena, that 
he died by poison, bound iiimself by a Bolenm 
yow to the most deadly and unrelenting pursuit of 
lerenge, and ^Ifilled that vow to llie uttermost. 

During the lifetime of Pietro Loredano, Foscari, 
willing to terminate die feud by a domestic alliance, 
had tendered the hand of his daughter to one of 
his rival's sons. The youth, saw his proffered 
bride, openly expressed dislike of her person, and 
rejected her with marked discourtesy ; so that, in 
the quarrel thus heightened, Foscaai might now 
conceive himself to be the most injured party. 
Not such was the impression of Giacopo Lore* 
dano ; year a&er year he grimly awaited the season 
most fitted for his unbending purpose ; and it 
arrived at length when he found himself in autho- 
rity among the X. Relying upon the ascendency 
belonging to that high station^ he hazarded a pro* 
posal for the deposkion of the aged Doge, which 
was at first, however, received with coldness ; for 
those who had twice before reused a voluntary 
abdication, shrank from the strange contradiction 
of now demanding one on compulsion. A junta 
was required to assist in their deliberations, and 

among the a«8eMOT» elected by the GrealCoimeil, 
in complete ignoTBoce of the purpoee for which 
tliey were needed, wa» Marca Foscari, a Procu^ 
nUore of St. Mark, and brother of ^e Doge hinn 
telf. Tlie X perceived that to reject his aauBtance 
might excite suspicion, while to procure his ap» 
parent approbation would give a show oi im^ 
partiality to their process ; his nomination, there-' 
fore, was accepted, but he was removed to a 
separate apartment, excluded from the debate, 
sworn to keep that exclusion secret, and yet com- 
pelled to assent to the final decree in the dis* 
cussion of which he had not been allowed to parti« 
eipate. The Council sat during eight days and 
nearly as many nights ; and, at the close of their 
protracted meetings, a Committee was deputed Uy 
request the abdication of the Doge. The old man' 
received them with surprise, but with composure, 
and replied that he had sworn not to abdicate, and 
therefore must maintain his faith. It was not 
possible that he could resign ; but if it appeared 
id to their wisdom that he should cease to be 
Doge, they had it in their power to make a pro- 
posal to that effect to the Great Council. It was* 
far, however, from the intention of the X to sub*- 
ject themselves to die chances of debate in that 
larger Body ; and assuming to their own magis- 
tracy a prerogative not attributed to it by the* 
Constitution, they discharged Foscari from hi» 
oath, declared his office vacant, assigned to him a' 
pension of 2000 ducats, and enjoineid him to quit 
ttie Palace within three days, on pain of confisca^ 
tion of all his property. Loredano, to whom the 
right beknged, according to the weekly routine of 


office, enjoyed the barbarous satisfaction of pre- 
senting this decree with his own hand. ^ Who 
are you, Signor?' inquired the Doge of another 
Chief of the X who accompanied him, and whose 
person he did not immediately recognise. ' I am 
a son of Marco Memmo/ * Ah, your Father/ 
replied Foscari, ' is my friend.' Then declaring 
that he yielded willing obedience to the most ex« 
cellent Council of X, and laying aside the Ducal 
bonnet and robes, he surrendered his ring of office, 
which was broken in his presence. On the mor* 
row, when he prepared to leave the Palace, it was 
suggested to him that he should retire by a private 
staircase, and thus avoid the concourse assembled 
in the court-yard below. With calm dignity he 
refused the proposition; he would descend, he 
said, by no other than the self-same steps by which 
he had mounted thirty years before. Accordingly, 
supported by his brother, he slowly traversed the 
Giant's Stairs, and, at their foot, leaning on his 
staff and turning round to the Palace, he accom** 
panied his last look to it with these parting words, 

* My services established me within your walls ; it 
is the malice of my enemies which tears me from 
them !' 

• It was to the Oligarchy alone that Foscari was 
obnoxious; by the Populace he had always been 
beloved, and strange indeed would it have been 
had he now failed to excite their sympathy. But 
even the regrets of the People of V enice were 
fettered by their Tyrants ; and whatever pity they 
might secretly continue to cherish for their wronged 
and humiliated Prince, all expression of it was 
silenced by a peremptory decree of the Council, for* 

AMD DIBS. 105 

bidding any mention of his name, and annexinflr 
death as a penalty to disobedience. On the iiftb 
day after Foscari's deposition, Pascals Malipieri 
was elected Doge. The dethroned Prmce heard 
the announcement of his successor by the Bell of 
the Campanile^ suppressed his agitation, but rup- 
tured a blood-vessel in the exertion, and died in a 
few hours. It is said that when the close of thia 
piteous tragedy was declared to Loredano, who» 
like most other Nobles of his time^ was engaged 
in commerce, he took down one of his Ledgers 
and turned to a blank leaf. Opposite to that page 
was an entry in his own writing, among his list of, 
debtors, ' Francesco Foscari for the death of my 
Father and my Uncle.' The balance was now 
adjusted; he wrote on the other side, *Hehai> 
paid me,' and closed the account of blood ! * 

* Sanuto {ap. Marat, xzii.) ia oar main authority for the sad talc 
of the Foscari, and it may be right to notice a few trifling particu. 
lars in which we have differed from some modem writers of eml- 

M. de Sismondi iRep. Ital, z. 41.) places the Doge*s second wish to 
abdicate after the condemnation of his son in 1450, and calls him 
86 years of age at the time of his death. (46.) Sanuto fixes that 
offer of resignation In 1442, and the Epitaph on Foscari's monument 
declares him to have died at 84. 

For the fine incident — T Aa potato— we are indebted to Dara» 
(li. 529) who cites Palaczi, {Faaii Ducalei) and Vlandolo, by neither 
of whom have we been able to find the fact supported. Daru also 
itates Giacopo Loredano to have been the San of Pietro (528). By 
Vettor Sandl {lib. Till. p. 716.) he is called his Nephew, The pension 
assigned by the X was 2000 ducats, the time for quitting the Palace 
three days, according to Sanuto $ Daru makes the former 1500, the 
latter eight : but he had access to a manuscript document, among 
the Archives of Venice, apparently of high authority, and this may 
explain his variations. 

Lord Byron, in his Tragedy, The Two Foicari, a Play in which 
the ruggedness of execution is far from being compensated by 
beauUes of conception, has not ventured upon farther deviation 

106 iN<nnsiTTaN 

To the rdgn of Foscari may now be attributed, 
with certainty, the organization of that portentous 
Tribunal composed of the three Inquisitors of 
State. The origin of that Body, no less than 
its proceedings, was long involved in hopeless 
mystery, till l^e laborious research of Uie late 
Comte Dam unrolled the Manuscript Statutes in 
the Royal Library at Paris ; and brought to light 
a Decree of the Grand Council also, bearing date 
the 16th June, 14^4, by which the X, in conse>« 
quence of the difficulty found in assembling their 
Members with sufficient promptitude, on every oc» 
casion on which their services might be requisite, 
are authorized to chuse three persons under the 
above title; two {I Nen) from their own Coun- 
cil, one (J/ Ro89o) from that of the Doge ; the 
former, consequently, to exercise their functions 

from Historical Troth than is folly authorised by the licence of the 
Drama. We may remark, however, that there is no voucher by 
which Loredano is proved to have been an agent in the persecution 
of Giacopo Foscari in 1456, and that he did not become a Capo de* 
Vied till the following year j that Glacopo's death occurred not at 
Yenice but at Canea } that fifteen months elapsed between his last 
condemnation and his father's deposition ; that after he had been 
tortured he was removed to the Ducal apartments, not to one of the 
Poxxif and that the death of the eidier Foscari toolc place not at the 
Palace, but in his own hoase } not immediately on his descent firom 
the Giant's Stairs, but five days afterwards. 

Mr. Rogers, in the Notes upon his very striking version of this' 
melancholy story In his Italy, has fallen into two slight errors, 
which we might pass unnoticed, if it were not fbr the deserved 
popularity of that Poem. Loredano, he says, was * one of the Invisi> 
ble^ Three,* that is, one of the State Inquisitors. There is not any 
ground for this assertion, and from the Constitution of that darlcTri^ 
bunal, none of the Inquisitors were ever known. Again he says, 
and refers to Sanuto as his authority, that the Doge Foscari died' 
while at Mass; Sanuto only says that Malipieri, his successor, was 
at Mass when he received the account of Foscari*s death. 

OF STATS. 107 

ior a year^ the latter for eight monUw, the periods 
of their respective original CounselloTships. The 
powers granted by the X are briefly stated in a 
second Decree of their own, passed three days after* 
wards. By that Ordinance, &e Inquisitors were in- 
vested wiUi all the plenary authority possessed by 
their Electors, oyer every person, of what degree 
soever, in the Republic, be he Citizen, Noble, Ma- 
gistrate, Ecclesiastic, or even one of the X them- 
selves ; over all individuals, m a word^ who should 
in any way expose themselves to merited punish* 
ment. The pendties which they might inflict were 
left solely to their own discretion, and extended to 
death, either by public or secret execution. Each 
Member singly might take all steps preparatory to 
judgment, but a definitive sentence could be pro- 
nounced only by their imanimous voices. Tke 
terrific dungeons, whether under the leaden roofe 
(J Piombi)^ or beneath the level of the canals, in 
the hollowed walls of the Palace (J Pozzi), were 
placed at their disposal ; they held the keys of 
the Treasury of the X, without being accountable 
for the sums which they might draw from it; all 
Governors, Commanders, and Ambassadors on 
foreign stations, were enjoined implicit obedience 
to their mandates ; they were permitted to frame 
their own Statutes, with the power of altering, re- 
sdnding or adding to them from time to time ; 
and, effectually to guard against the chief hazard 
by which their secrecy might be violated, no 
PapoHstOy that is, no one who had an Ecclesiastic 
among his near connexions, or was at a]l in- 
terested in the Court of Rome, was eligible as an; 
Inquisitor of State, even although he might be- 
long to the X« 


Of a Tribunal whose chief elements were se- 
crecy and terror, little that was authentic could 
be known, still less was likely to be spoken. By 
foreign writers, accordingly, it has for the most 
part been neglected or misrepresented ; by native 
Venetians it has been approached with wary steps 
and quitted with trembling haste ; as if those who 
lingered within its precincts dreaded to become 
entangled in its grasp. The chief Civil Historian 
of Venice speaks briefly of its mysterious con- 
stitution, of the veneration due to it by all Ci- 
tizens, of the breach of duty which any attempt 
to penetrate its obscurity would involve ; and he 
concludes by declaring * with sincerity and sim« 
plicity, to the glory of this August Tribunal, that 
if Rome, so admirable in the rest of her Polityi 
had established a similar Magistracy, she would 
still exist, secure from the corruptions which 
occasioned her dissolution*.' A slight glance, 
for we can attempt no more, at a few of the 
principal Enactments of this most atrocious Court, 
will evince the due value which may be placed 
on the above panegyric. These Decrees are the 
only ordinances reduced to writing in which a 
Legislative Body has ever dared to erect a Code 
upon the avowed basis of perfidy and assassina- 
tion. Never yet did the Principle of 111 establish 
so free a trafiic for the interchange of crune, so 
unrestricted a mart in which mankind might 
barter their iniquity; never was the committal 
of certain and irremediable evil so fully autho- 
rized for the chance of questionable and ambi- 
guous good ; never was every generous emotion 

• v. Sandl, Storia CioUe di Venettla, toU ii. p. ii. 1.8. p. 5. 


of moral instinct, every accredited maxim of 
social duty, so debased and subjugated to the 
baneful yoke of an assumed Political expediency. 
The Statutes of the Venetian Inquisition of State^ 
now exposed to the general eye, exceed every 
other product of human wickedness, in preme- 
ditated, deliberate, systematic, unmixed, undis* 
sembled flagitiousness. 

Tliis Code, entirely written in the autograph 
of one of the Inquisitors, was deposited in a 
Casket of which each of the three Magistrates, 
by turns, kept the key. In the outset, it declared 
that every process of the Tribunal was for ever to 
he preserved secret, and that no Inquisitor should 
betray that he was such by any outward sign, but 
everywhere constantly maintain the character of 
a merely private individual ; since the advantage 
with which the State could be served was consi« 
dered to be strictly proportionate to the mystery 
in which this Tribunal was enveloped. Hence its 
citations, arrests and other instruments were to 
be issued in the name of the X,' its examinations 
conducted, its judgments pronounced by the 
mouths of Secretaries* Even if an accused party 
after arrest should escape condemnation (a raie 
event !) he was to learn his acquittal and release 
not by a direct sentence, but by a surly rebuke from 
his gaoler — * What are you doing there ? out with 
you !* was the greeting with which the Turnkey 
entered the cell of a prisoner about to be re* 
stored to liberty. Spies (raccordantij a smooth 
and gentle title) were to be procured with the 
Utmost diligence from every class, Artizans, 
Citizens, Nobles and Religious ; and their rewards 


were to be adjvBted in such manner at might rather 
perpetually excite, than absolutely satiate expec- 
tation. The nice sensitiveness of hononr which 
this Judas-band might be supposed to (Perish, was 
lespected with peculiar delicacy. Should they be 
taunted (moieggiaii} by any one in terms which 
might impair their zeal or poevent the addiction 
of others to similar employment, or should they 
evtsi be called 'Spies of the State Inquisitors,' 
&e person so naming than was to be arrested, 
tortured till he revealed the method by which he 
obtained this dangerous knowledge, and ponished 
afterwards at the discretion of the TribonaL 

Four at least of diese agents, each ndknown 
to the other and all selected from the inferior 
classes, were to watch every Ambassador re- 
sident in Veniee, and the numerous provisions 
respecting the observation of Foreign Ministers 
were singularly precise. The great object appears 
to have been the prevention of interoourse be- 
tween them and the native Nobility. The first 
attempt of the Spies was always to be made upon 
their Secretaries, to whom a large monthly stipend 
might be promised solely for the revelation of 
any secret corameroe between their masters and 
a Noble ; the fittest persons through whom these 
ovatures could be made were Monks and Jews, both 
of whom, it is said, gain admission everywhere** 
If an ordimry Spy proved insufficient to pene- 
trate the diplomatic secrets, some Venetian con» 
demned to banishment was instructed to take 
asylum in the Ambassador's Palace; immunity 
firom the pursnit of Government being promised 

* Cite $mmpmwm$ ehepuOmmUe WttHkm eon UtU^—Bi. jdl. 


far die tiise, and a future recompense also pro- 
portioned to his discoverifsfl. The asylum in the 
above instance was manifestly a pretext; but, at 
the {Mrivilege was really allowed by the Law of 
Nations, it was often claimed in earnest ; and in 
lihese cases the Inquisitors resolved that if the 
offence for which the Criminal sought refuge 
irere slight, all knowledge of his hiding-place 
should be dissembled ; but if of graver hue, every 
means should be taken to arrest, or, if these were 
unsilccessful, to assassinate him. If the fugitive 
were a Noble, however trifling might be his fault, 
he should be assassinated without a moment's 
hesitation*. Whenever a foreign Ambassador 
should solicit pardon i6x an £xile, due care must 
be taken to examine into the character of the 
party : and if he fMrove to be <tf mean condition, 
loose morals and narrow circumstances, (how 
well did these Children of the Tempter under- 
0tand what spiritB were most open to their wiles !) 
it was probable that he might be gained as a 
Spy^ Proposikions, therefore, should be made to 
him to m/perintend the establishment of the Am* 
bassador ; to whom, on account of the favour con- 
ferred on him, he would be likely to obtain fami- 
liar acceB0; and whom, accordingly, under an 
appearance of gratitude, he might the more readily 
betray. If any Noble should report to the In* 
quisitors prc^osals made to him by an Ambas* 
sador, he should be authorized to oontinue the 
treasonaUe negotiation until the intermediate 
agent could be seized in the very act : dien, pro- 
vided it were not the Ambassador hims^f or the 


Secretary of Legation, but some minor agent, 
of whose quality and person ignorance might be 
pretended, he was to be immediately drowned. . 

Especially favourable opportunities for obser** 
vation might be found, it was said, whenever an 
Ambassador was making choice of a residence. It 
was already an established Law, that if a Foreign 
Minister negotiated with a Nobleman for his 
house, the owner must not complete his bargain 
without first obtaining permission from the X, 
who prescribed to him the fit method of conduct* 
ing his treaty, without holding the slightest for- 
bidden intercourse with the stranger. But, for 
still greater security, each Inquisitor now resolved 
to examine separately and with the utmost 
particularity every hoqse intended as the abode 
of a Foreign Minister; in order to determine 
whether any secret communication could be esta- 
blished with the adjoining tenements ; and whether 
its roof were level with those of its neighbours, so 
that persons might pass from one to the other. 
If such were the case, and the house next door 
were occupied by a Noble owner, he was to be 
advised to quit, and to let it to some one of an infe- 
rior class ; and, if he has a grain of good sense, 
says the Statute, he will understand and obey« 
If a Noble only rented the adjoining premises, he 
was at once to be commanded to dislodge, and 
his place was to be supplied by a Spy ; the ex« 
penses of whose establishment, if necessary, should 
be defrayed by the Tribunal. Snares were also 
laid for the lighter and more unguarded moments 
of the Kepresentatives of friendly Powers ; and if 
a Spy could discover any amatory intercourse, he 


was instructed - to connect himself by similar ties 
with the favourite Mistress of the Ambassador ; 
under a plea of jealousy to conceal himself in her 
apartments; and thus to ascertain whether they 
were frequented by any Venetian Noble. If they 
were so, the Inquisitors would determine, from 
the general character of the visitor, whether he 
were a person likely to divert such a rendezvous to 
other intrigues than those of gallantry. On satis* 
factorily determining his innocence, they would 
be content to warn him of indiscretion, and to 
prohibit him, by menace of severe punishment, 
from the further maintenance of so hazardous an 

The Envoy of the Holy See, and, in later times, 
that of Spain also, were watched more closely by 
the Inquisitors than those of other States. Any 
Ambassador of the Republic to the Vatican, who 
should accept an Ecclesiastical appointment either 
for himself or for any connexion, was to be subject, 
besides all other statutable penalties, to confiscation 
of the revenues of his Benefice, and if he dared to 
appeal to Rome he was to be assassinated secretly 
and instantly. The Palace of the Nuncio in 
Venice was regarded with ceaseless suspicion, for 
the Ecclesiastics always successfully maintained 
their privilege of free access to its walls ; there- 
fore the most jealous vigilance was exercised; 
and it was recommended that some Ecclesiastic, 
distinguished for subtilty, for needy circumstances 
SLudt'or patriotic zeal y some \Bisho^ in partibua* for 
example, should be selected to win the confidence of 
the Nuncio ; and from time to time, under pretext 
of important disclosures, to pour into his ear a 


114 sTATirrxffOF 

Rucc^slon of fake advices, adapted to the views oi 
Government and the circumstances of the moment. 
As a check to undue freedom of conversatioa 
among the Nuncio's suite, if any one attached to 
it should presume to canvass forbidden subjects, 
such as the limits of Secidar authority over Eccle- 
siastical persons, and other matters of similar 
description, he was to be immediately assassinated ; 
care at the same time being taken to let it be well 
known by whose directions and on what account 
the blow had been inflicted. Such Venetian Pre- 
lates as were sufficiently hardy to propound like 
maxims within the Palace were to be registered 
in a. Book containing the names of Ecdesiaatici 
poco accetti ; and all possible means ■ were to be 
employed to entangle them in vexatious lawsuits, 
by raising up claims, however ill-founded, upon 
their benefices, and by sequestering their reve- 
nues, till they should have sagacity enough to 
discover the reason fof these processes, and to 
repent their inadvertence. If they babbled wUh* 
eut the Palace, they were to be carried off secretly 
and subjected to long confinement ; and wlienever 
they persisted in contumacy after these sequestra- 
tions and tedious impriscmments, measures of the 
uttermost rigour were to be employed ; since it is 
only by the knife and the cautery (ferro e fitoco) 
that an inveterate disease can be exterminated. 
Notwithstanding the bold attitude with which the 
Venetian Government confronted the encroach- 
ments of the Papacy, it is plain, upon a com- 
parison of the ordinances afiecting Laics with that 
directed against Ecclesiastics, that the latter were 
regarded with a tenderness not extoided to the 


fbrmer, however ^gnified might be theb sto* 

Another proceeding, seemingly directed in an 
especial manner against Spain, and therefore 
belonging to a considerably later period tlian the 
first appointnient of the Inquisition of State, ex- 
ceeds in complicated iniquity any of those which 
we have as yet noticed. Reports, it was said, were 
often submitted to the Tribunal that unknown or 
masked persons, by night or during the Carnival, 
made overtures from the Government of Spain to 
certain Nobles. The persons thus invited, bj 
promising their decision at a future interview, 
gained time to inform the Inquisitors ; to whom 
they likewise tendered their services for the assas- 
sination of the agent, provided they might be 
allowed to carry pistols, against the usage of 
which in the streets of Venice a standing Law 
existed. Many reasons concurred to induce the 
rejection of this proposal ; but it was thought 
advisable that the Episcc^pal Spy before noticed 
should whisper to the Nuncio that it had been ao* 
cepted ; with a full confidence that the Nuncio in 
turn would transmit the intelligence to the Spanish 
Ambassador, who might in consequence be de* 
terred by the peril of his emissary from continu* 
ing the intrigue. Nevertheless, as the Statute 
reasons, tlie Ministers employed by Crowned 
Heads are, for the most part, too subtlond saga- 
cious to be thus easily cajoled ; and it is probable, 
therefore, diat the real nature of the device will be 
suspected : so that in order to give it a colouring 
of Truth, which may produce the same effect as 
Truth itself, recourse must be liad to the following 



process. The Inquisitors must find out some 
banished Venetian, who has eluded his sentence, 
and continues to reside in the City ; taking care 
that he be a person of more than ordinary capacity 
aiid consideration. Then, selecting from their 
Spies a Nobleman of attested courage, and who is 
actually a Member . of the Senate at the time^ 
they must instruct him to assassinate the exile ; 
and afterwards, but with some ostentation of 
secrecy, to boast of his exploit, adding that it was 
committed in consequence of a treasonable overture 
from Spain which the murdered man ventured to 
propose. Again, after the lapse of a few more 
davs, he was to announce that he had received full 

* _.r, 

pardon for the deed of blood. The Ambassador, 
well knowing that the person killed was not one of 
his agents, would at once imagine that the Noble 
had made a false representation to the Inquisitors, 
and had assumed public motives for the revenge of 
some private quarrel ; but perceiving also that the 
assassin had been pardoned in consequence of his 
fidelity under the pretended temptation, he would 
desist from any real intrigue, through a coQviction 
that similar indulgence would again be extended to 
a similar n)urder. In order to prevent any sus- 
picion of collusion, the man was to be killed not with 
pistols but with the stiletto ; and if he were an exile 
who at any time had sought asylum in the Ambas- 
sador's Flijiice, it would be very much to the purpose ; 
(sarebbe anco molto pu aproposito) since it might 
then be supposed that, although without previous 
sanction, he really did make the pretended over- 
ture, in order that, if the negotiation . ripened, 
he might claim merit for it with his patron and 


The method recommended to countervail the 
influence of any foreign Statesman hostile to the 
interests of Venice, is riot indeed so bloody as that 
just detailed, but it is equially insidious. Every 
Venetian Noble on his return from an Embassy 
formally reported to the Senate all matters con- 
nected with his recent mission, and under the 
circumstances above mentioned he was instructed 
to interweave in this official document, a notice 
that he had bribed the obnoxious Minister in 
question ; who had promised entire devotion to 
the service of Venice hereafter, with the sole pro- 
viso that, for greater secrecy, his conversion must 
apparently be gradual. Care was to be taken that 
this report went forth to the Public, and was con- 
veyed to the Court most concerned in it by its 
own Ambassador, by some enemy of the de- 
nounced, or, with yet greater certainty, by charging 
the Episcopal Spy to deliver it with much affec- 
tation of mystery to the Nuncio, from whom it 
would immediately find conveyance to those ears by 
which the Inquisitors most desired it should be 
believed: and thus would effectually destroy the 
weight of the individual whose reputation it was 
intended to undermine. 

To pass to regulations of domestic polity. 
Every morning, after a Sitting of the Great 
Council, the Inquisitors were to assemble arid to 
discuss the fortunes, habits and characters of such 
Nobles as had been appointed to any offices of 
State. Two Spies, mutually unknown, were to be 
attached to any of those upon whom suspicion 
might rest, to follow all their steps, and to report 
all their actions. If those emissaries should fail 


to discover anything of moment, a more dex- 
terous person was to be selected to visit the Noble 
by night, and to offer him a bribe from some 
foreign Ambassador for a betrayal of the secrets 
of the Council. Even if he withstood that trial, 
but did not immediately denounce the overture, 
he was to be registered in a Libra d£ SospetU^ 
and ever afterwards to be carefully observed. If 
any Noble, not under sentence of exile, should 
enter into the service of a foreign Court, he was to 
be recalled home ; on disobedience, his relations 
were to be imprisoned; after two months con* 
tumacy, he was to be assassinated wherever he 
could be found ; or, that attempt failing, to be 
erased from the Golden Book. A very similar 
process was employed against artizans who ex^ 
ported with them any native manu&cture. Should 
any Noble, while speaking in the Senate or the 
Grand Council, wander from his subject into 
matters deemed prejudicial to the State, he was to 
be immediately interrupted by one of the Chiefs 
of the X. In case the orator disputed this authority, 
or said anything injurious to it, no notice was to 
be taken at the moment ; but he was to be arrested 
on the close of the Sitting, tried according to his 
offence, and, if direct means of conviction were 
unattainable, to be put to death privately. As 
freedom of debate in the Legislative Bodies was 
thus narrowly limited, it can be no matter of 
surprise that restraint was imposed upon convei^ 
sation elsewhere. A Noble guilty of indiscretion 
of speech was to be twice admonished ; on the 
third offence, to be prohibited from appearing in 
the public streets or Councils for two years ; if he 


disobeyed, or, if he relapsed after the two years, 
{tornasse a vondto is the strcmg expression of the 
original,) he was to be drowned as incorrigible. 
In order to obtain notice of these derelictions, the 
Noble Spies sedulously watched all members of 
their own class in their assemblies on the Broglio*^ 
the arcade under the Ducal Palace which was 
their privileged resort; the eariy morning hours 
were judged to be most favourable for these 
observations, because the promenade being less 
frequented at that time, greater license, it was 
tiiought, might Uien be hazarded. 

Upon the honour of a class of men thus debased 
by mutual treachery, little reliance could be placed 
by the Government which taught them to betray, 
and which therefore indeed possessed the fullest 

• The Bregfio may be coaridcred Um Bzehange of the VeneUea 
Nobility, in which they brought thdr Yotei to market, and fat 
BrogUo with them answered preciaely to the commercial phrase to 
he on Cheu^e. No one of inferior rank was permitted to intrude 
within ito precincts while frequented by the Nobles, and separate 
walks were conTeatioBally set apart for Uie difbreat classes among 
themselves. The popular deriTatlon taArogUare, to embroil, to 
cabal, very J lastly charactorised this mart of corruption; but San- 
soyino gives one much more recondite. The whole of the Piaxstt 
it 8a» Mureo was once, he says, the Broh, or Garden, of the Monks 
of S. Zaccaxla i tMla qwal voce Brdo naoqtu quests altra 4i Broglio h 
Brogio, Mgn^fieativa di pt^le ceremome e di quelle itutanti preghiere 
chefanno i Nobili I* uno con altro quandg rieeretMO d* ettenere qualche 
lUagistrato nelJa Repuhlica ; perciocM stando ne* tempi anftcAt, alP 
usMxa dei CaitdidaH Romam, in Fiaxza, per rieerear del njfragi^ 
«so eAi paum>a, ebiamata BrogUo, si nominb quell* mtto dot luogo, 
e si disse far Broio. Venetia descritta, lib. i. /. 83. ed. 1614. Bp« 
Burnet says that Guy Patia suggested to Um the far-fetched Greek 

In Plate V. voL i. p. 279, a MprcaentaUon of this Arcade is 


means of estimating their venality. Accordingly, 
we find most severe penalties attached to an 
offence, suspicion of which could not affect the 
Nobility of any other Country than Venice. Frau- 
dulent Balloting was punished with six years' con- 
finement in the Piombi, succeeded by as many 
more of exclusion from the Council ; and a repe- 
tition of the crime, with death*. Another ordi- 
nance affecting the Patricians affords a lamentable 
portrait of the insecurity of Venetian Society 
during the latter half of the XV* Century. Many 
Nobles, it appears, were in the habit of summoning 
individuals, at pleasure, before private Tribunals 
in their own Palaces ; here, some were ordered to 
make payments to pretended creditors, some to be 
reconciled to persons from whom they had suffered 
injury, others to forbear from suits of Law which 
they were prosecuting; and, in furtherance of 
these several oppressive and illegal demands, the 
self-constituted Magistrate frequently employed 
menaces and blows, occasionally capital execution. 
The offender, if he had confined himself to threats 
only, was to be severely reprimanded and placed 
under observation : if he relapsed, he was to be 
imprisoned for at least three years in the Piombi ; 
and on a third conviction, he was to be drowned. 
But if, in the first instance, he had proceeded to 
acts of violence, his immediate punishment was to 
be proportioned to his degree of crime. The 
penalty awarded might be death, and, to render 

* Daru mentions an ancient law by which more summary punish- 
ment was inflicted upon this offence. Any Toter detected in drop- 
ping more than a single ball into the urn might be thrown out of 
window. Vol. y. liv, zzzr* p. 816, note. 


the example more impressive, this might be in- 
flicted publicly; notwithstanding another Statute 
which expressly declared that, whenever death 
was considered necessary, the scandal of open dis* 
play should be avoided by drowning the malefactor 
privately in the Canale Orfano*» 

In two cases only was the interference of any 
other portion of the Government permitted. If one 
of the Inquisitors themselves were denounced, a 
supplementary Inquisitor was named from the X to 
assist his two Brethren, and on an accusation of 
one of the Chiefs of the X, three Assessors from 
that Council were selected, and five voices were 
necessary for his condemnation ; if death were the 
penalty adjudged in this instance, it was recom* 
mended that it should be inflicted by poison, rather 
than by any other mode. The Doge was exempt 
from citation before the Inquisitors, and, if sub- 
jected to a reprimand, it was delivered to him in 
his private apartments. In cases which affected 
ofiicers of the Arsenal, due regard was always to 
be paid to the great utility of their profession. For 
the treatment of persons offensive to Government, 

* The Venetians assert that in the Lagune, at the back of San 
Giorgio Maggiore, the Canale Orfano, originally deU*Arco, receired 
Its name after the defeat of Pepin, in A.D. 804, (yol. i. p. 18.) by 
which all the children of Lombardy irere made Orphtms, The author 
of that very rare Tract the Squittinio delta Libertd Veneti rejects thia 
notion, and treats it as a cosa daridere. Etymologists, he says, had bet- 
ter trace the name to Orfneo, Orfnino, Orjinot or Orfno, all which worda 
In Greek (meaning thereby i^^veuos) signify black, dark, obscure} 
epithets which may reasonably be assigned to a Canal of very 
dangerous navigation, without any forced reference to the fable 
of Pepin's defeat. Greek derivations, he adds, can be by uo means 
strange to Venice.— c. iii. ad arm, 804. 


but of superior influeiioe, whom k might not there<» 
fore be prudent to dismiss after they had been 
irritated by arrest, and whom it might be equally 
impolitic to put to death, even privately, on account 
of the power of their connexions, a convenient 
mezzo termine was suggested. The Gaoler was in- 
structed to pretend willingness to favour the pri- 
soner's escape, and, on the evening before he 
released him, he was to administer with his last 
meal a poison of slow elfect and leaving no trace 
of its action ; so that whenever death ensued, it 
was not likely that it would be charged upon the 
Inquisitors. By such means, as this Statute con* 
eludes, shall we satisfy both public and private duty, 
and Justice will attain the end at which she aims, 
through a way somewhat more circuitous indeed 
than usual, but also more secure. 

A similar tone of high moral reflection pervades 
the instructions to the Governors of Cyprus and 
Candia. If there were any persons of noble birth 
or of superior influence resident in those Islands, 
who, it was thought, might be better out of the 
way (stasse ben morto) they were to be despatched 
secretly, provided the Magistrate felt, in his con- 
science, that he could not proceed otherwise, and 
was able to answer for the act, before God, with 
entire, sincerity. So nicely shaded and graduated 
also were the various species of possible offence, 
so delicately weighed and balanced were the pro- 
portions of contingent crime, that any one who 
engaged to arrest or assassinate an exile, could 
not be paid by grace accorded to another exile, 
unless the arrested or assassinated were equally 
guilty with his companion in banishment. Thus 


ftlgo, if a banished State-criminal sought pardon by 
proffering like services, the Inquisitors were to 
determine whether the murdered were inferior or 
superior in guilt to the murderer ; if the former, the 
assassin might be rewarded, but he could by no 
means obtain an entire remission of punishment. 

The operation of these most execrable Statutes 
will frequently cast dark shadows over our future 
pages; and we return, not unwillingly, to a more 
active narrative, from this digression, which, al- 
though perhaps long, is still necessary lor the 
elucidation of numerous leading principles in the 
Constitution of Venice. To the professed Histo- 
rian, however, we must relinquish the ungrateful 
task of recording in detaU the many enormities 
which deform a war with the Turks, to a rapid 
view of which we are about to direct ourselves. 
The wise policy of Sforza, since his acquisition of 
the Duchy of Milan, maintained, with a few un» 
important exceptions, a steady Peace throughout 
the States in his vicinity, during the remainder of 
his life, and even for twenty years beyond it ; and 
for awhile, therefore, we may turn from the busy 
scenes by which Italy has been so long agitated, 
to transactions in Countries far removed from her 

Christoforo Mono, of a Candiote family, 
was elected Doge on the decease of Ma- 
lipieri, and, but a few months after his 1462/ 
accession, a dispute with the Pacha of 
Athens respecting a fugitive slave spread the 
flames of war over the Mbrea and its adjacent 
districts. A ferocious contest, evilly distinguished 
by foul acts of mutual aruelty, raged during a 


bloody course of fifteen years ; and there is scarcely 
a spot on the Grecian soil endeared to us by gene- 
rous associations which was not polluted, at soine 
moment of this war, by rapine, treachery, or mas- 
sacre. The sack of Argos by the Turks preluded 
the Siege of Corinth by the Venetians ; and, during 
its investment, we read of an idle work, which, 
nevertheless, forcibly recalls one of the most spirit- 
stirring portions of Ancient History. Of the wall 
which the Peloponnesians threw across the Isthmus 
of Corinth on the approach of Xerxes, Herodotus 
does little more than mention the existence*. A 
similar fortification was constructed by Manuel II. 
in 1413, which the Venetians afterwards repaired, 
when in possession of the neighbouring City, 
without however finding it an adequate barrier 
against Turkish invasion. Nevertheless, in order 
to cover their besieging army, they now restored 
this useless outwork. Thirty thousand men were 
employed on this gigantic labour during fifteen 
days ; in which time they covered a distance of six 
miles, from sea to sea, with a wall of uncemented 
stones, twelve feet in height, flanked by thirty-Bix 
towers, and protected by a broad double fosse. 
But this rampart neither afforded confidence to 
its builders nor daunted their enemy: as the 
Turks advanced, the Venetians abandoned their 
fortification without attempting its defence, and 
sought a surer position on the rocky promontory of 
Napoli di Romania, where they more successfully 
maintained themselves. 

Meantime iEneas Silvius, who held the Pon- 
tificate, under the title of Pius II., having failed in 

•ylil. 40. 


an attempt for the peaceable conversion of Ma- 
homet II., whom be had soberly exhorted in an 
Apostolical Letter to renounce the imposture of 
his Prophet, and to embrace the Christian verity, 
directed all his cares to the organization of a new 
Crusade. Indulgences were lavishly distributed 
throughout Christendom, and the ardour pf Reli- 
gious zeal and. the terror of the Ottoman coti^quests 
collected a numerous, but ill-appointed band of 
warriors, prepared, under the personal guidance of 
the Holy Father, to encounter the Infidels. .Ve- 
nice, as one deeply interested and already Engaged 
in the contest, was among the first Powers to which 
a Papal Brief was addressed ; and the Doge Moro^ 
an old man whose besetting passions were avarice 
and love of ease, was. lost in consternation at the 
proposals which it. conveyed. ' The Victory which 
we anticipate,' wrote the animated ai^d energetic 
Pontiff, ' will be rendered far more certain, if you, 
the Prince of Venice and Captain of her armies, 
will accompany us in this war. We ourselves de- 
sign to increase the terror of the Infidels by a full 
display of the dignity of St. Peter : and you, if you 
will appear in your Bucentaur, clad in the Ducal 
insignia, will fill with dread not only the opposite 
shores of Greece and Asia, but even the whole 
Oriental world.' It was in vain, however, that this 
flattering exaggeration of his power was dropped 
into the dull ears of Moro ; that the bright exam- 
ples of his predecessors were exhibited to his closed 
eyes ; and that he was invited to pursue the heroic 
steps of Dandolo and Contarini, ' Come then, my 
dear Son,' wrote the Holy Father in continuance, 
* and do not refuse to partake the toils which I 


myself willingly undergo. Plead not old age in 
excuse, for the Duke of Burgundy, not less ad- 
vanced in life than you are, and Sovereign of a yet 
more distant Country, undertakes the voyage. We 
too ourselves hesitate not to embark, altliough 
bowed beneath sixty-two winters and tormented day 
and night by our infirmities. We three Veterans 
will divide th« superintendence of the war. A 
Trinity is acceptable to God, and the Divine Trinity 
assuredly will protect that which we shall consti- 
tute. Fail not, therefore, at the gathering ; neither 
fear a death which, if it happens, will conduct yoa 
to a better life. All of us must die in this world ; 
and no death can be more an object of desire than 
that which is encountered in the cause of God*.' 

Cogent and coiisolatory as these arguments no 
doubt appeared to their framer, glowing as were 
these ai^urances of blessing and immortality, they 
met with no response in the chilled bosom of 
Moro. When the Brief was read before the 
Council, he vehemently pleaded his declining years, 
his unwarlike habits, and his unserviceableness in 
the field, as excuses for disobeying the summons. 
But his protest was unavailing against the united 
voices of the Nobles. ' Most Serene Prince,' was 
the conclusive reply of their spokesman, ' if your 
Serenity refuses to embark with good will, we shall 
compel you to go by force ; for the honour and 
advantage oi pur Country is far more dear to us 
than is your person.' The Doge answered not 
a word ; and the other Senators, as we are told, 

* The whole of this Brief, from which we have selected only a few 
■entences, may be found, amongst other writers, in the History of 
F. Justiaimi, lib. viii. p. 207. 

9EATH or PIUS If* 1S7 

eomforted him by promising the assistance of lour 
(d their Body as Privy Counsellors*. The ren* 
dezvous was fixed at AiicoDa, whither Moro, hav- 
ing first consulted the Astrologers for a fortunate 
hour, eet sail with a reluctant spirit Notwith* 
standing the good promise of the stars, a storm 
surprised the fleet in one of the Canals, and carried 
away from tlie Doge*s Galley its crimson banner 
blazoned with golden images of St Markf. Scarcely, 
however, had he entered the appointed Port, when 
he learned, with ill-dissembled joy, that the pro- 
jected expedition was arrested by the death of the 
Pope ; who, exhausted by mental and bodily far 
tigue, breathed his last a few hours after the arrival 
of the Venetian Armament The Sacred College 
partook but little in the zeal of their deceased Chief; 
the Crusade was abandoned, and Moro, having 
unbuckled his armour, took his seat in the Consist 
tory, received the thanks of the assembled Car- 
dinals, and joyfully returned to St Mark's. 

The Turks, during these transactions, were 
earnestly negotiating European alliances, and one 
of their invitations was addressed to the Duke of 
Milan. It was not without very natural inquietude 
that the Signory was informed of the arrival of 
Ottoman Ambassadors at the Lombard Court, of 
their honourable reception, and of their proposi- 
tion that, while Mahomet continued the War in 
€hreece, Sforza should effect a diversion upon the 
Venetian territories in Italy. But that great main 
both from declining health, and sound political 
foresight, felt little inclination to disturb the 

• Sanuto, 1174. 
t Velluto eremlHito e«^ SmmmnM d*oro. Id. 1180. 


Peace which he had so long laboured to consoli- 
date, and he accordingly rejected the alliance. 
For some years piast, he had been oppressed with 
symptoms of dropsy, but his last illness was only of 
two days' duration. Firmly established on his 
throne, which he seemed to have won by conquest 
solely in order to sheathe all swords around him ; in 
the height of glory and prosperity; and having 
secured his family by intermarriages with the 

princely Houses of Savoy, Aragon and 
im, France, he expired on the 25th of March, 

1466, in the 65th year of his age. Hia 
sick couch was watched with tender care by the 
high-minded and affectionate Bianca ; she soothed 
him by her attentions, she consulted with his 
Physicians, she prepared and administered his 
medicines ; and when the progress of fatal symp- 
toms manifestly announced the rapid approach of 
his last hour, suppressing her grief, she provided 
for the tranquil succession of their Son Galeazzo, 
at that time in the service of the King of France, 
by forwarding messengers to hasten his presence 
in Milan; and by despatching Ambassadors to 
Venice and the other cliief Italian Powers, solicit- 
ing a continuance of their friendship. Then, in 
the dead of the night, assembling a Council, she 
proposed fit measures for the restraint of that 
popular agitation which is so frequently excited by 
the death of Princes ; and, subduing every femi- 
nine weakness, although her heart was rent 
asunder by her loss, she addressed the Senators 
with calmness and dignity, herself alone appa«- 
rently unmoved amid the mourners who sur- 
rounded her. Having thus fulfilled the lofty 


duties of a Queen, and satisfied the paramount 
claims of Royalty, she no longer struggled against 
Nature ; but, abandoned to softer and more 
womanly emotions, she threw herself upon the 
beloved, though lifeless body, and refused to quit 
it till the moment of interment, which, contrary to 
usual Italian custom, was protracted, at her desire, 
beyond the second day. In a few months, the 
grave terminated her sorrows, by reuniting her to 
that husband whose attaching, no less than com- 
manding qualities had converted a marriage, 
originally prompted by ambition, into a bond of 
the most ardent, reciprocal affection*. 

War continued to rage with unmitigated fero* 
city in the East ; for, although Venice anxiously 
wished to disembarrass herself from a struggle 
which exhausted bl[>th her blood and treasure 
without hope of advantage, the demands of 
Mahomet appeared too unreasonable to be ad- 
mitted while there was any chance of obtaining their 
modification. The Venetians, after disembarking 
at Aulis (a port ennobled in Ancient History by 
the rendezvous of the Grecian Fleet, preparatory 
to its expedition against Troy) and descending 
to the Piraeus, attacked, stormed and pillaged 
Athens ; but thb short-lived triumph was re- 
venged, on the recovery of the City, by the 
empalement of a Provveditore captured during its 
siege, and a hideous slaughter in the assault. 
Mantinea was once more deluged with blood, 
which did not now flow in the cause of Freedom ; 
and the Venetians, abandoning the continent, 

* Simooeta, apud Maratori, xxi. 776, 

130 LOSS ov heosoport. 

concentrated tiiemselvcs in Negropont, suffenng 
and inflicting the most frightful calamitieB. 
tiro* '^^ narrow strait which separates that 
Island from the opposite shore of Attiom 
was crowded with a larger fleet than had filled its 
channel since the invasion of Xerxes; and Ma- 
homet II., when encamped on the very pro* 
montory which had heen occu|»ed hy the Persian 
Tyrant, couaAed from h» pavilion 400 vessels 
occupying' a sea line cdx miles in length, and 
800,000 men* marshalled under his banners. 
The strait was bridged by boats ; and although a 
feeble attempt was made by tlie Venetian Admiral 
Canale to relieve the ancient Chalds, (now bearing 
the-sarae name as the island itself) he retired when 
within view of its eagerly expecting garrison, not 
without imputation of cowardice, for which he was 
displaced and punished. The Venetians repulsed 
five assaults ; the sixth was frital, and not one <^ 
its defenders survived the storm. M«homet had 
denounced death against every soldier who should 
spare a single prisoner exceeding twenty years cC 
age, and the slaughter consequent upon that 
menace was indiscriminate. Even the hand« 
fill of brave men which threw itself into the 
dtadel was massacred after capitulation; and 
their gallant Commander, Erizzo, who had yielded 
only on a' promise that his head should be re- 

• The TarkUb force, probably, li very greetly ezeggeraled. Bi- 
palU (op. Mtttatori, zz. 929) raUes it to 500,000. SabelUco (Dec. iiU 
lib. 8), and Oepio (i. p. 841) descend to 130,000, and Sanuto (1190) 
yet lower, to 70,000 : but, taken at the very lowest eetlmate which 
haa ever been aisigaed, it most fearfully outnumbered the Ve- 


speeted, ctiaeovesed, too late, tibat the Bpbtt of the 
savage cooqaesofB grant of immunity difiereA 
widely from its letter. His head, indeed, was 
nntouched, but his body was placed beneath the 
saw, and he expired in tortiiKi*. 

llie oonqaest of Negropont enabled the Tories 
to spread thems^Tes with rapid strides over the 
Morea, now whc^ defeno^ess : they next ad* 
vanced upon Dahmtia, rounded the head of the 
Adriatic, penetarated FViuli, and ravaged even so 
fax as the neighbouriiood of Udlno. Their fleet 
rode triumphant; all Eorepe was astsnriied by this 
humiliation of Veniceiipon the element over vriuc^ 
with few exceptions, die had hitherto assested do» 
nunion ; and rae surprise was inoreased by the ex- 
treme suddenuees with which the Toriush marine 
had acquired its superiority. Italy also was struck 
withterrorby the inruptian of fresh Barbarians upon 
her frontier. At the close of their Ibny, the war 
was principally transierred to Dahnatia, and raged 
in that and adjoining 4listiicts during six years of 
misery and desektion. It was then once again 
carried into Italy, and extended almost to the very 
borders of the Lagune themsdves. The 
Pacha of Bosnia again entering Friuli, sur* ^^'^ 
prised the Venetian Generak by rapid ootl 
maiehes, before any intelligenee of his ad- 
vance had been received. The lines constructed 

* Daru Imitates respeeUng the truth of tUs atrodoos perfidy, 
aad obeenree fhat It !• mentlOTied neither by Ae Tnrkieh Hieterl«ii% 
nor, a far better reason for disbelief, by Sanato. Sabellico, faow- 
rr«r, records it, and adds the Tyraa^s bmtal jest, P^Udhun » 
eenid mm hdeiiibm pvuwm ' wm , (iii. 6. ad ^.) and H is repeated bf 
SaBdi (tIH. 9). Vahspptty sneh cmdly <is by mo aasa n s atttn Arms 
•Hher the oatioBal vi tixe penoaail character ef M«hoBiet. 



on that frontier since the last invasion, if properly 
defended, would have been impregnable; but the 
troops occupying them were sunk in idle security 
and forgetfulness ; the Turks swam the rivers or 
mastered the bridges ; and their light cavalry having 
defeated, on the banks of the Isonzo, the only 
band which made head against them, spread them- 
selves over the whole plain between that stream 
and the Tagliamento. Sabellico, who at the mo^^ 
ment was seeking shelter in the invaded district 
from the Plague, at nightfall mounted a tower 
near Udino, and from its summit beheld a hundred 
villages in flames. On the next morning, the 
Tagliamento was crossed, and the fires of the sue-' 
eeeding night were visible even from tiie Campa-^ 
nile of St. Mark's. Afber these acts of destruction,- 
the marauders, prepared solely for ravage and 
content with the terror which they had inspired^ 
withdrew upon Dalmatia, before any new force 
could be assembled to confront them. 

In that Country, so often desolated by war, 
the Venetians suffered a heavy loss. Croya, 
now a miserable village, but once the Capital of 
the heroic Scanderbeg*, and transferred by him 
before his death to the Signory, capitulated from 
want of supplies, after investment for a whole 
year and a patient endurance of the bitter-» 
^478\ ^^^ privations. The Sultan, in an express 
Instrument attested by his own signet^ 
guaranteed safe-conduct to such of its inhabitants 

* It is not in this place 'that the exploits of that most extraordl* 
nary man can be introduced with propriety. Gibbon has condensed 
them into the narrow compass of ha^f a dozen pages in which they 
•re but mistily narrated, with great Inc ^nation to underralqe the 
ChrUHan Hero. (Ch. Ixyli.) 


as wished to quit the City» and protection to all 
others who would remain in it under the 'Hirkish 
Government. To a man, they preferred emigra^ 
tion, satisfied with whatever new seats Venice 
might provide for their allotment. The princely 
abode of the Castriots was abandoned by its native 
guardians ; and the gates, at which the victorious 
progress of Amurath had been checked, and his 
days probably shortened by the chagrin which their 
successful resistance occasioned, were now opened 
to his more fortunate son. Twenty years after 
the death of Scanderbeg, his surviving companions 
committed themselves to the ambiguous fidelity 
of the Ottomans, not till then their conquerors ; 
and, in spite of the solemn pledge which Mi^ 
hornet had given, no sooner were they within 
his power than he delivered them to the execu* 

• Scutari, from its great strength, the almost 
spontaneous fertility of its adjacept country, 
and the forests well adapted for ship-timber 
by which it was encompassed, ofiered an im- 
portant station to Mahomet, panting for means to 
establish himself on the opposite coast of Italy; 
and it had already been unsuccessfully invested. 
Even before the fall of Croya, preparations on a 
far larger scale than had been employed at first, 
were made for a renewal of the siege. After 
the close of the war, Sabellico was assured by 
eye-witnesses that not a spot of ground was to be 
discovered from the battlements of that City, far 
as sight could range across the plain or up the 
mountains, which did not teem with armed men, 
tents, and artillery ; and to oppose this gigantic 


force, Seutari, one of. the strongest Venetian de* 
pendencies, and e^en in ouv own days containing 
12,000 inhabitants, counted within her walls no 
more than 600 mercenaries, 1600 citizens and 250 
women. A breach was sooai effected, and the 
Turks were twice led to the asaanlt. On the 
second attack, Mahomet, careless how many lives 
he sacrificed if success were but attained, disposed 
bis 80,000 troops in four separate drnsions, with 
orders to relieve each other at intervals oi six 
hours ; and thus to exhaust the garrison by the 
mere pressure of numbers contimially renewed. 
Slender as was the Venetian foice even when 
mustered entire, Antonio de^ Lazzi, its brave 
Commander, when apprized of the enemy's inteu'* 
tion, determined to meet it by a similar arrange- 
ment; and while a single small detachment 
manned the ramparts, three others were posted 
in reserve. Tlie assault commenced before day- 
break, and as evening closed, fresh battalions 
continued to press forward over the corpses of 
their fallen comrades, without planting one foot 
within the walls. During the whole night and 
the greater part of the following day, the com- 
bat raged unabatedly, till Mahomet, warned that 
he could no longer depend upon his troops, who 
began to murmur at being led to certain and 
unavailing slaughter, reluctantly withdrew, with 
the loss of a third of his army, and converted the 
siege into a blockade. The unintermitted sleet 
of arrows, covered by which the assailants ad* 
vanced to this memorable storm, is mentioned by 
contemporary Historians as one of its greatest 
terrors. A miserable cat, scared from her hiding 


plaee by the war-cnes, fiell pierced by eleven shafto 
at once ; thiee or four acrows were in many places 
found tnuwfixiikg eaek otiier; and, for several 
montliB afttf the retreat of the Ottomans, the 
baths,, kitchens, and bake4ioiises were sopplied 
^ith no otb^ fuel than the wood which these 
weapons afforded*. During the subsequent hlock«* 
ade, the chief sufferings of the inhabitants arose 
from scarcity of water; and, on one occasion, 
resolutely bent upon procuring a supply at ever]^ 
hazard, Uiey sallied down in a mass upon the lake 
which approached their western ramparts. Four 
hundred men carried akins and buckets, the rest 
formed their escort; and as they fought their 
way back to the walla» the favourite project of 
Mahomet and his uittmate hopes of the conquest 
of Italy were sufficiently announced, by fierce 
shouts which burst from the camp, ' Scutari^ Scu^ 
iari I — Rcmat Roima /f 

Italy indeed was <Hicft again to be desolated by 
these plundering hordesi^ but not till she had en« 
countered other sufferings beforehand. In theic 
former incursions, the Turks had left behind them 
the seeds of Pestilence, and these, it is 
said, were increased by a descent of Lo- '^i^^. 
custs, which, in the summer of 1478, 
swarmed over a space 80 miles in length and 20 
in breadth, in the territories of Mantua and Bres-^ 
cia. The peasants employed in the destruction 
of these formidable insects neglected to bury them ; 
and the miasma generated by their putrefaction* 
spread rapidly from Lombardy even to Florence 
and to Venice. So great was the mortality in the 
latter City, that the Councils broke up their sit- 

*' Sabtflico. t Sttiato, 120O. 


tings, and the Nobles sought safety in dispersion. 
The JDoge himself was among the victims, and the 
reign of his successor Giovanni Moncenioo 
commenced under the accumulated calamities of 
Plague, Famine, a destructive Fire which con* 
•sumed parts of the Ducal Palace and of St Mark's^ 
and a new invasion of Friuli by the Ottomans* 
Schooled, however, by their former disasters, the 
Venetian Generals were now amply prepared ; 
and, instead of taking the field, they prudently 
remained unmoved within their lines which defied 
all attack; till the marauders, wearied by inac- 
tivity and hopeless of provoking battle, retired 
by the mountains of Camiola. Marvellous 
stories were recounted of their retreat among 
these Alps. Thirty thousand cavalry were said to 
have penetrated through defiles which the natives 
themselves seldom dared to attempt ; and in more 
than one spot, when a pathless abyss appeared to 
forbid descent, the horses were lowered by ropes 
amid the precipices, from height to height, till 
they securely reached the undermost valley. 

Peace was now coveted at almost any sacrifice. 
The defence of Friuli and Albania at the same 
moment distracted and exhausted the resources of 
the State ; new interests in Cyprus demanded vigi- 
lance; growing agitations among neighbouring 
Italian Powers excited well-grounded alarm ; and 
no European ally appeared willing or prepared to 
grant active assistance. Advices had been re- 
ceived from Scutari that but a few months' pro- 
visions remained to its diminished garrison, which 
it was impossible either to recruit or to relieve ; 
and it was determined therefore to take advan- 
tage of the cession of that hardly^coutested City 


while it vaa yet availftble for negotiation. TLe 
demands of Mahomet bad not increased in rigourj 
but they were atill oppressive to the Trea- 
sury and galling to the pride of Venice. f^ 
NegTopont, Lemnos and Scutari were to 
be transferred to the Turks ; 100,000 ducaU were 
to b« paid immediately as an indemnity ; exclu- 
uvely of an annual tribute of 10,000 more, the 
disgrace of which was to be concealed under tbe 
name of a commutation for mercantile duties and 
CuBtoms. Wben the gates of Scutari were opened 
to its new Lords, there issued from them 450 
men and 150 women, the melaucboly remnant of 
nearly 2,500 souls at the commencement of the 
aege. They were distributed by the Signory of 
Venice through various parts of its territory, and 
rewarded, as their rare fidelity well deserved, either 
by public charges or by allowances from the State. 

rmccMD ind BUnoi Sfsiu. Fiem thrii Tomb M Ullu. 



F&OK ▲.J>. U6i TO A.D. ISOS. 

Oiaeopo Lttsignano oaiirpf the Crown of CfpniH-^e m«rriefl 
Catarina Comaro — His death — Insttrreetion of the Cypriots-* 
DeposiUon of Qaeen Catarina — Cypiras becomes a Province of 
Venice— The Turks saclc Otranto— LodoTico the More usurps 
the CnMm of MUan— iBTitesthe French into Italy— iDTaaion of 
Chatlea VIIL— He conquers Na]Hcs— Embassy of Philippe d» 
Comlnes to Venice— Retreat of the French— Battle of FornoTO— 
Victory claimed by the Venetians — Dethronement and Captivity 
Of Lodovico Sforza — WtaMx and dominion of Venice at the 
close of the ZVti^ Centary*— War with the Emperoi^-Tlrttce— i 
Jealousy of the great European Powers. 



Christoforo Moro. 
NicoLo Moro. 
NiGOLO Marcbi^lo. 


AmnixA. Vendrakimo. 


1485. ixzy. Mabco Barbarioo. 

1486. uKzvi. AuGusTiNo Barbarigo. 
1501. Lzzvii. Lbonardo Lorbdamo. 

During this long and perilous war with the Ot- 
toman Sultan, Venice prepared the way for an 
important acquisition, first by a dark course of 
intrigue, ultimately by complicated injustice. The 
Crown of Cyprus had been worn for nearly two 
centuries and a half by the Family of Lusignano, 


irhen, in 1459, it was wrested by Giacopo, a Bas- 
tard of tke fourte^th Prince of that iUustrions 
line, fnmi the rightful heiress, his legitimate sister. 
The' new King had been attached from early youth 
to Catarina» niece of Andrt^a Comaro, a Venetian 
Noble, resident on his Cypriote estate ; and no 
sooner waa he freed from certain political and do- 
mestic ob^acles, than he tendered his hand to that 
Lady. In order to satisfy the rigid law which for- 
bade the marriage of any Venetian of noble birth 
wifch a foreigner*, the destined Royal Bride was 
solemnly adopted by the Skate, and decUred a 
daughter of St Mark ; she was then married by 
proxy, in the presence of the Doge and Signory, 
conducted by the Bucentaur to the galley which 
awaited her in the Port, and escorted by a squa- 
dron oi ships of war, with becoming pomp and 
a portion of 100,000 ducats, to the territories of 
her Husband. 

The Venetian Government, doubtless, foresaw 
numerous advantages likely to arise from this con* 
nexion, but they could scarcely calculate upon the 
splendid prize which it was finally to }dace within 
their grasp. It was no small gain to open freely to 
their Commerce an Island which, after Sicily and 
Sardinia, ranked as the largest in the Mediterranean ; 
whose delicious climate and fertile soil produced 
wine^ oiU and grain in profusion ; the richness of 
whose mines of copper waa announced by its very 

* This law appears to hay« been £ramed in order to continoe the 
wealth of Noble Families within national channels ; and, as it re^ 
garded Foreign Princesi it was in strict accordance with the general 
policy of Venice, which forbade all communication between them 
«nd her Nobility. 


name ; and whose position, with regard to Syrian 
Mgyfij and Asia Minor, offered unequalled faciUtiea 
for the profitable intermediate traffic between Eu- 
rope and the East. Giacopo Lusignano, after his 
marriage, cultivated intimate relations with the 
Republic of which he had become the son in law ; 

he assisted her in the Turkish war, and hia 
1474.' Ports were always thronged by her vessels. 

At his death, which occurred within two 
years after this alliance, he bequeathed his Kingdom 
to the infant of which Catarina was then pregnant ; 
and in failure of her issue, to three illegitimate 
children, a daughter and two sons, successively in 
order of primogeniture. Sabellico relates a con» 
versation with the Venetian Admiral Monce* 
nigo, in which the dying Prince consigned his 
Queen and Kingdom to the especial protection of 
the Republic ; a legacy whicn, it will be seen, 
Venice was not backward to accept. 

Moncenigo proclaimed Catarina Queen, and, 
together with the Proweditori who accompanied 
him, held at the Baptismal font the son of whom 
she was soon afterwards delivered. He then 
resumed his station in the neighbouring seas; 
and his departure was the signal for revolt to 
those Cypriots who, in a closer connexion with 
Venice, too truly anticipated the loss of national 
independence. A numerous party of the Nobles 
addressed themselves to Ferdinand of Naples, the 
most deadly and the most ambitious foe of the 
Republic ; and proposed to him a marriage between 
his bastard son Alfonso, and the bastard daughter 
of their own late King. Both the children were of 
immature age, but the Cypriots pledged themselves 


that the Crown should devolve upon them jointly, 
at the attainment of majority. Fortified by this 
strong alliance, they proceeded to scatter ambi- 
guous reports among the populace ; and darkly to 
imply that Comaro and Marco Bembo, the Uncle 
and the Cousin of the Queen, had poisoned the late 
King, in order to transfer the sovereignty to her 
single hand. The imputation found ready belief; 
and the Citizens of the Capital^ stimulated to 
violence by these rumours, assembled by night ; 
assassinated the accused Venetians and the Eoyal 
Physician who was denounced as their instrument ; 
besieged the Palace ; and secured the persons of 
Catarina and her son. They then announced the 
concerted alliance with Naples, and invested the 
future Bridegroom with the title of Prince of Ga* 
lilee, a dignity never hitherto bestowed except on 
the presumptive heir to the Crown. No sooner* 
however, were these tidings conveyed to Monce^ 
nigo than he gathered his scattered cruisers, sum- 
moned troops &om Candia, and repaired to Nicosia 
with eager haste and an overpowering force. His 
unexpected arrival struck terror into the insure 
gents ; some of the leaders, dissembling their real 
motives, represented the murder of Comaro as an 
act of the mutinous soldiery whose pay he had 
kept in arrear, and disclaimed all hostility against 
Venice ; others fled for refuge to the mountains, 
or sought escape by sea. On their dispersion, 
the chief towns were occupied by Venetian Garri* 
sons ; those revolters against whom evidence could 
be obtained underwent capital punishment; and 
Catarina, restored to nommal power, became in 
truth tlie Vice- Queen of the Signory. 


Fifteen years had now passed during which the 
Signory had governed CyjMiw, under the 
im. 'name of Catarina, whose son died not long 
after his birth ; and the Islanders, who at 
first chafed beneath the yoke of the Republic, and 
earnestly sought to fransfer their allegiance to 
Naples, had now become accustomed to their 
vfatual masters. There were contingencies, never- 
theless, not likely to escape tl» sagacity of Venice, 
by which some other hand, after all her long in- 
trigue, might perhaps gather its fruits. Catarina 
still retwned more than ordinary beauty ; and her 
Picture, in Widow's weeds, (even now gk>wmg with 
almost original freshness among 'die treasures <rf 
the Palazzo Manfrini,) was one of the earliest 
great works of Titian*, which, both from the skill 
of the artist and the loveliness of the subject, ex- 
tended his growing fame beyond the borders of 
the Lagune. With so great attractions, coupled 
to the rich dowry of a Kingdom, it was not pro- 
bable that tfhe Queen of Cyprus would long remain 
without suitors ; and rumour already declared her 
to be the intended Bride of Frederic, a son of the 
King of Naples. If she married and bore Chil* 
dren, Cyprus would become their inheritance ; and 
to prevent the possibility of such an extinction 
of their hopes, the Venetian Grovemment resolved 
to assume its sovereignty directly in their own 
persons. The Civilians, therefore, were inirtructed 
to avouch the legitimacy of this claim ; and they 
declared, perhaps with less sincerity than solemnity, 

' • litiaii often lepflftled this aul^ct, and It has been yet more fire* 
quently copied firom him by otben. In the Dresden Gallery is 
a superb Portrait oTthe Queen of Cyprus, which there can be no 
doubt is from the hand of Titian himself. 


tlot; die son of Giacopo LasignaTio inherited the 
Crown from his Father; that since he died a 
minor. Ids Motlier inherited from him ; and that 
finally Venice inherited from his Mother, an adopted 
Daughter of St. Marie. 

Gwrgio Cotnaro, a brother of the Queen, was 
solicited to conduct the ungrateful pcoceM of her 
deposition. To his representations, — that by aban- 
doning the care of a turbulent Kingdom, and re- 
turning to her native Land, in wliioh she might 
pass &e remainder of her life tranquilly and se- 
curely, amongst those bound to her by natural ties, 
she would far more consult her hnppiness than by 
temaitting exposed in a remote and roreim Country 
to the faazurds of its ambiguous friendship,-— 
ahe relied mth confidence, that there was little 
which could allure a Woman environed with the 
splendour of Royalty and the observance of a 
iJourt^ to descend to the pandmonions habits and 
undistinguished level -of a Repnblican life; and 
that it would please her far better if the Signory 
would await her decease belbre they occupied 
her possessions.* But to arguments -explanatory 
of the will, the power, and the inflexibility of the 
Senate, it was not easy to find an adequate answer ; 
and the nakirid doquenee^9B the Historian styles it, 
of her Brother, uhnnately prevailed. ' If such/ sbe 
observed, as soon as tears permitted speech, * be your 
opinion, such also shall be mine; never&elesa, it is 
more from you than from myself that our Country 
will obtain a Kingdomt.' Having thus reluctantly 
consented, after a few days delay she commenced 
her progress to Famagosta; Royal honours at* 

* BembOf ItU Venet. I. ad ann» 
i Id, Ibid. 


tended her every where as she passed, and on the 
6th of February she signed a formal Act of Ab-* 
dication, in the presence of her Council ; attended a 
solemn Mass, at which the banner of St. Mark was 
consecrated; delivered that Standard to the charge of 
the Venetian General ; and saw it raised above her 
pwn on the towers of the Citadel. On the approach 
of summer, she embarked for Venice, .where she 
was received as a Crowned Head by the Doge and 
Signory ; and in return for the surrender of her 
Sceptre, she enjoyed a privilege never before or 
since accorded to any of her Countrywomen, a tri^ 
umphal entry to St. Mark's Piazzetta^ on the deck 
of tlie Bucentaur. A revenue of 800Q ducats was 
assigned her for life ; and the delights of th^ 
? Paradise * of Asola, in the Trevisan Mountains^ 
in which the unqueened Queen continued to asr 
semble her little Court, have been immortalized by 
a volume long among the most popular works of 
early Italian Literature ; and graced by the Poetry^ 
the Sentiment, the Piety, and the Metaphysics of 
the illustrious Historian from whom we have bor- 
rowed our narrative of Catarina's dethronement*. 

• The Jaolani of Cardinal Bembo were first published by Aldns 
In 1506, and they were reprinted eighteen times before the close of 
^e XVIth Century. His Biographer, Giovanni Casa, thus spealca 
of their great popularity. Em libros taiUA homnwnt mulierum etiamg 
mediuafidiuSf apptobaiione et tanquam plausu exceptos recentes etig 
meminimut, ut ^templb euneta eos ItaUa ag>idisnmi leetitArU 
ntque didieerii ; ut noa toHa urhatU out elegantes n habereHtur qui' 
bus Asulanes UUs Disputationes etsent incognitte, Vit, Bembi, p. 143. 
The theme of these Dialogues is Love, but they are wholly freeArom 
the impurities which unhappily defile some of their author's early 
Poems. The scene is laid at Asola, where a large company is assem* 
bled to celebrate the nuptials of a favourite attendant of the Queen 
of Cyprus. The disputations, intermixed with Coiixonl, occupy three 


It is to the year following the incorporation of 
Cyprus with the dominions of the Republic, 
that Bembo, who, as Public Historio- \^[ 
grapher now takes up the thread of Sa- 
bellico's narrative, assigns the introduction of 
small arms into the Venetian military service. 
His- minute description sufficiently avouches the 
novelty of the invention, and it somewhat resem* 
bles that account of the first employment of artil- 
lery, which in a former page* we have ex- 
tracted from Redusio. The usage of iron tubes, 
says the Historian, transmitted to us firom Ger- 
many, is becoming prevalent among our soldiery. 
These tubes by the force of lire discharge leaden 
bullets with extraordinary violence, and wound 
from a distance ; they are of the same shape and 
form as Cannon by which walls are battered ; with 
this difference however, that the latter are cast 
from brass, and are often of so great weight as to 
require solid and iron-bound carriages and a vast 
number of horses for their transport ; the tubes, on 
the other hand, are made of iron fixed to a wooden 
butt, so that one may be handled by every soldier 
singly. They are loaded with gunpowder which 
is easily kindled, and when the bullet has been 
rammed down, they are discharged from the 
shoulder. The X, anxious to obtain a supply of 
men skilled in these weapons, have collected from 
all quarters persons who are masters of their use, 

days, on the first of which a Noble youth, Perottino, argues 
agidnst the gentle passion ; on the second, Gismondo replies to 
him J Layinello appears as Moderator on the third; and at the 
close, a Hermit directs the thouglits of the auditors from earthly 
affections to dmor J?ivino. 

