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Full text of "Sketches of representative women of New England"

ft 03 Cnglanti ilibrarj) of ^^opular BSiosrapfjies 



THIS VOLUME CONTAINS SKETCHES OF 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF 

NEW ENGLAND 



COMPILED BY 



Mary Elvira Elliot, Mary A. Stimpson, Martha Seavey Hoyt, and Others 
Under the Editorial Supervision of JULIA WARD HOWE, assisted by Mary H. Graves 




" Honorable women not a few." 



BOSTON 

NEW ENCJLAND HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

/904 



PUBLISHER'S PREFACE. 





1 



N presenting this book to our patrons, we think it fitting to state that the 
publication of such a vohune was first suggested to us by two ladies who 
have been since, for most of the time, closely associated with us in its com- 
pilation — Mrs. Mary A. Stimpson and Miss Mary E. Elliot. Their labors 
have been ably supplemented in this department and otherwise by Mrs. Martha S. Hoyt 
and others, to all of whom we owe a debt of thanks for faithful and efficient service. Our 
thanks are also due in high measure to Miss Mary H. Graves for her thorough and pains- 
taking work in connection with the editorial department and the verification of the geneal- 
ogies herein contained ; and to Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, the editor-in-chief, for her many 
wise suggestions, careful oversight, and valuable personal contributions of biographical 
matter. That the completion of the work has been delayed somewhat beyond the time 
at first anticipated has been due partly to the fact that the data for some of the biog- 
raphies, promised a long time since, were not furnished to us until quite recently, and 
also to the careful and thorough manner in which every department of the work has been 
carried on. That all will be fully satisfied we do not expect ; yet we believe that our 
subscribers in general will find little real cause for dissatisfaction, and in particular will 
this be true of those who readily and heartily co-operated with us in the preparation of 
their own biographies. The few who failed to do so will be httle entitled to complain of 
any errors or omissions in the matter personal to themselves herein printed. We believe 
the book will fulfil the reasonable expectations of all those who have taken a friendly 
interest in its pubhcation. 

NEW ENGLAND •HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Boston, Mass., U.S.A., 
September, 1904. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 




HE Ijiogiaphical sketches presented in this vohune are mostly (j1' an 
are still with us ami engaged in active pursuits which embrace 
variety of callings. The woman minister, doctor, lawyer, all have her" 
record, and with them the writer, the teacher, the philanthropist, the general care-; 
society. 

The sketches naturally vary in importance and interest ; bnt, taken all together, t: 
offer a laudable report of the work of New F^ngland women in many departments < 
pubhc and personal service. They attest the active interest of New England's daughtei 
in the welfare of the State and in all that most vitally concerns its citizens. 

JULIA WARD HOWE 




ELIZABETH C. AGASSIZ 



BIOSRAPHIGAb. 




ELIZABETH CARY AGASSIZ, 

the first President of Radcliffe 
College and its constant bene- 
factress, is destined, through 
the scholarship that bears her 
name and the hall which is 
to be erected in her honor on 
the college grounds, to be held in grateful, 
lasting remembrance as a pioneer advocate 
and promoter in the nineteenth century of 
the higher education of women. In former 
years, as the wife and helpmeet of a naturalist 
of world-wide reputation, and later as the 
editor of his Life and Correspondence, she was 
well known in literary and scientific circles. 
Her subsecjuent work as an educational leader 
brought her name more directly before the 
public; and the celebration in Decembei', 1902, 
in Sanders Theati'e, Cambridge, of the eightieth 
anniversary of her l)irth was widely reportetl 
in the papers as an occasion of general interest. 
Born in Boston, December 5, 1822, daughter 
of Thomas Graves and Mary (Perkins) Cary, 
she comes of long lines of New England ancestry, 
and personally bears witness to gentle blood 
and breeding. Her father, Thomas Graves 
Cary, A.M. (Harv. Coll. ISll"), was son of 
Sanmel^ and Sarah (Gray) Cary and grandson 
of Saniuel'* anil Margaret (Graves) Cary, all of 
Chelsea, Mass. His grandfather, Sanmel'* Cary, 
was descended from' James' Cary, of Charles- 
town, through Jonathan^ and Samuel.^ James' 
Cary came from England and settled in 
Charlestown in 1639. He was the seventh son 
of William Cary, who was Mayor of the city 
of Bristol, England, in 1611. 

SanuieP Cary, A.M., born in 1713, was grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1731. He became 
a sea-captain, making long voyages. He mar- 



ried in 1741 Margaret Graves, daughter of 
Thomas' Graves, of Charlestown (Harv. Coll. 
1703), Judge of the Superior Court; grand- 
daughter of Dr. Thomas^ Graves (Harv. Coll. 
1656); and great-grand-daughter of Thomas' 
Graves, who settled in Charlestown about 1637, 
was master of various vessels, and at the time 
of his death, in 1653, was a Rear- Admiral in 
the Engli.sh navy. 

Mary Perkins, wife of Thomas G. Cary and 
mother of Elizabeth, was a daughter of Colonel 
Thomas Handasyd Perkins, merchant and phi- 
lanthropist of Boston (born 1764, died 1854), 
who in 1833 gave his estate on Pearl Street to 
be the seat of the school for the blind taught 
by Dr. Sanmel G. Howe. This act of public- 
spiritetl generosity is commemorated in the 
name which the school — now in South Boston, 
marvellously increased in size and eciuipment — 
bears to this day, "The Perkins Institution 
and Massachusetts School for the Blind." 
Colonel Perkins was also a liberal contributor 
to the funds of the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, the Mercantile Library Association, 
and the Boston Athenanmi, and a helper of 
many other worthy causes. One of his sisters 
was the wife of Benjamin Abbot, IjL.D., for 
fifty years })rincipal of Phillips Exeter Acad- 
emy; another, Margaret, wife of Ralph Bennett 
Forbes and mother of tlie late Hon. John 
Murray Forbes, of Milton. Tliey were childi-en 
of James and Elizabeth (Peck) Perkins, and 
doubtless inherited some of their sterling traits 
of character from their mother, who, early left 
a willow, showed herself a woman of "great 
capacity in b\isiness matters" and a friend to 
the needy, t'olonel Perkins was named for his 
maternal giandfather, Thomas Handasyd Peck. 
His paternal grandparents were Eilnmnd and 



RErRESKNTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Esther f (Frcifhingliain) IVi'kins, tlio former, 
son of Captain Kdimmd Perkins, the first of 
the family to settle in Boston (in the latter 
jxart of the seventeenth centvuy). Colonel 
Perkins married the daughter of Simon Elliott, 
of Boston, and had two sons — Thomas H., Jr., 
and deorge C. — and five daughters. 

Elizabeth Cabot Cary (nf>\v ^Irs. Agassiz) 
was educated at home, pur.suing her studies 
under the direction of a governess. She was 
one of a family of seven children. Her younger 
brother, Richard Cary, Captain of Company 
G, Second Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 
commissioned May 24, ISGl, fell, mortally 
wounded, in the battle of Cedar Mountain, "N'a., 
August 9, 1862. Her elder sister, Mary Louisa, 
who married Cornelius C. Felton (President of 
Harvard University 1S60-02), died in 1S64, 
having survived her huslmnd two years. 

In the spring of 1850 Elizabeth C. Cary be- 
came the wife of Louis Agassiz, profes,sor of 
zoology and geology in Harvard University, 
and went with him to his house in Oxford 
Street, Cambridge, to make a home for him 
and his son and the two daughters soon to 
come from Switzerland, and "to be," as said 
his biogra]ilier, Mr. Marcou, writing years after, 
" the guardian angel of Louis Agassiz and his 
whole family of children and grandchildren." 
Mrs. Agassiz not oidy directed willi discretion 
the affairs of her household, Init interested 
herself in natural history and particularly in 
zoological studies, and .served as her husband's 
secretary and literary a.ssistant, taking copious 
notes of his lectures and preparing manuscript 
for the printer. 

Lifelong student, reverently intent to 

. . . "Read what was still unread 
In tlie niainiscripts of (iod." 

unwearied teacher, rarely eciualled in enthu- 
sia.sm and fitness for his vocation. Professor 
Agassiz, as everybody knows, had " no time 
to spare to make money." His salary, how- 
ever, fell far short of enabling him to meet 
both domestic and scientific expenses. Hence 
the establishment in 1855 (the idea originating 
with his wife) of the Agassiz School for young 
ladies, which had a prosperous existence of 
eight years, its pupils, attracted by the fame 



of the great naturalist, coming from near and 
from far. The elder Agassiz children, Alexander 
and Ida, were helpers from the first. Mrs. 
Agassiz, who did not teach, held the responsi- 
ble ])osition of director, and had the general 
management of the school. 

In the summer of 1859 Professor and Mrs. 
Agassiz enjoyed a trip to Europe, passing 
happy weeks with his mother and sister at 
Montagny, Switzerland. In April, 1865, they 
went to South America on the scientific ex- 
pedition whose history is recorded in the book 
entitled "A Journey in Brazil." 

In December, 1871, they embarked on one 
of the vessels of the United States Coast Survey, 
the "Hassler," fitted out for deep-sea dredg- 
ing, which sailed through the Strait of Magel- 
lan and then northward along the Pacific coast 
to San Francisco, entering the Golden Gate 
August 24, 1872. During this voyage a journal 
of scientific and personal experience was kept 
by Mrs. Agassiz under her hu.^band's direction. 
A part of it was published in the Atlantic 
Monthly. 

The eighth tlecade of the nineteenth century, 
which witnesses! in July, 187.3, the opening of 
the School of Natural History at Penikese, and 
in December following, the funeral of " the 
Master," was the decade in which a movement 
was made toward securing for women in Cam- 
bridge the real Harvard education or its equiv- 
alent. The initiative appears to have been or 
was taken by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Gilman. A 
plan for instituting for women, outside the 
college, a tluplicate course of the Harvard in- 
struction was received with favor in December, 
1878, by President Eliot and by some of the 
faculty who had been consulted. On February 
22, 1879, was issued a circular headed "Private 
Collegiate Instruction for Women," setting 
forth the project. It was signed by Mrs. Louis 
Agassiz, Mrs. E. W. Gurney, Mrs. J. P. Cooke, 
Mrs. J. B. Greenough, Mrs. Arthur Gilman, 
Miss Alice M. Longfellow, Mrs. Lillian Horsford, 
and Arthur Gilman, secretary. Examinations 
for admission to the classes were held in Sep- 
tember, and work in the lecture room began 
at once. Twenty-five students completed the 
first year's course. On October 16, 1882, it 
having become necessary to raise a fund to 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



purchase the Fay House, the aljove-named 
ladies and others who had joined them legally 
became a corporation, with the title, "The 
Society for the Collegiate Instruction of 
Women." 

Ihider the popular name of "The Harvartl 
Annex," invented by one of its students, the 
institution grew and flourished. Twice was 
the Fay House enlargeil. In 1894, by act of 
the State Legislature, the name of The Society 
for the Collegiate Instruction of AVonien was 
changed to Radcliffe College, the bill receiving 
the signature of (ioveinor Greenhalge, March 
23, 1894. It authorized Radcliffe to confer 
on women, with the ai)proval of the President 
and Fellows of Harvard, all honors and degrees 
as fully as any university or college in the 
Connnonwealth. 

President of Harvard Annex from the be- 
ginning, Mrs. Agassiz was President of Rad- 
cliffe until 1900, when she tenderetl her resig- 
nation. The extent, character, and value of 
her services to the college in this long period 
are known only to those who have been asso- 
ciated with her in its management or have at- 
teniled as students. She continued as Hon- 
orary President of the Associates of Radcliffe, 
who constitute its Corporation, and ex-officio 
member of the Academic Board and chairman 
of the Council, until the close of the academic 
year 1902-1903. On June 23, 1903, she pre- 
sided at the Commencement exercises, and 
conferred degrees on ninety-nine candidates — 
eighty Bachelors of Arts, and nineteen Masters 
of Arts. In the precetling week she had re- 
signed the acting presidency, feeling herself 
no longer equal to the res])onsil:)ilities of the 
position; and Dr. Le Baron Russell IJriggs, the 
second officer of Harvard University, had ac- 
cepted the presidency of Radcliffe College, the 
choice being one which gave Mrs. Agassiz 
"much pleasure and entire satisfaction." Mrs. 
Agassiz's letter of withilrawal closed with these 
words : — 

"I am grateful for the length of years which 
has allowed me to see the fulfilment of our 
cherished hope for Radcliffe in this closer re- 
lation of her academic life and government 
with that of Harvard. With cheerful confi- 
dence in her future, which now seems assured 



to me, with full and affectionate recognition 
of all that her Council, her Academic Board, 
antl her Associates have done to bring her where 
she now stands, I bitl farewell to my colleagues. 
At the same time I thank them for their un- 
failing support and encouragement in the work 
which we have shared together in behalf of 
Radcliffe College." 

Released from her former responsibilities as 
ex-officio member of the Coimcil and chairman 
of the Academic Board, Mrs. Agassiz remains 
(1903-04) as Honorary President of the Asso- 
ciates of Radcliffe. 

Professor Louis Agassiz is survived by the 
three children above named — Professor Alexan- 
der, director of the Agassiz Museum: Mrs. 
Quincy A. Shaw, antl l\Irs. Henry Lee Higgin- 
son. Mrs. Agassiz continues to make her home 
on Quincy Street, Cambridge. She has also a 
summer cottage at Nahant, overlooking the 
glacier-marked, wave-beaten cliffs of the North 
Shore, a short distance from the stone cottage 
built by her grandfather Perkins. 

Going abroad with Miss Mary Felton, her 
niece, in 1895, Mrs. Agassiz si)ent a number 
of months in Italy, journeyed through Ger- 
many, France, antl the Tyrol, and in England 
visited Newnham and Girton Colleges for 
women. 

Mrs. Agassiz is the author or editor of the 
following named books: "A First Lesson in 
Natural History," by Acta-a, 1859, republished 
in 1879 with the author's name; "Seaside 
Studies in Natural History," by Elizabeth C. 
and Alexander Agassiz, 1865; "Geological 
Sketches," 18G6; "A Journey in Bi'azil," by 
Professor antl Mrs. Louis Agassiz, 1868; "Louis 
Agassiz, his Life antl Correspontlence," in two 
volumes, editetl by Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, 
1885. 

M. H. G. 



EDNAH DOW CHENEY, one of the 
founders in 1862 of the New England 
Htjspital, Boston, its secretary for 
twenty-seven years antl president fif- 
teen years, is numbered among the veterans of 
the forward movements in education, philan- 
thropy, and reform of the nineteenth century, 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



who happily still live to grace by their presence 
and help by their wise counsels the delibera- 
tive assemblies and budding activities of the 
twentieth century. She has recently given to 
the public an interesting volume of "Reminis- 
cences." Born in Boston, June 27, 1824, 
daughter of Sargent Smith and Ednah Parker 
(Dow) Littlehale, she was named for her mother, 
and until her marriage, May 19, 1853, to the 
artist, Seth AVells Cheney, was known as Ednah 
Dow Littlehale. 

Her father was for thirty years a Boston 
merchant. His native place was Gloucester, 
Mass. Born in 1787, he died in 1851. He 
was of the fifth generation of the Essex Coufity 
family founded by Richard Littlehale, who 
took the "oath of supremacy and allegiance to 
pass for New England in the Mary & John of 
London, Robert Sayres, Master, 24th March, 
1633," joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony 
at Ipswich, and, eventually settling in Haver- 
hill, was Town Clerk for twenty years, serving 
also as Clerk of the Writs. Richard* Littlehale, 
of Gloucester (Joseph;'' Isaac,' Richard'), Mrs. 
Cheney's grandfather, was a Captain of militia. 
He married a widow, Mrs. Sarah Byles Edgar, 
daughter of Captain Charles Byl^'-'^- w^^o 
connnanded a company at the siege of Louis- 
burg, and who also fought at Quebec under 
Wolfe. 

Mrs. Cheney's mother, Mrs. Ednah P. Little- 
hale, a native of Exeter, N.H., born in 1799, 
died in Boston in 1876. She was the daughter 
of Jeremiah and Ednah (Parker) Dow and on 
the paternal side a descendant in the seventh 
generation of Thomas Dow, one of the early 
.settlers of Newbury, I\Ia,ss., freeman in 1642. 
The Dow ancestral line is Thomas,' Stephen,- ' 
Nathaniel,* Captain Jeremiah,'^ Jeremiah," Ed- 
nah Parker (Mrs. Littlehale). 

Thomas' Dow removed from Newbury to 
Haveihill, where he died in 1654. Stephen," 
son of Thomas and his wife Phebe, was born 
in Newlniry in 1642. Stephen,^ born in Haver- 
hill in 1670, married Mary Hutchins. Their 
son Nathaniel,* born in 1()99, married Mary 
Hendricks, and lived in Haverhill and Me- 
thuen, Mass., and Salem, N.IL, formerly a part 
of Haverhill, Mass. 

Captain Jeremiah,'^ l>orn in Haverhill, Mass., 



in 1738, married Lydia Kimball, of Bradford, 
daughter of Isaac* Kimball, a lineal descendant 
of Richard' Kimball, of Ipswich. Captain 
Jeremiah^ Dow died in Salem, N.H., in 1826. 
His name is in the Revolutionary Rolls of New 
Hampshire under different dates. He com- 
manded a company in Lieutenant Colonel 
Welch's regiment, which marched from Salem, 
N.H., to join the Northern army in September, 
1777. He was probably the Jeremiah Dow of 
New Hampshire who was private in Captain 
Marston's company in the expeflition to Crown 
Point in 1762. Retire H. Parker marched to 
Cambridge as a minute-man of the Second 
Bradford Foot Company on the alarm of April 
19, 1775. 

Mrs. Littlehale's maternal grandparents were 
Lieutenant Retire H. and Ednah (Hardy) 
Parker, of East Bradford, now Groveland, 
Mass. The Parker line of ancestry began with 
Abraham' Parker, who married at Woburn 
in 1644 Rose Whitlock, and about the year 
1653 removed to Chelmsford. It continued 
through Abraham,^ who married Martha Liver- 
more and settled in East Bradford; Abrahanr' 
antl wife, Elizal)eth Bradstreet (a descendant 
of Humphrey Bradstreet, of Rowley) ; Abi-a- 
ham* and his second wife, Hannah Beckett, 
daughter of Retire Beckett, of Salem, belonging 
to a noted family of ship-builders; to Lieutenant 
Retire H. Parker and his wife, Ednah Hardy, 
above named. 

Martha Livermore, wife of Abraham^ Parker, 
of East Bradford, was a daughter of John Liver- 
more, of Watertown (the founder of the family 
of this name in New England), and his wife 
Grace (born Sherman), whom he married in 
England, and who was closely related to the 
immigrant progenitors of the most prominent 
Sherman families of America. Mrs. Grace 
Sherman Livermore was a useful member of 
the colony, being an obstetrician. She sur- 
vived her husl)and, and died in Chelmsford in 
1690, aged seventy-five years (gravestone). 

Judging from printed records, the name Ed- 
nah has come down to Mrs. Cheney not only 
from her mother, her grandmother Dow, and 
her great-grandmother Parker, but from a more 
remote ancestress, Mrs. Ednah Bailey, wife of 
Richard' Bailey, o-'" Rowley, Mass. Tracing 



REPRESENT ATRT: WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



backward, we find that Mrs. Ednah Hardy 
Parker, born in 1745, was the daughter of Cap- 
tain EHphalef and Hannah (Platts) Hardy, 
grand-daughter of Jonas Platts and his wife, 
Anne' Bailey, and great-grand-daughter of 
Deacon Joseph^ Bailey, of East Bradford, who 
was son of Richard' and his wife Ednah. 
Richard Bailey was one of the company that 
set up in Rowley the first cloth-mill in America. 
Mrs. Ednah Bailey's maiden name is thought 
to have been Halstead. 

Mrs. Cheney's birthplace was on Belknap 
Street, now Joy, about half-way up Beacon Hill 
from Cambridge Street. She was the third 
chikl born to her parents. Five children came 
after her, one a little brother; but only four — 
Ednah and three sisters, one a lifelong invalid — 
lived to adult age. When she was two years 
old, the family removed to Hayward Place, and 
six years later they took up their abode in a 
new house on Bowdoin Street. At the first 
school she attended, kept by the Misses Pem- 
berton, she had gootl training in reatling, spell- 
ing, arithmetic, grammar, anil geography. The 
second was Mr. William B. P^owle's Monitorial 
School, which she entered with her elder sister, 
Mary Frances. Here she distinguished herself 
by her knowledge of grannnar, as shown by 
her skill in "parsing," antl her ready recitations 
in other studies that interested her, one of these 
being French, which was especially well taught. 
The attraction of a new and friendly acquaint- 
ance, Miss Caroline Healey, drew her to the 
school on Mount Vernon Street of Mr. Joseph 
H. Abbot. For a few terms she continued to 
advance in various ways of learning, more or 
less pleasurable, in the meantime successfully 
cultivating independence of thought, till, feel- 
ing her-self not in harmony with the constituted 
authorities, she was as anxious to leave the 
Abbot school as she had been to enter it. Here 
ended her school-days — education still to be 
won. The home atmosphere was favorable to 
mental growth. Love of learning, with a taste 
for good literature, was an inheritance. The 
mother, "a beautiful type of woman, of good 
practical ability and great tenderness of heart, 
was very fond of reading." "Indeed," says 
Mrs. Cheney, " I can never remember seeing 
either her or my father sitting down to rest 



without a book in their hands." Mr. Littlehale 
had a good knowledge of history, especially 
American. 

The period of time now arrived at, the vivi- 
fying dawn of New England Transcendentalism, 
brought golden opportunities to the young as- 
pirant for intellectual culture. A great awak- 
ening and a new sense of the surpassing riches 
of life was the result to Ednah D. Littlehale of 
attending for three successive seasons the con- 
versations of Margaret Fuller. Few teachers 
have shown to such a degree the power of per- 
sonality. 

Mrs. Cheney writes: "I absorbed her life and 
her thoughts, and to this day I am astonished 
to find how large a part of what I am when I 
am most myself I have derived from her. . . . 
She did not make us her disciples, her blind 
followers. She opened the book of life and 
helped us to read it for ourselves." 

Of Mr. Emer-son, Mrs. Cheney says, " I never 
missed an opportunity of hearing him or read- 
ing his works"; and of Mr. Alcott, not all of 
whose theories she couUl accept, "But he gave 
me an insight into the life and thoughts of the 
old philosophers, anil moreover gave me the 
constant sense of the spiritual, the supersen- 
sual life that is the most precious of all posses- 
sions." 

It is significant that Mrs. Cheney and her 
elder sister, Mary F., were among the first 
parishioners of Theodore Parker when he came 
from West Roxbury to Boston, 1846. Inspirer, 
friend, and comforter in time of sorrow he ever 
remained. 

For a year or two before her marriage Mrs. 
Cheney was the secretary of the School of De- 
sign for Women in Boston, of which she was 
one of the founders. Short-lived, the school 
yet served to show the existence of talent among 
American women, and is remembered as "one 
of the failures that enriched the ground for 
success." 

Twin ambitions, art and literature, were na- 
tive to Mrs. Cheney. Choosing the latter for 
her field of action, she ceased not to cultivate 
her taste for the former. As an artist's wife 
she maile her first visit to Europe, sailing with 
her husband for Liverpool in August, 1854. 
The year following their return (in June, 1855) 



10 



REFRESENTATIVK WOMEN OF NEW ENC.LAND 



witnessed the hirth of a daughter, Margaret 
Swan, in September, 1S55, and the death of Mr. 
Cheney in April, 1856, in South Manchester, 
Conn., his native place. He was one of the 
earliest crayon artists in America. Mrs. Howe 
thus speaks of him: "Seth Cheney's crayon 
portraits were among the delights of his time. 
The foremost women of Boston were glad to 
sit to him, and his rendering of their features 
has now for us 

"' The tender p;rare of a day that is dead.' 

Among his portraits of men, I especially re- 
member one of Theodore Parker which was 
highly prized. An exhibition of a number of 
these works was arranged some years since by 
Mr. S. R. Koehler, curator of engravings, Art 
Museum, at the Boston Art Museum. It was 
an occasion of much interest, recalling many 
lovely and distinguished personalities, inter- 
preted by Mr. Cheney with a grace and simplicity 
all his own." 

Mrs. Cheney was one of the subscribers 
toward the establishment in 1856, under the 
leadenship of Dr. Zakrzewska, of the first 
women's hospital, the New York Infirmary for 
Indigent Women and Children. A few years 
later she was interested with others in the ad- 
dition of a clinical department to the medical 
school for women in Boston, now merged in 
Boston University. In 1863 she was one of 
the three women corporators of the New 
England Hospital, which they had started 
in 1862 in a house on Pleasant Street. "Ac- 
cepting the position of secretary, Mrs. Cheney," to 
quote the words of Dr. Zakrzewska, "devoted 
herself to the work, and became one of the most 
powerful advocates and supporters of this in- 
stitution — an institution now firmly established 
and professionally recognized, and which by 
its' efficiency and conscientious work has not 
only educated women as physicians and nurses, 
but has opened the way for the former to a 
professional equality with medical men, as the 
Ma.ssachusetts Medical Society was tlie first to 
adnnt women as members." 

Succeeding Mi.ss Lucy Goddard as president 
of the hospital in 1887, Mrs. Cheney continued 
in office, discharging the duties thereof with 



zeal and efficiency for fifteen years, or until her 
resignation on account of failing health in Oc- 
tober, 1902. She is now Honorary President. 

Early interested in the work of the Freed- 
man's Aid Society, and becoming the secretary 
of the teachers' committee on the resignation of 
Miss Stevenson, Mrs. Cheney made several 
visits to the South in the years directly follow- 
ing the close of the war for the Union, the first 
time going with Abby M. May as a delegate to 
a convention in Baltimore. Unexpectedly 
called upon there to address a meeting com- 
posed largely of colored people, she had her 
first experience in public speaking. During 
her absence on one of these Southern trips a 
society was formed in Boston, of which she 
was appointed a director, being now Honorary 
President, and in which she has continued to 
work — the Free Religious Association, "the 
freedom and inspiration of whose first meet- 
ings" she finds it "impossible to report." 

In 1868 Mrs. Cheney was one of the founders 
of the New England Women's Club, which soon 
came to be recognized as a forceful influence for 
good in the community; and about the same 
time she identified herself with the woman suf- 
frage movement. For some years she was Vice- 
president of the Massachusetts School Suffrage 
Association. Joining the Association for the 
Advancement of W^omen early in the seven- 
ties, a year or two after its organization, she 
became one of its most valued workers and 
speakers. Mrs. Cheney also assisted in the 
founding of a horticultural school for women, 
of which Abby W. May became president. It 
was given up when Bussey College opened, and 
admitted women to its classes. 

Mrs. Cheney's second visit to Europe in 1877, 
in company with her sisters and her daughter, 
was saddened in Rome by the death of her 
sister Helen. Returning to Boston in 1878, she 
respontled to an invitation to give a course of 
lectures on art at the Concoril School of Phi- 
losophy the following summer, and continued 
to lecture throughout the session. 

In 1882 Mrs. Cheney was bereft of her daugh- 
ter. She had been a student of great ])romise 
at the Massachu-setts Institute of Technology; 
and, after she laid down her books and her 
young life, a room in the Technology building 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



11 



was fitted up and named for her the "Margaret 
Swan Cheney Reading Room." 

Since 1863 Mrs. Cheney has made her home 
in Jamaica Plain. Her interest in things that 
make for Imman welfare and progress con- 
tinues unabated. Her voice in these later 
days is yet occasionally heard in pulilic, and 
her pen is still that of a ready if not constant 
writer. 

Mrs. Howe, speaking from the standpoint of 
long and intimate acquaintance, says: "Mrs. 
Ednah Dow Cheney is one of the marked per- 
sonalities of the last fifty years in her native 
town of Boston. In ail this period of time she 
has been prominent in movements of sound 
and needed reform. Naturally averse to per- 
sonal publicity, she has not shunned it where 
her name and word could add weight to the 
atlvocacy of a just cause. In the education 
and health of the comnmnity she has shown 
the most lively interest. She has been a strenu- 
ous champion of the claims of the colored race 
to political and social justice. She has hatl 
much at heart the spread of religious tolera- 
tion and the enfranchisement of her own sex. 
One who has been proud and glad to work with 
her may say that she has always found her a 
woman of good counsel and of reliable judg- 
ment. Motives of i)ersonal advancement are 
foreign to her nature. Her life has been en- 
riched by true culture, by the love of all that 
is beautiful in art, -literature, and character. 
The good work which she has contributed to 
the tasks of her day and generation will surely 
endure, and should be held, with her imme, in 
loving and lasting remembrance." 

Among the books that Mrs. Cheney has writ- 
ten or edited may be named the following: 
"Handbook for American Citizens" (written 
for the freedmen of the South), 1864; "Faith- 
ful to the Light," 1872; "Sally Williams," 
1872; "Child of the Tide," 1874;' "Gleanings 
in the Fields of Art," 1881; Life, Letters, and 
Journals of Louisa M. Alcott, 1889; Memoirs 
of her husband, Seth W. Cheney, of her daugh- 
ter, Margaret S. Cheney, and of the distinguished 
engraver, John Cheney; "Stories of the Olden 
Time," 1890; "Life of Ranch, the Sculptor"; 
"Reminiscences," December, 1902. 

M. H. G. 



ELIZABI'.TH PORTER GOULD, author 
ami lecturer of -witle reputation, now 
a resident of Boston, is a native of 
Essex County, Massachusetts. The 
eldest daughter of John Averell and Elizabeth 
Cheever (Leach) Gould, she comes of substan- 
tial New England stock, numbering among her 
ancestors two colonial governors, the first woman 
j)oet of New England, eight or more ministers of 
the gospel, and several Revolutionary patriots. 
She can trace her descent from over thirty early 
settlers of Essex County. Through the public 
services of nine of her forbears she is eligible 
to membership in the Society of Colonial Dames. 

The Gould ancestral line is: Zaccheus,' John,-^ 
Solomon,^ John,^ " John Averell' — showing Eliza- 
beth P. to be of the eighth generation in New 
England. Zaccheus Gould came to the Bay 
Colony about the year 1638, and somewhat later 
settleil in Topsfield. 

The line of descent from Governor Thomas 
Dudley and his wife, Dorothy Yorke, is through 
his daughter Anne, wife of Governor Simon 
Bradstreet; their son, John Bradstreet, born in 
Andover, Mass., in 1652, who married Sarah 
Perkins and lived in Topsfield; his son, Simon 
Bradstreet, who married Elizabeth, ilaughter 
of the Rev. Joseph Capen, of Topsfield; Eliza- 
beth Bradstreet, who married Joseph Peaboily; 
Priscilla Peabody, married Isaac Averell; Elijah 
Averell, married Mary Gould ; and their daughter, 
Mary Averell, who, marrying John" Gould, 
named above, became the mother of John 
Averell Gould and grandmother of Elizabeth 
Porter Gould. 

Mary Goukl, wife of Elijah Averell and ma- 
ternal grandmother of John Averell Gould, was 
a daughter of Captain Joseph Gould, of Tops- 
field, and his wife l']lizal)eth, daughter of the 
Rev. John Emerson, of Maiden. Her maternal 
grandfather, the Rev. John Iilmerson, was a 
son of Edward and Rebecca (Waldo) Emerson, 
grandson of the Rev. Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Bulkeley) ]<]mer.son, Elizabeth Bulkeley being 
the daughter of the Rev. Edwartl Bulkeley and 
grand-daughter of the Rev. Peter Bulkeley, 
the first minister of Concord, Mass. (Edward 
Emerson and his wife, Rebecca Waldo, were 
great-grandparents of Ralph Waldo Emerson.) 

Miss Gould's mother was a daughter of Ben- 



12 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



jaiiiin,' Jr., and Susan (Cheever) Leach, of Man- 
chester, Mass., and on the paternal side a de- 
scendant of Robert^ Leach, an early settler of 
that town, and his father, Lawrence Leach, who 
is said to have come to Boston from Scotland 
in 162S. Susan Cheever Leach, Miss Gould's 
maternal grandmother, was a grand-daughter 
of the Rev. Ames^ Cheever, of Manchester, and 
his wife, Sarah Choate, and great-grand-flaugh- 
ter of the Rev. Sanuicf- Cheever, of Marble- 
head, who was son of Ezekiel' Cheever, the fa- 
mous schoolmaster of the olden time in Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, for forty years the 
head of the Boston Latin School. 

In Chelsea, whither Mr. and Mrs. John A. 
Gould removed when their children were young, 
they resided for about thirty years, the city 
then being noted for its gootl society, number- 
ing among its leading families the Osgoods, 
Frosts, Fays, Sawyers, Shillabers, and others. 
Mr. Gould for a number of years served as one 
of the School Committee, also as a member of 
the Common Council, and was chairman of 
the Music Committee of the First Congrega- 
tional Church. Mrs. Gould was one of the fore- 
most in works of benevolence, and was nmch 
loved and respected. She died in Chelsea in 
1893. A daughter Susie, who had unusual 
musical talent, was the "little rosebud of a 
Chelsea girl" who sang at one of the public 
readings of Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1872, 
being thus mentioned in Mrs. Fields' biography 
of Mrs. Stowe. 

Elizabeth Porter Gould, the eldest daughter, 
was named for her grantimother Gould's sister 
Elizabeth, the wife of Dr. John Porter, of 
"Fairfields," the old Porter estate in Wenham. 
With Miss Gould the possession of talent has 
been a call for its improvement. The pleas- 
ant paths of learning in which her mental powers 
were developed easily led into equally pleasant 
fields of useful activity. Whenever congrat- 
ulated upon the many patriotic services she 
has rendered, she has always declared with her 
kinsman. Dr. Benjamin Apthorp Gould, that 
her "ancestry made it a necessity." And so 
in regard to her many acts of kindness, her in- 
telligent sympathy in behalf of so many causes, 
she simply says: "I was born in a house dedi- 
cated to God and humanity. I can't go back 



on that." Questioned, she tells how the house 
in Manchester-by-the-Sea, where she first saw 
the light of this world, .June 8, 1848, was dedi- 
cated like a church by a kinsman of her mother's, 
who, on its completion, called together people 
frojn far and near for a service of prayer and 
praise. 

An inspiring leader and adviser of clubs tlur- 
ing her long residence in Chelsea, after the club 
era began, she was also for years an intelligent 
power among the society women of Boston, 
Brookline, Newton, and other places, by her 
"Topic Talks," opportunities for which came 
to her wholly urtsolicited. In fact, they seemed 
to be thrust u])on her, for it was clearly noted 
that this author of varied learning and reserve 
force had the power of expressing herself in 
extemporaneous speech, as well as on paper, 
a rather rare gift. 

•As an officer in philanthroiMc and educational 
organizations, she has struck important chords 
in the line of reform. Her brochure, " How 
I became a Woman SufTragist," preluded a 
membership in the Massachusetts Woman Suf- 
frage Association, and led to the casting of her 
annual ballot at school board elections. As 
a director from the first of the Massachusetts 
Society for Good Citizenship, she entered by 
voice and pen into the good government work 
of that organization. As an officer for years 
of the Massachusetts Society for the University 
Education of Women, her good judgment and 
wise counsel have been of service. As a mem- 
ber of the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, 
she is able, as she says, to become a seed-sower 
in behalf of the broader education of foreign 
women. She has written convincingly in the 
interests of the American college on the Bos- 
phorus and in other lands. Her article in the 
Century for 1889 on " Pundita Ramabai" was 
but an outline of the lecture which, with those 
on "John and Abigail Adams," "John and 
Dorothy Hancock," "Holland and the United 
States," "The Brownings and America," and 
others, she has delivered before numerous 
women's clubs and other organizations. Her 
gratuitous platform work in behalf of the George 
Washington Memorial Association led her as 
far south as Richmond. Her lecture in Char- 
lottesville was the first ever delivered at 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



13 



the University of Mrgiiiia by a woman. As 
seen in her poems and speeches in behalf of the 
restoration of "Old Ironsides," her plea for 
the Lincoln memorial collection at Washing- 
ton, D.C., and in the brochure, "An Offering 
in behalf of the Deaf," concerning speech edu- 
cation, many another cause has had her helping 
hand. 

Miss Gould is an honorary member of the 
Castilian Club of Boston, having contributed 
one of the ablest papers to volume xxvii. of 
members' essays, presented by the club to the 
Boston Public Library. Her right-to-the- 
point speeches on a variety of subjects also 
made her an honorary member of the Wednes- 
day Morning Club of Boston. She was the 
only woman speaker upon the erection of the 
Abigail Adams cairn, June 17, 1896, under the 
auspices of the Atlams Chapter, Mrs. Nelson 
V. Titus, Regent, and was the poet of the Web- 
ster Centennial at Fryeburg, Me., in the sum- 
mer of 1902, having been made some time be- 
- fore, for articles written on Webster, an hon- 
orary member of the Boston Webster Histori- 
cal Society. 

Her conscientious antl extensive research 
in historical realms is seen in her interesting 
book, "John Adams and Daniel Webster as 
Schoolmasters," for which the Hon. Charles 
Francis Adams wrote an introduction. This, 
with its companion, "Ezekiel Cheever: School- 
master," will, it is said, become the final word 
on the respective subjects, to be more and 
more valued as the years go by. Her versa- 
tility has led to her being the poet of occasions 
and of movements. Her "Endeavor Rally 
Hymn," to which her nephew, Willard Gould 
Harding, composed the music, has been widely 
scattered. Her "Columbia — America," set to 
music by Adeline Frances Fitz, which is 
played by Sousa's Band, is the accepted song 
of the Massachusetts Daughters of the Revo- 
lution. Two of her Children's Songs, set to 
music and published by Clement Ryder, are 
in demand for Children's Sunday. Her verses 
on the Mountain Laurel, on its proposal as 
the State flower, were dedicated to the Massa- 
chusetts Floral Emblem Society. Perhaps Miss 
Gould is most potnilarly known by her single 
stanza, "Don't AVorry," which has been copied 



far and near, even a little Alaska paper having 
caught its sunshine, and, widely scattered in 
leaflet form, has been a comfort to many a 
troubled soul. Not to mention, for lack of space, 
the "Songs of the Months" and verses to nota- 
ble contemporaries and friends, it may here 
be stated that all that Miss Gould wishes 
saved of her poetry has been recently collected 
under the name " One's Self I sing, and Other 
Poems." A story, "A Pioneer Doctor," a*nd 
"The Brownings in America," have been 
recently published. 

A book of selections, her "Gems from Walt 
Whitman," published in 1889, called forth 
warm response from "the good gray poet": "I 
want to thank you as a woman," he said, "for 
the capacity of understanding me; for," he 
added, somewhat meditatively, "only the com- 
bination of the pure heart and the broad mind 
makes this possible." The publication of her 
"Anne Gijchrist and Walt Whitman" in 1900 
gave further evidence of her generous capacity 
for friendship and her appreciation of that gra- 
cious quality in others. An official connection 
with the Walt Whitman International Asso- 
ciation was accorded to Miss Gould in recog- 
nition of her labors of love in that direction. 

Educated in music, "brought up," as she 
once said, "on symphony concerts," a sym- 
pathetic student also in other realms of art, 
she has been both a musical and an art critic. 
Her tastes are nowhere more plainly seen than 
in the collection of choice paintings, and literary 
treasures — signed photographs, autograph books, 
letters, stamps, and souvenir cards — which her 
wide acquaintance with famous men and 
women in this country and abroad has 
brought to her. 

An extensive traveller in this' country and 
in Europe, Miss Gould, like some other tourists, 
has made a practice of dipping her hands in 
the water of various places she has visited, 
her list including the Atlantic antl Pacific 
Oceans, and the chief rivers, lakes, bays, falls, 
of our own land and a number of the most fa- 
mous abroad. The hot geysers of the Na- 
tional Park and the icy waters of the Muir 
Glacier in Alaska mark the extremes of tem- 
perature she has encountered in pursuing this 
"hobby." The highest water she has reached 



14 



REPRESENTATIVE WO.MK.N ol' NlOW ENGLAND 



is that of the Yellowstone Lake, and the 
lowest, that of Holland. 

In concluding this brief notice of Miss Gould 
and her work, it may be said she lives in the 
atmosphere of her own lines: — 

'' One (lay at a tinic 
For ]iuiiiaiiitv's ulimh — 
One day at a time." 



LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON. The 
picture of Louise Chandler Moulton 
__J as she was described to me by one 
who saw her on her wedding-day, 
standing on the church porch, in the magic 
moment that is neither sunset nor twilight, 
like Helen's, her beauty shadowed in white 
veils, a britle blooming, blushing, full of life and 
love and joy, has alwaj's been a radiant vision 
to my mind's eye. 

Hardly more than a child though she was — 
her school-days just six weeks over — she had 
then printed one book, and had written another, 
"Juno Clifford," a novel, issued anonymously 
a few months after her marriage to William 
Upham Moulton, the publisher of a weekly 
paper to which she had been a contributor. 

From the beginning she was a child of genius: 
it was only through the intuitive force of genius 
that she was able to know the hearts of men 
and women as she did at that very early period 
of her life — a genius that has ever since grown 
steadily as day grows out of dawn, and that 
reached its culmination in lyrics and in sonnets 
that have few superiors in our language. 

[The daughter of Lucius L. and Louisa R. 
(Clark) Chandler, she was born in Pomfret, 
Conn. Her father was son of Charles and 
Hannah (Cleveland) Chandlei', and was de- 
scended from William' Chandler, an early set- 
tler of Roxbury, Mass., through his son John, 
who was about two years of age when the fam- 
ily came from England. John^ Chandler in 
1686 removed from Roxbury, Mass., to Wood- 
stock, Conn. He was one of the twelve Rox- 
bury men who bought the territory known as 
Mashamoquet (now Pomfret), he being one 
of the six grantees in May, 16(S6. His wife, 
Elizabeth Douglas, was the daughter of \^'\\\- 



iam Douglas, who was horn in 1610, "without 
doubt in Scotland," came to New England in 
1640, and in 1660 settled in New London, 
Conn., where he was a deacon of the church. 

Mrs. Hannah Cleveland Chandler was born 
at Pomfret in 1783, daughter of Solomon' and 
Hannah (Sharpe) Cleveland. Her father was 
a soldier in the war of the Revolution. Her 
mother (great-grandmother of Mrs. Moulton), 
described as "a woman of rare intelligence and 
wonderful gift of language," was a notable 
student of Greek literature. Solomon' Cleve- 
land was a descendant in the fifth generation 
of Moses Cleveland, of Woburn, Mass., the 
immigrant i:)rogenitor of the New England 
family of this surname, the line being Mo.ses,' 
Edward,^'' Silas,^ Solomon.'* EdwanP Cleve- 
land's wife was Rebecca Paine, daughter of 
Elisha and Rebecca (Doane) Paine and grand- 
daughter of Thomas and Mary^ (Snow) Paine. 
Mary Snow was a daughter of Nicholas' Snow, 
who came over in the "Ann" in 1623, and his 
wife Constance, who came with her father, 
Ste]:)hen' Hopkins, in the "Mayflower" in 
1620. See Snow, Paine, Doane, Cleveland, 
Chandler, and Douglas Genealogies.] 

The childhood of Mrs. Moulton was one that 
fostered her imaginative power. Her parents 
still clung to the strictest Calvinistic princii)les. 
Games, dances, romances, were things forbid- 
den; and, as playmates were few, the child 
lived in a worUl of fancy. "I was lonely," 
she has said, "and I sought companions. What 
was there to do but to create them?" 

Indeed, before her eighth year her active 
mind was creating a world of its own in a little 
unwritten play, which it pleased her fancy to 
call a Spanish drama, and with which she be- 
guiled all the summer, filling it with person- 
ages as real and as tlear to her as those she met 
every day. Dwelling in such surroundings, 
her existence and her powers were as anoma- 
lous as if a nightingale or a tropic bird of para- 
dise were found in the nest of our home-keep- 
ing birds. Yet in her lovely mother's heart 
there nmst have been the elelicate music of the 
song-sparrow's strain; and never could she have 
carried her power so triumphantly l)Ut for the 
strength she inherited from her father. 

The rigid Calvinism of the family had un- 




LOUISE CHANDLKH MOULTON 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OK NKW i:.\(il.AM) 



15 



doubtedly a very stinuilating effect on tlie 
emotions of the sensitive child, and to its far- 
reaching influence may be ascribed the tinge 
of melancholy found in many of her pages. 
Not that they are not often illuminated with 
all the joy of being, but that, whenever the 
sun is bright, she has seen and felt the shadow. 
"One would not ignore," she says, "the glad- 
ness of the dawn, the strong splendor of the 
midday sun; but, all the .same, the shadows 
lengthen, and the day wears late. And yet 
the dawn comes again after the night; and 
one has faith — or is it hope rather than faith? — 
that the new world, which swims into the ken 
of the spirit to whom death gives wings, may 
be fairer even than the dear familiar earth, 
. . . this mocking sphere, where we have never 
been quite at home, because, after all, we are 
but travellers, and this is our hostelry, and not 
our permanent abode." 

The child Louise had a great vitality, and, 
when free from the liurdens ami terrors of 
"election" and "damnation," she exulted in 
the breath she drew. Running in the face of 
a great wind was one of her joys, feeling how 
alive she was; and she realizeil the reverse of 
such emotion in listening to the sountl of the 
wind through an outer keyhole, which seemed 
to her the calling of trumpets, the crying of 
lost souls. She lived all this time so nuieh in 
a world of her own that when, in her fifteenth 
year, she first sent some verses to a ncwspai)er 
she felt it a guilty secret. 

Her home in Boston, after her marriage, was 
a delightful one. Her house was soon a centre 
of attraction; and, surrounded by friends, she 
exercised there a gracious hosjjitality, and met 
the brilliant men and women who made the 
Boston of that epoch famous. Here was born 
her daughter, the golden-hairetl Florence, who 
is now the wife of Mr. William Schaefer, of 
South Carolina. Here her husband died, 
and here she has remained through the days 
of her widowhood till the house has become 
historic. 

She continued her literary work through all 
these years. Besides writing her stories and 
essays and poems, she sent to the New York 
Tribune a series of interesting anil brilliant 
letters concerning the literary life of Boston, 



giving advance reviews of new tjooks and tell- 
ing of the affairs of the Radical Club, of which 
Mr. Emerson, Colonel Higginson, Jolin Weiss, 
Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, and others of eminence 
were members. In all the six years , during 
which these letters appeared she never made 
in them any unkind statement, or wrote a sen- 
tence that could cause pain. Through all her 
critical work, indeed, she has exercisetl a tender 
regard for the feelings of others, as well as 
great generosity of praise, preferring rather 
to be silent than to utter an unkindness. 

Contributing poems and stories of power 
and grace to the leading magazines. Harper's, 
the Atlantic, the Galaxy, the first Scribner's, 
she also published a half-dozen very success- 
ful books for children, "Bedtime Stories," 
"Firelight Stories," "Stories Told at Twi- 
light," and others that have always held the 
popular taste; and she collectetl a few of her 
many atlult tales into volumes, "Miss Eyre of 
Boston" and "Some Women's Hearts." 

Her first voyage across the sea was made 
in the January of 1876. Pausing in London 
long enough to see the Queen open Parliament 
in person for the first time after the Prince 
Consort's death, she hastened through Paris 
on her way to Rome and to raptures of old 
palaces and gardens and galleries, touched to 
tears b)' the Pope's benediction, abandoned 
to the gayety of the Carnival, enjoying the 
hospitality of the studios of \'edder, Story, 
Rollin Tilton, anil others, and of the gracious 
and charming social life of Rome. Her de- 
scriptions of all this, overflowing with the 
sensitiveness to beauty which is a part of her 
nature, make her "Random Rambles" most 
enchanting reading. After Rome she visited 
Florence, and then Venice, feeling to the quick 
its mysterious anil elusive spell, and then 
again Paris, and again London and the Lon- 
don season. 

Entertained by Lord Houghton, she met 
Browning and Swinburne, George Eliot, King- 
lake, Theodore Watts-Dunton, and a host of 
others, seeing especially a great deal of Brown- 
hig — her personal beauty and charm, her 
exquisite manners and modest self-possession, 
her unerring tact, her voice, of which an Eng- 
lish poet said, "Her voice, wherein all sweet- 



16 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



nesses abide," having as much to do with all 
this as her hterary excellence. 

It was the next winter that the Macmillans 
brought out her first volume of poems, "Swal- 
low Flights"; and, althovigh she had trembled 
to think of its fate at the hands of alien critics, 
she betrayed no elation at the chorus of praise 
with which it was received. The Examiner 
spoke of the power and originality of the verses, 
of the music and the intensity as surpassing 
any verse of George Eliot's, declaring that the 
sonnet entitled "One Dread" might have been 
written by Sir Philip Sidney. 

" No depth, dear Love, for thee i.s too iirofound, 
There is no farthest height thou mayst not dare, 
Nor shall thy wings fail in tlie upper air : 
In funeral robe and wreath my past lies bound : 
No old-time voice assails me with its sound 
When thine I hear — no former joy seems fair, 
Since now one only thing could bring despair. 
One grief, like compassing seas, my life surround, 
One only terror in my way be met. 
One great eclipse change my glad day to night, 
One phantom only turn from red to wliite 
The lips whereon thy lips have once been set: 
Thou knowest well, dear Love, what that must be — 
The dread of some dark day unshared by thee." 

The Athenceum also dwelt on the vivid and 
subtle imagination and delicate loveliness of 
these verses and their perfection of technique. 
The Academy spoke warndy of their felicity of 
epithet, their healthiness, their suggestiveness, 
their imaginative force pervaded by the depth 
and sweetness of perfect womanhood; and the 
Tattler pronounced her a mistress of form and 
of artistic j)erfection, saying also that England 
had no ppet in such full sympathy with woods 
and winds and waves, finding in her the one 
truly natural singer in an age of s'sthetic imi- 
tation. " She gives the effect of the sudden 
note of the thrush," it said. "She is as spon- 
taneous as Walter von Vogelweide." The 
Timea, the Mornhuj Po.^t, the Literary World, 
all welcomed the book with eciually warm praise, 
and the Pall Mall Gazette spoke of her lyrical 
feeling as like that which gave a unique charm 
to Heine's songs. Very few of these critics 
had she ever met, and their cordial recognition 
was as surprising to her as it was delightful. 
Among the innumerable letters which she .re- 
ceived, filled with admiring warmth, were some 



from Matthew Arnold, Austin Dobson, Freder- 
ick Locker, William Bell Scott, and, in fine, 
most of the world of letters of the London of 
that day. Her songs were set to music by 
Francesco Berger and Lady Charlcsmont, as 
the^ have been later on by Margaret Lang, 
Arthur Foote, Ethelbcrt Nevin, and many 
others. Philip Bourke Marston wrote her, 
"Much as we all love and admire your work, 
it seems to me we have not yet fully realized 
the unostentatious loveliness of your lyrics, as 
fine for lyrics as your best sonnets are for son- 
nets. 'How Long' struck me more than ever. 
The first verse is eminently characteristic of 
you, exhibiting in a very marked degree what 
runs through nearly all of your poems, the 
most exquisite and subtle blending of strong 
emotion with the sense of external nature. It 
seems to me this perfect poem is possessed by 
the melancholy yet tender music of winds 
sighing at twilight, in some churchyard, through 
okl trees that watch beside silent graves. Then 
nothing can be more subtly beautiful than the 
closing lines of the sonnet, 'In Time to Come': — 

" ' Which was it spoke to you, the wind or I ? 
I think you, musing, scarcely will have heard.' 

" There can be no doubt that, measuring by 
quality, not quantity, your place is in the 
very foremost rank of poets. The divine sim- 
plicity, strength and subtlety, the intense, fra- 
grant, genuine individuality of your poems will 
make them imperishable. And as they are of 
no school they will be fresh, as the old delights 
of earth are ever fresh." And again the same 
poet wrote her concerning "The House of 
Death" that it was one of the most beautiful, 
the most powerful poems he knew. " No poem 
gives me such an idea of the heartlessness of 
Nature. The poem is Death within and Sum- 
mer without — light girdling darkness — and it 
leaves a picture and impression on the mind 
never to be effaced." 

" Not a hand has lifted the latchet 
Since siie went out of the door — 
No footstep shall cross the threshold 
Since she can come in no more. 

" There is rust upon locks and hinges, 
And mould and blight on the walls. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



17 



And silence faints in the chambers, 
And darkness waits in the halls — 

" Waits as all things have waited 

Since she went that day of spring, 
Borne in her pallid splendor 

To dwell in the Court of the King : 

" With lilies on brow and bosom, 
With robes of silken slieen. 
And her wonderful frozen beauty 
The lilies and silk between. 

" Ked roses she left behind her, 
But they died long, long ago : 
'Twas tlie odorous ghost of a blossom 
That seemed through the dusk to glow. 

" The garments she left mocked the shadows 
With hints of womauly grace, 
And her image swims in the mirror 
That was so used to her face. 

" The birds make insolent nmsic 

Where the sunshine riots outside. 
And the winds are merry and wanton 
With the sunnner's pomp and pride. 

" But into this desolate mansion, 
Where Love has closed the door, 
Nor sunshine nor sunnner shall enter, 
Since she can come in no more." 

The reader must agree with the critic that 
this poem of "The House of Death" is un- 
equalled in its tragic beauty and sweetness. 

It was apropos of this volume that in one of 
his letters to her Robert Browning said he had 
closed the book with music in his ears and 
flowers before his eyes, and not without thoughts 
across his brain. And it was concerning a 
later poem, "Laus \'eneris," inspired by a paint- 
ing of his own, that Burne-Jones said it made 
him work all the more confidently and was a 
real refreshment. 

" Pallid with too much longing, 
White with passion and prayer, 
Goddess of love and beauty. 
She sits in the picture there — 

" Sits with her dark eyes seeking 
Something more subtle still 
Than the old delights of loving 
Her measureless days to fill. 

" She has loved and been loved so -often 
In her long immortal years 
That she tires of the worn-out rapture, 
Sickens of hopes and fears. 



" No joys or sorrows move her, 
Done with her ancient pride; 
For her head she found too heavy 
The crown she has cast aside. 

" Clothed in her scarlet splendor. 
Bright with her glory of hair, 
Sad that she is not mortal — 
Eternally sad and fair — 

" Longing for joys she knows not, 
Athirst with a vain desire, 
There she sits in the picture. 
Daughter of foam and fire! " 

Could anything be in stronger or more glori- 
ous contrast to the "House of Death" or to 
"Arcady" or to that great sonnet, "At War," 
or show more varied power? 

Few people coukl have met such praise and 
appreciation as Mrs. Moulton received, so 
calmly, so sedately and gently, without one 
flutter of gratified vanity. Indecil, she is 
to-day the most modest and most humble- 
minded of women. 

With the exception of the two years immedi- 
ately following Mr. Moulton's death, when she 
remained at liome and in seclusion, Mrs. Moul- 
ton has every summer sailed away for the 
foreign shores where she is so welcomed and 
so loved. Although possibly few Americans 
have had such a social as well as literary suc- 
cess abroad, the hospitality she has received 
has never been violated by her in pen or word: 
she has printed no letters and uttered no gos- 
sip concerning the houses in which she has 
been a guest. She has been, through all antl 
everything, a woman of unerring sense of right 
and courtesy, of whom all other Americans 
may be proud. Every winter sees her back 
in Boston, where her house is a centre of liter- 
ary life, and where one is sure to find every 
stranger of distinction. For her acquaintance 
among English people of prominence is as ex- 
tensive as among those of our own country. 
The friend of Longfellow and AVhittier and 
Holmes in their lifetime, the acquaintance of 
Boker, and Emerson, and Lowell, and Boyle 
O'Reilly, and of Sarah Helen Whitman (the 
fiancee of Edgar Allan Poe), of Rose Terry and 
Nora Perry, as she is still of Stedman and Stod- 
dard, Mrs. Howe, Arlo Bates, Edward Everett 
Hale, Howells, William Winter, Anne Whitney, 



18 



RErRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Alice Brown, Louise Guiney, and, in fact, of 
almost every one of any interest or achieve- 
ment here, her English acquaintance was and 
is e(]ually extensive, as she has been on pleas- 
ant terms with Sir Walter Besant, ^\'iliiam 
Sharp, Dr. Honler, Mathilde Blind, Holman 
Hunt, Mrs. Clifford, Mrs. Campbell-Praed, 
Coulson Kernahan, John Davidson, Kenneth 
Ctrahame, Richard Le Gallienne, Anthony Hope, 
Robert Hichens, William Watson, George Mere- 
dith, Thomas Hardy, and Alice Meynell, not 
to speak of Christina Rossetti, William Morris, 
Jean Ingelow, William Black, and many 
another of both the living and the dead. 

It is in Boston that she has done the greater 
part of her work, collated and collected a few 
of her many stories and of her essaj's into vol- 
umes, written her books of travel, "Random 
Rambles" and "Lazy Tours," books full of 
interest, published her four volumes of poetry, 
and edited and prefaced with biographies "A 
Last Harvest" and "Garden Secrets," and the 
"Collected Poems" of Philip Bourke Marston, 
and also a selection from Arthur O'Shaugh- 
nessy's verses, generous with her time, her 
effort, her money, and her praise. 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes once wrote Mrs. 
Moulton that he was touched with the pas- 
sionate sincerity of her poems. " I cannot see," 
he added, " that the life of anient youth is 
dying out of you, or Hke to." Sincerity, in- 
deed, is the keynote both of her nature and her 
work. She is not methodical in her processes, 
never finding herself able to work through 
mere intellectual endeavor, unless some strong 
emotion stirs her to the tleeps. Thomas Hardy 
speaks of the poems in " The Garden of Dreams " 
as being penetrated "by the supreme quality, 
emotion." "It is not art but nature that 
gave her," said William Minto, "the spon- 
taneity and directness which are so marked 
characteristics of most of her poems, or that 
epigrammatic concision which enables her 
often to express in a sentence a whole problem 
or experience." 

One of Mrs. Moulton's most appreciative, 
scholastic, and discriminating critics was Pro- 
fcs.sor Meiklejohn, who for twenty-seven years 
occupied a chair in the University of St. An- 
drews, Scotland, and who was the author of 



a translation of Kant, of "The Art of Writing 
English," and other books of importance. 
He has said with authority that she deserved 
to be classed with the best Elizabethan lyrists 
in her lyrics, — with Herrick and Campion and 
Shakespeare, — while in her sonnets she might 
rightly take a place with Milton and Words- 
worth and Rossetti. "I cannot tell you how 
keen and great enjoyment (sometimes even 
rapture)," he wrote her, "I have got out of 
your exquisite lyrics." In a series of "Notes," 
following the poems, line by line, he asserted 
that the poet won her success liy the simplest 
means and plainest words, as true genius always 
does, and that her pages were full of emotional 
and imaginative meaning. Nature and Poetry 
uniting in an indissoluble whole; and Shelley 
himself, he said, would have been proud to 
own certain of the lines. The poem "Quest" 
he found so beautiful that, in his own words, 
it was "difficult to speak of it in perfectly 
measured and unexaggerated language." Of 
the poem "Wife to Husband" he said that 
" the tenderness, the sweet ami compelling 
rhythm, are worthy of the best Elizabethan 
days." The sonnet, "A Summer's Growth," 
"unites," he says, the "passion of such Italian 
poets as Dante with the imagination of modern 
English." This was in relation to her first 
voUune, "Swallow Flights"; and in conclusion 
he said: "This poet must look for her brothers 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
among the noble and intense lyrists. Her in- 
sight, her subtlety, her delicacy, her music, 
are hardly matched, and certainly not sur- 
passed by Herrick or Campion or Crashaw or 
Carew or Herbert or Vaughan." 

Of poems in the next volume, "The Garden 
of Dreams," Professor Meiklejohn affirmed that 
the perfect little gem, "Roses," was worthy of 
Goethe, and that "As I Sail" had the firnmess 
and imaginativeness of Heine, the perfect sim- 
plicity containing magic. "Wordsworth never 
wrote a stronger line," he said of one in "Voices 
on the Wind." 

In "At the Wind's Will" again the same 
critic recognized the strong style of the six- 
teenth century, noble and daring rhythms, the 
"(luintessence of passion," successes gained by 
the "courage of simplicity," rare specimens of 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENfil.AND 



19 



compression as well as of sweetness. "The 
Gentle Ghost of Joy" he thought "a wonderful 
voluntary in the best style of Chopin." In a 
line of one of the sonnets, "Yet done with 
striving and foreclosed of care," he finds some- 
thing as good as anything of Drayton's. He 
pronounced the two sonnets called "Great 
Love" worthy of a "place among Dante's and 
Petrarch's sonnets," antl of the sonnet, "Were 
but my Spirit loosed upon the Air," he wrote, 
"It is one of the greatest and finest sonnets 
in the English language." 

I think every one who knows and loves 
poetry in its highest form and expression will 
agree with all this, and will feel that the critic 
spoke of very great verse. Many other critics 
have been to the full as appreciative, and have 
felt, as I do, the constant delight of splenditl 
phrase and Shakespearian vigor ami utterance 
in Louise Chandler Moulton's sonnets, anil the 
atmosphere of warmth and beauty that bathes 
the thought and fancy of each page. 

But in spite of the largeness and high quality 
of her work it is quite as much the woman as 
the poet who is to be loved and admired. 
Large-hearted and large-souled, of a religious 
spirit unfettered by dogma, most tender, most 
true, most compassionate, genial, ingenuous, 
of an absolute integrity antl an absolute un- 
worldliness, she has the warm affection of all 
who are fortunate enough to know her at all 
clo,sely. Men and women, young and old, come 
to her for the pleasure of the passing hour, for 
advice, for sympathy in joy or trouble. From 
all over the country people write to her, con- 
fiding their perplexities and sorrows, craving 
intellectual or spiritual comfort, and always 
receiving it. Her wortls of cheer are given 
from the heart, and she has the satisfaction of 
knowing the support and strength some of her 
written words have been to those like the 
young girl who, confined to her bed for three 
years and too weak to listen to prayers, could 
be helped by murmuring to herself: — 

" We lay us down to sleep. 
And leave to God the rest, 
Whether to wake and weep 
Or wake no more be best."' 

Mrs. Moulton's home in Boston is full of in- 



teresting souvenirs, autographs, signed pictures, 
and sculptures given Ijy the artists. At every 
turn there is association with famous or cher- 
ished names, and here her guests find their 
welcome generous and delightful, her manner 
gracious, her directness reassuring, her conver- 
sation full of sparkle, and her presence full of 
charm. In her youth of a remarkable beauty, 
a wild-rose bloom, biack-lashed and black- 
browed hazel eyes, bright hair, fine features, 
and the oval lines of the antique in the outline 
of cheek and chin, much of that charm of her 
youth she still retains, the same soft yet fear- 
less glance, the same heart-warming smile, the 
same grace of manner, always the same grace 
of nature, the same confident assurance of the 
goodness of every one in the world, loving God 
in humanity, and spending herself for others. 
Harriet Prescott Spofford. 



MRS. LILLIAN M. N. STEVENS.— 
" As sweet and wholesome as her 
own ])iny wood" was Frances E. 
WiUard's epigrammatic description 
of the woman — above named — who succeeds her 
as leader of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union hosts. Mi,ss ^^'il!ard and Mrs. Stevens 
first met in 1875 at Old Orchard, Me., and the 
friendship there begun ripenetl into the deepest 
alTection as the years passed. 

Mrs. Stevens was born in Maine, and her 
home has always been within the borders of 
that State. Her parents were Nathaniel and 
Nancy Fowler (Parsons) Ames. Her first pub- 
lic work was in the school-room as teacher, 
when she was Miss Ames. At the age of twenty- 
one she married Mr. M. Stevens, of Stroud- 
water, a charming suburb of Portland. Her 
husband is in full accord with her, and is one 
of the most genial of hosts to the multitude of 
her co-workers who are entertained in their 
hospitable home. Their only child, Mrs. Ger- 
trude Stevens Leavitt, is an ardent white rib- 
boner and one of the State super intenilents in 
the Maine W. C. T. U. 

Mrs. Stevens possesses keen business ability 
and indomitable will power. She is a woman 
of culture, gentle in manner, and the embodi- 
ment of kindness. 



20 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



The old home, which has been for a centur}' 
in the Stevens fainily, resounds constantly to 
the music of children's voices, for, although 
Mrs. Stevens has been prominently connected 
with the child-saving institution of her State, 
she believes most ardently that an institution 
can never be a substitute for a home; and, while 
she urges her Maine women to open their doors 
to Gotl's homeless little ones, she herself sets 
them a practical example. 

Mrs. Stevens has been one of the prime 
movers in woman's temperance work ever 
since the historic crusade of 1873 in Hillsboro, 
Ohio. In 1874 she assisted in the organization 
of the W. C. T. U. in her native State. For 
three years she acted as treasurer, and she has 
since been continuously its president, unani- 
mously chosen. For thirteen years she was 
assistant recording secretary of the National 
W. C. T. U., for one year its secretary, and 
at the Cleveland convention in 1894 she was, 
on nomination of Miss Willard, elected vice- 
president-at-large of the National Union, suc- 
ceeding to the presidency in 1898. 

Besides filling these offices and leading the 
women of Maine as president of the constantly 
growing State W. C. T. U., working and speak- 
ing for it untiringly, Mrs. Stevens has carried 
on a great amount of work connected with 
the charities of Maine, having been officially 
connected with several homes for the depend- 
ent classes. For years she has been the Maine 
representative in the National Conference of 
Charities and Correction. She was one of the 
lady managers of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position. 

No woman in the organization which she 
leads is more loyal to its fundamental princi- 
ples. None possesses in a greater degree the 
confidence of its friends and the good will of 
its opponents than Mrs. Stevens, of Maine. 
Only those who best know her realize the depth 
of her religious nature. Her creed is truly the 
creed of love, her life one of peace and good 
will. Her Bible always lies close at hand vipon 
her desk, and .shows much reading. From the 
well-worn New Testament lying upon her 
couch we copied the.se words: "Tell our white 
ribboners to study the New Testament. I love 
the New Testament. No human being lias 



ever conceived as he should what the New- 
Testament means by 'loyalty to Christ.' 
Among the last words spoken bv Miss Willard, 
February 13, 1898." " Loyalty to Christ " may 
well be calleil the keynote to Lillian Stevens's 
life, and more clearly than do most people 
she finds Christ always among "his brethren" 
in poor, sin-stained, sorely burdened humanity. 

Mrs. Stevens has said that any written ac- 
count of her would have little meaning could 
there not be combineil with it a sketch of the 
organization which has meant so much to her 
in her life work. In fact, it was with this un- 
derstaniling that Mrs. Stevens consented to 
have a sketch of her' life prepared for this vol- 
ume. 

Perhaps no question is asked more frequently 
than " What has the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union done?" and few questions are 
more difficult to answer with any degree of 
satisfaction. This is not for lack of material, 
but rather becau.se of an over-abundance 
thereof. A few of the more general facts 
of its history may here be presented. 

The National AVoman's Christian Temperance 
LTnion is the crystallized effort of the Women's 
Crusatle of 1873-74. It was organized in 
Cleveland, Ohio, November 18-20, 1874. 
Its characteristics are simplicity aiul unity, 
with emphasis upon individual responsibility. 
It is organized by State, district, county, and 
local unions. Every State and Territory in 
the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, 
has a State or Territorial union, and there is a 
beginning in the Philippine Islands. Ten thou- 
sand towns and cities have local unions. 

Twenty-five national organizers, fourteen na- 
tional lecturers, and twenty-one national evan- 
gelists are constantly in the field, besides those 
of the several States and Territories. One thou- 
sand new unions were organized in 1900. One- 
fifth of all the States gained more than five 
hundred members over and above all losses 
in the year 1900. 

Organization among the young women has 
grown into a branch, with its own general sec- 
retary and field workers. It is an integral 
part of the W. T. C. U., and is known as the 
Young Woman's ('hristian Temperance Union, 
or the Y. ^\^ C. T. U. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



21 



Organization of the children into Loyal Tem- 
perance Legions is also a branch, and numbers 
two hundred and fifty thousand Seniors and 
Juniors. Organization among colored people 
has secured nine separate State unions and 
many members. Organization among the Ind- 
ians is well begun in the Indian schools and 
among the more civilized adult Indian women. 
The department of organization among foreign- 
speaking people circulates literature in eighteen 
different languages, and keeps a missionary at 
the port of New York. It is not unusual for 
a national organizer to travel ten thousand 
miles m one year. This work is largely mis- 
sionary. In 1883 Miss Willard and Miss Gor- 
don visited every State and Territory in the 
l^nion, anil completetl an itinerary which in- 
cluded every city of ten thousand or more 
inhabitants by the census of 1870. Eight 
round-the-world missionaries have been sent 
by the National W. C. T. U. 

Through Miss Willard the National was in- 
strumental in organizing the World's W. C. 
T. L"., which now includes fifty-eight different 
countries and five hundred thousand members. 

The W. C. T. U. originated the idea of scien- 
tific temperance instruction in the public schools, 
and has secured mandatory laws in every State 
in the Union and ;i federal law governing the 
District of Columbia, the Territoi'ies, and all 
Indian and military schools supported by the 
government. Under these laws twenty mill- 
ion in the public schools receive instruction 
as to the nature and effects of alcohol and to- 
bacco and other narcotics on the human sys- 
tem. Sixteen million children receive tem- 
perance teaching in the Sunday-schools, and 
two hundred and ninety-six thousand nine 
hundred and sixty-four of these are pledged 
total abstainers. The W. C. T. U. was an im- 
portant factor in securing the insertion of the 
quarterly temperance lesson in the Interna- 
tional Sunday-school Lesson Series, 1884, and 
in securing a world's universal temperance Sun- 
day. Two hundred and fifty thousand children 
are taught scientific reasons for temperance in 
the Loyal Temperance Legions, and all these 
children are pledged to total abstinence and 
trained as temperance workers. The educa- 
tional value of the W. C. T. U. to its own mem- 



bers through courses of study and practical 
work is immense. Before any other temper- 
ance society had taken up mothers' meetings, 
the W. C. T. U. had organized in thirty-seven 
States and Territories, and two thousand meet- 
ings were held in Illinois in one year. W. C. 
T. U. schools of methods are held in all Chau- 
taucjua gatherings. Indiana held a W. C. T. U. 
school (jf methods in every one of its counties 
in 1900. 

The W. C. T. U. has largely influenced the 
change in public sentiment in regard to social 
drinking, equal suffrage, equal purity for both 
sexes, equal remuneration for work equally 
well done, equal educational, professional, and 
industrial opportunities for men and women. 
Through its efforts thousands of girls have been 
rescued from lives of shame, and tens of thou- 
sands of men have signed the total abstinence 
pledge and been redeemed from inebriety. 

The several States tlistributed nine million 
four hunilred and forty-four thousand three 
hundred and fifty pages. The National W. C. 
T. U. printed and distributed in 1901 fifty-five 
thousand annual leaflets of sixty-six pages 
each, which, with its annual reports and other 
literature given away, amounts to over five 
million pages. 

The Union Siynol, the official organ for the 
National and World's W. C. T. U., a sixteen- 
page weekly, has a large circulation. The Cru- 
mdcr, a sixteen-page monthly, the official organ 
of the Loyal Temperance Legion, has a large 
and increasing circulation. One thousand 
colunms are filled weekly in other newspapers 
by two thousand eight hundred and sixteen 
superintendents. Thirty-two States publish 
State papers devote<l entirely to W. G. T. U. 
interests. 

The W. C. T. U. has been the chief factor in 
State campaigns for statutory prohibition, con- 
stitutional amendments, reform laws in gen- 
eral, and those for the protection of women and 
children in particular, and in securing anti- 
gambling and anti-cigarette laws. It has been 
instrumental in raising the age of protection 
for girls in every State but two. The age is 
now eighteen years in thirteen States, sixteen 
years in nineteen States, and from twelve to 
fifteen years in the other States. Through its 



22 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



influence scientific temperance instruction laws 
have been secured in every State and Territory. 
Curfew laws have been secured in four huntlred 
towns and cities. It aided in securing the anti- 
canteen amentlment to the army bill, which 
prohibits the sale of intoxicating liquors in all 
army posts. It secured the appointment of 
police matrons, now required in many of the 
large cities of the United States. It keeps a 
superintendent of legislation in Washington dur- 
ing the entire session of Congress, to look after 
reform bills. 

Eight thousand petitions have lately been 
sent by the W. C. T. U. to the physicians of 
the United States, asking that their medical 
practice and teaching, as well as their personal 
example, be upon the side of safety in regard to 
the use of alcohol. By petitions and protests 
Congressman-elect Roberts, the polygamist, was 
prevented from taking his seat in the United 
States Congress. Similar elTort was made by 
the W. C. T. U. to retire Mr. Smoot, and the 
influence of this organization helped to bring 
about the Congressional investigation concern- 
ing modern Mormonism and polygamy. Because 
of protests the prohibitory law in Indian Terri- 
tory was not repealed nor openly attacked. For 
the same reason the prohibitory constitution of 
Maine was not resubmitted. The National 
W.C.T.U. secures more petitions than any other 
society in the world. It is estimated that not 
fewer than twenty million of signatures 
and attestations have been secured by the 
W. C. T. U., including the polyglot petition. 
Other societies work largely through W. C. T. U. 
machinery in circulating petitions. The thought 
of the polyglot petition originatetl with Miss 
Willartl, and it was written by her. It has 
seven million signatures and attestations. 

The W. C. T. U. will continue to petition for 
federal legislation to protect native races in 
our own territory and in foreign lands. It will 
continue to protest against the bringing of 
Chinese girls to this country for immoral pur- 
poses, and against the enslaving of the same, 
and against the legalizing of all crime, especially 
that of prostitution and liquor selling. It will 
continue to protest against the sale of li(iuor 
in Soldiers' Homes, where an aggregate of two 
hundred and fifty-three thousand and twenty- 



seven dollars is spent annually for intoxicating 
drinks, only about one-fifth of the soldiers' 
pension money being sent home to their fami- 
lies. It will continue to protest against the 
United States government receiving a revenue 
for liquors sokl within prohibitory territory, 
either local or State, and against all complicity 
of the federal government with the liquor traffic. 
It will continue to protest against lynching, and 
will lend its aid in favor of the enforcement of 
law. It will continue to work for the highest 
well-being of our soldiers and sailors, and espe- 
cially for suitable temperance canteens and 
liberal rations. 

It will continue to work for the protection of 
the home against its enemy, the liquor traffic, 
and for the redemption of our government from 
this curse, which redemption can only come, 
it believes, by the prohibition of the manufact- 
ure and sale of intoxicating liquors for beverage 
pui-poses. It is pledged to the highest interests 
of the great institutions of the world — the home, 
the school, the Church, the State. 



ABBY KELLEY FOSTER was the 
/\ descendant of a long line of Quaker 
_/ ^ ancestry, English on the mother's 
side, Irish on the father's. From the 
former came her unflinching determination, 
her almost dogged persistence, her unyielding 
will where a principle was at stake, her .severe 
judgment of all who failed to reach her lofty 
stantlards of morality. With the Celtic blood 
came her cheerfulness, her ingenuousness, her 
childlike simplicity, and utter lack of self- 
consciousness. Her inability to keep a secret, 
even when of an important character, was the 
source of much amusement and occasional 
annoyance to lier friends. Of Irish wit she 
had not a trace, though she could thoroughly 
enjoy a joke when it was explained to her. 

Mrs. Foster hail a clear, though perhaps, 
an unusual, conception of the distinction be- 
tween the possible and the impossible. What- 
ever was right and just she firmly believed to 
be possible. To right a wrong or to accom- 
jilish an important object, she would move 
lieaven and earth; but she wasted no energy 
in useless repining over the inevitable. It was 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



23 



this philosophic resignation to the necessary 
ills of life, combined with a remarkable elas- 
ticity of temperament, which enabled her to 
endure the intense nervous strain to which 
she was for numy years unavoidably subjected, 
and helped to prolong Ijeyond threescore years 
and ten a life, in childhood frail, in youth and 
middle age constantly overburdened with se- 
vere mental and physical t(jil. 

Soon after her birth in the little town of 
Pelham, Mass., January 15, 1811, her parents, 
Wing and Diama (Daniels) Kelley, removed 
to Worcester, where the little Abigail, because 
of her delicate health, was allowed to grow up 
in comparative freedom from the restraint 
imposed upon the girls of her day. But, in 
spite of this, she used to tell me that she con- 
stantly rebelled against the limits set to the 
physical activity of girls. She felt it a humili- 
ation to be permitted to go on the ice only in 
tow of some condescending boy who might offer 
to tlrag her behind him by a stick. But she 
would climb trees and fences, and coast down 
hills on barrel staves, undeterred by the epi- 
thets "hoyden" and "tomboy," heaped upon 
her by the girls who only played with dolls 
in the house. Thus early did she exhibit that 
love of freedom which was her leading trait 
through life. 

Her mother, the strictest of orthodox 
Friends, taught her children to follow with 
unquestioning obedience the leadings of "the 
Spirit," that inner voice which the world calls 
conscience. It was to this early training of 
the conscience and the will that Mrs. Foster 
attributed her moral strength in later life. The 
severe discipline of the household was miti- 
gated, however, by the genial influence of the 
warm-hearted, impulsive father, whose kindly 
nature found expression in tender affection 
toward his children and aliounding hospitality 
to a large circle of friends. 

Pecuniary misfortunes reduced the family 
income by and by, and put to the test the 
character of the young girl who was just now 
beginning to realize the serious meaning of 
life. She had learned all that the best private 
school for girls in Worcester could teach her. 
Her parents coukl not afford to sentl her away 
to school, so at the age of fourteen she bor- 



rowed money of an elder sister to pay her 
expenses for a year at the Friends' School in 
Providence, R.I. Though not (as she declared) 
a brilliant scholar, she was a most faithful 
student, often working so hard over her lessons 
that the perspiration would stand out on her 
face as if from hard physical exertion. She 
took a high rank in her class, and was there- 
fore able to obtain from her teachers a recom- 
mendation which secured her a school the next 
year, though she was only fifteen years old. 
Having paid her debt and earned a little 
beside, she returned to school; and for three 
years she alternately taught and studied, until 
she had finished the most advanced course of 
instruction which New England then offered 
to women. From the age of fourteen she 
paid all her own expenses. 

She was fond of dress, and indulged to the 
full in the few frivolities -allowed by her sect, 
which did not altogether frown upon rich silks 
anil satins, if plainly fashioned and of subdued 
tints. Abby (I think she had already dropped 
the "gail") had an eminently social nature, 
and did not disdain the pomps and vanities of 
parties and balls, with their attendant beaux, 
among whom her slentler, giaceful figure and 
beautiful dancing made her a favorite. 

Miss Kelley nmst have been about nineteen 
when she went to Lynn, where for several years 
she had charge of the private school of the 
Friends' Society. It was while here that she 
first heard the subject of slavery discussed. 
She listened to the burning words of William 
Lloyd Garrison and to the strong Quaker utter- 
ance of Arnold Buffum. The "inner voice" 
began to call to her, and she replied by accept- 
ing the secretaryship of the Lynn Female Anti- 
slavery Society, just formed. Her own words, 
taken from the letter to which I have referred, 
give a vivid picture of the strong impression 
which the reform had already made upon her. 

" From this time I did what I could to carry 
forward the work, by circulating petitions to 
tur legislative bodies, scattering our publica- 
oions, soliciting subscriptions to our journals, 
and raising funds for oiu- societies, in the mean- 
time by private conversations enforcing our 
principles and our measures in season and out 
of season, taking more and more of the time 



24 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



left from my scliool duties. At length my 
whole soul was so filled with the subject that 
it would not leave me in school hours, and I saw 
I was giving to this duty less than its due. 
This decided me to resign. I had been wanting 
to pass a season with my mother, who was in 
failing health. My resignation was not ac- 
cepted, but I persisted, and after two more 
terms I was released. My mother was in sym- 
pathy with me on the slavery question, and I 
told her fully the state of my mind, saying 
that, but for the fact that I had so little com- 
mand of language and no training in public 
speaking, I should think I had a divine call 
(as understood by Friends) to go forth and 
lecture. 

"About this time there was a pressbig call 
for funds from the anti-slavery societies, anrl 
I sold some of tlie most expensive articles of 
my wardrobe, and forwarded the proceeds to 
the treasury, feeling that I could not withhold 
even a feather's weight of help that might 
hasten the downfall of the terrible system which, 
by crushing and cursing the slave, had de- 
prived the whole country of the liberty of 
speech and the press, and the right of peaceable 
assemblage and petition." 

(It should be said at this point that Miss 
Kelley had alreadj' given to the society all her 
accumulated earnings and the small inheri- 
tance recently received from her father's estate.) 
" Not long after tliJs, in one of our Scripture read- 
ings at breakfast, I read from a chapter con- 
taining these words: 'Not many wise men 
after the flesh, not many mighty, not many 
noble, are called: but God hath chosen the 
fftolish things of the world to confound the wise; 
and God hath chosen the weak things of the 
world to confound the things which are mighty; 
and base things of the world, and things which 
are despised, . . . and things which are not, 
to bring to naught things that are: that no 
flesh should glory in his presence.' I closed 
the book and said to my mother: 'My way is 
clear now: a new light has broken on me. How 
true it is, as history records, that all great 
reforms have been carried forward by weak 
and despised means! The talent, the learning, 
the wealth, the Church, and the State, are 
pledged to the support of slavery. I will go 



out among the honest-hearted common people, 
into the highways and byways, and cry, "Pity 
the poor slave!" if I can do nothing more.' 
My mother still hoped that I might be spared 
from taking up so heavy a cross;. but I told her 
I had counted the cost, and though, as an abo- 
litionist, I must take my life in my hand, and, 
as a public-speaking woman, must .suffer more 
than the loss of life, yet all I could give, and all 
I was, was but as dust in the balance, if my 
efforts could gain over to our cause a few honest 
souls. 

"I had a sister living in Connecticut, who 
was quite in accord with me, and at her house 
I now made my home, going out as oppor- 
tunities were offered me by the few abolitionists 
of that vicinity. I was entirely unknown and 
uidicard of, except as some New York paper, 
in its denunciation and ridicule of the anti- 
slavery meetings, might refer to me as 'that 
monstrosity, a public-speaking woman.' I had 
no endorsement from any society, none but 
a few of my most intimate friends knowing of 
my purpose. The reason for my going out 
thus was my doubt of being able to serve the 
great cause in this way; and I did not wish 
to involve any other person in the trials, perils, 
and tribulations to which I should be liable." 

Miss Kelley finally received an invitation to 
hold meetings in Washington, Conn. She says 
of them: "The first meeting was well attended, 
and another was called for, then still another 
and another, each with deepening interest 
and larger attendance. When a fifth was pro- 
po.sed, as I had engagements elsewhere, I 
promised to return in two weeks and speak 
again. It may seem remarkable that no oppo- 
sition was manifested; but those who invited 
me were all members of the church, and Mr. 
Gunn was the superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school, and Mr. Piatt a sheriff of the county. . . . 
I was treated with much consitleration, receiv- 
ing hospitality from those who stood first and 
best. But, when I returned, lo, what a change! 
Mr. and Mrs. Gunn met me with sorrowful 
faces and told me that in my absence Mr. H., 
the minister, had preached a sermon from the 
text. Rev. ii. 20: 'I have a few things against 
thee, because thou sufferest that woman 
Jezebel to teach and to seduce my servants.' . . . 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF ^ NEW ENGLAND 



He set forth the powers and artifices of Jezebel, 
her learning, her marvellous blandishments, 
with the neglect of the minister to forbid her 
preaching until she had acquired such an influ- 
ence that he daretl not interfere. Then Mr. 
H. charged that another Jezebel had arisen, 
and, with fascinations exceeding even those of 
her Scripture prototype, was aiming to entice 
and destroy this church. ... He added: 'Do 
any of you ask for evidence of her vile character? 
It needs no other evidence than the fact that 
in the face of the clearest commands of God, 
" IjCt your women keep silence in the churches, 
for it is not permittetl unto them to speak," 
she comes here with brazen face, a servant 
of Satan in the garb of an angel of light, and 
tramples this connnand under her feet.' This 
is the purport of his discourse as reported 
to me. 

"My friends invited me to go with them to 
the weekly prayer-meeting that afternoon. 
We hoped, though with little faith, to have 
an opportunity for my friend to say a few words 
in reply to the Sunday's sermon. But no one 
was allowed to speak except by the minister's 
invitation, and the meeting was soon closed. 
We stood near the door as the i)eople passed 
out. With one exception, not one of those 
whom I had met on my first visit, not even those 
who had hospitably entertained me, gave me 
a hand or a look, but all passed me as if I hatl 
been a block. I doubt not that many of the 
members of that church thanketl Mr. H. for 
his timely warning, by which they were saved 
from being led to death and hell. At my lect- 
ure that evening few were present, and tho.se 
mainly from surrounding towns. I went to 
my chamber that night, but not to sleep. In 
agony of prayer and tears, my cry was, 'Oh 
that my head were waters, and mine eyes a 
fountain of tears, that I might weep day and 
night for the slain of the daughter of my people! ' 
My anguish was not because of anything per- 
sonal to myself, but because I was thus cut 
off from the people who might rise up for the 
defence of the slave. The friends at whose 
house I was stood by me nobly, but we all 
saw that nothing more could be done at that 
time. 

"Soon after this I was invited to speak in 



Torrington, where a Methodist church was 
opened to me, the minister being absent. I 
remained there about a week, holding several 
meetings, which created great interest, so that 
people came in from surrounding towns. There 
were many questions asked and answered, 
but very little opposition was apparent. At 
one of the last meetings, though nothing had 
been said about money, the people in passing 
out left contril)utions on the desk before me. 
No one said a word except an aged man, who, 
dropping a gold coin, remarked, 'The laborer 
is worthy of his hire.' The amount was sev- 
eral dollars. 

"When I started on my mission, my funds 
were low. I could not ask for help, but de- 
cided that, when my supply should fail, it would 
be sufhcient reason for my going home. At one 
time I had but ten cents left in my purse, ant! 
was about to write home for a loan, when a 
letter from an intimate friend was brought me, 
containing a five-dollar bill." 

Among the iJaces which Miss Kelley visited 
was Norfolk, Conn. Arriving in the absence 
of her host, several of the principal men of the 
town called on her, and informetl her with 
threats that if she persisted in her attempt 
it would be at her own peril. With no friend 
at hand she had to yield; but it was Saturday 
night, and she could not get away before Mon- 
day. Her hostess was evidently in sympathy 
with the mob element, and Miss Kelley there- 
fore tried to get lodgings at the hotel. She 
was told that the innkeeper would as willingly 
entertain the vilest woman from New York 
as herself. "Language," she writes, "cannot 
ilescribe that long day and night of spiritual 
anguish and utter desolation." Monthly morn- 
ing saw her depart. She went to the house 
of a friendly Quaker farmer in Canaan. "Once 
more I breathed freely. A terrible burden fell 
off me. When left alone I went into the or- 
chanl back of the house" (remeniber she was 
still young, only about twenty-five) "and ran 
about like a colt let loose. I hopped, skipped, 
and danced. I climbetl the trees and sang with 
the birds. Such ecstasies of delight come 
rarely." 

In this town she held good meetings, but in 
Salisbury her meeting was broken up by a 



26 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



mob which rang the church hell, tooted tin 
horns, and beat on tin pans. 

At Cornwall Bridge Miss Kelley barely es- 
caped personal injury. The politics of the 
town were controlled liy a charcoal manufact- 
urer, a drunken, profane fellow, who had a 
similar following. "When we entered the 
house, we found it well filled and lighted, with 
a candle on the desk, and several candles and 
oil lamps on the box stove in the centre. The 
audience appeared respectable; but from with- 
out smutty faces looked in through the open 
windows, and ominous mutterings were heard. 
Directly there strode in a burly, led-faced 
fellow, with glaring eyes, who brandished a 
huge club, shouting with an oath, 'Where's 
the nigger wench?' A shudder ran through 
me. A feeble, trembling voice in a far corner 
of the room replied, 'Perhaps she has not 
come.' Down fell his club, right and left, jKit- 
ting out and smashing lamps and candles. 
That on the desk followed in an instant, while 
I was seized by my friends, and in the dark- 
ness was hurried to the door, amid the sounds 
of the falling club, the screams of the wounded, 
and the horrible oaths of the drunken wretch." 
Another attempt to hold a meeting was foiled 
by the appearance of this man with a loaded 
gun. 

If anything more than the terrible campaign 
in Connecticut were needed to convince Miss 
Kelley that she had a divine call for public 
speaking, it was found in the effect produced 
by the short but eloquent appeal which she 
made in Pennsylvania Hall, Philadelphia, on 
the memorable evening of its destruction at 
the hands of a pro-slavery mob, May IG, 1838. 
At the close of that meeting, her friend, Theo- 
dore D. Weld, strongly urged her to join the 
lecture corps, adding, "Abby, if you don't, 
God will smite you." But, before a woman 
could go forth as the accredited agent of the 
Anti-slavery Society, a battle had to be fought 
within its own ranks. Witness a letter dic- 
tated by Mrs. Foster two or three years licfore 
her death: — 

" Long before there was any organized move- 
ment in behalf of the equal rights of women, 
the battle for the recognition of their equality 
was fought and won, as an incidental issue, 



on the anti-slavery platform. In 1837 Sarah 
and Angelina (irimke, of South Carolina, were 
invited to New England to lecture to women 
on slavery. Meetings were appointed for them 
in Boston, at which a few men looked in from 
the vestibule, and finally entered ami took 
seats. No objections being made to this in- 
vasion, their sub.seciuent meetings were, largely 
attended by men as well as women. Meetings 
were held in many towns in New England, fre- 
quently in influential churches, the pastors 
opening with prayer and otherwise giving coun- 
tenance to the movement. Among the most 
important hearings given the Grimkes were 
those before the Legislature of Massachusetts, 
on petitions. They created an interest that 
had never been felt before, as witness the 
action of the Congregational A.'jsociation, which 
in 1838, by a pastoral letter, written by a com- 
mittee of which the Rev. Nehemiah Adams 
was chairman, warned its various churches 
against giving countenance to women's speak- 
ing in public assemblies, a movement which 
was anti-scriptural, umiatural, indecent, and 
ruinous to the best interests of the comnuuiity. 

"These lectures and the action of the Con- 
gregational Association resulted in a great agi- 
tation, extending throughout New England, 
especially in the anti-slavery ranks. No 
woman hail hitherto taken part in a mixed 
convention of any of the anti-slavery societies 
by speaking or serving on committees; but in 
May, 1838, at the New England Convention, 
Abby Kelley said a few words from her seat 
in the hall, and was afterward nominated and 
elected a member of a conmiittee to memorial- 
ize the religious associations of Massachusetts 
in regard to slavery. 

"This action, hastily taken in the closing 
moments of the first .evening, was next day 
violently opposed by ministers ami others, 
among them several who had been prominent 
in aiding the Grinike sisters in their mixed 
meetings, but who now, under the influence 
of the i)astoral letter and hostile jiublic .senti- 
ment, had joined the opposition. These mem- 
bers, having in vain requested Miss Kelley 
to withdraw from the connnittee, introduced 
a resolution excusing her from serving. An 
intensely exciting discussion followed. The 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



27 



resolution was defeated, a large majority taking 
tlic ground that women, being members of the 
society, were entitled to all the rights, privi- 
leges, and duties pertaining to membership. In 
May, 1839, the question again came up, this 
time at the annual meeting of the American 
Anti-slavery Society, in New York. An excit- 
ing discussion followeil the appointment of 
Miss Kelley to a committee, the fiuestion being 
decided as before. The next year it was set- 
tled, once for all, that in the American Anti- 
slavery Society and its auxiliaries throughout 
the country the women should take part as 
freely as the men in all the work of the public 
meetings, even to the point of presiding on 
important occasions." 

It was in 1839 that Miss Kelley's recognized 
career as a lecturer began. She had alreatiy 
been baptized with the terrible flame of per- 
secution in the solitary Connecticut campaign, 
and whatever of abuse and vilification now 
assailed her she could bear with comparative 
equanimity, supported by the strong band of 
brave and loyal souls who had pledged to the 
cause of the slave their lives, their fortunes, 
and their sacred honor. From this time till 
her marriage, in 1845, Miss Kelley devoted 
herself untiringly to anti-slavery work. She 
spoke in conventions not only, but nuide long 
trips through remote country districts, speak- 
ing in churches, whenever they could be ob- 
tained; when not, in school-hou.ses. Some- 
times arrangements were made by the society's 
agent; but she often had to be her own agent, 
learning from her last host who in the surround- 
ing towns would help her to get up meetings, 
and who would receive her at their houses, for 
she had no money to pay hotel bills. For 
many years she received no salary, her trav- 
elling expenses only being paid by the society, 
and her most pressing needs for clothing being 
supplied by her friends. Many annising anec- 
dotes might be related of these lecture tours. 
She, like Dickens, was given her choice of 
"corn bread and common doin's" or "white 
bread and chicken fixin's." In the new settle- 
ments of the West, where the kitchen sink or 
the well was the common bath-room for the 
family, and a single dish (sometimes the iron 
skillet) served each in turn as a wash-basin, 



her hostesses discovered that an occult con- 
nection existed between a woman lecturer 
and a pan of water — a luxury which Miss Kelley 
always insisted upon having in her room. In 
those days of pork and bacon it was extremely 
difficult to get suitable food, but eggs and 
potatoes could usually be obtained. Travelling 
was a terrible undertaking. At first no rail- 
roatls, then only a few between the larger cities, 
stage-coaches or wagons, and roails of every 
degree of muddiness or roughness, with the 
corduroy road of logs as the extreme of torture — 
these were the only means of conveyance for 
the pioneers of the anti-slavery cause. 

About the time that Abby Kelley became 
known to the public, another lecturer appeared 
on the anti-slavery platform, one who exciteil 
more animosity, if less ridicule, than she. This 
was Stephen S. Foster, who out-Garrisoned 
even the famous leader. In his ability to por- 
tray in vivid anil terrible language the sin of 
the sla\T-holder and the wickedness of the 
church and clergy in lending countenance 
to the system, he was without a rival. No 
meeting was dull where he spoke. Indeed, a 
mob was the not imjirobable outcome, before 
which Mr. Foster never quailed. A non- 
resistant, he carried always with him two 
invaluable weapons — a piercing eye, with which 
he transfixetl liis assailants, and a wonderful 
magnetic power, which enabled him to hokl an 
audience, though they writhed under his ter- 
rible denunciations. But he was sometimes 
roughly handled, and several times received 
serious injuries. 

This brave martyr spirit was the mate for 
whom destiny had preserved Abby Kelley 
from her many youthful adn\irers. Marriage 
had never attracted her; for marriage, at that 
time, meant the absolute submission of the 
wife, her entire loss of identity. To such a 
union such a woman could never consent. But 
when this wooer came there was a difference. 
The great principle of human freedom which 
he applied to the black slave he applied also 
to the white woman, who was a subject, if not 
a chattel. He had the same great cause at heart 
as Miss Kelley. Like her, he had labored with- 
out money and without price, had given up 
his profession ami his creed for the slave. Mar- 



28 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



riage to such a man seoined to her the realiza- 
zation of an ideal, and so it proved. But 
there was one condition: three entire years 
must be devoted to the sacred cause. So the 
travellinj;; and lecturing went on. T^p and 
down, from Maine to Ohio, always with some 
woman for a travelling companion. Miss Kelloy 
toiled almost without rest. One sununer she 
spoke every day for six weeks and sometimes 
twice a day. The meetings (some of them 
large conventions) were often held in groves, 
and it was this severe strain which broke the 
voice, before so strong and clear. 

In December, 1845, Abby Kelley and Stephen 
S. Foster were married. For a year or two 
previously they had consented to receive the 
small salary then usually paid to lecturei's. 
They felt that they owed something to the 
new relation and duties they were soon to 
assume. Mr. P''oster had also realized some- 
thing from an anti-slavery work which he wrote 
about that time. With this small sum the 
husband and wife purchased a farm in the 
suburbs of Worcester, Mass., which continued 
to be their home till Mr. Foster's death in 1881. 
But their public work was not given up. Mr. 
Foster was usually absent during the winter 
on lecturing tours, while Mrs. Foster made 
several long campaigns in the West, besides 
often attending conventions or giving lectures 
nearer home. When asked how she could 
bear to leave her little daughter, she would 
reply, " I leave my child in wise and loving 
hands and but for a little, while the slave 
mothers daily have their daughters torn from 
their arms and sold into torture and infamy." 

Never was mother more devoted, more self- 
sacrificing than she. Had she been less noble, 
less brave, less tender of her child, she would 
have remained at home to enjoy her mother- 
hood at the expense of other mothers. She 
once exclaimed, "The most precious legacy 
I can leave my child is a free country!" 

It was about this time that the woman's 
rights cause came up as an independent reform. 
Mrs. Foster had fought the battle for the right 
of women to speak in public, and had gained 
it for herself and for all women. Now came 
the broader cpiestion of the right to vote, 
which involves all other rights. She was ear- 



nest in its advocacy, and came to see th;it it 
was a much more comprehensive reform than 
even the anti-slavery movement. But she 
felt that her life was consecrated to the slave, 
and that her failing voice and broken health 
nuist be husbanded for that service. Yet she 
was thoroughly identified with the suffrage 
movement, and was recognized, with the 
Grimkes, as the pioneer who, with bleeding 
feet, smoothed the path through which the 
women of the suffrage movement might lead 
their sex to the light. 

Mrs. Foster's last jniblic work was devoted 
to raising money for rousing public sentiment 
to the necessity of carrying the Fifteenth 
Amendment. With the other loyal friends of 
the freedmen, she felt that freedom without the 
ballot was an empty name. She could no 
longer speak from the platform, but her earnest 
pleading in private rarely failed to convince 
her listener that justice was the only safe 
course for the nation to pursue. Hundreds, 
perhaps thousands, of dollars were contributed 
through her to be spent in holding meetings 
throughout the North and in publishing and 
distributing documents for the enlightenment 
of the public. This amendment at last carried, 
she felt that she had at last earned a discharge 
from the army of workers. 

Those who listened to Abby Kelley in the 
days of her young womanhood have told me of 
her wonderful power. This consisted, I imag- 
ine, in her intense earnestness, in her utter 
self-forgetfulness and consecration. Her lan- 
guage was of Quaker simplicity, unadorned 
with figures or imagery. She never wrote 
her speeches, and rarely spent any time in their 
l)reparation ; but the eloquence of a heart on 
fire, words lighted at the altar of Cod's truth, 
were hers. Her audience felt that she " re- 
membered those in bonds as bountl with them." 
Such a passion for freedom, such unselfish 
devotion, could not fail to inspire admiration 
and win converts. 

Though Miss Kelley's featiires were not beau- 
tiful, she had an attractive personality. Her 
lithe, graceful figure was crowned with a head 
of fine outlines, well poised on a beautiful neck, 
and covered with abundant dark brown hair, 
hardly gray, even at her death. The Quaker 




LURA C. PARTINGTON 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENOl.AND 



29 



kerchief, laid in folds around her neck, was tlie 
one article of personal adornment to which she 
clung. Its simplicity was perhaps its special 
charm, so completely did it harmonize with 
the purity and sincerity of the wearer. 

Mrs. Foster was noted far and near for her 
good housekeeping. She had had almost, no 
experience in this department before her lijar- 
riage, but (as she confided to me a short time 
before her death) she was tletermined to dis- 
prove the assertion that- a "strong-minded 
woman" would, of course, neglect her house 
and family. As a poor farmer's wife. sfee had 
a hard task, but she accomplished it- success- 
fully, though her health was often far from 
robust. From kitchen to jjlatform was per- 
haps not an easy transition, yet it was one 
which she often ma<le with little apparent _diffi- 
cuity. .. ■ . 

The five years of Mrs. Foster's life from 1876 
to 1881 were saddened by the illness, of her 
husband, which was attended with intense 
suffering and which terminated fatally. But 
throughout this time of trial and for the suc- 
ceetling five years preceding her own death, 
January 14, 1887, her brave and cheerful spirit 
triumphed over her frail body, and she lived 
on the serene heights, happy in the conscious- 
ness of a life well spent and ready for that im- 
mortal existence which she was convinced 
would bring her renewed strength and further 
opportunity to work toward the ultimate good 
which to her meant God. 

A sketch of Mrs. Foster would be incomplete 
without a word upon the character of her hus- 
band, which cannot be better said than by his 
lifelong friend, Parker Pillsbury, in his "Acts 
of the Anti-.slavery Apostles ":-7- 

" Distinguished abolitionists were often called 
men with one idea. Anti-slavery, in its im- 
measurable importance to all the interests of the 
country, material, mental, moral, and social, 
as well as religious and political, was one idea 
far too great for ordinary minds, even without 
any other. But the sturdy synnnetry and con- 
sistency of Mr. Foster's character were as won- 
ilerful as were his vigor and power in any one 
direction. Earliest and bravest among the 
temperance reformers, when even that cause 
was almost as odious as anti-slavery became 



afterward; a radical advocate of peace from 
the standpoint of the Sermon on the Mount, 
'Resist not evil,' seconded by the apostolic 
injunction, 'Avenge not yourselves'; a cham- 
pion in the woman suffrage enterprise from 
its inception; an intelligent, earnest advocate 
of the rights of labor and deeply interested in 
•all the moral, social, and philanthropic associ- 
ations of the city and neighl)orhood where he 
lived — he left behind hini a record ami a mem- 
ory to grow brighter as the years sweep on. . . . 
The beauty and harmony of his home were- 
unsurpassed. It was sacred to peace and love. 
Its unostentatious Ixut elegant antl generous 
hospitality was the admiration of all who ever 
enjoyed it." 

James Russell Low.ell, in a rh}-nied letter 
descriptive of the principal figures in the anti- 
slavery^ bazaar hehl. in; Boston in 1840, pays 
a charming tribute to Mrs. Foster; — 

" A Judith there, tinned Quakeie.ss, 
Sits Abby in her modest dress, 
Serving a table quietl}', 
As if tliat mild and downcast eye 
Flashed never with its scorn intense, 
•More than Medea's eloquence. 

No nobler gift than heart or brain. 
No. life more white from spot or stain, 
Was e'er on Freedom's altar laid 
Than hers — the simple Quaker maid." 

Alla Wright Foster. 



LURA CHASE PARTINGTON, the first 
woman to hold the office of Grand 
_J Worthy Patriarch of the Grand Divi- 
sion of Maine, Sons of Temperance, 
is a native of the State of Maine. She was 
born in Cornville, Somerset County, August 11, 
1831, daughter of Reuben Moore and Lydia 
Hewitt (Woodcock) Smiley. 

Her father was born in Sidney, Me., De- 
cember 10, 1803. He died in Gardiner, Me., 
September 7, 1882. Seven of his ancestral 
kin were niin\ite-men of the Re^olution. His 
father, William Smiley, born in Sidney, No- 
vember 30, 1757, was the son of Hugh and 
Marcy (Park) Smylie, who were married Octo- 
ber 23, 1745. Marcy was the daughter of 



30 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Alexander Park, ulio died January 26, 1760, 
and "Margrat" Park, who died May 11, 1752. 
William Smiley lived to the age of ninety- 
seven years, his death being caused by an acci- 
dent. He had a sister who reached the age of 
one hundred and two, well known as "Aunt 
Sally Webber." Sarah Moore Smiley, the 
wife of William, died several years before her 
husband; and her funeral was attended by 
their fourteen children. Seven of these chil- 
dren lived to be nearly eighty years old, and 
one, a daughter, died at the age of ninety-six. 

The Smiley armorial ensign was conferred 
upon the ancestors of one John Smylie, barris- 
ter, resident of Dulilin. Ireland, probalily in 
the seventeenth century. 

Description: "Azure a chevron, ermine, be- 
tween three pheons, argent; for crest, on a 
wreath of the colors, an armed arm embowed 
proper, the hand holding a pheon by the point 
thereof, gules; and for motto, Virihuf< virhtf;." 

Explanation: The chevron, or saddle bow. 
denotes military valor. The crest, aliove the 
wreath, is a mark of special honor. The armed 
arm signifies courage or might, and was prob- 
ably awarded for great liravery. The wreath 
is symbolic of a victor. The pheons, or iron 
dart-heads, indicate royalty or defence of 
crown property. Azure (blue) denotes inno- 
cence; ermine (argent tufted with black), dig- 
nity; argent (white), purity; gules (red), cour- 
age. The motto means \^alor in arms, or \'irtue 
with power. 

Mrs. Lydia H. Smiley, Mrs. Partington's 
mother, was the daughter of Liberty and Su- 
sannah Woodcock. Born in Winthrop, Me., 
March 2, 1804, she died March 25, 1865. Mrs. 
Partington says of her: "She was a perfect 
housekeeper and a devoted mother. She be- 
lieved that children should obey their parents, 
and not parents obey their children. When 
I was three years old, she sent me to the infant 
Sabbath-school. I was given a little card with 
one verse on it for my lesson. Monday morn- 
ing I wanted to go out and play with my little 
playmates, but mother said I nuist get one 
line of my lesson first. I began to think tliat 
Sabbath-school was a nuisance, and I replied, 
'I'm not going any more.' Mother said, 'Yes, 
you vill go'; and I knew that I'd have to go. 



She taught me one line of my verse every day, 
and then had me repeat the whole verse till 
I could say it perfectly. Of my mother's an- 
cestry I know but little. They were of Scotch 
descent, and many of them in the Revolution- 
ary W'ar." 

While living in Gardiner, Me., Reuben M. 
.Smiley was warden of the Episcopal church 
and leader of the choir. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Sons of Temperance in Maine. 
His daughter Lura attended the Gardiner pub- 
lic schools until she was twelve years old, then 
was sent to a private school or academy in 
Gardiner called the "Lyceum." When only 
six years old, .she signed the pledge at a tem- 
perance meeting in the Methodist Kpiscopal 
church in Gardiner, Me., and two years later 
she joined the "Cold W'ater Army," which was 
then popular throughout the country. In 
1846, the family having removed that year to 
Lowell, Mass., where her father was engaged 
in putting turbine wheels into the mills, she 
there joined the Daughters of Temperance, and, 
although so very young, was chosen chaplain 
of the L'nion. This society was afterward 
merged in the Sons of Temperance. She has 
held an unbroken membership for fifty-six 
years, and is now (1903) Grand Worthy Patri- 
arch of the Grand Division of Maine. 

In 1849 she joined the Baptist church in 
Lowell, of which the Rev. Daniel C. Eddy was 
pastor. In 1851 her parents moved to Port- 
land, Me. This city she has ever since called 
her* home, although temporarily residing in 
New York and other cities. 

On March 7, 1853, she married Jo.«eph Part- 
ington, a native of Islington Parish, London. 
Born August 9, 1831, he came to this covmtry 
when seven years old, and settled in New York, 
but moved to Portland in 1851. 

Mr. Partington was a thorough American, 
and when the Civil War broke out he enlisted 
in the Twenty-fifth Maine Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel Francis Fessenilen. This 
regiment having completed the nine months' 
service for which it enlisted, Mr. Partington 
again joine'd the army, this time with a three 
years' regiment, the Thirtieth Maine, which 
was commanded by the same colonel, who 
afterward became a prominent general. Mr. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



31 



Partington saw active service in Louisiana and 
Texas, and was also with Sheridan's anny at 
Winchester. He reniained with the Thirti- 
eth until its consolidation with other regiments, 
when he was honorably discharged and re- 
turned home. Owing to tiie hardships of army 
life Mr. Partington's health failed, and he died 
December 13, 1867. He was a member of the 
Chestnut Street Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Portland. Mrs. Partington also joined that 
church after their marriage, and she retains 
her membership therein. 

In the spring of 1S61 Mrs. Partington united 
with the Intlependent Order of Good Templars, 
joining Arcana I>odge, of Portland, the first 
lodge organized in the vState. She has retained 
her membership and interest for more than 
forty years. Elected Grand Worthy Vice- 
Templar of the State in the early days of the 
order, she organized lodges and conducted 
effective missionary work. In 1871 she was 
engaged in gospel temperance work in Eng- 
land, giving many lectures. Returning home 
in the fall of 1872, she was chosen State dele- 
gate to the International Supreme Lodge, In- 
dependent Onler of Good Templars, whicli met 
in London early in 1873. At the close of its 
sessions she was engaged by the Hon. Joseph 
Malins, the head of the order, as Grand Lodge 
lecturer for England. For more than two 
years she contiuned her work in England, 
Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, lecturing to 
crowded and appreciative audiences. Among 
pleasant incidents she related the following: — 

"While travelling through Ireland, I stopped 
at a little whitewashed cottage, and asked if 
the woman living there could give me a supper 
of bread and milk. The woman replied, 'Walk 
in and sit down in j'our own place.' As I en- 
tered, I noticed in the centre of the room a 
large pine table, around which the family had 
gathered. The only chairs at the table were 
the ones occupied by the father and mother. 
The three elder children were seated upon 
stools, while the two younger were standing. 
Yet at the table was an empty stool, and before 
it a plate turned down. That was what the. 
woman had calletl my 'own place.' I asked 
her why she had called it my place. She re- 
plied, 'We have a little superstition that, if 



we always keep the stranger's j)late on our 
table, the dear Lord will always sentl enough 
to fill ours. And he generally does,' she added. 
It was a beautiful thought, and it would be 
well if we followed the example of that poor 
Irish peasant woman. 

"While in Scotland I was invitetl Ui speak 
ill Lord Kinnard's castle. There I had an 
audience which never would have come to any 
public hall. They all seemed interested and 
well pleased. I spent five weeks on the Isle 
of Jersey, the guest of Sir Philip de Carteret, 
the last of that old baronial family." 

While abroad, she was the recipient of many 
gifts, among them elegant regalia from 
friends in Ireland. On her first trip to Edin- 
burgh she lecturetl seventy-four consecutive 
nights, and conducted services four times on 
Sunday. On her second visit, when leaving 
the city, she was escorted to the station by a 
band of music; and, as the train rolled away, 
sixty members of the band united in singing 
"Will ye no' come back again?" A local 
paper thus referred to her meetings: "Mrs. 
L. C. Partington, of Portland, Me., one of the 
representatives of the recent Right Worthy 
Grand Lodge session, has again visited Edin- 
burgh. Although upon this occasion an in- 
valid, seeking rest, she managed during her 
nine days' visit to address with great accept- 
ance nineteen meetings, and left with the cry 
ringing in her ears, ' Will 3'e no' come back 
again?'" The Dundee Courier reported her 
lectures, and added: "Dundee is enjoying a 
rich treat in listening to the stirring addresses 
of Mrs. Partington, of Portland, United States. 
The enthusiasm with which she is everywhere 
received increa,ses nightly. . . . Her whole heart 
is in the work." The Londonderry (Ireland) 
Neivs and the Ballymena (Ireland) Advertiser 
referred in complimentary terms to her work, 
the editor of the latter stating that he had 
never heard " better argument or more con- 
vincing and eloquent advocacy of any cause." 

Upon returning again to America, Mrs. Part- 
ington travelled in twenty-two States, giving 
lectures from Maine to California. The Balti- 
more American said of her: "One of the largest 
and most enthusiastic temperance meetings 
ever held in this city was conducted by Mrs. 



32 



REPRESENTATn r: W()MP:N of NP]W ENGLAND 



Partington. She proved herself to be one of 
the best speakers in the cause of temperance 
that have ever appeared in Baltimore, and 
spoke with an earnestness, distinctness, pathos, 
and Inmior that held the close attention of the 
assemljlage to the last." 

In her own State; her friends are legion; and 
the Portland Transcript voiced the sentiments 
of all when it declared that "among the many 
sjx'aker!^ none made a deeper impression than 
Mrs. Partington, of this city." 

In recent years Mrs. Partington has devoted 
most of her time to furthering temperance in- 
struction among the children. She is District 
Su])erintendent of the Juvenile Templars in 
Cumberland County, Maine. On her seven- 
tieth birthday she was given a public recep- 
tion in Portland, which v/as largely attended. 
Among the many gifts of love and resi)ect 
which the occasion called forth is an "Illus- 
trated Life of Queen Victoria" from the Juve- 
nile Templars. 

Since the first organization of the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union she has been an 
active member. Her name is on the roll of 
the Union in Brooklyn, N.Y., where she often 
makes her headquarters. She is rei)resenta- 
tive at large from Kings County Union, and 
has held other positions of responsibility. 

P^or several years Mrs. Partington has been 
a member of the Woman's Rcli(-f Corps, auxil- 
iary to the Grand Army of the Republic. Pro- 
gressive and patriotic, she is a firm believer 
in the principles of eqviality and justice, and 
takes a deep interest in all the prominent (jues- 
tions of the day. She is a cheerful coiupan- 
ion and a loyal friend. When she was four- 
teen years old, she became aceiuainted with 
Lucy Stone, whose influence, she says, was 
an" inspiration which has helped her through 
life. 

Mrs. Partington has one son, Frederick Eugene, 
l)orn May 18, 1S54. Her only daughter, Har- 
riet Davis, born Septendwr 28, 185S, died when 
three years and six months old. 

Frederick I^ugene Partington, after several 
years at the high school of Portland, went 
abroad with his mother, and travelled two 
years, spending the winters in Brussels. He at- 
tended .school and studied (he French language 



in Paris. After his return he became a teacher 
in Pike Seminary, New York, and later he 
taught in Goshen, N.Y. Entering Brown 
University, Providence, R.I., in 1875, he was 
graduated in the class of 1879, of which he Wiis 
chosen class historian. He then went to Ger- 
many, where he studied for a year and a half. 

In 1881 he accepte<l a position as principal 
of New Paltz Academy, New York. After 
the building was burned, in 1884, he was 
chosen i)rincii)al of Staten Island Academy, 
now one of the most popular educational in- 
stitutions in New York. Through the efforts 
of Mr. Partington a new building has been 
erected, valued at seventj'-five thousand dollars. 

Mr. Partington is a writer and lecturer upon 
educational topics. He has crossed the ocean 
many times, visiting Greece, Asia Minor, and 
other foreign countries; and his lectures upon 
his travels are very popular, especially the one 
on "The Land of the Midnight Sun." 

On June 12, 1890, he married Miss Elizabeth 
Hamilton Baten\an, of Portland, who was edu- 
cated at Mount Holyoke Seminary. 



EVELYN GREENLEAF SUTHER- 
IjAND, writer, playwright, and critic, 
the only daughter of James Baker, for- 
merly a prominent wholesale merchant 
of Boston, and his wife, Rachel Arnold Green- 
leaf, was born and breil in Boston, as were her 
paternal ancestors for three or four generations. 
Her mother, who died in 1896, was a daughter 
of Spencer and Pamela (Adams) Greenleaf, of 
AViscasset, Me. 

Mrs. Sutherland is descended on both sides 
from fighting stock, and inherits many inter- 
esting traditions. Her mother's paternal ances- 
try she traces to Captain P^dniund Greenleaf, 
who came from England and settled at New- 
bury in 1635, the line being; Edmund,' 
Stephen,^ ^ * Samuel,'^ Benjamin," Spencer.' 
Edmund Greenleaf marched against the Ind- 
ians in 1637. From that time to the death in 
1857 of her grandfather, Spencer Greenleaf 
who served in the War of 1812, there was but 
one break in the military service of the family. 
Captain Stephen^ Greenleaf, son of Captain 
Edmund,' was one of the purchasers of Naii- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



33 



tucket island in 1659. He niairied in 1651 
Elizabeth, daughter of Tristram ("ofhn, tlieii 
of Newbury, Mass., afterward the chief magis- 
trate, also one of the owners of Nantucket. 
Ste})hen- Greenleaf was drowned while engaged 
in the honorable discharge of liis military iluty 
in the expedition against Port Royal in Decem- 
ber, 1690. His son, Stephen,^ known as the 
"great Indian fighter," was engaged in King 
Philip's War, and in the contest with the French 
anil Indians in 1090 he commanded a companj' 
at Wells, Me. Mrs. Sutherland's great-grand- 
fathei', Benjamin" Greenleaf, was a soldier in 
the Revolution. 

Several of these progenitors were seafarers, 
and were well known in New England as mas- 
ter ship-builders. It is recordetl that the origi- 
nal Greenleafs in England, ancestors of Edmund, 
were Huguenots (name in French Feuillevert), 
who had fled from France to escape religious 
persecution. 

There is a tradition that one of the family, 
many generations back, while in France, mar- 
ried a Spanish Romany girl, or Gitana, and 
that the Gipsy blood now and then appears in 
her descendants. To this inheritance Mrs. 
Sutherland whimsically attributes her love of 
Bohemia and the freedom of outdoor life. 

Noteworthy also is the part which the 
colonial Bakers took in the cause of liberty. 
Captain Joseph Baker, a surveyor, shared in 
the famous Lovewell hght in New Hamp- 
shire. His wife Hannah was the only daugh- 
ter of the noted Captain John Lovewell, who 
was killed in the battle of Pigwacket, May 8, 
1725. Mrs. Baker received a share in the 
lands awardetl to the survivors and heirs of 
those engaged in the fight, and .settled with 
her husband on this land, where the Baker 
homestead now stands, in the town of Pem- 
broke, N.H. Their son, Jose]jh Baker, Jr., 
was a soldier in the Revolution, and was 
on the Conunittee of Safety for the town of 
Bow, N.H. 

As shown by family records and remem- 
brances, supplementing the genealogy in the 
i?.s.sex Antiquarian, vol. ii., Mrs. Sutherland's 
maternal grandmother, Pamela Adams Green- 
leaf, was a daughter of Nathan Adams and his 
wife, Johanna Batchelder, and a descendant in 



the sixth generation of Robert Adams and his 
wife Eleanor, early .settlers of Newbury, Mass. 
From Robert' the line continued through his 
son Abraham,-' who married Mary Pettingell; 
Abraham,' and his wife Anne, daughter of 
William and Anne (Sewall) Longfellow and 
niece of Judge Sewall; and Henry^ and his first 
wife, Sarah Emery, who were the parents of 
Nathan^ Adams, of Newbury, Mass., and Wis- 
casset, Me. 

James Baker, of Boston, was a devoted anti- 
slavery worker and a warm personal friend of 
Theodore Parker. He died when his daughter 
I'^velyn was only three years of age. Her edu- 
cation was carefully looked after by her mother, 
her earliest training being received in the pub- 
lic schools. She was later placed in the quaint 
little "dame" school of Miss Rebecca Lincohi 
on Pinckney Street, where the old house is still 
standing. She next attended Miss Caroline 
Johnson's celebrated school on Ashburton 
Place, completing her education by two years' 
study in Geneva, Switzerland. She showed 
literary tastes when but a child, by writing 
little rhymes and tales; and at the age of fifteen 
she was awarded a prize for an essay on "What 
is a Gentleman?" by Our Young Folka, now 
known as Si. Nicholas. Since then her writings, 
ver.se or pro.se, have been much before the pub- 
lic, appearing in Puck, Life, the Cotiniopolitan, 
and other magazines. In 1894, under the name 
of Dorothy Lundt, a nam de plume which she 
used for twenty years, she won one of the 
prizes offered by McClure'f^ Magazine by an 
army tale, "Diccon's Dog." Through this 
little product of her pen has come a happy ex- 
perience. A noted novelist, at a reception 
shortly after the publication of the story, 
spoke of it in highest praise, not knowing that 
she was addressing the author herself. A con- 
fession followed, and the friendship thus begun 
between the two women has been lasting. 

For many years Mrs. Sutherland was a writer 
on the staff of the Boston Transcript, from 
the autunm of 1887 contributing to its colunuis 
both book reviews and draniartic criticisms. 
Her success in the latter line is well known. 
She heartily attributes all cretlit for what she 
has acconiplishetl in dramatic criticism to her 
training under Mr. Francis Jenks, for many 



;j4 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



years the dramatic editor of the Transcript. 
In her first assignment under Mr. Jenks he 
gave her a lesson which served as a basis for 
all her future work in that line. He asked, 
"Do you know what the word critic means?" 
Somewhat confused, she answered, "Perhaps 
not in the sense you mean." "Go to the dic- 
tionary and find out," he said. She found the 
original Greek word meant one who discerns. 
Mr. Jenks said, tersely, "Always bear that in 
mind, and don't confuse the discerner with 
the fault-finder." Under his teaching her abili- 
ties developetl, and in 1889 and 1890, while 
Mr. William Apthorp was in Europe, she wrote 
most of the first-night criticisms for the Tran- 
script. During her connection with the Tran- 
script she conducted a very interesting column 
called "Library and Foyer," signed "Dorothy 
Lundt." It was original and cle.ver, and was 
much appreciated by Transcript readers. Her 
work on this paper continued uninterruptedly 
for seven years, when, in 1894, she suffered 
from acute nervous prostration, and for eleven 
months lived out of the city and retired from 
active life. Upon her return she was greatly 
shocked to learn of the recent sudden death 
of her beloved "Father in Journalism," Mr. 
Jenks. 

For a number of years Mrs. Sutherland was 
dramatic editor of the Boston Conuno)ncealth, 
and since her return to active work, in 1896, 
has contributed to many newspapers, being 
dramatic critic of the Daily Journal for several 
years. Most of her time, however, has been 
occupied with another line of work, that of 
short story and play writing. One of her first 
plays presented was given performance at the 
Hollis Street Theatre in October, 1895, by 
Charles Frohman's Empire Theatre Company. 
It was a one-act Southern play, entitled "Mars'r 
Van," and was written in collaboration with 
Mrs. Emma Sheritlan Fry. It afterward ran 
for four weeks at the Empire Theatre, New 
York, and was also successfully given through- 
out the West. " Rohan the Silent" was written 
for Alexander Salvini, and was accepted by 
him, to be used in connection with "The Fool's 
Revenge," which it was his intention to in- 
clude in his repertoire for the season of 1896 
and 1897. It was produced by him at a trial 



performance at the Tremont Theatre, Boston, 
May 28, 1896, and it is a notable fact that 
Rohan was the last role ever created by this 
actor of great promise. "Fort Frayne," her 
next attempt, an emotional drama in four acts, 
was written in collaboration with Mrs. Fry 
and General Charles King. Its possibilities as 
a novel appealed to General King, and, with 
Mrs. Sutherland's consent, he worked the plot 
into one of his fascinating stories. It met 
with a large sale, reaching its fifth edition. 
The play itself, on account of Mrs. Sutherland's 
illness, was not completed until 1895, and soon 
afterward was produced in both the East and 
the West. Its first presentation was in the 
fall of 1895 at the Schiller Theatre, Chicago, 
where it had a four weeks' run. In 1897 and 
1898 six one-act dramas bj' Mrs. Sutherland 
were put on the stage, the initial performance 
of each being in Boston. The first of these, 
" Po White Trash," was produced by Henrj' 
Woodruff (for whom the role of Drent Dury 
was written) at a special matinee at the Bijou 
Theatre, Boston, and later at the Lyceum 
Theatre, New York. It was also given in the 
season of 1898 and 1899 by the Frawley com- 
pany in the West. The other dramas are "In 
Far Bohemia," "A Comedie Royal," "A Bit 
of Instruction," and "At the Barricade." 
These, with three plays which have not been pro- 
duced, were published in book form in 1900. 
They deal with varying phases of life, and some 
have won marked popularity and favor. In 
1900, collaborating with Mr. Booth Tarkington, 
she helped to dramatize the latter's novel, 
"Monsieur Beaucaire," which was brought 
out by Richard Mansfield in October, 1901, 
and enjoyed long and exceedingly successful 
seasons in America and I']nglaiid. 

Many of Mrs. Sutherland's writings have 
tlealt with army life, and she has many frieniis 
in both the army and the navy. She has sjient 
nuich time "in garrison." At one time when 
some especially dear friends were stationed at 
Fort Warren, she had a den fitted up for her- 
self in one of the old casemates which was used 
as a prison dming the Civil War. 

In s])ite of her busy life she has found time 
for social affiliations, and her home on Com- 
monwealth Avenue is a literary and artistic 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



35 



centre. She was a charter member of the New 
England's Woman's Press Club, anil has for ten 
years held some office on the Executive Board. 
She also belongs to the Authors' Club, the 
Pentagon Club, and the Professional Woman's 
League. Her pajier on "The Making of a 
Critic," which has been given several times in 
Boston before prominent clubs, was also given 
at the Congress of Women's Clubs at the W^orld's 
Fair. 

In 1879 she became the wife of Dr. John P. 
Sutherland, her friend from childhood, the mar- 
riage taking place immediately after his gradu- 
ation from the Medical School of Boston Uni- 
versity. After several months' travel in Eu- 
rope, Dr. Sutherland began the practice of his 
profession, while she continued her literary 
work. In 1888 her husband became a member 
of the faculty of the Medical School of Boston 
University, and since then he has been actively 
connectecl with that institution, succeeding Dr. 
I. Tisdale Talbot as Dean of the Medical School 
in 1899. Dr. Sutherland is one of the leading 
physicians of Boston, and is an ex-president 
of the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety. For fourteen years he edited the Neir 
England Medical Gazette. 

By birth and education, ami as wife of the 
Dean of Boston University Medical School, 
Mrs. Sutherland holds a distinct and individual 
position in Boston, while her work as playwright 
and critic takes her often, and very congenially, 
over the borders of Bohemia. She counts some 
of her warmest frientls among the leaders in the 
dramatic world. A\'here she sees talent, she is 
always eager to recognize and foster it. 

Her Sunday evenings are the property of 
her "boys," not only of Boston University, but 
of Harvard and Tech also. At her home they 
find on Sunday nights a "picnic supper," a 
warm welcome, and an "open parliament," 
whose leader is often the honoreil anil beloved 
Dean. 

Dr. and Mrs. Sutherland have two sunmier 
residences, one at Nantucket, home of Mrs. 
Sutherland's kinsfolk two centuries ago, and 
one, "Clanshome," at Marlow, N.H., between 
which homes, when not in Dr. Sutherland's na- 
tive Scotland, she and her husband ilivide their 
summer days. 



MARY JOHNSON BAILEY LIN- 
COLN, widely known as Mrs. Mary 
J. Lincoln, writer and lecturer on 
household science, was born in South 
Attleboro, Mass., July 8, 1844. Her father, 
the Rev. John Burnham Milton Bailey, pastor 
of the Congregational church in that place, was 
the son of William and Susannah (Burnliam) 
Bailey. His mother, who ilied in 1816, was a 
daughter of Deacon Samuel and Mary (Perkins) 
Burnham, of Dunbarton, N.H., and sister to 
the Rev. Abraham Burnham, of Pembroke. 
Deacon Sanmel Burnham was a native of Essex, 
Mass., formerly Chebacco parish, Ipswich, and 
was of the fifth generation (Samuel,* John^^') 
of that branch of the family founded by John' 
Burnham, who came from England with hi.-? 
brothers Robert and Thomas, and was living at 
Chebacco as early as 1638. 

The Rev. John B. M. Bailey died in 1851. 
His wife, Sarah Morgan Johnson Bailey, Mrs. 
Lhicoln's mother, born in 1810, died June 7, 
1885. She was the second daughter of Deacon 
Caleb and Hannah (Butler) Johnson, of Man- 
chester, N.H. 

Mrs. Johnson, Mrs. Lincoln's maternal granil- 
mother, was tlie fourth tlaughter of Jacob'' and 
Sally (Morgan) Butler, of Pelham, N.H., and 
a descendant of James' Butler, of Woburn, 
Ma.ss., the line continuing from James' through 
his son. Deacon Johm (born in Woburn, 1677, 
died in Pelham, 1721); Jacob' (born in 1718), 
who married Mary ICames; to Jacob* (Mrs. 
Lincoln's great-grandfather), born in 1747, who 
married his cousin, Sally Morgan, daughter of 
Jonathan Morgan and his wife, Sarah' Butler, 
sister of Jacob' Butler, Sr. 

Jaines' Butler, the immigrant progenitor of 
the family, came to New England less than forty 
years after tiie landing of the Pilgrims, being 
at Lancaster, Mass., says the historian, as 
early as 1659 ami at Woburn in 1676. 

"Jonathan Morgan, Sr.," above named, great- 
great-grandfather of Mrs. Lincoln, "was En- 
sign of Captain Dow's company, Colonel Me- 
serve's regiment, which was sent to Crane's 
Point in 1756. He was killed in the massacre 
attending the surrender of Fort ^^'illiam Henry, 
August 10, 1757." 

Jjike Lucy Larcom and many other daugh- 



;i6 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ters of New England in that early time, Mrs. 
Bailey, before her marriage, worked in the 
cotton-mills of Lowell and Manchester, earning 
thereby money to pay for a year of study at 
Derry Academy, as a finishing tovich to the 
meagre common-school education of her girl- 
hoocl. 

The Rev. John B. M. Bailey died when his 
daughter Mary was seven years old, but the 
pictui'C of his consistent life and noble character 
was indelibly stamped on her memory. She 
was reared by her brave and practical mother, 
who early taught her three chiltlren to be use- 
ful and economical. At the age of four Mary 
began to add her mite to the meagre income 
of a country minister's family by sewing hooks 
and eyes on cards and setting stones in jewelry, 
work which was given out from the factories 
near by and paid for in groceries and clothing. 
Throughout her girlhood she earned many new 
dresses and some luxuries by picking berries, 
making hair nets, and tending the neighbors' 
babies. She was always made to feel that 
character and education were the most desira- 
ble garments for children. The self-sacrificing 
mother contrived, with much plain living anti 
clear thinking, to educate her daughters at 
Wheaton Seminary, from which Mary was 
graduated in the class of 1S64. 

The following year she married Mr. David 
A. Lincoln, of Norton, soon after moving to 
Boston and later to Wollaston, where for sev- 
eral years Mrs. Lincoln led a quiet life, devoted 
to her home and innneiliate circle of friends. 
Her only outside interests were her church, 
with its Sunday-school, and a literary club, 
which she was instrumental in organizing. 

I'usine.ss reverses came, and Mrs. Lincoln, 
true to the training of early life, put her hand 
to the wheel, adding considerably to the in- 
come by sewing and other work for her neigh- 
bors. The following year, after much urging 
and hesitation, she was persuaded to accept 
the position of first principal of the Boston 
Cooking School. By her com-teous inamier, 
serene patience, executive ability, and thor- 
ough mastery of her work, both mechanical 
and theoretical, she brought the school at once 
to a high position, the success which attended 
it from the beginning being due in a great 



measure to her systematic and practical method 
of teaching, (^ne of the first managers of the 
school said recently, "Mrs. Lincoln made the 
Boston Cooking School." She is often intro- 
duced as "not only the first jjrincipal, but the 
first principle of the school," and "the woman 
we all cook by," and so forth. After six years 
of faithful ami arduous service she resigned her 
position, on account of the sudden death of 
her sister and the serious illness of her mother, 
who died five months later. 

A year before leaving the school she wrote 
the "Boston Cook-book," which added greatly 
to her reputation, and was at once pronounced 
" one of the most practical and reliable cook- 
books ever written." It has had a large cir- 
culation among housekeepers, and is used as 
a text-book in many of the leading schools, 
not only in America, but in l']ngland, Constan- 
tinople, anil among the missionaries of China. 

Since leaving the confining care of the school, 
Mrs. Lincoln has been heard as a lecturer in 
more than two hundred different towns and 
cities, from Maine to California. She has given 
over seven hundred special lectures on cookery 
and domestic science, always l)y invitation, in 
addition to teaching the first class in the B(js- 
ton Normal School of Cookery and teaching 
three years at La.sell Seminaiy. She has also 
written several new books and a score or more 
of pamphlet recipe books for food manufacturers, 
besides many articles for magazines and house- 
hold papers, always by special request. 

Her best known books are her " Boston 
Cook-book," "Carving and Serving," "The 
Peerless Cook-book," and the "Boston School 
Kitchen Text-book." The latter was the first 
complete book for use in the public school 
cooking classes. From the second month of 
its issue Mrs. Lincoln has been culinar)' editor 
and one of the owners of the American Kitchen 
Magazine. Since October, ISflS, she has 
written weekly articles for a syndicate, which 
are jiublished in daily and weekly papers all 
over the country. 

Over one hundred thousand copies of the 
"Boston Cook-book" have been sold, and it is 
still in great demand, having been revised in 
1900, with the addition of about three hundred 
new recipes. Doubtless, many housekeepers 




EVELYN G. SUTHERLAND 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



37 



will echo the sentiment of the cook who, after 
repeated failures from following the directions 
in other books, exclaimed, " No, Mrs. T., the 
pudding was no good. I tell .you, we can't do 
any better than to stick to old Mary Jane." 

Mrs. Lincoln's latest printed volume is "A 
Cook-book for a Month at a Time," and her 
latest business venture is the manufacture of 
a pure cream of tartar baking jiowder, bearing 
her name, which is meeting with a ready sale. 

The following is quotecl from one of many 
press notices of Mrs. Lincoln: "Her personal 
magnetism, her naturalness, her enthusiasm 
and enjoyment in her work, win her many 
friends and pupils wherever she lectures. While 
instructing, in language as clear and explicit 
as if her audiences were children, she never 
forgets that her hearers are ladies, and she an- 
swers the most absurd questions with unfailing 
patience and respect. She confines her talk 
to the subject at hand, and does not try to fill 
up every moment of the time l)y talking just 
for effect or to create a sensational discussion."- 

Mrs. Lincoln is the only living rlescendant of 
her father's branch of the Burnham family. 
She has no children. After the death of her 
husband, in 1894, she established herself in 
Boston, where in a sunny study, surrounded 
by her books and an interesting collection of 
pictures and souvenirs of a recent summer in 
Europe, she sends forth her weekly words of 
culinary and household wisdom, gathered from 
a varied practical experience, to help her sister 
housekeepers. 

Mrs. Lincoln says that she "cannot be a 
business woman and a society woman at the 
same time." She prefers an active, u.seful life, 
and believes that success lies in tloing one thing 
well. She is a member of the New England 
Women's Press A.ssociation, the Wheaton Semi- 
nary Club, the Charity Club, and the Cooking 
Teachers' League. Her greatest enjoyment is 
with her chosen circle of intimate friends, who 
often share the rest and quiet of her hospitable 
home. 

An invitation from the publishers of the 
Scientific American, New York, to write the 
signed article on "Cookery" for their new En- 
cyclopedia Americana, is one of Mrs. Lincoln's 
latest honors. 



ARY ANNE GREENE, LL.B., 
daughter of John Waterman Aborn 



_|_ Y JL and Mary Frances (Low) Greene 
was born in Warwick, R.I., June 14, 
1857. She was grailuated from the Law School 
of Boston University in 1888 with the degree 
of Bachelor of Laws, magna cum laude, and 
was admitted to the bar in Boston the same 
year. She was the third woman graduated 
from the school and the second to be admitted 
to the Massachusetts bar. After practising 
two years in Boston, she returned to Rhode 
Lslantl in 1890, and has resided in Providence 
ever since. She has an office practice, giving 
her attention largely to conveyancing and the 
care of estates. 

Miss Greene is of the ninth generation of the 
Rhode Island family founded by Dr. John 
Greene, son of Richard Greene, of Bowridge 
Hill, Gillingham, Dorsetshire, England. John 
Greene came to Salem from Salisbury, Eng- 
land, 1635, was one of the original proprietors 
of Providence, 1636, and one of the original 
purchasers and founders of the town of War- 
wick, 1642. This family gave to the colony 
and State a number of public officials, among 
them a Deputy Governor, John Greene, Jr.; a 
Chief Justice, who sat on the bench of the Court 
of Common Pleas of Kent County all through 
the Revolution; Philip Greene, an Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Rhode Island; 
two colonial Governors, William and William, 
Jr.; and two Revolutionary officers of distinc- 
tion, General Nathanael Greene and Colonel 
Christopher Greene. 

Miss Greene's line of descent is as follows: 
John' Greene, surgeon; John^ Greene, Jr., gen- 
eral recorder, Attorney-General, Major for the 
Main, Deputy Governor; Job' Greene, Speaker 
of the House of Deputies, 1727-28; Philip' 
Greene, a Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Kent County twenty-five years, 1759- 
84, and its Chief Justice 1776-84, also As- 
sociate Justice of the Supreme Court 1768-69; 
Christopher^ Greene, Colonel-Commandant of 
the Rhode Island Brigade, Continental Line, 
of the Revolution; Colonel Job" Greene, of the 
State Brigade in the Revolution and an origi- 
nal member of the Rhode Island Society of 
the Cincinnati; Simon Henry' Greene, for many 



38 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



years Senator from Warwick in the Rhode 
Island General Assembly; Jolin AVaternian 
Aborn' Greene, who died young, but had al- 
ready held many offices in the gift of the town 
of Warwick. Miss Greene is his only living 
child. She is also descended from Colonel 
Christopher Greene and from his only brother. 
Judge William^ Greene, through her mother, 
Mary Frances Low, and her mother's mother, 
Mary Ann' Greene (Jeremiah," William,^ Philip," 
Job,' John,^ John'), who was born in the an- 
cestral home, "Occupasuatuxet," Warwick, 
R.L This Mary Ann Greene, the grandmother, 
for whom Miss Greene was named, contributed 
stories and poems to the Providence Journal 
at the age of fourteen. She was of double 
Greene descent, her mother being Colonel 
Christopher's grand-daughter. She married Jo- 
seph Holden Low, of the Warwick branch of 
the Low family, and died at twenty-one, leav- 
ing an infant daughter, Mary Frances, who 
became Mrs. John W. A. Greene, a woman of 
fine mind. Miss Greene's mother. 

Miss Greene is descended from Roger Will- 
iams through the marriage of his grand-daugh- 
ter, Phebe Sayles, with Major Job" Greene, and 
also through her paternal grandmother, Caro- 
line Cornelia Aborn. Indeed, she is descended 
from nearly every one of the foimders of the 
colonies of Providence and of Warwick and 
from most of them in several lines, owing to 
constant intermarriages. 

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe is descended from 
Deborah* (married Simon Ray), sister of Chief 
Justice Philip" Greene and daughter of Job' and 
Phebe (Sayles) Greene. 

It is a notable fact that in every generation 
in Miss Greene's line of the Greenes there has 
been either a Senator or a Representative from 
the town of Warwick in the General Assembly, 
her cousin, Francis Whittier Greene, serv- 
ing at the present time as Senator from War- 
wick. 

Miss Greene was the first American woman 
invited to address the World's Congress of Juris- 
prudence and Law Reform, an honor extended 
to but two American and two foreign women 
lawyers, their names appearing upon the same 
programme with eminent American and Euro- 
pean male jurists. Miss Greene assisted in 



preparing the fifth edition of Schouler on the 
Domestic Relations, the standard authority 
in the courts upon that branch of law. She 
is the only lawyer who makes a specialty of 
the delivery of lectures upon practical business 
law before women's clubs and girls' schools, 
and she finds great interest in the subject among 
all classes of women, from shop-girls and work- 
ing-women to the wives of millionaires. 

Miss Greene was conmiissioned by the Gov- 
ernor of Rhode Island chairman of the Rhode 
Island Committee on a Colonial Exhibit at 
the Atlanta Exposition; and the Legislature, 
upon her sole petition as chairman, appropri- 
ated one thousand dollars for the colonial ex- 
hibit. This is said to be the first time in his- 
tory that State funds have been placed in the 
control of a commission composed exclusively 
of women, by a direct grant to them from the 
Legislature itself. 

In 1902 Miss Greene published "The Wom- 
an's Manual of Law," a clear, simple, and non- 
technical book of reference for women who de- 
sire to inform themselves as to the laws of busi- 
ness and of the domestic relations. It is said 
to be the most satisfactory work of the kind 
yet published. The Chicago Legal News of 
iSTovember 8, 1902, says of it: — 

"This book is the result of years of experi- 
ence of Miss Greene, a member of the Boston 
bar, as lecturer upon the subject of which it 
treats. . . . The entire cycle of a woman's life, 
from her marriage to the grave, is passed in 
review in successive chapters. First, the laws 
affecting the domestic relations are considered. 
Then folloAV those dealing with buying and 
selling and the care of all kinds of property. 
In every case the particular legal restrictions 
upon the powers of the woman who is married 
are considered. Lastly, the proper disposi- 
tion of property by will and by the laws of 
inheritance is treated, inckuUng the rights of 
the widow or the widower in the property of 
either. 

"Miss Greene has shown good judgment, 
not only in the .selection of her subjects treated, 
but in her manner of treating them. Her style 
is ))Ieasing and easily understood. Every 
woman who can read the English language, 
and wishes to know her legal rights, should 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



39 



have this manual of Miss Greene's for a com- 
panion. The gifted author tells us, while all 
the laws discussed in this volume are of equal 
importance to men, it is entitled 'The Wom- 
an's Manual of Law' because it is a selection 
of laws that women especially need to know." 

Since 1898 Miss Greene has been a vice- 
president of the Woman's Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society. This organization includes 
the New England and Middle States, also Dela- 
ware and the District of Columbia. It is in- 
corporated under the laws of Massachusetts, 
and has its ofhce in Tremont Temple, Boston. 
It is auxiliary to the American Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union, ami maintains over four hun- 
dred schools, with about sixteen thou.sand 
jiupils in Burma, South hulia, China, Japan, 
and Africa. It supports seventy-three lady 
missionaries, and carries on medical work, as 
well as evangelistic and etlucational. In 
January, 1902, she was, by formal vote of the 
Board of Directors, matle its authorized legal 
adviser. Since 1895 she has been president 
of the Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society of Rhoile Island, a State branch of the 
general society. 

In 1892, at the request of the Board of Man- 
agers of the Columbian Kx|)osition, she com- 
piled a pamphlet entitled " Legal Status of 
Women under the Laws of Rhode Island, 
1892." It was originally publishetl in the 
Rhode Island Woman's Directory for the Co- 
lumbian Year, edited by Charlotte Field Dailey, 
and published in Providence in 1893 by the 
Rhode Island Woman's World's Fair Advisory 
Board, of which Miss Greene was a member. 
In 1900, the laws having been very much al- 
tered and amended, she revised the pamphlet, 
and it was published by the Rhode Island State 
Federation of Women's Clubs under the title, 
"Legal Status of Women in Rhode Islanil, 
1900," with a preface concerning the recent 
sweeping legislation for the benefit of Rhode 
Island wives. 

Miss Greene was the first woman contributor 
to the American Laic Revieiv. Some of the 
published articles are: "Privileged Communi- 
cations in Suits between Hu.sband and Wife," 
American Law ^ Review, September-October, 
1890; "The Evolution of the American Fee 



Simple," American Law Review, March-April, 
1897: "Results of the Woman Suffrage Move- 
ment," Forum, June, 1894; and a series of arti- 
cles on law for women in the Chautauquan, No- 
vember, 1891-August, 1892. 

Her translation entitled "The Woman Law- 
yer," from the French of Dr. Louis Frank, the 
famous Belgian champion of woman's rights 
("La Fenime-Avocat," par L. Frank, Bruxelles, 
1888), appeareil serially in the Chicago Law 
Times for the year 1889. Dr. Frank dedicated 
to Miss Greene his Catechisme de la Femme 
in 1895. This little work was translated into 
nearly every language of Continental Europe, 
with its dedication. 

Miss Greene's address at the World's Con- 
gress of Jiu'isprudence upon "Married Wom- 
an's Projjerty Acts' in the LTnited States, and 
Needetl Reforms therein," was published in 
the Chicago Legal A'cu's of August 12, 1893. 
Her address delivered in the Woman's Build- 
ing of the Columbian Exposition, entitled 
"Legal Condition of Women in 1492 and 1892," 
is printed in full in the official volumes of the 
Congresses in the Woman's Building. In the 
New Englnnd Magazine for 1898 is her illu.s- 
trateil article on General Nathanael Greene, 
a brief biography tracing the development of 
General Cireene's character ami attempting to 
show what it was that made him a great mili- 
tary genius. 

The Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society has published two small pamphlets 
from her pen— "The Primer of Missions" in 
1896 and "Women's Missionary Wills and 
Bonds" in 1902. Miss Greene says, "If I get 
interested in any subject, legal, patriotic, or 
missionary, I have to deliver addresses and 
publish articles about it." She is a magnetic 
speaker, anil has the power to hold her audi- 
ences and to inspire them with enthusiasm. 

At the Fortieth Anniversary of the first 
Woman's Rights Convention she repre.sented 
women in the legal profession. The meeting, 
presided over by Lucy Stone, was held in Trem- 
ont Temple, January 27, 1891, and Miss Greene, 
though her voice is naturally low, as she spoke 
on "Women in the Law," made three thousand 
people hear with ease. 

.As a presiding officer she is unusually popu- 



40 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



lar and successful. In her own words, "I suj)- 
pose it is because I have such complete self- 
possession myself that my audience feel easy 
and comfortable themselves." She was State 
Regent for Rhode Island of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution from 1895 to 1897, 
and is now an Honorary State Regent. 

Miss Greene says: "I did not intend to delay 
for so many years my application for admis- 
sion to the bar of Rhode Island. No woman 
has yet applied here. By the rules of court 
a member of the bar of another State may 
appear here and plead, but all court papers 
must be signed by a member of the Rhode 
Island bar. As I do not practise in court, 
there has been no need for me to apply, and I 
have put it off from time to time for a more 
convenient season. I am not an 'agitator' 
of any sort, and do not care to do anything 
merely for the sake of the notoriety of doing 
it. I am glad to help where I can to make the 
world better by informing the people of pres- 
ent conditions, pointing out reforms, and help- 
ing others to do the reforming if I can." 



MARY DANA HICKS PRANG, art 
educator, residing in Boston, was 
born in Syracuse, N.Y., October 7, 
1836, daughter of Major and Agnes A. 
(Johnson) Dana. The Dana family to which 
she belongs has a record in New England of over 
two hundred and fifty years, its immigrant 
progenitor, Richard Dana, having come to this 
country in 1640, and settled in Cambridge, 
Mass. From RichanP the line continued 
through Daniel,^ Thomas,^ Daniel,^ Daniel,'* to 
Major Dana, above mentioned, who was of the 
sixth generation, Mrs. Prang being of the 
seventh. Mrs. Prang's father was a prosperous 
merchant, a man of sterling character, who 
supported every forward movement. Among 
his remarkable qualities were a memory that 
never failed and an usual appreciation of beauty 
of effect, of fine design, and of harmony of color. 
Her mother, who was a brilliant woman, a poet 
and artist, was a leader in the literary society 
of Syracuse. Benevolent enterprises received 
her encouragement, and she was an inspiration 
to all who had the pleasure of her acquaint- 



ance. She lived to the advanced age of ninety- 
four years. 

Mary Dana was an observant little girl, and 
at the age of two years had learned her letters 
from large handbills. For some time she was 
a ]3upil in a private school close by her home. 
Throughout her school life she was found equal 
to children three or four years older. 

She was graduated from the Allen Seminary, 
Rochester, N.Y., in 1852, after a course of study 
in mathematics, the languages, and history, 
with general study of the sciences; and later 
she pursued special studies at Harvard and at 
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

On her twentieth birthday she became the 
wife of Charles Spencer Hicks, a promising* 
young lawyer of Syracuse. In less than two 
years her husband was drowned. On April 15, 
1900, she married Louis Prang, of Boston, the 
distinguished art publisher. 

Owing to financial reverses in 1858, she re- 
ceived private pupils, the greater number being 
in drawing. Her work with these pupils led 
her to a deep consideration of the influence 
of art instruction on education. Drawing 
was conniionly regarded as an end to be attained 
only by the specially gifted. Close study and 
wide observation confirmed her in the belief 
that drawing should be a study not for the few 
only, but for all, a means of expression for every 
child, and therefore should be an integral part 
of public school education. 

Receiving the ap})ointment of supervisor of 
drawing in the public schools of Syracuse, she 
visited several of the larger cities in the country, 
to observe school conditions. She found that 
drawing had a place in neaily every course of 
study, but that there was actually very little 
work of merit accomplished. More favorable 
conditions existed in Boston than elsewhere, 
l)ut even in that city drawing was not given 
the prominence to which she believed it justly 
entitleil. Strengthened in her judgment re- 
specting the value of art-teaching in the public 
schools, she continued her work in Syracuse 
with increased enthusiasm. 

About this time AV alter Smith was called to 
Massachusetts to become the head of art educa- 
tion in the State. He established the Normal 
School in Boston, and gave considerable im- 




MARY D. H. PKANG 



REPRESENTATnE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



41 



petus to the study of art. Mrs. Prang visited 
him in Boston, and, introducing his l)ooks in 
Syracuse, found them of great service in mak- 
ing possible the study of historic ornament, 
supplying in some measure the examples neces- 
sary for her work. 

Mrs. Prang's remarkable physique and ex- 
cellent health enabled her to complete success- 
fully an unusual amount of labor. Several 
of her classes in the high scliool numbered 
seventy or eighty pupils each, but Mrs. Prang 
worked with the strength of her convictions, 
and with a joyousness of spirit that communi- 
cated itself to her pupils. 

In order that the children might be properly 
taught, she formed teachers' classes that were 
conducted after school hours. In atUlition 
she closely supervised the work in all the 
schools, and was ever ready to help the teachers 
with pertinent suggestions and cheerful en- 
couragement. Her supervision of the schools 
of Syracuse extendeil over more than ten years: 
and there are teachers in the field to-day, 
occupying high positions, who are proud to 
trace the beginning of their successes to the 
influence of Mrs. Prang, with whom they were 
associated as high school students or as grade 
teachers. 

Exhibitions of public school drawings were 
held at the high school building, anil, while 
children and teachers were thus encouraged 
and stimulated, the general public became 
educated as to the possibilities of children in 
this direction. The.se exhibitions, together 
with exhibitions made at the State Teachers' 
Association and at the Centennial Exposition 
in Philadelphia in 1876, were all factors in the 
progress of art education in the public schools. 

In Syracuse they attracted the attention of 
broud-mimled people, and comprehensive re- 
ports upon them were made by physicians, ar- 
chitects, and other jieopie of education, among 
whom were Dr. Martin B. Anderson, President 
of Rochester University, and Dr. Andrew D. 
AVhite, President of Cornell University. The 
public schools of Syracuse became well known 
as foremost in the country in art education. 

Entleavoring in every way to spread the 
influence of art, Mrs. Prang assisteil largel}' 
in the development of the Social Art Club of 



Syracuse, the purpose of which was the read- 
ing of the history of art and the study of his- 
toric antl current art. Mrs. Prang was president 
of the club for five j'ears, and through her ef- 
forts its members were able to gather illus- 
trations and to pursue a systematic course of 
reading relating to ancient, early Christian, 
and modern art. The club was extremely 
popular, the wailhig list being filled with 
names of women of the highest social standing. 
The present president, formerly a student with 
Mrs. Prang, has held the position for twenty- 
five years. The Social Art Club was the second 
club formed in Syracuse, being antedated only 
by the Portfolio Club, an association of Mrs. 
Prang's pupils. 

From the beginning of Mrs. Prang's con- 
nection with the Prang Educational Company 
in 1878, she was adviser on all the educational 
phases of the work. Even before her name 
appeared as joint author of the various publi- 
cations jjrepareil by the company, all ques- 
tions involving educational influence and value 
were lirought to her for judgment and advice. 
Her wide experience antl sympathetic insight 
as to the needs of the teachers contributed 
largely toward making possible the wide intro- 
duction of the Prang work in the public schools 
of the country. Her wisdom and catholicity 
helped to make the Prang work acceptable to 
the utilitarian, to the lover of beauty in form 
anil color, and to the educator. The spirit 
of the work in its power of developing and u\)- 
1 if ting was never forgotten. 

Mrs. Prang was among the first to point out 
that the instruction in art given in the public 
schools must of necessity cover entirely dif- 
ferent ground from that given in the art schools 
and studios. She taught clearly the difference 
in the purpose of the two— the one being in- 
tended for those specially gifted by nature, 
while the other means the development of the 
art instinct, the power of art expression in 
every child. Advocating these views, she 
is a frequent speaker at art and educational 
associations. The difficulties attending the 
introduction of a comi)aratively new work and 
the lack of public school training on the part 
of supervisors led them to seek frequent con- 
ferences with Mrs. Prang, and many super- 



42 



REPRESENTATIVE WUMEN t)FNEW ENGLAND 



visors submitted to her criticism oullincs for 
work in their scliools before giving tlie work 
to teachers and pupils. Tlie need of closer 
and more systematic instruction for teachers 
and supervisors becoming apjiarent, the Prang 
normal art classes for home study in form, 
drawing, and color, with instruction by corre- 
spondence, were organized in 1SS7. They 
were designed to assist pulilic school teachers 
in preparing thcnnselves to toivch the subjects 
of form, drawing, and color. The advantages 
of these classes were cfuickly seized upon by 
hundreds of teachers in all grades, by jirinci- 
pals of schools, and by supervisors. 

Much of the beneficent and far-reaching 
influence of this movement is unquestionably 
due to the personality of Mrs. Prang as director. 
Her beautiful spirit made itself distinctly felt 
even through the cold medimn of dictated 
letters and typewritten correspondence. Her 
cheerful greeting to the new student, perhai)s 
in Maine, perhaps in C'alifornia, established 
from the first a sense of welcome and an as- 
surance of sympathy. 

This instruction by correspondence came 
like a ray of light in the darkness to many a 
discouraged, conscientious teacher, struggling 
in her own out-of-the-way little corner with 
the great problems of education.' For to Mrs. 
Prang, and to those who shared her faith and 
her enthusiasm, art education in the public 
schools meant the uplifting of all the studies 
to a higher plane. In all her teachings the 
thought was to lead beyond the actual thing 
taught to its relation to nature and to human 
life. Those who were fortunate enough to 
become students with Mrs. Prang will look 
back upon the association with a deep sense 
of pleasure and gratitude. 

As Mrs. Prang, from her first decision in ISfiS 
to make public art education her lih^-work, 
strenuously devoted herself to its promotion, 
her work as an author has been largely in that 
direction. She was joint author with John S. 
Clark of "The Use of Models" (1886); with 
John S. Clark and Walter Scott Perry of " The 
Prang Shorter Course in Form Study and Draw- 
ing," "Form Study without Clay," "The 
Prang Complete Course in I'Virm Study and 
Drawing," "The Prang Elementary Course in 



Art Instruction"; ;ind with John S. Clark and 
Louis Prang of " Suggestions, for Color Instruc- 
tion" (1893). Her latest work is "Art In- 
struction for Children in Primary Schools," 
in two volumes (1800). 

In the intervals of this very busy life Mrs. 
Prang has found time to share in other work 
for the jx'ojjle. She was one of the charter 
members of the Massachusetts Floral Emlilem 
Society, wiiich was organized July 4, 1804, 
by Mrs. Ellen A. Richardson, at Winthrop, 
Mass. One object of the society is to bring 
about a more rational celebration of the Fourth 
of July, and to that end the society endeavors 
to cultivate a love for the beautiful in the 
minds of school children by the distribution 
of flowers on that day. Mrs. Prang was presi- 
dent of the society in 1898 and 1900, and she 
inaugurated the public distribvition of flowers 
to the childnMi of Boston, in 1S98 flowers being 
given to twentv-five hundred children and in 
1000 to nearly four thousand. In March, 1000, 
and again in February, 1901, Mrs. Prang ap- 
]iearetl before the Legislative committee to 
advocate the adoption of a floral emblem for 
the State of Massachusetts. 

Mrs. Prang is a meml)er of the Wintergreen 
Club, the New England Women's Club, the 
lv[ual Suffrage Society for Good Government, 
the Twentieth Century Club, Woman's I'ldu- 
cational and Industrial Union, the Boston 
lousiness Leagvic, the Womnn's Alliance, the 
l*]nstern Kindergarten Association, the Walt 
\Miitman I'ellowship, the Copley Society, the 
I'nity Art Club, the Public School Art League, 
the Harvard Teacliers' Association (of Cam- 
Ijridge, Mass.), the Massachusetts Forestry As- 
sociation, the Massachusetts Floral Emblem 
Society, the Massachusetts Industrial Art 
Teachers' Association, the Social Service League 
(of New York City), the Onondaga County His- 
torical Association and the Social Art Club 
(both of Syracuse, N.Y.), the r^astern Art 
Teachers' Association, the Western Drawing 
Teachers' Association, the National Educa- 
tional Association, tlie American Association 
for Physical Training, the Massachusetts Prison 
Association, the .Massachusetts Society for Aid- 
ing Discharged Convicts, the American Park 
and Outdoor Association and the Appalachian 



REPRESENTATR E WOMEN UE NEW ENGLAND 



43 



Mountain Club. She is also a proprietor of the 
Boston Athenfpum and a subscriber to the Bos- 
ton Museum of Fine Arts. 



AUGUSTA HALE GIFFORD, histori- 
cal writei', wa? born in Turner, Andros- 
L coggin County, Me., and brought up 
through girlhood on one of the old 
Maine farms. Her father and mother, James 
Sullivan Hale and his wife, Betsej' Staples, had 
settled on the family estate, which had been 
redeemed from the rocks and briers by Mrs. 
Clifford's grandparents, David Hale and his 
wife, Sally Kingsbury, in the early years of the 
nineteenth century. 

David Hale, Mrs. Clifford's paternal grand- 
father, was a native of Harvanl, Mass., horn 
in 1772, and a lineal descendant in the sixth 
generation of Thomas' Hale, the immigrant 
progenitor of this branch of the Hale family 
in New England, who settled at Newbury, Mas- 
sachusetts Bay Colony, about 1637. Davitl 
Hale married Sally Kingsbury, of Ellington, 
Conn., daughter of Simon Kingsbury, and liveil 
in Rutland, Mass , until their removal to Turner, 
Oxford County, Me., in 1802. They made the 
voyage of three weeks from Boston to Fal- 
mouth (Portland) in the winter sea^son, in a 
sailing-vessel, and were obliged to leave their 
two chililren in Falmouth until sunuuer, since 
it was not practicable earlier to take them forty 
miles through the woods. 

The Kingsburys were a remarkable family 
intellectually, and Sally Kingsbury Hale brought 
to these wilds a well-developed and well-stored 
mind. Although living to be an octogenarian, 
she still retained her excellent memory ; and to 
the delight of her grandchildren, the eUler chil- 
dren of her son Sullivan, she whiled away the 
long winter evenings, passed before the huge 
open fireplace, witii vivid accounts of battles of 
the Revolution, including that of Monmouth, in 
which her brother, Dr. Joseph Kingsbury, was 
wounded, and with thrilling stories of Indian 
captivities and other adventures in far-off 
colonial times. These stories she told as she 
had heard them in her girlhood from the lips 
of Ephraim Kingsbury, of Haverhill—" Uncle 
Ephraim," she used to call him— stories partly 



of his own experience and partly, perhaps, relat- 
ing to the Ephraim Kingsbury who is on record 
in Chase's History of Haverhill, Mass., as hav- 
ing been killed by Indians in 1676. 

Sullivan and Betsey (Staples) Hale were the 
parents of five children, namely: Eugene, 
I'nited States Senator; Hortense, who with 
her husband. Dr. Gushing, a retired physician, 
now lives on the old homestead in Turner, Me.; 
Frederick (deceased); Augusta (Mrs. Clifford); 
and Clarence, of Portland, Me., Judge of the 
United States Court. 

Augusta Hale was fitted for college in the 
high school of Turner, in the companionship 
of a beloved brother, Frederick, with whom 
she shared every sport, overcame every diffi- 
culty, antl was permitted to accomplish every 
task. They even studied their lessons from the 
same book, going to ami from school together. 
His death in 1868 was her first affliction, and 
it marked the beginning of her literary aspira- 
tion. In 1859, at the age of seventeen, she 
entered Oberlin, then almost the only fully 
e(iuip])ed college (with a complete classical 
curriculum) in the country open to both sexes. 
Her voice was often heard in the college and 
the college society parts, delivered in the large 
clun-ch then, as now, connecteil therewith. 
But her stutlent life at Oberlin was only the 
beginning of the self-culture which must nec- 
essarily supjjlement the early education of men 
and women who accomplish anything worth 
while for the world. 

After graduation she settled in Portland, 
and in 1869 was married to the Hon. George 
Gifford, originally a lawyer, afterward a jour- 
nalist, and finally for n^any years as at present 
in the consular service. Mrs. Gifford shared with 
her husband different fields «f foreign labor, and 
this resilience abroad has continued for her 
somewhat intermittently for more than a quar- 
ter of a century, their home being at intervals 
in London, Paris, various parts of France, and 
for several years in Basle, Switzerland. She 
became the mother of three children— Kath- 
erine, Clarence Hale, and Marguerite. The 
younger daughter was born during a long resi- 
lience of the family in Nantes, France. Many 
interesting and anuising incidents occurred 
in Mrs. Clifford's eariy trips across the Atlantic 



44 



REPRESENTATHE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



with her little ones, at a time when the voyage 
in stormy weather sometimes extended over 
a spaee of fifteen or sixteen days, and the perils 
and hardships of the ocean had not been ameli- 
orated to the extent which obtains at present. 

lu her early life abroad Mrs. Gifford imbibed 
a taste for foreign literature, foreign languages, 
and foreign travel, which sha])ed her subse- 
quent career. She has since travelled exten- 
tively over Europe and the Orient, many of 
the countries visited having been but recently 
made accessible to the traveller. Her plans 
and tours have been all marked out in advance, 
and her research has been so thorough that the 
maj) of Europe to her is like an illuminated 
book, even the unaccustomed routes being like 
the beaten track in her own garden. She has 
delighted the public with a large foreign cor- 
respondence, her vivitl imagination making 
the scenes of these various countries and the 
customs and habits of the jieople stand out 
before her readers like familiar experiences, her 
interesting and practical relations furnishing 
much valuable information to other travellers. 

Since 18. 3, after the death of her eldest child, 
Katherine, born in 1870, a young lady of lovely 
character, Mrs. Gifford has found great solace in 
literature. In her first travels through Germany, 
fascinated bvGerman life and the people, she con- 
ceived the idea of putting into form a racy ac- 
count of the Germans from their beginning; 
and from this idea was developed the series 
of books, beginning with "Germany: Her People 
and Their Story," published by the Lothrop 
Publishing Company in 1899. It is as readable 
as a romance, one of its great merits being tliat 
its historical facts have an attractive setting. 
Evidently prepared with reference to the re- 
quirements of the general reader, it is something 
more than an outline of the salient features in 
the progress of the German nation from bai- 
barism to enligiitenment, from a confederacy 
of loosely allied states to a strongly cemented 
empire. Legend and anecdote have been skil- 
fully woven into the story, and vivid glim])ses 
are given of the national life, and a clear insight 
into the national character. It was a difficult 
task the author had before her of condensing 
within the limits of a six-hundred-page vol- 
ume twelve hundred years of a nation's growth. 



There was danger on the one hand of making 
the volume little more than a chronological 
record, ami on the other of inadequacy. The 
success with which she has avoided both dan- 
gers attests a fine sense of proportion, discrimi- 
nating judgment, and much literary skill. 

"Mrs. Gifford's 'Germany' was received with 
so much favor by both the people and her pub- 
lishers that she was encouraged to go on with 
the series. She has now for several years been 
collecting material abroad for her 'Italy,' vis- 
iting tliat country many times in order to ab- 
sorb all the phases of Italian life and character; 
and 'Italy: Her People and their Story,' bids 
fair even to excel the first of the series in in- 
terest." 

Mrs. Gifford has also given much time to 
club work, writing many i)apers and giving 
many lectures and talks. Her papers on "Ger- 
man Literature and German Authors," "Mis- 
sion Work in India" (the origin of the people 
from the Aryans, their early religious develop- 
ment, etc.), an article entitled "How to Travel," 
and her very celebrated lecture, " From the 
North Cape to the Orient," have attracted 
nmch attention. Her series of talks on archi- 
tecture, condensed for students and travellers, 
is to be the nucleus of a volume entitled " The 
Architecture of Cathedrals and Castles, for 
Students and Travellers," when time shall per- 
mit her to complete the work. 

Mrs. Gifford through all those years of travel 
has retained her home in I'ortland, Me., and 
when in America it has always been hei- pleas- 
ure to spend her time in this beautiful little 
city by the sea and again get in touch with real 
New England life. Both at home and abroad 
her society is sought by jieople of culture, and 
she is a welcome presence in any gathering. 



KATE E. GRISWOLD, proprietor and 
publisher of Profitalde Advertising, a 
monthly magazine issued in Boston, 
devoted to the interests of advertisers 
and })ublishers, is widely known as a success- 
ful journalist, the periodical of which she is the 
sponsor ranking, it is said, as foremost of its 
kind in the world. Miss Griswold was born 
about thirty-five years ago at West Hartford. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENCiLANU 



45 



Conn. Her father, John Belden Griswold, a 
native of Newington, Conn., was born in 1828, 
son of Josiah Wells and Mary A. (Belden) 
Criswold. Her mother, whose maiden name 
was Cornelia Arnold Jones, was born at East 
Hartford in 1830, daughter of Joseph Pantra 
Jones and his wife, Sarah Comstock. 

After pursuing her studies, both elenientarj' 
anil classical, at some of the best public and 
private schools in Hartford, she turned natu- 
rally enough to journalism, entering the office 
of. the Poultry World in that city. One of the 
practical Occui)alions of her girlhood at home 
had been the raising of poultry, which she had 
nuule financially profitai)le. Her story, as in 
all cases of genuine success, is a story of liard 
work and a slow climb from humble begiimings. 
Her promotion to a responsible position in the 
office of the National Trotting A.ssociation came 
within a year, and again illustrates the special 
fitness of things, for she is an enthusiastic 
devotee of the horse. 

At the end of her second year constant appli- 
cation to an ever-increasing bvn-den of duties 
had worn her out, and for a time she was obliged 
to give up the struggle. Several years of re- 
tirement and rest, however, brought her again 
to the front with a renewed ston^ of strength. 

Flattering offers were at Miss Griswold's di,«- 
posal, l)ut she turned from them all to take up 
the management of the organ of a local chari- 
table enterprise. To The Harljord Cihj Misf<ion 
Record, and to the cause in general which it 
representeil, she devoted herself for the next 
four years. Toward the close of this period 
of charitable work she entered into .several 
prize competitions for advertising designs, and 
was perhaps not wholly surprised at carrying 
off the honors in a number of cases. The at- 
tention thus attracted to the fact of a woman's 
success as an "ad" writer led to an offer from 
Boston. 

A position as general ad writer and corre- 
spondent in the office of the C. F. David Adver- 
tising Agency, the original promoters of Profit- 
able Advertising, soon demonstrated her fitness 
for the editor's chair. In the course of a year 
or two she became the propiietor as well as 
the editor of the publication. 

The story of Mi.ss Griswold's subsequent 



career is simply the record of a shining success 
obtained slowly by the exercise of thoi^e quali- 
ties that alone can ensure fortune. The path 
has been hard and the difficulties unusual. 
Up to three years ago the editor as well as the 
manager of Profitable Advertising, Miss Griswold 
was especially handicapped by the very general 
doubt as to the practicability of the under- 
taking. When she began to edit Profitable 
Advertising, the number of women who were 
making a living in the advertising field could 
be counted on the fingers of one hand. They 
are now numbered by scores, and it is not too 
nmch to say that the single example c^f Miss 
Griswokl's grit and sagacity has hatl more to 
do with this than any other single cause. 

Profitable Advertising is a periodical which 
stands for and reflects more than most publi- 
cations the individuality of its owner and man- 
ager. In this respect Miss Gri.swold deserves 
honorable mention in the same class with such 
representative American pul:)lishers as the Ben- 
netts of the Her<dd, Dana of the Sun, and Horace 
Greeley of the Tribune. Iler publication has 
within tlie past three years attained high-water 
mark, and, as already intimated above, is rec- 
ognized by the leading authorities of two con- 
tinents as the model and standard of its class. 

It is needless to add in words a personal trib- 
ute to such a record. Mi.ss Griswold numbers 
many friends in the publishing and advertising 
fields at large. She is a young woman whose 
powers have not yet touched their prime. 

The ancestry of Miss Griswold has been 
traced back through various lines to conspicu- 
ous early colonists of her native State, she being 
also a "Mayflower" descendant, a double one, 
so to speak, deriving through both father and 
mother from William Bratlford, Governor of 
"Plymouth Plantation." 

Her father, John Belden Griswold, was born 
in 1828, son of Josiah W^ells and Mary Ann 
(Belden) GriswoUl and a descendant in the 
eighth generation of Michael' Griswold, of 
Wethersfield. The line is: Michael'; Jacob,'^ 
born in 1660; Major Josiah,^ born in 1700; 
Josiah,''1728; Solomon,^ 1751 ; Josiah,^ 1775; Jo- 
siah Wells,' 1794; John Beklen,- Kate E. being 
of the ninth generation. 

Mr. Griswold's paternal grandmother, the 



46 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



wife of Josiah,' was Abigail Wells, daughter of 
Robert and Abigail (Hurlbut) Wells and grand- 
daughter of Lieutenant Robert and Abigail 
(Burnham) Wells, the Wells ancestry beginning 
^\ith Thomas AVells (or Welles), one of the origi- 
nal proprietors of Hartford and Wethersfield, 
many years a magistrate and for two years CJov- 
ernor of the colony. Mrs. Al)igail Burnham 
Wells was a daughter of the Rev. William 
Burnham (William,' Thomns') and his wife 
Haimah, daughter of Samuel' \\'olcott, of Wind- 
sor. SamueP was grandson of I-Ienry' Wolcott, 
the founder of the distinguished family of this 
surname, prolific of governors. 

Mary A. Belden, wife of Josiah Wells (Jris- 
wold and grandmother of Kate E., was a daugh- 
ter of John and Asenath (Darrow) Belden and 
grand-daughter of John Kellogg Belden and 
his wife Mercy, who was sister to Noah Webster, 
the le.xicographer. 

Bradford descent through the Websters is 
thus shown: Governor William' Bradford mar- 
ried for his second wife Mrs. Alice Carpenter 
Southworth. Their son AVilliam^ married, first, 
Alice Richards. Mercy^ Bradford, born of 
this union, married Sanuiel Steele in 1680, and 
resided in Hartfortl. Their son, Eli])halet'' 
Steele, married Catherine Marshfield, and was 
the father of Mercy'' Steele, born at West Hart- 
ford in 1727, who married Noah W'ebsler, Sr., 
the couple last named being the parents of 
Mercy," born at West Hartford in 1749, and of 
her younger brother, Noah Webster, of dic- 
tionary fame. 

Mercy W^ebster was of the sixth generation 
of the family founded by John' Webster, one 
of the original proprietors of Hartford, Conn., 
and two j'ears Governor. The line from John' 
Webster was continued through Robert," John, '^ 
Daniel,"* to Noah," born 1722, who married 
Mercy Steele, as noted above. 

Miss Griswold's maternal grandparents were 
Jo.seph Pantra and Sarah (Comstock) Jones, 
the grandfather, born in 1785, son of John and 
Elizabeth (Williams) Jones and great-giandson 
of Nathaniel Jones ami his wife, Reliekah 
Bantra, who was a descendant of William' 
Pantra, of Hartford. Elizalieth Williams was 
a daughter of Timothy'* Williams, great-gratid- 
son of William' Williams, of Hartford. Her 



mother, whose maiden name was Ruth Pitkin, 
was the daughter of Ozias Pitkin and grand- 
daughter of William' Pitkin, founder of the 
prominent Hartford family of this surname, 
and brother of Martha Pitkin, who married 
Simon AVolcott, and was the mother of the 
first Roger Wolcott in New England. Another 
ancestor belonging to one of the first families 
of Hartford was Ozias' Goodwin, whose daugh- 
ter Hannah was the wife of William Pitkin and 
mother of Ozias Pitkin. 

Mrs. S.arah Comstock Jones was a daughter 
of Perez and Abigail N. (Raymond) Comstock 
anil grand-daughter of Nathaniel''' Comstock 
and his wife, vSarnh Bradford, born in [he North 
Parish of New Ijondon (now Montville) in 
1744, who was of the fifth generation of Plym- 
outh Colony stock. The line was: Governor 
William' Bradford; William^ anti his .second 
wife, widow Wiswall; .foseph' and his second 
wife, Mary, widow of Captain Daniel Fitch; 
John* and wife, Esther Sherwood; Sarah.^ 

Abigail, wife of Perez Comstock and mother 
of Sarah, was a daughter of Dr. Christojjher'* 
Raymond (Joshua, * ''' ^ Richard') and his wife 
Eleanor. The tatter was a daugliter of Daniel' 
P'itch and great-granddaughter of the Rev. 
James Pitch, of Saybrook and Norwich, Conn. 
Her grandfather. Captain Daniel'* Fitch, was 
.«on of the Rev. James by his .<econd wife, 
Priscilla, therefore a grandson of the latter's 
father, Major John M.a.son, sometimes styled the 
" Myies Standish of the Coimecticut Colony." 

Joshua'* Raymond, son of Joshua,' married 
Elizabeth Christophers, and was the father of 
Dr. Christopher Raymond, born in 1729. 
Joshua' Raymond, grandfather of Dr. Chris- 
topher, mnrried Mercy Sands, daughter of 
James Sands, of Block Island. 



EUNICE NICHOLS FRYE.-It was in 
Portland, Me., that State federation of 
clubs had its origin, and it was Mrs. 
. Eunice^ Nichols Frye who first advo- 
cated the formation of such an alliance. Hav- 
ing attended the first meeting of the directors 
of the General Federation at Orange, N.J., in 
her official capacity as president of the Woman's 
Literary Unicjn of Portland (organized in 1889), 




MAY ALDEN WARD 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



47 



she was quick to foresee the benefits which a 
State organization would confer upon clTib 
women in Maine, the State whose motto is 
"Dirigo." She it was who invited representa- 
tive club women to meet in her parlors to con- 
sult in regard to the advisability of such a step. 
Three months later, September 23, 1892, the 
first State federation was formed, with nine- 
teen clubs as charter members and Mrs. Fvyc 
its secretary. Other States soon followed this 
example, and the result has been most happj\ 

Mrs. Croly (Jennie June) said of Mrs. Frye, 
"She is the Alma Mater of clubs and club 
women of Maine, a woman of large heart and 
broad intelligence, who works toward the best 
end without any shadow of pettiness or self- 
seeking." As the press notices and reports of 
various literary and philanthropic movements 
in Portland testify to occasions when prelimi-' 
nary meetings were held in Mrs. Frye's parlors, 
so the subsecjuent accounts invariably tell of 
wise plans faithfully carried out for the general 
good. Mrs. Frye has a genius for organizing, 
working with indomit;d)l(> energy and anima- 
tion for present and future good. 

Mrs. Frye was the first president of the Board 
of Directors of the Mary Brown Home, a highly 
useful institution founded on broad princi|)les. 
This is a resting-place for sick and broken- 
down women, who have always been indus- 
trious, self-supi)orting, and self-respecting. It 
is unique in having, beside the regular directors, 
an advisory board of men and women, as well 
as a co-operative board of helpers from busi- 
ness houses where women are employed. This 
plan for an invalids' home was originated by 
a little band of Methodist women. Some mem- 
bers of the Universalist church next became 
interested, and finally all the churches took 
hold of the work. Mary Cobb was the pioneer 
worker, and Mrs. Brown (for whom the home 
is rfow called) made a practical begimiing pos- 
sible in the summer of 1894 by giving the use 
of her cottage at Trefethern's Landing. Later 
a cottage was purchased at 28 Revere Street, 
Portland. There was soon a demand for more 
than its twelve rooms, and a new and larger 
building has been built on the site of thr ancient 
Bradley Meeting-hou.se, a site which was a gift 
to the directors for that purpose. During the 



nine years over a hundred invalids and broken- 
down women had shelter and care, and all 
but seven of this number have been restored 
to health and have gone back to their work. 
The labor, the tact, the time and strength, 
to say nothing of the open purse which Mrs. 
Frye has had ready as the occasion has de- 
manded in this particular service, show how 
nmch it has been a labor of love. How truly she 
is a philanthropist! One is not surprised to 
learn that she comes of strong Quaker stock. 
Mrs. Frye was born at Vassalborough, Me., 
January 8, 1852, being the daughter of Caleb 
and Maria Nichols. Her father and mother 
were elders in the Vassalborough Society 
of Friends, and for years clerks of the 
business meetings. Always working in the 
interests of progress in the town, they were 
trustees from its organization of Oak Grove 
Seminary, a l''riends' school at Vassalborough. 
Their daughter Eunice was mostly eilucated in 
that seminary, being a student there for years. 
She was for some time the principal of the Uni- 
tarian Friends' School at Orchard Park, N.Y., 
now a normal school. In her girlhood she spent 
several winters with her brother. Dr. Charles 
H. Nichols, superintendent of the Government 
Hospital for the Insane at A^'ashington, D.C. 

On June 15, ISSO, Eunice Nichols became 
the wife of Mr. George C. Frye, a chemist and 
importer of surgical instruments. Her home 
in Portland has ever been noted for its cordial 
hospitality; for her husband, like herself, is of 
a genial nature, and delights in sharing his 
prosperity with others. 

Mrs. Frye is vice-president at large of the 
National Dorothea Dix Association. Fltficient 
women are always in demand, and because she 
is efficient she is busy, so busy that it seems 
" Her life is but a working day, whose tasks 
arc set aright." 



MAY ALDEN WARD, author and lect- 
urer, residing in Boston, is now (1903) 
serving her second year as president 
of the Massachusetts Federation of 
Women's Clubs. A native of Ohio, born at 
Milford Centre, near Columbus, March 1, 1853, 
as the daughter of Prince William and Rebecca 



48 



RKFRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



(Neal) Alden she rightfully inherits the tradi- 
tions of the Commonwealth foiindod by the 
Pilgrim Fathers and the Puritans of the Bay 
Colony. The first paragraph of her family 
history was penned by Governor Bradfortl 
more than two hundred years ago: — 

"John Alden was hired for a cooper at South- 
ampton, where the ship victualed; and being a 
hopeful young man, was nmch desired but left 
to his own liking to go or stay when he came; 
but he stayed and marrietl here." 

From John' Alden and the ready-witted 
Priscilla (who,se parents, William and Alice 
Mullins, antl their son Joseph, died the first 
winter) the line was continued through Cap- 
tain Jonathan,^ Andrew,'^ Major Prince,* An- 
drew Stanford/' Prince William," to May' (Mrs. 
Ward). 

Captain Jonathan Alden married Abigail, 
daughter of Andrew Hallet, Jr.^ Andrew Al- 
den, their eldest son, mai-ried Lydia Stanford. 
Major Prince Alden married Mary Fitch, 
daughter of Adonijah Fitch, of Montville, 
Conn. Her father was a grandson of the Rev. 
James' Fitch, of Saybrook and Norwich, Conn., 
and his .second wife, Priscilla Mason, daughter 
of Major John Mason, famous military leader 
of the Connecticut Colony. 

A year or two before the begiiming of the 
Revolutionary War, Major Prince Aklen mi- 
grated with his family from Connecticut to 
Wyoming Count}', Pennsylvania, where he be- 
came a large land-owner. In bSlG Andrew 
Stanford Alden, with his wife, F^lizabeth Ailing- 
ton, and their children, removed from Tioga 
County, New York, to Ohio. 

Prince William Alden, Mrs. Ward's father, a 
merchant and banker, born in 1809, ilied Feb- 
ruary 27, 1893. He married in 1844 Rebecca, 
daughter of Henry Neal, of Mechanicsbm-g, 
Ohio, and his wife, Catherine Bigelow, who was 
a daughter of Isaac Bigelow, of Dunmierston, 
\'t., and a descendant of John Biglo, of Water- 
town, the founder of the Bigelow family of 
New luigland. Mrs. Rebecca Neal Alden, born 
in 1823, died April 12, 1898. Mr. and Mrs. 
Alden had three children — Hemy, Reuben, 
and May (now Mrs. Ward). 

From her father May Alden inherited a taste 
for history and literature. She began to study 



and to use her pen very early, contributing 
articles to the Cincinnati Cimvvercial before 
she was sixteen. She was educated at Ohio 
Wesleyan l^niversity, Delaware, Ohio, and 
after her gra<luation in 1872 she studied some 
years abroad, devoting henself to French, Ger- 
man, and iMiglish literature, later taking up 
Italian. On June 1, 1873, she was married to 
AMlliam G. Ward, since 1898 professor of Eng- 
lish literature at the Emerson College of Ora- 
tory, Boston, formerly holding the same chair 
at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y., and 
at an earlier date President of vSpokane College. 
Profe.ssor Ward is the author of several books, 
among them "Tennyson's Debt to Environ- 
ment" and "The Poetry of Robert Browning." 

Since she came to New England, twelve years 
ago, the rise in club life of Mrs. May Alden 
Waril has been constant and rapid. At Frank- 
lin she organized a club of which she was the 
first president, and which was afterward named 
for her the Alden Clul). Later while living in 
Cambridge she was for four years president of 
Cantabrigia, one of the largest and most ener- 
getic clubs of the countrj'. At the same time 
Mrs. Ward became a member of the famous 
New England Woman's Club, in which she is 
still one of the most valued workers. For two 
years she was president of the New England 
Woman's Press Association, and she is strong 
in its councils at the present time. She is also 
a charter member and director of the Authors' 
Club of Boston. She was the first vice-presi- 
dent of the Ma.ssachu.setts State Federation for 
two years before becoming its president. She 
also has interest in various public affairs, and 
has been appointed one of the Commissioners 
for Massachusetts at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition in St. Louis. 

Mrs. Ward began lecturing about twelve 
years ago, resi)oiiding to the request of some 
ladies who asked her t<i give parlor talks on 
French literature. As a lecturer and teacher 
she now does an enormous amount of work, 
her accuracy, her pleasing address, her direct- 
ness, and the large amount of information 
crowded into her lessons and lectures making 
her one of the most popular club lecturers in 
New England. Of her efforts in that field the 
New York Times has this to say: "Mrs. Ward 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGT.AND 



49 



has the historian's instinct, and gives her facts 
without feeling the necessity of breaking into 
ejaculations over their picturesqueness. Her 
good training as a writer tells, as it always 
ought to tell; and her papers on subjects con- 
nected with our colonial history are written in 
a style both reticent and lively." Kate San- 
born's comment on her lectures is both true 
and adequate: "At the close of each course the 
audience feels acquainted with the men and 
women analyzed, and familiar with their best 
achievements; for she has the power to vitalize 
a subject, throwing arountl it the fascination 
felt by herself — a rare gift and akin to genius." 

Aside from the prestige which the advance- 
ment in club circles may lend to her name, 
Mrs. Ward has won a reputation as a writer 
that rests on the firm foundation of merit. 
Among her books are a Life of Dante, Life of 
Petrarch, "Old Colony Days," and "Prophets 
of the Nineteenth Century." These have re- 
ceived great praise from literary critics. Her 
"Dante" and "Petrarch," it is freely conceded, 
each met the need of a concise life in iMiglish 
never before filled. William Dean Howells 
.says of the former: "While we are still upon 
Italian ground, we wish to speak of Mrs. May 
Alden Ward's very clear, unaffected, and inter- 
esting sketch of Dante and his life and works. 
The effort is something comparable to those 
processes by which the stain and whitewash 
of centuries is removed, anil the beauty and 
truth of some noble fresco underneath is brought 
to life again. Mrs. Ward has wrought in the 
right spirit, and she shows a figure, simple, 
conceivably like, and worthy to be Dante, 
with which she has apparently not suffered 
her fancy to play." 

Of the "Petrarch" Mrs. Louise Chandler 
Moulton says: "Mrs. Ward has done her work 
admirably; and from this one book you may 
glean all that is of real value in the hundreds 
of volumes of which Petrarch has been the 
theme. His love, his friendship, his ambi- 
tions, his greatness, and his follies, . . . they 
are written here." 

No less an expert than John Fi.ske thus pro- 
nounced upon the merits of "Old Colony Days": 
"The sympathy and breadth of treatment make 
it a charming series of essays." One of the 



best of the appreciations of the book is that of 
the Chicago Times-Herald: "Plain history in 
fascinating guise is so rare a gift to the per- 
functory seeker for knowledge that attention 
must be called to a charming new book, 'Old 
Colony Days,' written in the sprightliest of 
easy styles for young or old, and displaying 
the high lights of the history of the New Eng- 
land colonies. It is not that the story is new: 
it as old as love to Puritans and their descend- 
ants. It is on account of a crisp, brisk, and 
ringing style, and on account of the taste with 
which the historian discriminates in subject 
matter, that we like the book so well. The 
half-satirical, half-serious manner in which 
all our ancestral worthies are memorized is 
indeed attractive. There are never too many 
words, there is always a simple style, and there 
are invariably points of interest lighted upon." 

Mrs. Ward's latest book, "Prophets of the 
Nineteenth Century," is in a sense her most 
important one, and into it she has put more 
of her own personality. The "Prophets," Car- 
lyle, Ruskin, Tolstoi, stand for humanity. We 
are sure that the expression of their convictions 
in the book voices Mrs. W^ard's own feelings; 
that their theories of life have largely influ- 
enced her own; that she herself is not only in 
sympathy with the great movement which her 
prefatory note says is sweeping over the world, 
but is a part of it, as her connection with the 
clubs gives her the opportunity and the right 
to be. "The Prophets of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury" has received warm endorsement. Caro- 
line H. Dall, in the Springfield Republican, thus 
commends it: "The sketches of Carlyle and 
Ruskin are masterly. They seize the essential 
points with a true comprehensipn, ant^ neither 
the two volumes of Froude nor any that con- 
cerns Ruskin give as clear an idea of the men 
they celebrate." Several of Mrs. ^\'ard's books 
have already been translated into other lan- 
guages, amongthem being the "Prophets", which 
has made its appearance in Japanese. 

It will be seen that Mrs. Ward's work gives 
her a right to distinction. Yet the woman 
behind it is more than any expression of herself 
in her writings and lectures. The sketch of 
her written by Kate Sanborn for a Boston 
paper a few years ago is so exact a portrait 



50 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



that one does not like either to add to or take 
away from the picture. Miss Sanborn says: 
"Mrs. Ward possesses a simphcity of manner 
that comes only with sinc(>rity of purpose, the 
best breeding, and a hacking of desirable an- 
cestry; an executive ability that is never marred 
by its too frecjuent accompaniment— a domi- 
neering spirit and a desire for control; a straight, 
clear outlook from eyes that hide no secrets, 
a hand-grasp that is cordial, without being 
effusive. One is impressed by the apparent 
ease with which she accomplishes great tasks. 
She does not talk of her work, nor take herself 
too seriously, and is delightfully free from ped- 
antry. What she has done for other women, 
spiring a scholarly si)irit, giving history and 



m 



literature in conden-sed and attractive talks, 
lifting them above the narrow interests, petty 
jealousies, and the gossipy hal)it, cannot be 
told in this brief outline." Of her part in the 
clubs Miss Sanborn adds: "She is impartial, 
well poised, never capricious in manner or 
opinion. She follows the middle path. As 
hostess, teacher, author, friend, she is always 
natural, kindly, thinking of others. And so 
love and appreciation and the truest friendship 
are given to her by all who are so foi-tunate as 
to know her and her work." 

To this might be added just one thing more — 
that Mrs. Ward has the art of drawing from 
her friends the heartiest and most loyal service. 
When a piece of work is to be done to which 
she cannot give time or attention, she knows 
on whom to call; and those who know and love 
her feel it a privilege to do her behest, being 
assured that when they in turn need help she 
will more than repay their services, or that 
they have been more than repaid already. It 
is in such a woman that the Massachusetts 
clubs have placed their confid(>nce, in her hands 
the direction of the Federation at present is 
held. 

Her report to the Massachusetts State Fed- 
eration of the biennial meeting at Los Angeles 
in June, 1902, is a model of clearness and brev- 
ity, and is the best exposition of her spirit 
under the trying circumstances of the conven- 
tion. This is its conclusion: "The i)est gift 
that can be given to any of us is the i)rivilege 
of being of some use in the world. . . . The re- 



ward is in the work itself, even though we may 
have to wait years for the tangible results. 
Let us hope that in this co-operation, with the 
women of the East and the West, the North 
and the South, working side by side for the 
same object, unworthy prejudices and antag- 
onisms may be outgrown and cast aside, so 
that eventually we shall all stand together for 
the good of humanity." 



MARY SUSAN GOODALE, former 
l)resident of the Department of Mas- 
sachusetts, Woman's Relief Corps, 
is a native of Boston. Descended 
from early colonial and Revolutionary stock, 
she inherits patriotism. Her father, Joseph 
Lorraine Goldthwait, merchant and public- 
spirited citizen of Boston at the time of the 
Civil AVar, was a lineal descendant in the 
eighth generation of Thomas' Goklthwaite, an 
innnigrant of 1630 or 1631; and through his 
mother, whose maiilen name was Hannah 
Alden, he traced his ancestry to John and 
Priscilla (Mullins) Alden. The descent from 
Thomas' Goldthwaite was through his son 
Sanniel,- who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Ezekiel ('heever, the famous master of the 
Boston Latin School. The line continued 
through Cai)t. John'' Goldthwaite, born in Salem 
in 1678; Major lienjamin\ born in Boston in 
1704; Benjamin^ l)orn in 1743, resided in 
Maiden and Boston: John", married Sally Morris 
and resided in Boston; Joseph Gleason', born 
in 1798, married in 1820, Mrs. Hannah Alden 
Mansfield, daughter of Solomon Alden (Simeon^ 
Samuel^ Joseph^-, John') and widow of Wil- 
liam Mansheld, to Joseph Lorraine^ above 
named, who was born in Boston in 1821. 

Major lienjamin Goldthwaite is reported to 
have passed most of his life as a soldier. He 
was a Captain in the Louisburg expedition of 
1745 and Major in that of 1758. His death 
occurred in 1761 in Milford, Mass. His son 
Benjamin was one of the volunteers from Lynn 
who responded to the Lexington alarm. Tra- 
dition says he was working in the field when 
the alarm was given, and threw tlown his hoe 
and started at once for Lexington. 

Joseph L. (ioldthwait during the Civil War 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGEAND 



51 



organized a society for the care of soldiers' 
families, eontributinp; liberally to its funds. 
Being an invalid at that time, he was unable 
to enlist, but his jjersonal efforts and financial 
support were of great service. He died in 
1868. He married, October 23, 1842, Lydia 
Ann, daughter of Norton' and Lydia (Christie) 
Newcomb. Her father was l)orn in Braintree 
in 1796, was descended from Francis' New- 
comb through John," ^ Isaac,* Captain Thomas,'^ 
Remember." 

Captain Thomas Newcomb, of Braintree, 
Mass., a great-great-grandfather of Mrs. Good- 
ale, was Second Lieutenant, May 8, 1775, in 
Captain Seth Thomas's independent company. 
As First Lieutenant of the company he served 
at barracks in Braintree, January 1 to Novem- 
ber 1, 1776; also in Captain Seth Turner's com- 
pany. Colonel Thomas Marshall's regiment, at 
Hull, October .31, 1776, to January 1, 1777. Li 
September, 1777, he was enrolled as a ('aptain 
in Colonel Theophilus Cotton's regiment, which 
marched on a secret expedition to Rhode Island. 
Honorably discharged October 31, 1777, he 
again enlisted and was ccjnnnissioned Captain 
in a three months company in Colonel Eben- 
ezer Thayer's regiment, which re-enforced 
the Continental army, a jiart of the company 
being stationed at West Point and a part at 
Rhode Island. On August 15, 1781, he was 
made Captain in Colonel Joseph Webb's regi- 
ment, in which he served four months on duty 
at Peekskill, N.Y. He also saw service in Paul 
Revere's artillery. 

The Newcomb genealogy states that Captain 
Newcomb offered to receive his pay in potatoes, 
and that the offer was gladly accepted by the 
authorities. He was very successful in raising 
companies for the war, and would accept no 
higher position than the grade of Captain. 
This was in accordance with a pledge he had 
made, that he would remain in charge of the 
company as long as permitted bj^ his superior 
officers. With him in the service were his 
three sons, the youngest entering the army 
when he was only fourteen years of age. 

Captain Newcomb's wife cheerfully kept the 
house, caretl for the little ones, and wished sh(^ 
had more sons to give to her country. Re- 
member Newcomb, the third son, married 



Susannah Brackett, daughter of William Brack- 
ett, a Revolutionary .soldier. William Brack- 
ett's name appears on the Lexington alarni 
rolls. In 1777 he is recorded as a member of 
Captain Thomas Newcomb's independent com- 
pany, and in 1778 he appears with the rank of 
gunner in Captain Callender's company, Colonel 
Crane's regiment. His name was on pay-roll 
dated January 11, 1781. He served almost 
continuously until September, 1781, first in 
Colonel Benjamin Lincoln's regiment and next 
in Captain Seth Thomas's company. He died 
a .soldier's death at Plattsburg in the War of 
1812. 

Mary Susan Goldthwait (Mrs. Goodale) re- 
ceived her early education in the public schools 
of Boston, and finished her course of study in 
Medford schools, her parents having removed 
to that city in 1854. The lessons of loyalty 
taught her by a patriotic -father were deeply 
impres.sed upon her mind. Although only a 
school-girl when the Civil War began, she was 
interestetl in the sokliers, and solicited money 
with which she furnished a Thanksgiving din- 
ner to their families in her neighborhood. On 
January 7, 1868, she was married to Captain 
George L. Goodale. 

Mrs. Goodale is a charter member of S. C. 
Lawrence Relief Corps, No. 5, of Medford, 
which was instituted May 27, 1879. She 
.served that year as senior vice-president, was 
installed as president January, 1880, and re- 
elected three successive years. At the annual 
convention of the Department of Massachu- 
setts, W. R. C, in 1881, she proved very effi- 
cient in committee work, and when the board 
of directors of the Department met in April, 
1881, she was cho.sen a member of the commit- 
tee on the SoUliers' Home Bazaar, which was 
held in Mechanics' Building, Boston, in De- 
cember, 1881. Mrs. Goodale was secretary of 
the Union table. 

She was chosen by the board of directors of 
the Department W. R. C. to fill a vacancy in 
the office of Department Conductor in the 
latter part of 1881, was re-elected to the office 
at the annual convention in 1882, and a year 
later was elected senior vice-president. Mrs. 
(ioodale was cho.sen Department president in 
January, 1884. During the first year of her ad- 



52 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ministration she instituted sixteen corps. She 
was unanimously re-elected Department presi- 
dent at the annual convention in 1885, during 
which year over one thousand members and 
sixteen corps were adiled to the roster. 

In her address to the next convention -(Janu- 
ary, 1885) she said: — 

"I cannot give you full particulars of my 
labors during the year, but will briefly say that 
I have represented the Department on seventy- 
three difTerent occasions, written six hundred 
and thirty-eight letters and a large number of 
postal cards, travelled over nineteen hundred 
miles (not inchuling the weekly trips to head- 
quarters on Wednesdays). 

"The work of the Department has assumed 
such proportions that I am led to reconunend 
that this convention adopt measures for the 
appointment of a corps of aides, corresponding 
to the aides appointeil by the Department con- 
vention of the Grand Army of the Republic. 
It would be the duty of the.se aides to become 
thoroughly acquainteil with all the workings of 
the order, holding them.selves in readiness to 
act in any capacity." 

This system of assigning s{)ecial duties to 
Department aides has since been adojjted in 
ail the States and also by the National W. R. C. 

A gold watch, suitably inscribed, was pre- 
sented to Mrs. Goodale upon her retirement 
from the presidency. 

Mrs. Goodale has participated in national 
conventions, servetl on special committees by 
appointment of the national presiilent, and 
represented Massachusetts one year as national 
corresponding .secretary. She served as chair- 
man of the Department table in the Soldiers' 
Home Carnival, the proceeds of which netted 
four thousand dollars to the carnival treasury. 
She rendered efficient service in the kettledrum 
given under the auspices of the Ladies' Aid 
Association of the Soldiers' Home, and for sev- 
eral years has served as a member of the Com- 
mittee on Department W. R. C. Rooms at the 
home. From 1893 to 1899 Mrs. Goodale was 
secretary of the Memorial P'und Conmiittee, 
having charge of the work for soldiers' widows 
and arm}' nurses. Since 1899 she has .served 
continuously as chairman of the Department 
Relief Coirmiittee. This is a position of re- 



sponsibility: it not only necessitates the wise 
expenditure of thousands of dollars, but also 
a familiarity with pension laws, dealings with 
the office of the State Aid Commissioner, the 
Soldiers' Relief Bureau, visits to the sick, the 
transportation of needy veterans to various 
cities and towns and to Soldiers' Homes. 

The relief work incident to the Spanish- 
American War has also received valuable aid 
from Mrs. Goodale. She is interested in the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and 
was the first regent of the Sarah Bradlee Fulton 
Chapter, of Medford, serving two years. She 
is at present (1902) one of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Medford Home for Aged Men and 
Women. She is an interesting and influential 
speaker, and has addressed many public gath- 
erings. 

Mrs. Gootlale is prominent in the social and 
educational afl'airs of Medford. She was one 
of the earliest members of the Woman's Club 
of that city. In 1900 she was elected vice- 
president of the club, but resigned, as she went 
to Cuba in November of that year, remaining 
until April, 1901, at Columbia Barracks, Que- 
mados (eight miles from Havana), where her 
husband, who had enlisted to serve in the 
Spanish-American War, was stationed as As- 
sistant Brigade Quartermaster. 

Captain Goodale was in the Forty-third 
Massachu.setts Reginient during the Civil War. 
lie is a Past Conunander of S. C. Lawrence 
Post, No. 66, G. A. R., of Medford, also a Past 
Department Commander of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, of Massachusetts. He was 
chairman of the Executive Committee of Ar- 
rangements for the national encampment in 
Boston in 1890, and was Inspector-general on 
the stafT of Commander-in-chief Weissert in 
in 1894. In April, 1901, he was appointed by 
President McKinley a Captain in the regular 
army and given charg(^ of important work at 
Fort Washington, Oregon, with headquarters at 
Astoria. 

Captain and Mrs. Goodale have three chil- 
dren — Agnes, Carrie Louise, and George Mor- 
timer. They are graduates of the Medford 
High School, and Agnes also attended the 
Woman's College in Baltimore, Md. George 
Mortimer Goodale was a soldier in the Fifth 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



53 



Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 
in the Spanish-American War. He is now in 
business in San Francisco, California. Carrie 
Louise Goodale was married, April 15, 1903, to 
Nathaniel Perkins Simonds, and now resides in 
Salem. 



t GUISE HUMPHREY -SMITH.— The 
subject of this sketch was first 
__J known to the writer when she was not 
Mrs. Humphrey-Smith nor^ even Miss 
Humphrey, but simply and sweetly Louise. 
We were not reared in the same neighborhood, 
yet quite near each other; and as youth and 
maiden we formed a frientlship whicJi, through 
many years and many vicissitudes, has held 
fast till now, and which in some degree qualifies 
me to speak of her. 

The town in which she was reared was Turner, 
Me. Her neighborhood was Bradfonl Village, 
through which flows the Nezinseot River. The 
village, a small and unpretentling farming com- 
munity, was large enough for a considerable 
circle of neighborly relations, and contained 
two men, a physician and a minister, of more 
than strictly local importance. The physician, 
Dr. Philip Bradfonl, was of perhaps no high 
rank in his profession, but he practised it with 
fair success, and directed to wise ends the influ- 
ence which his position gave him. The elders 
certainly looked up to him, and sought his 
advice on many matters outside his medical 
studies; and I suspect there were few young 
people about him who ditl not incur an extra- 
professional debt to him. Their interests in- 
terested him, and his homely counsel ami genial 
sympathy were ever for them. The minister, 
the Rev. William R. French — it is ever with a 
hush of reverence that I speak of him. He 
was one of those ministers, becoming rarer and 
rarer, who take small place and abide in it 
content, and are no less strenuous in their ser- 
vice because their parishioners are poor and 
few. He might have served as the model of 
the preacher of the "Deserted Village," or the 
" Pourc Persoun" of the "Canterbury Tales." 
He had the instincts and the training of a 
scholar. In the pulpit he was not eloquent, 
but he was wise, and in his pastoral walk he 



conveyed the impression both of holiness and 
the beauty of it. There floats into my mind, 
as peculiarly applicable to him, a stanza from 
an elegy on Sidney included in some editions 
of the works of Spenser: — 

" A sweet attractive kiude of grace, 
A full assurance given by lookes, 
Continuall comfort in a face. 

The lineaments of Gospell bookes; 
I trowe that countenance cannot lie, 
Whose thoughts are legible in the eie." 

He was peculiarly useful to young people. 
While they revered him, they could be easily 
familiar with him; and he showed them their 
possibilities, sympathized with their aspira- 
tions, corrected, encouraged, and led them on. 
If our friend were to undertake a statement of 
her obligations, I suspect she would confess 
no greater debt to any other than to him. 
Antl of great importance to her early life must 
have been a considerable group of young people 
who aspired, some of whom have since acquitted 
themselves well. Somehow they had caught 
hokl upon the truth that the better portion of 
the world was beyond their horizon, and that 
it was only l)y the highway of culture that they 
could reach that fairer ami ampler realm. The 
resources for culture were not bountiful, but 
they were not altogether wanting. The Ai- 
lantic Monthly anil Harper s Magazine, though 
not widely taken, were yet to be seen. The 
current literature was for most part beyond our 
reach, but a few classics we had — Pope, Thom- 
son, Goldsmith, Burns, Byron, Milton, Shake- 
speare, foo(.l for noble hungering; and these were 
read. The minister above mentioned here bore 
some aid. With an eye to the needs of his 
young people, he put into his Sunday-school 
library books of real literary value in place of 
the current stories of good little boys and girls 
who died so discouragingly young. 

Such was the more general environment of 
Mrs. Humphrey-Smith's girlhood, wanting many 
things indeed, but not without its smile upon 
an earnest life. We come to her home. In 
its general appearance it was like the homes 
about her, perhajis, on the whole, a little better 
than the average. The house, still standing, 
but tenantless ami decaying, is a small cottage 
upon a hillside. Within it in her day was no 



54 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



penury, no luxury, but plain comfort and un- 
pretending dignity. The family was consider- 
able, and servants were hardly heard of in that 
region; so her hands were early trained to mani- 
fold domestic toil. Her parents were Henry 
White and Laura Ann (Turner) Humphrey. 
Her father is said to have been a descendant 
of Peregrine White. Her mother was a daugh- 
ter of Charles Lee Turner and grantl-daughter 
of William Turner, of Scituate, Mass., who at an 
early period in the Revolutionary War was on 
the staff of Washington, with the rank of Major, 
and later was on the staff of General Charles 
Lee. A pleasant story tells that, a child having 
been born to him in his absence tluring a cam- 
paign, that general gave him a horse to ride 
home. This chiUl, a son, was named Charles 
Lee Turner. He was the grandfather of Mrs. 
Humphrey-Smith. 

As Mr. and Mrs. Humphrey were both from 
Revolutionary sires, there was some toughness 
in the grain, which we may suspect descended 
to our friend ere we are through. Though she 
may be pleased to acknowledge in her.self some 
of the qualities of her father, it is probable that 
her more characteristic features are drawn from 
her mother, of whom accordingly a word. 
Though the unpretending servant of many 
cares, she was much more than an ordinary 
woman. Her early opportunities were poor 
enough, but through the eagerness of her mind 
she acquired an education that was consider- 
able. She and another young lady together 
led the way of womankind in that region in 
the study of Latin. This was, of course, to 
the wonder of the practical about her, who 
could not see how Latin could be of any use 
in housekeeping, and who perhaps felt with 
Milton that one tongue was enough for a woman. 
To be sure, there were other things that she 
might have studied quite as profitably; the 
important fact was that. she studied something, 
that her mind reached out for more than the 
common satisfaction. And what she gained, 
Latin and whatever else, if of no use in her 
housekeeping, was of incalculable use to herself. 
The allotments of her life were not easy, scanty 
means and seven children were her portion, 
but through the interests of her mind she coun- 
terpoi.se(l them. From the pressure of her cares 



she might have degenerated into a drudge; 
through her intellectual interests she preserved 
the fair estate of a woman. It goes without 
saying, too, that these interests were most 
profitable to her children, animating a cease- 
less watch and toil and sacrifice for their edu- 
cation. 

To Mrs. Humphrey-Smith's education we 
now come. Her schooling was in the main in 
the schools of the town. These, however, 
brought within reach a range of study that was 
considerable. The district, or common, schools 
had, of course, their elementary curriculum, 
to which they were officially supposed to be 
restricted. But, given a teacher who had 
knowledge and good nature, the possible 
achievement was much more than this; and 
such a teacher was often provided, with a view 
to the needs of more ambitious pupils. In 
a brief recitation before school in the morning 
or a half-hour or so after school in the evening 
how much could be done! I myself thus 
brought out of the common school Smyth's 
treatise on algebra, than which at that day 
no college in the country would have given 
me more, some knowledge of geometry, astron- 
omy, physical geography, and two books of 
Virgil. But we also had a peripatetic high 
school supported by a fund, which gave us a 
term every autumn in three districts of the 
town. This was distinctly for higher studies. 
In both district and high school our friend 
comes before me, a happy memory. Her 
eager mind took whatever there was for it. In 
all her studies she excelled ; in one line, however, 
she was incomparable. Others might keep 
pace with her in language or in mathematics; 
but no one, pupil or teacher, could read as she 
could. Her reading was without ostentation, 
but. it thrilled and charmed. It comes home 
to me now as I write — the justness of her em- 
phasis, the faultlessness of her articulation, 
the melody of her intonation. There are pas- 
sages of literature floating in ni}' memory, 
choice in themselves, but doubly valued be- 
cause associated with the music of her tones. 
As I look back now, I see that her reading was 
informed by a nascent dramatic jiower which in 
its development has enthralled multitudes since. 
Mile. Lundberg did great service to the world 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



55 



when, discovering the musical genius of Jenny 
Lind, she urged and, through urging, accom- 
pUshed her musical education. What might have 
happened had Charlotte Cushman chanced to 
visit that village school-house and tliscovered, as 
she might easily have done, a genius of her own 
great art in this village maiden! 

She was given a year at the Hebron Acad- 
emy, a school of no low degree, and with this 
her schooling ended, though something in the 
way of private instruction in Latin and in Eng- 
lish was given her. Her educational advan- 
tages, as here summarized, have a meagre look; 
but it was not the fashion of that day to send 
young ladies to college, and, if it had been, 
perhaps the family exchequer would not have 
been equal to the outlay. But healthy appe- 
tite has a knack of finding fooil, and her appe- 
tite was not only healthy, but insatiable. How- 
ever it was done, she found her nourishment, 
and developed on it into a finely poised and 
cultivated woman. 

She taught school for a time with marked 
success. Marriage, however, came, and soon 
after she crossed the continent with her hus- 
band and settled in Portland, Ore. Her hus- 
band, Daniel French Smith, of Turner, the son 
of Timothy and Jane (French) Smith, a family 
of good standing in the town, was worthy of 
her, and all went well for a time. They brought 
to the task of life high purpose, industry, fru- 
gality, intelligence, and in the union of these 
there is ever good augury. One thing, how- 
ever, was wanting. Her husband had borne 
a part in the Civil War, and brought home from 
it an insidious malady, with which he struggled 
for a time, but to which he must succumb at 
last. A child had been given her. It com- 
forted her for a brief period, and died. Her 
own health gave way; and she rose at last from 
a protracted illness to find that, whether through 
legal legerdemain or plain thievery does not mat- 
ter now, her worldly possessions had been taken 
from her. Here was exigency in which had 
she sunk in despair she could have been for- 
given. She was not, however, that kind of 
woman. The Puritan and the Revolutionary 
strains in her ancestry here manifest them- 
selves. Perhaps she could have sunk into the 
arms of affection and wept, but not possibly 



into the embrace of adversity to grieve and 
whine. "The best use of Fate," says Emerson, 
"is to teach us a fatal courage," and this best 
use she drew to her service. In the decrees 
of her will and through the energies of her con- 
duct fate was out-fated. She must do some- 
thing for her maintenance, she would do some- 
thing for the world; and, not unnaturally, she 
bethought her of the talent she possessed in 
such ample measure. She got instruction from 
acknowledged masters, toiled, struggled — won! 

For twelve years she has been a teacher of 
elocution in the Irving Institute in San Fran- 
cisco and for seventeen years in the California 
College in Oakland. Since she first took up 
her work, she has had rooms in San Francisco, 
where she has instructed and still instructs 
such as come — actors, teachers, lecturers, min- 
isters, any who may have interest in elocution- 
ary or histrionic art. Her specialty is dramatic 
expression, and many who have been her pupils 
are now on the ilramatic stage. She carries 
into her work a genius that is masterful and an 
enthusiasm that inspires. It is no trifling cir- 
cumstance to come under her criticism, for her 
exposure of faults is — we might say without 
mercy but for the fact that in its very nature 
it is merciful. It is ruled, however, by an un- 
failing tact. 

In no department of human interest are 
superficiality and charlatanry more common 
than in hers, met in men and women who are 
impatient of the slow progress and long toil 
that leail to excellence, or are willing to offer 
highly colored fustian for royal purple. Against 
both she puts forth a protest which, if not 
always heeded, is yet widely felt. The stand- 
ard of public demand has undoubtedly been 
lifted by her influence. In and about San 
Francisco charlatanry is less prosperous be- 
cause she is there. Her art is not her religion, 
yet, through her utter devotion, represents it. 
She believes in her art as a ministry to man's 
higher needs. It is not merely to entertain, 
but also to instruct and quicken. But these 
ends are sacrificed if its stantlard is mean. 
Make it high, make it noble, and it shall be 
cleansing and uplifting. On this thenic her 
elo(iuence never tires. 

It is, however, on the platform that some 



56 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



of us like best to think of her. Here she is a 
radiant figure. Presence, manner, voice, all 
contribute to an impression that is sometimes 
wonderful. 

She is sometimes spoken of as a public reader, 
why I know not, for she never reads. She care- 
fully memorizes her selections, and this all the 
way from a lyric of Whittier to a drama of 
Shakespeare. Thus steeping her mind in them, 
she can not only inter])rct them, but incarnate 
them. Their humor, piety, passion, pathos, 
smilfe and aspire and glow and weep in her. 
She is extremely fond of Browning, has studied 
him widely and deeply, and in her public reci- 
tations done not a little to extend his influence. 
It seems a daring thing to carry Browning to 
a popular audience, but she has done this re- 
peatedly with superb success. She has great 
power of personation, through which the suc- 
cessful presentation of an elaborate drama lias 
been with her a frequent achievement. Brown- 
ing's " Blot in the 'Scutcheon" she has rendered 
to audiences of three thousand, which she en- 
thralled. I once heard her render "The Mer- 
chant of Venice," in herself a whole troupe of 
dramatic stars. Every feature of the rendering 
charmed me; but the feature that especially 
impressed me was the facility with which she 
transformed herself into the likeness of her vari- 
ous characters. That Antonio shoukl come be- 
fore us was not surprising, for he opens the 
play, and the personation of one character is 
achievement with which we are familiar; but 
Salarino and Solanio and Bassanio and Grati- 
ano were as distinctly there. In the flow of 
the dialogue so many men could not have pre- 
served the individuality of these characters 
more successfully. Afterward, in a group of 
those who had been present, it was interesting 
to hear them give judgment as to her better 
part: it occurred to no one to specify her poorer. 
To me her more successful personation seemed 
her Shylock. If there be moral advantage in 
seeing in vice its own deformity, we received a 
useful lesson that evening. But there was her 
Portia, and some were sure that her higher 
achievement was the personation of her. 
Others saw the finer stroke in some aspect of 
her recital of the billing and cooing of Lorenzo 
and Jessica. Through all, however, it was a 



discussion of excellences: she had given us 
nothing else for discussion. 

From a mass of press notices of her work I 
learn that her more recent recitals have been 
the "Blot in the 'Scutcheon," before men- 
tioned, and Stephen Phillips's " Paolo and Fran- 
cesca." From their great variety of character, 
their delicate shadings of sentiment, their 
pathos, triumjih, tragedy, for one person to 
present these dramas even passably well would 
require talent of a high order. Yet these no- 
tices are one and all testimonials, not of fair 
achievement, but of proud success. They come 
from diverse sources, but there is no dilTerence 
in the general juilgment; and they impart to 
my mind the suspicion that in these later efTorts 
she has beaten her best hitherto. While, how- 
ever, there is no difference in the general judg- 
ment, there is a tlifference in the point of em- 
phasis. Prevailingly they witness to the gen- 
eral and popular effect. One or two write, as 
artists, of the manner, personation, intonation. 
Neither order of representation can be ade- 
quate: for any just account of her, both are 
absolutely needful. While our friend has stud- 
ied her art broadly and deeply, its spirit has 
become life within her. Hence, when she deals 
with a public assembly, there is no suggestion 
of artifice. All seems as natural as her most 
quiet parlor conversation. Nothing is for 
effect, nothing is exaggerated. Rant, by which 
like artists of a lower order seek to prosper, 
and unhappily often do, is far, far from her. 
There is such harmony of detail with detail, and 
all so related to the grand meaning of the whole 
as to make it a scene of life that is offered you. 
In other words, her art is obscured by its own 
perfection. 

All who know Mrs. Humphrey-Smith talk of 
her voice, its richness of tone, its range, its 
flexibility. Its carrying power is a striking 
feature. An audience of three thousand in a 
hall of the best acoustic construction will test 
the powers of a good speaker; yet Mrs. Hum- 
phrey-Smith has recited with ease and success 
to six thousand people out of doors. This sug- 
gests a feature of her voice that has interested 
me. It is precisely the voice I used to hear in 
that country school-house. In the utterance of 
the stormiest dramatic passion any schoolmate 




EMMA AUGUSTA GREELY 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN UE NEW ENGLAND 



57 



of those distant years would recognize it. It 
is the same voice with its grand possibilities 
unfolded. 

With fine conversational powers and ready 
sympathy and the large resource she has gath- 
ered in her studies, she is a most agreeable 
companion and in society a happy presence. 
Of those who meet her there, few can ever 
suspect that the magnet of her heart is a couple 
of graves. Yet it is so. And here we touch 
another feature of her history that tinges the 
rest with a tender light. In her dealing with 
the workl, though most prodigal of her smiles, 
she has been frugal of her tears. Her burdens 
have been many and heavy, but through all 
she has carried the hand of help and the word 
of cheer. 

A. W. Jackson, D.D. 



EMMA AUGUSTA GREELY, the head 
of the Greely School of Elocution and 
Dramatic Art, was born in Chelsea, 
Mass., March 12, 1869, daughter of 
John Lyman Greely and his wife, Octavia 
Augusta Stevens. Through her father's mother 
Miss Greely traces her ancestry back to Josiah 
Bartlett, of Kingston, N.H., signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, and through him to 
his immigrant progenitor, Richard' Bartlett, 
Sr., who in 1642 was one of the grantees of 
Newbury, Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

Richard Bartlett is spoken of by his- 
torical writers of New England as "one 
of the Wiltshire colony who came over with 
the Rev. Thomas Parker in 1634." Of his 
birthplace and parentage he appears to have 
left no record, and vain the attempt with 
the little information available to trace his 
English antecedents. Mention, however, may 
here be made of an interesting relic now 
owned by one of his descendants, namely, a 
copy of the "Breeches Bible," purchased by 
Richard Bartlett, as certified in his own 
handwriting on the margin of one of its pages, 
in 1612 and brought by him to Newbury. 
On a blank page is his record of the births of 
his children— Joane, John, Thomas, Richard, 
Cris (Christopher), and Anne (New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. xl.). 



The name Bartlett is said to be common 
in Wiltshire, Devonshire, Somersetshire, and 
other parts of England. 

From Richard' Bartlett, of Newbury, the 
line descended through RichanP (born in Eng- 
land in 1621) and his wife Abigail; Richard,^ 
of Newbury, born in 1649, and his wife, Han- 
nah^ Emery — daughter of John^ and Mary 
(Webster) Emery — to Stephen,* born in New- 
bury in 1691, who married in 1712 Hannah, 
daughter of John^ Webster, of Newbury and 
Salisbury. Stephen'' Bartlett was Deacon of 
the first church of Amesbury. He died April 
10, 1773, in his eighty-second year. 

The Hon. Josiah Bartlett, M.D., the Rev- 
olutionary patriot, son of Deacon Stephen and 
Hannah (Webster) Bartlett, was born in Ames- 
bury, Mass., in 1729. He settled as a physi- 
cian in Kingston, N.H., where his old home- 
stead is still standing, being occupied by mem- 
bers of the family. He became Chief Justice 
of New Hampshire in 1788, was President of 
the State in 1790, 1791, and 1792, and in 1793, 
under the amended constitution of New Hamp- 
shire, was Governor. His wife was Mary Bart- 
lett, of Newton, N.H. They had nine chil- 
dren. The sons, Levi, Josiah, Jr., and Ezra, 
all became physicians. The line of descent 
to the subject of this sketch is through his 
daughter Mary, who riiarried Jonathan Greely, 
and whose son Josiah was father of John Lyman 
Greely, Miss Greely's father. The Greelys were 
prominent in public affairs in Kingston, and 
John Lyman Greely was at one time a member 
of the New Hampshire Legislature. His wife, 
Octavia A. Stevens, who was born in Brentwood, 
N.H., was also of an old New Hampshire 
family. 

Enmia Augusta Greely had the misfortune 
at a very early age to lose her mother, but this 
sad loss was largely compensated by the de- 
voted care and sympathetic companionship 
of her father, to whom she owes her broad 
views of life and the development of some of 
her higher personal qualities, he being a man 
of lofty ideals, great sincerity of character, 
and decided business ability. She was edu- 
cated in the public schools, graduating from 
the Chelsea High School in 1887. Even dur- 
ing her school-days her inclination was toward 



58 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



the study of literature and its correct inter- 
pretation, and to this end she took some pri- 
vate instruction in the art of expression, in the 
autumn of 1888 entering the Boston School 
of Oratory, under i\Ioses True Brown, principal, 
and Hamlin Garland, literary instructor. In 
this school, after completing both the regular 
course and a post-graduate course, she ac- 
cepted a position as teacher, and, entering upon 
her duties in the fall of 1891, continued to teach 
there until the retirement of Professor Brown 
owing to ill health. She then became associate 
principal with Clara Power Edgerly at the 
Boston College of Oratory, of which Mrs. 
Edgerly, with whom she had been associated 
for a number of years, at first as her pupil, was 
the founder. To this lamented teacher, now 
deceased, Miss Greely owes much of her inspi- 
ration in her own work, Mrs. Etlgerly's founda- 
tion of common sense, sincerity, and natural- 
ness in interpretation causing her pupil to 
leave behind the old stilted elocutionary style. 

Miss Greely has also taught in her own line 
of education at the Posse Gymnasium and at 
different times in various other institutions. 
She was among the charter members, in 1892, 
of the National Association of Elocutionists. 
Since 1895 she has been a member of its 
Board of Directors, and in 1901 she was made 
treasurer of the association, which position she 
held for two years. In October, 1900, Miss 
Greely felt justified in opening the Greely 
School of Elocution and Dramatic Art. This 
school is in Thespian Hall, 168 Massachusetts 
Avenue, Boston. It is now in its fourth year, 
antl its original membership has doubled. The 
graduates continue their work, some as teachers, 
others upon the lyceum platform, either as 
reciters or as members of dramatic companies. 

Not running in a single groove, as is the wont 
in some siinilai- schools, the course in the insti- 
tution presided over by Miss Greely offers 
general culture and a liberal education; for 
the technical work of expression is fast becom- 
ing a science. To quote her own wortls from 
a chain letter to one of her classes while she 
was abroad: "In all work and in life no sure 
advancement comes with little effort. We must 
each be so sincere in our work and have such 
faith in it that we cannot fail. Success rests 



with ourselves. If we love the work and show 
people that we do, if we make manifest the 
difference between the true study of the best 
literature from the master minds and the 
school-girl elocution; and, above all, if we 
have enthusiasm in regard to its application 
to daily life and soul improvement, I am sure 
we shall never fail to arouse a corresponding 
interest in our auditors. Do not think that 
small things are unworthy your attention. 
Were it possible to spring at once into the 
greatest things, perhaps one's development 
would suffer." 

That a woman not yet in her prime should 
have already accomplished so much augurs 
well for her future career; for her power seems 
marked by continuous growth, and, best of 
all, her character keeps pace, and harmonizes 
with her intellectual attainments. With the 
author of "David Grieve," she realizes the 
" poverty and ho])elessness of all self-seeking, the 
essential wealth, rich and making rich, of all 
self-spentling." 



MARY PHINNEY VON OLNHAU- 
Sl'^N, who rendered distinguished 
services as an army nurse in two 
wars of the closing half of the nine- 
teenth century — the Civil War in America and 
the Franco-Prussian in Europe — and was one 
of the two American women upon whom the 
Emperor William conferred the decoration of 
honor known as the Iron Cross, was a native 
of ^Massachusetts, her birthplace being the 
historic town of Lexington. Born Februarj' 
4, 1817, daughter of Elias and Catherine (Bart- 
lett) Phinney, she was the fifth in a family of 
ten children. Her father, Elias Phinney, A.M., 
(Harv. Coll. 1801), was born in Nova Scotia, 
whither his parents, Jienjamin I'hinney and 
his wife Susanna, had removed from Falmouth, 
Mass., a few years later coming, as the church 
reconls testify, to Lexington. He was of the 
Cape Cod family of Phinney (name sometimes 
spelled Finney), whose founder, John' Phiimey, 
was in Plymouth as early as 1638, and some 
years later settled in l^arnstable. According 
to "Genealogical Notes of Barnstable Families," 
by Otis and Swift, the line was continued 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



59 



through the immigrant's son John/ who mar- 
ried Mary Rogers in 1664; Benjamin,' who 
married Martha Crocker; Zaccheus/ born in 
1720, who married Susan Davis; to Benjamin/ 
born in 1744, fatlier of Elias." 

Mary Rogers, wife of John^ Phinney, was a 
daughter of Lieutenant Joseph" Rogers, of Dux- 
bury, Sandwich, and Eastham, who came over 
with his father, Thomas' Rogers, in the " May- 
flower" in 1620 ("Mayflower Descendant,'' vol. 
iii. p. 254). 

In 1823 Elias Phinney settled on a farm in 
Lexington, which he brought to a high state 
of cultivation. For many years and till his 
death, in 1849, he was Clerk of the Mitldlesex 
County Courts. He married in 1809 Catherine, 
daughter of Dr. Josiah and Elizabeth (Call) 
Bartlett, of Charlestown, Mass. Her paternal 
grandfather, George Bartlett, a sea-ca]jtain, 
was a native of Devonshire, England. 

Mary Phinney grew to womanhood in her 
native town, improving her opportunities for 
learning by attending an academy, and long 
after leaving school continuing her studies, 
especially of modern languages, till she became 
familiar with French, German, and Italian. 
She likewise cultivated her native talent for 
original work in drawing, becoming also an 
expert in embroidery. At the School of Design 
for women, started in Boston about the year 
1852, of which she was one of the early pupils, 
"she was considered the best designer in the 
class," being numbered in subsecjuent years 
with Ellen Robbins and Margaret Foley as 
among those who had "distinguished them- 
selves in art." This is the testimony of Mrs. 
Ednah D. Cheney in her "Reminiscences," re- 
cently published, she having been Miss Little- 
hale, secretary of the school committee. 

F'or some years she was employetl as designer 
of prints in one of the large cotton-mills in 
Manchester, N.H. A German political exile, 
a baron named Von Olnhausen, was a chemist 
in the same mill. He had been connected with 
one of the great German universities, and 
Theodore Parker designated him as " the most 
profound scholar he had ever known." His 
feudal castle, which had been the home of his 
ancestors from the time of the Crusades, and 
has been described as "one of the most pictur- 



esque castles in Saxony, crowning a hill and 
overlooking the town of Zwickau," had passed 
into the hands of an alien line. Miss Mary 
Phinney and Mr. Gustav A. Von Olnhausen 
were married in Boston by the Rev. Theodore 
Parker, May 1, 1858. The union was a happy 
one, but not of long duration, the death of the 
Baron (to give him his rightful title) occurring 
September 7, 1860. 

Only a few months later began the great 
Civil War, arousing the patriotism of women 
and testing the heroism of men. Mrs. Von 
Olnhausen, deciding to enlist as an army nurse, 
received a commission through the efforts of 
Governor Andrew, but was required to pay 
her own travelling expenses to the South, as 
the United States government at that time 
had not sufficient funds for the transportation 
of additional army nurses. During the four 
years' conflict she rendered faithful services 
as a hospital nur.se under the direction of 
Dorothea L. Dix. 

It may here be mentioned that in 1873 she 
was appointed first superintendent of the train- 
ing-school for nurses in the Massachusetts 
General Hospital, Boston, a position that she 
ably filled. 

Sailing for Germany in 1870, shortly after 
the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, she 
offered her services to the military authorities 
there, who were not at first disposed to approve 
her appointment. After persistent efforts, how- 
ever, she received a commission as arniy nurse. 
In this capacity again she had many thrilling 
experiences, and her services were appreciated 
as invaluable. 

The first of March, 1871, found her in charge 
of thirty wounded men in a hospital in 
Orleans, France. Peace had been declared, 
and an order had been issued for the German 
soldiers to evacuate France. Some of the 
wounded, however, were unable to be moved. 
When the thirty in charge of this faithful nurse 
no longer neeiled her care, she thought that her 
duties then were completed, and accordingly 
made arrangements to depart for Berlin. As 
she was entering the diligence en route for that 
city, a surgeon came running from the hospital 
and entreated her to remain, as sixteen wounded 
men had just arrived. She did not hesitate, 



60 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



but in the midst of danger promptly resumed 
her work. The people of Orleans were enraged 
at the Germans, and the mayor of the city, 
realizing the danger to "the little Madam," as 
she was often called, gave her his protection. 
He acconipanietl her to the hospital every 
morning at six o'clock, and, when her duties 
for the day were finisheil, at nine in the evening, 
he called at the hospital and accompanied her 
to his home. These duties were continued for 
more than a month, and then the fifteen men 
who survived (one of the wounded having died) 
started on their way to Berlin, in charge of 
the Madam, by order of the military authori- 
ties. They were obliged to halt in secluded 
places for fear of angry mobs. 

An interesting sketch of this journey was 
given in the Boston Globe, from which the fol- 
lowing is taken: "It was a strange procession 
that moved through the streets of Vendome. 
First came three dump carts, each carrying 
a n an who had undergone an operation the 
day before, ami who lay on the straw groaning 
with every motion. Behind was a diligence, 
on the floor of which sat a little American 
woman, surrounded by twelve badly wounded 
men, three of whom rested their weary heads 
in her lap. 

"It was bitterly cold, and the men were 
clothed only in their undergarments, with one 
blanket each. The}^ shivered and whined with 
the cold. Twice during the day they sto])ped, 
while their wounds were dressed and refresh- 
ments were distributed. In the late afternoon 
they came to a railway station, only to find 
that the expected ambulance would not arrive 
until the next day. With great difficulty 
Madam had her men carried to a half-ruined 
castle. There they spent the night in the old 
barracks, which were deserted and forlorn. The 
rats ran across the bare floors, gusts of wind 
swept through the lonely corridors. No doors 
shut out the cold, these having been used for 
fuel long before. 

"First one sufferer and then another cried 
out with pain and terror. In the midst of it 
all the little American woman was calm and 
unterrified. She remained awake the whole 
night through, comforting her charges. During 
the next forenoon a messenger came from the 



station to announce that the ambulance had 
arrived. The sick soldiers were carried to the 
train and placed in an empty baggage car, and 
she was about to follow, when the station agent 
pulletl her by the arm, saying 'There is no req- 
uisition for you. The requisition is for a 
surgeon.' The little Madam drew herself to 
her full height of five feet, and answering, 'I 
am a surgeon,' she seized the paper, and signed 
it in a bold, masculine hand, 'Von Olnhausen.' 
Then, before any one could interfere, she was 
in the car. 

"The ride to Orleans was a long, cold one. 
Rain was falling. It dripped through the roof, 
and she took off her skirt to cover one of the 
men. When they reached Orleans, the men 
were removed to a convent. On the way the 
mobs in the streets kicked mud at them, and 
even the women howled and swore at them. 
The sisters of the convent refused to give Madam 
either food or lodging. The sick men collected 
a thaler (seventy-five cents), and with this the 
brave little woman secured a bed at an inn. 
She was put in a chamber over the bar-room, 
was kept awake all night by the noise from 
below, where men howled and sang and cursed 
the Germans. She ])ulled the bureau and 
chairs against the door, and spent a night of 
torture. But her seventy-five cents was not 
enough for food, and, when she returned at 
daylight to the convent, the sisters still refused 
her even a mnvithfiil. She had eaten nothing 
since noon of the previous day. 

"Another nerve-trying trip was made back 
to the station-house, the mob growing so furi- 
ous that the little band was hurried into the 
baggage-room to be out of tlanger. No train 
was in sight, and the sick men, exhausted by 
their long journey and discouraged by the delay, 
cried like children. Little Madam, hungry an(l 
dishcarteneil as she was, cheered them with 
war songs and told her most thrilling stories. 
At noon she went out and demanded footl of 
the inspector. He loaned her two tlialers, and 
with this she bought bread and sausages and 
coffee for the men, who ate and drank every 
bit, forgetting the twenty-four-hour fast of the 
stanch-hearted little woman to whose watchful 
care they owed their lives. 

"At four in the afternoon two German offi- 



RErRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



61 



cers came and took the little hand on stretchers 
to the ambulance train, which was waiting a 
([uarter of a mile away. For fear of the mob, 
gendarmes walked besitle the wounded, antl 
they reacheil the train in safetj'. 

"When the men were made comfortable. 
Madam asked for food. She declares that the 
great bowl of oatmeal porridge, thick with 
prunes, which she received, was the most de- 
licious meal she has ever eaten. When they 
reached Berlin, the men were ])laced in a hos- 
pital, and, thanks to the untiring care of the 
little American, every one of them recovered." 

In recognition of these meritorious services 
Emperor AVilliam i)re.sented her with the Iron 
Cross, she and Clara Barton being the only 
American women to receive that decoration. 
It is a handsome Maltese cross, of iron with 
white enamel, the liadge of a Prussian order 
founded in ISIX for military services, and re- 
organized in 1870. After her return to her na- 
tive land the Emperor sent her the Metlal of 
Merit, which is the highest honor conferred in 
Germany for bravery in war, and has been 
given to no other American, it is said. I'n- 
fortimately, the medal was lost in transmission, 
hut she received the autograjih letter written 
by the Emperor when foi'warding the precious 
gift. During Prince Henry's recent visit to 
Boston (March, 1902) Mrs. Von Olnhausen, 
wearing the Iron Cross, was greeteil by him 
most cordially, he expressing his surprise and 
delight to see the decoration worn by an Amer- 
ican woman. " It is a great honor in my coun- 
try," said he. " Please tell me how you came 
to receive it." He promised her that upon 
his return he would see that the Medal of Merit 
was in her possession, in accordance with his 
grandfather's wishes. This promise she did 
not live to see fulfilled. It may be said to 
have been cancelled by her ileath, which soon 
followed, April 12, 1902. 

The home of Mrs. Von ( )lnhausen in her later 
years was at the Grundmann Studios, Claren- 
don Street, Boston, where she enjoyed a quiet 
life with her embroideiy work and designing. 
She was young in spirit, and her host of friends 
always found a cordial welcome. 

They observed lier birthdays witli gifts and 
flowers. She was especially interested in Jap- 



anese art. She received numerous orders for 
her work after the interview with Prince Henry, 
an account of which was widely published. 

Loyal, patriotic, courageous, unselfish, a 
lover of art and literature, a friend of human- 
ity, she will he mis.setl by many who enjoyed 
her friendship and appreciated her worth. Her 
funeral was held at Mt. Auburn, and was at- 
tended by the Massachusetts Army Nurse Asso- 
ciation, of which she was a loved member, and 
in whose meetings she often participated. The 
Iron Cross was bei I ueathed l)y Mrs. Von Olnhausen 
to the Lexington Historical Society. Her life, 
compiled from her letters antl journals by her 
nephew, James Phinney Munroe, has recently 
been published, by l>ittle. Brown & Co., under 
the title: "Adventures of an Ai-niv Nurse in 
Two Wars." 



IDA SUMNER VOSE WOODBURY was 
born in Dennysville, Me., December 14, 
1854. She is the daughter of Peter Eh- 
enezer and Lydia (Kilby) Vose, and is the 
ninth in descent from Robert Vose, who came 
from England to Dorchester (now Milton), 
Mass., in 1635. Her ancestral lines, some of 
which, it is said, have been traced to the time 
of Edward III. of England, include represent- 
atives of the families of Thacher, Sumner, 
Oxenbritlge, Prince, Hinckley, Adams, Howard, 
Hayden, and others, a roll of which one may 
well he proud. Miss Vose was graduated from 
the high school at the age of sixteen, and for 
four years was engaged as a teacher in the 
schools of her native town, at the same time 
pursuing an advanced course of study with 
a private instructor. She was a brilliant 
scholar and a successful teacher. 