• VoL i. p. 288. 

146 TRiLUnVQ TO «tf AUi AlUtf*. 

and have sent them ioJko different towns to in- 
struct OUT youth. For the encouragement also of 
peasants in thb training, they have decreed that in 
every village two adults shall devote themselves to 
the acquirement of this exercise, who in conse- 
quence shall be relieved from all other public 
burdens : and tothermore, that every year there 
«hall be a general Assembly of these marksmen, at 
some spot fixed among themselves, for a shooting 
match at a target; in which the victor's prize shall 
be a similar immunity to that possessed by himself 
for all his townsmen, during the following year, with 
the single exception of such labours as are enjoined 
for turning the course of the Brenta*. 

The affairs oi Cyprus have anticipated our 
Italian narrative by a few years, but henceforward 
there will be many periods over which we shall 
hasten with far greater rapidity than we have 
hitherto ventured to employ. Our Sketches are 
not designed for more than illustrations of Nar 
tional character; and as Venice, by her growing 
.continental acquisitions, became more and more in- 
volved in the labyrinth of general European Poli- 
tics, so did she cease to retain many of those 
peculiarities which in her earlier course stamped 
her so deeply with an impress of individuality. 
That which may be better obtained from oth^ 
and professed Histories, we shall therefore touch 
but lightly, if at all ; restricting ourselves to such 
matters as belong absolutely to the Republic 

• Bembo, Ut. Tenet. L od ami. The reader will at once call to 
mind the English Popinjay. See the wo<Hl-cut at the end of the 


There is little wliich need detain us in the fif« 
teen years which succeeded the Turkish war ; they 
were spent, for the most part, in unceasing dis- 
putes and occasional direct hostihties with Ferdi- 
nand of Naples, and his son-in-law the Duke of 
Ferrara. One event, however, which occurred 
before the commencement of any open struggle, 
and which naturally confirmed the animosity of 
Ferdinand, is far too remarkable to be passed in 
silence. Within a year after the conclusion 
of Peace with Mahomet II., a Venetian f^ 
Ambassador was despatched to Constant!* 
nople, inviting the Turks to a descent upon the 
coast of Apuglia ; on which it was supposed that 
Ferdinand was chiefly vulnerable, ^ and which 
Mahomet was instructed to claim as an ancient 
possession of the Greek £mpire. A hundred 
Turkish ships of war were accordingly assembled 
in the Forts of Albania ; sixty Venetian galleys 
distantly observed them, and betrayed their con- 
nivance by permitting a disembarkation at Otranto. 
The result was most calamitous; after a fortnight's 
siege, the City was stormed, 11,000 souls perished 
in the assault^ and as many more were reduced to 
slavery. Among the victims to the Ottoman fury 
on this disastrous occasion were 800 Ecclesiastics, 
whose massacre has furnished a copious theme 
for Legendary invention. Francesco-Maria di 
Asti, Archbishop of the See so late as the com- 
mencement of the XVI 11"* Century, published the 
Annals of his Diocese, which, but for this most 
terrific martyrdom and its accompaniments, would 
afford a very meagre narrative. One Priest, 
named Stephen, appears to have been slain while 

h 2 


ministering at the Altar, and a Portrait of the 
Virgin, attributed to the pencil of St. Luke, 
vanished for ever from the Church at the moment 
of his death. His brethren were led without the 
walls, chanting hymns and spiritual songs, and 
Antonio Primaldo their Abbot was the first who 
was put to the sword. His head rolled from his 
shoulders, but his body, notwithstanding the 
repeated efforts of the executioner to overthrow it, 
obstinately persisted in remaining upright till the 
last of his comrades was lifeless. The corpses, 
although unburied for thirteen months, showed no 
signs of corruption, and remained inviolate by 
birds and beasts of prey. Afler their subsequent 
honourable Jintertnent, part of their relics was trans- 
ported to Naples, part remained within their native 
City, greatly to its advantage. So potent was their 
virtue, that they twice preserved Otranto from vio- 
lence similar to that by which the Saints themselves 
had perished. When Solyman the Magnificent 
threatened the coast in 1537, he was astonished by 
these Martyrs, who, gifted with a power of superna- 
tural multiplication, presented themselves upon the 
ramparts under the guise of innumerable armed men. 
A like ghostly array averted another Turkish in- 
vasion in 1644 ; and the marvel was then increased 
by being visible to none but Infidel eyes. ITie 
Christian galley-slaves who rowed the Ottoman 
vessels denied the existence of the spiritual hosts 
which terrified the Unbelievers, and they were 
ruthlessly put to death by their masters for this 
want of clear-sightedness*. 

* In Memorabilibua Hydruntincg Ecel, Epitome, ap, Bnrmannl 
Thesaur, Jntiq, et Hist, Hal, torn. ix. p. 8. 


Rome was filled with consternation by this un* 
expected irruption of Barbarians which appeared 
to threaten her own safety ; and the Pope medi- 
tated an abandonment of his Capital and a retreat 
to France. But the Turks were unable to improve 
their first success ; the whole South of Italy rose in 
arms for their expulsion ; the death of Mahomet in 
the following year prevented them from receiving 
support ; and the conqueror of Otranto, who had 
effected nothing farther than the ravage of its im- 
mediate neighbourhood and an incursion upon 
Brindisi, accepted an honourable capitulation*. 

The accession of Alexander VI. strengthened 
former amicable relations between Venice and 
the Holy See ; and in 1493 a triple alliance was 
signed by the Pope, the Signory and Milan, ex* 
pressly to counterpoise the increasing predomi* 
nance of Naples. In Milan, the power conso- 
lidated by the wisdom of Francesco Sforza waa 
now beginning to decline. His successor, in 
spite of his weakness and his crimes, had 
reigned in tranquillity mainly preserved by the 
remembrance of his Father's greatness ; but, 
upon his death, the virtual government was 

• Disgraceful as was this conspiracy between Venice and theTurks» 
it was exceeded in wickedness by tbe conduct of Alexander VI. in 
1494, when alarmed at tbe approach of Charles VIII. If tbe docu- 
ments relative to the negotiation were not even now extant, it would 
scarcely be believed that the Head of the Christian Church invited 
a horde of Barbarian Infidels to overrun Italy, In order that he 
might achieve the ruin of the eldest son of that Church. The in- 
structions of Alexander to bis Nuncio at Constantinople, and tbe 
Letters of Sultan Bajazet II. In reply are printed in Preuves et 
JUustratioM aux M4moiret de Philippe de Comines, p. 293. d la 
Haye, 1682. 


usurped from his infant son, by the Regent, an 
ambitious Uncle, known in History as Lodovica 
the More*; to whose ripening views upon the 
throne itself the support and acknowledgment of 
Venice became of paramount importance. Never- 
theless even after the conclusion of that Treaty, 
Lodovico Sforza felt litde confidence in his new 
allies ; for Venice was the hereditary enemy of 
his family, and the treachery and recklessness of 
crime which have rendered the name of Alexan- 
der VI. a by-word in History had already dis- 
played themselves in more than a single instance.. 
Agitated by such doubts, and feeling the strong 
necessity of arming himself yet more completely 
against the watchful jealousy of Naples, if he per- 
sisted in the meditated seizure of his Nephew's 
Crown, the Regent of Milan sought friends be- 
yond the Alps ; and readily captivated a young, 
vain, and thoughtless monarch by the allurement of 
a brilliant expedition and the probable conquest of 
a rich dominion. Charles VI 1 1, of France was now 
in his twenty-second year; Nature had been but 
chary in her endowments at his birth, and he was 
little gifted with such qualities as constitute either 
real or ideal Heroism. Rash, light and head- 
strong, without prudence, judgment, diligence or 

* Not the Mwtr as it is commonly ^rritten. Paulas Joyius 
{Vita illtut. tfirorutn, iv.) states that Lodoyico Sforsa adopted as 
bis bearing a white M alben7 tree (moro), the wisest of all plants, 
which buds late, and does not flower till all hazard from winter is 
past. The Usurper, however wily in maturing his plans, wras 
mistaken in the application of the latter meaning of the emblem to 
mmself. It was under a similar delusion that he named himself 
U Jigiuolo delta Fortuna. Guicciardini, who records this folly, 
speaks howeyer of his title il Moro as denoting his complexion as 
well as his political wisdom.^Lib. iii. yol. i. p. 239. Ed. Frib. 1775. 


constancy, he was so weak m disposition as to be 
the easy tool of every fresh intriguer who beset 
him ; so deficient in cultivation, that it was with 
difficulty he could write his own signature. He 
is represented to have been equally wanting also 
in personal graces. We are told that he was 
dwarfish in stature, forbidding in aspect, dispropor* 
tioned in limbs, large-headed, short-necked, high- 
shouldered and spindle-shanked, altogether more 
like a monster than a man*. Such is the por- 
trait transmitted to us of that youthful Conqueror, 
who was to renew the march of Hannibalt; to 
overthrow a powerful Kingdom ; and to abandon 
the fruits of his rapid victories only that he might 
increase the glory which Fortune poured blindly 
into his lap, by effecting one of the most success* 

* BrutHs$ifM is the epithet employed by Guicciardinf, who con- 
tinues pareva queui piA rithile a mo^o cAe ad AuonuK—lAh. i. rol. I. 
p*70. Brantome, on the mithority of hie gnmdmother^streniioiMly re* , 
Jects these pictures of Charles's ill-favoored person, and the Italian . 
Historians may perhaps have overchai^ed the features } but Philippe 
de Comines, who represents him but a few degrees better, cannot be 
doubted. Horeorer a corroborating testiioMiy is afforded by an 
u]q)regudiced witness* Bartbolemseas C«ele8» a great contempo*- 
rary Physiognomist, to whose jndgment the King's Portrait was 
gnbmitted, thus descrilies it i^^Caput tnagmum et nagut ultra modum 
aqtiUiniu magniu, labia mbtUia tUiquaiihUiim et mmUum rotiindum 
et/oveaihtm, ocuU magni et aWgwasftUftm eminentes, coUum ettrium, 
non ioHi vividum, peetut et donum amplum, hypochondria eatia 
magna, venter eamoeue, nate$ eatU ampke, ewrce eubtUee et crura 
aibiiUaet eatiemagna in longitudine*'^P^eiognom. Quatt, lib. ii. 15, 
The prognostics which the Sage delivered were that the Priuice 
would be shorMlfed, and probably die «v materie catarrhal: h« 
was right in one, at leaat» of these coi^ectures. 

t Passando in Italia per la tnontagna di MengiHeura, per la quale, 
poMsb anticamettrte Amiihale Car^a§!tfuefue-Hna ce» ineredibUe dif- 
>Sco/td.— Guicciardini» lib. I. yol. i. p. 71. 


ful retreats and winning one of the most remark* 
able victories recorded in military Annals. 

In the invitation conveyed by Lodovico Sforzt 
to the King of France, Venice was not a party ; 
and it was with astonishment by no means un- 
mixed with alarm* that she learned the determi- 
nation of Charles to assert by arms the long- 
suspended claims of the House of Anjou upon 
the Neapolitan Crown ; his passage of the Alps ; 

his unchecked progress to the South of 
'i4^^ Italy ; and his final occupation of Naples. 

Alexander VI., indeed, threatened the pe« 
nalties of Ecclesiastical censure if the French 
Army should violate the precincts of the Eternal 
City ; but he was silenced by the reply of Charles 
that he had vowed a Pilgrimage to the Tomb of 
St. Peter, and that even at the peril of his life this 
holy engagement must be fulfiUedf. Before he 
arrived at Rome, the young Prince of Milan had 
died under strong suspicion of poison, and Lodo- 
vico Sforza had seized u))on the Dukedom. These 
great events belong to general History, and we 

* Ouicciardinl has enamerated many prodigies which foreran the 
French invasion } they are much of the same cast as those which 
nineteen centnries before warned the Romans Oailot adve^targ. 
Seers and Astrologers prophesied approaching calamity j three Sans 
appeared in Apuglia; In Arezso an Infinite number of armed men 
mounted on gigantic horses galloped throngh the siry to the sound 
of drums and trumpets; Images sweated} monstrous animals and 
cUldren were plentifully boru} and great astonishment seems 
to have existed that all these marvels passed without the accom- 
paniment of a Comet : dava solamente agli WMnmi ammireuionet che 
in ianti prodigi non ti dimoitraate la Mtesta Cometaf la quaie gli 
AnticM rept^aoano eertitsimo fnenaggiero detla mutasione d^ Begni 
9 doffH StaH, Lib. i. vol. 1. p. 67. 

t Eh, quelle gentUle invention et feintisee de vesul is Brantome's 
rapturous exclamation.— floj^e de Chmries VUI, 


confine ourselves to the feelings and the conse- 
quences which they produced in Venice; inter- 
mixing only some pointed notices of contempo- 
rary habits and manners traced by a keen observer 
of Human Nature. Philippe de Comines, a Gen- 
tleman of very ancient House in Flanders, passed 
in early youth from the service of Cliarles the 
Bold of Burgundy to that of Louis XL of France; 
who esteemed him greatly, employed him in some 
of his weightest and most secret affairs, and 
created him his Chamberlain, Seneschal of Poictou 
and Lord of Argenton. For a time he enjoyed 
similar confidence under Charles VII L, and at 
the commencement of this Italian expedition* 
he was despatched as Ambassador to conciliate 
the good-will of Venice. 

Comines informs us that, on his entrance to 
the Lagune, he was met at Fusina by five and 
twenty gentlemen sumptuously apparelled in silk 
and scarlet, who welcomed him with an Oration. 
As he drew nearer the City, an equal number of 
grave personages in like garb, accompanied by 
the Ambassadors of Milan and of Ferrara, awaited 
him at St. Andrea with a similar troublesome 
ceremonial ; conducted him to a large gondola 
covered with crimson satin and decked within with 
arras ; and, placed liim between the two Ambas- 
sadors, the middle being the Italian post of 
honour. As he passed along the Grand Canal he 
appears to have been deeply impressed with the 
magnificence of the City. *• Sure in mine opinion 
it is the goodliest streete in the World and the 
best built, and reacheth in length from the one 
end of the towne to the other. Their buildings 


are high and staftdy, and all of fine stone. The 
ancient houses be all painted; but the rest that 
haue been built within these hundred yeeres haue 
their front all of white marble brought thither out 
of I stria an hundred miles thence, and are beauti- 
fied with many great peeces of Porphire and Sar- 
pentine. In the most part of them are at the 
least two chambers, the seeling whereof is gilded, 
the raantle*treefr of the chimneies verie rich, to 
wit, of grauen marble*, the bedsteds gilded, the 
presses painted and vermeiled with golde, and 
maruellous well furnished with stu&. To be 
short, it is the most triumphant citie that euer I 
sawe, and where Ambasadots and strangers are 
most honorably entertained, the Commonwealth 
best gouemed, and God most deuoutly serued ; so 
far foorth that notwithstanding they haue diuers 
imperfections, yet thinke I verily that God pros*^ 
pereth them, because of the reuerence they beare 
to the sendee of the Church.t' 

During eight months residence in Venice, the 
Lord of Argenton received strong conviction of 
the power and the policy of her Government; 
^ Sure thus much I dare boldly say of them that 
they are men of sueh wisedome, and so inclined to 

• Sir Henry Wott(Mi| a eentury later, was much struck by the 
excellence of the Italians in this species of decoration. In hi» 
Elements of Architecture, when treating 'of Chimnies/ he says, 
' In the present business, Italians (who make very frugal fires) are 
perchance not the best counsellors. Therefore from them we may 
better learn how to raise fair Mantels within the rooms.'— Asfig. 
fFotton. p. 37. 

t In this and some following extracts from the Vllth and Vlllth 
Books of the Memoirei de Philippe de Comines, we hare used a 
tmnslation by Thomas Danett» 1696. 


ialarge their dommions, that unlesse they he looked 
to in time, ail their neighbours shall repent it too 
late.' To his first diplomatic overtures, which 
commenced while Charles had advanced no farther 
than Asti, the Signory, at that time little antici* 
pating the promptness of the Kins's movements, 
returned evasive answers; and they still main* 
tained appearances of friendship even when his 
unlooked-for successes had determined them upon 
a hostile alliance ; and when the Ambassadors of 
the Emperor, of Milan, and of Spain, already 
assembled in the Ct^iital, were holding nightly 
conferences among themselves and with the X) 
preparatory to a general League against France* 
To explain this sudden change in Politics, it 
should be noticed that Sforza, by whose intrigues 
the invasion had been concerted, was both dis* 
appointed in his promised reward, and alarmed 
for his usurped dominion, upon which the Duke 
of Orleans, commanding in Lombaidy, asserted 
a claim; that Maximilian saw in the Conqueror 
of Naples an aspirant to the succession of the 
£mpire ; and that the King of Spain had armed to 
revenge the overthrow of the Aragonese dynasty 
and to guard his own dominions in Sicily. Co* 
mines, however, had not spared money, and there- 
fore he had procured good intelligence ; he knew 
the Articles which were in debate, before they 
were signed, and he avowed that knowledge to 
the Signory. The Doge, Augustinp Barbarigo, 
whom he describes to be ^ a vertuous and a wise 
man, of great experience in the afiaires of Italie 
and a curteous and gentle person,' notwithstand- 
ing this declaration, attempted to dissemble; he 


assured the Lord of Argenton that * he must not 
beleeve all that he heard in the towne ; for all men 
live there at libertie and might speake what they 
listed!' and he loudly professed a continuance of 
neutrality. Being urged farther, he ultimately 
admitted that the occupation of many places in 
the territories of Florence and of the Church 
had excited suspicion ; but that nothing should be 
definitively concluded by the allies till they had 
received from the King an answer to their remon- 

When the reduction of Naples was certified, 
* they sent for me againe in a morning/ say» 
Comines, ' and I founde fiftie or sixtie of them 
assembled together in the Duke's Chamber, who 
lay sicke of the collicke. He told me these newes 
with a cheerfull countenance, but none of the rest 
could dissemble so cunningly as himselfe: for 
some of them sate upon a lowe bench leaning 
upon their elbowes, other some after one sort, and 
others after another ; their outward countenances 
bewraying their inward griefe. And I thinke 
verily when word came to Rome of the battell 
lost at Cannas against Hannibal, that the Sena- 
tors which remained in the Citie, were not more 
astonished nor troubled than these : for none of 
them once looked upon me, none of them gaue me 
one word but the Duke alone; so that I woon- 
dered to beholde them.' 

On the final arrangement of the League, they 
summoned him one morning earlier than usual 
in order to declare its outline. 'They were as- 
sembled to the number of a hundred or more, 
and looked up with cheerefull countenances, and 


fiate not as they did the day they aduertised me 
of the taking of the Castle of Naples. I was 
maruellously troubled with this newes, for I stood 
in doubt both of the King's person, and of all his 
companie, supposing their armie to haue beene 
readier than indeed it was, as did themselues also. 
I feared further least the Almaines had beene at 
hand; and not without cause; for if they had, 
vndoubtedly the King had neuer departed out of 
Italic. I was resolued not to speake much in this 
heate : but they so prouoked me that I was forced 
to change my minde ; and then I said unto them, 
that both the night before and diuers other times, 
I had aduertised the King of their League, and 
that he also had sent me word that he had intelli* 
gence thereof from both Rome and from Milan. 
They all looked maruellous strange upon me, 
when I said that I had aduertised the King before, 
for there is no nation under the sunne so suspi* 
cious as they, nor so secret in their affaires, so 
that oftentimes they banish men upon suspicion 
onely, for the which cause I said thus much unto 

It must not be dissembled, however, that the 
Venetian Historians, no less anxious to maintain 
the well established celebrity of their Government 
for inviolable secrecy than is Philippe de Comines to 
blazon his own penetration, deny altogether that 
the French Ambassador was acquainted with the 
League against his Master, till it was commu- 
nicated to him by the Slgnory. Bembo speaks 
pointedly to this fact ; and the anecdote which he 
has preserved bears strong internal evidence of 
Truth. So effective, he says, were the precautions 


^adopted by the X Icht the presexvatioii of thek 
secret, that atthough the Ambassador of France 
daily frequented the Council and was visited by 
kis brother Envoys, no suspicion ever crossed his 
mind of what was passing. When, on the morning 
after die signature of the League, he was invited 
to the Hall of the Senate, and heard from the 
Doge the terms ai the Treaty and the names of 
thoae who were parties to it, he was almost de- 
mented for the moment ; till recovering a little, he 
asked abruptly, * What ! will my King be re- 
itouned from returning to France ? ' The Doge 
assured ham, on the c(mtrary, that, if Charles 
appeared in peaceful guise, every facility would be 
afforded him. Philippe de Comines, when he quitted 
the Senate and descended the staps into the Palace- 
court, turned to the Secretary of the Council who 
accompanied him, and begged him to repeat the 
Doge's words, since he found himself wh<^y 
unable to isall thesa up to his remembrance*. 

No sooner was Charles apprized of his great 
danger than he bro4ce up from Naples, towards 
the close of May. Hitherto his triumph had been 
almost bloodless : one King of Naples abdicated 
and died of terror* as was said, at his approach t ; a 

* Lib. if. p. 54. apuditt, Vmm, 
f FerdiaADd not only died, but aUio, ae peri^ e hoito tdU eoie mh 
4el hdto a^exMire, at Ouicciardiiii wiUi wisdom beyond his timts 
introdacee the tale, absolutely retomed from the other world, in 
order to express hie fears. The King's Ghost appeared thrice, on 
different nights, toOiacopo, chief Physirtan of the Court } and first 
In gentle terms, aflerwaids wiUi fierce menaees, urged 1dm to inform 
the new monarch Alfonso, in the Ghoat's own name* that all resis- 
tance to France would be vain, and that his posterity, after long 
troubles and final dethronement, was destined to extinction. Lib. 
t Tol. i. p. 107. 

fieeond aad ft this«l, hb euccesson, abandoned 
their domiiuons; and the Conqueror was cele- 
brating his pa^ ftuccesBes by inoonsidefate fee- 
tivity, and ac^ipi^ing yet brighter renown at 
Constantino]^ to wmch his ^ure hopes were 
directed, whmi he was informed of the powerful 
Confederacy which was assembling nearly 40,000 
men on 'the Loonbard borders of Tnscany, to 
intercept all communication with his native do- 
miniona. Yet, Mrtwithstanding the peril wbich 
environed him, he had the imprudence to weaken 
his army, akeady inadequate to meet the force 
which it was likely to encounter, by leaviinr 
useleu gariiBons bJdiid him. Tb^ii. lingni^ 
unnecessarily for many days at Sienna and at 
Pisa, and detaching another portion of his scanty 
£:>rce to attempt an impracticable aiterprise upon 
Genoa, he approached the Apennines by a t«rdy 
and incautious march. The allies were slow in 
ilieir gatliering, or they might ea«ly have cut him off 
among those mountains : for Philippe de Comines 
speaks of several defiles which a handful of men 
could have successfully defended against a host ; 
and of one narrow causeway in particular between 
two deep salt marshes, in which ' a single cart set 
overthwart the way with two good pieces of 
artillery' would have checked the largest amy 
which ever mustered in the field ; but it seemed 
that the enemy were ' bimded and bereft of their 
wits/ The sufferings of the French troops wew 
increased by want of supplies ; and even when 
they arrived in a comparatively abundant district, 
affording ' bread which was little, black and of 


great price, and wine which was three parts water/ 
the dread of poison for a long time prevented them 
from tasting these coveted viands. 

Had it not been for the good service of the Swiss 
Guards, who were more than usually alert in order 
to atone for some bloody and unauthorized outrages 
which they had committed at Pontremoli, the 
barrier town of the Duke of Milan at the Southern 
foot of the Apennines, the artillery must have 
been abandoned among the mountains. The field- 
pieces of those days exceeded in calibre the 
heaviest battering train of modern sieges ; for 
Faulus Jovius speaks of each horseman carrying 
on the pommel of his saddle a cannon ball of 
fifty pounds weight* ; and the Comte de la Tr«i- 
mouiile, who superintended the operations, set an 
example in his own person by bearing two of 
those immense masses. Drums and trumpets 
sounded at intervals to animate the toil-worn 
soldiers ; five days were consumed in their weari- 
some labours ; and on the sixth, Charles, who had 
imprudently despatched his vanguard thirty miles 
in advance, so that all power of sustaining it if 
attacked would have been denied him, concentered 
his whole army at Fomovo, a town on the right 
bank of the Taro, a mountain-torrent which runs 
from die Apennines to the Po. The French did 

* Guicciardini (lib. t. vol. i. p. 76.) ascribes the inyention of 
field artillery to the French, and attributes to them also very great 
improvement In heavy ordnance. Much of the success of Charlea 
In this expedition was owing probably to his superiority in those 
great arms of war. This also was one of the earliest occasions in 
which iron was substituted for stone as the charge for artillery. 
Fougasses, HUt, de Ven. Dec. iv. 1. 


not amount at the utmost to more than 9000 
fighting men harassed by fatigue, exhausted by 
want of food, and in the presence of an enemy 
more than fourfold their number. 

The confederates were encamped a little lower 
down on the same bank of the Taro, near the 
Abbey Ghiaruola, about two miles in the rear of 
Fomovo ; a position which they chose both to mask 
the City of Parma, of the fidelity of which doubts 
were entertained, and also to afford more open space 
for the manceuvres of their numerous cavalry on 
the adjoining plain. ' Four fifths of their force were 
composed of troops in the pay of Venice, com- 
manded by Francesco di Gonzaga, Marquis of Man- 
tua, a youthful Captain of distinguished skill and 
bravery ; who, exclusive of infantry, marshalled 
under his banner nearly 20,000 horse. Of these 
6000 were Stradiots, a light-armed Cavalry of Al- 
bania and the Morea, much employed by Venice 
during the late Turkish war ; and who by their har- 
dihood and ferocity, as Philippe de Comines assures 
us, • trouble an army exceedingly when they are 
inclined to do ^o.' They were rough soldiers, 
couching in the open air, keeping the field both 
winter and summer, charging on fleet Turkish 
horses with irresistible fury, and dispersing again 
80 rapidly as to evade all pursuit. They neither 
gave nor received quarter ; and, retaining the bar- 
barous habit of their Country, they bore off at 
their saddle-bows, or on the points of their lances, 
the heads of their slaughtered enemies ; for each 
of which they received a ducat from the ProV' 
veditori. The remainder of the allied force con* 
sisted of Milanese under the Count di Caiazzo. 



Scarcely had Chaxles dismounted at Fomovo 
when- his quarters were beaten up by the Str*- 
diots ; whose unobserved advance was facilitated 
by a wood which ran between the two camps, but 
who retired as soon as the French took to arms. 
During the night, Uke alarms were renewed from 
want of due precaution in posting sentinels; and 
the French, ill-provided with tents, were exposed 
to a d^uge of rain, accompanying a thunderstorm^ 
the terrors of which were greatly heightened by 
the deep reverberations from the Apennmes, at 
the foot of which they were encamped. There were 
•few hearts which did not quail with apprehension for 
the morrow, ushered in as it was by tnese supposed 
demonstrations of the wrath of Heaven. 

In order to continue their retreat, it was neces- 
sary that the French should cross the Taro at 
Fomovo, and defile along its left bank in the very 
-front of the enemy's Camp, which would then be 
separated from them by the river ; and the King, 
undismayed by his inferiority oi numbers, an- 
nounced his intention of firing a shot into the 
camp as he passed, in order to signify his presence 
and his williDgness to join battle if it were offered. 
At an early hour on the morning of the 6th of July, 
Charles heard Mass ; by seven o'clock he was on 
horseback, and impatiently called for his Chambef- 
lain. When Philippe de Comines attended the sum- 
mons, he found the young Prince armed at all points, 
Mftd mounted upon a favourite black horse called 
Savoy, from the Duke its donor ; the bravest steed 
which man ever saw, and though having ^ but one 
eie, and being meane of stature, yet tall ynough for 
him he carri^.' The approaching combat had given 


mnmial animatiDn ta the young King-, who on aU 
oecauons, indeed, i^spears to have exhibited di»- 
tingnished personal courage. ' He seemed that 
day altogither another man than either his nature, 
person, or complexion would bcare ; for naturally 
he was, and yet is, yery fearful! in qieedi ; bicaose 
he had ever been lumight up in great awe and 
with meaa of meane estate ; but his horse made 
him seeme great; and he had a good countenance 
-and a good ccrfour, and his talke was strong and 
wise*.' Philippe de Comines, from his long red* 
dence at Venice, bang well-known to the Prowe" 
ditori, had proposed to them, some days before, an 

* BraBtoM hM extnetcd ftom tbe Suppkmemtmm Ckntmeonm «rf 
Giacopo di Bergptmo^ a speecb attrilmted to Charles oo the ocemm 
aion—eUe tne temble, saya the panegyrist, tret heUe et gentille — Voifi 
eertea belles paroles et tm irove et gentH Rep povr n*<teoir jmMh 
esiudi^ The bteaaia of Charlca's laek of learning auat he entlcciy 
attcibuted to biadetailaUa Fattier, who permitted him to be taoght 
but one sentence In Latin, his owa favoarlte axiom of King-craft; 
Qui nescit disstnudare, nescit regnare, Benedetti, howerer, does not 
admit that want of letters wa» peenHar to Charles, but extends it 
f» the whole race of Freni^ Prlaceiu liRe km metsQ ii iim Ottf 
liaott OBoa&uwa ta^omo /« ffnodlre, eA cam quomta elofaenMa ptA emtrm- 
tra gli huomini idit^ti (perciochi i Prencipi Franceti mm faiuto 
stima di lettere) confortaoa tutti i Coptfimi. II Fatto if arms 
<M Tarro^, Ub. i. p. 2i» The speeoh, which iv too long for ea- 
traction in otar pages» and la probaMy tbe eompooiUoa of die ChK». 
nlolerr is printed by Darn. Paulas Joyins girea an account of the 
King's bearing rery similar to that of Philippe de Comines^ adding, 
led tarn frante atqtte oeuHs, aduncoqtte prm s ertim et promiHente nmn 
jmgiuuds at iwtrepiSi miKtig speeiem jnwtetef. Black SaToy,,aoieOTd. 
lag to theeame wvilet's descriptiaft, was»H i« to be feared, Mttle 
better than a dray.hone. Equum eenscendit neqtte nobiU cohre eel 
eelsd staiurd coasptcawn, quum esset absolutce ob idque damnatm- 
nigredimt <mtce/or, destrfm eewio eaptiu, sedqm qwtdrmto habitu «u 
\prm^trrttfobm. Hli&.lib.U.lbl.«S( JEd. Fern, 1669, 

M 2 


amicable parley, and his offer was not wholly 
declined. The King, therefore, notwithstanding 
the boldness of his demonstrations, expressed a 
wish to have that overture now renewed ; and the 
Lord of Argenton testified his readiness to obey. 
But, more experienced in the field than his master, 
he at the same time remarked that he had never 
yet seen two so great armies in so immediate con- 
tact which parted without a battle. While he 
drew aside to frame his despatch to the Provvedir 
tori^ the march began from Fomovo ; and the 
Taro, although swollen by the rain of the past 
night, having been forded, the army defiled slowly 
along the opposite bank till it reached the face of 
"the Venetian camp. The French were marshalled 
in three divisions; the van, by far the strongest 
Ibody, because upon it the brunt of attack was 
expected to fall, was led by the Marshal de Gie 
and by Trivulzio, two of the bravest and most 
tried Captains of their time ; and it included 3000 
Swiss, 300 dismounted Scottish archers, and the 
entire infantry and artillery. The King himself 
followed with the main battle, supported by his 
nine Preux^ favourites especially selected as com* 
xades of the Monarch in the field. Round him 
vrere displayed countless standards, banners and 
guidons, and the glittering troop advanced to the 
symphony of trumpets and clarions. His harness 
was of the richest fabric, he wore a gorgeous 
-surcoat with short sleeves, in colour white and 
violet, embroidered with Jerusalem crosses, and 
blazing with jewellery ; his horse was barded after 
the same fashion, and both his chanfrons and 


iestiere* especially were of most choice and curious 
workmanship. The rear was brought up by the 
Comte de Narbonne. Both these latter divisions 
were small in numbers ; and they were succeeded 
by a long, straggling train of 6000 beasts of 
burden, which conveyed the baggage, and were 
without any farther escort than such as could be 
afforded by the horseboys and camp-followers* 
This cavalcade was ordered to incline to some hilla 
on the left of the march of the army. 

While the Proweditori were deliberating upon 
their reply to the Lord of Argenton's proposition^ 
a distant cannonade had begun between the camp 
and the French vanguard. A trumpet was de- 
spatched by the Venetians to demand a cessation of 
this firing till the parley should be concluded, and 
to make inquiry concerning a prisoner of rank 
who had been taken the day before. This mes* 
senger received instructions to mark with parti« 
cular accuracy the disposition of the march, and 
especially the post and armour of the King him* 
self ; in order tnat his person might be recognized 
in the melee. It is said that the over-anxiety of 
the spy betrayed his commission, and that the 
French, becoming aware of their inadvertency in 
admitting him too freely to the Royal presence,, 
endeavoured to atone for it by making the Preux 

* Chanfirons, armoor for the hone^a face, to which was affixed the 
tegtiere between the ean, and bearing a crest. Oar account abor* 
Is taken from Brantome, who writes in the true spirit of Chivalry ; 
and it accords better with the character of the vain and thoughtless 
Prince than that given by Panlus Jovlus. VcJidU poHus quam 
deeorit armia proteetuB-^neque, vel a cono capitis vel a regaUcultu. 
nosci tfolebat,—Ut iupra. 


adopt arms and colours as Bimilar as drcumstances. 
would permit to those borne by the King*. Not- 
withstanding these pacific appearances, the can- 
nonade was speedily renewed, and Philippe de 
Comines, perceiving the great danger to which he 
would be exposed by longer separation from his 
comrades, clapped spurs to .his horse and overtook 
the main body; this movement was seasonable, 
for before he reached his position three of his 
attendants were cut down by the enemy« 

The £jng, with his sword drawn, was giving the 
accolade to such as claimed knighthood, according 
to the usual custom before an engagement t, 
when Philippe de Comines rejoined mm. At the 
same moment a loud cry was heaird from die spot 
which the Lord of Argooiton had just quitted; and. 
the Bastard of Bourbon rode up to Charles calling. 
out, ^ Forward, Sire, forward ; this is no time to 
amuse yourself by dubbing knights ; the enemy is 
at hand ; let us charge them !' Contrary to ex- 
pectation, the Marquis of Mantua had crossed the 
Taro behind the French, in order to attack their 
rear virith the flower of his army, the men at anns 

* De la Vigne in Us Journal, who Is followed by Garnler, Hist, 
de France, z. 484. It is little likely, howerer, that the hurry 
of the impending battle wouldpennit these changes at tlie moment j 
and Panlus Jorius and Brantome assure na that the Premi were ao 
armed from the beginning ; a custom sufficiently familiar to the 
English reader, who will remember the Lordof Stafford, Sir Walter 
Blont, and the many others ' marthing in the eoats' of Henry IT. 
at Siirewsbury, and the * six Riehmonds In the field ' at Bosworfh. 

t M. de Sansac, a OenUemaB w«U skilled in the luages of 
Chivalry, gave Brantome a sound reason for dabbing Knights &ew 
fefte rather than ^fter battle 3 both the distinguished personave 
who bestowed aad the aspirant who reeeKred Hie honour, might 
chance to be killed <» the batUe. 


being intermixed wilh Stradiots. He marched with 
his force softly and well together, which, as Philippe 
de Comines remarks, with a true soldier^s spirit when 
recording a brilliant manoeuvre even in an enemy, 
' was a marvellous pleasant sight to behold.' A 
large body of Stradiots was directed at the same 
time to fall upon the baggage, and yet another divi- 
sion to charge in flank as soon as they should per- 
ceive Gonzaga himself engaged, and besides these 
the Count de Caiazzo passed the river in front and 
attacked the van. It seemed, therefore, as if the 
French, pressed at the same moment from three 
quarters, and in each by superior numbers, must 
inevitably be destroyed ; and if the confederates 
had brought all their force into action instead of 
weakening it by unnecessary reserves, which the 
timid cautiousness of the Proweditori retained 
in the camp, such probably would have been the 
issue of the day. 

The rear was already briskly engaged when 
Charles hastened to its relief : ' The King,* says 
Philippe de Comines, * went into the front of his 
battell, and placed himself before his standard, so 
that, the Bastard of Bourbon excepted, I sawe none 
neerer the enimies then himselfe. Our enimies 
marched lustely forward, in such sort that within 
ksse then a quarter of an hower after my arrivall, 
they were come within a hundred paces of the 
King, who was evill garded and as evil waited on 
as ever was Prince or Nobleman ; but mauger 
the Divel, he is well defended whom God defends.' 
The shock of the men at arms was most formidable ; 
'undoubtedly it is impossible for men to meete 
roughlier than we met ;' the lances of both parties 


shivered at the first encounter, and they fought 
bravely with their broken staves and battle-axes, 
while their horses, trained to such warfare, plied 
their teeth and hoofs against each other almost as 
if animated by national hatred^. The King was 
among the foremost, and the Bastard of Bourbon 
was taken prisoner within twenty paces from hi& 
side. In the mean time, the Stradiots who ac- 
companied this charge, and upon whose terrific 
scimitars great reliance was placed after the 
lances of the knights were broken, observing the 
baggage in confusion, and their comrades wha 
had been directed to attack it enriching them- 
selves by its plunder, broke from their ranks in hope 
of sharing the spoil. The consequence of this dis- 
obedience was fatal : the men at arms, suddenly de- 
prived of their expected support, were panic-stricken 
and fled ; many of the bravest were slain on]the spot, 
and the remainder were pursued at full speed to 
the banks of the Taro, now difficult of passage 
owing to the still increasing flood ; for the storm 
which commenced on the preceding night con- 
tinued to rage during the battle, and the river, 
swollen by the rains, assumed its torrent form and 
inundated the valley. Such men at arms as had 
fallen wounded or whose horses failed them, were 
quickly despatched by the camp-followers, who 
thronged round with hatchets usually employed 
in wood-cutting ; but now with these rude weapons 
^ they brake the visards of the knights* head-pieces 
and then clave their heads, for otherwise they 
could hardly have beene slaine, they were so 

• Gtticdardiui, lib. ii. Tol ii. p. 170. 


surely anned ; so that there were ever three or 
fower about one of them. Moreover the long 
swords that our archers and servants had did that 
day great execution.' The cry in the pursuit was 
* Remember Guynegate !' a warning against the 
allurement either of plunder or of prisoners ; for 
Guynegate was a battle fought in Picardy, under 
Louis XL, and lost in the very moment of victory 
by too great eagerness for pillaffe*. So well did 
the admonition operate upon those to whom it 
was addressed, that not a single prisoner was 
taken; and so totally had their panic deprived 
the fugitives of any power of resistance, that but 
one Frenchman was slain in the pursuit. 

The attack in front, meanwhile, was weakly con- 
ducted, and almost immediately repulsed ; but the 
Marshal de Gie, aware of the great numerical 
superiority of the enemy, perceiving their reserve 
strongly posted in their camp, and not knowing 
the brilliant success of his comrades, wisely fore- 
bore from an advance which might have proved 
hazardous. Still, although the day was won, the 
King, who remained on the spot at which his suc- 
cessful charge had overthrown the Marquis of Man- 
tua, was exposed to great personal danger. At one 
time he was ' marvellous weakely accompanied/ 

* Gay negate If well known to an Englith reader as tbe apot at 
wliich the flower of the French Caralry were rooted by Henry VIII. 
in 1510. On this JovmSe da Btperont, the Battle of the Spurs, 
the Cheralier Bayard surrendered himself to a Gentleman whom he 
had already made prisoner, and the question of ransom arising be- 
tween them was discussed by the Emperor and the King of Eng- 
land. The adventure is told in a very lively manner in the Hist, d» 
Chev, Bt^ardf 67* 


sftys PkiUppe de Comine9, for his sole attendant was 
a groom of his chamber, ' a little fellow and evilly 
armed/ While thus deserted by his Preux in the 
ardour of pursuit, a broken troop of Italian men 
at arms, in their flight across the plain, perceived- 
his destitution, and rode up to attack him. By 
his practised skill in hoxBemanship and the 
strength and docility of Black Savoy, who ' con- 
tinued removing to and fro,' he defended himself 
valiantly till the return of some of his attendants 
rescued him from this great peril, and placed him 
in security with his vanguardf. 

The fight itself occupied not more than a 
quarter of an hour, the pursuit about thrice as 
long, yet so bloody had been the defeat, that of 
the allies there fell 3&00 men, several of the first 
quality ; and among them Rodolfo, an Uncle of 
Uie Marquis of Mantua. . The French loss did not 
amount to 200, nor did it include any personage 
of distinction; and not above ten of the slain on 
both sides were struck by artillery, the remainder 
being killed hand to hand in close combat. A 
Council of War was held on the field of battle, in 
which Trivulzio and other Italian captains boldly 
urged the King to follow up his success by an 
attack upon the camp. But Charles was more 

* Andre de U VIgne, wh9 wm Secretary to Anne of Bretagne, 
and who nrrote hie Journal at the express command of Charles VIII* 
has ransacked all History and Romance for paraUels to the Kii^*a 
heroism. — A prt^nrement parler il merita etdit Jtntr tPestre appelli 
fsrayfiU de Mars, tuceesseur de Ceear, compagnoa de Pompee, hardy 
eommff Hector, preoM eomme jUexandre, eemUable a Charletnagi^ 
comrageux eomme Hatmibal^vertueiut eomme Jugu$te, Aesreiur eowma 
Octavian, chevaiereita eomme Olivier, et deHbericommo Bolamd, 


cftlculated to win than to improve a victory ; the 
proposal was considered too daring, and tlie con- 
querors repaired to such quarters as they could 
find within a mile from the scene of action. * The 
King himselfe (writes Philippe de Comines) lay in a . 
ferme-house, being an old beggerly thing : not- 
withstanding the bames about it were full of come 
unthressed, which I warrant you our army quickly 
found. Certaine other old houses were there also» 
which stood us but in small stead: euerie man 
lodged himselfe as commodiously as he could ; for 
we had no lodgings made. As touching myselfe 
I lay vpon the bare ground under a vine, in a 
verie straight roome, having nothing under me, no 
not my cloke: for the King had borrowed mine 
in the morning, and my carriage was far off, and 
it was too late to seeke it. He that had meat ate 
it, but few there were that had any, unless it were 
amorsellof bread, snatched out of some of their 
S(»uants bosoms: I waited upon the King to his 
chamber, where he found certaine that were hurt, 
namely, the Seneschall of Lyons and others, 
whom he caused to be dressed. Himselfe was 
merrie and made good cheere, and each man 
tiiought himselfe happie that he was so well 
escaped: neither were we puffed up with pride 
and vaineglorie, as before the battell, because we 
sawe our enemies encamped so neere us. The 
same night all the Almaines kept the watch, and 
the King gaue them three hundred crownes; 
wheieapon they kept the watch verie diligently 
and strake up their drums brauely.' Charles, in- 
deed, was liberal in his recompenses ; the Cheva- 
lier Bayard, who was midung his first campaign, 


had two horses killed under him on this day, and 
captured a standard in the pursuit ; he laid this 
trophy at the feet of the King, who presented him 
with 500 crowns in return*. 

It should not he omitted that, during the whole of 
the above trying and arduous events, Philippe de 
Comines appears to have been animated by an un* 
doubted assurance of ultimate success. His confi- 
dence was founded on a prediction, to which he fre* 
quently alludes, by Savonarola ; a bold, factious 
and enthusiastic Dominican, who maintained the 
paramount influence which he had acquired in 
Florence, by his preaching, his prophecies, and his 
austerities ; till, about three years after the Battle 
of Fomovo, he was adjudged to the stake by the 
vengeance of Alexander VI, whose crimes he had 
too fearlessly denounced. This ' Friar Jacobin, 
called Friar Hieronime,' was visited by Philippe de 
Comines because he had preached in behsdf of 
Charles VIII, and had affirmed that he was sent by 
God to chastise the tyrants of Italy. ' I asked him 
whether the King should passe out of Italy without 
danger of his person, seeing the great preparation 
the Venetians made against him, whereof he dis- 
coursed perfectlier than myselfe that came from 
thence. He answered me that the King should 
have some trouble upon the way, but that the 
honor thereof should be his, though he were 
accompanied but with a hundred men ; and that 
God who had guided him at his comming would 
also protect him at his return. — ^Thus much I have 
written, to the end it may yet more manifestly 

• TT-' 

Hiit du Ch§o, Bayard, ch. 11. 


appeere, that this voyage was indeed a meere 
miracle of Grod.' Seldom has the intervention of 
a miracle and a special Providence heen asserted 
for a more unworthy purpose ! and yet, notwith- 
standing the convenient vagueness and ambiguity 
of language which Savonarola employed in his 
predictions (and these were many) relative to 
Charles YIII, there remain enough contradictions 
in them to enable us to determine that it was 
but a lying Spirit by which the Prophet was in- 

The shame of this great defeat has very deeply 
impressed many of the Italian Historians. Paulus 
Jovius, who sums up his narrative in words borrowed 
from those of Livy when recounting the disaster of 
Cannae, terms it the extinction of Cisalpine mili- 
tary glory, an ignominious rout which made Italy 
contemptible to Foreigners, and was the beginning 
of her countless future miseries. The conduct of 
the allies presents indeed a singular display of 
want of skill and of irresolution ; and by a strange 
fatality they neglected each of the many oppor- 
tunities of success which the rashness oi the 
French King presented. They might have de- 
stroyed him among the Apennines ; they might 
have overpowered his advanced guard during its 
long detachment from the main body ; they might 
have attacked him with advantage during his 
passage of the Taro ; or, after all these omissions, 
they might have secured victory by dint of num- 
bers, if they had at once brought up their entire 
force. Yet so deficient were they in unity of 
counsel or of design, that they appear to have 
believed at first that the mere rumour of their 


preparations would be safficient to arrest the march 
of their enemy ; and when the French presented 
themsdves upon the heights above Fomovo, the 
Pnwediiori^ alarmed at this most unexpected 
daring, anxiously urged their allies to grant an 
undisputed passage. So far cfid they press their 
opposition to the indignant ranonstrances of tlw 
Spanish Ambassador whose Master ran no hazard 
from de&at, and of the gallant Mantuan who fish 
assured ol victory ; so unmoved woe Aey by any 
senae of the dishonour which must accrue if they 
permitted a handful of toil-worn and needy ad- 
venturera to escape after braying their fresh, 
numeroosy and w!^ appointed host^ that they 
despatched messengers to ascertain the will of the 
Signory respecting ulterior proceedings ; and, hut 
fior the prestunption of Charles, which did not 
allow time for reply, it may be doubted wheth^ 
the Battle would ever have been fought. In the 
engagement itself, all that valour could effect waa 
assniedly performed by Gonsaga; but his dis- 
positions do not evince much acquaintance with 
tactics. His defeat was in great measure attributed 
to the breach of discipline by the Stradiots, to the 
sudden rise of ^lae Taro which occasioned disorder 
in his ranks as he crossed it, and to the un- 
seasonable faU, in the very onset, of his Uncie 
Rodolfo, who was to have given a signal for tbe 
advance of a powerful reserve. That reserve, 
however, so soon as it perceived the first check, 
ought to have pressed rorward without awaiting 
orders ; and it is not possible to deny the justice 
of the ncStx comment of the Lord of Argentoa, 
upon ' Maister Anthonie of Urfoin ' who com- 


mancled it, that the death of Rodolfo ' ferved him 
for a good excuse, and to say the truth I think he 
saw ynough to stay him from marching.* 

We shall not continue to follow the retreat of 
the French which, although effected with safety, 
was a£Srmed hy the Signory to be no other than 
a disastrous flight. The plunder ohtained by 
the Stradiots was purchased and transmitted to 
Venice ; it consisted of the King's horses, tents, 
plate and equipage, many costly articles removed 
from the Neapolitan Treasury, and, above all, the 
ancient Crown jewels of France, which always 
accompanied the Monarch, and were found on 
the person of one of his Grooms of the Chamber*. 
Fortified by the evidence of those rich prizes, to 
the intentional abandonment of which it is pro- 
bable that the French were greatly indebted for 
their triumph^ the Venetians, without hesitation, 
asserted that the day was their own ; and issued 
ordinances for the celebration of the victory with 
great public rejoicing, not oniy in the Capital 
itself, but throughout all their dominions. S6 
also, in after years, applying the customary pri- 
vilege of an Epitaph to the support of this &aud, 
they inscribed upon a Tomb in the Church di 
Frari^ in which was interred one of the ProvvC' 
ditori of this campaign, * Here bes Mekhior Tri- 

• Mr. Roscoe, who, in his account of thi» Battle, (Leo !▼• 
Tol. L p. 253, 8to.) hiM, we tUok, xepiesented tta imue as moce 
fayotirable to the Confederates than any contemporary autho- 
rities warrant,— with the exception of some adulatory Foems,r- 
mentions in a note some very remarkable particulars concemiog 
part of this booty, from which little credit is reflected on the «ood 
taste of the French King. 


visano, who fought prosperously against Charles 
King of France at the Battle of the Taro.' * 

The rapid loss of his Neapolitan conquests 
which succeeded the return of Charles VIII to 
France, and the waste of life and treasure which 
occurred in this idle, unjust, and vainglorious 
expedition, fully verified a favourite axiom of his 
Father, ' that he who went to seek victory in 
Italy took much trouble to buy a long repentance 
very dearly/f His death relieved Venice 
im fro^ t^® inquietude excited by his unre- 
strained ambition ; and it is to the credit of 
the Council of X, when we bear in mind the fla- 
gitious maxims of their ordinary policy, that they 
rejected an offer for his assassination by a person 
of distinction in Friuli ; who engaged that one of 
his domestics, an Albanian, should either kill him 
with his own hand, or employ a relation, the 
King's chief groom of the chamber, to take him 
off by poison]:. A similar abstinence, at the 

• Guicdardini, lib. ii. p. 58. The policy of the Battle of Taro Is 
considered and condemned by^Paruta in his Disconi PoHtici, ii. p. 4. 

t Garnier, Hist, de France, x. p. 404. Ariosto has finely expanded 
this sentiment, — 

quasi tutti 
OU aJtri, (Aefoi di Francia scettro avranno, 
O diferro gh eserciti distruttif 
O difame, o dipeste si vedranno ; 
E CM breve auegrexxe e Utnghi lutti, 
Poco guadagno ed injinito danno 
Riporteran d* ItaUa ; che non lice 
CheU Oiglio in quel terreno abbia roiftce.— xxxiii. 10. 

X The reply of the X on this occasion was not much in unison with 
the spirit of the Statutes of the Inquisition of State :—Che la Republica 
non havevaper P tidietro giamai tal modi usar contra alcunot ancor che 
capital nimico, Mto che piii voUe ne havesse haouto il commodo e P occa- 
sionet e perb che ui anco hora lo voleva permettere, haoendo nostra Signor 
Iddio davttnti gU occhi multo piit die le potenze degli huomini, Do- 
gliari, 1st, Fenet^ 1. ix. But this was an esoteric doctrine. 


dose of the campaign which we have just related, 
when the Signory were irritated by a perfidious 
act of Lodovico Sforza, is much praised by the 
native Historians. When that crafty Prince, dis- 
satisfied with the conduct of Venice during a 
negotiation for Peace with France, threatened to 
obstruct the return of her army to the Lagune^ 
Bernardo Contarini, who commanded the Stra- 
diots; bluntly assured the Provveditori that he 
knew a certain way of opening a free passage. 
' To-day,' he said, ' you meet the Duke and ms 
chief 0£Scers in Council ; the doors will be closed 
and the debates will commence ; when I, stepping- 
up as if to speak to him, will run him through the 
body. There is not one of his attendants who 
will dare to draw his sword, for they are all more 
cowardly than women.' The Herculean strength, 
the determined bravery, and the cool self-posses- 
sion of this rough Chief of Brigands, sufficiently 
avouched that he possessed the means of fulfilling 
his offer, and the Proweditori extolled his daring^ 
to the skies. Venetian Honour would have stood 
more clear if they had not thought it necessary to 
submit this iniquitous proposition to the decision 
of the X, who were asked by a despatch in cypher 
whether, in case of necessity, they would permit its 
adoption. The Council answered that such a 
step appeared contrary to the dignity of the Re- 

It was not long, however, before Venice saw her 
revenge fully gratified upon the Usurper of Milan. 
The Duke of Orleans, upon ascending the throne 
of France as Louis XII, urged with more than 

*Bembo, ii. ad^n, 

178 WALL OF i 

foofmer vigour hw pretensions. to that Duchy; aad-: 
secured the co-operation of Venice hj agreeing 

to cede to hsr a portion of the spoiL Onsr* 
iml by one the aUies of Sforza abandoned him., 

and remained inactive spectators, of hiar 
approaching fall ; and as the. French advanced 
from the Alps,, and the-Venetiansoa his Eastern 
frontier, the deserted Prince hurried from his' 
Capital, and sought refuge at Inspruck. under the. 
protection of the Emperor Maximilian^ Before* 
hisi flight, he addressed some Venetianfi in words- 
not a little demonstraiive- of sagacioua political^ 
foresight * You have brought/ he said, ^ the 
King of France to dine with m«, but rest assured 
it is with you that he will supi' From his German; 
retreat, he employed his large remaining treasurer 
in hiring a considerable body of Swiss, a people* 
who. had recently commenced their lucrative trade* 
as the general mercenaries of Europe ; and rapidly 
marching with these troops upon Milan, he: com* 
pelled the IVench garrison toretire. Among the 
few events which £stinguished this short reoocu->- 
pation of his Capital, was the capture of the Che* 
valier Bayard ; who, although at that time still in 
early youth, had already begun to justify his title' 
to the pie-eminence in valour and in virtue whick< 
has rendered his name a Proverb. Too hastily 
pursuing some skirmishers whom- he* had routed, 
the brave Knight galloped after the fugitivesi 
through the very gates of Milan, without observing 
that all his comrades had dropped behind. Sforza, 
hearing of the adventure^ requested to see the 
prisoner, received him with marked courtesy, 
expressed surprise at his youth and gallantry, and 


terminated the interview by restoring his horse and 
arms and dismiasingt him without ransom. Bayard 
in return offered thanks in true Chivalric spirit, 
vowing that, in ao far as due regard to his own 
honour and loyalty to his Sovereign would permit, 
there was no service which he would not readily 
undertake for a Prince so gracious Then leaping 
into his saddle without touching the stirrup, he 
ran a short course, shivered his lance against the 
ground, and performed some expert feats of 
horsemanship which dcew from Sforza's lips aa 
involuntary avowal, that if the King of France 
possessed many such Knights as the one before 
him, his own chances of success were indeed most 

The Swiss whom the Duke of Milan led to 
oppose the French were little to be trusted ; they 
sold themselves to the enemy, broke out into open 
mutiny, demanded arrears of pay, and refused to 
act against the: ranks of Louis which were filled 
with their own Countrymen. Remonstrance was 
vain ; and when they persisted in disbanding, the 
8<^e favour which Sforza could procure was per- 
mission to accompany them in the retreat which 
had been granted through the French lines. A 
few of his officers, vfhxy greatly dreaded hard usage 
from, the foe, assumed the Swiss uniform; but 
Sforza himself, whose well known features could 
scarcely fail to betray him under a disguise so 
slight, wrapped hia head in a Monk's cowl» 
mounted a sorry horse, and presented himself as 
their Confessor. The treacherous Swiss revealed 
tke^ secret ; and as the- unsuspecting victims passed 



through the French camp, they were examined, 
recognised and arrested. Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, 
a brother of Lodovico, relying upon the protec- 
tion of a private friend, was betrayed about the 
same time to the Venetians by an equally base 
violation of faith. But that distinguished prisoner, 
together with many others whom they had cap- 
tured, was haughtily demanded by the French 
King ; who reclaimed at the same time the sword 
and tent of Charles VIII, exhibited at Venice as 
proud trophies of the victory at Fornovo. These 
demands were conceded, and the Cardinal, and 
other branches of the Sforza Family, were dis- 
tributed in captivity through various parts of 
France. Lodovico himself was conveyed to Lyons, 
exposed at mid-day in that City to the rude gaze 
and contumely of an unpitying rabble, sternly 
denied audience by his conqueror, and finally 
thrown into the Tower of Loches on the banks of 
the Indre ; a fortress of evil fame as one of the 
gloomiest dungeons which the tyranny of Louis 
XI had stocked with iron cages ; and in which 
the unthroned Duke was condemned to linger 
during a miserable existence of thirteen years of 
rigorous confinement. Loches, says Duchesne*, 
stands on the summit of a lofty and inaccessible 
rock, its fosses are precipices, and it has but a 
single and most difficult approach. When Dubos 
wrote his Hist de la Ligue de Cambrai, in the 
beginning of the XVI II*** Century, there were 
still visible, on the walls of Sforza's cell, some 
political maxims which he had engraven on them 
during the tedious hours of captivity. To the 

* AntifMUex dM9 VUUz deFVamce, 1. 592. 


attendant who had devoted himself to his service 
in prison, he was in the habit of declaring, that of 
the men who were largely indebted to him for 
favours, all had abandoned him in his need, save one 
— the Sultan Bajazet *. The exact date of Sforza's 
death is uncertain; some writers have affirmed 
that in 1512, Louis XII, driven out of Italy, and 
thinking to embroil the Milanese by the presence 
of their former Duke, restored him to liberty. 
This unexpected blessing proved a calamity, and 
Sforza, overpowered by joy, breathed his last in 
the State chambers of the Castle a few days after 
he had been transferred to them from its dungeon t. 
His remains were interred in the magnificent 
abbey within its walls. 

A far more agreeable employment than that of 
detailing the chances of a new Turkish war, may 
.be found in a brief review of the powerful re- 
sources, the increasing opulence, the extensive 
commerce, and the enlarged dominions of Venice 
at the close of the XV*** Century, which we now 
approach ; a point of time which, perhaps, may 
be considered the epoch of her loftiest elevation. 
The discoveries of Vasco di Gama and of Colum- 
bus had begun, indeed, to awaken her jealousy, 
but had not as yet invaded her almost exclusive 
monopoly of Trade ; and in her long range of 
maritime stations from the Po to the Eastern 
boundary of the Mediterranean and the mouth of 
the Don, she continued to gather and to disperse 
the merchandise of the entire known world. At 

• Paulna Jorius, in vit, fjfc, illtuf. vir. 
t Diibos, Hist, de la lAgue de Cambrai, iv. on the authority of Les 
ASenealogies Hiitoriques, but the story is discredited by Daru. See a 
jiote at the commencement of his zxivth Book. 


home, her Silk Manufactures, long cultivated ki 
the Colonies, and introduced to the Lagune from 
Constantinople on a much greater scale, towards 
the beginning of the XIV*** Century, while inter- 
dicted to 'all but her Magistrates for domestic use, 
supplied the remainder of Christendom wkh its 
most costly and most delicate attire. Spain and 
England contributed their richest fleeces to the 
fabric of her unrivalled Cloths ; and for Linen the 
Hax of Lombardy afforded inexhaustible materials. 
100,000 ducats were annually produced by a 
single commodity, at first sight of apparently 
trifling value, gilt leather. Liqueurs, confec- 
tionary, and waxen tapers, of which last article 
the consumption in Ecclesiastical Services at 
Rome was of very considerable extent, 'Swelled 
the exports of the Adriatic Mart. In her Labo- 
ratories were distilled and sublimated the choicest 
Chemical preparations required either by Medi- 
cine or the Arts. 'The Glass- Houses of Murano, 
which, like her Silk-looms, Venice had borrowed 
from the East, furnished some of their most coveted 
luxuries to both the civilised and the savage 
•world; decorated the gorgeous Palaces of Eu- 
rope with mirrors, and the person of the naked 
African with beads. And to omit numerous 
other minor sources from which was derived an 
influx of wealth and reputation, Venice claimed 
the glory of adopting at an early, date, and ad- 
vancing with a rapid hand, that Invention, which, 
above every other, has most beneficially affected 
the permanent welfare of Mankind. Not more 
than fifteen years, perhaps even sooner, after the 
discovery of Printing, John de Spira transpcHtod 
it from Germany to Venice ; and Sanuto notices 

'THE ALSI. 183 

: a Patent gramted to him for the exchisiye puhli- 
catiim, during five years, of the Epiatlea of Cicero 
and Pliny *. Nicolas Jansen, and others of much 
'eminence, succeeded him ; but the triumph of the 
Art was consumfmated when Aldus Manutius, a 
native ^af Bassiano, in the Ecclesiastical ^ates, 
established himself in the Republic in 1488. The 
zeal of that illustrious scholar first opened at large 
the hitherto partially revealed stores of Greek 
Literature. ' He invented the Italic, or cursive letter, 
in imitation, as is said, of the hand-writing of 
Petrarch ; he oolleoted around *him the most dis- 
tinguished learned men of his time, and in the 
Neacademia which he instituted, among other 
i^elebrated names were counted those of bembo, 
Navagero, 'Sabellico, Sanuto, Fortiguerra, Alex- 
ander Alberto Piot» Prince of Carpi, and above 
ail, of Emsmus. That briliiant company discussed 
in their weekly meetings the authority and the 
various readings of MSS., decided what works 
most deserved to be published, assisted in their 
collation and transcription, and even corrected 
the sheets as they passed through the Press. To 
the zeal of the elder Aldus, of his son, and of his 
tson's son, for the honourable labours of this family 
were continued during three successive genera- 
tions. Literature is indebted not only for some of 
'the choicest specimens of Typography which still 
adorn €mr Libraries^ but for the very existence of 

* Ap.fixsnAoTiy siAi. 1189. 

t The edncaUon of that young Nobleman faadbMn eomlgntdto 

Aldus, although he was not much older than his pupil } and tfie 

"Prince, tnm strong attachment, permitted his Instructor to adot>t 

'the familr- name -of the House of Carpi,' Flo j a very honouraMe 



numerous works, which, unless for their skill and 
assiduity, would most prohahly have been lost 
to us for ever *. 

Such were some of the many springs from 
which riches were derived by the descendants of 
the fishermen of Rialto. Their territory, during 
the lapse of a thousand years, had stretched itself 
from the coasts of the Lagune and the narrow 
ancient Dogado over some of the fairest Provinces 
of Northern Italy; and Venice swayed on the 
adjoining Terra Firma, the Principality of Ra- 
venna, Trevisano and its dependencies, Padua, 
Vicenza, Verona, Crema, Brescia and Bergamo. 
Friuli connected her with I stria ; Zara, Spoleto 
and the Dalmatic Islands with Albania; Zante 
and Corfu continued the chain to Greece and the 
Morea,.and numerous Islands in the Archipelago 
supplied the remaining links with Candia and 
To become allied to or to depress a State thus 

' opulent and powerful were important objects to 
other Governments ; and Venice accordingly was 
either courted or menaced as she appeared likely 
to assist or to control the several projects of am- 
bition which influenced her neighbours. Equally 
mistrusting Louis XII of France and the Emperor 
Maximilian, — ^both of whom indeed, although on 
terms of avowed friendship with her Republic, had 

' not long since contemplated its dismemberment 

* The xlxth Book of Darn's History contains a masterly and 
most elaborate review of the statistics of Venice at the close of the 
XVth Century, upon which we have chiefly relied for our abore 
brief summary. The biofpraphy of the Aldi is no where better given 
• than in the 11^ volume of Renouard's Annales de PImprimerie des 


and signed a Treaty at Blois to that effect, — fihe 
found it most politic to adhere to the former in a 
dispute which arose between them on the disso- 
lution of that nefarious compact. For a 
few months therefore she was involved in ^^^ 
hostilities with the Emperor ; during which, 
after a complete victory gained at Cadauro by 
£artolomeo d'Alviano, when, if we believe Na- 
vagero, not a single Imperialist escaped to notify 
the disaster*, the fortune of war threw into the 
hands of the Conquerors Trieste and some other 
important Ports of the Adriatic. Maximilian, 
whose prodigality justly entailed upon him the title 
of ' The Penniless t/ unable to procure supplies 
for the continuance of this unsuccessful struggle, 
proposed a Truce ; but Venice, with strict fidelity 
to her engagements, refused in the first instance to 
treat separately from her ally. The French King 
extended this principle of comprehension beyond 
its legitimate bounds, and by obstinately stipu- 
lating, that a minor Power, the Duke of Gueldres, 
with whom Venice had neither connexion nor 
community of interests, should be included, broke 
off the negotiation. Under these circumstances 
the Signory felt at liberty to consult the advantage 
of their Country, and they concluded a Truce with 
the Emperor for three years, a hollow repose 
which prepared for them a most fatal War. The 
seeds of fresh dissensions were to be found in the 
pride of Maximilian humiliated by defeat, and in 
tlie anger of Louis unreasonably kindled by that 

* Ne nuncio quidem reUcto, ea$i sunt, 
^ MastimKano Poehidanario. Car it ettoit a$sez Uberal, et n*nUit 
possible trowaer un meilleur Prince, s'il eust eu de quoy donner,— Is Ui« 
«ly character giren of this Emperor in the Hitt, de Ch. Bayard, ch. 38. 

wliicfa he termed deserticn ; and the task of re- 
conciling these Princes for the purpose of hoatile 
tnrion agunat a Government which each r^arded 
with equal dislike and jealousy, required therefore 
but a small portion of Statesmanship. The 
restless spirit of intrigue which animated Julius 11, 
the most ambitious Pontiff who ever disquieted 
Christendom, was a fitting instrument to combine 
against the devoted Republic, the first general 
confederacy which the leading powers of Europe 
formed «n grounds wholly political, and which is 
known in History as The Lbaqub of CuiBaAt. 

in Aiqntbiute, p. Ut-'MUl ■ Soldlir in OutUoo— XVI^ Cntnr; 

LHAOmi OF X3A1IBR AI. 1 07 


VSJOM ▲.O. UOB TO ▲•D. 1M». 

Canses of the Leagne of Cambrai— Juliiu II. discloses It to the Vc. 
netiaD^-^Preparations for reslatanee — Evil-omens— Total defeat 
of the Venetians at Agaadello-^Louls XII at M«Btre-*Tenror In 
Venice— Less of allher dominions on Terra fltrwo'— 'Fortitude of 
the Government — Measures for defence — ^Decree releasing the 
Provinces from allegiance — Favourable negotiation with the 
Pope— Successful resistance of Trevis<H»8ur|niee of Padna*- 
Mazimilian prepares for its siege— Capture of the Duke of 
Mantua— Brilliant defence of Padua— Aehievements of the Che- 
valier Bayard — The German men at arms refuse to mount tho 
' breach— Maximilian raises the siege In disgust. 