In 1876 she was married to Clinton Aaron 
Woodbury, who was at that time editor of the 
Somerset Reporter. For some years she as- 
sisted her husband in etliting the literary de- 
partment of the paper, making valuable contri- 
butions to its colunms and also to the columns 
of other journals. She frequently delights her 
friends by her poems, written for anniversaries 
and other occasions. A specimen of these 
may be found in the publishetl volume, "The 
Poets of Maine." Later Mr. Woodbury en- 



62 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



tered upon a business career in Portland, and 
resided there with his family for several years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Woodbury were prominent in 
educational, literary, and religious work in the 
city. In 1888 Mrs. Woodbury was elected 
president of the Maine Woman's Aid to the 
American Missionary Association. This office 
she held for twelve years, tluring which, 
under her efficient and enthusiastic leatlership, 
the Woman's Aid made steady growth and 
awakened much interest throughout the State 
in its special work. 

After the death of Mr. Woodbury, in 1894, it 
became necessary to make a change of residence, 
and Mrs. Woodbury removed to Boston. In 
1895 she was made New England Field Assist- 
ant of the American Missionary Association, 
the society which is doing such a good work 
in our country among the mountain whites, 
the Negroes, the Chinese, and the Indians, in 
its efforts to educate, uplift, and make good 
citizens of the.se neglected classes. A grander 
and more patriotic work than this it woukl be 
hard to imagine: it is well worthy the em- 
ployment of the highest talents. 

Since entering upon the duties of her present 
position, Mrs. Woodbury has been engaged in 
speaking for the association in churches through- 
out the East and West, before young men's 
clubs, women's meetings and conferences, and 
delivering adtlresses at G. A. R. memorial 
services, and so forth. She speaks on an aver- 
age six times a week, and travels from fifteen 
to twenty-five thousand miles a year. She is 
a pleasing speaker, calm, easy, and self-pos- 
sessed in manner, and dignified in bearing. She 
has the rare gift of a voice feminine and fine 
in quality, but full, clear, and far-reaching, 
easily heard in all parts of a large audience 
room. Her thorough acquaintance with the 
work of the American Missionary Association 
and her personal knowledge of the good already 
accomplished by it give her full command of 
her subject, and make her an exceedingly 
effective speaker. Tho.se of us who have heard 
her once gladly welcome her again. She is one 
of the few women who can take up the cause 
of the oppressed and so present it that no one 
who hears her can fail of being interested, and 
of seeing clearly how necessary it is to the life 



of the republic that justice should be done to the 
lowest and weakest within its borders. 

A leading clergyman has said of Mrs. Wood- 
bury, "She is easily one of the greatest femi- 
nine powers of the early twentieth century in 
the advocacy of American patriotic Christian 
philanthropy.'' 

Mrs. Woodbury has had four children. The 
eldest, Carl Vose, was graduated from Bowdoin 
College in 1899, and is now a professor in Nor- 
wich University, Northfield, Vt. The second, 
Donald Clinton, died in childhood. The third, 
Malcolm Sumner, was graduated from Bowdoin 
in 1903, and is now a medical student in the 
same institution ; and the fourth, Ruth Lin- 
coln, is in the high school at Dennysville, Me. 

K. B. L. 



ELIZABETH ORR WILLIAMS, journal- 
ist and lecturer, resides in Brookline, 
Mass. She is the wife of Melvin Brooks 
Williams, grandson of Captain John 
\\'illiams, of ha))py memory, of Portland, Me. 
Mrs. A\'illiams was born in Alfred, Me., being 
the daughter of the Rev. John and Mary (Moore) 
Orr. The original home of the Orr family was 
in Scotland, whence some of their number re- 
moved, doubtless in the latter part of the sev- 
enteenth century, to Ireland. 

John Orr, great-great-grandfather of Mrs. 
^\'illianls, came to this country from tlie north 
of Ireland in 1726, in cjuest of civil and religious 
liberty, and resided for a time in Londonderry, 
N.H. In 1750 he was one of the petitioners 
for the incorporation of the town of Bedford, 
N.H. It is not known whether he was born in 
Scotland or born in Ireland of Scottish parents. 
Both he and his l)rothcr Daniel, who came with 
him, are believed to have been teachers by 
profession. John Orr, it is said, was remark- 
able for his Scotch wit, and was highly respected 
as a "fine specimen of a shrewd, pious, plain- 
hearted Scotcliman, much like the one por- 
trayed by Scott in the father of Jeanie Deans, 
in the 'Heart of Midlothian.' " 

Mrs. Williams's great-grandfather, the Hon. 
.John Orr, was for many years an Elder in the 
Presbyterian church in Bedford, servuig also 
as Justice of the Peace and the Quorum, as 




ELIZABETH olili W IIJ,IAM8 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



63 



Senator from the Thiril District, as Counsellor 
of Hillsborough County, and for several years 
as Representative at the General Court of the 
State of New Hampshire. He performed mili- 
tary service in the French War in 1756, and in 
1777 he was appointed by the Provincial Coun- 
cil a member of the Committee of Safety. In 
this latter year also he was commissioned as a 
Lieutenant, and with his company served under 
the command of General Stark at the battle 
of Bennington, where, after exhibiting cool 
judgment and great personal bravery, he was 
wounded and rendered a cripple for life. The 
verdict of one who knew him well was thus 
tersely expressed: "He was one of Nature's 
nobility." 

His son, the Hon. Benjamin Orr, grandfather 
of Mrs. Williams, was born in Bedford, N.H., 
in 1772, and was graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1798. 
He became a lawyer and settled in Maine, his 
home, with the exception of a few years that 
he resided in Topsham, being in Brimswick. 
He was eminent as a practitioner in the Su- 
preme Judicial Court both before and after 
the separation of Maine from Massachusetts. 
He represented the old Cumberland District 
in Congress during the Presidency of James 
Monroe. 

At the time of his death, in 1828, Chief Jus- 
tice Mellen spoke of him " as one who had long 
stood, confessedly, at the head of the profession 
of our State; who had distinguished himself 
by the depth and solidity of his understanding, 
by his legal acumen and research, by the power 
of his intellect, the commanding energy of his 
reasoning, the uncompromising firnniess of his 
principles, and the dignity and lofty sen.se of 
honor, truth, and justice which he uniformly 
displayed in his professional career and in the 
walks of private life." 

He held the positions of overseer, trustee, 
and treasurer of Bowdoin College in its earlier 
days. It was while he was a trustee of the col- 
lege, and when he attended the annual exami- 
nations of the classes in the classics, that he 
was the leading influence in placing the poet 
Longfellow in the chair of modern languages. 
Mr. Orr, being an accomplished classical scholar, 
and the Latin poet Horace being his pocket 



companion, was charmed with young Long- 
fellow's translation of the odes of that poet, and 
at the meeting of the executive board settled 
the question as follows: "Why, Mr. Longfellow 
is your man : he is an admirable classical scholar. 
Seldom have I heard anything more beautiful 
than his version of one of the most difficult otles 
of Horace." 

Mr. Orr was in politics a Federalist of the 
old school which maintained the sentiments of 
" the men who formed and administered for 
the first twelve years the institutions of the 
United States." His wife, Elizabeth Toppan, 
a woman of strong character, refined tastes and 
manners, and domestic virtues, was well fitted 
to dispense the generous hospitality of his 
home in Brihiswick, Me. 

Mrs. Williams's father, the Rev. John Orr, 
was a graduate (summa cum laude) of Bowdoin 
College in the large and brilliant class of 1834. 
The Rev. Mr. Orr was a man of intellectual force 
and scholastic culture, of great refinement of na- 
ture, an independent, clear thinker, a man illus- 
trating in his daily life high moral excellence, 
a writer of decided merit, able in theological 
discussion, a student and a Christian gentleman 
always, as well as a brilliant preacher. 

From these thoughtful men, in turn, and 
from her grandmother Orr and her mother, the 
late Mary Moore Orr, a woman of active intellect 
and progressive thought, Mrs. Williams inherited 
her love for letters, her studious habit, and her 
power of application. These characteristics 
evinced themselves early, and the literary turn 
of her mind found expression in original stories, 
poems, and essays. She sometimes wrote plays, 
in which she took the leading parts herself, as 
in a church festival held in the opera house in 
South Bend, Ind., and in these dramatic skits 
she disclosetl hi.strionic talent. 

Her original humorous sketches possess the 
"convulsive element" which is so vital in suc- 
cessful comedy, and in this line she is a born 
impersonator. A natural wit, skilled in repar- 
tee, she is sympathetic antl benevolent in spirit. 
The intellectual bias of her mind has always 
been toward the classics and the highest order 
of literature, sacred as well as secular. 

•Mrs. ^\■illiams was educated at the Alfred 
Academy, the Alfred High School, and Maple- 



64 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



wood Institute, Pittsfield, Mass. She is a mem- 
ber of the Maplewood Akimiia> Association, 
and at its first reunion she contributed an origi- 
nal poem, which appealed with especial interest 
to the members of her class wlio were present. 

Mrs. Williams has musical ability of no mean 
order. She played in public before she was out 
of her teens, and taught instrumental music 
for several years with excellent success. 

When cooking-schools were first opened for 
instruction, she wrote on culinary education 
and the philoso])hy of good living, from the 
Boston and New York cooking-schools, for 
Southern, Western, and Eastern papers, often 
receiving in reference to them complimentary 
and a])preciative letters from utter strangers. 

Mrs. Williams was a newspaper correspondent 
at Mount Desert Island, Maine, for twelve sum- 
mers, and was acknowletlged as an active force 
in bringing into notice a section of that country 
which is now widely known. Her correspond- 
ence from Saratoga, at one time the queen of 
Spas, was considered worthy of being j^laced on 
file. It may well be said that, wherever Mrs. 
Williams set the impress of her facile, graceful 
pen, it exhibited that subtle ciuality recognized 
as "style." 

At one time Mrs. Williams was a |)aid con- 
tributor to eleven newspapers. She has been 
a contributor since 1881 to the Boston Tran- 
script. She has also contributed to the Youth' !^ 
Companion, Arti^ for America, the Houaehold, 
and other publications. A series of lectures 
on literary, historical, and art topics she has 
presented in many States with gratifying suc- 
cess. In her ceramic art lectures, which are 
fully illustrated by specimens, she was a pioneer, 
and, having visited the leading potteries and 
art museums in this country in pursuing this 
fascinating branch of study, she is an acknowl- 
edged authority on the subject. 

Mrs. Williams has treated with consummate 
skill the mystery of Mary Stuart. Her strong 
rendering of the Queen's plea, on trial for her 
life before the P'nglish bar, often shakes the 
belief of those who have always thought the 
Queen was guilty. More than that cannot be 
done for a great historic doubt. Mrs. Will- 
iams's essay on the subject of Mary Stuart is 
pronounced by Mrs. Livermore to be a "gem 



of literary condensation." A professional and 
prolific writer thus expresses his appreciation: 
" Mrs. Williams is one of the most alive anti 
immediate students, not only in the Stuart 
chronicles, the great masters of art, the litera- 
ture of the. early civilizations, but in the lore 
of the Queen who 'launched a thousand ships, 
and burned the topless towers of Ilium,' — 
Helen of Troy." 

Mrs. Williams has given some of her choice 
entertainments liefore several notable charities: 
the Jackson Park Sanitarium for sick babies 
and the Model Lodging House in Chicago, 
through the auspices of the famous Archie 
(Arkay) Club of that city; the Bethel Social 
Settlement, Aged Couples' Home, and the Saint 
Barnabas Cuild of Nurses, Minneapolis; the 
Berkshire County Home for Aged Women, 
Pittsfield, Mass. ; and the Educational and In- 
dustrial l^nion, Buffalo, N.Y. 

At a moot court, convened in Boston a few 
years ago, for the trial of the cam^e celebrc, Sir 
Francis Bacon vs. William Shakespeare, Mrs. 
Williams, after repeatedly declining, consented 
to espouse the Baconian siile, and, as the junior 
l)arrister, opened the case in a most eloc[uent 
and finished manner. So lawyer-like were her 
arguments that she was highly praised by the 
late Judge Nathaniel Holmes (formerly Dean of 
the Harvard Law School, and ex- Justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Missouri), the late 
Professor Smith, of the Dorchester Latin School, 
and even by the noted Shakespearean com- 
mentator, Dr. Rolfe. And yet Mrs. Williams is 
not a Baconian. Personally she is rather retir- 
ing, and the bulk of her work has been tione in 
a quiet way. She is a member of the New 
England Woman's Press Association. 



GRACE LE BARON UPHAM (in the 
literary world Grace Le Baron) was 
iiora in Lowell, Mass., June 22, 1845, 
tlu' youngest daughter of John Good- 
win Locke and Jane Ermina Starkweather 
Locke. Her father was a son of the Hon. John 
Locke, of Ashby, Mass., and a lineal descendant 
of Deacon William' Locke, of Woburn, founder 
of the fauiily in New luigland. Her mother 
was a tlaughter of Deacon Charles Starkweather, 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



65 



whose immigrant ancestor, Robert' Stark- 
weather, was at Roxbury in 1640, and later 
settled at Ipswich. 

The Hon. John Locke (Harv. Coll. 1792) 
served six years as a member of Congress. He 
married Hannah" Goodwin, daughter of Na- 
thaniel Gooilwin, Jr., of Plymouth, and giand- 
daughter of Nathaniel Goodwin, Sr., and his 
wife, Lydia' Le Baron (great-great-grand- 
mother of Mrs. I^pham). Lydia was a daugh- 
ter of Lazarus Le Baron and grand-daughter 
of Dr. Francis Le Baron, the "Nameless Noble- 
man" from France, whose romantic story fur- 
nished a fruitful theme for the pen of Mrs. 
Jane G. Austin, and whose grave is to-day heUl 
sacred in historic Plymouth. It is said 
that in Mrs. Grace Le Baron Upham are evi- 
denced the manners and looks of her distin- 
guished French progenitor. 

To the "Mayflower" and Plymouth Rock 
Mrs. Upham traces back through three Bart- 
lett generations, thus: The wife of Lazarus Le 
Baron and mother of his daughter Lydia, above 
named, was Lydia' Bartlett, daughter of Jo- 
seph'' Bartlett (Joseph.^ Robert'). Robert' 
Bartlett, who came in the "-Ann" in 1623, 
married Mary Warren, daughter of Richard' 
Warren, one of the signers of the Compact in 
November, 1620. 

Mrs. Jane E. Locke, singularly sweet and 
gracious in character, had a fine mind. She 
was a writer for the magazines and periodicals 
of the day, and published several volumes of 
poems. She was a contemporary anil friend 
of William Cullen Bryant, Nathaniel P. Willis, 
and Edgar Allan Poe. In the years directly 
preceding her death, which occurreil in 1859, 
Grace was her constant companion, and was 
privileged to meet such well-known literary 
folk as Poe, Lydia Maria Child, Fanny Fern, 
Mrs. Sigourney, not to mention other authors 
of lesser note in their day. 

Mr. Locke was equally well known in his 
sphere of intellectual activity. He preserved 
the family history by compiling and publish- 
ing "The Book of the Lockes." 

As a girl, and indeed from eai'liest infancy, 
Grace had to contend with delicate healtli. 
In 1850 her parents moved to Boston, and, 
since all but the first five years of her life have 



been passed in this city, she may be called a 
Bostonian. She was graduated from every grade 
of the Boston public schools, primary, grammar, 
high, and normal. In 1870 she became the 
wife of Henry M. Upham, son of Captain Will- 
iam and Margaret (Folger) Upham, of Nan- 
tucket. The Folgers, his maternal ancestors, 
were of the same family as the mother of Ben- 
jamin Franklin. Mr. I'pham, late of the firm 
of Damrell & Upham, has recently retired from 
business, having been identified for thirty-six 
years with that ancient landmark of Boston, 
"The Old Corner Bookstore," which has borne 
his name. Thus by her marriage was another 
incentive given Mrs. Upham to use the talent 
inherited from her parents. 

When she first began to write, she did not 
anticipate making authorship a j»rofession, and 
so abbreviated her name. But the instantane- 
ous success of her first book, "Little Miss 
Faith," published in 1894 by Lee & Shepard, 
Boston, encouraged her to go on. In the same 
year "The Ban of the Golden Rod" was pub- 
lished by a New York house. Following these 
came "Little Daughter," 1895; "The Rosebud 
Club," 1896; "Queer Janet," 1897; "Told under 
the Cherry-trees," 1890; "Jessica's Triumph," 
1901 — all published by Lee & Shepard. In 
1898 Little, Brown .t Co. issued " 'Twixt You 
and Me." She has now in jireparation the last 
of the "Janet Series" for children and a novel 
for their elders. The latter has b'^en urged 
upon Mrs. Upham by readers who have enjoyed 
her shoit stories, which have appeared at in- 
tervals in the current periodicals and maga- 
zines. Mrs. Upham says, however, that she 
shall alwaj's give her best strength to the 
young, who have been her most sincere friends 
from the first. Her stories are written with 
a purpose, the pui'pose of purifying and en- 
nobling the lives of children. And she has 
richly earned her title, "The Children's Friend." 
Many are the letters she has received from her 
youthful admirers, letters filled with such earn- 
est gratitude and appreciation that she counts 
herself rich indeed, .to have inspired them. 
That she might be sure of doing work uncolored 
and unbiassed by others in a similar line of 
literature, she has entirely abstained from 
reading juvenile books. This may, in a meas- 



66 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ure, account for the distinctive style which is 
all her own. 

Mrs. Uphani's vivacity and warmth of heart 
make her a favorite, and, while not a club 
woman, she has a wide acquaintance with 
such. It is in patriotic societies that she feels 
her keenest interest, and she is a member of 
the following: Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, Daughters of 1812, Society of May- 
flower Descendants, Huguenot Society of Amer- 
ica, belonging also to the Society of American 
Authors and Boston Authors' Society, and 
being an honorary Member of the League of 
American Penwomen and the Ladies' Physio- 
logical Institute. 

A sketch of Mrs. Upham's work would be 
incomplete without reference to her poems and 
carols, many of the latter, written years ago, 
still being sung animally, notwithstanding the 
new ones offered every season. 

Two short poems are given below, and many 
will recall the tender beauty of " Question- 
ings," which appeared originally in the Boston 
Transcript, but which was widely copied and 
appreciated. 

The Memorial Day poem has appealed to 
comrades' hearts all over the countrv: — 



ROSES, LILIES, AND FORGET-ME-NOTS. 

Roses (Lancaster), red War 

Lilies Purity 

Forget-me-nots Enduring Memories 

Halt! 

Comrades, bow with uncovered head, 
And deem it not weakness to shed 

Tears o'er his grave. 
Strew flowers with Memory's hand, 
Float o'er him the flag of our land 
He died to save. 

The red fnr the hloa/l he shed, 

The vhite for his sotd so pure, 
The blue for the s/,// n'erhead. 

Where his name slioll ai/e embire. 

lie was only a .stripling, young. 
But ne'er hath the poet sung 

Of one so brave. 
In the carnage of shot and shell, 
With the broken staff, he fell, 

And found a grave. 



Oh, then, scatter ye roses red. 
Red, red as the blood he .shed. 

And lilies white. 
"Weave in the forget-me-not's hue, 
A garland, red, white, and blue, — 

Our emblem bright. 

The red fur the bhrnd he sheil. 

The irhite for his soul so pure, 
The blue for the sl'ij overhead, 

Where his name shall aye endure. 

Nothing could be more finished or spirited 
than the few comprehensive lines to John Boyle 
O'Reilly:— 

In fflcmoriam. 

JOHN BOYLE O'REILLY. 
August, 1891 — August, 1894. 

(Written for The Catholic World.) 

Patriot and Poet! Martyr! Exile 

From out a land that should have owned thee king! 

Disciple of thy Lord in suffering! 
Like Him, a ransom paid, that thy green isle 
Might burst its bondage chains and live to smile 

In Freedom's sunlight. Sadly we do bring 

To-day the shamrock's drooping leaf , and sing, — 
Not as of yore, when thou wert here the while, 
As knight and leader of the Muses' choir: 

The harp of P^rin plays sad discords now, 
And we, too, chant a requiem for thee. 
O Jubilate! Nay, we'll tune the lyre 

To wild rejoicing, and to Wisdom bow! 
No fetters bind thy soul on either sea! 



MARY JANE PARKHURST, a past 
president of Colonel Allen Woman's 
Relief Corps, of Gloucester, Mass., 
and prominent member of several 
fraternal organizations in that city, is a native 
of Cape Ann, and comes of old Essex County 
colonial stock. The daughter of Nathaniel 
and Martha (Brooks) Lowe, she was born in 
Rockport, August 22, 1843. The death of 
Mrs. Martha B. Tjowe when Mary was only 
two weeks old led to the child's adoption, with- 
out change of name, by John Woodward and 
Sarah (Stanwood) Lowe, of Gloucester. Ten- 
derly and carefully nurtured by her foster- 
parents, whose memory she cherishes with 
filial affection and gratitude, Mary J. Lowe 
grew to maturity amid pleasant surroundings 




MARY J. PARKHURST 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



67 



and under home influences favorable to the 
development of sterling qualities of woman- 
hood. She was educated at a private school 
in Gloucester ami at Abbot Academy, Andover, 
Mass., where she was a student, boarding at 
Smith Hall, for three years, 1856-58. In her 
first year the principal of the academy was 
Maria Brown; in her second and third, Enmia 
L. Taylor, sister to Samuel Taylor, LL.D., of 
Phillips Andover Academy. One of her class- 
mates and chums was "Georgie" Stowe (young- 
est daughter of the author of " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," then residing in Andover), a slender, 
fair-haired, attractive girl, "looking," it was 
said, "so much like Eva!" in her mother's 
famous story, but whose (assumedly) naive 
drolleries rather suggested the character of 
Topsy. Another fellow-pupil at the academy 
for a short time was Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, 
of whom it is remembered that her very early 
school-girl compositions, while always pre- 
pared with neatness and care, gave no evidence 
of unusual literary ability. 

On account of the serious illness of her mother, 
Mrs. Sarah Stanwood Lowe, Mary left the acad- 
emy in 1858, without completing the full course 
of study, as she otherwise would have done. 
Mrs. Lowe died September 4, 1862. She was 
a daughter of Captain Theodore Stanwood, of 
Gloucester, and sister to Amelia Stanwood, the 
wife of the Rev. Andrew Bigelow, D.D. 

John Woodward Lowe, a native of Ipswich, 
Mass., was for many years a merchant in 
Gloucester and a highly esteemed citizen. He 
died in 1867. 

On the 22d of March, 1864, Marj' J. Lowe 
was married to Charles Edward Parkhurst, son 
of Charles and Elizabeth (Andrews) Parkhurst. 
Mr. Parkhurst is a prosperous business man of 
Gloucester, being a proprietor of marine rail- 
ways. He is a member of the Indepenilent 
Order of Odd Fellows. Mr. and Mrs. Parkhurst 
have one daughter, Mamie Bessie. She was 
educated in the public schools of Gloucester, 
and in recent years has travelled extensively 
with her mother. Mamie B. Paikhurst is a 
member of Lucy Knox Chapter, Daughters of 
the Revolution. 

Mrs. Parkhurst has been a member of Colonel 
Allen Relief Corps, No. 77, auxiliary to the 



Colonel Allen Post, No. 45, G. A. R., of Glouces- 
ter, since December, 1886, when the corps was 
organized. 

She has held various positions of responsi- 
bility in the corps, and in 1894 was elected 
president, performing the various duties of 
that office with efficiency. The office of de- 
partment aide has several times been conferred 
upon her by tlepartment presidents; and she 
has also been an assistant inspector, serving 
in that official capacity in Ipswich, Salem, and 
Danvers. In 1899 she was department press 
correspondent for the National Tribune. She 
has written many articles for the papers. Mrs. 
Parkhurst has attended nearly all the State 
conventions of the AVoman's Relief Corps during 
the past fifteen years, and has served in official 
positions antl on committees during the ses- 
sions. She has several times been elected a 
delegate by the Department of Massachusetts, 
W. R. C, to national conventions of the order: 
and she was a participant in the national con- 
vention held at Indianapolis, Ind., in 1893, at 
the one held the following year in Pittsburg, 
Pa., also at Louisville, Ky., in 1895, at St. 
Paul, Minn., in 1896, and at Chicago, 111., in 
1900. In February, 1903, she was elected a 
delegate to the national convention in August, 
1903, in California. On account of illness she 
was unable to attend that convention. Referring 
to her patriotic work, she says, "My interest 
in the soldiers' cause is unabated." 

Mrs. Parkhurst is a charter member of the 
Whitney Club, a social organization composed 
of members of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, Woman's Relief Corps, and other friends, 
who journeyed together to the National En- 
campment, G. A. R., at Indianapolis in 1893, 
ami thence to the World's Fair in Chicago. 
Semi-annual reunions of this club have since 
been regularly held. 

Mrs. Parkhurst is actively interested in fra- 
ternal antl charitable objects of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and is a Past Noble 
Grand of Sea-shore Lodge, Daughters of Re- 
bekah. No. 14, of Gloucester. 

The United Order of Independent Odd Ladies 
is an organization that has received her hearty 
support. She has been elected to all the prin- 
cipal offices of the Golden Rod Lodge, No. 35, 



68 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



of Gloucester, and as a Past Senior represent- 
ative is entitled to membership in the State 
body. This order is entirely independent, and 
not connected with the I. 0. of 0. F., although 
its objects are similar. It is one of the oldest 
women's societies in New England, having been 
instituted at East Boston, July 14, 1845. 

Mrs. Parkhurst also has membership in the 
Order of Pocahontas and in the Ladies of the 
G. A. R. in Salem, Mass. She is also a member 
of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
and is in full accord and symjiathy with the 
work of this organization. 

She has a numerous circle of friends, and en- 
tertains many guests at her home, a spacious 
dwelling on Middle Street, in a most hospitable 
manner. 

She is a member of the Congregational church 
in Gloucester and of the Abbot Academy Club, 
which holds its meetings in Boston. Kind- 
hearted, liberal, antl public-spirited, Mrs. Park- 
hurst is a worthy representative of loyal New 
England womanhood. 



HELEN LOUISE GILSON, one of the 
noble band of army nurses who min- 
istered to the soldiers of the Civil 
War in the hospitals and on the battle- 
fields of the South, was born in Boston, Novem- 
ber 22, 1835, and was educated in the jniblic 
schools. Her parents were A.sa, Jr., and Lytlia 
(Cutter) Gilson; her paternal grandparents, 
Asa, Sr., and Susan (Gragg) Gilson. Her 
grandfather Gilson was a native of Groton and 
a lineal descendant of Joseph^ Gilson, who was 
one of the original proprietors of that town. 

Miss Giison's mf>tlier died, a widow, in 1851, 
aged fifty-three. She was a daughter of Jona- 
than'* and Lydia (Trask) Cutter, of West Cam- 
bridge (now Arlington), who were marriefl in 
Lexington, September 15, 1788. Jonathan'' 
Cutter was a descendant of Richard' Cutter, of 
Cambridge (through William,^ William,'' and 
Jonathan'*). He died in 1813. He was prob- 
ably the Jonathan Cutter of Charlestown who 
was registered as a private in Captain Harris's 
company at different dates in 1775. He died 
in 1S13, and his widow in 1818 became the 



wife of one of his kinsmen, William Cutter, a 
Revolutionary soldier and pensioner. 

Helen Loui.se Gilson was graduated from the 
Wells School on I^lossom Street in 1852. In 
September of that year she entered the Girls' 
High and Normal School, one of the first pupils. 
She there continued her studies till her appoint- 
ment as head assistant to Master James Hovey 
of the Phillips School. After teaching five 
years she resigned her position on account of 
ill health. Subse(|uently she was engaged as 
a private teacher for the children of the Hon. 
Frank B. Fay, then Mayor of Chelsea. She 
was of a deeply religious nature, imbued with 
the cheerful faith of I'niversalism, and was a 
member of the church in Chelsea, then under 
the pastoral charge of the Rev. Charles H. 
Leonard, now Dean of Tufts Divinity School. 

The breaking out of the Civil War enkindled 
her patriotism, and it was through conversa- 
tion with Dr. Leonard that she was led to form 
the purpose of becoming an army nurse. Her 
application to be allowed to .serve in this capac- 
ity did not at once meet a favorable response, 
Miss Dorothea L. Dix, superintendent of army 
nurses, considering her too young to go to the 
front. She waited for a time, and directly 
after the evacuation of Yorktown Mr. Fay 
was prominently connected with the Sanitary 
Commission; and, realizing that she would be 
a valuai:)le assistant in tliat .service, he secured 
her a position on one of the hospital boats. 
She went from his house in Chelsea to the war, 
and was with Mr. Fay at all the principal battles. 
For several months her duties were confined to 
these boats, stationed at ilifferent points. 

On September 18, 1862, a few hours after the 
battle of Antietam, she reached the field, re- 
maining on duty tiiere and at Pleasant Valley 
until the wounded had been taken to the gen- 
eral hospitals. November and December of 
the same year found her at work in the camps 
and hospitals near Fredericksburg, Va., during 
the campaign of General Burnsitle., In the 
.spring of 1863 she was there again, being also 
at the battle of Chancellorsville and in the 
Potomac Creek hospital. 

As stated in "Our Army Nurses," a volume 
coini)iled by Mary A. Holland, "when the 
army moved, she joined it at Manassas; but, 





HELEN L. GILSON 




REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



69 



finding that her special diet supplies had been 
lost on the passage, she returned to Washing- 
ton, and went to Gettysburg, arriving a few 
hours after the last day's tiglit. She worked 
here until the wounded had all been sent to 
Base Hospital. In October, November, and 
December, 1863, she worked in the hospitals 
on Folly and Morris Islands, South Carolina, 
when General Gilmore was besieging Fort 
Sumter. Early in 1864 she joined the army 
at Brandy Station, and in May went with the 
Auxiliary Corps of the Sanitary Connnission 
to Fredericksburg, when the battle of the 
Wilderness was being fought." 

She served in the tent, on the field, or in the 
hospitals at Antietani, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, and Gettysburg. In the terrible 
campaigns of the Wilderness and in all the 
other engagements of the Army of the Potomac 
in 1864 antl 1865 she labored unceasingly. 
She was often under fire and suffered many 
hardships, but with unselfish devotion, her only 
thought being that of duty. 

William Howell Reed, in his book upon 
"Hospital Life in the Army of the Potomac," 
has much to say of Miss Gilson and her work, 
his first reminiscence being connected with 
Fredericksburg: "One afternoon just before 
the evacuation, when the atmosphere of our 
rooms was close and foul, and all were longing 
for a breath of cooler Northern air, while the 
men were moaniiig with pain or restless with 
fever, and our hearts were sick with pity for 
the sufferers, I heard a light step upon the 
stairs; and, looking up, I saw a young lady 
enter who brought with her such an atmosphere 
of calm and cheerful courage, so much fresh- 
ness, such an expression of gentle, womanly 
sympathy, that her mere presence seemeil to 
revive the drooping spirits of the men and to 
give them new power of endurance through 
their long hours of suffering. First with one, 
then at the sitle of another, a friendly word 
here, a gentle word and smile there, a tender 
sympathy with each prostrate sufferer, a sym- 
pathy which could read in his eyes his longing 
for home love and for the presence of some 
absent one, in those few moments hers was in- 
deed an angel ministry. Before she left the 
room she sang to them, first some stirring 



national melody, then some sweet or plaintive 
hymn to strengthen the fainting heart; and I 
remember how her notes penetratetl to every 
part of the building. Soldiers with less painful 
wounds, from the rooms above, began to crowd 
out into the entries, and men from below crept 
up on their hands and knees, to catch every 
note and to receive of the benediction of her 
presence, for such it was to them. Then she 
went away. I did not know who she was, but 
I was as much moved and melted as any sol- 
dier of them all." 

When the steamer containing the wounded 
and the members of the Auxiliary Corps left 
Fredericksburg (it being necessary to evacuate 
the town) and reached Port Royal, they were 
besieged by negroes. They came in such num- 
bers and were so earnest in their appeals for 
rescue that a government barge was appropri- 
ated for their use. Mr. Reed says: "A thou- 
santl were stowed upon her decks. They had 
an evening .service of prayer and song, and the 
members of the corps went on board to witness 
it. When their song had ceased. Miss Gilson 
addressetl them. She pictured the reality of 
freedom, told them what it meant and what 
they would have to do. No longer would there 
be a master to deal out the peck of corn, no 
longer a mistress to care for the old people or 
the children. They were to work for them- 
selves, provide for their own sick, and support 
their own infirm ; but all this was to be done 
under new conditions. . . . Then in the simplest 
language she explainetl the difference between 
their former relations with their master and 
their new relations with the Northern people, 
showing that labor here was voluntary, and 
that they could only expect to secure kind 
employers by faithfully doing all they had to 
do. She coun.selled them to be truthful, eco- 
nomical, unselfish, and to guide their lives by 
kindly deeds." 

Cold Harbor and City Point were scenes of 
Miss Gilson's labors, and then in company with 
Mrs. Barlow, wife of General Francis C. Barlow, 
she went to the front of Petersburg. They 
ministered there to the wounded of the Second 
and Eighteenth Army Corps. Afterward for 
several months Miss Gilson was at the Base 
Hospital at City Point. 



70 



REPRESENTATRE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



"Up to this time," says Mr. Reed, "the 
colored troops had taken but a passive part in 
the campaign. They were now first brought 
into action in front of Petersburg, when tlie 
fighting was so desperately contested that many 
thousands were left ujjon the field. The 
wounded were brought down rapidly to City 
Point, where a temporary hospital had been 
provifled. It was, however, in no other sense 
a hospital than that it was a depot for wounded 
men. There were defective management and 
chaotic confusion. The men were neglected, 
the hospital organization was imperfect, and 
the mortality was, in consequence, frightfully 
large. Their condition was horrible. The se- 
verity of the campaign in a malarious country 
had prostrated many with fevers; and typhoid, 
in its most malignant forms, was raging with 
increasing fatality. 

"These stories of suffering reached Miss Gil- 
son at a moment when the previous labors of 
the campaign had nearly exhausted her strength ; 
but her tluty seemed plain. There were no 
volunteers for the emergency, and she prepared 
to go. Her friends declared that she could 
not survive it; but, replying that she could 
not die in a cause more sacred, she started out 
alone. A hospital hatl to be created, antl this 
required all the tact, finesse, and tliplomacy 
of which a woman is capable. Official preju- 
dice anrl professional pride had to be met and 
overcome. A new policy had to be introduced, 
and it had to be done without seeming to inter- 
fere. Her doctrine and practice always were 
instant, cheerful, and silent obedience to medi- 
cal and disciplinary ortlers, without any quali- 
fication whatever; and by this she overcame 
the natural sensitiveness of the medical authori- 
ties. 

" A hospital kitchen had to be organized 
upon the method of special diet; nurses had to 
learn her way, and be educated to their duties; 
while cleanliness, order, system, had to be en- 
forced in the daily routine. Moving quietly 
on with her work of renovation, she took the 
responsibility of all changes that became neces- 
sary; and such harmony prevailed in the camp 
that her policy was vindicated as time rolled 
on. The rate of mortality was lessened, and 
the hospital was now considered the best in 



the department. This was accomplished by a 
tact and energy which sought no praise, but 
modestly veiled themselves behind the orders 
of officials. The management of her kitchen 
was like tlie ticking of a clock — regular disci- 
pline, gentle firmness, and sweet temper always. 
The tliet for the men was changed three times 
a day, and it was her aim, so far as possible, 
to cater to the appetites of indi\adual men. 

"Her daily rounds in the wards brought her 
into personal intercourse with every patient, 
and she knew his special needs. At one time 
nine hundred men were supplied from her 
kitchen. The nurses looked for Miss Gilson's 
word of praise, and labored for it; and she had 
only to suggest a variety in the decoration of 
the tents to stimulate a most honorable rivalry 
among them, which soon opened a wide field 
for displaying ingenuity and taste, so that not 
only was its standard the highest, but it was 
the most cheerfully picturesque hospital at 
City Point." 

It was more than an ordinary task to take 
charge of the colored hospital service, and the 
burden was greater than many men could en- 
dure. But Miss Gilson was ecfual to the emer- 
gency, and gained the love and respect of all 
who associated with her. Mr. Reed, who was 
a witness of her work, said: "As she passed 
through the wards, the men would follow her 
witli their eyes, attracted by the grave sweet- 
ness of her manner, and when she stopped by 
some bedside, and laid her hand upon the fore- 
head and smoothed the hair of some soldier, 
speaking some cheering, pleasant word, I have 
seen the tears gather in his eyes, and his lips 
quiver, as he tried to speak or touch the folds 
of her dress, as if appealing to her to listen 
while he opened his heart about his mother, 
wife, or sister, far away. 

"And in sadiler trials, when the life of a sol- 
dier whom she had watched and ministered to 
was trembling in tiie balance between earth and 
heaven, she has .seemed, by some special grace 
of the Spirit, to reach the living Christ and 
draw a blessing down as the shining way was 
opened to the tomb. I have seen such looks 
of gratitude from weary eyes, now brightened 
l^y visions of heavenly glory, the last of many 
recognitions of her ministry. Absorbed in her 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



71 



work, unconscious of the spiritual beauty 
which invested her daily life — whether in her 
kitchen, in the heat and overcrowtling incident 
to the issues of a large special diet list, or sit- 
ting at the cot of some poor lonely soldier, 
whispering of the higher realities of another 
world — she was always the same presence of 
grace and love, of peace and benediction. 

"I have been with her in the wards where 
the men have crave;l some simple religious 
service — the reading of Scripture, the repeti- 
tion of a psalm, the singing of a hynni, or the 
offering of a prayer — and invariably the men 
were melted to tears by the touching simplicity 
of her eloquence." 

In June, 1865, she was performing service in 
a hospital at Richmond, \a., and subsequently 
she worked with the same earnestness in schools 
for white and coloreil people in that city. 

Returning to Ma.ssachusetts broken in health, 
.she spent some time in a sanitarium. She was 
married October 11, 1866, to Hamilton O-sgood. 
She died in Newton, Mass., April 20, 1868. 
The commemorative services, held in the Uni- 
versalist Church in Chelsea on Sumlay, April 26, 
were interesting and impressive, and attended 
by many friends, including sold rs and other 
army associates. Dr. Leonard, in his sermon 
from the text, "She hath done what she could," 
spoke of her beautiful life as complete in three 
stages — preparation, work, rest. Two hymns — 
"Nearer, my God, to Thee," and "Rest'for the 
Weary" — were hymns that had been favorites 
with Miss Gilson: she had often sung them in 
the hospitals. 

Among the appreciative words called forth 
by her passing were these, dated May 13, 1868, 
written by the Rev. Clay MacCauley, who had 
been an army chaplain. They are here copied 
from the Christian Register: "How well I re- 
member her! We first met in I leasant Valley, 
Md., October, 1862, soon after the battle of 
Antietam. She was then giving the wealth of 
her mind and heart to the sick and woundeil 
soldiers in an old, cheerless log barn we tried to 
call a hospital. What a beautiful minister of 
goodness she was! There on that hard thresh- 
ing-floor she could be seen constantly, often 
sitting beside the sick, speaking tho.se words 
of comfort, smiling those sisterly smiles, read- 



ing those 'words of life,' singing those songs of 
home, country, and heaven, which gave to her 
the name, 'Sweet Mi.ss Gilson.' We all loved 
her. I am sure she made home dearer, life 
purer, and heaven nearer to every one of us. 
When, as it happened so often, some spirit 
was about to be released from its bonds, she 
always took a place beside the dying one and 
received the farewell messages. Then, with 
her pale, uplifted face, always beautiful, but 
never so beautiful as when it lay back looking 
into the workl to which she has herself now 
gone, .she bore the departing soul by the power 
of faith to its rest. They were no false tears 
she sheel. They were no false words she spoke. 
Never seemed touch more gentle than hers. 
Never seemed step so light. It was brightness 
at her coming and sadness at her going. 

" She was brave as she was loving. I have 
seen her sit unmoved and silent in the midst 
of a severe cannonade while soldiers were fleeing 
for refuge. I have seen her almost alone in 
a contraband camp and hospital. In the 
midst of ignorance ill-suited to her, vice that 
must have been repugnant, and squalor in all 
its repulsiveness, she moved, an angel of mercy, 
loving and loved. She gave, in all her minis- 
trations, health to the diseased, comfort, inspi- 
ration to the dying, strength to the timid, knowl- 
edge to the ignorant, and to the depraved the 
beauty of purity. . . . Her earthly life seemed 
but a type of the heavenly." 

The author of the following heartfelt tribute, 
dated April 22, 1868, here quoted but in part, 
wrote from the privilegetl standpoint of long 
anil intimate acquaintance. 

■' H. L. G. 

" To the memory of one whose years, measured by 
the sands of time, were few, not so when reckoned 
by the value of tlie loyal and royal service she per- 
formed. 

"The writer knew her well, in the home, in 
society, and in the more trying experiences of 
the army hospital and the field; and in each 
position and in each relation he felt her good- 
ness of heart and her greatness of soul. He 
loved her for what she has been to those near 
and dear to him, for what she has done for 



72 



REPRESENTATR E WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



others, and for what she has tried to be to all. 
With his family there was no kinship of blood, 
but there grew up in those years of association 
with them in that home a higher relationship 
of reciprocal affection, apjn'cciation, and trust. 

"Her thoughtfulness, her gentleness, her dig- 
nity, and her playfulness showed the strong 
contrasts in her nature, which so singularly 
combined the child and the woman. She was 
charitable in judgment, ready to forgive those 
whose lips had questioned her fidelity or the 
purity of her motives, antl ecjually ready to 
confess her faults. She often said, true affec- 
tion does not make us blind; but, although 
keenly alive to the errors of those we love, we 
can the more readily pardon. With confidence 
in her ability to work in responsible positions, 
she was humble, and did not desire notoriety, 
declining always to furnish for publication any 
history of her army life. 

"Her faculty in arranging a hospital, her 
tact in managing the patients and the soldier 
nurses, her ability to pray and sing with dying 
men, to conduct religious and funeral cere- 
monies, her adaptation to circumstances, her 
courage in hours of danger — all fitted her for 
the service she performed. ... In her presence 
the profane lip was silent, and she won the re- 
spect and love alike of friend and stranger, of 
the aged, of whom she was so thoughtful, and 
of the young, whom she so readily instructed 
and amused. 

"Loving her Saviour, she loved the divinity 
in our humanity, and believed that all good 
thoughts, words, deeds, are divine; that we are 
but the channel through which they flow, and 
that the divine current is sure to deposit in 
our hearts the seeds of constant joy. This was 
the only reward she sought." ... — f. b. f. 

The monument erected over her grave in 
Woodlawn Cemetery, Chelsea, bears this in- 
scription : — 

HELEN L. GILSON 

A TRIBUTE FROM SOLDIERS 
OF THE WAR OF 1861 TO 1865 
FOR SELF-SACRIFICING LABORS 
IN THE ARMY HOSPITALS 



On each Memorial Day the monument is 
decked with flowers, and an appropriate service 
is conducted by the Woman's Relief Corps of 
East Boston. Truly a martyr to the Union 
cau.se, it is meet that she should be held in 
grateful, loving remembrance. 



MARY SEARS McHENRY, past Na- 
tional President of the Woman's Re- 
lief Corps, while a resident of Deni- 
son, la., is a native of Berkshire 
County, Massachusetts, and comes of old colo- 
nial stock. She was born in New Boston vil- 
lage, in the town of Sandisfield, December 30, 
1834, daughter of David G. and Olive (Deming) 
Sears. Her father was son of Paul" and Rachel 
(Granger) Sears, of Sandisfield, and a descend- 
ant in the seventh generation of Richard Sears 
(or Sares, as formerly spelled), of Yarmouth, 
Mass., the line being: Richard,' Paul,^ ' Joshua,' 
Paul,' " David G.' The name of Richard Sares 
was on the tux list of Plymouth Colony in March, 
1633. In 1639 he settled with others at a place 
on Cape Cod which they named Yarmouth. 

His grandson, PauP Sears, of Yarmouth, 
married in 1693 Mercy Freeman, daughter of 
Thomas'' Freeman and grand-daughter of John 
and Mercy (Prence) Freeman, Mercy Prence 
being a daughter of Governor Thomas Prence, 
of Plymouth Colony, by his wife Patience, who 
was a daughter of William Brewster, Elder of 
the church of Scrooby, Leyden, and Plymouth. 
Patriots, scholars, and philanthropists have 
been numbered among the posterity of Richard 
Sears of Yarmouth. The late Barnas Sears, 
D.D., LL.D., sometime President of Brown 
University and afterward superintendent of 
the Peabody Educational Fund, was a son of 
Paul" Sears and an uncle of Mrs. McHenry. 

David G. Sears, after the birth of his daugh- 
ter Mary, resided successively in Hartford, 
Conn., and in New York City, engaged in mer- 
cantile business, and subsequently settled in 
Ogle County, Illinois, where he purchased a 
section of land and applied himself to farm- 
ing. Mary Sears completed her school studies 
at the seminary (now college for women) in 
Rockford, 111. On the 28th of January, 1864, 
she was married to William A. McHenry, 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



73 



who was orderly Sergeant of Company S, 
Eighth Illinois Cavalry, and was then at home 
on a veteran's furlough. He continued in the 
service of his country, returning to Washington 
after his marriage ami rejoining his regiment. 
His brother held the office of treasurer of Craw- 
ford County, Iowa, and Mrs. McHenry was ap- 
pointed his deputy. A\'hen her husband re- 
turned from the war, they settled in Denison, 
la., where they still make their home. Mr. Mc- 
Henry is a banker and a breeder of Angus cattle. 
He is interested in the Relief Corps and also in 
other patriotic and charitable work in which 
his wife is a leader. 

He was Department Commander of Iowa 
G. A. R., 1886-87, ami represented that order 
in San Francisco at the National Encampment, 
G. A. R., in 1886. The local camp of Sons of 
Veterans bears his name, W. A. McHenry 
Camp, S. of v.. No. 53. 

In July, 1883, at the convention in Denver, 
Col., of all the women's societies in the country 
that were working for the Grand Army of the 
Republic, Mrs. McHenry was an unauthorized 
representative from Iowa. The Denver con- 
vention resulted in the organization of the Na- 
tional Woman's Relief Corps. Upon Mrs. Mc- 
Henry's return to Denison a local corps was 
formed under her leadership. She was electetl 
President thereof, and was active in the work 
throughout the State. After serving in various 
other capacities, she was chosen Department 
President of Iowa, and later served as Depart- 
ment Treasurer. At the convention held in 
Tremont Temple, Boston, in July, 1890, Mrs. 
McHenry was elected National President, to 
succeed Mrs. Annie Wittenmyer. Her admin- 
istration was conducteil in an able manner, and 
in her travels in several States of the I'nion 
she gave such a favorable impression of the 
order that many corps and members were aiUled 
to its rolls. At the 'next national convention, 
in Detroit, Mich., in August, 1891, Mrs. Mc- 
Henry gave a detailed and interesting account 
of the year's work. "The year has been to 
me," she .said, "full of responsibilities hereto- 
fore unknown, yet I have enjoyed the work and 
found a rare pleasure in the ]ierformance of 
varied and oftentimes complicated duties. The 
months as I recall them seem but as days, and 



the time has flown too quickly for me to ac- 
complish all I had hopetl and desiretl to do. . . . 
The membership of our order has steadily in- 
creased in number ami influence during the 
year, antl is represented in every State of the 
Union but one — Alabama — and all the Terri- 
tories except Indian, Idaho, and Alaska. Even 
Canada claims its post and auxiliary corps (Gen- 
eral Hancock Post and Corps of Montreal), 
which are attached to the Department of Ver- 
mont. Three liundretl and sixty-two corps 
have been instituted during the year, with a 
membership of seven thousand two hundred." 

The net gain during the year was reported 
as twelve thousand six hundred seventeen mem- 
bers, and the total membership as one hundred 
seventeen thousand fifty-eight. Referring to 
work among the colored people, Mrs. McHenry 
stated that there were Relief Corps in Virginia, 
the Carolinas, in Florida, Louisiana, Georgia, 
Arkansas, Tennessee, and Mississippi, auxiliary 
to colored posts. Seven of these were insti- 
tuted during the year. "Their ritualistic work 
may be imp(>rfect," .she said, "but their zeal and 
loyalty are unabated, and they accomplish 
much good in their own way among their own 
people." Referring to Memorial Day, she 
stated that many appeals for this object were 
received from the several Department Com- 
manders within whose jurisdiction were located 
national cemeteries with their tens of thousands 
of Union soldiers. She ackncnvledged the liberal 
tlonations of corps in tlepartments where com- 
ratles sufferetl from severe drought during the 
past season. 

A part of her address relatetl to the National 
Woman's Relief Corps Home, of which she 
spoke in congratulatory terms, as follows : " This 
first year in the history of our National W. R. C. 
Home has been one of unwonted prosperity 
and success. The sympathy and co-operation 
of the people have been expressed in every 
po.ssible manner, and their gifts for its equip- 
ment and support have been generous even to 
lavishness. ... A most princely gift is the ap- 
propriation by the Ohio Legislature of twenty- 
five thousand dollars for the erection of a cot-- 
tage upon the home grounds. We asked for 
twenty-five hundretl dollars, and the State 
gave us twenty-five thousand dollars. This is 



74 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



the highest recognition of the Woman's Relief 
Corps and its work that has ever been given, 
and is truly a crown of glory to this adminis- 
tration and the seal of future possibilities." 
Quoting from the report of the Invalid Pension 
Committee of Congress, to whom the bill for 
pensions for army nurses had been referred, she 
continued : " I trust the work of securing special 
pensions will he pushed to the utmost. The 
greatest obstacle in the way seems to be the 
defective record of army nurses in the War 
Department. Twenty-six thousand names of 
women are enrolled. Eighteen thousand of 
them have no record whatever. Six thousand 
two hundred and. eighty-one are mentioned as 
army nurses, but four thousand six hundred 
and ninety-four of these have no statement as 
to the authority by which they were appointed. 
It is not probable that Congress will pass a 
general pension law for army nurses until a 
satisfactory record is made. Therefore I be- 
lieve it is of the utmost importance that this 
record of the W\ar Department be corrected 
and, if possible, completed. This will require 
a vast amount of time, patience, work, and in- 
fluence, an immense correspondence, and some 
money. But the women who served their 
country amid the i)erils of war deserve some- 
thing at our hands; and, if we cannot secure 
for them pensions while living, let us build for 
them a monument of tleeds, recorded in the 
military register of the nation. Many, very 
many of them are dead. All will soon be gone. 
Then let us not allow their heroic services to 
sink into oblivion, but take immediate action 
toward the accomplishment of this work." 

In closing her address, Mrs. McHenry pre- 
sented several recommendations of value to 
the work, and expressed thanks to many friends 
for courtesies received. 

On motion of Mrs. Kate B. Sherwood, past 
National President, the convention extended 
thanks to Mrs. McHenry "for her exemplifi- 
cation of all the womanly qualities enjoined 
by the obligations of our order while presiding 
over this convention." Mrs. McHenry re- 
sponded: "Ladies, I thank you. Time is too 
precious for me to use it in telling of my ap- 
preciation of all the kind things you have said 
and done for me, not only here in convention. 



but during the whole year. I trust the friend- 
ships thus formed will grow warmer as our years 
increase. Parting is the one 'sweet sorrow' of 
our conventions; but, as I claim you all as 'my 
daughters,' I trust each one will remember me 
with the same fraternal love I bear you, and 
in that lovely 'somewhere' we shall all meet 
to 'go out no more forever.' " 

Mrs. McHenry has continued her active inter- 
est in the work of the National Woman's Relief 
Corps, and has been a liberal contributor to 
various charities, expending her money freely 
for benevolent objects. Enjoying the cjuiet of 
her home life, she is interested in public work 
only for the good she can accomplish. Mr. and 
Mrs. McHenry have four children, two sons and 
two daughters, who are perpetuating the prin- 
ciples of patriotism by membership in the so- 
cieties of S. of v., W. R. C, and Sons and 
Daughters of the Revolution. 



LOUISE C. PURINGTON, M.D., Na- 
tional Superintendent W. C. T. U.. 
__J Department Health and Heredity. — 
Mary Louise Chamberlain, as Dr. Pur- 
ington was christened, was born near Madison, 
N.Y., in one of the lovely hamlets, or "hol- 
lows," of the Empire State. The youngest 
child of Isaac and Harriet (Putnam) Chamber- 
lain, she traces her descent through her mother 
from the Putnam family of Danvers, originally 
known as Salem Village, Mass. 

The immigrant progenitor of this family, 
John Putnam, died in 1662, some twenty years 
or more after his arrival in the colony. Three 
sons of John' handed down the family name. 
They were: Thomas,^ grandfather of General 
Israel Putnam; NathanieP; ami John, Jr.,^ who 
fought in King Philip's War, and was aftex- 
ward a Captain of militia. Elcazer' Putnam, 
born in 1665, seventh child of Captain John^ 
and his wife, Rebecca Prince, was a deacon of 
the church in Danvers. The farm on which he 
settled lies north of the General Israel Putnam 
house. Henry* Putnam, born in 1712, son of 
Deacon Eleazer^ and his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, dauglder of Benjamin and Apphia (Hale) 
Rolfe, of Newbury, removed in middle life 
from Danvers to "Charlestown, where he kept 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



75 



school, and thence about the year 1763, it is 
thought, removed to Medford. A stanch pa- 
triot, seizing his gun on the ahirm of April 19, 
1775, he set forth to meet the foe, anil was 
killed at the battle of Lexington, being then 
in his sixty-fourth year. He was Dr. Puring- 
ton's great-great-grandfather. Eleazer^ Put- 
nam, born in Danvers in 1738, son of Henry^ 
and his wife Hannah, was a farmer, and resided 
in Medford. In April, 1775, he served five 
days as a private in Captain Isaac Hall's com- 
pany. 

Dr. Elijah" Putnam, Dr. Purington's maternal 
grandfather, son of Eleazer'' and Mary (Crosby) 
Putnam, was born in Medford, Mass., in 1769. 
He died in January, 1S51, in Madison, N.Y., 
where he had practised medicine many j-ears. 
His wife was Phebe, daughter of Captain Abner 
Ward. They had ten children — Frances, John, 
Phebe, Samuel and Sidne>y (twins), Hamilton, 
Harriet (Mrs. Chamberlain), Mary (Mrs. Adin 
Howard), Caroline, and Henry Locke. Two 
of the sons were physicians. 

Dr. Purington was early orphaned, and owes 
her liberal education to her aunt Mary and 
uncle Adin Howard, who, with rare philan- 
thropy, adopted seven children. From the 
beautiful village home of the Howards at 
Madison, N.Y., Louise, a child of twelve years, 
was sent to the Utica Academy. At nineteen 
she was graduated from Mount Holyoke Semi- 
nary and ten years later from the Hahnemann 
Medical College, Chicago, supplementing the 
course with advanced study and clinical ex- 
perience in the hospitals and dispensaries of 
New York City. It was the same bent that 
led the young girl, just out of school, to offer 
herself as a hospital nurse in the service of the 
United States Christian Commission. George 
H. Stuart, of Philadelphia, was at the head of 
the department, and had given to each member 
of the class of 1864 at Mount Holyoke, in which 
she was graduated, a silver pin, appropriately 
inscribed, in recognition of their self-ilenying 
gift of money — the price of the customary class 
badge — to the work of the c(;mmission. 

At the Hahnemann College Dr. Purington 
took first rank, with one other stutlent leading 
her large class, its only woman graduate. A 
powerful motive prompting her to this study, 



at a time when the world looked askance at 
the woman tloctor, was her cherished belief in 
the ecjuality of the .sexes and her desire to see 
women not only entering every open door, but 
pushing open those that stood ajar. One who 
vividly remembers the graduating exercises of 
her class and the applause that greeted the one 
woman, young, beautiful, and poised, .who rose 
to receive her diploma, says of that bit of his- 
tory, " It set forward perceptibly the woman's 
hour." It by no means closed Dr. Purington's 
student life. Her scholarly habits were formed 
and crystallized in life and character. A signal 
.service rendered to her sex, which resultetl in 
preventing Halmemaim College from taking the 
backwanl step of excluding women from its 
courses, brought her into close relation and 
finally intimate friendship with Mrs. Kate N. 
Doggett, a social and intellectual leader in 
Chicago, the founder and promoter of the 
Fortnightly, one of the leading literary clubs 
of women in America. Dr. Purington served 
as chairman of its classical committee, and 
wrote several scholarly papers. 

But literary and professional interests could 
not long suffice a spirit touched to finer issues. 
The temperance crusade reached Chicago. 
Frances E. Willard came in from Evanston to 
arldress a mass meeting. The young doctor 
heard her ringing words, respondetl to the 
bugle-eall of spirit to spirit, sought her leader- 
ship, and became her co-worker and lifelong 
friend. The association of that year with the 
great leader of temperance reform was invalu- 
able to Dr. Purington, opening new perspec- 
tives for an as])iring nature. She regards Miss 
Willard's influence as among the dominant 
forces in her life, and especially owes to it her 
ultimate devotion to the temperance cause. 
An immediate result was the formation of the 
first "Y," or Young Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance LTnion, at her home in Chicago. 

In the mission field, also, Dr. Purington 
specialized in young women's work. As an 
active member for twelve years of the Woman's 
Board of Missions of the Interior, she originated 
and carried forward the young ladies' work. 
She was playfully called " Bi.'ihop of the Girls 
of the Interior" and popularly known as "En- 
gineer of the Bridge," an ingenious device in 



76 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



mission work by which she aroused enthusiasm 
and secured unity of action in the societies 
she formed. Her interest in foreign missions 
can be traced to a favorite teacher at Mount 
Holyoke. To that teacher, Ann Eliza Fritcher, 
afterward a missionary under the American 
Board, founder and long-time principal of the 
Girls' School at Marsovaii, Turkey, Dr. Puring- 
ton feels the deepest spiritual obligation. 

Life, almost all life, has its tragic side. This 
one was not exempt. A nervous breakdown 
came, the consequence of anxiety and over- 
work; and for two years or more there was a 
physical, mental, and spiritual " walk in the 
dark with God." The (lisability had its com- 
pensations in a long residence at Clifton Springs 
Sanitarium and the help and blessing of Dr. 
Henry Foster. Out of pathos unspeakable, 
disaster, and defeat, came a knowledge of things 
unseen and eternal, and a buoyant faith in God 
that has been the mightiest factor in Dr. Pur- 
ington's spiritual life. A gradual restoration 
was followed by change of scene and surround- 
ings and a new home in the serener atmosphere 
of Boston. With Miss P'dla Gilbert Ives, the 
friend who is one with her in motive, interest, 
and aim. Dr. Purington has been associated 
since 1885 in a school for girls, at the same 
time giving herself without stint to philan- 
thropic work. For ten years she has held an 
influential position in the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, nmning the gamut of 
local and county president, local. State, and 
national superintendent, and of late editor of 
the State paper. She served several years as 
national superintendent of franchise, and com- 
piled for Miss Willard the facts used by her in 
her annual addresses to exhibit the progress 
of women. In 1895 Dr. Purington was trans- 
ferred to the department of health antl he- 
redity, which, as national superintendent, she 
has thoroughly organized and developed, rally- 
ing to her a,ssistance State superintendents and 
a host of earnest workers in her great con- 
stituency. 

The aim of her department is the develop- 
ment of the highest life, physical, mental, and 
spiritual, and not only this, but also the clean- 
est, healthiest civic life. It includes co-opera- 
tion with boards of health in the enforcement 



of health ordinances; school hygiene and sani- 
tation, instruction in the laws of health in re- 
lation to dress, food, air, exercise, cleanliness, 
mental and moral hygiene. The department 
is active in trying to secure the passage of pure 
food bills, legislative enactments relating to 
public health, milk and poultry inspection, etc., 
all of which work covers a wide field of en- 
deavor, and is attended year by year with in- 
creasingly good results. 

In 1903, at the World's Convention of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union in 
Geneva, Switzerland, Dr. Purington was ap- 
pointed World's Suijerintendcnt of the depart- 
ment co-operation with missionary societies; 
thus being enabled to unify her life-long work 
in two great Jields of Christian activity. 

In both missionary and temperance lines Dr. 
Purington's contributions to leading periodicals, 
her manuals and leaflets, have won recognition 
and hearty praise. Especially valuable arc 
her life studies in the field of health and hered- 
ity. Her character and literary style are for- ^- 
ful, original, and clear-cut. She says o icr- 
self, '"The open secret of my life is the same 
as Charles Kingsley's: I have a friend, not only 
the One above all others, but in the sweetest 
human sense, as interpreted by Jeremy Taylor: 
' By friendship I suppose you mean the greatest 
love, and the greatest usefulness, and the most 
open communication, and the noblest suffer- 
ings, and the most exemplary faithfulness, and 
the severest truth, and the heartiest coun.sels, 
and the greatest union of minds of which brave 
men and women are capable.' " Her intellectual 
awakening she tlates from the early beginning 
of this friendship, which has been to her a chief 
source of happiness as well as of stimulus to 
growth. She believes with Evelyn, "There is 
in friendship something of all relations and 
something above them all." 



ALICE KENT ROBERTSON, now 
/ \ known in private life as Mrs. Truman 
X JL IjPP (iuimby, is the only child of the 
Hon. William Henry and Rebecca 
(Prentiss) Kent, late of Charlestown, both de- 
ceased. 
Alice Kent was born on Staniford Street, 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



77 



Boston, October 16, 1S53, when the old West 
End was the residence of some of the leading 
citizens. A few years later the Kent faniilj' 
moved to Belmont, Mass., and thence to 
Charlestown, where, in the olil and spacious 
house, 25 Monument Square, the daughter still 
lives with her present husbatnl, Truman Lee 
Quimby, to whom she was marrietl November 
21, 1901. 

Her education was acquired in private schools, 
the one from which she was graduated having 
been Miss Catherine Will^y's, afterward Miss 
Ellen Hubbard's, at 52 Bowdoin Street, Boston. 

From her early childhood Alice Kent's love 
for reading and recitation was pronounced, and 
this taste was carefully nurtvu'(Ml during the 
last three years of her school life by her teacher 
in literature, the late Theodore Weld. His en- 
thusiasm for the study of Shakespeare he was 
.successful in transmitting to his pupils, being 
especially so in her case. She first appeared 
on the amateur stage in Boston in 1871, taking 
the role of Lady \'iola Harleigh in " Dreams of 
Delusion," and showed unusual promise for 
a girl of eighteen. The part of Sir Bernard 
Harleigh was played by George Riddle. 

Some time afterward Miss Sarah Starr (aunt 
of the renowned Starr King), a woman of 
marked individuality and culture, and pos- 
sessed of discriminating literary taste, urged 
her young friend Alice Kent to interest herself 
in Robert Browning. The poet was then gen- 
erally consideretl too obscure for comprehen- 
sion, and was not widely read in this countr}'. 
Miss Starr, who was an ardent admirer of 
lirowning, little thought that this suggestion 
would, after her death, be so richly fruitful. 
The inunediate result was the i)urchase of 
two second-hand volumes of Browning, which 
the girl read with lukewarm interest from time 
to time. 

Alice Kent was married in Charlestown, in 
1879, to William Duncan Robertson, M.D., 
and until his death, in 1883, resided with him 
at Stanstead, P.Q., returning then to the 
Charlestown home of lier j^arents. The mar- 
riage was without issue. 

In the years directly following, Mrs. Robert- 
son carried on by herself a serious study oi 
Browning, so that when the Boston Browning 



Society was formed in 1885 she was ready to 
take great interest in its work. At one of the 
early meetings her interpretation of "James 
Lee's Wife" was received with marked favor, 
being the forerunner of her later success in this 
line. Until 1889 Mrs. Robertson's work was 
in ever-increasing demand, and she read en- 
tirely for charity on numberless occasions. 

In 1890 she made a tleparture in her work 
by giving a subscription course of readings 
from Shakespeare and Browning in Boston 
drawing-rooms. Her immediate success war- 
rantetl her continuance, and she appeared before 
many wonien's clubs in and about Boston until 
1897, when, on January 20, she gave her first 
public reading at the Christian Association 
Hall, Boston. 

During Mrs. Robertson's school-days Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe started a girls' club in the 
Back Bay district, Boston, to meet Saturtlay 
mornings to read and discuss literature, with 
the idea of fostering the literary passion which 
her youngest daughter and her friends had 
acquired at school. This Saturday Morning 
Club gave occasional theatricals for charity, 
and in a production of Tennyson's "Princess," 
in May, 1885, Mrs. Robertson for the first time 
essayed a man's part, playing the Prince with 
much skill. At another time the club pro- 
duced Browning's "In a Balcony" in Charles 
Adams's little hall on Tremont Street, ^\vs. 
Robertson taking the part of the Qu^en. Th.is 
proved so successful that by urgent request 
the performance was repeated in New Yoi'k, 
for charity, at the Berkeley Lyceum Theatre. 
Mrs. Robertson has played the t^ueen manj^ 
times. Mr. Edward H. Clement, editor-in- 
chief of the Boston Evening Transcript, says 
of her in an editorial, April 3, 1897: "To judge 
only by her truly thrilling performance — at 
once graceful and tender and overw'helmingly 
powerful — of the Queen in Browning's Balcony, 
if Mrs. Robertson should go upon the profes- 
sional stage and play the great tragic roles, 
the Saturday Morning Club would gain perma- 
nent fame as the Alma Mater of the finest 
genius of tragedy since Ristori." 

The next noteworthy performance of this 
club was the Sophocles "Antigone," with Mrs. 
Robertson as Creon the King. The play was 



78 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



given at Bumstead Hall, Boston, March, 1890, 
and was a great artistic success. In the diffi- 
cult nMe of Creon, Mrs. Robertson showed the 
possibilities that were later to win her fame in 
the "Winter's Tale," which was given in Feb- 
ruary, 1895. The extraordinary interest awak- 
ened by this performance will not soon be for- 
gotten. Historically it was absolutely correct, 
dramatically it was a revelation. Boston was 
familiar with the play only through Mary 
Anderson's production of it during her last visit 
here. Her Leontes was a man of no great 
dramatic power, who.se work was mediocre and 
colorless. Mrs. Robertson had fairly to create 
the part. The Boston Transcript referred as 
follows to hei' undertaking: "To conciuer Le- 
ontes with tone and dress and stride and man- 
ner is, to begin with, an apparently impossible 
task, but it was accomplished. 

" ' The king himself has followed her 
"VVTieii she has walked before.' 

Then to win sympathy to the mea.sure of the 
dramatist's desire for the tyrant who doomed 
fair Hermione to death is a trial for kn actor. 
Mrs. Robertson has added to the capabilities 
revealed in Creon, and shows a depth of pas- 
sion and power of uncjualified merit. Criti- 
cism of her work must mean chiefly an attempt 
at appreciation." 

Henry A. Cla))p, dramatic critic of the Bos- 
ton Daily Advertiser, in the issue of January 
21, IS97, says- "Mrs. Robertson has a fine 
stage presence, an earnest, dignifietl, antl un- 
affected manner, and a noble voice, the reach 
and symi)athetic adaptai)ility of which are re- 
markable, the range being from a great depth 
of note, with the quality of a profound mascu- 
line bass, up to a fair me?zo-soprai\o altitude. 
Her enunciation is excellent, and her pronun- 
ciati(m very near perfection, both having the 
constant mark of cultivation. Thus richly 
furnished with the tools of her art, Mrs. Robert- 
son's performance demonstrated (what her 
friends have claimed for her) that her powerful 
and clear intelligence, pure taste, soimd judg- 
ment, and dramatic sensibility would bring her 
great natural gifts to noble results. Her read- 
ing of the balcony scene from ' Romeo and 
Juliet' put it once niore where it belongs — in 



the Garden of Eden before the fall. Mrs. 
Robertson's interpretation of Arlo Bates's 'The 
Sorrow of Rohab' is to be singled out for ex- 
ceptional praise. Its heroic aspects were shown 
\\ith full fire and potency, and its love lyrics 
were so given that their excjuisite nmsic seemed 
to proceed from an accomplished singer, ac- 
companied by an orchestra, rather than from 
a mere reader using the reatler's tones. Many 
of the audience will find the repetitions of 
'Sweetheart, sweetheart,' as strains of pas- 
sionate music which shall long haunt the mem- 
ory and surge up from it to stir the heart. The 
best word yet remains to be said: Mrs. Robert- 
son practises none of the teasing and trivial 
trick(>ries of vocal gymnastics which are the 
ojjprobria of vulgar elocutionism ; she eschews 
superelaboration and over-accent, which clog 
the wheels of the great authors. In short, her 
reading is a triumph of intelligence and sym- 
pathy skilfully applied to great natural gifts. 

"To fully appreciate the depth arul power 
of Mrs. Robertson's work it nmst be borne in 
mind that she has never receiAcd any instruc- 
tion in .so-called elocution. To be sure, in 
the Saturday Morning Club performances she, 
with the others, was coached by Mr. Franklin 
Haven Saigent, of New Yoik, and she grate- 
fullj' acknowledges deep indebtedness to the 
late William H. Ladd, of Chauncy Hall School, 
for criticism of .some of her Shakespeare read- 
ings: but. in the large, it may truthfully be 
said that she is self-taught. This very lack 
of conventional training it is which gives to 
her work the delightful freshness and originality 
for which it is remarkalile. Moreover, Mrs. 
Robertson has not only the voice and personal- 
ity to help her in her work, but also the sym- 
pathy and the intellectual (jnalities which 
worthy inter|)retation of great poets like Brown- 
ing, Tennyson, and Shakespeare demands. Her 
fervor has been compared to Fanny Kemble's, 
and her power of carrying her audience with 
her is certainly masterful. Though it is per- 
haps as a reader of Browning that sIk; has ap- 
peared most often in drawing-rf)oms, Mrs. 
Robert-son finds her fullest o])])ortunities in 
Shakespeare." 

Her repertory of readings al.so includes Haupt- 
mann's "The Sunken Bell," Stephen Phillips's 




MARIE D. FAELTEN 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



79 



"Paolo and Francesca," and the French Cana- 
dian dialect poems of Henry Druiiirnond. 



MARIE DEWING FAELTEN, one 
of the foremost of the young piano 
teachers of Boston, was born in 
.San Francisco, Cal., April 26, 1869, 
being the eldest child of the Rev. Charles Shum- 
way and Louie E. (Collins) Dewing. Her father 
was born in Pennsylvania, his parents, Ed- 
ward and Susan Dewing, having removed to 
that State from their old home in Salisbury, 
Conn. The Rev. Charles S. Dewing was for 
a number of years a teacher of Hebrew anil 
Greek in Princeton College, of which he was 
a gratiuate. Later he became a Presbyterian 
minister, and preached in the West. He came 
to Massachusetts in 1<S,S6. He established a 
church in Sonierville, which became self-sus- 
taining before he left to accept the broader 
duties of minister at large. Afterward he 
established churches in Brookline, Brockton, 
Hyde Park, Haverhill, Waltham, and Spring- 
field. Mrs. Dewing, who survives her hus- 
band, is now living in Boston. She was born 
in Washington, D.C. Her parents were James 
and Catherine (Osborn) Hoagland, natives of 
New Jersey and descendants of early settlers. 
Mr. Hoagland lost his life while on duty in the 
United States war-ship "San Jacinto" in Chi- 
nese waters some time in the fifties of last cen- 
tury. Mrs. Hoagland afterward married C. E 
Collins, of California, and her little daughter, 
legally adopted by him, became Louie E. Col- 
lins. Colonel James Osborn, the father of 
Catherine (Mrs. Hoagland), and his brother. 
Colonel Abraham, native-born residents of 
the old Osborn homestead near Manasquan, 
Monmouth County, N.J., were officers of the 
American army in the War of 1812, serving 
with honor. Their father, Samuel Osborn, 
fought in the Revolution. He was taken pris- 
oner, but made his escape, with a neighbor 
named Allen. His farm was seven times raideil 
by the Briti.sh. 

The earliest bearer of this surname in New 
England was probably Thomas Osborn, who 
in 1635 was at Hingliam, Mass., whence he 
removed to Connecticut. In 1649-50 he was 



one of the founders of East Hampton, L.I. 
His sons Joseph ami Jeremy settled in Eliza- 
beth, N.J. 

A similar name is that of William Fitz Os- 
bern, that is, William son of Osbern (spelled 
with an e), who went to England in 1066 with 
William the Conqueror and after the battle 
of Hastings was made Earl of Hereford. 

At the age of eight years Marie Dewing began 
her musical education under Miss A. L. Benson 
in Binghamton, N.Y., and later continued her 
studies at Tuscarora Academy in Peimsyl- 
vania. After the removal of her parents to 
Boston in 1886, she entered the New England 
Conservatory of Music, taking up her studies 
under Mr. Carl Faelten, and graduating in 
1890, while he was director of the Conserva- 
tory. In the fall of the same year she became 
one of the teachers in pianoforte and hand 
culture and superintendent of the normal de- 
partment. During this period she introduced 
the fundamental training course in the chil- 
dren's classes and established a children's 
matinee. Weekly lectures upon pedagogi- 
cal subjects to teachers in the normal depart- 
ment also became a regular feature through 
her efforts. In the meantime she was organ- 
ist at her father's church in Sonierville, taking 
charge of musical affairs and giving her hearty 
support to all church work. 

During the season of 1894 she met Mr. Rein- 
hold Faelten, brother of the director and a 
teacher in the Conservatory. On June 23, 

1896, they were married, both remaining on 
the staff of Conservatory teachers for another 
season, when they resigned to associate them- 
selves with Mr. Carl Faelten in the Faelten 
Pianoforte School, which he established in 

1897, after resigning his directorship in the 
Conservatory, at the close of seven successful 
years. The Faelten Pianoforte School, to the 
work of which both Mr. and Mrs. Faelten have 
devoted themselves assitluously, soon outgrew 
its quarters on Boylston Street, and now occu- 
pies a complete floor in the new Huntington 
Chambers. Its steady growth proves the merits 
of the principles. on which it is reared. Cla.ss 
work is a feature of the school. The pupils 
are assembled in large class-rooms, with sev- 
eral pianos in each, and are tlrilied in the prin- 



80 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ciples of music, including sight playing, key- 
board, written harmon'y, touch, and technique. 
The piano lessons proper are given privately 
or in small classes of from two to four students. 

A pupil studying at the Faelten Pianoforte 
School finishes his course a well-roundetl mu- 
sician, not only skilled in technique, but with 
an understanding of the great masters, great 
compositions, and musical history, which gives 
him a right to claim to be thoroughly educated 
in music. This instruction week by week is 
the best thing to supi)ly that musical atmos- 
phere which makes the German conservatories 
so valuable to students of music. One feels 
that Mr. Faelten has surrounded his pupils 
with a musical spirit which is a stimulus to 
growth; and their public recitals prove that 
"concentrated attention, positive knowledge, 
intelligent ear, reliable memory, fluency in 
sight reading, and artistic ])ianoforte playing 
are developed simultaneously." 

Mrs. Faelten with her original ideas, cheer- 
ful nature, and love of music, although yet a 
young woman, has made a place for herself 
in the foremost rank of nmsic teachers. Her 
teaching and playing are an inspiration to both 
pupil and audience. She has a large circle 
of frientls in both the social anil musical world, 
anfl is much sought after outside of her pro- 
fession. 



y^NNIE GERTRUDE MURRAY, presi- 
ZA dent, 1901-1902, of the New England 
X .\. Woman's Press Association, is a Bos- 
tonian by birth and education. Her 
father, William Devine, who died in 1878, was 
one of Boston's pioneer dealers in North River 
flagging stone. Mrs. Murray resides with her 
mother, at the old homestead 525 East Fifth 
Street, South Boston. Her brothers are: 
John A. and James V., engaged in the real 
estate business in South Boston and Dorchester; 
and William H., who is a popular medical 
practitioner in South Boston; Dr. Devine, late 
Lieutenant Colonel of the Second Massachu- 
setts Brigade, who served in the Spanish- 
American War. 

In 1890 Annie G. Devine became the wife of 
George F. H. Murray, who bears the title of 



Major, won by services in the Spanish-American 
War. 

Educated in Notre Dame Convent, Roxbury, 
Mass., Mrs. Murray early showed a talent for 
literary composition, her stories appearing in 
the early eighties in various magazines and 
papers under the nom de plume "Annetta." 

In late years articles from Mrs. Murray's 
pen — stories, sketches, and poems, have ap- 
peared in the Boston Transcript, Herald, 
Traveler, Post, the Pilot, the National and 
Donahoe's Magazine, and many out of town 
papers and other magazines. Mrs. Murra}' has 
composed many songs. 

In 1901 Mrs. Murray was unanimously chosen 
to serve as president of one of the leading asso- 
ciations of women in New England — namely, 
the New England Woman's Press Association, 
which was formed in 1885 and incorporated in 
1890. Its object is "to jiromote acfjuaintance 
and good fellowship among newspaper women, 
and to forward by concerted action, through 
the press, such good objects in .social, philan- 
thropic, and reformatory lines as may from 
time to time present themselves." During its 
existence of eighteen years this association has 
given receptions to many distinguished people. 
The "gentlemen's nights," held each year in Feb- 
ruary, have been notable affairs. A journalists' 
fund gives aid to "distressed newspaper people, 
in need of temporary help, whether in or out of 
the a.ssociation." The two years under Mrs. 
Murray's administration were years of added 
prosperity and harmony. The N. E. W. P. A. 
is a member of the National Federation of 
Women's Clubs and of the Boston Committee 
of Council and Co-operation of the State Fed- 
eration. Its honorary members are Julia Ward 
Howe, Margaret Deland, Louise Chandler Moul- 
ton, Harriet Prescott Spofford, Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps Ward, Mary A. Livermore, and Ednah 
D. Cheney. 

Mrs. Murray was appointed by Mayor Quincy 
anil re-appointed by Ma3'or Hart as one of the 
Trustees of the Children's Institutions of Suf- 
folk Coimty. This position, an unpaid one, 
makes steady demand upon tim(> and attention, 
embracing as it does the care of fourteen hun- 
dred wards in the several divisions of the Chil- 
dren's Department. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



81 



Mrs. Murray is a life nieniber of the New 
England Women's Club, of the Boston Brown- 
ing Society, the Boston Business League, and 
the Boston Women's Press Club. 



BERTHA VELLA BORDEN, a recog- 
nized and efficient leader in Sunday- 
school work, for nine years previous to 
her marriage the Primary Secretary 
of the Massachusetts Interdenominational Sun- 
day-school Association, is a native of Lynn, 
being the eldest of the five children born to 
Joseph Franklin and Emma Frances Vella, 
both natives of this State. 

Her father, Joseph Franklin Vella, of Eng- 
lish and French descent, died in 1899. He 
was known throughout the city of Lynn as 
a business man of sterling integrity, great- 
heartedness, faithfulness, and charity, being 
a thorough Christian gentleman. 

Her mother, Mrs. Ennna Frances Vella, of 
English and Scotch descent, a woman of en- 
ergy, kindliness, and piety, is still living in 
Lynn. 

In 1877, after completing her course of study 
in the excellent public schools of Lynn, Bertha 
Vella entered upon a thorough training for the 
work of a teacher in the State Normal School 
at Salem. Here she displayed such unusual 
aptness for object teaching that, although the 
youngest member of her class, she was chosen 
by her instructor to represent that part of the 
graduation exercises in June, 1879. 

Two years of successful teaching followed 
in historic, classic Concord, and then, to the 
great regret of the Concord School Board, she 
accepted an appointment to teach in her home 
city, where later she became the honored and 
beloved principal of one of its largest primary 
schools, and developed remarkable tact in 
controlling and interesting the children under 
her care. 

It was in the Sunday-school connected with 
the- Lynn Common Methodist Episcopal Church 
that she had begun her work as a teacher at 
the age of fifteen, at the age of sixteen being 
elected superintendent of its Primary Depart- 
ment. She resigned this position when in 
Concord, but after she returned to Lynn was 



annually re-elected until her resignation at 
the close of 1900. She reorganizetl this de- 
partment into Kindergarten, Primary, and 
Junior Departments, and supervised the teach- 
ing of the two hundred and forty-five jjupils. 

Richly endowed with strong intellectual 
powers, possessed of ileep religious experience 
and remarkable teaching abilities, while thus 
earnestly devoting herself to her 'duties in 
Sunday-school and day school she was, un- 
consciously, fitting herself for a wider field of 
usefulness. In 1892 she received a call which 
appealed to her as a divine vocation, not to be 
resisted. She accordingly resigned her posi- 
tion as principal of the Lynn Primary School, 
and under the direction of Mr. William N. 
Hartshorn, of Boston, recently elected chair- 
man of the International Executive Commit- 
tee of Sunday-school Work, became the Pri- 
mary Secretary of the Massachusetts Inter- 
denominational Sunday-school Association, 
being the first woman in the L'nited States 
elected as an acting State Primary Secretary. 

In this office Miss Vella displayed good abil- 
ities as a public speaker, clearness antl help- 
fulness as a writer, antl genius as an organizer. 
In her public addresses she aroused, capti- 
vated, and held her audiences, often stirring 
them to profound gratitude toward Gotl for 
his love, antl sincere determinations to utilize 
to the best of their abilities their opportuni- 
ties to teach his truths to their children. Her 
influence over children she taught seemed irre- 
sistible. The irrepressible were checked, the 
listless aroused, all became absorbed in her 
words and spiritual pictures. She made the 
Bible ta the little ones a perfect delight; to 
their seniors, a new revelation from God; to 
all, the love of Christ a living reality and the 
desire to serve him controlling. 

She was a potent factor in organizing the 
evangelical Sunday-schools of Massachusetts 
into district associations that hold annual con- 
ventions and other gatherings, unifying, har- 
monizing, and intensifying all the vital inter- 
ests of the Sunday-schools of Massachusetts. 
She also organized and supervised the work 
of thirty-five primary teachers' unions, taught 
weekly the Boston Primary Union, and super- 
intended her own primary Sunday-school in 



82 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



the historic Lynn Common Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

In addition to her work in Massachusetts, 
she gave great impetus to the Sunday-school 
cause by her addresses at annual State con- 
ventions in all the New England States, at 
primary teachers' institutes in the New Eng- 
land and Central States, at the annual Pro- 
vincial conventions of Montreal, Quebec, Nova 
Scotia, and New Brunswick, and the Inter- 
national Conventions held at St. Louis in 1893, 
at Boston in 1896, at Atlanta in 1899, and at 
the AVorld's Convention held at London, Eng- 
land, in 1898. At St. Louis in 1893 Mrs. Borden 
was elected Secretary of the International 
Primary Department, but refused to accept 
re-election at Boston in 1896, because of greatly 
increased calls for addresses and correspond- 
ence in the State work. She was elected Vice- 
President of the International Primary De- 
partment, and re-elected in 1899. Meanwhile 
she kept busy a ready pen, being a frequent 
and highly valued correspondent of the 821.11- 
day-school Times, the International Evangel, 
the Su7iday-school Journal, and other periodi- 
cals. She is also the author of several popular 
Sunday-school concert exercises and of two 
books, "Song and Study for God's Little Ones" 
and "Bible Study Songs." These books are 
a veritable storehou.se of good things, from 
which primary teachers, leaders of mission 
bands and of other children's gatherings, may 
obtain helpful Bible exercises and suitable 
songs. 

At the close of 1900 Miss Vella resigned her 
position as State Primary Secretary of Massa- 
chusetts, and soon after she was married to 
Mr. Charles F. Borden, a merchant of Fall 
River. Mr. Borden is a member of the State 
Board of the Young Men's Christian A.ssocia- 
tion and president of the Fall River District 
for Sunday-school work. 

Since her marriage Mrs. Borden has lost 
none of her interest in the forward movements 
of the Sunday-school cause. Amid the many 
duties of her home life she finds time to dis- 
charge with great efficiency the superintend- 
ency of the Junior Department of the Central 
Congregational Bible School in Fall River, to 
serve as a wise and energetic member of the 



District Executive Committee, anil as presi- 
dent of the Fall River Primary and Junior 
Sunday-school Teachers' Union. The follow- 
ing extract from resolutions adapted unani- 
mously by the Executive Committee of the 
Massachusetts Sunday-school Association show 
the high appreciation felt for Mrs. Borden and 
her work. This Executive Committee is com- 
posed of leading Massachusetts Sunday-school 
workers, and represents one thousand nine 
hundred and nineteen Sunday-schools and 
three hundred and forty-five thousand one 
hundred and thirty-three Bible students. 

" She has organized the primary teachers 
into associations for mutual and helpful in- 
tercourse and for the interchange of plans and 
purposes in department effort, and has, by 
her lesson studies, her literary work, her song- 
books — that have effectively touched many 
young lives — and her spirit of devotion and 
unselfishness and her exalted Christian char- 
acter, lifted the Primary Department to a high 
plane of active and useful living; and she has 
awakened a new and abiding interest in the 
general work as represented by the State As- 
sociation. 

" Her influence in the work for the children 
has not been confined to our own State, but 
has extended far beyond our borders, reach- 
ing all parts of our country. The wealth of 
her resources, her ripe experience, and her sym- 
pathy have been freely and generously dis- 
tributed where the most good could be ac- 
complished. We extend to her our best wishes 
for the future, and pray that God's choicest 
blessings may ever attend her and her work." 



ELIZA BUCKMAN CAHILL, M.D., was 
born February 22, 1862, in Woburn, 
Mass., being the (laughter of Leander 
and Ruth M. (Buckma;i) Cahill. Her 
father, Leander, and her jiaternal grandfather, 
Barnaval Cahill, were natives of Sackvillc, Cum- 
berland County, New Brunswick, Canada, and 
belonged to one of the oldest and most widely 
known families in that country. Barnavnl 
Cahill, born in 1804, was the son of John R. 
Cahill and grandson of John Cahill, a native of 
Ireland, who married Teresa Barnaval, an 




EI.IZA B. CAHILL 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



83 



English wonuiii, and lived in London, England, 
engaged in business as a merchant and ship- 
owner. 

Dr. Cahill's great-grandfather, John R. Cahill, 
died in Sackville in 1852. He was born in 
London, England, in 1777. His father, decid- 
ing to educate him for the church, sent him to 
college. During a vacation he cros.sed the At- 
lantic as supercargo of one of his father's ves- 
sels. The vessel was wrecked on the return 
voyage, while off the coast of Nova Scotia, 
and all on board were taken to Halifax. For 
reasons not now known young Cahill remained 
in the British Provinces, and for a time taught 
school. From his father's estate in England 
he received regular remittances as long as he 
lived. He married a Miss Lesdernier, a sister 
of Mrs. Richard John Uniacke, and settled in 
Sackville, N.B. They had eleven children. 

Leander Cahill, Dr. Cahill's father, elder son 
of Barnaval and Rebecca (Chase) Cahill, was 
born in 1834. Coming to Massachusetts at 
twenty-three years of age, a wheelwright and 
carriage-maker by trade, he lived for a time 
in Middlesex County and afterward in Boston, 
where he engaged in the business of carriage- 
making. Ruth M. Buckman, whom he mar- 
ried September 12, 1860, was born in Woburn, 
January 7, 1839, the daughter of Dennis and 
Ruth Brown (Richard.son) Buckman. Her pa- 
ternal grandparents were Jacob and I'^lizabeth 
(Munroe) Buckman, of Lexington, Elizabeth 
being a daughter of Marrett and Deliverance 
(Parker) Munroe anil a descendant of William' 
Munroe, of Lexington (who came, it is said, 
from Scotland in 1652), and of Thomas' Parker, 
an early settler of Reading. 

Dennis Buckman was brother to the Hon. 
Bowen Buckman and Willis Buckman. Ruth 
B. Richardson, his wife, was a daughter of 
Jesse^ Richardson, a lineal descendant in the 
fifth generation of Samuel Richardson, one of 
the three Richardson brothers who were among 
the founders of the town of Woburn. The line 
was: Samuel,' ^^ Zechariah,'' Jesse,^ the latter a 
soldier of the Revolution. Zechariah, born in 
1720, married Phebe Wyman, a descendant of 
Lieutenant John Wyman, of Woburn. (See 
Richardson Genealogy.) 

Mrs. Ruth Buckman Cahill was a woman of 



character and cultivation, large-hearted and 
clear-headed. She was the mother of three 
children. The second child, Annie R., died in 
infancy; and Frank .\ll)ert, born in 1867, died 
in 1883. Eliza, the eldest born, was named for 
her uncle Bowen's wife, who had recently 
passed away, beloved and lamented. In 1866, 
when Eliza was four years old, Mr. and Mrs. 
Cahill removed to East Boston, where she at- 
tended the public schools till she reached the 
age of twelve. In 1874, on account of the 
mother's failing health, the family removed to 
California. The warm climate proved bene- 
ficial to Mrs. Cahill, evidently prolonging her 
life, and they remained there till after her 
death, which occurred August 24, 1879. In 
response to her wishes, Mr. Cahill, who was of 
a kind and loving nature, and remained ever 
faithful to her memory, returned East to make 
a home for his children in Boston, where they 
would be not far from their mother's kinsfolk. 
Seven years later, his daughter being then es- 
tablisheil in her profession, he went back to his 
birthplace, the old homestead in Sackville, N.B., 
to be with his younger brother, then in failing 
health. In Sackville he continued to reside 
till his death, in 1897, cared for tenderly in his 
last years of invalidism. 

While on the Pacific slope, Eliza had con- 
tinued her studies under private teachers. 
When she returnetl to Boston, she was seven- 
teen, and looking forward to a life of u.sefulness. 
With the memory of her mother as a prime 
motive power in every noble aspiration and 
endeavor, she chose an arduous profession. En- 
tering Boston University School of Medicine 
in 1883, she received her diploma in 1886. A 
week before her graduation Dean Talbot of 
the University called her into his room and 
said: "Miss Cahill, there is a request before me 
for a resident physician for the New England 
Conservatory of Music. You fulfil every de- 
mand they make of the incumbent save your 
age." This was very encouraging to an ambi- 
tious young novitiate. She accepted the posi- 
tion, and at the end of the first year Dr. Tourjee 
asked her to sign a five years' contract. She 
declined, on the ground of wishing to be free 
to change the scene of her labors if found de- 
sirable. She ditl, however, remain for fourteen 



84 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



years, spending lier summers in Sackville, N.B., 
with her father, ever attentive to his comfort 
and hapi)iness as long as he Hved. At the ex- 
piration of five years she had leave of absence, 
and went to Europe for hospital work. At 
various times she has taken post-graduate 
courses in New York and other cities. When 
she had been at the Conservatory nine years 
(during which time she hatl acquired a large 
outside practice, not being in any way re- 
stricted by tlie trustees of the Conservatory), 
she became lecturer on diseases of women at 
Boston University. As her duties increased in 
other directions, she wished to resign her posi- 
tion at the Conservatory, but was obliged to 
wait three years before her resignation would 
be accepted. She is ever grateful and appreci- 
ative of the unfailing courtesy which was shown 
her at tliat institution. In 1900 she took uj) 
her residence at the Westminster, Copley 
Square. 

Doctor Cahill is a busy and happy woman, 
loving the profession in which she has been so 
successful. She is president of the Twentieth 
Century Medical Club, second vice-president of 
the Massachusetts Surgical and Gynecological 
Society, first vice-president of the Boston 
Homa>opathic Medical Society, a member of the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy, the Electro- 
Therapeutical Society, Society for University 
Education of Women, and the Actors' Alliance, 
and first vice-president of the Alunmi Associa- 
tion of Boston University School of Metlicine. 
Although too busy to be often present at the 
meetings, she is a member of the New England 
Women's Club and the Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union and a stockholder in the 
Woman'sClub-houseCorporation. From girlhood 
she has been a member of the Methodist churcli. 



ELIDA RUMSEY FOWLE. philanthropic 
worker, one of the founders, in 1863, 
of the Soldiers' Free Library and Read- 
ing Room in Washington, D.C., has 
been for the past fifteen years, with her hus- 
band, Mr. John A. Fowle, a resident of Dor- 
chester, Mass. She was born in New York 
City, June 0, 1842, daughter of John WicklifTo 
and Mary Agnes (Underbill) Rumsey. 



In 1861 her parents removed to Washing- 
Ion. Her mother was constant in works of 
love among the soldiers of the Civil War, 
and Miss Ruinsey (now Mrs. Fowle) soon 
began visiting the hospitals with a desire to 
add .sunshine to the dreary days of the sick 
and wounded. Realizing that her musical 
talents could be of .'^eivice, she sang to them 
songs that were an inspiration. Men released 
from Libby Prison and located temporarily at 
the Soldiers' Rest she arou.?ed from a state of 
apathy and gloom to one of courage and ho]ie. 
Forming jjlans for improving the condition of 
the convalescents antl other soldiers stationed 
at Washington, she received the co-operation 
of Mr. John A. F'owle, who held a position in 
the Navy Department at Washington. They 
established a Sunday evening prayer meeting 
in Columbian College hospital, an upper room 
in "Auntie Pomoroy's" ward being assigned 
for the purpose. It was crowded every night, 
and overflow meetings were held in a grove 
near by. A report of these gatherings in " Our 
Army Nurses" says: "The interest steadily in- 
creased, the boys often doing double duty in 
order to be present. The enthusiasm of the 
soldiers could not be repressed when Miss 
Rum,sey's sweet voice stirred their souls and 
rekindled the noble, self-sacrificing spirit that 
had brought them to such a place; and cheers 
shook the very walls." 

Miss Runisey also saw active ser\'ice among 
the wounded and dying on the battle-fiekl. 
Mr. Frank Moore, in "Women of the War," 
gives the following account <if her work after 
the second battle of Bull Run, fought August 
30, 1862: "Mr. Fowle obtained an ambulance, 
and Miss Rumsey loaded it with some four 
hundred antl fifty loaves of bread, meat, spirits 
of all kinds, bandages, lint, shirts, and other 
stores. Leaving Washington late on Saturday 
afternoon, they drove out by way of Bailey's 
Cross-roads, ami reached Centreville very early 
on Sunday morning. They halted at a little 
building near the road, which was already 
nearly full of the wounded. . . . Foi- some time 
Miss Rumsey ren\aincd in the ambulance, giv- 
ing out bread to the famishing boys, who 
crowded around as soon as it was known there 
was anything to be eaten there. Most of them 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



85 



had eaten nothing for twenty-four liours, anil 
were hopelessly separated from their supply 
trains. After she had given out most of the 
bread and other eatables, she stepped down 
from the ambulance, and went inside to see if 
she could be of any use to the suffering." The 
terrible odor and scenes of suffering caused her 
to faint, hut upon recovering she chided her- 
self, saying: "To think that I have come all 
this way from Washington to bind up the 
wounds of these soldiers, and here the first case 
of running blood I see I have to become help- 
less. I won't faint. I will go back, and work 
among these poor fellows. That's what I came 
for, and I'm determined to accomplish some- 
thing." 

During the year 1862 a great many books, 
papers, and magazines, received from friends 
in the North, were distributed by Mi.ss Rum.sey 
and Mr. Fowle in their hospital visits. In a 
little more than a year they thus disposed of 
two thousand three hundretl and seventy-one 
Bibles and Testaments, one thousand six hun- 
dred and seventy-fi\e books and magazines, 
forty thousand tracts, thirty-five tliousand 
papers, twenty-five reams of writing paper, 
nine thousand envelopes, also (juantities of 
clothing, sheets, wines, and jellies. In the 
same period they conducted nearly two thou- 
sand singing meetings at hospitals or in camp. 

Tliere were times when thirty-four thousand 
sick, wounded, or convalescent soldiers were 
gathered in Wa.shington, nearly all of whom 
could read. Many were able to travel through 
the streets on crutches, and others could walk 
a .short distance unaided. For the benefit of 
these disabled patriots Miss Rumsey, Mr. Fowle, 
and Mrs. Walter Baker, of Dorchester, Ma.ss., 
conceived the idea of establishing a free library. 
To this end Miss Rumsey and Mr. Fowle gave 
in Washington, Boston, and other places, a 
number of patriotic vocal concerts, the i)rin- 
cipal feature of which was the songs of Miss 
Rumsey, and particularly those stirring ami 
patriotic airs which she had sung to so manj' 
of the soldiers. 

In the meantime a petition was sent to Con- 
gress asking permission to erect a library build- 
ing on land in .Judiciary Square. The result is 
seen in the following resolution- "Resolved by 



the Senate and House of Rej^resentatives of 
the United. States of America in Congress as- 
sembled, 

"That the Secretary of the Interior be and 
is hereby authorized to grant to John A. Fowle 
and Elida B. Rum.sey the use of a portion of 
the land owned by the United States and known 
as 'Judiciary Square,' to erect thereon, free 
from charge to the Ignited States, a suitable 
building for a soldiers' free library and reading- 
room for .soldiers; provided that the same can 
be done without prejudice to the public inter- 
ests, and provided that the expenses shall be 
borne by said Fowle and Rumsey, and that all 
benefits and privileges of such library and 
reading-room be granted to our soldiers free 
of charge, and that said building be removed 
whenever the Secretary of the Interior shall 
require the same to be done. 

"Approved January 13, 1863." 

Mr. Fowle and Miss Rumsey continued their 
concerts, the proceeds of which, with one hun- 
dred dollars contributed l)y Mrs. Walter Baker 
and sums from other friends, enabled them to 
erect the builtling. It contained a libiary room, 
a room for hospital stores, and a reading-room, 
and was dedicated Sunday evening, March 1, 
with aiipropriate ceremonies. A circular ap- 
pealing for funds and books received a generous 
response. The first books were received from 
four little girls in Dorchester, Ma,ss. Mrs. 
\\'alter Baker sent eight hundred volumes, and 
through the efforts of other friends, together 
with receipts from concerts, six thousand vol- 
umes of good reading matter were in the library 
before the close of the war. Miss Rumsej' 
served as librarian for a while, but later con- 
valescents from the hospitals were detailed for 
this position. 

Miss Rumsey's daily journal of March, 1863, 
gives information of interest: "Number of 
bortks about five thousand, all covered, num- 
bered and catalogued. Reading-room opened 
daily from 9 a.m. State papers kept on file. 
The decorations of the hall the donations of 
soldiers' friends at the North. Writing pajjci-, 
])en, and ink always to be found on tahles for 
u.se of soldiers. On an average fifty letters sent 
to the i)ost-office daily. 

" A soUliers' prayer and conference meet- 



86 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ing Sunday afternoons. Room accommodates 
about four hundred with comfortable settees. 
Soldiers take an active part. Citizens, too, 
attend these meetings, and the citizens cheer 
the soldiers. Tuesday evenings a soldiers' con- 
cert, the room always crowded. The use of 
the building free to all soldiers, State associa- 
tions, and all benevolent objects. The privi- 
lege of fifty volumes or more is offered to the 
chaplain and friends, to be distributed in hospi- 
tals out of the city, to be returned or exchanged 
for others within two weeks. 

"The store-room in the building always con- 
tains a goodly supply of articles suitable for 
the soldiers' use, and is often replenished by 
the noble women of the North." 

A soldiers' church was formed, having about 
two hundred members, of all denominations; 
and to each soldier member of the little free 
library church was given a small certificate, 
having a picture of the library and bearing the 
name of the soldier, his company and regi- 
ment, the State where he lived, ancl these three 
simple articles: "(1) I will try to the best of 
my ability to be a Christian. (2) I will take 
the Word of God for my guide and trust in 
Christ alone for salvation. (3) I solenmly 
pledge myself to abstain from profane language, 
from alcoholic drinks as a beverage, and from 
all vices of the army and camp, and will be a 
true soldier of my country and the cross." 
This certificate was signed by Mr. Fowle and 
Miss Rumsey, with date. More than one sol- 
dier boy was identified on the battle-fields by 
this little certificate, found in his pocket. 

Miss Rumsey was married on Sunday, March 
1, 1863, to Mr. John Allen Fowle. The cere- 
mony was performed by the Rev. Alonzo H. 
Quint, Chaplain of the Second Massachusetts 
Regiment and pastor of the Congregational 
Church, Jamaica Plain, Mass., where Mr. Fowle 
attended. The bride and bridegroom were 
leaders of the Capitol Choir, which furnished 
the music for the Sunday services established 
in the House of Representatives in 1862; and 
their work, which had given them a national 
reputation, was appreciated by their friends 
in Congress. Representatives' Hall in the Cap- 
itol was offered them, and the announcement 
that the wedding would take place there re- 



sulted in an attendance of four thousand 
people. President Lincoln, who had signified 
his intention of being present, but was unex- 
pectedly detained, sent a magnificent basket 
of flowers. 

Mr. Fowle was born April 4, 1826, son of 
George Makepeace and Margaret L. (Eaton) 
Fowle. He is a descendant in the seventh gen- 
eration of George Fowle, who was born in Scot- 
land in 1610, and was admitted a freeman in 
Concord, Mass., in 1632. He has been a dry- 
goods and wool merchant in Boston since 1855, 
with the exception of some years after the Civil 
War, when they lived in Brooklyn, N.Y. They 
were active in the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher's 
church. In Dorchester they are interested in 
the Pilgrim Congregational Church. Mr. Fowle 
is a member of the Dorchester Historical Soci- 
ety and the Improvement Association. Of the 
" Bungalow," the summer home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Fowle at North Scituate, a newspaper corre- 
spondent has said, "Not to have known the 
' Bungalow ' is to have missed one of the quaint- 
est nooks on the South Shore." 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Fowle in Dorches- 
ter contains many valuable relics. "There on 
the wall is an old flag with its thirteen stars, 
which saw service in the War of 1812 as well as 
in the Civil War. Here over the case is a Con- 
federate flag, one of the first captured, and pre- 
sented to Mrs. Fowle by Admiral Foote, now 
intertwined with the stars and stripes. Among 
other relics are a Washington plate and a china 
saucer, both of which were presented to Mrs. 
Fowle by Aunt Sally Norris, who was a slave 
in the family of General Lee; some pieces of 
shell taken from the battle-field; an autograph 
album containing the names of thousands of 
soldiers; several letters from S. F. Smith, the 
author of 'America'; one from Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, with his additional verse to the 'Star- 
spangled Banner'; a directory of the soldiers 
and the hospitals, issued by Mr. Fowle in Wash- 
ington." Mrs. Fowle has the writing-desk 
which was sent her from Dorchester and which 
she used during the war; an old chair made of 
hardtack boxes used in camp of the Fourth 
Delaware Battery; also a melodeon, useil in 
camp, ho.spital, and library; and many other 
interesting anil valuable souvenirs of those 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



87 



dark years. On the walls is a copy of the 
above mentioned resolution of Congress. This 
copy was signed by Abraham Lincoln in the 
presence of Mrs. Fowle. 

Mrs. Fowle and her mother, Mrs. Rmnsey, 
were among the earliest workers in Mrs. Bur- 
nap's Free Home for Aged Women, on Han- 
over Court (North End), Boston; in Mrs. 
Charpiot's Home for Intemperate Women, on 
Worcester Street; the New England Helping 
Hand Home for Working-girls, on Carver 
Street; Home for Aged Couples, on Shawmut 
Avenue; and the Charity Hospital, on Chester 
Park. At present both Mr. and Mrs. Fowle 
are interested in establishing a library and 
reading and recreation room for boys and 
girls on old Boston Street, near Upham's 
Corner, Dorchester. She has been connected 
with the Woman's Christian Tenij)erance Union 
of Dorchester; is a member of the Woman's 
Charity Club; of the Massachusetts Army 
Nurses' Association; of the Ladies' Aid A.sso- 
ciation of the Soldiers' Home; and of Bunker 
Hill Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution. 

Mrs. Fowle claims the honor of having been 
the first person to sing the ^Battle Hymn of 
the Republic" at a public meeting in Washing- 
ton. Its previous use was by a secret society 
as a club song. The Rev. Dr. Sunderland read 
it to her one afternoon in his home, and at 
her request gave her a copy, that she might in- 
clude it among the war songs she was to sing 
in the evening at a meeting of the New York 
State Society in one of the churches. The 
meeting was presided over by Senator Ira 
Harris. Toward the close she sang the inspir- 
ing words of Mrs. Howe to the old familiar 
tune of "John Brown," and "as the audience 
joinetl in the chorus, especially after the last 
verse, beginning with 'In the beauty of the 
lilies,' the very foundation stones of the church," 
she .says, "seemed to vibrate with applause." 



JANE W. HOYT.— Among tho.se who, in 
the early part of the nineteenth century, 
anticipated by personal application to 
study the later movement for the higher 
education of women was Miss Jane W. Hoyt. 



She was born in Phillips, Franklin County, Me., 
August 26, 1827, the youngest of a family of 
nine children. Her parents, Samuel and Eliza- 
beth (Tower) Hoyt, were of early New Eng- 
land stock, her father, a native of New Hamp- 
ton, N.H., being a lineal descendant of John' 
Hoyt, one of the original settlers of Salisbury, 
Mass., and her mother belonging to the family 
foimded by John' Tower, who came from 
Hingham, Englanil, and settled in Hingham, 
Mass., in 1637. From John' Tower the line 
continueil through Ibrook," Richard,^ Elisha,* 
Elisha,^ all of Hingham, Mass., to Sylvanus," 
born in 1766, who married Mercy Card, settled 
in Farmington, Me., and was the father of 
Elizabeth' (Mrs. Samuel Hoyt) and her brother 
Daniel. 

As a child, Jane Hoyt evinced a love for 
study which grew with her years. This was 
gratified in her native town and at Farmington, 
which was then, as now, the educational centre 
of the county. She afterward was graduated 
with honor from the New Hampton Literary 
Institution, in New Hampton, N.H., and became 
a successful teacher and principal of some of 
the higher schools then open to women, as the 
Maine State Seminary at Lewiston, the semi- 
nary at Olneyville, R.I., and Hillsdale College, 
Hillsdale, Mich., where she was dean of the 
women's department. In 1871 and 1872 she 
took an exteiuled trip to Europe, antl made a 
special study of German under private teachers 
and in the schools of Hanover. On her return 
she was elected to a professorship in Center 
College, Penn.sylvania, anil later was at the 
head of a boarding and day school in Goshen, 
N.Y. In 1874, her health becoming impaired, 
she resigneil the position and returned to Farm- 
ington. Here her home life was exceptionally 
happy, her brother Daniel, her sister Ann, and 
herself making a most hospitable household. 
The death of the brother in 1899 was a great 
grief to the sisters; but, dwelling not on their 
own sorrow, they sought to comfort others. 
Though fond of books and much engaged with 
pupils, MLss Hoyt was ever ready to give her 
time and strength to aid neighbors and friends. 

Soon after her return to Farmington and be- 
fore taking her much needed rest, she sought 
two friends and proposed the formation of a 



88 



REPRESENTATRE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



women's club. This was in the very early 
days of clubs for women: in all New England 
there were only a few. The new club entered 
at once upon its work, and continued for many 
years one of the oldest women's clubs in Maine. 
In its origin it was true to the German proverb, 
"All good things go in tlirees": it had but three 
members. That tliere might be no favoritism, 
each member was to bear the Piclcwickian title 
P. P. Miss Hoyt was made Perpetual Presi- 
dent, and the two remaining members were 
made Perpetual Poet and Perpetual Penman. 
There was no treasurer, as there were no club 
dues. As the membership was at first exclu- 
sive, one who was not invited to join remarked 
that she thought the ladies were rather "hifa- 
lutin." The term so pleased the members of 
the club that they concluded to adopt it; anrl 
the Hifalutin Club, with an increase of member- 
ship, continued until Maine agitated the fed- 
eration of its women's clubs, when the Every 
Monday Club of Farmington was organized, 
and the Hifalutin fell asleep. It was the orig- 
inal idea of the club to read at home and dis- 
cuss the matter read in the club. It was in 
every sense a working club; every play and 
many of the sonnets of Shakespeare were 
studied, also Spenser's "Faerie Queene," Chau- 
cer's Canterbury Tales, Milton, Dante, and 
other classic writers. With a retentive mem- 
ory and viviti imagination. Miss Hoyt delighted 
to review for the benefit of the club the lead- 
ing fiction of that day. The writer recalls 
"Uarda" and "The Egyptian Princess" and 
many other books thus graphically portrayed. 
Miss Hoyt believed in keeping abreast of the 
times, and was a wise reader of the daily news- 
papers. The consideration of current events 
formed an important feature in the Hifalutin 
Club. 

On May 18, 1901, there came a hush over 
the village of Farmington, when it was an- 
nounced that Jane W. Hoyt was dead. For 
twenty-five years she had lived her useful, un- 
ostentatious life in that community, loved and 
respected by all classes of society. As a private 
tutor she had given direction to the college life 
of many young men and women by imparting 
to them an enthusia.sm for work. They lin- 
gered long over their recitations, that between 



the lines they might catch glimpses of the 
spirit that actuated her. Few of her pupils 
will fail to remember the talks on practical 
ethics and moral philosophy which she loved 
to interweave with the higher mathematics, 
Latin, French, and German. In addition to 
her labors as a teacher Miss Hoyt carrietl on 
other literary work. She wrote for the press, 
and was much sought after as a lecturer before 
women's clubs and the Chautautjuan assem- 
blies, especially those at Ocean Park. Her 
chiu'ch affiliations were with the Free Baptist 
denomination. 

Miss Hoyt was a woman of unusual mental 
powers and of a highly spiritual nature. She 
had rare literary taste and an ability to assimi- 
late knowledge that gave her abundant re- 
sources. The excellent school advantages of 
her early days were supplemented by constant 
application to study throughout her life. Euro- 
pean travel still further broadened her mental 
scope. Her love of study was not confined to 
secular subjects: she devoted a great deal of 
attention to the Bible, and lived much in the 
contemplation of things that are unseen and 
eternal. 



EMMA JANE MAREAN RIPLEY, phi- 
lanthropist, wife of Sewall C. Ripley, 
president of the Thomas P. Beals Com- 
pany of Portland, was born in Durham, 
Me., April 8, 1848, the daughter of Charles 
Livermore Marean and Mary Sherwood Drink- 
water Marean. She comes from patriotic 
stock. Her maternal grandfather, Perez 
Drinkwater, second, served as Lieutenant on 
the privateer "Lucy" in the War of 1812, 
and was a prisoner in Dartmoor Prison, Eng- 
land, for thirteen months. His father and 
her great-grandfather, Perez Drinkwater, was 
an officer in the Revolutionary War. 

Mrs. Ripley is a graduate of the Casco Street 
Seminary in the city of Portland, where the 
most of her life has been spent, and has been 
an attendant of the Second Parish Church, 
the Payson Memorial, from her childhood. 
She is a prominent member of the Ladies' 
Circle and the Missionary Auxiliary. The 
poor of the city know her, for she never turns 





ANNIE COOLIDGE RUST 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



89 



a deaf ear to their appeals nor sends them away 
empty-handed. She not only gives Uberally 
to recognizetl charities, but helps with generous 
and wise consideration families and individ- 
uals who need assistance. Her quiet deeds of 
charity are as numerous as those which are gen- 
erally known. For fourteen years she has repre- 
sented the church as ilirector of the Diet Mis- 
sion, in which she holds the offices of room 
committee and ward visitor. This society sup- 
plies food and dainties to the impoverished 
sick of the city. Mrs. Ripley has al.so been 
a working member of the Woman's Auxiliary 
of the Y. M. C. A. for many years and a mem- 
ber of the Female Samaritan Association, 
which is the oldest charitable association in 
Portland, and celebrated its seventy-fourth 
birthday on March 4, 1901. She is one of the 
oldest members of the Portland A.ssociated 
Charities as well as a ward visitor. She be- 
longs also to the Portland Provident Associa- 
tion, and is a worker in the Fraternity House, 
a social settlement. Mrs. Ripley is likewise 
a member of the Conklin Parliamentary Club, 
the Cresco Literary Club, the Woman's Literary 
Union of Portland, the Equal Suffrage Club, 
the National Society of Daughters of the 
American Revolution, the Elizabeth Wad.s- 
worth Chapter of the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, of Portland, Me., and the Na- 
tional Society of U. S. Daughters of 1812, State 
of Maine. 

Guy Liverraore Ripley, the only child of 
Mr. and Mrs. Ripley, died at the age of twenty 
years, four months. A handsome memorial 
to him has been placed in the Portland High 
School. 



ANNIE COOLIDGE RUST was born in 
/ \ Richmond, Va., one of a family of 
X jL nine children. Her father, Thomas 
Adams Rust, a very successful hard- 
ware merchant in Richmond, was a native of 
Salem, Mass. His wife, Miss Rust's mother, 
in maidenhood Phoebe Cutler Chamberlain, 
was born in New Hampshire, but had removed 
to Boston with her parents when she was a 
child. She was well educated and very ac- 
tive in church affairs in Boston, being a mem- 



ber of the palish of the Rev. Robert C. Waters- 
ton, by whom their marriage ceremony was 
performed in 18 — . 

Richmond in those days seemed a long dis- 
tance for the bride to be going from her home 
and mother, and it was agreed by the husband 
that a part of each year should be passed in 
"dear old Boston." The house in which they 
lived in Richmond, and in which Mi.ss Rust 
was born, was a typical Southern house of 
many large rooms, the servants' quarters and 
kitchen being in a separate building. In this 
Southern home many Boston friends, also 
frientls and business associates from England, 
were hospitably entertained. 

While their chiklren were still young, Mr. 
and Mrs. Rust, being anxious that they should 
have the best educational advantages, removed 
to Cambridge, Mass., and, after some of the chil- 
dren were graduated from the Cambridge schools, 
the family removed to Boston. The mother 
believed that it would be of great advantage 
to every young woman to have a knowledge 
of the Froebelian jjrinciples of education, known 
as the Kindergarten System, which applies to 
the life of the little child, but knew not of any 
such school in this vicinity. While visiting 
a friend in Cambridge one day. the conversa- 
tion turned upon a " play school" that had been 
opened in Boston, where the children had no 
books. The term "play school" interested 
the mother. She looked into the matter, and 
learned that the name was given in irony by 
those who did not know what it was. To her 
great delight, it was a Kinilergarten antl Normal 
Class, which Madame Kreige and her tlaughter, 
Alma Kreige, from Berlin, had opened in Bos- 
ton, they having been requested by their teacher, 
Baroness von Marenholtz Bulow, to come to 
America and introduce this system of etluca- 
tion. Mrs. Rust was much pleased to find 
just what she hafl been looking for, and at her 
earnest rei [uest her daughter entered the school 
as a pupil in one of the first Normal Classes. Mi.ss 
Rust brought to this work, besides an aj:)titude 
for it and the enthusiasm of youth, rare insight 
into child nature, a cultivated mind, and 
deep religious feeling. Moreover, ideas gained 
from conversations with her teacher were so 
unlike those by which she had been governed 



90 



REPRESENTATIX'E WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



when in school that she was deeply attracted, 
and wished to learn more of this beautiful 
system, which made the life of the child and 
its studies so delightful. Therefore it was 
with great pleasure that she entered upon the 
work, which grew for her more and more in- 
teresting and absorliing. 

Previous to this time Miss Ellizabeth Peabody 
had gone to Europe for the purpose of learning 
more of this system and its true meaning, and 
she was much pleased when the Baroness in- 
formed her that Madame Kreige and her daugh- 
ter had already started for America for the 
purpose of opening a school there. On the 
return of Miss Peabody, both she and her sis- 
ter, Mrs. Horace Mann, rendered all the as- 
sistance to Madame Kreige and daughter that 
was in their power, materially aiding the prog- 
ress of the school and work as a whole. 

After a successful course of study Miss Rust 
was graduated in June. She was in good 
health and very anxious to put her knowledge 
of the system into practice. A summer kin- 
dergarten was offered her, which she accepted, 
she being one of the first pupils of Madame 
Kreige to teach. 

In the following autunm through her in- 
structor, Madame Kreige, a fine opportunity 
to teach a private kindergarten with a large 
salary was offeretl her in the A\'est, which she 
accepted. There she was most pleasantly lo- 
cated, both educationally and socially, and 
by the many attentions offered her was made 
at once to feel at home in a strange city. Ac- 
cess was also given her to the private libraries 
of the most influential people of the city. The 
fact of this school being supported by the most 
influential people was what gave her these 
advantages. 

At the approach of spring Miss Rust, much 
to her regret, found that the climate did not 
agree with her, and felt obliged to give up her 
position and return to Boston. Not long after 
a lady came to Boston to secure a teacher 
for a private school near New York. Miss 
Rust being recommended to her, she was en- 
gaged for this promising position with more 
healthful surroundings. Here, also, she gave 
satisfaction. One of the mothers, a patron, 
sending three children to the school, was so 



pleased that she invited Miss Rust to come 
to live in her home, for the sake of her soul- 
ful influence over the children, which she 
did, and remained through one school year, 
teaching the older children music on kin- 
dergarten principles, at the same time that 
she was holding her position as teacher of the 
private school. At the close of this school 
year Miss Rust was invited to visit the family at 
their summer home on the seashore. 

From that place she was called South by 
her father and mother, to as.sist in the dispo- 
sition of their property, as her opinion was 
always desired by them in all matters of busi- 
ness. She remained South through a part 
of the summer, until this was accomplislied, 
the family returning in the autumn to their 
own house in Boston. 

A parent who had heard of Miss Rust tlirough 
Madame Kreige desired that she should open 
a private kindergarten at her (Miss Rust's) 
own house, saying she would secure pupils for 
her from her own friends, which she did. Miss 
Rust was extremely happy in this kindergar- 
ten; she was able to do so much more for the 
children in her own home. One morning a 
mother entered, saying she would like to send 
her children to the school for a half-year, " not 
expecting them to learn anything," but from 
selfish motives, as she wished the children kept 
away from her in the morning, as she was 
a writer. One morning six or eight weeks 
later, instead of the maid, the mother came 
to the kindergarten with the children, offering 
an apology for the remark she had matle at 
her first visit, and bringing words of ajiprecia- 
tion from the father of what the children had 
voluntarily expressed at home, also asking the 
favor of coming every morning for the week, to 
realize what was being done for them and what it 
all meant. A few weeks after a lengthy arti- 
cle appeared in the Boston Transcript, written 
by this mother and relating to Miss Rust's 
work, then not a year old in Boston. This 
article was an elucidation of the system from 
a mother's standpoint, treating not only of 
the work done l)y tlie children, but of the in- 
fluence of the kindergartner upon the life of each 
child, which is the soul of the kindergarten. 
Instead of the children remaining the half- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



91 



year, as first agreed, they remained in the school 
for four years. As a result of the article in 
the Transcript there were many visitors to the 
kindergarten each day, both residents of Bos- 
ton and strangers. A gentleman from Chicago, 
an educator, after a visit to the school, pro- 
nounced it education in its highest sense, and 
said that he would like to take some of the 
material as a means of rendering instruction 
to his young ladies in .some of the higher 
branches. 

And thus the interest grew, and the class 
increased in numbers, until a larger room was 
taken in their house. Here a Mothers' Class 
was started; and, as Miss Rust considered her- 
self too much of a novice to assume the respon- 
sibility of this class, at her request Miss Pea- 
body took the charge. She was a great in- 
spiration to the work, and this Mothers' Class 
and also this home was blessed by her presence, 
as she often remained after the hour of the 
class, and thus the family pas.sed many happy 
hours with her socially. 

One of the patrons of this school now removed 
to Brookline, and, desiring her children to 
remain under Miss Rust's instruction, made 
arrangements for an afternoon kintlergarten to 
be established in her home, the location of 
which was unusually adapted to such a pur- 
pose, the house, with pine woods near, being 
surrounded by nature in all its beauty. This 
kindergarten was carried on until the city 
classes had gro^\^l to such a size that they re- 
quired Mi.ss Rust's full attention, time, and 
strength. Not long after this the health of Mrs. 
Rust failed, her strength not being equal to hav- 
ing the school (which with its advanced classes 
it had now become) in the house; therefore it 
was removed from the home. These advanced 
classes were beyond the kindergarten age, but 
none were allowed to enter them who had not 
had previous preparation either in this kinder- 
garten or in another, equally genuine, thus 
making the school a strong, connected whole, 
without disturbance or confusion for the pupils' 
minds, one class, as it were, evolving from an- 
other. Children were received from three or 
four years of age, as the child's health allowed, 
until the age of twelve. All the instruction 
was given upon Froebelian principles. Usu- 



ally chiUlren at six years were startetl in the 
so-called primary work, which, with their pre- 
vious jjreparation, was easily grasped, the chil- 
tlren being just as eager about their arithmetic, 
for example, as they had been about the attrac- 
tive kindergarten gifts and occupations. The 
originality of each child had been preserved, and 
now was most beautifully manifested along the 
Hues of art, music, games, and so forth. Music 
was taught on kindergarten principles, and in 
this way it is a possession to the pupil not easily 
forgotten. Pupils returning to the school in 
the fall went right on with their music as if 
there had been no vacation. The folding oc- 
cupation, previously taught, prepared the flex- 
ible little hand for music, making the fingers 
deft and securing the right position of the hand, 
thus saving two or more terms of instruction. 
In fact, the analytical and synthetical method 
of the child's previous instruction made all its 
after work and study a pleasure, and proved 
that it was fully grasped, being its own posses- 
sion. 

Miss Rust had desired to have the extreme 
pleasure of proving the benefit of the system 
by taking the children on in these advanced 
classes after the kindergarten stage, and it is 
now a great source of delight to her to look 
back upon this experience, and also to receive 
voluntary testimonials like this from pupils 
who have passeil (jn through other schools 
to the Boston Institute of Technology: "We 
did not know what was being done for us. Miss 
Rust, when we were little fellows in your kin- 
dergarten, but now we realize what it meant 
for us all along the line and here in our instruc- 
tion." In order to have justice done to this 
system, the child must have it as a whole. 
Thus much time and waste of nervous energy 
are saved in the higher grades. 

In the meantime the school had grown to 
such a size that a hou.se was taken, and Miss Rust 
associated henself with a kindergarten-trained 
mother, they together undertaking the estab- 
lishment of a Kindergarten Normal Class for 
young ladies. Mi.ss Rust modestly felt that 
this mother, being older and more experienced 
in life, was better fitted than herself to under- 
take the responsibility of training young la- 
dies, although urged to do it. She, however, 



92 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



assisted this mother. After a while the health 
of the mother failed, and the class was con- 
tinued for one year, being finished by the 
assistance of one of its older pupils. 

At this tinie it was deemed advisable to "estab- 
lish a school in a new location out of the city, 
with larger grounds and surrounded by the 
beauties of nature. A location quite near Bos- 
ton was decided upon as being the most desirable 
and delightful one for a class of this kind. 
A kindergarten was soon started by Miss 
Rust, and after three years' time here again 
were the different classes above the kinder- 
garten department. It was impossible to se- 
cure suitable rooms for the size of the school, 
and for this reason for a time the school was 
limited to nearly one-half, consequently the 
patrons decided to build a model build- 
ing, with the understanding that Miss Rust 
should hire the building and carry on her 
school, as before, in a much improved way, 
and more in harmony with her ideas of a 
model Froebelian school, as all the work was 
based upon the Froebelian principles of educa- 
tion. 

During the summer Miss Rust was often con- 
sulted as to the best arrangement of the build- 
ing, and helped in its plans, .she coming for this 
purpose several times from the seashore at 
Magnolia, where she usually passed her sum- 
mers, having nature-study classes, thus collect- 
ing specimens of sea flora, minerals, and so 
forth, for the fall classes of the new school. 

This building was soon accomplished, the 
promoters using the name of Miss Rust in sell- 
ing shares. Sixty shares at one hundred dol- 
lars each were soon sold, mostly to patrons of 
the school, with the understantling that the 
money was to be used for her school. Unfort- 
unately, one who had financial rather than edu- 
cational interests at heart, and who had with 
a view to this purpose bought up a number 
of shares of the stock, decided that other ar- 
rangements should be made, and that, while 
Miss Rust should occupy the building, she 
should be allowed to do so on a salary, and they 
would own the school. This Mi.ss Rust in a 
dignified manner positively refused to do, say- 
ing she had built a school and they had built 
a building, and she preferred to have nothing 



to do with it, unless she could carry on the 
school in the building as first agreed. With 
their plans her hands would be completely 
tied, as it was upon a financial basis rather 
than an educational, and her reputation as a 
teacher of these principles was far more to her 
than the salary offered. 

At this decision of hers, generous offers were 
made by parents to retain her, saying they 
would make up the deficiency in salary if she 
would but remain; but Miss Rust, while grate- 
ful to these patrons for their sympathy and 
kind offers, said she saw no reason for accept- 
ing presents, it being with her a matter of 
principle ; as, under the proposed conditions, she 
would be unable to make it the model school 
she desired, or add to it her Kindergarten 
Normal Classes. 

About this time an urgent appeal came to 
Miss Rust from a Western city to accept the 
position of head instructor in a Kindergarten 
Normal Class, which had been started by the 
Free Kindergarten Association, and also as 
instructor in one of the free kindergartens, 
numbering one hundred children, started that 
autumn, both of which she accepted. It is 
a great pleasure to her to refer to this large 
work with the less fortunate little ones. 
She was also very successful with the Normal 
Class. But the climate of that city, with its 
strong lake winds, was too severe for Miss 
Rust, and she was suddenly stricken down by 
pneumonia, for several days her life hanging 
upon a thread. Upon her recovery she was 
unable to resume her work there, and felt the 
need of returning to Boston, which she did. 
After a short rest she was advised to go to an 
inland . city, and having an opportunity to 
purchase in Worcester a private school, of chil- 
dren from three to twelve years of age, she 
accepted, naming it the Froebel School, at the 
same time starting a Kindergarten Normal 
Class, being urgetl to do this by a member of 
the State Board of Education, as there was no 
such Training School in Worcester. Her work 
there also was very successful, graduating large 
classes, employing some of our best pecial 
lecturers for the instruction of the classes as 
well as for the graduation exercises. Miss 
Rust, in addition to her school work in Worces- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



93 



ter, gave talks before different clubs in that 
city and elsewhere. 

After several years of successful work in 
Worcester, Miss Rust, being closely confined 
by the amount of labor required in her schools, 
realized that she was shut off from many things 
with which she needed to keep in touch in 
order to grow. She therefore felt that she must 
return to her former home, Boston, where she 
would have all desired advantages, and here 
re-establish herself in her Kindergarten Normal 
Classes. 

Although urged by former pupils, being now 
parents, to again organize a kindergarten and 
school for children, she has decided to give her 
time to the instruction of Normal Classes only 
and to talks before clubs. Miss Rust has now 
returned to this city for her permanent home, 
and has her Kindergarten Normal Classes 
well established at the New Century Building. 
She was a member of the American Froebel 
Union started in Boston by Miss Elizabeth 
Palmer Peabody. This became the Kindergar- 
ten Department of the National Etlucational As- 
sociation. At this time s}ie was urged by Miss 
Peabody to join the New England Woman's 
Club. She is a member of the Eastern Kin- 
dergarten Association, the National Education 
Association, the International Kindergarten 
Union, and the AVomen's Educational and 
Industrial Union. She was formerly a member 
of the Worcester Woman's Club, and helped 
to organize the Women in Council Club, Rox- 
bury, Mass. In all the years since she started 
as a Kintlergartner, she has never lowered her 
high standard, nor hesitntetl to make any sacri- 
fice demanded by the cause to who.se advance- 
ment her life is consecrated. She belongs to 
Trinity (Episcopal) Church, Boston. 

She has lived to see the children of her 
earlier classes develop in noble men and women, 
several of the number having distinguished 
themselves in literature, science, and art. 

The strongest testimony to her abilit\ as 
an educator is given in these results of char- 
acter and achievement, which in a special 
way have marked Miss Rust's work in Boston 
and elsewhere in her Froebel School and Kinder- 
garten Normal Classes. It is just aiid right, 
however, that those of a later generation who 



now reap from fruitful fields should acknowl- 
edge their debt to the pioneer kindergartners 
who prepared the ground and planted the 
good seed. 



MARY ELIZA KNOWLES, Past Na- 
tional Chaplain of the Woman's Re- 
lief Corps, was born in Boston, 
February 14, 1847. Daughter of 
Jacob and P'mmeline (Reed) Clones and one 
of a large family of children, .she was brought 
up at the North End, in a locality rich in his- 
toric and patriotic associations, her home being 
in the vicinity of Christ Church ami Copp's 
Hill, and was educated at the Hancock School. 
After her graduation she made a special study 
of elocution, of which she has been a successful 
teacher. She is also a popular public reatler. 
The marriage of Mary E. Clones and Zoeth Rich 
Knowles took place June 14, 1866. 

Mrs. Knowles's father was the third Jacob 
Clones in tlirect line residing in Boston. His 
grandfather Clones died in 1799. His father, 
Jacob Clones, 2d, who married Phebe Ann 
Low, daughter of William Low, died in 1815. 
W'illiam Low, great-grandfather of Mrs. 
Knowles, was a Revolutionary soldier, belong- 
ing to a company of militia that was called into 
service at the time of the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775. 

Mrs. Knowles is a charter member of Abra- 
ham Lincoln Corps, No. 39, auxiliary to Post 
No. 1 1 , Charlestown. She was installed April 
22, 1884, as its first Senior ^'ice-President, and 
in January, 1885, accepted the position of Presi- 
dent, serving continually in office and on com- 
mittees. Her first participation in a Depart- 
ment Convention was in 1886, when she was 
invited to present a baimer procured by con- 
tribution from members. The pleasing manner 
in which she performed this duty made such 
a favorable impression that she was elected 
Department Chaplain, and re-elected in 1887. 
In her second annual report as Chaplain she 
reconnnended that a special service in honor 
of the unknown dead and of deceased army 
nurses be })repare(l for use on Memorial Day. 

Mrs. Knowles was elected Department Junior 
Vice-Presitlent in 1888, and m this capacity 



94 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



attended the National Convention at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. In 1889 she was chosen Depart- 
ment Senior Vice-President, and in February, 
1890, received the highest office in the Depart- 
ment of Massacliusetts, that of Department 
President. It was in August of this year that 
the National Encampment of the Grand Army 
of the Republic was held in Boston, antl many 
extra duties devolved upon her. She was a 
vice-president of the general committee and 
a member of the executive committee of arrange- 
ments for the National Convention, also chair- 
man of the reception committee and an active 
worker on the committee on finance, press, and 
invitation. In her general order to the corps 
some time previous she said: "This year prom- 
ises to be the most important one in the history 
of this Department. This dear old State of 
ours will be honored above all others during 
the month of August. From all parts of the 
country the veterans of the G. A. R. and our 
sisters of the W. R. C. will come to us. Prove 
to them that the Mother Department of our 
order can be as royal in her hospitality as she 
is generous and tender in her care and protec- 
tion of her country's defenders." 

Mrs. Knowles, in her official visits to corps 
and at public meetings, earnestly referred to 
the plans for encampment week in Boston, and 
awakened great interest in the object. She 
had a prominent part in the festivities of the 
week, and assisted in welcoming to Boston the 
President of the United States and other dis- 
tinguished citizens. The liberal respon.se of 
the corps and the able management of the 
committee enabled all bills to be paid, with a 
surplus of one thousand tlollars on hand. 
Therefore the sum of three thousand dollars 
appropriated by the G. A. R. for the expenses 
of the Woman's Relief Corps during the week 
was returned to the Grand Army committee. 

In presenting her annual address to the De- 
partment Convention of 1891, Mrs. Knowles 
thanked the members for their hearty interest, 
and said: "When the word was brought back 
to us from Milwaukee that the eighth National 
Convention would be held in Boston, every 
niembfT in the Department began to feel that 
she would do her part toward welcoming those 
who would come from all sections of our be- 



loved land, wearing the little bronze badge. 
The work of preparation for this memorable 
event occupied many months of careful and un- 
tiring labor, and the grand results accom- 
plished elicited words of prai.ie and gratitude 
from the visiting members of the Grand Army 
of the Republic and the Woman's Relief Corps." 

Captain George L. Goodale, chairman of the 
executive committee of the G. A. R., when for- 
warding the official thanks of the committee, 
extended congratulations upon the grand suc- 
cess of the efforts of the AV. R. C, and added: 
"No feature of the week of duty and of pleas- 
ure was more enjoyable than the camp-fire at 
Tremont Temple on the evening of Friday, 
August 15." Three thousand people attended 
this Relief Corps gathering in Tremont Temple, 
and three thousand more were turned away, 
disappointed that they were unable to gain 
admittance. Governor Brackett, Mayor Hart, 
General W. T. Sherman, Commander-in-chief 
Wheelock G. Veazie, Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer 
(National President), Miss Clara Barton, Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe, and other distinguished 
speakers were present. One of the attractive 
features of the programme was a rearling by 
Mrs. Knowles of a poem entitled "The Massa- 
chusetts AVoman," written for the occasion by 
Mrs. Kate B. Sherwood, of Canton, Ohio, a past 
National President. 

In an address at the Department Convention 
in Boston, February, 1891, she gave a sum- 
mary of the year's work, from which the fol- 
lowing extracts are taken: "The growth of our 
order in Ma.ssachusetts during the past year 
has been most encouraging. At the end of the 
official year of 1890 our roster bore one huntlred 
and twenty-five corps with a membership of 
nine thousand and ten. To-day we have one 
hundred and thirty-seven corps, with a mem- 
bership of ten thousand six hundretl, a gain of 
one thousand five hundred and ninety. The 
sum of seventeen thousand one hundred and 
tliirty-four dollars and thirty-four cents repre- 
sents the value of relief expenditures and 
money turned over to posts. 

"On the 7th of last June I was honored with 
an invitation from the Board of Trustees of 
the Soldiers' Home to participate in the dedi- 
cation of the new part of the home. The in- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



95 



teresting exercises and incidents of the occasion 
will be remembered as long as life shall last. 
I have visited the home whenever it was possi- 
ble for me to do so. 

"The official correspondence of the year 
has required much time and thought. I have 
written more than a thousand letters, and have 
issued eight general orders antl one circular 
letter. Many invitations to fairs, camp-fires, 
anniversaries of posts and corps, have been ac- 
cepted and thoroughly enjoyed. I have always 
been received at these gatherings with much 
courtesy and cordiality. I have assisted at the 
opening of four fairs, atteniled four receptions, 
eleven anniversaries, instituted two corps, in- 
stalled the officers of twenty-four corps, visited 
many other corps and delivered the Memorial 
Day address at Leominster. Have been present 
at headcjuarters every Tuesday, Thursday, and 
Satunlay, with but two exceptions." 

Mrs. I\iiowles served as Department Coun- 
sellor in 1891, and continued her active inter- 
est, visiting corps, participating in camp-fires, 
and other patriotic gatherings. By invita- 
tion of Granil Army posts she has delivered 
Memorial Day adtlresses in many parts of the 
State and in New Hampshire, and has been an 
elo(iuent missionary for the order. She con- 
tinues her active work in the Department 
W. R. C, and has great influence in the con- 
ventions. 

Her portrait hangs upon the walls of the 
Department headiiuarters in Boston. It was 
presented by Abraham Lincoln Corps, of 
Charlestown, in which she is still an active 
and honored member. Colonel Allen Corps, of 
Gloucester, the first corps instituted by Mrs. 
Knowles, has placed in its room at the Soldiers' 
Home in Chelsea a beautiful banner bearing 
her name. 

She was assistant secretary at the National 
Convention at Detroit in 1891, and at Wash- 
ington, D.C., in 1892, was unanimously elected 
National Chaplain for the ensuing year. 

As a professional elocutionist, Mrs. Knowles 
has filled engagements in many halls and 
churches in Ma.ssachusetts and other New 
England States, and has thus aided financially 
many churches, posts, corps, and other societies. 
Mrs. Knowles is one of the vice-presidents of the 



Executive Committee of Arrangements for the 
National Convention in Boston in August, 1904. 
One of the most elo(|uent addresses ever given 
at a public gathering of the order was her 
presentation of a flag to the Girls' High School 
of Boston on behalf of the Department of Mas- 
sachusetts at its anniversary observance in the 
People's Temple, Boston, February 10, 1904. 
She is sure of appreciative audiences whenever 
taking part, in any service. 

She was a member of the Ladies' Aid Asso- 
ciation of the Soldiers' Home, and now belongs 
to the New England Helping Hand Society. 
She is State treasurer of the Independent Order 
of Odd Ladies, and was for several years secre- 
tary of the relief fund of this order. Her re- 
ports to the insurance conmiissioner of Massa- 
chusetts were complimented by that official, 
who regarded them as the best reports receivetl 
from any fraternal insurance organization. 

Mrs. Knowles is actively interested in church 
and Sunday-school work. For many years 
connected with the Bulfinch Place Church (Uni- 
tarian) in Boston, she is now a member of the 
Winter Hill Universalist Church. 

Mr. and Mrs. Zoeth Rich Knowles have lived 
in Somerville since 1894. They have no chil- 
dren. Mr. Knowles was in the signal service 
of the Union army during the Civil War. He 
is a Past Commander of Abraham Lincoln Post, 
No. 11, G. A. R., of Charlestown, where they 
formerly resitled. Mr. Knowles was one of 
the conu-ades of the Grantl Army of the Re- 
public who early in its history advocated form- 
ing Relief Corps, auxiliary to posts. 



ETHEL HYDE.— The earthly sojourn of 
Miss Ethel Hyde, comprised within the 
brief period of twenty-eight years, was 
a healthy, contentetl, happy life, that 
reflected the sumiy radiance of a pure soul, 
and, measured by quality, may be said to have 
been rounded out anil complete. 

Miss Hyde was born in Bath, Me., on the 
thirtieth day of August, 1871. Her father was 
General Thomas Worcester Hyde, and her pa- 
ternal grandparents were Zina and Eleanor 
(Davis) Hyde. As a leading merchant of Bath 
in his day, Zina Hyde held an influential posi- 



96 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



tion in the community. He was a man of 
scholarly and artistic tastes, and travelled ex- 
tensively in Europe. Thomas Worcester Hyde 
was born in Florence, Italy, January 15, 1841 , and 
was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1861. In 
the .sununer of that year he raised a companj' 
of volunteers for the Seventh Maine Regiment. 
Appointed Major in August, he had the honor, 
in the ab.sence of the colonel and lieutenant 
colonel, of leading the regiment to the field. 
He commanded the Seventh Regiment at An- 
tietam and ui other engagements. Later he 
was connni.ssioned Colonel of the First Maine 
Veteran Volunteers, and at the age of twenty- 
three years he was commander of the Third 
Brigade, Second Division, Sixth Army Corps. 
He was nmstered out in the summer of 1865, 
after four years of gallant service, and was 
brevetted Brigadier-general. Later on he re- 
ceived from Congress a medal of honor. Re- 
turning to Bath, he jnirchased the Warden 
Foundrj', which soon, owing to his energy and 
business ability, developed into the famous 
Bath Iron Works, of which he was president. 
He also established the Hyde Windlass Com- 
pany. 

General Hyde endeared himself to all by his 
manly bearing, business integrity, courteous 
manner, and cultivated conversation. He was 
frequently chosen to fill high political offices in 
both city and State. His classical attainments 
and literary abilities are evinced in a transla- 
tion of some of the odes of Horace, published 
by the Bibliophile Society of Boston, and in an 
interesting book of reminiscences of the Sixth 
Corps, entitled "Following the Greek Cross." 
He died greatly mourned in November, 1899. 

His wife, Mrs. Annie Hyde, who survives her 
husband, was well qualified to be the compan- 
ion of such a man. Her father, John Hayden, 
was, to (]Uote a newspaper account of him, " an 
astronomer, a mathematician, and a profound 
scholar." He was one of the early abolition- 
ists, and he, too, held some of the highest politi- 
cal offices in the city and State. Mrs. Hytle's 
mother, Mrs. Martha Brown Hayden, was noted 
for her beauty and wit. Mrs. Hyde herself, 
finely educated, sympathetic, kindly, of pol- 
ished manner, keen intelligence, and gracious 
presence, has maintained her position as chate- 



laine of Elmhurst, her beautiful home in Bath, 
with dignity and happy hospitality. To her 
mother's influence Ethel owed much of her 
charm of manner and brilliance of conversa- 
tion. The relation between Mrs. Hyde and 
her children is ideal. 

Miss Ethel Hyde went through the usual 
routine of the schools in Bath, the instruction 
there received being supplemented by private 
tuition. At the age of eighteen, with her aunt, 
Mrs. Eames, mother of the famous vocalist, 
Emma Eames, she went to Europe to "finish 
her education," as the expression is, although, 
as a fact, her education never was complete. 
She was always learning, not satisfied with 
that which she had already acquired, but eager 
to gain knowledge in all directions. The result 
was the possession of a well-balanced, resource- 
ful mind, which appreciated the higher im- 
pulses of life while not disdaining its lighter 
claims. Bles,sed with a fine physique and 
graceful in form, she united in her person the 
classic requirements of the healthy mind in 
the healthy body. She was fond of outdoor 
life, and excelled in all athletic exercises. Her 
artistic sense was highly developed. This was 
characteristically displayed in her love of 
flowers, of which the beautiful beds at Elm- 
hurst were her especial care. Her fine percep- 
tion and good judgment as an amateur of art 
were attested by her fine collection of pictures 
from European galleries. 

But, of all the gifts with which nature had 
endowed her, none was more marked than that 
of music. It was born in her, inherited to a 
large extent from her mother, who is a finished 
and artistic musician. Early promise of a 
musical voice was detected by the mother, who 
fostered and cared for it until the time came 
for higher cultivation. Miss Clara Munger, of 
Boston, was her first teacher. She subse- 
quently studied under Olivieri in Boston and 
Madam Picciotto, Van den Heuvel, and Manouri 
in Paris. The promise of early tlays was more 
than fulfilled. A voice of exquisite beauty and 
purity of tone had been trained in the highest 
and most artistic method, and a brilliant singer 
ai)])eared. Had her ambitions tended in that 
direction. Miss Hyde would have won laurels 
on the operatic stage; and, indeed, she was 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



97 



often urged to devote herself to this career. 
Eminent critics who had heard her were unani- 
mously of the opinion that she would adorn 
the lyric profession. Anton Seidl declaied she 
had "a voice of velvet," while Jean de Reszke 
pronounced it the best amateur voice he had 
ever heard. But her own tastes did not lie in 
that way, and she voluntarily gave up an oppor- 
tunity that many might covet. 

The gift, however, was not hidden; and Miss 
Hyde was ranked among the highest of amateur 
singers. Not only in her own home, but in 
social circles of New York, Boston, Newport, 
and Lenox, as well as in Paris, Venice, and 
other places abroad, she delighted all who heard 
her. In Washington she was a guest of the 
British and German Ambassadors, and on more 
than one occasion was specially invited to sing 
at the White House. In accordance with her 
habitual desire of making good use of her ac- 
complishments and acting up to the beneficent 
instincts of her nature, she devoted her talents 
largely to the cause of benevolence and charity. 
To this end she frequently organizetl concerts 
or gave recitals, in order to be able to minister 
to the wants of needy and deserving people, 
and there are many to-daj' who owe education 
and all that they are to her thoughtful consitl- 
eration. 

Confirmed in Grace Church, Bath, Miss Hyde 
was sincere and unostentatious in her religious 
life. The Christian virtues and graces Ijeauti- 
fied her character. She took an active part in 
church work, and her own parish gratefully 
recalls the practical and financial assistance 
she renderetl. Thus, adorning her station in 
society, pursuing a life of un.selfish goodness, 
she was respected and loved by all. 

It was in the midst of such a life, so bright 
and useful, that Miss Hyde was suddenly 
stricken down with incurable disease. Ten- 
derly ministered to with all that loving hearts 
could supply, for three months she bore her 
sufferings with beautiful patience and Christian 
fortitude. Then God called her to higher ser- 
vice on Sunday, August 27, 1899. On the 
twenty-eighth anniversary of her birth all that 
was mortal of Ethel Hyde was laid to rest amidst 
a sorrow that was universal. Many glowing 
tributes have been paid to her memory. The 



regard in whidi she was held by those among 
whom she lived may be gathered from the 
words of her rector at the funeral service, 
when, speaking of the wonderful voice, he said, 
" It seemed as if it were the very expression of 
her life, tuned to a higher key — as all her life 
was — sweet, true, pure, inspiring," and from 
the opening and closing sentences of an etli- 
torial in the local paper: "The entire city 
mourns to-day for the sad death of Miss Ethel 
Hyde. . . . She will be held in long and grateful 
remembrance for her many deeds of charity 
and loving kindness." 



PAULINE J. WALDEN, LUCY JAME- 
SON SCOTT, AND LOUISE MANNING 
HODGKINS are officially connected 
with the monthly publications of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Eiiisco{)al Church. Miss Walden 
may be considered the dean of the journalistic 
corps, she having occupied the responsible 
jjosition of publisher for more than twenty 
years. Mrs. Scott accepted the editorship of 
the Children'' s Friend in 1890; and Miss Hodg- 
kins, on the occasion of the annual executive 
meeting of the society at St. Paul, Minn., in 
1893, was elected editor of its official organ, 
now known as the Woman's Missionary Friend, 
originally the Heathen Woman's Friend. These 
publications and two others, Fraueit ifissions 
Freund and The Study, are issuetl monthly at 
36 Bromfield Street, the Boston office of the 
above nanietl society. 

The AVoman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America 
was organized in the Treniont Street Methotlist 
Episcopal Church, Boston, on a stormy March 
day in 1869 by eight women who responded 
to a call sent to thirty churches. A window 
in the Tremont Street Church commemorates 
the event and preserves their names. The 
first public meeting of the society was held 
in the Bromfield Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church, May 26, 1869. The speaking was 
quickly followed by decisive action. At a 
business meeting held by the women at the 
close of the public occasion it was voted to 
raise money to send as a missionary to India 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Miss Isabella Thoburn, sister of Bishop Thoburn. 
An appeal for a medical woman soon followed. 
As a result of prompt and efficient measures 
to procure funds, the services of Miss Tho- 
burn and of Clara A. Swain, M.D., were secured. 
These two women sailed from New York for 
India, via England, on November 3, 1869, 
reaching their destination early in January, 
1870. These first laborers of the new society 
in a foreign field were cordially received, and 
soon entered upon a good work, Miss Thoburn 
organizing schools and superintending the 
work of Bible readers, and Dr. Swain's medical 
ability gaining for her admission to many places 
that w^ere closed to others. This society sent to 
India, China, Korea, and Japan the first woman 
medical missionary ever received in those 
countries. Now, in its thirty-fourth year (1903) 
it has two hundred and sixty-five missionaries 
carrying on its work in far India, China, Japan, 
Korea, Africa, Bulgaria, Italy, South America, 
Mexico, and the Philippines, by means of 
women's colleges, high schools, seminaries, 
hospitals, dispensaries, day schools, and " settle- 
ment work," as it is called in America. 

The society was incorporated under the laws 
of the State of New York in 1884. Its receipts 
during the first year were four thousand five 
hundred forty-six dollars and eighty-six cents, 
and in the year 1903 four hundreil ninety-one 
thousand ninety-one dollars and seventy-five 
cents, with a total from the beginning of 
six million eight hundred and fifty thousand 
eight hundred fifty-three dollars. Six Branches 
were organized the first year. There are now 
eleven, the first the New England, and the 
eleventh the Columbia River Branch. 

The first number of the society's first peri- 
odical, the Heathen Woman's Friend, appeared 
in June, 1869. Mrs. Warren, wife of William F. 
Warren, D.D., President of Boston University, 
was its editor for twenty-four years, be- 
ginning at the time when women editors were 
so rare as to make the position one of isola- 
tion. Financially it was a plunge into the unex- 
plored wilderness, there being no money behind 
the paper and no influence, except that of a 
handful of women whose hearts and brains 
were devoted to sending to foreign fields their 
first missionaries. But the result proved to 



be a financial success, for in thirty years it 
not only paid its own expenses, but contributed 
over thirty thousand dollars for the publica- 
tion and scattering of leaflets and other mis- 
sionary literature which has proved to be the 
" leaves of the tree for the healing of the na- 
tions." Mrs. Warren penned her last editorial, 
"The Bugle-call," on Thursday, January 5, 
1893, two days before the close of her earthly 
life. 

Harriet Cornelia Merrick Warren, daugh- 
ter of John M. and Mary J. Merrick, was born in 
Wilbraham, Mass., September 15, 1843, and 
was educated at Wilbraham Academy, of which 
her father was a trustee. Married April 14, 
1861, to the Rev. William F. Warren, slie went 
with him to Bremen, Germany, where he served 
for some time as a professor in the Missions- 
Anstalt. Possessed of scholarly tastes and 
capabilities, Mrs. Warren while abroad con- 
tinued to cultivate her mind, successfully pur- 
suing advanced studies in history, languages, 
literature, music, and art, also spending some 
time profitably with her husbantl in travelling. 
" She returned after five years a large-minded and 
thoroughly ecjuipped woman, full of resources, 
and with good practical judgment and tact that 
admirably fitted hei' for the position .she was to 
occupy as the wife of a man at the head of one 
of the most important educational enterprises 
in the church and in tlie country." She was 
an untiring worker in the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society, its first recording secretary, 
and for years president of the New England 
Branch, and an accomplished editor. 

Louise Maxning Hodgkins, M.A., Mrs. 
Warren's successor in the editorial chair, has 
won for herself a name in both literary and 
educational fields. Born in Ipswich, Mass., 
August 5, 1846, daughter of Daniel Luiimuis 
and Mary (Willett) Hodgkins, she is a descend- 
ant of early .settlers of that historic town. P'or 
two years in her girlhood she attended the 
Ipswich Seminary, then under the charge of 
Mrs. Eunice P. Cowles. At Wesieyan Acad- 
emy, Wilbraham, where she was next enrolled 
as a pupil, she was grailuated in 1870. For 
six years (1870-76) she was connected with 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



99 



Lawrence University at Appleton, Wis., both as 
a teacher and student. She received from the 
institution her degree of Master of Arts in 1876. 
In 1877, as professor of EngUsh hterature at 
\\'ellesley College, she entered upon her next 
notable educational work, beginning a term 
of efficient antl highly appreciated service, 
that lasted fourteen years. The enterprise 
was a new one, and upon her devolved the task 
of arranging a course of study in her depart- 
ment suited to the needs of the times. In 1891 
she resigned her professorship, that she might 
give her time solely to literary work. She has 
been successful both as an author and lecturer. 
Among the books that she has written may 
be named " Nineteenth Century Authors of 
Great Britain and the United States," "Study 
of the English Language," and "Via Christi," 
the last a fascinating volume of missionary 
annals, published by Macmillan in October, 
1902, which in less than two years had reachetl 
a sale of nearly fifty thousand copies. Miss 
Hodgkins has edited Milton's Lyrics and Mat- 
thew Arnold's "Sohrab ami Rustum." 

To the Woman'a Missio)iary Friend Miss 
Hodgkins, it is said, "has given a fresh impetus 
on many lines, and it is not surprising that its 
subscription list lengthens each year." 

Mi.ss Hodgkins has visited Europe four times 
for special studies, attentling lectures at the 
College PVan^ais in Paris, studying in the Girls' 
Normal School at Hanover and with private 
tutors in Leipzig and Berlin, also in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. Her present home is in Auburn- 
dale, Mass. 

Lucy Amelia J.\meson, now Mrs. Lucy 
Jameson Scott, was born in Irasburg, Vt., 
November 27, 1843, daughter of Alexantler 
and Sarah (Locke) Jameson. She completed 
her school studies at the \''ermont Conference 
Seminary, and was graduated as the valedic- 
torian of her class. On July 17, 1867, she be- 
came the wife of the Rev. Orange W. Scott, 
a minister of the Methodist P^piscopal Church. 
Soon after the organization of the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society Mr. Scott was pastor 
of a church in Haverhill, Ma.ss. Joining an aux- 
iliary, Mrs. Scott served for some time as its 
corresponding secretary, later as the first sec- 



retary of the New Hampshire Conference. 
In 1874 she represented the New England 
Branch at the executive committee meeting. 
As the years went on, she became more and 
more widely known as a worker in the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society and Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union and as a contributor 
to the Youth's Companion and other popular 
papers, as well as to religious {)eriodicals, also 
as a writer of books for Sunday-school libraries. 
The latest of her productions is " Twelve 
Little Pilgrims," pul)lished by Revell, an in- 
teresting story and a valuable book to interest 
children in missionary work. Since this writer 
of children's books and stories became, in 1890, 
editor of the Children s Missionary Friend, 
this publication has reached a circulation of 
nearly thirty thousand. Time has shown that 
she is the right woman in the right place. Mrs. 
Scott is the mother of three sons anil two 
daughters. 

P.\ULiNR J. Walden, chosen at the meeting 
in Philadelphia in November, 1882, to succeed 
Mrs. Daggett as the publishing agent of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, entered 
at once upon the duties of this position. As 
publisher of the four periodicals above men- 
tioned and general manager of affairs at the 
Bromfield Street office, she has shown herself 
thoroughly qualified to administer the trusts 
committed to her charge, and can perhnps be 
best described in the words of a Boston business 
man of forty years' experience, "Why, accord- 
ing to her opportunity, she's one of the best 
business men in the city." She, too, is a New 
England woman. Born in Lynn, Mass., she is 
of mingled Methodist and Quaker ancestry. 
In the simimer of 1897 she visited England 
and Europe for the purpose of studying mis- 
sionary work, giving considerable time to 
the work of the Woman's Foreign Mission- 
ary Society in Rome. In the spring and sum- 
mer of 1903 she made a tour to the Pacific 
coast, visiting California, Oregon, and Washing- 
ton, embracing the Columbia River and Pacific 
Branches of the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society, in the interests of the work. The total 
monthly output of the four periodicals is now 
(December, 1903) over ninety-five thousand. 



100 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



with eighty-eight thousand nine hundred sev- 
enty-six paid subscriptions. Miss Waldcn, witli 
her genial manners and her cheering business 
budget, has been a welcome official visitor at 
annual executive committee meetings. With 
her clear head, her lofty aims, and earnest 
spirit, she is an appreciated force in the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 



GULIELMA PENN SANBORN was 
born in Readfield, Me., February 20, 
1839, a daughter of Samuel and 
Joanna (Pierce) Sanborn. Among 
her ancestors on both sides were some who 
held responsible jiositions in early colonial life 
and some who served in the war for indepen- 
dence. She is therefore eligible to membership 
in the Daughters of the American Revolution 
and the Society of Colonial Dames. Miss San- 
born accjuired her elementary education in 
the little red school-house of the district in 
which she lived. Her family moving to the 
suburbs of Augusta when she was ten years 
old, she had a few yeai's of such teaching as 
the country schools then afforded. During this 
time she had plenty of good books anfl news- 
papers to read at home. 

Stress of circvmistances sent each child of 
the household as a wage-earner, and at the age 
of fourteen the cotton-mill in Augusta became 
the scene of her labors. Wearying of the 
monotony' and small pay in that locality, she 
went to Lawrence, Mass., where she was em- 
ployed in the Pacific Print Works. The free 
library connected with this place afforded Miss 
Sanborn the greatest pleasure. She speaks 
enthusiastically of the benefits derived from 
its use. 

The year LS61 found her at home in Augusta 
with her mother and the younger children, as 
the men had all "gone to the war." For a few 
months she worked on soldiers' coats; but this 
labor was not satisfactory, and plans were marie 
for learning type-setting, then a comparatively 
new business for women. With fair success 
this occu|)ation was followed for five years, 
when failing health compelled its abandon- 
ment. Circumstances opened a way for sew- 



ing. Orders were received from the best and 
most influential families, among them the 
Blaines. Mr. Blaine was Speaker of the House 
at Washington in 1872; and Mrs. Blaine, need- 
ing some one to accompany her thither, as 
family assistant in various ways, proffered the 
situation to Miss Sanborn, who welcomed the 
[ileasant change. This proved a most delight- 
ful winter, as the generous and kindly ways 
of the family accorded her many privileges not 
usually vouchsafed to an employee. She went 
everywhere, saw everybody and everything 
worth .seeing, joining the family at their table 
and meeting their guests, a bit of education 
novel and broad. At the end of the session 
Mr. and Mrs. Blaine gave her a pass from Balti- 
more to California and return. She left at 
once for the sunny land. Making her home 
there with a brother and finding immediate 
emi)loyment at her trafle, she earned enough 
to travel the length and l)readth of that State, 
visiting among other places of note the Yo- 
semite Valley and the big trees. She made these 
journeys on horseback, after the manner of 
those days. In October of the same year she 
s))ent three months in the frontier .settlements of 
Kansas, and tarried in several other States, 
reaching Maine in the early part of 1873. In 
March she opened dressmaking rooms, with 
dreams of the Centennial in her mind, a dream 
that was realized and so thoroughly enjoyed 
that the larger plan for attending the Paris 
P]xposition in 1878 seemed feasible. As her 
aged parents on the farm were then in comfort- 
able circumstances, the trip was taken; and the 
three and a half months in England, Scot- 
land, and France were a never-to-be-forgotten 
pleasure. 

Craving something beyond the walls of her 
busy dressmaking establishment, and having 
no special journey in view, in 1880 she took up 
the Chautauqua literary and scientific course of 
study by correspondence. Working busily in 
her rooms all day, this meant study for e^'enings 
and Sundays. In 1884 the two weeks' vacation 
found her at Chautauciua ready to be grad- 
uated in a class numbering fourteen hundred. 
Dr. Lyman Abbott delivered the address and 
awarded the ilijilomas. In this immense class 
Miss Sanborn ranked well. 




GULIELMA PENN 8ANB0RN 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



101 



Again application to business imtil her father 
and mother neede(^l her personal attention. In 
1891 she bought a beautiful home on a high 
hill in Augusta, which she named "Ren Venue." 
Here her parents came from the lonely farm to 
live with her, and here, when the summons 
came, they "lay down to pleasant dreams." 

For the past ten years, having built green- 
houses, she has carried on a most successful 
florist's business. Each year she has done 
something to improve the land and surround- 
ings, not the least of her enterprises being the 
drilling of an artesian well, five hundred antl 
sixty feet deep, and the erection of a tower, 
tank, and windmill, the whole costing not less 
than three thousand dollars. 

Miss 8anborn was a pioneer in the ten-hour 
system for working women, being the first to 
run her business on that rule. In all ways 
she has tried to better the condition of wage- 
earning women. Busy as she is, she has been 
active in W. C. T. U. work, has been a club 
woman since the birth of clubs, and a tower of 
strength in the Sunday-school and church. She 
counts it among her greatest privileges that 
she has been favored with the opportunity of 
listening to cultivated and eminent preachers, 
as the Rev. Drs. A\'ebb, and iMcKenzie, Bing- 
ham, Ecob, and others. 

Looking back upon a long and busy life, that 
has been a happy one, she is still actively en- 
gaged as a florist, and cherishes the hope that 
her declining years may be useful, heli)ful to 
others, and not a burden to herself. 

Miss Gulielma P. Sanborn joined Koussinoc 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, in the autumn of 1902, and has since joined 
the National Society of that patriotic order, 
her application for membership in the latter 
having been accepted by the board of manage- 
ment in Washington, D.C., April 27, 1903, 
and her name placed on the list of members. 
Her eligibility in these two instances, as well 
as her qualifications for uniting with the So- 
ciety of Colonial Dames, comes from the pub- 
lic services of some of her maternal ancestors, 
briefly recorded below. 

Miss Sanborn's parents, Samuel Sanborn, of 
Yarmouth (born May 17, 1806, died February 
11, 1893), and Joanna Pierce, of Westbrook, 



Me., were married in 1828. They had eight 
children — Elizabeth Dunbar, Joiseph Pierce, 
Albion Irving, Gulielma Penn (the subject of 
this sketch), Thomas Tristram, Samuel Porter 
Elwell, Benjamin Franklin, and Cora Frances — 
the eldest born in Westbrook in 1830, and the 
youngest in Augusta in 1855. The four now 
living are Albion and Porter in California, 
Gulielma in Augusta, and Cora near Boston. 
Albion and Thomas served in the Civil War 
as third assistant engineers on gunboats in the 
navy. 

The mother, Mrs. Joanna Pierce Sanborn, 
who dietl October 13, 1895, was born in West- 
brook, Me., November 29, 1810, daughter of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (Storer) Pierce and a 
descendant in the seventh generation of Daniel 
Pierce, of Newbury, Mass. The Pierce line 
is: Daniel,'^ Benjamin,' Thomas,^ the Rev. 
Thomas,^ Thomas," Joanna.' 

Daniel' Pierce, the immigrant progenitor 
of this branch of the Pierce family, joining the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony at an early date, 
resided for three or four years in Watertown, 
and about the year 1638 removed to Newbury, 
Mass., where he died in 1677. 

DanieP Pierce served as Deputy from New- 
bury to Massachusetts General Court, 1682-83; 
member of the Council of Safety, 1689; Rep- 
resentative to General Court, 1692; Councillor, 
1693-1703; Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for the county of Essex, 1698-1703. He 
was made Captain of the NeA'bury foot com- 
pany, October 7, 1678, and appointed Colonel 
of the Second Essex County Regiment soon after 
the organization of the Provincial government 
under the new charter in 1692. He died in 
1704. 

Benjamin' Pierce, born in February, 1668-9, 
son of Colonel Daniel, resided in Newbury. 
He married Lydia Frost (born in 1674), daugh- 
ter of Major Charles^ Frost, of Kittery, Me., 
by his wife, Mary Bolles. 

Thomas* Pierce, born in 1706, son of Benja- 
min and Lydia, married in February, 1732-3, 
Abigail Frost, born in 1712, daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Charles' Frost (son of Major Frost) and 
his wife, Sarah Wainwright. The Rev. Thomas^ 
Pierce, born in Newliury in 1737, was ordained 
in Newbury as a Presbyterian minister in Sep- 



102 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



tember, 1762, and settled as pastor of the 
church in Scarboro, Me., where he died in 1775. 
Coffin mentions him as a graduate of Harvard 
in 1759, evidently an error, as his name is not 
in the college catalogue. He probably studied 
at Harvard for a time before going to Cilouces- 
ter, Mass., where he taught school previous 
to entering the ministry, and where he found 
his wife, Anna Haskell, whom he married in 
November, 1762. She was the daughter of 
Captain William^ Ha.skell, of Gloucester, the 
fourth of the name in direct line. William' 
Haskell, the immigrant progenitor, settled in 
Gloucester. He was made Lieutenant of the 
train-band in 1661, and afterward was Cap- 
tain. In 1672 and in several later years he 
served as Representative to General Court. 

Thomas" Pierce, born in October, 1763, son 
of the Rev. Thomas and his wife Anna, mar- 
ried about 1783 Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph 
and Joanna (Graves) Storer, of Westbrook, 
then Falmouth, Me. Of this union were born 
eleven children, Joanna, who became the wife 
of Samviel Sanborn, as recorded above, being 
the youngest. 

Major Charles^ Frost, father of Lydia, the 
wife of Benjamin Pierce, was born in England, 
and came to this country with his father, Nich- 
olas Frost, in 1634. He was killed by Indians 
in 1697, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. He 
served as Deputy from Kittery to Massachu- 
setts General Court in 1658 and in five later 
years. He was commissioned Captain in July, 
1668; was made Commander-in-chief of the 
military forces of Maine, with the title of Ser- 
geant Major, in August, 1689; and served as a 
Councillor or Assistant, 1693-97. 

Sarah Wainwright, wife of Lieutenant 
Charles' Frost and mother of Abigail, wife of 
Thomas* Pierce, was daughter of Captain Simon 
Wainwright, of Haverhill. Her father com- 
manded a garrison during the Indian troubles, 
and was slain in an attack on the town, August 
29, 1708. His wife was Sarah Gilbert. 

Joseph Storer, of Falmouth, father of Eliza- 
beth, Miss Sanborn's maternal grandmother, 
was a soldier of the Revolution. He enlisted 
for three years in the latter part of 1776, but 
tiled at Fishkill, in the State of New York, in 
1777. In the Revolutionary Rolls of Massa- 



chusetts, in the State archives, "Joseph Storer: 
Appears in a list of men raised to serve in 
the Continental Army from Col. Peter Noyes's 
(1st Cumberland Co.) regt. Town belonged 
to, Falmouth. Town enlisted for, Falmouth. 
Term of enlistment, 3 years. Joined Capt. 
Blaisdeir§ co.. Col. Wigglesworth's regt." (vol. 
xHii. 43 c). 

Again: "Joseph Storer: Appears with 
rank of Corporal on Continental Army Pay 
Accounts of Capt. Smart's co.. Col. Smith's 
regt., for service from Jan. 6, 1777, to July 
19, 1777. Residence, Falmouth. Reported, 
'died.'" (Vol. xiii., part 1, p. 152.) Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Smith succeeded Colonel Wig- 
glesworth. 

Joseph Storer was survived by his wife Jo- 
anna, whom he married in Falmouth in 1764. 
Nearly half a century after his death, in accord- 
ance with a resolve passed by the Legislature 
of Maine in March, 1835, entitled a "Resolve 
in favor of certain officers and soldiers of the 
Revolutionary War, and the widows of the 
deceased officers and soldiers," and in answer 
to her application made in June, 1835, Joanna 
Storer received a grant of State bounty land. 
She lived to the age of ninety-nine years and 
three months. 



J4NNE WHITNEY, Boston's most noted 
/ \ woman sculptor, is a native of Water- 
X JL town, Mass. The daughter of Na- 
thaniel Ruggles Whitney, Jr., and his 
wife, vSarah Stone, she was born on September 
2, 1821, the youngest of a family of seven chil- 
dren. Her father was a lineal descendant 
in the seventh generation of John Whitney, 
a native of Westminster, England, who set- 
tled in Watertown in 1635. 

As revealed by genealogical research, John 
Whitney was the third son of Thomas and Mary 
(Bray) Whitney, and was baptized July 26, 
1592. Thomas Whitney, his father, was buried 
in St. Margaret's, Westminster, April 14, 1637. 
He was a son of Robert Whitney and grand- 
son of Sir Robert Whitney, member of Parlia- 
ment in 1559. "The Ancestry of John Whit- 
ney," compiled by Henry Melville and pub- 
lished in 1896, mentions the names of heads 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



103 



of Whitney families in England for fourteen 
generations, tracing; the line of John of Water- 
town and his father, Thomas of Westminster, 
England, back to a Sir Robert de Witteneye, 
living in 1242, who is spoken of by Mr. Mel- 
ville as the "first historic \Vhitney." 

From John Whitney, the English immigrant, 
and his wife Elinor, to Anne, the American 
sculptor, the line was continued through John, 
Jr.,^ Benjamin,' Daniel,^ Simon,^ Nathaniel 
Ruggles," and Nathaniel Ruggles, Jr.,' the 
father above named. 

Daniel' Whitney married Dorothy, daughter 
of Deacon Simon and Joanna (Stone) Tainter, 
of Watertown. Simon'^ Whitney marrietl Mary 
Ruggles. Nathaniel Ruggles Whitney, born 
in 1759, served as Town Clerk of Watertown, 
Justice of the Peace, anil schoolmaster. His 
wife, Abigail Frothingham, born in 1760, was 
a daughter of James° and Abigail (Bradish) 
Frothingham, of Charlestown, and aunt to 
the artist, James Frothingham, third of the 
name, born in 1788, who ranked seventy years 
ago as "one of our best portrait painters," 
being thus mentioned by Dunlap in 1834. 

Nathaniel R. Whitney, Jr., born in 1782, 
married in 1806 Sally (or Surah) Stone, who 
was born in 1784. Her father, Jonathan Stone, 
of Watertown, Miss Whitney's paternal grand- 
father, was a descendant in the fifth genera- 
tion of Deacon Simon Stone, who came from 
England with his wife Joan and four children 
in the ship "Increa.se" in the spring of 1635, 
and, settling at Watertown, became the founder 
of a prominent branch of the Stone family 
in New England. The record of the baptism 
of Deacon Simon Stone, of Watertown, has 
been found in the parish register of Much Brom- 
ley, now Great Bromley, Essex County, Eng- 
land, thus: "1585-6, 9 Feb., Simond, son of 
Davie Stone & Ursly his wife." His marriage 
record, also at Much Bromley, is as follows: 
" 1616, 5 Aug. Symond Stone and Joan Clarke." 

To return now to Miss Whitney, the sculptor. 
Twenty years ago, hi a book on " Famous 
Women," appeared a sketch of the life of Anne 
Whitney, which, though incomplete, later 
biographers and paragraphists writing on the 
same subject have failed to surpass in sympa- 
thetic flelineation of character and achieve- 



ment. "Fortunate in her parentage and in 
her early training," says this sketch, "Anne 
Whitney passed through childhood and youth 
into womanhood under most favorable condi- 
tions. The simplicity and nobility of nature 
which strongly marked the parents are traits 
in the daughter, as are their individualism, 
their strength of character, their loftiness of 
moral tone. She has also inherited an inter- 
est in public affairs and reform, an uncon- 
querable aversion to any and every form of in- 
justice, and a vital belief in human betterment." 

"As a child she was bright and joyous, over- 
flowing with animal spirits." In the school- 
room she was a general favorite. "Said one 
of her teachers, 'She always brought in with 
her such a sense of freshness and purity that 
instinctively I thought of the coming in of the 
morning. Every teacher in the school observed 
her, anil all rejoiced in her. ... A gentle grav- 
ity, a .sweet intelligence of infrequent speech, 
or a pervasive kindliness of manner marked 
her intercourse with her fellow-students, it 
being always apparent that she was with, but 
not of, them.'" 

Slowly her girlhood pas.sed into womanhood. 
With soul growth came new susceptibility 
to outward impressions, whether of beauty and 
of joy, or of sorrow and pain, while far above 
the possibility of attainment soared her cher- 
ished ideals. Fortunately the gift of expres- 
sion was not denied. She wrote as prompted- 
from within, wrote as the spirit gave utterance. 
\ modest volume of poems, published in 1859, 
was the result. Poems of "remarkable qual- 
ity," says Mrs. Livermore. Not that they made 
their author famous: rather may it be said, 
"Fit audience they found, though few." It 
was Samuel Johnson, himself a poet in the 
same order, who wrote of them, "They send 
the repose of absolute truth and spiritual in- 
tuition through the aspirations and conflicts 
of life, and give us its poetry and highest philos- 
ophy." 

An extended critique, both admiring and 
judicial, appeared in the North Avierican Re- 
view, contributed l)y Harriet Prescott Spofford. 
"The publishers," she remarks, "did not give 
it [the book] their best style. The advertise- 
ment was limited, the criticism casual. . . . 



104 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



'Earnest' and 'thoughtful' have been the only 
adjectives to spare. Earnest and thoughtful! 
What verses, if otherwise, would deserve a 
notice? Was there no more to say for poems 
overflowing with beauty, serene and calm, yet 
instinct with the fire of a proud, passionate 
nature? . . . But neither keen eye nor sym- 
pathetic h(\art makes a poet. ... A lyrical 
and tlramatic power is needed, together with 
that sway over language which welds a fancy 
immutably into its own sentences. This last 
the author has in the highest degree: every 
word strikes home; every line is clear, distinct 
as if cut in stone ; the pen in her hands becomes 
so like the sculptor's chisel that one questions 
if poetrj' be the fittest exponent of her genius. 
Her logical power is entirely beyond question, 
but the dramatic element is entirely wanting. ' ' 
"A Last Dream," the dream of an arctic hero — 
Kane — is characterized as a "wonderful poem, 
which climbs with strong and stately steps to 
the last line." 

"The 'Hymn to the Sea' is full of felicitous 
phrasing, also rich in picturesque effects. That 
this Hymn loses no jot of its regal resonance 
in the presence of its subject, but interprets 
and is interpreted best there, is its highest 
praise. It is certainly the finest single piece 
among the poems, though 'Camille' (first pub- 
lished in the Atlantic, vol. i.) affects us more, 
from its warmer hvmianity and the better de- 
veloped power it exhibits. There is no fault 
to be found with 'Camille.' It is the work of 
an artist. Its pathos is unsurpassed. . . . The 
keynote of this poem is struck most clearly 
in the fourth stanza: — 

" 'To .swell some vast refrain beyond the sun, 
The very weed breathed niiLsic from its sod: 
And night and day, in ceaseless antiphon, 

Rolled off throiigh windless arches in the broad 
Abyss. Thou saw'st I too 
Would in my place have blent accord as true, 
And justified this great enshrining, (JodP 

"The three chief faults of these poems are 
obscurity, lack of euphony, and defect of ar- 
tistic polish." However, "there are no words 
woven to conceal the absence of thought: on 
the other hand, the line teems with more sig- 
nificance than it can express. . . . We ovight 



in justice to say that the artist's soul is keenly 
representetl, especially in the 'Five Sonnets 
Relating to Beauty,' most worthily so entitletl. 
In these the love of beauty is a passion. ... In 
beauty is found the reconciliation of pain and 
jov, the riddle of the earth, the secret of the 
sea." 

Referring to the sonnets entitled "Niglit" 
as "the heart of the book": "All through the 
preceding pages has rvm the golden cord on 
which the.se gay, many-colored beads are strung 
— a pure, high, and profounil religious love. . . . 
A truth, never so keenly felt as at the present 
day, revolves in all its phrases here — the ne- 
cessity of joy in faith, the (luintessence of the 
text, 'Rejoice evermore.' " 

Higher attainments in verse were looked for 
by Miss Whitney's friends, but, so far as the 
world knows, she had sung her last note. Her 
genius called her in another direction. A heap 
of wet sand in the greenhouse responded to 
a thought in her brain to which she at once sought 
to give visible form. The success of this at- 
tempt at modelling was so gratifying that she 
resolved to devote herself thenceforth to sculpt- 
ure. For a long time, in the absence of teach- 
ers, .she was self-taught.. Working at home 
in a studio in the garden, she made portrait 
busts of her father and mother and of several 
friends. Her first ideal work was a statue 
in marble of Lady Godiva of Coventry, a beau- 
tiful figure. Her next creation — during the 
period of the Civil War— was a symbolical 
work, "Africa," a colossal statue of a woman 
who has been sleeping for ages, and is now 
half-awakened by the tramj) of armies, the roar 
of artillery, and the din of battle. In her look 
of startled wonder and hope, as with her right 
hand she shades her eyes from the too power- 
ful light, is foreshadowed the deliverance of 
a race held in bondage, the illumination of a 
dark continent. Exhibited both in Boston 
and in New York, "it received," says Mrs. 
Livermore, "some intelligent and some ex- 
travagant praise, as did the Godiva, and also 
much criticism, which its a\ithor welcomed." 

Not long after the production of a third 
statue, the "Lotos P]ater," she carried out 
a long-cherished plan of going abroad. With 
her friend Miss Manning, devoted to another 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



105 



branch of art, she spent four years in Europe, 
studying ancient sculpture, drawing, and mod- 
elling, chiefly in Rome and Paris. In this 
period she made many sketches and modelled 
several statues, among them the " Chaldean 
Astronomer," "Toussaint L'Ouverture," and 
"Roma." In the latter Miss Whitney personi- 
fied the Rome of Pio Nono's time, "Childless 
and crownless in her voiceless woe," a beggar 
"whose aged and wrinkletl face shows traces 
of early, majestic beauty. She sits on a broken 
Corinthian capital, with lier head bowed in 
profound reverie." 

After her return, with increased technical 
skill, enlarged conceptions of art, and the in- 
spiration born of years of contact and com- 
munion with the great masterpieces of the 
world, Miss Whitney resumed her work in the 
studio, and continued to design and motlel. 
She executed several conmiissions for portrait 
busts, which gave entire satisfaction to the 
large constituencies interested. Among the.se 
were busts of President Stearns of Amherst 
College, President Walker of Harvard, of Gar- 
rison, of the poet Keats, of Mrs. Livermore, 
Lucy Stone, Alice Freeman Palmer, and many 
others. One of her best works is the statue 
of the Revolutionary patriot, Samuel Adams, 
which she was commissioned by the State of 
Massachusetts to execute for the National Gal- 
lery in Washington, D.C. Of this statue a 
reproduction in bronze was ordered for the 
city of Boston; and, having been put in place, 
it gave the name to Adams S(|uare. 

Of later date is Miss Whitney's portrait 
statue of Harriet Martineau, representing her 
in the prime of life, sitting in a garden chair, 
her face raised, her thought far-reaching. This 
statue was exhibited in Boston in 1888, and 
is now at Wellesley College. 

An ideal figure in bronze, commended as 
a "work of rare genius in physical detail," and 
a "notable addition to the put:)lic decorations 
of the city" of Boston, is that of Leif l<]ric.son, 
standing on the edge of Back Bay Fens, just 
beyond Commonwealth Avenue parkway. 
The dedication of this statue, on October 29, 
1887, was an occasioii of rare interest. At 
a meeting in Faneuil Hall, ])resided over by 
Dr. Edward Everett Hale, a scholarlv address 



relating to the Norscnicn and their tliscover- 
ies was given by Professor E. N. Horsford. 

The statue of Leif Ericson is of heroic size. 
It stands on a pedestal of red sandstone, being 
about eighteen feet in height. The figure is 
symbolical. It represents a youth gazing ea- 
gerly at the distant horizon, his left hand par- 
tially shading his eyes, not from the light on 
sea or land to-tlay, but from the glory of the 
futui'e, as he dimly forecasts the events of com- 
ing centuries in the new land that meets his 
vision. The inscription on one side of the 
pedestal, giving the date of the voyage of Leif 
the tliscoverer, is in runic characters. On 
the opposite side it is in English. A replica 
of this statue is in Milwaukee on the shore of 
Lake Michigan. 

A later production, a statue of Charles Sum- 
ner, in sitting posture, completed about three 
years ago, has received the recognition of 
critics. It is in Cambridge. 

St' 11 more recent is a bronze fountain in 
memory of a woman of rare beauty of character 
— Mrs. Catherine Lambert — which was put in 
place in West Newton in September, 1903. A 
HI}' held in the upraised hands of a sturdy 
little cherub is the cup whence issues the spark- 
ling spray. 

Mi.ss \Vhitney took up her residence in Bo.s- 
ton in 1872. For a number of years she had 
her home and her studio at 92 Mount Vernon 
Street. She is now in the locality designated 
as the "New Back Bay," where, in a smaller 
studio than the former one, the sculptor's 
chi.sel still displacing the long-discarded pen, 
her high poetic thought continues to find its 
truest expression. m. h. g. 



BARONESS ROSE POSSE, director of 
the Posse Gymnasium, Boston, is suc- 
cessfully carrying on the work begim 
by her late husband. Baron Posse. 
Her maiden name was Rose Moore Smith. 
Born in Newburyport, Mass., the daughter of 
Foster W. and Catherine M. (Ballou) Smith, 
she is descended from good old Engli.sh stock, 
which, we are told, has been tracetl back to 
the time of Cromwell. Her paternal grand- 
father, Foster Smitli, who married Jane Ger- 



106 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



rish, was a merchant in Newburyport, Mass. 
He was bom in Thornton, N.H., in 1791, a son 
of Stephen and Betsy (Gerrish) Smith. The 
Gerrish family, to which his mother and his 
wife belonged, was founded by Captain William' 
Gerrish, who came to Newbury, Mass., with 
Percival Lowle (Lowell). Stephen Smith, 
father of Foster, was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion. His name is on the Revolutionary Rolls 
of New Hampshire. 

Baroness Posse's maternal grandparents were 
John and Catherine (Moore) Ballou (name 
legally changed from Bullough), the grand- 
mother belonging to the Moore family of Sud- 
bury, Mass., dating from early colonial times. 
John Ballou was son of Joseph and Abigail 
(Symmes) Bullough, of Newton, Mass. Joseph 
Bullough is spoken of in Vinton's "Symmes 
Memorial" as "a native of England and a man 
of large property." Abigail Symmes, whom 
he married in 1774 (Mnton), was daughter 
of Zechariah^ Synnnes, of Charlcstown. Her 
father was son of the Rev. Thomas' Symmes 
and great-grandson of the Rev. Zechariah' 
Symmes (a graduate of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge University), who came to New 
England in 1634, and was for many years 
pastor of the church in Charlestown. 

Rose M. Smith was educated in the Newbury- 
port public schools and at the State Normal 
School in Salem. After her graduation she 
taught Latin and French in a fashionable pri- 
vate school in Philadelphia until her marriage. 
Possessing an excellent contralto voice, she 
gave much time to music, and studied under 
leading teachers in this country and abroad. 
While in Philadelphia she sang in one of the 
church choirs, and after removing to Boston 
sang in one of the churches until 1900. During 
the summer of 1885 she travelled in Europe for 
pleasure, and it was in England that she first 
met Baron Posse, who was on his way to Amer- 
ica. The friendship then begun was continued 
in this country, and in 1887 they were married 
and settled in Boston. 

Baron Nils Posse, K.G.V., M.G., born in 
Stockholm in 1862, came of a noble Swedish 
family whose history dates l^ack fully one 
thousand years. His father was Baron Knut 
Henrik Posse, K.S., Governor of the Artillery 



and Engineering School of the Swedish army 
and Major of the First Field Artillery. His 
mother was Lady Sophia Lilliestrole, of an- 
cient Swedish nobility. In 1880 he was grad- 
uated from a Swedish college with a degree equiv- 
alent to Bachelor of Science in America, and 
fourteen months later was graduated with high 
honors from the Military Academy. Brevetted 
by the King as a Lieutenant in the Life Grena- 
diers in 1881, he was transferred to the Field 
Artillery with the same rank in 1883. While 
in the army he took his first yearly course at 
the Royal Gynmastic Central Institute, com- 
pleting his training at the expiration of his 
military service, and receiving his diploma in 
1885. In 1884 he was assistant in the Medico- 
Gymnastic Department of the Institute, also 
an instructor in the Stockholm Gymnastic and 
Fencing Club; and from 1881 to 1885 he was 
an active member in the Stockholm Gymnastic 
Association, the leading organization of its 
kind in that country. Before he left Sweden 
he was an instructor in the army as well as in 
the public schools. 

Coming to America in 1885, he settled per- 
manently in Boston, and for three years prac- 
tised medical gymnastics exclusively. The out- 
growth of a normal class in Swedish gymnastics, 
of which he was asked to take charge in 1886, 
is the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, 
for whose estal^lishment he was largely indebted 
to the assistance of Mrs. Mary Hemenway, the 
well-known philanthropist. Of this school the 
Baron was director until January 1, 1890. 

In February, 1890, he opened a gymnasium 
of his own in the Harcourt Building, on Irving- 
ton Street. This was the small beginning of 
the Posse Gynmasium, which at the time of 
the founder's death had over five hundred 
pupils, and, with its three departments, peda- 
gogical, educational, and medico-gymnastic, 
its complete apparatus and appointments, 
adapted to Swedish and other forms of gym- 
nastics, anthropometric e.xercises, fencing, danc- 
ing, anil so forth, and its comprehensive cur- 
riculum, has come to be recognized as one of 
the finest in the country. His useful activities, 
however, were not confined to the gymnasium. 
He not only found time to make translations 
from famous Swedish authors on gymnastics 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



107 



and kindred subjects and contribute articles 
to papers and magazines, but wrote several 
valuable text-books on physical education, 
among these being " Special Kinesiology of 
Educational Gynmastics," "Handbook of 
School Gymnastics," "The Scientific Aspect of 
Swedish Gymnastics," "Columl)ian Essays on 
Swedish Gymnastics," "Medical Gymnastics." 

The Journal of Education, in a notice of one 
of his books, spoke of Baron Posse as having 
come to this country bringing the gospel of 
the Ling system of educational gynmastics, 
and said, " We do not recall any man of any 
land who has taken sucli a hold of the teachers 
and friends of education in Boston as has 
Baron Nils Posse. Through his judicious, un- 
ostentatious introduction of physical culture, 
that subject has been advanced as far in a few 
months as manual training, for instance, in as 
many years." 

In 1890-91 Baron Posse was lecturer on medi- 
cal gymnastics to the McLean Asylum and in 
1890 to the New England Hospital for Women. 
He w as a member of the Council of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Physical 
Education; and at the World's Columbian Ex- 
position in Chicago he was vice-president of 
the Congress of Physical Education, also Swed- 
ish Commissioner of the Tourists' Dei)artnient, 
Gynmastics and Sports, and was awarded 
medals for his method of instruction. Boston 
honored him similarly in 1892, and Antwerp 
in 1894. In October, 1893, he was placetl in 
charge of the medico-gymnastic clinic in the 
Boston Dispensary. 

On May 15, 1895, his thirty-third birthday, 
he received from the King of Sweden a decora- 
tion of a class never before issued to so young 
a man — that of Knight of Gustavus Vasa, 
which is bestowed only on those who have 
brought honor to their native land through 
special merit or industry. 

His untimely death, December 18, 1895, 
from thrombus, the result of u long periotl of 
over-taxation of his strength, occasioneil wide- 
spread sorrow, and calleti forth many warm 
appreciations of his work and character. Said 
the Boston Journal: " Baron Nils Posse was of 
the type of nobleman that America likes best. 
He was an earnest and successful worker, and 



leaves behind a record of having accomplished 
something and of having done the world some 
good, and both through his own individual 
efforts." 

The estimate of one who knew him appeared 
in the Herald, in part as follows: "To every 
life with whom he came in contact he was a 
source of inspiration and courage. Such kind- 
ness was mixed with his sterling qualities, in- 
tegrity, fearlessness, and steadfastness, that he 
won and held the deepest heart affection, as 
well as the highest respect of all who knew him 
peisonally. He had spent only ten short years 
of professional work, but those years marked 
achievement sufficient for a lifetime." 

Baroness Posse, who was attending RadciifTe 
College, at once gave uj) her studies and assumed 
the management of the gymnasium, her one 
idea being that her husband's life-work must 
be carried on. The pupils, when they returned 
from their Christmas vacation, fintling her in 
charge, showed their loj^alty by remaining. 
The alumni and friends of the school foinied 
themselves into the Posse Memorial Associa- 
tion. Their object was to purchase the name 
and good will of the Posse Gymnasium, to re- 
organize it, and to incorporate it under the 
name of the Posse Institute of Gynmastics. 
They were to raise a sum of money sufficient to 
place the school on a firm basis, its future wel- 
fare to be guarded by a board of trustees. 

During that summer Baroness Posse took 
her husband's remains to Sweden. She re- 
turned in August to find the affairs of the Memo- 
rial A,ssociation in a chaotic condition and a 
certain faction talking of opening an iutlepen- 
(lent school. After brief (leliljeration she de- 
cided to continue the school under her own 
management. In the two weeks that inter- 
vened before it was to open, an almost incred- 
ible amount of work was acconiplisheil ; new 
teachers were engagetl and some of the old ones 
re-engaged, and the gymnasium itself was put 
in repair. On the day and hour appointed, the 
rc-organized school opened with the largest 
senior class on record, anel a large entering 
class. The Memorial Association clevoted the 
larger portion uf the funds in the treasury to 
erecting a monument over Baron Po.sse's grave 
in Stockholm, Sweden. The balance of the 



108 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



money was spent in purchasing a picture which 
was hung in the gynniasium. The school con- 
tinued under the new management with unvaried 
success until the fall of 1900, when the old 
rooms on Irvington Street were exchanged for 
new and improved cjuarters at 206 Massachu- 
setts Avenue. The continued success of the 
gymnasium is proof of the executive ability of 
its manager, who for over seven years has 
carried on the work with such results as to 
maintain the reputation first established of 
being one of the leading normal schools of 
Swedish gymnastics in the country. Every 
graduate of this school is now occupying a good 
position. 

Baroness Posse is also interested in litei'ary 
and philanthropic work and in nuisic. Since 
December, 1892, she has edited the Posse G^jm- 
nasium Jourrial, which is the only paper of the 
sort in the country, and has been self-supporting 
from the start. This paper has been conducted 
under her sole management for over ten years. 
It is taken by most of the State university 
libraries, and it has subscribers in England, 
France, Germany, and Sweden. The Baroness 
has delivered lectures liefore leading educational 
societies and clubs in Boston and suburbs. Al 
one time she gave a talk on Swedish Gymnastics 
before an educational body in London. For 
years she held an office in the Working Girls' 
Club, to which she devoted much time. She 
also assisted in college settlement work. 

For a number of years she was the ])resident 
of the Literary Club of the Posse Gynmasium, 
a club composed of about four hundred mem- 
bers, which gave several plays with success. 
She has served on various educational conunit- 
tees, and was first vice-president of the Boston 
Physical Education Society from 1896 to 1900, 
when she resigned to accept the office of secre- 
tary of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Physical Education. She has 
recently been appointed vice-president of the 
Physical Education Department of the National 
Education Association. For several years she 
was chairman of the Hygiene Committee of 
the Women's Educational and Industrial Union. 
She is a member of the Longwood Cricket CIuli, 
of the Commonwealth Golf Club, in which she 
held offices, and is vice-president of the Mas- 



sachusetts Medical Gymnastic Society. The 
Baroness is very popular socially, and has a 
large circle of friends. 



A NNIE ANDROS HAWLEY, librettist 

/\ and musical composer, the wife of 
X A. George Hawley, was born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., being the daughter of 
Henry Sanford and Adelaide Eleanor (Little) 
Andros. On her father's side she is descended 
from the well-known Andros family of Connecti- 
cut, one of her direct ancestors having been 
Benjamin Andros, of Norwich, who was prom- 
inent in State and town affairs about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

Mrs. Hawley's musical talent comes by in- 
heritance from both her parents. Her father, 
the late Henry Andros, was endowed by nature 
with a rarely sweet tenor voice, and was, more- 
over, a thorough musician by education and 
training. For thirty consecutive years he filled 
the position of choirmaster of St. Peter's Epis- 
copal Church in Cambridge, being the incum- 
bent of that position until within two years of 
the time of his death, which occurred suddenly 
in August, 1902. 

Mrs. Hawley's mother is a grand-daughter of 
Captain Abraham Shackleton, of Nottinghanr, 
England, who was an officer in the Oxford 
Blues, and fought under Wellington at the 
battle of Waterloo. An accomplished musician, 
Mrs. Andros has been organist at St. Peter's 
ever since her hasband began his directorship, 
and since his death has filled the dual office of 
organist and chorister. She is also a teacher 
of sight reading and harmony, and a successful 
trainer of men's voices. 

Mrs. Hawley's native musical talent was 
carefully fostered by her parents, she receiving 
from an early age competent instruction in 
vocal and instrumental music as well as in 
harmony. Her general education was obtained 
in the public schools of Cambridge and at 
Radcliffe College, which she entered soon after 
graduating from the English High School. 
Her literary ability was early displayed in the 
writing of lyrics, which were soon followed by 
the words and nmsic of plays. The first work 
by which she became publicly known was a 




CLARA E. GAHV 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



109 



musical comedy entitled "The Dove's Supper," 
which was first given at the Bijou Theatre 
in 1896. This was afterward enlai'ged and 
changed to "A Social Escapade," and given at 
the Tremont Theatre. Some of her most at- 
tractive songs have been widely sung by some 
of the best known comic opera stars before the 
public. "The Potentate," a comic opera of 
which she wrote the libretto, lyrics, and music, 
was chosen by the Algonquin Club of Brockton 
out of fifty submitted to them for production 
in February, 1903. The piece was given a 
large and costly production, and received 
much enthusiastic commendation. The num- 
ber of comic opera writers has long been so 
small that for a number of years all the comic 
0]ieras produced have been the work of a very 
few men. Thus enterprising managers hail 
with delight the advent of this young authoress 
and composer. Her work is attracting the at- 
tention of some of the most prominent mana- 
gers in the country. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hawley reside in Winchester. 

Mr. Hawley is a choir director of Boston, and 
himself a fine singer. For a mmiber of years 
previous to her marriage, which took place in 
April, 1897, Mrs. Hawley played 'cello in the 
"Fadettes" (women's orchestra), and she is 
still a valued member of that organization, 
though her many duties deter her from often 
playing with them. She possesses a rich so- 
prano voice, and is an advanced pui)il of Mme. 
Gertrude Franklin Salisbury. She has done 
much church and concert singing, and her 
voice has both flexibility and compass. She 
is, without doubt, the only womrm before the 
public who is both a librettist and a musical 
composer. With her ambition, talent, and in- 
dustry, a brilliant future seems to be assured 
her. 



CLARA EMERETTE GARY-vM.D., was 
born in Mitldlesex, Vt., a daughter of 
Ephraim and Sarah A. (Robinson) 
Gary. When she was six years old, 
her parents removed from Middlesex to Mont- 
pelier, \"t., eight miles distant, where she spent 
her childhood days. At- an early age she gave 
evidence of her mental bent, prophetic of her 



future career, manifesting a great interest in 
medical and surgical subjects, experimenting 
on the broken legs of fowls, and improving every 
opportunity of gaining a knowledge of the heal- 
ing processes of nature. She was educated in 
the public schools of Montpelier, including the 
high school, and at the Montpelier Seminary. 
In accortlance with the desire of her parents, 
she then engaged in teaching, but after a while, 
having become dissatisfied with her acquire- 
ments, she entered the School of Cognate Lan- 
guages at Morgan Park, near Chicago, 111., 
where she studied untler the direction of Profes- 
sor W. R. Harper, now the President of Chicago 
University. 

About this time occurred the death of her 
father and eldest brother, William H. Gary, 
and under the severe mental strain occasioned 
by the double bereavement her health gave way, 
anil she was prostrated by a severe illness. 
Naturally of a frail physique, she was left in an 
impaired condition, which finally resulted in 
lameness, compelling her to use a crutch. Ac- 
tive and sensitive in her temperament, she was 
led through this cause to desire to occupy her 
mind and time with some clearly defined work 
pertaining to the good of others. Fearing op- 
position on account of her health, she secretly con- 
sulted with her brother, Frank E. H. Gary, Esq., 
and at his request entered in 1882 the Boston 
I'niversity School of Metlicine, from which she 
was gratluated in 1885. In 1884 she received an 
appointment as house surgeon in the Massa- 
chusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, being the first 
woman who had that honor; and she was acting 
in this capacity at the time of her graduation. 
In the meanwhile her health and strength im- 
proved untler the skilful care and guidance of 
Dr. Conrad Wesselhoeft and Dr. J. Heber 
Smith. 

In September, 1885, she openeil her first 
office at 767 Tremont Street, Boston. Here 
the early struggles of her practice commenced. 
She kept in touch with college anil ilispeii- 
sary work, holding the positions of pharmacist 
to the dispensary and physician to one of the 
children's clinics. Becoming very much inter- 
ested in el(>ctricity as applied to medicine, she 
entered the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology for study of the science, in order to lay 



110 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



a good foundation for work in that line, attend- 
ing the lectures outside of her office hours. 
Afterward she studied electricity as applied to 
medicine under Dr. Rockwell in the Post- 
graduate School of New York City. In 1888 
she removed her office to 546 Columbus Avenue, 
Boston, where she continued her work as a 
general practitioner and electrotherapeutist 
for twelve years. At the end of that periotl 
the death of her mother, to whom she was 
devotedly attached, so affected her health 
that she felt compelled to temporarily relin- 
quish her practice. 8he then went to Europe 
for the double purpose of recuperating and 
of studying more deeply the science of elec- 
trotherapeutics. The latter object was ac- 
complished under Dr. Planet, of Paris, France, 
the skilled assistant of the late Dr. Apostle, 
and in the large hospital at Vienna. When she 
returned to Boston, .she removed her office to 
"The Marlborough," 416 Marlborough Street, 
where she is now practising. 

Dr. Gary has occupied in the Boston Univer- 
sity School of Metlicine the positions of demon- 
strator in anatomy and lecturer in osteology 
and electrotherapeutics. She is a member of 
the National Society of Electrotherapeutists, 
of which she has served as secretary in 1894, 
second vice-president in 1895, first vice-presi- 
dent in 1896, and presitlent in 1897. She is 
a member of the American Institute of Home- 
opathy, Massachusetts Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety, Massachusetts Surgical and Gynecologi- 
cal Society, Boston Homceopathic Medical Soci- 
ety, and La Socicte Fran^aise d'Electrotherapie 
et de Radiologic, Paris, France. In nearly 
all of these societies she has held official posi- 
tions. 

Dr. Gary is also a member of many social or- 
ganizations, and has written many articles and 
papers bearing upon medical and scientific sub- 
jects. It is hardly needful to say that one of 
her greatest delights is in helping women less 
fortunate than herself. In religious affiliations 
she is a Baptist, having united at the very early 
age of fourteen with the First Baptist Church 
of Montpelier, Vt., a church which her father 
and mother were largely instrumental in estab- 
lishing. She is now a member of the First 
Baptist Church, Clarendon Street, Boston. 



E FLORENCE BARKER, the first Pres- 
ident of the National Woman's Relief 
, Corps (elected in July, 1883), was for 
nearly a quarter of a century a resident 
of Maiden, Mass., where. .she died September 11, 
1897. She was the daughter of William A. 
and Mary J. (Skinner) AVhittredge, was born in 
LynnfieUl, Mass., March 29, 1840, and was edu- 
cated in the public school of Lynnfield and at 
the academy in Thetford, Vt. 

On June 18, 1863, she, then E. Florence 
Whittredge, became the wife of Colonel Thomas 
Erskine Barker, of Gilmanton, N.H., he being 
on a furlough, recovering from wounds received 
in the battle of Chancellorsville. In July of 
the same year Colonel Barker was able to re- 
sume command of his regiment, the Twelfth 
New Hampshire. His bride joined him in 
August at Point Lookout, Md., and remained at 
the front until the following April. Her tent 
was tastefully decorated, and was a cheerful 
rendezvous for the officers. This experience 
gained of camp life during wartime increased 
her regard for the ITnion soldiers, whom she 
so often met in camp and hospitals, for Mrs. 
Barker was intensely patriotic. 

After the close of the war Colonel and Mrs. 
Barker settled in Maiden, Mass. When the 
Grand Army of the Republic was formed, Mrs. 
Barker became deeply interested in its success. 
She joined Major-general H. G. Berry Relief 
Corps, auxiliary to Post No. 40, G. A. R., in 
May, 1879, and served as its President four 
years in,succe.ssion. At the convention of the 
Department of Massachusetts W. R. C. in 1880 
she was elected Department Senior Vice-Presi- 
dent, and in 1881 was re-elected. She was 
chosen Department President the following 
year, and filled the office so acceptably that 
she was re-elected in 1883. 

Eighteen cor})s were instituted during her 
administration. While presiding over the State 
convention in Boston, January, 1883, she had 
the pleasure of welcoming Paul Van Der Voort, 
of Omaha, Neb., Commander-in-chief of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, and other promi- 
nent comrades. That the eloquent manner in 
which Mrs. Barker reviewed the work and princi- 
ples of the )\'onian's Relief Corps impressed the 
commander-in-chief with the value of such an 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



111 



auxiliary is witnessed by the following, which 
he officially promulgated in a general order 
dated February 16, 1883:— 

"The commander-in-chief is delighted to 
learn that the loyal women of the land are form- 
ing auxiliary societies everywhere. The grand 
work done by these organizations is worthy of 
the highest praise. 

"The Woman's Relief Corps of Massachusetts 
is hereby particularly mentioned on account of 
its perfect organization and the work it has 
accomplished. The President of the same, 
Mrs. E. Florence Barker, of Maiden, Mass., will 
be happy to furnish information. 
" By commantl of 
"Paul Van Der Voort, 

" Commander-in-chiej . 
"F. E. Brown, Adjutant-general." 

In general orders issued May 1, 1883, an- 
nouncing the arrangements for the Seventeenth 
National Encampment, to be held in Denver, 
Col., July 24-28, Commander-in-chief Van Der 
Voort cordially invited representatives of the 
Woman's Relief Corps and othej- societies work- 
ing for the Grand Army of the Rejjublic to meet 
at Denver and perfect a national organization, 
adding: "They should bring their rituals, rules, 
by-laws, and plans of organization, and if pos- 
sible agree on a uniform mode or system of 
procedure throughout the country. I pledge 
the noble women who compose these societies 
that they will be warmly greeted and given all 
the encouragement possil)le. Miss Clara Barton 
has promised to be present." 

At a meeting of the board of directors of the 
Department of Mas.sachusetts, W. R. C, held 
in Boston, June 27, 1SS3, Mrs. E. Florence 
Barker, Mrs. Sarah E. Fuller, and Mrs. Liza- 
beth A. Turner were chosen delegates to repre- 
sent this department at the convention in 
Denver. It was voted that the Department of 
New Hampshire be invited to unite with Massa- 
chusetts in sending delegates. 

Mrs. Barker presided with grace and tact 
over the deliberations of the women's con- 
vention at Denver, which was attended by 
delegates from several States. At the sec- 
ond day's session it was voted to form a Na- 



tional Woman's Relief Corps on the same 
basis as that of the Department of Massachu- 
setts, provided the National Encampment of 
the Grand Army of the Republic shoukl decide 
to recognize this action. Several of the 
delegates present refused to endorse the 
clause in the rules and regulations admitting 
to membership other women than relations of 
soldiers. 

This clause also caused a lengthy discussion 
in the National Encampment when the resolu- 
tion of endorsement was debated, for several 
conu'ades who believed in a woman's national 
organization opposed any movement in its be- 
half that would not restrict the membership 
to relations of soldiers. 

Past Conunantler-in-chief George S. Merrill, 
of Massachusetts, said : " We certainly, com- 
rades of the Grand .\rmy of the Republic, 
cannot afford to do anything that can by any 
possible means be construetl as discourteous 
or hostile to any of the loyal women of America." 

Comrade William Warner, of Missouri (since 
Commander-in-chief), participated in the de- 
bate, saying in part : " I come from a State that 
has no organization, and that has no interest 
in any differences between the various organi- 
zations. I come from a State in which there 
does not breathe a loyal man who does not ex- 
tend the right hantl of welcome to every sister, 
mother, or sweetheart within her borders, 
whose heart beats in sympathy with us." 

The resolution which was offered by Chap- 
lain-in-chief Foster was atlopted, namely: "That 
we cordially h:iil the organization of a National 
Woman's Relief Corps, and extend our greeting 
to them. We return our warmest thanks to 
the loyal women of the land for their earnest 
support and encouragement, and bid them 
Gotl-speed in their patriotic work." 

A messenger was sent to the W. R. C. Con- 
vention with an invitation for its members to 
attend the installation of officers of the G. A. R., 
and the meeting was adjouinetl at noon until 
three o'clock p.m. Proceeding to the Tabor 
Opera House, the delegates were officially noti- 
fied of the vote of endorsement. Robert B. 
Beath, of Philadelphia, the historian of the 
G. A. R., was installed as Commander-in-chief, 
and, upon assuming the office and addressing 



112 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



the encampment, he said: "I have not been 
able to enter into the details of the organiza- 
tion of a Ladies' Aid Society by the good ladies 
who have assembled in this city of Denver for 
this purpose; but, whatever they shall do that 
tends to perpetuate the great humane work 
of the \yar, that has now devolved on the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and upon all their wives 
and sisters and friends, I can assure them of 
my most hearty support." 

The auxiliary also received a cordial welcome 
from other speakers, among them General John 
A. Logan, who said: "I was once a sufferer on 
a battle-held and long afterward in a hospital, 
and every morn I coukl feel as if a silver cord 
was twined aroimd a capstan in the region of 
glory and reached to my heart, where it was 
anchored by the hand of woman. I thank 
God that he has brought to the front this aux- 
iliary; that there was mind enough, charity 
enough, generosity enough, to bring into ex- 
istence the Woman's Relief Corps." 

The convention, upon reassemljling, voted to 
hold its annual sessions on the date and in the 
city chosen by the National Encampment, 
G. A. R., and then elected officers for the en- 
suing year, namely: President, E. Florence 
Barker, Maiden, Mass. ; Senior Vice-President, 
Kate B. Sherwood, Toledo, Ohio; Junior Vice- 
President, E. K. Stimson, Denver, Col. ; Sec- 
retary, Sarah E. Fuller, East Boston, Mass.; 
Treasurer, Lizabeth A. Turner, Boston, Mass. ; 
Chaplain, Mattie B. Moulton, Laconia, N.H.; 
Inspector, Emily Gardner, Denver, Col.; Con- 
ductor, P. S. Runyan, \\'arsaw, Ind.; Guard, 
J. W. Beatson, Rockford, 111.; Corresponding 
Secretaries, Mary J. Telford, Denver, Col., and 
Ellen Fay, Topeka, Kan. 

Mrs. Barker accepted an invitation to in- 
stall the officers-elect, and after performing 
this ceremony she was duly installetl as National 
President by Mrs. Fuller. At the close of the 
convention its members were guests at a re- 
ception tendered in the evening to Commander- 
in-chief Beath antl Past Commander-in-chief 
Van Der Voort. 

An invitation was extended the women from 
Massachusetts to accompany the commander- 
in-chief's l)arty on a trip through the Colorado 
caiions. This afforded an excellent opportu- 



nity for conference upon the work of the 
year, and the mutual interests of the two 
national organizations were considered by their 
leaders. 

Through the courtesy of George S. Evans, 
Department Conmiander, national headquar- 
ters W. R. C. were established at the head- 
quarters of the Department of Massachusetts, 
G. A. R., in Pemberton Square, Boston. 

To prove that a national order was needed, 
that the plan adopted at Denver was the best, 
and that women were capable of managing 
a large organization with ritualistic forms ami 
parliamentary rules, required excellent judg- 
ment, tact, and a love for the work. These 
qualities were combined in Mrs. Barker, who 
sought advice from the officials of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and recognized the 
importance of harmonious co-operation with 
them. 

In her first general order, dated September 1, 
1883, she said: "While working in unison with 
the G. A. R., we can accomplish great results 
and build well the structure, which we hope 
will stand years after the watchful comrades 
have left — as they must — their unfinished work 
to our willing hands." 

At the National Convention at Minneapolis 
in July, 1884, Mrs. Barker was able to say: 
"Our success far exceeds the high anticipations 
of our most sanguine friends." She wrote 
over a thousand letters during the year she 
served as National President, visited the De- 
partments of Maine, New Hampshire, and Con- 
necticut, and performed numerous other duties. 
She declined a re-election, but was made a life 
member of the National Executive Board, and 
until her ileath was a leader in the affairs of 
the order. A woman of commanding presence, 
always presiding with grace and dignity, Mrs. 
Barker was also an elocjuent speaker, and she 
addressed many patriotic gatherings in different 
parts of the coimtry. She represented the 
order at the International Council of Women 
held in Washington, D.C., in 1889, and favored 
progressive action when advocating the claims 
of woman's work for the veterans. 

The National Woman's Relief Corps has re- 
ceived the cordial endorsement of every Na- 
tional Encampment since 1883, and is the only 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



113 



recognized auxiliary to the GraiKl Army of the 
Republic. It is conducting a great work in 
every State and Territory of the Union, and 
numbers over one hundred forty thousand 
members. It has expended more than two 
million dollars in relief and many thousands 
of dollars additional in behalf of patriotic edu- 
cation in the public schools, in the erection of 
monuments and memorial halls, in the sacred 
observance of Memorial Day, in securing pen- 
sions for army nurses, and in other legislative 
work of importance. 

A National AVoman's Relief Corps Home 
has been founded at Matlison, Ohio, for the 
wives and mothers of soldiers and for dependent 
army nurses ; and homes have also been founded 
and are being supported by the order in several 
States. 

Mrs. Barker was deeply interested in the 
Soldiers' Home in Chelsea, Mass., and was one 
of the founders of the Ladies' Aid Ai?.sociation 
which co-operates with the Board of Trustees, 
of which Colonel Barker was treasurej. A 
room at the home, furnished by the Depart- 
ment of Massachusetts W. R. C, contains her 
portrait, and is designated by a banner with 
the inscription, "Dedicated in honor of Mrs. 
E. Florence Barker, first National President 
of the Woman's Relief Corps." 

When Mrs. Barker, in 1884, retired from the 
office of President, her associates in the Depart- 
ment of Massachusetts presented to her an en- 
grossed testimonial as a mark of appreciation 
and esteem, saying in part: "The excellent 
judgment ever manifested during the two years 
in which you .servetl this department as Presi- 
dent, the fidelity with which you rendered 
service as first National President of the order, 
your influence, everywhere recognized, hare 
conferred honor upon our work, and aided in 
giving it a permanent endorsement by the 
Grand Army of the Republic throughout the 
land." 

Mrs. Barker did not confine her interests 
entirely to Grand Army and Soldiers' Home 
work. She was one of the directors of the 
Union ex-Prisoners of War National Memorial 
Association, treasurer (and president one year) 
of the Woman's Club House Corporation of 
Boston, a trustee of the Maiden Hospital, and 



a director of the Hospital Aid Association. 
She exerted an influence in public work and 
social life, and thoroughly enjoyed her asso- 
ciations in both. 

In all her public work Mrs. Barker received 
the hearty co-operation of her husband, Thomas 
Erskine Barker. He was born in Canterbury, 
N.H., in 1839, and was educated in the public 
schools. He enlistetl in Company B, Goodwin 
Rifles, Second Regiment, New Hampshire Vol- 
unteers, May 31, 1861, and on the next day 
was made Captain. He was taken by the enemy 
at the first battle of Bull Run, and was con- 
fined in Libby Prison at Richmond, Va., and 
in Salisbury, N.C. After nine months in rebel 
prisons he was paroled and sent N(jrth. At 
his own request he was tlischarged from the 
army in July, 1862. He re-enlisted as a pri- 
vate, joining Company B, Belknap Guards, 
Twelfth Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers, 
and was elected and conmiissioned Captain. 
He engaged in the battles of Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville, V'a., and was wounded 
in the latter conflict. 

Soon after the battle of Gettysburg he re- 
turned to duty and was placed in command of 
the regiment. Colonel Barker was in the battle 
of Cold Harbor, in the series of engagements 
in front of Petersburg, where for twenty-two 
successive days he was under fire, and he was 
also present at the capture and occupation of 
Richmond. He was commissioned Lieutenant 
Colonel in October, 1864, ami Colonel in April, 
1865. At the conclusion of hostilities he was 
placed in command of the United States forces 
at Danville, \ii., and, after a few weeks' ser- 
vice there as military governor, was ordered 
with the regiment to Concord, N.H., where it 
was mustered out of service. 

For some years he was in the employ of a 
wholesale giocery firm in Boston. In 1872 he 
was admitted into partnership with Wadleigh, 
Spurr & Co. 1880-88 he was a member of 
the firm of Andrews, Barker & Bunton, and on 
June 1, 1889, he became one of the fiim of 
Barker & Harris, brokers and commission mer- 
chants. 

Colonel Barker was a resident of Maiden 
twenty-two years, and was prominent in many 
social organizations. He was a member of 



114 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Mount Vernon Lodge of Masons; the Royal 
Arch Chapter; the Middlesex Club; the Loyal 
Legion of Massachusetts; the Kernwood Club, 
of Maiden; and of Major-general H. G. Berry 
Post, No. 40, G. A. R., of that city. He served 
as Assistant Quartermaster-general of the De- 
partment of Massachusetts, G. A. R., and often 
attended as a delegate the National Encamp- 
ments. For many years he was a member of 
the Boston Chamber of Commerce, and for three 
terms was president of the Boston Wholesale 
Grocers' Association. 

For two years he represented Maiden in the 
lower branch of the State Legislature. His 
last political service was as a delegate in the 
Republican Congressional Convention at Lynn 
in October, LS96. 

Colonel Barker was a leatling member of the 
Universalist Church in Maiden, and was for 
many years superintendent of its Sunday- 
school. To the interests of the Soldiers' Home 
he was sincerely devoted, and was treasurer of 
its Board of Trustees at the time of his death, 
December 17, 1896. 

The Woman's Relief Corps lost one of its 
earliest and most earnest friends by the death 
of Colonel Barker. It was he who framed the 
first resolution ever presented in a department 
encampment of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, endorsing a State Relief Corps. 

The death of Mrs. Barker occurred less than 
a year after her husband's passing. Memorial 
services were held by corps throughout the 
country, posts of the Grand Army joining in 
these tributes to her memory. Her portrait 
has been placed in department headquarters in 
Boston. 

The home in Maiden of Colonel and Mrs. 
Barker welcomed prominent guests from many 
vStates. One room was devoted to relics, among 
them a jewelled swortl, presented to the Colonel 
by the officers of his regiment; his commission 
as military governor of Danville, Va.; a bolt 
fiom Libby Prison, in which he was confined 
several months; and hanging on the walls of 
the room was the engrossed testimonial, above 
named, which she cherished as a valuable sou- 
venir. 

Colonel and Mrs. Barker are survived by two 
daughters and one son — namely, Florence, 



Blanche, and William E. The last named is in 
business in Boston, and resides at Maiden. 

The daughters are married, and their home is 
in Kentucky. 



LAVINA ALLEN HATCH. — On June 19, 
1819, occurred the marriage of Isaac 
__J Hatch, Jr., and Lavina Allen. During 
the ceremony a heavy thunder-storm 
prevailed, but later the moon came out. In its 
pleasant light the young couple rode the four 
miles from the home of the bride to a large 
house on a pleasant site in the east part of 
the town of Pembroke, where they were to 
begin their life work together. Opposite the 
house was the pond that furnished power for 
the woollen-mill where the young man, five 
years before, at the age of seventeen, had com- 
menced his business career as a manufacturer 
of kerseymere. 

Mr. Hatch, known as Isaac, Jr., was the fourth 
of his name in direct line, and was of the seventh 
generation of his family in New England. 
William' Hatch, his earliest known ancestor, 
a native of Sandwich, England, came to this 
country in ,1633 or a little earlier, and in March, 
1635, settled in Scituate, with his wife Jane 
and five children. His son Walter^ was the 
father of Samuel,' born in 1653, whose son 
Isaac* was born in Scituate in 1687. Lsaac^ 
settled in Pembroke, Mass. His son Isaac,'' 
born in 1717, was the father of Lsaac,'^ born in 
1764. Isaac' (Isaac, Jr.), son of Isaac," was 
born in 1796. 

His wife Lavina came from the Allen family 
of Dover, Mass., but was born in Bowdoinham, 
Me., her father, Hezekiah Allen, having moved 
there and engaged in ship-building. Lavina 
Allen was sent to Roxbury, Mass., at the age 
of twelve, to continue her studies, and after 
leaving school she made her home in the family 
of an uncle, the Rev. Morrill Allen, settled over 
the First Parish (now Unitarian) of Pembroke. 
A few years of school-'teaching with the low 
wages of that period followed, and then, at 
the age of twenty-two, she became, as narrated 
above, the wife of a woollen manufacturer. 
Industry and economy were the rule of the 
household. The record shows the births of 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



115 



seven children, four of whom grew to adult 
age. The two now living are Isaac, fifth, and 
Martin. 

Lavina A., the subject of this sketch, born 
May 20, 1836, and named for her mother, was 
the youngest child. It was a very small bit 
of humanity, weighing less than six pounds, 
whose eyes then opened to earth life. The 
baby seemed healthy, but endowed with a frail- 
ness of organization that caused frequent ill 
turns. The family doctor was an uncle, much 
loved by the little niece, who always remem- 
bered his look of surpri.'^e, when, with his finger 
on the little wrist, he said, "Child, will you 
never have any pulse?" At the age of thirteen 
she was sent to Wheaton Female Seminary, to 
be fitted for teaching. Her eyes soon gave out, 
and, in place of pursuing the course of study 
anticipated, she began to teach a school two 
miles from home in order " to have an object 
that would make long walks each day a neces- 
sity." 

In this way years passed, the winters spent 
at Partridge Academy in Duxbury and Hano- 
ver Academy, and other months spent in 
teaching. Pembroke, Scituate, Hanover, East 
Bridgewater, and Abington were the towns 
where she is still remembered as a teacher who 
not only disapproved of corporal punishment, 
but succeeded in controlling even the most un- 
ruly members of what were known as " hard 
schools," doing this by the use of moral suasion 
joined to a personal magnetism that made 
friends of those who came to make mischief, 
but remained to become helpful scholars. It 
was the habit of this teacher to join in the 
games and sports of the pupils. Many will 
never forget one summer da}', when, the rain 
having poured for hours, and the sun just 
struggled out, the door of the school-room was 
softly opened, and the three committee-men 
stood amazed to find the teacher with eyes 
blinded and a brisk game of blind man's buff 
in active progress. A sudden hush, and " ( ) 
teacher, the conmiittee are here," Ijrought the 
game to a close and the blinder from her eyes. 
She simply said, "Now rece.ss is over, let the 
committee see that we can work as well as 
play." In later years this same physician, 
the late Asa Millett, M.D., recalled an incident 



that showed her to be resourceful under diffi- 
culties, as when being "examined" to take a 
school. She had gone through the ordeal on 
one occasion with doubtful success, and felt in 
despair of the result, when physiology was 
introduced, and Dr. Millett said: "I think we 
need not ask many more questions. Miss 
Hatch, suppose one of your boys at play should 
sever the jugular vein, what would you do first?" 
"Send for the doctor" came like a flash from 
her lips, as her eyes met his; and both indulged 
in a laugh that was a contrast to the look of 
dignified displeasure of the two ministers who 
had hardly approved the sudden close of the 
examination. "So true it is," she used to say, 
"when wisdom leaves me, wit saves." 

At the close of three years of what she called 
her model school, in Abington, she gave up 
teaching to take charge of a brother's home 
and care for a motherless niece and nephew. 
Later she adopted the children, and was a 
mother to them. In the early sixties we find 
her in the old country home, teaching a private 
school, helping an invalid mother, doing a 
share of the cooking and the other housework, 
caring for the little ones, and performing the 
duties of the postmistress of East Pembroke, 
all in the same day. In these years she wrote 
much for the Student and Srhoolmate, a monthly 
magazine, which ended its existence when the 
Boston fire in 1872 swept out the building 
where it was published. Stories, poems, dia- 
logues, puzzles, prepared by her in odd minutes, 
appeared over the name of "Eben." 

When the Massachusetts Society for Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Animals was formed. Miss 
Hatch was the first agent who answered its 
call for help. Taking Plymouth County as 
her field of labor, she spent much time in ob- 
taining subscribers to the paper. Our Dumb 
Aninialif, and members for the society, her 
mother becoming the first life member on her 
list. A few years later Mrs. Hatch made her 
daughter a life member also. Joining a lodge 
of the Sons of Temperance, Miss Hatch was an 
active member, in the frequent absences of the 
regular chaplain taking his place, conducting 
the initiatory exercises as well as the usual 
opening services. While the Civil War was 
in progress, a local society was formed to co- 



116 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



operate with the United States Sanitary Com- 
mission, and, persuaiUng a neighbor to accept 
the office of president. Miss Hatch assumed 
that of secretary. All the women around be- 
coming interested, they provided a compara- 
tively large amount of soldiers' clothing. 
When no more money could be raised there, 
she went to Boston and conferred with Abby 
W. May, president of the State Association, 
and after that until the close of the Rebellion 
material for sewing and knitting was sent from 
Boston to the willing workers of East Pem- 
broke. At the close of the school, each after- 
noon, a horse and wagon stood ready, and this 
patriotic teacher drove around the neighbor- 
hood for fruit with which to make pickles. 
This work she always did herself, and the barrels 
of pickles often brought a letter of response 
from the "boys" who had been so fortunate 
as to get them. One special barrel of pickled 
peaches will always be remembered by maker 
and consumers. 

After a severe attack of spinal meningitis 
in the winter of 1875-76, the summer finds her 
at the Centennial Fair in Philadelphia. She 
lived four and a half months on the grounds 
of Fairmont Park in the New England Log 
Cabin, where was shown a collection of antiques, 
and daily was served an old-fashioned New 
England dinner. Each of the workers had 
an old-fashioned name, and wore an ancient 
style of dress. The name of Dorcas, assumed 
by Miss Hatch, clung to her ever after. At 
this time she was also known to a few as the 
writer of centennial notes over the signature 
of "John Lake." 

For the next two years she lived in Charles- 
town, in order to be near Boston and under 
the treatment of Dr. J. T. G. Pike. 

In 1878 the invalid mother passed on and 
left the daughter more free to take up various 
kinds of work. The niece had become a suc- 
cessful music teacher, the nephew a promising 
young machinist; so the aunt established a home 
for all at 50 Boylston Street, Boston, spending 
the summers at the old home in the country. 

She soon became an active worker on suffrage 
lines, being the secretary of Ward Twelve Club 
and of the National Woman Suffrage Associa- 
tion of Massachusetts. The latter office she 



held seventeen years, and did not once omit 
a monthly meeting, except when sick or absent 
from the State, attending one of the Associa- 
tion's annual conventions in Washington. 
Here, too, she was a working member, always 
on one or more committees that left little time 
for recreation. In the fourteen seasons in 
which, she was present, not one hour was spent 
outside while the convention was in session. 
Of the Boston Political Class, also, which was 
formed by the Association in 1884, and which 
continued in existence for several years. Miss 
Hatch served as secretary. 

Soon after the formation of the Boston Suf- 
frage League she took active part as recording 
secretary, and later succeedetl to the office of 
corresponding secretary. The work attend- 
ing the initiatory steps in forming leagues in 
and arountl Boston was largely done by the 
secretary. It was she who went to the outlying 
districts, called on the people, worked up the 
interest, hired halls, engaged speakers, sent 
out notices of meetings, and was present to 
help make each one a success. 

In 1886 Miss Hatch removed to 60 Bowdoin 
Street. Ward Ten now had one more voter, 
with the same enthusiasm for public school 
work that had helped develop the cause in 
Ward Twelve; and the ward committee, with 
Dr. Salome Merritt as leader, maile a persist- 
ent study of the situation, giving valuable 
aid to the Massachusetts School Suffnige Asso- 
ciation in the search for the best women and 
men to elect for the school board. It was at 
this time that the New England Helping Hand 
Society began its work, the object being to 
give a home to small girls whose wages were 
insufficient to provide even the necessaries of 
life. For several years, as secretary of the 
Board of Management of the Working Girls' 
Home, as well as a member of committees, 
Miss Hatch did her full share in directing its 
affairs, though often disapproving the action 
of the majority; but finally, with several other 
officers and members, she withdrew from the 
organization. 

Having been one of the workers at the fair in 
aid of the Intemiierate Woman's Home, she 
joined with others in the formation of the 
Woman's Charity Club Hospital. Just as the 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



117 



institution was to be opened with appropriate 
ceremonies, Miss Hatch was very ill with 
la grippe. A year later she fell and broke her 
right wrist, but she retained her office as sec- 
retary of the Hosi)ital I^oard, and accomplished 
the usual committee work. 

The year 1888 proved unfortunate. Hav- 
ing passed three years at 60 Bowdoin Street, 
she spent time and money in the expectation 
of staying there years more. But, the place 
suddenly changing owners, she moved out, 
and stored her furniture. 

As chairman of the nominating committee 
of women voters. Miss Hatch labored to secure 
a suitable list of men and women to report for 
the fall campaign. The A. P. A. element 
came to the front, and in some cases men as 
well as women joined it, but many soon left on 
learning its narrow and deceptive platform. 
Miss Hatch went to Washington in December, 
remaining there for several months. She there 
conceived the idea that the thing needed in 
Boston was concerted action by the women 
and men of a liberal turn of mind, to educate 
the people against the wave of narrowne.ss 
sweeping the State in the shape of lectures 
and literature. In letters to the old workers 
she explained this plan. The Rev. Samuel J. 
Barrows being in Washington the same .season, 
she conferred with him, and was greatly en- 
couraged by his approval and promise of aid. 
Mi.ss Hatch reached Boston in July in time to 
attend the meeting called to discuss this new 
plan. It proved a disappointment, as some 
of tho.se present advised that it be an organiza- 
tion of women. But wi.ser ways prevailed, 
and .soon the Citizens' Public School Union, 
composed of men antl women, was in working 
order, with Dr. Salome Merritt as president 
and Mrs-. Frances E. Billings (wife of the artist 
Billings) as the secretary. Meetings were hekl, 
literature printed and circulated, and in time 
much of the mischief was stamped out. After 
Mrs. Billings removed from the city, her place 
was filletl by Miss Hatch as long as she remainetl 
in Boston. In 1889, as delegate from the 
Woman's Charity Club, Miss Hatch became 
a member of the Committee of Council and 
Co-operation; and in the years following she 
held much of the time the office of clerk. When 



Dr. Merritt pa.s.sed on, in November, 1900, 
Miss Hatch was unanimously elected chairman. 

Having been brought up in the liberal at- 
mosphere of Unitarianism, Miss Hatch early 
became a member of the church and a teacher 
in the Sunday-school. To her early religious 
belief she added that of Spiritualism, of which 
she became a consistent and persistent student. 
Unwilling to encourage by her presence any 
sensational display, she was never found where 
any tloubt could exist of the genuinene.ss of 
the phenomena exhibited. Though neither 
clairvoyant nor clairaudient, she seemed always 
aware of the presence of spirit guides and 
friends, and talked with them in familiar style 
as if they were in the body. She has been 
heard to say, " My life woukl not have been worth 
living the last twenty-five years but for the con- 
stant help and conijianionship of my spirit 
friends." 

Removing from Boston in 1897, Miss Hatch 
spent the closing years of her life at East Pem- 
broke, with summers at Onset. Invited by- 
Susan B. Anthony to ])repare the chapter giving 
the work of the Ma.ssachusetts National Asso- 
ciation for the fourth volume of the History 
of Woman Suffrage from 1884 to 1900, that 
writing was crowded into her busy life. Many 
hours each week she passed out of doors, often 
for whole days riding with an invalid brother, 
camping out in suitable weather and as late 
as was comff)rtable. Work in the home garden 
was not neglected, how<^ver numerous might 
be other cares, and at all hours of the day 
she was out of doors, taking a rest from her pen 
in pulling off dry leaves or picking bouquets 
for the numerous chiklren who frecjuented 
the place. She reporteil herself but a few 
months ago as feeling each year younger than 
the last. 

Though nearing the old age of which many 
speak as a dreary season, she had no such 
thoughts, but contemplated many busy years, 
possibly the happiest of her life, before the 
coming of the change which is " but crossing, 
with bated breath and with .set face, a little 
strip of .sea, to find the loved ones waiting on 
the shore, more beautiful, more precious, than 
before." 

This change came March 20, 1903. 



118 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



JUDITH AV. ANDREWS, philanthropist, 
was born in Fryeburg, Me., April 26, 
1826. Her maiclen name was Walker. 
.Her father, Peter Walker, born at Con- 
cord, N.H., in 1781, died in that city in 1857. 
Her mother, Abigail Swan Walker, born at 
Bethel, Me., in 1787, died in Boston in 1861. 
At Fryeliurg .\cadeniy, where she was educated, 
Judith A\'alker carried her studies so far as to 
qualify her to enter the Junior Class of Dart- 
mouth College. After her graduation from the 
academy she taught for several years, both in 
the academy and in young ladies' schools at 
York and Kittery. Subsecjuently her brother, 
Dr. Clement Adams Walker, one of the new 
school of jihysicians for the insane, having been 
appointed to take charge of the Boston lAmatic 
Hospital, established in 1839 as the Boston 
Insane Hospital, she joined him at that insti- 
tution, and, although never officially connected 
therewith, she interested herself in the details 
of its administration, and by her personal at- 
tention to the patients endeared herself to 
them. No better school of training could have 
been found for the activities to which she has 
given nuich of her life. P^or more than thirtj' 
j'ears Dr. Walker, who was the third superin- 
tendent, succeeding Dr. Charles Stedman 
and his predecessor, Dr. John S. Butlei-, sus- 
tained and increased the reputation of the 
hospital for intelligent and humane treatment 
of the insane. He was much beloved by his 
patients. 

On January 15, 1857, Miss Walker was mar- 
ried to General Joseph Andrews, of Salem, a 
man of generous public spirit, who gave much 
time and labor to the improvement of the 
militia system of the Commonwealth both be- 
fore and during the Civil War. In 1863 he 
removed with his family to Boston, where he 
died in 1869, leaving Mrs. Andrews with three 
little boys to care for and educate. The eldest 
son, Clement Walker Andrews, A.M., is now 
librarian of the John Crerar Library (scientific), 
of Chicago, III.; the second, Horace Davis An- 
drews, is an expert in mining matters in the 
West; the youngest, Joseph Andrews, holds a 
position of trust in the Bank of New York, in 
New York City. 

When the family removed to Boston, Mrs. 



Andrews' became a memlwM- of the South Con- 
gregational Church (Unitarian). Elected presi- 
dent of its ladies' organization, the "South 
Friendly Society," in 1876, she held that posi- 
tion until January, 1903, when she declined a 
re-election. Her service of twenty-seven years 
is the longest in the history of a society in 
which only five terms have covered its whole 
existence of seventy years. In 1883 she heljied 
to organize the South End Industrial School, 
an institution founded to give elementary 
manual training to the children of Roxbury 
and the South End of Boston. It was sup- 
ported by Unitarian churches and individvials, 
the South Congregational Church and many 
of its members being prominent helpers. Mrs. 
Andrews was elected its first jiresident, and re- 
mained in office until 1899, when she retired, 
after sixteen years of faitliful service. 

For some years she was a member of the 
New England Women's Cluli. She is still a 
mendier of the Woman's Educational Associa- 
tion, and remains an interested but not an 
active member of the Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union. She was one of the or- 
ganizers of the District Nursing Association 
and of the Young Travellers' Aid Society, of 
both of which for a time she was an active 
mendier and officer. She is also a member of 
the Women's Anti-suffrage Society, of the 
Massachusetts Ci^'il Service Reform Associa- 
tion, and of other smaller organizations. 

The South ('ongregational Church, under the 
influence of its pastor. Dr. Edward Everett 
Hale, has had witle relations, both inside and 
outside denominational lines; and these rela- 
tions have brought to Mrs. Andrews opportu- 
nities for religious and philanthroj^ic work, to 
which she has always been ready to respond. 
While most of these, though requiring much 
time, work, and thought, are of a local charac- 
ter, two lines of her work have made her name 
familiar to a large circle throughout the coun- 
try. Elected in 1886 president of the AVomen's 
Auxiliary Conference, she was active in the 
movement to enlarge its scope and usefulness; 
and in 1889, when the National Alliance of 
Unitarian and Other Lilieral Christian Women 
was organized, she became its tirst jiresident, 
declining a re-election in 1891. For several 




fllAHLO'lTK .1. THOMAS 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENCxLAND 



119 



years she was a member of the Council of 
the National Unitarian Conference. She is 
a life member of the American Unitarian Asso- 
ciation. 

In 1887, through the eloquent appeals, and 
later the personal frientlship, of Pundita Ra- 
mabai Mrs. Andrews became deeply interested 
in the condition of the high-caste child widows 
of India. In 1888 she was largely instrumental 
in the formation of the Ramabai Association, 
pledged for ten years to support Ramabai in 
her work for the redemption of her sisters and 
the uplifting of her jjeople. To the Executive 
Committee, of which Mrs. Andrews was made 
chairman, was entrusted the official corre- 
spondence concerning the management of the 
Shiirada Sadan (Home of Wisdom) at Poona, 
also the settlement of many delicate questions 
arising from a work so opposed to the customs 
of India. In 1894, as an officer of the as.so- 
ciation, Mrs. Andrews visited India, and passed 
nearly eight months at the Sharada Sadan, in 
daily intercourse with Ramabai and her pupils, 
becoming acquaintetl with the details of the 
home and school, learning the sad histories of 
the child widows, antl studying their charac- 
teristics and capabilities. She visited some of 
the most important cities of India with Ra- 
mabai as "guide, philo,so|)her, and friend," thus 
gaining an insight into the social customs and 
evils of the country such as she could have 
obtained in no other way. All of this experi- 
ence enabled her to return to America with ac- 
curate knowledge and increased power to plead 
Ramabai's cause and to emphasize the purpose, 
the needs, and the wontlerful success of the 
work. In 1898 the term of the original Ra-. 
mabai Association expired; and the American 
Ramabai ^Association was then formed, to con- 
tinue the work on nearly the same lines, which 
lines were strictly undenominational. At this 
organization Ramabai was present. Mrs. An- 
drews was again made chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee, and still holds the position. 

During the fifteen years' existence of the 
Ramabai Association it has had but three presi- 
dents, the Rev. Dr. Edward E. Hale, the Rev. 
Dr. Lyman Abbott, the Rev. Dr. E. Winchester 
Donald. Among its officers have been some 
of the most prominent professional and business 



men and philanthropic and generous women 
of Boston. The reputation of this work and 
the interest in it are world-wide. 



CHARLOTTE J. THOMAS may here 
be introduced as one who showed at 
an early age that she dared stand 
alone. From the time she became 
mistress of speech she has talked with decision 
and originality, neither quoting nor leaning 
upon the opinions of others. She has framed 
thought and utterance for herself with ex- 
traordinary spirit and vigor. 