Lbokaiido Lommiuio* 

•The lovers of minute History may have the gra- 
tification of tracing the events w^ch now open 
•upon us, m a great degree to petty causes and 
personal feelings. That such were the immedMe 
« sources from which the great Confederacy against 
Venice arose is little to be doubted ; but the uni- 
versal jealousy which her wealth, her prudence, and 
'her prosperity excited, the mortification with which 
.France, Spain, and Germany beheld themselves 
'rivalled, and in many points excelled by a Power 
'whose domiiuons did not equal a tenth part of any 
one of their Kingdoms, were deeply rooted and of 
long standing. The Biographer of the Chevalier 


Bayard has indeed approached very near the 
truth when he informs us, in his characteristic 
manner, that nothing is more certain than that the 
alliance of those Crowns was formed * to ruin the 
Signory of Venice, which in great pomp and with 
little regard to God lived gloriously and gor- 
geously, making small account of the other 
Princes of Christendom ; wherefore, perhaps, our 
Lord was angry with them, as plainly appeared*.' 
f The Pope regarded with an evil eye the acqui- 
sitions of Venice in Romagna, some made long 
since, others more recently on the overthrow 
of Cesare Borgia ; and the anger of that turbulent 
old man burst all restraint, when he learned that 
the Senate, acting upon their accustomedpolicy of 
withstanding all interference in matters Ecclesias- 
tical, had refused to admit his collation of one of 
his nephews, whom he wished to succeed another 

i'ust deceased, in the vacant See of Vicenza ; and 
Lad nominated a Bishop, as his title ran, ' By the 
grace of the most excellent Council of Pregadi t.* 
Forgetting that he owed his elevation to the Pon- 
tificate mainly to the influence of the Republic 
Kthe Conclave, the impetuous Priest lost not a 
oment in proposing to the Court of France, a 
> 'League for the conquest of all the Venetian domi- 
nions ; and the Cardinal d'Amboise, who swayed 
the Councils of Louis XII, well remembering, on 
the other hand, that his hopes of the Triple Crown 
had been frustrated by the very agency for wliich 
his successful competitor now manifested himself 
ungrateful, eagerly stimulated his master to com- 

• Oh. xxriii. 
i Oaicciardlol, lib. tUI. vol. U. p. 178. 


pliance. A motive equally personal affected the 
determination of Maximilian. Not only had his 
arms heen recently and signally discomfited by the 
haughty Republicans, but they had revived and 
protracted his disgrace by the triumphal reception 
of their victorious General d'Alviano ; and by 
continuing to exhibit the dress, habits, manners 
and language of the Germans and their Emperor 
as objects of popular ridicule, in ludicrous spec- 
tacles, stage buffooneries, and satirical cari- 
catures*. One other occurrence tended to heighten 
the indignation thus imprudently generated. But 
a few days after his signature of the late Truce, 
Maximilian proposed to the Signory an alliance 
for the expulsion of the French from Italy, and the 
division of their Cisalpine territories. That offer 
was not only declined, but was also revealed to 
Louis; and the disclosure, without creating a 
new friend, exasperated the virulence of a former 

To these three high contracting parties was 
added, so far as his habitually cautious and tardy 
policy would allow, Ferdinand of Aragon, allured 
by the promised restitution of the maritime Cities 
of Naples. But when the Cardinal d'Amboise, as 
plenipotentiary of France, and Margaret of Aus- 
tria, the widowed Duchess of Savoy, a woman of 
masculine temper and attainments, as represen- 
tative of her Father the Emperor, met at Cambrai, 
ijeither the Papal Nuncio nor the Envoy of Spain 
had received full powers. Undeterred by this 
obstacle, which might have retarded less prompt 
diplomatists, the Princess and the Cardinal, 
neither of whom appears to have required as- 

* Sarangue de Louis Hellan. ap. Amelot de la Houssaye, p. 804. 

fiesBOCs, negotiated with exiraordinary rapidity; 
and, as may be surmised from a Letter written by 
the former., not without considerable occasioDaL 
viyacity of discussion. *' The Cardinal and 1/ 
says this high-spirited Lady, * have been very 
nearly pulling each other's hair 1 ' But the consent 
of the other Powers having been assumed, they 
^eedily reconciled any (Merences between them-- 

The o^nsible pretext for this Congress was an. 
adjustment of the affairs of Gueldres; to which 
avowed object countenance was > given by the. 
employment of Margaret, who administered the* 
Government of Flaaders ; and a second and far: 
greater design was* rumoured to be the formation 
of a Confederacy against the Turks. Infinite 
pains were taken to veil the real proceedings from 
the penetration of the Venetian Ambassador ; the- 
King of Fcance was lavish in his professions of 
continued amity, and did not hesitate to pledge 
the faith of a Prince m confirmation of his pacific 
intentions. Suspicion was first. excited in the 
breast of the Secretary of the Council resident at 
Milan, to whom it was reported that a native (^ 
Carmagnuola had been heard to express vehement 
delight at the prospect of soon seeing the murder 
of his gfeat townsman revenged upon its per* 
petrators.* The- sagacity of fhe Minister d\a» 
Qovered the clue which unravelled the mystery of 
this boast; and he warned his Government ac* 

cordingly. He was correct in his surmise ; 
^awt^' for the Treaty was already signed, by 

which, according, to its general outline, , 
the Pope was to wrest from their present Lords, 
Bimini, Faenza, and Ravenna; the Emperor to 

J4XbtUa It*. ATXMMI ITi 194 * 

eprich himself by Trevko, l8tri&) Friuli, Padua, 
Verona and Vicenza ; the King of IVanoe toobtani 
Bergamos Breacia^ Crema and Cremona ; and the 
King of AragoQ and Naples to seise upon the 
five great Ports which Venice held in pledgev 
without repaying the 200,000 crowns for which t/ 
tbey had been mortgaged; The preamble to this 
act of spoliation reproached the Venetians for the 
obstacle which they had raised against a Crusade, 
bf retaining certain dominions of the Holy See; 
and declar^ the motives of the Allies to be njo 
other than to procure restitution of these usurped 
territories for the glory and the deliTerance of' 

But no eooner had Louis made powerful de- 
monstrations of his earnestness in the cause, 
byr rapidly assembling troops even in the f^' 
depth of winter, and sedulously preparing 
foB a passage of the Alps in the ensuing Spring, 
than the Pope repented the issue of his rasn im* 
patience^ . He- trembled at a fresh irruption of 
Tramontanes,, who would again ravage and over^ 
ran' Italy ; and he sought to avert, or at least to 
mitigatey the danger which he had too hastily 
p9X>voked. Finding that some indirect suggestions 
were' misunderstood or neglected by the Venetian 
Ambassador, he took an opportunity of obtaining 
a private conversation by seating him in his own 
barge during a water party ; and he then openly 
revealed the existence and the terms of the 
League ; adding, that if the towns which he claimed 
v^ere restored, he would not only forbear to ratify,- 
but he would endeavour to dissolve it The 
Senate received thiflx unwelcome and unexpected • 


communication with surprise, but with dignity ; 
they had been deceived and lulled into security, 
but they now encountered the peril when fully dis- 
played with a fortitude which their enemies stig- 
matised as rash and impolitic arrogance; but 
which a less prejudiced judgment will attribute to 
a natural desire of self-preservation, a love of 
freedom, a consciousness of strength, and a belief 
in the righteousness of their cause. A brief 
refusal was conveyed to Julius; some fruitless 
attempt at negotiation was made with the £m* 
peror ; an unavailing application was addressed 
to the Turkish Sultan ; and Henry VIII, who but 
a few months before had ascended the throne of 
England, and who already had been solicited by 
the opposite party *, was urged, but without effect, 
to make a descent upon France during the 
absenceof her chief warriors f. Meantime Louia 
despatched a Herald with a formal declaration of 
War ; the Pope launched the idle thunders of a 
Bull ; and in order to disembarrass Maximilian 
from any imputation of perjury in his causeless 
breach of a Treaty to which his signature was yet 
scarcely dry, Julius called upon him by name, as 
defender of the rights of the Church, to enter the 
Venetian territories in arms within forty days* 
So flimsy is the sophistry by which a great crime 

• See the Treaty of Cambrai, apud Lunlg. Codes Diplom. Ital, U 

t Giastinianl (xi. p. 281) affirms that Henry acceded to the 
League, and he is followed In this statement by Hume. Darn con- 
tradicts them. The Duke of Savoy, the Duke of Ferrara, and the 
Marquis of Mantua, certainly Joined the alliance, and the last two* 
were peraonally disUnguished in the course of the war. 

ftTl£ 0MBK9« 193 

ean be veiled from the eyes even of it's perpe<« 
trator, if its commission be advantageous to nis 
interests I 

' Evil omens, as they were afterwards considered, 
however disregarded at the time, were not wanting 
as harbingers of this War» Fires ravaged the 
small Islands of the Lagune, and Candia trembled 
with an Earthquake ; the citadel of Brescia was 
damaged by lightning ; a galley conveying trea^ 
sure to Ravenna foundered at sea ; the Public 
Registry in Venice fell to the ground, destroying 
numerous archives of the Republic beneath its 
ruins ; and an explosion of gunpowder blew up a 
great portion of the Arsenal and burned twelve 
galleys to the water's edge ; enveloping the Great 
Council Chamber in volumes of smoke, terrifying 
the assembled Senators from their deliberations 
by its hideous noise, and scattering showers of' 
ashes through the remotest quarters of the City. 
Lest these natural portents, which are avouched 
by grave Historians, should fail to arouse men'^ 
vigilance and fears, a miracle was added ; which, 
it must be confessed however, rests on no other 
authority than that of a Poet. Valeriano, when 
addressing a long copy of Latin Elegiacs to his. 
Preceptor Sabellico, informs him that an Image 
of the Virgin in the Church at Lido covered the 
Bambino with her veil, and thrice uttered the 
fear-awakening words, * Terra^eaal' * 

Undismayed by these prodigies, the Republia 
marshalled her forces, amounting to 30,000 foot 

* Jo. Pieril V»lerianl Jh Portentii anteaquam toiua Urramm orbi^ 
)» Venetos eonspiraret, printed by Eosco«, Leo X* App, lix. 



and nearly 18,000 kone, aU weU eipiipped and plea-* 
tiftilly appoiDled. The greater fait of thk army was 
assembled on the Oglio, (a secondary lineof d&» 
fence on the Mihmese fooaatrer, the Adkfai beimg the 
firstO at the wkh of the Signory, vnd. wkh the 
approval of thear General-in-chieif the Count fi 
Petigliano. D'Alviano, his second in command^ 
a soldier of more entenprisiDg spirit, urged holder 
measures, but wm <nrenruled ; he wished to act 
upon the ofiBefifiiye in the outset, a»d to pene- 
trate the Milanese before it was occupied by 
the invaders. Tkm victoEies of that brave com* 
mander, in the late short Gexman war, warraofeed 
more confidence than he appears to have in- 
apired^ His valour had raised him firom the 
ranks, yet he offered the singohir spectacle of a 
General who, anud the tumult of a camp, found 
leisure for the repoae of literature ; 9xd in the 
campaign whidi we are now jdescribing he was 
attended by three YenetianB eminently dastinr 
gttished by their genius and their cultivation of 
the Muses, Navegiero, Frac»toro, and Giovanm 
Cotta ; all members of an Academy which D'Al* 
viano himself had established on his domain at 
Fordenone. The French^ meantime, in number 
12,000 horse and ^0,000 foot, of which last more 
than a fourth consisted of -Swiss, advancing by 
rapid marches, crossed the Adda at the bridge of 
Cassano, about five.miles i^om the Venetian camp^ 
without oppositaon, and to the astoniafam^t of the 
Teteran Trivubao ; who, weU acquainted with the 
country, and perceiving the great advantage thus 
gained, Assured Loan that in pasising i^at river he 
had already obtained a victory. During four suc-^ 



iemve day^ the invaders pteaented tiiemselves ia 
fipont of "^e Veaetiaui camp, the strength of which 
liorbade attack, in the hope of provoking, battle. 
But Petigliano, ofaBtanately resolved on the defen- 
«ve, remaned motionlesfl, although a village 
within gun-shot was sacked before his eyes ; and 
awaiting the sure operation of delay upon an 
«nemy having to seek supplies in a hostilo 
country, he persisted in restraining the more fiery 
^irit of his colleague. 

. This inactivity disconcerted Louis; who, with 
greater ardour than policy, anxiously wished to 
bring the Venetians to a trial of strength, befoie 
the arrival of his sdlies might deprive him of any. 
portion of glory. His sole h(^e of forcing aa 
action now remained in the possibility of Inter- 
cepting his enemy's eommunication with their 
magazines at Crema and Cremona ; and for that 
purpose the occupation of the little towns of Vaila 
and Pandino appeared necessary, in the first in- 
atance^ Two roads approached those posts, one 
across a marshy plain, circuitous,, but easy; the 
Mher mucb shorter ,. but along difficult heights. Tho 
French made choice of the former, and the Vene- 
tian Generals, peiroeiving their move- 
tnent, and divining its object, resolved May I4tli: 
io anticipate them by taking the shorter 
line. Petigliano led ike van, and had already ap- 
proached Vaila, when he received notice from 
ly AlvianQ that the rear * under his command was 
engaged, and required support. EiUier jealous of 

* Mr. Roscoe, in narrating tUs Battle, says—' Of the Venet!ail 
^rmy D*Alviano led the attackt the Count of Petigliano with the 
Oattlie and cavalry occupied the centre, and the rearguard was 
commanded by Antoillo de* Pll, accompanied by the Venettoit 



his brother commander^ or thinking that he wished 
to entrap him into a battle, Petigliano answered 
by ordering him to continue his march, and to 
avoid any engagement, in obedience to the in«» 
structions of the Signory. But the advice arrived 
too late ; the rear of the Venetians was already 
overtaken by the French van, at a point near the 
Tillage of Agnadello, where the two roads which 
the opposite armies were traversing, hitherto con* 
cealed from each other by. a thick intervening 
wood, were now separated only by a ravine. 
D'Alviano, observing that the ground which he 
occupied at the moment was favourable for artil* 
lery, halted, opened a brisk cannonade, and threw 
the infantry, of which his force principally con-» 
sisted, into some rough vineyards, which pre- 
vented the advance of the French cavalry. At 
first he was most successful, and his batteries 
mowed down the Swiss and the men at arms, as 
they ineffectually attempted the passage of the 
ravine, till they wavered and gave way. But at 
that critical moment, Louis, in person, brought up 
the main body; the ardour of the French re- 

CommissarieB,' and a little onwards 'ihelr vanguard was defeated 
with immense loss,* (ch. viii. yol. ii. p. 69). Now the events of the 
engagement plainly require that Petigliano should be in the oon, 
and D'Alviano in the rear ; without which arrangement the former. 
In the course of his advance, must, even against his will, have comer 
up to the assistance of the latter. And such Is the dispositioa 
which Guicciardini assigns, il retroguardo de* Venetiani guidtOo da 
Sartolommeo d*Ahiano ; and again, signijicaia suUtamente al CoiUe 
di Petigliano ehe andava itutanni, lib. viil. vol. ii. p. 208. So toa 
Bembo— prior ab extremdf cm Zivianus prceerat, tria milliapauiuim 
abeMet vli. ad Jin. The Battle is variously named by Historians, 
Agnadello, Vaila, or Ghiara d*Adda, (the gravelly bed of the Adda.^ 
)t has afforded a subject for Titian's pencil. 


doubled at the presence of their Ring; and the 
Swiss, pressing across the dry bed of the torrent, 
swept through the vineyards and drove the Vene* 
tian infantry, forced back but not disordered, into 
plainer ground, upon which the men at arms at 
length could charge. Louis, sword in hand, rode 
to all parts of the field, amid the heaviest fire ; and 
when solicited not to expose himself to unne- 
cessary hazard, he answered, ^ This is nothing ; 
you see that J am not afraid, and those who are 
so may shelter themselves behind me*!' The 
eombat endured for three hours ; and at its close, 
6000 Venetian infantry, after a noble resistance^ 
In which not a man swerved from his rank, were 
left upon the field f* D^Alviano, and many of his 
chief officers, were taken prisoners ; twenty pieces 
of cannon fell into the hands of the conquerors ; 
and Petigliano, although not engaged, accomplished 
his retreat to Peschiera in safety, only by being 
too far advanced for pursuit $. lyAlviano had 
been wounded, while dismounted and awaiting a 
fresh horse, and he surrendered to the Seigneur de 
Vendenesse, ' a right little lion §,' as he is de- 
scribed by Bayard's faithful chronicler. Bleeding 

• Brantome, Lauit XIT, 
. t The Seigneur de Fieuranges, In his agreeable but not very me* 
thodical Memoires, exaggerates the loss in this action to 88,000 men, 
ttu comptefait ! 

■ X Daru beUeres that Petigliano was engaged, and quilted the field 
only when he perceived the fortune of > the day to be adverse. 
3embo is silent respecting him. Guicciardini expressly says, that 
the combatants became dispirited, topra tvUo tnancando il soceorso 
de* stun ; and again yet more strongly, il Conte di PitigHmo s* <ute»n» 
^al/atto d^arme, Ub. vilL voU U. p. 202. 

^ UndrmctpetUlyinhchmjjax, 


19S CAPTrVITY OP d'aeviano. 

and l)ruised, t^e prisoner was oondncted to tho 
Boyal tent, and honourably entertained. AfM 
dinner the King sounded a false alarm, in order to 
make trial of the vigilance of his troops ; anci 
having asked D'Alviaao, widi apparent surprise^ 
if he could eonjecittre the occauuon of the sudden 
tumult, the captured General answered, with a 
keen remembrance <^ his kte abandonment by 
his comrades^ ' S!re> if there be any more ba^tlo 
just now, your troops must he fighting with one 
another ; for, as for ours, I pledge my life that yen 
will not see staj more of them for a £wtnight to 
come *.' 

IVAlviano beguiled his subsequent hours of con- 
fnement by writing Ckmunentaries oti Im own Life« 
which Paulus Jovius states that he bad read. The 
eeverity of his gaolers denied him the use of pro*^ 
per implements ; his paper therefore was of the 
coarsest and vilest nature t ; his pens were bristles 
stealthily secreted from the broom which swept 
the chamber, and his ink was pounded charcoal 
mingled with wine. The two points in this axA(^ 
biography which most deeply impressed the Bishop 
of Nocera's memory, were that D'Alviaiu^ lika 
Macduff, was ' from his mother's womb untimely 
ripped,' and tha^ he was bom with Mars in the 
ascendant * from which horoscope the Astrologers 
predicted that he would be a great Captain, anJ 
receive certain wounds on the head and forehead^ 
which it was impossible he ^uld escape. i 

Success was vigorously pursued ; and well were 

• Id. aid. 
^InscabrA viU^papyroet Mrinit tanitm diemtd. (Eiog. lUagii 

ii for i&e fame of Louis if Be &ad focbome from: 
Bidlyhig his ktuf els by cruelty. But as he orerraoi 
&e adjoimng country, his mam design appears 
to have been to fix a deep impression of terror. 
For that pnrpose, he km^Bd the gallant soldiers 
who dared to maintain the walk of Caravaggio ; 
and in the citadel of Peacfaiefa also, which he 
entered by assault a£ber PetigMano had abandoned, 
ks defence, ii» whole garriaoa was put to the 
■word. Tlrere too, although the Gcnremor, m 
Boble Venetian, pro&red 100,000 ducats for tiia 
lanaom of hirasdf and his son, the King, in spito 
of a proaiiie of quarter g^n by some of his 
officers, swore that he would neither eat nor driidc 
while his enesnes rcmasaed alive ; and gibbeted 
ti&em both on the same gallows above the battie- 
ments of their own Castle. In a fortnight after 
hb victory, the whole of the towns which th^ 
Treaty of Cambnd had apportkmed to him sub- 
mitted to his armst and he received, and faithfully 
afipropffiated to the Eimperor, the keys of many 
other places beloagiBg- to the Inqveriid albtment. 
The citadel of Ciemona was ike only strong hold 
which CQBtiimed to reskt ; ami the obstinacy of its 
defence arose from die avanee with which Louia 
demanded exorbitant ransoms from the many 
wealthy Venetians who had sought refuge in ita 
walls^ and who preferred the uttermost hazards of 
war to certain rain by the disbursement of their 
whole sid»st«)ee. At length, havmg established 
Ids camp at Mestre, beyood which poet the want 
of nxval means forbade his army from penetrating^ 
he raised a battery of six guns at Fusina ; and 
diBchar£ed from it five or six hundred cannon'n 


shots at random, in the direction of the Capital* 
in order that Posterity might be told that the 
King of France had bombarded the impregnable 
City of Venice*. • * 

Since that eventful morning which announced 
to Venice the storming of Chiozza, no disaster 
had befallen her which struck grief so profound 
into her Citizens, or awakened in them so well 
justified a terror as the Battle of Agnadello. Sur- 
prise also was mingled with alarm ; for the sanguine 
despatches of D'Alviano had inspired strong 
hopes of success, from the very outset of the cam* 
pjiign. But now, instead of the realization of those 
bright prospects, the French skirted the borders of 
the Lagune ; the Papal troops spread themselves 
over Romagna, occupied uie towns which the 
Holy Father claimed, and, in imitation of their 
allies, butchered the garrisons of such as resisted ; 
the Duke of Ferrara and the Marquis of Mantua* 
recovered those territories to which they asserted 
hereditary pretensions ; the King of Spain, who 
had hitherto worn the mask of friendship, now 
withdrew his Ambassador and despatched troops 
to Naples ; and, although the Imperial army had 
not as yet taken the field, numerous partizans of 
Maximilian rose in arms, possessed themselves of 
many important places in Istria and Friuli, and 
induced Trieste and other towns won from the 
£mperor in the late war, to revert to their former 
master, A single blow had shattered in pieces 
the goodly fabric of continental dominion which 
it had cost Venice the toil of a century to erect ; and 

• Brantome, Louis XII. The Abbe Da Bos contests this fact, and 
Ittaintalaa that Lonls ZII did not advance beyond Verona. 

DFTXmCB. 201 

' her claim to a place in the catalogue of European 
States, now rested solely on the scanty boundary of 
her Islands. Her army, levied by extraordinary 
exertion and expense, was dissipated with scarcely 
a hope of recovery ; for besides the heavy Icmss 
sustained in battle, desertion thinned it in flight, 
and disobedience and want of discipline, the too 
£requent consequences of defeat, impaired the 

/ 'Idelity and diminished the attachment of those 
who still abided by their leaders ; so that a scanty 
and little trustworthy force of 5000 horse and 
1500 foot was all that could now be mustered 
VLXtder the walls of Verona. £ven if men could be 
found to recruit its battalions, money was likely 
to be wanting for their support. All that loans, 
and voluntary gifts and retrenchment could pro- 
duce, had already been exhausted in preparation ; 
and if treasure could now be any where obtained, 
ft seemed imperative that it should be employed 
principally in naval equipment; in order to 
oppose a fleet which the French were preparing 
at Genoa, and whose most probable destination 
was the Adriatic 

L But it seems throughout the History of this 
most singular People, that their seasons of deepest 
calamity were those which produced also the most 
Overflowing harvests of glory. In the moments 
of depression and disaster upon which we are now 
pausing, when it might be thought that men's 
hearts would fail them for fear, — ^notwithstanding 
the natural agitation of the populace in the 
Capital, the closing of the shops, tlie suspension 
of all public business, the thronging of a terrified 
rabble to the Ducal Palace and to the very doom 


of the CouBcfl-duunber, and ^ke, lioorij himoiim 
of fresh paril wfaicli it was not easy for escag* 
geration to heighten beyond reality,--Twe find the 
Gofemment presorrmg a dignified cBdmness which 
enabled it to consult in all things the true welfare 
cf the RepuMk. One aged! Senator, long in-i 
Taiidedy axoae fiom a sidt eoueh and was home is 
a litter to tin HaU oi Aauaikikf^ that he might 
not he wanting to his Coaniry in the time of her 
trial; and the wisdom of his advice lent freBh 
eourage to her defenders. Their earliest pne-i 
cantions were naturally directed to the safety of 
Venice itsel£ kAU foreigners resident in the City, 
unless for p u r poses of business, were ordered Ui 
witlidraw ; n^lls were oanstrudled, and. wells sunk 
in the «$^ere; the pahlic tai^ and grananes 
were deiEnsed and repkinidied ; tiie canals were 
bkxskaded and the bnoys lemoTed ; n^^htly patroks 
were estaUished cm the several Isbads; arms 
were distribated among the young and able-boduod 
inhabitants ; and the City was {disced in all pointn 
in coaditiqn to maintain a siege. Hie patrkydsna 
of individuals contributed large funds to the empty 
Treasnry; fifky galleys were manned from the 
Arsenal; and the garrisons eiapkyed on distuKt 
stations^ not only in Italy, bat m Greece also and 
Illyiia^ were recalled home to join the ledu poi 
and almost diaorganised army of PetigUaao. I 

Those first and most pressing neocssities having 
leceired attention^ the Conncil next addresaei 
itself to matters of more general knport, In u 
spirit simifair to that which aniaasted the Bomanii 
after ti»ir overthrow at Cannae, tiiey deqaatcheil 
mesaengecslQ.Petigliano, ezpceasing thanks for 

OF TBX TSnSTIAlfSk " 203 

Bis great eomftaney. Tlien by a stroke of master 
policy, of wbich we know not whether most to 
admire the wisdom or the magnanimity^ they 
issued a decree releasing the endangered Pro* 
vinces from all obligation of fidelity to a State atf 
longer able to afibtd them protection. Prudence die* 
tated this sacriiioe of a dominion which had ahnost 
ceased to exist except in hoaaginalion ; for should 
Ihdr subjects, now enfranchised, be ever regained^ 
they would return with an attachment strongly in^ 
creased, by grateful remembrance of tiie g e nerosity 
which had permitted them to bend to the storm 
when to withstand it might be destmction. No 
apprehension for the future could be felt by those 
who were thus authorised to submit to circum?* 
stances ; and at the first dawning of weakness or 
disunion among their conquerors, they nigfak 
hasten to renew allegiance to their ancient masters^ 
imdeterred by the necets^y of excusing their past 
iDToluntary abandonment. The next step was to 
attempt negotiation, and here, even had the 
8ignory felt any desire to treat with FVanoe, the 
condnct of Loois XII must hare dqnived them of 
ai) expectation of sncceaa. His dissimulation and 
perfidy before the War, his avidity and eraelty i» 
prosecuting it, rendered hhn an enemy with whom 
Aey could Uttle hope, and scarcely indeed could wish 
for compromise. To the Pope they stood in a diffe- 
rent relation ; and they had sagacity enough to per* 
ceive that having once gained the object for whicli 
he promoted the League, his interests must now 
Strongly prompt him to free Italy firom its in-^ 
vaders. They proffered therefore the surrender' 
pf BaTenna, the only City in Romagna which stiil 


resisted ; and the Doge Loredano announced hid 
willingness to depute six of the noblest SenatorSy 
who should humble themselves at the Pontifical 
footstool and implore absolution for their Country; 
This seasonable accommodation to the pride, no 
less than to the. policy of Julius, produced the 
desired consequence. To withdraw at once from 
the League would have been too open and too 
violent a breach of faith ; but the Holy Father, 
after a fierce ebullition of his constitutional fury, ex«- 
pressed himself in gentler terms, sufficiently evinc« 
jng the conduct which he would ultimately adopt: 
' Greater difficulties embarrassed the negotiation 
with the Emperor ; and although it was deemed 
advisable to tender him the lowliest submission; 
and to agree to his retention of every conquest 
which had been made in his name, Maximilian 
steadily refused to treat without the participation 
of France. Nevertheless, either from indolence or 
poverty, he took no measure to prosecute with 
activity the War which he had resolved to con-* 
ftinue ; and even when Loiiis, satisfied with hid 
glory and having nothing more to conquer, set 
Out on his return to France, only one small corps 
of a few hundred Imperialists had entered Lom- 
bardy, to garrison the fortresses which^ although 
surrendered, were as yet by no means secured; 
Those troops sufficed for the occupation of Padua; 
but on the appearance of a detachment before 
Treviso, so scanty a force excited contempt 
among the inhabitants, who regarded the proposed 
change of masters with undisguised reluctance; 
The cry of Marco was heard in their streets ; the 
Venetian Standard was raised on their battlements ; 


Hxe Germans hastily retired ; and at the moment in 
which the whole of Terra Jlrma was deemed lost, 
this fidelity of the Trevisans revived the hope ci 
brighter fortunes, gave an earnest of the recovery 
of dominion, and checked the hitherto retrograde 
movement of the Venetian arm^. Petigliano^ 
secure of an advantageous rallymg point, once 
more advanced, and took up a strong position 
between Marghera and Mestre. 

Yet more important results were speedily pro* 
duced by this example of constancy* The govern* 
ment of Venice had pressed far less heavily upon 
the Lombard Cities tnan that to which they now 
found themselves subjected, and in most of them 
a strong party existed looking, with anxiety for 
the moment at which they might emancipate 
themselves from their recent fetters. In Padua^ 
the middle classes and the populace, to a man, 
were favourable to Venice : the Nobles, on the 
other hand, hoping to establish more extensive 
Aristocratical privUeges and ampler Feodal rights 
by the assistance of the Court of Austria, espoused 
the side of Maximilian ; and their reasons, when 
once penetrated, increased the desire of the Citizens 
to escape from German thraldom. Little more than 
three weeks had elapsed since the occupation of 
their City by about 800 Imperialists, when the 
Doge Loredano received intimation of the wishes 
of the Burghers, and was implored to second them* 
At first he sliraxik from the peril of an enterprise 
80 daring, and so calculated to provoke greater ae* 
tivity on the part of the Emperor ; but stimulated 
by bolder spirits in the Council, he ordered Andr^ 
Giitti, (ban whom no Officer of the Bepublic was 


better calcuksted fi^ the service, to iM>ld idmself in 
xeadinesB to act in conceit with the Paduan& 
Before danm, on the 24th of Jvljy 400 men at 
arms and 2000 foot placed thenudves in am-^ 
huscade within a how^skot of the City. It was 
the season of the second Italran hay-harvest, and 
rrery day a numeroBS train of waggons ladai 
vith the crop used to enter Padua; their ap* 
pearance therefore ^n the appointed morning cQd 
mat excite suspicion, the drawbridge was lowered, 
and the convoy filed slowly through the gate& 
In the rear of the iifth carriage, concealed by those 
which preceded it, Gntti had placed six horsemen^ 
««& cwrying b«Aind him a foot-soWier with hit 
harquebass loaded. Not more than thirty German 
lansquenets sentinelled the gate; and as this 
^aggon passed under it, the men at arms raised 
ihe cry. of Marco ; their comrades, slipping from 
the cruppers, discharged their pieces with so sure 
an aim that each killed his man ; a trumpet sounded 
for the advance of the troops in ambush; and 
roused by tho same signal, more than 2000 of the 
inhabitants, rudely armed but breathing deadly 
enmity against the Grermans, poured out frcHa 
their lu>use8;. The lonesome and widely-dispersed 
streets of Padua afforded full room for battle; 
and during, the two hours in which it raged, the Im* 
|)erialists sold their lives dearly, and slew 1500 
^f their opponents, before, overpowered by xmmf 
hers, they were wholly cut to pieces *, 
' The news of the recovery of Padua was received 
in Venice with transports of joy. The day €m 

* Ibfeurad otnwrfs, romput, et tout mis en pieces, sans que jamais m 
gmttffiimere^ Qn/autgrotsepUiS* EisU du Ch^ Bayard, 

wkich timi great snoeeM was ebiainecl, The 
Translation «f S^ Mam^ was already cdebrated 
as a Feast ; but it was now farther ennobled by a 
decree institiiimg a yearly andaia of the Doge 
irad Senate to return thanks in the Church of that 
Martyr, in wfaieh the keys of the restored City 
Were solemnly deposited. In Maxiniiiian, the 
imexpected inleUigence occasioned pain and indig- 
nation fully equal to the delight of his enemies ; 
he Towed deep revenge, applied to the King df 
France for the assistance of dOO ra&ik at wnMy and 
undertook in person to reduce and punish the re« 
voHed City. Louis willingly accorded the required 
detachment ; but, diagnsted by the coidness hithertQ 
manifested by his ally, he did not hesitate to 
proceed on his own return to France, after av* 
ranging an interriew which Maximilian purposely 
feiled to attend. The seeds of dissension indeed 
were already fast ripening among the associated 
Princes, and the bonds of their confederacy became 
every hour more weakened and relaxed. 

In order to embarrass the Emperor while oa 
his march, the Venetians, now freed from the 
immediate presence of the French, commenced a 
Variety of diversions. Their gadleys hovered o» 
the coasts of Fiinli and Istria, menaced Fiume 
amd Trieste, and rdieved Udino. Advanced de- 
tachments skirmished on the frontier line, and « 
bold eoup de main by night surprised the Marquia 
ai Mantua negligently posted in the Isola della 
Seaia on the Tanaro. The Prince leaped from 
the window of his quarters in his shirt, and con* 
^aled himself in a stack of grain near at hand ; 
but his hiding-place was discovered and revealed 


by some peasants, whose fidelity was proof againsi 
the huge bribes which he offered for secrecy. He 
was conveyed to Venice, and retained in close but 
honourable confinement in a tower of the Palace. 
. Notwithstanding these partial successes^ it waa 
soon perceived that it would be impossible to 
prevent the investment of Padua, and the Signory 
therefore prepared most vigorously for its defence* 
Upon its preservation appeared to depend the fate 
of Venice herself; and accordingly neither skill 
nor toil was omitted to render it impregnable. Pe* 
tigliano and Gritti entered it with the whole army 
amounting to nearly 25,000 men, part regulars, 
part Stradiottiy and part Scappoli\ Sclavoniana 
taken from the Galleys, an active, though some^ 
what undisciplined Body. The Doge Loredano« 
in order to manifest the high value which he placed 
upon the safety of this great outwork of his 
Capital, and to mark the identification of his own 
personal interests with those of his Country, sent 
his two sons, with a body-guard of 100 picked 
men, to partake the dangers of the garrison; and 
three hundred Patricians, each accompanied by a 
brilliant suite, enrolled themselves as volunteers in 
tlie like service. All the approaches to the City 
were undermined ; new bastions strengthened thQ 
long line of curtain ; the ramparts groaned with' 
artillery conveyed from Venice; inner batteries 
and a second fosse were constructed ; every hut 
and tree within a mile of the walls which might 
afford lodgment to an enemy was swept away ; 
the neighbouring peasants eagerly flocked from 
their villages to relieve the soldiery in their labours , 

* See the Wood^cut at the end of the Chapter, 


and the Generals, having erected an altar in thd 
great Piazza di San Antonio, after the celebration 
of Mass, harangued the garrison and inhabitants ; 
and received fresh oaths of fidelity and renewed 
assurances that they would maintain the City or 
Jierish under its ruins. 

' The march of the Emperor was retarded by the 
difficulty of transporting his park of artillery, the 
greatest ever yet prepared since the invention of 
ordnance. Two hundred heavy cannon, and many 
hombards whose enormous size forbade the use of 
carriages, and which could be discharged at the 
utmost but four times a day, were destined for 
this siege ; and not more than half of them could 
be brought up at a time, on account of the defi« 
ciency of horses. At length, on the 15th of Sep* 
tember, a host sat down under Padua, which^ 
both from its great numbers and its variety of 
tongues, reminds us of that with which King 
Agramante and his Paynims beleaguered Paris, 
for the love of Angelica and to avenge the death 
of Troiano. Maximilian arrived on the plain, 
Bays Bayard's Chronicler, in the- true guise of an 
Emperor, and if the mighty company which he 
brought with him would but have performed its 
duty, surely it was enough for the conquest of the 
World. Among the Germans there were of 
Dukes, Counts, Marquisses, Princes, and Lords, 
120, and about 12,000 cavalry; of men at arms 
of Burgundy and Hainault five or six hundred ; 
the lansquenets were without number ; 12,000 Ger- 
mans, 6000 Spaniards, an equal number of ad<* 
venturers from different Countries, and 2000 Fer* 
rarese ; probably all together more than 50,000 
VOL. II. r 


fighting men : the Cardinal of Ferrara was den 
puted by his brother the Duke with 120 lanoe«, 
8000 infantry, and twelve pieces of artillery ; the 
Cardinal of Mantua led a somewhat larger force ; 
and the 500 French Knights under the Seigneur 
de la Palisse comprised among them Bayard and 
many of his most celebrated companions. On the 
whole, not fewer than 100,000 combatants spread 
themselves chiefly under the northern* walls, in ft 
semicircle of nearly four miles in length, from the 
gate of S^ Croee to that of Coda lunga. Maxi- 
milian, as if he had cast his slough of indolence 
and become endowed with a new spirit by the 
magnificence of the scene, fixed his head-quarters 
at a Carthusian monastery, S^ Elena, within half 
cannon-shot of the ramparts.. There, he exhibited 
distinguished personal bravery, mingled with the 
engineers, animated their labours, and so ably and 
actively conducted his preparations that within five 
days the batteries were opened. During their 
construction an attempt to turn the course of the 
Brenta failed, from an inaccuracy in the levels. 

No sooner had the firing in breach commenced, 
than an attack was directed, by the French and a 
detachment of Germans, on a ravelin near the gate 
Portello, which leads to Venice; not so much, as 
we are told, for any serious object as to make 
essay of the enemy's inclination to fight ; and of 
that intention the assailants received sufficient 
assurance to induce them to retire to their quarters 
in no small haste*. In that affair Bayard greatly 
distinguished himself; penetrating four barriers, 
raised at one hundred paces from each other, and 

• Semxa moUa dtiaUoM, Onlce. Ub. tUU.toL U. p. 24S. 

wUcli coidd be canried <Kily by an attiack in front, 
where the nmrow a p y fo aeh y iKked on eaefa sifk*, 
WM swept by a k»n^ range of avtUiery. The last 
of these barriers was daitaafc b«l a stone's threw 
from the gale ; and it was so fiereeiy contested 
that the brave Knigirt was ohliged to leap from hie 
korse and msk on, sword in hand, ^ as a lioness 
who has been robbed of her cube springs with her 
nates to their deliverance.' Saiufied with ^s 
dit^ay of prowess^ he tiwn adrised a retom *. 

Bayard's other personal oicounters during this 
eiege were of an eqoally cduvalrons and romamtie 
character with hia first adrenlnre ; but they chiefly 
•ccurred with the Stradiotti^ whose rapid war of 
nartizan^ip was incalculably aseful to the garrison; 
Eyery day they penetrated the hostile lines, carry- 
ing off booty and prisoners, foraged tiie neigh* 
bouring districts^ or, chiding' superior numbers, 
secured the entrance (^ convoys to the City. On 
fine occasion, when the mihtary pay was in arrear, 
and a remittance was expected from Venice, 300 
of these light horsemen stealthtiy gained the mouth 
of the Brenta, and disembarking the treasure, 
divided it among such of their number as were 
Boost fleetly mounted. Then, having laden two 
strong mnles with heavy sandbags, they placed 
than in the centre of tiieir march, and on the ap 
pearanee of a patrol of Germans affected to guard 
than with peeuHar anxiety. The result answereil 
their expectation ; while the «iemy eageriy attacked 
fliemules, the troopers who really carried the money, 
rode off at full speed uaieguarded, and outstripped 
puESuit before the stratagem was discovered. 



Not all the Siradiotii, however, were equally 
fortunate ; for soon afterwards Bayard brought into 
the camp nearly sixty of their troop, after a ren^ 
contre, in which one of his suite gained much de# 
served reputation. A young gentleman of Dau- 
pliiny, a son of the Lord of JBoutieres, although 
not quite seventeen years of age, yet coming of 
a noble stock, and having great desire to tread iu 
the steps of his ancestors, in a charge upon a 
company of Venetian cross-bowmen, threw him* 
self upon their standard>bearer who was entangled 
in a ditch, and took him prisoner, notwithstanding 
he was twice his own age and size. On carrying 
this notable prize before his master, Bayard, with 
gome surprise, asked if the prisoner were really 
of his own taking? * In good sooth, my Lord, 
he is,' replied the youth, to the great entertain* 
ment of the Chevalier ; * and, please God, he did 
right well to surrender, or I should certainly have 
killed him.' • This young gentleman,' rejoined the 
Knight, turning to some Venetian Captains whom 
he himself had taken, and whom he was enters 
taining at table with his usual courtesy, ' has been 
my Page but six days, and as yet, you may per-» 
ceive, has but little beard : in France we do not 
trust our standards unless to hands which can 
defend them.' The Ancient, abashed at the ob-« 
vious deduction from these words so unfavourable 
to his courage, swore, roundly that he had not 
surrendered from any fear of his captor, whot 
single-handed, never could have taken him ; but 
that it was impossible for any man by himself to 
iight against a host. * Do you hear that, littl^ 
Boutieres,' said Bayard, • your prisoner says you 

tRB BRXACR* $13 

fdre not the man to take him ! * * Will my Lord 
grant me but one favour ? ' asked the gallant and 
high-mettled youth — ' Name it,' replied Bayard,—* 
^ That I may return the prisoner his horse and 
arms^ and after I have mounted on my own, that 
we may step a little aside : then, if I take him 
again, before God, he shall die ; but if he can 
escape, he shall go ransomless/ Bayard was 
never better pleased than with this spirited de^ 
^and, and joyously accorded the desired permist 
(lion. Not so, however, the braggart Venetian^ 
and no one need inquire whether he was the 
laughing-stock of the camp when he declined the 
challenge which Boutieres thus freely offered *. 
: The artillery of the garrison was better served 
than that of the besiegers, ' for one shot which 
we gave them, they returned us two ; * never* 
Iheless, in four days, 20,000 rounds were dis* 
charged from the German batteries. Under that 
most terrific fire, three breaches were speedily laid 
into one, of four or five hundred paces in breadth 
and capable of admitting 1000 men abreast ; ' was 
Xiot this a goodly passage for an assault V But 
pi the rear of that enormous gap, Petigliano had 
sunk a fosse twenty feet wide and deep, filled 
almost to the brink with barrels of powder inter* 
mixed with fascines ; enfiladed by flanking bat* 
teries, as well- as by others, which presented a 
murderous line against an advance in front ; and 
having beyond it, within the town, an esplanade 
of sufficient size for the battle array of 20,000 
men. The French were warned of these formi* 
dable defences by some of their own company who 
had been taken prisoners ; and to whom, before 

* Hist, du Ch, Bayard, xxxT. 


they were ransomed, the works were exhibited, 
with expressions savouriDg of contempt of the 
Germans, and admiration of themselves. ' Were 
it not for yovr mea at arms,' said Petigliano, ' in 
four-and-twenty hours I would make a sortie 
which should oblige 1^ Emperor to raise the 
nege with ignominy/ 

Maximilian, no doubt, was deterred from at* 
tempting a storm by intelligence of these prepa* 
rations, which made the breach, however large, 
utterly impracticable ; for, on the tenth morning, 
when the army was marshalled aaid awaited the 
signal for advance, it was again cKsmiesed to its 
quarters, on a plea that the ditches had been filled 
during the night, and could not be passed. The 
water, however, subsided by the next day; yet 
even then no attempt was made beyond the attack 
of an outwork, hastily thrown up as a defence for 
the Coda lunga gate ; from which the besiegers 
were^ repulsed. Part of the bastion Delia Gatta, 
near this outwork, being subsequently bsttered 
down, it was assaulted two days afterwards by the 
Spanish and German infantry, who fought vfbh 
incredible fury, scaled the wall after infinite losa, 
and succeeded in moimting two standards on the 
breastwork. The explosion of a mine, however, 
destroyed them almost to a man ; and the few buf» 
vivors, grievously hurt and wounded, sought re* 
faxge in their own lines, where their comrades were 
waiting but for their establishment on the basdoa 
to commence a general assault But all hope of 
immediate success was abandoned on this dis* 
comfiture, and the troops again returned to their 

The sole remaining occurvence m this remark* 


^ble siege is ia all points so strongly tinctured 
with the manners of me Age to which it belongs,— * 
BO strikingly displays the inadequacy of any rorce, 
however numerous and well appointed, unless it h% 
controlled also by a strict discipline and subordi* 
nation ; and so vividly illustrates the fanciful dis* 
Actions of rank and the punctilios of conventional 
honour which were still fondly nursed by Chivahry^ 
even in those days of its fast approaching decline, 
—that we shall relate it for the most part in the 
appropriate words of the Biographer of the Kniffht 
sanspeur et aems reproche. The Emperor with nis 
German Princes and Barons having one morning 
reconnoitred the huge breach, now exposing the 
City for nearly half a mile, marvelled greatly, and 
felt no small shame that, notwithstanding his 
mighty host, he was still baffled. Retiring Uiere- 
fore to his tent, he dictated a despatch for the 
Lord of Palisse conceived in the following terms. 
^ My Cousin,— -Having fomid the breach which I 
have just reconnoitred more than reasonably large 
for those who will do their duty, I propose to 
storm it this very day : I pray you therefore that 
eo soon as my great drum shall sound, which will 
be about noon, you will hdd in readiness all those 
French Gentlemen who, by the commandment of 
the King of France, my Brother, are at my service* 
under your orders, to accompany my infantry to 
the assault ; which I trust, through God's aid, will 
succeed.' The Lord of Palisse, on receiving this 
despatch, found the method of proceeding strange 
enough, nevertheless he dissembled, and sum* 
moned all his Captains to his quarters. On their 
arrival, he said, ^ Gentlemen, we must go to 
dinner, for I have that to tell which if I name it 


beforehand peradventure may spoil your cheer.f 
But this he said right merrily, for he well knew 
the temper of his companions, that there was not 
one among them other than a Hector or an 
Orlando* ; and especially that good Knight who 
never in his life was surprised hy anything which 
he either saw or heard. Nevertheless, during 
dinner, they did little else but look at one another* 
After the repast was ended and the quarters were 
cleared of all except the Captains, the Lord of 
Falisse communicated to them the Emperor's 
despatch, which he read twice for their better im« 
derstanding. When it had been thus read, each 
Knight regarded the other with a smile, to sed" 
who should first begin to speak ; till the Lord of 
Humbercourt, addressing himself to La Palisse^ 
eaid, ' Monseigneur, you may send word to the 
£mperor that we are quite ready ; since, for my 
part, I am tired of lying in the field now the nights 
begin to grow cold, and moreover our good wind 
is failing us.' At which sally they all laughed, and 
every Knight spake in his turn and agreed with 
the Lord of Humbercourt. • 

La Palisse, in the end, turning to the ChevalieT 
Bayard, who had not as yet opened his lips in any 
wise, perceived that he was picking his teeth, and 
made as if he did not understand the proposition of 
his comrades, so he addressed him thus. *• Well 
now, you Hercules of France, and what say you ? 
this is no fit time to be picking your teeth, for we 
must send a prompt answer to the Emperor.' The 
good Knight, who * loved a merry jest, returned 

• A favourite mode of expresiion used not long after by th^ 
Macaronio writer If erlino Coccalo. 

Qvo fum Hectorior, quo non Orlandior alter* 


pleasantly, * Sirs, if we were indeed to follow the 
Lord of Humbercourt in all seriousness, we should 
go this moment to the breach: but as marching 
on foot is a somewhat troublesome pastime to a 
man at arms, I, for one, should willingly excuse 
myself. Nevertheless, since I must speak my 
opinion, I will deliver it at once and openly. The 
Emperor in his despatch requires that you should 
dismount all the French Gentlemen to go to the 
assault with his lansquenets. Now, for myself^ 
little as I have of this world's goods, I have 
always borne myself as a true Gentleman, and all 
of you, my Lords, have large possessions and 
come of great Houses, and so do many others of 
our men at arms. Can the Emperor then think 
it reasonable to put so much Nobility in peril side 
by side with liis infantry ; of whom one is a cobler, 
another a farrier, a third a baker, and every one 
some sort of mechanic, who has not his honout 
by any means in so great esteem as the poorest 
Gentleman ? such a step, saving the Emperor's 
grace, is taken with too little reflection. My 
advice therefore is, that the Lord of Palisse should 
fiend this answer, that he has assembled his Cap« 
tains according to his Imperial Majesty's will, who 
are all well resolved to obey his Majesty's order^ 
'according to the charge which they have received 
from the King their master. But that his Im* 
perial Majesty must be well acquainted that the 
King of France has none excepting Gentlemen in 
his Companies of Ordonnance*, and that to 

* The Compagmiet d^OrtUmnanee were eitabllshcd by Charles VII 
•in 1444, and conetitnted the standing army of France. A Oentleman^ 
in the acceptation of the French in the XVItb Centalry, was not only 
one born of noble lineage, but eyen a roturier of the iiert etat, who 
aade arms his sole profession j and, by so doing, differed from tht 


mix such persons of honour with foot-^soldiers, who 
are men of low condition, would be to show little 
esteem fcMr noUe birth. Nevertheless, if his 
Majesty will please to disnount some ef his own 
German Counts, Barons, and Gentlemen, together 
with the Gentlemen of France, the latter will 
readily show them the way, and the lansijnenets 
may then follow if they think good.' 

This reply was communicated to the Emperor, by 
whom it was approved, and immediately assembling 
by sound of drum and trumpet the Princes, Lords* 
and Captains of Germany, Burgundy and Hainault, 
he announced to them his pleasure. When he 
bad finished speaking, a very marvellous and 
strange noise arose on a sudden among the Ger* 
mans, which endured for the space of half an hour 
before it was appeased ; and then one of theix 
Company was deputed to acquaint the Emperor 
that they were not persons who would demean 
themselves by marching on foot, nor by ent^ing 
a breach ; and that their true estate was to fight 
like Gentlemen on horseback: and no other 
answer could the Emperor obtain. Great was 
his displeasure thereat; nevertheless he replied 
only by saying, ' Well then, Gentlemen, we must 
do for the best;' and forthwith he sent to the 
Lord of Palisse, countermanding the assault for 
that day. Then shutting himself up in his quariersii 
deeply mortified and indignant, he took horse on 
the following morning two hours before day- 

tansqvenets est fantas^ns, wbo, eorollIngtheinBelTea bat for a leasoiTv 
returned to their trades, as Bayard atates aboTC^ at the end of a cam- 
paigu. Dnbos has a Taluable PrdUninary DUsertation to his Atfi. 
de la lAffu9 4e Camltrmi^ on the military establishments at the com* 
mencement of the XVI^b Century, in which these distinctions am 
Weil explained^ 


break ; and accompanied by only five or six of his 
most confidential attendants, he rode forty miles 
from the Camp without drawing hit ; and de- 
spatched immediate orders for raising the siege 
aftei fifleen days inveBtment*. The Venetians, 
justly proud t^ their succenful defence, affirmed 
that to narrate with adequate eloquence this pre- 
servation of his native City, would require the 
resurrection of Livy himself. The etlect produced 
by the abandonment of the enterprise was, as we 
shall perceive, most important to the fortunes of 
the Republic 

* Bin. in Ch. Bofart, imll. nirlll. 

Bof^tAt oi PiUU. 3m vt<! M8'. OidUiur QnlMUe. 



PROH ▲. D. 1509 TO A. D. 191<« 

Beconciliation with Julias II. — Harangue of Louis Helian at the 
Diet of the Empire — Campaigns of 1510 and 1511— The Holy 
JLeague — Gaston de Foix commands the French — Storm of 
Brescia — Generosity of Bayard— Battle of Ravenna— Alliance 
between Venice and France — Accession of Leo X. — Battle of 

' Novarra— Battle of Motta — Accession of Francis I. — Battle of 
Marignano— Death of D'Alviano — Treaty of Noyon and conclu* 
sion of the Wars arising out of the League of Cambrai. 


Leoi^ardo Loredano* 

It is probable that during the inglorious opera- 
tions which we have just related, Maximilian wa» 
betrayed both by Julius and Ferdinand ; each of 
whom, already determined upon reconciliation, if 
not secretly in accordance with Venice, may have 
ordered his Generals to co-operate but languidly 
with the army of the League. Be this as it may, 
the Emperor, once more impoverished and dis* 
honoured, returned to his 'own dominions ;. his 
troops broke up and dispersed ; Padua was de- 
livered ; the Venetians, spreading, without resist- 
ance, over the adjoining districts, recovered many 
of their former possessions; refused a Truce which 
Maximilian was sufficiently humbled to propose ; 


find before he had reached Trent, on his route to 
Germany, had established themselves under the 
tv'alls of Verona. 

The death of the Count di Petigliano, which 
cx^curred in the beginning of 1510*, was a 
disaster felt, perhaps, more acutely by the ^^* 
Signory than even the total defeat of their 
flotilla by the Duke of Ferrara not many weeks 
before t* The rare fidelity and great military ex- 
perience of Petigliano were qualities not easily to 
be replaced, and he was gifted with yet another 
excellence which rendered him peculiarly accept- 
able to the habits of the Venetian Govemment,-*a 
calm and deliberate judgment, never seduced by a 
passion for glory into any rash enterprise, and 
willingly abandoning the chance of success if it 
were to be obtained only by an equal hazard of 
disaster. It might have been supposed that 
Venice would select a General-in-chief from among 
the numerous brave officers already in her service ; 
but the temper of the Condoitieri was too jealous 
to allow a hope of subordination, if any individual 
of their own number, unless distinguished by the 
accident of birth, were elevated above his fellows. 
Thus, through one of those remarkable contra-* 
dictions of ordinary and established Politics which 
the Italian Annals so frequently present, it was 

* Bembo, z. p. 355, states that he died on the 26th Jan. 1510. 
Cruicciardlni, lib. z. toI. II. p. 240, places hla decease before the close 
«f 1509* The former is most probably correct. 

t This victory of Alfonso, and his brother the Cardinal Ippolito* 
at Polesina, is, more than once, a theme of praise in the hands ot 
Ariosto, (lit. 57. zzztI. ad in, zl. ad init.') The last mentioned 
passage disprores a belief which has someUmes been entertained^ 
that the Poet himBelf wm present at the action. 


firom their Prisons tbat tlie Signory now sought a 
Commander. The high post of Chief of their 
armies, which he had filled^ not wholly without 
aasjttcion, a few years b^ore, was again tendered 
to Francesco of Mantua, and joyfully accepted by 
him, without a moment's scruple as to the solemn 
engagements to the violation o£ which such an 
appointment must necessarily lead. His fidelity 
was to be guaranteed by the delivery of his son as 
hostage ; but whether from a reasonable mistrust 
of her.Lord's constancy, from maternal fondness^ 
or from an apprehoneion of exposing Mantua to 
the resentment of France, G<Hizaga's Consort, 
when applied to for ratification, refused the desired 
pledge, and the Prince was remanded to confine* 
ment. Before ihe close of the year, however, by 
a singular concurrence of opposite interests, the 
menaces of the Turkish Sultan, with whom he had 
always maintained an amicable correspondence^ 
and the solicitations of the Head of the Christian 
Church, to whose policy his release was advan* 
tageous, obtained freedom for Gonzaga. 

Disappointed in their first application, the 
Signory next wished to nominate Andrea Gritti 
to the important vacant office ; and if that great 
man had accepted the charge, the armies of Venice 
would have been led to the field, for the second 
time in her History, by a native General. But 
even the proud distinction of ranking by the side 
of Carlo Zeno, the most illustrious of his Country- 
men, failed to seduce the honest judgment and the 
sure- sighted wisdom of Gritti. He pleaded inex-* 
perience in military affairs unless as a Proweditore ; 
and pointing to the more than ordinary dangers in 


which his Country was invoived, he earnestly be* 
sought the Signory to look around for surer 
guidance. CcmiBelled by this re^sal to select 
from the mass, tney ultimately entrusted ^e com* 
xnand of thehr army, now too weak for more than 
defensive war, to Paolo Baglione, an officer not 
long before engaged under the Papal banners. 
- "niis transition from one service to another 
directly hostile to it, was by no means uncommon 
in Italian Military History ; and in the instance 
mentioned above, the reconciliation of Julius ta 
Venice removed all appearance of inconsistency* 
More than ever alanped by the increasing influ* 
ence of the French within the Alps, to which the 
failure of Maximilian before Padua: had largely 
contributed, the Pope resolved no longer to sup* 
port the impolitic League to which his passion 
nad given birth. Nevertheless, while receiving 
the Venetians once again into comnmnion with 
the Church, he rigidly exacted most of those pe* 
nalties which the Power of the Keys enabled him 
to demand. Their deputation of Nobles, instead 
of displaying customary di^domatic pomp, entered 
Rome by night, clad in penitential garb * ; testified 
their contrition in the Seven Basilica ; and humbled 
ftemselves upon their knees, while supplicating 
absolution, before the Papal throne, ostentatiously 
raised in front of the brazen portals of the Va* 
tican. It was esteemed no ordinary condonation 
that the stripes were remitted, which it was some<- 
times customary for tlie Pope and Cardinals to 

* EroMO entrttH eon ahlti e con modi miserabili i set Oratori del 
Semato Ven$xia»o, i quali otaendo consueti a entrarvi conpompa efoita 
gnmdissimo, Guicciardini, Ub. viii. toL ii p. 833. 


inflict; and the Master of the 'Ceremonies, to 
whose official care was intrusted the arrange* 
ment of this spectacle, strenuously insisted upoii 
the necessity of adhering to that edifying cus« 
torn. Among other precedents, he cited that of 
Innocent YIII, who, having summoned before 
him the Gonfaloniere and one of the Ancienta 
of Bologna, for hanging a Priest and a Fran* 
ciscan in the streets of their City, stripped them 
naked to their very drawers, and flogged them 
with unsparing severity, not only by his own 
hands, but by those also of numerous assistants, 
during the recital of no less than three out of the 
seven Penitential Psalms. Alexander VI, yet 
more recently, had exercised a nearly similar yeii-« 
geance on some refractory Asculans; and the 
Pontifical Arbiter Elegantiarum, confiding on 
those sound authorities, recommended that the 
Cardinal Penitentiary should deliver thirteen rods, 
one to each of his officiating Brother Cardinals ; 
and the last, more handsomely finished than the 
rest, and distinguished by a napkin at the handle^ 
for the Pope's own use. With these scourges, « 
flight blow was to be inflicted on the shoulders 
of the Envoys, during the recital of each verse of 
the Miserere *. Julius, however, had good taste 

* The formnlary drawn up by De GrassU, is printed at length !a 
the /tnnal, EecL of Baynaldus, ad ann. 1610. Of the Bolognese ha 
ifays that they were ordered per poenitenHariot omnes acriter percuti^ 
€t quidem totaliter nudas, etiam sine caligis, sed soKs catnpestribus sive 
hrtichis, et quidem percuH fecit donee tres es septem Psaimis Peenitenti* 
eLHbtu dicerentmr. The Pope's rod ie described as tiirffa una puieriot 
pro Pontijicet cam manutergio in eatremitate. We are not certain that 
tre have rendered manutergium correctly, but we know not what 
€lie to sabstitute. Was the panishment so bloody that it wai 
necessary for the Holy eseciiUoner to wipe his bands during it% 
Uiflietion I 


enough to remit this unseemly degradation ; and 
the idle submissions which he really exacted, how- 
ever galling to the pride, by no means diminished 
the power of Venice. But it must have been with 
no slight regret that she consented, for a while, 
to permit the exercise of uncontrolled £cclesi« 
astical jurisdiction within her dominions; and to 
concede free navigation of the Adriatic to natives 
of the Ecclesiastical States, without demanding 
toll, or asserting any right of search. The re* 
newal of goodwill thus effected is partly attributable 
to Henry VIII of England, whose martial spirit 
and abundant treasure rendered him a most im* 
portant advocate. At Easter, in this year, he 
received from Julius the consecrated golden Rose, 
annually bestowed upon some one Sovereign as 
the highest token of Pontifical favour ; and it is 
recorded that before the presentation of that 
special mark of grace and amity, Christopher 
Bambridge, Archbishop of York, the English Am- 
bassador at the Vatican, very strongly urged the 
Holy Father not to war against Venice, a State 
which, if it did not exist, ought, he said, to be 
ereated by the common consent of mankind, for 
the welfare and the glory of the universe*. 

Of the. bitter feelings still entertained against 
Venice, however, by the two chief Powers asso- 
ciated in the League of Cambrai, a very re- 
markable evidence is preserved in a speech pro- 
nounced by the French Ambassador, Louis Helian, 
at the opening of a Diet of the Empire, convened 
by Maximilian in order to obtain succours for a 
continuance of the War. The authenticity of 

• Bembo»ix. p.347. 


that choice model and rich exemplar of ail future 
invectives is undisputed; but, since it has fre% 
quently been printed, we may content ourselves 
by noticing a few of its most vehement passages. 
^ ^ These Venetians,* says the energetic Orator, 
*^ who have abandoned the cause of H eaven, deserve 
to be execrated by God and Man, to be hunted 
down by sea and land, and to be exterminated by* 
fire and sword. It would be easy to show that 
these crafty and malignant Foxes, these proud and 
furious Lions, have entertained the design of sub- 
jugating Italy first and the Roman Empire after-* 
Wards. If you have weakened them, follow up 
the blow and extinguish them altogether; for 
unless you promptly bruise the head of thia 
venomous serpent while it is yet stunned by your 
first stroke, I warn you that, so soon as it haa 
recovered, it will one day infect you all with its 
deadly poison, and strangle both yourselves and _ 
your successors in its inextricable coils/ Then J^ 
producing Alexander, Scipio, Csesar, Ulysses, 
Antiochus Epiphanes, C. Marius, Trajan, An- 
tonine, Constantine and Q. Varus,-— the UBipeti^ 
the Tencteri, the Suevi, the Marcomanni, the 
Quadi, the Catti, the Sicambri, the Heruli, the 
Vandals and tlie GoUis, as iUustrations of so many 
separate common-places ; he adds a remark, which, 
if it were more fully explained, might furnish a 
key to the mysterious fate of Carmagnuola^ 
namely, that through the ingratitude of the Re-* 
public that unhappy Nobleman, the greatest Cap- 
tain of his time, was beheaded ybr a few words of 
raillery which ?uut escaped him*. Dwelling witL 

* Fropterjbe^ltm tnU camUoitM dicttan. 


keen barcasBi upon the maritime ascendency of 
the Venetians, the Ambassador next proceeds to 
stigmatise them as Brides of Neptune or Husbanda 
of Thetis, who espouse the Sea by a Ring; a 
folly unheard of among other Naval Powers, 
whether they be Tyrians, Carthaginians, Rhodians» 
Athenians, Romans, Persian^ or Genoese; but 
worthily adopted by * these insatiate whales, these 
infamous Corsairs, these pitiless Cyclopes and 
Polyphemi, who on all sides besiege the Ocean^ 
and are far more to be dreaded than any sea^ 
monsters, quicksands, sunken rocks or hurricanes.' 
In a few other similar iiowera of vituperative 
Rhetoric they are described as devoted to Mo« 
hammed, not to Jesus ; boasters who assert that 
they will drag his Christian Majesty to their 
dungeons in chains, and make the Pope their 
Chaplain in ordinary* ; wicked harpies, venomous 
aspics, sanguinary tigers, neither Turks nor Chris- 
tians, but a third Sect occupying a middle station 
between good and bad Angels, neither belonging 
to Heaven nor to Hell, a sort of Loups Garous 
and mischievous Goblins who wander by night 
through men's houses, raise storms at sea, destroy 
the peasants' crops by hail, and take possession of 
human bodies in order to torment them. On these 
▼ery reasonable grounds the Diet is invoked ta 
arouse itself for the utter destruction of this 
haughty Republic, the sink of all pollutions, the ' 
receptacle of every vice, a State produced for the 
ruin and persecution of Mankind at large. 

A few scattered incidental passages betray more 

• Pontifieem Maximumf partum ct^^lanum et mminam akaris mm^ 



distinctly than the ahove railing accusations, the ac-» 
tual reasons which inspired this great bitterness of 
enmity : and from the reluctant confession of her 
adversaries we learn duly to appreciate the gigantic 
r^ might of Venice. Power, subtilty and ambition 
she doubtless possessed : but, it is added, that she 
is never to be forgiven for having dared to en- 
counter in the field the armies of four great con- 
federated Princes; for having wrested from the 
King of Hungary three hundred Islands, two 
extensive Provinces, twelve Episcopal Cities, and 
a range of Ports spreading along five hundred 
miles of coast ; for her repeated triumphs over the 
Emperors of Constantinople, the Lords of Padua 
and Verona, the Dukes of Milan, Ferrara, and 
Mantua, the Emperors of the West, the Popes, 
and the Kings of Naples. < ' Gods ! * exclaims the 
Orator, ' what is the abyss, what is the bottomless 
Ocean which could absorb and ingulph so vast 
possessions at once ! Not a century has elapsed 
since these Fishermen emerged from their bogs ; 
and no sooner have they placed foot on Terra 
Jirma than they have acquired greater dominion 
by perfidy, than Rome won by arms in the long 
course of two hundred years; and they have 
already concerted plans to bridge the Don, the 
Rhine, the Seine, the Rhone, the Tagus and the 
Ebro, and to establish their rule in every Province 
of Europe. These are the People who speak of 
themselves as sole possessors of Nobility, as the 
' only Sages of the Earth. For us, who do not 
walk the streets in purple, nor hoard treasure in 
our coffers, nor crowd our beaufets with plate, we 
in their eyes are Barbarians, sots and idiots \ they 


hate us» they scorn us, they insult us ; and both 
French and Germans are held up by them to 
mockery and ridicule. What security indeed can 
Christendom expect from this wicked Republic 
while she is allowed to retain Istria» Croatia and 
Dalmatia, the Islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, 
Zante, Candia and Cyprus I * ' It is scarcely pos- 
sible for national jealousy to exhibit itself in 
stronger colouring than that which imbues this 
Harangue ; which, indeed^ furnishes an invaluable 
commentary not only on the external relations of 
Venice, but on the general condition of Europe 
during the time at which it was delivered. 

Maximilian, aided by subsidies from his German 
subjects and by French auxiliaries, prepared for a 
fresh campaign, and by numerical superiority 
chased the Venetians from most of their fortresses 
on the Adige and the Brenta, The war was con* 
ducted with unusual ferocity, and we read with 
horror of two thousand fugitives from Verona, 
many of noble stock, (Bembo raises the sufferers 
to thrice that number f,) suffocated in a neighr 
bourmg stone-quarry, the Grot of Longaro ; 
whose unknown depths and intricate windings 
afforded a refuge from which their pursuers were 
unable to dislodge them. The savage French ad- 
venturers lusting for booty, having piled straw 

* We have thrown together detached passages of Helian's Speech, 
which may be found entire, among other pieces, appended to Jus- 
tiniani's History, (Argentorati, 1611,) where the original Latin is 
l^ven ; it is translated at the end of Amelot de la Houssaye Hist, du 
Oomem. de Venise. 

t Bembo, x. p. 370. Guicciardlni names this cavern la Grotta di 
JUasano, and oddM, dove e fama morittero piii di mille persone, lib. iz. 
Tol. ii. p. 287. 

'23^ STRATAGBM 01^ 

«nd other combustibles at the narrow mouth of 
the cavern, set them on fire till the rock glowed 
like a furnace. All within, except a single indi* 
vidua], perished in torment ; some of the women 
in the agony of untimely throes together with 
their new-bom babes. One youth, having pene» 
trated the very bowels of the gout^rrain, and 
having unexpectedly found a scanty supply of air 
from a fissure above, was dragged out some hours 
afterwards ' more dead than alive, so discoloured 
was he by smoke.* Bayard's generous nature 
revolted at this inhumanity ; he could obtaiti 
evidence against two only of the perpetrators, and 
those he delivered to the Provost-Marshal and saw 
them hanged, in his own presence, on the spot 
which they had polluted by their crying wicked- 
'ness*. Scarcely less cruelty was manifested at 
the storm of Monselice, where all quarter was 
denied; most of the garrison perished in the 
^ames of the last tower to which they had retired ; 
*and a few, who leaped from the battlements in 
despair, were caught on pikes below. 

One exploit of Andrt^a Gritti, during this for 
the most part unsuccessful campaign, must not be 
passed in silence. The confederates had stormed 
Porto Legnano, and during its occupation they 
were frequently harassed by some neighbouring 
.Venetian posts. Gritti was especially active in 
those rencontres, and on one occasion he over- 
threw and put to the sword an -entire French 
detachment. Of three hundred men not one 

* Hist, du Ch. Bcyardf xl. where the author records that of the two 
ruffian* thus executed, one had but a single ear, the other none i^ 
all ; pretty clear erldence of punishment for former acts of villainy. 

. -ASOKEA GRim. 231 

^scaped to convey intelligence of their defeat; 
and upon that circumstance Gritti founded a 
shrewd stratagem from which he conceived strong 
hopes of recovering the town. Stripping the 
corpses of the slain, he clad an equal number of 
Jiis own troops in the armour of the slaughtered 
French ; mounted them on the captured chargers t 
and leaving five or six score of their comrades in 
jtheir proper appointments and in the guise of 
prisoners, he despatched the band upon Legnano, 
crying ' France, France ; Victory, Victory ! ' 
Himself, with the remainder of his men, tarried a 
short space behind, awaiting a trumpet which he 
ordered to be sounded as soon as the gates should 
be opened ; a result of which no doubt was ap« 
prehended. It so happened, however, that the 
Lieutenant of the garrison was a sagacious Captain 
who had seen much service ; and he, mounting 
the ramparts when he heard the clarions and tlie 
joyous war-cry, attentivdy reconnoitred the com- 
pany below. After a while he remarked to an 
officer in attendance, ' Certes those are our 
liorses, and the accoutrements also belong to our 
men ; but I do not think the soldiers ride after our 
fashion, and I am much deceived if they are ours ; 
in truth, my heart misgives me that some mis- 
fortune has befallen us. Go you down, lower the 
drawbridge, and when you have passed it see that 
it be raised again : if they are our people, you will 
readily know them; if they are enemies, save 
yourself as well as you can behind the barriers, 
and I have here two falcons loaded which shall 
succour you with speed.' The officer obeyed, 
issued from the fort, and approached and chal* 


lenged the foremost horsemen. Without repiy^ 
they moved on briskly, thinking that the drawr 
bridge was still lowered; the Captain jumped 
over the barriers, the two falcons opened their fire, 
and Legnano was saved ; but not, as the honest 
narrator concludes, without great shame and loss 
to the French*. 

In the year which followed, the appearance of 

Julius II in arms at the head of his troops^ 
15U* — ^^^ narrow escape at Bologna which he 

had recently annexed by force to the 
Papal dominions, and which had subsequently 
been again taken by the French, — his presence in 
the trenches under a deep snow at the siege of Mi^ 
randula, which he swore by St. Peter and St. Paul 
should be won by either faur or foul means, — ^his 
entrance of the captured City by its breach, — his 
flight before Bayard, during which we are told 
* if he had stopped to say but a single Pater- 
noster,' and if he had not, like a man of true 
spirit, assisted in raising with his own hands the 
drawbridge of San Felice, he must inevitably have 
been tjikenf, — and tlie subsequent assembly of 
the Councils of Pisa and the Lateran, whose 

* Hist, du Ck. Bat/ard, xli. Bonacconi also relates this adventore, 
which is passed in silence by all the greater Italian Historians. It 
is plain that Gaicciardlni had never heard of it, for he expressly 
■ays Legnano was so weakened by the catting off this detachment^ 
ehe se vi si fossero voUo subito le gente Fenexiane P aoerebbero preso, 
lib.ix.Tol.ii. p.319. 

f Car s*Ueust aidant dsmewrS qu'on medraitadire un Paternoster il 
estoU eroqud. Hist* du CK Bayard, xlilL The expressive hamour 
of the last word Is untranslatable. Notwithstanding his admira- 
tion of the Pope's 8pirit,~^t^Kf d'homme de bon esprit, — the writer 
tells us that the Holy Father shook with fear daring the whole 
remiUnder of that extraordinary day. 


Decrees breathed scarcely less fury than these 
feats of positive war— all these remarkable in-* 
cidents are abundantly related elsewhere by stan* 
dard writers familiar to English ears ; and Venice, 
although materially affected by most of those 
events, took little direct part in any one of them. 
We pass on therefore to the new Confe- 
deracy which astonished Europe before the Oct. 5. 
close of 1 51 1 ; The Holy League as it was 
termed, by which the Pope, the Venetians, and 
Ferdinand of Aragon, who were now seeking the 
depression of France, bound themselves by mutual 
ties to maintain the IJnity of the Church, and to 
expel Louis from Italy. The Emperor and the 
King of England were invited to join this ano* 
malous alliance; the former with but a vague 
expectation of obtaining his consent, the latter 
with strong hope of that active co-operation which 
he soon afterwards afforded. 

Towards the close of the following January, 
the Spanish and Papal troops invested Bologna, 
but it was relieved before the Venetians 
could effect a junction with them. The ^^^•^ 
French were now commanded by Gaston 
de Foix, Due de Nemours and nephew of their 
King ; a Prince who had already, at twenty-two 
years of age, exhibited a splendour of military 
talent rarely equalled by the most veteran warriors* 
Having first checked a menaced descent of the 
Swiss, who had quarrelled with Louis on account of 
scantiness of pay, and having afterwards driven the 
confederates from Bologna, Gaston continued his 
^arch on Brescia; which, partly through the 
assistance of one of its Nobles, disgusted with the 


French authorities hy whom he conceived himself 
injured in the decision of a private feud; partly 
through the unwearied activity of Gritti, had been 
recovered by Venice. Few stations were move 
important than that City to each party ; by the 
French it was considered, after Milan, theii 
strongest hold in Lombardy ; to the Venetians it 
was known by the endearing name of ' the little 
daughter of Saint Mark *.* To both therefore it 
was an object well deserving contention; but 
although four hundred men at arms and four 
thousand foot under Paolo Baglione were do* 
spatched with all expedition by the Signory, to 
reinforce the garrison, and to reduce the citadel 
which still maintained itself, the speed of Gaston 
anticipated their march. So rapid was his ad* 
vance even during mid-winter, that he traversed 
nearly fifty leagues in five days, and ' left beliind 
him more country than a courier could ride over 
in the same time mounted on a cropped horse 
worth one hundred crowns f'. His van under 
Bayard, having surprised Baglione, was sufficient 
to overthrow him with the loss of all his infantry 
and artillery ; and the assault of Brescia which 
immediately followed was among the most illus- 
trious portions of the stainless Knight's career. 

The singular distribution of Brescia has already 
been explained in our account of a former siege t* 
and from that description it may readily be un* 
derstood in what manner Gaston was able to 
establish himself with his comrades in the citadely 

• nut. du Ch. Bayard, xlvfll. t Id. xliz. 

t VoL li. p. 20. Our foUowinf aceoaat of the storm of Brescia le 
priadpally taken from Hist, dm Ch. Bayard^ 1. 


^hiie ike town was in the possession of the Ve* 
aetians. His force amounted to twelve thousand 
men, the flower of the French Chivalry ; to oppose 
which, Gritti marshalled eight thousand soldiers 
and ahout fourteen thousand irregularly armed 
peasants and hurghers. Anxious to preserve this 
fair City from pillage^ the Due de N^nours 
summoned Gritti to surrender, with a menace 
ihat, if he resisted, not a life should be spared : 
but the answer was a mortal defiance ; and Gaston 
therefore prepared for instant storm, consigning 
to Bayurd, at his special request, that which in 
modern warfare would be called the forlorn hop^ 
^ On Gentlemen ! ' were the parting words of the 
Duke ;' * you have no more to do but to show 
yourselves gallant companions ; on, in the name 
of God and of St. Denis ! ' At the word, drums, 
trumpets, and clarions sounded the assault and 
alarum so impetuously, that the hair of cowards 
stood on end, and the hearts of the brave waxed 
greater within them. The first cannon-shot dis* 
charged by the Venetians plunged into the midst 
of the troop by which Gaston himself was sur** 
rounded ; and a marvellous thing indeed was it 
that no one was hurt, so serried were theirranks ;; 
and the hacquebuteers meantime from behind the 
£rst rampart plied their bullets thickly as flies. 
The descent from the eminence on which the 
citadel stood had been rendered slippery by a 
gentie rain ; Gaston, therefore, resolving nqt to 
be among the last, in order that he might walk 
more surely and rapidly, pulled off his shoes, and 
many others followed his example. Meantime, at 
the foot of the rampart, at which the Chevalier 


had arrived, so hot was the comhat, and so vehe* 
ment were the shouts ' Bayard, Bayard ! France 
France ! Marco, Marco ! * that the musketeers 
could not he heard. Gritti loudly animated his 
men, assuring them that the French would soon 
be tired, and that if Bayard were once driven 
back not another would dare approach. Greatly 
however was he deceived ! Bayard sprang first 
upon the breastwork and a thousand more fol<* 
lowed him ; but as he pressed forward upon the 
retreating Venetians, he was struck in the thigh by 
a pike so deeply that the shaft broke, and a part 
pf it, together with the iron head, remained in the 
wound. Urging on his fellow-soldiers, but himself 
unable to accompany them, he was carried from 
the spot by two archers who staunched the bloody 
now flowing copiously, with linen torn from their 
own persons. His fall roused his comrades to 
fury> and they burst into the streets, where the 
fight continued murderously; the French suffering 
more from the stones, tiles and boiling water 
showered down from the windows, chiefly by 
women, than from the soldiery with whom they 
were engaged hand to hand. At length, with 
comparatively small loss to the assailants, seven 
thousand of their enemies were left dead; and 
Gritti, perceiving that the City was lost« endea- 
voured to escape, spurred his horse from street to 
street, found every issue obstructed, threw himself 
into a house, and with the help of a single at* 
tendant, barricaded and defended it till he secured 
quarter. Never was a storm more cruelly pursued ; 
twenty thousand souls perished wliile the pillage 
continued, and the booty was estimated at three 


millions of crowns. The capture of Brescia, says 
the Chronicler whom we are following, was the 
ruin of the French in Italy, for its plunder so 
enriched the troops, that many disbanded and- 
quitted the war, who might have done good 
service afterwards, as you shall hear, at Ravenna*. 
Bayard, meantime, was placed upon a door 
torn from its hinges, and carried to the best- 
looking house at hand. Its owner was a rich 
Gentleman who had sought asylum in a neigh* 
bouring Monastery; and his Lady and two 
daughters, young maidens of extraordinary beauty, 
had concealed themselves beneath some straw in 
k granary, ' under the protection of our Lord/ 
Tlie Mother, when she heard the knocking at the 
wicket, opened it, * as awaiting the mercy of 
God with constancy ; ' and Bayard, notwith* 
standing his own great pain, observing her piteous 
agony, incontinently placed sentinels at the gate, 
and ordered them to prohibit all entrance ; well 
knowing that his name was a watchword of de« 
fence. He then assured the noble Dame of 
protection, inquired into her condition, and de- 
spatching some archers for her husband's relief^ 
received him courteously^ and intreated him to 
believe that he lodged none other than a friend. 
His wound confined him for five weeks, nor was it 
elosed when he remounted his horse and rejoined 

• Gaicciardini winds up hts narrative of the miseries which 
Brescia endured in this assault, with rery remarkable simplicity. 
Buendo inpreda le eote sagre e le profane, iU meno la vita V<mot$ 
delle persone the la rohha stette sette giorni continui etpotta aW aoarinOf 
alia libidine^ e alia crudeltd. militare : fit celebrato per queste cote per 
iutta la ChritUaittUi con toama gloria it nome di Fois, Lib. x. tol. U. 

tdflf GENEROSITY (^ 

his comrades. Before his departure, the Lady of 
the house — still considering herself and her family 
as prisoners, and her mansion and whole property 
as the lawful prize of her guest, yet perceiving 
his gentleness of demeanour, — thought to prevail 
upon him to compound for a moderate ransom ; 
and having placed two thousand five hundred 
ducats in a ca!sket, she besought his acceptance of 
it on her knees. Bayard rais^ her at the moment, 
seated her beside himself, and inquired the sum^ 
He then assured her that if she had presented him 
with one hundred thousand crowns they would 
not gratify him so much as the good cheer which 
he had tasted under her roof ; and he requested 
pernussion to bid adieu to her daughters. ' The 
damsels,' says the Chronicler, * were fair, virtuous, 
and well- trained, and had afforded much pastime 
to the Chevalier during his illness by their choice 
nnging, playing on the lute and epinet, and their 
much cunning needle-worL' When they entered 
the chamber, they thanked him with deep gn^ 
titude as the guardian of their honour ; and the 
good Knight, almost weeping at their gentleness 
and humility, answered, *• Fair Maidens, you are 
doing that which it is rather my part to do, ta 
thank you for the good company which you have 
afforded me, and for which I am greaUy bound 
and obliged to you. You know that we Knights 
adventurers are ill provided with goodly toys for 
Ladies* eyes, and for my part I am sorely grieved 
not to be better furnished, in order that I might 
offer you some love-token as is your due. But 
your Lady Mother here has given me two 
thousand &Ye hundred ducats, which lie on. that 


tftole^ and I present each ofyou with one thousand 
in aid of your marriage portions ; for my re- 
compense I ask no more than that you will be 
pleased to pray God for my welfare/ Then^ 
taming to the Lady of the house, he continued : 
^ These remaining five hundred ducats I iakCf 
Madam, to my own use ; and I request you to 
distribute them among the poor Nuns who have 
been pillaged and with whose necessities no one 
can be better acquainted than yourself: and 
herewith I take my leave.' After having dined^ 
as he quitted his chamber to take horse, the two 
fair damsels met him, each bearing a little offering 
which she had worked during his confinement ; 
one consisted of two rich bracelets woven with mar- 
vellous delicacy from her own beauteous hair and 
fine gold and sUver threads ; the other was a crim-t 
son satin purse embroidered with much subtilty. 
Greatly did the brave Knight thank them for this 
last courtesy, saying tliat such presents from so 
lovely hands were worth ten thousand crowns; 
then gallantly fastening the bracelets on his arm 
and the purse on his sleeve, he vowed to wear 
them both, for the honour of their fair donors, 
while his life endured ; and so he mounted ancl 
rode on*. 

Bayard pursued his course to Ravenna, where 
he arrived just in time to partake in that dazzling 
triumph under its walls, the source of so much 
glory and so passionate grief to the 
French. In the eariy part of this cam* April lu 
paign a celebrated Astrologer at Carpi 
had predicted that on the ensuing Easter Sunday 

• Hist, du,Ckmf* Boffmi, lU 


a great Battle should be fought, in which Gaston 
de Foix should die in the arms of victory ; and he 
had intreated de la Palisse and Bayard, as the 
$ole hope of their Prince's escape from the peril 
menaced by the Stars, not to lose sight of him 
while on the field*. The event corresponded with 
the prediction ; a Battle was fought on the day 
specified by the Seer, and Bayard, during the heat 
of action, seems to have obeyed his injunction ; 
but when the allies were routed and flying in con- 
fusion, he urged the Duke to collect his men at 
arms and restrain them for a short season from 
plunder, while himself joined in the pursuit ; at 
the same time requiring a promise that, until he 
returned, Gaston would not advance from the 
spot on which he then stood. Tliis short absence, 
however, proved fatal! for the gallant Prince, 
unable to resist a favourable opportunity of charg- 
ing some Spanish infantry which still remained 
unbroken, threw himself at the head of his men at 
arms ; became entangled on a causeway between a 
eanal and a deep ravine ; fought on foot, after his 
horse had been hamstrung ; and fell by unknown 
and probably obscure hands, mangled with fifteen 
wounds, all in front and chiefly in the facet- 
Bayard did not learn this great calamity till after 
he had permitted the escape of the Spaniards by 
whom Gaston had been slain. He encountered 
them while he was returning to the post on which 
he had left the Duke, received their submission 
and the surrender of their standards, and abhorring 
needless slaughter in cold blood, granted quarter, 
and permitted them to continue their retreat. 

• Hist, du Chev, Bayard, xlvU. t Id* Ut. 


The Venetian contingent had not been present 
on this day so fatal to their allies ; and notwith- 
standing the consternation which the defeat at 
Ravenna had first excited in Rome, it soon became 
evident that the Conquerors had suffered far too 
deeply to profit by their most brilliant but fal- 
lacious success. The flower of their troops as well 
as of their Captains had perished on that hard 
fought field ; and La Palisse, upon whom the 
command devolved, found himself at the head of a 
force greatly weakened in numbers, and among 
whom discipline had been almost wholly destroyed 
by the richness of their booty, both in the late 
victory and at Brescia. To increase his embar* 
rassments, the Pope temporised with artful and per- 
fidious negotiations. Henry YIII openly acceded 
to the Holy League ; the defeated confederates re- 
assembled in Romagna ; and Maximilian not only 
prolonged his Truce with the Signory, but gave 
permission to twenty thousand Swiss to traverse 
his dominions, pour down from the mountains of 
the Tyrol, and effect their junction with a force 
often thousand Venetians now organized in Lorn- 
bardy. The faithlessness of the Emperor, indeed, 
became more plainly visible every hour ; dis- 
content and disunion were rife in the French 
army; more than once, in some skirmishes while 
retiring on the Mincio, nothing but the almost 
incredible prowess of Bayard saved it from de-^ 
struction; and of this last support it was de- 
prived, when his arm veas shattered by a bullet 
under the walls of Pavia. Harassed by these 
complicated difficulties, La Palisse continued 
his painful retreat; and the army which had 
triumphed so memorably at Ravenna on the 11th 



of April, began to reaseend tbe Alps on the 28th 
of June, broken, exhausted and dispirited. liH 
departure was a signal for the almost general 
emancipation of Northern Italy. Genoa revolted ; 
Asti acknowledged her former rulers; Milan was 
reoccupied by the allies, and its inhabitants, exas- 
perated by the oppression under which they had 
recently groaned, revenged themselves by a savage 
massacre of one thousand five hundred defenceless 
French, left within their walls either from infirmity 
or inclination. A few scattered castles, little 
capable of resisting the approaches eitiier of force 
or famine, were all that remained to Louis of hh 
rapid and extensive conquests in Italy. 

But the following year gave birth to new 
interests and new coalitions, and in surveying the 

labyrinth of inconstancy and intrigue which 
-^jJJ- the History of Europe presents at th«t 

season, the writer mnst think himself for* 
tunate whose task confines him to the single State 
of Venice. Julius II, although on the verge of 
the tomb, still continued to cherish with undimi- 
nished fervour his ftivourite design of expelling 
the Barbarians from Italy*, and his general views 
of aggrandizing the Holy See. One, therefore, 
of his earitest measures, was to place the sway 

* An expreflBion which wn eoatiiraally on his Ups. Hie la«t 
Chapter of the Prmeipt of MacUavelll is whoHy diroeted to that 
great Patriotic olgect, so dear to every Italian htartt—Bwrtatimm m 
Uberare Italia dei BarharL Would that their miserable^ petty, in- 
ternal dissensions had ever peimitted them to effect a general 
Union for tiie purpose \ 

Qual odio, qmlfwmr, qudl tra hnmane, 
Qm^ phatetemaliffni. 
Mum vHln voglie tmittimrid Okriuf 


of Milan in the bamdA of a Governor depen* 
dent upon himself, xod irreconcilably hostile 
to France ; both of which requisites were found 
linited in the person of Maximilian Sforza, eldest 
son of the deposed Lodovico ; a youth of weak 
capacity, who, during his Father's imprisonment, 
had found refuge in Germany. It was on the 
announcement of that disposition of the throne of 
Milan, that Louis XII is said to have released 
Lodovico from his dungeon at Loches, with the 
intention of turning him loose on his former do* 
minions for the sole purpose of creating embroils 
ment ; but authoritiesare at variance on this point, 
and, by many writers, the death of the unhappy 
Prince is placed several years e«rlier*, Matthiem 
Schiner, the Cardinal of Sion in the Yalais, an 
.gunbitious and turbulent Prelate, who possessed 
unbounded influence over his Countrymen, and 
accompanied their armies to the field, — ' that 
good Prophet,' as Bayard's Chronicler styles him, 
' who always hated the French' — was intrusted 

with the escort, and inauguration of the 
^isii^' young Sforza; and the first disgraceM 

act of that bigoted Priest upon his en* 
trance into Milan, was the exhumation of the re* 
mains of Gaston de Foix which had been interred 
in the Duomo, and their transfer, as excom* 
inunicatedy to less holy ground in the Nunnery of 
3^" Martha, When the French reoccu{aed Milan 
three years afbrwards, they raised a splendid mo* 
nument to their Prince in that Nunnery; the 
tomb itself has been destroyed^ but a noble iMatue 
of Gaston which formed part of it, well beto* 



kening his lofty character, long remained, and 
perhaps still remains, built into the wall of an 
obscure Court adjoining S** Martha. 

In the distribution of the reconquered territories 
in Lombardy, little attention had been paid to the 
just claims of Venice, whose humiliation formed 
another part of the policy of Julius. The sole 
places which she regained were Bergamo won by 
surprise, and Crema for whose surrender she 
bribed the French commander. Upon complaint 
to Maximilian, the Signory were haughtily in- 
formed that it was but a small portion of Terra 
Firma upon which they might hope to re-enter ; 
and that whatever territory might be granted 
must be held as a fief of the Empire ; for inves- 
titure with which they must consent to pay two 
hundred thousand florins immediately, and a per* 
petual annual tribute of thirty thousand more. At 
that price, it was added, the existing Truce should 
be extended into Peace. Indignant at those ine- 
quitable and ignominious terms, the Senate ap- 
pealed to the Vatican ; but Julius felt little hope 
of compassing his ulterior designs without the 
co-operation of the Emperor ; and forgetting there- 
fore all gratitude for the past, in an anxioud 
looking to the future, he abandoned that Power 
which, when he provoked the hostility of France, 
had been his earliest ally ; and promised Maxi- 
milian that if the Signory persisted in refusing 
his proposals, he would treat them as his own 

To the Republic thus oppressed by the Emperor 
and deserted by the Pope, an accommodation witli 
France appeared the surest safeguard ; and on the 


ether hand, the acquisition of such an ally as 
Venice was important to. Louis, now harass^ hy 
England, Spain, and Swisserland, all in arms at 
once on different quarters of his dominions. An- 
drea Gritti, who had remained prisoner smce his 
capture at Brescia, afforded a channel for nego- 
tiation ; and a Treaty was rapidly concluded at 
^lois, hy which the French King en* 
gaged to despatch a powerful force to ^^5^3^^ 
unite with the Venetian army, and both 
parties pledged them sieves to continue in arms till 
«ach had recovered its ancient possessions ; the ad- 
justment of the precise boundaries of which, was 
reserved for subsequent discussion. 

Before that alliance was signed, Julius II had 
closed his unpontifical career ; and he was suc- 
ceeded by the Cardinal de* Medici, who, present 
as Legate of the Church at the Battle of Ravenna, 
had been taken prisoner there ; and now, on the 
first ani\iversary of that engagement, assumed the 
triple Crown, under the title of Leo X. No 
change, however, being produced at the moment 
in the policy of the Vatican, the French retraced 
tiieir now familiar path across the Alps, under la 
Tremouille and Trivulzio, Captains trained and 
nurtured in the former Italian wars ; while d'Al- 
viano was released from the confinement in which 
he had been detained since his defeat at Agnadello, 
in order to resume the command of the Venetians. 
]Vlilan soon fell an easy conquest, and Maximilian 
Sforza, chased from his short-lived sovereignty, 
took refuge in the Swiss camp at Novarra ; the 
Bpot at which, thirteen years before, his Father 
had been betrayed by the same allies to the French, 


under the same Generak who now commanded 
ffaem. More faithful to their present engage- 
ments with the Milanese Prince, or rather ani- 
mated by deeper hostility against Louis, the Swiss 
HOW ennobled • Novarra by a brilliant action, 

terminating in the entire overthrow of 
ime-e, the invaders *, who hastily regained the 

Alps, and abandoned d'Alviano, then 
Scamped near Cremona. Compelled to a speedy 
retreat, he threw himself into Padua, while Bag^ 
lione undertook the defence of Treviso, the two 
sole outposts now retained by Venice. Padua 
successfully defended itself during a brisk invest- 
ment of eighteen days by the confederates ; and 
their Commander, Don Raymondode Cardona, 
Viceroy of Naples, irritated by his feilure, and 
embarrassed both for money and supplies, re« 
venged himself by an extensive and merciless 
ravage of the surrounding country. The rich 
Villas and Palaces of the Venetian Nobles on 
the Brenta and the Bacehiglione, and the Towns 

• Paulas JoTfas rccomita, that ob the ercning befoK the Battl* 
of NoTarra, all the Dogs which followed the French anar deserted* 
magna coiUinentique agmiue, to the Swiss } and by wagging their tailVy 
drooping their ears, and licking the feet of the sentinels, testified 
subjection to their new masters. This occnrrence was formally noti- 
fied to Ifazimiliaa Sforsa as a eertiJn omen of approaeldngvictorya 
obacnred on former occasions, (zL p. 169). HowcTer credulous an 
Italian Bishop might be in the XVlti^ Century, there are fear 
marvels (t^ue or false) upon which a Philosophical French Abbe 
ofthe X VII Itli would not seeic ia rationalize; and Dubos, accord^ 
iogly, tcUsns that the reason for the denertlon by the "Dogs was, is 
troth, no other than that having gone out in search of food in th« 
morning, and not finding their old masters on their posts when they 
returned, they very naturally went over to Novarra In search of 
•there. Hitt. de ia Lig^ de Camiray, lib. ir. 


of Meirtre, Futma, and Margh^ra, on the borders 
of the Lagune, were given to the flames ; and, in 
imitation of the former similar bravado of Louis 
XII *, a battery of ten guns, of large calibre, was 
advanced as near the Capital as circumstances 
permitted. While the Citizens beheld from their 
spires and bell-towers the conflagration of the 
neighbouring villages, in which, in many in<« 
stances, they could discover the fall of their own 
private roofs, they were afflicted with a yet deeper 
sense of ignominy when the cannonade reached 
the Monastery mi San Secondo, situated but a few 
hundred paces in advanee of Venice itself t. 

Nor did their reverses terminate here. IVAl- 
viano, impatient of the devastation around him^ 
earnestly intreated permission to issue from Padua 
and to take the field. But his troops shared little 
in the determined courage of their General ; and 
when^ after many days manoeuvring, he brought 

the Spaniards, laden with booty and ex* 
Oct. 7. httusled by fatigue,, to action at Motta, 

near Yicenza, the Venetians gave way 
airaost at the ficsfa. onset, leaving four thousand 
dead on the field. D'Alviano himself escaped to 
Treviso; Baglione was taken prisoner; of the 
Provvediioriy Locedano was slain by some Spa« 
Biards disputing for him as their prize ; and Gritti, 
pursued to the very ramparts of Vicenza, found 
its gates closed by the garriscm, and but for a 
rope thrown by a sentinel £rom its battlements^ 

t Oulcciardini, lib. zi. vol. iil. p. 90. 


must have paid the forfeit of liberty, or, perhaps, 
even of life. 

. A great domestic calamity succeeded these mi* 
litary disasters. Some shops adjoining the Rialto 

having caught fire, tlie flames were car* 
'isii.^' ried by a high North wind into the most 

populous and commercial quarter of the 
City ; where not less than two thousand houses, 
together with their entire contents, were destroyed ; 
and the loss of this single night was estimated as 
equal to the cost of a whole campaign. By a 
singular chance, while all the stwrounding buUd* 
ings were consumed, the Church of San Giacopo^ 
the earliest memorial of the original fugitives from 
Aquileia^ and of which the foundations were traced 
to the commencement of the V**" Century *, es- 
caped with slight damage, and afl'orded to the 
willing belief of the Populace a fresh pledge of the 
immortality of their City. Undismayed by this 
new misfortune, the Slgnory continued their ex- 
ertions, enrolled the workmen of the Arsenal as a 
garrison for Padua, and by largely recruiting 
D'Alviano, gave him opportunity of renewing a 

* Vol. I. p. 9. This fire, and the escape of the Church, are de- 
scribed by Pauliis Jot! as, zil. 204, and by P. Jostiniani, xii. 819. 
The latter Is unusually animated. Memni adoUtcent ad locum incMdU 
gpectandi gratid acceuissCf turn miienAilem cladem, espaoescenteatqM 
incensarum adUan ruinam intuUut, ingentem animo nuerorem co»eepi} 
jacebantprostrat€9 voraci,fiammd speciosae aedium structttrcp, molesqus 
disjecta deformem lati loci Jiiciem reddebaitt, Jwniu^pte ac faeiUa e» 
ruderumcumulisinstimmmnvohehaiUMrf hi»c rmnas, illitu fmndjntte 
videbam eBdiJicia^ ardentes alio loco trahex^ aUo columnas, fimicett 
atcui collapsos, ac cineribus ignique omnia imvoluta, in ipsis autem 
Jtammis gernma^ avrtnn, argentum, edir, aliaqite predota omamenta 
interfulgebant, ■ 


irtraggling war of partizansliip, and of winning 
many not unimportant advantages, even in the 
face of his victorious enemy. 
' It was at this period that Bembo, himself a Ve- 
netian, was deputed by Leo X, in whose service 
he was engaged as Secretary, to endeavour to 
wean his Countrymen from their alliance with 
France, and to induce them to propitiate the Em* 
peror by an abandonment of their claim upon 
Verona, now the chief subsisting cause of hos* 
tility. The Proposta which the Ambassador ad- 
dressed to the Signory on that occasion is still 
extant among his Works*, and affords a remark- 
able specimen of the cumbrous Diplomacy of the 
XVI*^ Century ; especially in those arguments 
which he derives from the recent marriage of 
Louis XII, now past the meridian of life, with the 
young and lovely Mary of England, sister to 
Henry VIII, the most beautiful woman of her 
time. But the assertion of Bembo, that the French 
monarch would forget all warlike cares in the 
arms of his attractive bride, and his prediction' 
that his days would be abridged also by that ill-* 
assorted match, failed to shsdce the fidelity of the 
Signory. They broke off the negotiation, and 

despatched an embassy to congratulate 
^isis!* Louis on his nuptials, which was met, 

while on its route, by the tidings of his 

His successor, Francis I^ received the Venetian 
Envoys with distinction, renewed the Treaty of 
Blois, assumed the title of Duke of Milan, and 

• opera, iil. 478, 


engaged to appear in anos on the banks of tbcr 
Adda before the close of four montha. In the 
early part of the expedition undertaken in fulfil?: 
nent of this promise, the Ven^ans were princi- 
pally occupied in observing a Spanish force be« 
tween the Mincio and the Adtge, in order to pre- 
vent its junction with the Swiss^ who, retittn^^ 
fimn the defiles of the Alps before the advance of 
the French^ had occupied Milan. No sooner, 
however, had Francis arrived and encamped at 
Marignano, than D'Alviano Inroke up from his 
more distant quarters^ and by a march of unex:- 
ampled rapidity, pressed forward to LodL It was 
on the afternoon of the I3th of September that the 
Venetian General, with three or four attendants, 
Fode to the French Camp, in order to salute the 
King^ and to consult with him respecting the plan 
of the campaign ; and while engaged in familiar 
conversation in the Royal tent, where Francis was 
trying on a new suit of armour, the Seigneur de 
Fleuranges burst in with breathless haste, and 
announced that the Swiss were unexpectedly adn 
vancing. ' Signor Bartolomeo^' said the King, 
turning to D'Alviano, ^ you see how we are cir* 
eumstanced, I pray you lose no time ; ' and at the 
words the General sprang upon his horse, and 
galloped back to Lodi, to put his troops in imme-* 
diate motion. Meantime the Battle commenced ; 
and the Swiss, frustrated in their first hope of snr? 
prise, rushed on the French artillery, in spite of 
its terrific fire, and, in many instances, captured 
the guna. Francis himself, with all the ardour of 
youth, plunged into the thickest of the fight ; 
owed his life, more .than once, to the good temper 

ef his annonr ; cut down serenil of the enemy 
with his own hand ; and when midnight separated 
&e combatants, and the gigantie h<»rns of Uri 
and Underwald recalled the Swiss to their qnar^ 
tersy snatched a brief repose oa the carnage of 
a gun, and passed the remaining hours <^ darkness 
on horseback, making dispositions for the mor- 
row. At day-break the engagement was renewed 
with more tiian former fmy, and its fortune was 
still doubtful, and perhaps inclining against the 
French, when, about nine o'clock, the seasonable 
appearance of lyAlviano decided in their favour. 
He had ridden all night, and gathering two hun- 
dred picked horsemen, and ordering the rest of 
his army to follow with the utmost speed, he re* 
turned to the field at the yery moment at which 
he was most needed. Instantly charging, ahhougli 
not without considerable loss, he checked a sue* 
cessful column of Swiss, and impressed their com* 
rades with a belief that the entire Venetian army 
had arrived. Despairing, therefore, of victory^ 
they retired upon their quarters, slowly, in good 
order, still breathing fierceness, and defying pur- 
suit The movement was effected with little other 
loss than that of some stragglers, who were de» 
Btroyed by IXAhdano in the flames of a village 
which they endeavoured to defend. The carnage 
of the two days' fight was horrible ; twelve thou- 
sand Swiss, and about four thousand French, many 
ef noble blood, remained on the field; and the 
veteran Trivulzio, who had been present in no less 
than eighteen pitched battles, spoke of all his 
former engagements as chfldren's sport compared 


with this, and named it ^ The Combat of the 

The Battle of Marignano brought the glories 
of Bayard to their height. In one of the closing 
charges on the first evening, the brave Knight, 
having already had one horse killed under him, 
was entangled among the pikes of the enemy, 
^nd lost his bridle.. His charger, thus freed, 
became unmanageable; and although he dashed 
through the surrounding hosts and disengaged his 
master, he continued to rush blindly on in the 
direction of another corps of Swiss. The clusters 
hanging from tree tp tree in an intervening vine- 
yard fortunately checked his speed, and enabled 
Bayard to dismount at a moment in which he 
considered himself utterly lost. Then, disen« 
cumbering himself of his greaves and helmet, he 
crept on all-fours along the course of a ditch 
which carried him past the Swiss detachment, to a 
point, from which he heard shouts of ' France, 
France ! ' Great was his joy when the first man 
whom he encountered was the Duke of Lorraine ; 
who, astonished to see so gallant a Knight on 
foot, mounted him on a fresh horse to which is 
attached a history partaking of the Romance 
which belongs so largely to his master. That 
good steed Carman was taken at Brescia ; pre- 
sented by the Duke of Lorraine to Bayard ; 
and ridden by him at Ravenna, till two thrusts 
from a pike in its body, and more than twenty 
sabre cuts on its head, obliged him to abandon his 

• Gaicciardini, lib. xii. yol. Ui. p. 167. 


favourite as mortally wounded. On the morning 
after the Battle, however, the generous animal 
was found grazing, recognized his master hy an 
affectionate neigh, and was conveyed to his 
quarters, where his wounds were carefully tended 
till he recovered. Marvellous was it to behold 
how patiently he submitted without a start or 
movement to the searching hands which dressed 
his gashes ; yet if a naked sword glittered near 
him, his eyes flashed with fury, and seizing the 
.blade he wrung it vengefully with his teeth. 
Never yet did you see a more gallant steed ; he 
was, in truth, what Bucephalus was to Alexander ! 
The Chevalier, well satisfied to be thus remounted 
on his favourite horse, showed the same joyous 
humour, traits of which we have more than once 
before noticed ; and by a playful stratagem, replaced 
the helmet which he had thrown away. Turning to 
a Gentleman of his acquaintance who was standing 
by, he expressed fear of catching cold if he continued 
bare-headed after the violent heat occasioned by his 
long exertions on foot. * Prithee then,' he said, 
* lend me for an hour or two that helmet which I see 
your Page, has in his hands/ The helmet was 
readily lent, but it was not returned to its owner 
till the close of the next day's battle, after it had 
seen hard service*. It was also on the field of this 
great victory, that Francis I demanded Knighthood 
from Bayard, who would fain have excused him- 
self; replying that he who was King of so great 
a Kingdom, was already Knight of all Orders of 
Knighthood. ' Cite me no Canons,^ answered 
Francis, with a poor jest, which has been thought 
worth preserving, ' be they of steel, brass, or iron. I 

* Hi$t* 4u Ch&i, Bayardy Ix. 


Do my win and coramandraeDt if you mean to bis 
•esteaned among the nnmber of mj good servants 
And subjects/ Thus pressedy Bayard drew his 
Sword and addressed the King, ' Sire, may you 
he valiant as Roktnd, Oliver, Godfrey, or Baldwin ! 
Certes you are the ^rst King who ever yet was 
dubbed Knight. God grant that you may never 
be put to flight in Battle ! ' and then, holding his 
sword on high aA»r giving the accolctde^ he cried 
mioud, ^ Happy art thou, my good Sword, diis day 
Jto have Knighted so virtuous and powerful a King ! 
Certes, henceforward thou shalt be regarded as 
a Belie, and honoured above all things; never 
again will I unsheath thee save against Turks, 
Saracens, smd Moors!' and then, making two 
leaps, he returned it to the scabbnrd*. 

T%is bloody Victory was not, like that of E«- 
Tenna, barren of results. The Swiss having re- 
tired to their mountains, and the Spaniards to 
cover Naples, Milan once more surrendered ; and 
Maximilian SIbrza, who had sought shelter witfam 
its citadel, abandoned its defence, and accepted a 
pension and a retreat in France, with a promise of 
the King's influence to obtain him a Cardinal's 
hat ; happy in disanbarrassing himself horn a 
contest which Nature had ill qualified him to 
aupport The Pope, hastening to negotiate, con- 
cluded Peace, first with Venice, by conceding her 
right to Brescia altogether and to Verona so far 
as himself was ooncBined; and then with France 
by permittittg the veannexalion of Parma and 
Piaoenza whicii had been severed from the 
Duchy of Milan. Francis having agreed to these 
conditions, and adjusted also a Treaty with ~ 

DEATH OV D*A£nANa. ^E5i 

erland, known in History as La Paix perpHueUe^ 
widch GontiBued the basis of all subsequent re* 
lations between the two Countries till the Rerolu*- 
tion of 1789, disbanded the greater part of his amy 
4Mid returned home. But the field was still kept 
hj the Venetians, for although Brescia had been 
eeded by the Pope, it was garrisoned i>y his eon* 
federates. While the indefatigable D*Alviano 
-was preparing to reduce it, a severe and painM 
disorder, produced by his great exertions at Mi^ 
Tignano, 'terminated his life in hi^ 6l8t 
year. Venice was grateful for his splendid Oet. 7. 
•enrices and virtues, and decreed the ho- 
nours of a piiUic Funeral in the Capital. His 
corpse remained in the Camp twenty-three days^ 
fluting the whole of which time his soldiers 
mounted guard at the tent in which it reposed, 
«nd paid it the honour doe to a living General ; 
«nd then, strongly impressed with the feeling that 
he who while alive nev«r shrank from the face of 
ids enemies, ought not to avoid eonfronting them 
«ven when dead, they refused to demand safe 
conduct from the Austiians ; and feaiiessly es- 
corted the remains of then: bek)ved leader, through 
Ihe middle of the hostile posts, to the borders of 
tile LaguTM. The Funeral Oration was ^oken 
hy Navagieio, and a superb monument to D'Al- 
▼iano's memory was erected in the Church of 
«9an Ste^o. 

In the following Spring, Maximilian, bent upon 
«one gveat effort for his re^stablishment in Italy, 
poured down unexpectedly upon the Lom« 
iMHrd plains witii nearly forty thousand ^S* 
»en. His vast superiority ov«r the smi^ ''''' 


JPronch and Venetian force, must have ensured the 
immediate fall of Mila\), but for a dilatory and 
irresolute spirit, which not only permitted the 
union of widely scattered detachments, but even 
left time for the arrival of ten thousand Swiss 
auxiliaries. Without having received a single 
check, and leading an army still double in 
number to that opposed to him, so deeply did 
Maximilian distrust the fidelity of his own Swiss 
when arrayed against their Countrymen ; so fear* 
fully was he impressed with the remembrance of 
their treachery under similar circumstances to 
Lodovico Sforza ; that when a short march would 
have placed Milan in his possession, he suddenly 
fell back almost with the rapidity of flight, secured 
his own person in Trent, and left his troops so ill 
paid and ill provided, that they, for the most part, 
broke up and dispersed. His retreat was most 
advantageous to the Venetians; Bergamo and 
many of the lesser towns opened their gates, 
Brescia capitulated after a short resistance, and 
Verona might soon have followed but for the 
languid co-operation of the French. The mystery 
of their reluctance was soon explained by the an- 
nouncement of a negotiation between Francis I 
and Charles V, to whom the Crown of Spam had 
recently devolved by the death of Ferdinand ; and 
who, eager to pass from his dominions in the Ne- 
therlands to secure those in Castile, spared no 
pains to strengthen amicable relations with France* 
By a Treaty signed at Noyon on the 13th of 
August, after provisions affecting the chief con* 
tracting parties, arrangements were made for the 
pacification of Italy, without which Francia saw 


Kttle hope of establishment in the Milanese, and 
Charles despaired of extricating his Neapolitan 
territories from the rival claims which were extended 
over them. The King of France acted for Venice ; 
and the King of Spain declared that, unless his 
grandfather Maximilian should assent within two 
months to the terms, he would cease to assist him 
with either men or money. Verona, by this Treaty, •] 
was to be restored to Venice; but in order to > 
save the Emperor's honour, it was to be surren- , 
dered first to Charles, to be transferred by him 
after six weeks occupation to Francis, and not to 
be delivered to its ultimate master till after the 
payment of one hundred thousand ducats. Maxi- < 
milian at first expressed anger and astonishment 
at this unheard of dictation by an almost beardless 
youth; and indignantly applied to England for 
assistance ; offering to Henry VIII as the price 
of his friendship, if he would defray the charge of 
such an expedition, to open a passage to Rome at 
the head of fifty thousand men, there to celebrate 
his own Coronation, and to declare his ally King of 
the Romans and his successor. Henry, undeluded 
by these magnificent but empty promises, coldly 
declined ; replying that he was contented with his 
hereditary dominions ; and Maximilian, perceiving 
his inability to resist single-handed, accepted the 
terms and ratified a long Truce with Venice. 

Thus after eight years uninterrupted struggle, 
in the course of which at one time all had been 
lost except her insular dominions, Venice emerged 
from her mighty dangers ; shorn, indeed, of some 
of her more recent conquests, but still outwardly 
powerful and largely increased in glory. Her firm- 

TOL. JI. s 

S38 niSK or tbmicb at 

SMS and her prudence bad uved iier while totter- 
iag almost on the verge of ruin, ind never did she 
exnibic herself in a [wouder attitude than thatwhicli 
abe calmly maintained under the heavieBt pressuie 
of her late complicated disaaten. Over tbese sbei 
bad at length triumphed; her immediate loaaes. 
were Cremona, tlie borders of the Adda, and Ro-; 
magna ; her future dangers arose from the neigh- ; 
bourhood of PowerB superior to henelf, and Don 
the burden of a National Ddit, iiteurred for tbe 
support of the past exiiausting war, and amounting 
to five millions of ducats, a sum nearly equalliag 
eight millions sterling of our present money. 



FROM A.D. 1916 TO A.D. 1»|S, 

yieewlty for « temporitlfv poUeir— Wan of Charlei V and Fran- 
cia I — Peace of Cambrai — Turkish War — Remarkable exertion of 
power by the X In procuring Peace— Treachery of the Venetian 
Secretaries— Thirty years' Poam— Prosress of tbm Arts— Ttttoa— 
iUBbMoa of 8«Um II— Fire la tha Arsenal at VesiM— SeUm da. 
Clares War— Descent upon Cyprus— Siege and capture of Nicosia 
—of Famagosta, and entire conquest of Cyprus— Fate of Braga> 
dhio— Triple alliance between the Pope» Spain, and Venice— Tke 
OttOBsaa Fleet Intfao Adriatic— Don John of^Austria cotnmanda 
the attles— Battle of Lepanto— Inactivity of the confcderatei-* 
Peace between Turkey and Venice. 




1521. uczvm. Aktomio Grixani. 
1524. Lxzix, Akorba Gritti. 
1538. Lxxx. PiBTRO Lanoo. 
1545. Lxxxx. Framcbbco DoNAxa 

1553. Lxxxn. Marc' Antonio Trkyis ami. 

1554. uuLxui. Francrsco Vrmuro. 
155^. ucxxiv. liORXNzo Priuu. 
1559. JLZXXY. Gbroniho Priuu. 
1567. LxxxTi. PisTRo Lored^no. 


Notwithstanding the hit outward appearances 
af undiminished strength which Venice, for the 
most part, preserved after the ratification of the 
Treaty of Noyon, manifest signs of incipient 
decay must have presented themselves to such 
eyes as had the privilege of closely searchmg her 

s 2 


internal polity. During the late Wars, her ex- 
hausted Treasury had heen replenished for the 
moment hy means degrading to her hereditary 
Nobles; and Wealth had been made a sure 
channel to many public employments hitherto the 
exclusive privilege of Patrician birth and fitting 
education. Municipal Governments and Judicial 
offices, by becoming marketable, had in countless 
instances been prostituted to unworthy hands; 
and it was necessary, therefore, that at least one 
generation should pass away before the State could 
regain, if indeed it ever attained the power of re- 
gaining, the soUdity of its original Constitution. 
In her finances, also, it was no longer by Com- 
merce, the staple of the Republic from her cradle, 
that Venice could hope to recover her impaired 
vigour. The partition-wall of her monopoly had 
been broken down : ■ the recent discovery of the 
New World by the great Genoese adventurer, and 
the new track to the market of the Old World, 
opened by his not less distinguished Portuguese 
rival, having transferred in great part to Cadiz and 
to the Tagus that traffic which had before centered 
in the La^ne, The fury of War had destroyed the 
Manufactories of Venice on Terra Firma ; these 
however might be re-established during Peace; 
but her Salt-Works, in which, from her very birth, 
she had refused all partnership and defied all com- 
petition, were now shared by compulsion with the 
Holy See. Her argosies might still penetrate to 
the innermost shores of the Mediterranean and of 
the Euxine ; but Cairo and Alexandria, the em- 
poriums of her carrier-trade, had been won by the 
Turkish Sultan, who thus intercepted half her 


profits by liis demand of Toll and Custom : and 
the treasures and spices of the East, instead of 
slowly traversing a vast intermediate Continent 
and encountering the perilous navigation of the 
Red Sea, now found a surer, quicker, and more 
legulated course round that Cape which, divested 
of its fearful name ' of Storms,' more justly au- 
gured* * Good Hope,' to those by whose perse- 
vering enterprise it had first been doubled. 
f The Senate, however, was zealous in providing 
Such remedies for the National distress as they 
still retained power to administer. They dedicated 
themselves steadily to the revival of Agriculture in 
their wasted Provinces ; they recalled me scattered 
artisans whom War had chased from their looms 
and furnaces ; they profited by their recent hard 
lessons of self-defence, which taught how much 
the safety of their Capital depended upon that of 
her outworks, Padua and Verona ; and no labour 
was spared to render those fortifications impreg- 
nable ; and, with an equally sagacious regard to 
more peaceful objects, they again organized in the 
former of those Cities its far*famed University, 
whose studies had been suspended during the last 
eight calamitous years. Wisely indeed did they 
act in once more inviting its former influx of 
scholars to be wholesomely disciplined in Lite- 
rature and the Arts by ^ that new Athens, that 
ornament of the Republic, that commodious re- 
sort of Nations/ as it is styled not unaptly by 

Still it was manifest to her Rulers, that without 
repose the very existence of their Country was 
uncertain; that her inward wounds, visible to 

* IAb» It. ap, Jstarici Ven. p. S87« 


them alone, but not on that acoount ibe less dai^ 
gerous^ staunched but by no means healed, would 
bleed afresh, and perhaps mortally, if she were ex- 
posed to unseasonable agitation ; that her B<te 
diance of recovering pristine enei^ was to be 
found in a careful husbandry of present resource^ 
-and in a watchM and severe avoidance of active 
Warfare. These premisses will explain the course 
trodden by the Republic during the ensuing lialf 
Century ; and will exhibit her apparently vacil- 
lating Policy as the result of one steady prindnle^ 
which, if it did not succeed in wholly arresting her 
decline, at least contributed to render it almost ii^ 
sensible. To preserve neutrality amid the contests I 
raging around was her first and leading object ; ' 
and whenever the rude collision of two angry ' 
neighbours rendered it necessary that she should 
either side with one or encounter both, her n^ 
endeavour was to avoid becoming a principal 
Happy for herself as was this subordinate part, it » 
not equally happy for the narrator of her fortunes ; 
and the dull and level field vHuch now begins fce 
open upon our view strongly contrasts with the 
rich and varied country tluough which, for the 
most part, we have hitherto travelled. Bui the 
great events of European story, the long, bloody 
and ruinous struggle by which the ambition of 
Charles V and Francis I continued to desolate 
Italy, the chief theatre of their gladiatorships 
have been too often, too fully, and too ably told, 
to need any meagre and unsatisfactory ad>ridf^ 
ment ; and we gladly therefore avail ourselves of 
our privilege, as writers not of History but of 
Sketches from History, to hasten on to matter less 
generally familiar. 


Chttrles V was elected Emperor in 1519, and ni 
tfie very outset of his long rivalry with the King 
^ France, Venice declared in flavour of his com* 

Stitor. In two campaigns, the French lost the 
ilanese which the Pope and the Emperor had 
vndeitaken to conquer for Francesco Maria Sforza» 
« brother of Maximilian ; and by their defeat at 
JBicocca ihey were wholly expelled from Lombardy. 
The consequence of these events was the transfer 
of the alliance of Venice to the Emperor, in spite 
of the remonstrances of Amd&ea Gritti, whose 
splendid services were soon afiterwards re« 
warded with the Ducal bonnet Yet these ^*^* 
services were of too elevated a nature to be 
appreciated by the undistinguishing rabble, who re- 
ceived with murmurs of discontent the proclamation 
of their new Prince ; by whose skill, valour, and 
integrity they had been alike benefited, whether he 
negotiated while prisoner in a foreign realm or 
aoeompanied their armies in many a hard contested 
field. Under Gritti's ascendant influence however 
when he became Doge, secret relations were con» 
tracted anew with Francis, then on his advance to 
Pavia ; and their discovery by Charles, and the issue 
<tf the memorable battle under the walls of 
that City, exposed Venice to the probable ^^q^ 
vengeance of the Conqueror. Charles, 
■bowever, di^aying that unexpected raoderatioa 
which his consummate knowledge of mankind had 
early taught him was one of the surest secrete of 
dominion ; and which, therefore, he was almost 
always seen to exercise in his seasons of highest 
elevation ; listened to the excuses of the Venetian 
Envoy with a mien of assettt ; and not till after his 


departure, informed the bystanders that he believed 
the justification to be false, but that nevertheless 
he was willing to admit it*. He then indulged 
himself in the malicious pleasure of despatching aa 
especial announcement of his great triumph to 
the anxiously expectant Signory ; and the Envoy 
arrived at the chamber of audience at the very mo- 
ment in which the French Ambassador was quitting 
it, after receiving a compliment of condolence on 
his Royal Master's defeat and captivity. Con- 
gratulation was equally ready on the hps of the 
Doge for the messenger of Victory ; and he ex- 
cused this duplicity by an adroit adoption of the 
words of St. Paul, * We rejoice with those who re? 
joice, and we weep with those who weep.* 

Nevertheless it seemed more politic to assume 
at least an attitude of resistance than to lie, as it 
were, prostrate before Charles ; and Venice ac* 
cordingly, having recovered from her first panic, 
and being secure of assistance from England, 
Rome and Florence, became a party with tliose 
Powers in the Treaty of Cognac, which openly 
allied them with France. % One strong motive for 
the course now pursued by the Republic, was the 
usage of Francesco Maria Sforza, who was plainly 
no more than a stalking-horse set up to cover the 
advance of the Emperor's ambition ; the delay of 
his investiture with his Duchy and the terms with 
which it was clogged when ultimately granted, 
surely proving that Charles one day intended to 
appropriate the rich Country of Milan to himself. 
The War which followed in consequence of those 
suspicions was feebly conducted by the Allies 

« Gnicciardini, lib. ztI. toI. iv. p. S8. 


how vigorously on the other hand it was pressed 
hy their enemy the fatal sack of Rome by Bourbon 
is sufficient evidence. Yet, even when the Eternal 
City was ravaged by that Traitor's Barbarian 
hordes, and when Clement YJI, besieged within 
the walls of St. Angelo, was paralyzed by terror, 
and feeding on Asses' flesh in the extremity of 
famine, no serious exertion for his deliverance was 
made by his Venetian allies. The Duke d'UrbinOy 
to whose command their army was entrusted, and 
whose slow, cautious and saturnine disposition well 
adapted him for the services which his masters re* 
quired*, did no more than approach within sight 
of the Papal Castle in order to increase the despair 
of its garrison by again retreating; and during 
the Bucceeding campaign he confined liimself for 
the most part to similar inconclusive demonstra- 
tions, carefully avoiding the hazard of a Battle. 

One incident of this War deserves remembrance. 
When Henry Duke of Brunswick, in 1528, at- 
tempted an ill supported and unsuccessful diversion 
in the Veronese, and approached the Venetian 
frontier, he despatched a cartel to the Doge Gritti 
who had passed his eightieth year, provoking him 
to single combat; an idle fashion of bravado 
which had arisen from those fruitful parents of 
Modem Duelling, the challenges forwarded by 
the Kings of France and England to the £m- 

• Confessando tutti haoere la RepubUca radevoUe par t* adietro hamto 
aJgoverno deUa sua mliiia persona /nft a proposito per taie serviiio, 
Panita, lib. ix. ad Jin. This is part of the pablic Historiographer's 
eulogy on the Duke d'Urbino when recounting his death. He in^ 
sinuates, nevertheless, that personal motives, and a hatred against 
the Medici, might render him more than usually tardy in attempt- 
ing the succour of Clement VII. 


peror*. After ten yeafs tedious and, ao £eir as 
Venice was ooneemed, mglorioas hostilities, Peace 
was once more restored to Itaiy by a Treaty signed 
St Cambrai. The R^ubKe, howev^er, was not 
fiomally included in that negotiation ; and Frands, 
dishonourably abandoning his ally, dedsHred tint 
unless she consented to surrender to the Emperor 
the maritime towns of Naples in her occupation, 
fcree <^ arms should compel their cession t- The 
King of France was represented in the Congress 
by his mother Louise of Savoy ; the Emperor by 
the same Aunt Margaret, who but a few years 
before had framed on the same spot the memo- 
lahle League which bore its name ; and the Peace 
is consequently known in History as La Paix da 
Dames, When Gritti learned the proposals offered 
to his acceptance, and recalled to mind the mani- 
fold ills to which the City from which they issued 
had already given birth, he pronounced Cambrai 
to be the Purgatory of Venice :' it is the place,' 
ke said, ^ in which the M onan^ of France and 
Germany compel our Republic to expiate the sins 
of alliance which she has committed with both of 
Aem.' Fortunately, however, the force of cir- 
cumstances once again inclined the Emperor to 
moderation. Solyman, the Turkish Sultan, al- 
though discomfited for awhile, was still in arms, 
and not long since he had besi^ed Vienna at the 

t Fnacls seons to bare been beartlly Mbamed of the dUrtj part 
«rbi€h he acted in this Peace, «m maauU> al tatte di otto taaUo brutU 
tmua wrgogmi^fiiggi per quakhe ttk cm van nAtmrfkgi il eofupett^ t 
Pmdienxadtgt* Imbeieiatori dgi C^UasaH, ai fwak jwt >ianfiaeaf> imBM 
in 4ispartefece tauaaiame, GuiccianUni, lib. zlz. vol. Iv. p. 864. 

ketd of one hundied and fifty thovsand men; the 
Religious txoaUes in Germany were honrij h^ 
creasing; and loud mttrmurs were keard frooi 
l^f«in. It was the pcdicy therefove of Chadiea at 
least to temporize ; and accordingly he confirmed 
Sforza in his Duchy, and granted Peace to Venice ; 
abandoning to her all his conquests in Lomfoardy, 
and receiving in return the Neapolitan ports for 
-himself, and Cervia and Ravenna for the P6pe. 
This Treaty was ratified at Bologna by Charles ni 
person, on the 1st of January, 1530. K 

But the flames of War between the two great 
vival Princes were rather smothered than extin- 
guished by the Peace of Cambrai ; and after the 
lapse of a very few years, a pretext was found for 
tiie renewal of their quarrel, and for another 
invasion of Italy by the French. The 
death of Francesco Maria Sforza, against ^* 
whom the wrath of Francis was m»nly di- 
rected, and which is attributed by some authorities 
io his consequent terror, left Milan withont an 
heir, and aroused all the former claimants. Hap- 
pilyfor Italy, the scene of confiict was soon 
tian^erred to France itself; and Venice did no 
more than maintain an armed neutrality to which 
^e was bound by the late Treaty, on the occnr- 
renee of any foreign irruption. New inquietudes, 
bowever, soon awaited her from more distant quar- 
ters. A secret, and, according to the estimate of' 
those times, a most impious and unnatural League, 
existed between Solyman and Francis; and the 
latter, anxious to induce the Republic to espouse 
his interests, urged his ii^del 4^ to terrify her 


into action. Solyman accordingly equipped d 
formidable naval force ; and although it was 
doubtful upon what enemy his preparations were 
directed, and no hostile intention against Venice 
had been avowed, prudence manifestly suggested 
the necessity of arming in return. A casual ren- 
contre at the mouth of the Adriatic between the 
Turkish and Venetian squadrons led to an open 
rupture ; and the Ottomans poured down with re* 
lentless fury on Corfu. It was in vain that the 
Senate tendered ample compensation, and even 
sent in chains to Constantinople those Captains to 
whom Solyman imputed the offence. Corfu was 
mercilessly ravaged during ten days occupation, 
its villages were burned, its fields were laid 
waste, and fifteen thousand natives were borne 
away into captivity. Then suddenly and unex- 
pectedly breaking up from his first scene of deso- 
lation, the redoubtable Barbarossa, to whom this 
ministry of vengeance had been entrusted, scoured 
every island in the Archipelago, either swayed di- 
rectly by Venice herself, or held in fee from the 
Republic by any of her Nobles. ' Nevertheless/ 
observes Paruta, *• so miserable were the times, 
that the abandonment of Corfu by the enemy who 
had ruined it was esteemed a triumph ; not to be 
utterly destroyed by them was thought a victory*. 
Thanksgivings for this fortunate event were offered 
up in Venice; solemn Processions were made 
through the streets; Masses were celebrated ia 
all the Churches ; and alms were copiously distri- 

quot optnuu 

FaUere et ^ff^i^re est triwm^^vu* 


buted to the Poor*'. No farther proofs need be 
required of coDBciousness of decline. 

Meantime Charles and Francis had been once 
again reconciled ; and, in the commencement of 
the following year, the Pope and the Em- 
peror associated with Venice in an alliance ^^' 
offensive and defensive against the Turks. 
In the termination of that contest which was lan- 
guidly conducted, . one of the most remarkable 
anomalies in the Venetian Constitution was exlii- 
bited in strong light. The Ambassador despatched 
to Constantinople for the public negotiation of 
Peace, the terms of which had, during many 
months, been privately discussed through tl^ 
medium of a Bastard of the Doge well versed in 
Oriental Politics, was instructed by the Senate to 
stipulate in the first instance for the restoration of 
all the Turkish conquests. If he found that pro* 
posal inadmissible^ he was then permitted to offer 
a tribute of six thousand ducats for Malvasia and 
Napoli di Romagna ; and to promise a yet farther 
payment of three hundred thousand more as an in- 
demnity for the expenses of the War. But this 
was not the sole commission with which the 
Envoy departed. The X, without communication 
with any other branch of the Government, secretly 
authorized him by the fullest powers to conclude 
Peace, if it were not otherwise to be obtained, 
even by the cession of the two important towns 
J4ist named ; wisely deeming that the surrender of 
those distant posts always at the mercy of the 
enemy, although a large, was not an exorbitant 
price for the conclusion of a very dangerous War* 



B«do«ro the Ambassador insisted strongiy with 
the Vizier on his first proposal., and was surprised 
at the pertinacity of refusal which it encountered. 
Not even a modification of it was admitted, and 
Peace, it was said, should be granted only on the 
abandonment of certain fortresses in Dalmatia, of 
all the islands recently surrendered in the Archi- 
pelago, and of Malvada and Napoli ; besides the 
payment of the offered indemnity. Hard as were 
liiese conditions, Badoaro eventually accepted 

them; and Gritti, who expired in his 84th 
'^^^^ year, a few months before the conclusicm 

of this unequal Treaty, was spared die 
mortification of ratifying it, and of finding one of 
his latest acts discordant from a whole life of 

The annooiicement of these terms^ however de- 
sirable was the accommodation itself excited no 
mndil astonishment in Venice, where nothing waft 
as yet known beyond the declared intentions of 
llie Senate. National pride was offended at the 
cessions: the money paid, it was said, might have 
been hr better employed in a vigorous prosecution 
of War, and the want of skill or of courage in the 
Ambassador was vehemently condemned, — ^till the 
X openly avowed their own act On the moment, 
as by a touch, public opinion changed, the firsfc 
emotions of disgust subsided, and on deeper con» 
sideration and after more correct reasoning, men, 
we are told, were satisfied, or at least silent ; and 
all concurred in extolling the prudence of these 
wise Councillors ever watchful over the true in- 
teiestsof the Republic*. Nevertheless even the 



X tlvemselves and tke new Doge Pietho L^ndo^ 
although from the heginning folly oognizaat of 
the Diplomatic mystery, were surprised at the un- 
bending opposition maintained by the Turkish 
negotiators; and it was not long before the 
treachery which had guided them was brought to 
light Nicolo Cavazza*, a Secretary of we X, 
and Maffeo Leone who filled the like office to the 
Senate, had betrayed the secrets of their respective 
Councils to some Nobles in the pay of the Co«t 
of France; by which Cabinet in turn they had 
been revealed to the Divaa. An intrigue between 
the wife of one of the Traitors and a grave Senator 
accidentally threw some papers develojung this foul 
transaction into the hands iji the latter, who im* 
mediately denounced the criminals and their agents. 
Three of them claimed and received asylum in the 
Palace of the French Ambassador ; but the X, un- 
deterred by that high protection, demanded the 
fogitives, and upon refusal, planted cannon before 
the gates of the Palace, and threatened to batter 
them down if they were any longer dosed against 
the officers of justice. The menace produced the 
desired effect, and the malefactors were surrendered 
and executed ; not without some expression of re* 
sentment on the part of Francis, who for many 
months aft^wards refosed audience to Antonio 
Veniero the Venetian Ambassador at his Court. 
One day, however, the King, while in his Camp at 

* On the appointment of this Cavttzxa» whom Falatiui names 
CoBtantino, the Doge Gritti prophetically remarked that the X, by 
tkeir aclectlon, had slipped the new Seeretary*! neck Into a faaUer* 
Mm aaaflwe deer^U iaftfanm 9iieo coU» JH|KraiW Cmmdm, Futt 
Jhicaks, p. 200. 


Perpignan, being desirous to learn news from 
Turkey, sent for the Minister ; and having com» 
plained in gentle terms of the recent violation of 
Diplomatic privileges, he asked what the Ambas- 
sador would have thought if similar force had been 
employed against himself? Veniero's reply was 
prompt and dignified: • God knows, Sire, that if 
I had in my Palace and my power any Traitors 
against your Majesty, I would myself arrest and 
deliver them into your Majesty's hands; being 
well assured that, if I acted otherwise, I should be 
most severely reprehended by my Masters the 

The prudence of the Venetian Government se- 
cured tranquillity to the Republic during the next 
thirty years ; the course of which swept away the 
chief great actors in the Political Drama of the times. 
The death of Francis I could occasion little regret 
among those to whom he had proved by turns a 
vigorous enemy or an inconstant and ungrateful 
ally ; but the loss of Henry VIII appears to have 
been deeply lamented. Little interested, on ac- 
count of the remoteness of his dominions, in the 
general affairs of Italy, but keenly alive to the 
mutual advantages of commercial intercourse, that 
Monarch had encouraged an intimate connexion 
with Venice, To many of her Nobles he was per- 
sonally attached, bestowing upon them his con- 
fidence and employing them in difiicult negotia- 
tions $ and to the State herself he testified the 
sincerity of his regard in some of her most ha- 
zardous , crises. Paruta, from whom we derive 
this information, displays an intimate knowledge 
of the fickleness which marked the latter years of 


Henry's tyrannical career, when he adds that 
* becoming different from himself, he changed his 
thoughts and inclinations in this particular also, 
and sometimes showed but little friendliness*.' 

The season of repose which ensued, proved 
highly favourable to the cultivation of the Arts. 
Palladio and Scamozzi adorned the Capital with 
rich and imposing architecture ; the Florentine 
Sansovino erected the Mint, the Library of St. 
Mark, and the Procuratie Nvove, and sculptured 
those noble statues of Mars and Neptune, em- 
blems of the military and naval power of Venice t, 
which still guard the Giant's Stairs. The glory also 
of the Venetian School of colouring was brought 
to its height by the pencils of Titian, Tintoretto, 
and Paolo Veronese. To them was entrusted the 
design and execution of that first brilliant series 
of Historical Pictures which encircled the Hall of 
the Great Council ; all of which, says the precise 
and not very fervid Justiniani, those most diligent 
Painters { brought to conclusion. 

The reward of Titian was an appointment to 
the office of La Senseria (Brokerage) in the 
Fondaca d£ Tedeschi § ; the street front of which 
building had already been painted in fresco by his 

• Lib. xi. p. 195. 

t Maurocenas, Hi$U Ven. lib. z. apvd ItU Venex, vi. p. 229. 

t DUigentissimi Pictores. lib. xv. p. 406. 

( This building, which stood on the Canale Grande, near the 
RicUto, Avas originally the residence of the Signory } was after- 
wards granted as a Commercial depot to German Merchants, whence 
it takes its name ;. and is now used as a Custom- House. The ori- 
ginal mansion was destroyed in the great fire of 1514, and it was 
on its rebuilding that Giorgione and Titian painted the exterior ; 
and the former, jealous of the praise bestowed upon his pupil, 
renounced ail intercourse with him. The Dogana di Mare, another 


274 TITIAN. 

own hand, as had the water^fa^ade by that of Gior» 
gione. In a truly mercantile spirit, the Patent 
by which this not very lucrative post was held (its 
salary amounted but to SOO crowns, and its ' 
duties must have been not less alien from the pur- 
49mts of Titian, than those of an exciseman were 
irom the spirit of Bimis) bound him to paint every 
Doge who succeededduribg his lifetime, for eight 
xsrowns a head ; to be paid by the Doge himself. 
To this notable agreement we are indebted for 
Portraits of Pietro Lando, Frawcbsco Donato, 
^1545,) Marc' Antokio Treyisano, (1553,) and 
Francesco Veniero, (1554.) On the accession 
of Lorenzo Priuli in 1556, Titian, then in his 
.79th year, discontinued his task ; nevertheless, he 
survived twenty years longer, painted many other 
pictures, and even at last fdl a victim, not to any 
ordinary disorder, but to the Plague. 

Venice has ever exhibited nice sensibility to the 
merits of this her most consummate Artist Even 
in his lifetime, a season at which gratitude is often 
wanting to desert, when in 1535, the Republic was 
arming against the Turks, and a Poll Tax was 
levied upon her Citizens for the replenishment of 
the Treasury, by an edict not less honourable to 
herself than to the individuals whom it concerned, 
special exceptions Ivere made in favour of ' Titiano 
Vecelli and Giacopo Sansovino, on account of their 
rare excellence.* When on another occasion the 
Fraternity of S'S. Giovtmni t Paolo had sold a 
chef'^oeuvre of the great Painter, * The Martyr- 

Costom' House for tran«!t goods, of wbich we have given a reinrt- 
sentation in the annexed Plate, i% Aroa^ many points one of the 
Jaost picturesque objects in Venice. 

i ' 


dom of St. Peter/ for eighteen thousand crowns, 
the ready arm of the X interposed, annulled the 
bargain on pahi of death, and retained the Picture 
in the Church which it still adorns*. Yet notwith- 
standing the just and exalted estimate of the 
powers of Titian, he still remains without any 
farther monument than that afforded by his own 
immortal works, and the simple but impressive 
grave-stone in the Church de' Frari, Qui giace il 
gran Tizianof, Canova indeed, after the lapse <^ 
more than two Centuries, was instructed to pre* 
pare a Tomb in 1792 ; but although the beauties 
which his unrivalled chissel might have struck out 
at the moment of birth would perhaps have re* 
deemed any original sin of conception, few of his 
groups are more liable to the charge of poverty 
and coldness of invention than that which he then 
designed. The open gate of a sepulchral Pyra* 
mid is entered by Pamiing veiled in token of 
ief, and by her side stands an Angel, supporting 
ler attributes. Behind, on a lower step, are 
placed Sculpture and Architecture, with their em* 
blems less carefully strewed on the ground ; and 

* At that splendid but meretricious Altar In SS» OiooemtUt 
Paolo, the second on the left, after entering from the great Porch, 
t We believe this was the original inscription, more striking than 
even our own similar epitaph ' O Bare Ben Jonson.* We well re* 
member the impression made by those few pointed words on the 
late Emperor Alexander, when he visited Westminster Abbey ; and 
the emphasis with which he repeated and explidned them, (giving foil 
enunciation to the finale,) to his sister the Duchess of Oldenburgh* 
who was hangii^ on his arm. The later Venetians have aabstltixted 
ajtngling distich which has destroyed all the mi^esty of the la* 
ecription, and it now runs 

Quiffiace Tixiano VeceUi^ 
Emulo di Zeute e d'jipelle 

T 2 


the opposite side of the door is sentinelled by a 
mourning Lion, allegorical, as it is stated, of the 
Venetian school ! Above the portal, two Genii 
hold a medallion of Titian. The subscription 
raised for the completion of this monument proved 
insufficient ; and the Sculptor, unwilling to lose liis 
labour, by a few dexterous alterations, converted 
the model to the use of a deceased Austrian Arch- 
duchess, Christina, consort of Duke Albert of 
Saxe Teschen, in the Church of the Augustines at 
Vienna. The colossal dimensions were reduced ; 
Painting by the removal of her veil and the addi« 
tion of a cinerary Urn in her hands, readily be* 
came Virtue ; Innocence and Piety supplied the 
vacant places of Sculpture and Architecture y and 
Charity follows them, leading an old man^ and 
supporting an orphan ; the Lion, adhering . with 
noiess pertinacity than if he had been of British 
breed, remained as the guardian of the Tomb ; 
himself guarded by a keeper Genius, emblema- 
tical, as is said, of Grief; and the other twin 
Genii, supporting the medallion, were transformed 
into JFelicity and an Angel with a palm branch* 
Notwithstanding this appropriation to another pur« 
pose, the design, since Canova's death, has been 
chosen to record his own excellence ; the original 
cast of character has been restored, and the Monu- 
ment, almost as at first projected, now covers 
some of the remains of the great Sculptor* in the 

* We are not quite certidn on this point > the monument tnay he 
altogether a Cenotaph. The enthusiasm of the Italians dismem- 
bered the remains of Canova after a manner which, to colder 
English feelings, appears fantastical if not disrespectful. The 
body lies in a Church designed by himself at Possongo j the head 


6ame Church de' Frari, within which Titian hiniBelf 
is interred. 