Miss Thomas's mother was a woman pos- 
sessing much force of character and a disposi- 
tion of great sweetness. She impressed upon 
her children's minds, while th^y were very 
young, that this "earth's unfortunates had a 
human claim upon them." She was connected 
with " the underground railway of the old 
slavery days," and many a fugitive from the 
South has had reason to bless her name. The 
daughter early became her mother's assistant 
and confidante, antl all her life has aided the 
sick and suffering, the ambitious and the poor. 
Though her name has been associated with 
various organizations, the greater amount of 
her charitable work has been individual and 
unmentioned. The home of Miss Thomas is 
a noted one in Portland. "The Social Corner," 
as one of the family friends named it with so 
much truth, has become a familiar woril, and 
stands for hospitality, music, originality, and 
good cheer. Guests of all classes are made 
welcome in this home with the fine courtesy 
which brings instant comfort. Entertainment 
is never offered in stereotyped form, but free- 
dom of speech, quaint stories, and suddenly 
suggested plans give all the happy hours a tinge 
of surprise and novelty. It has been said of 
the historic Thomas mansion: "Notable people 
go there, but many others are invited. Not 
rank, but true manhood, true womanhood, the 
trying to do good in the spirit of brotherhootl, 
is the passport to that house." In Old Home 
W^eek during the summer of 1900 Miss Thomas 
had her house decorated with flags and pict- 
ures, and inscribed with the word "Welcome" 
and the year in which it was built, 1800. Late 



120 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



in the afternoon an elderly man presented him- 
self at the door, saying he had seen the legend 
"Welcome," and, as he was a builder himself, 
he would like to examine a house constructed 
at the date indicated, whereupon Miss Thomas 
assured him that the word was no hollow mock- 
ery, and cordially invited him to join her fam- 
ily at the supper table. 

The Beecher Club, the first evolution club 
in Maine, was founded at the "Social Corner." 
Miss A. M. Beecher, cousin of the noted preacher, 
Henry Ward Beecher, on one of her visits to 
Miss Thomas gave a course of familiar talks 
on science and philanthroj^y. At the close 
of the visit, through Miss Thomas's influence 
the club was ff)rme(l, and named in honor of 
Miss Beecher. The spirit of the home — strength 
and incUviduality — has remained with the club, 
and proved a power for good. The originator 
tells an anuising story concerning her efforts 
in making up the membership. Approaching 
a lady on the subject and explaining the char- 
acter of the study to be undertaken, the lis- 
tener lifted her hands in dismay and said re- 
proachfully, "Why, Miss Thomas, I thought 
you believed in God!" 

Genial and whole-hearted, Miss Thomas has 
a fine disregard for conventionalities, and de- 
spises affectation and sham. With a strong 
sense of justice, she unflinchingly urges the 
rights of her .sex, and by her influence has helped 
bring aliout a number of good 'reforms both in 
customs anil State laws. 

Among her personal friends may be named 
Mary A. Livermore, Susan B. Anthony (often 
her guest). Miss A. M. Beecher, Sarah J. Farmer, 
of Greenacre, and such departed worthies as 
Charlotte Cushman, Lucy Stone, Parker Pills- 
bury, John Hutchinson, antl Dr. Elliott Coues. 

Mrs. Elliott Coues has spoken thus of Mi.ss 
Thomas: "If I had nothing ei.se to be thankful 
for in this life, having had her for my friend 
would be reason enough for my giving thanks. 
All who know her will say 'Yes' with a rising 
vote and a Chautauciua cheer for one of the 
grandest women ever born on this planet. Did 
any one ever go there with a tale of woe that 
she did not try to assist anil strengthen with 
good, kind words and deeds of corresponding 
worth?" 



Another close friend adds: "If I were asked 
where under ' Representative Women ' Char- 
lotte J. Thomas stood, I shouUl class her with 
tho.se whose watchword is emancipation — free- 
dom of thouglit, speech, and action, wherever 
such freedom woukl lead to the betterment of 
mankind. To have original and persistent 
ideas and to develop them honestly and inde- 
pendently has been her unswerving aim. These 
characteristics have shown themselves first and 
always in the home, where nmsic, society, and 
hospitality have been of an unusual scoj^e and 
of choice quality. To high antl low her atti- 
tude has been and is, 'You have innate noble- 
ness: give the best in you a chance to show it- 
self and to increase and benefit your fellow- 
beings.' Such a trend on the individual side 
has naturally on public (piestions meant 'anti- 
slavery, woman suffrage, education without 
stint, and \miversal brotherhood.' Here is a 
democratic instinct that does not content itself 
with word of mouth, but daily puts into prac- 
tice the precepts it holds flear. The group of 
personal friends mentioned above are but a few 
of her companions in the good fight. There's 
liberty for every happy and uplifting influ- 
ence to work its wholesome and beneficent 
way in the minds of men, women, and children 
in this home which we hold in fee simple 
as a prejmration for further development and 
])rogress." 



GEORGIA TYLER KENT was born 
in La Grange, Ga., eldest daughter 
of Nelson Franklin Tyler, of Massa- 
chusetts, and Henrietta Snowden, his 
wife, of Maryland. She married July 2, LS78, 
Daniel Kent, a graduate of Amherst College, 
law student of Boston University, and later 
admitted to the Indiana bar, son of Daniel 
Waldo and Harriet Newell (Grosvenor) Kent, 
of Leicester, Mass. 

Mrs. Kent in her school-ilays was thought by 
her teachers and others to have unusual talent 
as a writer. Her education was especially 
directed toward developing any latent ability 
of this kinil, with the hope that she would 
make literature her life work. This, at the 
time, did not appeal to her, and in the autumn 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



121 



of 1875 she entered upon her chosen career 
as a member of the Boston Museum Company. 
It was with a heavy heart, on account of the 
bitter opposition of her family. Her rapid 
rise from unimportant to leading nMes proved 
she had not mistaken her vocation. During 
her second season she made a vivid impression 
in the short part of Servia, to the Virginius 
of John McCullough and the \'irginia of Mary 
Gary. The critics united in her praise, saying 
she "showed powers which will with care de- 
velop into something suited for the best roles 
in tragedy." Mr. McCullough was so impressed 
with her work he personally requested she 
might be cast for the leading Indian role of 
Nameokee to his Metamora. Her success in 
this led Mr. McCullough to invite her to become 
a member of his own company the following 
season, but the Museum management iiuluced 
her to remain. Immediately following Mr. 
McCullough, Harry J. Mt)ntague, leading man 
at Wallack's Theatre, filled an engagement 
as star at the Museum. Mrs. Kent's acting 
in various roles won his attention to such 
an extent that, with the consent of the manage- 
ment, she accepted his offer to make a tour 
of New England, supporting him in many of 
the leading nMes of his repertoire. 

Upon her return to the Museum she appeared 
in a large number of important parts, and as 
Valentine de Monias, in "A Celebrated Case," 
made a pronounced hit. The Museum of 
those days was a busy place, and its superb 
company found the hours available for prepa- 
ration barely sufficient. Freciuently, for weeks 
at a time, there would be a run of the glorious 
Shakespearean tragedies and the standard 
comedies, with almost nightly changes in the 
bill. There were but few of these in which Mrs. 
Kent did not appear, first in small roles and, 
as her standing in the coni|)any advanced, 
in higher ones. She had a remarkable capac- 
ity for "quick study." Harry Murdoch was 
said to be her only equal in this exiiausting 
but often necessary effort. Many times, with 
but two or three hours' notice, she came to 
the aid of the management and played, letter- 
perfect, long and sometimes leacHng parts. 
In her third season the management recog- 
nized her ability by engaging her for the lead- 



ing heavy — that is, the leading tragic — roles, 
but in addition she was frecjuently called upon 
to appear in juvenile, ingenue, and even sou- 
brette characters. When Madame Modjeska 
came to the Museum, in 1S78, Mrs. Kent was 
cast for the Princess de Bouillon, a part hardly 
second to that of Adrienne Lecouvreur itself. 
At the end of the great scene between the two 
women, Madame Modjeska, at the final fall of 
the curtain, taking both ber hands, thanked 
her for "such splendid work." "Perhaps 
nothing," says Mrs. Kent, "gave me more 
happiness than when Mr. Longfellow asked 
to meet me, and comjjlimented me in his gra- 
cious and beautiful way." Madame Motljeska, 
her husbantl. Count Bozenta, and their son 
had but just bade the company farewell, when 
Mr. Lawrence Barrett began a four weeks' 
engagement, Mrs. Kent appearing in the cast 
of nearly every play. In 1S79 he again filled 
a fortnight's engagement, and Mrs. Kent, 
whose work the year before had attracted his 
attention, was again found in his support. As 
Emilia to his lago (Mr. Barron as Othello and 
Miss Clarke as Desdemona), Mrs. Kent made 
the most brilliant success of her career thus 
far. Mr. Barrett had himself coached her. 
He showered congratulations upon her, and, 
with the consent of the management, secured 
her as leading lady for his New England tour. 
She had, therefore, at this early stage in her 
career, the privilege and distinction of appear- 
ing in most of the leading female roles of iiis 
extensive repertoire. I'pon returning from 
this tour she supportetl Mr. Warren as Clara 
Weigel in "My Son" and in many other pla\'s. 
When the Union Square Theatre's great success, 
"The Danicheffs," was produced at the Mu- 
seum, to Mrs. Kent was apportioned the part 
of the sixty-year.s-old Countess Danicheff, 
created in New York by Miss Fanny Morant. 
It seemed almost cruel to ask so young a girl 
to impersonate this magnificent and imperious 
elderly woman, but the critics accorded her 
high praise, saying her "signally powerful 
and effective work augurs for her a brilliant 
future." 

During her long engagement at the Museum 
Mrs. Kent studied elocution at the Boston 
School of Oratory. For five years she contin- 



122 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ued a member of the Museum company, and 
then Mr. Bartley Campbell, who, unknown 
to her, had for a week been watching her work 
on the Museum stage, offered her the position 
of leading lady in his "Galley Slave" company, 
to succeed Miss Lillie Glover as Cicely Blaine. 
It was a company of great strength, including 
Joseph Wheelock, Marie Prescott, Junius Bru- 
tus Booth, Frank E. Aiken, Owen Fawcett, 
and other talented people. At the end of 
this season Mrs. Kent was especially engaged 
by Mrs. John Drew for the leading part of 
Jeanne Guerin to Joseph Wheelock's Jagon. 
While at Mrs. Drew's theatre she accepted an 
offer from John Sleeper Clarke, Edwin Booth's 
brother-in-law, and became leading lady of his 
company. With him, as leading man, were 
W. H. V^ernon, the distinguished English actor, 
and Mrs. Farren. When John T. Raymond 
produced "Colonel Sellers" in London, he 
engaged Mrs. Kent for Laura Hawkins, but 
her husband and father objected to her going, 
and she was obliged to relinquish also an offer 
from Mr. Clarke for a London appearance. 
They were opportunities which would have 
meant much to a young actress. The follow- 
ing season she became leading woman with 
Thomas W. Keene, being featured in the bills, 
and for two years continued in this arduous 
position, constantly travelling, and appear- 
ing in all the principal cities in the United 
States and Canada in a round of impersona- 
tions, largely Shakespearean, among them being 
Ophelia in "Hamlet," Portia in "The Merchant 
of Venice," Desdemona in "Othello," Queen 
Elizabeth in "Richard IIL"; Julie de Mor- 
timer in "Richelieu," Fiordelisa in "The Fool's 
Revenge." During this engagement she also 
prepared for appearing as Mariana in "The 
Wife" and Juliet in "Romeo and Juliet." 
When Mr. John Stetson's New York Fifth 
Avenue Theatre Company produced "Divorce," 
Mrs. Kent was selected for Fanny Davenport's 
old part of IjOu Ten Kyck. Tlie i)lay had a 
great cast, with Sarah Jewett as Fanny Ten 
Eyck (formerly Clara Morris's role), Annie 
Russell, Herbert Kelcey, and other New York 
favorites equally distinguished. This was suc- 
ceeded by "Confusion," simultaneously pro- 
duced by two of Mr. Stetson's companies. 



Mrs. Kent and Mr. Kelcey heading one. Mrs. 
Kent starred for a season, appearing as Pauline 
in "The Lady of Lyons," Nancy Sikes in 
"Oliver Twist," and in other standard plays. 
Among the hundreds of characters portrayed 
by her have been Camille, Lady Macbeth, Mari- 
ana in "The Wife," Galatea in "Pygmalion 
and Galatea," Lady Lsabel in "East Lynne," 
Armande in " Led Astray," the title roles in 
"Leah the Forsaken," "Lucretia Borgia," 
"Medea," "Evadne," and "Satan in Paris." 
She was also leading lady and stock star of sev- 
eral companies producing Paris, London, and 
New York successes Although exceedingly 
versatile, her temperament especially fitted her 
for tragic and emotional roles, and it was in these 
she won her greatest successes. Mr. Henry Aus- 
tin Clapp, in passing judgment upon her work, 
frequently spoke of her "personal distinction 
and nobility of manner"; her "rare tempera- 
ment, distinguished beauty, and the depth, 
range, and expressiveness of her voice." An- 
other eminent critic said of her work: "Entirely 
unaffected and natural, it is of commanding 
character. This young woman possesses mag 
netism, tremendous underlying power, rare 
intelligence, and great personal beauty. Few 
will forget that mobile and sensitive face or 
that picture of passion, tenderness, and de- 
spair." 

After twelve years of successful and often 
brilliant work her health failed, just as she had 
signed a three years' contract to appear as a 
star. She was obliged to retire, and for some 
years was an invalid. On account of Mr. 
Kent's objections she has since then refused 
all offers to reappear. She is interested in 
literary work, writing under an assumed name. 
She is active in patriotic work. A charter 
member of the Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chap- 
ter, Daughters of the American Revolution, 
of Worcester, she has labored for its success 
since its inception. Having refused to serve 
longer as its Regent, she was this year elected 
Honorary Regent for life. She is a mem- 
ber of the AVorcester Woman's Club and of 
the Club lIou.se Corporation, president of 
the Worcester Revolutionary Memorial A.ssocia- 
tion, vice-presitlent of the Worcester Society 
of Antiquity, and a devoted member of 




(:yUzyr-7*'t'e-C^^i' . ^.y^yUyn^- 




REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



123 



the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kent give their leisure hours 
to ethnological and genealogical research, in 
which they have a coinuion interest and pleas- 
ure. Some of her ancestral lines on the pa- 
ternal side she has traced, beyond a doubt, to 
the "Mayflower," and evidence at hand seems 
to show that she is descended from nine mem- 
bers of the Pilgrim band that landed on Plym- 
outh Rock in December, 1620, namely. 
Elder Brewster and his. wife Mary, William 
Mullines (or Molines) and his wife, John and 
Priscilla (xMuUines) Alden, William White 
and his wife Susanna, and their son Resolved 
White. 

More than sixty of her New England ances- 
tors in the colonial period served as military 
officers, magistrates, Representatives, Depu- 
ties, and founders of towns. Among them 
(to note but a few) may here be mentioned 
Major (also Colonel and Chief Justice) Francis 
Fulham, the Rev. Joseph Emerson, Lieutenant 
John Sharpe, Lieutenant Stephen Hall, Lieu- 
tenant Criffin Craft, Lieutenant Moses Crafts, 
the Rev. Peter Bulkcley, the Rev. P^dward 
Bulkk^y, Captain Christopher Hussey, Robert 
Vose, Lieutenant James Trowbridge, Robert 
Taft, and Tliomas Cregson, Assistant of the 
Colony, first Treasurer, and first Connnissioner 
for the LTnion with other New England Colonies. 
Three were in the Revolution, Captain .lo.seph 
Hall serving throughout * the war. Captain 
Christoi)h('r Hus.sey, above mentioned, was ap- 
pointed by the King (Charles IL), September 
IS, 1671), a memlx'r of the King's Council antl 
Court of Judicature of New Hampshiri", and so 
served until the appointment of Cranhekl as 
Lieutenant-governor in 1682. 

Her mother's ancestry also includes many 
distinguished families. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kent reside in Worcester, where 
he is Register of Deeds for Worcester District. 
His recently published book, "Land Records; 
A System of Lulexing," is tlie first book ever 
written \x\)0\\ this intricate subject. Mr. Kent 
is a member of the Sons of the Revolution, the 
Society of Colonial Wars, Worcester Club, 
Tatnuck Country Club, Economic Club, and 
Society of Antiquity. 



HARRIET NEWELL FLINT.— Mrs. 
Harriet N. Flint came of the good 
okl Puritan stock that peopletl the 
shores of Massachusetts in the early 
days of the seventeenth century. She was the 
sixth child and third daughter of Thomas and 
Phebe (Cummings) Evans, and was born in 
South Reading, now Wakefield, Mass., August 
29, 1815. She died in Wakefield, Decemlier 
31, 1896, the last survivor of her father's family 
of nine children. 

The house of her h)irth was a modest and 
ancient-looking domicile on the northerly side 
of Salem Street, which was many years ago 
removed to give place to the residence erected 
by her brother, Lucius B. Evans, and nf)W 
owned and occupied by his son, Harvey B. 
Evans. 

Mrs. Flint on her father's side was descended 
from Nathaniel Evans, who with his father, 
Henry Evans, came from Wales about two and 
a half centuries ago, and .settleil in that part 
of Maiden afterward annexed to the town of 
Reading and now known as the village of 
Greenwood. On her mother's side Mrs. Flint 
was connected with some of the leading fami- 
lies of Woburn. The early life of Mrs. Flint 
was surrounded with good influences, and she 
was taught to cherish high ideals and to do 
good to others. Receivetl into the Baptist 
church at the age of sixteen, she remained 
steadfast in her faith during her long and ac- 
tive life. Her education was obtained in th(! 
public schools of her native town. Her eager 
mind and studious habits enabled her to accu- 
mulate a valuable store of information, which, 
united with her native connnon .sense and good 
judgment, carried her successfully through the 
varied experiences and responsibilities she was 
in later years called upon tf) meet. 

In 1840 the subject of this sketch left her 
home to become the wife of Charles Frederick 
Flint, of North Reading, whose accjuaintance 
she had made while teaching school in that 
village. Mr. Flint was a worthy representa- 
tive of an old and honoraljle famih , being a (k'- 
scendant in the sixth generation of Thomas 
Flint, an early settler at Salem Village, and a 
nephew of the Rev. Timothy Flint, of Lunen- 
burg, a pioneer in American letters. He was 



124 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



brought up on the extensive farm of his father, 
gaining only a conunon-school eckication, and 
himself became an excellent farmer. A man 
of nmch force of character, with practical sa- 
gacity heightened by judicious reading and dili- 
gent improvement of the means within his 
reach, he gained influence and respect among 
his fellow-citizens. Ho added lands and money 
to his patrimony, and, when the Salem and 
Lowell Ra'.lroad was laid out through North 
Reading, his public spirit and private interest 
induced him to become a large subscriber to 
its capital stock. When the fate of the enter- 
prise trembled in the Imlance, he put his shoul- 
der to the wheel, and by his energy and means 
was largely instrumental in its successful 
launching and development. He became a 
director and the president of the corporation, 
while the enhancement in value of its stock 
added much to his fortune. Dying in the ma- 
turity of his powers, at the age of sixty years, 
from the results of an accidental fall, he be- 
queathed the bulk of his wealth to his wife, 
they having had no children. She was made 
executrix of the will. 

Mrs. Flint in her bereavement and sorrow 
found herself thus unexpectedly confronted 
with important and pressing responsibilities, 
which she met with courage and resolution, as 
duties to be performed. Her well-trained fac- 
ulties and resources of mind and character en- 
abled her to assume and successfully fulfil all 
the requirements of her position. Her keen 
insight, her tact and energy, her thoughtful 
judgment, and great business capacity were 
wonderfully manifest in all the affairs that 
from this time entered into her life-work. 
These ciualities enabled her not only to hold 
undiminished the extensive estate left to her 
charge, but to more than double the original 
value of the property. 

Not long after her husband's death Mrs. 
Flint returned to her native town, and made 
her home on an estate Mr. Flint had owned on 
Main Street. Here in a house beautifully lo- 
cated, overlooking Crystal J^ake and the cen- 
tral portions of Wakefield, she continued to re- 
side during the remaining years of her life. On 
this homestead farm she laid out a street, nam- 
ing it Charles Street, in remembrance of her 



husband. The estate consisted of twenty-four 
acres, including the sightly elevation known as 
"Hart's Hill," which with its picturesque sur- 
roundings has since the death of Mrs. Flint 
been acquired by the town by purchase as a 
public park, and will in time become a charming 
resort. 

Though removed from North Reading, Mrs. 
Flint cherished a loving remembrance of the 
town as having been the birthplace and lifelong 
home of her husband, and because of her own 
personal and pleasant a.ssociations with the 
kindly and intelligent people of the old " North 
Precinct," as it was known in the early days, 
when Wakefield, Reading, and North Reading 
were united in one municipality. 

On this town of her love Mrs. Flint bestowed 
her tangible blessings in a golden shower, not 
in any unconsidered and impulsive way, but 
only after calm forethought and deliberation, 
seeking to ascertain what gifts would be of 
greatest and most lasting value. The first re- 
sults of her kindly thouglitfulness were mani- 
fest in laying the foundation for a public library. 
By the provisions of her husband's will the sum 
of one thousand dollars was to be offered to 
the town of North Reading, the income thereof 
to be used in the purchase of medals for excel- 
lence in the public schools. The execution of 
this laudable jnu'pose having l)een found im- 
practicable, Mrs. Flint, with the willing co- 
operation of the town, turned this becjuest into 
a gift to form the nucleus of a public liljrary. 
To this gift she soon after added two thousanil 
dollars and later one thousaml dollars more, 
to be a permanent fund, the income of which 
should be amuially devoted "for the benefit 
of said library." 

In accepting the gift, the town adopted the 
following resolutions: "Resolved, That we, as 
a town, herel)y express to Mrs. Harriet N. 
Flint our grateful appreciation of the warm 
interest she has taken in the prosperity of our 
town, the culture of its citizens, and the edu- 
cation of our youth. 

"Resolved, That we also gratefully recog- 
nize her interest in our welfare, as shown in 
her original gift of one thousand dollars to 
establish a library, and in adding to that gift 
two thousand dollars as a perpetual fund, to 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



125 



tje known as iho Flint Memorial Fvuul, the in- 
terest of which is to be yearly expended in 
ailding to the Flint Library." 

The year 1S75 was signalized by the crown- 
ing act of Mrs. Flint's consistent generosity 
in the gift to her adopted town of the commo- 
dious and comely structure since known as 
the Flint Memorial Hall. The edifice is pleas- 
antly situated in the centre of the town, and 
admirably adapted to the uses for which it is 
designed. The first story contains the Flint 
Library and the nmnicipal offices; the second 
story has a spacious, well-lighted hall, with a 
gallery and ante-rooms; and the ui)per floor, 
a large banquet room and other conveniences. 
At its dedication the Hon. George B. Loring, 
of Salem, tlelivered the principal address, fol- 
lowed by the Hon. Charles L. Flint and the 
Rev. Granville 8. Abbott. 

The nmnificent and oi)portune gifts already 
mentioned were not by any means the measure 
of Mrs. Flint's generosity to this favored town. 
It was her helping hand that lightened the 
burden of the war debt upon the tax-payers, 
that assisted struggling cluu'ches over hard 
places, and contributed to keep the roadways 
of the town in a sui)erior condition. The high 
school, which the town was not l)y law retpiired 
to maintain, would have long since ceased to be, 
had not Mrs. Flint again anil again come to its 
support. By her will she gave to the town 
three thousand dollars, the income of which 
shoukl be applied in caring for and improving 
the Memorial Hall, and she also made liijcral 
bequests to the different churches. 

The generous thoughts and sympathies of 
Mrs. Flint were not confined within narrow 
limits, nor her benefactions restricted to the 
' domain and residents of North Reading. In 
Wakefield, the town of her earlier and later 
life, she was constantly active in plans and 
deeds for others' benefit. Every humane, 
philanthropic, or educational enterijrise in the 
conuuunity enlisted her interest and concern, 
and, if her judgment approveil, secured from 
her a substantial ilonation. She gave to the 
town for the support of the Beebe Town Li- 
brary the sum of one thousand dollars, which 
the trustees set apart as the Flint Memorial 
Fund, the income only being used for the pur- 



chase of books. She manifested her friendship 
for the public schools, the fire department, and 
disabled soldiers and their families in .substan- 
tial ways, contritnited to the improvement of 
highwa3's and establi.shment of drinkirtg foun- 
tains, and helped the local religious societies 
in times of need. She was open to every call 
of charity and voice of tlistress, but her deepest 
.sympathies, in her later years, were called forth 
and centred in the organization and operation 
of that noble charity, the A^'akefield Home for 
Aged Women, incorporated in 1895. Her 
heart and mind and ))urse were in this benefi- 
cent movement from its beginning. Each year 
she delighted to give it an added impulse, and, 
dying, she bestowed upon it in her will an earn- 
est, practical benediction in the sum of five 
thousand dollars, she having previously assisted 
its funds in an ecpial amount. She was made 
honorary president of the corporation. Many 
other ladies and gentlemen have, by their labors, 
coun.sel, gifts, -anti sacrifices, aided to make the 
Wakefield Home a blessed and highly prized 
institution of the town. 

The last will and testament of Mrs. Flint 
clearly indicated that the benevolence, religious 
devotion, and public spirit that had actuated 
all the years of her widowhood burned brightly 
to the end of her days, as she bequeathctl over 
one hundred thousand ilollars to various re- 
ligious and benevolent organizations. It is 
worthy of especial mention, as illustrating her 
fervent patriotism, that in her will she gave to 
the town of Wakefield in trust, with provisions 
for its ultimate application towaril the erection 
of a soldiers' monument, the sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars, ".such monument to be grand in 
itself, symmetrical in architecture, beautiful in 
design and finish, attended with solid ami 
thorough workmanship, worthy of the brave 
men to whom we dedicate it." 

Mrs. Flint had expressetl a desire and \nir- 
pose to give to the Massachusetts State Board 
of Metropolitan Park Commissioners the home- 
steatl antl farm on which she lived, including 
"Hart's Hill," for u.ses of a public park, but 
the sudden prostration of her last illness pre- 
vented the carrying out of her gracious int(>nt. 
The innumerable acts of personal and uno.s- 
tentatious benevolence that characterized her 



126 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



daily life iiuist be dismissed from this sk(>tc'li 
with but a passing allusion. They are in a 
manner sacred from even a friendly pen. !She 
souglit not tlie praise of men. 

Mrs. Flint was essentially a rejiresentative 
jiroduet of our New England civilization. Lib- 
eral, ungrudging, and wisely discriminating in 
her charities, her domestic life was distingiushed 
by a simi>licity, thrift, and independence, ac- 
companied with a cordial hospitalit)', affording 
a true index to her character, and demonstrat- 
ing her Puritan descent and training. 

Such a woman as Mrs. Flint is a blessing to 
any comnuinity and an honor to humanity. 
Her memory will be cherished with grateful 
affection and genuine respect in the towns 
where her influence and good deeds have been 
best known and her personal ([ualities appre- 
ciated, while in the wider circle of those who 
have been told of her gracious character and 
no])le philanthropy will her name be treasured 
with reverence and admiration. 

In the little cemetery at North Reading, not 
many rods from the home once so dear to her, 
lies the body of Harriet N. Flint beside that 
of her husband. 

C. W. E.\Tox. 



JULIA K. DYER, widely known and be- 
loved as Mrs. Micah Dyer, lias been asso- 
ciated for over foi'ty years with nearly 
every large philanthropic work started 
in Boston, serving in every office she has been 
appointed to with noble un.selfishness. Her 
maiden name was Julia Knowlton. She was 
born August 25, ]S2'J, in Deei-field, N.H., 
near the birthphice of General Benjamin l'\ 
Butler. Her parents were Joseph and Susan 
(Dearborn) Knowlton. The iunnigrant progen- 
itor of the Knowlton family of New lOngland 
was Captain William Ivnowlton, who died on 
the voyage from London to Nova Scotia, and 
whose sons a few years later settled at Ipswich, 
Mass., the earliest to arrive there, it is said, 
being John in Ifi.SO. 

Through her maternal grandfather, Nathan- 
iel Dearborn, who married Comfort Palmer, 
of Haverhill, Mrs. Dyer is descended from 
Godfrey Dearborn, who came from l^igland 



and was one of the earliest .settlers of E.xeter, 
N.H., in IG'.ii), and later removed to Hampton, 
N.H. 

Her great-grandfather, I^dward Dearborn, 
fought at the battle of Bunker Hill, as did 
her paternal grandfather, Thomas Knowl- 
ton. In the Revolutionary Rolls of New 
Ham])shire, Ivlward Dearl)orn is named as 
a pri\'ate in Caj)tain Benjamin Titcomb's 
company in 1775; as a .soldier from Dover in 
the Continental army in A])ril, 1776: in Cap- 
tain Drew's company, February, 1777; on the 
pay-roll of Captain Nathan Sanborn's com- 
pany. Colonel Evans's regiment, which marched 
September, 1777, from New Hampshire to 
re-enforce the Northern Continental army at 
Saratoga; also sometime member of the Fifth 
Company, Second New Hampshire Continental 
Regiment, which was commanded by Colonel 
George Reid, 1777-79. 

Edward Dearborn married Susanna Brown, 
whom he left, when he entered the arn^y, to 
care for the farm and three small children, 
the nearest neighbor being ten miles away. 
Su.sanna Brown was the daughter of Nehemiah 
and Amy (Longfellow) Brown, of Kensington, 
N.H., and grand-daughter of Nathan Long- 
fellow. The last named was probably the 
Nathan born in 1690, .son of William and Anne 
(Sewall) Longfellow, of Newbury, Mass., and 
brother of Stephen, born in 1681, from whom 
the poet Henry A\'. Longfellow was descended. 

Jo.seph Knowlton, Mrs. Dyer's father, was 
a soldier in the A\'ar of 1S12, and her brother, 
Jo.sejjh H. Knowlton, in the Civil War. The 
patriotism of Mrs. Dyer is thus shown to be 
inh(-rited. 

During her infancy hei' parents removed to 
Concord, N.H., and in lS:i9 they took up their 
residence in Manchestei', N.H., where for twenty 
years her father was connected with the Land 
and Water Company, besides tilling important 
positions of trust. Up to the ag(> of fourteen 
h(>r education was gained in private schools. 
She then went to a boarding-school ii\ Concord, 
N.H., where she remaineil one year, after which 
she entered the New Ham])t()n Institute, 
known at that time as one of the best schools 
for girls in the country, from which she was grad- 
uated with honors before the age of eighteen. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



]27 



Returning to Manchester, she taught in the 
high school for one year French, EngHsh, 
Latin, and the higher mathematics. Asso- 
ciated with her at this school was Miss Caroline 
C. Johnson, who afterward came to Boston 
and established a school for girls on Bowdoin 
Street, which she kept for twenty years. Miss 
Johnson was a cousin of John G. Whittier. 
It was with her and her sisters that the jjoet 
in his later years made his home at Oak Knoll, 
Danvers. 

At this period Miss Knowlton met Mr. Micah 
Dyer, Jr., then a rising young lawyer of Boston. 
After a short engagement they were married. 
May 1, 1851, and took up their residence in 
Boston. Ten years later they ])urchased the 
fine estate which for a generation had belonged 
to the Clapp family, at Upham's Corner, Dor- 
chester. The house is situated on an elevation, 
and is surrounded by carefully kej)t lawns, 
with shade trees, many of which are more than 
one hundred years old. It is an interesting 
fact that the first tulip bulbs brought U) America 
were planted in this garden. 

Family duties occupied all of Mrs. Dyer's 
time during the first ten years of her married 
life; but as the children grew up — and she was 
blessed with three, two sons and one daughtei- 
— she found time for the demands of charitable 
work. During the Civil War she, with scores 
of other brave women, did what she could 
to alleviate the sufferings of the soldiers. An 
amusing incident recently appeared in the 
Boston papers, in which Mrs. Dyer figures as 
having fired a shot in the war — not a bullet 
shot, however, and, so far from doing any 
deadly injury, it saved a man's life. \\'hil(> 
riding in a slow Southern train, she passed 
in the early morning through a strip of terri- 
tory picketed by I'nion men. It was a dan- 
gerous section, and the train was barely creep- 
ing along. Mrs. Dyer, all alert, was gazing 
out of the window on the lookout for danger, 
when she e.spied a soldier asleep at his post, 
an offence punishable by death if discovered. 
He had evidently been overcome by fatigue. 
Could nothhig be done to save him'' She was 
on her way to one of the hospitals with deli- 
cacies for the soldiers there. Among the.se 
were oranges. She seized one, and, with an 



accuracy of aim gained from a youthful fond- 
ness for archery, hit him scjuarcly in the chest, 
arousing him instantly. After a bewildered 
moment he sjirang to his feet, then, catching 
sight of his deliverer, who was waving to him 
from the dei)arting train, he bowed his heart- 
felt thanks, orange in hand. 

The first |)ublic work of Mrs. Dyer was on 
the Board of Management of the Dedham 
Home for Discharged Female Prisoners, to 
which she was appointed in 1864. For twenty- 
eight years she never failed, except during 
serious illness, to pay her monthly visit, ^\'llen 
the Ladies' Aid Society was formed to aid the 
Soldiers' Home, Mrs. Dyer was made its sec- 
retary, and the next year, 1882, its pre.'^ident, 
a position that she held for ten years. The 
military strain in Mrs. Dyer's blooil fitteil her 
peculiarly for this office. Under her gui<lance 
the numbers rapidly increaseil, and thousands 
of dollars were raised to give comforts to the 
home. The society has furnished rooms, pro- 
vided a library and all sorts of smaller luxuries. 
A fine portrait of the "right bowei' of the Sol- 
diers' Home" (as the trustees call Mrs. Dyer) 
hangs in the chapel of the home, and one of 
the rooms is set apart and named for her. 

Her rare executive ability combined with 
an even temperament makes her a natural 
leader of large bodies. During her presidency 
of the Ladies' Aitl she comlucted several fairs, 
which netted handsome sums. The Ladies' 
Aid table at tlie Soldiers' Carnival under her 
direction cleareil nearly six thoasaml dollars. 
Later a kettledrum for the .same benefit netted 
four thousand dollars, anil another fair for the 
Soldiers' Home netted ten thousand dollars. 
For this fair some one facetiously offered, 
when told they could give anything tliey chose, 
a live pig. Mrs. Dyer, readily .seeing a novel 
feature for her fair, accepted the offer. Piggy 
was comfortably ensconced in an improvi.sed 
]X'n, presiding over a box inscribed with bright 
ver.ses from this lady's fertile brain, inviting 
contributions for his maintenance. Tliirty 
tlollars was realized from this exhibit. Then 
the pig was .sent to tiie Soitfifrs' Home, where 
in the cour.se of time he was served. 

The Boston Educational and Industrial 
Union in 1885 asked Mrs. Dyer to take charge 



128 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



of an entertainment for its benefit, and she 
arranged a Dickens Carnival, which brought 
in seven thousand tlollars. In 1S8S Mrs. Dyer 
was at the heati of the Board of Managers of 
the great fair held in Music Hall by which the 
sum of thirteen thousand dollars was raised in 
a single week for the benefit of The Home for 
Intemperate Women. 

The Charity Club of Boston, which ha"s 
become so well known, was the outgrowth 
of this fair. The committee of fifty women 
who had worked so successfully and harmoni- 
ously under Mrs. Dyer's guidance banded 
themselyes together to raise money for any 
good object. Mrs. Dyer conceived the idea 
of starting a free hospital for respectable women 
witliout means in need of important surgical 
operations. A house at 3<S Chester Park was 
bought, and a hospital started when the Club 
had not a cent in its treasury. How the 
owner was induced to take a mortgage for a 
sum less than he had asked for the projjerty, 
leaving the Club an equity for nothing, how 
man}' ingenious devices were resorted to to 
furnish, to pay interest, taxes, and running 
expenses, only the Club members know; but 
the good work went on and prosperetl. The 
president, whose faith was so great, buoyed 
up the others. 

In 1892 a new hospital was completed at 
Parker Hill, between Brookline and Boston. 
The Legislature subsequently granted fifteen 
thousand dollars, which cleared off its in- 
debtedness. The Club now numbers nearly 
seven hundretl members, and this hospital 
stands a proutl monument of their good work. 
Mrs. Dyer has been the president from the first. 
The badge of the Club is a circular pin sur- 
mounted with the head of the presitleiit in 
bronze. 

Mrs. Dyer is the organizer antl president 
of the Wintergreen Club, to which only women 
of fifty are eligible. It is named for the real 
wintergreen, which is green and glossy under 
the snow, retaining its youthful freshness, as 
good women do. Among its members are 
Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Livermore, Mrs. Maria H. 
Bray, Mrs. Kate Tannatt Woods, and Mrs. 
Louis Prang. 

Another little society which Mrs. Dyer ini- 



tiated a few years ago is the "Take Heed," 
from the text, "Take heed that ye speak not 
evil of one another." She is also president of 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of 
Lipham's Corner, an office she has filled for 
seven years, being its second president, re- 
signing at one time, and accepting the office 
again in 1899. She is a valued member and 
one of the boaril of directors of the Castilian 
Club, and a life member of tlie Bostonian 
Society. Among other societies and clubs 
with which she has been actively connected 
may be named the Moral Education Society, 
the National Prison Association, the Benefit 
Society for the University Education of Women, 
the Helping Hand Society, the Dorchester 
\\'omaii's Clul), and the Book Review C'lub 
of Dorchester, the last-named two being strictly 
literary clubs. It has been estinnited that some- 
thing like a ([uarter of a million has been raised 
for charities through her inspiring lead rship. 

Early inclined to literary work, foi which 
the duties that came to lier left little time, Mrs. 
Dyer has written, mainly for her clubs, in her 
■scant leisure, many acce|)table essays and 
poems. Her one great grief has been the 
loss of her husband, whose hearty support she 
had in all of her undertakings. Since his death, 
November 24, 1898, she has made her home 
with her son and his wife, on Columliia Road, 
Dorchester, having her own suite of rooms, 
where she still continues to tlispen.se her bomi- 
tiful hospitality. 

Mrs. Livermore, in her cliaracteristic, im- 
pulsive way, summing up Mrs. Dyer's amiable 
qualities, says, " I always think of her as al- 
ways cheery, always charming, always harmo- 
nious, and altogethei' the most delightful woman 
of my acquaintance." 



AUGUSTA WALKER STANLE\^ of 
/\ Newton, Mass., now (March, 1904) 
X. jL serving her third term as Regent of 
the Sarah Hall Chajjter, Daughters of 
the Revolution, was born in New Portland, Me., 
August 20, 1848. Daughter of William and 
Mary (Wit ham) Walker, she is a descendant in 
the sixth generation of Chaplain Solomon Walker, 
of Berwick and Woolwich, Me., an officer in 




AUGU8TA M. STANLEY 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



129 



the Revolutionary War. From Captain Solo- 
mon and his wife Miriam the line oontinueil 
through their son Andrew and his wife, Damaris 
Cross; Solomon and wife, Tabitha Card; John 
and wife, Martha Jones; to their son William, 
named above as the father of Mrs. Stanley. 

Captain Solomon Walker died in Woolwich 
(formerly Pownalborough) Me., July 21, 1789, 
aged sixty-nine years. As stated on his tomb- 
stone, he was born in Berwick, Me. He is sup- 
posed to have been the son of John Walker, 
who commanded the blockhouse in Berwick at 
the time of the Indian hostilities. 

In the State archives of Massachusetts (in 
the Revolutionary Rolls) Solomon Walker ap- 
pears in a list of ofhcers of the Massachu- 
setts militia as Cajjtain in the Eleventh Com- 
pany of the First Lincoln County Regiment, 
commissioned July 1, 1776 (book, "Militia, 
Officers, etc.," vol. xxviii.). 

Chosen by company and accejited by coimcil, 
September 16, 1776. Comjjany made up from 
Woolwich and Pownalborough companies (Mas- 
sachu.setts Muster and Pay Rolls, vol. xliii.). 

In service (as Caj)tain) at taking of mast 
ship in Sheepscott River, September 10-12, 
1777 ("Sea-coast Defence," Muster Rolls, vol. 
xxxvii.). Also Captain of a company in Colonel 
Joseph Prime's regiment, under Brigadier- 
general Watlsworth. luilisted April 2S, 1780; 
discharged December 6, 1780; service, seven 
months nine days ("Service at Eastern Ports," 
"Various Service," vol. xxiv.). 

Solomon Walker also appears in a regimental 
return dated Georgetown, November 19, 1779, 
made by Lieutenant Colonel Dununer Sewall, 
of Colonel Sanuie! McCobli's (Lincoln County) 
regiment, as Captain Eleventh Company, com- 
missioned September 17, 1776. Residence, 
Woolwich. 

Mrs. Stanley's mother, Mary D. Witham be- 
fore marriage, was a daughter of William 
Witham and his wife, Abigail Woodman, and 
on the maternal side, grand-daughter of John 
Woodman, Jr., whose father, John Woodman, 
was one of the earliest settlers of New Glouces- 
ter, Me., going there from Kingston, N.H., 
early in the sixth decade of the eighteenth 
century. The elder John Woodman, John,* 
was a descendant in the fifth generation of 



Edward' Woodman, wlu; settled at Newbury, 
Mass., in 1685, and who served as Deputy to 
the General Court in 1686 and three later 
years. The line continued through Edward^; 
Deacon Archelaus''; Joshua,* born in 1708, who 
married Eunice Sawyer, of Newbury, and re- 
moved to Kingston, N.I I., about the year 
1736; to their son John,^ born in 1740, who 
married Sarah Page, of Salislniry, Mass., and 
removed, as above noted, to New Gloucester, 
Me. John Woodman, Jr., or John," son of 
John^ and his wife Sarah, was born in New 
Gloucester in 17()7. He was married three 
times, and had eighteen children. His daughter 
Abigail, born in 1801, was married to William 
Witham in September, 1819. 

Augusta M. ^\'alkeI• (Mrs. Stanley) received 
her education in the public school, being grad- 
uated from the high .school of her native town 
and later attending the State Normal School 
at Farmington. For several years following 
she was a successful teacher. On New Year's 
Day, 1870, she wa,s marrieil to Francis Edgar 
Stanley, and went to Auburn, Me., to reside. 
Mr. Stanley, wlio is an inventor, has been for 
the greater part of his business life associated 
with his twin brother, Freelan Oscar Stanley. 
The Stanley lirothers' dry [elates in photography 
and the Stanley automobiles have a world-wide 
reijutation, and the men behind these are not 
only powers because of their wealth, but by 
rea.son of their long years of business integrity. 
After .seventeen years' residence in AuburUj 
Me., Mr. and Mrs. Stanley removed to Newton, 
Mass., where they still live. They have two 
slaughters, Blanche May and Emily Frances, 
and one son, Raymond Walker, a promising 
lad yet in school. 

Blanche May Stanley was married October 
15, 1908, to Edwanl Meiihew Hallett. They 
reside in Newton. 

Emily Frances Stanley was married Ajjril 8, 
1896, to Prescott Warren, of Cambridge, Mass. 
Mr. and Mrs. Warren resitle in Newton. Tliey 
have two daughters: Margery, boi-n in 1S97; 
and Frances Augusta, born in 1900. 

Mrs. Stanley has travelled extensively, both 
in her own country and abroad. She takes an 
active interest in tlie educational, patriotic, 
and philanthropic movements of the day. The 



130 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Sarah Hull Chapter, D. R., of which she was 
elected Regent, March, 1!)()2, ami again in March 
1904, is the largest cha])ter in the (icneral So- 
ciety of the Daughters of the Revolution. 
Mrs. Stanley is also one of the Board of Mana- 
gers of the (ieneral Society. She is a vice- 
presiflent of the Social Science Club of Newton, 
and was one of the founders and for a time 
vice-jiresident of the Katahdin Club, conqiosed 
of residents of Newton who were born in Maine. 
Mrs. Stanley for some years was president of 
the Newton District Nursing Association. On 
account of severe illness not long ago she de- 
clinctl re-election. This u.seful .society com- 
prises four huntlred members. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Stanley are regular attendants of the Uni- 
tarian church in Newton, in which she is an 
active worker. 



HARRIET PRESCOTT SPOFFORD, 
successful author in prose and verse, 
was born in Calais, Me., April 3, 1835, 
the eldest child of .Tose|)h N. and 
Sarah (Bridges) Prescott. Her father, Jo.seph 
N. Prescott, was a son of A\'illiam Pei)perell 
Prescott and his wife, Harriet de Les Dernier, 
whose father, Peter F. C. de Les Dernier, was 
born in Halifax, N.S., of Swiss parents. 

Henry Prescott, father of \\'illiam P. Pres- 
cott, was a lineal descendant, in the fourth gen- 
eration, of John Prescott, an early .settler of 
Jjancaster, Ma.ss. Mary Newmarch Prescott, 
wife of Henry, was a daughter of Joseph and 
Dorothy (Pepperell) Newmarch, a granrl-daugh- 
ter of William' Pepperell, of Kittery, and 
niece of Sir Willianr' Pepperell, the victor of 
Louisburg. 

The .second Prescott ancestor, Captain Jon- 
athan,^ father of the Rev. Benjamin Prescott 
and grandfather of his son Henry, named above, 
married Elizabeth Hoar, sister of Daniel Hoar, 
remote ancestor of Senator George F. Hoar. 

Mrs. Spofford's mother was a daughter of 
John Bridges, of Calais, Me. 

Mrs. Rose Terry Cof)ke, in bygone years a 
fellow-worker with the pen, thus wrote of 
Harriet Prescott in her girlhood in Maine: A 
"lithe, active child, full of (juaint wit and keen 
questioning, she ran wild through her earlier 



years in the pure air and fragrant breath of 
pine forests and sea breezes, laying the founda- 
tion of her exce]itional health and strength." 

At the age of fourteen Harriet Prescott went 
to Newburyport to live with an aunt and attend 
the Putnam Free School, "a remarkably good 
school," as it has been desciibed, "kept by 
William G. Wells, a celebrated teacher." Her 
native talent soon manifested itself: she re- 
ceived the first prize, in a series instituted by 
Thomas AVentworth Higginson and Professor 
Aljiheus Crosby, "for a very daring anil orig- 
inal e,s.say on Handet, written at sixteen." She 
further attaineil an enviable distinction and 
popularity among her classmates by writing 
several dramas, which were enacted in the school 
exhibitions. After her graduation from the 
Putnam School she continued her studies for 
a time at Pinkerton Academy in Derry, N.H., 
where her widowed mother and the younger 
children were then living. Before long the 
family returned to Newburyport. 

Not admiring friends and schoolmates alone, 
but judicious counsellors, among them Colonel 
Higginson, encouraged her literary aspirations. 
Sketches, stories, and verses from her pen found 
their way into print, and probably brought 
money into her purse. 

Her first contribution to the Atlantic Montldy, 
"In a Cellar," appearing in February, 1859, is 
remembei'ed l)y one who.se opinion is of value 
as "an ingenious and amusing story, well told." 
Tlie .same early reader and critic adds: "Her 
tale of 'The Amber Gods,' published soon after- 
ward in the same magazine, was of a higher 
and larger scope, full of power and passion. 
Scarcely less powerful was a sketch named ' Cir- 
cumstance.' These stories at once gained for 
the author a high place among writers of fic- 
tion." 

She continued to use her pen. To quote 
again from Mrs. Cooke: " Under her quiet aspect, 
wistful regard, and shy manner, lay a soul full 
of imagination and pa.ssion and a nature that 
revelled in the use of words to express this fire 
and force. In her hands the English language 
became sonorous, gorgeous, burning." 

In 1865 Harriet Prescott was married to 
Richard S. Spofford, of Newburyport. Joy in 
the birth of a child in the ensuing year was 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



131 



followed a few months later l)y sorrow for its 
loss. With the exception of some time spent 
in Washington, D.C., the home of Mrs. vSpof- 
ford has been on Deer Island, between New- 
biiryport and Amesbury. Here Mr. Spofford 
died in August, LSSS. Several winter seasons 
of recent years Mrs. Spofford has passed in 
Boston. In the sunmier.of 1908 she went to 
Europe with her sister, her niece, and her ward, 
sailing on the same steamer witii her friend, 
Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton, in her annual 
visit to England. The present winter (1903- 
190-1) she is in Paris. 

Mrs. S])offord as a writer is exceptionally 
happy in her estimates and appreciations of 
other women authors and their work: witness, 
for example, the biographical sketch appearing 
over her signature in another part of this 
book, her criticism of the poems of Anne AVhit- 
ney in the NortJi Ameiican Re<ie>v for 1860, and 
her article on "The Author of Charles Auches- 
ter," in the Atlnntic Monthlij, June, 1S62. 

Among her books may here be mentioned, 
not to give an exhaustive list: "Sir Rohan's 
Ghost," "Azarian," "New I'jigland Legends," 
"Art Decoration," "The Servant Question," 
"Hester Stanley at Saint Mark's," "Poems," 
"In Titian's Garden," "Ballads about Au- 
thors," "The Children of the Valley" (1901), 
"The Great Procession" (1902). 

Her most recent work in the Athmtic (Novem- 
ber and December, 1903), "The Story of the 
Queen," a short novel in two chapters, is one 
that could hardly have been written before the 
dawn of the twentieth century, and would 
never have been written, just so felicitously and 
out of the heart, by any other pen than that 
of Mrs. Spofford, idealist. 

"I read it with delight," says Mrs. Moulton, 
referring to this story, and adding these words 
to emphasize her admiration for Mrs. Spofford 
as a poet as well as a story writer: "There is 
a far-reaching grandeur of thought and imag- 
ination in her poetic work. To lyric grace and 
charm she adds breadth of view and nobility 
of conception. She is neighbor to the stars. 
The blind poet, Philip Bourke Marston, was a 
great admirer of her work, as are many other 
English I'eaders of high degree, among them the 
professor of poetry at the University of (Jx- 



fonl. She is a poet of deep emotion, of far- 
reaching vision, of sjjlendid power." 

But beyond all the literary graces and achieve- 
ments of Mrs. Spofford — and it is a pleasant 
note to close with — this same gifted contem- 
porary and intimate friend appreciates " her 
noble womanhood, her unselfish devotion to her 
family and her friends, her loyalty to all high 
and noble ideals." 

M. H. G. 



EAMMA ELIZABITH BROWN, artist 
I and writer, was born in Concord, N.H., 
J October 18, 1847, daughter of John 
Frost and Elizabeth (Evans) Brown. 
Her father had no sons, his brother Hemy 
(also deceased) never married, and, her gran<l- 
father Brown having been an only son, Miss 
Brown is the last of her line to bear the family 
name. As stated by the late Henry Brown, 
who was a genealogist, this family of Brown 
in New England is of German origin and the 
early spelling of the name was Braun. 

Through her [laternal grandmother, Mrs. 
Susannah Frost Brown, Miss Brown traces 
her descent from Eihuund Frost, Ruling Elder 
of the church in Cambridge, Mass. Elder 
Frost, said to have lieen son of John Frost, 
of Ipswich, England, came over in the ship 
"Great Hope" in 1635, and was made freeman 
at Cambridge, March 3, 1636. He died in 
July, 1672. In his will, which was probated 
in October following, he left bequests to his 
widow Reana (his .second wife), each of his 
eight children, something to the new college 
(Harvard) then buililiiig at Cambridge, and 
to George Alcock, a student. Much time was 
spent by Mr. Henry Brown in England, look- 
ing up the records of the Frost family. 

Mi.ss Brown's father, John Frost Brown, for 
many years a leading bookseller in Concord, 
N.H., was an ardent lover of beauty, whether 
in nature or art. During her girlhood, as she 
took long outdoor tiamps with him, he taught 
her to note the changing i)eauties of sky and 
land and sea, which in later years she has been 
.so skilful in reproducing on canvas. During 
his bu.sy life he collected a large library of val- 
uable books. He was a givat reader himself. 



132 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



and he directecl her reading, which dwelt mostly 
on outdoor themes and stories of goklen deeds 
in ancient and modern history. This reading 
has borne fruit in the many interesting volumes 
to which Miss Brown's name is attached. 

Her mother, Elizabeth Evans, was also of 
English descent, but her family record shows 
more practical business men than scholars. 
She herself hatl great executive ability and an 
energetic temperament. Her parents were Ar- 
temas and Margaret (Sargent) . Evans. The 
latter, Miss Brown's grandmother, lived to be 
more than a hundred years old, and when she 
was ninety-two had four sisters living who 
were over ninety. Only two of the five, how- 
ever, reached the century mark, and none of 
the later generation showed any striking lon- 
gevity. 

Miss Brown has made a name for herself 
with botli pen and brush. Well-trained in 
the Concord schools, she was always a student 
at home and a keen observer as she travelled. 
She is a versatile woman, and one turns with 
delight from her jiaintings to her histories, 
her poems, her clever illustrating. 

Her magazine stories — many under the pseu- 
donym " B. E. E." — have a grace ami tender- 
ness which are apt to send one back for sec- 
ond reading. Her biographies of Washington, 
Grant, Ciarfield, and Oliver Wendell Holmes 
are in steady demand. "Huldah," her book 
of patriotic verse, dedicated to a member of 
the I). A. R., is read with appreciation by 
lovers of graceful poetry. To change slightly 
the author's own lines about another, it may 
well be said that Miss Brown, "among New 
Ham])shire's daughters, stanch and strong, 
has made her name well known, both for her 
story and her song." 

As described by a friend, Miss Brown's i)er- 
sonality is graceful and charming. The eyes 
are remarkable — deep as the violets she so 
beautifully paints, with long dark lashes. Her 
presence diffuses swfH'tness and strength, and 
to have met her once is to always long to know 
her more intimately. 

Not over robust, Mi.ss Brown is unable to 
keep as busy as her ambition would direct. 
The demand for her charming water-colors 
exceeds the supply. At her exhibition a year 



ago the favorite pictures were scenes at the 
Azores, where Mi.ss Brown has passed much 
vacation time. This year (1903) she has busily 
sketched along the Massachusetts coast. Few, 
indeed, are they who can depict life in two ways, 
on glowing canvas and printed page; but Miss 
Brown holds the secret of both arts. 



SARAH CORDELIA FISHER WELL- 
INGTON, a Massachu.setts woman, bet- 
ter known as Mrs. Austin C. Wellington, 
extensively engaged in works of phi- 
lanthropy and patriotism, is a native resident 
of Cambridge, Mass. Her father, George Fisher, 
who died September 12, ISDN, was for many 
years one of the leading citizens in the I'ni- 
versity City. He was a son of Jabez" Fi-sher 
and a lineal descendant in the seventh genera- 
tion of Anthony' Fisher, wjio came to New 
England in 1637 and settled at Dedham. Some 
of the early Fishers at Dedham, among them 
Joshua,' brother of Anthony,' used a seal bear- 
ing a coat of arms described as "azure, a dol- 
phin embowed naiant or" (Fisher Genealogy). 

George Fisher was a deep thinker, strong in 
his anti-slaver}- and temperance convictions, 
and was an enthusiast in music. Buying the 
Cambridge Chronicle in 1859, he continued its 
editor and proprietor till 1873, when he sold 
it. He was a member of the Harvard Law 
School Association. In 1885 he represented 
his tlistrict in the Massachusetts Legislature. 
He married in 1840 Haimah Cordelia, daughter 
of Samuel P. and E^unice (Swan) Teele, of 
Charlestown, and a descendant of old Middle- 
sex County families. Mrs. Fisher also was en- 
dowed with musical talents. She was well 
known and loved for her kindly nature, her 
large philanthropic work dining the Civil War, 
and her helpfulness among the poor up to tlie 
time of her death, July 3, 1894. She was a 
member of the Austin Street I'nitarian C'hurch. 

Mrs. \\'ellington's education was received in 
the public schools of Candiridge, including the 
high school, where she was graduated, and in 
Profes.sor Louis Aga.ssiz's School lor Young 
Ladies, of which Mrs. Agassiz was director. 
She subsecjuently contimied her studies of 
nmsic at home and abroad, in London being 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



133 



the pupil of Signor Randeggei- and Madame 
Rudersdorf. She was connected with cjuar- 
tette choirs in Park Street, Old South, and 
Trinity and Emmanuel Churches, Boston. 
She was also soprano soloist in the Handel 
and Haydn Society and in the Cecilia Club. 

She has travelled extensively in Europe, in 
her own country, and in Canada, and is a great 
lover of nature in its wildest grandeur. She 
recalls with enthusiasm her experience at 
Oberammergau, witnessing the Passion Play 
in 1900, al.so the first performance of Wagner's 
Nibelungenlied at Bayreuth, comlucted by 
the composer himself, in 1876. 

The Wotnan't' Chronicle (issued as a supple- 
ment to the Cambridge Chronicle) in its issue 
of December 3, 1S9.S, thus referred to Mrs. 
Wellington's musical talents: "Music, an in- 
heritance from her parents, has been one of 
the chief inspirations of her life and a .solace 
to her sorrows. She was brought up antl nurt- 
ured in a musical atmosphere. Her mother's 
voice was remarkably sweet, and her father 
played several instruments, jiaying .special at- 
tention to the organ and piano. She cannot 
remember the time wlien she could not play 
the piano. Before she was tall enough to reach 
the keys, she stood on tiptoe to finger the melo- 
dies she had heard. Besides her fondness for 
classical music, from childhood martial music 
always appealed to her, as she was of a patri- 
otic nature." " 

Since 1873 she has been actively interested 
as director in the Cambridge Conservatory of 
Music, on Lee Street, of which her father was 
the founder and proprietor. She had the honor 
of singing in one of the Montreal cathedrals, 
and has appeared as accompanist with Camilla 
Urso, the celebrated violinist. Many will re- 
member her in operettas and concerts for chari- 
table objects. 

Mrs. Wellington considers it a pleasure and 
a duty to engage in the work of philanthropy, 
the objects of which are constantly knocking 
at our doors and our hearts with their confi- 
dential claims anil needs. No word of com- 
plaint or of unkindness is ever heard from her 
lips. In distributing for the flower mission 
and visiting the sick and in other forms of 
charitable work she is an enthusiast, as well as 



in her musical career. Probably no woman in 
Cambridge is more generally known and loved 
than she. For several years she was on the 
music faculty at ^\'ellesley College and the 
New F^.iiglan(l Conservatory of Music. 

Mrs. Wellington from her early youth has 
been interested in and connected with clubs, 
being recognized as a born organizer bj' her 
schoolmates, as later by her maturer friends. 
She has been entrusted with many responsible 
positions, notably the presidency of the Daugh- 
ters of Massachusetts, the Ladies' Aid Associ- 
ation of the Soldiers' Home, the South Middle- 
sex Unitarian Alliance Branches, the Wednes- 
day Club, and New England Conservatory 
Alunnii Association; the vice-presidency of the 
Charity Club, Massachusetts Volunteer Aid 
Association, Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, and Cantabrigia Club; has been secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Roundabout Club; 
director in the Cambridge Young Women's 
Christian Association, the Woman's Club-house 
Corporation, National Unitarian Women's Alli- 
ance Board, East End Christian Union: and 
one of the Parish Committee of the Austin 
Street Unitarian Church in Cambridge. She 
is a 'life member of other prominent organiza- 
tions, including the New England Woman's 
Club, Women's Educational and Industrial 
I^nion, and American Unitarian Association. 
She enjoys her membership in the Browning 
Society, Emer.son Society, Shakespeare Club, 
Boston Political Club, Suffrage League, Civil 
Service Reform Association, and Political Eciual- 
ity Club, and pays assessments in other clubs 
to attest her interest in tlieir work even if ]3re- 
ventetl from fre([uent attendance. 

Widely esteemed in social as in puljlic life, 
she is a woman of great executive ability, a 
dignified and gracious ])resi(hng officer, a ready 
speaker, and one who.se plans anil suggestions 
always command respect. In patriotic work, 
with which she is in deep sympathy, she was 
associated with her husband, the late Colonel 
Austin Clark Wellington, to whom she was 
married November 29, 1887. A native of 
Lexington, Mass., son of Jonas Clark and Har- 
riet E. {Bosworth) Wellington, he had been 
a resident of Cambridge and later of Boston, 
having large coal business interests in both of 



134 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



these cities. Colonel ^^'ellingt()n was popular 
in social and military circles throughout the 
vState. He was Past Commander of E. W. 
Kinsley Post, No. 113, G. A. R., of Boston. 
Returning from the Civil War as Adjutant of 
the Thirty-eighth Massachusetts Regiment, 
with which he had taken part in seven battles, 
he was subsequently active in the State militia. 
The First Regiment, of which he was conmiis- 
sioned Colonel in Feliruary, 1882 — a position 
that he held till his decease, September IS, 
1888 — he brought to a high standard of ex- 
cellence, as recognized throughout the country. 
He was one of the trustees of the Soldiers' 
Home in Chelsea. For two years in the seven- 
ties he served as Representative in the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, and was on the Commit- 
tee on Military Affairs. In 1871 he joined the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 
He was a member of various societies and 
clubs, literary and musical. 

Mrs. Wellington has furnished a room in 
Colonel W\'llington's honor at the Soldiers' 
Home, Chelsea, known as the Austin C. Welling- 
ton Memorial Room; also one in her own home 
in Cambridge, containing numerous badges, 
flags, pictures, _ books, and other relics and 
souvenirs, many of them intrinsically valuable, 
all interesting and highly prized for their asso- 
ciations. 



ARMENIA S. WHITE, first president, 
/ \ now honorary president, of the New 
X jL Hampshire Woman's Suffrage Associ- 
ation, is well known for her many years 
of efficient co-operation with her husband, the 
late Nathaniel White, of Concord, N.H., in 
works of philanthropy and reform. She was 
born in Mendon, Mass., November 1, 1817, 
daughter of ,fohn and Harriet (Smith) Aldrich. 
Her direct paternal line of ancestry in America 
begins with George' Aldrich, wlio, with his 
wife Catherine, came from Derbyshire, England, 
in 1631, and in 1603 was among the early settlers 
of Mendon, Mass., removing thither from Brain- 
tree. Jacob^ Aldrich, son of George,' marrietl 
Huldah, daughter of Ferdinando Thayer, and 
was the father of Moses,^ born in 1690. 

Moses' Aldrich was a celebrated preacher of 



the Society of Friends (or Quakers, as they 
were often called) in Rhode Island. He trav- 
elled as an approved minister, not only in the 
colonies later forming the original States of 
the American Union, but in the West Indies 
and in England. He married in 1711 Hannah 
White. 

Judge Caleb^ Aldrich, son of Moses,' is men- 
tioned in the History of Woonsocket, R.I., as 
father of Naaman'^ and grandfather of John" 
Aldrich, all of Smithfield, R.I. Naaman was 
the father of John Aldrich, who was the father 
of Mrs. White. 

As shown by the following record, Mrs. 
White's maternal ancestry includes three " May- 
flower" Pilgrims, Edwanl Doty, Francis Cooke, 
and Stephen Hopkins, also Mr. Hopkins's sec- 
ond wife, Elizabeth, and their daughter Dam- 
aris, who both came with him to Plymouth. 
Mrs. White's mother, Harriet Smith Aldrich, 
was born, as recorded in Smithfield, R.I., Feb- 
ruary 21, 1795. She was a daughter of Samuel 
Smith and his wife, Hope Doten. Her parents 
were married at Plymouth, Mass., May 31, 
1791, antl moved to Smithfield, R.I. Samuel 
was a Revolutionary soldier, born in Smith- 
field, R.I., enlisting in the American army at 
the age of sixteen years. The Doty-Doten 
Genealogy shows that Hope Doten, born in 
Plymouth, Mass., in 1765, was daughter of 
James and Elizabeth (Kempton) Doten, and 
was descended from Edwartt Doty and his 
wife. Faith Clark, through John' and Elizabeth 
(Cooke) Doty, Isaac' and Martha (Faunce) 
Doten, and Isaac' and Mary (Lanman) Doten, 
Isaac' being father of James^ and grandfather 
of Hope Doten, Mrs. White's maternal grand- 
mother. Elizabeth, wife of John^ Doty (or 
Doten), was the daughter of Jacob' Cooke (son 
of Francis') and his wife Damaris, daughter of 
Stephen Hopkins and his wife Elizabeth. 

After the marriage of John Aldrich and Har- 
riet Smith they moved from Smithfield, R.I., 
to Mendon, Mass. In 1830 Mr. and Mrs. John 
Aldrich removed from Mendon, Mass., to Bos- 
cawen, N.H. Their daughter Armenia was 
educated in the public schools. On November 
1, 1836, the nineteenth anniversary of her birth, 
she was marrieil to Nathaniel White, then a 
rising young business man of Concord, N.H. 




ARMENIA S. WHITE 




REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



135 



Mr. White was born at Lancaster, N.H., Feb- 
ruary 7, 1811, being a son of Samuel and Sarah 
(Freeman) White and descendant of WilHam 
White, an early settler of Essex County, Massa- 
chusetts. For a number of years in his youth 
he was employed in the Columbian Hotel, 
Concord, N.H. He started in business for 
himself in 1832, becoming a part owner 
in the stage route between Concord and 
Hanover, later buying the line between Concord 
and Lowell. He was a young man of more 
than ordinary ability, upright and honorable, 
and using neither intoxicants nor tobacco in 
any form. In 1837, in partnership with Cap- 
tain William Walker, he established himself in 
the express business, making tri-weekly trips 
to Boston. Upon the opening of the Concord 
Railroad in 1842 he became one of the original 
members of the express company then organ- 
ized to deliver goods throughout New Hamp- 
shire and Canada. He died at his home in 
Concord, October 2, 1880. In his forty-eight 
years of business life he had acquired something 
more than a competency, having become the 
possessor of valuable realty in Chicago, hotel 
property in New Hampshire, and stock in vari- 
ous railroad corporations, banks, manufac- 
tories, and other companies, in addition to his 
interests in the express company and in Con- 
cord real estate. 

Mr. W^hite took a deep interest in the estab- 
lishment of the New Hampshire A.sylum for 
the Insane, the State Reform School, the Or- 
phans' Home at Franklin, to which he gave a 
generous endowment, and of the Home for the 
Aged at Concord. Always a friend of the op- 
pressed, he was an active member of the Anti- 
slavery Society, a stanch helper also of the 
cause of temperance and other unpopular 
reform movements, among them that of woman 
suffrage, his wife earnestly sympathizing and 
working with him. He was, with his wife, one 
of the original members of the Universal ist 
Society in Concord and a constant attendant 
and liberal supporter of that society. 

An earnest supporter from the early days of 
the movement in New England for the enfran- 
chisement of women, Mrs. White has been active 
in organizing suffrage meetings and very hos- 
pitable in entertaining speakers, Lucy Stone, 



Mrs. Livermore, Mrs. Howe, and many others, 
having been her guests from time to time. 
She had in charge the New Hampshire tables 
at the .several suffrage bazaars held in Boston, 
and in various ways contributed to their suc- 
cess. A writer in the book entitled " New 
Hampshire Women" gives this summary of 
Mrs. White's helpful activities: — 

"The charitable and benevolent associations 
of the State have ever been the object of her 
fostering care. She was the first president of 
the New Hampshire W. C. T. U., and has been 
president of the New Hampshire Woman's 
Suffrage Association since its organization. 
Largely through her efforts, coupled with her 
husband's, was secured the legislation enabling 
the New Hampshire women to vote and hold 
office in connection with school affairs. Mrs. 
White is a member of the board of trustees of 
the New Hampshire Centennial Home for the 
Aged, of the Orphans' Home in Franklin, and 
the Mercy Home in Manchester. She was ac- 
tive in their establishment, and has been a 
liberal supjwrter of each. The Universalist 
church in Concord and at large, and manifold 
charities, local and general, have ever com- 
manded her earnest sympathy and generous aid." 

Seven chiklren wei'e born to Mr. and Mrs. 
White — namely, John A., Armenia E., Lizzie 
H., Annie Frances (who died in 1865 at the age 
of thirteen years), Nathaniel, Seldon F. (who 
died in infancy), and Benjamin C. Harriet S., 
an adopted daughter, married Dr. D. P. Dear- 
born, and is now a widow, living in Brattle- 
boro, Vt. 

Colonel John A. White, the eldest son, died 
November 26, 1899. His first wife, Elizabeth 
Mary Corning, died in 1873, leaving no children. 
His .second wife was her cousin, Ella H. Corning. 
Of this union there was one child, Arnold, born 
in Concord, October 20, 1883. 

Armenia E. White married Horatio Hobbs, 
of Boston, Mass. He dieil in 1889, leaving two 
children: Nathaniel White Hobbs, born No- 
vember 1, 1873; and Annie White Hobbs, born 
July 28, 1875. Mrs. Hobbs and her son and 
daughter live with her mother, Mrs. White, in 
Concord. Lizzie H. White married C. H. 
Newhall, of Lynn, Mass. She died December 
12, 1887. 



136 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Nathaniel White, Jr., of Concord, is general 
manager of the farm and other properties left 
by his father. He married Helen Eastman, 
and has two children, Nathaniel Aldrich and 
Charlotte. • 

Benjamin Chenej' White is now a prominent 
business man of Concord. He married Mabel 
N. Chase, of Concord, and has had two children: 
James Chase, who died at the age of five years; 
and Rose Aldrich, born in Concord, June 5, 
1895. 



EUNICE HALE WAITE COBB.— Eunice 
Hale Waite Cobb was born in Kenne- 
bunk, Me., January 27, 1803, the second 
chiKl of Captain Hale Waite and his 
wife, Elizabeth Stanwood. Her father had re- 
moved to Kennebunk from old Ipswich, Mass., 
a .short time before she was born, and he re- 
turned thither .soon after her birth, so that Ips- 
wich is ever associated with her earliest child- 
hood. Captain Waite died when Eunice was 
in her fifth year, leaving a widowed mother and 
four children, two of whom died at a very early 
age. 

After her father's death Eunice was cared for 
by her maternal grand-parents until she was 
ten years old, when her mother took for her 
second husband Samuel Locke, of Hallowell, 
Me., a man of liberal education, a school pre- 
ceptor by profession. He had a strong, clear 
mind, antl exerted an influence on the youthful 
mind of his stepdaughter for which she was ever 
grateful. 

Thoroughly imbued with the Calvinistic doc- 
trine by her grandparents, .she became at an 
early age a prominent member of the Baptist 
church of Hallowell, her fervid and effective 
speech making her a religious power unusual 
for one so young. Her conversion to L^niver- 
salism was remarkable. Her stepfather was a 
profound student of the Bible, and he could see 
naught else in its pages, as he declared, but evi- 
dences of the supreme and unchangeable love 
of God, whose divine fatherhood was one with 
his eternal being. F^unice was deeply ilis- 
tre.«.sed by this condition of her stepfather's 
mind, and finally prevailed upon her })astor, 
Mr. Moses, to visit him and bring him to the 



orthodox faith. Having brought them to- 
gether, she sat back and listened with inten.se 
interest and anxiety. Her account of this in- 
terview, with the results that followed, given 
in her diary, presents an epitome of religious 
experience of the past century in a most inter- 
esting manner. 

The discussion that followed left Eunice in 
dismay. After Mr. Locke had disposed of the 
final attack in the consideration of the parable 
of the rich man and Lazarus, which her minister 
had brought forward with great confidence, 
"he," we quote from Eunice's diary, "was 
going to explain further, when the minister's 
watch came out again, and he said he must go. 
I asked him to wait a moment and I would 
accompany him. I could not bear to be left 
alone, just then, with my father. On our way 
to the meeting-hou.se we were mostly silent. 
Not a word was spoken in allusion to the late 
discu.ssion. Arriving at the vestry, I took my 
seat with my sisters, and then gave myself up 
to thought. At this meeting, called for medi- 
tation and prayer, I was to relate my experience 
for the last time previous to my bajitism and 
admission into the church. When I was called 
upon to speak I arose, and tremblingly (for my 
heart was painfully wrought upon) asked that 
my baptism might be suspended (that was the 
word used); and I further said that I made the 
request after serious deliberation. An old lady, 
sitting a few pews from' me, spoke up quickly 
and excitedly, 'Aha! I guess you have been 
taught in Master Locke's school since you were 
with us last.' This remark, so impudently 
uttered, gave me strength. 'No,' said I, firmly 
and steadily, 'I have been taught in Christ's 
school, and I will seek further instruction from 
the same divine and blessefl source.' 

"The minister said not a word: he only 
bowed actiuiescence. He knew what I meant. 
I will only add that I went home and sought the 
instruction of which I had spoken. I .sought 
it earnestly, humbly, and honestly; and, thank 
God! very .soon my soul was basking in the 
full glory of my heavenly Father's boundless 
and answering love. I had become a Universa- 
li.st." 

She now declared she would marry a Uni- 
versalist clergyman, and bring up twelve chil- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



137 



dren in the fold of Israel. On May 8, 1821, 
she enters in her diary: "Have been indulged 
this evenmg with a privilege never before by 
me enjoyed: have heard the universal love 
of God publicly contended for by the Rev. 
Sylvanus Cobb, a preacher of the Universalist 
order. Indeed, my soul has been abundantly 
feasted. How animating, how soul-cheering, 
the subject of God's universal and impartial 
benevolence ! To me it seems the most glorious 
theme men or angels can dwell upon; and, 
though I have never before heartl the doctrine 
publicly proclaimed from the pulpit, yet I have 
long enjoyed a firm belief therein, and have 
enjoyed great satisfaction therefrom. It is 
about a year and a half since I burst the har- 
rowing bonds of the narrow creed of partialism 
— man-made — and found light and joy in the 
glorious field of God's universal and impartial 
love, and I find I can gather daily of its whole- 
some and delicious fruits a fresh supply; and, 
should I be spareil to the common age of men, 
and be permitted to range the same broad field 
of glowing grace and partake of the heavenly 
bounties, I surely shall find a spiritual food 
sufficient for all my wants. In the good Father 
I fear not to trust." 

Eunice's heart beat in sympathy with her 
soul. Sixteen months later she was united in 
marriage to the preacher who had so inspired 
that soul, the ceremony taking place at her 
stepfather's house in Hallowell, Me., on Sep- 
tember 10, 1822. 

She became the mother of nine children, and 
a more affectionate and faithful mother has not 
lived. Their names and the dates of their birth 
are as follows: Sylvanus, Jr., June 5, 1823; 
Samuel Tucker, June 11, 1825; Eunice Hale, 
April 15, 1827; Eben, January 17, 1829; George 
Winslow, March 31, 1831: Sarah Waite, Decem- 
ber 1, 1832; Cyrus and Darius (twins), August 
6, 1834 ; James Arthur, December 22, 1842. 

Immediately after the death of James Arthur, 
at nine years of age, Mrs. Cobb, with a mother's 
fondness, wrote his memoir, poi-traying traits 
of character, remarkable for one so young, 
which she desired to be known as an example 
to others. Especially did she desire to publish 
to the world an account of a remarkable vision 
that he had, in which there appeared hovering 



about him many angels, whose apf)earance and 
words he described with heavenly serenity. He 
repeated words spoken to him by the angels, 
and presently he exclaimed, "Oh, this is Sally'" 
His mother says, " My feelings here were inde- 
scribable, for this was a dear sister of mine, 
who died before I was married, and whom he 
knew nothing about." 

From this time to the day of his death, some 
two months afterwartl, he longed to be with 
the angels with whom he had so happily con- 
versed. His life seemed transported. The 
faith his mother had implanteil in his mind had 
found its fruition in heavenly reality. 

Mrs. Cobb's life was spent in work for the 
public welfare. She was a frequent contribu- 
tor to the religious press, and was a great fa- 
vorite with the Sunday-schools, which she ad- 
dressed with a heart filled with love for children 
and a mind stored with all that interests them. 

She was also equally interesting to the adult 
listener. Every word told. Her utterance was 
very distinct, her voice full, meloilious, and far- 
reaching, not only into space, but into the 
hearts and souls of her audience. She loved 
humanity, and her eloquence was as the elo- 
quence of a mother talking to a fondly listen- 
ing family of children; in sliort, it was of the 
kind with which Abraham Lincoln moved and 
controlled his autlience. Without any mani- 
festation of con.sciousness that she knew more 
than her auditors, she kept them on a level 
with her best, her highest, and her deepest 
thought. She riveted attention the instant 
her voice was heard. All felt as if they were 
individually addressed, and each gave ear to 
her words accordingly. 

Mrs. Cobb, in her motherly way, once wrote 
a letter to Queen Victoria, congratiilating her 
on the birth of her third child, a letter so hap- 
pily worded, .so sympathetic and sincere, that 
it touched the royal heart, and was cordiaiiy 
acknowledged. 

Mrs. Eunice Hale Cobb's name as a writer 
appears in the work devoted to the poets of 
Maine, published a few years ago. As with all 
else she did, her poetry was devoted to the good 
of humanity. 

She was a champion for the rights of woman 
in the broadest sense. While she was not iden- 



138 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



tified with the public advocates of woman's 
rights, she counted among her warmest and 
most devoted friends eminent leaders of this 
exalted reform, and ever sympathetically in- 
terchanged views on this topic. She attended, 
by invitation, the first Woman's Rights Con- 
vention held in this State — at Worcester. She 
was greatly amused by the climax of an elo- 
quent appeal of a somewhat aged colored 
woman, who, in the midst of a fervid harangue, 
cried out as only one of her race could, " Why, 
sisters, if I am what I am without an ctlicashun, 
what on arth would I be with one?" 

Mrs. Cobb was widely known as a comforter 
of the sick, the dying, and the bereaved. She 
ever lived consciously with God, and those she 
visited in the hour of trial and sorrow ever felt 
through her liis i)resence. Her obituary poems 
were the source of much solace: many were the 
aching hearts that were soothed by her heaven- 
inspired lines. There were those without num- 
ber who might well ask, after a consoling visit 
from her or a word from her pen, "0 death, 
where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy vic- 
tory?" She walked with Jesus, and it would 
seem at times as if she must have felt his hand 
in hers. 

Mrs. Cobb and her husband joined with 
Professor C. P. Bronson in founding the Ladies' 
Physiological Listitute of Boston, the leader 
of all similar institutions in this country, Mr. 
Cobb obtaining the charter for it. Professor 
Bronson acted as president, by courtesy, the 
first year. Mrs. Cobb then became the first 
elected president, and served this her beloved 
family, as she was wont to call it, until old age 
compelled her to resign the learlership, still 
by their earnest desire continuing her official 
connection with them by acting as correspond- 
ing secretary until a .short time before her 
death. 

Probably no past president is more fondly 
enshrined in memory than is Mrs. Cobb in the 
memory of the surviving older members of the 
Ladies' Physiological Institute. The national 
eminence of this pioneer institute reflects very 
high honor upon the woman whose devoted 
life was largely influential in imparting to it 
so enduring a vitality. 

The Masonic order hold her in honored mem- 



ory. In 1834, while the excitement was raging 
on account of the mysterious disappearance of 
Morgan, who, having exposed the secrets of 
Masonry, was suspected to have been made 
away with by the Masons, an attempt was 
made in the Massachusetts Legislature to sup- 
press Free Masonry in this Commonwealth. 
Mr. Cobb, who had consented to an election as 
Representative, to .secure the pa.ssage of a bill 
for the bridge between Charlestown and Maiden, 
in which he met with his usual success, opposed 
the attack on Free Ma.sonry with a power that 
ensured its defeat, he himself being a Free 
Mason. 

The committee of the Maiden church of which 
Mr. Cobb was pastor waited upon Mrs. Cobb, 
and urgently requested her to use her influence, 
which they knew to be strong with her husband, 
to draw him from his position in his defence 
of Free Masonry. "Gentlemen," she replied, 
" I glory in my husband's defence of Free Ma- 
sonry, and not one word will I utter to with- 
draw him from it." "But, Mrs. Cobb," re- 
.sponded one of the committee, "yours and 
your children's bread and butter may depend 
upon it." "Gentlemen," was the answer, 
"when it comes to that, I will go with my 
children into the woods and feed on nuts and 
acorns before I s{)eak to him as you desire." 

An old Mason informed Mrs. Cobb several 
years afterward that her name was inscribed 
on the Ma.sonic record in such a manner as 
virtually to make her an honorary member of 
the order. 

Mrs. Cobb was a prominent and active mem- 
ber of the order of Rechabites, a temperance 
association organized b}' women. In fact, 
wherever the opportunity was offered her to 
aid mankind through her woman's influence, 
there she was found performing her duty. 

Fjve of her family served in the Civil War — 
four sons, Sylvanus, Jr., George Winslow, and 
Cyrus and Darius, and Lafayette Culver, hus- 
band of her daughter, Eunice Hale. Sylvanus, 
Jr., conunanded at Fort Kittery, Me., and the 
others served in Virginia and North Carolina, 
George's name now standing on record at 
Washington for signal bravery in leading the 
charge as First Sergeant from "Fort Hell" to 
"Fort Damnation," as the Confederates named 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



139 



them. Of the sons, Cyrus and Darius first en- 
listed; and the mother displayed her Spartan 
spirit from this time throughout the war. She 
was present as a leader in the meetings of 
mothers and sisters anil others, held so often 
in Boston for prayer for the loved volunteers 
fighting at the front. Her disinterested patri- 
otism was the more marked inasmuch as the 
twins were the only sons left her at home, the 
others being married. She was a welcome vis- 
itor to Readville Camp, always responding to 
the request of the twins' comrades to address 
them, in which the father joined when he visited 
the camp with her. On account of her fervor 
at the prayer meetings it was anticipated that 
there would be a somewhat dramatic scene 
when the Forty-fourth Regiment should be 
received by their friends on Boston Common 
on their return, but the anticipatetl scene was 
not enacted. Mother and sons met with marked 
calmness. The same calmness that had at- 
tended the departure for possible death in 
battle received the safe return. 

Fortitude was a prime virtue. It attended 
her through life, and appeared with a kind of 
solemn grandeur on the approach of death. 
Having had two strokes of paralysis, she 
awaited the third stroke with tran([uillity. She 
calmly arranged with her twin sons for her 
funeral, going into all details with them as if 
it were an ordinary, every-day matter. She 
recjuested them to sing at her grave, which they 
promised to do if they were able. They then 
knelt at her feet, and she placed her hands 
upon their heads and blessed them. They feel 
those hands upon their bowed heails to this 
day, and listen to the dying mother's blessing 
uttered in that same firm, fervid tone which 
had so often been an inspiration and a comfort. 

Her last hours were spent in a pleasant 
chamber, that overlooked Mystic River and 
Bunker Hill Monument. On a beautiful morn- 
ing. May 2, 1880, while the Sabbath bells were 
ringing, she realized that the last summons had 
come. She asked her grandson, Albert Wins- 
low, who was alone with her, to help her to a 
large arm-chair awaiting her in the chamber. 
Her mother and grandmother had died in this 
chair, and she had always desired to die in it. 

When she was in the chair, she made a sign 



for her grandson to take her hand. "Help qie 
over, don't hold me back," she said with tran- 
quil happiness. Her son George Winslow and 
his wife and daughter appeared, having been 
warned by Albert. Heaving struggles for 
breath ensued. "Excuse me for making this 
noise," she gasped. "I cannot help it." Thus 
did she show to the last that tender regard for 
the feelings of others which had ever charac- 
terized her — an ever-attendant virtue. 

The funeral services were held in the l^niver- 
salist church at East Boston, and were attended 
by the Ladies' Physiological Institute in a 
body. According to her dying request, the 
funeral sermon was delivered by the Rev. Dr. 
A. St. John Chambrc, whom she loved as a 
son. 

A very touching, memorable incident now 
occurred. A lovely little babe, seven months 
oki, the infant daughter of Darius and Laura, 
died the same day her grandmother died, so 
that those who parted with her could but be- 
hold her, in their faith's vision, received into 
the grandmother's arms in greeting, she never 
having seen the child in this life. Her little 
casket was placed beside the casket of the 
grandmother, antl as the members of the In- 
stitute passed by, to look for the last time upon 
the features of their tenderljj: remembered presi- 
dent, their eyes were unexpectedly greeted by 
the sight of this little babe, sweetly sleeping its 
last sleep by the side of its grandmother. Many 
were the responsive tears from those who wit- 
nessed this scene. It seemed as if enacted by 
Heaven itself, to impress upon our hearts the 
memory of that blessed mother in Israel, who 
so loved the little children and ever made them 
so happy. 

When the little child was drawing her last 
breath, her eyes were fixed upward with a mar- 
vellously heaven-inspired gaze, ere their earthly 
lids were forever closed, ^^'hat she there saw 
only Heaven knows. In their souls' vision the 
parents have always seen that sainted grand- 
mother, whom the Sabbath morning bells had 
ushered into heaven, awaiting, while the even- 
ing bells of the same holy Sabbath were usher- 
ing in her dear grandchild. 

At the grave the avin sons, Cyrus and Darius, 
kept their promise. Sylvanus, Samuel Tucker, 



140 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



aiyi Eben expressed to the assembled friends 
their love and reverence for their mother, 
whose mortal remains were about to be con- 
signed to the earth, when Cyrus and Darius 
began to sing, as they never had before, 
"Nearer, my God, to Thee." Those assembled 
united with them, and the very hills and forest 
seemed to join in that sublime hymn. Fitting 
music to accompanj' the droj)])ing of the cur- 
tain on the final act, directed by the radiant 
angel of death and immortality. 

Cyrus Cobb (1834-1903). 

This article was the last work from my twin 
brother's pen for publication before he died, January, 
1903. It was tenfold a labor of love. 

Darius Cobb. 



ALMEDA HALL COBB.- The life of 

/\ Almeda Hall Cobb exemplifies Mary 

X \. A. Livermore's saying that " fighting 

and war have been the main business 

of the world, in which women take no part, 

save to endvire and suffer." 

Born August 27, 1S34, in the quaint, beauti- 
ful town of Marshfield, on Massachusetts Bay, 
she was the daughter of William and Sarah 
(Kent) Hall. Her lineage was partly from 
the "Mayflower's" first company, Standish, 
White, and Brewster stock being among the 
blend in the ancestry of her mother, Sarah 
Kent. Her father, William Hall, of a line of 
South Shore ship-builders, was a man sterling 
in character. 

Alnieda's nature was, during her girlhood, 
sprightly and winsome to a degree that matte 
her presence a perpetual delight. Brimful of 
music, it was her singing in the choir of the 
Rev. vSylvanus Cobb's church that stirred his 
son, George Winslow Col)b, to woo and win 
Almeda Hall for his wife. There was appro- 
priateness in the mating, for her husband's 
line of ancestry was direct from Elder Henry 
Cobb, of Plvmouth and Barnstable, an immi- 
grant of 1629. 

To her wedded life Almeda brouglit all the 
innate Pilgrim reverence for holy marriage 
and for divinity, developing more and more 
with the sacred cares of maternity. The 
diary of her wifehood, dating from her wedding 



tlay, May 1, 1856, is like a sacred poem, a latter- 
day song of Ruth, in its spirit and diction. 
Brought immediately, in the household and 
church of her husbantl's parents, Sylvanus and 
Eunice Cobb, into contact with noble men and 
women identified with the great temperance 
and anti-slavery reforms, her soul was quick- 
ened with desire to serve humankind as they 
were serving it. Yet her wifely and motherly 
devotion taxed her time, and only by the pages 
of her diary is the inmost secret of her real 
character revealed. 

Three years after her marriage she writes: 
" How swiftly the time glides by, employed as 
I am at present with my two little ones and 
other domestic cares! for the happiest home 
has these cares if well conducted.- Indeed, 
I can no more be happy if these little duties 
are neglected. I confess they sometimes press 
heavily upon me, and I feel that I would fain 
fly off from them a while and refresh my weary 
spirit by communion Avith the gifted spirits 
whose works lie thick around me; for, simple 
though our home is in its outward adornings, 
we have plenty of good books here. But I 
look forward to the time when these little ones 
will not require quite so close attention from 
me. There is so much I want to do, for myself, 
my family, and for everybody, all over this 
great and good world." 

And again, later: "Thoughts I hav.e that 
thrill my soul and make me better each hour 
I live, thoughts born of deep life experiences 
made blessed teachers by trust in God, thoughts 
that might shed light on the pathway of many 
a weary, sin-sick pilgrim ; and yet nmst I keep 
them, for my time, if it cometh ever, is not 
yet come. Yet, if it be best so, then I know 
the Father will j'et unseal tliese mute lips and 
give f)ower to this dumb tongue. And, if it 
be better so, let me be yet as now. Only 
teach me thy will, my Father, and I am 
content. Let my work be what and where 
it may: if I may only add to thy truth and 
power in the earth, I will be happy in doing it, 
and count myself, even though my sphere 
be limited, one of thy meek and lowly apostles, 
ever striving to lead others in the ' pleasant 
paths,' if I can in no other way, by a pure and 
spotless life. 





ALMEDA HALL COBB 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



141 



"But I humbly, earnestly pray for a wider 
sphere of usefuhiess. Darkness and error pre- 
vail on every hand. I would fain have power 
to clear away some of these clouds. And shall 
I pray in \ain? We have the promise — if we 
seek, we shall find." 

These words are the end of this written rec- 
ord of a woman's love and trust; for in this 
"great and good world" there were certain 
men at the South who about that time trained 
their cannon on the starred and striped flag 
of the government which " would not suffi- 
ciently Jet them eat their bread in the sweat 
of other men's faces"; and so woman's love and 
trust, and joy of peaceful ministry everywhere, 
were whelmed in the crash and mauling antl 
woe of a mighty Civil War — a war which taught 
the braggart tyrant fcjrces of the world that 
the most terrible foemen on earth are the 
"woman-hearted" men who love their fair, 
free homes and simple fireside joys, but who 
will fight when fight they nuist, or see the 
truth crushed down forever. 

Those who know the life histoiy of Almeda 
Hall Cobb throughout that woeful season, know 
of her ceaseless ministries, her home toil for the 
hospitals and for (he wounded brought back 
from the front; know of the birth of another 
daughter, replacing the baby girl whom death 
had taken; know of her continuous thought and 
labor for the cause of Union and liberty. Her 
husband's brothers had volunteeretl for the 
front; but him whom she loved so devotedly 
the conscription had not touched, ami she was 
loath to let him go. Yet the time came when, 
after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, 
Grant, the great chieftain whom the nation 
trusted, mighty in war yet with latent peace- 
yearnings in his heart, needed volunteers to re- 
pair the losses of his terrible cami>aign toward 
Richmond. Then Almeda yielded her final sac- 
rifice, as her husband, George Winslow Cobb, 
of the Sixty-first Regiment, Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, set forth to join in the death-grapple 
around Petersburg and Richmond. While the 
bulletins brought news tlay by clay of his 
regiment's engagment in the thick of the 
fight, his wife, at home with Albert and Mar- 
garet, their little boy and girl, encountered 
her daily trials, supporting her little ones, 



shielding and guarding them with anxious 
care against encompassing, un'speakable social 
demoralizations, which are always part of the 
price of war. imd which brave Mary Liver- 
more has published anil proclaimed with un- 
wavering courage, as she arraigns the war- 
policies of nations. 

Once at home by furlough with endorsement 
for bravery in battle, greeting his now invalid 
wife and the children, then again to the front, 
Almeda's husband took her heart with him, 
in yearning that wore her vital force away. 
A few months after Grant's magic words, 
"Let us'have peace," had dissolved and sent 
home a host of a million men at arms, Almeda 
Hall Cobb, representative of woman-martyrs 
as the sands of the sea for nundjer, yielded 
her earth-life, worn and finished by war, and 
her body of this mortality was laid at rest in 
Woodlawn, Septeml)er 20, 1865. 

In many young people to whom "grand- 
mother's" face and memory are only a far- 
away tradition her traits of righteousness now 
live on, blessed by peace. In so far as her 
soul's desire to spread the light of truth can 
be fulfilled in trust by a son who lives after her, 
it shall be fulfilled, and thus her prayers be 
answered; while for herself and her kind in 
the mysterious life beyond tleath, there is a 
Scripture — 

" \Miat are these which are arrayed in white 
robes? and whence came they? 

"And I said unto him. Sir, thou knowest. 
And he said to me. These are they which have 
come up out of great tribulation." 



MARY CAFFREY L()W^ CARVER 
was born at Waterville, Kennebec 
County, Me., March 22, 1850, being 
the .second daughter of Ira Hobbs 
Low and Ellen Mandana Caffrey Low. Her 
paternal grandparents were Ivory and Fanny 
(Colcord) Low, of Fairfield, Me., Ivory being 
the son of Obadiah Low, a native of Sanford, 
Me. Her mother was a grand-daughter of John 
Pullen, who came from Attleboro, Mass., and 
settled in Winthrop, Me., where he married 
Amy Bishop, daughter of Squier Bishop and 
his wife, Patience Titus Bishop. John Pullen 



142 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



and Squier Bishop, Jr., a brother of Amy (Mrs. 
Pullen), enlisted in the Continental army and 
served in the Revolutionary War. 

Mrs. Carver, after receiving her education in 
the public schools (if Waterville, took a three 
years' course at Coliurn (then Waterville) 
Classical Institute, under the well-known edu- 
cator, Dr. James H. Hanson. She subsequently 
spent one year there as teacher of Greek and 
Latin, being special assistant to Dr. Hanson 
in his department, and then entered Colby Uni- 
versity for a full collegiate course. She was 
graduated from that institution with the high- 
est honors in the class of 1875, being one of the 
first women in a New England college to take 
the full prescribed classical, mathematical, and 
scientific course. After graduation she taught 
in different high schools and academies of the 
State. The marriage of Mary Caffrey Low and 
Leonard Dwight Carver took place in 1877. 
Two children have been born of their union, 
namely: Ruby Carver, now a student at Colby 
College; and Dwight Carver, who died in 1889. 

Since leaving college Mrs. Carver has been 
active in religious and intellectual work. She 
is a member of Colby Chapter, Phi Beta Kappa; 
of Koussinoc Chapter, Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution; of the Unity Club of Augusta; 
and a life member of the American L^nitarian 
Association. She has written much in the form 
of essays, lectures, and papers for special occa- 
sions, the most notable being her lectures on 
the "Beauty of the Psalms" and on the "Liter- 
ature of the Old Testament," which she has 
read to appreciative audiences in several States. 
Mrs. Carver is now fully occupied in cata- 
loguing and in special work in the Maine 
State Library. 



FANNY CLIFFORD BROWN, in the 
closing years of the nineteenth century 
one of the best known, most active, 
and influential club women and phi- 
lanthropists of Portland, Me., died in California, 
December 20, 1900. She was born at New- 
field, Me., May 11, 1834, daughter of the Hon. 
Nathan Clifford and his wife Hannah, daughter 
of James Ayer. 

Nathan Clifford was born in 1803 in Rum- 



ney, N.H. Son of Deacon Nathan, Sr., and 
Lydia (Simpson) Clifford, he was — as shown 
in Dow's History of Hampton, N.H. — a lineal 
descendant in the sixtli generation of "George 
Clifford, tlescended from tlie ancient ami noble 
family of Clifford in England" (dating back 
seven hundred years and more), who came from 
Nottinghamshire, I'^ngland, to Boston in 1644, 
and later removed to Hampton, N.H. Nathan 
Clifforil as a young lawyer settled in York 
County, Maine. He was Attorney-General of 
the State, 1834-38; in Congress, December, 
1839, to March, 1843; in ]84fi he was Attorney- 
General of the United States in the cabinet of 
President Polk; in 1848 was sent as Envoy 
E.xtraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
to Mexico; in 1858 was appointed by President 
Buchanan Associate Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court; and in 1877 served as 
President of the Electoral Commission. He 
died in 1881. 

Fanny Clifford married at the age of seven- 
teen years the late Philip Henry Brown, of 
Portland, Me., a manufacturer and banker 
and a man of much culture. Eight children 
were born of this union. The father died 
October 25, 1893. The surviving children are: 
Philip Greeley Brown: Nathan Clifford Brown, 
Mrs. Linzee Prescott, Boston: Mrs. F. D. True; 
of Portland; and Helen Clifford Brown. 

Of a strongly religious temperament, Mrs. 
Brown early became a member of the High 
Street Congregational Churcli, and was always 
prominent in its activities. She also felt 
much interest in charitable work, and took 
such part in it as her home duties permitted 
throughout her early married life. It was not, 
however, until her chiklren had grown to 
maturity that she became the leader in local 
philanthropic work which she continued to be 
to the end of her life. She was also in her 
later years an enthusiastic club woman, was 
president of several organizations and a mem- 
ber of many others. She had a judicial mind, 
inherited, no doubt, from her father, and, 
having made a careful study of parliamentary 
law, was a tactful and popular presiding offi- 
cer. Some of the clubs and charities of which 
she was a member are as follows: the \'olun- 
teer Aid Society, of which she was president, 




FANNIE CLIFFORD BROWN 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



143 



the society having been fornietl during the 
Spanish War; the Invalids' Home; the Women's 
Council; the Crockett Club; the Women's Lit- 
erary Tnion; the Clifford Club, which was 
named by the other members in honor of Mrs. 
Brown's father^ the Portland Fraternity; the 
Civic Club; the Beecher Club; the Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; ami the 
Young Women's Christian Association. She 
was president of several of these clubs, and 
refused this office for many of the others. 

She was deeply interested in the Diet Mis- 
sion. She was vice-president of an organiza- 
tion recently formed for establishing a mater- 
nity hospital at Portland. But her favorite 
charity was undoubtedly the Temporary Home 
for Women anil Children, of which she was 
one of the founders in 1882 and always a stead- 
fast friend. She was the ardent champion of 
the home throughout a long period during 
which it was frowned upon by the community 
as an ill-advised institution — a period happily 
long past. It is not too much to say that 
most of the present popularity of the home 
is due to her. She was chosen vice-president 
of the home in 1885, and retained the office as 
long as she lived, being for many years, on 
account of the invalidism of the titular presi- 
dent, practically president. 

Mrs. Brown's death was a pathetic sacrifice 
and the direct result of her maternal devotion. 
In December, 1900, she learned by telegraph 
that her son John (twenty-seven years of age), 
who had served three years with distinction 
in the United States army, had left the Phil- 
ippines and had reached San Francisco, where 
he lay very ill, in a military hospital, of disease 
contracted in service. She at once started 
with a daughter for the Pacific coast. A cold 
caught on the train developed into pneu- 
monia. Her nervous system having been sub- 
jected to a severe strain throughout the jour- 
ney and her vitality being nmch loweretl by 
anxiety, her illness soon became alarming, 
and twelve days after her arrival in San Fran- 
cisco and after she had seen and comforted 
her son, himself doomed to a speedy death, 
she died, December 20, 1900. 

The announcement in Portland of her death 
was followed by a remarkable manifestation of 



sorrow in the newspapers, and in the clubs of 
which she was a member, as well as in her family 
and among her every-flay friends. A wide- 
spread desire was expressed for a suitable 
memorial of her beneficent life; and, under 
the leadership of the club women of Portland, 
action was at once taken for its fulfilment. 
Nowhere, it was felt, could a more fitting place 
be found than at the Temporary Home, Mrs. 
Brown's favorite charity; accordingly, within 
a few months a nursery was erected there, to 
bear her name. On one of its walls is fixed a 
tablet with the inscription : — 

IN GRATEFUL MEMORY OF 
FANNY CLIFFORD BROWN. 



S AGNES PARKER, Past National Chap- 
lain of the Woman's Relief Corps, was 
, born in New London, N.H., January 12, 
1841, daughter of Martin and Anna 
(Adams) Packard and the eldest of five 
children. Her father was son of David" 
and Susanna (Perkins) Packard, of North 
Bridgewater, Mass., and lineally descended 
from Samuel' Packard, of West Bridgewater, 
through Zaccheus,- David/ William,* and 
Lemuel.'* 

Anna Adams, wife of Martin Packard and 
mother of S. Agnes, was daughte*- of Mo.ses, Jr., 
and Betsy (Stinson) Adams and on the paternal 
side a dcscentlant in the .seventh generation 
of Robert Adams, of Newbury, Mass., and his 
wife Eleanor. The ancestral line was Robert,' 
Abraham,' John,^ * Moses,^ Moses, Jr." Abra- 
ham^ Adams, born in Salem in 1639 — the year 
before his father removed to Newbury — mar- 
ried Mary Pettengill. John,^ born in New- 
bury in 1684, married Sarah Pearson, and re- 
sided in Rowley, Ma-ss. John,* born in 1721, 
married in 1764 for his third wife a widow, 
Meribah Stickney (born Tenney), of Bradford, 
and some years later removed to New London, 
N.H. Moses,^ born in 1765, married in 1790 
Dolly (or Dorothy) Perley, and resided in New 
London, N.H., where his son Mo.ses, Jr.," above 
nanietl, was born in 1792. Moses Adams, Jr., 
and Betsy Stinson were married in Decem- 
ber, 1819. They had four daughters. Anna, 



144 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



the eldest, married in March, 1840, Martin 
Packard. 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin Packard removed from 
New London, N.H., to North Bridgewater 
(now Brockton), Mass., in 1844. Their daugh- 
ter Agnes was then three years old. She was 
educated in the public schools and at Hunt's 
Academy. On January 23, 1859, she was 
married to John B. Parker, of North Bridge- 
water, who was later a veteran of the Civil 
War. 

Mrs. Parker became identified with the Uni- 
versalist church forty-five years ago, and is one 
of its most active members. The Ladies' Aid 
Society connected with the church elected her 
president several years in succession, and she 
has held other important positions associated 
with the work of this church. 

When the Hosjjital Aid Society was formed 
in Brockton, she was elected one of the Direc- 
tors, and the next year was chosen President. 
She assisted in founiling the Woman's Educa- 
tional and Industrial L'nion of Brockton, and has 
served continuously in office, was its President 
six years, and has been active in raising funds 
for its benefit. This union has had a large 
membership, and has been supported by all 
the churches in the city. 

Mrs. Parker is naturally patriotic; and when, 
early in 1873, a Grand Army Sewing Society 
was formed, to' assist Post No. 13, of Brockton, 
she joined its membership roll and was chosen 
secretary. Elected its first President when the 
society became a branch of the Department 
of Massachusetts Woman's Relief Corps in 
October, 1879, she was subsequently re-elected 
for three successive years. 

The corps, which is one of the largest and 
most efficient in the State, is auxiliary to 
Fletcher Webster Post, No. 13, G. A. R., and 
is No. 7 on the roster of the Department W. 
R. C. The members appreciate Mrs. Parker's 
long-continued and faithful service in the 
cause. 

At the annual State convention in Boston 
in 1880 " the various corps presidents gave 
good accounts of their corps, that of Mrs. S. 
Agnes Parker, of Fletcher Webster Corps, of 
Brockton, being specially interesting." 

Mrs. Parker served on important committees 



that year, and at the convention in 1881 was 
elected Department Treasurer. She was De- 
partment Inspector in 1882, and also served 
as a member of the Committee on Ritual, 
Rules, and Regulations. The following year 
she was appointed chairman of this committee, 
and was elected to the office of Department 
Junior ^'ice-President. In 1884 she was chosen 
Department Senior \'ice-President, and in 
1885 re-elected. She presided over the annual 
convention in Boston in 1886, the Department 
President, Mrs. Goodale, being detained at 
home by illne.ss. This cf)nvention elected 
Mrs. Parker President for the ensuing year, 
and at its close she presented a report, in which 
the following summary of the work under her 
charge is given: — 

" I have been on duty at headejuarters every 
week but two. I have issued seven general 
orders. In my first and seconil general orders I 
appointed a staff of aides to assist the depart- 
ment officers in their work and be of service to 
those corps in remote parts of the State where 
they needed assistance or instruction. . . . 

" My duties as Department President have 
occupied the greater part of my time. I have 
travelled in official capacity in the State of 
Massachusetts four thousand and seventy-one 
miles, have made forty-one visits to corps, 
and have been cordially received by the mem- 
bers. I attended the National Convention at 
San Francisco, receiving many courtesies on 
this trip from Department Commander John D. 
Billings and other officials of the Grand Army 
of the Republic. I have accepted many invi- 
tations to anniversaries and inspections, have 
instituted one corps, installed the officers of six 
corps, and have paid other official visits too 
numerous to mention. 

" We have expended in relief the past year 
three thousand nine hundred and three dollars 
and forty-seven cents. This sum does not in- 
clude the entire amount contributed, as nnich 
has been given in the way of clothing and other 
articles. The Soliliers' Home has received 
six hundred and fifty-.seven dollars and twenty- 
eight cents." 

Mrs. Parker was unanimously ro-electeil 
Department President at the convention in 
Boston in 1887. In her annual address in 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



145 



1888 she referred to the grcnvth tun I work of 
the order in Massachusetts; — 

"January, 1887, we had seventy-seven corps 
with a membership of five thousand two hun- 
dred and fifty-seven. To-(hiy we number one 
hunih'ed corps with a membership of over six 
thousand seven hundred. Amcjunt expended in 
rehef the past year, five thousand six hundred 
and twenty-four dohars and .orty cents, and 
turned over to posts, three thousand two hmi- 
dred and fifty-eight doHars ami thirty-four 
cents. This amount does not cover the amount 
of all clothing and food given, as in many cases 
the value is not estimated. The amount re- 
ported as given the Soldiers' Home the past 
year is six thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
one dollars and eighty cents, which does not in- 
ckule the total figures. 

" My duties as De]iartment President have 
occupied nearly all my time. I have issued 
seven general orders and two circular letters, 
have visited headquarters ninety times, have 
travelled in official capacity in this State five 
thousand eight hundred and forty-four miles, 
visiting thirty-eight tlifi'erent corps. ... I have 
had the pleasure of installing the officers of 
seven corps, have instituted two corps, and as- 
sisted at the institution of others. I had the 
honor of attending the National Convention 
held at St. Louis. Number of official visits 
made during the year is two hundred antl 
seven." A reception was tendered Mrs. 
Parker in Boston, upon her return from St. 
Louis, by the delegates who representetl Mas- 
sachusetts at the Fourth National Conven- 
tion. Fletcher Webster Post and Corps, of 
Brockton, also gave her a reception in that 
city. 

Mrs. Parker gained the love of her associates 
and won the regard of the Grand Ai-my of the 
Republic during the two years of her adminis- 
tration. Upon retiring from the chair she 
was appointed and installed Department Coun- 
sellor and reappointed the following year. 

At the convention of 1890 Mrs. Parker was 
appointed a member of the Committee on 
Dej)artment Rooms at the Soldiers' Home 
and at every subsetiuent convention she has 
been reappointed. She is also a member oi 
other important committees. At the Nationa 



Convention in Pittsburg, Pa., September, 1894, 
she was unanimously elected National Chaplain. 

Mrs. Parker's husband, Mr. John B. Parker, 
of Brockton, was born in Boxford, Mass., a 
son of Aaron L. and Priscilla (Buzzell) Parker. 
He served in the Civil War in Company F, 
Fifty-eighth Massachusetts Volunteers, was 
wounded at Cold Harbor, and honorably dis- 
charged for disability soon after the surrender 
of General Lee. He has been Quartermaster 
of Fletcher Webster Post, of Brockton, the past 
twenty years. 

Three of the seven children born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Parker dieil in infancy. Of the four 
others the following is a brief record : Katie Flor- 
ence, born March 23, 1862, is the wife of Robert 
Davis, of North Easton, and mother of four 
children — Arthur Horace, Fred Carleton, Helen 
Parker, and Agnes Elena; Fred ChantUer, born 
August 31, 1866, married in February, 1901, 
M. Elizabeth Crummitt, and died Januarv 
12, 1904 ; Annie Etlith, born December 28, 
1875, married Harry L. Thompson, and has 
one child, F]rrol Mitchell; Frank Adams Parker 
was born June 30, 1884. 



ALICE SPENCER GEDDES.— One day 

/\ in the early fall of 1898 a young 
X A. woman, a Freshman in Radcliffe Col- 
lege, received a letter asking her to 
call upon the editor of the largest and most 
influential paper in the city in which she lived. 
"I have noticed with approval," said the edi- 
tor, " the reports of the Cambridge Art Circle 
affairs, which you as clerk have sent in. Will 
you take charge of a woman's department in 
my paper?" 

"What do you want in it? How shall I 
start about it? Do you think I can do it?" 
were some of the questions asked by the be- 
wilflered girl. 

"I am too busy to answer questions. Will 
you furnish matter for eight columns of the 
Cambridge Chronicle a week from to-day?" 

"Yes, sir, I will," came the prompt reply. 

Thus it was that Miss Geddes was jjrecipi- 
tately plunged into the field of journalism. 

She often jests now about the feeling of utter 
helplessness which overwhelmed her as she left 



146 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



that editor's office, hut she knows that it was 
this very throwing of herself on her own re- 
sources that started her on her successful career. 
A week from that day the Woman'n Chronicle, 
supplement to the Cambridge Chronicle, ap- 
peared, containing an editorial by the young 
editor, setting forth the policy of the paper, 
which was not to be concerned with the senti- 
mental and useless matter usually crowding the 
so-called woman's pages of our large news- 
papers, but rather was to be devoted to educa- 
tional, philanthropic, and social activities of 
Cambriclge women. This first issue containefl 
a resume of all of these lines of work, illustrated 
with photographs of prominent women inter- 
ested in them. 

From that time, save during the months of 
July antl August of each year, the Worn an' ft 
Chronicle as long as she edited it kept to the 
high ideals of the first issue, largely increased 
the circulation of the paper, and came to be 
recognized as the official organ of women's 
societies in Cambridge. All this Miss Geddes 
accomplished entirely unaided. She collected 
the matter, wrote the articles, and read the 
proof for each issue, and at the same time 
carried on the regular course at Radcliffe, and 
held the positions of clerk of th(> Cambridge 
Art Circle and the Cantabrigia Club. Such 
were the beginnings of the career of a young 
woman who is now widely known, not only 
as an active worker in women's clubs and as 
a journalist, l)ut as a lecturer and class leader 
in all branches of English literature. 

Alice S})encer Ceddes was born in Athol, 
Mass., Noveml)er 13, 1876, and was named for 
her paternal grandmother, with whom she 
spent her early years. In 187S the family 
moved to Cambridge; and in the following 
year her parents, William E. and Ella M. 
Ceddes, went to England to establish business 
there. As thej' intended to be absent but a 
.short time, the daughter was left in her grand- 
mother's charge. But, where success is, there 
is contentment; and Mr. and Mrs. Geddes took 
up their permanent residence in London. Ever 
since her babyhood, then, the daughter has 
lived in Cambridge in the winter and in Lon- 
don in the summer. 

Miss Geddes is a graduate of Chauncy Hall 



School, Boston, which she entered at the age 
of eight, and of Radcliffe College, class of LS99. 
After leaving Radcliffe, she studied at Newn- 
ham College. As a result of her special fond- 
ness for English literature and of her familiarity 
with the homes antl haunts of literary men and 
women abroad, she was led to enter upon the 
field of work which has brought her fame. 

In October, 1901, a large audience listened 
to a "Recital of Literary Romances" by Miss 
Geddes. Clearly and distinctly, without af- 
fectation, she read the stories .she had written 
of the love episodes in the liA'es of Swift and 
his Stella, Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Brown- 
ing, and Carlyle and Jane W^elsh. Her hearers, 
among them being many literary critics, mar- 
velled at the purity and beauty of these sketches, 
as well as at their keen insight and penetration 
into character. 

The next morning the leading Boston papers 
announced the appearance of a new star in the 
literary firmament, and letters congratulatory 
were followed by letters of inquiry as to terms 
for lecture and class work. Thus, at the early 
age of twenty-five. Miss Geddes became much 
in demand to give lectures and recitals and 
lead classes in eighteenth century and Victorian 
literature. 

The secret of her popularity lies in the new- 
ness of her methods; for in her analysis of a 
great work of literature she gives merely sta- 
tistics enough to identify the period, and avoids 
repeating well-known truisms and general state- 
ments. She goes below the outer shell, and 
unearths the inner meaning of the work, the 
causes which produced it, and the effect of its 
existence. She is now preparing a course of 
ten lectures on "The Novel and Life," which 
will follow the parallel development of civiliza- 
tion and the English novel. 

In spite of the amount of brain work which 
so many demands call from her, she has not 
lost her girlishness, and is much sought after 
at the gatherings of young people in Cam- 
bridge. She is much interested in club work, 
being a member of the Cambridge Art Circle, 
the ("antal)rigia" Club, the Woman's Charity 
Club, the Metaphysical Club, the Actors' Church 
Alliance, the New England Woman's Press As- 
sociation, and the Ruskin Club. 




EFFIE M. F. HARTWELL 




REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



147 



Her personality is chanuing, and her natural- 
ness of manner makes her a pleasing picture 
on the lecture platform and an ins])iring leailer 
in class work. 

In March, 1903, she took the most ambitious 
step of all. She purchasetl a well-known Cam- 
bridge newspaper, The Cambridge Prefts, and 
announced in the first number that it would be 
devoted to tlie interests of Cambritlge, and that 
it would be owned, edited, and conducted en- 
tirely by women. This innovation was a wel- 
come one, and the excellent sheet is a source of 
[jride to the whole city. There is not a weak 
point about it. Miss Geddes is a born journa- 
list, and her editorials are fine samples of lit- 
erarv style and fearless utterance. 



EFFIE MARION FRANCES NEED- 
HAM HARTWELL.— In every city 
and town of New England, safe to .say, 
at the present time women are to be 
found (juietly and earnestly striving to estab- 
lish better social conditions, conforming to 
higher ideals. Fitchburg, Ma.ss., is no ex- 
ception to this, and a leader among its women 
workers is Mrs. Hartwell, whose name in full 
appears at the head of this article. 

Her father, Colonel Daniel Needham, was 
born in Salem, Ma.ss., of good Quaker stock, 
an energetic, active nature, ]>ositive in opinion, 
and always taking his full share of the business 
of the State and local affairs. He married Miss 
Caroline Augusta Hall, of Boston, a woman of 
charmingly attractive personal character. 
Their fourth child, Effie Marion Frances, was 
born in Croton, Mass., January 9, ]<S52. The 
family removed to Queechee, Yt., in 1855, living 
there among the mountains until Effie was 
twelve years of age, when they returned to 
their old home town, (troton was one of the 
academy towns of New England, which, be- 
fore the establishment by law of high schools 
in all tlie larger towns, were centres of learning 
and refinement. For a century or more the 
Lawrence Academy in Groton held high rank 
in its cla,ss, and here Miss Needham ac(iuired 
a soliil groimding in ed\ication, which was sup- 
plemented by a year of study at the Prospect 
Hill School in Greenfield, Mass., and a season 



at the Misses Gilman's finishing school in Boston. 
From 1809 to 1877 she resided in Boston, and 
on October 23 of this latter year she was mar- 
ried to Harris Cowdrey Hartwell. Her home 
has since been in Fitchburg. Two sons were 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Hartwell, namely: Nor- 
cross Needham Hartwell, December 15, 1880; 
and Harold Hall Hartwell, May 6, 1891. 

Mr. Hartwell was a native of Groton and an 
alumnus of Lawrence Academy. He was grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1869. He studied 
law in Fitchburg, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1873. He was Repre.sentative from Fitch- 
burg in the Massachu.setts Legislature in 1883, 
1884, 1885, and a State Senator in 1887, 1888, 
1889, being president of the Senate in 1889. 
His untimely death in 1891 cut short a career 
of unusual promise. In Mr. Hartwell's public 
and official life his wife was his strong supporter 
and efficient help, and his manly qualities and 
public ])osition undoubtedly quickened her 
natural executive ability and strong desire to 
serve others. She has l)een itlentified with 
many of the best institutions of her city. She 
was the first president of the Fitchburg Woman's 
Club, continuing in office for six consecutive 
years; and during that time, under her vigorous 
administrative ability, the club took rank 
among the highest of the State in sohd educa- 
tive \york, healthy growth, and steadily in- 
creasing value to its members, becoming one 
of the acknowledged forces of the city. Mrs. 
Hartwell was a director of the Massachusetts 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, and has 
served on several of its committees. She is the 
vice-president of the Old Lailies' Home Cor- 
poration, the j)resident of its Ladies' Benevo- 
lent Society, and one of the stanchest sup- 
porters and workers for this useful institution, 
which has, from a small but earnest beginning, 
grown to own its large ami conunodious brick 
home, housing and providing for fifteen or 
twenty inmates. 

Taking an interest in everything teniling to 
the advancement of woman, she is a stanch 
advocate of suffrage for her sex on an equality 
with male suffrage. During the existence of 
the Women's Educational and Industrial Union 
in Fitchburg, Mrs. Hartwell was a personal 
worker, untiring in her efforts to keep it to 



148 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



the jmrpose indicated by its name. She is a 
director in the Benevolent Union (the Asso- 
ciated Charities organization in Fitchburg), 
and is a most active working member of the 
Baldwinsville Hospital Cottage Auxiliary, a 
society formed to aid the partially State-sup- 
ported hospital for epileptic children at Bald- 
winsville, Mass. She is also a warm frieml and 
helper to the Children's Home, another of the 
charitable and practically helpful institutions 
of her city. 