Together with the cultivation of the Arts during 
this unwonted period of tranquillity, the Venetians 
frequently indulged their love of puhlic Spectacles 
land brilliant pageants. One of those exhibitions, 
on the marriage of Zilia Dandola with 
the Doge Lorenzo Priuli, is described at 1557. ' 
much length by Sansovino ; and it pre- 
sents a singular mixture of splendour and rudeness. 
After enumerating the triumphal arches and tapes- 
tried streets through \fhich the Bride was con- 
ducted from her Father's Palace to grace a Re- 
gatta* with her presence, we are told that on her 
subsequent arrival at St. Mark's, there were shot off 
80 many and so loud volleys of artillery from the 
neighbouring rivi, that ^ it was a sound horrible 
to the ear.' The great portals of the Cathedral 
were partially shut, in order that the populace by 
entering more slowly might escape being trampled 
to death and suffocated ; yet their pressure was 90 
excessive when once admitted, and their clamour 
80 deafening, that after the Princess had taken the 
customary oaths at the High Altar, not a syllable 
of a speech addressed to her by a Cavaliere of 
the Doge could be understood. On quitting the 
Church and proceeding to the Ducal Palace, she 

is preserved In a vase In the HaU of the Venetian Academy of Fine 
Arts ; and the right hand is exhibited in the same place also, with 
an inscription marked by conceit and vapid sentimentality j ' Quod 
mtttui amorii monumentum idem glories incitamentum siet.* 

* A Regatta was a splendid rowing match on the Canale Grande, 
in which prizes were distributed from a temporary building on the 
water. A good account of such a festivity is given by Ant. de Ville, 
in Burmanni et Orsevii Tkesaunu Itaiicut v. pan posterior. 


found the State-apnrtmentB oocupied by the Trades 
and Guilds of the City, each of which invited 
the Bride to partake of a rich collation provided 
at the expense and by order of the Doge; and 
each in turn received a similar answer of thanks^ 
and a similar excuse, both on account of fatigue 
and of the necessity of passing onward to the 
next Company. The evening concluded with 
a protracted display of fire- works in the Palace 
courts followed by a supper and a ball, which 
detained the guests till dawn ; and like festivities 
were continued during three succeeding days; 
one of which was dedicated to the gentle pastime 
of Bull- baiting for the satisfaction of the newly 
married Princess and her attendant Ladies*. 
This extraordinary rejoicing seems to have beea 
elicited by the rarity of a Dogaressa ; for, strange 
as it may appear, a hundred years had passed 
since any Prince had shared his dignity witii a 
Consort. Zilia on her death received scarcely 
less distinguished honours than on her nuptials ; 
her body habited in the Regalia, lay during three 
days in magnificent state ; and was then followed 
to the Tomb by the reigning Doge and all the 
public functionaries t. 

New scenes of peril and disaster, however, were 
ere long to interrupt all peaceful revelries. Since 
the short war with Turkey in 1538, amicable 

* Of the Salvoes of artillery, Sadsoyino expresses himself, ft 
tpararono tante artigliarie e code diferro ohefu cosa horribile a sej^ire. 
To the Trades, the Dogaressa spoke as follows : State hen trooati, e 
pmnmerci. Horanonjabuog»o,per^ei8entimoa!qwa»toatanca, La 
Jtaremo pot wi* oAni vetta. Fbtemo patter pi^ aeanti e vititar K aftri. 
Fenet deseritta, Kb. x. 

t P. Juitiniani, Rb. sir. p. SM, and zr. 42% 


lelalioDft had been steadily ipaintained with that 
dangerous Power, whose strength meantime was 
continually progressive. But Selim II» 
on his accession to the throne of his j^; 
Father Solyman, early manifested inclinar 
tion to break the subsisting alliance, and assi- 
duously and perversely sought causes of offence 
against Venice. The ambition of a youthful 
Despot is little likely to be checked by the ready 
flatterers who surround his throne ; and we are 
told that powerful motives of Religious zeal yet 
farther inflamed the passion for military glory 
which Selim displayed. A superb Mosque, which 
he had erected at Adrianople, required funds for 
its endowment ; and the Muftis assured its impe- 
tuous founder that no revenues could be dedicated 
to support the charitable institutions annexed to it, 
excepting such as should be won at the sword's 
point ; and that the offerings most grateful to the 
Prophet were those wrested from the enemies of 
bis Fai^ : ' a devilish persuasion/ as an old and 
very agreeable author justly styles it, ' which 
serveth as a spur to prick forward every of those 
ambitious Princes to adde something to their £m« 
pire *.' A spirit thus kindled readily created to 
itself a direct object of pursuit ; and in his choice 
the Sultan was guided by the accidental circum- 
stances under which his youth had been passed. 
During his Father's lifetime, the customary policy 
of Oriental Governments had removed the heir 
apparent from the Court of his birth ; and by long 
residence in a district in the neighbourhood of 

* EnoUes, HUtorie of the Twrltet, p. 839. 


Cyprus*, he had become well acquainted with 
both the wealth and the weakness of that Island ; 
the fertility of the soil ; the riches of the Nobles ; 
the inadequacy of its defences ; and the careless 
security, no less than the unpopularity of its 
Venetian masters. Such allurements might of 
themselves have sufficed to create a strong desire 
for the possession of that delicious Country ; and 
to these were added others of not inferior power. 
It was galling to the pride of the Ottomans that 
strangers from a remote State should be Lords 
of the choicest gem of their own peculiar seas ; 
the harbours of Cyprus furnished a secure retreat 
for the Pirates who infested the Turkish naviga- 
tion ; and not a sail could pass from Syria to 
Constantinople without exposure to the Christian 
cannon at Famagosta. Yet another motive has 
been ascribed to Selim, by writers of good au- 
thority. The habits of that Prince were stained 
with most gross licentiousness ; and in spite of the 
sober precepts of the Koran, he indulged to excess 
in his favourite draughts of the rich wines for 
which Cyprus is distinguished. ' I would rather 
press this luscious juice than purchase it/ was his 
frequent remark, as he passed the goblet to 
Miches, a vagabond Portuguese, who had won his 
confidence partly by association in debauchery, 

• NeUa Provincia di Moffnesia, is Paruta*g statement, 1. p. IS. But 
Paruta understood History better than Geography. The Province 
of Magnesia was in Northern Greece to the' Sooth of Thessaly. 
The Citi/ at which Selim resided, was the beautiful Magnesia ad Si- 
pylmn, still retaining Its ancient name among the Greeks and Euro- 
pean residents, and only slightly corrupted by the Turks into Mag- 
nlsA. Its Ticinity to Smyrna rendered communication with Cyprus 
very easy. 


partly by a double apostacy ; first from Judaism* 
afterwards from Christianity. This drunken fancy 
was encouraged by his dissolute companion ; till 
on one occasion the Prince swore by his Prophet, 
that whenever he himself swayed Constantinople, 
his minion should be King of Cyprus. The 
promise so far elated Miches that he decorated his 
portrait with a Crown, and painted under it the 
legend Josephus Rex Cypri, Voltaire ridicules 
this story bitterly, and as it seems to us without 
reason. No Monarch, he says, ever yet conquered 
a Kingdom for the sake of a Jew, or of a cup of 
wine.^ Perhaps so, but how many great events 
assail us from every page of History, the secret 
springs of which may be found in causes scarcely 
less frivolous and unimportant than those which 
are here rejected. 

Fired with the bright hope of this conquest, 
Selim communicated his project to the Divan, in 
which it encountered a diversity of opinion. The 
Vizier, Mohammed Pacha, strenuously combated 
the design ; urging, that if the Turks should un- 
sheath the sword^ Glory, Policy, and Religion, 
alike pointed to the relief of the Moors in Gre- 
nada, as their paramount duty. On the other 
hand, the leaders of an opposite faction, Musta- 
pha Pacha, and Piali, a Hungarian Renegade, 
supported the views of their Prince ; both from 
private enmity against the Vizier, and from a 
natural belief that by so doing they should ad- 
vance their own interests. Selim, perhaps, might 

* Essai svr les Moeurs, cUx. Among other Touchers for the anec- 
dote of Selim and Miches, are Ubertus Folieta, i. ap. Grsevii Thesatir, 
vol. i. p. ii. p. 947* and Arrighi de BeU. Cyp. I. p. x. The woi-ds 
given by the latter writer to the Prince are Nolle se vinwn enure, ted 
exprimere, Morosini writes, Hoe in Cyprg viwm potabimMS, iz. p. 2$ 9 

382 raiB IN TBB AMBSrAL^ 

kittg have hesitated between these conflicting opt* 
nions, if intelligence bad not reached him of great 
internal disasters to which Venice had recently 

been exposed. The failure of a harvest had 
im* produced scarcity in the Dogado and its 

adjoining Provinces, so that far from being 
able to support hex customary armed force, the 
Bepublic laboured ineffectually to maintain her 
own population. To that misfortune was added 
another, which threatened yet more lasting injury. 
A fire, kindled by some unknown cause in the 
Arsenal, communicated with its maga- 
Itpt. la zines ; and the Citizens were aroused at 
midnight by an explosion heard thirty 
miles around*, the thunders of which seemed to an- 
nounce to many terror-stricken slumberers startled 
from their first repose, that the grand consumma* 
tion of all things was beginning t. The walls, 
roofi} and towers of the Arsenal were blown to 
atoms ; four Churches, and numerous buildings in 
the immediate neighbourhood, were shattered and 
thrown down ; and even the remoter parts of the 
City were agitated so powerfully that it is belie ved, 
if large stores of powder had not been conveyed a 
few days beforehand to other dep6ts in the sur- 
rounding Islands, Venice would have been en« 
gulphed as by an Earthquake. In consequence 
of that fortunate removal, the loss of lives was 
comparatively trifling ; and of the sliippbg, which 
must otherwise have been totally destroyed, not 
more than four galleys were rendered unservioe* 

* Lustndimm NomUs Armameniarii eo Unuut boatm ut dimtU solopte 
mfuatU vieUm Scokaig^ Vimmam ueque strepUmt uuQmuriL PalaUus, 
FatU Ihtnies Admotat, p. 36ft. from liaaeleMO. 

f Funmo molii cka Uorditi da nutno cmI tmiMtato,. «< (W^^WM 0ff«r« 
mmUalaJmed^ UniMn9. PttmtatUp.aS. 


able by the fall of the covered docks under which 
tiiey were lying. Report, howerer, conveyed the 
Bews of this misfortune to Constantim^le with ilt 
wonted exaggeration ; not only was Venice wasted 
by a still increasing famine, but her whole navy, 
it was said, had perished at a blow. Selim and 
the War-faction eagerly propagated this rumour ; 
military preparations, on a most extensive scale, 
were zealously commenced; and, early in 
the following year, an embassy was dits- ^*^* 
patched to the Signory, openly demanding 
the absolute surrender of Cyprus. 

The pretext advanced for this haughty summons 
was the refuge afforded by the Insular authorities 
to Hrates ; the chief arguments urged to procure 
compliance were fierce menaces of vengeance on 
refusal. ' We demand Cyprus,' said the Chiaus, 
in his address to the Senate, *• which we will obtain, 
if not by good will, most assuredly by force. 
Look well that you draw not our fearful sword 
from its scabbard ; for if it be once bared, it shall 
carry war to the uttermost into each of your Pro- 
vinces : and place not reliance on your treasure, 
for we will drain it from your coffers with the fmry 
of a torrent ! ' To this proud and swelling denun- 
ciation the Council replied with dignity, by ex- 
pressions of surprise that Selim should thus early 
violate his pledges of amity, and that he should 
require the cession of a Kingdom to which he had 
no pretence, and which had been so long swayed 
by the Republic. Venice, it was added, would 
never be wanting to the protection of her rightfiil 
dominions ; and ' she accepted the challenge 
B€»w tendered, with unshrinking confidence that 


the justice of her cause must obtain assistance 
both human and divine^ and must ultimately ensure 
her triumph/ 

The first, care of the Senate, in order to meet 
the approaching danger, was to accumulate trea« 
sure; and, partly by loans, partly by voluntary 
contributions, partly by once more setting a price 
on State-offices and exposing them to sale, the 
sums requisite for defence were procured. The 
last-named disgraceful and impolitic expedient 
extended the number of Procuratorif the second 
dignity in the Republic, to every purchaser who 
could deposit twenty thousand ducats in the Ex- 
chequer ; and the payment of another certain sti- 
pulated sum admitted the Patrician Youth to the 
full privileges of the Council, before the attainment 
of legal majority. In the formation of a League 
against the Infidds, the Senate was by no means 
equally successful : France was destitute of a 
Marine, and had become a prey to Civil dissen- 
sions ; the Emperor had but recently concluded a 
Treaty with the Porte ; the joint efforts of the 
Pope, of Genoa, and of the Knights of Malta, could 
add no more than six galleys to co-operate with the 
Venetian fleet; and even when Philip II of Spain, 
during the lingering progress of negotiation, al- 
lowed a provisional force of sixty sail to proceed 
to Messina, it was doubtful whether they would 
ever be permitted to afford more than nominal 
assistance. Thus scantily provided, the Do^e, 
LuiGi MoNCENiGO, but a few months after his 
election, received intelligence that the Turks had 
made a descent on Cyprus. 

It was on the first of July that Mustapha Pacha> 


anchoring at Limaso, near the ancient Faphos* 
poured forth, from one hundred palanders and one 
hundred and fifty ships of war, a huge armament, 
amounting at the lowest estimate to fifty-five 
thousand fighting men, supported by a formidable 
train of artillery ; to oppose which force the gar- 
rison of the Island presented but five hundred 
Stradiots, and rather more than one hundred native 
horse, three thousand regular infantry, of whom 
only two-thirds were serviceable, and a small body 
of half-disciplined militia. With so greatly dispro* 
portionate numbers, it was equally impossible to 
oppose a landing*, or to keep the field ; and the 
troops, accordingly, were distributed into the two 
strong holds of Nicosia and Famagosta ; leaving 
the enemy to choose freely which of those Cities 
they would first attack. Ninety Venetian galleys, 
it is true, had assembled at Zara, since the com- 
mencement of April, but they were waiting the 
arrival of men and stores ; they were looking for a 
junction with the Spanish squadron ; they did not 
dare to encounter the Turkish fleet, which kept- the 
sea with nearly double their numbers ; and the in- 
action to which they were reduced brought with it 
that fearful scourge of maritime war, the scurvy. 
The 4th of August arrived before they were able 
to proceed to Candia, where, combining with the 
Spaniards, they were placed under the general 
command of the Genoese Andrea Doria. 

* Morosini states that the Turkg were astonished to find their 
disembarkation unopposed, and that those who first leaped on shore 
so strongly suspected the whole beach to be undermined, that force 
was necessary to induce them to adyance. He adds also, that a 
distant field of corn, waving under a light breeze, was mistaken for 
a Venetian battalion, Qib. iz. p. 304). 


The Turks profited abandaiitly by the tai^diaeu 
of their en^emy. H aving chosen Nicosia as their first 
object of attack, they pitched their camp under iti 
walls, near the end of August *, the intermedittte 
time having been sp^at in spreading thranselveB 
over the Island, and ravaging the estates of the 
Venetian Nobles ; forbearing altogether from obj 
violence cm the Natives, whose ill«disguised disa^ 
fection firom their present masters appeared to 
promise considerable advantage to the invaders. 
Nicosia, the Capital of Cyprus, stands on an 
elevation, in a rich champain country, almost in 
the centre of the Island ; and from the salul^ritf 
of its climate, its abundance of water, the beauty 
of its neighbouring scenery, and its agreeable site, 
had ever been the favourite and most populous 
residence of the Cypriotes. Much pains had been 
taken to render it capable of defence ; but each of 
the eleven bastions, even in its reduced circuit of 
five miles, required two thousand men as a fitting 
garrison ; and Nicolo Dandolo, the Governor, 
who is, on all hands, represented to have been in- 
adequate to the great responsibility imposed upcm 
him, could muster but eight thousand men ; one 
thousand two hundred of whom were Italians, the 
remainder a strangely-mingled mass, rudely armed 
with pikes or instruments of husbandry hastily 
adapted to purposes of war, and wholly untrained 
to service ; who therefore rather encumbered 
than assisted him. It was not, accordingly, with* 
out fearful anticipations, that he found himself 

« Dam flays tbe 2Sd of July, but Fsrata's words positively con- 
tradict that date. SfiffftA qwtto tacco a* now di Settembre il qmuito^ 
dedmo giomo dopo che vi s*era oeeampato Pmsercito Tmvkmeo, L llOU 


invested by the main body of the Tuikifth army, 
under ^ an old and most •ex.pert General ; a sev^ee 
and absolute commander, whom it would have 
been a hard matter to have withstood with an 
equal power *.* 

From the beginning of the siege, all oommuni- 
oation with Famagosta was intercepted by the 
enemy's cavalry ; and the Turks opened and ad« 
vanced their trenches so rapidly, that in a few daya 
batteries were thrown up almost close to the 
counterscarp. From these, their engineers, pro- 
tected by a lofty paraipet, not only maintained an 
incessant cannonade, but harassed the affriglited 
garrison by frequent discharges of artificial fire^ 
at that time largely employed in military service. 
The. .artillery of the Venetians, meantime, was 
skilfully planted and served ; and in more than one 
^ery daring sortie they materially injured the 
Turkish lines. In the last of those sallies, bravely 
and dexterously conducted by two young Venetiansii 
if Dandolo, according to his promise, had sup- 
ported them by the Stradiot cavalry, it was thougnt 
the Musulmans would have altogether abandoned 
their works. But the timidity of the Governor 
induced him to close the gates, and to disregard 
the remonstrances of a body of volunteers anxi- 
ously wishing to press forward to the succour of 
their comrades ; who having surprised the trenches, 
and chased away their guard with much slaughter, 
were in turn overpowered, and for the most part 
<;ut to pieces. 

At length, however, the besiegers established 
themselves in the very ditch, under cover of em- 



bankments which resisted both the front and 
flanking fire; and from that position, they at- 
tempted three separate assaults. Foiled in each 
attack, Mustapha smnmoned from the fleet twenty 
thousand additional men under Ali, the Capudan 
Pacha ; and before day- break on the 9th of Sep- 
tember he once more issued from his trenches to 
a general storm. The ardour of the troops was 
stimulated by assurances of the most brilliant pro- 
motion ; and they were taught to believe that if 
any Pacha were killed, the reversion even of that 
imposing dignity should be the prize of the brave 
man who first planted his foot on the captured 
battlements. The garrison, on the other hand, was 
no less encouraged by delusive hopes of speedy 
relief ; and so confident were the troops of its ap- 
proach, that the busy hum of preparation heard 
overnight from the trenches was thought a prelude 
not to assault, but to retreat. The Sun had not yet 
risen, when the foremost division of the enemy 
crossed the ditch, and, not only unresisted but 
unobserved, scaled a bastion from which they had 
before been more than once repulsed. The sen- 
tinels, exhausted by fatigue and lulled in fancied 
security, slept upon their posts, and were in- 
stantly put to the sword. It was in vain that the 
rest of the garrison, aroused by the tumult, rushed 
headlong to the walls. Without order, without 
leaders, unacquainted with the precise nature both 
of their own danger and of the advantage gained 
by their enemy, as fresh swarms mounted the ram- 
parts, they were either overpowered and cut to 
pieces on the spot, or chased into the heart of the 
City. The miserable inhabitants and the few sur- 



viving troops took refuge in the great Square, and 
made there some feeble show of resistance ; till 
Ali, having scoured and secured the whole circuit 
of the walls, turned three pieces of cannon upon 
this ill-organized Body, and dispersed it after a few 
discharges. The Governor, the Bishop of Faphos 
and some of the chief Nobles now threw them* 
selves, as a last hope, into the Palace Court; 
which they maintained with the resolution of 
despair till they received promise of quarter. But 
no sooner had they abandoned their barricades, 
and surrendered their arms, than an indiscriminate 
massacre commenced; of which the defenceless 
prisoners were the earliest victims. Not all the 
sufferers, however, awaited the merciless sword of 
their foes. Many precipitated themselves head- 
long from the roofs of their houses. One Matron 
of lofty birth having sought her husband and 
three sons, and learned intelligence of their death 
in the breach, hastened back with phrenzied steps 
to her home as yet inviolate. There, passionately 
embracing for the last time her youngest and now 
only boy, she stabbed him to the heart, in order 
that he might escape from the yet greater horrors 
which were approaching ; and then piercing her 
own bosom with the weapon reeking with the 
blood of her child, she fell lifeless on his body *. 
Every crime with which the unbridled fury of 
Barbarians pollutes the first hours of conquest, 

* Gratianus de Bett, Cypr. lib. i. p. 10. An English veralon of thic 
History is dedicated by the translator, R. Midgley, to the infamous 
Judge Jeffreys, with fulsome expressions of ' honour and venera- 
tion* for ' his Lordship's eminent character and most iUnstriotts 
merits,* his ' great and exemplary yirtues,' &c. &c. 



broke loose upon the devoted dty ; and in a single 
day twenty thousand lives were sftcrificed in cold 
blood. The survivors were condemned to slavery; 
and a signal vengeance was afterwards taken upon 
Bome of their brutal Tyrants by one high-minded 
captive. A Galeot, conveying much rich spoil 
and tlie flower of the Nicosian Youth to Constan- 
tinople, was blown in pieces by a Maiden of noble 
family ; who ill brooking the menaced disbonoor 
of the Seraglio, and content to purchase exemp- 
tion from shame by the sacrifice of bfb, found 
opportunity to fire the magazine*. 

For nine days after this fatal sack of Nicosia, 
the combined Fleet, now amounting to more than 
two hundred sail and carrying fifteen thousand 
troops, of which number Venice provided one hun- 
dred and fifty-five ships and eleven thousand 
soldiers, continued moored inactively in the bar* 
hours of Candia, wholly ignorant of the great 
disaster which had occurred in Cyprus. At length 
patting to sea they learned intelligence of the 
Turkish success. On the receipt of this news 
Dona at once declared that the object of his ex- 
pedition was at an end ; separated himself from 
his allies in spite of tlieir remonstrances; and 
made sail for Sicily ; while the Venetians, thus re* 
duced in numbers and wholly unequal to the 
hazard of encountering the Ottoman fleet, returned 
to their former anchorage in Candia. During 
this unhappy and inglorious campaign, in which so 
many losses had been endured and not one blow 
attempted in return, the monthly expenditure of 

* CoDt«rliii> Hilt. deUa Chum etmtn Tweki, p. 30 } MorosinI, ix» 



&e Republic amounted to tkree bundled tbousand 
ducats. • 

Mustapba, bavin^ left sufficient force for the 
proteetioD of bis first conquest, lost no time in 
]iiarcbing upon Famagosta. From his camp which 
he pitched at about three miles distance, in a spot 
ealled Fercipola*, he insulted the garrison by dis- 
playing the heads of their Nico^n comrades, 
mounted on the jMkes of horsemen who daily 
paraded under the walla in barbarous triumph. 
But the season was too fieur advanced to permit 
«ny hope of redudng, before Winter should set in^ 
a City which demanded regular approaches ; the 
lew works which he constructed were speedily 
destroyed by brilliant sorties ; and, wisely resolving 
not to diminish the ardour which recent victory 
had kindled in his troops* by exposing them to 
unavailing peril, he forbore from the continuance 
ef active operations^ endeavoured to bring his 
enemy to capitulate, and, failing in that attempt, 
witlidrew to cantonments in which he awaited the 
return of Spring. 

The whole Eastern Coast of Cy}»rus may be 
considered as forming one large bay, in about the 
eentrai point of which amphitheatre stands the City 
of Famagosta. Towards the sea, which washea 
two of its four sides, a natural breakwater of 
shelving rocks protects a small and shallow har« 
bour, whose single northern entrance, presenting 
a mouth scarcely forty feet wide, is guarded by a 
chain and a fortress. The walls on the land side 
inclose an area of somewhat more than two 

• TTbertaa Folieta, lib. M. opurf Crnertt ThM9tmt» toI. i. pt. il, 

U 2 


Italian miles, skirted by a ditch hewn out of the 
solid rock, and flanked by numerous towers ; none 
of which however afforded a sufficiently broad 

?latform for the employment of heavy ordnance, 
'he neighbouring country is one wide plain, upon 
the western portion of which, about the middle of 
the following April, the Turks began to 
^•-J* break ground ; having transported their bat- 
tering train from Nicosia, and being rein- 
forced by a large influx of volunteers^ allured from 
the coasts of Syria and Caramania by lavish pro- 
mises of booty. So numerous indeed were those 
unpaid bands which crossed to Cyprus after the 
fall of Nicosia, as almost to justify the vaunt of 
their leader, that, if each of his soldiers would 
throw but one of his slippers into the fosse, he 
might construct a level path to the battlements of 
Famagosta. More than forty thousand pioneers 
laboured incessantly day and night in the trenches ; 
And so stupendous were their exertions, that along 
a course of three miles, in part of which a hard; 
rocky soil was to be excavated, not only the in- 
fantry, but even horsemen might advance, pro- 
tected in such manner, that scarcely the points of 
their lances could be discovered from the summits 
of the besieged towers. The whole army was se- 
curely lodged within these vast lines, which, before 
the end of May, were pushed to the edge of the 
counterscarp. Ten forts, constructed of a strong 
framework of oak filled up with earth, ashes and 
woolsacks, and each presenting a front fifty feet 
in breadth, protected these formidable approaches ; 
and eighty pieces of heavy artillery, among which 
were four Basilisks of immeasurable calibre, played 


continually against half a mile of curtain. To meet 
these fearful preparations, the garrison, into which 
some scanty reinforcements had been thrown, 
mustered seven thousand men, half Italian, half 
Greek infantry, commanded by a valorous and 
experienced soldier, Marc' Antonio Bragadino. 

One of the most skilful Engineers of the day, 
Geronymo Maffgi, superintended the artillery of the 
garrison ; and he is said, in the course of the siege, 
to have rendered eighteen cannon of the enemy 
unserviceable, by shooting into their very mouths. 
Great however as was his military skill, it is not 
|30 much on that account, as from his successful 
cultivation of Letters under circumstances the 
most unfavourable to their pursuit, that the re- 
membrance of Maggi still survives with Posterity. 
While languishing in slavery at Constantinople, 
without assistance from Books, and relying solely 
on the copious stores of a powerful memory, he 
composed more than one Latin Treatise on sub- 
jects of curious research*. These Works were 
dedicated to the French and Imperial Ambassadors 
whose influence he solicited for a remission of his 
captivity. But the Vizier Mohammed, jealous of 
foreign interference, and unwilling to. release a 
prisoner whose talents might again prove detri- 
mental to his Country, prevented the application 
of the Envoys, by strangling the unhappy Tuscan 
in his dungeon. 

* One of these Essays, De TintinndMii, was suggested by the 
prohibition of Belis in Turkey} tLnoihetf De Bquuleo, by the vari. 
ous instruments of torture which the brutality of Maggi's oppres- ' 
won continnaily employed before his eyes. We have had occasion 
to read both of them with pleasure and with profit. 


Frequent sallies were at €rBt hazarded ¥rit!i n6 
iiicon8iderabie success; but, as the enemy drew 
closer, the garrison was confined within the walls 
by the overwhelming numbers which encircled 
them. The face of the counterscarp was at length 
perforated, and the besiegers, securely established 
in the ditch, commenced their mines. One of 
these, carried under a bastion which protected the 
Arsenal, was watched in every stage of its progress 
by the garrison ; w1k>, without power to obstruct 
Its advance, saw the galleries bored, and knew 
the moment at which tl^ chamber was framed and 
the powder lodged within it. The post, however, 
was far too important to be abandoned, while a 
i^ance remained for its defence, «ven although 
eventual destruction awaited its protectors; and 
each fresh battalion, when it relieved its predecessor, 
mounted guard as men prepared every moment for 
certain death. When at length this mine was sprung, 
the Turks rushed forward over the blazing ruins^ 
tmt they met with unexpected resistance ; evea 
women stood In the gap and mingled in the battle ! 
and the storming party was beaten back after « 
bloody struggle of more than five hours' duration ; 

The breach thus effected was diligently repaired : 
«leep, save in the extreme heat of midday when 
neither party could bear arms, was wholly aban*- 
doned ; harrels filled with earth were rolled to the 
shattered parapet, arranged in a double tier, and 
surmounted by bags of mould constantly moist- 
ened, which formed a secure breastwork. In a 
few days, however, a second mine was sprung in 
another quarter, and the exj^osion was followed 
by a renewed attack* Hie Bishop of Liniaso, 


standing at the riven 'wall, uplifted a Crucifix, and 
encouraged the defenders : while even the noblest 
Cypriote Dames, undismayed by the sight of car- 
,fiage, gathered round him, brought supplies of food 
4md ammunition to the soldiers, or rolled huge 
stones upon the heads of the enemy in the ditch 
beneath. Frustrated in both these assaults, the 
Turks for a time confined diemselves to bombard* 
ment, and swept the ramparts by a perpetual can- 
nonade. Volleysof arrows were aimed upwards, 
so that they might fall perpendicularly within the 
streets ; and in a single day and night five thou* 
«and rounds of artillery are said to have been dis- 
charged. One gate, which seemed most exposed, 
was next attempted. It fronted an outwork 
which had been won after horrible slaughter; 
and in the intermediate space, the Turks having 
piled fascines and logs of a native wood, a kind 
of fir which bums with a sufifbcating vapour 
and most offensive stench, kindled the mass, and 
led it with firesh combustibles during many sue- 
ceeding days. Every effort to extinguish this 
most grievous fire was ineffectual, and yet, even 
against a mode of attack so new and so harassingi 
4he sentinels continued to maintain themselves. 

Now, says Contarini, who has most vividly re- 
oorded this heroic struggle, matters were reduced 
to extremity. Every thing failed within the City, 
excepting the valour of the Commander and tne 
2eal of his followers. Wine and fresh meat, even 
that of such unclean animals as Famine alone can 
induce its miserable victims to taste, were long 
since utterly exhausted; and a little bread for 
food, and a little vinegar mingled with water for 


drink, was all that remained. Three mines were 
already carried under the principal gate, an artifi- 
cial mound of earth was raised to a greater height 
than the battlements, and, the besiegers all around, 
were more than ever indefatigable. Of the Italian 
troops in the garrison only five hundred remained 
unwounded, and these were worn down by per- 
petual exposure to heat, toil, hunger and watch- 
ing ; of the Greeks the greater and better part had 
altogether perished. Neither medicine, nor surgical 
aid was attainable for the sick and hurt ; and the 
-few troops still capableofbearing arms appeared to 
be supported much less by physical strength than 
by indomitable vigour of spirit. It was under 
-these most calamitous circumstances that, on the 
20th of July, the chief inhabitants addressed a 
Memorial to Bragadino, couched in a tone of 
humblest supplication; and imploring him, that 
since the City, without defenders, without pro- 
visions, without hope of succour, was manifestly 
no longer tenable; since they had heretofore, 
while a chance of success existed, wOlingly placed 
their lives and fortunes at his disposal, for the 
service of the Republic ; that he would now con- 
sent to accept honourable conditions ; by which 
alone he might preserve their wives and daughters 
from dishonour, their sons from captivity or the^ 
sword; or perhaps from a fate of yet greater 
horror, the everlasting destruction of their Souls 
by a forced abandonment of their Faith. To this 
remonstrance the Governor replied that their fears 
were misplaced, that relief was at hand, and that 
he would instantly despatch a frigate to Candia, 
which could not fail to bring back supplies and 


reinforcements, and with them the certainty of ulti- 
mate deliverance. 

During the following ten days, so powerful was 
the effect . of the Turkish mines, that scarcely a 
3ingle point in the ramparts was left unshattered. 
Bragadino, nevertheless, continued obstinately to 
reject all suggestions of surrender. It was at 
length announced to him that ammunition had 
failed, and that the magazines contained no more 
than seven barrels of powder ; and thus deprived 
of the remotest hope of protracting defence, he 
consented to beat a parley, at noon on the 1st of 
August. Hostages were immediately interchanged, 
and a very few hours sufficed for the adjustment 
of terms, which appeared to be regulated far more 
hy a recollection of the honourable resistance 
hitherto maintained by the garrison, than by the 
sad straits to which it was finally reduced. The 
troops . were to be landed in Candia by Turkish 
vessels ; they were to retain all their property and 
arms, five pieces of cannon, and three horses for 
the principal officers. Similar conditions were 
granted to the Citizens who chose to expatriate; 
and such as preferred abiding in their native seats 
received a guarantee for the security of their lives* 
honour, and possessions. As an earnest of fidelity, 
forty Galleys immediately entered the harbour, 
and partial embarkation commenced on the day 
following. It was with mutual expressions of 
profound admiration that the remnant of the gar* 
rison passed through the Turkish lines : the Ita- 
lians were moved with astonishment at the gigantic 
works and countless hosts which they surveyed ; 
for the white turbans, glistening above the trenches 


in a circuit of th?ee miks, struck the eye as if die 
ground were deeply covered with flajces of snow ; 
«nd on the other hand, the pale, weakened and 
emaciated forms of those who had so long and 
with so desperate a valour defied all their efforts, 
extorted, not without some feeling of shame, the 
respect of the Turks. They tendered refreshments 
to their late foes, addressed them with kindness, 
extolled tlieir former constancy, and hade them be 
of good cheer for the future. 

On the morning of the 5th of August^ Braga* 
dino notified to Mustapha that he was prepared to 
surrender the keys of the City ; and that, on re- 
ceiving permission, he would come for that purpose 
to the camp. The reply of the Turkish General 
was couched in terms the most generous and ho- 
nourable; he anticipated pleasure from the i^ 
proaching interview, he acknowledged the valour 
of his rival, and he declared his, readiness, eyery 
where, and on all occasions, to avouch it by tfae 
strongest personal testimony. On the delivery of 
this courteous message, Bragadino, accompanied 
by his chief officers and some Greek gentlemen, 
and escorted by fifty musketeers, rode forth te 
the lines. Himself led the troops ; and, in order 
to display such pomp as it was y^ in his power to 
exhib&, and as the occasion seemed to demand, 
he wore his magisterial purple robes, and was 
shaded by the umbrella which marked his office. 
At the entrance of the Pacha's tent, this gallant 
company was received with due honours; they 
delivered up their arms to the attendants, according 
to the Oriental custom ; and they were then in* 
troduoed to the presence of Mustapha. For 


«while, the conyersadon which ensaed -ranged ovet 
^ftrioue and indifferent mattere; and the Pacha 
veiled his ulterior foal design with consummate 
dissimulation. At length, turning abruptly to Bra^ 
gadinb, he asked what security he intended to offer 
for the safe return of the transports which were to 
bear his soldiers to Candia? To this inquiry Bra* 
gadmo replied, that no mention of security occurred 
in the capitulation. Among his attendant suite, 
one of the most distinguish^ was Antonio Qui* 
Tini, a y<Ming Venetian of nohle biith, of approved 
valour, and of graceful person ; well known also 
to the Tinrkish army as the son of a skilful en- 
gineer, who had long superintended the fortifica* 
tions of Nicosia. Pointing to that youth, Musta- 
pha required him as a hostage ; and when Braga- 
dino firmly rejected the demand, the Pacha, leap- 
ing from the ground with furious gestures, accused 
the Italians, in terms of unmeasured violence, of 
having put to death the Musulmans taken pri- 
soners during ^e siege. Then, on a sign to hk 
Eunuchs, Quirini and the other officers were 
seized, bound, dragged from the pavilion and cat 
to pieces under the Pacha's eyes. Bragadtno, 
reserved for a more cruel and more lingering fate,- 
was thrice ordered to bare his neck to the sword, 
which was thrice withdrawn when it had been 
raised to strike ; and after this repeated infiictioa 
of the chief bitterness of death had passed, he was 
thrown to the ground and deprived of his ears ; 
Ihe Pacha meanwhile asking, with blasphemous 
scorn, why he did not cry to his Saviour for as- 
sistance. This savage outrage was followed by 
the immediate massacre of the attendant escort, 


and of three hundred Christians who had unsuspect- 
ingly trusted themselves in the Camp ; and on the 
second day afterwards, when Mustapha entered 
Famagosta, he ordered Thiepolo, the officer left ijn 
command, to be ignominiously hanged. Then, 
following up these treacherous butcheries by a 
general violation of the Treaty, he seized as pri* 
soners and condemned to the oar the whole gar- 
rison and such Cypriotes as had already em- 
barked. The miseries of Bragadino were pro- 
tracted during ten days longer. Every morning he 
was brought out, laden wit-h heavy baskets of earth, 
and driven to labour on the batteries which he 
had vainly defended ; and each time that he passed 
Mustapha's pavilion he was bowed down, and 
compelled to kiss the ground at the tyrant's feet. 
Then, led down to the sea-shore and fastened in a 
chair, he was hoisted to a yard-arm of one of the 
ships, and a loud signal having been given, he was 
exhibited aloft- to the cowardly derision of the 
Musulman sailors, and the indignant pity of his 
own enslaved comrades. In the end, when all 
power of inflicting further contumely appeared to 
pe exhausted, he was carried to the great Square 
pf Famagosta, stripped upon the public sca£fold, 
chained to a stake, and slowly flayed alive ; while 
Mustapha looked down upon the barbarous spec- 
tacle from a height adjoining the Palace. Un- 
satiated by the dying agonies of. his illustrious 
victim, the Pacha's cruelty pursued even his life- 
less remains. His skin, stuflfed with straw, was 
mounted on a cow, and paraded through the streets, 
with the umbrella held over it in mockery ; and it 
was then suspended at the bowsprit of the Adrni* 


ral's Galley, and displayed as a trophy during the 
voyage to Constantinople. One other base pas- 
sion remained to be gratified, and the Pacha, 
having glutted his revenge, found indulgence, 
some years afterwards, for his avarice. The skin 
of their martyred relative, purchased at a high 
price by the family of Bragadino, was deposited in 
a sepulchral urn in the Church of SS. Giovanni and 
Paolo, where it still remains with a commemo- 
rative inscription*. 

Cyprus was thus won by the Turks, at the cost 
of more than fifty thousand men : and during 
this successful progress of the Ottoman arms at a 
distance from the Lagune, Venice had trembled 
for safety even within her own Gulph. Before 
the close of 1570, the Senate attempted to treat 
with Constantinople ; and the King of Spain, who, 
if Peace had been concluded, would have been ex- 
posed single-handed to the fury of the Infidels, 
was alarmed into activity, and brought to an end 
his long-pending negotiation with the Pope and 
Venice. By ths^t alliance, two hundred Galleys 
and half as many transports, bearing fifty thousand 
infantry and four thousand five hundred horse, 

* The particulars of Mustapha's treachery in his Interview with 
Bragadino, were reported by an eye-witness. The Conte Hercola 
Martenengo attended in his suite; and when dragged to execution, 
owed his life to the intervention of a Eunuch, who concealed him 
at the moment, and afterwards accepting a ransom, demurred to 
release his prisoner, who in the end escaped. The Pacha's suc- 
ceeding cruelties were matters of open notoriety. P. Justinianl, 
delighting in prodigies as much as Livy, and with less excuse, can- 
not dismiss this sad History without a miracle. Bragadino*s head, 
he says, when fixed on a spear, emitted, for three nights, rays glit- 
tering aice those of the Sun, and diffused a marvellous fragrance. 
Lib. xvi. p. 451. 


piovided at the GomBion expense in di£fepent pro* 
poitionfi, and the whole armament placed under the 
command of a Spanish General, was to rendezvous 
at Messina, in the ensuing May. Venice, by incre* 
dible exertion, prepared her contingent by the ap* 
pointed time; but the tardy Spaniards were still 
in arrear, when two hundred Turkish sail, having 
laid waste the Islands between the Morea and the 
Dalmatian coast, without meeting an enemy to 
O}^08e them, pursued their triumphant course 
within the Adriatic itself. Passing Bagusa, and 
sacking Curzola and Lesina, those scenes of early 
Vmetian renown, they spread consternation 
through the LugunCy within which their pcesence 
was hourly expected. Every precaution which 
haste permitted was adopted in the Capital ; and 
\kie anxious Citizens obstructing their canals with 
chains and sunken vessels, and covering the 
aggere with batteries, prepared for an attack, 
sinular to that by which they so greatly suffered 
two Centuries before, when Chiozza was won by 
the Genoese. The Turkish Admiral, however, 
content with the glory of having insulted Venice 
m her own seas; and apprehensive that if he 
protracted his stay, the confederates, by that time 
assembled, would hasten to her relief and blockade 
him in the Gulph, changed his course, after this 
proud demonstration, and made sail for the Morea. 
It was not till the end of August that the Allies 
completed their arrangements, and assembled at 
Messina. The command of their armament was 
entrusted by Philip II to his half-brother, Don 
John of Austria, a bastard whom Charles V had 
acknowledged, whom Philip continued to distin- 


goish with all the honours due to Royal bhrth, and 
who, although scarcely two-and-twenty years of 
age, already manifested qualities which were to 
rank him among the greatest Captains of his time. 
The cold and suspicious policy of the Spanish 
Court clogged this young Prince with a Council 
of War ; whose suggestions of timid caution, if 
they had been implicitly obeyed, might have 
robbed him of his glory : and early in his com* 
mand, that jealousy, which is so frequently the 
bane of combined armaments, was awakened by a 
petty accident. The Allies directed their course 
in the first instance to Cor&, in hope of learning 
tidings of the enemy ; and durmg one of the last 
days of September, an affiray between the crew of 
a Candiote Galley and some troops in the Spanish 
service embarked in her, well nigh occasioned the 
dissolution of the confederacy. lives had already 
been lost in the squabble, when Sebastiano Veniero» 
tiie Venetiui commander, who was near at hand» 
sent on board first an inferior officer and after- 
wards his Captain ; both of whom were chased 
away by the soldiers, and the latter with much 
personal injury. Veniero, indignant at this gross 
afiront offered within sight of his own Flag- ship, 
arrested the Spanish Captain, his Ancient and 
Serjeant, convicted them on plain evidence as 
authors of the tumult, and hanged them summarily 
at his yard-arm. This invasion, as it appeared to 
Don John, of his peculiar authority, was grievously 
vesented ; and although his Council partially suc^ 
ceeded in calming his irritation, they could not 
wholly extinguish it : so that he refused to hold 
any direct communication with Veniero, and trans^ 


acted all affairs relating to the common service 
through the intermediate agency of Agostino 
Barbarigo, one of the Provveditori; a Noble- 
man of sound discretion and great military expe- 

This ill-timed dissension occurred almost at the 
moment at which intelligence was received of the 
station of the Turkish Fleet under. Ali Pacha* 
somewhere in the neighbouring Gulph of Lepanto. 
Nearly equal in numbers^ ; each knowing that his 
enemy was at hand, although not yet precisely in- 
formed as to his position ; each ardent for battle, 
yet believing that his antagonist would not engage 
without compulsion, the two Chiefs manoeuvred 
for a few days in the hope of bringing on the de- 
sired contest; till at day-break on the 7th of 
October they descried each other's sails blackening 
a long range of coast, from the entrance of the 
Bay of Corinth to the far-famed promontory of 
Actium immortalized by the greatest maritime 
battle in Ancient History. No sooner were the 
hostile fleets in sight, than the Spanish Commis- 
doners urgently represented to their Generalissimo 
the great hazard of an engagement, and the neces- 
sity of avoiding it, if possible. But they were indig- 

* ConUurlnl, who gives a detailed lUt of the ships and their Cap. 
tains on both sides, mskes the allied force amoant to two hundred 
and fourteen ssil, the Turkish to two hundred and seventy-five. 
But six Galeasses of the Venetians, from their great site, and the 
superiority of their guns, reduced this excess of the enemy in posi- 
tive numbers very nearly to equality. Dam notices a MS authority 
wliich raises the fleet of the Turks to three hundred and thirty- 
three, that of the allies to two hundred and seventy-one. It may 
safely be admitted that five hundred ships were in presence of each 


nantly silenced by the generous spirit of the 
Prince: 'Activity!' he said, 'not Advice, is 
wanting at such a moment as thisT and firing a 
gun, and displaying at his mast-head the standard 
of the League as a signal for battle, he ordered 
his shallop, and passing from galley to galley, he 
urged zealously upon lus followers every argument 
by which they could be excited or invigorated. 
He pointed at . once to the overwhelming shame- 
and peril of defeat ; to the gain, the glory, and the 
necessity of victory ; assuring them that Our Lord 
and Saviour would succour his own Christians : 
promising them certain triumph if they fought as 
became men, and did but remember that the pre* 
sent was the moment at which they might win 
undying renown, and take just vengeance at one 
blow for all their manifold former wrongs. This 
address was hailed on all sides by entliusiastic 
shouts and vivas^ and by vehement pledges that 
every man would fulfil his duty*. 

Emerging from the intricate channel between 
the Albanian coast and the opposite Islands, and 
doubling the Curzolari rocks, the Echinades of 
antiquity, the combined fleet had full room to 
extend itself in its previously appointed order of 
battle. Six large Venetian Galeasses were dis* 
tributed about half a mile in front of the main 
line, which covered a surface of nearly four miles 
in length ; no more room than sufficed for the 
pass^e of a single ship being left between any 
two Galleys. The right, under Andrea Doria, kept 
the open sea ; the left, commanded by the Prov^ 
veditore Barbarigo, advanced along the Grecian 

* Contarini, 49. 


ebore : in the oentie Doti JoHb took his station, 
supported ob either side hy the Papal and Vene- 
tian oommanden, Marcf Antonio Celonna, and 
V'oniere ; and throttghoutl^^ine, as a testimony of 
•muUial confidence, the dalles were intenningled, 
without any regard to national distinetion. 

Immediately as the Infidels 'were diseovere^, 
oays the animated narrative of Contarini, that 
4ia]^ news ran from ship to lAip. Then began 
the Christians -right joyfully to dleiir tiieir decks, 
''distributing arms in i^ necessary ^quaiters, and 
-accoutring themselves according to their respective 
^duties: some with harqnebusees and halberta, 
-others with iron maces, -pikes, •swords, and poniards. 
1^0 vessel had less than two hundred -soldiers €m 
board ; in ^e flag-ships were three or even four 
hundred. The gunners, meantime, loaded their ord- 
nance with square, round and chain shot, and 
prepared their artificial fire with thepots, grenades, 
carcasses, and other instruments requisite for its 
4ischarge*. All the Christian slaves condemned 
ito the Galleys for their crimes were unchained, 
Testored to entire liberty, •encouraged to fight for 
Jesus through whose mercy they had recovered 
^eedom, and armed in the same manner as tlieir 
^comrades, with sword, targe and cuirass. Mean- 
time the squadrons took up their stations with 
' admirable precision and silence, and thcGaleasses 

* Grenades and carcanea are commonly said not to have been 
•used tiil 1G96, twenty-five yean after the battle of Lepanto ; but 
few dates are more diqmted ihao thoaecoiwected with the mrioua 
InTentions in gunnery. We know not how else to render trmate. 
Pignatte were probably, as we have called them the poU in whick 
wild fire was kept. 

rus flAffTi4«. afi^ 

meate towed farvrard in advance. Every vessel 
was tlieii diseased wkh flags, Btreamers, peoapng, 
banners and banderola, as on a day -of jubilee and 
festivity ; tbe drums, trnaipete, fifes and darions 
aoundc^: a genecal «bout rang tbrough tbe afr> 
siameirt; and eaeb man invokd for himself the 
Eternal Trinity aaad the JB^sed Mother of God; 
while the Priests and many of the Captains ka»* 
tened £rom «tem to stern, beaiiog cmct^ues m 
their hands, and exhorting iht crew to look to Hiss 
who had descended visibly from Heaven to combat 
the enemies of His nadoae. JSaved and inflamed 
by ghostly «eal, this great coanpany assumed* iU^ 
it were, one body, one spirit, and <me will ; careleas 
of death jpd retaining no oAier thought except 
that of fighting for their Saviour: so that yov 
might perceive on a audden a strange mystery and 
a singular mkade of the supreme power of God; 
when in <me instant all feuds and disunions, all 
hatred and malice, however inveterate and arising 
from whatever bitter injuries, which hitherto nei- 
ther the medtati«m of friends nor the terror of 
authority eould allay, were at once eicttnguished* 
Those who had mutually inflicted cnr suiered 
wrong embraced as brethren, and poured out tears 
of affection while they dasped each other in theic 
arms. O blessed and merciful omnipotence of 
God^ how marvellous art thou in thy operatiofia 
upon the fiuthful * I 

The Turks, when first seen, were stationed about 
twelve miles distant, covering the entrance of the 
Gul ph of Patras from Cape Koiogria to MesolonghL 
Mahomet Siroco, Governor of Alexandria, led their 

• Coatarini, 48 b. 

X 2 


right; Ulucci-Ali, an Italian Renegade, and King 
of Algiers, their left ; and the Capudan Ali in person, 
assisted hy two other Pachas, Pertau and Hassan, 
commanded the main battle. Ignorant of the 
numbers of the Christian force, which as it advanced 
from behind the Islands in columns was not yet fiilly 
developed ; and perceiving that Doria with the 
first division, after heaving in sight bore out 
widely to starboard, (in order that he might afford 
free passage for the rest of the fleet,) Ali imagined 
that movement to be preparatory to flight ; and 
having already resolved upon action, in opposition 
to his colleagues, he now felt doubly confident of 
victory, and gave orders for immediate advance. 
The ^eets at first approached each other slowly 
and majestically; the Sun had already passed the 
meridian, and shone therefore dazzhngly in the 
faces of the Turks ; and a westerly breeze spring- 
ing up just before they closed, gave the Allies the 
advantage of wind also ; so that when the can- 
nonade began the smoke was driven fidl upon the 
Infidels. A Corsair who had been sent forward to 
reconnoitre, not having seen the rear division, 
reported erringly of the Christian numbers ; and 
stated moreover that the large. Galeasses in the 
van carried guns only on their forecastles. The 
Turks therefore bore up to them fearlessly, sup- 
posing that when their bows were passed all danger 
was at an end. Great then was their consternation 
when a close^ well-directed and incessant fire, in 
which every shot told, from the admirable level of 
the guns pointed much lower than those of the 
loftier Turkish vessels, burst from each broadside, 
scattering destruction over every object within its 


range. The wind blowing in their teeth kept the. 
Musulmans long exposed to these deadly volleys ; 
and whenever at intervals the smoke cleared away, 
they saw a horrible confusion of shivered spars, 
yards, masts, and rigging: here. Galleys split 
asunder, there, others in flames ; some sinking, 
some floating down the tide, no longer manageable, 
their banks of oars having been shot away ; and 
every where the face of the sea covered with men 
wounded, dead, or drowning*. In this disorder, 
Mahomet Siroco was the first to close with the 
allied left ; and dexterously passing between their 
outermost ship and the land, he tacked rapidly 
upon their stems. Barbarigo in that quarter was 
soon engaged in a most unequal combat with six 
Turkish vessels : and while gallantly cheering his 
men, he was mortally wounded by an arrow, 
which, piercing one of his eyes, deprived him of 
speech, although not of life till three days after 
the battle. Nani, his successor in command, not 
only beat off his numerous enemies, but took one 
of their Galleys ; and the numbers every moment 
becoming more equal, the Turks, dispirited at the 
loss of their first advantage, gave way; Siroco's 
Flag-ship was sunk; and the Admiral himself 
picked up from the waves, covered with wounds, 
and scarcely retaining signs of life, was immedi- 
ately despatched. Not a Musulman ship in that di< 
vision escaped ; a few, which attempted flight, were 
pursued and captured ; most were carried by board- 
ing ; and when their decks were once gained, the 
Christian slaves by whom their oars were manned 
being released and armed, revenged the bitter suf- 



ferings of their captivity by unsparing and indis- 
criminate slaughter. 

In the encounter of the central divisions, All 
and Don John, each readily distinguished by the 
standard of chief command which he bore, singled 
each other from the mel^e ; Veniero and Colonna 
fought "closely beside the Prinee's Reale, and the 
remainder of the hostile squadrons soon joined in 
general combat — the Christians for the most part 
employing fire-arms, the Turks cross-bows and ar- 
chery. Then * the mixed noise of joy and lamen- 
tation made by the conquerors and the conquered, 
the sound of muskets and cannon and many otlier 
warlike instruments, the cloud of smoke which 
obscured the Sun, took away the use of ears and 
eyes and made the fight the sharper and more con- 
fused*.* Thrice was Ali*s Galley boarded, and his 
crew driven to their main mast ; and thrice- were 
the Spaniards repulsed ; till at one critical moment 
both Don John and Veniero, pressed by an immea- 
surably superior force, which had hastened to the 
Pacha's assistance, appeared lost beyond the possi- 
bility of rescue. The seasonable advance of a re- 
serve under the Marquis di Santa Croce restored the 
balance of numbers ; and the self-devotion of two 
Venetian Captains, Loredano and Malipiero, who 
plunged into the thickest fight, diverted peril from 
thehf Chief, at the cost of their own lives. Don 
John was no sooner freed Arom his other opponents 
than, although slightly wounded by an arrow t, he 
renewed combat with his most distinguished anta- 

* Henry, Earl of Monmouth, translation of Paruta, p. 133. 
f Bixar. Hist, de la Ouerre de Cypre., p. 8I»5, a French translatlOD 
by F. de Belleforest GommUi0eoia» 

LSSANTOi. 311: 

gfxnifit \ and a» kw boaiders grappled again with 
the Pacha*s Graliey, atid. sprang once more upon 
k» deck, Ali fell by a musket shot, and his crew 
threw down theiir arms. Accustomed to the mcnre 
civilize<l usages of modem warfare,, we shudder 
when we hear that the Pacha's head was severed 
from his body, set upon the point of a spear 
which Don John bore at that time in hia hand, 
and mounted on the summit of his own mast*. 
The griesly trophy, soon recognized, struck terror 
into the whole Musulman Fleet, and decided the 
hitherto wavering fortune of the day. The Galley 
of Pertau was the next prize which surrendered,, 
her commander himself escaping only by takings to 
his boat. Thirty ships spread all sail in flight ; 
but as their Christian pursuers n eared them, the 
mariners leaped overboard, and few gained the 
land ; so that, in the centre, as in the division of 
Siroco, every Turkish vessel was captured or de« 

The shout of * Victory' &om the main battle of 
the Allies was answered by the same glad word 
from their left, but on the right the engagement 
was still continued with less assured success^ 
Doria, whether from inequality of numbers, or from 
a desire, imputed to him on more ^an this one 
occasion, to expose his own squadron to as little 
hazard as possible, had swept round in a wide and 
distant compass, as if to outflank the enemy ;. and 
had consequently not yet been in action. The 
practised eye of Ulucci-Ali perceived at once the 

* Bizar, p. 239. — Cetait a^tuer du droit de la guerre, mats ceux qui 
aeaient ecorche Brt^ae^Ho dan» Famagmutey ne mmtoiont pea «» avAv 
trmtement, Voltaire, Euai iur les Maws, clz., 


ffreat advantage thus afforded him by the breach 
m the Christian line; and bearing down upon 
fifteen of their ships thus separated from their 
mates, he captured a Maltese and set fire to a 
Venetian Galley. The former was speedily re- 
covered, the latter perished with all her crew. 
By far the most touching incident in this portion 
of the Battle arose out of the strong mutual af- 
fection displayed by three grandsons of Luigi 
Comaro, the valetudinarian who has obtained re- 
nown by his unexpected longevity. One of those 
brave youths was wounded so desperately that he 
could not be removed from the burning vessel ; 
the others might have escaped, but they refused to 
abandon their brother in his extremity, and they 
shared his fate*. Of the singularly rapid alterna- 
tions of fortune during the action, Pietro Justiniani, 
another Venetian, affords a very remarkable in- 
stance. Engaged in company with two Maltese 
ships against Ulucci-Ali's division, he sank three 
Turkish vessels and pursued a fourth. At length 
overpowered by numbers, he received quarter 
from a Musulman by whom he was boarded, and 
soon afterwards, when recaptured by Doria, he was 
able to extend the like generous protection to his 
recent conqueror f. 

The superiority of the Algerine tactics con- 
tinued to baffle Doria when he attempted, too late, 
to occupy the position which he ought to have as- 
sumed in the outset. Ulucci-Ali, having gained 
the wind, was consequently able to renew or to 
avoid combat at pleasu)*e; and perceiving the 
total rout of his friends in the centre, and that a 

• Grattanni, lib. ir. p. 828. t Id. p. 230. 


large division of the conquerois, no longer needed 
in that quarter, was approaching him on one side, 
while Doria menaced him on the other, he boldly 
dashed onward through the line which he had al- 
ready broken; made for the Curzolari and S** 
Maura, and effected his retreat with between twenty 
and thirty of his squadron. This small remnant, 
together with a reserve of about an equal number 
wluch found shelter within the depths of the Gulph 
of Lepanto, was all that remamed of the vast 
Turkish armament after five hours battle. Fear- 
&1 indeed was it, says Contarini, to behold the 
sea discoloured with blood and shrouded with 
corpses; and piteous to mark the numberless 
wounded wretches tossed about by the waves, and 
clinging to shattered pieces of wreck! Here 
might you observe Turks and Christians mingled 
indiscriminately, imploring aid while they sank 
or swam ; or wrestling for mastery, perhaps on 
the very same plank* On all sides were heard 
shouts, or groans, or cries of misery ; and as even- 
ing closed and darkness began to spread over the 
waters, so much more was the spectacle increased 

in horror t. 

Within an hour after sunset, the Christian fleet, 
towing its prizes, had gained a safe anchorage in 
the neighbouring harbour of Petala; where it 
rode without injury through a heavy gale which 
sprang up during the night. The loss of tlie allies 
in killed alone amounted to nearly eight thousand 
men : of the Turks more than twenty-five thousand 
were slain ; nearly four thousand, among whom were 

* One of the fine gronpi in West's Picture of the Battle of La 
Hogue has embodied this description. t Fol. 63. b. 


tirosoBS of Ali, were taken prisoners ; twelve tiioii- 
aand Christian slaves* were released ; one hundred 
and thirty ships of war were captured, all of which, 
with their abundant stores and equipmients, were 
brought to port ; one hundred and thirty were 
abandoned and destroyed, and about eighty were 
sank during the battle *. 

Ali's Galley, as described by Elnolles, who copiesr 
from Bizar, must have been the choicest specimen 
of contemporary ship-building. It was * so goodly 
and beautifull a vessel 1, that for beauty and rich* 
nesse scarce any in the whole ocean was compar- 
able with her. The decke of tliis Gaily was on 
both sides thrice as great as any of the others, and 
made all of blacke walnut-tree like unto ebony, 
checkered, and wrought marvellous faire, with 
divers lively colours and variety of histories. 
There was also in her divers lively counterfeitsy 
engraven and wrought with gold, with so cunning 
a hand, that for the magnificence thereof it miglit 
well have been compared unto some Prince's 
Palace. The cabbin glistened in every place with 
rich hangings wrought with gold twist and set 
with divers sorts of precious stones, with certaine 

* We haye nearly foUoved Contarinl's numbers, who states the 
killed among the allies to have been precisely seven thousand six 
hundred and forty-rix, of whom two thousand were Spaniards, eight 
hundred Romans, and the remainder Venetians. Among these, 
Venice lost one Flag. Officer, (^Capitano di Fand^ Barbarigo, and 
seyenteen Captains. The same writer calculates the Turks killed 
at twenty>fiye thousand one hundred and twenty-four, their pri- 
■oners at three thousand four hundred and eighty'Six. KnoUee 
■ays twelve thousand Christian slaves were released from the oar, 
Justiniani fifteen thousand. Daru reduces the killed of the allies 
to between four and five theusaad, but he does not cite hla aii> 


smair counterfeits mofil eunittnglj wrought. Be- 
sides this there was alsa found in her great store 
of the Bassft's rich appareU wrought with the 
needle, so curiouBly and richly embossed with silver 
and gold that his great lord and master Selymus* 
himselfe could hardly put on more royal or rich 
attire.' The Pacha fell by the hand of a Mace- 
donian in the service of the Venetian Arsenal, 
who was knighted by Don John, and received a 
more substantial- reward in a pension of tliree 
hundred ducats, and the casket of die slain Mur 
sulman leader, containing six thousand more. To 
the same fortunate soldier also was allotted, as liis 
spoil, the massive silver-gilt staff (the Burrell, as 
Knoiles terms it) of the Pacha's standard. It 
was covered with Turkish inscriptions; * Allah 
guides and aids his Faithful in worthy enterprises r 
Allah favours Mohammed;' and another more 
familiar to our ears, * There is but one Ckxi, and 
Mohammed is his Prophet/ The Greek, on his 
return to Venice, sold this prize to a Goldsmith, 
from whom it was redeemed by the Senate at the 
cost of one ducat for each ounce ; a price which 
appears to be recorded as inordinate, but which a 
just feeling of national pride could deem scarcely 
more than the value of so distinguished a trophy*. 
Ventero hastened to announce this glad intel- 
ligence to his Countrymen, and so spee^ly was it 
conveyed, that on the tmth morning after the 
Battle the vessel bearing his despatches entered 
the Port of Lido. It arrived off land at the hour 
in which the Piazza di San Marco is most fre* 
quented ; and much surprise and anxiety was at 

*Bis«r»pp.8ft7rM5. KnoilM, p. 864. 


first excited by the appearance of a ship of war 
steering between the Two Castles, and crowded 
on its deck by mariners and soldiers in Turkish 
uniforms, with which the crew had clothed them- 
selves out of their spoils. T)ie vessel saluted the 
Forts as she passed ; and tire brief doubt of the 
populace was rapidly Converted into enthusiastic 
joy when Musulman stapdards were descried 
trailing at her stem. Shouts of * Victory ' hailed 
the landing of the messenger, and happy were 
those among the delighted throng who could kiss 
his hand or touch even his cloak. They escorted 
him to his own home, round which so great was 
the pressure of the multitudes who besieged 
its doors, that his mother, when she learned 
the full extent of her joy, could obtain access 
only by tears and entreaties in order that she 
might greet and embrace her son*. Long was it 
before men's minds could accommodate themselves 
to a complete belief in the unheard of triumph 
which he related. The Doge and his Cortege 
proceeded at once to St Mark's, where they heard 
Te Deum chaunted, and celebrated High Mass. 
Solemn Processions of four days continuance were 
commanded throughout the Venetian dominions ; 
and during many succeeding evenings the several 
Guilds of the Capital, especially the rich Companies 
of woollen and silk manufacturers, and the German 
merchants, paraded through the^ chief streets with 
splendid pageants ; and passed the night with music 
and revelry in illuminated booths adorned as 
we are assured with Pictures by Raffaelle, Michael 
Angelo and Titian. The feast of S^ Justina, on 

^ * Orfttianns, lib. !▼. p. 229. 


which the Battle had been fought, was set apart 
as a perpetual anniversary, and distinguished by 
an andata to the Church dedicated to that holy 
Virgin ; and a coinage was issued from the Mint, 
in which the legend — Mentor ero tui JusUna virgo 
-^seems to have been more calculated to record 
the Saint than the victory. Tintoretto received 
instructions for a Picture of the Battle to decorate 
the Public Library ; Funeral Orations were pro- 
nounced in St Mark's over the slain; and Justi- 
niani speaks with very favourable cnticism of one 
of those speeches delivered by Giovanni Battista 
Kesario *. Another which was written, we know 
not whether it was spoken, by the Historian Paruta, 
may be found at the end of his larger Work ; it is 
a cold and laboured composition, dilating far more 
upon the noble origin of the Republic, her long 
and inviolate independence, and the unrivall^ 
excellencies of her Constitution, than upon that 
which the occasion obviously demanded, the merits 
of the illustrious dead. 

It has been usual loudly to condemn the remiss- 
ness of the Allies after this splendid triumph, to 
tax them with ignorance of the means by which 
profit might be drawn from the bounty of pro- 
pitious Fortune, and to assert that the victory of 
Jjepanto was wholly without results. In defence of 
their inaction, it may be pleaded that when im- 

* Lib. zyi. p. 456. In a page or two before, the aame Historian 
has mentioned with exquisite simplicity, that because he sometimes 
cultivated the Muse in her Poetical as well as in her Prosaic garb, 
he himself penned some verses In commemoration of this great 
victory. It may be sufficient, without citation, Vo state that 
Achelous, Maleus, Giaucus, Ttlton, and Amphitrite, are introduced 
in the narrow compass of fifteen Hexameters, and made to weep 
over the departed Heroes. 