Mrs. Hartwell has always been an earnest 
Unitarian in her religious belief and affiliation, 
and has been among the foremost in the First 
Parish Church of Fitchburg in all its activities, 
giving unstintedly of her time and means to 
promote its best welfare, and hlling for more 
or less extended time the various church 
appointments usually enjoyed by women. 

In sinnming up, we may .say that conspicu- 
ous executive ability, indomitable energy and 
persistenc)^ a clear and broad vision, great 
tact, loyalty to friends and to purpose, and 
painstaking fidelity to any matter in hand are 
Mrs. Hartwell 's characteristics, anfl give the 
key to the success she has attained in good 
works. Such women mean more to their sur- 
roundings than can be told in words or meas- 
ured perhaps by anj^ of our common standards. 
Their number is increasing among us, and in 
large degree owing to examples like that of 
Mrs. Hartwell, which are a steady inspiration 
both for the present and the future. 



CALISTA ROBINSON .JONES, Past 
National President of the Woman's 
Relief Corps, was born March 22, 1S39, 
in Chelsea, Vt., and during the greater 
part of her life has been a resident of that State, 
her home for the past twenty years and more 
having been in the town of Bradford. 

Her parents were Cornelius and Mary A. 
(I'ike) Robinson. Her maternal grandmother, 
Sophia Lyman, wife of James Pike, was a 
daughter of Richard Lyman, of Lebanon, Conn., 
who inarched with others from Connecticut 
"for the relief of Boston in the Lexington alarm, 
April, 177.'i," and in April, 1777, enlisted for 
three years under Captain Benjamin Throop, 



having the rank of Sergeant in the First Regi- 
ment, Connecticut line, under Colonel Jedediah 
Huntington. Solomon Robinson, great-grand- 
father of Cornelius Robinson, was in the battle 
of Bennington. 

Calista Robinson, as she was known in girl- 
hood, was educated in the public schools and 
academy of Chelsea and at Rutgers Female 
Institute, New York City. For three years she 
was a teacher in the Washington School in 
Chicago. A few tlays after the attack on Fort 
Sumter, with the assistance of three other 
teachers she made a regulation fifteen-foot 
bunting flag, every star of which was sewed 
on by hand. This was the first flag to float 
over a school-house in Chicago. She assisted 
in distributing supplies to the thousands of 
troops who passed through that city en route 
for Washington. Returning to Vermont in 
1864, she was marrietl in Chelsea, September 
8 of that year, to Charles .Jones, a native of 
Tunbridge, Vt., and a graduate of Chelsea 
Academy. He was born .July 18, 18.37. 

When a Relief Corps auxiliary to Washburn 
Post, G. A. R., was formed in Bradford, \'t., 
Mrs. Jones became a charter member, serving 
as President two years and holding some office 
ever since. The Department Convention of 
Vermont elected her successively Junior Vice- 
President, Senior Vice-President, and Presi- 
dent. She has served on important commit- 
tees in the State and national organizations, 
and has been active as a member of the Ander- 
sonville Prison Board of the National W. R. C. 
After doing effective work as Department 
Patriotic Instructor, she was appointetl a mem- 
ber of the first National Committee on Patriotic 
Instruction. She was National Junior Vice- 
President in 1899, and at the convention held 
in Cleveland, Ohio, in September, 1901, she 
was elected National President, receiving a 
unanimous vote. She performed the duties 
of this office in an admirable manner, and her 
address delivered in Washington, Otober 9, 
at the session of the Twentieth National Con- 
vention, was received with approval. A few 
extracts are here given: "The Twentieth Na- 
tional Convention marks the close of the sec- 
ond decade in the history of the Woman's Re- 
lief Corps. The history of the first decade 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



149 



was OIK' largely cxpcriinciital and character- 
ized by most rayiul growtli in nunibpr.« and de- 
velopment. . . . Now we tind ourselves look- 
ing out over a field of work limitl»'ss in extent, 
and we find ourselves, too, most admirably 
prepared to carry forward the lines of work 
projected to reach, if possible, the highest ideal 
ever set for woman's work. 

"This year, 1901-1002, has been a remark- 
ably successful one from every standpoint. . . . 
This has been brought about because the time 
was ripe, the officers of the administration 
wonderfully cajiable for the places they were 
called to fill; the spirit of the day was for pros- 
perity, for advancement. 

" It is with feelings of great satisfaction that 
I am permitteil to tell you to-day that never 
were Memorial Sunday and Memorial Day 
more generally observed than in the year 1902. 

"Contributions to the Southern Memorial 
Day fund came with much promptness from 
corps and also from indivitlual members, in 
many instances accompanied with letters filled 
with patriotic enthusiasm. There was in the 
hands of the national treasurer, from last year's 
contribution, nine hundred and forty-two dol- 
lars. This year we have .sent to the Quarter- 
master-general of the Grand Army one thou- 
sand six hundred and thirty-one dollars and 
ninety-three cents, and there is one hundred 
and thirty-three dollars and ninety-four cents 
now remaining in the treasury. . . . The amount 
sent South this year by the W. R. C. is the larg- 
est sum ever sent in any one year. We are 
most glad that the response was so generous, 
and we are positively assured by the com- 
mander-in-chief that the need was never greater 
nor the work of decorating more thoroughly 
performed. . . . 

"We have formed a closer union with 
the G. A. R., to whom, as Colonel Bakewell 
says, ' the Woman's Relief Corps is married ' : 
and in that closer union of spirit and 
methods of work, in uniformity of pm'pose 
and material, we must hand to our posterity a 
heritage rich in the ideal teaching anil living 
of a higher citizenship than we have ever 
known. 

" Patriotic days have been widely observed. 
In response to the Flag Day letters bearing 



the joint message of the (i, A. R. and W. R. ('., 
flags floated from ocean to ocean. . . . 

"Work has rapidly advanced along all lines. 
Flags, charts, oleographs, have been placed 
in the schools. Patriotic j)rograms of rare 
merit have been constantly prepared, and the 
children of our land have sung 'The Star- 
spangled Banner' with a new sjiirit and vigor. 

" I wish especially to commend the work 
of the Sons of Veterans. Their organization 
is one of noble purpose, and the results of their 
united efforts cannot fail to be a grand success. 
I woukl also call especial attention to the open- 
ing of the new educational institution, the 
Sons of Veterans Memorial University, on Sep- 
tember 10, at Mason City, la." 

Mrs. Jones is honored in her native State, 
and has filled places of responsibility in other 
lines of work. She is one of the Trustees and 
chairman of the Book Conunittee of tlie Brad- 
ford Public Library, which was started at her 
suggestion. Its beginning was in 1874, when 
Mrs. Albert Bailey and Mrs. Jones went about 
from house to house, and jirocured subscrip- 
tions of one dollar each from sixty-three women 
to a fund for the purchase of books for a li- 
brary. In addition to the annual subscrip- 
tions, money was obtainetl by entertainments 
and lectures conducted by the association. 
The books were kept at the house of Mrs. Jones, 
who acted as librarian three years. At the 
dedication of the present building, the gift of 
John Lunn Woods, in 1895, the address was 
delivered by the Hon. J. H. Benton, Jr., of 
Boston, a former resident of Bradford. Re- 
ferring to the work of the Ladies" I^ibrary As- 
sociation, he said: "Who can measure the good 
which has resulted to this comnumity from 
this patient, persistent, un.selfish work of these 
wise and public-spirited women? They de- 
serve our jM-aise equally with him whose name 
this buiUling bears. While his name is car- 
ried upon the portals of your library, theirs 
should be borne upon tablets upon its walls, 
that in the years and generations to come those 
who enjoy the benefits may not forget how 
nuich they owe to those who made its existence 
possilile." 

Mrs. Jones is a prominent member of the 
Daughters of American Revolution in \'ermont, 



150 



REPRESENTATI\E WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



having been a iiicmlicr of tlic first Chapter in 
th- State. 

Charles Jones, the date of whose birth is 
recorded above, was engaged for many years 
in the insurance Inisiness in Bradford, in part- 
nership with Colonel John C. Stearns. The 
firm became one of the best known in that sec- 
tion of Vermont. Mr. Jones held various po- 
sitions of trust in Bradford, serving as presi- 
dent of the Village Corporation, ^^'ater Com- 
missioner, School Trustee, and director and 
treasurer of the Bradford P^lectric Lighting 
Company. He died in A\n-\\, 1901. The local 
paper of Bradford, in the issue of April 19, 
paid the following tribute to his memory; 
" One of the saddest duties of our twenty years' 
newspaper experience is to chronicle the death 
of Charles Jones, to us a personal bereavement, 
anfl shared by a large number of our citizens 
outside his immediate family. His worth was 
best known to those with whom he was long- 
est and most intimately a.ssociated and who 
were brought into closest contact with him. 
He was upright and honorable, capable in all 
the positions of i)ublic and private affairs which 
he administered." 

Mrs. Jones has one daughter, Marj^ Ellen, 
who was born in Bradford, May 30, 1868. 
She received her early education in the Brad- 
ford public schools and academy, and then 
took a five years' course, scientific and musical, 
in Wellesley College, receiving the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in. 1889. During a large 
part of her college life she acted as secretary 
for the professor of history, thus acquiring 
experience that has been useful in other posi- 
tions. After leaving college she taught suc- 
cessively in Bradford Academy; two years at 
Platt.sburg, N.Y.; in Pontiac, III.; three years 
in liradford, 'N't. She was married July 6, 
1899, to David Sloane Conant, who is now 
serving a second term as State's Attorney for 
Orange County. He is a lineal descendant 
of Roger Conant, who in 1026 with a few ff)l- 
lowers began the settlement of Naumkeag, 
now Salem, Mass. In club and society life 
Mrs. Conant has been active and useful, being 
especially apt in i)lanning and carrying out 
social events. Various Bradford institutions 
have i^rofited much from her skill in their di- 



rection, es])ocially the Public Library, in which 
she has always had a keen interest. I'pon the 
election of her mother to the office of National 
President of the W. R. C. in 1901, Mrs. Conant 
was a]ii)ointed National Secretary of the or- 
ganization. She made improvements in the 
books and papers, is.sued special instruction 
blanks regarding reports and other work of the 
order, and (lerfonned the duties of the office 
in an intelligent, vigorous, and thorough man- 
ner. Mr. and Mrs. Conant have two children: 
Dorothy Stewart, born August 11, 1900: and 
Barbara Allerton, born Novendjer 6, 1902. 



CORA BELLE AYLING was born De- 
cember 16, 1870, in the village of Paw 
Paw, III., her parents uniting the blood 
of the old Scotch Presbyterians with 
that of the English. H(>r father, Alfred Stain- 
brook, in early life settled at his okl home as 
a breeder of high-grade horses. A man of 
striking personality, he represented the best 
type of the pioneer, and to his little daughter 
Cora, who became liis constant companion, 
he was the ideal of all that was best in man- 
hood. In those long days they spent in the 
saddle, riding over the great ssweep of prairie, 
his strong character impressed on the child 
its absolute fearlessness, its sincerity, its ha- 
tred of shams and hypocrisy. To this day she 
is wont to exclaim, " I have yet to meet my 
father's equal." 

In 1880 the Stainbrooks moved to Cleve- 
land, Ohio, the father becoming interested in 
a manufacturing concern. Cora attended the 
public schools, showing remarkable ability 
in mathematics, and studied to prejjare her- 
self for teaching. Her plans were abruptly 
changed by the sudden death of her father 
while trying to save the lives of some of his 
men after an explosion of chemicals. The girl 
of seventeen found herself the res])onsible head 
of the family, with an invalid mother and two 
young sisters de]i(>ndent on her for supjDort. 
She bravely confronted the problem of bread- 
winning, and succeeded in maintaining the 
home, giving her sisters a business education 
as a basis for their own independence. For 
;i time Cora held the position of book-keep(>r; 




COHA B. AVLING 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



151 



but lier energies required a more active life, 
and for several years she travelled through the 
Middle States, representing a Chicago firm, 
a cereal food house. Her salary, seventy-five 
dollars a month for the first two months, was 
then increased to three thousand dollars a year 
and expenses. In 1894 she married Arthur 
Putnam Ayling, a native of Boston, then a 
glass manufacturer in Milwaukee, Wis. She 
was elected treasurer of the company, the North- 
ern Glass W^orks, and had ]>ractical charge of 
the office and sales ilepartment. In 1S98, her 
health failing, the Aylings moved to a delight- 
ful country house in Bridge water, Mass., where 
the rest and outdoor life proved restorative. 
Later, when her husband's business interests 
took him to the remote Southwest, Mrs. Ayling 
assumed the business management of a new 
Boston publication, the Brown Book, which in 
less than two years achieved a most remark- 
able success. She is also the presitlent of the 
Automatic Addressing Machine Company, and 
has interests in various other enterprises. 

Personally Mrs. Ayling is a woman of rather 
slight physique, far too slight for the stress 
the mind would impose upon it; but her in- 
domitable will carries her through tasks that 
might well deter many men. Her rather quiz- 
zical gray eyes have an almost clairvoyant 
power in reatling those with whom she comes 
in contact. Her mind rapidly grasps the salient 
points of any proposition, ignoring unimpor- 
tant details, anil her deductions are seldom 
in error. She places her objective points 
clearly, and attains them by very direct meth- 
ods, possessing strong executive ability. She 
systematizes the work of her assistants, and 
inspires intense loyalty in those about her. 
Mrs. Ayling is a member of the New England 
Women's Press Club, and was a charter member 
of the Ousametiuin Club of Bridgewater. 



MERCY A. BAILEY, art teacher, 
Boston, was born in the town of 
Wellfleet, on Cape Cod, Massachu- 
setts. Her parents were the Rev. 
Stephen Bailey, a native of Portsmouth, N.H., 
and his wife, Mrs. Sally Whitman Bailey, 
daughter of Dr. Jonas and Mercy (Goodspeed) 



\\'liitnian, of Barnstable. Miss Bailey's maternal 
grandfather, Dr. Jonas Whitman (Yale Coll., 
1772), was a descendant in the fifth genera- 
tion of JohnWhitman, an early settler of Wey- 
mouth, Mass., who, through his daughter Sarah, 
was an ancestor of President Abraham Lin- 
coln. The Whitman-Lincoln line is thus .shown: 
Sarah" Whitman, daughter of John,' married 
about 1653 Abraham Jones; and their daugh- 
ter, Sarah^ Jones, married Mordecai" Lincoln, 
of Hingham, from whom the line continued 
through Mordecai,^ born in 1686, who removed 
to New Jersey and later to Pennsylvania; John,^ 
who settled in Virginia; Abraham,^ who re- 
moved to Kentucky; to Thomas," father of 
Abraham,' the sixteenth President of the 
United States. 

Miss Bailey was educateil in [jrivate schools 
in Boston and at Wheaton Seminary, in Norton, 
Mass. She remembers no time when she was 
not busy with pencil and brush. Even as 
a tiny child she thus rejjroduced the familiar 
objects about her. Her parents, recognizing 
her talent, wisely re.solved to have it properly 
developed; and accordingly she received the 
benefit of the best instruction from both native 
and foreign teachers, a part of her student days 
being spent in Lontlon anil Paris. 

She had been a painstaking student for sev- 
eral years when she accepted her first position 
as a teacher of drawing in the public schools 
of Dorchester, Mass. When Mr. Walter Smith 
came to Boston and started the movement 
for introducing the teaching of drawing in the 
public and evening schools of the city, there 
was a rapidly increasing ilemand for well- 
trained teachers. This resulted in the found- 
ing of the Normal Art School, in which Miss 
Bailey has been a popular and esteemed teacher 
for twenty years, teaching light and shade 
drawing from animal forms and still life in 
oil and water-colors. She has been a diligent 
worker and student in her chosen field all her 
life, continuing to draw and paint during the 
years when teaching claimed the greater part 
of her time. Art has held first place with her 
always, society, dress, vacations, becoming mat- 
ters of secondary importance. She has ex- 
hibited in Boston, Philadelphia, and Western 
cities, her subjects being heads, animals, and 



152 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OE NEW ENGLAND 



landscapes. She has received medals from 
the Mechanics' Art Association. Among her 
former ])upils are many of the art instructors 
at the Pratt Institute, the Cleveland Art School, 
and other important educational institutions. 
She was the hrst woman to be elected su])er- 
visor of drawing in the public schools of Mas- 
sachusetts. She lias lectured on art in vari- 
ous cities. 

Miss Bailey is a regular attendant of Trinity 
Church, Boston, and is interested in its several 
charities. Perhaps her warmest symjiathies 
are enlisted for sailors, to the homes and hos- 
pitals for whom many comforts find their 
way from the hands of the quiet artist in her 
unostentatious home at the Grundmann Stu- 
dios. Miss Bailey is a member of the C-opley 
Society of Boston and of the Industrial Art 
Teachers' Association. She is an apostle of 
thoroughness and application, and more than 
one professor of fine arts to-day remembers 
with gratitude her efficient training. 



REBECCA AUGUSTA PICKETT, sec- 
retary of the Relief Committee of the 
^ Massachusetts Woman's Relief Corps, 
traces her ancestry back seven gener- 
ations to John Putnam, who, with his three 
sons, Thomas, Nathaniel, and John, came from 
Buckinghamshire, England, to Salem, Mass., 
received a grant of land in 1G41, was admitted 
a freeman in 1647, and died in 1662. The line 
of descent is: John,^ Captain John,* Captain 
Jonathan,^ Jonathan,'' Jonathan,'' Nathan," 
Perley,^ and Perley Zebulon Montgomery Pike.'* 
Jonathan* Putnam, born in 1691, married 
Elizabeth'* Putnam, daughter of Joseph^ and 
Elizabeth (Porter) Putnam and an elder sister 
of General Israel Putnam. 

Nathan" Putnam, of Uanvers, Mass., great- 
grandfather of Mrs. Pickett, was wounded in 
the battle of Lexington. He married Hannah 
Putnam, a daughter of Dr. Amo.s"' Putnam 
(John,* John,' Nathaniel," John'). 

Mrs. Pickett's paternal grandfather, Perley' 
Putnam, was born in Danvers, Sei)temb(>r 16, 
1778. He was named for his uncle, Perley 
Putnam, who was killed in the battle of Lexing- 
ton, and whose name, with those of the other 



Danvers soldiers who fell on that day, is in- 
scribed on the monument in Peabody. 

When in his twenty-first year Perley' Put- 
nam was employed in building the famous 
frigate "E.ssex," the keel of which was laid on 
Salem Neck, Ajjril VA, 1799, the vessel being 
launched September 30, 1799. By request of 
Colf)nel William Ricker, Collector of Customs 
for the district of Salem and Beverly, he pre- 
sented a plan for a custom-house and store for 
the town of Salem on June 19, LSIS, which 
was sul)stantially accejited by the govern- 
ment. The present custom-house was built 
under his superintendence. He also worked 
on the first Franklin Building, and erected 
some of the solid houses on Chestnut and other 
streets. 

He was instrumental in organizing the old 
Salem Mechanic Light Infantry, of which he 
was Captain on the occasion of their first parade, 
in 1S07. He was elected Major in 1810, pro- 
moted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1811, and was 
conunanding officer of the day on their fiftieth 
anniversary in 1857. 

In the War of 1812 he was a Major in the 
United States army and assigneil to Colonel 
Loring's Forty-eighth Regiment. He marched 
his troops through Salem to Eastport, Me., 
taking command of Fort Sullivan, but was 
obliged to cajjitulate his little garrison of fifty- 
nine men (eleven of whom were sick) to the 
British general. Sir Thomas Hardy. Return- 
ing to Salem at the close of the war, Colonel 
Putnam, as he was generally known, gave his 
time and inflvience to public measures. 

As chairman of the Board of Selectmen (to 
which body he was elected several years in 
succession), he was one of the committee that 
drafted the first city charter. The honor 
was accorded to him of transferring the keys 
of the old town house to Leverett Saltonstall, 
the first mayor of the city in 1836. Colonel 
Putnam was appointed the first City Marshal 
of Salem, and held that position until 1847. 
He was Street Commissioner from 1846 to 
1862, and was weigher and ganger for several 
years in the Salem custom-hou.se. As a life- 
long Democrat, he was earnest in his devotion 
to the princi])les -of that ])artv. He died July 
4, 1864. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



153 



Colonel Putnam was one of the founders of 
the Universalist church in Salem, and was 
deeply interested in the work of that denomina- 
tion. He was very persevering in his researches 
as an antiquarian and genealogist, collecting 
many records of the Putnam family, which 
since his death have been placed in the library 
of the Essex Institute, and have been fre- 
cjuently consulted by students of the family 
history. Colonel Putnam married November 
3, 1801, Betsey Preston, of Danvers. They 
had three sons and seven (laughters, all born 
in Salem. 

Perley Z. M. Pike Putnam, .son of Colonel 
Perley' and Betsey (Preston) Putnam, was 
a .sea captain. He died in August, 1849, of 
typhus fever, on board the brig "Messenger," 
on the west coast of Africa. He was l)uried 
at .sea. His wife was Mary K. Whitney. 

His daughter, Rebecca Augusta, the subject 
of tliis sketch, was born Sejjtember 22, 1847, 
in Salem, Mass. She married first, February 
20, 1872, William Henry Cook, of Salem, who 
died October 30, 1872. Siie marrietl second, 
January 31, 1883, Charles Pickett, of Beverly, 
where they now reside. Her son by her former 
marriage, William Henry Cook, second, born 
January 14, 1873, also lives in Beverly. 

Charles Pickett, of Beverly, went to Cali- 
fornia in August, 1847, in the bark " San Fran- 
cisco," returning via Central America in May, 
1853. He was mustered into the United States 
service August 22, 1862, at Lynnheld, in Com- 
pany B, Fortieth Massachusetts Regiment, 
and was in the following battles: siege of Suf- 
folk, Va. ; Baltimore Cross-roads: siege of Fort 
Wagner, S.C. ; Seahook Farm, Ten Mile Run, 
Lobe City, Olustee, Cedar Creek, and McGirsh's 
Creek, Fla. ; Petersburg Heights, siege of Peters- 
burg, repulse of Haygood's brigade, liattle of 
the Mine, Bennuda Hundred, Fair Oaks, oper- 
ations before Richmond. At Olustee, Fla., 
February 20, 1864, he was wounded in the thigh. 
As First Sergeant, Company B, Fortieth Mas- 
sachusetts Regiment, he was honorably dis- 
charged .lune 16, 1865, at the close of the war. 

Api)ointed .superintendent of the Beverly 
water-works in August, 1869, he held that 
position until ilarcli 1, 1896, when lie resigned 
"after twenty-six years of faithful service to 



town and city, antl leaving to other hands one 
of the best kept systems of water-works in the 
country." He is a member of John H. Chipman, 
Jr., Post, No. 89, G. A. R., of Beverly. 

Mr. Pickett had two brothers in the Union 
army, Josiah and George A. Pickett. The 
younger brother was in Company G, Twenty- 
third Ma.ssacluLsetts Regiment. The elder 
brother, Josiah Pickett, was " First Lieutenant, 
Third Battalion Riflemen, M. \. M., in .service 
of the United States, April 19, 1861; . . . Cap- 
tain Twenty-fifth Ma.ssachu.setts Infantry, Octo- 
ber 12, 1S61: . . . Major, March 20, 1862; Colo- 
nel, October 29, 1862. Served in North Caro- 
lina from October, 1861, to January, 1865. 
Present at the battle of Cold Harbor, \a., 
where he was severely wounded. Brevet 
Brigadier-general, United States Volunteers, 
June 3, 1864. Mustered out, January 10, 1865." 

Mi's. Pickett is a charter member of the 
Relief Cor])s auxiliary to the John H. Chipman, 
Jr., Post, (}. A. R., of Beverly, which was in- 
stituted May 28, 1883. She .served the corps two 
years as conductor and one year as senior vice- 
presiilent; was installed president in 1892 and 
again in 1897; has also held the office of chap- 
lain, performed the duties of treasurer three 
years and of .secretary two years. For four 
years she served faithfully as chairman of 
the Executive Committee. She has also been 
chairman of the Relief Committee. She was 
appointed Department Aide in 1893, 1895, 
1900, and 1901, and is serving (1903) for 
the sixth year as Assistant Inspector. In 
1895 .she travelled extensively as treasurer 
of the Exemplification staff, appointed by 
Mrs. Eva T. Cook, Department President. 
In 1896 she declined a nomination as De- 
partment Press Correspondent, but in 1900 ac- 
cepted an appointment as a member of the 
Department Relief Connnittee, which was 
tendered her by Mrs. Mary L. Oilman, Depart- 
ment President. As secretary of this com- 
mittee she has gained a reputation for efficiency 
and zeal in the arduous and oftentimes per- 
plexing duties of the office. She is thoroughly 
familiar witli matters relating to pension laws. 
State aid, the management of Soldiers' Homes, 
and so forth, and is well known in Grand Army 
and Relief Cor|)s circles throughout the State. 



154 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Mrs. Pickett is a member of the Finance 
Committee of the First Baptist Church in Bev- 
erly, and has been an active member of the 
church for several years. She is interested in 
the home and foreign mission work, is treas- 
urer of the "Ina.smuch" circle of King's Daugh- 
ters and a teacher in the Chinese department 
of the Bible school. She is also chairman of 
the Executive Committee of the Woman's 
Federation of the First Baptist Church. She 
is a member of the Lothrop Club and of the 
Supply Committee of the Old Ladies' Home 
Society of Beverly. In 1898 and 1899 she was 
secretary of the Beverly Volunteer Aid Associa- 
tion, which conducted special work for the 
soldiers of the Spanish-American War. 



JLLIA MARIA BAKER, wife of William 
James Baker, of Worcester, was born in 
that city, October 13, 1830, daughter of 
Sanuiel and Mary (Harrington) Perry. 
In a published article by Professor Arthur 
L. Perry, LL.D., entitled ''An Ancestral Re- 
search," whence has been derived some of the 
early historj' and genealogy that follows, the 
Perry lineage is traced back to the Rev. John 
Perry, of Farnborough (now Fareham, Hamp- 
shire), Englantl, who died in 1621. The clergy- 
man's son John, shortly after his father's death, 
was apjirenticed to learn the cloth-workers' 
trade. He married Johanna, daughter of Jo- 
seph Holland, a cloth-worker and citizen of 
London. Her father's will, dated 1659, printed 
in Waters's "Genealogical Gleanings," makes 
becjuests to his "son-in-law, John Perry, and 
Johanna, his wife, my daughter," and their 
three children. It was this John' Perry who, 
accompanied by his son John,^ came to New 
England and settled in AA'atertown, near Bos- 
ton, near the close of the year 1666 or early in 
1667. 

John- Perry married in Watertown in Decem- 
ber, 1667, Sarah Clary. They had nine chil- 
dren, Josiah,^ born in 1684, being the seventh. 
Josiah' Perry married Bethiah Cutter, daugh- 
ter of Ephraim and Bethiah (Wood) Cutter and 
grand-daughter of Richard' Cutter. Nathan'' 
Perry, born in 1718, was one of their ten chil- 
dren. He married at Watertown in 1746 



Hannah Fiske. The Perrys of Watertown in 
colonial times were engaged in some form of 
cloth-working, being mostly weavers and 
tailors. Bethiah, first wife of Josiah Perry 
and mother of his children, died in 1735, and 
his second wife, Elizabeth, died in 1748. In 
1751 Josiah and his son Nathan settled on a 
farm of eighty acres on the north-western slope 
of Sagatal)scot Hill (now I'nion Hill), Worces- 
ter, Mass. Of this property they were joint 
owners. Much of the land remains in the 
hands of the family at this day. 

Nathan* Perry, by occupation a farmer and 
weaver, was Treasurer of Worcester County 
fifteen years, also Town Treasurer most of 
the time, and for many years Notary Public. 
He was for twenty-three years deacon in the 
old South Church. A stanch patriot in trying 
times, he stood high in the confidence of his 
fellow-citizens. He died in February, 1806. 

Moses Perry, son of Nathan and one of a 
family of eight children, was born in 1762, and 
lived to be eighty years old. He succeeded to 
the ownerslii|) of tlie home farm, was indus- 
trious, frugal, and tlu'ifty, and although his 
schooling, it is said, had been limited to six 
weeks, he was nuich respected as a man of in- 
telligence anil influence, a slow speaker, l)ut one 
whose words carried weight. With a placid 
temper he combined great force of character. 
It is related of him that at a church meeting 
where the members were becoming e.xcited he 
arose and said: " Brethren, we are getting pretty 
warm. I think we had better go home, and I 
shall set the example." He then took his hat 
and started. He was a deacon in the South 
Church thirty-five years and in the I'nion 
Church six years. His wife, Hannah Hall, 
whom he married in 1791, died in November, 
1861, at ninety-three years of age. She is 
spoken of as having been somewhat eccentric 
and "perhaps lacking balance of mind," but of 
a "kindly, social nature, very fond of her 
cluu'ch, and with a wond(>rful memory for the 
sermon." They had eight children, five sons 
and three daughters. Three of the sons were 
ministers of the gospel, and two were farmers, 
one settling in Central New York, and the 
other, Samu(>l, in Worcester. Two of the 
daughters married farmers. One was the 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



155 



mother of fourteen children; the other, of 
twelve. 

SamueP Perry, the next owner and occupant 
of the Worcester farm, was horn Novemljer 26, 
1796, died Feliruary 12, 1878. His wife, Mary 
Harrington, whom lie wedded in December, 
1823, was born March 20, 1804, daughter of 
Francis Harrington, Jr. She died Feliruary 
18, 1869. Her grandfather Harrington bought 
land in Worcester, and settled there in 1740. 
When Samuel Perry married, on three sides of 
his farm was a dense forest. In preparing to 
make a home for his bride he cut down the 
first tree at the north. He .served as a Captain 
in the militia, and for thirty-five years was a 
deacon of the Union Church, of which he 
was one of the founders. He was very benev- 
olent, a man of good judgment in affairs, 
and a peacemaker in the church and neighbor- 
hood. Opposed to the renting of jjews, he 
took upon himself to secure subscriptions, col- 
lect the money, and pay the bills. When he 
could not collect what was pledged, he paitl it 
himself. He had ten children. One son, David 
Brainard Perry, D.D., a graduate of Yale, was 
for some years a home missionary in Nebraska 
and is now president of Doane College. An- 
other son was a successful business man, autl 
three were farmers. Of the five daughters, 
four became teachers, in time marrying in- 
telligent, well-to-do business men. The other 
ilaughter, Mary S. Perry, who died in Worces- 
ter, August 8, 1902, was much beloved as a 
"woman of rare qualities of heart and mind, 
of great synijiathy for the unfortunate, with 
keen appreciation of the beautiful in nature, a 
wide range of reading and thought, remarkable 
knowledge of the Scri|)tures, and great rev- 
erence for sacred things." A vohune of her 
poems published during her last illness is held 
as a precious legacy. 

The mother, Mrs. Mary Harrington Perry, a 
kindly, hospitable woman, with a charm of 
manner that attracted strangers to her, was a 
notable housekeeper, bringing up her chiUlren 
to habits of industry and thrift. In the sick- 
room she had rare tact and skill. Her simi:»le 
presence was a blessing. 

Julia Maria (Mrs. Baker) was the fourth child 
of Deacon Sanmel Perry and his wife Maiy. 



She acquired her educiition in the district school, 
three-quarters of a mile from her home, the 
Worcester High School, o])ened in 1846, Leices- 
ter Acatlemy, and Williraham Academy. For 
several years she was engaged in teaching, her 
first school, in a neighboring town, being an 
ungraded one of seventy-six pupils. She after- 
ward taught in interm*'diate and grammar 
schools. Ecjuipped with thorough knowledge 
of the branches to be taught and with a native 
force of character that showed itself in emer- 
gencies, she brought to her work an enthusi- 
asm that aroused and held the interest of her 
pupils, and ensured her success as teacher and 
di.sciplinarian. 

On June 27, 1861, she married William James 
Baker, of Worcester, a son of James and Lydia 
(Gouldingj Baker. For many years Mr. Will- 
iam J. Baker was in active business as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Charles Baker & Co., of Worces- 
ter, lumber manufacturers and dealers. Owing 
to failing health he retired from business cares 
about five years ago. 

Mrs. Baker brought up from babyhood a 
niece of her husband's, a child whose father, 
a minister, had died. Later God bestowed 
upon her a baby boy who has since grown to 
a jjromising manhood, being of strong char- 
acter and good business ability. 

Mrs. Baker is a member of Union Church, of 
the Congregational denonnnation, and has 
taken a jirominent part in church work. For 
eight years she was deaconess under the pastor- 
ates of Drs. Stlmson and Davis, and during 
that time she had charge of the women's prayer 
meeting, and also had the main care of si.xteen 
families. Her helpers were not suited to the 
woi'k, or were too busy or were too easily dis- 
couraged. She has since contimied it, having 
cared for .some of the families up to this day. 
Her reward has been in seeing them prosper, 
become members of the church and useful 
members of the community. Mrs. Baker keeps 
up her interest in some of those whom she has 
thus helped, and still corresponds with tho.se 
who have moved away from Worcester. She 
was formerly vice-president of a literary society 
in Wilbraham, most of the time acting, owing 
to the sickness of tht> president. She possesses 
rare tact and skill in nursing, inherited from 



156 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



her mother, and developed by practical experi- 
ence through long periods of severe sickness in 
both her own and in h(>r jiarents' family. For 
a number of year!> she lias kept a home for 
teachers of the high school, of both the normal 
and other grades, having sometimes four in the 
family, and this because so few are wiUing to 
receive them. She hs^ derived nmch pleasure 
and benefit by reading and studying with them, 
thus kee{)ing in touch mentally with the active 
workers of the younger generation. 

Mrs. Baker's reminiscences of her girlhood 
give interesting pictures of country life in the 
thirties and forties of last century. "Every 
daughter," she says, "had her work planned 
and systematized. Those were strenuous 
times. The family rose at five in the morning, 
even in winter, getting and eating breakfast 
by candle-light." Beside the ordinary work 
of hoasekeeping there was much to be done 
at special times in the course of the year. 
Among other things she sjiecifies the "cider to 
be 1)oiled down, barrels of apple sauce to be 
made for home use and for regular customers, 
apples to be cut and dried, cucumbers to be 
pickled, yeast cakes to be made antl dried for 
the coming year, pumpkins to be cooked and 
dried, sausages to l)e made, candles to be 
clipped or later run in moulds." 

" I remember the cooking of chickens and 
turkeys on the spit of the tin kitchen set be- 
fore the open fire, the baking of johnny-cake 
on a wooden form, the first rotary stove and 
the pleasure of turning it. (irandfather was 
very busy at the sho]) with his loom in those 
early days. He wove our woollen sheets for 
winter use, also the material for our winter 
gowns, ^'ery warm and strong it was. During 
vacations we were taught to liraid straw, each 
having her stint of so many yards of braiding, 
and then knitting so many times round before 
we could go out to play." Mental diversion 
was sometimes happily combined with work, 
so that it was "not always drudgery." Then, 
too, there were special seasons of festivity and 
fun. "Thanksgiving Days were times to be 
looked forward to and prepanMJ for the whole 
previous year. As years pas.sed on, the tables, 
l)ountifully spread, grew larger and larger. In 
the evening all kinds of games were played, the 



father, the youngest player of all, the evening 
ending with singing, Bible reatling, and prayer." 
Considering herself ])rimarily a home-maker, 
caring for husband and .son, and exercising hos- 
pitality, Mrs. Baker continues in her old-time 
habits of reading and study. For leisure hours 
she finds congenial employment in making 
scraii-books. Of these she has "many for 
many purposes," and she hopes they will be 
pleasing and useful to the coming generation. 
Looking back, she says: "Certain physical and 
mental traits have descended through all the 
generations — strong constitutions, long lives, 
large families, habits of industry, good mental 
abilities, and a high standard of morals." 



ISABICL NORTON HOLBROOK, of Hol- 
brook and I-5oston, Mass., for .several years 
Regent of Paul Revere Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, and now 
one of the three honorary State Regents of that 
society, is a native of New London, Merrimack 
County, N.H. Born February 14, 1841, daugh- 
ter of AValter Powers Flanders and his wife, 
Susan Everett Greeley, she numbers among 
her ancestors many colonial worthies whose 
names are woven into the history of New Eng- 
lanfl. Among them was Major-general Hum- 
phrey Atherton, who held many positions of 
honor, both civil and military, and at the time 
of his death, in ItiGl, was commander-in-chief 
of the colonial forces. Another was Tristram 
Coffin, who.se descendants trace their lineage 
back to the Nantucket home with pride; and 
beside these were .lames Trowbridge, John 
Whipple, Edward Jackson, John \A'ard, and 
Ebenezer Stone, all prominent men in the early 
days of Newton and C'amljridge. Of the fifteen 
ancestors under whom Mrs. Holbrook ({uali- 
fied for membership in the Society of Colonial 
Dames, nine were Deputies to the General 
Court. P'oiu- of her ancestors — namely, Ste- 
phen Harriman, Stephen Harriman, Jr., Eben- 
ezer Shepard, and Joseph Greeley — served in 
the Revolutionary War, the last two as minute- 
men on the alarm of the battle of Lexington. 

Walter Powers Flanders was born in ^^'arner, 
N.H., March 29, 1X05. He died in Milwaukee, 
^^'is., January 24, LS83. He was son of I']zra 




ANGIE A. ROBINSON 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



157 



and Lucy {Harriiiian) FlandtTs and a lineal 
descendant of Stephen Flanders, an early in- 
habitant of Salisbury, Mass. The family to 
which his inotlu'r belonged was founded by 
Leonard Harriinan, who was of Rowley, Mass., 
as early as 1649. 

Walter P. Flanders was graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 18.'U. He became an able 
and successful lawyer in New Hampshire, and 
was for several years a member of the Legis- 
lature. He removed to Milwaukee, Wis., in 
1848. He was treasurer of the Milwaukee and 
Prairie du Chien Railroad, and later had large 
landed interests. 

Susan Everett Greeley, who became the wife 
of AValter Powers Flanders, September 2.S,1834, 
was born in New London, N.H., January 8, 
1811. She died in Milwaukee, Wis., May 10, 
1888. In the History of New London, N.H., 
the pleasant hill town where nearly half her 
life was spent, she is reverently recorded as 
a "woman of rare mental endowment and singu- 
larly beautiful character." She was a daugh- 
ter of Squire Jonathan and Polly (Shepard) 
Greeley and the youngest of a family of seven 
children. Her mother was a daughter of 
Lieutenant Ebenezer Shepard, of Dedham, 
Mass., and New London, N.H., who married 
Jane McCordy. Her father, Jonathan Greeley, 
was a son of Joseph and Prudence (Clement) 
Greeley, of Haverhill, Mass., and traced his 
descent from Andrew Greeley, who was an 
original proprietor of Salisbury, Massachusetts 
Bay Colony. 

Isabel Norton Flanders was eilucated at 
Milwaukee College, one of the pioneer insti- 
tutions devoted to the higher education of 
women, and noted for thoroughness of train- 
ing. She was gratluated in 1858, and later 
was for many years a member of the board 
of trustees of the. college. She was married 
February 11, 1862, tc^ William Lafayette Dana, 
general freight agent of the Milwaukee and 
Prairie du Chien Railroad. Mr. Dana died 
two years later, and she resided with her 
parents in Milwaukee until February 7, 1889, 
when she was married to F.. Everett Holbrook. 
Mr. and Mrs. Holbrook spend their sununers 
in Holbrook, Mass., at the homestead fif Mr. 
Holbrook's father, Elisha Niles Holbrook, after 



whom the town was named and fiom whom it 
received the town hall and ])ublic library. 
Their winter residence is in Boston, and they 
enjoy fre([uent seasons of foreign travel. 

Mrs. Holbrook's ancestry has had its rightful 
influence, and she is warmly interested in pa- 
triotic work. Under her regency the Paul 
Revere Chapter, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, began its etlucational work for 
boys, instructing them in American history 
and the principles of good citizenship, under 
the sujjervision of the Denison House. Mrs. 
Holbrook is one of the vice-presidents of the 
New England Won)en's Club, a director of the 
Woman's Home Missionary Association, and 
a trustee of the Holbrook Public Library. She 
has been a member of the Congregational church 
since her sixteenth year, and for many years 
in Milwaukee was active in the work of 
Plymouth Chui-ch and Sunday-school. She 
was also for thirteen years secretary of tlu; 
Milwaukee Home for the Friendless. 



ANGIE ADELE ROBINSON, past Pres- 
/\ ident of the Department of Massachu- 
X \. setts. Woman's Relief Corps, is one 
of the representative women of Worces- 
ter, her native place, and is known throughout 
the State for her great interest in patriotic 
work. 

She was born August 6, 1843, daughter of 
Timothy Eliot and Sarah Hadaway (Bartlett) 
Kidder. Her paternal grandfather was Tim- 
othy Kidder; her maternal grandfather, John 
Hadaway Bartlett. She was educated in pri- 
vate schools, of which there were many in 
Worcester at that time. At the age of ten 
years she began the study of nmsic under the 
instruction of Miss Frances Kidder, an aunt. 
Later she was a pupil of Eugene Thayer, the 
eminent organist, of Boston. She continued 
these studies several years, but, owing to re- 
verses in the family, was unable to carry out 
her plan and obtain a thorough musical eiluca- 
tion. 

The marriage of .\ngie Adele Kidder and Wil- 
liam Lyman Robinson, a native of Barre, Vt., 
and in boyhootl and youth a resident of Con- 
cord, N.lf., tocjk place August 7, 1861. This 



158 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



was tlic opening year of the Civil \\'ar and, as 
she says, " a trying time to make a start in the 
world." Mrs. Robinson's brother, George Mor- 
timer Kidiler, enlisted in September, 1861, in 
Company C, Fourth New Hampshire Regiment, 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Deep Bot- 
tom (or Deep Cut, as it is sometimes called), 
and suffered in Libby, Belle Tsle, and Salisbury 
Prisons for nearly ten months. He was paroled 
March 9, 1865, but lived only eleven days after 
reaching his home in Worcester. His death 
occurred just before the surrender of General 
Lee, the news of which he was anxious to hear. 
Relincjuishing a good position, in July, 1863, 
Mr. Robinson enlisted, and was enrolled in the 
United States navy and credited to the cpiota 
of New Hampshire. 

Before her marriage Mrs. Robinson had made 
jackets for the State militia in AA'orcester, and 
she continued to work for the soldiers through- 
out the war. She had many kinsmen and 
friends in the army, to whom she frequently 
sent letters and supplies. She was an eye- 
witness of the departure of numerous com})anies 
and regiments, as they passed through Worces- 
ter, and a frequent visitor at Camp Lincoln 
and Camp Scott in that city. "These scenes," 
she says, " are vivid in my mind and will never 
be erased." 

When the Grand Army of the Republic began 
its beneficent work, Mrs. Robinson renewed her 
efforts for the veteran, in whose welfare she 
had never ceased to take an interest. She was 
a charter member of Relief Corps No. 11, auxil- 
iary to George H. Ward Post, No. 10. The 
Hon. Alfred S. Roe, a Past Commander of Post 
No. 10, refers to her local Grand Army work 
as follows: — 

" From the beginning Mrs. Angle Adele Rob- 
inson has been one of the most enthusiastic and 
efficient workers in the Relief Corps of AVorces- 
ter. Seeing her brother go into the service as 
a member of the Fourth New Hampshire In- 
fantry, and herself wedded in 1861 to William 
Lyman Robinson, who did his patriotic duty 
in the navy in those troublous days, it was very 
natural that her very being should be bound 
up in the progress and issue of the struggle. 
It was her fortune as a girl to help make jackets 
worn l)v the Massachusetts militiamen in their 



April trip to Baltimore and Washington, giving 
to the work all the time there was, Sundays 
includetl. As a wife and mother she could tell 
the whole story of the anxiety which followed 
the absent husband and father. Her interest 
in the families of in<ligent and suffering veter- 
ans did not await for its application the or- 
ganization of the Relief Corps. Long before 
the good women of the land had formed their 
invaluable band, she had sought out and helped 
relieve the wants of many a suffering house- 
hold. Thus, when the organization was pro- 
jected, she was ready to become one of the 
earliest members and one of the workers from 
the start. Serving in the liome corps in about 
all the offices there were, she has repeatedly 
represented the same in the State and national 
liodies. Among the many excellent presiding 
officers whom the local and department organ- 
izations have had, it will not be tof) much to 
state that no one has ever performed her duties 
more intelligently or effectually. Thoroughly 
posted in the working programme of the order, 
ready in thought and speech, graceful in action, 
her accomplishment of each and every assign- 
ment is a source of pleasure and pride to her 
friends; but, above all, her loyal devotion to 
the ends and aims of the Relief Corps, namely, 
the helping of those in distress, marks her as 
one of- the most .successful and gracious of 
Worcester's women." 

Mrs. Robinson has been a jjrominent partici- 
pant in the State conventions of the Woman's 
Relief Corps for many years. She has been a 
member of the Department Executive Board, 
Department .lunior Mce-President, Senior A'ice- 
President, and at the annual convention held 
in Boston, February, 1899, she was luiani- 
mously elected Department President. Her 
tact, good judgment, and business ability were 
manifest throughout the year. 

In the discharge of her duties while thus 
standing at the head of o\'er fourteen thousantl 
women, she attended many gatherings under 
the auspices of posts and corps in all sections 
of the State. Referring in her report to this 
part of her duties, she said: — 

"(.)f the very many invitations received the 
past year, I have been alile to accept all, ex- 
cept where dates condicteil ■ and then I detailed 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



159 



one of the ilepartnient officers to represent the 
department. As I look back, it seems as if 
I had been on the road the entire year, arriving 
at my home for Sundays only. I cannot take 
the space to enumerate all the diffeient gather- 
ings that I have attentled, l)ut they have been 
many. I began like a dutiful citizen by pay- 
ing my respects to our Governor, and closed 
by attending the dedication of the beautiful 
hall of Hartsuff Corps, of Rockland. Among 
the delightful occasions was the reception ten- 
dered me by my own corps, March 11, 1S99: 
and it is a pleasure to know that the honor that 
had come to one of its members was so highly 
appreciated by the members of the corps." 

Intensely loyal to the Grand Army of the 
R,epublic and pleased to note that all the corps in 
the department were working in harmony with 
their posts, she urged the making of greater 
efforts to assist them in the years to come. 

At the reception given in Berkeley Temple 
at the close of her administration, February 14, 
1900, her work was referretl to in compliment- 
ary terms by John E. Gilman, who that day 
retired from the ofhce of Department Com- 
mander, and by other prominent frientls. Mrs. 
Robinson subsequently resumed her active 
work for the local corps in Worcester, serving 
on the Relief Committee, of which she has been 
a member eighteen years. 

During the years of the Spanish-American 
War she gave nearly six months of her time 
to the work of the Volunteer Aid Association. 
Major Edward T. Raymond, clerk of the Central 
District Court of Worcester, who was officially 
identified with the \'olunteer Aid Association 
work in that city, thus i-efers to her services: — 

" Mrs. Angle Adele Robinson, of Worcester, 
was among the first to rally to the assistance 
of the sokliers of the late war with Spain and 
their families. Her work from May IS, 189S, 
to November 3, 1898, was having charge of the 
relief and relief workers established l)y the 
Worcester A'olunteer Aid Association. During 
the time she assisted some four hundred soldiers 
and their families. She worked early and late, 
and it was work of the most trying and nerve- 
exhausting kind. To answer the thousands of 
(luestions and endure at times the soinewhat 
ungracious remarks of those who were seeking 



help fell to her lot. She solicited clothing of all 
kinds, and fitted out many soldiers' families. 
Only those who have pas,sed through a similar 
experience can understand what she passed 
through. Her work was p,erformed not for 
pecuniary reward, Mrs. Robinson having vol- 
unteered her services. The Executive Com- 
mittee of the Vohmteer Aid Association pa.ssed 
a vote comuientling her work and thanking her 
for her faithful attention to the suffering soldiers 
and their families." 

By invitation of the Woman's Unitarian 
League of Worcester, Mrs. Robinson recently 
prepared and read a paper upon the \'ohmteer 
Aid work, which siie also read by request at 
Northboro, Mass., and also before the Ladies' 
Society of the Central Church. This paper, 
which is a record of experiences in a work that 
^^ill always be memorable, she designated by 
the title "The Sununer's Campaign on the Home 
Side." 

Mrs. Robinson is a meihber of the District 
Nurse Association of Worcester, also of the 
Woman's Employment Society, a charitable 
organization which assists women and children. 

Mr. Freeman Brown, clerk of the Board of 
Overseers of the Poor of Worcester, pays the 
following tribute to her work of charity: — 

" In the first place, Mrs. Robinson is a noble 
woman. By nature, by training, by environ- 
ment, by devotion to duty, by living for the 
benefit and comfort of others less fortunate 
than herself, she is a s])lenditl representative 
of true New England womanhood, the best in 
the world. Her work in the Woman's Relief 
Corps, both locally and in the State, is a matter 
of record, known throughout the country. It 
is a record of which every i-esident of Worces- 
ter is proud, and in thus honoring her city and 
her State she has brought honor upon herself. 
\A'ith the \'olunteer Aid Association during the 
Spanish- American War in 1898, Mrs. Robinson 
did grand service for the boys who fought under 
the stars and stripes. Her work in this con- 
nection, like that in the work in the Woman's 
Relief ("orps, is also a matter of record. 

" For four years Mrs. Robinson has been a 
visitor of the Worcester Employment Society, 
visiting poor families regularly each month in 
the vear. It is of her unrecorded charitable 



160 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



work and ministration of conifort to those in 
distress that I will speak. While Mrs. Robin- 
son has found time to perform an enormous 
amount of work of a pul)lip nr semi-public 
nature, she has qlso pinched out an hour or 
day from such work to visit the unknown sick, 
to collect and disburse comforts antl delicacies 
to those in distress, and to give a guiding liand 
in the affairs of families helpless because of in- 
efficiency or shiftlessness. One or two specific 
cases described is better than a column of gen- 
eralities. One family to which she was called 
consisted of a husband, wife, and eight small 
children. Husband a drinking man, wife a 
drinking woman, who had led a life of de- 
bauchery and was in the last stages of consump- 
tion. Home barren of furniture and even of the 
commonest utensils of a kitchen outfit. To 
this miserable home Mrs. Robinson went out one 
night and nvu'sed the sick woman for .several 
days, until the jwor unfortunate passed on to 
the great majority. Few women occupying 
Mrs. Robinson's sphere in life would have 
deigned to leave their own comfortable homes 
and become a nurse in a stranger's house, and 
still fewer the number who would venture into 
a household of squalor and vermin to perform 
the noble service." 

Mrs. Robinson is a member of the Benevolent 
Committee of the First Universalist Church of 
Worcester, and is one of the leading workers of 
the church. The Rev. Almon Gunnison, D.D., 
President of St. Lawrence University, Canton, 
N.Y., a former pastor, thus speaks of her: — 

"Mrs. Robinson has been for many years 
prominently associated with the First Univer- 
salist Church of Worcester, Mass. She has held 
the position of president of the Ladies' Social 
Circle, one of the largest and oldest organiza- 
tions of the church. The position called for 
many and varied duties, all of which she dis- 
charged with marked ability. Possessing great 
dignity of manner, she presided over the meet- 
ings of the organization with grace and force, 
fulfilling the manifold executive functions of 
the place with great skill and tact. A forceful 
and graceful speaker, she was conciliatory in 
manner, and had great energy in pushing to 
completion her various plans. !\Irs. Robinson 
has never permitted her public work to inter- 



fere with or mar her administiation of her 
home. Her husband and children mingle admi- 
ration with their affection, for she has ever been 
.solicitous in looking after their welfare. Tlie 
home has been the place to which the childnni 
have ever returned with pleasure, and the wife 
and mother has omitted no duty. One of lier 
daughters is a student at St. Lawrence Uni- 
versity." 

Of her experience in relief work, Mrs. Robin- 
son says: "I have taken pleasure in giving my 
time, means, and efforts to this work. It is a 
great education in many ways, and has assisted 
me in a knowledge of how to bring up my chil- 
dren, which, for all this outside work, I have 
done, having n(>ver in any way neglectetl their 
education or good health. I believe a mother 
should mingle with the world and take an in- 
terest in matters outside the home, in order to 
be capal:)le of teaching her children as they 
should be taught. A mother is — or should he — 
a teacher through her entire life to her children." 

Mr. and Mrs. Robinson have six children, 
namely: George K., born P'ebruary 11, 1864; 
Angle 'M. (now Mrs. Ewen), born May 19, 1867; 
William L., Jr., born August 25, 1871; Harry 
C, born April 7, 1873; M. Beatrice, born Ai)ril 
29, 1880; Sarah Isabel E., born December 21, 
1881. All were born in Worcester except the 
eldest daughter, whose birthplace is Cambridge- 
port, Mass. The three sons are prosperous 
business men, and Harry C. is also prominent in 
musical circles. 



ELLEN MARIA FOGG was born in 
Salem, Mass., in 1828, diuighter of 
Stephen and Lucinda (Goldthwait) 
Fogg. From the age of four 3'ears to 
that of thirteen the sul:iject of this sketch was 
a pupil at a young ladies' school. From that 
time until reaching the age of sixteen she at- 
tended a school kept liy Henry K. Oliver, a 
teacher of high rank and for many years an 
esteemed ]iublic official (sometime Adjutant- 
general of Massachusetts militia and later State 
Treasurer). Miss Fogg excelled in her studies, 
particularly in mathematics and astronomy. 
Her proficiency in these branches is evidenced 
by the fact that when her teacher requested 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



161 



some members of the class to calculate an 
eclipse, and two of the pupils agreed to calcu- 
late an eclipse of the moon, she undertook the 
more difficult task of calculating the next total 
eclipse of the sun, her calculation proving cor- 
rect to a minute. 

In after years, as Genei'al Oliver livetl near 
her, Miss Fogg usetl frequently to call on him. 
Upon one such occasion, as they were talking 
of old school ilays, he spoke of the calculation 
of the eclipse, and asked her whether she still 
htid the paper on which she had worked it out, 
and what she was going to do with it. She 
replied that it was rolled up in a box, and she 
was not going to do anything with it. "Will 
you give it to me?" he asked. She consented 
and took it to him, and he thereupon presented 
it to the Essex Institute in Salem, where it 
now is. 

She had several years of happy home life 
after leaving school, being active in church 
work and always keeping up with current liter- 
ature; arut, when her father and mother hail 
passed away, she went abroatl for a year. She 
spent same time in Germany, to perfect herself 
in the German language, and then, leaving in 
Germany the friends she ha'i been with uj) to 
that time, she visited Russia in company with 
a young lady whom she had met in Italy, and 
who had requested permission to j(jin her. 
This journey was a new and delightful experi- 
ence. When they arriveil in Russia, they took 
a carriage to the best Russian hotel. There was 
a fine English hotel, but Miss Fogg preferred 
when in Russia to see Russian life. It was a 
fine hotel, and, as they found that German 
was spoken there, they experienced no diffi- 
culty in making themselves -understood. But, 
after partaking of a light lunch, Miss Fogg 
thought it best, as everything was new and 
strange, to see the American minister, and 
asked for a carriage. They were taken directly 
to his office, and received a cordial welcome. 
Through his kindly offices their way was 
smoothed, they found comfortable acconnnoda- 
tions and ready service, and, when they re- 
sumed their travels, a courier was provided anil 
their journey facilitatcil in every possible way. 
After leaving Russia, Miss Fogg proposed to 
her friend that they should extend their travels 



to the nortli, and they therefore crossed over 
and visited Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 
An account of their visit to St. Petersburg and 
Moscow was prepared by Miss Fogg in tlie form 
of two lectures, one on St. Petersburg and one 
on Moscow, which she has read in private 
parlors several times to large and appieciative 
audiences. 

Miss Fogg has also visiteil Sorrento, Capri, 
and the Blue Grotto, and was the last, with 
one or two friends, to make a partial ascent of 
Mount ^'esuvius just before one of its notable 
eruptions. An account of these travels, written 
to a friend, was published, unknown to her, in 
a New York paper In June, 1883, she had the 
great pleasure of seeing the Passion Play per- 
formed at Brinlegg, in the Austrian Tyrol; and 
she wrote a full account of it, which was pub- 
lished in the Church Eclectic, covering ten pages. 

Between her two visits to Europe, Miss Fogg 
spent several winters in New York, and while 
there translated for a clerical friend two French 
theological works, one of which was published. 
She eilited the Girls' Friendly Magazine as 
long as it was published in Boston. For sev- 
eral years she also reviewed new books for the 
Church Eclectic. When she came to Boston, 
after several winters spent in New York, slie 
was asked to take a class in church history, 
and consented reluctantly, being doubtful of 
her own ability; but, with careful study she 
carried on the class through the winters, giving 
thirteen lectures, one every Satunlay morning, 
an hour long, to a class of thirty young ladies. 

Miss Fogg converses about her travels in an 
entertaining and instructive manner. Her de- 
scriptions of scenes bring them vividly before 
her hearers. She has some beautiful souve- 
nirs gathered from places of note. Her lecture 
on Russia, a country which so few visit in their 
trips abroad, written wholly from her own ex- 
perience, is especially interesting and instruc- 
tive; and, through the solicitation of students 
and artists who have travelled abroad, this, 
with her other lectures, will soon be pub- 
lished. 

While in Rome Miss Fogg made a collection 
of pictures to illustrate her copy of Hawthorne's 
tald, "The Marble Faun; or, The Romance of 
Monte Beni," in England published under the 



162 



RErRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



title "Transformation." The fifty-five pictures 
bound up in her book add very much to its in- 
terest and vahie. 

A communicant of the Episcopal church, 
Miss Fogg is also a member of the Dorcas So- 
ciety of St. Stephen's, of tiie Educational and 
Industrial Union, the Girls' Frientlly Society, 
and an associate of St. Margaret's. 



MARY E. M.\cGREr.()ft, of Portland, 
the president of the Maine Home 
for Friendless Boys and widely 
known in connection with the child- 
saving work of the State, was born in Portland, 
being the daughter of George S. and Ellen 
(Merrill) Barstow. Her father was a merchant 
in that city, and her mother a writer of both 
prose and ver.se, with several children's books 
to her credit. (See .sketch of Mr.s. MacGregor's 
sister, Mrs. Augusta M. Hunt.) 

Mary E. Barstow (now Mrs. MacGregor) was 
educated in the public schools of Portland, 
completing her course of study in the high 
school. On November 12, 1!S59, she was mar- 
ried to Gains B. MacGregor, of Lock Haven, 
Pa., the descendant of a long line of sturdy 
Scottish ancestors, all of marked nuisical abil- 
ity. His grandfather MacGregor, who was a 
Revolutionary soldier, married Betsey Bellows, 
whose family, it is said, figured co.nspicuously 
in the early history of A'ennont, her father 
being an eminent jurist. 

The early married life of Mrs. MacGregor was 
|)assed in States west of New F^-nglnnd. Twenty- 
two years ago she returned to her native city, 
where at present she is known as tlie "children's 
frieml." 

The society for the protection and care of 
friendless and destitute Ijoys of Maine was es- 
tablished February 9, 1S98. After two years 
of practical experience in placing boys for 
adoption in country or city homes, and thus 
removing them from vicious surroundings, it 
was deemed wise to establish a home where 
neglected boys might have proper care until 
permanent places could be obtained for them. 
The actual necessity for such a temijorary 
home was shown in the fact that many boys, 
taken from bad surroundings and sometimes 



inheriting evil tendencies, required special train- 
ing and some refining influences before they were 
eligible for permanent homes. Accordingly a 
building was leased, November, 1895, to be 
known as the Maine Home for Friendless Boys. 
I'urnishings and some money were solicited, 
but, as no assured fund was forthcoming, special 
effort has been made constantly for this ])nr- 
pose. A new l)uilding was erected in Portland, 
and formally opened in February, 1901. The 
success and present prosjjerity of the home is 
due largely to the energy and per.severance of 
Mrs. MacGregor, the president and the originator 
of the ])lan of work. She lias interested Maine 
peoi:)le in the enterj^rise, and to-day the insti- 
tution represents in a large degree her labor 
and influence. 

For the i)ast twelve years Mrs. MacGregor 
has been an indefatigable worker in the Fresh 
Air Society of Portland, of which she was one 
of the original founders. She served most ac- 
ceptably for twelve years as a director of the 
Female Samaritan Association, and then re- 
signed the jiosition to devote her time to the 
Home for Boys. 

Aside from philanthropic work, she is prom- 
inently known in social and literary circles of 
Portland, her connection with the Monday Club 
(one of the first women's clubs organized in 
that cit)') extending over a period of twenty 
years. As a member of the Woman's Literary 
Union, her influence has been helpful, both 
through contributions from her pen and her 
efforts to establish a high ideal. 

Mrs. MacGregor is a most a])proachable, 
sympathetic woman, ever nvidy to do some- 
thing toward lightening tlic bvu'dcns of the 
sorrowing. 

Ellen B.\rst()w M.\cGhecor, of Portland, 
Me., the daughter of Gains B. and Mary E. ( Bar- 
stow) MacGregor, was educated at Temple Grove 
Seminary, Saratoga, N.Y., where she ranked 
high as a student. She is now well known as a 
])ianist and com])o.ser. She inherited her nuisical 
talent from her father's family, who claim some 
noted nmsicians of the past. When only two 
3'ears of age she conunitted to memory a num- 
ber of tunes, and accurately sang them. At 
the age of five siie comj)ose(l little pieces, which 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



163 



she would play on the piano, giving a left -ham 1 
accompaniment, while the remarkable memory 
for committing music began to develop also. 
Miss MacGregor has had the benefit of the best 
instruction in piano playing, harmony, and 
counteri)oint, umler Carl Baermann, of Boston, 
Dudley Buck, of New York, and other leatling 
teachers. Her first compositions of instru- 
mental music were marches, which have re- 
ceiveil the commendation of Ciilmore, Sousa, 
Jean Mi.ssud, and other leading band-masters 
in this country, who have paid her the high 
compliment of adapting and ])laying them on 
important occasions. At the Maine Musical 
Festival given in Portland in October, 1899, 
her compositions were jilayed, and received 
great favor. Of late she has been turning her 
attention with marked success to song-writing 
almost exclusively, and numbers among her 
productions some very taking songs: a luUaby, 
"We're sailing to Dreamland" (with violin obli- 
gato); "My Phyllis"; "The Old Love"; Sere- 
nade; "Now and Then"; and "() Lassie, be 
True to me," a Scottish song for contralto, which 
has been received most favorably. ( )f her in- 
strumental music the "Dirigo March," "The 
Bowdoin," "The Gaiety" (two-step), and the 
"Colonial Dames Waltzes" are best known. 
Some of her most recent compositions are: 
"Little Gems for Little Folks" (a set of eight 
pieces for piano), and "The Fadette Two-step," 
dedicated to Carohne Nichols, leader of Fatlctte 
Woman's Orchestra. 

As a prominent member of the Rossini Club, 
an organization of Portlanil ladies, she is iden- 
tified with the musical interests, not only of 
Maine, but of all New England. She is a 
member of the Shubert Concert Company (as 
pianist and accompanist), and has been a mem- 
ber of the Boston Lleal (,)uartette (miscellane- 
ous). Miss MacGregor has ixho given a numljcr 
of muscal lecture recitals on famous composers, 
besides one on " Contemporary Women Com- 
posers," and two others entitled res|);--ctively 
" Development of the Op^ra," and " Formation 
of the Ballad," all illustrated by nms-c. Her 
services musically have always been freely given 
for charity, and few nuisiciaiis have contributed 
more lilierally of their talent and time than Miss 
MacGregor. 



/4DELAIDE A. HOSMER CALKINS, 

/ \ of Springfield, Ma.ss., was born in 
X A. ^^'est Boylston, AVorcester County, 
where her paternal ancestors settled 
before the Revolution. She is the daughter 
of the late Ebenezer Mason Hosmer and Mary 
Cheney, his wife, and is of pure English stock. 
She is descended from the colonial family of 
James Ho.smer, who came to America from 
Hawkhurst, England, in 1635, and settled in 
Concord, Mass. 

Mrs. Calkins acquired her education in the 
schools of her native town, Wilbraham Acad- 
emy, and Charlestown Female Seminary, the 
last named being a flourishing institution in 
its time, conducted by Miss Martha Whiting, 
who stood high among the educators of the 
State. In 1855 she (Adelaide A. Hosmer) 
married Dr. Marshall Calkins, and in 1S60 
they took up their residence in Springfield. 
Of this union there is one child, Dr. Cheney 
Hosmer Calkins, an oculist, residing in Spring- 
field. 

In 1865 the Home for Friendless Women 
antl Children was organized. Mrs. Calkins 
became a manager in 1867, and for the ten 
succeeding years was active in its work, serv- 
ing on the Children's Conunittee. 

In 1877 she was appointed by Governor 
Rice one of an advisory board of three women 
to the State Board of Charities, and was its 
chairman, its duties being to inspect quarterly 
the Tewskbury almshouse and the State 
primary and reform schools, and report upon 
the same. The following year the advisory 
board was abolished, and its members ap- 
pointed as trustees of the same institutions, 
where tlirect power rather than advisory could 
be exercised. Heretofore the trustees govern- 
ing State institutions, except those for women 
only, were composed entirely of men. 

Mrs. Calkins being appointed on the trustee 
board of the State primary and reform schools, 
the State primary at once engaged her most 
careful attention. This congregate institution, 
with its system of herding hundretls of chil- 
dren together with the fewest possible chances 
for the right develo]Mnent of mind and body, 
had appealed to Mrs. Calkins while a member 
of the advi.sory board as a subject Un reform. 



164 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



In her now position she interested lier ussoeiate 
trustees, the State Boanl of Charities, and the 
local press in the matter. As a result the man- 
agement was radically changed, and by act 
of Legislature, 1879-80, the young wards of 
the State between four and ten years of age 
might be placed at board in suitable families. 

Mrs. Calkins declined reappointment as a 
trustee in July, 1880, anil accepted appoint- 
ment on a newly created board of auxiliary 
visitors to the vState Board of Charities, con- 
sisting of five women. The object of the or- 
ganization was to secure voluntary women 
visitors in different sections of the State to 
visit regularly the dependent and delinquent 
children ])laced in families. More than fifty 
women engaged in the work. Up to this time 
all official visitors of State children were men. 

Mrs. Calkins also accepted at this time the 
responsil)ility of beginning the work of plac- 
ing young children at board in Western Massa- 
chusetts and visiting them quarterly. In this 
voluntary work she continued until the sum- 
mer of 1883, when the success and growth of 
the work necessitated the entire time of a 
supervising visitor, and, a salaried officer l)eing 
appointed, Mrs. Calkins retired. 

In 1878 Mrs. Calkins took uj) the work of 
the Union Relief Association, then established 
in Springfield for the purpose of preventing 
pauperism by helping the poor to help them- 
selves, and was among its first corps of visitors. 
Its first notable work was the investigation 
of the condition of the city almshouse, and 
as a result she was soon after included in a 
committee to go before the Legislature to urge 
a change in the law regarding children in alm.s- 
houses, so that no young child could be i)lace(l 
in an almshouse without its mother. Out of 
this successful movement grew the present 
Hampden County Children's Aid Society. 

In 1883 a committee of visitors, with Mrs. 
Calkins as chairman, was appointed to organ- 
ize a day nur.sery and raise funds for its sup- 
port. To this nursery in 1885 were succes- 
sively added a labor bureau and an industrial 
laundry. These several departments were soon 
successfully united in a building of their own 
under the name of the Industrial House Char- 
ities. This institution has continued its help- 



ful work in caring for infants, teaciiing laun- 
dr3nng, and providing ])laces for days' work 
for destitute widows and deserted wives with 
young children and other j)r)or women. 

In 1879 Mrs. Calkins was apj^ointed by 
Mayor Powers one of the first board of trus- 
tees of the City Hospital, and more especially 
for its reorganization, as up to that time it 
had no medical staff or systematic hospital 
management. Mrs. Calkins is still a member 
of the corporation of the SpringfieUl Hospital, 
an outgrowth of the former institution. 

In 1883 Mrs. Calkins resigned from all char- 
ity boards except that of the day nursery, and 
accompanied her husband and son to Europe 
for a period of rest, study, and recreation. 
She improved this opportunity to visit chari- 
table institutions ami schools in London and 
Vienna, oKserving their methods and manage- 
ment. 

In 1886 Mrs. Calkins was elected a member 
of the school conuuittee of Springfield. This 
position she held for twelve years, helping to 
inaugurate the modern and progressive methods 
that have made Springfield schools prominent 
in the State and country. Cooking, kinder- 
gartens, suitable lunches at minimum cost for 
high school scholars, were among the especial 
objects of her attention, also the proper .sani- 
tary conditions of the school-rooms for growing 
children, including hygienic seats and desks, 
])roper arrangement of light, cleanliness, and 
school architecture. 

In 1891 the organization of the Society of 
the Daughters of the American Revolution 
came to the notice of Mrs. Calkins through 
a newspajjer item. She at once sought ilefi- 
nite information concerning the society, and 
in a few months became a member. On De- 
cember 17 of the same year she was appointed 
chapter regent for Springfield, the first aj)- 
pointed in the State. On the 17th of June, 
1892, she formally organized the first chapter 
in the State, the Mercy Warren, with twenty- 
three charter members. She retained the 
regency until October, 1893, when the chapter 
was well established with one hundred and 
twenty-eight members. The pressure of other 
duties now reijuired her retirement. In 1901 
Mrs. Calkins again accepted the regency for 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



165 



one year, and on lier resignation was made 
honorary life regent. 

The chapter early appointed a committee 
to seek out the neglected and forgotten graves 
of the Revolutionary soldiers of Springfield, 
and ever since that time they have been marked. 
Sixteen "real" daughters have been accepted 
members of the chapter, and their lives made 
brighter and in neeiled cases more comforta- 
ble by the kindly offices of a standing com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose. The chap- 
ter has contributed to various patriotic objects, 
including fifty dollars for the relief of the Cuban 
reconcentrados; but in no direction has its 
work been more gratifying than in the local 
reawakening of a general interest in colonial 
and Revolutionary history. 

At the call of Governor Wolcott, May 3, 
1898, upon the breaking out of the Spanish 
War, for the formation of a State soldiers' 
relief association, the chapter at once took 
the lead in organizing a Springfield auxiliary, 
and kept energetically to the work until the 
receiving of the soldiers on their retuin home, 
August 27. A memorial tablet to the Spring- 
field soldiers, to be placed in the city library, 
was the last act of the Springfielil auxiliary, 
whose foremost officers were members of the 
chapter. 

In 1899 the chapter established ami furnished 
at no inconsiderable expense headquarters for 
its board of officers in connection with an 
assembly hall. The whole number of mem- 
bers enrolled is four hundretl and twenty- 
three, and the present membership (April, 
1904) is two hundred and seventy-five. 

Mrs. Calkins was one of the board of man- 
agers of the Springfield Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Aid Society at the time of the Spanish War. 

In 1895 the State primary school, through 
the policy of the State to place its young wards 
in families, had become so depleted that it 
was abolished and the property turned over 
to a board of trustees appointed by Governor 
Wolcott for the establishment of a hospital 
for epileptics. Mrs. Calkins was appointed 
one of the trustees of the hospital, and is still 
in its service. 

Mrs. Calkins is a member of the Springfield 
Women's Club, an honorary member of the 



Teachers' Club, and a member of the Rama- 
pogue Historical Society. Her church mem- 
bership is with the First Congregational So- 
ciety. 



CORA DAY YOUNG, the matron of 
the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' 
Home in Xenia, and Past National 
Senior Vice-President of the Wom- 
an's Relief Corps, is a New England woman by 
birth, parentage, and education. She was 
born in Springvale, Me., March 26, 1847, her 
parents soon after removing to Boston. She 
was graduated from the Bowdoin School in 
this city in July, 1863. 

One of her great-great-grandfathers on the 
maternal side was Colonel Jeremiah Moulton, 
who was born in 1688 in York, Me. In 1692, 
when he was four years old, he and his mother 
were taken prisoners by the Indians, and she 
was scalped. In 1724 he was oommantler at 
the reduction of Norridgewock. Colonel Moul- 
ton was rewai'ded with a silver tankard from 
King George II. for valiant conduct at the siege 
of Louisburg in 1745-47. He was afterward 
High Sheriff of York County, Maine, one of 
the Governor's Councillors, also Judge of the 
Courts of Common Pleas and of Probate. 

His son Jeremiah, Jr., was a Lieutenant 
Colonel at L(niisburg; and his grandson, Jotham 
Moulton, was a Colonel and later Brigadier- 
general in the war of the Re^olution. He died 
of camp fever at Ticonderoga. 

The father of Mrs. Young was Albert Day, 
M.D., a native of Wells, Me., ami a graduate 
from the Harvard Medical School. For 
manj' years he practised medicine in Boston 
as a specialist of nervous diseases. He was a 
lineal descendant of Anthony Day, who set- 
tled in Gloucester, Mass., in 1645; and on his 
mother's side was descended from the Storers 
of colonial military distinction in Maine. In 
1857 Dr. Day was a member of the lower branch 
of the Massachusetts Legislature. He was al- 
ways identified with philanthropic and jiatri- 
otic movements. In Maine he was associated 
with General Samuel Fessenden in the early 
anti-slavery reform, and when a young man 
he was a candidate on that ticket for treasurer 



166 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



of York County. Dr. Day was likewise an 
early supporter of the Washingtonian move- 
ment, and probably was the first physician in 
this country to treat methomania as a disease. 
He was for thirty-six years (not consecutive) 
the superintendent of the Washingtonian Home 
in Boston. He died in April, 1894. This 
home, which has a national reputation, was 
organized in November, 1857, and in March, 
1859, was incorporated by the State Legis- 
lature, receiving a grant of five thousand dol- 
lars. A new building on Waltham Street, 
erected for the home, was dedicated December 
20, 1873. Many thousand patients were under 
the care of Dr. Day in the Washingtonian 
Home. It has been estimated that one-third 
of them were permanently cured, and more 
than half the remainder benefited. Dr. Day 
published a number of valuable works upon 
this subject. 

During the war of the Rebellion, Dr. Day, 
as a member of the Boston School Board, as- 
sisted in establishing the first school for "con- 
trabands" or freedmen on this continent. 

His son, Albert A. Day, in July, 1862, at the 
age of seventeen, enlisted in the Forty-third 
Regiment, Massachusetts ^^olunteers. He was 
First Sergeant of Company K, and served in 
the battle of Kinston and other engagements 
in North Carolina. At the expiration of nine 
months' term of service, " under an order is- 
sued July 7 rendering it optional with the men 
to go to the front or return home, two huntlred 
and three officers and men voted to go to the 
front" (Adjutant-general's report). Among 
these was Sergeant Day. When he came home 
at a later date, he brought with him a negro 
boy about twelve years old, who had escapetl 
from his master in North Carolina. The boy 
lived in the family of Dr. Day for many years, 
and was educated by the Doctor's daughter 
Cora, Mrs. Young. He is now in the service 
of Dr. Nichols, of Worcester. For several years 
he contributed to the support of his former 
mistress, a Mrs. Gregory, of ]']lizabeth City, 
N.C., who was aged and in destitute circum- 
stances. 

At Wakefield, Mass., January 18, 1871, 
Cora Day was married to Charles L. Yomig, 
LL.D., of Buffalo, N.Y., a distinguished soldier 



of the Civil AVar. His first service after being 
a Zouave Cadet in April, 1861, was in the Ex- 
celsior Brigade of New York under General 
Daniel 10. Sickles. Throughout the Peninsu- 
lar Camjxiign, A'iiginia, he served on the staff 
of General Joseph Hooker. He was promoted, 
and commanded his regiment during the sec- 
ond Bull Run, Pope's campaign, including the 
battles of Bristoe Station, Groveton, Bull Run 
or Manassas, and Chantilly. At the battle 
of Chancellorsville he was on the staff of Gen- 
eral Sickles, in the Inspector-general's depart- 
ment, with the rank of Major, and was desper- 
ately wounded. With his wound unhealed, 
he returned to the front, and was with Gen- 
eral Sickles when the latter lost his leg at Get- 
tysl)urg. He was again wounded in the Wil- 
derness, then in the Inspector-general's de- 
partment of General Winfiekl Scott Hancock. 
He was the last in command of his regiment 
in line of battle in the presence of the enemy. 
After the war Major Young was brevetted 
Lieutenant Colonel of Volunteers for meritori- 
ous services during the Civil War. 

After their marriage Colonel and Mrs. Young 
resided in Toledo, Ohio. The Governor of Ohio 
with the consent of the Senate appointed him 
Quartermaster-general and Commissary-gen- 
eral, with the rank of Brigadier-general. For 
several years he has been superintendent of 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home at 
Xenia, Ohio. For nine years Mrs. Young has 
been the matron of the Orphans' Home, which 
is a State institution, and has nine hundred 
pupils. 

Mrs. Young was first secretary of the Board 
of Trustees of the Home for Friendless Women 
in Toledo, Ohio. She is a member of the Ur- 
sula Wolcott Chapter, Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution, of Toledo, and of the Wom- 
an's Club, of Xenia, Ohio. 

Mrs. Young was among the earliest support- 
ers of the Woman's Relief Corps, auxiliary 
to the Grand Army of the Republic. She 
was secretary and also president of the first 
corps organized west of Massachusetts. As 
Department Senior Vice-President, she twice 
presided over the State Convention of Ohio, 
and was elected to the second place of honor 
in the national body, serving as National Sen- 




L. ISAHKI. HlOAl.U 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



167 



ior Vice-President in 1886. Hor life has been 
devoted to benevolent work, either in private 
or public channels. 

(Jeneral Young is a Past National Senior 
Vice-Coinniander-in-chief of the Grand Army 
of the Republic. He was for twelve years a 
director of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memo- 
rial Association. General and Mrs. Young are 
not only appreciated for their ability and their 
great philanthropic work, but are popular in 
social life, and have many friends in all sec- 
tions of the country. They have two children, 
a son and a daughter. The former, Dr. Nel- 
son Holland Young, is assistant suj^erintend- 
ent and physician at the Ohio State Hospital 
for the Insane, which is located at Toledo and 
has seventeen hundreil patients. The daugh- 
ter is Mrs. Eleanor M. Cunningham, of Brook- 
lyn, N.Y. 



LIS ABEL HEALD was born in Dex- 
ter, Me., being the daughter of Otis 
r, and Emeline Robinson Seavy Cutler. 
Her father, moving to Portland in 
1852, became the first appraiser at the port, 
and was holding this office at the time of his 
death, in May, 1868. He was a man of noble 
character and excellent judgment, having mat- 
ters of grave importance submitted to his de- 
cision. His wife survived him many years, 
dying in May, 1884. 

Otis Cutler was of the seventh generation 
of that branch of the Cutler family in New 
England, whose immigrant progenitor, John 
by name, died at Hingham, Mass., in February, 
1638. It has been said that John Cutler, of 
Hingham, Mass., came from the vicinity of 
Norwich, England, in 1637 (see Morse) ; but 
this has been questioned. The History of 
Hingham, Genealogical, vol. ii., states that he 
had land granted him tliere, on Broad Cove, 
in 1635. From John' the line appears to have 
descentied through Samuel,- Ebenezer,^ Eben- 
ezer,^ Jonathan,'^ and Tarrant,'* to Otis,' born 
in 1817 at Royalston, Mass. 

From another English-born Cutler, Robert,' 
of Charlestown, Mass., was descended the Rev. 
Timothy Cutler, D.D., the first rector of Christ 
Church, Boston, and "one of the first scholars 



of his age in the colonies." Others of this name 
in America have occupied high rank in the 
clerical, legal, and medical professions. 

An uncle of Mrs. Heald, General Lysander 
Cutler, had an interesting career. Born in 
Royalston, Mass., in 1807, he moved to Dex- 
ter, Me., when a young man, engaged in busi- 
ness as a woollen manufacturer, and became 
the most eminent citizen of that place. Later 
in life he removed to Milwaukee, Wis. En- 
listing at the breaking out of the Civil War, 
he was commissionetl Colonel of the Sixth Wis- 
consin Regiment, served with great honor in 
the Army of the Potomac, and was afterward 
promoted to Major-general. He died in 1866. 

Mrs. Heald's mother was a lovely character, 
gentle and conscientious, dispensing words of 
kindness and the quiet charities which shun 
publicity. The family home being in Port- 
land during Mrs. Heald's childhood and youth, 
she was educated in the city schools. In the 
year 1870 she married John Sumner Heakl, 
claim adjuster of the Maine Central Railroad. 
Mr. Healil is the granilson of the Hon. Mark 
Langdon Hill, of Phippsburg, Me., one of the 
early settlers, a prominent and wealthy man 
in his day. It was in his family barouche that 
General Lafayette was taken through the 
streets of Portland when entertained there 
during his visit to the United States of Amer- 
ica in 1824-25. Mr. Hill's barouche was the 
most elegant one at hand, and was loaned to 
Portland for the occasion. 

Always of a deeply religious turn of mind, 
Mrs. Heald became when very young a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal church. She has been a 
student of creeds, autl has plunged into an- 
cient and modern philosophy. She has stud- 
ied science, theosophy, and the works of deep 
thinkers of all ages, not for diversion, but to 
find truth. Whatever her creed is to-day, 
her rule of life is most emphatically, "Love thy 
neighbor." She has the tenderest love and 
sympathy for children, and has been a willing 
helper in Sunday-schools. For a number of 
years she has been active in charitable and 
club work. It was she who was instrumental 
in forming the Cumberland Relief Cure, an 
organization which raised funds to send twenty- 
five men to the Keely Cure, furnishing and 



168 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



equipping a reading-room for them. Thougli 
there were some disappointing features in this 
labor, one bright particular case is so happy 
in results that it seems ample reward for all 
the effort put forth. 

Mrs. Heald was for five years the efficient 
president of the Beecher Club, whose study 
was evolution; and she has been on the execu- 
tive board of many of the well-known Portland 
associations, including the Women's Literary 
Union. At one time she belonged to fourteen 
organizations. She is now State president of 
the Maine division of the International Sun- 
shine Society, an office that is no sinecure, 
since she is usually called to write no less than 
sixty letters a week. Attracted to the Sun- 
shine columns in. the papers some time ago, 
she took hold of the \.ork with such grasp that 
she was .soon appointed its leader in Maine. 
This .society is " not a charity, Init an inter- 
change of kindly greetings and the passing on 
of good cheer." There are about a hundred 
and fifty daily and weekly papers reporting 
"Sunshine" news. The society was founded 
by Mrs. Cynthia Westover Alden in 1896. Its 
object is to incite its members to the perform- 
ance of kind and helpful deeds, and to thus 
bring the sunshine of happiness into the great- 
est possible number of hearts and homes. Its 
active membership consists of people who are 
desirous of brightening life by some thought, 
word, or deed. 

In a letter to the Journal the president- 
general, Mrs. Cynthia Westover Alden, writes: 
" Every week, regularly, your paper comes to 
Sunshine head(|uarters, and we read it with 
continued and renewed interest, especially 
the Sunshine work in your State. I write now 
to particularly thank you for your kindness, 
and trust that you are going to continue lik- 
ing us forever and ever. 

"With your energetic president, Mrs. Heald, 
of Portland, the State is becoming thoroughly 
organized. In fact, it is the best organized 
in Sunshine work of any State in the Union. 
There are now two thousand and sixty-six 
well-organized Sunshine branches reporting reg- 
ularly, not counting the many branches that 
are formed, but sent! in their reports irregu- 
larly." 



Mrs. Heald has incorporated the State of 
Maine division of the International Sunshine 
Society, and at this writing a petition to the 
Legislature for an approjiriation for the ameli- 
oration of the condition of the cripples in the 
State is in preparation. Names of men and 
women of influence have been secured, and it 
is reasonably hoped that it will succeed. If 
in the future attention is given these hopeless, 
helpless sufferers, it will be due to her untiring 
efforts in their behalf. Through her personal 
efforts several cripples have already enjoyed 
the services of a specialist. Her experience 
ami observation have developed in an unusual 
degree all that is tender and lovable in her nat- 
ure. Her (juick sym{)athy with all suffering, 
hoih physical and mental, renders her minis- 
trations doubly sweet. Her heart and hands 
are ready for all appeals for aid: to none is 
.she indifTerent. She is eminently adapted to 
be at the head of an organization who.se watch- 
word is good cheer, for she is of pleasant ad- 
ilress, and her greeting, even to the stranger, 
is always warm-hearted and gracious. 



GERTRUDE FRANKLIN SALIS- 
BURY, better known to the mu.sical 
world as Gertrude. Franklin and in 
private life as Virginia Beatty Salis- 
bury, is one of the most widely and favorably 
known of Boston's vocal teachers. She was 
born in Baltimore, Md., September 4, 1858, 
and l)elongs to a wealthy and aristocratic 
family. Her father, Mr. .lohn Beatty, of Balti- 
mor(\ was the son of the late Mr. James Beatty, 
an eminent merchant of Baltimore, who held 
))Ositi()ns of great trust under President Madi- 
.son. Her mother, Mrs. ElizalK'th Jackson 
Beatty, was the daughter of the Rev. William 
Jackson, a native of England. Among other 
distinguished ancestors was her great-grand- 
father, Gunning Bedford, who for a short time 
in the Revolutionary War was aide-de-camp 
to General .Washington. He represented Del- 
aware in the Continental Congress, 1783 to 
1786, and was a ])rominent member of the 
convention that framed the Constitution of 
the United States. 

Miss Franklin's parents removetl to Boston 




SARAH J. HOYDEN 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



169 



when she was four years old, and her early 
schooling was receivetl in that city. Her 
musical education began when she was a young 
girl, and at the age of thirteen she gave prom- 
ise of being a brilliant pianist. Her taste, 
however, was for vocal music rather than in- 
strumental, and, prompted by natural inclina- 
tion and the possession of a voice of remarka- 
ble sweetness and purity, she began to take 
lessons in singing. Mr. Aaron Taylor and 
Signor Agramonti were her first teachers, and 
on the advice of the latter she went to Paris, 
where she studied under Madame Lagrange 
and with Professor Barbot of the Conserva- 
toire. Before leaving Paris, Miss Franklin 
appeared at a concert at the Salle l^.rard, and 
achieved encouraging success, which was em- 
phasized by immediate offers of concert en- 
gagements and for a season of Italian opera. 
These flattering offers she was, however, obligetl 
to decline, as she hail made arrangements to 
go to London. Here she studied with Shake- 
speare and Alberto Randegger, the latter being 
so pleased with h<-r voice that he besought her 
to remain and make a career in EngUyid. But 
she had been too long absent from American 
soil, and in her eagerness to return she declined 
not only this offer but one to join Carl Rosa's 
English Opera Company. On returning home 
she took an extended course of study under 
Madame Rudersdorff for oratorio and the 
more serious range of classical concert music. 
Miss Franklin has appeared in the sym- 
phony concerts of Boston, New York, and 
Brooklyn, and in classical and other concerts 
in most of the large cities of the United States. 
Her work has been under the leadership of 
such men as Theodore Thomas, Wal* Dam- 
rosch, Emil Paur, Karlberg, Ilenschei ricke, 
Nikisch, Tomlins, antl Gilchrist. He icert 
work was remarkable apart from her , 'oice 
because of the extent of her reperto She 

sings in French, German, Italian, and i;lish, 
and has the proud distinction of lur the 
largest repertoire of any American sin also 
the largest collection of arias and c jstra 
scores for the concert stage. Miss iklin 

has never repeated a programme in tl .• ame 
place, or an aria, unless called upon at a mo- 
ment's notice to sing without rehearsal. 



In April, 1896, Miss Franklin married Mr. 
W. C. G. Salisbury, of Boston, and retired from 
public life to devote her time to teaching. As 
an instructor, she has been even more success- 
ful than as a singer. Her pupils are on the oper- 
atic, concert, and oratorio platform in Europe 
and America. 



SARAH JANE BOYDEN was born in 
Chelsea, Ma.ss., July 17, 1842, the daugh- 
ter of Darius Allen and Sarah Ann (Han- 
son) Martin. When but six weeks old 
she was deprived through death of a mother's 
love and care, and, being a child of feeble health, 
it was feared she would not live to maturity. 
Her early education, obtained in the public 
schools of Chelsea and Boston, was supple- 
mented by a course of study in Bradford Acad- 
emy at Bratlford, Mass., and in Captain Samuel 
Hayden's private school in Braintree, Mass. 

At the age of twenty she became the wife 
of Robert Curtis Davidson, of Chelsea. Just 
previous to their marriage Mr. Davidson had 
enlisted in Company C, Thirty-fifth Massachu- 
setts Regiment, to fight for the preservation 
of the Union. After two years' service in the 
army, he was wounded in the battle of Peters- 
burg, July 30, 1864, and died at City Point, 
Va., on the ISth of August following. In 1872 
the subject of this sketch was again married, 
her .second husband being Walter Willington 
Boyden, of Roxbury. She is, the mother of 
two daughters, Gertrude Louise, Edith Ferdi- 
nand, and a son, Walter Allen. 

From her father Mrs. Boyden inherited traits 
of character which have made her steadfast 
in purpose and firm in principle. Mr. Martin 
hekl the position of State Constable for years, 
and was noted for his courageous acts in closing 
the saloons in Chelsea. Mrs. Boj'den's pastor, 
the Rev. Dr. Albert H. Plumb, says of her: "I 
have known Mrs. Boytien for some thirty years. 
She is a living exemplification of the power to 
do and of the wisdom of doing two things at 
once, each being done better because the other 
is also in hand. In her own home and in the 
homes of the afflicted she has been a ministering 
angel. In the family, the church, in charitable 
and reformatory work, she has lived in all good 



170 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



fidelity and zeal. In every sphere where she 
has moved she has shown great energy and 
administrative skill, a genial friendliness of 
spirit, and a genuine love for everything good. 
As one indication of the order of her house- 
hold, I have learned that during fourteen years 
of school life her daughter was never absent 
or tardy, save one half-day, and never missed 
a session of the Sunday-school in a still longer 
period. 'I used to think,' said Will Carleton, 
the poet, ' if my wife ever got to he a clul) 
woman, I would not live with her — much of 
the time. Since she has,' he added, 'I find 
I value her more than ever before — what there 
is of her.' 

"To be at one's best, one needs to see each 
duty in its relation to the whole problem of 
life. For a person to become religious docs 
not mean any vmdue withdrawal of time and 
strength from any lines of laudable activity 
previously enjoyed. Some such withdrawal 
often conduces to desirable variety and there- 
fore to efficiency. These considerations have 
a special application to the vexed questions 
concerning woman's sphere." 

Naturally, a woman of so great executive 
ability has been sought for as one of the leaders 
among women. Mrs. Boyden is one of the 
Board of Management of the Home for In- 
temperate Women, president of the Woman's 
Publishing Company, and treasurer of the 
Suffolk Coimty Branch of the King's Daugh- 
ters and Sons. Her chief work, however, is 
as the efficient leader of the Ward and City 
Committee of the Independent Women ^'oters, 
of which she is president. This organization 
has a deep interest in the welfare of the public 
schools. It is thoroughly organized, and is a 
power at every election. Mrs. Boyden's prov- 
ince is to arrange for campaigns, instruct the 
women in the twenty-five wards of Boston, 
confer with kindred organizations and political 
parties, and keep an outlook on all that concerns 
the city schools, always working for theii- best 
interests. Naturally diffident, it was with ex- 
treme reluctance that she accepted the position 
of president of so large an organization, but 
experience has so enlarged her opportunities 
for service that now she commands the forces 
with skill, wisdom, and tact. She has en- 



deared herself to the women she leads. Strong 
in body, cheerful in temperament, cordial in 
manner, loving in heart, in the prime of life, she 
wields a potent influence in helping many of 
her sisters to a higher life and into broader 
paths of usefulness. 

(By a friend of long standing, E. T. H.). 



ADELAIDE E. BOOTHBY, the wife of 
/\ Colonel Frederic E. Boothby, of Port- 
_/ J^ land, Me., and one of the leading 
women workers in various charitable 
organizations of that city, is a native of ^^'ater- 
ville. Me. Her parents were Charles and Vesta 
B. Smith. As Adelaide Endora Smith she was 
married to Frederic E. Boothby, October 25, 
1871. Colonel Boothby was born in Norway, 
Me. , being the son of Levi Thompson and Sophia 
Packard (Brett) Boothby. In 1S57 the fam- 
ily removetl to Waterville. For many years 
Colonel Boothby has been an official of the 
Maine Central Railroad. His title comes from 
his service on the staff of Governors Bodwell, 
Marble, and Burleigh, six years in all. He was 
president of the Portland Board of Trade for 
five years, was elected Mayor of the city in 
the spring of 1901, and is now (autumn of 1903) 
serving his third term in that office. With 
the exception of a three years' residence in 
Augusta, Colonel and Mrs. Boothby have livetl 
in Portland, their pleasant rooms at the Fal- 
mouth House being a hospitable social centre. 

Possessing an unusually sympathetic dispo- 
sition, Mrs. Boothby has proved a ready lis- 
tener and a willing helper to many who have 
applied to her for aid and encouragement. She 
has held offices of responsibility in the Invalids' 
Home, the Temporary Home for Women and 
Children, the Home for Friendless Boys, and 
auxiliaries to the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation. Even in her social life she has remem- 
bered the claims of charity and philanthropy, 
and has caused the proceeds of whist parties 
and merry-makings to go toward the allevia- 
tion of suffering. ^Irs. Boothliy has been espe- 
cially interested in the work for the girls of 
the Temporary Home, of which she is a prac- 
tical and thoughtful officer. 

Conspicuous among her energetic labors is 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



171 



her service as president of the Civic Club, 
which vk^as founded in May, 1898, by Mrs. Etta 
H. Osgood. Its object is " to promote by e<Ui- 
cation and active co-operation a higher jxibiic 
hfe and a better social order." One of its 
principles is a belief in the trinity of health — 
pure food, pure air, antl pure water. The 
watchword of the club is, " Duties assigned 
cheerfully assumed." Aijplications for mem- 
bership are carefully considered, and only those 
who are willing to perform some service in be- 
half of its objects ai'e welcomed as members. 

The club has laid out playgrounds at the 
North School in Portland, has been instrumental 
in procuring the ordinance prohibiting expec- 
toration, and secured the placing of rul)l)ish 
buckets on the streets. It has also secured an 
appropriation for public baths and for milk 
inspection. Its power for good is appreciated 
by the citizens of Portland, and its valuable 
W(jrk will receive their earnest sup]>ort. 

\Mien, several years ago, Professoi- Chapman 
was making strenuous efforts to establish the 
Maine .Musical Festival, Mrs. Booth))y entered 
heartily hito his plans. At a time when failure 
seemed inevitable, she was one of the stanch 
supporters of this ]iroject, which has given to 
the State such rare musical pi'ivileges. 

Mrs. Boothby's private charities are legion 
and vmknown. As the wife of the Mayor she 
extemls cordial good will antl ready welcome 
to all. As an officer of various organizations 
she is faithful and efficient. As a citizen .she 
is valued for her generous sympathies and for 
her support of all matters of public interest. 

When a citizen of Maine said, " I am sure 
Portland is written on the hearts of Mayor 
Boothby and his wife, they have always so 
laiiored for the good of the city," he expre.ssed 
a .sentiment that is endorsed by all good people 
within its borders. 



MARY PARKS PUTNAM, M.D., was 
born April 28, 1841, in Charlestown, 
N.H., known at the time of its set- 
tlement as Township No. 4. She is 
the eldest of the three daughters of the late 
David Whipple and Jane (Ellison) Parks, and 
is of English descent. The ancestral kin on 



the paternal side includes physicians, lawyers, 
and teachers, beside several persons who were 
highly skilled in trades. Her father was a sol- 
dier of the Civil War in the sixties of the nine- 
teenth century, and did his full share toward 
the preservation of the Union. 

Having an inherent love for study and in- 
vestigation. Dr. Putnam's professional career 
was early foreshadowed. When barely fifteen 
years of age she became a teacher under the 
old district-school system in her native town 
and its vicinity. Such was her success that 
her services were in constant demand, and she 
made the record of fifty-three consecutive 
terms in the same school-room. Wliile pur- 
suing this vocation, she began the study of medi- 
cine, reading extensively by herself and then 
taking a three years' course in a school well- 
known at that time. Later entering the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons in Boston, 
she devoted three more years to study, and was 
graduated at the age of fifty-three. She inmie- 
diately opened her office in one of the best 
resitlential districts of Boston, where her prac- 
tice has steadily increased and become firmly 
established. 

Doctor Putnam has always been ready to ex- 
tend a helping hand to young women anil girls. 
To one she gave the protection of her home 
and the same education and liberal training 
that she bestowed upon her own daughter, 
antl to many another has she given encourage- 
ment and opportunity to gain higher education 
and development. She is interested in training- 
schools for imr.ses in Boston and elsewhere, also 
in nimierous philanthropic, educational, anil 
charitable movements. Needless to say, she 
has a large circle of friends. In the progress of 
modern science she keeps well posted, particu- 
larly on all lines relating to her chosen work. 

She married during her .service as school- 
teacher Mr. Wesley D. Putnam, of her native 
town. For many years Mr. Putnam has been 
connected with one of the leading manufactur- 
ing houses in Massachusetts. He has always 
given his hearty sympathy and encouragement 
to his wife in the attainment of her professional 
ambition, and their home on Commonwealth 
Avenue has been a happy one, its sole shadow 
having been the death of their only child, a 



172 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



beautiful and accomplished young lady, wife 
of one of the rising young business men of 
Boston. 



JESSIE ELDRIDGE SOUTHWICK, one of 
the faculty of the Emerson College of 
Oratory and an interpreter of Shake- 
speare's plays, is a native of Wilmington, 
Del. Her father, Issachar Eldridge, descended 
from the Quaker Eldridges of Philadelphia. 
Her mother, whose maitlen name was Martha 
Gause, was from Chester County, Pennsylva- 
nia. She was related to a number of leading 
teachers and writers. Bayard Taylor, the noted 
traveller and author, being a near kinsman. To 
her maternal ancestors Mrs. Southwick is prob- 
ably indebted for her marked literary talents. 
When Jessie Eldridge was five years old, her 
parents removed to Van Wert, Ohio, where her 
childhood days were spent. Her mother was 
her first teacher, her early lessons being learned 
at home. She afterward pursued her studies 
successively at the high school and at Glendale 
Female College, near Cincinnati, and at the 
age of fifteen, under a private tutor, completetl 
her preparation for Vassar College. Changing 
her plans, however, she came to Boston be- 
cause of the better advantages here aiTorded 
for the study of music and elocution, and en- 
tered the New England Conservatory of Music. 
Devoting herself esjiecialiy to oratory, for which 
she seemed well adapted, she was graduated 
from that department in 1883. While studying 
at the Conservatory, she also attended Miss 
Johnson's private school on Newbury Street, 
Boston. To further qualify herself for the pro- 
fession of oratory, she continued her studies at 
the Monroe Conservatory (now the Emerson 
College of Oratory). She was graduated there 
in 1885, and then took a post-graduate course 
of two years, during which time she assisted in 
teaching. For a while she was an assistant 
to Miss Mary A. Currier in the department of 
oratory at Wellesley College, but that position 
she was obliged to give up at length on account 
of the increasing demands on her time for public 
work. She had made a specialty of Shake- 
speare's plays, and her intelligent interpretation, 
with her fine stage presence and well-modulated 



voice, has since won her a wide-spread reputa- 
tion, her readings being in demand in various 
parts of the country. 

In 1889 Jessie Eldridge married Henry Law- 
rence Southwick, a graduate of the college, then 
teaching in Philadelphia. Mr. Southwick be- 
came the following year a partner of Dr. C. W. 
Emerson in th" Fm^rson Cr^'lo^e, nnd remained 
there until 1897, Mrs. Southwick, as one of the 
faculty, having charge of the classes in voice 
culture, dramatic interpretation, and the ren- 
dering of Shakespeare. Mr. and Mrs. South- 
wick have conducted summer schools at Glens 
Falls, N.Y., Cottage City, Martha's Vineyard, 
and at several places in Virginia, as well as in 
Boston. 

In June, 1900, Dean Southwick purchased 
Dr. Emerson's share in the college and took 
the full management, Dr. Emerson remaining 
as President and lecturer in his individual 
work. Since assuming the management Dean 
Southwick has made many changes and adtled 
numerous courses. The Emerson College of 
Oratory stands to-day as the largest institution 
of its kind in the world. Established in 1880 
as a private school by Charles Wesley Emerson, 
in September, 1886, it was formally incorpo- 
rated under the laws of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts as the Monroe College of Ora- 
tory, being named in honor of the late Professor 
Lewis B. Monroe. LIpon petition to the Legis- 
lature in 1890, a bill was passed authorizing 
the change of name to Emerson College of Ora- 
tory. 

This college is a school for personal culture. 
It aims to awaken in the student of expression, 
whether he be a creative thinker or an inter- 
preter, a realization of his own potentialities, 
and to give such direction to his training that 
he may attain them. While conserving the 
best traditions of the past, the college aims to 
stand for thorough investigation, the mo^t ad- 
vanced educational methods, and the highest 
professional standards and ideals. 

In 1900 the college was moved into elegant 
(juarters at Chickering Hall, one of the hand- 
somest and best appointed of Boston's new 
buildings. Situated on Huntington Avenue 
near the corner of Massachusetts Avenue, it is 
easily accessible from all railroads leading into 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



173 



the city, and cars to all points pass close to its 
doors. Within five minutes' walk of the Fens, 
within eight minutes of the Public Library ancl 
the Museum of Fine Arts, and close beside 
the new Symphony Hall and beautiful new 
hall of the Horticultural Society, the college 
home is in the artistic and literary centre of 
Boston. 

Mrs. Southwick has been connected with the 
college as either pupil or teacher almost since 
its inception, and to her faithful and efficient 
work in conjunction with her husband is at- 
tributed much of its success and growth. As 
a reader and especially as a Shakespearean ex- 
ponent, she is well known to literary American 
audiences as a leading artist. Her dramatic 
power and personal magnetism hold her audi- 
ences almost spellbound. The series of recitals 
given every season under the direction of Dean 
and Mrs. Southwick have become a marked 
feature of literary Boston, as is shown by the 
large audiences in attendance. Mrs. South- 
wick is also a power in the social element of 
the college life, where she takes a personal 
interest in all the receptions given, and comes 
in contact with all of the pupils of the 
school. 

Mr. and Mrs. Southwick have three children, 
namely: Ruth, born September 18, 1893; Mil- 
dred, born August 15, 1895; and Jessie, born 
November 18, 1897 — all of whom are now re- 
ceiving the best educational advantages that 
can be secured. 



HANNAH E. AND JULIA R. OILMAN, 
the principals of the Home and Day 
School for Girls at 324 Conunon- 
wealth Avenue, Boston, belong to a 
family which for many generations has mani- 
fested a marked interest in all matters pertain- 
ing to Christian education. Their genealog- 
ical tree shows New England stock of the best 
quality. In one branch appears the name of 
Daniel C. Oilman, the first President of Johns 
Hopkins Lhii versify and now at the head of the 
Carnegie Institution, \A'ashiiigton, D.C. In 
anothei- branch is found the name of Arthur 
Oilman, of Cambridge, formerly regent of Rad- 
cliffe College. 



The Rev. Tristram Oilman (Harv. Coll. 
1757) gi'eat-grandfather of the Misses Oilman 
of Boston, was the honored and beloved pastor 
of the First Church in North Yarmouth, Me., 
for forty vears, or from the date of his ortlina- 
tion in 1769 until his death in 1809. Their 
grandfather, .Iosei)h Oilman, who was an emi- 
nent physician in Wells, Me., was a stanch ad- 
vocate of education, good citizenship, and every 
form of philanthropy. A more distant for- 
bear, the Rev. Nicholas Oilman, A.M. (Harv. 
Coll. 1724), father of Tristram, had the same 
qualities of firm principle, sound judgment, 
and strong sense of duty which have "run in 
the family," as the phrase goes, from the be- 
ginning. The men were more ambitious to 
be useful members of society than to acquire 
either fame or fortune, and they were distin- 
guished for their quiet home virtues. 

The subjects of this sketch were born in Fox- 
croft, Me., being the daughters of EbenezoT 
and Roxana (Palmer) Gilman. The parents 
had high ideals for their children, eight in all, 
and together they trained the boys and girls 
in habits of industry, thrift, self-control, and 
a genuine religious faith. The father was a 
man of unusual sweetness and purity of char- 
acter. The mother, like so many New Eng- 
land women of that period, had a practical 
wistlom and energv which beautifully com- 
plemented her husbaml's gentle traits. Both 
believed in the value of a good education, for 
daughters equally with sons, and labored cheer- 
full)' to secure for their large family such ad- 
vantages as the times afforded. 

The elder of these two sisters, Hannah, 
studied first at the Foxcroft Academy and 
late]- at Bradford Seminary, being graduated 
in 1857. From this time onward she devoted 
herself assiduously to study, not for the sake 
of mere accomplishment or mental exercise, 
but with an earnest purpose to embody in her 
life the spirit expressed in Whittier's lines, 

" Make the world within your reach 
Somewhat the better for your living, 
And gladder for your human speech." 

Her love of culture was inborn, and the whole- 
some discipline of Puritan training gave her 



174 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



large capacity for work. To these traits were 
added soundness of jndgment, strength of will, 
cheerfulness, unselfishness, and deep and un- 
affected piety. Thus it will be seen that she 
had the qualifications of the ideal teacher, and 
naturally she was soon sought for by the best 
private schools in New Elngland, having first 
served an apprenticeshij) in the ])ublic schools. 
ICverywhere she met with signal success. In 
the autumn of 1884 she opened the now well- 
known Gilman School, which rapidly outgrew 
its original quarters, and in 1890 was trans- 
ferred to its present location, 324 Common- 
wealth Avenue. 

In this work she was ably assisted by her 
sister Julia, who resigned a position in the 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School 
for the Blind, South Boston, where she had 
taught for nine years, in order to engage in 
this larger service. She, too, had studied at 
the Foxcroft Academy, also with her aunt. 
Miss Rebecca I. Gilman, who for many years 
was principal of a large private school in Boston. 
It is interesting to note how strongly marked 
is the predilection for teaching in the various 
branches of this family. 

Both sisters have given substantial proof 
of their attachment to the place where they 
received their early education bj' the assistance 
which they have lately rendered to the trustees 
of P'oxcroft Academy in raising an endowment 
fund for that institution. Evidence of the 
hold of these women upon the affection of their 
former pupils is seen in the fact that, when they 
solicited the money from this particular circle 
of friends, girls who had lio personal interest 
in the small village in Maine, the letters which 
came in reply to their appeal for gifts were full 
of love and loyalty. 

To the strong influence for good which they 
exerted upon their pujjils another testimonial, 
among hundreds which might be adduced, 
appears in this extract from a letter, dated 
March, 1903, written to Miss Julia Gilman by 
Mary Chandler Lowell, i)erhaps the only young 
woman in America who has taken a tlegree in 
both medicine and law: "The other morning, 
when I stood in the court room and took the 
solemn oath of office of an attorney at law, my 
mind turned toward you. ... It was my good 



fortune in early youth to have several excel- 
lent teachers, but I think that none played 
so important a part in moulding my character 
and inspiring within me a desire to press for- 
ward and make the most of my abilities as did 
you. . . . But for your W"ords of encouragement 
and cheer I might never have been al)le to 
hold, as I do to-day, certificates which entitle 
me to the privileges of both the medical and 
the legal profession." 

Such letters give an insight into the motives 
which control these teachers. When Mi.ss 
Julia Gilman left South Boston, Mr. Anagnos, 
the director, jiaid a high tribute to her as "one 
of the most efficient and conscientious teachers 
ever emploj^ed by the Institution," and laid 
special emphasis on the way she had helped to 
"enlarge its ethical atmosphere to a very grati- 
fying extent." 

In this last sentence is revealed the secret 
of their power. Neither of the sisters could 
ever be satisfied simply to impart instruction. 
The ethical has been the dominant note in their 
teaching. Their aim is to provide "a home 
life which shall secure the development of true 
womanhood." As one means to this end they 
have secured as lecturers at the school from 
year to year men and women who are eminent 
in various walks of life, and who, in particular, 
are exponents of the finest Christian ideals. 
Among re])resentative women they have ha<l 
Julia Ward Howe, Mary A. Livermore, Amelia 
Quinton, Lillian Nordica, Mary E. Wilkins, 
Amelia E. Barr, and Pundita Ramabai. The 
list of lecturers of the other sex includes many 
prominent clergymen, artists, and authors. 

The Home and Day School of the Misses 
Gilman stands to-day as a witness to the value 
of jjersonaiity as a factor in the education of 
youth. With the old Phrygian philosopher, 
]']pictetus, these women have felt that " the 
formation of the spirit and character must be 
our real concern," and this is the basic prin- 
ciple of their school. Its success demonstrates 
the truth of Emerson's words: "In my dealing 
with .my child, my Latin and my Greek, 
my accomplishments and my money, stead 
me nothing ; but as much soul as I have 
avails." 

Frances J. Dyer. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



175 



HARRIETTE J. COOKE, superintend- 
ent of Medical Mission, 36 Hull 
Street, Boston, Mass., is a native 
of New Hampshire. She was born 
in the town of Sandwich, Carroll County, 
in the central part of the State, December 1, 
1829, daughter of Josiah and Jane (Cox) 
Cooke. Her father was of the third genera- 
tion of his family to reside in Sandwich, being 
a son of Joel Cooke and grandson of Cornelius 
Cooke, an early settler in that locality, men 
characterized by sincerity, uprightness, and 
simplicity of life. 

Harriette Cooke early imbibed the belief 
that a thorough education was the greatest 
of helps to a life of usefulness. As there 
were no colleges open to women in those days, 
she was obliged to gather what learning she 
could from the various schools and seminaries 
accessible to her and from private instruction. 
In 1853 she was graduated at the New Hamp- 
shire Conference Seminary, now Tilton Sem- 
inary. After a few years of successful teaching 
in Massachusetts she accepted a position 
as teacher in Cornell College, Mount Vernon, 
Iowa, which she entered in November, 1857, 
its opening year. She was then a young 
woman, possessing an ambition to excel in 
whatever she undertook to do. Her charac- 
ter was well adapted to pioneer educational 
work, having in it the decidedly marked 
combination of strength and tender womanly 
sympathy. She was fully up to the times 
as regarded methods of instruction and mental 
discipline. 

She had especially had stampetl on her 
soul — as if by divine impress — a desire to 
assist in the higher education of woman. A 
profound conviction that only by intellectual 
and moral culture can the world be raised 
from the degrading influences of ignorance, 
and that this end can be best attained through 
the home by the elevation of woman, rendered 
her conscious of the importance of her high 
calling. She thus brought to her new field 
of labor an enthusiasm which was immediately 
recognized. Being unusually rigid in her re- 
quirements of work from her pupils, she gained 
a reputation for over-exactness that for a 
time was not altogether conducive to mere 



popularity. But with all their unfavorable 
criticisms, among thinking students she soon 
commanded the highest respect. In 1886 
Miss Cooke was made preceptress of the college 
and in 1872 professor of German and history, 
the latter appointment being, it is said, the 
first honor of the kind conferred upon a woman 
in the I'nitcd States. These departments 
of the college she built up and establishetl 
on a firm foundation. In 1886 she was re- 
lieved of the German and made professor of 
history anil the science of government. Granted 
leave of absence in 1872, she spent the year 
in Great Britain and on the Continent, avail- 
ing herself of the advantages given by the 
London University for the study of history 
and literature, also increasing her knowledge 
of the German language by the assistance 
of native teachers. She continued her work 
at Coi'iiell College until 1890. 

This brief account of the educational career 
of Professor Harriette J. Cooke, together 
with the following appreciation of her work 
and character, is gathered from a sketch 
written for the College Year Book' for 1890 
by a former pupil and lifelong friend, namely, 
Mrs. Collin, wife of Alonzo Collin, the senior 
professor of Cornell College. 

Miss Cooke has given special attention to 
the moral and religious training of the hvmdreds 
of young ladies who have been placed under 
her immediate charge. Many of them testify 
that her strong appeals to the noblest powers 
of their being were among their chief incen- 
tives in trying to develop themselves into 
the highest types of true womanhood. She 
had a realizing sense of the great responsibility 
resting upon her, a feeling that none can 
know but those who have consecrated them- 
selves to lives of self-sacrifice for the good 
of others. Possessed of an active mind and 
a physical organization that seems never to 
have known weariness, she has endured un- 
ceasing toil for years, having in all her college 
life lost but one term, and this because of a 
serious injury occasioned by a fall. With 
a spirit of unselfishness and a great capacity 
to endure, she has generally done the work 
of two. 

Miss Cooke is a very pleasing public speaker, 



176 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



having frequently used her talents in this 
direction for the benefit of her college and 
other philanthropic objects. She is a strong, 
terse writer, with an interesting style, as is 
often shown by class lectures and papers 
read before literary and other organizations. 
She has been a zealous student and a constant 
and .successful teacher of the Bible. This 
inspired volume has given her much of the 
wonderful faith, hope, and love she has in 
and for humanity. She is well informed on 
the affairs of state and the science of business 
relations. In the sick-room she has shown 
herself unusually skilful as a nurse. Fortunate 
are they who have her name upon tlieir list 
of friends. Fearless and faithful, she will 
be to them loyal and true, cheerful and kind. 
Soon after leaving Cornell College, Miss 
Cooke went to England for the purpose of 
studying Christian work as carried on by 
Mildmay in North London. This great mission 
was the first attempt on a large scale to carry 
on reformatory work in the slums of a great 
city by workers living among the crowded 
population. During the winter of 1872, when 
Miss Cooke was making some research in 
history at University College, London, her 
attention was attracted to this work, which, 
by its unusual methods and by the high rank 
of those engaged in it, excited great interest 
in the city. Indirectly it \yas the outgrowth 
of the plague which made such havoc in the 
congested section of East London during the 
years 1865-66. It was impossible to care for 
the dying or to bury the dead, for sometimes 
whole families were taken sick in one house. 
At this crisis Mr. and Mrs. Pennefather, with 
a band of women from the upper class of society, 
offered to assist the clergyman at Bethnal 
Green in that centre of the plague. These 
women, six in number, began their labor of 
love by opening an old warehouse as a home 
for themselves and as a centre of distribution 
of such help as they could give. They pre- 
pared suitable food, gathered such things as 
they might need — drugs, disinfectants, clean 
linen, and so forth — and began their visits 
to the homes. With nutritious food, comforts 
of every kind, and words of love they cheered 
the sick, comforted the dying, read the Bible, 



and made the rooms they visited clean and 
tidy. They went to the city magistrate, 
and pleaded for better sanitary conditions. 
When the i)lague under their vigorous measures 
began to abate, they did not cease their work. 
They established a permanent home in the 
dark section, the worst in London. It was 
really the first "settlement" in any slum, 
though not so called. They began industrial 
work and established educational classes, Eng- 
land at this time (1867) having no system of 
free public schools. Their night school was soon 
crowded with men of all ages and conditions. 
They gathered the street boys into bright, 
warm rooms, and organized them into clubs. 

One lady belonging to the cultured class 
went into the "thieves' quarters," working 
and teaching there for years. Through her 
loving faithfulness hundreds were rescued from 
lives of shame, aiul became upright citizens. 
One whom Miss Cooke knew became a lay 
preacher, whose effective work rescued many. 
Men's clubs were opened, mothers' meetings 
held, coffee rooms establisheil; and lodging- 
houses, clean and well kept, took the place 
of the "dens" that had been "dens of thieves." 
The gospel service was held in the waiting- 
room. 'Trained nurses visited in the homes, 
ministering to their inmates; and Christian 
doctors gave their services. A marvellous 
change was wrought in a few years. The 
number of workers was constantly increased, 
and twenty-four stations were established in 
the worst parts of London, managed by the 
Mildmay workers. When Miss Cooke went 
there in 1890, these women were ministering 
to one hundred thousand of London's poor. 
They had several well-equipped hospitals, four 
medical missions, convalescent, women's, and 
orphans' asylums. 