3 18 RsnjBcnoNB on 

joeiMate c^)«»itioa(L8 wsre propoBed, «o gseat had 
|>een tlie Lavoc^ that no mxe than ihre liiouKUMi 
troops weise found dia^iosidile for sexvace. Whether 
the Battk were indead fruitless, may he decided by 
inquiring what would have been the £sAe of Europe 
if the Infidels bad csonqu»!ed.? What new 4>arriec 
was Christendom prepared to raise against the 
establishment, in her fairest portion, of the des* 
potism of the Ottomans — ^perhaps of the imposture 
of their Prophet? Paruta wisely compares the 
victory of Lepanto with that of Salamifi, * whefo- 
ia, though the Greeks did, with incredible vaioui^ 
overcome the mighty Prince Xerxes his fleet, they 
did not yet reap any more signall advantage there- 
by than of having delivered Greece ioat that time 
from the eminent danger of being enslaved l^ 
Barbarians*.' And in either case was such a 
deMveisance nothiTtg ? No sooner was their totai 
defeat announced at Constantinople, than the 
Turks, seized with constematicm, meditated the 
abandonment of their City ; and as if the ccmqudMHES 
were already at the gates, they traversed the streets 
with terror and despair; asking the Cfaristias 
residents, whether, when their victorious brethm 
bad established themselves in the Capital, they 
would permit its present possessors to live in it 
after their own laws and institutions, on the pay- 
ment of a tribute ? But there were good reasons 
why those fears should ^rove groundless. The 
Allies, as we have already shown, were too much en- 
feebled to prosecute active operations ; and it may be 
perceived bettides, by those who discover something 
more than A«man agency in the mighty labyrinth 

* Henry Earl of Monmouth, p. 145. 


mf History, that itiras neither fer t^eir owa glory 
that >the Cia^iiuM were ))en»itted to eimquer, nor 
for their 4>wii merit that the Turks were«aved from 
utter extinction. In the wofds of an acute >KPriter, 
"vvliefle unnsveknent is the more «ure, because 
(the Philosophy by which he has attained it is 
^riiied «nd strengthened hf a sober Piety, ' It 
« an incftruGtive fact, that Ihe interventioB of 
^evidence appeared no lees conspicuously in the 
preservaUo'n of the Turkish power, at an eariier 
period (after the battle of Lepanto) for the ^correo- 
iivn of £urope, than in its repressioii by 'the arms 
^ Sobieski for its deliverance** 

The season, in truth, was mudi too far advaaoed 
to allow any further prosecution of the campaign, 
even if the equipment of the Allies had been unim- 
paired 4 and breaking up for the aj^oaehing 
^nter, Don John sailed for Messina, to rqsose 
4Kpon his richly deserved laurels, while t^e Vene- 
tians resumed their station in Corfu. Not so 
easily, however, can we excuse the weak 
and tardy measures which disgraced the ^^* 
following year ; but Venice by no means 
participates in the blame attaching to them. Her 
preparations were completed on a large «cale 
early in the ^Spring ; and in order to conciliate 
Don John, who had not yet been <;ordially recon- 
ciled to Veniero, that gallant officer, with little 
regard for his late distinguished services, was 
appointed to a separate command, and replaced 
by Giacopo Foscarini ; who, while awaiting the 

* Forster, Mahometanism Unveiled, ii. 483, and tfae passage from 
Llbertus Folieta there cited, which we have paraphrased in the text 
—the consternation of the Turlts, of which tliat Historian speaks. Is 
ConArmed by Gratianus also, de BeUo Ct/p, lib. iy. p. 240. 


slow promised junction of the Spaniards, made a 
bold but abortive attempt on Castel nuovo, in the 
Bay of Cattaro. . So great, on the other hand, were 
the advantages gained by the Turks, on recovery 
from their first natural panic, by these miserable 
delays and petty jealousies of the Confederates ; 
so unbroken was their vigour, so undiminished 
their resources; that, after the destruction of 
almost their whole Navy in the preceding Octo* 
ber, Ulucci-Ali, now Capudan Facha, sailed from 
Constantinople in March, with two hundred Gal- 
leys, to menace and insult Candia. True indeed 
was that which KnoUes calls ' a witty and fit com- 
parison' made by one of the chief Turkish prison* 
ers, Mohammed Pacha of Negropont ; ' that tlie 
battell loste, was unto Selymus as if a man should 
shave his bearde, which would ere long grow 
again ; but that the losse of Cyprus was unto the 
Venetians as the losse of an arme, which once cut 
offe could never be againe recovered *.' 

Gratianus, from whom this anecdote is borrowed, 
relates anoUier equally pointed saying of the 
same ready Musulman. He appears to have been 
confined at Rome, where the Papal Admiral Co* 
lonna, one day visiting his quarters, bade him 
learn from the generous treatment which he then 
experienced, hereafter to mitigate the cruelty used 
by the Turks towards their captives. The Pasha, 
in return, implored his Excellency's pardon, and 
excused the ignorance of his Countrymen, on the 
score of their little practice as prisonersf. 

The Allies also put to sea, notwithstanding the 
inferiority of their numbers, for out of the hundred 

•p. 885. tLIb.T.p.399. 


ships which Philip II had piromised' as his con« 
tingent, not more than twenty-tveo were as yet 
furnished. Each party shrank from the hazard of 
a general battle ; the Confederates on account of 
their weakness, the Turks still smarting from 
llieir recent overthrow; so that although the hos- 
tile Fleets were more than once in each other's 
presence^ in the course of the summer, they sepa- 
rated after partial skirmishes. September had 
nearly passed, before Don John resumed the com- 
mand of an armament which then outnumbered 
the Turks ; and Modon and Navarino were pro- 
posed as objects of attack ; the latter, a Port fertile 
in ancient remembrances, and destined in our own 
times to bestow a rich harvest of glory on other 
combined Fleets. One of those designs was aban- 
doned, the other was unsuccessful ; and at the 
decline of the year, the Confederates parted as 
before, afler a wholly inconclusive campaign. 
This irresolute and unsatisfactory conduct 
of the Spanish Court, justly irritated both ^ijl\ 
the Pope and the Venetians, and the 
haughty dismissal of their remonstrances tended 
to increase disgust. Nor was it long before the 
dilatoriness of the Pontiff himself, in furnishing 
his share of contribution to the general purse, de- 
stroyed whatever little good will continued among 
the Allies ; so that the League, although nominally 
existing, had virtually terminated, when the Divan 
obliquely signified an inclination to negotiate 
separately with Venice. After a lingering discus- 
sion, a Treaty to the following effect was ratified 
in March. Cyprus was wholly abandoned to the 
Porte ; the Fortress of Sopoto, the single conquest 



made by Venice in Albania, was restored : and Ute 
Republic consented to pay a tribute of one him- 
dred thousand ducats during tbe next three yean 
—a condition upon which Selim, who felt how 
materially its attainment would increase hit repu- 
tation, peremptorily insisted. The Pope received 
intelligence of this Peace with unreasonable indig- 
nation ; the King of Spain honestly admitted it» 
necessity and its wisdom ; and a keen and sar> 
csatic commentator on History, in much later 
times, has remarked, that by its conditions, it 
appeared as if the Turks rather than the Chria- 
tians had beeo conquerors in the Battle of Le- 

• VolUlf a, (t nqm. 

iclTieoceU. p-Sfll. sromla, or GtiUeT^liTe. 



FROM A. D. 1573 TO A. D. 1617. 

Visit oi Henry III to Venice— Plague — EmbeUbhrnent of the 
Capital— The Bialto — Story of Bianca Cappello— Alliance .with 
Henry IV — The Alchemist Bra^adino—Interdict of Paul V— 
IVinmpb of Venice— Attempt on die Hfe of Fra Paolo Sarpi— 
Apoiiog9 of James I— War of the Uicocchi. 


A. A. 

LuiGI MoNOElflOO. 

1576. LXXXTin. Sbbastjano Vbkisko. 

1578. Lzxxix. Nicoix) Dafonts. 

1585. xc. Pascals Cicoqka. 

1595. xci. Mabino Gsimaxo. 

1606. xcn. Leonardo Donato. 

1612. xcin. Mabc* Antonio Mbmmo. 

1616. xcxv. Giovanni Bbmbo. 

Once again we open upon a long period of undis- 
turbed tranquillity, another of those breathing- 
times, so greatly needed after the exhaustion 
produced by the fresh losses of each succeeding 
War. The events to which, during the next forty 
years, our attention is chiefly invited by contem- 
porary Historians, sufficiently avouch the barren- 
ness of the Annals of the Republic ; and the Siege 
of Famagosta, and the Triumph of Lepanto, stand 
out in highly relieved contrast with the Festivities 



on the reception of a foreign Prince, and the 
conduct of a War of Pamphlets against the Holy 

In the year following the Turkish Peace, on 
the death of his Brother Charles IX, Henry III 

stealthily quitted his Polish throne for that 
tin! of France ; and in his passage to his new 

dominions through Venice, a route which 
he selected in order to avoid the Protestant States 
of the Empire, he was entertained by the Signory 
with a magnificence upon which the native writers 
have delighted to expatiate. Having been con- 
ducted by the whole Body of Senators, each attired 
in his robes of office and rowed in his own Gon- 
dola, from Malghera to Murano, the King was 
visited on the following morning by the Doge, 
in the customary pomp of the Bucentaur. Each 
Prince, as we are told, on approaching his brother 
Sovereign, raised his bonnet and uncovered him- 
self precisely at the same moment ; and Henry 
having first ennobled* all the artificers at the 
Glass-works, as a token of approbation of their 
great skill, embarked on board a new and gor- 
geous Galley, constructed purposely for his trans- 
port, in which the three hundred and fifty-four 
Sclavonians who formed its crew appeared clad in 
the French Monarch's livery. The illustrious 
company passing round by Lido, attended Mass 
performed by the Patriarch in the Church of San 
Nicolo, and then proceeded to the Noble Palace 
of the Foscari, on the Great Canal, which together 

• By some titular distinction, about which the Signory was care* 
less. It was a privilege, the exercise of which appears to have been 
much affected by foreign Princes on their trarela. 


with the two contiguous mansions of the Giusti- 
niani was assigned to the King as a residence. 
Thirty Patrician Youths were selected as his per- 
sonal attendants ; whenever he went abroad, his 
canopy was supported by six Proweditori ; and 
the City resounded by day with music and shouts 
of joy, and glittered by night with illuminated 
streets and adulatory emblems blazing in artificial 

Tlie House of Valois had long since been 
enrolled in the Golden Book, and Henry, claim- 
ing his privilege of Nobility, assisted at a Sitting 
of the Great Council. In that Assembly, the 
urns containing the gold and silver balls, the 
chance distribution of which decided the primary 
electors of the Pregadi, were offered to nim un- 
covered, and when, exercising his right thus 
obtained, he nominated Giacopo Contarini, more 
than a thousand votes in the subsequent Ballot 
confirmed the Royal choice. On another morn- 
ing, the venerable Titian received the Monarch in 
his Studio, presented him with some choice Pic* 
tures, and entertained his suite with splendour. 
A more boisterous entertainment was prepared for 
the illustrious guest, when he viewed firom his 
balcony a pugilistic combat between the Nicoloti, 
and the Castellani ; the two popular factions into 
which the rabble and the Gondoliers of Venice are 
in the habit of dividing themselves, according to 
the particular half of the City in which they happen 
to be born. Two hundred champions on either 
side contested the Bridge dei Carminiy by the 
prowess of their fists; some blood was harmlessly 
drawn, and many of the leaders were precipitated 


into the Canal below, much to the delight of the 
Princely and noble Spectators; till Henry, willing 
to content both parties Ij^y leaving victory unde- 
cided, gave a signal for suspension of hostilities *. 
Among the wonders exhibited at the Arsenal, 
which the Royal guest next visited, was the con- 

* SanaoTino gives a full accoinit of this apart ; Morosinl atatea 
that cudgels were employed in it, Pt^eg sinwUacknan ligneis Jkstibmt 
editum ; (lib. xii. 693.) if so, it was contrary to general usage, for the 
admission of any weapon was strictly forbidden on pain of death. 
The passion for boxing reigned as strongly amoag the Venetiaoa as 
H does among onraehres ; and the antipathy between t^NieoUOo and a 
Castellano, concerning which some amusing particulars may be found 
in Mr. Rose's Letters (i. 284), seldom evaporated, even in an acciden- 
tal meeting, without an appeal to the fists. Of these there wef« 
three kinds, which for the moat part were eidiibiled on the Bridge 
of San Barnabk. 1. Mottra, a pitched battle between two combatanta, 
the brief rules of which, imported that it was cowardly to strike a 
man when down } that the first blood decided the victory ; that after 
three rounds without blood on either side, they nnat part ftienda ; 
that whoerer could throw his antagooist into the water, gained a 
double victory; and that if a challenger mounted the bridge without 
meeting any opponent, he obtained the greatest of all honours. 
2. Frotta, a chance rencontre of numbers. 3. Ordinata pi^a, a pre- 
arranged battle royal, such as that described in the text; in which 
these who won. iKnaeaaion of tiie Bridge, wese declared victorioaa. 
All these fights were regulated by officers chosen among the two 
parties themselves, and named Parini : and the Nobles, who, no less 
than the Populace, were numbered in one or other of the ranks, 
ahvays humoured the lower classes by aliecting staunch partiaan- 
ahip. The reigning Doge, on account of the aite of the PahMe, was 
invariably a Castellano, and to counterbalance this predominatiiig 
influence, some shrewd Gondolier was yearly elected an Antidoge, 
and like our English Mayor of Garrat, was invested with a moek 
authority, and attended the andata of the Marriage of the Sea, with 
a burlesque Court. Victory in these contests was highly esteemed^ 
and the Women of the beaten party often drove their husbands 
from their homes, with loud reproaches for their dishonour. * Va 
via di qui^ porco, mfame, vituperoio /* (Antonio de Ville,iVBOMW 
ckia, ap, Gnevii TAss. vol. ▼. pan pMt* p. 368.) 


stmctioii and e<]^ipmeiit of an entire Galley from 
its Tarious pieces of framework prepared before- 
hand, while he partook of a collation *. Nor has 
it been omitted to the glory of the Venetian con- 
fectionary that the table on that occasion was 
decorated with rare, but most uncomfortable ap- 
poinUnents ; the fruits, napkins, knives, forks, and 
plates being formed of sugar. At a subsequent 
banquet in the Ducal Palace, three hundred 
groups of the same frail material, Nymphs, Lioni, 
Ships and Griffins, delighted the eyes of the men 
jmd the palates of the Ladies; to which latter we 
are assured they were presented most gallantly, 
perfavore. After eight days of laborious pleasure, 
the King of France quitted the Adriatic with 
lavish expressions of gratitude ; and the Senate 
considered it worth while to inform posterity of 
his abode in their Capital, by a wordy inscription 
on a marble tablet, which still fronts the eye at 
the summit of the Giants Stairs t* 

• This feat, however snrprisHif, wms perhaps exceeded, when 
George III rlsited Portsmonth after Lord Howe's Victory, in 1794. 
On that occaaioD a x^nety-eight gun ship was launched, brought 
into a wet dock, and completely caulked and coppered, altogether 
in nine hours, in order to exhibit the various processes to the King. 

"* Ben Jeason has marked the chronology of the plot in his mas- 
terpiece Volpone, (wliat Languid presests a more noble Drama?) 
by some lines allusive to these Festivities. — 

" I am now as fresh. 
As hot, as high, and in as jovial plight. 
As when, in that so celebrated scene 
At recitation of our Comedy, 
For entertainment of the great Valoys, 
X acted young AnUnous. 

In another place (ii. 1.) Peregine tells Sir Politick Would-be ' that 
the Lioness in the Tower of London has whelp'd a second time/ 
an event which also occurred in 1906. 


The deatli of Titian, more regretted and more 
remembered than those of all his forty thousand 

fellow Citizens to whom the same Plague 
tird' P^o^^^ fata], gives unhappy distinction to 

the following year ; and during the ravages 
of that Pestilence the very question which has 
been again so much contested of late years among 
differing Medical practitioners, was discussed in 
the presence of the Signory, by the Physicians 
of Padua and Venice. The former denied, the 
latter asserted the doctrine of contagion ; and the 
Senate, little qualified to pronounce a scientific 
judgment, halted for a long time between the con- 
flicting opinions ; till the boldness of the Paduans, 
who fearlessly exposed themselves to all hazards 
in the chambers of the sick and dying, for a time 
unhappily prevailed. Four days, however, had 
scarcely passed after the relaxation of sanitary 
precautions, before the frightful disease spread 
rapidly through those Sestieri of the City which 
had hitherto escaped infection : yet notwithstand- 
ing this calamitous practical rebutment of their 
principle, the death of one of their own Body, and 
the disgrace and dismissal of the rest, the Non-con- 
tagionists so obstinately persisted in their first 
error, that there were those who wished to pur- 
sue them by legal penalties*. Great as was the 
surrounding mortality, the Magistrates remained 
undismayed at their respective posts; and, al- 
though not unfrequently some Noble who had 
addressed the Council in the morning, was borne 
from his Palace a corpse at night, the assemblies 

* MaurocenuSf lib. xU. p. 626. 


of the Senate were on no occasion intermitted. 
Terror was at its height, human aid was powerless, 
and hope had failed, when Moncenigo, afler so* 
lemn Mass in St. Mark's, registered a vow — in the 
presence of as many Citizens as the miserable state 
of the Capital permitted to gather round him,— - 
to found and dedicate, in the name of the Republic, 
a Church in honour of the Redeemer, to endow it 
sumptuously, and to perform a yearly andaia to it, 
on the return of the day on which Venice should 
become free from her present scourge. If we are 
to believe Morosini, hom that hour amendment 
commenced with a miraculous speed ; for although, 
on the morning before the vow, two hundred 
deaths were announced to the Council, four onlv 
were declared on that which succeeded. Before 
the close of the year the City was restored to 
health, and Palladio was engaged to erect on the 
Giudecca its noblest ornament, the Church of the 
Redentore^ appropriated to the Capucins *. 

The lofty deserts of Sebastiano Veniero, the 
conqueror of Lepanto, were rewarded by the Ducal 
bonnet on the death of Moncenigo ; but he 
enjoyed the prize only for a short time, and '^' ^* 
his brief reign was marked by a great 
public calamity. The Ducal Palace, with the 
exception of its outer walls, was burned to the 
ground by a fire which, but for the seasonable fall 
of the roof, would probably have involved in like 

* The Church of Sta. Maria delle Salute (the front of which is 
shewn in our Plate at p. 274) was founded in consequence of a 
similar tow during a Plagne in 1630 j the first stone was laid on 
the Feast of the Annunciation in the following year, the Birthday 
of Venice, which coincidence is marked by an Inscription on the 
pavement, Unde Origo indeSfUus* 

330 THX RIALtO. 


deBtruction the Mint, the Library and St. Mark's 
itself. One part of the loss consequent on this 
disaster was wholly irreparable, that of the His- 
torical Pictures which decorated many e^Mfftments ; 
^e subjects however were repainted, and in most 
Mistances with great skill. The Government also 
had sufficiently good taste to leave untouched the 
original shell of the Palace, as designed by Filippo 
Calendario in the reign of Marino Faliero ; and 
to rebuild within its most imposing, although per- 
haps somewhat grotesque facades, the irreg^arly 
magnificent pile which still avouches with proud 
testimony the ancient majesty of the fallen Repub- 
lic. During the remainder of this century, the em- 
bellishment of the Capital proceeded rapidly ; the 
Piazza di San Marco was completed ; and the 
wooden bridge, which, during three hundred years, 
had formed the sole communication between the 
two great divisions of the City, was replaced by 
the single marble arch of the far-famed RuUio ; 
an arch long the glory of Venice and the envy 
and the admiration of strangers, till a modem 
utilitarian Tourist discovered that its chief sup- 
posed excellences were in truth defects ; that it was 
erroneous to praise its length of span and lowness 
of spring ; and that it would be far better to sub- 
stitute a cast-iron bridge from the furnaces of 
Rotberham, which might be free from these egre- 
gious £eiults *! Besides these great works, a new 

* Macgill's Troeeh. London and Edinburgh, 1808. The Architect 
of the Rialto was Antonio da Ponte ; it was begun in 1587f and com- 
pleted in 1591 1 the chord of the arch is ninety-six feet ten inchett 
the height of the centre from the water twenty one feet} the ex- 
treme breadth sixty-six feet. 


1 more commodionfl site was chosen for tbe 
Dgeons hitherto constructed in the vaults under 
Palace, and the Prisons now connected with 
; residence of the Doge by the Ponte delta 
^glia*9 and the better known Ponte dei Sospiri^ 
re commenced in 1589. The Minute of the 
nate instructed the Committee of Superintend- 
ce to provide a building piu del grave e del 
ignifico t) and the Prisons which arose in con- 
^uence of those orders, are styled by Coryat 
3 ' fairest/ and by Howard the *' strongest' 
iich either Traveller had visited}. Howard 
ipected the Venetian Prisons in 1778, when he 
and between three and four hundred persons in 
nfinement, many for life and in loathsome and 
rk cells ; and all those in darkness assured him 
it they would have preferred the Galleys for 

To the reign of Nicolo Daponte belongs an 
isode of Venetian History scarcely needing the 
ditions which it has sometimes received 
>m Imagination, to render it fit ground- ^s'^' 
)rk for a Eomance$. Bartolommeo 

The PonU delia FagUa \» so named, because of <dd when the 
bles rode to Uie Council, they dismounted and left their beasts to 
d at that spot — soon the same account the Bell which summoned 
in was called La TratHera, Daru, vol. ▼!. 

DoglioBi, Hist. Vmet. lib. zrili. 

Coryat, Crudities, p. 817. 

M alespinl, who has framed two Novels upon the History of 
inca Cappello {Pmrte ii. Novelle 84, 86), is answerable for many 
litions, particularly that of the Baker's boy who closed the door 
; open by tfie fair one during her assipHrtian. Gahnsi, upon 
cm we have almost wholly rriied (Istsria SelOnm Dswde-M 
xtaiMsamU Ommmo della CamMMei, lih. iiU 4. lr.i^ 8), atalea 
nessly tiaat Jfole^f kni at ihe time was praotaiBwd la Venice 


Cappello, a Noble of ancient lineage, of honour^ 
able station in the Republic, and of brilliant and 
extensive connexions, prized more than all of these 
the beauty of his daughter Bianca, and in his 
hopes already allied her with the loftiest and most 
powerfid House in Venice. Chance however and 
propinquity (that most fertile spring of Love) 
had secretly directed the maiden's own wishes 
towards a Florentine youth of handsome person 
and gallant bearing ; who filled no higher station 
than that of Cashier under the protection of an 
Uncle, in the wealthy Bank of the Salviati, not 
far from the Pallazzo Co/ppellu Pietro Buona- 
ventura, the favoured suitor, in order to secure 
the object of his passion, concealed the poverty 
and obscurity of his birth ; and persuaded her that 
he was a nephew and a partner of the rich Bankers 
by' whom he was in truth but subordhiately em- 
ployed. False keys and the aid of a Governess, 
-—whom the Novelist Malespini somewhat inap- 
propriately describes as una fedele maironay — 
procured the enamoured Bianca nightly egress 
from her Father's Palace to stolen interviews with 
her lover. Not many months elapsed before, 
concealment became no longer possible ; and 
under the dread of separation upon discovery, and 
yet more of a bloody Italian vengeance for her 
dishonour, Bianca resolved to abandon home and 
Country, and to commit herself entirely to the 
adventurer whom she now called husband. Having 
collected her jewels and a well replenished purse % 

* This fact destroys the engraftments of Malespini as to hf r ex- 
treme poverty wben at Florence, and relieTes her also from TeiK 
liOTc's imputaUon. It is quite needless to exaggerate the infamy 
of Bianca Cappello. See Mem, o/the Bomt qfModid, traatlated bf 
Sir R. Clayton, vol. 11. ch. 18. 


threw herself accordingly into a gondola on 
night of the Ist of December, 1563, gained 
-ra Firma, and hastily proceeded to Florence 
ler the guardianship of Pietro. 
The Tuscan Duchy at that time was still nomi- 
ly held by Cosmo del Medici ; but the govem- 
nt of his Capital and all virtual authority had 
in devolved by him on his Son Francesco, to whose 
)tection the fugitives immediately resorted. But 
vas in vain that the young Prince solicited recon- 
iation for Bianca with her indignant family. Her 
,ther, disappointed in his projects of ambition, de- 
ived and abandoned by that daughter upon whom 
d been centered his fondest affections, and brood- 
y upon the misalliance which had sullied, as he 
Glared, the stream of his hitherto uncontaminated 
3od, renounced all further connexion with her, 
id avowed purposes of unremitting revenge; in 
bich he was zealously encouraged by his brother- 
-law Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia. Their 
'St step was to procure the imprisonment of 
ietro's unhappy uncle, who vainly protested his 
•tal unacquaintance with the amour, and died 
iserably after a short confinement. Then repre- 
anting to the X that the disgrace of the Cappelli 
volved in it an unpardonable affront to the whole 
ody of Venetian Nobility, they obtained an edict 
iflicting perpetual banishment on Pietro, and 
ffering a price of two thousand ducats for his head. 
Meantime, a frequent and familiar intercourse 
ith Bianca, her grief, her fears, her defence- 
:ssness, her singular beauty, and her equally 
istinguished powers of mind, struck the imagina- 
on and engrossed the affections of Francesco, dei 


Medici. He loved, and did not plead in vain ; 
yet pending a negotiation of marriage with Joanna 
of Austria to whom he was already plighted, the 
indulgence of his passion was concealed from the. 

public eye. No sooner, however, were his 
jg^; nuptials completed, than, regardless of hia 

Bride, he appointed Pietro his Master of 
the Robes, established Bianca magnificently in a 
Palace adjoining his own, and entertained her aa 
hk avowed Mistress. Whether the husband who 
at first contentedly bartered his honour for pa- 
tronage, and formed what the Italians, accustomed 
to such shameless arrangements, name im triait- 
golo equiUUeray afterwards manifested a trouble* 
aome jealousy and was despatched by Francesco's 
orders ; or whether the unextinguished hatred of 
his Venetian enemies at length gratified itself by 
his death*, does not appear certain : but, after 
seven years abode in Florence, he was found mur- 
dered in its streets. Every hour now increased 
the Prince's weakness and Bianca's influence ; 
smd not satisfied with reliance upon her rare 
natural endowments, upon In^r unrivalled personal 
charms, her wit and elegance, her vivacity and play:^ 
fulness, and those thousand little pleasing caprices 
which moulded Francesco to her will t, — ^ali which 
her bitterest censurers are compelled to accord to 
her — she is said to have called to her aid the 
superstitions of her time ; to have received into 

•- Halespini assigns a third came, aa iotrigne* of whidi he opealy 
boasted with a Florentine Lady of rank, whose dtefaonour was 
avenged by her Family. 

t BeUetza^ ingemo^ tniNidfd congimnfa eon ma eertafiKondia e ea* 
ptkeipiaenoU, Galoxxi. 


r full confidenoe a Jewiali hag pretending to more 
m human powers; to have employed philtres 
d incantations ; and to have gathered round her 
^bble of Charlatans and Astrologers, all em- 
>yed in the one grand object of heightening and 
ntinuing her lover's attachment Far blacker 
cusationa also rest upon her memory. The 
ince being eagerly desirous of male issue which 
3 marriage bed had as yet &dled to produce, 
ianca is said to have feigned appearances which 
omised gratification to his most ardent wish. 
} the full season at wliich those hopes were ta 
I realized approadied, she lodged in di£ferent 
larters of the City three women at the eve of 
mfinement ; and adroitly presented to Francesco- 
supposititious boy, the produce of one of those 
others. The wretched toob of her iniquitous 
aud, if permitted to live, might have compromised 
3r security, they were therefore speedily removed 
f poison ; and more than a year afterwards, a Bo- 
tgnese lady who had been employed in thia 
^ency, and of whose fidelity some doubts were 
[itertained, received permission to visit hern^ve 
!ity and was assassinated among the mountains 
n her route. The dying amfessions of thb last 
ictim, who survived a few hours after having 
een mortally wounded, revealed these complicated 
hrocities ; and having been transmitted to Ferdi- 
ando, Cardinal d^ Medici, Francesco's brother, 
ley increased his deserved and undissembled ab- 
orrence of the guilly woman who held the Prince 
1 willing thraldom. 
Francesco was mow in poeaessioii of the throne,. 


and he was soon also to be freed from the ties of 

marriage. The splendid reception afforded 
j^g-^* at his Court to a brother of his Mistress, 

and the unlimited confidence which he 
appeared to repose in him, not only so far alienated 
his subjects as to produce a menace of revolt, but 
aggravated the sorrows of his neglected Consort 
and closed them by death in premature child-birth. 
The final object of Bianca's ambition now seemed 
easy of attainment. Many years since, even du- 
ring the lifetime of her husband and at the com- 
mencement of the Duke's infatuated passion, she 
had led him before an Image of the Virgin ; and 
had there received and given a solemn pledge that 
when both were released from their existing bonds 
they would become mutually united by marriage. 
Nevertheless some remaining sense of shame, the 
urgent representations of the Cardinal, and the 
fear of heightening disaffection among his People, 
awhile restrained Francesco from thus completing 
his disgrace. For a short time he absented him- 
self from Florence, and promised to renounce all 
future connexion with Bianca ; till the artifices of 
a Confessor whom she held in pay stifled the voice 
of conscience and of reason, and led him back in- 
sensibly to his former slavery. Before two months 

of widowhood had expired, he privately 
^g-^' married her, without revealing the secret 

even to his brother ; nor was it till during 
a severe illness^ when Ferdinando remonstrated 
upon the gross scandal of the constant attendance 
of a Mistress upon that which might prove his 
death-bed, that he avowed her to be his Wife, and 


3aded the son, Don Antonio, whom she had 
>me him, in extenuation of the folly. 
To his People, these ill omened nuptials were 
)t declared till the year of customary mourning 
id closed* ; -and then, in order that no formal 
tification of his union might be wanting, the 
rand Duke resolved to conform to that usage of 
enice which prohibited the intermarriage of a 
reigner with any of her Noble families ; and to 
smand Bianca not as a daughter of Cappello,. 
It of St. Mark himself. A splendid embassy was> 
;cordingly despatched to the Signory avowing 
le Prince's desire to ally himself with Venice in 
reference to any other European State; and 
raying that his Consort might be affiliated by the 
epublic, in order that he also might claim the pri- 
leges and discharge the duties of an adopted son. 
he former dishonour of Bianca was instantly 
uried in oblivion both by the public authorities 
tid by her own Family. The X forgot their de- 
unciations of vengeance ; her parents re-acknow- 
idged their beloved and long lost daughter with 
Kpressions of tenderest affection ; and the Patri- 
rch Grimani, who had been the most active sti- 
mlator of her early persecution and of the pro- 
icted assassination of her first husband, now re- 
eived the Florentine ambassadors with sacerdotal 
omp on their entrance into the Palazzo CappellL 

* According to Tenhove the notification was received with acorn 
id ridicale, and the populace chanted ribald songs about the 
reets of Florence. (Clayton, ii. ch. xiii. p. 500.) 

H OrOH Jhtca di Toscama 
Ha xpofato unapvtana 
Oentildonna Fenexiana, 



In a brilliant assembly of the Signory, thef Coun- 
cils, and all other public functionaries, 
^157^^^* and amid a throng oi delighted and 
approving relatives, Bianca was formally 
tecoffnized as ' the true and particular daughter 
of the Republic, on account and in considera* 
lion of the many eminent and distinguished qua- 
lities which rendered her worthy of every good 
fortune ; and in order to meet with oorresponding 
feelings the esteem which the Grand Duke had 
manifested towards Venice by this his most pm* 
^ent resolution.' Salvoes of artillery, bonfires and 
illuminations proclaimed the universal joy. The 
Father and Brother of the new bom cmld of the 
State were created CofcaUeriy and allowed prece- 
dence before all others of their class ; * the Signory 
condescended to visit the Florentine Envoys pri- 
vately, and the Senate offered their congratulations 
openly and ceremoniously. Two of the gravest 
Nobles, supported by ninety gentlemen of rank, 
each accompanied by a magnificent suite, ware 
deputed to put Bianca in possession of her newly 
acquired rights, and to assist at the second nuptials 
which Francesco determined to celebrate with 
public solemnities. The Patriarch and all the 
chief Cappelli transferred themselves to Florence, 
as witnesses of this glory of their House ; and in 
order to consummate its aggrandizement, the con- 
sent of the Holy See was obtained for Bianca's 
Coronation y that she might be placed on an 
equality with the former adopted daughters 
of St. Mark, the Queens of Hungary and of 

No baser sacrifice than that which the Venetian 



ovemment and the Cappelli o£fered up at the ghrine 
)f worldly interest, is presented to us by History ; 
ind much as every generous feeling despises that 
klse pride of conventional honour which induced her 
Family to renounce Bianca in her former virtuous 
poverty, far more does it revolt from the mean adu« 
ation with which they were seen to fall down and 
A^orship her subsequent greatness of station and of 
nfamy. But mark the sequel! The Cardinalv 
ilthough seemingjy reconciled, was beset with dis« 
trust, and cherished perpetual and well-founded 
mspicions that his presumptive right of succession 
oiight be frustrated by the artifices of Bianca. If 
Don Antonio* indeed, were legitimated and de* 
blared heir to the throne, so flagrant a violation of 
justice might be remedied after the death of his 
reputed father ; but what if Bianca, although now 
manifestly unfitted for maternity, were again, as 
she more than once seemed plotting, to impose 
upon her credulous husband another boy, who, as 
the presumed issue of wedlock, would be his legal 
successor ! Prompt measures were demanded, 
and it is too probable that the mo»t prompt were 
adopted ; for the Medici were familiar with crime, 
and their domestic annals were written in deeply 
dyed characters of blood. Two daughters sacri- 
ficed to the jealousy of their husbands, a third 
poisoned by the orders of her Father, who, with 
his own hand, put to death one son for the assas- 
sination of another, are among the incidents of 
horror which markibe life of the P' Grand Duke 
Cosmo; and his successor Francesco was now 
destined, as we may reasonably believe, to swell 
this foul catalogue of unnatural murders. 

z 2 


The Cardinal accepted an invitation to the re- 
tired hunting-seat of Poggio a Caiano, and 
l^^ in the course of a week's ahode both the 
Grand Duke and Bianca expired within a 
few hours of each other. The studious care with 
which the bodies were first opened by the Court 
Physicians, and the parade with which they were 
afterwards exhibited to public inspection, tended 
only to increase a natural suspicion that their 
deaths were the result of poison. Whether Ferdi- 
jDando drugged a favourite dish for both, or whe- 
ther that drugged for' him by Bianca, — ^and de- 
tected, as the credulity of his Age believed, by 
a change of colour in his ring*, — was first tasted 
inadvertently by Francesco, and then finished in 
despair by herself, was not ascertained at the time ; 
and it must therefore continue doubtful whether 
this great crime is to be attributed to the ambition 
of a Prince eager to reign, or to the hatred of an 
infuriated Woman. The funeral honours due to 
the rank of the late Grand Duchess were denied 
by Ferdinando on his accession ; and her remains, 
instead of being committed to the splendid ceme- 
tery of the Medici, were interred privately, and 

* This story may appear to derive some countenance fh>m a 
statement by Sir Henry Wotton. In a Character of Ferdinando dei 
Medici, be says, ' This Duke, while I was a private traveller at 
Florence, and went sometime by chance (sure I am without any 
design) to his Court, was pleased out of some gracious conceit 
irhich he took of my fidelity (for nothing else could move it) to 
employ me into Scotland with a Gasket of Antidotes or Preserva- 
tives, wherein he did excel all the Priates of the World.' ReKq, 
Wotton, p. 246. That Casket laid the foundation of Wotton's for- 
tunes ; it was sent to protect James I, before his accession to the 
Crown of England, against a poisoning plot which had come to the 
knowledge of the Grand Puke. 


without a memorial, in the crypt of San Lorenzo ; 
her arms and emblems, wherever blazoned, were 
carefully de&ced ; and, in order more effectually 
to transmit her name with dishonour to Posterity, 
her title was erased from all public documents, be* 
ginning with the Registry of Don Antonio's birth, 
and in its room was substituted la pesrima 

On the accession of Henry IV to the Crown of 
France, Venice was among the first Powers 
which recognised his title ; and the great ^^gj' 
benefit which the King derived from that 
early acknowledgment by a State renowned for 
political sagacity, was repaid by him with lasting 
friendship. He knighted the Ambassadors of the 
Republic, and presented the Treasury of St. Mark's 
with the sword which he had worn at the Battle 
of Yvry. The Signory, in return, enrolled 
the Royal name in the Golden Book, by an.un* 
precedented Ballot of one thousand six hundred 
and thirty assentient votes ; and with yet more 
substantial gratitude they instructed their Ambas- 
sadors to commit to the fiames, in the King's 
presence, certain obligations for considerable sums 
which he had borrowed during his necessities. 
Henry, who was quick of speech and loved plea- 
santry to his heart, first thanked the Envoy with 
becoming courtesy, and then gaily assured him 
tliat he had never before warmed himself at so 
agreeable a fire*. As the Spanish Monarchy 
continued to increase its dominions in Northern 

* These respective interchanges of kindness are noticed in the 
Lettres d^Ossat, iii. 137 L. 149, iv. 463. L. 282. by Maurocenus, Hitt, 
Ve», lib. xy, ad Jin, and by Bayle, ad v» Hadrim, Bern, H. 


Italy, and betrayed an ill-disguised hostility equally 
against France and Venice, &e strict alliance thus 
fortunately established became important to the 
interests of both Countries. 

Henry, indeed, in more than one way, sought 
to Tet)leni8h his coffers by coining the friendship 
of Venice into ready ducats. About the year 
1 590, we are told, there appeared a most eminent 
Alchemist, a Cypriote named Marco Bragadino ; 
who obtained so great renown for the transmuta* 
tion of Mercury into the very finest Gold, that he 
was sought for by all the leading Potentates of 
Europe. He preferred Venice to his other suitors, 
and he was received with much complacency and 
distinction by the Signory ; was housed in a noble 
mansion, and visited by the most wealthy and 
honourable persons, not only of tliat City, but oi 
all Italy, and even by Princes themselves. His 
mode of living was attended with great and almost 
regal magnificence ; he assumed the title of lUus* 
iriamno^ and he was universally esteemed of rare 
and singular merit, and a genuine possessor of the 
yeritable Elixir. An artist of pretensions thus 
lofty readily gained the ear of a needy Sovereign, 
and Henry accordingly addressed an invitation to 
him through his Ambassador. The despatch to 
the Envoy within which the King inclosed this 
gracious summons, exhibits an amusing struggle 
between the very natural desire that Bragadino's 
reported powers might be true, and the conviction 
produced by good sense that they must be alto* 
gether false. ' He has been represented to me,* 
are Henry's words, ' as possessor of that secret, 
in pursuit of which so many Adepts have ex* 


hausted their lives and thdir substance ; and I am 
assured tkat he is also full of good will to my ser« 
vice. There can be no harm, therefore, in dispoftr 
ing him to come to me. Nat thai I believe 
all I have been tM of his Science; but that 
heing thoroughly determined, as I am, iiot to be 
cheated, I dixmld be very sorry if there were 
any impediment againU his coming*.* The Am- 
ba»sador, with more caution than his Master, kept 
back this Letter entrusted to liim, and the event 
proved that his suspicions of roguery were well 
founded; for, after a time, continues Doglioni, 
from whom we borrow the anecdote f, it so hap* 
pened that firagadino, being deserted by his ao» 
quaintance, and recognised in his true character, 
after a short retirement to Padua, betod^ himself 
to Bavaria ; thinking that, like many others who 
had gone there before him, he might easily beguile 
the. reigning Duke. God, however, who is not 
willing that frauds should remain always undis- 
covered, revealed his imposture ; and either through 
fear of torture, or from remorse of ccmscience» 
thinking it time to give over his sins, the hypo- 
crite confessed that what he appeared to do was 
not really done, but was a mere deception of sight 
-"-una j7uraya«cf na/£o»e,—«on which account the 
Duke ordered him to beheaded, and two dogs, who 
always accompanied Imn in golden collars, to be 
shot at the same time ; it being the opinion of 
some that those dogs were no other than Piends» 
of whose service he had obtained mastery, and 

« MS Letter from Henry IVto M. de MidMe, 7 Uiurcb, 1590, dtc4 
by Dara, Ub. zxviUL ▼. ir. p. 2\h, 

t Lib. xvili. p. 977. 


whom he employed as Familiars to cheat the by* 
Btanders' eyes while he exhibited his projection 
and sleight of hand*. 

The aid of France was a tower of strength to ' 
Venice in the memorable contest which she sus- 
tained with the Papacy at the commencement of 
the XVII"* Century. In 1605 the triple Crown 
devolved upon a Pope, who, in his estimate of the 
illimitable extent of Pontifical authority, was 
scarcely surpassed by Hildebrand himself; and 
the accession of Camillo Borghese, as Paul V, 
spread the flames of Ecclesiastical controversy 
through every Court which acknowledged the 
sway of Rome. The barriers which Venice 
throughout her History had maintained with so 
unbending a firmness against the despotism of 
the Vatican, could not but be grievously offensive 
to a Priest affecting unbounded and universal do- 
minion ; and long before the Conclave had elected 
Borghese to the tiara, his jealousy of resistance 
had manifested itself by a declaration to Leonardo 
Donate, the Venetian Ambassador, that if he were 
Pope, and the Republic gave him cause of dia* 
content, he would lose no time in negotiation, 
but would launch an Interdict at once. ' And if I 
were Doge,' was the intrepid and uncompromising 
answer, * I would treat your anathemas with con- 
tempt.' Rarely, indeed, have the course of events 

• Bf r. Rogers, who has made very spirited use of Bragadino, 
(/ta/y, St, MarVs Place,) deprives him of his shadow. Such, no 
doubt, is one of the legitimate pririleges of a Wizard, especially if 
he has studied at Padua, (as we know Arom Michael Scott,) but in 
the present instance it is not so written down by the original aa* 


and the power of circumstances led two parties to 
a more precise fulfilment on both sides of hypo- 
thetical intentions. 

Numerous petty causes conspired at this time to 
increase the want of complacency \7ith which the 
Holy See was ever disposed to regard Venice, 
Two recent Edicts, both founded on a wise do- 
mestic policy, appeared to extinguish every hope 
of increasing the Papal influence in this most re- 
fractory State ; and each, therefore, was bitterly 
resented. By one, it was forbidden that any new 
Church should be erected in the City without 
express permission from Government ; and the 
existence of two hundred Religious Houses, occu* 
pying half the extent of a Capital against the 
enlargement of whose circuit Nature had planted 
insurmountable obstacles, might be justly pleaded 
in defence of this self-preserving ordinance. By 
another decree, resting on the principle of our 
own Statute of Mortmain, any fresh endowment 
of Ecclesiastical establishments was prohibited ; a 
fiscal regulation frequently before promulgated in 
Venice, not unusual in other Countries, sanctioned 
by the similar act of a former Pope, Clement VII, 
in order to check the lavish and extravagant do<- 
nations to the Casa of Loretto, and essential to 
the very existence of Revenue, in any Government 
under which Ecclesiastics claim exemption from 

While Paul regarded these enactments with an 
evil eye, his indignation was swelled beyond con- 
trol by an exercise of Civil authority, which he 
affected to consider a direct inroad upon the power 
of the Keys. Sarraceno, a Canon of Vicenza, not 


yet admitted to fiill Orders, being unsuccessful in 
a base attempt upon the virtue of a Lady of 
honour, his near relative, avenged himself by a flar*- 
ffrant and unmanly outrage on decency. The 
met was proved beyond doubt before the X; and 
evidence being adduced that the same o£fender 
had also broken the seals which closed the Chan- 
cery of his Diocese, during the vacancy of the 
See, the Council issued an oider for his imprison* 
ment. A far more detestable malefactor was 
found in the person of Bernardo Valdemarino^ 
Abbot of Nervesa. Scarcely an atrocity which 
can pollute manhood had escaped commission 
by that most wretched criminal. Extortion, 
cruelty, and general dissoluteness of principles 
and habits seemed but foibles in one who was 
accused of sorcery, and convicted of frequent 
poisonings among the Brotherhood of his Cloister, 
of parricide, of incest, and of the subsequent 
murder of the unhappy sister whom he had violated. 
It was to reclaim these two prisoners from the 
hands of justice, that the Pope in the first instance 
angrily and haughtily appealed to the Venetian 
Ambassador ; and when he found the Senate in* 
flexible, that he issued Briefs denouncing the ut- 
termost spiritual penalties if they persisted in con* 

Before the Nuncio could present those Briefs, 
the death of Grimani* vacated the Ducal throne; 

* Aceordtsff to PaUtiin, the Fapal Legate aeederated Um deatk 
of thia Prince by Uiunderlng menaces of spiritaal vengeance oyer 
his sick coucIl Orinunus Princeps morbo co^fiietatHs agebat oaisiam, 
Legebu Aomcmw fforcrttw Mattkient delonmt horrilnli voce, futf cMi 
•4mareideambemtitiMtmnt,oppres$U, F0ttiJ>ucalet,^,299. 


yet m spite of a declanitioii from Paul, that any 
election under his present displeasure would be void, 
the Council proceeded to ballot, and thehr choice 
fell upon Leonardo Donato, ^ a wise and 
resolute man' as he is characterized by ^^* 
Sir Henry Wotton, and as he soon evinced 
himself to be; and the very Noble who some 
years before had avowed his soom of Papal intern* 
perance. An omen, we are told, was drawn from 
an accident which occurred while the workmen of 
the Arsenal were chairing their new Sovereign round 
the Piazza : some idle boys, after pelting their play« 
mates with snow-balls, began to throw stones, with 
one of which a flag-sta£f in front of the Palace, 
bearing the standard of the Republic, was shattered 
and broken. How, it was whispered, can a reign 
thus commencing be otherwise than stormy *? The 
first act of Donato referred the Papal demands to 
a Synod of Doctors in the University of Padua ; 
assisted by Fra Paolo Sarpi, one of the greatest 
names of which Venice ever boasted, the most ju* 
dicious Theologian, and the most profound Ca- 
nonist and Civilian of his own, or perhaps of any 
other times. The unanimous decision of one hun* 
dred and fifty voices in that assembly approved a 
respectful opposition to the Holy See ; and Paul, 
summoning a Conclave on the receipt of 
that intelligence, prepared, ratified, and April 17. 
promulgated a Bull of Interdict. How 
fearfully such an instrument operated on men's 
minds in the early part of the XIV* Century, and 

• Maurocenas, Ub. xvii. p. 831. The Engflish reader will remember 
that during the night after Charlea I erected his standard at Not« 
tingham, it was blown down by a hnrricane. 


how grievous were the pains it inflicted, we have 
already sufficiently explained, when relating the 
similar rupture between Venice and Clement V, in 
1309 *. The lapse of three hundred years how- 
ever, as the sequel will evince, had deprived that 
once fatal weapon of its original force and keen- 
ness, and had so far weakened the arm by which it 
was hurled, that its point dropped feebly, and 
without power to wound, upon the mark at which 
it was aimed. 

The Senate met this act of injudicious violence 
calmly but energetically ; they recalled their Am- 
bassador from Rome ; they ordered their Clergy 
to surrender, with the seals unbroken, whatever 
despatches might be forwarded to them from the 
Vatican ; they proclaimed that it was the duty of 
all good Citizens to deliver up such copies of the 
Bull as might fall into their hands ; and they 
issued a Protest declaring the Interdict to be null 
and void, and forbidding their Ecclesiastics to obey 
it. The Nuncio, before quitting the City, had the 
mortification of reading this Protest affixed to the 
gates of his own Palace ; and he departed with a 
fearful menace ringing, in his ears from the lips of 
the Doge, that the Republic might perhaps follow 
the example recently offered by several other States, 
and withdraw herself altogether from connexion 
with the Holy See. The conduct of the Repre- 
sentatives of some of the chief foreign Powers 
encouraged the resolution of the Senate ; in Rome, 
the French and Tuscan Ambassadors, on the issue 
of the Bull, paid a marked visit of ceremony to 
their Venetian Brother ; and when the Doge com- 



municated with Sir Henry Wotton, the English 
Resident at Venice, that good and wise Minister 
replied, that ' he could not understand this Romish 
Theology which was contrary to all justice and 
honour.' James I indeed, who loved nothing 
better than an opportunity of displaying his skill 
in controversial Divinity and Ecclesiastical Law, 
manifested the warmest interest in behalf of the 
Republic ; expressing a strong desire for a General 
Council through which he thought God might 
produce happiness out of the present turmoil ; and 
adding that he had proposed such an assembly to 
Clement V, when that rope congratulated him on 
his accession ; but that the suggestion, to his no 
small astonishment, had been rejected * ; an issue 
which may be less surprising to readers of the pre- 
sent day than it appears to have been to the scho-^ 
lastic and disputatious Monarch. 

The Clergy, for the most part, promised ready 
obedience to the Magistrates. One Prelate, the 
Grand Vicar of Padua, more sturdy than his 
Brethren, replied that he would act as the Holy 
Spirit should prompt him ; and he was assuredf, 
with greater wit than reverence, that the Holy 
Spirit had already prompted the X to hang up the 
refractory. The Jesuits, desirous to keep well 
with both parties, resorted to their usual casuistry, 
and intrenched themselves behind a subtle dis- 
tinction. ' We have promised/ they said, * to 
celebrate Divine Services, and we will observe our 
promise ; but as for Mass, that is a different matter, 
which our conscience and our vowed obedience to 

* Hist. deUe cose passate tra */ Sommo Pont Pio Vela Rep. di Venexia^ 
(by Fra Paolo). 

350 xxpuuioir OF THS jssiriTS. 

the Pope will by no means allow us to administer 
against the prohibition of his Holiness.' Such 
half measures little accorded with the vigorous 
determination of the Senate, and in the very same 
hour they ordered the recusants to quit the City 
and territories of the Republic. Willing to possess 
the consolation of companionship in exile, the 
Jesuits forthwith sent deputies to the Capucins ; 
f^esenting that the whole World had fixed its 
eyes on the Order of St. Francis, and that their 
dedsioB would establish a general rule of conduct 
for others. The simplicity of the good Fathers 
was not proof against words so honeyed ; and 
proud of having the eyes of the whole World fiiced 
Qpon them, they closed their Churches, and were 
consequently included in the sentence of banish- 
ment and confiscation. The latter penalty afforded 
no small gain, perhaps no small allurement, to thtt 
Signory ; for a revenue of thirty thousand ducats 
accrued to the public coffers from the pr(^rty of 
the Jesuits only, even within the boundaries of the 
City. Not without a hope of exciting popular 
feeling in their behalf, each of the dnciples of 
Ignatius, as the general Body marched for em- 
barkation, suspended a holy Wafer round his neck, 
in token that Christ was departing together widi 
him ; and on arrival at the quay, each knelt before 
the Vicar of the Patriarch and implored his bless* 
ing. This fidse humility was estimated at its due 
value ; the dislike with which the Citizens in ge« 
neral regarded these wily meddlers had rendered 
an escort necessary for their protection ; and in 
spite of these guards, as the Fathers stepped on 
board the galleys prepared for their transportation, 


tlienr farewell was delivered in portentooB shouts of 
* an date in maV hora /** 

- It would be tedious to follow the remainder of 
this celebrated quarrel through its seTeval stages. 
The Pope threatened to cite the Doge before the 
Inquisition which should condemn him as a He* 
fetic, and he published a Jubilee in order that he 
might expressly exclude Venice fhnn its benefitsf. 
The Jesuits continued to maintain secret corre- 
spondence with the Dogitdo; and hy their inis* 
chievous influence, chiefly over women, in many 
instances they kindled family dissensions and poi- 
soned domestic happiness, by arraying members of 
the same house against each other, for the love, as 
they averred, of God. Numerous controversialists 
entered the lists on either side ; and * in Venice^' 
says Izaak Walton in his admirable Life of Sir 
Henry Wotton, * every man that had a pleasant 
and scoffing wit might safely vent it against the 
Pope, either by free speaking or by libels in print, 
and both became very pleasant to the people.* 
But of the many writings which issued on this oc- 
casion from pens of great Theological distinc- 
tion in their own times, and not yet forgotten by 
Posterity; — ^irom Bellarmine, Colonna, and Ba- 
ronius, among others, on the Papal side; from 
Fra Paolo, Fulgentius, and, as Morosini informs 

* The popular indignation against tfae Jesuits was aracta increased 
'vrhen a number of crucibles were said to have been foand amoog 
tbeir effects after their departure ; an Infallible proof, as was af* 
finned, of their addiction to the forbidden mysteries of Alchemy, 
Their advocates pleaded that the supposed crucibles were, in fact, 
earthen moulds which the Fathers employed to Iceep their cowls la 
Shape. — Laugier, vol. x. p. 391. 

t Maurovenns, lib. zrli. p. 851. 


US, from some Poets also *, on that of Venice ;«— -h 
may be doubted whether more than the titles are 
now explored even by the most ardent curiosity. 
The fame gathered by an Author ' in his generHr 
tion/ rarely affords a certain promise of that 
which is to be the future harvest of ' all timet/ 

That obedience which Spiritual weapons failed 
to win, it was now thought might be obtained by a 
show of secular war ; and the Pope, encouraged by 
assurances of most powerful support from Spain, 
armed such forces as his scanty means permitted, 
and withdrew the treasures of the Casa Santa of 
Loretto to a place of securer deposit. These de* 
monstrations were met by Venice with far more 
than corresponding vigour. In order to animate 
the populace, the Doge, upon appointing an Ad- 
miral of the Fleet, proceeded to the Arsenal; 
from which establishment soldiers lined the way 
on either side to the Mint. One million £ve 
hundred thousand ducats, brought from the 
Treasury, were spread upon a table before the 
Prince; round that table and the arcades of 
the Portico was stretched a chain of solid gold 
one hundred feet in length ; and from the vast 
and glittering heap before him Donato distributed 

t A bulky quarto is now lying before u« containing fourteen con- 
temporary Tracts in defence of the Interdict, some of them by the 
three above-mentioned champions of Paul ; others by more obscurt 
authors, a Bishop of Treriso, two Carmelites, two Franciscans, a 
Boman Advocate, a Cypriote, a Doctor of both CivU and Canon 
Law, and two untitled Pamphleteers. It is plain, from the great 
neatness with which some former possessor has written and in* 
serted a MS Table of contents, that this volume has wee been 
highly treasured and diligently searched. 


their pay to the mariners*. No doubt could exist 
that France would take the field in behalf of the 
Bepublic, if the Spanish Monarch ventured upon 
actual hostility ; and the King of England declared 
through Wotton, that he would use all his endea* 
yours to consolidate a League in favour of Venice, 
and would assist her by sea and land, with men 
and money ; not from enmity against the Pope, 
but from regard for the general independence of 
Sovereigns. But the Court of Madrid had little 
thoughts of forwarding those lofty pretensions of 
the Vatican which might possibly at some future 
time be urged against herself, and the sole object 
of Philip III, in thus apparently espousing tbe- 
cause of Rome, was to secure to himself the ho- 
nourable office of mediation which France alsa 
had already claimed. The Envoys of each Cabinet 
pressed their services upon Paul, who now, con- 
vinced both of his own weakness and of the hollow 
^th of his ally, sought escape from the embroil- 
ment in which he bad rashly involved himself; and 
either justly resenting the delusive promises with 
which Philip had amused his credulity, or believing 
that the negociation of Henry IV would be more 
acceptable to Venice, he in the end entrusted 
that Prince with the conduct of the reconciliation. 
' In the first instance, Paul vaguely demanded 
just satisfaction, but it was by no means easy to 
decide what satisfaction he would consider to be 

* Manrocenus, lib. xvii. p. 873. Darn (toI. iv. lib. zzxii. p. 647) 
relates a similar incideut during a petty war in tbe Valteline, in 
1620, and cites Vittorio Siri (i. 407) as his authority. The octinr- 
rence, doubtless, might be repeated, bat Siri, as we have state 
elsewhere, is not always trustworthy. 

VOL. II. 2 A 


ju8t Hm claiins were then ledueed to form ; and 
tbey comprised the release of the two Ecclealastica 
aad their delivery to the King of France ; sub* 
saissioB to the Interdict for four or five day& ^ tha 
appoiBtment of a day oa wUA the Spiritual cen- 
fiures should be solemi^y abrogated ; the res4oratuM» 
<rf the expelled Monks ; and the suspension of the 
I^aws affecting Ecclesiastical property and foun- 
dations* All these demandsy excepting the fir^ 
were rejected ; the Senate moreover refused to aide 
for the annulment of the Interdict; insisted thai its 
T^ocation diould take place not at Bome, but ab 
Yenice ; and, in (»der to avoid the possibility of a 
lalse record of any proffered atonement, that the^ 
process should be eonducted verbally and not bl 
writing. The spirit of Paul was effectually brokest 
by opposition ; and two slight attempts at modiE- 
ca^on which the Cardinal de Joyeuse» Ambassador 
extraordinary from France, made in hb behalf^ 
were, like their piedeeessors, proposed with &e« 
bleness and abandoned with resignation. He first 
■ asked that an Embassy should be despatdied Uy 
Bome ; secondly, that the Doge and i^gnory aftet 
.attending Mass at St Mark's ^lould receive a 
benediction, to be deemed equivalent to a formal 
remission of the censures. It was answered that 
-such an Embassy might be. interpreted a solidta- 
Urnif and such a benediction an absolution; con* 
sequently that neither could be admitted. At 

length on thjB 2 1st of April, a Secretary of 
im. the Senate delivered the Canon of Yicen^ 

and the Abbot of Nervesa to die French, 
ordinary Resident, in the presence of the Cardinal 
4e Joyeuse ; protesting at the same time that thia 

sumnder wav mtfde onlf In defbceflce fia^ his 
Christian Majest^r, a»d wais mot tc be eonaidere«t 
any abandcmmexrt of the excksiYe ri^to ekkned 
by ^15 RepHblic over her own. Eccleskisticff. Thft 
jrisonersr were tranaferred* by the French Amba»A 
sador to a Papal C'oraraiscrioner, whe in turn re^ 
commended them to ^c cnsrtody of the- officer of 
&e X by whom ^cy had first beenr inlrrodtrcedi. 
Afterthis formality, tkeCafdfnal, aeeompanied by 
the A«ibas»ador, proeeeded to*^ CelhgiOy whose 
members received him sitting and covei«d ; and coit^ 
gratttiatsd them cm Ihe- 'removal of the Interdict* ; 
Qpon which annonncementthe Dbge handed to him 
a Rerocatiott of the P5rote«t, addressed to* all the 
Venetian Clergy. The Caidinal then eelebn^^ 
Mass, but not in' St. Mark's, and not aec(»npanied 
by the ^gnory, who estpressly prohibited ail de- 
monstrations ofpopnlarjoy. Tnus after teeniest 
which had interested, wccited and astonished all 
CJhristendom fbr more than twelve months*, St?. 
Mark, as Houssaye ha& defivered himeetft, Mg- 
nally triumphed over St^ Peter. 

The evil spirit of l^e Papacy waw sttongly exH"- 
bited, however, more than once, by some events 
which succeeded this remarkable schism. Miich 
pains were taken to propagate a belief that the Car- 
dinal de Joyeuse had absolved the Signory ; and it 
was carefully reported that, in order to effect that 
purpose, he had condescended to the swindling trick 
«f making a sign of the Gros» with one hand undev 

*^Si»iiiee)f wme th» flnnwamiiigedrtluit tfa»CMdiiial' mad* tfeta 
flnmwwvmeat stamHng^sad then coneluded his Tery aliort spcvoil 
MtHttff, Maureeenu^ lib. xvii. p. 39d. 

t Not* oa Lettres <i» Cm^* tPO$90t,.voUir, p^ 638^ X. 299* 

2 a2 


his cloak, upon entering the Council Chamher ;. 
thus benevolently conferring remission of sins 
upon ignorant and involuntary recipients. Before 
%he close of the year, an opportunity occurred also 
of exercising a petty revenge, which Paul had npt 
sufficient magnanimity to resist. His predecessor 
had established a right of examining every Patri- 
arch of Venice on his appointment ; and a vacancy 
having occurred and having been filled up, the 
Pope summoned the new Patriarch to Rome, and 
. committed him to a Jesuit for examination*. 
. But the resentment of the Vatican by no meana 
confined itself to those acts of unworthy spiteful- 
ness ; far blacker atrocities were meditated and 
attempted. During a visit which Scioppius, one 
of the most learned, and far the most impudent f 
man of his time, paid to Venice, he informed Fra. 
Paolo that he knew by certain advice how mucH 
the Court of Rome desired either his arrest or his. 
assassination ; at the same time warning him that 
Popes have long arms. Fra Paolo's reply, to say 
the least of it, was singular, and has beea 
remarked by his Biographers scarcely jso much as 

* Dara, lib. zxix. ad Jin, who citea Memorie recondite di Vittona 
• Sirif tomo i. Some particulars of the dispute with Clement VIIT, 
relative to the examination of the Patriarch, may be found io 
Zettres d*Ottat, Tol. iv. pp. 502, 545. L, 286, 290. 

t Scioppius was the person who denounced Sir Henry Wottoa 
for his well known jocular definition of an Ambassador, ' that he 
is an honest man, sent to lye abroad for the good of the Common- 
trealth.* Sir Henry rerenged himself in very sound, vituperative 
liatin, calling Scioppius, among other hard and true nvmntfameluku 
tnaujiiga, el Ronutna Curia luMeiUus ci reaJei/or, qui tcriptitut solummt 
prandere pouU; semicoctus Onmmaticaster ; vespiUoidi et caitmit* 
scorti sputna^ and adding that he had it in his power sexcentai id 
genus Sciopjnetates proferre, ied hoc estet ntpari tterptitinium^ 


it deserves. After stating that he had only de* 
£ended a just cause, and therefore that the Pontiff 
ought not to feel offended ; that he was specially 
included in the puhlic accommodation, and there- 
fore that he could not mistrust the word of a 
Sovereign ; he spoke of assassination on political 
grounds, as being rarely directed against the life 
of a private individual, and of death as an event 
for which he was fully prepared. * If however,* 
he continued, ' they should think to take me alive 
and carry me off to Rome, not all the power of 
the Pope can hinder a man from being more 
master of himself than others can be ; so that my 
life will be more in my own keeping than in that 
of the Pontiff*.' Scioppius Was not deceived ; in 
the October after the annulment of the Interdict, 
Fra Paolo returning late one evening to the Con- 
vent del Serviti, his residence as official Teologo 
of the Republic, was attacked on the neighbouring 
Bridge of Sta. Fosca by five Bravos ; some of 
whom kept watch while the others executed theic 
bloody commission. Fifteen stabs were aimed at 
him, of which only three took effect ; two in the 
neck, one in the cheek close to the nose, where 
the stiletto was turned aside by the bone, and left 
in the wound. The assassins were seen to fly to 
a Gondola in waiting, which conveyed them to the 
Palace of the Nuncio ; and on the same night they 
passed over to Lido, and proceeded in a well- 
armed ten- oared vessel in the direction of Ra- 
venna. No sooner had the report of the attempted 

'• • nta del Vadre Paolo, a Xetda, 1646. p. 152. Bayle (StCyran, 
Rem. B.) is the only writer by whom we remember to have seen 
this very striking avowal noticed. . 

murder «nd Ifae asykim of its perpetrators c^nreadl 
Inroad, than the Palace of the Nuneio was suar- 
l^ounded by throngs denouncing irengeaiiee ; and 
the person of the Minister became so much 
endangered as to require the protecliim of a guard 
horn the X. The plot iwus a&erivva(rds traced to 
ks chief ageiKt; a broken Ve&etian Men^a^ 
ivho %ing fr^asi his creditors had found security 
in Rome, where he ingratiated hhnsdf with the 
Bopghesi so far as to excess to his oorrespcmi* 
ents e3^avagant hopes 4>f leviymg fortune, and 
€7en of the ^obable attaimneixt of a Cardinal's 
Hati Fra Paolo's reeoyeiy was kmg doubtful; 
)i!8 frame, attenuated % hal^ual abstemiousness^ 
^uld in endure great loss cf blood; and the 
vumber of Physictaxis to wkose charge pul^ 
anxiety liad committed him, contnbutdL, as hia 
JBic^apher aaix;afitically relates, to retard his pro- 
gress*. For twenty days he contintied without 
power of motion, and the blackness of the edgea 
^ his wounds excited a fear that the daggers had 
l>een poisoned; an appfehension which increased 
^e aeuteness <k his sufferings, on aecoimt of tiifi 
Severe remedies whit^ it rendered necessary ioft 
connteraelion. Nevertheless, tlwoughout his Itii* 
gering confinement, he presented an e(}aable and 
eheeiful temper, resigning himself to God's will^ 
deprecating in^ry aAer the aasassinstf and even 

<* S* aggtMse oocora ««* altra aocidentale p ra t M us a hi male eS* arm 
ffeaift la taoltipticitii de* M^€i, iA*i im male pmtprio 4e* OnmtSU 
Vita del Padre Paolo. 169. 

• t Ott -a Te|Mitth«t tlwylbad baea taken* he incpMased great Ma- 
ylMcure, * Fotriame mamifadan quakhe eeea ike 4aMi eca»Aolte tt 
ntoado e nocwnento alia Religione,* id fu i7€U 

APOLOGY OF 3AXM9 1. 359 

drawing smiles from his attendants by occasional 
pleasantry. Once, <m some remark offered by 
the Surgeon in waiting on the raggedness of the 
wounds, he replied that they ought not to exhibit 
Buch appearances, since the World said they had 
been dexterously given StUo Romanm Curia^ 
The poniard left by the assassin, was placed, aftet 
Fra Paolo*6 recovery, at the foot of a Crucifix in 
the Church dei Scrvi, where it long remained at 
the Altar of Sta. Maddalena, with a commemo* 
tative inscription Dei FUio^ Liberaiori *. 

The close alliance which we have seen existing 
between Venice and England during the recent 
transactions, ran some hasard of intermptioii 
shortly afterwards, from a literary misunderstasnd- 
ing. When James I reprinted his Apology for 
the Oath of allegiance which it had become neces- 
sary to require after the detection of the Popish 
Plot, and addressed its celebrated Preamble ' to 
all Chnstian Monarchs, free Princes and States/ 
Envoys were despatched to present this volumei 
more worthy of the Cloister than of the Cabinet, 
to the chief Courts of Europe ; by which it was 
refused, neglected or ridiculed, according 
to the temper of their respective Sovereigns, ^g^^* 
The Senate, wishing to keep well no less 
with the King of England than with the Pope, in 
a controversy to which in truth they attached very 
Bttle interest, decreed that the Royal gift should 
be accepted as a token of amity ; should be com- 
mitted to the keeping of the Chief Secretary ; be 
preserved in a cnest under lock and key; and 

* Vila del Padre Paolo, pp. 169, 171. 


be neither exhibited nor removed without express 
permission of the public authorities. . Sir Henry 
Wotton *, however, little contented with the mys- 
terious veneration thus paid to the . fruit of his- 
Master's brains, protested with. great vehemence 
and ang<er against the double-dealing which re- 
ceived the Work with one hand, and rejected it 
with the other ; noticing very justly, that while the 
Defence of the King of England was prohibited; 
printed attacks upon him obtained free circulation^. 
He concluded by announcing that, in consequence 
of this af&ont, he should consider his mission at. 
an end, and that henceforward, so long as he 
remained in the Capital, he must be treated onl^ 
as a private individual. This fierce remonstrance 
called forth an especial embassy of excuse, tp 
England, and a diligent suppression of all Tracta 
offensive to the Royal Author. James is said to 
have received both these notifications with marks 
of approval, and from a portion of Winwpod'a 
Correspondence it appears that Wotton was con- 
sidered to have been needlessly indignant ; ' which 
did very much trouble them here to make a cleanly 
answer thereunto for the salving of th^ Ambassar 
dor's credit, who is censured to have prosecuted 
the matter to an overgreat extremity t-' ' 

We pass on to a war which occupied most of 
the reign of Marc' Antonio Memmo ; a war in 
which little honour was to be won, but 
161?' which terminated usefully in the dispersion 
'., of a formidable race of Pirates, who, dur- 

• Enrico Uttonio, as the name is smoothly Italianised by Diedo 
In his account of this transaction. Tom. ii. lib. xir. 

t Maurocenns, lib. zvUi. p. iStO, Winwood's Memorials, rol. iU. 
p. 77. 


ing nearly a hundred years, had interrupted the^ 
navigation of the Adriatic. Towards the middle 
of the XVIth Century, a horde of Dalmatians *, 
flying from either the tyranny or the justice of 
their Rulers, or seeking shelter from continued 
Turkish invasions, found a secure asylum in the 
strong country bordering upon the coast near 
Spalatro ; and finally established themselves in the 
town of Segna, under the protection of Austria ; 
on . condition of acting as an advanced guard 
against the Sultan. Segna, placed in the recess 
of the Bay of Quamero, is covered* on the land 
Bide by a barrier of uncleared forests and moun . 
tains traversed by rare and perplexed defiles ; 
affording at every step fit ambush for banditti, and 
at the same time being altogether impracticable 
for a regular armed force. On the coast, numerous^ 
intricate channels among reefs and islets, and a 
stormy and shallow sea, rendered, the town inac- 
cessible unless to boats of the lightest burden. It 
was believed too that at any time by lighting a 
fire in one particular cave, an offshore gale might 
be raised under which no vessel could live. The 
Earth, said the credulous Savages, heated and 
irritated in her veins by combustion, speaks her 
rage and agony in a hurricane f. The site, to 
use the: metaphor of Nani, is framed for the grave 
of sailors, and the cradle of Robbers |. ■ . 

■* The Uskoks were originally Bulgars or Volokhs, who had bie- 
come SclaTonians on the subjugation of their Country by the 
Greeks in 1019. They first settled in Clissa, then remored to Zara. 
and finally to Segna.— See concerning them more largely in Von 
Engel, Oetchichte det Unffri$ehem Reieht und seiner NehenUtHder^ ii. 188, 
and Adelang, MUhridatee, 11. 643. 
• -fHtU. det Uicoqvei, p. 8. by Amelot de la Houssaye, from Minnccl. 

t HUi,Venet,Ub, 1.^,30, 

$6t rsx frscoccHT. 

it n eaviiy to he imagmed how ^^is lawless aaul 
fei^oim band ^ Exiies, accustomed to ansHK 
separated from all ties of kindied and of Coiiaftrf ^ 
and witiiOtEt means of a^ncaltoral eaoployizient^ 
iiecame^sdbooten by choice, if i»sfc akboge/^et b^* 
ftaeeaslty; and the traenskioa by wh«c^ the CTs- 
caocfti ^«o named from tjie Rasshm M^oahtet, to 
feap into, lo rem away, and sigaMying * fagkarea^ 
elianged fJEom Bobbers to i^nAea, n not mthcmt 
paraliel among the Biieca&eei»*of the New Woiid 
in ibe iaioiwing oentiiry. Thear msonbens nqu^ 
lacKeaned by ^e mflux of « mixed rabble ef 
varioia Countries, Tmiss, Austdans, Croats, Bal* 
BfBriaaas, Vcncfians, aad ^ven English* ; (forSegna, 
•tt the pnncifile of Romaic -was ^ocisdosed 
a sanctoary &r crime, a»d therefero icadilf 
Veeame ' tlie eoamion aewei^ of 1^ prosciffaed 
from dil Nations. A popoiatioa thus oblaiiied^ 
was stnmortod eqaaliy after the Bomaa maaaer; 
l!ie jmhi^y women whom force had Tavishod 
ftoaaet the neigkbooring districts werecoasideved the 
ataqJe of the Tribe ; imd each widow, oa the loss 
of her hxtsbaikd by aaiy of those coundess haaarda 
to which pcralicai life is eaposed, was oom^ieMed 
tor^iew her matrsmoniai bonds so l<mg as she 
eonthmed to a£ML hope of progeny. So great 
hawev&c was the devastation resulting Iran luibita 
in which every man's hand was mlsed against 
them, that it may be doubted whether at any 

• Le O imi m l 4emamftit pmdnfort ie gk remm d emwmfAm§lmt, 
dMt Uff ai«inBif •fm wmt gmHk kt m m ut de fuaStiy 0t «• amtte fmijkt 
thap^mdu ju trmme de i*mm dm pka frmmdgt mmmm dfAMgtaUnai^ 
Correspottdanee de Leon Bruslart ttbe Frendi AaabMcador %t 
Venkv) JMtiv 4a 14 A»^ ISU. A MS. edited iiy Bam. iHk aoK. 
Tol. ir. p. 868. 


fericRl oflhek eadai/GBice &e Dsooeeki evex^aaasedeA 
«Be IlioasaBd men. The Tvxhi for a long time 
vece the geafceBt safi^ers by tlieif outeages, and 
it mras idle f(sr ike Divan to remonstrate witli 
Menace, pilla^d almoBt equailiy with itself; or 
with ike Court of Austcia, which privately divided 
the fipoil, .and which ooca&ionally stifled the xnur* 
•wmatB of -any more urg^it eomidaiBt, by despatch* 
ing A Commissary to hang up a lew mkerabil# 
wretches, i^ethaps less gm% thm their comrades ; 
K, who, even If «eleeted fsoss the most^de^aefiAte 
Bnd siolm<k>us of the hand^ left ihek haA. emineisee 
io be ^aodiy Oiccupsed by uumbgerkss 4»i»misin|^ 
adspixanabs. ^ G«d kecf you irom the UscootM I* 
Jbeeasae a Prorerb at Constantino^^ when anyone 
washed his irisad immunity &otn the woest iif eyiku 
- Whenever the Ttucks tdhrectod an expediliom 
j^amst these maaraudem, Yenioe also was «een t» 
arm; but it was mo^ to protect her own BaU 
matk Islands fram possible invaaion by the Musui* 
jnans, thavi >to assist in suppsessing the Pimtes. 
&axietimffiB indeed, an Usooek vessel would strike 
io a Vmetiaa Gdky, -and there are instanees ia 
w^iieh aeveirteen acid aneai mxJB^ lieads w€ae 
iic^warded to the Signory^ And exhibited to the 
fopulaoe as distinguished trophies, worthy of 
hearing part in the sumptuous pageant id the 
iimriage of the Adnata. ^ Ko one recotiected,' 
Sfa one of these ooeanans writes Mi&ucei, Arch- 
bishop of Zara, who has composed a History of 
&e U»0OO(M^ ^ to have seen so smny heads at a 
time; ithey made a most agreeable spoctftcle, and 
did kefinite honour to ^ conqfuerors.' Irritated 
% some fresh Tiolenoe, the Venetians at lengidi 


Ubckaded the mouth of the Bay of Quamero ; 
and the Pirates driven inland for susten- 
^•^- ance, pillaged, under the Austrian stand- 
ard, that district of Istria which belonged 
to the Republic. So direct an outrage upon the ter- 
ritory of an ally, compelled the Austrian Govern* 
ment, if it would avoid a War, to measures' of 
unusual severity; and Rabata, a High CounseUor 
of State in Camiola, was deputed to chastize the 
offenders to the full satisfaction of Venice. * 

Among the Chiefs upon whom hcfirst inflicted 
summary punishment, we hear with surprise of 
a Count of Possidaria, who had disgraced his high 
descent by assuming a command among these 
outcasts. Another ruffian who attempted defence, 
and who was cut to pieces, had recently crowned 
a series of unheard-of cruelties, by fastening under 
hatches the crew of a frigate captured from the 
Count of Zara, and then sending them adrift. The 
battlements of Segna were studded with the heads 
of these and other principal malefactors; most of 
the remainder were dispersed, and concealed them- 
selves in the neighbouring fastnesses ; and one 
hundred only of the least guilty were permitted to 
occupy the town. But no sooner were the troops 
withdrawn under whose protection this tardy jus- 
tice had been executed, than the Pirates retumed| 
drunk with fury and thirsting for revenge, mas- 
sacred Rabata with circumstances of the most 
savage barbarity, and reoccupied Segna as their 
own domain. This success, and the impunity with 
which it was permitted to be enjoyed, naturally 
increased the daring of the Uscocchi, At .various 
times in following years, they plundered the Ve- 


netian Islands off their coast ; captured a Galley 
charged with Government despatches and a large 
freight of treasure ; made an attempt upon Pola ; 
and even carried off a ProwedUore^ whom, ex* 
hausted by terror and fatigue, they transported 
from cave to cave, and from mountain to moun- 
tain, till an Austrian detachment tracked and de- 
livered him *. 

It was by no means easy to determine how 
much of this Piracy was tolerated, if not favoured 
by Austria ; how much was committed in spite of 
her control. The wives and daughters of Nobles 
holding high rank in her Court were said to be 
decorated with plundered Venetian jewels, and a 
misintelligence between tlie two Governments, the 
necessary result of suspicion, was brought to its 
height by a greater atrocity than any yet offered 
to the flag of St. Mark. A Galley, commanded 

by Cristoforo Veniero, was surprised and 
teia." captured by a greatly superior force ; and 

the crew being made to pass, one by 

' one, from their own vessel to the Pirates' boats, 

were massacred in cold bloody and their bodies 

* Among many sickening circumstances of horror, Fra Paolo, in 
bis continuation of Slinuccl's History, mentions one most ludicrous 
Incident. A merchant-vessel bound for the Lagune having been 
captured by the Uscocchi, was carried to Segna for a division of 
the spoil } when, to the no small discomfiture of the Pirates, it wa» 
found to consist chiefly of Honey, and many cases of a substance 
unknown to them, but which, from its appearance and sweet taste, 
they believed to be some species of those choice confectionarie* 
for which Venice was celebrated. This sweetmeat, accordingly, 
they devoured most voraciously, both to compensate their disap- 
pointment, and also to gratify their appetite. The consternation of 
the Physicians of Segna may be imagined when, upon examining^ 
the remaining contenta of the boxes, they diacovered them to he- 

366 £N0RMIVtB9 07 THB 17K:0CCHI. 

thrown into tlte sea. Tlie- Captmn himself wa» 
feserved till they gained land, and then hi» head, 
having heen struck from hi9 body, ender the eyes- 
«f sone Ladies of rank^ his passengers, was j^^ed 
«n the table at which his murderers took their 
repasts Dtaring- that accursed banquet, t^e eanni'- 
hals roasted and divided their victtrn'^ heart ; and 
dipping sops of bread in his yet wans blood, 
swallowed l^iem with greedy delight. ' One of 
Idietr svtperstitions^, it appears, encouraged a belief 
that such general participation in the blood of an 
€nei»y was a sure pledge of mutual fidelity ; and* 
Ifcat all who shared in tins inhuman oi^y, were* 
henceforward linked indissolubly together in a 
common destiny. Havings completed these fiend- 
Mke ritesy they partitioned the booty, and mounted 
the cannon of the prize upon their ramparts. 

Loud as were the demands for vengeance which* 
intelligence of this most brutal outrage reused in 
Venice, the Senate was at the time too much en- 
tangled by apprehensions of an open breach with 
Spain, (in defence of the claim of their aXLy die 
Pake of Sayoy to the Principality of Mountferrak,> 
to act with becoming vigour. To their remon- 
strances, the Governor of Segna answered by ex^ 
nressions of empty regret, lamenting that whicL 
he gently termed an accident find a miUake ; amk 
he demurred even as to the restoration of the prize^ 
till he should receive farther instructions from hia. 
Court In spite of the rductance of the Signory^ 
;Hegociations thus contemptuous and unsatii^actoiy 
terminated, as may be supposed, in positive war ;* 
and a contest io glorious and injurious to both* 
parties caaued between Venice and Austria in. 


EriulL Its incidesta are ^ttle woi& nftiratioii *; 
Init one of them is too xenaarkable to be w}K>lly 
'Omitted. The Republic^ more alarmed at thi» 
d)a»ger impending j&om: ^min, thaa at thaD whidi 
she absolutely encountered &ora the enemy against 
whom she had taken the field, sought: and foctnd 
allies in H^land, the State most permanently 
iMDStile to« the Court of Madxid. In eonseqpttiiee 
of a Treaty with th^ Fowex, iouv thousand i£ereti<e 
troops engaged in the Venetian- service uiadfex 
Count John of Nassau, landed on the PiuzzeUa^ 
and,, with the eonccffrenee of its Rdeiss, during 
many days held military possession of their o4heB- 
wise impregnable Capital. But for the fidelity of 
her new friends, Yeniee from that hour might haYe 
sunk into a dependence of the United Provineea ; 
and such in all human transactions is the occa- 
sional folly of the Wise, that the most subtle, the 
most sagacious^,, the most wary, and the most en- 
during Polity which has been known among man- 
kind, might have sealed her own destruction, by 
an act of almost judicial blindness, two Centuries 
before that epoch which afterwards proved to be 
her fullness of lame ! 

The despatch of that Dutch force to the seat of 
war^ the consequent apprehension of losing Gra- 
^isca, one of the strongest Austrian frontier towns 
which the Venetians had long besieged, and the 
ambitious viiews which the Archduke Ferdinand, 
already possessed of the Crown of Bohemia, was 
clirecting upon tliat of the Empire, inclined him to 
terminate a quarrel, which, during three years, had 
ivasted his resources, without a chance of benefit. 

* Tbey have been detailed in two Books by Fwutino Molsesso* 
Yen. 4to. 1623. 


France, by ber mediation, first adjusted the Pa- 
pule between Spain and the Duke of Savoy, to 
whom the Signory had furnished both troops and 
Bubsidieg ; and she then reconciled Venice with 
Austria, by a Treaty ratiiied at Madrid ; 
^*?};j^' the most important terms of which sti- 
pulated the final dispersion of the Us- 
cocchi, and the destruction of tiieir flotilla. Thus 
terminated the existence of a horde of Pirates 
which could have been protracted so long only by 
the duplicity of Austria j and which had cost Ve- 
nice, during the last thirty years, — in her own conl- 
aercial losses, in indemnities paid to the Turks for 
depredations in the Gulph which she affected to 
protect, and, lastly, in expenses of actual war, — 
no less than twenty millions of gold. 



PROU ▲.!>. 1618 TO ▲. D. 1660. 

Conspiracy of 1618 — Sentence of Foscarini —^ Attack upon the 
Council of X— Venetian Mannera— War of Candia. 



xcvi. Antonio Priuli. 

1623. xcvii. Francesco Contahinx. 

1625. xcvin. Giovanni Cornaro. 

1630. xcix. NicoLO Gontarini. 
1632. c. Francesco Erizzo. 
1645. CI. Francesco Molino. 

1655. cii. Carlo Contarini. 

1656. ciii. Francesco Cornaro. 
_ civ. Bbrtuccio Valiero, 

1657. ' ov. Giovanni Pkzaro. 
1660. cvi. DoMiNico Contarini. 

Sir Henry Wotton, who, notwitlistanding his 
recent difference* with the Senate, still remained as 
English Ambassador at Venice, has left an account 
of the Elections of two successive Doges, Nicolo 
DoNATO and Antonio Priui*!, which occurred iu 
1618,' within a month of each other : and from his 
details it appears that, in spite of the complicated 
intermixture of repeated Balloting;*, and Scrutinies, 
not less intrigue was employed in the disposal of 
the Beretia than in that of the Triple Crown. In 

TOL. II. 2 b 


his Dedicatory Epistle*, Wotton writes also as fol- 
lows on the 25th of May, relative to the 
161?' detection of a great Conspiracy which at 
that time was bruited ahroad. ' Tlie whole 
Town is here at present in horror and confusion 
upon the discoyering of a foul and fearful Conspi- 
racy of the French against this State ; whereof no 
less than thirty have already suffered very condign 
punishment, between men strangled in prison^ 
drowned in the silence of the night, and hanged in 
public view ; and yet the bottom is invisible.' 

However meagre may be this notice of an event 
perhaps more familiarly known by name to English 
readers than any other in the History of Venice, 
there are very few authentic particulars which can 
be added to Wotton's brief statement. Muratori 
indeed has scarcely exaggerated the obscurity in 
ivhich this incident is enveloped when he affirms 
that only one &(^ illuminates its darkness ; namely 
that several hundred French and Spaniards en- 
gaged in the service of the Republic were arrested 
and put to death. The researches of Comte Dam 
have brought to light some hitherto unknown con- 
temporary documents ; but even the inexhaustible 
diligence of that most laborious, accurate, and 
valuable writeY has been baf&ed in the hope of 
obtaining certainty as its reward ; and he has been 
compelled to content himself with the addition of 
one nypothesis more to those already proposed in 
explanation of this mystery. 

All that can be positively affirmed is that, during^ 
the summer of 1617, Jacques Pierre, a Norman 
by birth, whose youth had been spent in piratical 

• To a Discoane entiCled TheEUeUoi^ofihe New Duke of Venk9 
^fUr the Death of Qiovamit Bemio, 

ar 1618. Sn 

enterprises in the Levantine seas, from wKich ha 
liad acquiTed no inconsiderable celebrity, fled from 
the service of the Spanish Duke d' Ossuna, Viceroy 
€f Naples; and, having offered himself at the Ar- 
senal of Venice, was engaged there in a subordi* 
Bate office. Not many days after his arrival in the 
Lagune, Pierre denounced to the Inquisitors of 
State a Conspiracy projected, as he said, by the 
Duke d'Ossuna, and favoured by Don Alfonso 
della Cueva, Marquis de Bedemar*, at that time 
resident Ambassador firom Spain. The original 
Minutes of Pierre's disclosures, written in French, 
still exist among the Correspondence of M. Leon 
Bruslart, the contemporary Ambassador from the^ 
Court of France to the Republicf ; and they were 
translated into Italian, with which Language Pierre-^ 
was but imperfectly acquainted, by his friend Re- 
nault, in order ^at they might be presented to th6 
inquisitors. In thn plot, Pierre avowed himself to 
be chief agent ; his pretended abandonment of the 
Duke d'Ossuna fornung one part of the stratagem ; 
and he added that his commission enjoined him to 
seduce the Dutch troops employed in the late war». 
who still remained in Venice and its neighbour- 

* To wliom is attributed tbe «athorfi]iip of the <ele)»mtecl anonyw 
taouii Tract Sqmttimo ddim LUertk Veneki; tke first edition of 
which, with the ezoeptioa of verf few copies, (one of which is aoir 
in the British Maseum,) was destroyed by order of the Slgnory. It 
became so scarce in consequence, that seTcnty years afterwonis 
^rhen reprinted in Itallaa, the text was borrowed by retniBslation 
inm a French rersion by Amelot de la Honssaye. Accident has 
thrown into our possession a MS» fairly transcribed, of the first 

t These papers, according to ft despatch of M. Leon Braslarf, 
dated 19th July, 1618, oni ettei tnwit dedani w» eojfre de Jacqms 
JPierref and thns came into his bands. It is strange that they 
escaped the vigilance of the Inquisition of State. 



hood ; to fire the City ; to seize and massacre the 
Nobles ; to overthrow the existing Govemment ; 
and ultimately to transfer the State to the Spanisl^ 
Crown. The sole immediate step taken by thQ 
Inquisitors in consequence of these revelation^ 
was the secret execution of Spinosa, a Neapolitan, 
whom Pierre described as an emissary of the 
Duke d' Ossuna ; and whom he appears to havQ 
regarded with jealousy as a spy upon bis owi^ 
conduct. For the rest, the Magistrates contented 
themselves, as it seems, by awaiting the maturity 
of the plot with silent vigilance. Ten months 
elapsed during which Pierre communicated on thQ 
one hand with the Duke d'Ossuna, unsuspicious 
of his treachery, and on the other with the Inqui^ 

sitors ; till at the expiration of that tena 
^"s* ^® ^^*^ seized by an order of the X, whil^ 

employed on his duties with the Fleet, and 
drowned without the grant of sufficient, delay evea 
for previous Religious confession. More, perhaps 
many more, than three hundred French and Spa- 
niards engaged in various naval and military capa* 
cities were at the same time delivered to the exe« 
t^utioner: and Renault, after undergoing numerous 
interrogatories, and being placed seven times on the 
Cord, was hanged by one foot on a gibbet on the 
Piazzetta, which day after day presented similar 
exhibitions of horror. 

This evidence of Pierre remained at the time 
concealed in the bosoms of the Inquisitors to 
whom it had been delivered ; and no official dc* 
clarations satisfied public curiosity as to the cause 
of the sanguinary executions which deformed the 
Capital. A rumour indeed^ spread itself abroad^ 


unci, although not traced to any certain authority^ 
was universally credited, that a great peril had 
heen escaped ; that Venice had trembled on th^ 
very brink of destruction ; and that the Spaniards 
had meditated her ruin. Popular fury was accord* 
ingly directed against the Marquis de Bedemar ; 
and so fierce were the menaces of summary ven- 
geance that the Ambassador was forced to protest 
his innocence before the CoUegio^ more in the spirit 
of one deprecating punishment than defying accu« 
sation* He then earnestly solicited protection 
against the rabble surrounding his Palace; foe 
^ God knows/ affirmed his pale and affrighted Se«> 
cretary more than once, ^ the danger of our resi* 
denceis great'' . The Vice-doge, who during the 
interr^num between the death of one Chief Ma- 
gistrate and the election of another presided over 
the Collegio, replied vaguely, coldly, and formally; 
and, the application having been renewed with* 
out any more favourable result, Bedemar, justly 
apprehensive for his safety, seized a pretext of 
withdrawing, till a successor to his embassy was 
appointed. Meantime, considerable doubts were 
entertained, not only by the resident Foreign Minis- 
ters, — especially by that; of France, better informed 
than his brethren through the possession of Pierre'9 
Minutes,— but by the Venetian Senators themselves 
• also, whether any Conspiracy whatever had really 
existed. Nevertheless, in spite of these misgivings 
not obscurely expressed, it was not till the 
expiration of five months that the X pre- Oct. ir* 
sented a Report to the Senate, detailing 
the information which they had received and the 
views upon which tliey had acted. That Report 


howevei' is so manifesUy contradicted In Toanf 
very important instances by Pierre's depositions, 
that it must be considered as drawn np and gar- 
bled solely with the intention of making a cau ; 
and therefore as revealing only so much trntb, 
dashed and brewed with a huge proportion of 
falsehood, as it suited the interests of the Magis** 
trates to exhibit to public view. All mention of the 
denouncements of Pierre during the long period of 
ten months is carefully suppressed, and yet no feet 
in History is more distinctly proved than that he 
did so communicate. The first inthnation of the 
Plot is there said to have been given but a few 
days before it was to have been executed, by two 
Frenchmen, Montcassin and Balthazar Juven^ 
whom Pierre had endeavoured to seduce. ^ Look 
at these Venetians,' said the daring Conspiratox 
one day to his apparent proselytes, * they affect 
to chain the Lion ; but the Lion sometimes de* 
vours his master, especially when that master uses 
bim ill.' According- to their further evidooce, 
some troops despatched by the Duke d'Osauns 
were to land by night on the Piazzetia and to 
occupy all the strong holds of the City ; numerooa 
treasonable agents already within the walk were 
to master the depdts of arms ; and fire, rapine and 
massacre were to bring the enterprise to consum- 

The Papers abovementioned, together with a 
few Letters from the Doge to the Venetian Am* 
bassador at Milan, and one or two other not very 
important documents contained in the Arcliives oi 
Venice, all printed by Comte Dam, are the sole 
authentic vouchers for this Conspiracy now known 


to exist ; and it must be confesaed that they are 
iQsitffiGleiit for its ehicidatioB. I^e Abbe St. Real^ 
who for a long time was esteemed the chief His^ 
toriatt of this dark transaeCion, is an agreeable and 
«ttractiye wnter ; but — since he was unacqisainted 
with the Report of the X ; sinee he does not cite 
the Correspondence of the French Ambassador 
containing i^erre's depositions ; and since he fire* 
4jnent}y raries firom a MS which he does cite. The 
Inierrogeftories c^ the Accu$ed*^ a MS indeed, 
which, even when quoted fetithfully, is ofken con- 
tradicted by the few established facts, and by rm- 
tnerous well-known usages of the Venetian Go* 
vernment, — little hkh can be attached to hn 
iiarrative. It was his opinion, and it has been 
that which has most generally prerailed, that the 
Duke d'Ossuna, the Marquis de Bedemar, and 
Don Pedro di Toledo, GoTemor of Milan, muto- 
Ally concerted a plan for the destruction of Venice ^ 
the chief execution of which was entrusted to Pierre 
and Renault : and that, on the very eye of its ex- 
plosion, Jaffier, one of their band, touched by the 
inagnifieence of the Espousals of the Adriatic 
which he had just witnessed, was shaken from bin 
atern purpose, and revealed the Conspiracy. la 
order to overthrow the latter part oi this hypo- 
thesis, it may be sufficient to state that the first 
executions took place on the 14th of May, 151&, 
and that it was not till the 24th of that month that 
the Feast of Ascension, and its gorgeous Cere- 
monies, occurred in the same year. 

• A translatton of this docameBt is given by Dam : the original 
Italian may be fouad in the Memorie recondite of Vittorio Ski» 
1. 407. 

376 COMTS DARll*S 

Comte Daru, on the other hand, first explains 
a design which it is notorious was entertained by 
the Duke d'Ossuna to convert his Viceroyalty of 
Naples into a Kingdom, the Crown of which| 
wrested from Spain, should be placed on his own 
head. And hence he establishes the impossibility 
that d'Ossuna should at the same moment be plot- 
ting the overthrow of Venice ; that Power whose^ 
assistance, or at least whose connivance was one of 
the weapons most necessary for his success. On 
these grounds, Comte Daru contends that the Duke 
maintained a secret understanding both with th^ 
Signory and the Court of France ; that, refining on 
Political duplicity, he deceived Pierre by really in-» 
^tructing him to gain over the Dutch troops quar« 
tered in the Lagune ; not, however, as his emis^ 
pary supposed, to be employed ultimately for the 
seizure of Venice, but in truth for that of Naples ; 
that Pierre's courage was not proof against the 
dangers with which his apparently most hazardous 
commission beset him ; and that accordingly he 
betrayed his employer, and revealed to the Inqui- 
sitors a Plot which they well knew to be feigned : 
and, lastly, that when the ambitious plans of 
d'Ossuna, partially discovered before their time by 
the Spanish Government, might have compromise^ 
Venice also if they had been fully elucidated ; in 
order to blot out each syllable of evidence whici) 
could bear, even indirectly, upon the transaction, 
£0 far as she was concerned, it was thought ex- 
pedient to remove every individual who had been 
even unwittingly connected with it. So fully was 
this abominable wickedness perpetrated, that both 
the accused and the accusers, the deceivers and th^ 


deceived, tliose either faithless or faithful to their 
treason, the tools who either adhered to or who 
betrayed d'Ossuna, who sought to destroy or ta 
preserve Venice, were alike enveloped in one com* 
xnon fate, and silenced in the same sure keeping 
of the grave* Some few, respecting whose degree 
of participation a slight douht arose, were strangled 
on the avowed principle that all must be put to 
death who were in any way implicated ; others 
were drowned by night, in order that their ex-, 
ecution might make no noise *. Moncassin, one 
of the avowed Informers, was pensioned, spirited 
away to Cyprus, and there despatched in a drunkeu 
quarrel ; and if it be asserted that his companion 
Balthazar Juven was permitted to survive, it is 
because he is the only individual concerning whose 
final destiny we cannot pronounce with certainty t* 
• Of one personage who holds an important sta* 
tion in St. Real's Romance, and yet more so in 
Otway's coarse and boisterous Tragedy, which, by 
dint of some powerful coups de Thedtre^ still 
maintains possession of the English Stage, we 
have hitherto mentioned but the name; and, in 
iact, even for that name we are indebted only to 

* Laurent Brulard, concerning whose fate much discussion arose> 
yas strangled par heaucoup de considerations etpar une suite duparH 
qu*on aoaitpris de mettre & mart tout ceux qui etaient impliques dan^ 
cette affaire. The brothers Desbouleaux were drowned by night ia 
the Canale Otfano, pour ne point dbnaier Vaffaire; and the instruc- 
tions sent to the Admiral who was to drown Pierre were to fulfil- 
Ikis commission avec le moins de bruit possible. Accordingly that ruf^ 
fian, and forty-five of his accomplices, were drowned at once sans 
hrvit. Interrogatoire des Accuses, translated by Daru, vol. viii. § z. 

t It is believed that Balthazar Juven, and a relation of the Mare^i 
thai de Lesdiguieres, who is stated ta have escaped punishment^ 
Are one and the same person* 

378 orwAT*!. 

the mcNTe than saspceted sumnary of tie InHerrd* 
gatwrita ef the Aecused, Aotoine Jaffier, a Fieach 
€apteiiii, is there nacb chief evidence agaiiksft 
Piene i»d Renault, who- aire employed h j d'OBasBa, 
«s he Taguely Btates, to saipRiie some suuritiiiiB 
place helonging to' the Repithlie. This Infonne* 
was xewarded with four thoiisaDd sequins, and i»- 
etrueted fortliwith to quit the Venetian territories ; 
hut having, while at Brescia, renewed comnuna- 
cations with suspected persons, he was brought 
back to the Lagune aiid dtowncd. The muato 
particularities of Jaffier's depositions, and themo* 
five which prompted him to offer them^ (the latto^ 
as we have already shown, resting on a gross 
anaehronisn,) are, we 'beMeve, pure inventicuis by 
St Realr; and Otway has used a Poet's licence to 
palliate still farther deviations frmn aothentiii 
fimtory. Under his hands, Pierre, — ^whon aU ac* 
counts conspire in representmg to us as a foreign, 
Tulgar and mercenary Bravo, equally £sdse to every 
party, and frightened into coi^essioo, — ^is trasa* 
formed into a Venetian Patriot, the proud cham* 
pion of his Country's Liberty ; who declaims in 
good, set, round, customary terms against fAaxerj 
.and oppression ; and who» in the end,, escape^ a 
mode of execution unknown to Venice, by per- 
suading the friend who has betrayed him, and 
iprhom he has consequently renounced, to stab him 
to the heart, in order * to preserve his memory.* 
The weak, whining, vacillating, uxorious Jaffier» 
l>y turns a cut-throat and a King^s-evidence ; now 
pawning, now fondling, and now menacing with 
his dagger an imaginary wife ; first placing his 
comrade's life in jeopardy, then begging it against 


liis win, and finally taking it with his own hanJt 
is a yet more unhappy creation of wayward faa^y ^ 
and it is only in the* names oi the Conspkators, in 
the introduction of an EngH^man, Eliot, (whoa 
lie has brought nearer Temacular spelling than he 
found him, — Hatllot *,) and in the character of 
Bainault, that Otway is borne out by authority* 
The last-mentioned person is described by the 
French Ambassador as a sot, a gambler, and a 
sharper, whose rogueries are well ktiown to all the 
world ; in a word, therefore, as a fit leader of tt 
revolutionary crew^ wrought up, * without the lewt 
Temorse, witii fire and sword if exterminate ' aH 
who bore the stamp of Nobility ; and Tiot as the 
most fitting depository in which Belvidera's honour 
might be lodged as a security for that of her irre* 
«olute husband. 

Whatever h3rpothesi8 may be adopted, be this 
Conspiracy true or false, there is no bloodier, pro- 
bably no blacker page in History than that which 
records its development. Were it not for the 
immeasurable weight of guilt which riiust press 
«ipon the memory of the Bukrs of VeiHce if we 
jBuppose the Flot to have been altogether fictitious^ 
We should assuredly admit that the evidence greatly 
preponderates in favour of that assertion. But 
respect for Human Nature compels us to hesitsrttt 
in admitting a charge so monstrous. Five months 
after the commencement of the executions, either 
a tardy gratitude or a profiine mockery was offered 
to Heaven ; and the Doge and Nobles returned 
thanks for their great deliverance, by a solemn 
service at St. Mark's. 

^ Nani, ill. p. 169. Be was to haye commanded the naval part of 
fbe enterprise* 


. In the dearth of matters of external interest, oq^ 
fittention 18 forcibly attracted to an attempt made 
jby the Great Council, a few years after this Con- 
spiracy, to abridge the formidable authority of the 
X. That Tribunal, long odious to the majority of 
gobies who cowered under its despotism, had 
ffreatly lessened the prestige of infallibility to which 
It was mainly indebted for support, by the disco- 
very of a most painful and irreparable er]:or in one 
of its judgments. Tlie encouragement of secret 
denunciations manifestly gives room for the exer« 
cise of most of the evil passions of Our nature ; 
and the Lions^ mouths under the arcade at the sum- 
mit of the Giants' Stairs, which gaped widely to 
receive anonymous charges, were no doubt far 
more often employed as vehicles of private malice 
than of zeal for the public welfare. To that 
)>aneful mode of discovering offences, the consti- 
tution of the X added a system of espionnag^ 
unparalleled in fraudulence and mystery ; and the 
trade of Informers had become equally gainful^ 
and their, number equally great, with that of 
their detestable predecessors, the delatores of Im- 
perial Rome. It was easy for thos^hired tracker9 
of crime, by banding together, to partition among 
themselves the separate characters of witnesses and 
of accusers ; and no innocence could hope to 
escape the insidious chase, if the cry were once up 
and the blood-hounds were slipped upon its foot* 
ing. , In 1662, Antonio Foscarini, a Cavalier e*^ 
and a Senator, who had once filled the honourable 

* The title of Cavaliere was usually given to a Noble on bis 
return Arom an embansy. NanI, lib. z. p. 561. H« wore a golden 
star embroidered on bis robe. 


effice of Ambassador to the Court of France, and 
who appears also to have been intimately known 
to our own James I, was denounced to the Inqui-. 
sitors by two professed spies of mean condition 
and nearly connected with each other. He was 
accused of frequenting the Spanish Minister's 
Palace by night and in disguise ; and the recent 
occurrences having rendered the Envoy of that 
Cabinet more obnoxious than any other to public 
jealousy, the charge, which if established would 
lead to no less than capital punishment, was 
greedily entertained. The stipulated reward was 
paid, the Secretary of the Ambassador was name4 
as furnishing the information, and the Inquisitors, 
without requiring the testimony of that principal 
and most important evidence, arrested Foscarini. 
After a few private interrogatories, in which the 
dingle denial of the unhappy prisoner availed 
nothing against two concurring witnesses, he was 
strangled in his cell ; and on the next day, his 
body was suspended by one leg from a gallows ia 
the Piazzetiaj from dawn till sunset. Whether as 
an additional mark of ignominy, or as an act of 
grace in order that he might be less easily recog-» 
nized, his features were previously disfigured by 
being bruised on the pavement* 

Success in this first villainous attempt increased 
the daring and the avidity of the Informers, and a 
second Noble was soon afterwards accused of a 
similar crime. One of the Inquisitors, however^ 
more prudent or less obdurate than his coadjutors^ 
now. insisted on the examination of the Spanish 
Secretary ; who peremptorily disavowed all know-- 
Jedge either of the spies or of the denounced Se« 


sator. The ooBvictkiD 8iid con^eniMrtkm of the Ii»* 
formen which followed were soon pabMciy known; 
and the Family of the mupdeced Eoscariiii, stHl bit* 
Inrly smarting onler the disgrace which not only* 
affected the memory of die dead, but, aceofding tor 
tihe rigorous law of Venice, pi>evented his survmng' 
Idndred also from ad^uicement in ibe State, ft^ 
lationed Ast the cdminali might be examined 
once more touching their deoMsed rdadve. It 
fittle accorded, however, widi the policy of ^ X 
to run tiie hanod of rcTeaiing iheir incapacity hj 
revising a former sentence ; and die apptieation was 
lefused under a pntext that the Use witnesses, 
being aheady convicted, wore legally incompetent 
to give evidence. Ne^mheless, bisfore the exe^ 
cution of the male£Eu:!lon, arajde and satmlactory 
Ixmfessioii was obtamed from them through & 
Priest, and was published by the injured Family ; 
so that the X, no longer able to resist thehr just 
Importunity, issued a solemn exculpatory decree,. 
2iearly nine months after the punishment of Fos- 
carini; declaring that his innocence had been 
revealed by Divine Providence miraculously and 
through methods unimaginable by human wisdom. 
It might have been move accordant with truth if 
they had admitted with Bartc^, — a distinguished 
Civilian who earned in his own times the honour- 
able titles of ^ The Star and Luminary of Law^ 
and the Lantern of Equity,' and who was inti*^ 
Biately acquainted with Venetian jurispnidenoe,— 
that the decisions of their Tribunals were to be 
reckoned * among the accidents of Fortune *\ 

*Judicia Veneiorum inter ccuus fbrtuitos reputanda. We bavi^ 
dbMtj followed Sir Henry Wotton in tbe fMd itory «r Foectfl^ 


The sagacity of Woiton foresaw the results of 
this fatal exposure ; ^ surely,' he says, * in three 
hundred and twelve years that the Decemviral Tri- 
bunal hath stood, there was never cast upon it a 
greater blemishf which is likely to breed no good 
consequence upon the whole/ A private quarrel 
which agitated the Capital a f^w years afterwards 
contributed to realize this anticipation. The 
Family of Giotanmi Co&naro, who then ^^^' 
occupied the throne, had long cherished an 
hereditary feud against that of Zeno ; the head of 
which noble House, Renieri, happened to fill the 
high office of one of the Chiefs of the X. Using 
the privileges of that great authority for the grati* 
fication of private resentment, Zeno, in numberless 
mstances, offered vexatious opposition to the 
Doge ; seeking to deprive one of his sons of the 
enjoyment of the Purple which he had just re* 
ceived from the Vatican, and to exclude another 
from his seat in the Great Council. In the former 
attempt he failed ; for although the Law forbade 
the acceptance from Rome of a Benefice by any 

Be profegses to bave made * research of the whole proceedii^ that 
Us Hajesty, to whom he (Foscarfnt) was so well known, may have 
a more due information of this rare and unfortunate example.* It 
Iws been said that the centeace of thh mlserahle lictlm either of 
]UMtei»r of malice was a Toh&ntary error* his crime being too great 
popularity ; and Wotton certainly speaks of some probable ' mix- 
ture of private passion.' Vlttorio Siri, upon whose single authority 
we should by no means rely, writes disparagingly of Foscarini** 
character; and adds, that his fate might have easily been antici- 
pated {.Mem, recond, y. 880). Even to that statement also Wotton 
is not altogether opposed ; < perhaps some light humour to which 
the party was subject, together with the Uint of his former impri- 
poament (an allualoo which we are unable to explain), might pre* 
clpitate the credulity of his judges.' Meliq. fFottom, p. 310. 


son of a reigning Doge, the Cardinars Hat did not 
appear to be included under that designation ; but 
admittance to the Council had been provided for 
no more than two sons of the Prince, and Giorgio^ 
therefore, as the third, was compelled to abandon a 
privilege afforded him only by courtesy. Fired 
^ith indignation at this affront, the hot-blooded 
youth waylaid Zeno with Bravos as he quitted 
the Council chamber of the X at night*, and left 
him for dead under their stilettoes. The wounded 
man, however, recovered ; the attempted assassi** 
nation was traced to its contriver ; and hispunish- 
ment was exile for life and the forfeiture of all pri- 
vileges of Nobility ; an inscription also perpetu^ 
ating the memory of his crime was fixed on the 
ispot of its commission. Not content with this 
isignal triumph, Zeno persisted in displaying yet 
more than former virulence towards his rivals; 
and he inveighed even against a humane provision 
of the Senate permitting the Doge to issue the 
decree which banished his son, unaccompanied by 
the usual formality of his own superscription. Angry 
harangues in the Collegio and in the Council won 
partizans to either side, and the whole Body of 
I'atricians arrayed themselvei in one or other 
of the factions ; and in the end when Zeno prepared 
to submit a revision of the Ducal oath to the 
Great Council, and the X forbade the attempt, 
he disobeyed their injunction, provoked a tumul- 
tuous debate at which many of the Nobles attended 

* The Collegio and the X held their sittings at all hours Inditcrf- 
minately, as occasion required. In the Grand Council the intro* 
^Suction of lights was forbidden, so that the sittings of that Body 
Jtlwa7s terminated with sunset. 


with arms*, and so far interrupted by frequent and 
irregular clamours a temperate explanation which 
the Doge was offering, that it became necessary 
to adjourn the sitting. The Inquisitors visited 
this unwonted scandal with proportionate severity, 
and Zeno, who had once before been banished, 
was condemned to a second exile. 

As the next stated season for the renewal of the 
X approached, this fresh undue exercise of power, 
as it was termed, was bitterly remembered by 
Zeno's numerous friends ; and, on proceeding to 
ballot, not one of the Candidates proposed ob- 
tained sufficient votes to render his election legal. 
The X were thus virtually extinguished. But so vio- 
lent a change in their Constitution justly alarmed 
those who understood and appreciated the infinite 
value of stability in Government, who deprecated 
any Reform even of abuses unless it were gradually 
introduced, and who foresaw in this first specious 
amendment a dreary perspective of boundless future 
Revolutionsf. By the exertions of this less extreme 
party, a Committee was appointed to review the 
functions of the obnoxious Tribunal; and when 
they recommended that the X should no longer be 
permitted to interfere with the Decrees of the 
Great Council, they at the same time declared that 
it was imperatively necessary for the safety of a 

* In general no person was allowed to enter the Council-chamber 
with any weapon ; but adjoining it was a well stored Armoury which 
the Nobles might employ in case of necessity. 

t Da* piu provetti Cittadini «' apprendevano i danni delta novitiL sem- 
pretnai pregiuditiaiet quando sotto titolo di Riforma la mutatione s* in^ 
trude; tarlo pessimo^ che se non s*estingue da prima, guastapretto e cor- 
rode i tMgUo tmoduti Oovemi. Nani, vii. pt 400. 

VOL. II, 2 C 


State governed by an Aristocracy, that some one 
supreme Power should control the otherwise ex- 
cessive licence of its numerous rulers ; and that 
the Council of X performed that duty most satis- 
factorily. Such a Report was little calculated to 
satisfy a Body already encouraging hopes that a 
Tribunal which had long and heavily pressed upon 
their Order was about to be abolished for ever, 
and stormy debates accordingly ensued. On the 
first day, the Council adjourned without coming 
to a decision ; on the second, a vehement invective 
by a popular orator so far carried away the 
hearers, that an annulment of Zeno's sentence was 
proposed by acclamation, and carried by an over* 
whelming majority. The recommendation of the 
Committee would afterwards have inevitably been 
rejected but for the calm eloquence of Batista 
Nani, still preserved to us in the pages of his 
nephew and namesake tlie Historian. Never was 
a greater triumph won over personal feeling and 
private inclination than that which Nani here 
achieved. When he sat down, the Resolutions of 
the Committee were accepted and confirmed ; 
their advocate himself was elected a Chief <^ the 
X ; and in the Instrument which registered this 
dignity, especially honourable mention was intro- 
duced of the great service which he had rendered 
to his Country by preserving her from anarchy. 
Not long afterwards also, so far as the Patricians - 
were concerned, the power of the X was increased ; 
and, in all criminal cases, the Members of the Grand 
Council were subjected to the cognizance of the 
smaller Tribunal; instead of being as hitherto 

syelyn's piCTUfts or rsnsTiAif manners. JBf 

amenable, in common with the refit of their fellow- 
citizens, to the jurisdiction of the XL. Grievous 
indeed was the yoke which the Nobles thus con- 
sented to retain, but upon submission to that yoke 
depended the whole framew(»:k which bound to- 
gether their Sovereignty. The love of power pre« 
vailed, and they were content to purchase entire 
despotism over others by the partial surrender of 
their own freedom. 

Of the state of Venetian manners about the 
period to which we are now advancing, a few 
lively particulars have been transmitted to us by 
one of the most accomplished and observant of 
contemporary English travellers. Evelyn arrived 
at Venice in 1645 in sufficient time to witness the 
pomp of the Marriage of the Adriatic : the Gon- 
dolas appeared to him as so many water-coaches* ; 
the Canale Grande^ from the throng of Nobles 
who took the air upon it, as resembling Hyde 
Park ; the Exchange (/e fabbriche vecchie di Ri- 
aUo) \as nothing so magnificent as our own ; ' but 
of the street which led from it to St. Mark's he 
speaks with rapture. ^ Hence I passed through the 
Merceriaj one of the most delicious streets in the 
World for the sweetnesse of it, and is all the way 
on both sides tapistred, as it were, with cloth of 
gold, rich damasks and other silks, which this shops 
expose and hang before their houses from the first 

* Evelyn some years afterwards likewise, in 1662, speaks of Gon- 
dolas witli no great respect : ' I saw the rich Gondola sent to hia 
Majesty by the State of Venice, bat it was not comparable for 
ywiftness to oar common wherries, though rowed by Venetians.* 
Memmrs ii. 191. Coryat (Crudities, 160), has given a bad character 
of the Gondoliers plying at the Bialto. A pleasant description of 
the modern Gondola may be found in Mr. Rose's Letters, i. 272, 



floore, and with that variety that, for neere halfe 
the yeare spent chiefly in this Citty, I hardly re- 
member to have seene the same piece twice ex- 
posed ; to this add the perfumes, Apothecaries 
shops, and innumerable cages of Nightingales 
which they keepe, that entertaine you with their 
melody from shop to shop, so that shutting 
your eyes you would imagine yourselfe in the 
Country, when indeede you are in the middle of 
the sea. It is almost as silent as the middle of 
a field, there being neither rattling of coaches nor 
trampling of horses. This streete, paved with 
brick and exceedingly cleane, brought us through 
an arch into the famous Piazza of St Marc.'* 

Evelyn's attention however appears to have been 
chiefly attracted by the singularity of costume. 
* It was now Ascension Weeke, and the greate 
mart or faire of the whole yeare was kept, every 
body at liberty and jollie. The Noblemen stalking 
with their ladies on ckoppines; these are high- 
heeled shoes, particularly aflFected by these proude 
dames, or, as some say, invented to keepe them at 
home, it being very diflicult to walke with them ; 
whence one being asked how he liked the Venetian 
dames, replied, they were mezzo came, mezzo 
ligno, half flesh, half wood, and he would have 
none of them. The truth is, their garb is very 
odd, as seeming all way es in masquerade; their 
other habits also totally difl^erent from all nations. 
They weare very long crisped haire, of severall 
Btrakes and colours, which they make so by a 
wash, dischevelling it on the brims of a broade hat 
that has no crowne, but an hole to put out their 

• Mmoin li. 313. 


heads by ; they drie them in the sunn as one may 
see them at their windows*. In their tire they 
eet silk flowers and sparkling stones, their peti- 
coates coming from their very arm e- pits, so that 
they are neere three quarters and an half apron ; 
their sleeves are made exceedingly wide, under 
which their shift sleeves as wide, and commonly 
tucked up to the shoulder, shewing their naked 
armes through false sleeves of tiffany, girt with a 
bracelet or two, with knots of points richly tagged 
about their shoulders and other places of their 
body, which they usually cover with a kind of 
yellow vaile of lawn very transparent. Thus 
attired they set their hands on the heads of two 
Matron-like servants or old women, to support 
them, who are mumbling their beades. Tis ridi- 
culous to see how these ladies crawie in and out of 
their Gondolas by reason of their ckoppines, and 
what dwarfs they appeare when taken down from 
their wooden scaffolds ; of these I saw thirty near 
together, stalking halfe as high againe as the rest 
of the world ; for Courtezans or the Citizens may 
not weare cJioppines, but cover their bodies and 
faces with a vaile of a certaine glittering taffeta or 
lustree, out of which they now and then dart a 
glaunce of their eye, the whole face being other- 
wise entirely hid with it : nor may the common 
misses take this habit, but go abroad barefac'd. 
To the corners of these virgin-vailes hang broad 
but flat tossells of curious Point de Venize. The 
married women go in black vailes. The Nobility 

* At the close of this Chapter will be found a cat from Titian, 
representing a Venetian Lady under this operation— in one corner 
stand her f:hoppines» 


weare the same colour but of fine cloth lin'd with 
taffeta in summer, with fur of the bellies of 
squirrels in the winter, which all put on at a 
certaine day, girt with a girdle emboss'd with 
silver ; the vest not much different from what our 
Bachelors of Arts weare in Oxford, with a hood of 
cloth made like a sack cast over their left shoulder, 
and a round cloth black cap fring'd with wool, 
which is not so comely; they also weare their 
collar open to shew the diamond button of the 
«tock of their shirt. I have never seene pearle 
for colour and bignesse comparable to what the 
ladys weare, most of the noble families being very 
rich in Jewells, especialy pearles, which are always 
left to the son or brother who is destined to 
marry, which the eldest seldome do. The Doge*8 
vest is of crimson velvet, the Procurator's, &c. , of 
damasc very stately. Nor was I lesse surprized 
with the strange variety of the severall nations 
seen every day in the streets and piazzas ; Jews, 
Turks, Armenians, Persians, Moores, Greeks, 
Sclavonians, some with their targets and boucklers, 
and all in their native fashions, negotiating in this 
famous Emporium which is always crowded with 

During Evelyn's visit, preparations were making 
for another celebrated war which Venice was 
about to maintain against the Turks ; and, indeed, 
a voyage which he meditated to Jerusalem was 
prevented in consequence of the ship already en- 

* Eyelyii, Ibid. 8L1. Coryat speaks similarly of the throng In the 
Plana : * Here you may both see all manner of fashions of attyre. 
Mid beare all the Languages of Chriatendome, besides tlioae thaS 
are spoken by the Barbarous Ethnickes.' Crutktht, 171. 


gaged by him being pressed for the carriage of 
stores to Candia then menaced by invasion. 
Ibrahim, the Suhan who at that time filled the 
throne of Constantinople, ia chiefly known to us 
by his weakness and his vices * ; but he was 
governed by an enterprising Vizier, Mohammed, 
Pacha of Damascus, who eagerly seized an oc- 
casion promising aggrandizement to the Ottomans 
at the expense of Venice. A Turkish 
vessel, conveying to Mecca one of the f^l 
Sultanas and her son by Ibrahim ft named 
Othman, had been captured by some Maltese 
<jralley8, which anchored with their prize in the 
first instance off the coast of Candia. Contrary to 
civilized usages, the prisoners were obstinately de* 
tained ; the Mother died of grief, the child was 
baptized, and finally became a Dominican under 
4he name of Padre Ottomano. The fury of Ibrahim 
on the receipt of this intelligence was ungovern- 
able, and he breathed vengeance against all Chris- 
tendom indiscriminately. It was in vain that the 
Ambassadors of France and England, the R&- 
sident of the United Provinces, and the Bailo of 
Venice, when summoned before the Vizier, pro- 
tested that the Knights of Malta formed an inde* 

* Noupcsudeca elema dalle doH eke patttmo anehi ira i Barbofi 
pernecessarie : it9lido»eaMalMime^fario»o $enza iiUenalli, co»talmi»- 
tura di crudeltd. e di tinwre, di prodigalith e d* avaritia, che a* suoi me- 
desimi pareoa uncompoito ditensij di costutnit di vitii contrarii, tra i 
Imm del SerigUo deU m pnda aSe Hhidini e aOe deliUe. Naiii, part, 
ii. lib. i. p. 24. 

f For Tarioos sUtements reUUve to the parentage of Othman, 
«ee Sir Paul Rycaat in his continuation of KnoUes. Vol. iii. p. 57. 
Diedo altogether rejects the common belief that it was a Sultana 
«i4io was ci^tarcd. ToauUi.lib.T.pbl2* 


pendent community, for whose acts no other 
Power could be responsible : they were menaced 
with committal to the Seven Towers ; and Moham- 
med, profiting by the accidental use which had been 
made of the harbours of Candia, directed his mas« 
ter's views of revenge to the conquest of that island. 
Against the barren rock of Malta the Turks before 
now had expended their mightiest efforts in vain ; 
but the rich territory, the large population, and the 
commercial importance of Candia offered a prize, 
perhaps of easier attainment, certainly of far greater 
Value. . 

To write the History of the arduous struggle 
which Venice maintained during the next twenty- 
four years for this last remnant of her share in the 
partition of the Eastern Empire, would far exceed 
our limits, and might, indeed, demand a separate 
Work; so that we must content ourselves with 
touching rapidly upon a few of its more 
1645.* prominent incidents. In the first cam- 
paign, the Turks obtained possession of 
Khania, after a siege of fifty-seven days con- 
tinuance and the loss of nearly twenty thousand 
men ; and thus they secured not only a strong mi- 
litary station, but a port also for the disembarka- 
tion of reinforcements. So important did this loss 
appear to the Signory, that scarcely any sacrifice 
was deemed too great for its reparation, and re- 
course was had to extraordinary measures for in- 
crease of revenue. Every Citizen was required 
to deliver for coinage at the mint three-fourths 
of his household plate ; the highest ofiicial dig- 
nities were once again exposed to auction ; and 
even Nobility itself was now, for the first time, mad^ 


venal. The unworthy proposal was met with be- 
coming indignation by some of the more ancient 
Families, t Sell your children/ exclaimed the aged 
Michaelli, ' but never, never sell your Nobility 1 ' * 
An anecdote in a widely difPerent spirit is told by 
Burnet. ' When Correge said to the Duke that 
he was aj^aid to ask that honour for want of merit, 
the Duke asked him if he had one hundred thou* 
sand Ducats, and when the other answered that 
sum was ready, the Duke told him that was a great 
merit f.' The conditions of this disgraceful sale 
announced that whatever subject of the State 
would pay, during a year, the expenses of one thou- 
sand soldiers, and for that purpose would deposit 
«ixty thousand ducats in the Treasury, should be 
admitted among the candidates from whom five 
Nobles were to be selected. This Lottery was 
extended to Foreigners also on a small additional 
payment. Legitimate birth, and a satisfactory 
proof that no mechanical employment had de- 
graded the Family during the last three genera- 
tions, were the sole requisites demanded from 
competitors ; but Jews, Turks, and Saracens, were 
peremptorily excluded; no sum, however great, 
might be received from them ; no service, however 
valuable, might be pleaded for admission; and 
any individual who should be sufficiently daring 
to. propose so gross an abomination, subjected 
himself to perpetual banishment^ and the loss of 
his whole property. In the end, eighty new Pa- 
tricians, instead of five, were admitted by pur- 
chase, and the consequent returns to the Treasury 

* ' Vender ijiglit ma non mai vender la NobilttL t * 
t Letters f p, 155, Rotterdam* 1686. 


amounted to eight million ducats. Otli^ unusuid 
measures were demanded by the greatness of the 
occasion; and, in opposition to a State maxim 
which had been most rarely transgressed, Fban* 
cEsco £ri£zo, the reigning Doge, was called, like 
Enrico Dandolo, and at an equally advanced age, 
to assume the personal command of an expedition 
for the relief of Candia. Estimating his physical 
powers beyond their real strength, the veteran 
warrior died while preparing for hb important 

During the second campaign, a singular spec- 
tacle was exhibited in the Venetian Fleet ; not* 

withstanding mutual existing differences;, 
te^*. ^^^^ France and Spain supplied reinforce* 

ments ; so that two squadrons, which else- 
where would have met in hostile guise, were here 
arrayed under a confederate flag. The assistance 
which Cardinal Mazarin thus afforded, was repaid 
by inscription in the Golden Book ; and the pos* 
sessor of more than seventy million ducats was^ 
perhaps, but little flattered by an honour which 
the disbursement of seventy thousand might hare 
purchased in the common market In her naval 
operations, Venice, from the superior skill of her 
mariners, was eminently successful ; and the Sul- 
tan, in order to encourage* both his Civil and 
Military o£icers, confiscated the property of hia 
Capudan Pacha, who had been killed in action; 
and with his own hand plunged a dagger into the 
heart of his Vizier Mohammed, the first promoter 
of the War, because the blockade of the Turkisk 

* Pour tMrnarrngmr Ut tutrei ; tlie reaiOD i^vcn Vf Voltaire for the 
iniquitous ezecotioa ot Admisal Byag. . 


Aeet retarded the movements of the army. Re* 
timo, however^ an Eptseopal City, with ten thou* 
sand inhabitants, yielded to the Ottomans ; before 
the gates of Suda they piled live thousand Chris- 
tian heads in pyramids ; and they next commenced 
that siege of Candia, the metropolis of the Island, 
which was to occupy them during a period more 
than double the term of the resistance of Troy. 

Before the close of this year, a Reyolution at 
Constantinople seemed at first to permit hope of 
Peace. The Excesses and the cruelty of Ibrahim 
roused the Janissaries to revolt, and a compara- 
tively trifling incident completed the Tyrant's de* 
Btruction. Not satisfied with the gilded hangings 
and the precious tapestries which decorated the 
chambers of his Palace, under the influence of 
some new, insane caprice of luxury, he lavished the 
scarcely credible sum of four millions of gold in 
collecting rare and costly furs, especially sables* ; 
and the extortions to which he had recourse for 
the gratification of this expensive folly first awa*> 
kened deep murmurs, and in the end organised a 
conspiracy among his Praetorians, The gates of 
-the Seraglio were forced; and the insurgents, 
rushing in, called with loud cries for Ibrahim's 
son, Mohammed; whom, notwithstanding his 
tender years, they destined for the Crown. Tlie 
Tyrant, stung widi rage and terror, seized the boy, 
unconscious of the purpose to which the tumult 
environing him was directed, and would have de^ 
^patched him with his own hand but for the inter- 

* The authors of the Umversal History teU ua that Ibrahim, one 
ofthe most sensual of his detestable race, esteemed sables to be 
aphrodisiacs. Vol. xii« p. 499. 


vention of the women of the Haram. Mohammed, 
who had not yet completed his sixth year, still in 
tears and struggling with alarm, was home ofip hy 
the Janissaries, placed upon the throne, and in- 
vested with the symbols of Empire, while his 
wretched Father was overpowered and strangled 
in an adjoining apartment. On the receipt of this 
intelligence, the Signory, imagining that a change 
of rulers might produce a change of counsels also, 
proposed terms of Peace ; these, however^ were 
rejected arrogantly, and not without ferocious out- 
rages upon the Minister of the Republic. His 
first Dragoman was put to death, under a pretext 
that he had offered bribes to some inferior officers 
of the Divan ; and the Bailo himself, over whom 
similar punishment was long suspended, was 
thought happy in escaping with committal to the 
Seven Towers. 

The war, therefore, continued to rage ; and on 
almost every occasion during its protracted course 
in which the Turks encountered the Venetians by 
sea, they were signally discomfited; many re- 
markable incidents being transmitted to us of vic- 
tory obtained against most disproportionately su- 
perior forces. In the engagement which we have 
before mentioned as costing his life to the Ca* 
pudan Pacha, and their inheritance to his heirs, a 
single Venetian ship, commanded by Tommaso 
Morosini, sustained an attack from five and forty 
Galleys, in the strait of Negropont. After a long 
and desperate resistance, in which Morosini him- 
self was killed, and his ship boarded, but not 
mastered, the arrival of four of her mates put to 
flight the entire Turkish Fleet, with the loss of 


t^eir commander, of many prisoners, and of several 
Galleys destroyed. The Dardanelles were fre* 
quently blockaded ; and when, in 1649, the Turkish 
Admiral, commanding eighty-three ships, sought 
not to engage, but to elude a squadron of twenty 
Venetians, under Giacopo Riva, he was pursued to 
the road of Foschia, not far north from Smyrna, 
and defeated with a loss, most probably exagge- 
rated by the Historians of the Republic, but which, 
nevertheless, must have been large indeed to per* 
mit so great exaggeration as they have ventured to 
employ. We are told that most of the Ottoman 
ships were burned or driven on shore, that one 
thousand five hundred Christian slaves were re- 
leased, and seven thousand Turks killed ; the loss 
of the conquerors, meanwhile, not exceeding 
fifteen dead and ninety wounded * ! 

Not long after this splendid victory, Riva de- 
spatched to Venice a single British ship, serving 
under his flag ; her name was the Elizabeth Mary, 
her commander Captain Thomas Middleton ; and 
it is with peculiar pleasure that an Englishman 
will read a special tribute of praise ofPered to the 
gallantry of one of his own Countrymen. Pursued 
by thirty Turkish sail, this brave sailor, displaying 
the standard of St. Mark, beat off his assailants 
so vigorously that they were driven with great 
loss to refit m Mitylene ; and he then proceeded 
with his own ship to Venice, not only in safety but 
in triumph f. A similar instance of English bravery 
is related by Diedo. He names the ship II Soo-* 
carsoy which we are unable to accommodate to out 

• Nan!, part ii. Ub. ▼. p. 244. 
t Idem, ibid. p. 264. 


recdved marine nomendature» She defended 

herself, singly, against the whole Turkish Fleet, 
at the mouth of the Dardanelles, and killed four 
hundred Infidels before she was half burned and 
captured *. 

The coast of Paros was the next scene of naval 
conflict, where victory was won before the main 

Venetian Fleet could be brought into action, 
liil'. ^y ^^o of their advanced ships commanded 

by the Brothers Moncenighi ; a name con- 
tinually illustrious in the annals of this War. 

Often again also were the Dardanelles 
^^* bloodily disputed ; in the first instance by 

eight Venetians, attacked by thirty-two saii 
from the Archipelago, and by seventy-five from 
Constantinople. Incredible as it may appear, 
this combat was equally maintained ; and Delpino, 
the commander of the Republic, not only extricated 
himself from the swarms by which he was sur- 
rounded, but if the wind had permitted would have 
again joined battle on the morrow. In another 
action fought on the same spot in the year follow* 
ing, Lazaro, one of the two Moncen^hi before 
distinguished at Paros, obtained a complete vic- 
tory with forty sail opposed to one hundred : and 
in 1656, the same unwearied hero landed on the 
Plazzetta, covered with fresh wounds and honour* 
ably disfigured by the loss of an eye, to announce 
the total destruction of eighty-four Turkish vessels, 
in the narrowest part of their own strait, under 
the protection of numerous batteries raised on 
cither shore. Marcello, the Venetian commander* 
in-chief, was killed during tliis action, and the 



popular voice enthusiastically hailed Moncenigo 
as his successor. The Senate^ perhaps jealous of 
dictation, appointed a different officer; but a vote 
of the Great Council frustrated the intrigue, and 
Lazaro Moncenigo returned to the ^gean to inn 
mortalize himself by another triumph and a glo* 
rious death. After capturing (ht destroying 
twenty Turkish Galleys in an attempt to Jni7» 
force the Dardanelles, he was separated ^^^ 
firom his enemy by a severe gale, which 
lasted during two successive days; on the third 
morning, when he renewed the combat, his ship 
caught fire, and the fall of a mast upon his head 
deprived him of lifeT Five hundred men perished 
in the explosion which followed ; but the Venetians 
had the melancholy satisfaction of rescuing from 
the flames their Standard, and the body of their 
Admiral. ^ I know not however,* is the just 
remark of Nani, ' whether the sea might not have 
been the fittest grave for one who sacrificed hia 
life upon that element for the prize of glory !' 

Ddring these naval events which, for the sake 
of greater perspicuity, we have thrown together 
into a connected series, the land operations against 
the City of Candia had been tardily progressive. 
In soliciting aid among the chief European 
Powers, Venice received assurances of important 
assistance from the Protector Cromwell, at that 
time wielding the most formidable maritime arma- 
ment in the World*. He promised them help 
when a squadron which he was about to despatch 
to the Mediterranean for tlie punishment of the 

* Che com etuto quarmUa nmri antate domnaoa il ntarg, Nani, put 


Corsairs should reach its destination; a promise 
which, as it would have injured his Oriental com-< 
merce, the wily dissemhler was far too politic to 

fulfil. More than words, however, wereob- 
^m ^^^^^ fr®"^ Louis XIV ; and four thousand 

of the choicest French infantry and two hun*> 
dred cavalry were placed at the disposal of Fran- 
cesco Morosini, now for a second time, during this 
War, Generalissimo of the Republic. That force 
was wasted in desultory operations ; fifteen hundred 
men perished by the sword, the remainder by 
disease; and the Signory, disappointed in their 
sanguine hope of success, recalled Morosini, and 
subjected him to prosecution. He had the rare 
fortune of being acquitted by a Venetian Tribunal, 
and, ere long, of resuming a career which was 
finally to lead him to the very summit of glory. 

Aid ultimately more useful than that of France 
had proved, was supplied by a reconciliation with 
the Court of Savoy, between which and Venice all 
intercourse had been suspended during thirty years. 
A former Prince of that House, after intermarriage 
with the last heiress of the Lusignani, had been 
chased from the throne of Cyprus by the Vene- 
tians, who in their turn also were despoiled of 'it 
by the Turks. The Republic, after her loss, wisely 
abstained from the empty assumption of a title 
which she was no longer able to support by arms ; 
but it became a point of honour that it should not 
be borne by another ; and accordingly, when the 
reigning Duke of Savoy subscribed himself King 
of Cyprus and Jerusalem, the Signory indignantly 
withdrew their Ambassador from his Court ^ We 
wish to heaven,' was the quiet sarcasm of that 


Minister to the Duke, on his audience of leave, 
* that Cyprus really belonged to yoti^ and not to 
the Turks T On a new accession, the dispute was 
compromised by an evasion not less silly than the 
original claim ; and the Duke forbore using the 
offensive title when addressing the Signory, 
although he assumed it in his communications 
with every other Power .♦ But the necessities of 
the Republic easily levelled any difficulty which 
might obstruct an accommodation upon which 
depended a supply of two picked regiments under 
the Marquis Villa, one of the ablest Generals of his 
time. Errors similar to those which had before 
tendered the French unavailable, were, unhappily, 
repeated with regard to this force also: it was 
broken in detail ; nor did it become of effective 
use, till, after suffering great loss, its remnant was 
concentrated within the walls of Candia. Long 
as that City had been investe<l, the siege can 
scarcely be said to have been pressed with suffi- 
cient vigour to promise conquest till the Spring of 
1667 ; when the Grand Vizier Kiuperegli opened 
his batteries, having sat down under the ramparts 
in person, at the head of seventy thousand men, 
at the commencement of the preceding winter. 

The chief command of the Venetians was now 
for a third time entrusted to Francesco Moro- 

* Venice, not being a Monnrchy, was natnrally jealous of dlplo* 
natlc styles. * The Doge of Venice, who acknowledges no superior, 
uses not MiOe>ty (to other Potentates) but only altexza or ceUitudo.* 
(Selden, Titles of Honour, Works, lit. S24.) As If in burlesque of 
this fastidiousness, the little Republic of San Marino, comprising a 
population In all not exceeding seven thousand sools, used to ad- 
dress Venice as nostra carisrima sor^a, 

VOL. IT. 2 D 


sini ; lie was supported by numerous, skilful eiigi<!> 
neers, his garrison mustered about nine 

^iS' ^^^^^'^^ ™^°9 ^^^ '^^^ fortifications were 
strong and in good repair. One side of 
the City, the form of whidi was nearly triangular, 
resting upon the sea, was ^us open for supplies 
poured in from Venice with unsparing cost : for 
not only munitions of war, but almost every 
necessary of life, even biscuit and fiiel, was de- 
spatched from the Lagune, Towards the land, 
the approaches were defended by a tine of cuv- 
tain three miles in circuit, flanked by seven has* 
tions and mounting four hundred pieces of artil- 
lery. The ditches were deep and wide, and 
every outwork had been diligentiy excavated with 
mines, yawning secretly, like so many hidden 
graves, for the countless numbers who were to 
perish in their abysses. The conduct of these 
subterraneous works, indeed, formed, at that time, 
the chief secret of military art in sieges ; and the 
scene of war, as Rycaut, the continuator of 
Knolles, expresses himself, * seemed to be trans- 
ferred ad inferos,' An English writer, who visited 
the neighbourhood of Candia within a very few 
years after this siege, appears to have listened 
with open ears to some very extraordinary narra- 
tions respecting it. * Another invention,' says the 
excellent Bernard Randolph, * the Venetians had 
to fish up the Turks, when they attempted to un- 
dermine the walls. They had hooks made in the 
forme of a boat's grapling, the point sharp, fastn'd 
to a rope and four or five feet of chain at the end. 
These hooks they often cast over the wall amongst 
the Turkes ; and seldome failed to bring up a Turk, 


«oine fastn'd by the clothes, others by the hodf, 
I have heard some of the Officers say they have 
taken several in a night ; for when the hook was 
fastn'd, they gave them not time to unhook them- 
Belves, but had them over the wall. And many a 
Turk have the common soldiers eaten*,* Butk 
would be tedious if we were to attempt to recite 
* the various assaults and valiant sallies, the tra- 
verses extraordinary, the rencounters bloody, the 
resistance vigorous/ which the same writer assures 
us were more than were ever known or recorded 
in any siege before. It may suffice to say that 
from the opening of the trenches till the Turin 
retired to cantonments in this year, a period not 
exceeding six months, no less than seventeen 
sorties and thirty-two assaults were attempted; 
six hundred and eighteen mines were sprung on 
one side or the other ; the loss of the garrison 
amounted to eighty officers and three thousand 
two hundred men, and that of the Turks to more 
than twenty thousand. One of the mines is said to 
have required eighteen thousand pounds of powdery 
and to nave blown into the air, with destruction 
either of life or Umbs, one thousand victims. 

The Marqub Villa, who had most bravely se* 
conded Morosini in command, was recalled 
by the Duke of Savoy in the following f^' 
Spring, when the garrison was strongly 
reinforced by three thousand Imperialists. The 
chief work undertaken by the Turks during the 
summer was the construction of an enormous mole 
in the Port, by means of which they commanded 

• Present Stale of the Islands in the Archipelago, by B. R. wko 
resided in those parts from 1671 to Wfk 



ihe weakest part of the fortifications, and materially 
annoyed the garrison. They established themselves 
also on the site of a ruined bastion, from which no 
efforts of the besieged could dislodge them. The 
year was closed by an enterprise among the most 
remarkable in Modem History ; rash, headlong, 
generous, dazzling, useless, and inconclusive as 
any of those which belong to more Chivalrous and 
Romantic Ages. 