In such a practical school of methods Miss 
Cooke took her three years' course, in 1892 
having charge of the night study classes. Work- 
ing in every department, she learned lessons 
that are now bearing fruit. In the spring of 
1893 she accepted an invitation to enter the 
Hull Street settlement, Boston, which had 
iieen started the preceding January by students 
of Boston University, among them the Rev. 
Rollin H. Walker and the Rev. Edgar Helms 




LYDIA GROUT WELLINGTON 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



177 



and his sainti'd wife, who brought to this 
work a consecration which has left an impress 
for permanent good. Another member of 
the settlement was Miranda Croucher, who 
showed such heroic courage during the Boxer 
massacres in China. 

Miss Cooke took an interest in the entire 
work of the settlement, which is of an all-round 
character; but the part that owes its origin 
to her is the medical mission, which was her 
special charge under difficulties that would 
have discouraged a less experienced worker. 
This work — the founding of the medical mission 
in connection with the university settlement 
at 36 Hull Street — is the crowning work of 
Miss Cooke's long and busy life. It is the 
first medical mission established in New Eng- 
land, and the settlement is the only one, so 
far as we know, which has this ilepartment 
connectetl with it. It may here be best de- 
seribeil in Miss Cooke's own words : " Its aim 
is far different from a free dispensary. It 
cannot be denied that New England Ls rapidly 
becoming foreign missionary ground. It is 
therefore fitting that the best agencies should 
be usetl to bring this foreign population into 
sympathy antl in touch with American civiliza- 
tion and American ideas of education. 

" Through ministry to suffering, as well as 
by educational efforts, an effectual door was 
opened to the hearts and homes of these stran- 
gers, who are coming in such numbers to 
stay with us. Many of them are exposed to 
imposition and neglect, and are helpless to 
meet these conditions. By helping them when 
sick and unable to get work, they are ready 
to adopt better methods of living, and the 
children offer the best opportunity for making 
these people American. These little ones are 
bright and alert, and, taken into new environ- 
ments, they readily adapt themselves to new 
conditions. Thousands of these chiklren are 
crowded together in the tenements of our cities, 
and if we neglect them we shall bring upon 
ourselves the blame of the bad government of 
our cities, which these children will surely rule 
in a few years. By all means in our power, 
now is the time to make good Americans of 
them and then good loyal citizens, whose 
right to vote can neither be bought nor sold. 



To do this we nmst get into close touch with 
the home life, and so get a firm hold upon 
these children and young i)eople. Ten years 
of this close work in the homes of these people, 
in sympathetic and friendly association, is 
already showing the very best results. A 
large class of young people are already taking 
an intelligent interest in everything that per- 
tains to the public interest of the North End. 
Young men and young women are seeking to 
do for the neighborhood what will be a powerful 
influence in the right direction. Many are 
studying to etjuip themselves for a useful and 
helpful life. 

"The work brings its own reward; and, if 
any doubt that such methods are practical, 
let them spend a few days at 36 HuH Street, 
and see the varied plans and the all-round 
efforts to win the young people to adopt the 
best and become the best. There is a hearty 
co-operation among the many workers of this 
important part of the city with the excellent 
public schools and different institutions to 
make this the centre of a new and a renewed 
life for Boston." 



LYDIA GROUT WELLINGTON, a mem- 
ber of .the Ladies' Aid Association of . 
_^ the Massachusetts Soldiers' Home in 
Chelsea, is a resilient of Worcester. 
She was born December 1, 1844, daughter of 
Edw-in and Lydia Pierce (Barton) Grout, of 
Millbury, Mass. 

On the paternal side she is a direct descend- 
ant in the seventh generation of John' Grout, 
one of the early proprietors of Watertown. 
About the year 1643 John' Grout removed to 
Sudbury, lie served as Captain of a military 
company and as a chirurgeon. 

Jonathan^ Grout, born in Sudbury in 1658 
(son of Captain John by his second wife, Sarah, 
daughter oj' Nicholas Busby and widow of 
Captain Thomas Cakcbread), married Abigail, 
daughter of John Dix. 

Jonathan,' their son, born in 1702, married 
Hannah Hurd. He bought a farm in Worces- 
ter about 1744, and died there in 1748. Jona- 
than,^ born in Sudbury, 1744, also resided in 
Worcester. 



178 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Jonathan,'^ born 1772, son of Jonathan^ and 
his wife Anna, married Sally DeWolf, of Lyme, 
Conn., doubtless a descendant of Balthasar De 
Wolf, an early settler of the town. Jonathan 
Grout, known as Master Grout, long a success- 
ful teacher of district schools, was also a book- 
binder and bookseller, and publisher of several 
small devotional books. 

His son Edwin," born in 1812, died in 1846. 
He married in 1836 Lydia P. Barton. Their 
daughter, Lydia Ann (now Mrs. Wellington), 
whose birth date is given above, was educated 
at the Wheaton Seminary, Norton, Mass. On 
September 18, 1866, she was married to Gen- 
eral Arthur Augustus Goodell, of Worcester, a 
veteran of the Civil War. She became the 
mother of four children: Harry Barton, born 
August 13, 1867; Edwin Wilder, born March 
15, 1869, who died February 4, 1890; Alice 
May, born May 1, 1871; and Edwin Howe, born 
February 8, 1873, who died in infancy. Gen- 
eral Goodell died June 30, 1882, on the forty- 
third anniversary of his birth. The following 
is his military record: "Sergeant Major, Third 
Battalion Rifles, M. V. M., April 19, 1861; Ad- 
jutant, July 1, 1861 ; Captain Company C, Thirty- 
sixth Massachusetts Volunteers, August 16, 1862; 
Major, January 29, 1863; Lieutenant Colonel, 
July 31, 1863, commanding regiment from 
that date until October 10, 1863, when severely 
wounded at Blue Springs, Tenn. ; returned to 
regiment April 1, 1864; resigned May 5 in con- 
.sequence of disability resulting from wounds. 
Brevetted Brigadier-general, United States 
Volunteers, for 'gallant and meritorious con- 
duct in the field during the war.' " 

On September 4, 1883, Mrs. Goodell became 
the wife of Fred Williams Wellington, who in 
former years had been connected in business 
with General Goodell. Mr. Wellington was 
born in Shirley, Mass., May 31, 1851, son of 
Timothy W. and Augusta (Fiske) Wellington 
and a lineal descendant in the eighth genera- 
tion of Roger Wellington, one of the early 
proprietors of Watertown, Mass. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Worcester (his 
parents having removed to that city in 1855) 
and in schools in Germany and France, where 
he spent two years. One year after his return 
from Europe he was clerk in the First National 



Bank, Worcester, and later he was in his 
father's coal office. The year 1871 he passed 
in California. He embarked in the coal busi- 
ness in 1872, anil is still in the trade, having 
been since 1889 president and general manager 
of the Austin C. Wellington Coal Company. 
Commissioned Second Lieutenant in the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia in 1882, he was suc- 
cessively promoted to First Lieutenant, Captain, 
and Assistant Inspector-general on the staff of 
Governor Ames, with rank of Colonel. He 
served on the staff of Governors Greenhalge, 
Wolcott, and Crane, and is now (1903) on the 
staff of Governor Bates with rank of Brigadier- 
general. 

Greatly interested in the welfare of the Civil 
War veterans, comrades of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, Mrs. Wellington has long 
been an earnest worker in the Ladies' Aid 
Society of the Soldiers' Home in Chelsea. She 
is also an active and esteemed :ii mber of the 
Woman's Club of Worcester. 



A NN MARIA MILES SPRAGUE, edu- 
/ \ cator and philanthropist, is a sister 
X ^ of General Nelson A. Miles and a 
descendant of the Rev. John Myles, 
who came to New England about the year 
1663 from Swansea, Wales, and settled in 
Swansea, Mass., so named at the incorpora- 
tion of the town a few years later. His 
death is thus recorded: "Mr. John Myles, 
pastor of the church in Swanzy, deceased 
February 3, 1682-3." His son, John Myles, 
Jr., who also resided in Swansea, Mass., was 
elected to the office of Town Clerk in May, 
1670. Nathaniel, son of John Myles, Jr., 
was born, as recorded in the Swansea town 
register, 26th day, 8 mo., 1671; and James, 
son of John the younger and Mary, his wife, 
in April, 1674. Daniel Miles, a native of 
Pomfret, Conn., thought to have been of the 
fourth generation of this family, and son 
of a Samuel Miles, removed to Petersham, 
Mass., where he died early in 1777, his will 
being probated April 9. His .son, Joab Miles, 
died in Petersham in 1835 at the age of ninety- 
one years. Joab married Elizabeth Fitch, 
a descendant, it is said, of John Fitch, who 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



179 



was captured by the Indians at Fitchburg, 
and from whom that city derived its name. 
A tablet to the memory of John Fitch may 
now be seen in Fitciiburg. Daniel Miles, 
born in Petersham in 1799, son of Joab, married 
Mary Curtis, of ^^'estminster, who was born 
in 1802. Both died in 1875. Daniel and 
Mary (Curtis) Miles had four children — namely, 
Daniel Curtis, Mary Jane, Ann Maria, and 
Nelson Appleton. The last named, in his 
interesting book, " Personal Recollections of 
General Nelson A. Miles," refers to his parents 
and ancestors as follows: — 

" Physical and mental advantages were not 
the only ones for which 1 feel it a very pleasant 
iluty to render thanks to my honored parents. 
Simplicity of life, purity of thought and action, 
and high moral standartls were as character- 
istic of them as of their ancestors through 
many generations. My father, Daniel Miles, 
excelled in strength, resolution, boldness, antl 
the highest sense of honor. To the example 
of his sterling integrity, spotless character, 
and loyalty to country I owe whatever of 
aptitude I have possessed in meeting the 
stern realities of a somewhat tumultuous 
life in an exacting profession. My father's 
high qualities had been transmitted through 
five generations from the Rev. John Miles, 
a Welsh clergyman, who hail not only been 
a soldier of the Cross, but also a soldier of 
approved valor and conduct in the Indian 
wars. 

" For many years he carried on a school 
'for the teaching of granmiar and arithmetic, 
and the tongues of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, 
also how to read English and to write.' This 
ancestor's residence was strongly built, and 
when King Philip's War broke out, in 1675, 
it was fortified and became known as Myles's 
Garrison. There the colonial forces gathered 
at the first outbreak of Indian hostilities, anil 
the pastor became foremost in the defence of 
the settlement anil was chosen Captain. Having 
done valiant service in the war, he at the 
close resumed the duties of a country clergy- 
man. 

"His son Samuel graduated from Harvard 
College in 1684, and went to England soon 
after, where he took orders in the English 



church. Returning to Boston, Samuel Mdes 
became rector of King's Chapel in 1689, con- 
tinuing in this position for twenty-nine years. 
Oxfoid L'niversity conferred upon him the 
degree of Master of Arts in 1693. 

" My ancestors moved from Massachusetts 
to Pomfret, Conn. Thence they made a settle- 
ment at what is now the town of Petersham, 
in Central Massachusetts, when that was the 
extreme frontier. This settlement was at 
once abandoned because of the depredations 
of the Indians. 

" My paternal grandfather, Joab, and great- 
grandfather, Daniel, were both soldiers of the 
Revolution. 

[In " Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors 
of the Revolutionary War," vol. x., the record 
of Joab Miles is as follows: "Sergeant, Capt. 
Wing Spooner's Co., Col. Nathan Sparhawk's 
regt.; engaged Aug. 21, 1777, travel to camp 
and home 180 miles; service at twenty miles 
per day, 9 days; company marched from 
Petersham to Bennington, Aug. 21, 1777, 
to reinforce army under General Stark; also, 
1st Sergeant, Capt. Josiah AVilder's company. 
Col. Nathan Sparhawk's regt., commanded 
by Maj. Daniel Clap, entereil service July 4, 
1778: discharged July 15, 1778; service 13 days 
at Rutland Barracks, company raised for 20 
days' service; roll dated Templeton." 

■The records of Daniel Miles in the same 
volume, beginning with service from August 3, 
1776, and ending with discharge in December, 
1780, cannot all refer to Joab's father, who 
died, as above noted, in 1777.] 

"I have often heard my father tell of the 
experiences of his father and grandfather — 
of their sudden departure for the field and 
of the hardships encountered by them and 
their comrades. 

"My father, Daniel Miles, was born in Peters- 
ham, but moved in early life to Westminster, 
in the same county [Worcester], in the State 
of Massachusetts, where he engaged in farming 
and in the lumber business." 

In referring to their mother General Miles 
says: "My mother, Mary Curtis, possessed 
traits of character similar to those of my 
father, and excelled in those which most adorn 
womanhood. It is not possible adequately to 



180 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



express my sense of obligation for lier devotion. 
She was a true Christian. Never was one 
more earnestly prayed for during childhood 
and manhood, during peace and war, than 
myself. It was her loftiest ambition to guide 
her children, by good example, jjure thoughts, 
upright and praiseworthy life, to honorable 
and noble purpose. To her unselfish de- 
votion, her gentle and loving admonitions, 
am I greatly indebted for whatever there 
may be in me that is conmiendable. My 
mother was a direct tlescendant of William 
Curtis, who arrived in Boston on the ship 
'Lyon,' September 16, 1632." 

Mrs. Lydia (Jilbert Curtis, the mother of 
Mary Curtis, married for her second husband 
Mr. Hastings, of Princeton, Mass., the great- 
grantlfather of the late ex-Governor Russell. 
When seventy years old, she became the bride 
of Deacon Timothy Downes, of Fitchburg. 
She lived to the age of ninety. 

Daniel Curtis Miles, the eldest child of Daniel, 
Sr., and Mary Curtis Miles, was born in West- 
minster, June, 1828. He married Lucy Ann 
PufTer. Their children are: Mary Josephine, 
George Melville, Herbert Judson, Arthur 
Wellington, and Martha Gertrude. Daniel C. 
Miles was for many years a popular teacher. 
He afterward engaged in the lumber trade 
and in manufacturing. He founfled the West- 
minster National Bank, and was its president 
twenty years. He is the present l)ank ex- 
aminer of Massachusetts, and his son, Herbert 
Jud.son, is his assistant. 

The second child of Daniel and Mary (Curtis) 
Miles is Mary Jane, who was born in West- 
minster in June, 1832. She was a successful 
teacher, interested in educational matters and 
in church work. She has been a liberal con- 
tributor to the Baptist society, and has accom- 
plished much good in her quiet way. After 
her marriage to Gardner Merriam, of Princeton, 
she .settled in Leominster, Mass. Mr. and 
Mrs. Merriam have four children — Nelson 
Curtis, Nellie Gracie, Mary Anna, and Sadie 
Jane. 

Ann Maria Miles, the direct subject of this 
.sketch, was born April 15, 1837, in Westminster, 
Mass. She received a good education, and as 
a teacher had a large experience in school 



work. Interested in the welfare of her pupils, 
she not only guided them in the paths of learn- 
ing, but also trained them in those principles 
of integrity and sound morality without 
which no man or woman can achieve a perfect 
success. An instance of the manner in which 
she impressed upon her pupils the importance 
of punctuality is found in the fact that her 
youngest chikl attended school for fifteen 
years without receiving an absent or tardy 
mark. 

Mrs. Sprague is a woman of excellent busi- 
ness capacity, successfully managing large 
affairs requiring tact, sound judgment, ex- 
ecutive ability, and thorough knowledge of 
business methods. For .seven years she held 
a government post-office position. She is 
actively interested in philanthropic work, being 
a liberal contriliutor to various charities and 
a helpful and freijuent visitor to the homes 
of the poor and unfortunate. She has been 
closely identi'ied with the work of the Little 
Wanderers' Home and in placing children 
in country homes, where they could be taught 
u.seful occupations and learn to be self-sup- 
porting. 

Married in 1856 to Samuel Hazen Sprague, 
she has since resided in Westminster, Mass. 
She is the mother of five children — Lovvie 
Maria, Samuel Nelson, Hattie Sophia, Theo- 
docia Miles, and Lydia Gertrude. 

Mrs. Sprague possesses in a high degree 
the art of -freeable conversation. She has 
travelled ex. iisively in ''s and foreign coun- 
tries, has been an inteuigent and accurate 
ob.server, and is well versed in the leading 
topics of the day. A patriotic American, 
she is prou(i of her country, and clo.sely fol- 
lows every event that concerns our nation's 
welfare. 

Mrs. Sprague takes an especial pride in the 
career of her distinguished brother, General 
Nelson Appleton Miles, who was born in 
Westminster, and name<l by his mother in 
honor of Appleton Monse, a devoted Baptist 
clergyman. As Lieutenant of a company of 
volunteers, which he organized at the begin- 
ning of the Civil War, as Colonel of a regiment 
and commander of a brigade in that conflict, 
and later as a victorious leader against hostile 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



181 



Indians, he rendered services that have added 
to the glory and stability of our country, 
and made his name a househokl word in our 
land. Later, as Lieutenant Generajl of the 
army, he attained the highest military rank 
in the United States, and during his tour 
around the world was tendered receptions 
by kings, emperors, and other rulers. He 
is honored in civil life as an eminent patriot 
and citizen. General Miles married Mary 
Hoyt Sherman, of Cleveland, Ohio, antl has 
two children— Mary Cecelia Sherman and 
Daniel Sherman. Mrs. Miles accompanied her 
husband in his tour around the world, and 
was received with distinguishetl honors. 

Mrs. Sprague takes an interest in the 
soldiers who have served with her brother 
and with other leaders, and also in the army 
nurses of the Civil War, being an honorary 
member of the Massachusetts Army Nurse 
Association. 



HELEN C. MULFORD, Superintend- 
ent for nine years of the iFranchise 
'Department oif the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, of Barn- 
stable County Mass., is a native of Chatham, 
Mass., where she now resides tluring the 
greater part of the year. 

She was born August 3, 1S45, daughter of 
Isaac Bea and Maria J. (Marston) Young. 
She is a grand-daughter of Joseph. Jr., and 
Bethia (Bea) Yovmg. ojreat-grancf ughter of 
Joseph and Anna ickerson) \oung, and 
great-great-grand-daughter of Hiatt and Mercy 
(Hinckley) Young. 

Two of these ancestors, nanicly, Hiatt 
Young, of Chatham (born about 1739), and 
his son Joseph, fought in the war for American 
independence, Hiatt Young appearing with 
the rank of Sergeant on the Revolutionary 
rolls of the State. For a number of years he 
was in Captain Webb's, later in Captain Hol- 
brook's company, Colonel William Shepard's 
regiment. It is related of him that upon reach- 
ing his little home after his discharge from 
the army, without a cent, weary and footsore, 
having suffered many privations and hard- 
ships, he left his footprints in blood upon the 



newly scrubbed floor, and that they never 
could be erased while the house remained 
standing. An old memorandum records the 
fact that the town refused to pay him the 
bounty which was his due, amounting to thirty 
pounds. His actual grave remains unknown. 

The following is the inscription on a monu- 
ment standing on a lot in the Universalist 
cemetery, now owned by Isaac B. Young, 
inscribed many years ago under the direction 
of his eldest son, Joseph: — 

:n memory of 
HIATT YOUNG 

WHO DIED OCT. 10, 1810, AGED 71 YEARS. IN 
THE FRENCH WAR HE SERVED IN MAJOR ROGERRS' RAN- 
GERS AND WAS TAKEN CAPTIVE BY THE INDIANS. HE 
ALSO SERVED SIX YEARS IN THE WAR OF THE REVOLU- 
TION, AND WAS ENGAGED IN SEVERAL BATTLES: l.ST AT 
THE SIEGE OF BOSTON; 21) IN THE BATTLE OF LONG 
island; 3D AT PRINCETON; 4TH, TRENTON; 5TH, 
TAKING OF BURGOYNE; 6TH, MONMOUTH; 7TH, 
RHODE island; 8TH, CORNWALLIS. MERCY YOUNG, 
HIS WIDOW, DIED OCT. 4TH, 18L'4, AGED 84 YEARS. 

Joseph Young was so anxious that this 
inscription should be executed correctly before 
his death, which he felt was approaching, that 
he had the stone brought to his front yard, 
and the work done where he could look upon 
it from his sick-bed and see that no mistake 
was made. 

Joseph Young was born September 25, 1762, 
in Liverpool, N.S., antl died July 31, 1848, 
about one week after the completion of the 
monument. At the age of thirteen, in his 
father's absence, he had nominal charge of 
the support of the family. That his mother 
could spare him a few years later is shown by 
the fact that he himself enlisted before he was 
sixteen. 

The following was recorded by him in later 
years : — 

" I was so very small and short of stature 
that I had to resort to stratagem to pass the 
very yielding eye of an enlisting officer. I 
put on a pair of my father's big cowhide boots, 
and filled under my feet all that I could to raise 
me up. Then I put on all the clothes I could 
to make me stout. When I went before the 



182 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



examining officer, I stretched myself all I 
could, and was accepted. I was nine months 
in Jackson's regiment, six months at Provi- 
dence under Captain Job Crocker, nine months 
in Shepard's regiment under Captain Grifhths, 
of Yarmouth, in my father's name, and in the 
last twenty-four months of the war under 
Shepard, a part of the time in my father's 
name and a part in my own, serving in all four 
years, eight months. 

"I stayed until peace was declared, and was 
discharged back of Newburg before General 
Washington took possession of New York, 
without a cent to pay my expenses home, 
which I reached after suffering many privations, 
to find my father and family in distressed 
circumstances, as neither of us had received 
any compensation for our services. At this 
time the Continental script was of such depre- 
ciation in value that a month's wages would 
not buy a bushel of corn. 

" I travelled to Boston to secure our wages, 
which the government was paying by issuing 
notes, and fount! that Lieutenant Hamblin of 
the Fourth Regiment, who was paymaster, 
had disposed of our notes and run away to 
Canada with the proceeds, so that was the last 
that I ever heard of our wages. I was in the 
battle of Rhode Island under General Sullivan 
and in many other scrimmages, one at Moriseny, 
another near Redden between Valley Forge and 
Philadelphia, and many others, in which we 
stood our ground bravely and were not daunted 
to see a redcoat." 

After the war Jo.'ieph Young married an esti- 
mable young woman, Anna Nickerson, daughter 
of Moses Nickerson. As he had no property 
to speak of, her family, who were Tories, ob- 
jected to the match, but in vain. He succeeded 
in surmounting all difficulties, and in later 
years assisted in the support of the Tory 
family and many of their relations. 

Joseph Young displayed the same courage 
and determination in business that he had 
shown as a soldier, and rose from fi.sherman to 
master and owner of vessels. But tlie embargo 
came, and his vessels lay idle, causing him 
heavy losses. In the War of 1812 one of his 
vessels, within twenty-four hours of home, was 
Captured, and two of his sons, Joseph, Jr., and 



Reuben, who were on board, were sent to 
Dartmoor Prison, being afterward released. 

After the war was over, Joseph Young 
succeeded in retrieving his losses. It is re- 
lated of him that he accumulated a handsome 
property for his time. He reared a large 
family, six daughters and three sons, and was 
a very prominent citizen of Chatham, holding 
all the highest othces in the town and serving 
several years in the Legislature. He built a 
cotton factory in Harwich and a woollen fac- 
tory m Chatham, and was, in fact, a leader in 
any enterprise that would help the community. 
He was very public-spirited, and was liberal 
in his benefactions to the poor. No one was 
ever turned away from his (loor empty-handed. 

A firm believer in the tloctrine of universal 
salvation, he contributed largely to the building 
of the first L^niversalist meeting-house on 
Cape Cod. Joseph Young, Jr., was born 
February 20, 1796, and died November 27, 
1869. Isaac B. Young, his son, who is now 
(1904) eighty-six yeais old and the last sur- 
vivor of his branch of the family, is an honored 
citizen of Chatham. His youngest brother, 
George W. Young, died August 5, 1903. Maria 
J. Marston Young, wife of Isaac B., died 
January 3, 1894. She was a daughter of 
Arthur B. and Hannah J. (Jones) Marston, 
of West Barnstable, Cape Cod, Mass. 

Helen C. Mulford was educated in the public 
schools of Chatham, and before sixteen years 
of age began a successful career as a teacher. 
Siie liad tlie love and respect of all her pupils, 
and li(M' poiiuiarity among them was an evi- 
dence of her kindness, lier good judgment, 
and ability in dealing with tho.se under her 
charge. She was engaged in this profession 
for several years, and among her most devoted 
friends are some of her former pupils. 

On July 14, 1864, she married Joseph W. 
Mulford, an Acting Ensign in the United States 
navy. Since her marriage Mrs. Mulford has 
resided in Boston and Taunton, Mass. (where 
she conducted a millinery and fancy goods 
business), and Bridgewater, and for several 
years has lived at her father's home in Chat- 
ham, Mass. 

Mrs. Mulford is interested in the Univer- 
salist church in Chatham, of which her great- 




KATHERINE L. HOVLE 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



183 



grandfather was one of the founders. She 
early became interested ui the woman suffrage 
movement and in temperance work, and for 
the past nine years has been County Super- 
intentlent of the Franchise Department of 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 
She has supplied tliirteen towns with litera- 
ture upon the subject, has conducted an ex- 
tensive correspondence, and aided the cause 
in many other ways. Mrs. Mulford not 
only takes an active interest in every move- 
ment for the atlvancement of women, but also 
in the efforts for good government and for 
the public schools. A local paper, referring 
to the campaign of 1891, said: "The women 
of Chatham have been carrying on a vigorous 
campaign under the leadership of Mrs. Helen 
Mulford. The town was districted in Septem- 
ber, over seventy were assessed and i-egis- 
tered, and nearly all voted. A correspontl- 
ent writes: 'Mrs. Mulford deserves unbovmded 
credit for her work, for the campaign was a 
perfect success, and is so acknowledged by the 
men, notwithstanding that nothing whatever 
was done in the matter until the mitldle of 
September. The women took hold with zeal, 
and, though quiet and womanly in their work, 
were determinetl to carry it through. The 
best and most iafiuential women, younger and 
older, cast their votes. The interest in town 
meeting was never so intense, as shown from 
the fact that more men voted than for four 
years. We shall do still lietter next year. 
All honor to the women of Chatham.'" 

In 1889 Mrs. Mulford joined Frank D. Ham- 
mond Woman's Relief Corps, No. 141, of South 
Chatham, auxiliary to the Grand Army post 
of that town, and entered upon its work with 
enthusiasm. She was elected to fill various 
offices, and was choseri president the second 
year, but declined until' 1901. In that year 
and in 1902 she was president of the corps, 
performing her official duties in a dignified 
and thorough manner. She was treasurer of 
the corps six years, and is at present corps 
patriotic instructor, ha^^ng charge of the work 
of inculcating in the schools the spirit of love 
and devotion to country. She has been a 
participant in many department conventions, 
and has served on important committees 



in the State body, representing fourteen thou- 
santl women. Mrs. Mulford has been a Na- 
tional Aide antl special Aide in the Depart- 
ment of Massachusetts, Woman's Relief Corps, 
and is a delegate to the National Convention 
to be held in Boston in August, 1904. This 
will be a gathering representing one hundred 
and fifty thousand loyal women of the countrj'. 

Proud of her Revolutionary ancestry, she 
Has taken an interegt in the history of that 
great conflict anil in perpetuating the memory 
of its heroes, and enjoys membership in Sarah 
Bradlee Fulton Chapter, Daughters of the 
Anierican Revolution, the headquarters of 
which are at the Royall House, Medford. 

In matters of business Mrs. Mulford shows 
executive ability and a knowledge of financial 
questions; in social life, those cjualities that 
win and retain friends. Faithful to the highest 
duties of life, loving the principles of right and 
justice, and loyal to the cause of patriotism 
and humanity, she enjoys being identified 
with the [progressive work of the world. 



KATHERINE LAWRENCE HOYLE, 
for many years one of the best 
known and most highly respected 
women of Maiden, wafi born in 
Medford, Mass., January 10, 1825, daughter 
of Captain Martin and Eliza (Withington) 
Burrage. 

Her paternal ancestry has been traced back 
to Robert Burrage, of Seething, Norfolk 
County, England, whose will was proved in 
the Bishop's Court at Norfolk, May 13, 1559, 
his death having occurred in that year. His 
wife's given name' was Rose. Mrs. Hoyle's 
line of descent is through his son Richard, 
the date of whose birth is not known, but 
who resided in Norton Subcourse, Norfolk 
County, England. Thomas Burrage, born 
February 28, 1581, son of Richard, married 
Frances Dey, August 19, 1606. He died 
March 2, 1632-3. 

John' Burrage, son of Thomas and his 
wife Frances, was baptized in Norton Sub- 
course, April 10, 1616. He was the founder 
of this branch of the family in America. Com- 
ing to Massachusetts and settling m Charles- 



184 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



town, his name tx-ing on the records in 1637, 
he took the freeman's oath May 18, 1642. 
About 1639 he married his first wife, Mary, 
whose maitlen surname is not known. His 
second wife was Joanna Stowers. He dieil 
October 19, 16S5. 

William^ Burrage, the elder of the two sons 
of John' who survived their father, was born 
June 10, 1657. In the county records between 
the years 1677 and 1690 he is called " a mariner." 
His name appears in a list prej^ared by Con- 
stable Greenwood for the use of the assessors 
of taxes in Boston in 1674, and also in a list 
of inhabitants of Boston in 1695. He died 
in 1720. 

John^ Burrage, born in Boston, February 11, 
1693, son of William and his wife Sarah, died 
January 24, 1765. He married first, October 
9, 171S, Lydia Ward, who tlied in 1724. He 
married January 17, 1725, Sarah Smith. He 
was a farmer and lived in Newton, Mass. 
William' Burrage, son of John' and Lydia 
(Ward) Burrage, married December 13, 1744, 
Hannah Osland. He moved to Concord, Mass., 
about 1756, and died in October, 1763. 
John* Burrage, born August 29, 1755, married 
May 10, 1781, Lois Barthrick, of Lunenburg. 
He died July 2, 1822. 

Captain Martin" Burrage, son of John'^ and 
his wife Lois, was born July 27, 1793. He 
became a prominent citizen of Medford, active 
in town affairs, and was Captain of the crack 
militia company of the town. In this capacity 
he had the honor of escorting Cieneral La- 
fayette in his last visit to this country and 
of being personally complimented by him on 
the fine military bearing of the company. 
His sword is preserved in the family as a 
valuable souvenir. His first wife, Eliza 
Withington, was a woman of sterling qualities. 
Her father established the old bakery that is 
still standing in Medford and is probably th(> 
oldest in New England. After her death 
Captain Burrage married for his second wife, 
May 12, 1840, Hannah Pratt. 

Katherine Lawrence Burrage was educated 
in the public schools of Medford, and became 
a teacher. When she was sixteen years old, 
her parents sold their Medford farm and 
bought one in Maiden, where the family 



lived for many years. Here, long after, her 
father died when in his eighty-sixth year. 

At the age of twenty-five Miss Burrage 
was married to Charles Frederick Syffernian, 
a manufacturer of carriage and upholstery 
trimmings in Maiden, witli a store on Otis 
Street, Boston. Of this union there were 
four children, two of whom did not survive 
the period of infancy. The others, William 
and Frederick, liveil but to reach the thresh- 
old of a promising manhood, the former dying 
at the age of eighteen and the latter at nine- 
teen. Their memory is preserved in a gift 
of eight thousand dollars left by Mrs. Hoyle 
to the Maiden Public Library for the purchase 
of books for the use of the young people of 
the city. Mr. Syffernian flied in 1876, and 
after some three years of comparative seclusion 
his widow married for her second husband 
Josiah Talbot, a lumber dealer of Maklen, a 
member of the firm of Talbot Brothers. He 
died in 1881. In 1882 Mrs. Talbot marriwl 
Royal Teele of Medford. Mr. Teele died in 
February, 1892, and on November 23, 1892, 
his widow became the wife of Irving Julius 
Hoyle, a native of Thompson, Conn. Mr. 
Hoyle was born in 1850, son of Moses antl 
Caroline (Joslin) Hoyle. Through his mother, 
a daughter of Jesse and Sibyl (Bates) Joslin 
an<l grand-daughter of Jolui Bates and his 
wife, Chloe Fuller, Mr. Hoyle is a descentlant 
of Isaac AUerton, one of the ''Mayflower" 
Pilgrims, ns thus sliown- Mary^ AUerton, 
daughter of Isaac,' mari'ied Elder Thoma.s^ 
Cushman. Their son Thomas' married Abi- 
gail Fuller, and was the father of Samuel" 
Cushman, who married F'ear Corser. Mary* 
Cushman, tlaughter of Sanuiel,* married 
Noah Fuller, ami was the mother of Chloe" 
P'uller, wife of John Bates and great-grand- 
mother of Mr. Hoyle. One of Mr. Hoyle's 
ancestors on the paternal side was Chad Brown, 
founder of the Rhode Island family for whom 
lirown L^niversity was named. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hoyle enjoyed some ten years 
of happy home life, which was terminated 
by her death on December 20, 1902, as the 
result of pneumonia. She left no children. 

Mrs. Hoyle was a woman of philanthropic 
nature and broad sympathies, which found 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



185 



characteristic expression, through her ample 
means, in various benefactions and chari- 
table works. To lend a helping hand to 
every worthy cause, not grudging either 
money or personal service, to extend to the 
poor and unfortunate both helpful atlvice 
and pecuniary aid, to do all that lay in her 
power to make the world Ijetter and brighter 
— this was the self-inijiosed mission wliich 
she nobly fulfilled. She was an incorporator 
and one of the trustees of the Maiden Hos- 
pital; one of the original incorporators in 
Maiden of the Y. M. C. A.; and a trustee and 
at the time of her death one of the board of 
managers of the Home for Aged People in 
Maiden. To each of these institutions she 
made generous bequests — one thousand dol- 
lars to the hospital, two thousand dollars 
to the Y. M. C. A., and a .similar amount to 
the Home for Ageil People. She also l(>ft three 
hunilred dollars to the city of Medford to main- 
tahi perpetually a drinking fountain, erected 
by her at the corner of Spring and Salem 
.Streets, also the same amount to the city of 
Maiden for the permanent care of a drinking 
fountain previously erected by her in Jud.son 
Square, Maiden. She left the cities of Med- 
ford and Maiden several similar amounts 
for the care of her lot in Salem Street Cemetery ; 
Maiden, the care of her father's lot in Oak 
Grove Cemetery, Medford, and for the care 
of the lot of her former husliand, Mr. Teele, 
in Medford. To the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals she left two thousand 
dollars. Wilbraham Academy received from 
her the gift of one thousand dollars. Her 
memory is perjjetuated in the Centre Meth- 
odist Church of Malilen by her gift of a silver 
communion service. The residue of her 
fortune, excepting some i)rivate bequests, 
was left to Mr. Hoyle. 

Mrs. Hoyle was a constant attendant at 
the First Congregational Church, the pastor 
of which, the Rev. H. H. French, officiated 
a4 her funeral, assisted by the pastor of 
the Centre Methotlist Church, the Rev. Mr. 
Hughes. A womanly woman and a practical 
Christian, she left behind a fragrant memory 
of her life and character that shall long 
endure. 



HELEN N. PACKARD, widely known 
as a newspaper correspondent, a 
writer of poems, and an enthusias- 
tic worker in patriotic societies, is 
one of the recent accessions from New England 
to the journalistic ranks of the Pacific coast, 
having removed from Springfield, Ma.ss., to 
Portlantl, Ore., in 1901. This was three 
years ago, eight years after the death of her 
husband, John A. Packard, a veteran of the 
Civil War. 

Mrs. Packard is a native of Maine. Her 
maiden name was Clark. She was born in 
\Mnterport, Waldo County, being one of the 
ten children of Lemuel and Harriet (Brown) 
Clark. 

The Clark family of Winterport is one of 
the very oldest and most respected of the town, 
Lemuel Clark, Sr., having come there from 
Kittery nearly one hundred and fifty years 
ago. The original farm of the progenitor of 
the family is now owned and occupied by his 
great-grandson. 

]\Irs. Packard's father was a sea-captain, 
engaged mostly in the West India trade, but 
also visiting foreign ports. Two of his brothers 
served in the War of 1812. Mrs. Packard's 
mother, born in 1812, was daughter of .John, Jr., 
and Sally (Crosby) Brown, of Belfast, Me. 
John Brown, Sr., removed from Londonderry, 
N.H., in 1773. He had been an officer in the 
Provincial army in the French antl Indian War. 
He was one of the first board of selectmen 
of Belfast, and is said to have been a man of 
"great vigor, energy, and honesty." He died 
in LS17, aged eighty-two years. His son, 
John, Jr., born in 1763, died in 1824 (History 
of Belfast). Both father and son were mem- 
bers of the Committee of Inspection and Safety 
during the struggle for Ainerican independence, 
and both rendered valuable service to the 
infant country. John Brown, Sr., was one of 
three men who alone of all the settlement re- 
fused to take the oath of allegiance to Great 
Britain when the British fleet appeared in 
Penobscot Bay in 1779, preferring to sacrifice 
all his possessions, which he did, but they were 
restored to him in 1783. 

Sally Crosby, described by one who had seen 
her as a "remarkably sedate, sensible, goilly 



186 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



woman," was born in 1774, the daughter of 
Simon and Sarah (Sewall) Crosby. Her mother, 
great-grandmother of Mrs. Packard, was daugh- 
ter of Nicholas antl Mehitable (Storer) Sewall, 
of York, Me., and sister of Stephen Sewall, the 
learned professor of Hebrew at Harvard Uni- 
versity in the latter part of the eighteentli 
century. Nicholas Sewall was son of Johii^ 
(Henry' ') and nephew of SamueP Sewall, 
the distinguished Judge Sewall of colonial 
times. 

Lemuel Clark was a man of intense loyalty 
to his country, but was too old to enlist in the 
Civil War of 1861-65. He sent two of his sons 
to the front, one of whom returned, the other 
being killed at Antietam. 

His daughter Helen was reared in an atmos- 
phere of patriotism, and was but a school-girl 
when she began to work for the soldiers. vShe 
scraped lint, knitted socks, packed bo.xes of 
comforts, and after the war was over raised 
money from various entertainments for the 
benefit of the soldiers. When only fifteen 
years old she went about the outlying dis- 
tricts of Winterport, canvassing for provisions 
for the soldiers' fair to be held in her native 
town. After her graduation from the high 
school she continued her studies for a time at 
a boarding-school for girls. 

John Alvin A. Packard, to whom she was 
married in 1867, served as a Lieutenant in the 
Fifth Maine Regiment in the Civil War, and had 
an honorable record as a brave soldier. He 
participated in all the battles of the Army of 
the Potomac, from Bull Hmi to Gettysburg. 
One week after Gettysbiu-g, while leading his 
company in an engagement, he was wounded 
by a bullet, which passed through his body 
and lodged in a tree. He resigned the fol- 
lowing November, but it was thirteen months 
before the wound was healetl. For a few years 
Mr. and Mrs. Packard made their home in 
Portland, Me. In 1874 they removed to Spring- 
field, Mass. They became the parents of three 
sons: Walter Alvin, born December 17, 1877; 
Arthur Howard, born November 17, 1879; and 
Raymond Clark, born July 11, 1881. Mr. 
Packard died in Springfield, at the age of fifty- 
eight years, May 1, 1893, from disease contracted 
in the service thirty years before. 



While living in Portland, Me., Mrs. Packard 
joined the AVoman's Auxiliary to the Portland 
Army and Navy Union. For many years slie 
contributed letters and articles to the press 
in behalf of the soldiers of the Civil War, en- 
deavoring to awaken an interest in their needs. 
She has received hundreds of letters of appre- 
ciation from soldiers in all sections of the 
country and many official votes of thanks from 
posts and regimjjntal associations, also lettefs 
from Dr. Olivei' Wendell Holmes, John J. In- 
galls, and many distinguished generals of the 
Civil War. 

Invitations ha\e been extended to Mrs. 
Packard to write for Grand Army gather- 
ings from Maine to Texas. In October, 1889, 
at the dedication of the Maine monuments, 
she read an original poem at the sunmiit of 
Little Round Top, Gettysburg, entitled "The 
Voice of Maine." Among the many popular 
poems she has written are "Decoration Day," 
"The Old Guard." "In Memoriam," and "Me- 
morial Day." \\'hen tlie memorial building 
of the Fifth Maine Regiment was dedicated 
at Peak's Island, Portland, Me., Mrs. Packard 
by special invitation read original verses. 

The Magazine of Poelrij and lAterary Revieir, 
in its issue of October, 1895, referred to her 
work as follows: "All of Mrs. Packard's poems, 
whether |)atriotic, descrijttive, psychical, in- 
trospective, or in lighter vein, evince a deep and 
original mind, a keen insight into nature, a 
sincere faith, and a graceful and concise mode 
of expression. Several of her poems have been 
arranged as songs, a setting for which they are 
particularly well adapted." 

Among the publications in which Mrs. Pack- 
ard's writings have appeared are the Spring- 
field R.ej)ul)liran, Homestead and Vniun, the 
Repidtlican Joiirnal uf Maine, Ladies' Home 
Journal, Good Housekee/pinq, Youth's Compan- 
ion, Boston Transcript, and various Western 
papers; among the magazines, the Twentieth 
Ceniury, New Natiort, and New Idea. 

During more than twenty-five years' resi- 
dence in Springfield, Mass., Mrs. Packard was 
a friend to l). K. Wilcox Post, G. A. R., of that 
city, of which her husband was an active mem- 
ber. She joined the Relief Corps auxiliary to 
this post in 188.1, and was vice-president three 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN- OF NEW ENGLAND 



187 



years and chairman of its executive committee 
six years. She helped to earn thousands of 
dollars for the memorial building of E. K. 
Wilcox Post, and is held in grateful remem- 
brance by the post and corps, her work for 
the Grand Army being well known throughout 
the State. She participatetl as a delegate in 
several conventions of the Department of 
Massachusetts, A\'omau's Relief Corps. At the 
time of the Spanish-American War she was one 
of the organizers, and was corres])on(iing sec- 
retary and a director, of the Springfield Aux- 
iliary to the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid 
Association. Her two elder sons enlisted for 
service in Cuba, and Arthur fell on the firing 
line at El Caney, July 1, 189S, pierceil by a 
Mauser bullet. The death of this young patriot, 
only eighteen years of age, and the frantic grief 
of the ekler brother over his dead body was a 
fruitful theme for the newspajter correspondents 
in Cuba, from Richard Harding Davis down 
to the humblest wielder of the pen; and the 
ti'agic circumstance was the original of the 
statue at the I^uffalo I'ixposition entitled " l']l 
Caney." 

Her eldest son, Walter, returned from Cuba 
broken in health from yellow fever, and 
was obliged to leave the bleak climate of New 
England for the Far West. For this reason 
Mrs. Packard in 1901 resigned her position as 
literary editor of the Springfield Daily News, 
and moved to Portland, Ore. 

In her new home she is still actively engaged in 
public work She has been patriotic instructor 
and also ])ress corresj)oiKlent of George ^^ right 
Relief Corps of Portland, Ore., and in 190;i was 
elected a national delegate to the Woman's 
Relief Corps convention in San Francisco. 
Her interest in the old soldiers is as strong as 
ever. She is correspondent for several liast- 
ern papers. After the close of the National 
Pmcampment at Buffalo the Tmies of that city 
said, " Of all the hundreds of press con-espond- 
ents who sent out letters describing the en- 
campment, none equalled in graphic descrip- 
tion those sent by 'H. N. P.' to the Spring- 
field Republican." Mrs. Packard represented 
the same paper in 1903 at the Frisco encamp- 
ment, where she received a cordial greeting 
from a host of Grand Army comrades. Mrs. 



Packartl has held several offices in the United 
Order of the Pilgrim Fathers, including that 
of Governor of the Colony in Springfield. She 
is also a member of Mercy Warren Chapter, 
of Springfield, of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. When a resident of Massachu- 
setts she was identified with the New England 
Woman's Press A.ssociation. As her works 
testify, she is a woman of talent ami of much 
executive ability. 

Mrs. Packard has had rather more than the 
ordinary share of troubles which fall to the lot 
of mortals, but has borne all her many trials 
with fortitutle and cheerfulness, always hold- 
ing the faith that some good purpose underlies 
all the worries of humanity. Her New Eng- 
land birth and training, and inheritance of 
courage from a long line of ancestors, have 
doubtless ujihcld her where others would have 
failed. 

Mrs. Packard now receives the pension of 
a Ijieutenant's widow, secured to her by special 
act of Congress through the efforts of the Hon. 
Malcolm A. Moody, Representative from the 
Second Congressional District of Oregon. 



MARY E. ALLEN.— At the time of the 
French Revolution it is related that 
two young brothers were sent away 
from France, and sailed from their 
native town of Brest, in two different vessels, 
for America. One of them was never heard 
from more. The other, as he told the story, 
was shipwrecked off the coast of Massachu- 
setts, reacheil the shore with some difficulty, 
in scanty clothing, and sought refuge at the 
nearest farmhouse, where he was taken in 
and given work. He could speak no English, 
and, as the people he came among were equally 
ignorant of his language, the farmer sought 
the nearest equivalent in soimd to the name 
given by the stranger, and called him Cornelius 
Allen. This name he afterward bore, re- 
maining a resilient of Massachusetts, where 
he married and had a large family. His son 
Joseph married Mary Nowell, of York, Me. 
She was of Scotch and English descent. The 
youngest of their six children was Mary E. 
Allen, the subject of this sketch, who was born 



188 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



in 1844 in Barre, Mass. She remembers once 
seeing this old grandfather, who made a strange 
impression upon her childish imagination, with 
his broken English and his velvet coat, an ele- 
gance not affected by the fanning population 
among whom he lived. He ilied when she was 
quite a child, and all subseciuent attempts to 
trace her true name and French ancestry have 
proved imavailing. Her early years were spent 
in a country village until the death of her par- 
ents, when, at the age of eight, she was adopted 
by her uncle, Mr. James Nowell, of Ports- 
mouth, N,.H. 

In 1859 the family that had now become 
hers moved to Cambridge, Mass. She entered 
the Cambridge High School, from which she 
was graduated in 1862. The profession of 
teacher seemed best adapted to her, and 
events have proved that she chose wisely. 
Her work began in Montpelier, Vt., and, be- 
fore her first year was over, she received a 
cell to the Williams School, a large school for 
boys in Chelsea, Mass. At the end of her first 
year she was given the position of master's 
assistant, which she occupied for two years, 
resigning in the spring of 1868, to accept the 
position of assistant gymnastic teacher in 
Vassar College. Through some misunderstand- 
ing among the faculty this plan was not car- 
ried out, and in the fall of the same year she 
accepted the position of master's assistant 
in the Chapman School in East Boston, a 
mixed school of girls and boys. 

Miss Allen was always a popular teacher, 
nmch beloved by her pupils and appreciated 
by their parents, and she thoroughly enjoyed 
the work; but she rebelled at the mass of use- 
less cramming imposed upon the public school 
teacher, and found herself opposed in principle 
to spending so much time in fitting for exami- 
nations, when she would gladly have devoted 
herself to teaching in its broader sense. Full 
of energy and ambition, she chafed at the re- 
straints of her position, realizing also that, 
however great the eminence to which she might 
attain as a teacher, .she could not, being a 
woman, aspire to the only two positions above 
her in the grammar school, those of submaster 
and master. 

All this, added to the excessive strain of 



the daily routine upon an organization not over 
robust, forced her to look about for some other 
field of work in which to e.xercise her unusual 
powers, before they s"hould begin to wane. 
For a long time she had been interested in 
physical training, and during the last tlozen 
years she had aroused much enthusiasm for 
gymnastics in her classes at school. 

Miss Allen's interest in this subject led her 
into a field which she found was almost un- 
explored. Nowhere in Boston could a woman 
or child secure any regular ])hysical training. 
Further investigation revealed the same lack 
of opportunity in this direction throughout 
the country. Classes in gynmastics had been 
opened in Boston and elsewhere, both before 
and after Dr. Dio Lewis's day; but nothing 
had proved permanent, and Dr. Lewis's phe- 
nomenal work had been practically dead for 
a dozen years or more. 

Allured by this untried path, she soon se- 
cured the hearty support and co-operation of 
many of the most prominent Boston physi- 
cians of the day. Not only did they semi their 
patients to her, but their wives and children 
also joined her classes. The enterprise, begun 
quietly in 1878 in a meagrely equipped room 
in E.ssex Street, under the name of "The 
Ladies' Gymnasium," was popular from the 
start. 

At the end of the first year Miss Allen real- 
ized that her pupils who returnerl to her must 
have more advanced work. Then began her 
scheme for progressive physical development, 
which she has been greatly interested in per- 
fecting, as the years have gone on. 

She was the first to introduce the sensible 
gynmastic costume (consisting of blouse and 
Turkish trousers, with no skirt), allowing per- 
fect freedom of motion, which is now adopted, 
in similar form, in all gynmasiums. A promi- 
nent Boston physician, on visiting her classes, 
remarked that it would be worth while for the 
women simply to put on this healthful dress 
and play about in the gymnasium a while, 
even if they did not ]ierform any of the exer- 
cises. It is probable that the physical train- 
ing for women, of which Miss Allen was the 
pioneer, has been one of the potent factors in 
diminishing the evils of tight lacing, which in 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



189 



those days was much more the rule than at 
present. 

Growing interest and enthusiasm for the 
work of the gymnasium necessitated a change 
at the end of the second year to more com- 
modious quarters in Amory Hall, on the corner 
of Washington and West Streets. The pro- 
spective need of teachers in this fiell led to 
the intioduction of a normal cdurse for their 
education, which has remained a permanent 
department of tlie gymnasium. Constantly 
increasing numbers, and an interest that con- 
tinued to grow, finally culminated in a demand 
for a larger hall and better eriuipment. A 
stock company was formed, which within two 
months raised the sum of fifty thousand dol- 
lars, and during the summer of 1SS6 a build- 
ing was constructed on St. Botolph and Gar- 
rison Streets, known thereafter as the Allen 
Gymnasium. This contained one of the larg- 
est and best equipped gymnasiums in the coun- 
try, with a large nuMiber of private ilressing- 
rooms, lavatories, and lockers, and in the base- 
ment six fine bowling alleys. 

During the next few years the numbers 
greatly increased, and hundreds of pupils at- 
tended yearly, so that in 1891 still larger ac- 
commodations seemed necessary, especially a 
properly constructed room for the deep- 
breathing exercises, which have always 
formed an essential part of the plan of work. 
An annex was accordingly built, with a room 
arranged for respiratory M'ork, with special 
mechanical means for insuring pure air, over 
another gymnasium hall, while below were 
exquisitely finished Turkish and Russian baths, 
and a beautiful swimming-pool. The two 
buildings occupied a lot one hundred and 
fifty feet by ninety feet, and the city of Boston 
may well have been proud of possessing an 
institution which, devoted as it was to the in- 
terests of women and children exclusively, 
was unique in the annals of the country. 

As the years went by, other schools of phys- 
ical training were^ established, bicycle-riding 
and athletics became the fashion for women 
as well as men, and many other causes con- 
spired to render the classes somewhat smaller 
than heretofore, although the enthusiasm of 
those who came was undiminished. Accord- 



ingly it was finally decidetl to transfer the 
gymnasium to the beautifully eejuipped smaller 
hall over the Turkish baths, where the work 
has been successfully carrietl on for the past 
four years, and still continues with unabated 
interest. 

It is not simply as an admirable teacher of 
gymnastics that Miss Allen is entitled to the 
gratitude of the comnmnity. In her carefully 
worked- out system of physical training, where 
brain and nuiscles play an equal part, she has 
made a lasting contribution to educational 
science. A pioneer, and for a time almost the 
ordy woman engaged in this line of work, she 
entered the field just at the time when it was 
beginning to be felt that order might be brought 
out of the chaos which had hitherto prevailed 
in the gymnasium. Prior to this period the 
comparatively few gymnasiums that existed 
had been largely usetl liy professionals and 
those who devoted themselves to the exag- 
gerated development of certain sets of muscles, 
in order to accomplish feats of strength, agil- 
ity, or endurance. No all-around develop- 
ment had yet been attempted. She now threw 
herself with ardor into the task of organizing 
some scheme of symmetrical training, and 
later, as the way opened before her, she ear- 
nestly strove to lift gymnastics into the domain 
of education. 

At that time the only plea for gymnastics 
was in the interest of health. While fully con- 
vinced of the importance of this aim. Miss 
Allen felt that there was another side of the 
subject to be brought out, in which the field 
of investigation was as yet untrotlden. She 
developed a scheme of progressive gymnastics 
which would gradvially bring every part of 
the body under the control of the will. The 
discovery made a few years later, in the realm 
of physiological research, of the "motor tracts" 
in the brain — i.e., definite nerve centres initi- 
ating and controlling motion in every part of 
the body — gave the physical trainer a place 
in the educational field. This cleared the way 
not only for her, but for others whowere work- 
ing along similar lines of thought. 

The educational value of her work lies in 
the progressive nature of her scheme of train- 
ing, in which she has sought to develop the 



190 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



natural sequence of brain action in co-ordi- 
nated movements. Such education not only 
results in ph_ysical development, but in the 
acquisition of courage, alertness, self-possession, 
nervous control in many ways, general con- 
centration of thought, and other expansion 
of the higher nature. "If," to use her own 
words, "the aim of education is to stimulate 
thought, and its end to equip one for living, 
then harmonious brain development is essen- 
tial. It is now universally conceded that the 
cultivated brain is not the largest nor the heav- 
iest, but the one in which the most brain cells 
are vital, and where the connections between 
cells are must numerous and intimate: these 
are the conditions upon which mental vigor 
depends. No part of the physical brain, there- 
fore, should be deprived of its fair share in 
development, and our educators must sooner 
or later recognize the fatal mistake, found in 
all our school and college curriculums, of ex- 
cluding to so great a degree the education of 
those nerve centres whose ])rimary expression 
is in motion, but whose vitality reacts in many 
directions." 

The attempt to bring about a wiser attitude 
toward this department of education, and to 
give her pupils a clear sense of the culpabil- 
ity of sickness, which is largely the result of 
ignorance and self-indulgence, has been the 
inspiration of her work. 

This brief sketch would be quite incom))lete 
without a few words regarding the personality 
of its subject. Miss Allen is small, slentler, 
and graceful, with great personal charm, and 
an unusual amount of that indefinable quality 
which we call magnetism. She is radical in 
matters of religion and politics, and takes an 
active interest in the principal reforms of the 
day, especially the Woman Suffrage movement. 
Although her sincerity is uncompromising, and 
might be called the keynote of her character, 
yet her sweetness and grace of manner always 
charm even tho.se of widely differing views. 
She is an indefatigable worker, never sparing 
herself in her conscientious devotion to her 
life work in all its details. 

As a teacher, she is most illuminating, always 
making her pupils think in connection with 
their work, so as to understand just what they 



are trying to do; and she detects with unerring 
wisdom the precise cause of their failures. 
The.se usually arise from a lack of co-ordina- 
tion on the part of the pupil: the physical 
task demanded has not been sufficiently im- 
pressed upon the brain at the outset, or the 
muscular forces are sluggish in obeying its 
behest. Often, in the case of adult pupils, 
it is .sufficient to call attention to this deficient 
co-ordination of brain and muscle, in oriler 
to remedy the trouble completely, whereas 
a teacher ignorant of this subtle truth might 
drill a class on the same exercise for hours, 
without removing the difficulty. This method 
of true scientific instruction is not only a great 
economy of time, but also awakens and re- 
tains the interest of her pupils, who are con- 
scious that they are always learning something 
new. 

Another source of the unflagging interest 
aroused by this truly wonderful teacher is 
her constant introduction of new and vary- 
ing exercises, without destroying the progres- 
sive character of the work as a whole. She 
realizes that human nature loves variety, and 
that the repetition of one set of movements 
or one species of activity cannot fail to pall 
upon the pupil after a time. Accordingly, 
with inexhaustible fertility of resources, she 
is continually inventing fresh and interesting 
work, so that even pupils who have been in 
her classes for twelve or fifteen years can never 
sigh for novelty or change. 

Miss Allen's strong and attractive pensonality 
has contributed in no small degree to the suc- 
cess of her work by winning friends for her 
on every side, and enlisting the hearty co-opera- 
tion of her pupils. Certainly no teacher in 
any field has gained a more . loyal following 
than hers. 

The above gives but a very imperfect idea 
of the remarkable woman who for the last 
quarter of a century has contributed, perhaps 
more than any other one person, toward the 
vigor and well-being of our women. Her 
work will surely live after her, both in its con- 
tribution to educational science and in the 
increased efficiency of hundreds of human 
lives. 

E. c. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



191 



LUCY STONE was born August 13, ISIS, 
on a rocky farm on Coy's Hill, about 
_^ three miles from West Brookfield, 
Mass. She was the daughter of Francis 
Stone and his wife, Hannah Matthews, and 
was the eighth of nine children. She came of 
good New England stock. Her great-grand- 
father, Francis Stone, first, fought in the P'rench 
and Indian War. Her grandfather, Francis 
Stone, second, was an officer in the war of the 
Revolution and afterward Captain of four 
Jiundred men in Shays's Rebellion. Pier father, 
the third Francis Stone, was a man of uncom- 
mon force and ability, as well as of much nat- 
ural wit and brightness. He had been a suc- 
cessful teacher and afterward an exceptionally 
skilful tanner in North I^rookfield. But the 
moral surroundings of the tan-yard were so 
bad for the chiklren that his wife, a beautiful, 
pious, and submissive woman, ro.se in rebellion 
against them, and insisted that, for the chil- 
dren's sake, the family must move away. Her 
husband j'ielded to her appeal. He nKJved to 
Coy's Hill, and took up farming with his usual 
energy. It is said that, as he called the cows 
in the early morning, his fine, .sonorous voice 
used to be heard by the other farmers for a mile 
around, and .served as a sort 'of rising bell to 
the whole neighborhood. Mr. Stone was kind 
to -the poor, and was much respected in the 
connnunity; but he was fully inibueil with the 
idea of the right of husbands to rule over their 
wives, as were most men of his gen(>ration. 
His wife obeyed him implicitly, as a religious 
duty. Lucy was born about a year after her 
mother had made, in behalf of her childi-en, 
almost the only deterniined stand in all her 
gentle life; and it has been suggested that this 
fact, through heredity, may have had some- 
thing to do with Lucy's remarkable character. 

Every one on the farm worked. The mother 
milked eight cows the night before Lucy was 
born, a sudden thunder-shower having called 
all tlie men into the hay-field. She said re- 
gretfully, when informed of the sex of the new 
baby, "Oh, dear! I am sorry it is a girl. A 
woman's life is so hard!" 

Little Lucy gicw up a healthy, vigorous 
child, noted for fearlessness and truthfulness, 
a good scholar, and a hard worker in the house 



and on the farm, sometimes driving the cows 
by starlight, before the sun was up, when the 
dew on the grass was so cold that she would 
stop on a flat stone and curl one small bare 
foot \i\) against the other leg to warm it. There 
was no task about the house or farm so hard 
but she would grapple with it with cheerful 
resolution, if it needed to be done. 

In the same resolute way she set herself to 
subtlue the faults of her own character. She 
had a fiery temper. One day when she was 
about twelve years old her younger sister 
Sarah had angered her, and Lucy chased her 
through the house to inflict condign punish- 
ment. Hajjpening to catch sight of her own 
face in a looking-glass, she was .shocked by its 
whiteness and wrath. She said to herself, 
"That is the face of a murderer!" She went 
out and sat on a rock behind the barn, holding 
one bare foot in her hand and rocking to and 
fro, thinking what she could do to get the 
better of such a temper. She sat there till it 
was after dark, and her mother came to the 
door and called her in. From that time on 
she made a determined fight for self-control, 
and in her later life the serene gentleness of 
her face and of her whole aspect made it hard 
for people to realize that she had e^■er had 
such a temper. The little girl early became 
indignant at the way she saw her mother ami 
other women treated by their husbands and 
by the laws, and she made up her childish 
mind that those laws must be changed. Read- 
ing the Bible one day, while still a child, she 
came upon the text, "Thy tlesire shall be to 
thy husband, and he shall rule over thee." 
At first she wanted to die. Then she resolved 
to go to college, study Greek and Hebrew, read 
the Bible in the original, ami satisfy herself 
whether such texts were correctly translated. 

Her father saw nothing strange about it 
when his sons decided to go to college, but, 
when his daughter wanteil to go, he said to 
his wife, "Is the child crazy?" He would not 
help her. The young girl had to earn the 
money herself. She picked berries and chest- 
nuts, and sold them to buy hooks. For years 
she taught district schools, studying and teach- 
ing alternately. At first she was paid a dollar 
a week, and "boarded around." She soon be- 



192 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



came known as a successful teacher, and grad- 
ually received a higher salary, but could never 
rise above sixteen dollars per month, which 
was considered "very good pay for a woman." 
Once she was engaged to teach a winter school 
which had been broken up, the big boys throw- 
ing the master head foremost out of the window 
into a deep snowdrift. As a rule, women were 
not thought competent to teach the winter 
term of school, because then the big boys were 
released from farm work and were able to at- 
tend. In a few days she had this difficult 
school in perfect order, and the big boys who 
had made the trouble became her most de- 
voted lieutenants; yet she received only a frac- 
tion of the salary paid to her unsuccessful pred- 
ecessor. 

She studied for a time at the Monson, Qua- 
boag, and Wilbraham Academies. Generally, 
she and her sister Sarah did not board at the 
academy, but for economy's sake took a room 
and cooked their own food, bruiging most of 
their provisions from home. 

An old schoolmate recalls the fact that she 
was already dee])ly interested in the abolition 
movement, and her compositions were always 
about slavery. About 1838 Lucy went to 
Mount Holyoke Seminary. Years before .she 
had heard Mary Lyon make an appeal for 
funds for this effort in behalf of higher educa- 
tion for women. The sewing-circle with which 
Lucy was connected was at that time working 
to pay the expenses of a young man prc])aring 
for the ministry, and Lucy was making a shirt. 
She was nmch stirred by Mary Lyon's presenta- 
tion of the need of better educational opportuni- 
ties for women, and by the thought of how much 
easier it was for any young man to earn his 
education than for a young woman to do so 
at a woman's low pay: and she ceased sewing 
upon that shirt, and felt in her heart the hope 
that no one would ever finish it. She spent 
less than a year at Mount Holyoke, being called 
home by the death of an older sister; but she 
always retained an affection for the institu- 
tion. 

Instead of the mite-boxes for foreign missions 
that were the fashion among the Mount Holyoke 
students, Lucy kept in her room one of the 
little yellow collection boxes of the Anti-slavery 



Society, which bore the picture of a kneeling 
slave holding up manacled hands, with the 
motto, "Am I not a man and a brother?" 
Into this she put all the pennies she could 
spare. She also placed William Lloyd Garri- 
son's paper, the Liberator, in the reading-room 
of the seminary. For some time they could 
not find out who did it; but they suspected 
Lucy, because of her anti-slavery principles, 
and, when they asked her, she acknowledged 
it at once. Even the saintly Mary Lyon was 
doubtful about the wisdom of allowing it. She 
said to Lucy, "You nuist remember that the 
slavery question is a very grave question, and 
a question u)«)n which the best people are di- 
vided." 

At about the age of nineteen Lucy joined 
the Orthodox Congregational church in W^est 
Brookfield. Soon after, Deacon Henshaw was 
brought to trial before the church for having 
entertained anti-slavery speakers at his house 
and otherwise aided and abetted the abolition 
movement. When the first vote was taken, 
Lucy, who did not know that women could 
not vote in church meetings, held up her hand 
with the rest. The minister, a tall, dark man, 
pointed fner to her, and said to the man who was 
counting the votes. "Don't you count her." 
The man said, "Why, isn't she a member?" 
"Yes," answered the minister, "she is a mem- 
ber, but not a voting member." His accent of 
scorn stirred her indignation. "Six votes were 
taken at that meeting, and I held up my hand 
every time," she said to her daughter, raising 
her hand above her head, with a flash in her 
eye, as she recalled the incident, while lying 
on her death-bed. Deacon Henshaw, Lucy, 
and a number of other members were later 
drojiped from the rolls of the church for their 
activity in the anti-slavery cause. 

On June 27, 1837, the General Association 
of the Orthodox Congregational Churches of 
Massachusetts met at Brookfield. There had 
been a great outcry against the anti-slavery 
speaking of Abby Kelley and the Grimke 
sisters; and a pastoral letter from the Asso- 
ciation to the churches under its charge had 
been prepared, to be read at this meeting. The 
object of the letter was to close the churches 
against anti-slavery lectures, and especially 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



193 



to silence the women. It calleil attentujn to 
dangers now seeming " to threaten the female 
character with wide-spread and permanent 
injury." It claimed that the New Testament 
clearly defined "the appropriate duties and 
influence of women. Tlie power of woman 
is in her dependence. When she assumes the 
place and tone of a man as a public reformer, 
our care and protection of her seem unneces- 
sary: we put ourselves in self-defence against 
her. She yields the power which Cod has given 
her for protection, and her character becomes 
unnatural." The letter especially cf)ndenined 
those "who encourage females to bear an ob- 
trusive and ostentatious })art in measures of 
reform, and countenance any of that sex who 
so far forget themselves as to itinerate in the 
character of public lecturers and teachers." This 
was the letter which Whittier called the " Brook- 
fiekl Bull," and of which he wrote: — 

" So this is all — the utmost reach 

Of priestly power the mind to fetter! 
VVlieii laymen tliink, when women preach, — 
A war of words — a ' Pastoral Letter '! " 

Lucy went to the meeting. The body of the 
church was black with ministers, and the gal- 
lery was tilled with women and laymen. While 
the famous letter was being read, the Rev. 
Dr. Blagden marched up and down the aisle, 
turning his head from side to side and looking 
at the women in the gallery, as nuich as to 
say, "Now we have silenced you." Lucy lis- 
tened in great indignation, and at each aggra- 
vating sentence she nudged her cousin, who 
said afterward that her side was black antl 
blue. At the close of the meeting she told her 
cousin that, if she ever had anything to say 
in public, she would say it, and all the more 
because of that pastoral letter. 

At the low wages received by women teachers 
it took Lucy until she was twenty-five to earn 
the money to carry her to Oberlin, then the 
only college in the country that admitted 
women and colored men. Among most New 
Englanders Oberlin was unpopular, partly be- 
cause of its radicalism on the negro (juestion 
and the woman ciuestion, Ijut chiefly because 
the authorities of the college believed in the 
doctrine of "entire sanctification." It was re- 



garded as a highly heretical place, ami the feel- 
ing against it was strong. Deacon White, of 
West Brookfield, took the Oberlin Emmjelist, 
but his wife would not touch the paper, and 
used to hand it to him with the tongs. Here 
or nowhere, however, Lucy had to get her col- 
legiate education. 

She set out on the long journey to Ohio with 
only seventy dollars in her jnirse toward the 
expenses of the four years' course, but with 
her heart full of courage and her head of good 
conmion sense. Crossing Lake Erie from Buf- 
falo to Cleveland, she could not afford a state- 
room, l)ut slept on deck on a pile of grain sacks, 
among horses and freight, with a few other 
women who, like herself, could only pay for 
a "tleck passage." At Oberlin she earned her 
way by teaching in the preparatory depart- 
ment of the college, antl by doing housework 
in the Ladies' Boarding Hall at three cents an 
horn-. Most of the students were poor, and 
the college furnished them board at a dollar a 
week. But she could not afford even this 
small sum, ami during most of her course she 
cooked her food in her own room, boarding 
herself at a cost of less than fifty cents a week. 
Her father's disapproval of a collegiate educa- 
tion for girls finally gave way before his ad- 
miration of her sturdy perseverance, in which 
he perhaps felt something akin to his own 
character; and he wrote offering to lend her 
the money to carry her through the rest of her 
course, and urging her not to hurt her health 
by overwork. She would accept only a small 
sum, how(;ver, preferring to earn her own way 
as far as jiossible. She taught country schools 
during the vacations, and had some hard ex- 
periences, anmsing to look back upon, in the 
rough and primitive neighboi'hoods of the new 
West. Throughout her college course she wore 
cheap calico tlresses with white collars, launder- 
ing them herself, and being always so clean and 
trim that she used to be held up to the other 
young women by the members of the Laiiies' 
Board as an examjjle of how exquisite neatne.ss 
could go hand in hand with the closest economy. 
She had only one or two new dresses while at 
Oberlin, and she did not go home once during 
the four years; but she thoroughly enjoyed 
college life, and found time also for good works. 



194 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Ol)orlin was a station on the "underground 
railway," a town of strong anti-slavery sym- 
pathies, and many fugitive slaves settled there. 
A school was started to teach them to read, 
and Lucy was asked to take charge of it. The 
colored men, fresh from slavery and densely 
ignorant, still felt it beneath their dignity to 
be taught by a woman. Without letting her 
know this, the committee took her to the school 
and introduced her to them as their teacher, 
thinking they would not like to express their 
objections in her presence. But there was a 
murmur of dissatisfaction, and presently a tall 
man, very black, stood up and said he hail 
nothing against Miss Stone personally, but he 
was free to confess that he did not like the idea 
of being taught by a woman. She persuaded 
them that it would be for their advantage to 
learn from anybody who could teacli them to 
read; and her dusky pupils soon became nivich 
attached to her. When the Ladies' Boarding 
Hall took fire, during her temporary absence, 
many members of her colored class rushed to 
the fire, bent on saving her effects. She was 
told on her return that a whole string of colored 
men had arrived upon the scene one after an- 
other, each demanding breathlessly, "Where is 
Miss Stone's trunk?" 

Her first public speech was made during 
her college course. The colored people got 
up a celebration of the anniversary of West 
Indian emancipation, and invited her to be 
one of the speakers. The president of the col- 
lege and some of the professors were also in- 
vited. She gave licr address among the rest, 
and thought nothing of it. The next day she 
was sunmioned before the Ladies' Board (a 
sort of advisory boartl, composed of the pro- 
fessors' wives, who supervised the young 
women of the college). They represented to 
her that it was unwomanly and unscriptural 
for her to speak in public. The president's 
wife said: "Did you not feel yourself very nmch 
out of place up there on the platform among 
all those men? Were you not embarrassed 
and frightened?" "Why, no, Mrs. Mahan," 
she answered. "'Those men' were President 
Mahan and my professors, whom I meet every 
day in the class-room. I was not afraid of 
them at all!" She was allowed to go, with an 



admonition. She was repeatedly called before 
the Ladies' Board to answer for some departure 
from custom, but she always defended herself 
with modesty and finnness, and she generally 
came off victorious. 

She was always ready to lend a helping hand 
to any fellow-student who needed it. She 
darned the young men's stockings, mended 
their clothes, and gave them sisterlj' sympathy 
and good counsel. Old men still living speak 
with gratitude of her defending them from 
ridicule anfl taking them comfortingly under 
her wing when they were uncouth country 
boys, new to the college and its ways. I\Iany 
yellow old letters from her classmates, both 
men and women, testify to the deep impres- 
sion her character made upon them, and the 
respect and warm affection that she inspired. 

She was small and slender, with gray eyes, 
a lovely rosy comjjlexion, and dark brown 
hair. Her fine health made her always look 
younger than her age. When between thirty 
and forty, she was sometimes taken for a girl of 
eighteen. 

While Lucy was at Oberlin, a beautiful and 
gifted girl, named Antoinette Brown, entered the 
college, with the purpose, up to that time un- 
precedented for a woman, of studying theology 
and becoming a minister. In the stage-coach 
on her way to Oberlin she was cautioned against 
a singular and dangerous young woman named 
Lucy Stone, whose radical ideas were the talk 
of the college. In spite of this warning, An- 
toinette and Lucy contracted a friendship 
which was cemented in later life by their marry- 
ing brothers. These two girls and a few of the 
others wished to pi'actise themselves in discus- 
sion, and asked leave to speak in the college 
debates. These debates were a regular part 
of the course, and the yoiuig women were re- 
quired to attend them, in order to furnish an 
audience for the young men, but were not 
allowed themselves to take part. After a 
good deal of hesitation, permission was given 
for the girls to have one debate. They ac- 
quitted themselves finely; but the faculty felt 
that any i)ublic speaking by women was un- 
scriptural and improper, and they refused to 
let it be continued. The young women then 
determined to have a debatmg society of their 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



195 



own. There liveil in the village an old colored 
woman whose master had manumitted her and 
given her money enouf^h to buy a small house. 
Lucy had taught her to read. The girls asked 
her if they might have the vise of hei- jiarlor 
occasionally for a debating soeiety. At first 
she was 'doul:)tful, fearing that the society 
might be a cover for flirtation: but, \\hen she 
found it was to consist of j'oung women exclu- 
sively, she thought it nmst be an innocent affair, 
and gave her consent. So on the appointed 
afternoons the girls would assemble, coming 
by different routes and in ones and twos at a 
time, that the faculty might suspect nothing; 
and then, shut u]) in the little parlor, they 
"reasoned high" on all sorts of profound and 
lofty subjects. Sometimes they held their 
meetings in the woods. This was the first de- 
bating society ever formed among girls. Later 
Antoinette Brown became the first ordained 
woman minister. At the end of her course 
Lucy was appointed to write an essay to be 
read at the connnencement, but was notified 
that one of the professors would have to read 
it for her, as it woukl not be proper for a woman 
to read her own essay in public. Rather than 
not read it herself, she declined to write it. 
Nearly forty years afterward, when Uberlin 
celebrated its semi-centennial, she was invited, 
to be one of the speakers at that great gather- 
ing. So the world moves. 

Lucy had an enthusiastic admiration and re- 
spect for the leatling abolitionists, and heljied 
to get up meetings for Abby Kelley, William 
Lloyd Garrison, and others, when they lectured 
at Oberlin. Mr. Garrison wrote fi'oni (Jberlin 
to his wife, August 28, 1847: "Among others 
with whom I have become acquainted is Mi.ss 
Lucy Stone, who has just graduatetl, and yes- 
terday left for her home in Brookfield, Mass. 
She is a very superior young woman, and has 
a soul as free as the air, and is preparing to go 
forth as a lecturer, ]>articularly in vindication 
of the rights of women. Her coiu-se here has 
been very firm and independent, and she has 
caused no small uneasiness to the sjiirit of sec- 
tarianism in the institution." Yet, in spite of 
all the uneasiness her progressive ideas caused 
them, she was a favorite with both faculty and 
students. As one of the professors said to her. 



vears after, " You know we alwavs liked you, 
Lucy." 

Lucy Stone was the first woman in Massa- 
chusetts to take a college degree. She gave 
her first woman's rights lecture the same year, 
in the pulpit of her brothei''s church at Gard- 
ner, Mass. Soon after, she was engaged to 
lecture regularly for the Anti-slavery Society. 
Public sentiment in New England at that time 
was intensely pro-slavery, and the idea of equal 
rights for women was even more unpopular 
than that of freedom for the slaves. Lucy 
shared the hard campaign experiences of all 
the other early apostles. Once she went to 
lecture at Hinsdale, away up among the hills. 
Samuel May, the agent of the Anti-slaver>' 
Society, who made the arrangements for her 
meetings, had written to the Unitarian minis- 
ter, a.sking him to give notice of the lecture. 
When Lucy got there, she found that he was 
strongly opposed. He had not given the no- 
tice, and would not give it. So Lucy put up 
her own posters, as she often had to do, with 
a little package of tacks and a stone picked up 
from the street. Then she went from house to 
house, telling everybody about the meeting 
and asking them to come. She worked all day 
without food, not having time to stop to eat; 
and then, toward evening, toiled up the long 
hill to the tavern. The tavern-keeper's wife 
was tired ami overworked, with two or three 
little children clinging to her skirts. Lucy said 
to her: "I nuist have some supper before my 
lecture. Get me whatever you can get most 
easily, for I am hungiy enough to eat anything; 
and I will take care of the children for you 
meanwhile." The children were delighted to 
come to her, and she told them stories all the 
while that supper was jneparing. The tavern- 
keeper's wife chopped up meat and potatoes, 
and made hash; but in her hurry she forgot to 
take out of the chopping-bowl the dish-cloth 
with which she had wiped it, and she chopped 
u\) the cloth with the hash. At the first mouth- 
ful that Lucy took, she found pieces of .the 
dish-towef in it. This took away her appetite, 
and she could not eat any more; so she went 
to her lecture fasting. "The boys threw pajier 
wads at first," she said, "but it was a good 
meeting, and I got some subscribers for the 



196 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Anti-slavery Standard there, who kept on taking 
it as long as it was published." 

The next day she went on to tlie next little 
town, Dalton, and here again she had to jnit 
up her own posters. As she was preparing to 
post some of them on the bridge, she was fol- 
lowed by a lot of boys, who thought it a great 
"lark." They regarded it as a most irnprojier 
thing for a woman to be lecturing and putting 
up hand-bills; and, like the Unitarian minister 
at Hinsdale, they were filled with the bitter 
opposition to the abolition of slavery which 
then pervaded almost the whole of New Eng- 
land. So the boys came after her, intending 
to tear her posters down. But she turned 
around and told them what slavery was — mak- 
ing men work without paying them for it, and 
selling boys like them on the auction block — 
till she got them all on her side, and they \vt 
her posters alone. The meeting that night 
was in a dirty and disagreeable town hall, with 
a great yawning fireplace, paper strewn about 
the floor, boys throwing wads, and men swear- 
ing. Rows of jeering faces confronted her 
when the meeting began; but, as usual, aftei' 
she hail spoken a few moments, she saw the 
mockery die out of them and attention take 
its place. 

The history of these two days may serve as 
a sample of the work she did for years. Once 
a hymn-book was thrown at her head with 
stunning force. Once in winter a pane of glass 
was removed from the window behind her, a 
hose was put througli, and she was suddenly 
deluged with ice-cold water while speaking. 
She put on her shawl, and continued her lect- 
ure. Pepper was burned, and recourse was 
had to all sorts of devices in order to break up 
the meetings, but generally without success. 

The work had also its pleasant side. There 
was cordial hospitality in anti-slavery homes, 
where all the children loved and welcometl her; 
and there was rich and inspiring comnuuiion 
with her fellow-reformers, the noblest spirits 
of that stormy time. When she visiter! the 
old home farm, in the intervals between her 
lecturing tri])s, it was always a day of rejoicing 
for her brother's children, who found "Aunt 
Lucy" the most delightful of playmates. She 
thoroughly enjoyed her work, ilespite its hard- 



ships. Looking back ujjon it in after years, 
she said, " I never minded those hard old tunes 
a bit." 

She mixed a great deal of woman's righlswith 
her anti-slavery lectures. One night, after her 
heart had been jxarticularly stirred on the 
woman tjuestion, she put into her lecture so 
much of woman's rights and so little of abo- 
lition that the Rev. Samuel May felt obliged 
to tell her, in the most friendly way, that on 
the anti-slavery platform this would not do. 
She answered: "I know it, but I could not help 
it. I was a woman before I was an abolition- 
ist, and I mufit speak for the women." She 
resigned her ])osition as lecturer for the Anti- 
slavery Society, intentling to devote herself 
wholly to woman's rights. They were very 
unwilling to give her up, however, as she had 
been one of their most efTective speakers; and 
it was finally arranged that she should speak 
for them Saturday evenings and Sundays — 
times which were regarded as too sacred for 
any church or hall to be opened for a woman's 
rights meeting — and during the rest of the 
week she should lecture for woman's rights on 
her own responsibility. 

Her adventures during the next few years 
would fill a volume. No suffrage association 
was organized until long after this time. She 
had no co-operation and no backing, and 
started out absolutely alone. So far as she 
knew, there were only a few persons in the 
whole countrj^ who had any sympathy with 
the idea of e(|ual rights for women. 

She travelled over a large {lart of the Ihiited 
States. In most of the towns where she lect- 
ured, no woman had ever spoken in public 
before, and curiosity attracted immense audi- 
ences. The speaker was a great surprise to 
them. The general idea of a woman's rights 
advocate, on the part of those who had never 
seen one, was of a tall, gaunt, angular woman, 
with aggressive manners, a masculine air, and 
a strident voice, scolding at the men. In- 
stead, they found a tiny woman, with quiet, 
unassuming maimers, a winning presence, and 
the sweetest voice ever possessed by a public 
speaker. This voice l^ecame celebrated. It 
was so musical and delicious that persons who 
had once heard her lecture, hearing her utter 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



197 



a few words years afterward, on a railroad car 
or in a stage-coach, where it was too dark to 
recognize faces, would at once exclaim un- 
hesitatingly, "That is Lucy Stone!" 

Old people who remember those early lect- 
ures say that she had a wonderful eloquence. 
There were no tricks of oratory, but the trans- 
parent sincerity, simplicity, and intense earn- 
estness of the speaker, adcled to a singular per- 
sonal magnetism and an utter forgetfulness of 
self, swayed those great audiences as the wind 
bends a field of grab's. (3ften mobs would 
listen to her when they howled down every 
other speaker. At one woman's rights meeting 
in New York the mob made such a clamor that 
it was impossible for any sj^eaker to be heard. 
One after another tried it, only to have his or 
'her voice drowned forthwith by hoots and 
howls. \\'illiam Henry Channing advised Lu- 
cretia Mott, who was presiding, to atljourn the 
meeting. Mrs. Mott answ ered, " W hen the 
hour fixed for adjournment comes, I will ad- 
journ the meeting, not before." At last Lucy 
was introduced. The mob became as quiet 
as a congregation of church-goers: but, as soon 
as the next speaker began, the howling recom- 
menced, and it continued to the end. At the 
close of the meeting, when the speakers went 
into the dressing-room to get their hats and 
cloaks, the mob surged in and surroundefl 
them ; and Lucy, who was brimming over 
with indignation, began to reproach them for 
their behavior. "Oh, come," they answered, 
" vou needn't say anything : we kept still for 
you!" 

At an anti-slavery meeting held on Cape 
Cod, in a grove, in the open air, a platform 
had been erected for the speakers, and a crowd 
assembletl, but a crowd so menacing in aspect 
and with so evitlent an intention of- violence 
that the speakers one by one came down from 
the stand and slipped quietly away, till none 
were left but Stephen Foster and I^ucy Stone. 
She said, "You had better run, Stephen: they 
are coming." He answered, " But who will 
take care of you?" At that moment the mob 
made a rush for the platform, and a big man 
sprang up on it, grasping a club. She turned 
to him and said without hesitation, " This gen- 
tleman will take care of me." He declareil 



that he would. He tucked her under one arm, 
and, holding his club with the other, marched 
her out through the crowd, who were roughly 
handling Mr. Foster and such of the other 
speakers as they had been able to catch. Her 
representations finally so prevailed upon him 
that he mounted her on a stump, and stood 
by her with his club while she addressed the 
mob. They were so moved by her speech that 
they not only desisted from further violence, 
but took up a collection of twenty dollars to 
pay Stephen Foster for his coat, which they 
hail torn in two from top to bottom. 

When she began to lecture, she would not 
charge an admission fee, partly because she 
was anxious that as many people as possible 
should hear and be converted, and she feared 
that an admission fee might keep some away, 
and partly from something of the Quaker feeling 
that it was wrong to take pay for preaching the 
gospel. She economized in every way. When 
she stayed in Boston, she used to put up at a 
lodging-house on H:inover Street, where they 
gave her meals for twelve and a half cents and 
lodging for six and a quarter cents, on condi- 
tion of her sleeping in the garret with the daugh- 
ters of the house, three in a bed. 

Once, when she was in great need of a new 
cloak, she came to Salem, Mass., where she was? 
to lecture, and found that the Hutchinson 
family of singers were to give a concert the 
same evening. They proposed to her to unite 
the entertainments and divide the proceeds. 
She consented, and bought a cloak with the 
money. She was also badly in want of other 
clothing. Her frienils assured her that the 
autliences would be just as large despite an 
admission fee. She tried it, and, finding that 
the audiences continued to be as large as the 
halls would hold, she continued to charge a 
door fee, and was no longer reduced to such 
straits. 

She had three lectures, on "The Social and 
Industrial Disabilities of Women," "The Legal 
and Political Disabilities of Women," and "The 
Religious Disabilities of Women." In the 
early fifties she gave these three lectures at 
Louisville, Ky., to innnen.se auiliences, thereby 
clearing six hundred dollars, and was in- 
vited to stay and give another on temperance. 



198 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



From these four lectures in St. Louis she cleared 
seven hundred tlollars. 

She headed the call for the first National 
Woman's Rights Convention, held in A\'orces- 
ter, Mass., October 23 and 24, 1850, and took 
a leading part in getting uj) tlie meeting. The 
report of this convention in the New York 
Tribune converted Susan B. Anthony to woman 
suffrage, and led John Stuart Mill's wife to 
write for the Westminster Rcrieir an article 
which was the starting-point of the equai rights 
movement in England. This convention was 
also the first that called wide public attention 
to the question in this coimtry, although the 
attention was mostly in the way of ridicule. 
Year after year Lucy took the laboring oar in 
getting up conventions and in printing and 
selling the woman's lights tracts at the meet- 
ings. She was "such a good little auctioneer," 
said one who remembei'ed her well. 

On May 1, 1855, Lucy married Henry B. 
Blackwell, a yovmg hardware merchant of Cin- 
cinnati. His father, a sugar refiner of Bristol, 
England, highly respected for his integrity, 
had come to this country in 1S32, and in 1837 
had gone out to Ohio, with the hope of event- 
ually introtlucing the manufacture of beet 
sugar and thus dealing a severe blow at slaveiy 
by making the slave-grown cane sugar un- 
profitable. Before he could carry out this 
plan, he died suddenly in Cincinnati, leaving 
his wife and large family of young chiUlren 
dependent on their own exertions. The mother 
and elder daughters opened a school. One of 
them studied medicine and became the first 
woman physician. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell. 
The boys went into business. Henry had 
marked talent and energy, great eloiiuence, a 
kind heart, antl an unparalleled gift of wit and 
fun. He was a woman's rights man and a 
strong abolitionist. In consecjuence of th(> 
active part he had taken in rescuing a little 
colored girl from slavery, a reward of ten thou- 
sand <1611ars had been offered for his head at a 
l)ublic meeting at Memphis, Tenn. In 1853 
he hiid attended the Massachusetts Constitu- 
tional Convention at the State Hou.se in Bos- 
ton, when Wendell Philliixs, Theodore Parker, 
T. W. Higginson, and lAicy Stone s])oke in 
behalf of a woman suffrage petition headed b} 



Loui.sa Alcott's mother: and he had made up 
his mind at that tune to marry JiUcy if he 
could. Armed with a letter of introduction 
from Mr. (larrison, he sought her out at her 
home in West Brookfield, where he fomid her 
staiuUng on the kitchen table, whitewashing 
the ceiling. He had a long and arduous court- 
ship. Lucy had meant never to marry, but 
to devote herself wholly to her work. But he 
])roniised to devote himself to the same work, 
and persuaded her that together they could 
do more for it than she could alone. The 
wedding took place at the home of the bride's 
])arents at West Brookfield, Mass. The cere- 
mony was performed by the Rev. Thomas 
Went worth Higginson, who afterward left the 
ministry for refoim work and the army, and 
is now better known as Colonel Higginson.-. 

On the occasion of the marriage they issued 
a protest against the inequalities then existing 
in the marriage laws. It was widely pub- 
lished, and helped to get the laws amended. 
Mr. Higginson sent it to the Worcester S])}/, 
with the following letter- — 

" It was my privilege to celebrate May-day 
liy officiating at a wedding in a farm-house 
among the hills of West Brookfield. The 
bridegroom was a man of tried worth, a leader 
in the Western anti-slavery movement; and 
the bride is (^ne whose fair name is known 
throughout the nation, one whose rare intel- 
lect\ial qualities are excelled l)y the private 
beauty of her heart and lif(\ 

"I never perform the marriage ceremony 
without a renewed sense of the iniquity of our 
present system of laws in respect to marriage — 
a system by which 'man and wife are one, and 
that one is the husband.' It was with my 
hearty concurrence, therefore, that the follow- 
ing protest was read and signed, as a part of 
the nuptial ceremony: and I send it to you, 
that others may be induced to do likewi.'^e." 

The protest was as follows : — 

"While acknowledging our nuitual affection 
by ]nil>licly assvuning the relation.ship of hus- 
band and wife, yet, in justice to ourselves and 
a great principle, we deem it our duty to de- 
clare that this act on our ])art im]:)lies no sanc- 
tion of nor promise of voluntary obedience to 
such of the present laws of marriage as refuse 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



199 



to recognize the wife as an independent, rational 
being, while they confer upon the husband an 
injurious and unnatural suiHM'iority, investing 
liiin with legal powers which no honorable man 
would exercise, and which no man should 
possess. We protest especially against tlie 
laws which give the husband: — 

"1. The custody of the wife's person. 

"2. The exclusive control and guardianship 
of their children. 

"3. The sole ownership of her personal and 
use of her real estate, unless previously set- 
tled upon her or placed in the hand of trustees, 
as in the case of minors, idiots, and lunatics. 

"4. The absolute right to the jiroduct of 
her industry. 

"5. Also against laws which give to the 
widower so much larger and more permanent 
an interest in the property of his deceased wife 
than they give to the widow in that of her 
deceased husband. 

"6. Finally, against the whole system b}' 
which 'the legal existence of the wife is sus- 
pended during marriage,' so that, in most 
States, she neither has a legal part in the choice 
of her residence, nor can she make a will, nor 
sue or be sued in her own name, nor inhei'it 
property. 

"AVe believe that personal independence antl 
equal human rights can never be forfeited, ex- 
cept for crime; that marriage shoukl lie an ecpial 
and permanent partnership, and so recognized 
by law; that, until it is .so recognized, married 
partners should provide against the radical 
injustice of present laws by every means in 
their power. 

"We believe that, where domestic difficul- 
ties arise, no aj^peal should be matle to legal 
tribunals under existing laws, but that all 
difficulties should be sulimitted to the equi- 
table adjustment of arbitrators nmtually chosen. 

"Thus, reverencing law, we enter oui pro- 
test against rules and customs which are un- 
worthy of the name, .since they violate justice, 
the essence of law." 

(Signed) Henry B. Bl.\ckwell. 
bucY Stone. 
Wkst Rrookfield, M.^ss., May 1, IS55. 

Lucy regarded the loss of a wife's name at 



marriage as a symbol of the lo.ss of her individ- 
uality. Eminent lawyers, including Ellis Gray 
Loring and Samuel E. Sewall, told her there 
was no law requiring a wife to take her hus- 
band's name, that it was only a custom and 
not obligatory; und the Chief Justice of the 
United States (Salmon P. Cha.se) gave her his 
unofficial opinion to the same effect. Accord- 
ingly, with her husband's full approval, .she 
kept her own name, and continued to be called 
by it during thirty-six years of faithful and 
affectionate married life. 

The account of her later years nmst be con- 
densed into a few lines. She and her husband 
lectureil together in many States, took part 
in most of the campaigns when suffrage amend- 
ments were submitted to popular vote, addressed 
legislatures, published articles, held meet- 
ings far and wide, were instrumental in .se- 
curing many improvements in the laws of many 
States, and togetfier did an unrecorded and in- 
calculable amount of work in behalf of equal 
rights. A few years after her marriage, while 
they were living in Orange, N.J., Mrs. Stone 
let her goods be seized and sold for taxes. 
Among the things seized was the baby's cradle; 
and she wrote a j)rotest against taxation with- 
out representation, with her baby on her knee. 
In 1806 she helped to organize the American 
Equal Rights A.ssociation, which was formed 
to work for both negroes and women, and she 
was chairman of its executive committee. In 
1869, with William Llojxl Garrison, George 
William Curtis, Colonel Higgin.son, Mrs. Julia 
Ward Howe, .Mrs. .Mary A. I^ivermore, and 
others, she organized the American Woman 
Suffrage Association, and was chairman of its 
executive committee for nearly twenty years. 
She always cravetl, not the post of prominence, 
but the post of work. Most of the money with 
which the Woman' b -Journal was started in 
Boston, in 1870, was raised by her efforts. 
When Mrs. Livermore, who.se time was uiuler 
increasing demand in the lecture field, resigned 
the etlitorship in 1872, Mrs. Stone and her hus- 
band took cliarge of the paper, and ediletl it 
from that time forth. Since her deatli it has 
been edited by her husband and daughter. In 
her latter years she was nmch continetl at home 
by rheumatism, but worked for suffrage at her 



200 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



desk as diligently as she usetl to do upon the 
platform. To the end of her life, despite her 
infirmities, she did more jnihlic speaking than 
most younger women. Her sweet, motherly 
face, under its white cap, wa.s dear to the 
eyes of audiences at sufTrage gatherings, and 
it was said of her that she looked like "the 
grandmother of all the good children." 

She was an excellent housekeeper, of the 
old New England type. She dri^d all the 
herbs, and put up all tlie fruits in their season. 
She prepared her own dried beef, made her 
own yeast, her own butter, even her own soap. 
She always thought the home-made soap was 
better than any she could buy. She was an 
accomplished cook, and her family were never 
better fed than during the occasional interreg- 
nums between servants. 

All the purely womanly instincts were strong 
in her. Even in her old age her ideas about 
love were what most peojile would regard as 
romantic. She was as fond of a love story as 
any girl of sixteen, provided it were a simple 
and innocent love story. She was attracted 
by all children, dirty or clean, pretty or ugly. 
Her face always beamed at the sight of a baby ; 
and on countless occasions on boat or train, 
during her lecture trips, she helped worried 
and anxious young mothers to care for and 
cpiiet a crying child. All children loveil her. 
What she was to her own daughter no words 
can tell. 

A friend writes: — 

"No one who was privileged to partake of 
Mrs. Stone's hospitality could fail U) note her 
kindly concern for every one beneath her roof 
and for all the ilumb creatures belonging to 
the household. But few knew jiow far-reach- 
ing was that spirit of kindliness, how many 
her motherliness brooded over. Flowers and 
fruits were sent from her garden, boxes of 
clothing went ^^'est, North, and South, a host 
of wonien who came to her in distress were 
helped to work or tidetl over hard places. She 
gave freely, and every gift was accompanied 
by thoughtful care and heart-warmtli. She 
was never too busy to gladden the hearts of 
the children who came into her presence by 
gift of flower or fruit or picture, or by the telling 
of a story." 



She took keen delight in all the beauties of 
nature. As a child, her favorite reward, when 
she had done well at i^chool, was to be allowed 
l)y the teacher to sit on the floor, where she 
could look up through the window into the 
shinunering foliage of a grove of wliite birches. 

She was \\w most perfectly fearless lunnan 
being I ever"knew. J have heard her say that 
in the mobs and manifold clangers of the anti- 
slavery times she was never conscious of a 
(juickened heart-beat. In all the emergencies 
of a long life, in accidents, alarms of fire, of 
burglars, etc., we never saw her fluttered. 
"The gentlest and most heroic of women," 
was her husband's description of her. When, 
in 1S93, her strength failed, and she found that 
she was suffering from an illness from which 
she could not recover, she was perfectly serene 
and fearless, and made all her preparations to 
go, as quietly as if she wei'e only going into the 
next room. As long as she was able to think 
and plan at all, she thought for others, and 
planned for their comfort. As she lay in bed, 
too weak to move, she still tried to save every- 
bodv steps, to spare the servants, to see that 
guests should be made comfortable, and that 
a favorite dish shoukl be prejiared for the niece 
who had come to nurse her. 

The beyond had no terrors for her. She 
said to her tlaughter, with her accent of simple 
antl complete conviction: "I have not the 
smallest ajiprehension. I know the Eternal 
Order, and I believe in it." Something being 
s;dd by a friend, v.ho was a Spiritualist, aliout 
her possibly coming back to connnunicate with 
those she had left, she answered, "I expect to 
be too busy to come back." To another friend 
she said, "I look forward to the other side as 
the brighter side, and I expect to be busy for 
good things." To still another, who expressed 
grief that she should not live to see women 
vote, she answered: "Perhajis I shall know it 
where I am; and, if not, I shall be doing some- 
thing better. I have not a fear, nor a dread, 
nor a doubt." 

When a letter from the Women's Press Asso- 
ciation was read to her, speaking warndy ot 
her work, she said slowly : " I think I have done 
what I could: I certainly have tried. With 
one hand I made my family comfortable; with 




ALICE W. EMEKSON 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



201 



tlie other" — Here her voice failed through 
weakness. Uncloubtedly she meant that with 
the other hand she had worked to get the 
women their rights. 

To tlie hist she went on with the same two- 
fokl hne of thought, pkmning for the comfort 
of her family and the carrying on of the house- 
hold after she should be gone, and also ])ianning 
for the carrying on of the suflVage work and 
of the Woman's Journal, "the dear little old 
Woman's Journal,'" as she called the paper 
into which she had put so nmch of her heart 
and life. 

The last letter but one that she wrote was 
to a prominent Colorado woman, commending 
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt to her, and earnestly 
asking her to heli) the passage of the pending 
suffrage amendment. The last letter of all 
was written to her only surviving brother, 
twelve 3'ears her senior. When he came to 
see her tluring her last illness, he said to her 
with tears, " You have always been more like 
a mother than a sister to me." 

On October IS she passed quietly away. On 
the last afternoon she looked at me and seeniet_l 
to wish to say something. J put my ear to 
her lips. She said distinctly, "Make the world 
better." They were almost her last articulate 
words. 

Always very modest in her estimate of her- 
self, she had told her family that it would not 
be worth while to have the' fvmeral in a cliurch: 
there would not be enough people who would 
care to come. A silent and sorrowing crowd 
filled the street before tlie Church of the Dis- 
ciples long before the iloors were opened, and 
eleven hundred people listened to the tributes 
paid her by some of the noblest men and women 
of America. By her own wish there was nothing 
lugubrious about the funeral: everything was 
cheerful and simple. By her own request, 
also, the service included the reading of two 
poems of Whittier's, containing the lines: — 

" Not on a blind and ainiluss way 
The spirit goetli," 



and 



I know not whure His islands lift 
Their fronded palms in air; 

I only know I cannot drift 
Beyond His love and care." 



Even the newspapers, those that had always 
opposed equal rights for women, heaped praises 
upon her; and a lifelf)ng adversary of hers said, 
"The death of no woman in America has ever 
called out so widespread a tribute of affection 
and esteem." 

She had not the smallest thirst for fame. It 
has l)een hard to compile any adequate ac- 
count of her life, because she kept no record 
of her work, never cared to preserve her press 
notices, and refused, almost with horror, all 
recjuests from publishers of books about "fa- 
mous women" to furnish material for a bio- 
graphical sketch of herself. She thought it 
hardly worth while that any account of her 
should ever be written. Yet this very fact, 
while it greatly increases the difficulties of her 
biographer, is perhaps in itself the strongest 
testimony to the spirit in which she did her 
work. During her last illness she took pleas- 
ure in the following lines, which she had clipped 
from some newspaper: — 

" Up and away like the dew of the morning 

That soais fi-oni the earth to its home in the sun, 
So let me steal away, gently and lovingly, 
(Jnly remembered by what I have done. 

" My name and my place and my tomb all forgotten, 
The brief race of time well and jiatiently run, 
•So let me pass away, peacefully, silently. 
Only remembered by what I have done. 

■• Xeeds there the praise of the love-written record, 
The name and the epitaph graved on the stone ? 
The things we have lived for, let them be our story; 
We ourselves but remembered by what we have 
done." 

Alice Stone Bl.\ckwell. 



ALICE WAKEFIELD EMERSON, 
/\ teacher, was born in Oakham, Mass., 
I V May 19, 1840, daughter of Horace 
Poole antl Abigail (Pratt) Wakefield. 
She comes of good New England ancestry. 
Her paternal grandfather, Deacon Caleb Wake- 
field, son of Timothy and Susanna (Bancroft) 
Wakefield, was born April 18, 1785, at Read- 
ing, Mass., and died in that town, March 4, 
1876. He married, first, Matilda, tlaughtcr of 
Jonathan and Ann (Bancroft) Poole, who was 



202 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



born in Reading, Mas.s., June 2, 1786, and died 
December 21, 1822. Her mother, Mrs. Ann Ban- 
croft Poole, was sister to the Rev. Dr. Aaron 
Bancroft, father of George Bancroft the his- 
torian. Deacon Caleb AVakefieUl married, sec- 
ondly, November 8, 1S23, Nancy Temple, who 
was born in Reading, October 21, 1794, and 
died there November 18, 1873. Caleb Wake- 
field was Captain of the military comi)any; 
Selectman, 1830-40; Representative, 1833-36; 
Justice of the Peace, 1845-51 and in 1865: and 
was chosen Deacon of the Okl South Church, 
Reading, August 23, 1821. A man of inde- 
pendent thought, persistent in his positions 
when once taken, he was pn^gressive, ready to 
receive information, and endowed with strong 
moral force. His firmness of attitude on most 
questions was due to the care with which he 
had formed his opinions; once convinced of 
their error, no man knew better how to give 
up or when to drop the old and take on the 
new. It is said that probably for fifty years 
no one man did more than he to shape the in- 
terests of the connnunity and aid and lead in 
the financial, educational, moral, and religious 
growth of the town. A good neighbor, wise in 
counsel, he was often called to be the adviser 
of orphans, young men, and widows; and as 
the executor of sacred trusts he often stood 
between the living and the dead, well earning 
the affectionate remembrance in which his 
name is held. 

Horace Poole Wakefield, M.D., son of Deacon 
Caleb Wakefield by his first wife and father of 
the subject of this sketch, was ])orn in Reading, 
January 4, 1809. He was graduated at Am- 
herst College in 1832. Receiving his medical 
degree at Dartmouth in 1836, he first prac- 
tised medicine at Oakham, Mass., where he 
was Selectman and Town Clerk, and was twice 
elected to the Legislature as Representative. 
In 1844 he returned to Reading. He was chosen 
State Senator in 1862; held the offices of Cor- 
oner, Justice of the Peace, Inspector of Alms- 
houses at Tewksbury, where also he was phy- 
sician; was Superintendent of the State Primary 
School at Monson, Mass., for several years; 
and chairman of the Reading War Committee 
in the Civil War. In 1833 he was a member of 
the convention in Philadelphia at which the 



American Anti-slavery Society was formed, 
and he placed his name on the "Declaration 
of Sentiments" next to John G. Whittier. He 
was a tlefender of woman's rights and woman 
suffrage at the outset of that movement. He 
was a councillor of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, president of the Middlesex East Dis- 
trict Medical Society, and ex ofjirio vice-presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Medical Society, be- 
fore which he delivered the annual address in 
1867, an honor given but once in the life of 
an individual. 

Dr. Wakefield was also president of the East 
Hamptlen Agricultural Society, and a member 
of the State Board of Agriculture from 1873 
to 1882; president of the Palmer Savings Bank 
and director of the Palmer First National Bank. 
It was said of him that he had the ability to 
s?rve the public, was active, energetic, positive, 
progressive, with great mental and physical 
strength, rare wisdom and foresight in planning, 
and persistency in carrying out whatever he 
undertook. The bluff manner and blunt speech 
which he sometimes assumed covered but 
never concealed his genuine kindliness of 
heart. In A])ril, 1879, he bought the notetl 
"Stonewall Farm" in Leicester, Mass., and 
remained there till, his death, which occurred 
August 23, 1883. Dr. Wakefield married, first, 
March 1, 1838, Abigail Pratt, of Reading, 
daughter of Thaddeus B. and Susan (Parker) 
Pratt, and, secondly, Mary B. Christy, of 
Johnson, \'t. 

Alice Wakefield (Mrs. Emerson) was edu- 
cated at tlie Reading High School, Mount Hol- 
yoke Seminary, and Abbot Academy, Andover, 
Mass., from which last named institution she 
was graduated in 1862. On Sejitember 30, 
1863, she was married to the Rev. Rufus Emer- 
son, a Congregational clergyman of Haver- 
hill, Mass. Their first home was in Grafton, 
^'t., where their only child, Mary Alice, was 
born. 

Mr. Emerson was educated at Bradford 
Academy, Bradford, Mass., and at Amherst 
College and Andover Theological Seminary. 
Aft(>r leaving V'ermont his pastorates were in 
Massachusetts, sometimes in the city and some- 
times in the country. He was a practical 
idealist, and, 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



203 



" As a bird each fond endearment tries 
To tempt its new-tiedged offspring to the skies, 
He tried each art, reproved each dull delay, 
Allured to brighter worlds and led the way." 

In perfect sympathy with her husliaiul, Mrs. 
p]merson was of invaluable lielp to him in all 
his intellectual ami spiritual work. After his 
death, in 1S85, she taught school for several 
years in Reading, Monson, Somerville, and in 
the day and evening schools of lioston-. In 
1897 she was graduated from the Emerson 
College of Oratory, Boston, and in 1900 she 
accepted her present position as prece])tress of 
Emerson College. 

Mrs. Emerson's character is marked by high 
ideals and quiet but persistent aspiration. 
From her father and grandfather she inherits 
that faculty of judgment which enables her 
([uickly to read individual character, a calm 
manner and firm will, with executive ability, 
througii which slie has handled many a diffi- 
cult situation without friction or injustice, as 
plainly shown in her tliscipline in the granmiar 
schools in which she taught. In her present 
position she has made herself both respected 
and loved, and is consistently known for the 
tonic quality of her sympathy, which holds the 
young people always to fheir best. Two other 
characteristics have helped to make her the 
confidante of young and okl — the ability tf) keep 
a secret and her care not to give unsought 
advice. While she never fails to speak to the 
point when she does speak, it is often laugh- 
ingly said of her that "she knows how to keep 
silent in seven languages." Like many other 
reserved people, she writes more easily than 
she talks. When time jjermits, she lectures 
on subjects connected with elocution and 
I)hysical culture, and writes short stories. 

Mrs. Emerson's modest reserve, coupled with 
a natural tlignity, might give a stranger the 
impression that she is possessed of a cold 
and indifferent nature, but this impression is 
dissipated by a glance at the merry eye and 
kindly mouth, even before one comes to note 
her many kindnesses. 

Physically sturdy and active, intellectually 
keen and progre.ssive, and spiritually wholesome 
and sweet, she is a type of the best product of 



New England womanhood, fostered by plain 
living and high thinking. 

Mrs. Emerson is a member of the Congrega- 
tional church, attending Berkeley Temple, Bos- 
ton. Mrs. Emerson's tlaughter, Mary Alice, 
born in Grafton, \'t., August 3, 1865, is now a 
teacher in the State Normal School at Bridge- 
water, Mass. 



SARAH BROWN CAPRON was born in 
Lanesboro, Mass., April 24, 1828. Her 
name until her marriage was Sarah 
Brown Hooker. Her paternal grand- 
father was Thomas Hooker, of Rutland, Vt., 
who was a lineal descendant of Thomas Hooker 
of Connecticut. Her grandmother, Mrs. Sarah 
Brown Hooker, was a daughter of Lieutenant 
Colonel John Brown, of Pittsfield, Mass., who 
retired from the army because he distrusted 
Benedict Arnold, but who afterward died in 
service at Stone Arabia, in New York, in 1780. 
Her father was the Rev. Henry Brown Hooker, 
D.D., a minister of the Congregational church 
in Lanesboro, afterward in Falmouth, Mass., 
greatly honored and beloved. He was a mem- 
ber of the State Board of Education, receiving 
his appointment from Governor George N. 
Briggs. His last work was as the secretary of 
the Massachusetts Home Missionary Society, 
where he was engaged up to the close of a useful 
life. Her mother, whose maiden name was 
Martha Vinal Chickering, resided in Boston 
before marriage. 

Miss Hooker's education was received in 
W^heaton Seminary, Norton, Mass., and in the 
State Normal School at West Newton. In her 
vacations she taught two sununer terms and 
two winter terms in the district schools of 
Falmouth, on Cape Cod. The State Normal 
School was then in charge of Eben S. Stearns, 
the well-known and loved Electa N. Lincoln, 
now Mrs. George A. Walton, being the able 
assistant. Nathaniel T. Allen, afterward long 
identified with the Classical School of West 
Newton, was the principal of the Model School, 
and the pupils of those days well remember his 
generous estimate of their abilities as they 
passed under his three w-ceks' training. Lu- 
cretia Crocker was then a student at the Normal 



204 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



School, giving promise of the efficiency which 
afterward distinguished her official career. 

Graduating in November, 1850, Miss Hooker 
was elected first assistant in the Oliver High 
School, Lawrence, Mass., T. W. T. Curtis being 
principal and George A. Walton master of the 
Grammar school in the same building. Miss 
Hooker afterward became an assistant in the 
Hartford High School, remaining until April, 
1854. 

She was married October 1, 1856, to the Rev. 
William Banfield Capron, of Uxbridge, Mass. 
They were appointed as missionaries of the 
American Board to Madura, South India, and 
sailed in an ice ship for Madras, November 21, 
the .voyage taking one hundred days. On ar- 
riving in Madura Mrs. Capron, was put in 
charge of the Madura Girls' Boarding School, 
now well known in the Madras Pre.sidency as 
the Madura Girls' Training and High School. 
Mr. Capron during this time was building a 
house in Mana Madura, thirty miles ilistant, 
to which they removed in 1864, the lady in 
charge of the Girls' School having returned 
from her furlough in America. Mrs. Capron's 
previous service was the prehule to the various 
forms of educational work of which she 
had charge until 1886, with the exception 
of one furlough of two years, from 1872 to 
1874. 

The work of a foreign miss'onary naturally 
resolves itself into two lines. There is the care 
for the planting, growth, and development of 
the Christian community. This should be 
self-propagating and self-sustaining, and to this 
end should all training be directed. There is 
also the endeavor to uplift all those within one's 
sphere of influence. The first step in the for- 
mer lies in the little day schools in the villages, 
planned to give instruction to the children of 
Christians; but these in all cases will include 
many more who are drawn by the attractive- 
ness of a school so differently conducted from 
the sing-song drone of the ordinary school- 
master of India. When it is considered that 
each station in charge of a resident missionary 
comprises from thirty to one hundred villages, in 
which are these schools, it will be seen that the 
missionary becomes a superintendent of schools. 
It is a gala day, indeed, when the missionary 



lady comes to inspect the school. On such 
occasions there is the selection of the clever boy 
or bright girl, whether from a Christian family 
or not, to come to the next stage in this etluca- 
tional scheme. 

Station boarding-schools are at the station 
of the resident missionary, and his wife is in 
charge. Here are the best pupils from all the 
villages, numbering sometimes even a hundred. 
Selections from these pass on to the girls' high 
and training-school at the central station, and 
also to the high school and normal school, or 
college for the boys. The theological school 
completes the equipment. 

Not included in the above, we find the Hindu 
girls' day schools and the Anglo-vernacular day 
schools for boys, both of which receive pupils 
who are shut out from the boarding-schools on 
account of caste, yet are eager for education. 
Attachments formed in these schools have 
proved in after years helpful and delightful. 
Many of the boys pass on into government 
colleges, and later, becoming officials under the 
English government, never forget the teaching 
and influence of the missionary lady who 
touclu^d their lives in younger tlays. 

In October, 1876, in the midst of these ac- 
tivities added to all that ilevolves upon the 
missionary himself, Mr. Capron was suddenly 
called to higher service above. A graduate of 
Yale College and of Andover Theological Semi- 
nary and for a number of years principal of the 
Hopkins Grammar School at Hartford, Conn., 
before its union with the high school, he was 
well equipped for his life work. Accurate in 
business methods, of rare judgment and sym- 
pathetic nature, he was greatly endeared to 
his associates. Won by his unfailing kindliness 
of manner, the Hindu comnumity revered him. 
He originated and established the Madura 
Widows' Aid Society, which is a lasting monu- 
ment. 

In 1876 Mrs. Capron removed to the city of 
Madura to superintend the work for women 
and girls. Here she remained for ten years, 
or until her return to America. There were 
three day schools for Hindu girls, and another 
was soon added. These four schools provided 
for nearly four hundred girls of the higher castes 
a blessed retreat from the aimlessness and ig- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



205 



norance of their homes. The government of 
India provides generously for the education of 
girls, as the Results Grants yearly examina- 
tions bring funds to be added to the allowance 
from America. Three masters and twelve 
school-mistresses were in charge. In place of 
a rented, uncomfortable room a new building 
was provided for one of these schools in the 
midst of Bralmiin homes. The famous temple 
covering fourteen and a half acres with its 
massive architecture and nine pagodas had its 
band of mvisic for the little goddess within 
sound of the songs of the girls. Theirs was a 
sweeter melody, and more stopped to listen 
than ever gave heed to the noisy bang of the 
temple performers. High, cool, antl airy, with 
a court-yard attractive with ferns and creepers, 
it became a resting-place for the women, who 
enjoyed seeing the variety of school life. 
Phillips Brooks, on entering it during his tour 
in India, surveyed the lines of one hundred 
girls in their gay clothing and jewels. With 
a bright smile he said, "And this is a piece of 
Boston!" So foreign was it to the sights in 
that great city. 

While having the oversight of these schools, 
Mrs. Capron felt the claim of the women upon 
educational effort imperative. No such pro- 
vision as the Hindu girls' day schools having 
been made for the mothers in their girlhood 
days, they wished that they too might learn 
to read. Hence arose a demand for teachers 
in the homes. For a woman to be seen going 
about the streets and entering houses of tho.se 
not her relations was not consonant with Hindu 
ideals. There being in those earlier days no 
suitable women as teachers except those trained 
in mission schools, these were constrained by 
the example of the lady missionary to lay aside 
custom and give their services to those who 
were so ready to receive, and, having taught 
the primer, they next gave them the Bible. 
Since in many homes they read from the Bible 
to those who did not care to learn, but were 
glad to listen, they were called Bible wonvm. 
There were three of these teachers, or readers, 
and thirty women under instruction. Their 
number increased to twelve, the number learn- 
ing to read to nine hundred and fifty. The 
superintendence of these added to her own 



visits in the homes was a work full of interest 
to Mrs. Capron. 

A room in the dispensary was given to Mrs. 
Capron, where women and children coming 
for medical treatment might- gather. Coming 
to India before the days of medical education 
for women, but having a liking for the work, 
under the leadership of the enthusiastic Dr. 
Etlward Chester, she gave two hours each 
morning to writing such prescriptions as were 
within her ability. Desiring to add something 
if possil:)le to render her service in this line more 
valuable, she spent six weeks in 1875 in the 
Government Hospital in Madras, where the 
physician in charge kindly afforded without 
limitations such advantages as she most de- 
sired. A woman physician is one of the most 
potent factors in the emancipation of the 
women of India from the fetters of superstition 
and cruelty. "I do not expect to be cured," 
said a Brahmin woman who had walked three 
miles, " but I wanted to hear the kind words 
and feel the pity." 

During the fearful famine of 1877-78, when 
five millions of the people in the Madras Presi- 
dency and the Deccan perished, Mrs. Capron 
received for a year and a half a monthly grant 
from the Mansion House fund, London, for 
famine relief. The tremendous demand upon 
one in the midst of such misery must be 
experienced to be understood. Generous con- 
tributions from America came as timely allevi- 
ation to those who long gratefully remembered 
the ministry. 

One day, as Mrs. Cilpron was threading her 
way in antl out among the bundles of grass 
brought for sale by the women who were sitting 
beside them, she overheard one say to another, 
"Who is she?" "Don't you know?" was the 
reply, "she is the mother "of the city." Her 
conveyance and white bullocks had been in 
every street, and had stood at the head of many 
a lane. She could always see, in the crowds 
through which she was passing, recognition if 
not salutation. She had been often told of 
the merit she was laying up, with fawning 
flattery called a (jueen, and that it was a 
goo(_l deed to bring one more religion to add 
to the many; but the outspoken testimony 
of the humble coolie woman was the un- 



206 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



looked-for response to the love for the women 
of India. 

In 1S86, at the railway station in Madura, 
when she was leaving the country, a Brahmin 
gentleman, followed by a servant bearing a 
large brass tray, made his way through the 
crowd, and, coming to the window of the car 
where Mrs. Capron was sitting, asked her to 
come to the platform. Placing an enormous 
wreath of buds of the white jessamine with 
touches of pink oleander u))on her shoulders, 
he said, "I bring to you this as a token of the 
regard of our families for what you have done 
for the women of our city." 

Not to be ministered unto but to minister, 
to be enshrined in the lives of many, a memory 
which neither time nor distance can touch, 
is ever the sphere attainable by all who seek it. 
Arriving in America, Mrs. Capron found her 
time fully taken in addresses upon India and 
its people and its needs. Articles written for 
publication and Bible stutly with resultant 
class work also had their sliare of attention. 

In 1889 Mr. D. L. Moody, about to open in 
Chicago the Moody Bible Institute, a training- 
school for home and foreign missions, asked 
Mrs. Capron to become superintendent of the 
women's department. When she questioned 
her fitness for the position, " It is the experience 
of life that I want," was his reply. The re- 
sults from his far-sighted plan have verified 
his expectations: many young men have re- 
ceived that which was available in no other 
way. Young women who were desiring to 
enter church and city work were trained to 
know how sympathetically and tactfully to 
find their way into the homes and hearts of 
those who were weighted with the burdens of 
poverty and drunkeimess, and by gracious and 
loving words to • kindle hope and courage. 
Candidates for foreign missionary work and 
ladies at home on furlough from foreign fields 
found that which was valuable for the future. 
Grateful expressions of conmiendation are com- 
ing from all over the world and from ministers 
and superintendents in this country, where tlie 
services of these trained workers have proved 
of value. 

Mrs. Capron resigned her position in Chicago 
in 1894, and has since resided in Boston with 



her sister, Mrs. Arthur W. Tufts. Her children 
are: Annie Hooker Capron, now Mrs. Lewis 
Kennedy Morse, of Boston, Mass.; and Laura 
Elisabeth Capron, now Mrs. James Dyer Keith, 
of Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Mr. and Mrs. Morse 
have two children: Anna Hooker, born April 
5, 1899; and Arthur Webster, born March 9, 
1900. Mr. and Mrs. Keith have two children: 
•James Monroe, born March 7, 189;?; and Annie 
Hooker, born June 29, 1895. 



JULIA HAMILTON, now, in 1904, serv- 
ing in her fifth vear as President of Wom- 
an's Relief Corps, No. 82, of Athol, is 
a native of the Isle of Wight. The daugh- 
ter of Jacob and Mary Wilkins, she was born 
at Knighton, near Osborne Hou.se, August 25, 
1845. To escape the shadow of financial mis- 
fortune, her parents, in her early childhood, 
came to America, and settled in Westmin- 
ster, Vi., where she attended the public schools 
and acaileniy. At the age of thirteen she be- 
came a member of the family of the Rev. 
Andrew B. Foster, with whom she lived until 
iier marriage, the Foster home being succes- 
sively in Westminster, \'t., and Bernardston 
and Orange, Mass. Possessing naturally a 
considerable talent for music, it was the great 
desire of ,Julia Wilkins to become an accom- 
plished singer, but her opportunities for in- 
struction were limited. Such as she had were 
well improved. For many years her voice 
was in constant deman<l for service in the 
church and on social occasions. Both at West- 
minster and Bernardston, Miss Wilkins was 
active in work for soldiers of the Civil War, 
the incidents and im|)ressions of which fur- 
nished much inspiration for later years. Mr. 
P'oster becoming pastor of a church in Orange 
in 1865, Miss Wilkins at once entered the 
church and social circles there, winning, as 
in all her previous life, a host of friends. In 
( )range she assisted in the welcoming home 
of the war veterans of the town. On Octo- 
lM>r 22, 1867, she was married l>y the Rev. 
Mr. Foster, at the C'ongregational parsonage 
in Orange, to Andrew J. Hamilton, then a 
resident of Ilin.sdale, N.H. After a short 
residence in Hinsdale, Mr. and Mrs. Hamiltonj 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



207 



in the spring of 1869, chose Athol, Mass., as 
their field for the work of hfe. Hero they 
have since matle their home, its thatches in- 
separably interwoven with local history aiul 
traditions. For some time after the removal 
to Athol, Mrs. Hamilton was an invalid, her 
case a hopeless one, it was thought; but a 
strong constitution and never wav(>ring covu'- 
age at length prevailed, and she again entered 
society after practically a ten years' exile. 
She was soon in demand in the service of song 
and in a variety of social activities. Her 
voice, through occasional service, b(Tame fa- 
miliar in nearly all the churches of Athol. Mrs. 
Hamilton and her husband are members of 
the Congregational church, she having joined 
the church of that faitli in \A'estminster, \'t., 
and remaining true, though holding her de- 
nominational preference subordinate to a broail 
recognition of the Christ spirit luider whatever 
name appearing. 

Mrs. Hamilton, in the privacy of her home, 
often recalls the numerous occasions on whicli 
she has sung in houses of mourning in West- 
minster, Bernardston, Orange, and Athol, feel- 
ing that such was perhaps her most helpful 
service of song. 

In 1888, becoming interested in the prin- 
ciples and aims of the Woman's Relief Corps, 
she joined Hubbard V. Smith Corps, No. 82, 
of Athol, and at once entered actively into its 
work, making it a subject of careful study, 
but declining rapid preferment, when sug- 
gested. In 1890 Mrs. Hamilton was assistant 
guard, in 1891 Senior A'ice-President, in 1892 
corps Secretary, and in 1893, 1894, and 1895 
corps President, bringing to her duties the 
qualification of a thorough knowledge of the 
work, both as to its spirit, ritual, and methods 
of exemplication. Her natural executive abil- 
ity, thus put to test, contributed to three 
years of successful work. The flag salute, 
introduced in the public schools during that 
time with flags presented by the corps, has 
continued a permanent feature in the schools. 
At Mrs. Hamilton's suggestion, made on oc- 
casion of her installation as Presitlent in 1895, 
and aided her by efforts, Corps No. 82 erected 
to the "Unknown Dead" in Silver Lake Ceme- 
tery a beautiful granite monument, which was 



dedicated at the memorial service. May 30, 
1895. The administration of Mrs. Hamilton 
was characterized by the loyal and enthusi- 
astic support of the corps and on her part 
by a desire to rentier impartial recognition 
and justice to all. After retiring from the 
presidency she continued with unabated zeal 
to second the efforts of her successors and in 
every way to sustain the work of the corps. 
Mrs. Hamilton was Department Aide, 1894- 
1897; Department Instructor and Installing 
officer in 1898; member of the Dejiart- 
ment Executive Board in 1899; and in 1900 
serving on the Auditing Committee. During 
her three consecutive years in the Depart- 
ment Council she was present at every meet- 
ing, thus gaining broader and deeper views 
of the merit and magnitude of the W. R. C. 
work and an appreciation of the noble women 
under whose guidance it has prospered. This 
experience she deems abundant compensa- 
tion for all that she has been able to put into 
a work that has conmianded a larger share of 
her time and efforts than all other public or 
organization work. In 1894 Mrs. Hamilton 
was a delegate to the National W. R. C. Con- 
vention in Louisville, Ky., and visited the 
National W. R. C. Home in Madison, Ohio. 
In 1902 she was a National Aide and Depart- 
ment Special Aide. During the emergency 
work for the soldiers of the war with Spain, 
Mrs. Hamilton was chairman of the Executive 
Committee of Corps No. 82, and rendereil ac- 
tive service. She has also maintained a lively 
interest in the Sons of \'eterans work, espe- 
cially in the welfare of the local General W. T. 
Sherman Camp, which she regards as the lineal 
heir to the spirit and traditions of Parker and 
Hubbard V. Smith Posts of the G. A. R. of 
Athol. 

In connection with the Relief Corps work 
Mrs. Hamilton has officiated many times as 
an instructor and ins])ector of corps and as 
installing officer, and has spoken acceptably 
on many occasions. She representetl by de- 
tail the Department President at the dedica- 
tion of the Soldiers' Monument at Plainfield, 
Mass., in 1900. In tlie Department conven- 
tion of 1900 Mrs. Hamilton received a hand- 
some vote for the office of Department Junior 



208 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Vice-President; and in the convention of 1901, 
endorsed by Hubbiird V. Smith Post, Corps 
No. 82, and many others, she receivctl a much 
larger vote. In December, 1901, Mrs. Ham- 
ilton was for the fourth time elected Presi- 
dent of Corps No. 82, l)ut before the date set 
for her installation she was stricken with 
severe illness, which compelled her resigna- 
tion. While in the hospital, slowly recover- 
ing from a successful surgical operation, she 
was cheered an<l comforted by official words 
of sympathy from the Department conven- 
tion of 1902 and by the visits and offerings 
of many friends, the remembrance of which 
she will ever cherish. Having been again 
elected President of Corps No. 82 in January, 
1903, Mrs. Hamilton resumed active corps 
work, contributing to a successful year and 
to her re-election and entrance upon her fifth 
year as President in January, 1904. Mrs. 
Hamilton was also elected a delegate to the 
National W. R. C. (Convention of 1903. 

She is a member of Banner Lodge, No. 89, 
Daughters of Rebekah, and has served two 
terms as Chaplain, but, while fully in sym- 
pathy with the order, has given little time 
to its work because of her devotion to the 
W. R. C. and to the Woman's Au.xiliary of 
the Athol Young Men's Christian Association. 
Of that auxiliary she was President four years 
in succession, while the association was strug- 
gling to live, the auxiliary contributing its 
full share to the success of the struggle. Mrs. 
Hamilton is also a charter member of tiie 
Athol Woman's Club, organized in 1900; and 
at the first meeting of the club .she read an 
original paper on "The Relation of the Home 
to the School," which elicited favorable cotu- 
ment. 

In Athol 's first general observance of " Old 
Home Week," in 1903, Mrs. Hamilton took an 
active part, serving on important conunittees 
and presiding over the W. R. C. float, on which 
the several States and Territories of the Union 
were represented by children with flags and 
decorations. On the organization of the Athol 
Associated Charities Mrs. Hamilton was cho.sen 
vice-president and a member of the connnittee 
to draft a constitution and by-laws. At 
Athol's union Memorial Day service in 1904 



Mrs. Hamilton read a poem on Memorial Day, 
written by Mr. Hamilton. In 1904 Mrs. Hamil- 
ton served the W. R. C. as Department Aide, 
also as a m(>mber of the connnittee on enter- 
tainment of the National Convention in Boston 
and of the committee on finance. 

At the Athol service of mourning for the 
beloved President McKinley she read to an 
audience of one thousand, in the Academy of 
Music, Mr. Hamilton's poetic "Tribute to 
William McKinley," with impressive effect. 
Notwithstanding all her public work Mrs. 
Hamilton's home has not been neglected. 
A model housekeeper and home-maker, she 
has received from lier husband most cheerful 
support in all her philanthropic work. 

Their only child, .\ndrew Foster Hamilton, 
who was graduated from Amherst College 
in 1901, entered the Law School of Harvard 
University in 1902. 

Mrs. Hamilton is a registered voter on school 
matters in Athol, though feeling that the slight 
privilege thus accphred is little more than a 
farce. She was converted to belief in equal 
suffrage by lier husl)an(l, and is a stanch Re- 
publican in politics, but not naturally an ag- 
gressive suffragist. 

Mr. Hamilton was clerk for a merchant 
who left his business with his employees to 
serve in the Civil War. He was impressed 
with the spirit and lessons of the conflict, and 
his a.ssociate membership in Post No. 140, 
Ci. A. R., attests his desire to perpetuate its 
lessons. Mr. Hamilton has been a director 
of the Athol Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion from its organization, having also served 
as president and treasurer. He is a member 
of the Pocpiaig Clul); a Past Orand of Tully 
Lodge, No. 130, I. O. O. F., which he has 
served many terms as Chajilain; a Past High 
Priest of Mount Pleasant Encampment, No. 
68; member of Canton Athol, P. M., and of 
Banner Lodge, No. 89, D. of R. ; and for thirty 
years has taken an active interest in local 
public affairs. He has been a fre(]uent con- 
tributor to the local ])ress, and his letters to 
the Sprinyficld Repuhlimn in support of the 
administrative policies of Presidents McKin- 
ley and Roosevelt have elicited much com- 
ment and some interesting private correspond- 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



209 



ence. He is also an occusiunal writer of verse, 
his "Tribute to AVilliani McKinley" having 
brought to hiiu many letters of appreciation, 
incluiling acknowleilginents from Mrs. Mc- 
Kinley, President Roosevelt, and the Depart- 
ment of State. Mr. Hamilton's motto govern- 
ing all writings for the iniblic eye is, "To do 
somel)ody or some cause some good." In the 
family life of Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton inde- 
pendence of thought has been sacredly re- 
specteil, but, happily, there has been har- 
mony and mutual helpfulness. 



EMMA HUNTINGTON NASON, author 
and nuisical composer, is a native 
of Hallowell, Me., a pleasant town 
on the Kennebec, which is rich in local 
and historic interest. She was born August 
6, 1845, the daughter of Sanuiel W. and Sally 
(Mayo) Huntington. The Huntington family 
in America, to which her fathe'r belonged, was 
first represented in New England i)y the 
widow Margaret Huntington, who came from 
England with her children (her husband having 
died on the voyage) in 1633, as certified by 
the church records of Roxbury. This family 
has counted among its members many dis- 
tinguished men: one was a signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence: another, one of Gen- 
eral Washington's staff: and in U\ter genera- 
tions some of them have been well known as 
artists, writers, lawyers, and divines. 

Mrs. Nason's maternal gi-andfathcr was a 
lineal descendant of the Rev. John Mayo, who 
was ordained in 1655 as the first pastor of the 
Second Church of Boston, where he preached 
for seventeen years, and who built the old 
historic Mayo-Mather house on Hanover Street 
in 1665. Mrs. Nason is also descended in 
several lines from "Mayflower" Pilgrims antl 
other ancestors who bore their part in early 
colonial history. 

Emma Huntington (as her name stands on 
the school catalogues) was educated at the 
Hallowell Academy and at the Maine Wes- 
leyan College at Kent's Hill, where she was 
graduated A.B. in 1865, that institution lieing 
then the only one in New England which 
offered a regular college course for women. In 



187U she was marrietl to Mr. Charles H. 
Nason, of Augusta, an enterprising and success- 
ful bu.siness man of refined and cultivated 
tastes. 

She began at an early age to write verses. 
Her first publisheil writings appeared in the 
Portland Transcript under a pen-name, and 
consisted of short stories, translations from 
the German, and verses, which are still 
favorably noticed. In 1875 she gave the 
connnencement poem before the literary 
societies of her Alma Mater, and on Marcli 
9, 1880, she read an original poem at the dedi- 
cation of the beautiful building, which was 
the gift of the citizens of Hallowell to its old 
and honored institution, the Hallowell Social 
Library. This large and well-selected collec- 
tion of books, to which Mrs. Nason had access 
from childhood, and to the influence of which 
may be ascribed the literary culture of her 
native town, she still holds in grateful re- 
membrance. The poem, with the oration 
delivereil at the same time, was published 
in a dainty souvenir volume. 

Her first poem published under her own 
name was "The Tower," which appeared in 
the Atlantic Monthly, May, 1874, and won 
ready recognition. Her pen, which since that 
time has seklom been idle, was busied chiefly 
for some years with .songs of child life, which 
appeannl at intervals in such magazines as 
St. Nicholas, Wide Awake, antl Our Little Ones. 
In 1888 these were collected in a volume 
called "White Sails," a title who.se tender 
fitness is told in its prelude. These verses are 
familiar in .scliool-i-ooms throughout the 
country. One in particular, "The Bravest 
Boy in Town," tells an incident of the 
Civil War, and is everywhere a favorite. 
"The Mission Tea Party" gives a pathetic 
incident in the siege of Lucknow. "The 
Bishop's Visit," "A Little Girl Lost," " Unter 
tlen Linden," "Saint Olga's Bell," and the 
"Battl(> Song" have been widely copied and 
used as recitations. It gives Mrs. Nason the 
greatest pleasure that children have loved 
and learned her ver.ses. 

■■The Tower, with Legends and Lyrics," was 
published in 1895 by Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 
and the following comment appeared in the 



210 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Literary World: " Emma Huntington Nason 
is one of those wlio write verses by divine 
permission. Her poems are not 'merely per- 
sonal outpourings of joy or sadness, but they 
are thoughtful with the insight that looks 
into others' experiences as her own. 'The 
Ballad of the Blithe Quartette,' with its 
mingled nmsic, the gently swinging 'Slumber 
Song," the dignified 'The Tower,' which begins 
the book, and the reverently passionate ' At- 
tainment,' which closes it, are widely different 
from each other in form as in spirit, but they 
are all gootl and true, and we are glail they 
are ours to read and keep." 

The verses "Body and Soul" and "Two 
Faces" have been pronounced "two of the 
most remarkable poems published in this 
country in recent years." The former was 
selected by Mr. Warner for his "World's 
Best Literature" and "A Child's Question" 
was chosen by Mr. Stedman for his Ameri- 
can Anthology. Mrs. Nason has done much 
work for the literary clubs of Maine, having 
prepared papers on "The Folk-lore of Russia," 
"The Abenaki Indians," "The Early Ballad- 
ists and Troubadovu's of France," and a course 
of lectures on the " Genius and Love-life of 
the German Poets." She is an enthusiastic 
student of German literature, and has pub- 
lished a number of magazine articles on the 
German poets. 

Her talents are not limited to literature 
alone: she is a musical composer, having done 
some excellent work, and is active in the mu- 
sical circles of Augusta. She is also interested 
in drawing and painting. Her studies in oil 
have much merit, and she sketches effec- 
tively in charcoal from nature. She has writ- 
ten a series of articles on "Ancient Art for 
Young People." 

At Augusta's centennial celebration in 1897 
she delivered a poem entitled "Ancient 
Koussinoc," into which is woven much of 
the historical and legenrlary lore of the 
valley of the Kennebec. 

Mrs. Nason is a member of the Society of 
the Mayflower Descendants and of the Order 
of the Descendants of Colonial Governors. 
She has been Regent of the Koussinoc Chap- 
ter of the Daughters of the American Revo- 



lution in Augusta and Vice-Regent of the 
Maine State Council, D. A. R. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nason have one .son, Arthur 
Huntington Nason, who was graduated A.B. 
from Bowdoin College in 1899, and A.M. 
pro merito in 1903. He has been a teacher of 
English in secondary schools, and, since 1902, 
a graduate student in Engli.sh at Bowdoin Col- 
lege and at Columbia University. He was joint 
eclitor of Songs of Theta of Delta Kappa Epsi- 
lon, 1899; and his own publications include A 
Yule-tide Sonq and Other Verse, 1901, and 
jmmphlets on English literature and composition 
1901-2-8. He was appointed l^niversity Fellow 
in English at Columl)ia for the year 1904-5. 



EMMA MYRTICE WOOLLEY, M.D., was 
born in Owasco, Cayuga County, N.Y., 
July 8, 1859, daughter of George and 
Catherine (Freese) WooUey. 
Her ])arents were married in the town of 
Aurelius, in the same county, in 1852. Her 
grandfather and grandmother Freese were ' 
of Dutch origin, and were among the pioneer 
settlers of Ulster County, New York. When 
their daughter Catherine was a small child, 
they journeyed to Indiana in a wagon — a 
remarkable trip it was considered, that State 
being regarded in tho.se days as a part of the 
"Far West." After a two years' battle with 
fever and ague they returned to the little farm 
in Aurelius to spend the remaining days of 
their lives. 

George Woolley, father of Dr. Woolley, was 
born in Cayuga Comity in 1831. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools and the Auburn 
Academy. He followed farming until 1873. 
In that year he sold his farm in Owasco, and 
removed with his wife and their three children 
to Auburn, where he worked at various trades. 
In 1887, having removed to the Freese home- 
stead in Aurelius, he resumed his former occu- 
pation. He is living in that town at the pres- 
ent time, as active as any of his younger 
neighbors. Mrs. Woolley, the Doctor's mother, 
died May 9, 1900. She was born in 1830. For 
several years previous to her marriage she 
taught school. Active-minded, energetic, and, 
withal, possessed of considerable literary abil- 




EMMA M. WOOL LEV 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



211 



ity, she was a prolific writer. Several of her 
poems and short stories were publislied in the 
local papers. Many of her sterling qualities 
were tran.sniittetl to her daughter. 

Emma M. Woolley enteied the Auhm-n High 
School in the fall of 1S75, and was graduated 
in June, 1879. Her ambition at this time was 
to study medicine, hut women doctors were 
not popular with her friends and kinsfolk. 
Their opposition anil the fact that her financial 
resources were limited caused her to adopt the 
more popular profession of teacher. After a 
service of six years in the country and vil- 
lage schools of Cayuga County she accepted 
a position in Americus, Kan., where she taught 
two years. She then continued her work as 
a teacher in Kansas City. Although a suc- 
cessful teacher, faithful in the performance of 
her iluties, she never accepted this occupation 
as her life work, but with unwavering trust 
looketl forward to the time when she could add 
to her name the title of M.D. 

In the summer of 1888 she returned to her 
native town and spent her vacation with i)ar- 
ents and friends. In 1890, having decided, 
after due deliberation, to carry out her long- 
cherished plan of study, she matriculated at 
the Boston University School of Medicine. 
With only a few hundred dollars, which she 
had saved from her salary as a teacher, her 
means were limited; and, to eke them out 
during the four years necessary to complete 
the cour.se, she worked as a nurse many nights 
and in vacation. The money thus .earned, 
with the small sums furnished by a self-sacri- 
ficing mother, enabled her to meet her neces- 
sary expenses. In 1894 she was graduated, 
and received from the Boston University the 
coveted medical diploma. 

She at once located herself as physician 
at No. 1 Columbus Square, Boston, renting the 
house she occupied and doing whatever came 
to her hands to do. Although a career of star- 
vation was predicted for her by some of her 
classmates, she set forth bravely, equip|)ed 
with a sound physical, mental, and moral 
nature and an indomitable will, l^nboundod 
energy and perseverance are the character- 
istics by which she has achieved her well- 
merited success. 



In 19U1 she purchased the house at No. 867 
Beacon Street, Boston, removing her office 
to this new home, where she gives the best -of 
her life to the relief of suffering humanity. 



EDNA A. FOSTER, who is editorially 
connected with the Youth' t^ Companioii, 
being associate editor of the chil- 
dren's page, was born at Sullivan 
Harbor, Me., opposite Mount Desert hills. 
She is the daughter of Charles W. and Sarah 
(Dyer) Foster. Her father is an architect 
and draftsman, and has been expert estimator 
for leading granite companies. 

Her ])aternal gramlfather was Jabez Simp- 
son Foster, of Sullivan Harbor; and her great- 
grandfather in that line was James Foster, 
who married Lydia, daughter of Deacon Jon- 
athan and Mary (Tracy) Stevens, early settlers 
of Steuben, Me. Nancy Stevens, a younger 
sister of Lydia, it may be mentioneil, married 
William Nickels Shaw, of Steuben, brother 
of Robert Gould Shaw, of Gouldsboro, Me. 
(Bangor Historical Magazine, vol. viii.). 

Miss Foster's paternal grandmother, the wife 
of Jabez S. Foster, married in 1827, was Emma 
Ingalls, daughter of Samuel" antl Abigail 
(Wooster) Ingalls, of Sullivan, Me., and a 
descendant in the seventh generation of Ed- 
mund Ingalls, an early settler of Lynn, Mass., 
who was the founder of the family of this name 
in New England. The line from Ednumd' con- 
tinued through his son Robert,^ Nathaniel,' 
William,""^ to Samuel," father of Mrs. Emma' 
Ingalls Foster. Mi.ss Foster has in her posses- 
sion .some silver spoons that were part of the 
wedding outfit of her great-great-grantlmother 
Ingalls, whose maiden name was Deborah 
Goss. She was the wife of William^ Ingalls. 

Captain Ezekiel Dyer, Miss Foster's maternal 
grandfather, was a large ship-builder of Mill- 
bridge, Me., five miles from Steuben, at the 
head of Dyer's Bay. The bay was named for 
his ancestor, Henry Dyer, Jr., who came hither 
from Cape Elizabeth, it is statetl, with his 
brother Reuben in 1768-69. Henry Dyer, Jr., 
was a Ca])tain in the Revolution, stationed at 
Machias, Me., and St. John, N.B. {Bangor 
Historical Magatine). 



212 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Miss Foster's school-days were spent in 
Lowell, Mass., where she was graduated from 
the high school. She afterward studied at 
the Berlitz School of Languages, and spent sev- 
eral years in the study of art and outdoor 
sketching. 

In her teens she sent sonnets to the Boston 
Transcrijit and afterward to various magazines, 
contributing short stories to the Youth's Com- 
panion. In 1896 she assumed the duties of 
assistant editor of The Household, eventually 
becoming its editor. In 1900 she assumed 
her present duties on the Youth's Companion. 

Her first book, "Hortense, a Difficult Child," 
was published by Lee & Shepard in 1902. This 
book had an immediate sale, and before six 
months had been .sent to European countries 
and the Hawaiian Islands. 

Miss Foster's home is now at Annisipiam, 
Mass. She leads a very quiet and retired life, 
and is not a member of any club. Her chief 
characteristics are a fondness for outdoor life 
and the love of children. She has a large call- 
ing list of little folks, and most of her leisure 
hours are spent with them. 

All the agreeable impressions gained in read- 
ing Miss Foster's stories are strengthened by 
a personal meeting with the author. She is 
wholly unaffected, and her simplicity of man- 
ner, joined to a pleasing directness of speech, 
refreshes one like green pastures ancl still 
waters. 



SALOME THOMAS CADE ("Clayton 
Thomas") was born in Charlestown, 
Mass., in 1867. She belongs to a good 
old Maine family, whose members have 
been prominent factors in the history of the 
State. Holmes Thomas, her father's paternal 
grandfather, was a Sergeant in Peleg Wads- 
worth's regiment in the Revolutionary War. 
Her father, Spencer Churchill Thomas, married 
Eunice Ann Clayton, of Farmington, Me., anti 
just before the birth of their daughter they 
moved to Charlestown, Ma.ss. The subject of 
this sketch began her education in the ('iuirle.s- 
town public schools, subsequently taking les- 
sons from private tutors. At an early age she 
displayed the gifts of harmony and improvisa- 



tion, and long before she knew a note on the 
piano was an object of interest to those who 
watched her childish fingers unerringly extract 
melodies from the keys. Subsequently devel- 
oping talent as a vocalist, at the early age of 
fourteen she toured with an opera company 
appearing in several leading parts. At the age 
of twenty she was travelling as a member of 
the Balfe Opera Company of New York, with 
which she scored her chief success as Lady 
Harriett in "Martha." Later she spent four 
years touring under the auspices of the Red- 
path Lyceum Bureau. 

Feeling a strong desire to gather laurels in 
the field of musical composition, she became 
a diligent student in the higher departments 
of music, studying in London with Randegger 
(under whom she did her first work in compo- 
sition) and with Henschel. In Paris and in 
Belgium she is a great favorite. She has a 
high soprano voice of great purity and sweet- 
ness. 

In 1894 Miss Thomas began composing con- 
cert songs, and in 1900 she began publishing 
them in London. While residing in that city 
she studied composition and harmony at the 
Guild Hall, under Professor Gadsby. She also 
instructed pupils on the piano, finding a some- 
what select and congenial field in teaching 
ladies who could sing to play their own accom- 
paniments. 

As among the most pleasant experiences con- 
nected with her foreign travels she recalls her 
stay in Edinburgh and the Scottish Highlands. 
Yet there were incidents connectetl with her 
visit to Wales which render it memorable. Her 
father's family being formerly dwellers in the 
south of Wales, she took a special pleasure in 
learning the language, songs, antl folk-lore of the 
country. While visiting the old Malvern par- 
ish church, which Jenny Lind used to attend, 
and to which she was a most generous con- 
tributor. Miss Thomas noticed that, while 
many others had been honored with memorial 
windows and tablets, there was nothing to 
signify remendirance of her. The man in 
charge, questionetl as to the reason of tliis 
strange omission, replied that he supposed 
"nobody had ever thought about it." Miss 
Thomas took pleasure in placing a wreath of 



REPRESENTATR'E WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



213 



laurel and a flag on tlie grave of the great artist, 
and, making a donation, asked the man to place 
a contribution-box upon the walls, with a 
printed request, inviting visitors to assist in 
procuring a tardy memorial to the wonderful 
songstress and noble, pure-hearted woman. 

They were Welsh frienils who urged Miss 
Thomas to publish the Japanese Love Song, 
which so impressed Mr. Boosey, of London, the 
great music publisher, that he requested all 
her work. This song was enthusiastically re- 
ceived by the nuisical world, and i-eached the 
sale of twenty thousand the first year. The 
composer has since pviblished "The Mechanical 
Doll," Eugene Field's "Toy Land," "Wing 
Tee Wee," "Jai)anese Dance" (for string or- 
chestra), now being used in the London ])rotluc- 
tion of "The Darling of the Gods," also an 
Ave Maria, which has been enthusiastically re- 
ceived in London, "My French Lesson," and 
"Chasing Butterflies." In Leipsic, with Bos- 
worth, she published "Peace on Earth," a 
Christmas song, the words of which she wrote 
under the name of "Eaton Churchill." Her 
usual professional pseuilonym, " Clayton 
Thomas," is a combination of both her father's 
and mother's family names. She is now busy 
on other works, but does nothing hurriedly; 
and surely her music is original and choice 
enough to be well worth waiting for. 

In September, 1902, MLss Thomas married 
George Lyman Cade, of Cambridge, Mass. 
After residing for some time in Boston, Mr. and 
Mrs. Caile removed to their present home in 
Melrose. They have one child, a daughter, 
Margaret Salome, who was born in Melrose, 
October 28, 1903. 

Mrs. Cade is a member of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church. She belongs to Paul .Jones C'hap- 
ter, D. A. R., and was for many years a mem- 
ber of the Cecilia Club of Boston. 

Graceful, almost girlish in figure, of gracious 
and unassuming manners, she is a woman of 
delightful personality and an interesting con- 
versationalist. 

Mrs. Cade has recently been giving the Jap- 
anese Love Song and dance in native C(jstume 
in Boston, receiving marked commendation 
from musical critics. In November next, 1904, 
she is to appear in London in a series of con- 



certs and recitals under the management 
of Messrs. Boosey & Co., introducing her own 
songs. 



ALICE E. WELD WHITAKER, first 

/ \ president of the Boston Woman's Press 
X .^ Club (organized in February, 1903), 
was born at Southbridge, Mass., m 
November, 1851, being a daughter of Charles 
Winthrop and Lucinda (Richardson) Weld. 
She is a direct descendant of Captain Joseph 
Weld, who figured prominently in the early 
history of Roxbury. She also traces her an- 
cestry along other lines to early settlers of 
Boston. Mrs. W^hitaker early manifested a 
liking for domestic science, both practical and 
theoretical, and also for newspaper work. 
Opportunities enabled her to gratify and develop 
her natural tastes. Her life work has been 
therefore along these dual lines, which have 
admirably supplemented and assisted each 
other, strength and experience gained in one 
having increased her ability and usefulness 
m the other. In this way she has become 
well known as a newspapei' worker and a rec- 
ognized authority on much that relates to 
domestic life, from cooking and sanitation to 
the artistic use of the needle and brush. Her 
early education included the regular courses 
at the high school in her native town and at 
Nichols Academy, Dudley. 

Mrs. Whitaker's newspaper work began soon 
after her marriage to George M. Whitaker, 
A.M., in 1872. For sixteen years she edited 
a page of the Southbridge Journal, devoted 
to women's interests. This department was 
conducted with such ability that it soon won 
more than a local reputation, and gave the 
Journal a standing as mon; than a mere pur- 
veyor of town items. For a year she was the 
sole editor of the paper. 

In 1886 Mrs. Whitaker removed to Boston 
and took a prominent position on the New 
England Farmer, of which she edited a page 
devoted to women's interests until July, 1903. 
This was a strong feature of the paper, and 
added much to its popularity. Her editorials 
were frequently quoted in other publications. 
In addition to this teclmical writing and edit- 



214 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



ing she did considerable all-round work on the 
Neiv England Farmer, at times being responsi- 
ble for the editing of the whole pajier. Further 
than this, she has done much work for other 
publications. For two years she edited the 
Health Magazine, which was a marked success 
under her management. For several years she 
has written a daily article on cookery for a 
syndicate of daily papers; for a portion of the 
tune this was illustrated. She has also done 
much miscellaneous literary work, and has been 
a frequent contributor to various other period- 
icals. 

She was one of the earliest members of 
the New England Woman's Press Associa- 
tion, in which' she has held all offices except, 
the presidency, and she has been frequently 
urged to take that. Her services are in fre- 
qumt demand on different important com- 
mittees of the association. She represented 
it one year at the convention of the International 
League of Press Clubs, and' has four times been 
a delegate to the National Editorial Association, 
having twice responded to invitations to pre- 
pare papers for its progranunes. 

Mrs. Whitaker was invited to prepare a 
paper for the World's Fair Press Congress in 
Chicago in 1893 on "Three Quarters of a 
Century in Agricultural Journalism." This 
paper was received with much approbation. 
She was also selected for a similar congress 
at the exposition at Atlanta. 

Her writings have always been popular be- 
cau.se they are based on actual experience, and 
because they eliminate the purely imaginative 
or what is merely theoretical. " If Mrs. 
Whitaker said so, it is so " is a fre(|uent comment 
about articles which appear over her name. 
Her style is marked by clearness, vigor, and 
terseness. Her meaning is- always evident, 
and no words are wasted in getting at it. This 
is a great desideratum in newspaper work. 

Mrs. Whitaker's prominence as a writer and 
authority on domestic topics has created a 
demand for her services in a number of direc- 
tions growing out of, but allied to, her special 
work. She was at one time employed by the 
Bay State Agricultural Society to organize 
a series of travelling cooking-schools in coun- 
try towns. She plaimed and successfully man- 



aged a Household Institute in connection with 
the great Food Fair in Boston in 1897. She 
is freciuently in demand as an expert judge 
at fairs. 

Although Mrs. Whitaker's chief claim to 
prominence is in her newspaper work, she is 
well known as a club woman. The many brill- 
iant functions of the New England Woman's 
Press Association always give prominence to 
its officers, and this prominence has been em- 
phasized in her case by the many years that 
she has been officially connected with the 
association. She was a leading spirit in the 
organization of the Winthrop Woman's Club 
and its first president. Her experience and 
executive ability did much to start it on a 
sound basis and to give it a recognized stand- 
ing among sister clubs. On her resignation 
she was elected an honorary life member. 
She was also a member of the Cooking Teach- 
ers' Club during its existence, and was one of 
the charter members of the Boston Business 
League. She served the League as secretary 
antl treasurer, and was e'ected an honorary 
member. For several 'y^'ifs she has been a 
member of the Arts and Crafts Committee of 
the State Federation of Women's Clubs. 

She is the mother of two daughters: Lillian, 
who is now living; and Ethel, who died at the 
age of twenty-three. F]thel Whitaker was an 
artist of rare promise, who had already won 
a recognizeil position in art and been much 
com])limented as an exhibitor at the exhibi- 
tions of the Boston Art Club and others of 
etjual standing. She was a co-worker with 
her mother, whose work she illustrated in dif- 
ferent daily and other pul)lications. Her pre- 
matine death was acknowledged by the critics 
to be a less to the art world. 



ABBIE ANN BIGELOW, president of 
/\ the Worcester Branch of the Bald- 
_/ \_ winsville Hospital Cottages, is a na- 
tive of Marlboro, Mass. Born .Au- 
gust 1, 1SX7, daughter of William and Eunice 
(Wilson) Gibbon, she passed the first twenty 
years of her life as Abbie A. Gil)bon in her 
childhood's home, leaving school at the age of 
twelve years to become her mother's helper 




ABBIE A. BIGELOW 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



215 



in the household cares of a large family. Her 
grandfather, Samuel Gibbon, was the son of 
Samuel, Sr., and Lydia (!ibbon, and was born 
April 27, 1759, in Dedhani, Mass. He mar- 
ried Abigail Colburn, of Dedham, November 
25, 1784, and went to Marlboro in December 
of the same year. He was a farmer and store- 
keeper and a prominent citizen of Marlboro, 
being a Justice of the Peace and Representa- 
tive in the Legislature. He died January 12, 
1833, at the age of seventy-four. His first 
wife, Abigail Colburn, died in 1787: his second 
wife, Elizabeth Perkuis, died in 1800; and his 
third wife, Abigail Cogswell, died March 31, 
1826. 

William Gibbon, above named, .son of Sam- 
uel and his third wife, was born in Marlboro, 
Mass., July 25, 1807, being the twelfth of a 
family of thirteen children. He was a farmer 
and held many town offices. He was presi- 
dent of the First National Bank of Marlboro, 
also a charter member of the Marlboro Savings 
Bank, in which he was a director for many 
years. He died November 11, 1890, in the 
room where he was born, having lived all his 
life in the same house. This house, although 
two hundretl years old, is still in good repair. 
It has never been mortgaged, and has had but 
three owners. 

Eunice Wilson, wife of William Gibbon, was 
born December 1, 1808, in Peterboro, N.H. 
She was married in 1835, and died October 
31, 1890, just eleven days before her husband. 
Neither of them was ever sick, and both pa.ssed 
away from the infirmity of old age. Their 
graves are in Brighani (Cemetery, Marlboro, 
Mass., very near the old home and on land once 
owned by Mr. Gibbon. 

Eunice Wilson's parents were \\'illiam^ antl 
Dotia (Smith) Wilson. William^ was the son 
of Major Robert" Wilson, who came to Amer- 
ica with his parents from the north of L-eland 
in 1737. His father, William,' settled in 
Townsentl, Mass. Major Robert Wilson mar- 
ried Mary Hodge, of West Cambridge, and 
went to Peterboro, N.H., where he became 
a farmer and tavern-keeper. William' Wil- 
son also kept a public house, the \\'ilson Tav- 
ern, a noted place for assemblies and balls 
and public meetings in his day. The house 



is still well preserved, and is a well-known 
landmark in Peterboro. 

James Wilson, another son of Major Robert 
and uncle of Eunice, was born in 1766. He 
settled in Keene, N.H., and from 1809 to 1811 
was a member of Congress, where on account 
of his great height (being over six feet tall 
and very large in every way) he was known 
as " Long Jim." 

Abbie Ann Gibbon was married May 20, 
1858, to Walter Balfour Bigelow, of Marlboro. 
He died March 30, 1872, leaving her with two 
small children. Mr. Bigelow was the youngest 
son of Gershom Bigelow, of Marlboro, who 
was born March 22, 1768, and his second wife, 
Eunice Wilder, who was born in Sterling, Mass., 
January 13, 1790. 

Mr. Bigelow and his brother Charles were 
.shoe manufacturers, having a large factory 
in Marlboro, and were the first to make shoes 
by what was called " team work." Burnt out 
in 1852, they went to New York and made 
shoes at Sing Sing, employing prison labor. 
They also carried on the same business at 
Trenton, N.J., and several other places, in- 
cluding Worcester, Mass., where they were 
managers of the once large and prosperous 
Bay State Shoe and Leather Company, whose 
main factory was there located. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bigelow had three children 
who outliveil their earliest infancy: Lawrence 
Gibbon, born November 23, 1866: Ralph Olin, 
born July 21, 1868, who dietl in 1871; and 
Isabella Francis, born December 27, 1869. 

Lawrence Gibbon Bigelow was educated 
in the public schools of ^\'{)rcester antl the 
Highland Military Academy, where he was 
graduated in 1882. He has been a member 
of the State militia, having enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Battery B, of Worcester, and been 
successively promoted till he became Captain, 
serving in that rank ten years. He married 
Fannie Davis Clark, of Worcester, October 
9, 1889, and has one daughter, Gretchen Bige- 
low, born November 4, 1890. Isabella Fran- 
cis Bigelow was married October 31, 1900, 
to Allan J. McFarlane, of Newtonville, Mass. 
They have one son, Harold. 

Mrs. Bigelow has lived in Worcester for the 
past thirty-three years. She is a member 



216 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



of St. Mark's P^piscopal Church. In addition 
to her home duties she ha.s found time for many 
outside interests. She is a member of the 
Worcester Woman's Club and a charter hfe 
member of the Worcester Y. W. C. A., also 
of the Y. M. C. A. Woman's Auxiliary, in both 
of which societies she has held offices. The 
presidency of the charitable society known 
as the Worcester Branch of the Baldwinsville 
Hospital Cottages for Children, its purpose 
being to aid that benevolent institution, Mrs. 
Bigelow has held for four years and, as indi- 
cated above, still holds. For the same length 
of time she has served as treasurer of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union of 
Worcester, remaining in office at present writ- 
ing (November, 1903). 



HARRIET AUGUSTA RALPH, Presi- 
dent of the Ladies' Aid Association of 
the Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts, 
is the wife of William H. Ralph, of 
Sonierville. She was born in Camden, N.J., 
March 20, 1851, daughter of the late Joseph 
Parker and Hannah Elizabeth (Bullock) Myers. 
Her father was from Philadelphia. 

Through her mother Mrs. Ralph is a great- 
great-grand-daughter of Abijah Reed, who, 
as recorded in the Revolutionary Rolls of New 
Hampshire, was a private in Captain William 
Walker's company. Third New Hampshire 
Regiment, connnanded by Colonel James Reed 
in 1775, and in 1776 was in Captain William 
Barron's company, which rendered service 
in Canada. The Hillsborough (N.H.) County 
History names him as one of the soldiers 
who fought at Bunker Hill. He is said to have 
held at one time the rank of Corporal and later 
that of Sergeant. He died at his home in Dun- 
stable, now Nashua, N.H., about the year 1828. 
His daughter Hannah married James Wheeler. 
Their daughter, Mary Sampson Wheeler, mar- 
ried Jabez Bullock; and Hannah Elizabeth 
Bullock, tlaughter of Jabez and Mary, married 
in November, 1S45, Joseph Parker Myers, 
above named. 

In 1851 Mr. and Mrs. Myers removed to 
Boston. Mr. Myers enlisted in 1861 in Com- 
pany G, Eleventh Massachusetts Regiment. 



He was commissioned First Lieutenant, and 
was in the early campaigns of the Army of the 
Potomac. As the result of injuries received 
and of disease contracted in the service, he was 
honorably discharged in August, 1862. He 
was an invalid the rest of his life, being incapac- 
itated for active work. When Joe Hooker 
Post, No. 23, G. A. R., was fonned in East 
Boston, Lieutenant Myers enrolled his name 
on its list of members. He vyas a man of ster- 
ling principles, and was highly respected by his 
associates. He died September 23, 1891, at 
the home of his daughter in Somerville. His 
grave is in Woodlawn Cemetery, Everett. 

Brigadier-general William W. Bullock, who 
was prominent in the State militia before the 
Civil War and in subsequent years identified 
with national interests, was Mrs. Ralph's 
uncle. Her mf)ther, who was General Bullock's 
sister, was President of the Soldiers' Ladies 
Aid Society formed in East Boston in 1871, 
which was one of the first societies of the kind 
organized in the country. Mrs. Ralph was 
a member of that society. In 1882 she joined 
the Willard C. Kinsley Relief Corps, No. 21, 
of Somerville, as a charter member. Of this 
corps she was the second President, subse- 
([uently serving as secretary. 

In 1886 Mrs. Ralph was elected treasurer of 
the Department of Massachusetts, W. R. C. 
After serving with efficiency three years 
in this responsible position, she declined a re- 
election on account of illness, but accepted 
office as a member of the Department Execu- 
tive Boaril two successive years. In the plans 
for the National I'^ncamjiment of the G. A. R. 
in Boston in 1N90 Mrs. Ralph actively repre- 
sented the Woman's Relief Corps of Mas.saclui- 
.setts. She was a delegate at large to the 
National Convention in Tremont Temple, and 
was a member of the Executive Committee of 
Arrangements and of subcommittees. As 
chairman of the Finance Committee, she had 
charge of several thousand dollars contributed 
to the Convention fund iiy the corps in re- 
sponse to an appeal for money to provide for 
the reception and entertainment of visitors 
and delegates. 

Mrs. Ral]ih has also been a National Aide, 
press correspondent, chaplain, and Junior Vice- 




HARRIET A. RALPH 




REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



217 



President. AMieu iKimiiiatcd tor the hitter of- 
fice, among the many testimonies to her work 
and ability was the following by Mrs. Mary L. 
Crilnian, Past De]«rtin(>nt President; "Mrs. 
Ralph has ably tilled positions of honor in this 
department, and, as has been stated, could 
have held the highest ofhce years ago hail not 
her duty to an invaliil soldier father seemed to 
her more imperative. Siie deserves this recog- 
nition in coming forward again. She has always 
manifested great interest in the work, and we 
appreciate her valuable services. She is highly 
respected as a noble woman wherever known. 
She has always been ready to help in any emer- 
gency ; in the past her services were such that 
we feel assured that if elected she will be a 
worthy leader." 

Mrs. Ralph was chosen and, at the conven- 
tion a year later, was unanimously elected De- 
partment iSenior \'ice-Presiilent ; in accordance 
with the custom of the conventions this insures 
her election as Department President in 1905. 

Mrs. Ralph joined the Ladies' Aid As.socia- 
tion of the Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts 
soon after it was formed, in 1SS2, serving on the 
committee that drafted the constitution and 
also as recording secretary of the association. 
After holding the office of secretary for three 
years, she declined a re-election. A valuable 
silver service, suitably inscribed, was pre- 
sented her in 1886, accompanied by an en- 
grossed testimonial expressing the regard of 
the members and their ajjpreciation of her 
work. She is now (1904) serving her fifth 
year as President. 

The object of the association is to co-operate 
with the Board of Trustees in promoting the 
interests of the Soldiers' Home, assist in fur- 
nishing a library, and provide, as far as possible, 
such articles as are necessary for the comfort 
of tlie inmates. The appointment of finance 
committees to solicit memberships and the 
issuing of appeals through the papers and by 
circulars were the first methods adopted to 
enlist co-operation and financial support. 
Women who had rendered service in hospitals 
and elsewhere during the days of the civil strife, 
representatives of the old Soldiers' Home or- 
ganization, members of the Woman's Relief 
Corps and of other organized charities in Massa- 



chusetts, have united their efforts in promoting 
the work of the Ladies' Aid Association. 

Every week since the home was opened, the 
hearts of the inmates have been cheered by their 
visits, and by the books, flowers, fruit, and nu- 
merous other gifts that they have distributed. 
The entertainments given by the association for 
the financial benefit of the home have been well 
patronized. The Ladies' Aid table, with its 
several annexes, furnished by invitation of the 
executive connnittee of the Soldiers' Home 
Carnival in 188.3, netted five thousand four 
hundred ninety-five dollars and ninety cents 
to its treasury. The kettledrum arranged for 
the evening of February 14, 1884, which was 
attended by five thousand persons, and was 
recognized by the public anil recorded in the 
press as a brilliant social event, added four- 
teen hundred dollars. A part of this sum 
was expended in the j)urchase of a lot in 
Forest Dale Cemetery, Maiden. 

In referring to the work of the Ladies' Aiil, 
Mrs. Ralph, in an address given at a church 
gathering in Sumerville in 1900, said in part : 
"The association has borne the entire expense 
of caring for the cemetery lot, which amounted 
to more than one thousand dollars from 189G 
to 1899, inclusive. Through the efforts of the 
late Mrs. E. Florence Barker, condenmed can- 
non were secured from the War Department 
and mounted on the lot at a cost of one 
hundred and twenty-five dollars. The monu- 
ment of granite was the gift of Mrs. Lyman 
Tucker, who was an active member from 
the date of organization until her life's work 
was completed, ami who remembered the 
association in her will. 

"In 1885 new steps to Powder Horn Hill, 
Chelsea, where the home is located, were built 
at a cost of four hundred and five dollars and 
forty-five cents, and in 1887 new floors were 
laid in the home, for which over one hundred 
dollars were appropriated. General Horace 
Binney Sargent Hall has been furnished for 
religious .services and entertainments. The 
a,ssociation assisted in furnishing the additional 
building erected in 1890, and in 1898 refur- 
nished the surgeon's office with desk, chair, 
and other supplies. In 1899 clocks were placed 
in three of the larger rooms. Assistance has 



218 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



been given in furnishing a library, and the care 
of some rooms has been assumed by members 
who bear all the expense of this pleasant duty." 

At the annual meeting twelve directors antl 
twelve visitors are elected, and one of each of 
these visits the home in some month during 
the year. In order that the duties m;iy be 
thoroughly understood, it is required tliat 
before being elected to the Board of Directors 
a member shall serve as visitor. A fair held 
in Horticultural Hall, Boston, in November, 
1900, for the perpetual care of the buri;d-lot 
above referred to netted three thousand dol- 
lars, checks for liberal amounts being received 
from Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Conver.'^e, of Maiden, 
and generous contributions from other friends. 

The Presidents of the Ladies' Aid Associa- 
tion have been Mrs. Caroline King, Mrs. Julia 
K. Dyer (who served ten years), Mrs. Austin C. 
Wellington, Mrs. William A. Bancroft, Mrs. 
Augusta A. Wales, and Mrs. Harriet A. Ralph. 

The late Captain John (1. B. Adams, in his 
last report as presitlent of the Board of Trustees 
of the Home (July, 1900), mentioning the 
services at Forest Dale Cemetery, Maiden, 
on Memorial Day, carried out by Gettysburg 
Post, of Boston, under the direction of the 
Ladies' Aid, said: "This association has main- 
tained its interest in the home \mabated, and 
in very many ways has rendered service which 
could not be otherwise provided. It has been 
a blessing to us since the incorporation of our 
board. It surely is, anil I trust will ever con- 
tinue to be, what its name implies, an aiil 
as.sociation." 

Mrs. Ralph is a member of the Broatlway 
Congregational Church of Somerville, and is 
deeply interested in religious work. She is 
also identified with Ivaloo Lodge, Daugliters 
of Rebekah, of Somerville, has served as its 
treasurer, and declined higher offices that have 
been tendered her. She is interested in other 
social and charital)le work connected with the 
Independent Order of Odd PVllows. Mrs. Ralph 
is a member of the Heptorean Club Auxiliary 
of Somerville. 

The marriage of Harriet A. Myers and Will- 
iam H. Ralph, of Boston, took place in May, 
1874 They removed to Somerville, and have 
continued their residence in that city. Mr. 



Ralph is one of the leading Odd Fellows in 
Massachusetts, and has been an officer of the 
Grand Encampment, I. O. 0. F., and is Grand 
Marshal of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. 
He was Commandant of Canton Washington, 
Patriarchs Militant, of Somerville, at the time of 
the comi)etitive drill at Chicago. This canton 
there won the second prize, which consisted 
of a valuable diamond i)in for the connnandant 
and a magnificent banner for the canton. Mr. 
Ralph was Colonial of the Second Massachu- 
setts Regiment, Patriarchs Militant, in 1891, 
and was Chief of Staff of the parade when the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge met in Boston in 1894. 
He is also a member of the Masonic order. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph are highly esteemed 
by a wide circle of friends. They have had 
three children — namely, Joseph William, born 
April 11, 1875; H. Florence, born September 
22, 1880 — both graduates of the Somerville 
High School, and Charles Warren, born August 
17, 1877, who died January 9, 1880. Their 
eldest son was a j'oung man of talents and abil-- 
ity that gave promise of a successful career. 
His christian fortitude, his manly beaiing and 
genial companionship, won for him many friends 
in all circles of society. He passed to the life 
beyond, SeptcTuber 13, 1903. 



ELLEN A. RICHARDSON, artist, was 
born in Portsmouth, N.H., being a 
daughter of Oren Bragdon and his 
wife, Anna H. W. Bragdon. We are 
told that the first Bragdons in New Eng- 
land came over from England in their own 
vessels about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, .sailed up York River, and took up 
their abode in the town of York, Me. Some 
of the land of which they became the owners 
has never passed out of the possession of 
the family, and it is said to be a matter 
of record that no year has elapsed in which 
some Bragdon has not been serving the town 
in public office. 

Mrs. Richardson is the wife of A. Maynard 
Richardson, of Boston. She was educated in 
public and private schools of Portsmouth, 
N.H., and the academy at Fryeburg, Me., pur- 
suing special studies in art, in which she made 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



219 



great progress. After her marriage her hfe 
for many years was devoted chiefly to her 
family, the pursuit of art, however, absorbing 
mufh of her leisure. She was equally at home 
in the handling of oils, water-colors, i)astels, and 
charcoal, engaging also in etching and the 
decoration of porcelain and clay under the 
glaze. Her proficiency in the last nametl 
line of work became such that in 1893 she re- 
ceived an appointment to serve at the Colum- 
bian Exposition in Chicago on the Board of 
Awarils, in the Department of Manufactures 
from Clay, antl at the close of the fair was ap- 
pointed to prepare the official report of the 
potteries exhibit. In 1895 she was appointed 
to serve on the Jury of Awards in a similar 
position at the Atlanta Cotton States Inter- 
national Exposition. Also she was the only 
woman to sit with the Higher Boartl of Awards 
which held its sessions in the Smithsonian 
Institute at ^^'ashington. 

Her ability to organize and conduct affairs 
of magnitude won a .series of successes in popu- 
lar and scientific lecture courses and depart- 
mental attractions during several successive 
seasons of the expositions in Boston of the 
Massachusetts Charitalile Mechanic As.socia- 
tion and in the home congresses hekl in Boston 
in 1896 and 1897. 

Appointed during her connection with the 
Columbian Exposition as Massachusetts State 
President of the National Business League, 
Mrs. Richardson founded a State branch thereof. 
As President' of the Massachusetts Floral Em- 
blem Society, she inaugurated the work of that 
society also, and developed it in a most diver- 
sifietl manner, resulting in the adoption by the 
Society, January 1, 1903, of the Mountain 
Laurel as the State flower. 

While Mrs. Richardson was carrying out her 
aims in these directions, she became profounilly 
interested in the long-neglected becjuest of 
Washington to the people of the United States, 
and from her study of the <iuestion she was 
led to inaugurate the movement for securing 
a fitting commemoration of the centennial 
of Washington's death and a public remem- 
brance of his last will and his last gift to his 
people. 

In warm appreciation of her three faithful 



and successful years of service in organizing 
and administering the affairs of the George 
Washington Memorial Association, friends of 
Mrs. Richarilson, visiting the Cave of the 
Winds in South Dakota, considered among 
the most attractive of the wonders of the West, 
selected one of the finest of its beautiful stalac- 
titeil chambers, antl dedicated it with cere- 
mony as the " Washington-Richardson Me- 
morial." It may be noted that on retiring from 
the presidency of the Association, Mrs. Rich- 
ardson was appointed honorary president, the 
first and only honorary officer the Association is 
to have. 

The United States Geographical Survey of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington, named 
for her an island in the i\rctic Ocean, this being 
in accordance with a precedent (established for 
her) for the recognition of notable services for 
education. 

Mrs. Richardson is Cabinet Head of the De- 
partment of Art antl Literature of the National 
Council of Women, for which she is planning 
most comi)rehensive and helj)ful work. She has 
been made chairman of a special committee to 
collect an exhibit of Art for the session of the 
International Council to be held in Berlin, Ger- 
many, in June, 1904, and has been aNo ap- 
pointed one of the speakers at the Council. 
Her sympathies are broad, and with her untir- 
ing energy tend to keep her in touch with all 
that is best and most progressive in the world 
of womanly entleavor. 



SARAH Fl'LLER, principal of the Horace 
Mann School for the Deaf, is a native of 
Weston. Daughter of Hervey and Ce- 
lynila (Fiske) Fuller, and a tlescendant of 
colonial and Revolutionary ancestry, she was 
born February 15, 1836. Growing to womanhood 
under the influence of a well-ordered farmhouse 
home, she had the advantage of instruction in 
the public schools of Weston and Newton and 
the Allen English and Classical School of West 
Newton. 

At the age of nineteen she began her labors 
as a teacher in the public schools. Her first 
charge was in West Newton, under the super- 
vision of the Rev. Cyrus Pierce of honored 



220 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



memory, the first principal of the first normal 
school in the country. In 1857 she entered the 
service of the Boston schools. For nearly ten 
years she taught in nearly every grade in the 
Boylston Grannnar School, under the master- 
ship successively of Charles Kimball, William 
T. Adams (Oliver Optic), Alfred Hewins, John 
Jameson, and Lucius Wheelock. She was 
teaching in the Bowditch School, to which she 
had been transferred from the Boylston, when, 
after due preparation, she was ajjpointed (1869) 
the principal of the school in Boston now known 
as the Horace Mann School for the Deaf, the 
first successful public day-school ever opened 
for deaf children. She is still the head of this 
school, after over thirty years of service, in 
which there has been n« break or friction. 

Miss Fuller is a director of the American Asso- 
ciation to promote the Teaching of Speech to 
the Deaf, and of the Convention of American 
Instructors of the Deaf, a vice-president of the 
Sarah Fuller Home for Little Children who 
cannot hear (named in her honor), a member of 
the Massachusetts Teachers' and National Edu- 
cational Associations, the National Geographic 
Society, the New England Association of 
Teachers of English, and the New England 
Educational League. She is the author of an 
illustrated primer and a set of phonic charts 
that are found useful in the schools. She has 
written articles for educational publications, 
and has delivered suggestive addresses before 
conventions. 

With Harriet B. Rogers, of the Clarke Insti- 
tution at Northam]:)ton, and Dr. Alexander 
Graham Bell, with whom she has ever worked 
in hearty sympathy. Miss Fuller called the first 
convention for teachers of articulation. In 
1890 she taught Helen Keller to speak, and, 
with Dr. Bell, was instrumental in having 
Phillips Brooks open for her a way to spiritual 
truths. 

That through organized effort parents might 
be even more helpful than they had been, Miss 
Fuller founded in 1895 a society (the first of 
its kind ever formed) known now as the Boston 
Parents' Education Association for Deaf Chil- 
dren. This organization, of which she is one 
of the directors, has proved a most useful ally. 
Its latest effort, the preparation of a booklet 



giving the history of the Horace Mann School 
and its relation to speech and speech-reading, 
testifies to her efficient, loving work and that of 
her co-workers. 

Miss Fuller's labors in private as well as in 
public cannot be fully estimated. As one of 
n)any incidents that could be told of her indi- 
vidual action in behalf of the adult deaf, it may 
be mentioned that prominent residents of a 
New Hampshire town (Dublin) so appreciated 
what she and her special teacher of speech had 
done for an adult member of their comnmnity 
that they did what they knew would most 
please her — gave a valuable present to the 
school under her charge. 

All of Miss Fuller's labor is imbued with the 
faithful, heroic spirit of her New England an- 
cestry. And with it all there is a gracious per- 
sonality which the home life at Newton Lower 
Falls, where she has lived in one house for more 
than half a century, as well as the school life, 
constantly reveals. As a member for over fifty 
years of St. Mary 's Protestant Episcopal Church 
in Newton Lower Falls, she has been active in 
the Sunday-School and in other work of that 
society. 

The following is copied from Miss Fuller's 
statement relative to Helen Keller, addressed 
to the superintendent of public schools: — 

The first intimation to me of Helen Keller's 
desire to speak was on the 26th of March, 1890, 
when her teacher. Miss Sullivan, called upon me 
with her, and asked me to help her to teach 
Helen to speak ; for, said she, " Helen has spelled 
upon her fingers, 'I must speak.'" She was 
then within three months of being ten years old. 
Some two years before, accompanied by her 
mother, Mr. Anagnos, and Miss Sullivan, she 
had visited the Horace Mann School for the 
Deaf, when her ready use of English and her 
interest in the children had suggested to me 
that she could be taught to speak. But it was 
not then thought wise to allow her to use her 
vocal organs. Now, however, that the attempt 
was to be made, I gladly undertook the work. 
I began by familiarizing her with the position 
and condition of the various mouth parts and 
with the trachea. This I did by passing her 
hand lightly over the lower part of my face and 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



221 



by putting her fingers into my mouth. I then 
placed my tongue in the position for the sound 
of i in it, and let her find the point, as it lay 
perfectly still and soft in the bed of the jaw, 
just behind the lower front teeth, and discover 
that the teeth were slightly parted. After she 
had tlone this, I placed one of her forefingers 
upon my teeth antl the other upon my throat, 
or trachea, at the lowest point where it may be 
felt, and repeated the sound I several times. 
During this time Helen, standing in front of 
me in the attitude of one listening intently, 
gave the closest attention to every detail; and, 
when I ceased making the sound, her fingers 
flew to her own mouth and throat, and, after 
arranging her tongue and teeth, she uttered 
the sound i so nearly like that I had made, it 
seemed like an echo of it. When told she had 
given the sound correctly, she repeated it again 
and again. I next showed her, by means of her 
sensitive fingers, the depression through the 
centre of the tongue when in position for the 
sound of a and the opening between the teeth 
tluring the utterance of that sound. Again 
she waited with her fingers upon my teeth and 
throat until I sounded a several times, and then 
she gave the vowel fairly well. A little prac- 
tice enabled her to give it perfectly. We then 
repeated the sound of i and contrasted it with 
a. Having these two differing positions well 
fixed in her mind, I illustrated the position of 
the tongue and lips while sounding the vowel 
0. She experimented with her own mouth, and 
soon produced a clear, well-defined o. After 
acquiring this she began to ask what the sounds 
represented, and if they were words. I then 
told her that i is one of the sounds of the letter 
i, that a is one of the sounds of the letter a, 
and that some letters have many different 
sountls, but that it would not be difficult for her 
to think of these sounds after she had learned 
to speak words. I next took the position for a, 
Helen following as before with her fingers, and, 
while sounding the vowel, .slowly closed my 
lips, producing the word " arm." Without hesi- 
tation she arranged her tongue, repeated the 
sounils, and was delighted to know that she 
had pronounced a word. Her teacher suggested 
to her that she should let me hear her say the 
words "mamma" and "papa," which she had 



tried to speak before coming to me. She 
quickly and forcibly said, "nmm nmm" and 



puj) pup 



I commended her efforts, and 



said that it would be better to speak very 
softly, and to sountl one part of the word 
longer than she did the other. I then illus- 
trated what I wanted her to understand, by 
pronouncing the word "mamma" very deli- 
cately, and at the same time drawing my finger 
along the back of her hand to show the relative 
length of the two syllables. After a few repeti- 
tions, the words "mamma" and "papa" came 
with almost musical sweetness from her lips. 

This was her first le.sson. She had but ten 
les.sons in all, although she was with me at 
other times talking freely, but not under in- 
struction. The plan was to develop at each 
lesson new elements, review those previously 
learnetl, listen to all of the combinations she 
could make with the consonants as initial and 
final elements, and construct sentences with the 
words resulting from the combinations. In the 
intervals between the les.sons she practised these 
with Miss Sullivan. She was an ideal pupil, 
for she followetl every direction with the utmost 
care, and seemed never to forget anything told 
her. On the day she had her seventh lesson 
(Aprl 19) she and Miss Sullivan were invited 
with me to lunch at the house of a friend. 
While on the way there Miss Sullivan remarked 
that she wished Helen woukl use the sentences 
she had learned, and added that she seemed 
unwilling to do so. It at once occurred to me 
that the cause of her reluctance was her con- 
scientious care to pronounce every word per- 
fectly; and so, in the moments I had with her 
during the visit, I encouraged her to talk 
freely with me while I refrained from making 
corrections. This hatl the desired effect. In 
going about the house of our friend she asked 
a great many ciuestions, using speech constantly. 
In the presence of all she told of her studies, her 
home, and her family. She also told of a visit 
to Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes a short time 
before, when she "talked" to him. Noticing 
her words as .she spoke, there were but four 
which I did not readily understand. The.se I 
asked her to spell on her fingers. Her enjoy- 
ment of this, her first experience in the real use 
of speech, was touchingly expressed in her re- 



222 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



mark to Miss Sullivan on her way home, " I 
am not dumb now." In a conversation some 
two weeks later with Dr. Bell, Miss Sullivan, 
and myself, a still greater freedom in the use 
of speech was noticeable. Miss Sullivan fully 
appreciated the victory gained, for she wrote 
to Mr. Anagnos two months after Helen had 
taken her first lesson: "Think of it! Helen 
achieved in less than two months what it takes 
the pupils of schools for the deaf several years 
to accomplish, and then they do not sj^eak as 
plainly as she does." Helen's own joy in this 
conscious possession of a new power was shown 
in the following letter she wrote me a week or 
so after she had taken her first lesson. It also 
reveals the origin of her ilesire for speech. 

South Boston, Mass., April .f. inno. 
My dkar ^[iss Filler: 

My heart is full of joy this beautiful morning be- 
cause I have learned to speak many new words, and I 
can make a few sentences. Last evening I went out 
in the yard and spoke to the moon. I said, " () moon, 
come to me!" Do you think the lovely moon was 
glad that I could speak to lier ? llow glad my mother 
will be! I can hardly wait for June to come, I am so 
eager to speak to her and to my precious little sister. 
Mildred could not understand me when I spelled with 
my fingers, but now she will sit in my lap, and I will 
tell her many things to please her, and we shall be so 
happy together. Are you very, very happy l)ecause 
you can make so nianj- people happy ? I think you 
are very kind and jiatient, and I love you very dearly. 
My teacher told me Tuesday that you wanted to know 
how I came to wish to talk with my mouth. I will 
tell you all about it, for I remember my thoughts per- 
fectly. AVhen I was a very little child I used to sit in 
my mother's laji nearly all the time, because I was very 
timid, and did not like to be left by myself. And I 
would keep my little hand on her face all the while, 
because it amused me to feel her face and lips move 
when she talked with people. I did not know then 
what she was doing, for 1 was quite ignorant of all 
things. Then, when I was older, I learned to play 
with my nurse and the little negro children, and I 
noticed that they kept moving their lips like my 
mother, so I moved mine, too, but sometimes it made 
me angry, and I would hold my playmates' mouths 
very hard. I did not know then that it was very 
naughty to do so. After a long time my dear teacher 
came to me, and taught me to connnunicate with my 
fingers, and I was satisfied and happy. I5ut when I 
came to school in Boston 1 met some deaf jieople who 
talked with their mouths like all other people, and one 
day a lady wh" had been to Norway came to see me, 
and told me of a blind and deaf girl she had seen in 
that far-away land who had been taugiit to speak and 



understand others when they spoke to her. This 
good and happy news delighted me exceedingly, for 
then I was sure that I sliould learn also. I tried to 
make sounds like my little ]ilavmates, but teacher told 
me that the voice was very delicate and sensitive, and 
that it would injure it to make incorrect sounds, and 
jiromised to take me to see a kind and wise lady wlio 
would teach me rightly. That lady was yourself. 
Now I am as ha])py as the little birds, because I can 
speak: and perhaps I sliall sing, too. All of my 
friends will be so surprised and glad. 

Your loving little pupil, 

Helen A. Keller. 

' From time to time I noted the improvement 
of this remarkable girl in the use of speech, and 
I am free to confess that one of the great joys 
of my life was when, six years after the first 
lessons, it was my privilege not only to suggest 
her as a speaker for the fifth summer meeting 
of the American Association to promote the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf at the Pennsyl- 
vania Institution at Mount Airy, but to see and 
hear the successful effort. The speech, written 
out by herself on the typewriter, was com- 
mittecl to memory antl now repeated without 
a mistake. 



MAllY ELIZABETH KIMBALL, Past 
President of the National Alliance, 
Daughters of Veterans, is a success- 
ful teacher in the public schools of 
Fitchburg, Mass., her native place. The daugh- 
ter of General John White Kimball, of that 
city, and grand-daughter of Alpheus Kimball, 
who was born in Fitchburg in 1792 and dietl 
in 1858, she is of the fifth generation in Worces- 
ter County and the ninth in Massachusetts 
of the family founded by Richard Kimball, 
an early settler of Ipswich. 

Richard' Kimball came over from England 
in 1634, and with his family took up his abode 
in ^\'atertowu, but was induced not long after 
to remove to Ipswich, where there was need 
of a wheelwright. 

Thomas^ Kimball, born in Rattlesden, Suf- 
folk, England, in 1633, .son of Richard' and 
his wife, Ursula Scott, married Mary Smith, 
and settled in Bradford, then a part of Rowley, 
Mass. Their son Thomas,' born in 1665, 
marricil Deljorah Pemberton, antl was the 




MAI!Y EI.IZAHETII KI.MBAI 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



223 



father of I'^phraiiu/ who married Anne Tenney. 
Ephraim,'^ born in Bradford in 1722, son of 
Ephraim and Anne, married Mary Wetherbee, 
of Lvmenburg, Worcester County, in 1746, and 
resided in that part of T^unenburg wiiich is 
now Fitchburg. Their son Ephraim," born in 
Fitchburg, married Betsey Wliite, of Lunen- 
burg, and was the father of Alpheus,^ above 
named, grandfather of Mary Ehzabeth" Kimball. 

Alpheus Kimball was a scythe-maker, and 
carried on business in Fitchburg. He was 
a Whig in politics and became a Free-soiler, 
being a strong anti-slavery man. He married 
Harriet, daughter of Luther Stone, of Framing- 
ham, and grand-tlaughter of Josiah Stone, who 
was a prominent citizen of Framingham, serv- 
ing as Selectman, Town Clerk, Represent- 
ative, State Senator, and Councillor. Josiah 
was of the sixth generation in descent from 
Deacon Gregory' Stone, who, coming to New 
England in 1635, settled in Cambriilge. The 
line was: Gregory'; John,^ who settled at Sud- 
bury; DanieP; Daniel'; Micah,^ who married 
.\bigail Stone, of Lexington; Josiah," born in 
1724. It is interesting to note that a younger 
brother of Josiah," namely, Eliab," born in 
1737, was "Parson Stone," of revered memory, 
who for more than sixty years was pastor of the 
old parish church in North Reading. 

The Hon. John White Kimball, of Fitch- 
burg, was State Auditor for nine successive 
years, having been first elected to that office 
in 1891. He has served in various town offices; 
as Representative seven terms; on the State 
police and as Police Commissioner; as United 
States Pension Agent; and in the Treasury De- 
partment at Washington, D.C., as custodian 
in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. 
His service in 1846 as marker for the Fitchl)urg 
Fusiliers was the begiiming of a military career 
which culminated in the Civil War, when his 
gallant and distinguished service in the fieUl 
won for him the brevet of Brigadier-general 
of United States Volunteers, bestowed March 
13, 1865. His military record is as follows; 
Captain of the Fusiliers, 1855; Adjutant of 
the Ninth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 
1858; Captain of Fusiliers, 1860, going with 
this organization into United States service 
in 1861. In the army his service was; Captain 



in Fifteenth Massachusetts Infantry, July 12, 
1861; Major, August 1, 1861; present at Ball's 
Bluff; Lieutenant Colonel, April 29, 1862; 
commanded the regiment in all the battles of 
the Peninsular Campaign, Second Bull Run, 
South Mountain, and Antietam; Colonel of 
Fifty-third Ma.s-^adiu.setts Infantry, November 
10, 1862; mustered December 3; served in 
Louisiana, participating in the Siege of Port 
Hudson which lasted forty-six days. The term 
of .service of his regiment ex])ired September 2, 
1863. In January, 1S64, Colonel Kimball was 
appointed superintendent of recruiting service 
for Worcester County, with head(]uarters at 
Worcester. He was one of the earliest Depart- 
ment Commanders of the G. A. R. for the 
State of Massachusetts. 

John W. Kimball married July 15, tSSl, 
Almira Melissa Lesure. Four children were 
born to them, and three are now living, namely — 
Emma Frances, Mary Elizabeth, anil Edward 
Franklin. Enuna Frances married April 17, 
1S78, Fred William ]']ager. Josephine White, 
the fourth child, died September 2, 1881. Ed- 
ward Franklin Kimball is a charter member 
and Past Captain of Camp No. 28, Sons of 
A'eterans, of Fitchburg; and Mrs. Emma 
Frances Eager is a charter member and Past 
President of Tent No. 8, Daughters of Veter- 
ans. 

Miss Kimball appears to have inherited from 
her father the ciualities which made him a 
brilliant soldi^ and a successful statesman. 
She became interested in the Daughters of 
Veterans when Louisa M. Alcott Tent, No. 8, 
was organized in Fitchburg, and .served as 
President of tiie Tent in 1892, accepting the 
honor of a re-election in 1893. Through her 
zealous and untiring efforts No. 8 is known 
throughout the State and nation as one of the 
leading tents of the order. Miss Kimball 
has served the Department of Massachusetts 
Daughters of Wterans as Junior ^'ice-Presi- 
dent, Senior Vice-President, and in 1899 as 
President. Her administration was one of the 
most successful in the history of the depart- 
ment. Strongly imbued with the spirit of 
justice and right, she worked unceasingly for 
a just recognition of the Daughters of Veterans 
by the Grand Army of the Republic. The 



224 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



result was gratifying. At the thirty-fourth 
National Encampment of the G. A. R., held 
in Chicago in 1900, a resolution which was 
presented by John E. Oilman, Department 
Commander, was adopted, entlorsing the order 
and giving to it the same official recognition as 
that previously accorded to the Sons of \'eterans. 

The Soldiers' Home work under the direc- 
tion of the D. of V. was perpetuated through 
her efforts, and has met with success. Am- 
bitious to have the "Daughters" accomplish 
some work of permanent value in this line, 
Miss Kimball made the first donation, which 
resulted in establishing a Soldiers' Home fund. 
The convalescent ward of the Sokliers' Home 
is named the D. of V. Ward. 

Miss Kimball was elected National President 
of the Daughters of ^'eterans at the convention 
in Philadelphia, September, 1899. She or- 
ganizetl many new tents, and was indefatiga- 
ble in her efforts to promote the welfare of the 
order. During her administration the subject of 
official recognition by the (Jrand Army of the 
Republic was presented to all the departments 
of that body in States where tents existed. 

"Onward ever, surrender never," has l)een 
her motto; and with ever ready hcljifulness 
she has brought the sisters of this grand organi- 
zation into closer relationship. The daughters 
have been led to show the same fraternal spirit 
which actuated the "fathers whose record they 
proudly revere." The members of the entire 
order vie with each other in according to Miss 
Kimball thanks for the good work she has ac- 
complished. 



JULIA ANN BRAY RUSSELL, M.D., was 
born in Reading, Mass., March 6, 1847, 
daughter of John and Eliza (Holt) Russell. 
Her father, a native of Andover, Mass., 
was a pattern-maker by occupation, and noted 
for a phenomenal accuracy of eye. In a small 
way he was also an inventor. He died at the 
age of fifty-six years. The Doctor's mother, 
who was born in Reading, Mass., lived to the 
advanced age of eighty-seven. Her mother 
(the maternal grandmother) was from the 
north of Ireland, a devout woman of Protes- 
tant principles. Both Dr. Russell's father ami 



mother were characterized by great gentleness 
of manner, and to the extent of their resources 
they devoted themselves to philanthropic work 
in their inmiei^liate neighborhood, seldom turning 
a deaf ear to the appeals of the unfortunate, 
where they could not assist with material aid, 
tendering a warm and ready sympathy that 
was often of greater value. 

The subject of this sketch acciuired her gen- 
eral education in the schools of Reading and 
under the instruction of Rev. Thomas J. 
Greenwood (Father Greenwood) with whom 
she studied for four years. One of the recollec- 
tions of her girlhood is of falling asleep on 
many nights while the maiden aunt under 
whom she was reared read to her out of the 
Bible and Mr. Garrison's anti-slavery paper, 
the Liberator. The solemn cadences of the 
Scriptures doubtless neutralized the horrors of 
the Liberator, and, luUetl by the sweet voice 
of her aunt, she found the well-deserved rest 
of the innocent and comi)assionate. 

She early gave evidence of a taste for the 
profession that she subsequently adopted. 
When only fourteen years of age she was often 
called ujjon from all parts of the town to sit 
up with and care for the sick. From the work 
of a nurse to the calling of a physician was, 
for one of her bent, a natural step, and after 
some years of diligent application to study 
she received her medical diploma from Boston 
University. Selecting Maiden as her field of 
labor, she at once opened an office in that city, 
where she has since resided and practisetl. 
Starting with a sound theoretical knowledge of 
both medicine and surgery, she has since ac- 
quired that accuracy of diagnosis and skill in 
treatment that comes only after years of actual 
practice, and then only to those who are fitted 
by nature, inclination, and training for the 
healing profession. To these necessary qual- 
ities she adds an address that invites the con- 
fidence of her patients and a personal character 
that commands for her the respect of the com- 
numity in which she lives. 

Dr. Russell has a collection of anticjues that 
includes some specimens of rare interest and 
value. Among them is the old flint-lock pistol 
carried by General Warren at the battle of 
Bmiker Hill, given to her by Mr. Fred Pickering, 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



225 



a member of the \\'arren family, and a cup and 
saucer that were used at a banijuet held many 
years ago to celebrate the Boston Tea Party. 
A lover of the fine arts, the Doctor possesses na- 
tive talent as a painter, and her home on Main 
Street, Maiden, is adorned with several i)leasing 
and well-executed pictures in oil from her own 
brush. 

Dr. Russell has not accumulated for herself 
any considerable amount of this world's goods, 
but her deeds of charity and benevolence, 
both in the bestowal of personal service and 
the giving of money, have laid up for her a 
wealth of gratitude in the hearts of the many 
recipients and in her own the reward that 
comes to those who have learned that it is 
"more blessed to give than to receive." Her 
natural kindness is shown in the adoption of 
two daughters, one some twenty years ago and 
the other within the last five years, antl both 
under circumstances that show a mother's de- 
votion and love. Dr. Russell is a member of 
the Massachusetts Homa-opathic Medical So- 
ciety, the Boston Homoeopathic Medical Society, 
and various local medical societies. She at- 
tends the Protestant Episcopal church of 
Maiden. 



MARY J. PRESCOTT FADES, the 
subject of this sketch, is a daughter 
of sturdy old New England blood, 
coming from Scotti.sh ancestry. 
In the year 1608 was born in Scotland Deacon 
John Leavitt, who came to America in 1628 
and settled in Hingham, Mass. Of his descend- 
ants among the best known are Moses Leavitt, 
his .son, antl Dudley Leavitt, his great-great- 
grandson, who was so named from Governor 
Thomas Dudley, to whom his family was re- 
lated. The life of Dudley Leavitt was sjient 
in the (at that time not inconsistent) occupa- 
tions of teacher and farmer. Though in all he 
had not more than three months' schooling, 
he was a student by nature and spent every 
leisure moment in study, so that at the age of 
twenty he was well groun<le(l in all the science 
of that day, especially in mathematics, and 
able to give instruction in algebra, geometry, 
trigonometry, navigation, gunnery, astronomy. 



and philosophy. For this instruction he re- 
ceived from each |)ui)il the generous tuition fee 
of three dollars a ([uarter. At the age of 
twenty-two he married Judith Glidden, of Gil- 
manton, N.H. They resided in that town until 
1806, when he removed to Meredith, N.H., 
wliich was his home for the remaintler of his 
life. 

With all his teaching and other work, he 
found time to make jjractical use of his scien- 
tific attainments in the compilation of a 
farmers' almanac. His first edition of this was 
published in 1797, his last in 1858. He died 
in 1851, leaving one edition in the press and 
six others in manuscript, a total of sixty-two 
continuous issues. He taught some portion of 
every year until he was seventy-four, and at 
the same time carried on his farm. After his 
marriage he studied Greek and Latin, and later 
in life Hebrew and several of the modern lan- 
guages. He made the calculations for the New 
Hampshire and Freewill Bapti.st Registers, and 
was the author of several school text-books, 
having at the time of his death a work on as- 
tronomy nearly ready for the press. He was 
the "most robust style of scholar," thinking 
that whatever was to be known he must know, 
And as Prof. Agassiz saitl, should be painted 
with a book in his hand, others filling his 
pockets, and knowledge sticking out all over 
his tall head. In the only portrait of him in 
existence his head and face are very remark- 
able for intellectuality and a certain childlike 
yet noble dignity. One of his pupils expres.ses 
her impression of him as a man who loved 
knowletlge and reverenced God. 

He had eleven children, five boys and six 
girls. t)ne daughter, Jane, .married the Rev. 
John L. Seymour, who was a missionary among 
the Indians from 1832 to 1846. Another, 
Judith, married the Rev. John Taylor Jones, 
a missionary at Bangkok, Siam. One son, 
Dudley, who was fitted for college by his father, 
was graduated at Dartmouth in 1889, and 
studied divinity at Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, but died suddenly before graduation. A 
younger child, Mary, was no exception to the 
rest of the family in her ambition to obtain 
knowledge, and, after she became a devoted 
■wife and mother, always found time in the 



226 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



midst of lier busy household cares to aid ma- 
terially, spiritually, and intellectually those de- 
pendent upon her. She was blessed witli a 
sweet Christian character, antl commanded the 
respect antl love of all who knew her. About 
the year 1837 she married Josiah S. Prescott, 
of Meredith, N.H., whose occupation was that 
of farmer and carpenter. Mr. Prescott was al- 
ways active in the public welfare, serving the 
town on the Board of Selectmen and satisfac- 
torily representing his district in the State 
Legislature. They had four boys and two 
girls. 

The fourth child and oldest daughter of 
Josiah S. and Mary (Leavitt) Prescott is the 
one whose name heads the present article. 
Mary J. Prescott was born in Meredith, N.H. 
As a mere child she displayed great talent for 
music, shown in her ability to read unfamiliar 
compositions with correctness of tune and 
tune. The advantages of a musical education 
were not sufficiently appreciated as com|)ared 
with the more practical and utilitarian attain- 
ments. Consequently her training was con- 
fined to patient and persistent individual effort 
and the annual winter singing-school. A\'hile 
living at home she was a valued memlier of the 
church choir, and later she acceptably filled 
the position of leading soprano in several Massa- 
chusetts churches, being also for a number of 
years an active member of the Handel and 
Haydn Society of Boston, Mass. Although her 
instruction on the pianoforte was very limited, 
she mastered some of the most difficult music. 
Naturally an earnest and ajjt student, she com- 
pleted her education at Tilton (N.H.) Seminary, 
and taught successfully in the district schools of 
her native State. It may here be said that 
one of the most pleasant experiences in her 
etlucational life was the two years spent as a 
pupil in the Emerson College of Oratory, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

In .seeking the.se higher attainments she did 
not lose her interest in the affairs of every-day 
life, but has continued to manifest that adapta- 
bility which enables one to accomplish what 
the hand finds to do. Her life from childhood 
has seemed one continuous effort and sacrifice 
for others. In the year LS71 she was called to 
a position in Boston, and a few years later she 



married John G. Fales, of Thomaston, Me. 
From the time of her marriage she has lived 
in Boston and vicinity, her home since LS92 
being in Cambridge, Mass. She was reared in 
the Baptist denomination, and afl^iliated with 
that church until she became a Christian Scien- 
tist. A devoted disciple, she gratefully bears 
testimony as follows: "From earliest remem- 
brance I longed to express that soul music in 
song which would convert the listener. Since 
embracing the science of Christianity as given 
in the Christian Science text-book, 'Science and 
Health, with Key to the Scriptures,' by Mrs. 
Eddy, I have in a measure realized that long- 
desired soul harmony 'with signs following,' 
not only in having been raisetl from invalidism, 
but through experiencing its invaluable spir- 
itual uplifting. In common with others who 
imbibe the spirit of this teaching, it has been 
my high privilege to show many the way to 
health ancl harmony, leading them to an under- 
standing of their true being as children of God. 
vSuch work has sought me to such an extent 
and the benefit afforded others has been so 
gratifying that all other ambitions have become 
secondary. 



CLARA H. BAGG EVANS, who in 
February, 1903, was elected Presi- 
dent of the Department of Massa- 
chusetts, Woman's Relief Corps, 
was born June 2, 1860, in Pittsfield, Berkshire 
County, Mass., being a daughter of Edwin 
and Catharine (Hull) Bagg. Her father's 
great - great - grandfather, David Bagg, was 
one of the pioneer settlers of Pittsfield, re- 
moving thither with others from Westfield, 
Mass., about the year 1763, only a few years 
after the building of the first log cabin in 
that locality. 

The Bagg family have held a continued 
residence in Pittsfield from that time to the 
present. In the Revolutionary War David 
Bagg was a soldier in Captain William Fran- 
cis's company, which marched to Albany, 
N.Y., January 14, 1776, by order of General 
Schuyler; an(l later he was a member of Lieu- 
tenant James Hubbard's company, which was 
ordered to Manchester on July 18, 1777. 




noRA BASCOM SMITH 



KEPRSSENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



227 



He was not only a sold.*': hiniscU', at the 
age of sixty years, but liad five sons in 
the service as well. These sons were .loseph, 
Martin, Aaron, Phineas, and Daniel. (See 
"Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the 
Revolution," vol. i.) Martin Bagg, born in 
1745, died in 1824. From him the line now 
being considered descended through his son 
Martin, Jr., to Jedediah Bagg, who married 
Clarissa Newton, and was the father of Edwin, 
above named, and paternal grandfather of 
Mrs. Evans. Moses Newton, fatlier of Clarissa, 
was a Revolutionary soldier, serving three 
months under Captain Sanuiel Taylor in 
1776 and for several short terms in later years 
(see History of Deerfield, Mass.). 

Mrs. Evans's maternal gramlfather, Oliver 
Sculthorpe Hull, was a soldier of the War 
of 1,S12. 

Her father, Edwin Bagg, enlisted in the 
Sixty-first Massachusetts Regiment in 1864 
for one year, but on account of the close of 
the war received an honoialile discharge at 
the end of nine months. Edwin Bagg entered 
the employ of Jason Clapp as a farmer in 
1850, being then a young man; and he con- 
tinued in Mr. Clapp's emjiloy and' that of 
his son until his own death, in December, 
1894. The mother of Mrs. Evans still re- 
siiles in Pittsfield, her native place. 

Clara H. Bagg received her education in 
the Pittsfield public schools. At the age 
of sixteen she became an employee in a large 
ilry-goods house. There she soon developed 
remarkable business ability, and was i)romoted 
to the ])osition of l)ook-keeper anil confidential 
clerk, in which tlouble capacity she served 
for seventeen years. June 2, 1897, she was 
married to David L. Evans, son of Thomas 
and Helen M. Evans. 

At the age of thirteen she united with the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and has ever 
since been an active and earnest worker in 
its different departments. 

In the year 1887 Mrs. Evans became iden- 
tified with W. W. Rockwell Relief Corps, 
auxiliary to the G. A. R. One year later 
she was elected treasurer, holding the position 
for eleven years, when she was elected' presi- 
dent for the years 1898 and 1899. She was 



again elected treasurer in 1900, and still holds 
the position. In 1898 Mrs. Evans was a 
member of the local executive committee 
of the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Associ- 
ation, which did such good work in furnishing 
relief and supplies to the soldiers in the war 
with Spain. 

Mrs. Evans was Department Aide in 1898- 
99. She was elected a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Board in 1900, Junior Vice-President 
in 1901, and Senior Vice-President of the 
Department Woman's Relief Corps in 1902. 
Elected President of the Department of Massa- 
chusetts in February of the present year (1903), 
as above statetl, she is devoting her time and 
strength to the best interests of the order. 



DORA BASCOM SMITH, of Brookline, 
first vice-president of the Ladies' 
Physiological Institute, has been co- 
worker with most of the notable 
women philanthropists, reformers, suffragists, 
of the day, and has filled various responsible 
official positions. 

A native of Massachusetts, born in the town 
of Palmer, September 18, 1840, tlaughter of 
Alonzo anil Clarissa (Keith) Bascom, she comes 
of old colonial stock, tracing her paternal an- 
cestry back to Thomas Bascom, who came from 
England less than twenty years after the land- 
ing of the Pilgrims, lived for a time in Connecti- 
cut, and thence removed to Northampton, 
Mass. Several succeeding generations of the 
family resided in the Connecticut valley. 
Alonzo Bascom was in business for many years 
as a cotton manufacturer in East Jaffrey, 
N.H. His sterling (jualities strongly impressed 
his daughter, and exerted a marked influence 
on her character. His wife Clarissa, mother of 
Dora, was the daughter of Daniel^ and Lydia 
(Frost) Keith and grand-daughter of Alexander* 
Keith, who is mentioned in the History of 
Palmer, Mass., as a descendant in the fourth 
generation of the Rev. James Keith, the first 
minister of Bridgewater, Mass. James Keith 
came from Scotland in 1662. He had been a 
student at Aberdeen. He married Susanna 
Edson, daughter of Deacon Samuel Edson, of 
Bridgewater. 



228 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



Bereft of a mother's loving care at the age 
of six years, Dora Basconi early learned lessons 
of self-reliance and of unselfishness and us(>ful- 
ness to those around her. She was educateil al 
Townsend Female Seminary, and at the age 
of sixteen she entered her father's counting- 
room, where she filled the position of hook- 
keeper and confidential clerk until her mar- 
riage. To that period, with its varied ex- 
periences, she is indebted for her broad and 
practical views of life. It is a mistaken idea 
that business development in woman blunts 
her finer sensibilities: the opposite is the truth. 
Like a ))lant whose blossoms are cut freely, 
human nature repays in richness and fruitful- 
ness for all drafts properly made on its re- 
sources; and a woman who has become |)unc- 
tilious in business detail has learned to solve 
many problems in profit and loss, eciuity, jus- 
tice, that must be encountered and .wived in 
the same punctilious way in daily life. Dora 
Bascom, while in her father's business office, 
came in contact with many people, and her 
philanthropic spirit early manifested itself in 
kindly ministrations to the poor and sick of 
the village. When the Civil War broke out, 
and the Sanitary Commission was formed in 
June, 1861, she joined the ranks of devoted 
patriotic women, and worked early and late 
for relief of the " boj's in blue." 

She was married November 27, 1862, to 
Samuel Garfield Smith, a well-known watch- 
maker of Boston. Two children, Kate Auzella 
and Dexter Munroe, blessed this happy union. 

Kate Auzella Smith was married April 23, 
1889, to Charles Sunmer Waterhouse. They 
live in Brookline, Mass., and have one child, 
a daughter named Irma. Mrs. Waterhouse is 
a well-known whist teacher. 

Dexter Munroe Smith, broker, was for fifteen 
years in the employ of F. H. Prince & Co., 
Boston. He married December 19, 1894, Anna 
Cogswell, of Ipswich, Mass., where they now 
reside. They have two children, Helen C. and 
Julian D. 

Mrs. Smith was one of the earliest meml)ers 
of the Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union of Boston, and for many years served 
on important committees. She was influential 
in agitating the (juestion of the placing of ma- 



trons in the police ;?i.ations. She was a charter 
member of the New Eilgland Helping Hand 
Society and was on its Board of Government 
for several years. This opened to her numerous 
opportunities for quiet, unostentatious charity. 
Many a wronged girl has reason to bless her for 
pecuniary help as well as kindly sympathy. 

She was on one of the committees of the fair 
for Mrs. Charpiot's Home for Intemperate 
Women, by which thirteen thousand dollars 
was raised. These committees conceived the 
idea of forming the Woman's Charity Club of 
Boston. Mrs. Smith was one of the organizers 
thereof and its first hospital treasurer, holding 
the position five years, until obliged to resign 
by a protracted illness. She served for six 
years as first vice-president of the club. 

Of the Ladies' Physiological Institute of 
Boston, said to be the oldest women's organi- 
zation in America, she has been the first vice- 
president for twenty-one years. The object of 
the Institute is to bring within the reach of 
women, by open lecture platform, in a simple 
way, such medical, hygienic, and physiological 
instruction as shall lead, by interesting them, 
to deeper study and usefuhiess reganling the 
health and welfare of those in their keeping. 

Some of its charter members who lived to a 
ripe old age were bitterly opposed to woman 
suffrage, anil the fiuestion was debarred from 
its platform and discussions for many years. 
As the membership gradually included the 
modern woman with advanced ideas, the spirit 
of harmony between the elders and the later 
members is evidence of the wisdom, judgment, 
and tact of its official incumbents. Mrs. Smith 
still holds the position of first vice-president, 
fre<|uently occupying the chair. None of her 
rulings are ever questioned, and a Boston daily 
paper says of her, "She is a thorough parlia- 
mentarian, and no possible tangle or mix-up 
in a meeting can faze her." 

Mrs. Smith is also connected with the 
Woman's Relief Corps and with the Eastern 
Stcar, a Masonic association. Becoming nmch 
interested in the woman's suffrage movement 
after hearing in the seventies the strong, earnest 
words of JuHa Ward Howe and Lucy Stone on 
the subject, she innuediately joined the ranks, 
and labored in the cause with untiring zeal. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



229 



She was treasurer for many years of the Na- 
tional Woman Suffrage Association of Massa- 
chusetts, and several times went to Washing- 
ton as delegate to suffrage conventions. 

Mrs. Smith was first vice-president of the 
Committee of Council and Co-operation, better 
known as the three C's, and in connection with 
the late Dr. Salome Merritt was instrumental 
in many public reformatory movements. 

She generously opened her house two years 
for the use of the Boston Political Class, formetl 
by the National Woman Suffrage Association of 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of giving in- 
struction to women in the various departments 
of political economy, F]nglish common law, 
national and State constitutions, civil service, 
elections, nmnicipal affairs, and parliamentary 
law. 

Dora Bascom Smith has a reputation as a 
public reader. She has on several occasions 
taken the part of leading lady in private theat- 
ricals, and has been instrumental in forwarding 
various entertainments, being always reatly 
to utilize her talents in response to ever-recur- 
ring calls for charity. She was a student of 
Professor Emerson, of the P^merson School of 
Oratory, but, independently of that training, 
she has a style of her (jwn, whose charm lies in 
its simplicity and purity, clear, reaching enun- 
ciation, and naturalness of ex])ression. She 
has given the Institute many delightful sessions, 
filling the absence of president or lecturer by 
readings or original productions. Her lecture 
on "Pearls and Patches," replete with character 
sketches and anecdote, made a strong and last- 
ing impression. 

Her religious views are broad and liberal aiul 
practical, rather than .sentimental. She was 
a member of the Church of the Unity during 
the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Minot J. Savage, 
and enjoyed his intimate acquaintance while 
he remained in Boston. The choice booklet, 
"Stray Arrows: Selections from M. J. Savage," 
compiled by Mrs. Smith, was published by her 
in 1886. 

It is a pleasure to record that with all the 
outside work Mrs. Smith has accom])Hslied she 
has been a thorough housekeeper, true mother, 
and faithful wife. 

In personal appearance Mrs. Smith is a 



quiet, unassuming lady of medium size and 
height, with a low, pleasant voice and a pres- 
ence that is felt for strength and comfort if one 
is depressed and like "oil on the waters" if 
untler any undue excitement. The strength of 
character indicated in her face she claims for 
a heritage. 



MATILDA JANE CAMPBELL WIL- 
KIN, educator, is of English-Scotch 
parentage, anil was born in Har- 
rington, Me., where the early years 
of her childhootl were passed. As a forecast 
of her .scholarly career, she left home at the 
early age of eleven to obtain better school 
privileges at East Machias. First she at- 
tendetl the public schools anil later the Wash- 
ington County Academy, located in this charm- 
ing little New England village. Entering the 
Normal School at Salem, Mass., in February, 
1867, Miss Campbell was graduated on Jan- 
uary 21, 1869. The following year she went 
to Minnesota. She taught three years in the 
granmiar schools of Minneapolis, and then 
gave up teaching for a while to continue her 
studies at the University of Minnesota. She 
was graduated in the class of 77, of which she 
was valedictorian. • In 1890 she took the degree 
of Master of Literature from her Alma Mater, 
and more recently she has spent some time 
at the L'niversity of Chicago, with a view to 
taking the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 
She is a member of the honorary society of 
Phi Beta Kappa. In 1880 Miss Campbell 
attended the centennial of the Sunday-School 
in London, as a delegate from Minnesota, 
which State she very ably represented. 

In 1882 she married the Rev. George F. 
Wilkin, of Warsaw, N.Y., later known as the 
author of "The Prophesying of Women" and 
"Control in Evolution." 

Mrs. Wilkin has travelled extensively in 
Europe, having been abroad three times. She 
studied at the University College in London 
and at Gottingen, Germany. She was espe- 
cially interested in linguistic studies, and 
spent nuich time in perfecting her knowledge 
of Latin, Anglo-Saxon, and German. For the 
past twenty-five years she has been connected 



230 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



with the University of Minnesota, first as an 
instructor and later as assistant professor. 
She was associate author of an Old-English 
grammar, which was used as a text-book at 
the University. More recently she has com- 
piled a book of English-German idioms, which 
bids fair to be u.seil in the high schools of the 
State. 

Mrs. Wilkin is a member of the American 
Philological Association and the Association 
of Collegiate Alumna\ Her daily life is spent 
in college work, but she keeps up an active 
interest in religious and philanthropic mat- 
ters. She has l)een a member of Olivet Bap- 
tist Church, of Mimieapolis, for more than 
a quarter of a century, and for fifteen years 
was teacher of the University Bible Class in 
this church. She is an active member of the 
W. C. T. I'., a life member of the Woman's 
Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, and a 
member of the Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation. She was president of the State 
Board of the Minnesota Y. W. C. A. for four 
years. Her wider experience in this position 
has enabled her to be an efficient helper of the 
local Y. W. C. A. at the University, in which 
she has been greatly interested from the first. 

A woman of fine character, pure life, and 
excellent judgment, Mrs. Wilkin is very widely 
known throughout the State and greatly re- 
spected and loved, both by the students who 
have been under her instruction ami l)y 
her a-ssociates in college and in society. 



ELIZA TRASK HILL was born in the 
town of Warren, Mass., May 10, 1840. 
Her father, George Trask, a native of 
' Beverly, belonging to that branch of 
the Trask family founded by Osmond (or Os- 
man) Trask, an English immigrant who settled 
there about two hundred and fifty years ago, 
was a son' of Jeremiah Trask and one of the 
youngest of fourteen children, all of whom 
lived to adult age and were noted for their 
piety and sobriety. After devoting his atten- 
tion for some years in his early manhood to 
business pursuits, Mr. Trask took up his studies 
at Bowdoin College, to prepare for the ministry, 
paying his own way. While there he became 



conspicuous for his advocacy of the anti-slavery 
cause. He was graduated from Bowdoin in 1826 
and from Andover Theological Seminary in 
1829. His hrst jjastorate was in Framingham, 
his next in A\'arren, and his third and last in 
Fitchburg, of the Trinitarian Church, a society 
that stood for the principles of anti-slavery 
and which disbanded as soon as the slaves 
were freed. The last twenty-five years of his 
life Mr. Trask spent in the effort tq abate the 
evil wrought by the use of tobacco. He suf- 
fered much persecution for his pronoimced 
views, was forbidden the use of the churches, 
and ridiculed by his brethren in the ministry: 
but he giew more lovely in character day by 
day. He died in Fitchburg in January, 1875, 
in his seventy-ninth year. 

Mrs. Hill's mother, whose maiden name was 
Ruth Freeman Packard, was a native of Marl- 
boro anil daughter of the Rev. Asa and Nancj' 
(Quincy) Packard. Mrs. Packard was born in 
the old Quincy mansion, Quincy, Mass., being 
a daughter of Josiah^ Quincy and cousin to 
Dorothy Quincy, wife of Governor Hancock. 

The Rev. Asa Packard was a son of Jacoh^ 
Packard, who.se father, Solomon,^ was grand- 
son of Sanniel' Packard, an early settler of West 
Bridgewater, Mass. Solomon^ Packard's wife, 
Susanna, mother of Jacob, was a daughter of 
Samuel and Mary (Mitchell) Kingman. Her 
mother was the daughter of Jacob" Mitchell 
and grand-daughter of Experience Mitchell by 
his wife Jane, who was a daughter of Francos' 
Cook, one of the " Mavflower" Pilgrims. 

The Rev. Asa Packard (H. C. 1783) was for 
about twenty years minister of the town and 
church of Marlboro, being subsequently settled 
over the ^^'est Parish of Marlboro, where he 
remainetl till May, 1819. After his retirement 
he removed to Lancaster, Mass., where his 
daughter's marriage took place in 1831. 

Mrs. Trask was in comjilete sympathy with 
her hu.sband in all his reform work, and was 
greatly beloved in the parishes where they 
lived. The Rev. (leorge and Mrs. Trask were 
the parents of six children: George Kellogg 
Trask, now connected with the Indianapolis 
Journal as railroad editor: Brainerd Packard 
Trask, a Ignited States navy officer, who died 
before reaching the age of forty, from the 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



231 



effects of the war; Josiah (Jhapiu Trask, wliu 
at the age of twenty-six was killed in Quan- 
trell's raid in Lawrence, Kan.; Ruth (^uincy 
Trask, the widow of Lewis Bellows Powell, of 
Scranton, Pa.; Eliza Trask Hill; and William 
Dodge Trask, who died in infancy. 

Mrs. Hill has vivid remembrances of the stir- 
ring words of \\'illiam Lloyd Garrison, Wenilell 
Phillips, Lucy Stone, and other noble souls 
among the early reformers, who were freciuent 
visitors at her father's house in her childhood. 
The accjuaintance thus formed with Lucy 
Stone lasted until Mrs. Stone's death, and is a 
precious memory. 

She received her education in the public 
schools of Fitchburg, and immediately after her 
graduation from the high school, in 1856, she be- 
gan to teach school in Franklin, Mass. A mem- 
ber of the school board imiuired if she had 
brought a certificate of moral character, to which 
she replied, "All the moral character I have, sir, 
I have with nie." A year later she was asked 
to take a school in one of the outlying dis- 
tricts of Fitchburg. The school was a hard 
one to discipline, and the first great test of her 
courage came at this point in her career. The 
war of the Rebellion was in progress, and in 
her district were a number of people who had 
been greatly opposed to her appointment be- 
cause of her father's abolitionist views, with 
which she was known to sympathize, (^n this 
account she was refused board in the neighbor- 
hood, hut was not thus deterred from taking 
the school. For three months she walked daily 
six miles to teach the school, and not only were 
the unruly children brought into subjection, 
but all the parents, including her l)itterest op- 
ponent, became her firm friends. 

Going to Indianapolis to teach in 18G4, she 
went about with Superintendent Shortridge to 
grade the schools of that city. Later she taught 
for a year in Terre Haute, Ind. Two of her 
pupils while teacher of an intermediate grade 
in Fitchliurg were Maurice Richardson and 
Edward Pierce, the former now the well-known 
surgeon of Boston, and the latter recently a])- 
pointed Justice of the Superior Court of Massa- 
chusetts. 

The R(n'. George Tiask was a man of very 
liberal ideas; and, when his daughter was asked 



to become a memix>r of a company of her town's 
people to give amateur theatricals for the ben- 
efit of the Sanitary Connnission, he readily 
gave his consent. With Mrs. Vincent of the 
Boston Museum as teacher, plays were given 
throughout the winter, which netted a large 
sum. Mr. Trask always attended, by his pres- 
ence giving sanction to the entertainments. 
The benefit of Mrs. Vincent's teaching has been 
felt by Mrs. Hill in after life. 

During the Rebellion Mrs. Hill (then Miss 
Trask) collectetl money to give a flag to the 
Washington Guards of Fitchburg, presenting 
it the night previous to their tleparture for the 
battle-field, urging the soldiers to fight cou- 
rageously for the freedom of the slave. At these 
woj-ds the colonel of the regiment took offence, 
and in a cruel way denietl that that was the 
issue. Brave men defended the young woman, 
and a victory for righteousness was scoretl that 
night. 

AVhen the Soldiers' Monument in Fitchburg 
was dedicated, some years after the close of 
the war, Mrs. Hill with her two children was 
at her father's home. The company, much de- 
pleted, passetl by, bearing the tattered flag, 
which had been through many battles. The 
two children, one representing a soldier, the 
other the Goddess of Liberty, were stand- 
ing upon the porch of the old home- 
steatl. As the company reached the house, 
they halted, antl saluted the children; and 
Mrs. Hill, from behind the little ones, responded 
to the graceful tribute. The colonel before his 
death acknowledged his mistake, and apolo- 
gized for his rudeness at the time of the flag 
presentation. 

At the age of twenty-six Eliza Trask became 
the wife of John Lange Hill, of Boston. Their 
children are: George Sumner Hill, a graduate 
of Harvard Medical School: Julia Annie Hill, 
a gratluate of Wellesley College, now the wife 
of Dr. Frank J. Geib, of A.shtabula, Ohio, a 
gratluate of Harvard; and Lewis Powell Hill, 
w'ho is in commercial life. 

When the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union was organized, over a ([uarter of a cen- 
tury ago, Mrs. Hill, who was then residing in 
Braintree, was chosen the first president for 
Norfolk County. Some official position in that 



232 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



society she has liekl ever since. For ten years 
she was superintendent of the prison, jail, and 
almshouse ilepartinent, and is now superin- 
tendent in this department for Middlesex 
County and president of the Winter Hill W. C. 
T. U. of Somerville. 

When the Australian ballot system was in- 
troduced in Massachusetts, Mrs. Hill was ap- 
pointed by the Prohibition State Committee 
to go from town to town with the ap))aratus 
illustrating the process of voting under the 
new system; and large audiences composed of 
all parties came to see and hear. No ojiportu- 
nity was. lost by the speaker to remind her 
hearers of the inconsistency of allowing a 
woman to instruct men in the process of voting 
and denying her the right to vote herself. 

In 18.S.S Mrs. Hill's residence was in Charles- 
town. For two years she had been president 
of the Ward and City Committee of Women 
Voters, and she was also president of the Bunker 
Hill Woman's Educational League, an organ- 
ization that was formed in February. Through 
the efTorts of this organization alone twenty- 
six hundred women were as.sessed, with a view 
to taking part in the school election; and a 
most vigorous campaign was carried on, women 
being stationed at the various registration 
places to watch proceedings. The result of 
the election was most gi-atifying. Not only 
was the whole school board ticket successful, 
but the women hatl much influence in bringing 
about a change at City Hall. The Independent 
Women Voters' party was the outgrowth of 
the struggle of 18S8, and until 1896 Mrs. Hill 
was the leader of this party. In 1889 the 
Woman's Voice and Public School Champion 
was first printed. Mrs. Hill became the editor 
and general manager, and still retains these 
offices. 

In 1895 she was chosen State secretary of 
the Massachusetts Branch of the International 
Order of The King's Daughters and Sons, an 
organization having six thousand members in 
the State, comprising two hundred and seventy 
circles and two hundred and twenty-nine in- 
dependent members, and carrying on a most 
helpful charitable work. A vacation Home at 
Hanson, Mass., which acconunodates sixty peo- 
ple, among them many mothers and their little 



families, is a State work. The Vacation Home 
of The King's Daughters is Gordon Rest. For 
eighteen years Mrs. Hill has had personal 
supervision of this home. The work increases 
year by year, and is the largest undertaking of 
its kind in the State. 

In 1885 the New England Helping Hantl 
Society was formed, its aim being to proviile 
at a moderate rate a comfortable home for 
young women earning low wages. Of this 
society Mrs. Hill was for several years the 
.secretary, and for ten years she was its 
president. She has aided in many ways in 
ameliorating the conditions of working men and 
women. 

She has always stood finnly for free speech. 
On one occasion when a man was denied the 
privilege of answei'ing a s])eakei' who had, as 
he affirmed, made false statements, she mounted 
to the platform and asked that he be allowed 
a hearing. So intense was the excitement that 
threats of bodily harm were made, but, as she 
preserved a perfectly calm demeanor, the ex- 
citement was quelled and she was uninjured. 

For eighteen years Mrs. Hill's voice has been 
heard in pul))it and on platform in the advocacy 
of good causes in Massachusetts and other 
States. The In(le])endent Women Voters of 
Detroit, Mich., were organized hy her efforts. 
In Mrs. Hill's evangelistic and Bible services a 
simple faith is taught, with a reliance on Christ 
as mediator and Saviour. 

The result of labor in ])risons and missions 
has been most gratifying in the reconstruction 
of broken-up homes, in the obtaining of em- 
ployment for disheartened men and women, 
and in the redemption of those who have be- 
come victims of evil habits. Following in the 
footsteps of her belovetl father, .she has done 
much to help on the anti-cigarette movement, 
and has been instrumental in banding hundreds 
of young i^eople together to labor in Christian 
service. Naturally possessed of a very hope- 
ful, cheerful temperament, obstacles which 
might seem to others very hard to overcome 
have not hindered or discouraged her in the 
least. She looks with the utmost faith toward 
the time when right shall triumph over wrong 
and her native land lie indeed a Christian 
nation. 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 



233 



SARAH ANN PRESTON DICKERMAN 
(born Ballard) is a native of Boston, 
Mass. Her birtliplace was the family 
I'esidence, which stood on Washington 
Street (formerly Orange Street), the locality 
being now the corner of Washington and Davis 
Streets, where her mother's grandmother, Mrs. 
Zebiah Davis Cowdin, a daughter of General 
Amasa Davis, for whom Davis Street was 
named, was born in 17N2. General Davis was 
one of the Boston merchants who signed the 
agreement which led to the lioston Tea Party 
of. December 16, 1773. The estate remainetl 
in possession of the family until 1892, when it 
was sold. 

Mrs. Dickerman's father, Joseph Atlams Bal- 
lard, was of Dutch blood on the paternal side. 
His father, Peter Albertus Von Hagen, came to 
Boston to teach music, and was organist of 
Trinity Church for many years. He married 
Miss Lucy Ballard in ISOO. The ^'on Hagen 
children by act of Legislature took their 
mother's maiden name, Ballard, Jo.seph H. 
Von Hagen becoming Joseph Adams liallard. 
Mr. Ballard's ancestors on the maternal side 
were New England jieojile, residents for a num- 
ber of generations in Btiston and vicinity. The 
house in which his grandmother, .Madam Lucy 
Adams, lived, as the wife and afterward the 
widow of Abijah Adams, her secoiul husband, 
is still standing on Pinckney Street. 

Joseph A. Ballard up to the time of his 
death, October 1, 1858, at the age of fifty-one 
years, was marine editor of the Boston Dnily 
Advertif^er, associated with the Hon. Nathan 
Hale, father of the Rev. Dr. Edward P^verett 
Hale. 

Mr. Ballard's wife, Mrs. Dickerman's mother, 
whose maiden name was Sarah Davis Cowdin 
Gamage, died July 4, 1874. She was a tlaughter 
of Nathaniel and Sarah Davis (Cowdin) CJamage 
and grand-daughter of Daniel Cowdin and his 
wife, Zebiah Davis, above named. Mrs. Bal- 
lard was early interested in philanthropic work. 
She joined the Rev. Charles Francis Barnard 
in organizing the Warren Street Chapel, a chil- 
dren's church, and devoted many years to this 
and other charitable institutions. 

Sarah Ann Preston Ballard, now Mrs. Dick- 
erman, was born June 13, 1833. She was edu- 



cated in the Boston public schools, being for 
some years a pupil in the old Franklin School. 
She was married February 16, 1853, to Henry 
Wilson Dickerman, son of Ezekiel and Marinda 
Dickerman, of Stoughton, Mass. Two sons 
were born to Mr. and Mrs. Dickerman in the 
early years of their wedded life, namely: Joseph 
Henry, February 8, 1854; and William .Mont- 
gomery, who died soon after his birth, April 10, 
1855. 

In her girlhood Mrs. Dickerman was much 
influenced by the Rev. Charles Francis Barnard, 
and in early womanhood she came under the 
ministry of Dr. Edward Everett Hale, with 
whom she formed a friendship which has been 
unbroken. This training determined her choice 
of occupation outside of family claims. She 
has always chosen to join societies having for 
their objects the advancement of humanitarian 
ideas or the alleviation of some form of suffer- 
ing. 

She .seems to have been a born suffragist, 
as from early girlhood she rebelletl at any form 
of injustice to women, and, although descended 
from most conservative ancestors, was always 
ready to work for suffrage for women, serv- 
ing on the Ward ami City Committee of 
Women Voters in Boston with .\bby W. May, 
Ednah D. Cheney, Lucia M. Peabody, Dr. 
Salome Merritt, and other pioneers in this work. 
She has voted for school committee ever 
since women were granted the right to do 
so, and her interest in school n)atters still 
continues. 

She has worked in the following named so- 
cieties, serving most of them as either presi- 
dent, secretary, treasurer, director, or trustee: 
Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association, 
Massachusetts School Suffrage Association, 
Jamaica Plain School Suffrage Association, 
Woman's Charity Club, Martha and Mary 
Lend-a-Hand Club, Moral Education Associa- 
tion, Barnard Memorial A.=sociation, Franklin 
School Association, Children's Mission to the 
Children of the Destitute, Committee of Council 
and Co-operation, Ladies' Physiological In- 
stitute, Jamaica Plain Friendly Society, New 
England Helping Hand Society, Jamaica Plain 
Woman's Alliance, Daughters of the American 
Rpvolutitm, and Animal Rescue League. 



234 



REPRESENTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENGLAND 




UCY BRIGHAM (HOriMER) FISHER 
was born in Fitchburg, Mass., March 
24, 1S34, the oldest of five ehildreii of 
Silas and Delia (Gibbs) Hosnier. Her 
early life was in no way different from the aver- 
age of the time. Neither wealth nor poverty 
was the lot of the great body of the people, and 
the ojjportunities for develojjment and progress 
were fairly open to every one. She early man- 
ifested traits of character — among them a strong 
sense of justice and a conscientious regard for 
truth — which have since given her power and 
influence. 

When sixteen years old, Lucy Brigham Hos- 
mer, at the solicitation of the school conunittee, 
became a teacher in the public schools of her 
native town. In this capacity she served with 
marked success for the nine years following. 
On February 12, 1860, she was mari'ied to Dr. 
Jabez Fisher, well known in the horticultural 
world. His two motherless children needed 
the fostering care which she could give, and 
most devotedly tlid she fulfil all the recjuire- 
ments of the situation. 

Having entered the Sunday-school at the age 
of three years, and remained a constant jiupil 
until she was twenty, she then began her work 
as teacher in the Sunday-school of the First 
Universalist Church by assuming charge of 
the primary cla.ss of little girls. The gradual 
increase of oii|)ortunity which followed her suc- 
cessful early experience was of the most satis- 
factory nature. From that time to the ]ires- 
ent, a period of over fifty years, she has been 
a constant and im})ortant factor in the lives 
and characters of many hundreds of children. 
The primary department has constantly grown 
under her management, and, as now consti- 
tuted, embraces girls and t)oys from three to 
ten years of age; the numbers ranging from 
one hundred to one hundred and thirty. In 
many cases she has now in charge children 
whose father or mother or both parents were 
formerly under her instruction and are now 
teachers in some department of the school. 
On each returning Sunday she has the inspiring 
satisfaction of looking (he greater part of these 
children in the face, a most beautiful si^ht; 
and through her constant watchfuln(>ss and well- 
directed efforts she controls, directs, and draws 



out their young minds in the direction of truth, 
justice, and lovelinei^s of character. She re- 
sti'ains all that is wrong, and encourages all 
that is good and lovely. It is done so easily 
and naturally that the looker-on is charmed by 
the smoothness with which everything proceeds, 
and is not aware that any sjiccial effort is being 
used to this end. The time for closing the ex- 
ercises comes all too soon, and many linger to 
say pleasant words. She wins the love of most 
chiklren at once, and always retains the lasting 
respect of even those who are prone to rebel 
against her requirements, when they learn that 
such are exercised not by an autocrat, but by 
a friend whose only consideration is for their 
best development in character, and who will 
never consent to see them go wrong. One of 
her pastors thus emphasizes some of her char- 
acteristics : — 

"I am reminded, as I think of her, of Mrs. 
Fisher's perfect fairness of mind and firmness 
in the maintenance of what she deems to be 
right. She has no compromise with error or 
evil. She is always earnest in her convictions 
anfl steadfast in her loyalt)'^ to duty. She never 
turns aside for secondary considerations, and 
never surrenders. She sees the right clearly, 
and devotes herself with entire consecration 
and self-sacrifice, as evidenced in her long ser- 
vice in the church and in her imswerving 
fidelity to her home. She is an optimist. The 
greatness of her trust inspires and strengthens 
her. She fills a large i)lace in the conmuunty 
through her silent inHuence, and with all her 
usefulness and power Ikm- life is crowned with 
rare modesty." 

Her tireless and constant thought is for the 
welfare of those with whom she is associated, 
even to the neglect of her own best physical 
welfare. The virtue of altruism, much alluded 
to in recent years, Mrs. Fisher has been prac- 
tising all her life. She has often said that her 
first thought, duty, and effort were due to her 
home: her second, to her church and Sunday- 
school; and, if she had any reserve strength, 
it was at the service of any good cause that 
needed it the most. In addition to more press- 
ing duties she has found time to advocate and 
labor for the enfranchisement of woman, giving 
her opportiunty to rise to her highest level. 




LUCY B. FISHER 




EEPIIKSKNTATIVE WOMEN OF NEW ENOLAND 



235 



Mrs. Fisher was among th(> earliest to join 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and 
has remained an earnest and ('on.sistent mem- 
ber. She early united her efforts with others in 
aid of the Baldwinsville Hospital ('ottages for 
the care and treatment of children afflicted with 
epileptic and allied diseases. 

Believing that, so long as the impelling mo- 
tive of humanity is a selfish one, so long will 
the kingdom of heaven be postponed, here or 
elsewhere, Mrs. Fisher sympathizes with the 
present trend toward sociological ideals. Her 
character antl tlisposition are such that she 
cannot tolerate or excuse the wrongs of society 
resulting from the worship of mammon, with 
its consequent development of selfishness, the