The long duration of the war of Candia and 
the recent great efforts both of the garrison and of 
the besiegers, had naturally arrested the regard 
and fired the imagination of all Europe ; and some 
youthful Nobles of France, passionately ena- 
moured of Glory and easily kindling a fancied 
zeal for Religion also, banded together, as for a 
new Crusade, to combat the Infidels. Six hun- 
dred volunteers, all of gentle blood, many of them 
scions of the most ancient Houses which France 
could boast, enrolling themselves under the com- 
mand of the Duke de la Fueillade and the banner 
of the Grand Master of Malta, embarked from the 
coast of Provence, and arrived in Candia towards 
the end of November. Louis XIV added his own 
name to the brilliant list, and commuted his per- 
sonal service for a contribution of forty thousand 
golden ducats*. Morosini immediately employed 
them in defence of one of his most advanced out- 
works ; a post the danger of which might have 
amply satisfied a thirst for honour in less ardent and 
restless spirits. But it was not to await attack that 
these lion-hearted youths had traversed the Medi- 
terranean ; and burning for action, and viewing 

* Falatius. Fasti J)neaht, 300. 


ytrax chiefly as a pastime, they endeavoured to 
create opportunities for combat when these failed 
to offer themselves spontaneously. Almost daily 
therefore some champion would leap the palisades* 
and rushing singly on the enemies' lines would 
either sacrifice his own life in an idle bravado, or 
bring back a prisoner to encumber the garrison. 
So thinned were their ranks by these fruitless ren- 
contres, that their leader, fearful lest his numbers 
might at length become too far diminished to per- 
mit such an exhibition of prowess as he coveted, 
eagerly conjured the Generalissimo to attempt a 
general sortie ; an operation which, according to 
the sanguine expressions of the volunteers them- 
selves, could not do less than compel the enemy to 
raise the siege. 

It was in vain that Morosini endeavoured to 
temper the rash fervour of his indiscreet allies, by 
shewing that his force was insufficient either to 
support their design in the first instance ; or, even 
if they were successful, to maintain any ground 
which they might win. The French continued 
obstinate in their purpose ; and the 16th of De- 
cember being fixed upon for their enterprise, the 
preceding evening was employed, as we are told, 
* in making clean consciences*/ Two hours 
before day-break, the volunteers, accompanied 
by one hundred Venetians, and amounting alto- 
gether to no more than four hundred and fifty 
men, descended from the rampart to the fattssC' 

* Chacun employa la veiU$ d mettre ordre tout de bon d sa con- 
uienciB. Jourmil del*M»pedUio» de M, de la FueiUade par «» ro/on- 
tttire. Lyons, 1669. 


hruye* ; not by one of the gates, nor even by a 
postern, for those entrances it was considered ha* 
zardous to open j but by a breach presenting an 
aperture so scanty that not more than a single file 
could pass abreast For the sake of moving over 
the difficult and intersected ground with greater 
freedom, the French had disencumbered themselves 
from their armour ; and the few who retained their 
morions and skull-caps speedily threw aside even 
those defences. Each of the Cavaliers was ac- 
companied by a page armed with a brace of 
pistols and with a spontoon in his hand; for 
swords were seldom employed against the Turks, 
who, notwithstanding thteir own superior adroitness 
in the exercise of musketry, could rarely be per- 
suaded to stand an encounter with fire-aims. 
Crouching down on the ground, and awaiting a 
signal for advance, this brave company was thrown 
into slight confusion by an unexpected cannonade 
which opened from the batteries of the enemy 
treacherously apprized of their design. Not a 
moment further was delayed. Fueillade, armed 
only with a whip, rushed forward; and by his 
side, and sometimes even before him, strode a 
Capucin, regardless of the bullets which plunged 
around, displaying a lifted Crucifix, and animating 
Ae combatants by his impassioned voice and ges- 
tures. The trenches were guarded by two thou- 
sand six hundred Turks, of whom more than half 
were slain and the rest put to flight ; so that after 

- * TheJhm$e'iroy€, altbongfa rejected in modern fortiftettloa, tt 
the time of wlileh we are writing wm a low parapet thrown up 
three or four toises in front of the main rampartb 


tvro hours conteit the Erencfa remained in poa« 
seftsion of seven redoubts. But however gallantly 
those works had been stormed, it was not possible 
that they should be long occupied. The fugitives 
had already rallied, and even after their great loss 
were nearly thrice the number of those before 
whom they had givai way ; the camp was pouring 
out its hosts in their support ; and the conquerors, 
swept away by a ceaseless cannonade and pressed 
on each flank and in front by overwhelming bat- 
talions, now hoped for no other gain from their 
barren victory beyond retirement within the walls 
which they had recently been so impatient to quit» 
So blind however was the zeal of the Capucin, that 
he continued to shout vociferously for advance 
long after orders had been given for retreat ; and 
some gentle violence became necessary to restrain 
his mischievous enthusiasm. An eyewitness tells 
tts, that in spite of the Crucifix which he brandished,, 
his unseasonable ardour provoked M. de la Fueillade 
to express himself with some little asperity ; and 
if we do not greatly mistake the sly impUcatioik 
which the writer intends to convey, the angry 
Duke swore roundly against the energetic Friar*. 
Under cover of the guns from the ramparts, the 
remnant of this little band of heroes at length 
gained the City, re-entering by the same narrow 
passage through which they had before issued ; 
the Duke himself, wounded in three places, being 
the last man who quitted the ditch. One hundred 

* Le Cncifi* qu*il aooit e» main n^empichapas M» de la Fueillade 
dea*emporter un peu contre IHndiscretion de ton xUe: nuUs il leJU 
atte» devotementy car il prononga plusieurs fois le nom de JHeu dan$ la 
petite reprimande qu*il luyjit, {Journal, &c. p* 115). 


and twenty of their number were left killed or 
wounded in the trenches ; and all of these un- 
derwent the same ultimate fate, their heads being 
mounted on pikes and exhibited in scorn to the 
garrison. The delicacy of complexion and the 
profusion of light hair which distinguished the 
Marquis of Douradout, one of the slain, rendered 
him a particular object of admiration to the Grand 
Vizier. On the evening before the sortie, tlie 
careless and unapprehensive youth had tied up 
those flowing locks with unusual care, in order 
that they might not incommode him in Jthe day of 
battle ; and Kiuperegli, struck by his beauty, even 
in the grimness of death, set apart the head for 
several days for the special inspection of his friends ; 
and then crowned with it the ghastly pyramid 
which he erected from those of its comrades*. 
No small alarm had been excited by a similar 
barbarous trophy during an earlier part of this 
siege, when it was confidently reported that one. 
of the Christian heads both moved and spoke ; 
and the Grand Vizier witnessed this marvel with 
his own eyes, and acknowledged its astounding 
truth. His sagacity however penetrated the natural 
cause of this mystery; the head, it seems, had 
been raised somewhat higher than its fellows, and 
the wind not only gave it motion, but rattled also 
with a hollow sound through its nostrils. Although 
those passages were stopped with mortar by com- 
mand of Kiuperegli, the miracle had so forcibly 
seized upon the credulity of the Musulman soldiery, 
that they would not be convinced it had really 

• Journal &C. p. Ua 


eeased. A general voice proclaimed that the 
Giaour had been converted to the Faith of the 
Prophet in the article of death ; and the Vizier 
was not able to put an end to the illusion till the 
head was thrown into the sea*. 

But a few days after this brilliant extravagance, 
the Volunteers, as if the great object of their ex- 
pedition had been completed, re*enibarked for 
France. Of the six hundred warriors fervid with 
youth, illustrious by birth, and glittering in equip* 
mentst, who had landed in Candia scarcely a 
month before, only two hundred and thirty re- 
mained alive; of these, fifty were grievously 
wounded, many of whom afterwards died; and 
among the rest were scattered the seeds of Plague 
which fatally exhibited themselves in their home- 
ward voyage. Nevertheless the ill success of thia 
enterprise by no means discouraged the French, 
and a much larger armament was supplied, not as 
before at private cost, but by the King 
himself. Six thousand men under the i^' 
command of the Dukes de Beaufort and 
Navailles entered the harbour of Candia before the 
following Midsummer; and as Louis XIV still 
avowedly maintained amicable relations with the 
Sultan, this breach of neutrality was veiled by 
transporting his troops under the Papal flag. 
* Miserable indeed was it,' writes one of the 
Officers accompanying this expedition, ^ to behold 
the state of Candia when we landed ; the streets 
were covered with cannon-balls and bullets, splinters 

* De la Ouilleti^re, Foytiges ffAthenes et deCandie^ p. 373. 
t Tuttiapparendoferod per Peth^ chiariper lanoHlti, Iveidi e ornoti 
per % vegHmei^ epat Varme. NanI, part. il. lib. xl. p. 570. 


of thellfl^ and grenades ; the walls of every diurelt 
and public edifice were shattered and neady ruined 
by bombardment, nor was there <»ie house left 
which appeared better than a tottering hovel; 
pestilential stenches assailed us on all s^es ; and« 
tarn whichever way we would, dead, wounded or 
crippled soldiers met our eyes*.* The Turkish 
camp meanwhile continued to. exhibit every ap- 
pearance of a fixed resolve of ccmquest ; and so 
determined w^e the besiegers not to remove till 
Candia had yielded, that the Grand Vizier and one 
hundred of his chief officers, instead of living in 
tents, had erected substantial houses. That at 
Kittperegli himself is described as consisting of 
two stories, six feet from the foundation being 
eonstructed of stone, the upper part of wood*work 
and stucco f. 

r Strange as it may appear, the dearly piurchased 
experience of M. de la Fueillade was lost upon his 
successors. The main body of the French troops 
entered the City by night ; but the Royal Guard, 
urged by a fanciful sense of honour, awaited full 
day, in order that they might march openly under 
the Turkish batteries. Nor when they manned 
the walls were they less deaf than their prede* 
cessors to the sage counsel of Morosini ; but» 
declining all other service, they insisted upon an 
immediate sortie, and refused even the accom- 
paniment of Venetian guides well acquainted with 
the distribution of the hostile works. The result 
may easily be anticipated. The Turks were in the 
first instance chased from their intrenchments as 

* Desreaux de la Aichardi^e, Voyagt en Candie^ cited bf DariK 
t pe In GaiUetidre, Yoyogu d*Athent €t de CtuuUe. 


liefoie with great slaughter ; but the explosion of 
a tumbril spread panic among the assailants, whose 
imaginations were so profoundly imbued with 
terror of the mines of Candia, that every footstep 
seemed trodden upon concealed and treacherous 
fires. Soon therefore as the warning cry ' a mine ! 
a mine ! ' passed through the ranks, every man's 
heart sank within him, and the flight became ge* 
neraL Five hundred heads, among which were 
those of the Duke de Beaufort and many other 
Nobles, were displayed on the same evening under 
the walls ; and the remaining French, dispirited by 
their repulse, and disgusted by the wearisomeness 
of garrison duty, broke up and re-embarked in 
scarcely two months after their arrival, in spite of 
the reclamations of Morosini and the tears and in- 
treaties of the suppliant inhabitants. 

This abandonment by the French was a signal 
for a like defection of all the other auxiliaries, 
and the Papal Galleys and the Maltese and German 
troops withdrew in succession : yet although left 
with no more than three thousand serviceable men, 
Morosini still had sufficient vigour to repulse a 
general assault. But further defence was now 
hopeless, and it remained only to obtain such terms 
as might be accepted consistently with honour. In 
arranging his capitulation, Morosini with admirable 
dexterity converted it into a Peace ; and nobly 
encountering the great hazard of exceeding his 
powers in a case which promised benefit to his 
Country, (a responsibility dangerous under any 
Government, most dangerous under the Oligarchy 
of Venice,) he stipulated that amicable relations 
^ould be renewed .by the surrender of all Candia^ 


with the exception of three Ports* ; which, to« 
gether with some conquests in Dalmatia, Venice 
was to retain. When the garrison marched out 
from the walls which had cost the lives of thirty 
thousand Christians and four times that number of 
Infidels, its general condition may be estimated 
from that of a single corps. — ' The regiment of 
Negron which I commanded/ says Phiiibert de 
Jarryt, ^ numbered at the beginning of the siege 
two thousand &ve hundred men, and I had re- 
ceived during its course four hundred recruits. 
We quitted the City, officers and soldiers together, 
but seventy men in all, of whom forty were 
cripples ! ' The inhabitants of Candia were in* 
eluded in this capitulation ; and so faithful were 
they to their former lords, or so suspicious of the 
tyranny of those new masters to whom their native 
teats were about to be transferred, that, as Rycaut 
assures us, two Greek Priests, one woman, and 
three Jews, were all that remained behind t* The 
rest, with their whole property, were received on 
board the Venetian fleet ; and for their conveyance, 
as well as that of the garrison, which was peimitted 
to carry with it all the artillery but such as had 
been mounted upon the walls before the com- 
mencement of the siege, fifteen barks and forty 
shallops sufficed. The keys of Candia were pre- 
sented to the Vizier on the 27th of September. 
The members of thirty Noble Venetian Families 

* The Turks were wise enough to perceire that possession of the 
rest of the Island gave them command of those porta whenerer they 
chose to seise them. ' We have got the Hen/ thej said* * the 
■chickens will follow of course.* Bernard Randolph. 

t Histoire de Siege de Candiet cited by Dam. 
t Diedo varies a little from this statement. Tom. ill. lib. x. p. 32S. 

PKACE. 413 

who had colonized the Island, were readmitted to 
their Kate in the Great Council; the Candiote 
Nobility were natnraliKed as Citizens of Venice; 
and the reminder of the expatnat«d population 
was distributed through latria with allotments c^ 
land for its Bupport, Perhaps no clearer image 
can be conveyed of the profound impresBion 
etamped upon the National mind by the remem- 
brance of the terrors of this mighty struggle, than 
by stating that, even to this hour, after the lapse 
of more than a century and a half, if a Venetian 
wishes to imply a ' War to the Knife,' he prover- 
bially terms it Una Guerra di Candia. 

Vcnilliui Ladr dyeing hnbiir. 



PROM A,D. 1690 TO A.D. 17K. 

Trial of Morosini— Annnlment of the Election of Giovanni Sagredo 
-»War with Twkey— Conquest of Che Morm— Peace of Carlo- 
witi'^Second War with Turkey— Lobs of the Morea — Socceaafiil 
defence of Corfu, by Count Schullemburg— Peace of Passa* 
rowiti— Neutrality subsequently 'obseryed by Venice — ^Expedl- 
tions against the African Corsairs— Attacks upon the X^Demo- 
ralization of Venice— GomraenceBient of the French BevolutiOB 
— Campaigns of Bonaparte in Italy — Indecision of the Signory-* 
Bloody affray at Verona— Capture of a French vessel at Udo-*- 
Bonaparte declares War— Imbecility of the Government— Abdl- 
cation of the Doge llanini— Hie French occupy Venice— Veidoe 
transferred to Austria by the Treaty of Campo Formio. 




1683. cix. Maro* Antonio Giustiniani. 

1688. ex. Francesco Morosini. 

1694. CXI. SiLYBSTRo Valibro. 

1700. cxn. Luiai MoNCENicu). 

1709. cxiii. Giovanni Gornaro. 

1722. cxiy. Sbbastiano Moncbnioo. 

1732. cxY. Carlo Ruzzeni. 

1735. cxvi. LuioiPisANi. 

1741. cxvii. Pibtro Grixani. 

1 752. cxviii. Francesco Lorbdano. 

1762. cxix. Marco Foscarini. 

1763. cxx. Alyizzo Moncbnxqo. 
1779. cxzx. Paolo Rbnibro. 
1788. czxii. LuiGi Manint. 

The last of those Islands from the possession of 
which Venice might once have asserted a title to 

MOBOsnci. 419 

legality had now been severed from her rule; 
and the sole memorials of her fonner sovereignty 
over Negropont, Cyprus and Candia, were to be 
found in the standards separately blazoned with 
the armorial bearings of those Kingdoms, and 
unfurled on Festivals from the three lofty flagstaffs 
in front of St. Mark's ; and in the three golden 
Crowns still preserved in its Treasury. Heroic 
as had been tne defence of the lost dominions by 
the bravery of Moro^ini, beneficial as was the 
Peace concluded by his wisdom, there were not 
Wanting some base and envious spirits among his 
Countrymen, who regarded that bravery and Aat 
wisdom with ill-disguised jealousy. Not ' 

many months after the close of the War, 1^70/ 
Antonio Corrario, an obscure individual 
who had raised himself into notice by a certain 
popular eloquence, commenced a series of in- 
vectives against the late Generalissimo. He de- 
tiounced the Peace as unauthorized, as the work 
of a private hand not of the State, and there- 
fore as affording a most dangerous precedent: 
he spoke in terms of suspicion both of tne courage 
and of the integrity of Morosini, and he called 
upon the Great Council to institute a close in- 
quiry into his administration. The Council, always 
pleased with any exercise of authority which 
contributed to the depression of eminent merit, 
voted assent by a large majority ; and as a preli- 
minary step it was moved that the accused should 
be stripped of his dignity of Procuratorey which 
had been conferred upon him during the latt^ 
period of the siege with some slight deviation 
irom customary form. Afier a vehement debate. 


this cruel and injurious proposition was rejected; 
chiefly through the exertions of Giovanni Sagredo^ 
a hrother Procuratore, and of the Historian Foa^ 
carini ; hut Morosini nevertheless was imprisoned 
and tried* A solemn judgment of the Senate 
ultimately pronounced his honourable acquittal; 
and this long process, commenced, as we are told, 
vrith rash zeal, and prosecuted with heat and 
passion, terminated with justice. Such a con** 
elusion was no less rare in Venice than the pre* 
misses were frequent. 

Whetherfrora a remembrance among the Nobles 
that Giovanni Sagredo had thus rescued an illus- 
trious object of their persecution from an unworthy 
sentence, ot from other causes, is by no means to 
be ascertained clearly, but when the Ducal throne 

became vacant by the death of his brother 
lejk Nicolo*, and more than the requisite 

number of suffrages in the last balloting 
for the Dogeship had been given in Giovanni's 
favour, the Council gladly made use of an un- 
precedented demur to prevent confirmation of this 
choice. The Palace of the Doge elect was already 
filled with a congratulating throng, the officers of 
his household were arranged, and all preparations 
were made for the assumption of his new dignity ; 
but on the other hand, the usual measure of po- 
pular applause was wanting, and during the absence 
of the Nobles in the Council-chamber, the BrogUo 
became filled with a fierce and discontented rabble. 
The Gondoliers, who most frequently took the 
lead in Venetian tumults, swelled the seditious 

* Palatins (without noticing the maxim of Vespasian) relates that 
this Doge died in a standing posture, stando exc§$tUf ne videretmr 
impulsus cadere. Fasti Ducaies^ 289. 


uproar by loud clamours against the parsimony of 
Sagredo, who on his appointment as Procuratore 
had, it seems, omitted a customary largesse ; and 
they reproached him besides with a personal 
defect certainly not redounding to the credit of his 
moral habits. The friends of the rejected Can- 
didates encouraged these demonstrations of re- 
sistance, and the Council, influenced either by their 
own jealousy, or by alarm at the popular move- 
ment, annulled their first election, and proceeded 
to choose and to inaugurate Luigi Contarini^. 

The reign of Contarini was pacific : that of 
his successor Marc' Antonio Giustiniani wit- 
nessed a renewal of hostilities with Turkey, 
during which a brief sunshine of glory fg^* 
shed for awhile, and for the last time, its 
parting rays upon the arms of the Republic. Suc- 
cess in the approaching contest, as we are gravely 
assured by a Professor of Canon Law in the Uni- 
versity of Padua, might have been fearlessly au- 
gured from an accident t which occurred on the 
day of Giustiniani's Coronation; when, as he 
scattered money among the populace before the 
gates of St. Mark's, a silver coin thrown from his 
hand struck a Turkish bystander in the eye and 
deprived him of sight. Since the termination of 
the War of Candia, Venice, conscious of inability 

* Burnet {Letter iii.) declares that Sagredo retired to Terra Firma 
in disgust ; Foscarini, on the contrary, passes a high eulogy on the 
equanimity with which he endured his repulse, and afterwards ad- 
ministered some of the highest offices in the Republic. Lib. iL 

t Casu f linguam corrigo~-non casu^ sed manum Principis dirigente 
Deo. Vita M, A. Justinifini raptim in /unere ejus edicta, ap«d Pa* 
latii Fast. Due. 803. 

^"^^^ TT. 2 S 


to resnit, had endured a long series of insults and 
outrages with unremitting patience; and the 
Porte, no doubt encouraged by this submission 
horn her most ancient, and hitherto her most peiw 
tinacious enemy, directed her next aggression 
against the Court of Austria. When the Vizier 
Cara Mustapha marched at the head of two hun* 
dred thousand men on Vienna, he found the gar- 
rison of that metropolis entrusted to a Venetian 
General, whom a train of romantic circumstances 
had led to its command. The mother of Feidi* 
nando d'Obizzi, a Lady of distinguished beauty, 
many years since had fallen a victim to the despair 
and fury of a Noble, whose attempts upon her 
honour she had indignantly repulsed. The rash 
suitor found means of gaining access by night to 
the chamber which his mistress occupied with her 
child. There, stung to madness by failure in his 
hopes, the disappointed lover poniarded the object 
of his lawless passion ; and, on the discovery of 
his atrocious crime, he underwent not its due pu- 
nishment, but an imprisonment of fifteen years. 
On his release after that period, Ferdinando, who 
had then attained the age of manhood, resolutely 
pursued the assassin till he avenged his mother's 
death by the blood of her murderer; and then, 
escaping to the Austrian frontiers, he entered into 
the service of the Emperor, in which his merits at 
length raised him to high military elevation. Thus 

defended, Vienna held out till the chival- 
10^' rous valour of John Sobieski and his Poles 

totally overthrew the invaders, under her 
walls^ in that memorable battle which not only 
delivered Austria from her immediate peril, but 

BvcCBsass or morosini. 410 

established also a barrier for Christendom, against 
which no subsequent efforts of the Infidels have 
been able to prevail. 

Roused by that great and splendid triumph^ 
Venice hastened to conclude an alliance against 
Turkey with Poland, Austria^ and the Czar of 
Moscovy, the Ruler of a People now first beginning 
to emerge from Barbarism, and to assume a sta* 
lion in civilized Europe. During the negotiation 
preceding this League, a compliment of great 
elegance was offered by the Polisn Ambassador to 
the distinguished attainments of the Doge. The 
Envoy having addressed a speech to the Collegia 
in Latin, the vernacular Language of his Court, 
was answered by Giustiniani in the same Tongue 
promptly, fluently, and correctly; and the Mi* 
nlster, struck with admiration, observed, * Cum 
drederem me ad Veneios verba facturumy Romanot 
inveni/* When the Moscovite Ambassador joined 
in a like expression of astonishment, he was told 
that the answer could as easily have been given in 
French, Spanish, Greek or Hebrew ; that Turkish, 
indeed, was the sole Language which Giustiniani 
abominated, calling it tympanvm irati Dei *, 

Francesco Morosini was once more appointed 
Generalissimo ; and the brilliancy and rapidity 
of his conquests fully justified the confidence dis- 
played by his former persecutors that all past 
wrongs would be forgotten at the call of his 
Country. A few weeks sufiiced for the attack 
and capture of the Island of S** Maura, and of the 
town of Previsa, on the neighbouring continent. 
He next invested Coron with eight thousand men, 

Falatliif, 808. 



surprised and routed a Pacha who hastened to its 
relief with a greatly superior force> and put its 
whole garrison to the sword, as a punishment for 
a treacherous breach of faith during the arrange- 
ment of a capitulation which they had proposed. 
No cost was spared by Venice to enable her Ge- 
neral to pursue these first successes, and troops 
were levied in every Country of Europe which 
permitted their enrolment. Sweden, Brunswick, 
and Saxony, afforded reinforcements, which ob- 
tained for Morosini an uninterrupted career of 
victory in the Morea during three campaigns ; 
till, aided by the suffering natives, he chased the 
Seraskier from post to post, drove him across the 
Isthmus of Corinth, and remained in possession of 
the entire Peninsula, except the single town of 

The Isthmus was the main key of the conquered 
Province, and for its greater security, Morosini 
immediately occupied Lepanto, Patras, and other 
strong holds on its western gulph. He then 
commenced similar movements on its opposite 
shore ; and in the course of those operations, the 
blind fury of War inflicted on the Fine Arts, by 
civilized hands, a blow more fatal, perhaps, than 
any they had been doomed to encounter from Bar- 
barian violence. The Venetians having marched 
on Athens^ immediately occupied the modem town 
Setines, which is vrithout walls. Six days' bom* 
bardment, however, was directed against the inac- 
cessible Acropolis, to which the Turks had retired; 
and a shell discharged at random, and falling on 
the Parthenon, which had been converted into a 
magazine, fired the powder and shattered in pieces 


the roof hitherto preserved entire. The majestic 
pile thus rendered unserviceable for ordinary uses, 
became worthless in the eyes of the rude masters 
to whom it was soon afterwards to revert ; and 
they saw in its magnificent remains no more than 
a huge mass of ready- chisselled stone, from which 
materials might be obtained with greater ease and 
at less cost than if hewn from the quarry. In the 
opinion of the phlegmatic Historian Foscarini, 
however, this irreparable calamity was amply 
compensated by the surrender of the Acropolis 16 
his Countrymen*. Among the trophies which 
immortalise this conquest are to be numbered the 
two marble Lions found on the Piraeus, which 
still sentinel the gates of the Arsenal at Venice t« 
Lavish rewards were deservedly showered upon 
Morosini by the gratitude of his Country ; his 
title of Cavaliere was declared hereditary, (a rare 
honour, bestowed as yet on no more than two illus- 
trious Houses, the Querini and the Contarini,) 
and since he was without male issue, a remainder 

* * Many of the statues on the posticum (we are told in the Me^ 
mor<mdum on the Earl ofElgiti's Pursuits in Oreece.,) which had been 
thrown down by the explosion, had been absolutely pounded for 
mortar, because they furnished the whitest marble within reach.*— 
' Soon afterward, somewhat higher up, we also saw, among some 
loose stones used as the materials of a wall, apiece of sculpture of 
white marble, in very bold relief, representing the torso of a male 
figure. This proved to be nothing less than a fragment of one of 
the metopes belonging to the Parthenon.* Pr. £. D. Clarke's 
Travels^ iii. 475. 4to. 

t Their inscription runs as below,—* FrcMdscus Maurocenus Pe- 
loponnesiacuSy expt^natis Athenis^ tnarmorea Leonum simulacra tWtim- 
phali manu e Pirceo direpta in Patriam transtulitfjutura Veneti Leonis 
quce /iterant Minervce Attica omamenta,* 


was granted to his nephew. Like the Seipios he 
received a cognomen derived from the Country 
which had witnessed his heroic exploits ; his statue 
was erected in the Armoury of the X, with an in- 
scription of dignified brevity, • Francisco Mauro^ 
ceno Pdoponneaiaoo, adhucvwenti, S.P.A. 1687 ; 

and in the Spring of the following year, 
liM, ^^ ^^® death of Giustiniani, he was raised, 

by acclamation and in his absence, to 
the vacant throne. The general voice forbade 
all competition ; but the jealous vigilance of the 
Aristocracy deteriorated this high token of Na» 
tional confidence and afifection, by despatching 
to Morosini's quarters two Senators, who were to 
share authority with the new Doge as assessors of 
his Council. 

The star of Morosini had now attained its 
highest ascendant ; henceforward we shall perceive 
it in decline. Continuing his functions as Ge> 
neralissimo, he landed before the City of Negro* 
pont, and had already driven the Turks within the 
walls when the Plague shewed itself in his Camp ; 
and, after destroying a full third of his troops, 
-exposed the remainder, enfeebled by disease and 
discouraged by the loss of their comrades, to an 
attack from the Seraskier. He was repulsed, but 
not without inflicting terrific slaughter. Rein- 
forcements arrived soon afterwards, and Morosini 
gave a general assault, which cost him numerous 
lives and gained only a hard-disputed outwork. 
After six weeks more of unavailing effort, he 
abandoned the siege with the intention of investing 
Malvasia ; but there also evil fortune pursued him, 


and a severe illness compelled his return to Venice. 
The War continued with various success 
during the following five years ; in the last f^ 
of which, the Venetian commander, Mon* 
cenigo, neglected to profit by a favourable op- 
portunity for the recovery of Candia. A land- 
ing was successfully effected before Canea, re- 
gular approaches were made to the walls, and a 
]n*acticable breach was already reported ; when 
the besieging General, alarmed at a false rumour 
of a threatened attack upon the Morea, withdrew 
at the very moment in which Victory appeared 
almost to woo him. His immediate disgrace 
ensued, and Morosini, although now advanced in 
years and struggling with infirmities, was called 
once more to command. But Nature gave way 
under exertions disproportionate to his remaining 
vigour ; and, after a campaign spent unsuccessfully 
in pursuit of an enemy who perpetually 
eluded hhn, he expu*ed during the fol* ^^' 
lowing winter at Napoli di Romania. 

How greatly Venice had declined in a few 
short years from the uninterrupted pre-eminence 
on the Seas which she had maintiuned during the 
War of Candia, was too plainly shewn in the 
issue of four Naval Battles fought during the reign 
4>f SiLVEsrao Valiebo, Morosini's successor. All 
of these engagements were most sanguinary ; in 
one, at least, the Turks, were superior ; and the 
result of the others was inconclusive. In the last 
year of the XVI P^ Century, the great Powers of 
the League hitherto subsisting against the Turks, 
some weary of the protracted contest, some alarmed 
at the gigantic projects manifested by Louis XIV 





ae attainment of the Spanish successioD, 
readily accepted the mediation of England 
^^ \vith the Porte ; and by the Peace of Car- 
lowitz, the Morea, the glorious fruit of 
Morosini's prowess, was ceded to Venice. Once 
again she indulged a vain hope of retaining that 
important conquest by the feeble barrier of a chain 
of posts drawn across the Isthmus ; and for the 
third or fourth time in her History, the rampart of 
the Peloponnesians was renewed in order to be 

During the War of the Succession which occu- 
pied the first thirteen years of the XVIII"* Century, 
Venice, indifferent to the quarrel between France 
and Austria, professed a neutrality which was 
hourly invaded. Her Provinces were traversed 
by the armies and moistened by the blood of the 
conflicting parties, in more than one campaign ; 
and the Bresciano and the Veronese, of which latter 
district, in spite of three Centuries of possession 
by the Republic, the Emperor still affected to speak 
as his own, witnessed many a hard-fought combat ; 
and afforded a theatre on which the Marechals 
Catinat and Villeroi, the Duke of Savoy, the 
Duke of Vendome, and Prince Eugene exhibited 
numerous well known deeds of skill and valour. 
Even the sacredness of the Adriatic itself did not 
escape violation ; and many vessels suspected, in 
most cases not unjustly, of conveying stores to 
the Austrian Ports, under the Venetian or other 
flags, were captured and destroyed. We are told 
indeed of an English ship equipped for the service 
of the Emperor, fired and blown up by the French 
while she lay unapprehensive of danger, in the 


very depths of the harbour of Malamocco. The 

Treaty of Utrecht terminated these violences, and 

the Republic, although neither a party in 

the War, nor a mediator of the Peace, was yj^^' 

invited to send her Plenipotentiary to the 


It was little however to be expected that the 
Ottoman Porte would consent without an opposing 
effort to the eternal renunciation of the Morea ; 
and scarcely had tranquillity been restored in the 
West, before the din of preparation was heard at 
Constantinople. The real object of this armament 
could not be doubted ; and Venice, by her in* 
action, must be supposed to have persuaded herself 
that voluntary blindness would afford safety ; like 
that Bird which is said to hope that she will 
escape capture, if she can but once avert her own 
eyes from her pursuers. Dreading the approach of 
War far too deeply to believe it with readiness, the 
Signory affected to credit the pretexts advanced 
by the Divan. Troops, it was said, were being 
levied from an apprehension of revolt in Constan- 
tinople; ships were being assembled and stores 
embarked to chastise some insurgents on the 
frontiers of Dalmatia. And even when the Bailo 
of Venice was committed to the Seven Towers, 
and one hundred thousand Turks under the Grand 
Vizier, co-operating with a fleet of more than one 
hundred sail, were greedily advancing upon their 
defenceless prey, Giovanni Delfino, Proweditore 
of the Morea, now invested with the sounding title 
of Generalissimo, could number only eight thou- 
sand troops, eleven Galleys, and eight ships of the 


line at his disposal. The course of neutrality 
which Venice had recently adopted, deprived her 
also of allies. France, England, Spain, and the 
Netherlands declined further interference than so- 
licitation for the release of her Bailo ; tJie Emperor 
mediated, but in vain, for Peace ; the Pope sup- 
plied four of his own GaUeys and procured two 
others from the Grand Duke of Tuscany ; and die 
Knights of Malta added six as their contingent to 
this pitiful Confederacy. 

We need not trace minutely the progress of a 
catastrophe which must have already been antici- 
pated. Tinos, an important Island, one of the 
earliest Venetian possessions in the East, and so 
strongly fortified that it had maintained itself 
during tlie whole War of Candia, capitulated at 
the first summons ; and its Governor expiated 
his cowardice or his treachery by perpetual impri- 
sonment. Corinth beat a parley after four 
ff^' days investment ; and in spite of Terms 
which the Vizier had granted, the major 
part of its garrison was put to the sword on the 
spot, the rest, after having been conveyed on ship- 
board to Napoli di Romania, were beheaded in 
sight of the Venetian soldiery on its ramparts. 
The Isthmus was easily forced; Egina, Modon, 
Argos and Malvasia surrendered without firing 
a shot; and Napoli, stormed at night after a 
brief but gallant defence, itself underwent those 
horrors of indiscriminate massacre which it had 
recently seen inflicted on others. In a few months, 
the whole Morea was reconquered ; and Delfino, 
who had taken refiige in. his fleet, abandoned the 


lost ProTiDce to its fate, avoided battle, permitted 
the capture of Cerigo in his very presence, and 
retired to Corfu. 

By those few Cities of Candia which still ac- 
knowledged fealty to St. Mark was the only re* 
sistanoe offered worthy of former Venetian renown : 
but even in them also the Ottomans ultimately 
prevailed ; and the capitulation of Spina Longa and 
of Suda before the close of 1715, stripped the 
Republic of the last scanty remnant of her once 
vast Oriental dominion. So grievous indeed was 
the degeneration of that People who in former 
Ages vanquished the Capital of the East, and who 
even recently had defended Candia for more than 
a quarter of a Century, that on the removal of 
Delfino from his command with disgrace, three 
elections were necessary before any Noble would 
accept the vacant office ; and even when Andr<Sa 
Pisani at length departed for the fleet, his in* 
structions were not to attempt reconquest, but to 
content himself by protecting the Islands at the 
mouth of the Adriatic. A change in Political 
interests, however, furnished Venice with one im- 
portant ally ; and the Emperor, Charles VI, fearing 
that the Bourbons might establish themselves afresh 
in Italy, bartered for the aid of the Republic, in that 
Country, if it should be needed, by an immediate 
powerful diversion against the Turks on the fron- 
tiers of Hungary. Prince Eugene, accordingly, 
was despatched on that service; and he preserved 
Dalmatia by occupying the Infidel force no longer 
required in the Morea ; and which, but for the 
presence of an Austrian army, would have poured 
down unresisted on the Colonies of Venice. 


Coifii nevertheless was left open to attack ; but 
the great strength of its fortifications and 
iml ^^® acknowledged skill of its commander 
gave promise of most vigorous resistance. 
The Venetian army had been committed to the 
charge of the Saxon Count SchuUemburg ; a 
soldier who has won deserved immortality by 
eluding the utmost e£fbrts of the Swedish Charles 
when in the full career of victory*. Thirty 
thousand foot and three thousand horse were 
landed without opposition by the Capudan Pacha 
under the walls of Corfu ; and their first ope- 
rations were directed against the neighbouring 
heights of Abraham and St. Salvador which com* 
mand the City. Those positions were most vigo* 
rously defended, and afforded many opportunities 
for the display of great personal valour. We read 
of a Jew who on one occasion discomfited with 
his single hand eight assailants by whom he had 
been surrounded ; and who, upon receiving Bap- 
tism, was promoted on the spot to the rank of 
Captain. The heights, nevertheless, were at length 
mastered ; and the besiegers, not attempting 
either to advance by regular approaches or to 
batter in breach, commenced a series of most 
harassing and perpetually renewed assaults sword 
in hand, under cover of an incessant bombardment 
The inhabitants sought refuge within the numerous 
caverns and excavations with which the rocky site 
of their town abounds ; and SchuUemburg con- 
certed a sortie, in which, while the bravery of his 
Italian troops defeated the Infidels with great 
slaughter, the misconduct of his Germans lost the 

* Voltaire, Charlet XII, lir. Ui. 


fruit of victory, by pouring a mistaken, deadly 
fire upon their confederateB, and slaying at the 
first volley two hundred picked Sclavonians. It 
was not possible to restore confidence after this 
unhappy collision/and the conquerors hurried back 
to their walls in alarm and disorder. 

At length the Seraskier of the Morea, impatient 
of longer delay, and perhaps alarmed at its pro- 
bable consequences to his own head, gave orders 
for a general storm. Pressed on all quarters and 
overpowered by numbers, the garrison at first 
everywhere gave way ; but the vacant places of 
the armed men were rapidly supplied by the Ci- 
tizens^ by Priests, and even by Women, who fought 
with the courage of desperation, and stemmed the 
onset of the Infidels. * What is it you are about 
to do ? ' inquired Schullemburg of a Greek Monk, 
who was rushing a second time to the ramparts 
with a huge iron Cross uplifted in his hands. 
^ Let me alone, let me alone, tliat I may dash 
this cursed Crucifix at their heads!' was the reply 
of the enthusiast, not perceiving that his zealous 
ardour betrayed him into inadvertent blasphemy*. 
The besiegers however scaled the walls and planted 
thirty standards on their summits ; and all would 
have been lost but for the consummate Generalship 
of the Saxon. Placing himself at the head of 
eight hundred men, and descending by a postern 
upon the glacis, he charged the assailants unex- 
pectedly in rear, threw them into complete dis- 
order, chased them from the works which they 

• ' Lasciate^ Ictsciaie, ChHsti maledetti su la testa^* cited by Dam from 
Fbyage dans le* Isles et possessions Venitiennes du LevaiU, par A« 
OfMMt de St, Saaveor, Ut. ri. ch, 69, 


had gained, puruied them to their camp, and rievr 
two thousand of the fugitives. Nor was this 
repulse their sole disaster. A humcane on the 
succeeding night swept away their tents and inun*- 
dated their encampment with rain ; and so f» 
alarmed them for the safety of their fleet, that widi 
loud and mutinous clamours they demanded instant 
re->emhad£ation. At dawn, their terror was aug» 
mentedhy the sight of a numerous hostile anmi* 
ment in the offing. It was a Spanish squadron 
arriving with reinforcements for the garrison: 
and the Seraskier perceiving that it was no longer 
possible to arrest the contagion of panic and in* 
Bubordination, made arrangements for precipitate 
retreat on the following night, having sacrificed 
fifteen thousand men during an unavailing siege 
of two and forty days. Not many hours after 
this flight, a reconnoitring party from the garrison^ 
struck by the unusual stillness in the enemy's 
advanced posts, ventured to penetrate onward to 
their lines, and was astonished by discovering 
their abandonment Numerous wounded, the entire 
stores, tents, baggage, magazines and artillery 
were the prize of the besieged ; and the great 
services of Schullemburg were rewarded by sub- 
stantial tokens of gratitude, and by the most ho* 
nourable of all monuments, a statue erected during 
his lifetime on the wails which he had defended. 

Some bloody naval engagements, unproductive 
of any serious result, and the capture by Schul- 
lemburg of Previsa and Wonizza, oc- 
^•j^* curred during the following year ; in which 
the Imperialists also under Prince Eugene 
became masters of Belgrade. The approaching 


reconquest of the Morea was now confidently, and 
not unreasonably anticipated by the Signory ; but 
the Emperor sought profit from his own victories 
and those of his allies, not by extending the do* 
minion of Venice, but by concluding an advan* 
tageous Peace, at a moment in which the progress 
of the Spaniards in Italy awakened his fears. A 
Congress, under the mediation of England and the 
United Provinces, was accordingly assembled at 
Passarowitz in Servia ; and while Venice, borne 
forward on the tide of propitious fortune, was 
vigorously pursuing hostilities, she learned to her 
surprise and indignation, that a Treaty 
had been signed by which her final cession '"{?, g*» 
of the Morea was peremptorily decided. 
To protract a war with Turkey, after this defection 
of Austria, was manifestly beyond the power of the 
Republic ; and she reluctantly acceded to the pro« 
posed conditions. The boundaries then fixed con- 
tinued unchanged during the remainder of her 
Political existence. Her dominions at that time, 
and ever afterwards, comprised first the original 
Dogado ; then on the Terra Firma of Italy the 
Provinces of Bergamo, Brescia, Crema, Verona, Vi- 
cenza, the Polesina of Rovigo and the March of 
Treviso ; Northward, Friuli and Istria ; Eastward, 
parts of Dalmatia and of Albania, and their depen- 
dent Islands; in the Ionian sea, Corfu, Paxo, 
S^ Maura, Ithaca, Zante, Asso, the Strophades and 
Cerigo. The population of these territories alto- 
gether, according to a Census in 1722, amounted 
to two million five hundred thousand souls ; \Xk 
1788 it had reached three millions, of which 
number the City of Venice alone counted one 



hundred and forty nine thousand four hundred and 
seventy-six inhabitants*. 

From the signature of the Treaty of Passa- 
rowitz to the moment of her dissolution, a period 
of almost eighty years, the History of Venice as 
connected with the rest of Europe is one entire 
blank. Her weakness compelled her to preserve 
unbroken neutrality amid all the great contests in 
which other Powers were from time to time in- 
volved ; and the sole cares of her Government 
were directed to the maintenance of internal tran- 
quillity by a vigilant Police, of foreign Peace by 
an active Diplomacy. In this smooth and un- 
ruffled course, so slight an incident as a briefly 
suspended intercourse with England has been 
thought worthy of somewhat particular record. 
The British Government took offence at the dis- 
tinctions paid to the unfortunate Charles Edward 
when he visited the Lagune in 1743, under the 
title of Count of Albany. It seems that when he 
was present at a Balloting of the Grand Council, 
a separate place was assigned him, and he was 
received on the principal stairs by a Cavaliere. 
The petty and ungenerous jealousy which wished 
to deny those few, poor, empty honours, a slight 
mitigation of the bitter remembrances of fallen 
greatness, demands unqualified contempt ; and we 
relate, not without shame, that the Cabinet of St 
James's, then swayed by Ihe Duke of Newcastle, 
indignantly ordered the Venetian Ambassador to 
quit the Kingdom in twenty-four hours ; and that 
during a period of five years, neither the apologies 
of the Senate nor even the mediation of Cardinal 

• The Ctmxu of 1816 gare little more than 108>000 ! 


Fleury, availed anything towards the renewal of 
former amicable correspondence *. 

Twice only after the Treaty of Passarowitz did 
Venice appear in arms, and on neither occasion 
in a European quarrel. In submitting to purchase 
immunity from plunder at the hands of the Cor* 
sairs of Africa, the Republic only participated in the 
general dishonour of the civilized maritime world ; 
and assented, in common with far more powerful 
States, to an ignoble policy, which weighed 
with cautious balance the price of resistance 
against that of tribute. The tardy execution of 
vengeance upon those Barbarian Pirates has 
been reserved for our own days, — would that it had 
been for England ! — ^and Posterity will assign its 
fitting rank of Glory to a great action, which has 
passed under the eyes of its peculiar generation 
almost without regard ; stifled and overwhelmed, 
as it were, by more pressing and more immediate, 
but far less important and less durable interests. 
Both in 1765 and in 1774 Venice chastised the 
Days of Tripoli and of Tunis, with a spirit which 
might have shamed into imitation Naval Powers 
of yet higher station ; and the name of Angelo 
Emo, her Admiral in the latter of those expe- 
ditions, may be justly classed with many which 
adorned the better days of his Country. 

Much of the period between 1761 and 1779 
was passed in struggles between the Oligarchy of 
the X and the Nobles who suffered under its op- 
pression. In the first-named year, the Inquisitors 
of State, by an exercise of despotism more fitted 
for long departed Ages than for the season to 

* Diedo, Staria Fen., torn. W, p. 421. 
VOIi. II. 2 P 


which they ventured to apply it, banished or 
cretly imprisoned many of the highest Magistrates 
in the State who opposed then: Political views. So 
general was the consequent indignation of the 
Great Council, that on the next renewal of the X 
an attack similar to that made in the reign of 
Giovanni Cornaro was repeated ; and no Candidate 
for admission received enough Balis to render his 
election valid. By temporizmg, the opposition 
was broken and the difficulty eluded ; so that in 
the end the obnoxious Body was confirmed in its 
overweening authority, greatly to the joy of the 
Populace; by whom the Nobles at large were 
felt to be burdensome, and who gladly therefore 
supported a tyranny weighing heavily on their 
own tyrants. Other causes renewed discussions 
of the same kind in 1773, in 1777, and in 1779 ; 
and on each occasion they were conducted with a 
boldness and a vehemence, proclaiming in a lan- 
guage easily to be interpreted how greatly the in* 
fluence of the mysterious and inexorable Tribunal 
which was attacked had diminished in potency. 

Discarding for the future all projects of aggran* 
dizement, and content if she couid but preserve 
herself unharmed, Venice, during the remainder of 
her independent existence, sought distinction as a 
general mart for Pleasure ; and endeavoured to find 
in Luxury a compensation for the surrender of Am- 
bition. Triumphant in pre-eminence of licen« 
tiousness, she became the Sybaris of the modem 
World, the loose and wanton Realm 

. . . her Court where naked Venus keeps. 
And Cupids ride tibe Lion of the deeps. 

Scarcely did a Sun rise upon the Lagune uncele- 

LtnciTRY OF TSmCB. 435 

t)rated by the pomp of some Religious or Political 
Festival ; the whole year was one continued ho« 
liday, in which amusement appeared to be the 
professed and serious occupation, the grand and uni- 
versal object of existence among their inhabitanl&i 
Besides the numerous fixed and customary cere- 
monials, occasions for extraordinary joy were 
greedily sought in the accession of a new Doge, 
the election of a ProcurcUore, or the entrance of 
a foreign Ambassador ; and the annual recurrence 
of the Carnival seldom attracted fewer than fifty 
thousand strangers from all parts of Europe, to 
mingle in the sports of St. Mark's. The general 
use of masks permitted unrestrained indulgence, 
by removing the strongest of all worldly checks, 
a fear of public scandal. National consent ren- 
dered this incognito strictly inviolable ; and under 
its security, the Professed Religious, whether male 
or female, freely participated in those forbidden 
pleasures which they had vowed to renounce ; the 
Nuncio of the Pope assisted at Court Balls ; and 
the gravest Senator engaged at the Faro Bank, 
or resorted to his Casino^ a small apartment ad- 
joining the Piazza, in most instances avowedly 
dedicated to purposes of gallantry. A destructive 
passion for play was encouraged by the Govern- 
ment, notwithstanding some occasional prohibitions 
compelled by the startling ruin which it produced. 
In the gorgeous Saloon of the Ridotio, seldom 
fewer than eighty gaming tables were spread 
nightly before a feverish throng, who courted 
Fortune, masked and in silence. At each board 
presided one of the Nobility unmasked and in his 
robes of office ; for to that class alone belonged 



the disgraceful monopoly of banking ; and to 
increase their degradation, they traded in this com- 
merce of vice not upon their own account, but as 
4;he hired servants of some wealthy capitalist of in- 
ferior rank, who frequently was a Jew* Enervated 
■by luxury, and far removed from the sight and 
;8ound of arms, no personal indignity, however 
gross, could awaken one spark of honourable re* 
sentment in the tame spirit of a Venetian Noble. 
When insulted, he would be content to whisper 
that the aggressor was ' tin* elefanto ; ' and to 
trust his revenge to the hired arm of a professed 
Bravo ^ one of those traffickers in blood who 
jFormed a well known band ever ready to employ 
the stiletto at a regulated price. The extreme 
destitution of many of the Patricians reduced 
them to expedients always unworthy, occasionally 
dishonest, in order to procure bare subsistence ; 
and a foreign visitor could scarcely escape from 
the officious civilities forced upon him by a pen- 
nyless Noble, without an oblique, and sometimes 
even an open solicitation for his bounty *. The 
restriction which custom had for the most part 
imposed upon those unhappily privileged Families, 
by seldom permitting the marriage of more than 
4i single member in each, the carelessness of 
nuptial fidelity which had superseded the former 

* In the XVItb Century, and perhaps later. Begging Licences 
were official^ granted to the Poor of Noble blood j who, in conse- 
■quence, assumed a particular dress, and walked abroad under the 
name of / Vergognozi, the Shamefaced. We have given a cut of 
one of that Order at the end of Chapter XVIII. They wore 
an old, black, linen vest, falling to the feet ; the head and face were 
covered with a sort of hood, through two apertures of which the 
wearer could see without being recognised by others ; their shoe* 


proverbial jealousy of Venetian husbands, and the 
dangerous facility with which divorce could be. 
obtained, had destroyed some of the most powerful 
safeguards of female virtue. The Courtezans/ 
who on one occasion had been publicly banished 
from the Capital, were recalled by an equally, 
public edict ; which expressed gratitude for their 
services, assigned funds for their support, and 
allotted houses for their residence*. And so 
lucrative became their trade of misery and dis-» 
honour, that we are told of contracts formally 
authenticated by the signature of a Magistrate^ 
and guaranteed by a Legal registry, through which 
the yet unsullied innocence of a virgin daughter 
was bartered away by some shameless Parent^ 
dead to all remorse for the guilt and infamy by 
which she fed the cravings of her profligate and 
unnatural avarice t. Surely with a People like 
this, the measure of iniquity was not far from 
being full ! 

But not to dwell upon the crying wickedness of 
this abandoned City, we pass on to the hour of 
her visitation. Luioi Manini, the Doge who 
reigned at the outbreak of the French Re- • 

volution, belonged to the lowest class of j^*^; 
Nobility ; which then, for the first and only * ' 

were patched, and they carried In their hand a paper rolled conically' 
(«n cartoccio) In which passengers deposited their alms, asked more 
by gestures than by words. After the downfall of the Republic, sucl^ 
of the indigent Nobility as applied for It, received every day a miser- 
able pittance of two Venetian llvres, not quite tenpence English { 
and even that wretched stipend was diminished by the Austriaus. ' 

• ' Nostre henemerite meretrieiJ The Case Pampane were set apart 
for them, whence the disreputable name Carampana. Daru. They, 
were much employed as spies* 

t Daru, from J^f ayer, DescripU de Vmse ,tom. ii. ,and Archenholz, 
TaUeaude PJtaUe, torn. i. ch. ii. > 


time, obtained the sovereigiity. Still safe, as she 
BBagined, in the passiveness which had sheltered 
her for seventy years, Venice disregarded every 
warning of the gathering tempest ; and remained, 
inactive while other States were vigilantly guarding 
against its approaches. Nevertheless her incli- 
nation in behalf of the falling Monarchy was not 
indistinctly revealed, by the marked honours which 
she paid to some of the emigrant Princes while 
they resided in her Capital, and by the withdrawal 
of her Ambassador on the establishment of the new 
Bepubiic. It was not till the overthrow of Robes* 
perre that she renewed her diplomatic intercourse 
with France ; and then, by a weak contradiction, 
she at the same moment afforded an honourable 
asylum in Verona to the Comte de Lille, brother 
of the murdered King, and admitted the entrance 
of a Minister deputed by the Regicides^ Terrified 
however by the suceeas of the French arms at the 

close of their first campaign in Italy, she 
^*^* ungenerously listened to the remonstrances 
' * . of the Directory, and agreed to remove* 
from her dominions that illustrious exile, upon 
whom, by the more than questionable death of his- 
vnhappy nephew, the Crown of France had de- 
volved. ' I will quit your territories)* was the 
dignified reply of the highminded Prince, * but I 
first demand your Golden Book, that I may erase 
from it the name of my Family ; and next the* 
armour which my ancestor Henry IV presented' 
as. a token of amity to your Republic*.' 

The early victories of Bonaparte at 
^j^ Montenotte, at Miliesimo, and at Lodi, had 

opened to him the Venetian territories in 

* Probably the sword worn at the Battle of Yvry. See p. 341. 


kis pursuit of the routed Austrians ; and his first 
interview with a Prcweditore despatched to him 
at Brescia in order to ascertain his furtlier views, 
was by no means calculated to soothe the alarm 
created by his invasion in the breasts of the 
Signory. He complained bitterly of their vacilla- 
tion, and of their permitting the Austrians, whom, 
if really neutral, they ought to have opposed, 
to occupy the important pott of Peschiera, which 
had cost him a battle. He announced that 
he had received orders from his Government to 
burn Verona; and that Massena was already 
on his march to execute that stem purpose, on 
the very night of their present conference. This 
crafty menace produced the effect which he de- 
aired ; the gates of Verona were instantly opened, 
and the City was occupied by a French garrison* 
Meantime, Bonaparte amused the Signory with 
oifers of alliance, and proposed a confederacy 
with France, the Porte and Russia, against Austria 
the common enemy of them all. But Venice 
continued unmoved from her neutrality ; and the 
o£fer did but tend to confirm her in a fond belief 
that the French were by no means securely esta^^ 
blished in their Italian conquests. The fresh 
successes of Bonaparte, on the renewal of the 
same memorable campaign, must have dissipated 
that hope ; yet hatred of the French name, a 
reasonable mistrust of the sincerity of the nego* 
tiator, a natural adherence to long-approved Policy, 
and a fear of tlie persevering enmity of Austria 
if once offended, combined to prevent acceptance 
of the former proposition when repeated. And 
although the Signory had long since assembled 
troops and maintained a War establishment, she 


professed in reply that Peace and an unarmed 
neutrality were her only objects. 

Nor were tenders of alliance wanting from 
another Court equally opposed to the aggrandize- 
ment of either France or Austria ; and, perhaps, 
the fate of Venice might have been averted, if she 
liad not rejected advantageous overtures from the 
Prussian Cabinet, at the close of 1796. In the 

succeeding Spring, the hard-fought Battle 
V797' o^ Rivoli and the surrender of Mantua, 

placed all Northern Italy within the grasp 
of the French, and compelled the Emperor to 
negotiate. Under circumstances thus unfavourable 
to Venice, the Conferences at Leoben were opened ; 
and, during their progress, the evil feeling enter- 
tained against her by the Directory was plainly 
avowed in Manifestos. Her destiny indeed was 
already fixed ; and one of Bonaparte's first commu- 
nications with his friend and Secretary Bourrienne, 
when he joined him at that moment, regarded her 
approaching extinction. * Be at ease,' were his 
remarkable words ; ' those rogues shall pay for it ; 
their Republic Aa9 Jived!*' In March, a faction 
which the intrigues of the Revolutionary Govemr 
ment had long encouraged at Bergamo, Brescia, 
Salo and Crema, emboldened by the presence of 
French troops, and stimulated, as there can be 
little doubt, by their commander, renounced their 
allegiance, expelled their Podesid, and erected Mu-t 
nicipalities. To the representations of the Signory 
concerning these insurrections, Bonaparte replied 
by disclaiming any share in their production ; and 
he terminated an interview with the Proweditore 

* * Sots tranquWey cet coquxnt-U 010 /• paierontt teur R^pubHquB 
vecu,* Mem. toI. fl. 


by an unexpected demand of a monthly subsidy of 
a million of francs. When the Envoy started with 
surprise, Bonaparte reminded him that the Duke 
of Modena, a fugitive from his own dominions, 
had deposited all his treasure in the Bank of 
Venice. The confiscation of those funds, he said* 
would afford a ready source for payment, and they 
were in truth the actual property of France, as the 
spoil of one of her enemies. If this reasoning 
were not altogether conclusive, the words with 
which he finished scarcely admitted contradiction. 
Taking the Venetian Deputy by the arm, he 
added, * Either your Republic or my Army must 
perish if you decline. Think well of your de* 
cision; and do not hazard the valetudinarian 
Lion of St. Mark against the fortune of conquerors, 
who will find in their Hospitals and among theit 
wounded sufl5cient men to cross your Lagune ! ' 
Two hundred Senators assembled to discuss this 
demand, and only seven Balls opposed the con- 
cession ! 

Meanwhile, the mountaineers of Brescia and 
Bergamo who still preserved their fidelity, and 
were goaded to desperation by the brutal licen<^ 
tiousness of their invaders, had taken arms, and 
had gained more than one advantage in desultory 
warfare against the French detachments. Some 
inquietude was excited by these movements ; and 
Junot was despatched to the Signory with a re- 
monstrance couched in menacing terms, which 
produced only an evasive answer. A consider- 
able force of regular Italian and Sclavonian troops, 
and a yet larger body of armed peasants, were 
concentrated in and about Verona, while the French 


xetained possetnon of all its forts ; and on the 
17th of April a calamitous struggle occurred in 
that City. Amid the manifold causes of mutual 
iiritation which existed, and the conflicting state- 
ments of the opposite parties, it is not possible to 
decide upon which of the two must rest the blame 
of prior aggression ; but in a murderous afiray^ 
which lasted during the afternoon of the 17th, the 
whole of the intervening night, and many hours 
of tiie following day, the French, much inferior 
in numbers^ were besieged in their forts; and 
nearly five hundred of them, scattered in separate 
quarters, or lying in the Hospitals, were put to 
death, while the Citadel fired red-hot balls upon 
the town and its infuriated populace. This agita- 
^on continued, with more or less violence, during 
four days ; and it was not until the arrival of a 
{)Owerful reinforcement from the French Head*- 
quarters, and a simultaneous announcement that 
Preliminaries of Peace with the Emperor were 
signed, that the Veronese wholly abandoned their 
hope of deliverance, and submitted in despair. 

This tumult occurred most seasonably for the 
ultimate designs of Bonaparte. He gladly ex* 
aggerated its outrages ; and, in order to impress 
a deeper horror, he brought to mind one of the 
most savage occurrences in Modem History, and, 
assimilating the recent conflict to the Sicilian 
Vespers, he named it Lea Pdquea Veronaues* 
His first question when he received the Deputies 
through whom the Signory addressed explanations, 
(so soon as the beginning of the affray at Verona 
was known, but before either party was acquainted 
with its issue,) was an inquiry whether certain 


persons who had heen thrown into prison at Ve* 
nice for disseminating Revolutionary opinions, and 
whose freedom he had demanded, were yet re* 
leased ? ' Every soul/ he exclaimed, * must be 
delivered : all are friends of France. If they are 
not restored, I will come in person and bum your 
Piombi. Opinion must now be free ! ' Then, 
interrupting some counter representation, and pur- 
suing an liarangue evidently prepared for the oc- 
casion, he added, ^ If all who have outraged 
France are not punished, if the prisoners are not 
released, the British Minister dismissed, the po- 
pulation disarmed, and choice made at once be* 
tween France and England, I hereby declare War. 
against you ! I have eighty thousand men and 
twenty gun*boats. There shall be no more In- 
quisition ; no more Senate; and I will prove 
another Attila to Venice ! I no longer offer you 
alliance, but dictation. I will disarm your rabble 
if your Government has too little power for the 
purpose ; and that Government is so decrepit that 
it must now fall to pieces ! ' 

Before the Proweditori had taken final leave, 
they received a despatch from the Signory an- 
nouncing one more untoward event, which it waft 
manifest would fearfully augment the stern, bitter 
and vindictive spirit already evinced by Bona- 
parte. A French vessel had been fired upon at 
Lido, several of her crew, among whom was Lau- 
gier, her Captain, had been killed, and the re- 
mainder taken prisoners. Once again the trem- 
bling Deputies obtained a conference ;. and the 
demands which they carried back to the Capital 
were the surrender of the Admiral commanding 


at Lido« of the Governor of its Fort*, and of the 
three Inquisitors of State, in order that they might 
atone, by an exemplary punishment, for the 
French blood which had been wantonly spilled. 
Without awaiting a reply, Bonaparte published an 
indignant Manifesto recapitulating his causes of 
offence against Venice, and immediately advanced 
upon the Lagune. So few are the names de* 
manding respect during the rapid catastrophe 
which followed, that we gladly relieve the tame 
and inglorious narrative by even a single instance 
of generous bearing. When Bonaparte entered 
Treviso on this march, he ordered Angelo Gius- 
tiniani, its Proweditore, to quit the City within 
two hours, on pain of being shot The Noble 
Venetian, worthy of the illustrious blood which 
flowed in his veins, replied that he depended solely 
upon his Government, and that he could not 
abandon his post without express orders from the 

To oppose an invasion of her Capital, Venice 
at that time counted within her own circuit nearly 
fifteen thousand troops ; stores and provisions suffi- 
cient for eight months consumption filled her maga* 
zines ; fresh water for two months was contained in 
her reservoirs on the Lido ; and the sea was open 
for a continued renewal of supplies. All her ancient 

* When the French took possession of Venice, this officer, who 
had acted under orders, was excluded from all command. Thus 
reduced to poverty, he applied, under the Austrian Go7ernment« to 
the Emperor, and received assurances of assistance. He died* 
however, neglected, and in misery; and when Mr. Rose was in 
Venice in 1817, one of his sons was employed in piecing the tesse- 
lated pavement in St. Mark's. Letters from the North of Italy, 
a, 62. 


fortresses were garrisoned ; some new works had 
been constructed ; and in the different channels of 
approach were distributed thirty-seven Galleys, and 
one hundred and sixty-eight armed barks, mount- 
ing altogether seven hundred and fifty cannon, 
and manned by eight thousand seamen. This 
was no insufficient force for the defence of a City 
whose inhabitants, twice before, when pent within 
the narrow basin of their waters, had broken forth 
triumphantly ; shattering to the dust the pride of 
Genoa, or holding in check the might of nearly 
all confederated Europe. But the spirit of former 
Ages had passed away; and the gold, the sophisms, 
and the terror of France were operating, each 
probably with equal force, upon the treachery, the 
weakness, and the cowardice of the Venetian 
Nobles, in acceleration of their ruin. 

It was on the 30th of April, that the Signory 
commenced their work of self-destruction, by 
summoning an extraordinary assembly {cfmfe" 
renzd) of forty-three of the highest Magistrates, 
in the private apartments of the Doge ; thus il]e« 
gaily depriving the Senate of its constitutional 
superintendence of State Affairs. During their 
sitting, as it grew late, the Port Admiral announced 
that the French were constructing batteries on the 
edge of the Lagune, and that he only waited orders 
•from the Senate to destroy them. How ill adapted 
to such an emergency were the hands in which 
power was deposited, may be judged from the 
words which escaped the Doge Manini on open* 
ing that despatch. Instead of ordering an im« 
mediate attack, he turned pale, and staggering 
through the chamber, faltered out in a tone of 
despair, * This very night we are by no means 


'rare of sleeping securely in our beds!' Half 
measures only could be expected from a temper 
thus miserably pusillanimous; and the Admiral 
was accordingly instructed, in the same breath, to 
prevent the continuance of the French works, and 
to open negotiations for an armistice. Befoie 
those orders reached him, the sound of a distant 
cannonade informed the City that he had ahready 
anticipated the bolder part of them, on his own 

On the following day, consternation spread 
through the City ; the Piazza was thronged with 
troops and cannon ; the narrow streets were tra- 
versed by patroles ; and, amid this general alarm, 
the Grand Council, having received firom the ter- 
rified Doge such a report of the condition of the 
Republic as his fears engendered, decreed a fresh 
mission to Bonaparte ; with authority to consent 
to his latest demands, a modification in the G^ 
vemment. The Envoys were received with fresh 
bursts of unrestrained indignation ; the blood of 
Laugier, said the General, could be washed away 
only by that of his guilty murderers; and tlie 
Nobles of Venice should be driven horn, their 
hearths to wander abroad as destitute emigrants. 
An armistice of six days, which he at length 
granted, afforded time for new proofs of weakness 
and indecision in the Council. A few more ele* 
vated spirits — and their names ought not to be 
forgotten in this dearth of virtue, — Priuli, Calbo, 
Pesaro, and Enzzo, were among them, — advocated 
resistance to the last gasp, and would have main- 
tained independence with their lives. But they were 
silenced contemptuously, and denounced as rash, 
headlong and ignorant enthusiasts. It was averred 


that the Sclavonian garrison had shewn symptoms 
of insuhordination ; a popular Revolutionary move- 
ment was declared to be on the very eve of e!»- 
plosion ; and images of blood, pillage, and mas- 
-sacre, floated before the morbid imagination, and 
prompted the feeble measures of the bribed or in- 
fatuated assembly. During another sitting, on the 
12th of May, when a few straggling musket-shote 
were heard on the Piazza, the confusion within 
the Chamber became instant and general ; and the 
Nobles, as if either not knowing or not caring how 
to fall with decency *, rose from thehr -seats with 
loud cries, * To the vote ! to the vote! ' The unw 
were handed round; — Five hundred and twelve 
affirmative Balls, in opposition to twelve negative 
and five neutral, prostrated the Republic at the 
feet of the French General, surrendered the C»* 
pital at discretion, and proclaimed that the moat 
ancient Government in the World, which had just 
completed the XI^ Century of its sway, was no 
longer in existence. 

A night of tumult and anarchy succeeded ; and 
it was not till four days afterwards that full prepa- 
rations having been made for their admission, a 
Venetian flotilla transported to the Piazzeila a 
division of three thousand French. The giddy 
rabble saluted their conquerors with shouts of joy ; 
and the following weeks were employed in some 
of those empiric mummeries, by which the mounte- 
banks of Jacobinism were wont to cajole the sim^ 
plicity of their gaping and unsuspicious dupes. 
The Golden Book was burned at the foot of the 
Tree of Liberty, while the Patriarch and his Clergy 

* HIKPHN xtfiftmf Hx'* ty^xnfutt irurM* 


administered the oath of fraternization ; and thd 
Scriptural legend on the Gospel held by the Lion 
4>f St Mark having been erased, those vague catch* 
words of Revolution, ' the Rights of Man and of 
Citizenship,' were substituted in its place. This 
change of motto was not likely to be passed un- 
noticed by the ready wit of the careless Gondoliers ; 
and one of them remarked, that * the Lion for the 
first time had turned over a new leaf/ 

But the dream of pure Republicanism, and of 
that Liberty which it was credulously supposed to 
bestow, was not long to amuse the excited fancy 
of the now conquered and enslaved Venetians. 
The Treaty of Campo Formio was announced in 
October, and by its Terms, — according to the 
Institutes of that detestable Code of Robbery by 
■which modern Pacifications have so frequently 
been disgraced; in pursuance of that fraudulent 
traffic in the Rights of independent Nations, that 
mode of wholesale transfer in Diplomatic com- 
merce by which States and Kingdoms are valued 
only as a kind of circulating medium in the balance 
of Political accompts, and are passed from hand 
to hand, like so many bills of exchange or parch* 
ment securities — ^the partition of the Venetian ter- 
ritory was ultimately arranged. For her cession 
of the Low Countries, Austria was indemnified by 
Istria, Dalmatia, the City of Venice and the 
remainder of the Dogado: France claimed the 
Ionian Islands ; and Bergamo, Brescia and other 
portions of Terra firma were annexed .to the 
shortlived Cisalpine Republic. The French, before 
their departure, as if unwilling to leave to the 
People whom they had erased from separate and 
independent existence, any memorial which might 


recall their former greatness, broke up the Bucen- 
taur, and transported to Paris, among innumerable 
other gems of Art, the brazen horses recording 
the glory of Enrico Dandolo, Their cupidity was 
disappointed in the contents of the Arsenal : two 
«ixty-four gim shipB, four brigs and a few trans- 
porta were all that remained within its basins, as 

S^osts of departed maritime empire. It was on 
e 18th of January, 1798, t hat the Austrian s 
entered upon posseBsion of their new Pro- ^j^' 
vittce ; and transfeired to their own AnnaU, 
— until some fliture Revolution shall terminate 
those also, — all that hereafter may be related in 
connexion with The History of Venice. 



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